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Sample records for lyophilized serum materials

  1. Effects of wall materials and lyophilization on the viability of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effects of wall materials and lyophilization on the viability of Weissella confusa. ... AFRICAN JOURNALS ONLINE (AJOL) · Journals · Advanced Search ... (Aloe vera gel, sodium casein, and sodium alginate) as wall materials, were used.

  2. The Effect of Human Serum Albumin and Hematocrit on the Cake Collapse Temperature of Lyophilized Red Blood Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Runyon, Daniel E; Higgins, Adam Z

    2015-10-01

    Freeze-drying, or lyophilization, has shown great promise in addressing many of the logistical challenges of storing and preserving red blood cells (RBCs). A crucial part of any RBC lyophilization protocol is the primary drying temperature, which affects the sample drying rate and the dried cake's ability to form a stable glassy solid. Primary drying is most efficient just below the temperature at which the porous structure of the cake begins to collapse, known as the cake collapse temperature. In this short report, we utilize freeze-drying microscopy to examine the effects of human serum albumin (HSA) and hematocrit on the cake collapse temperature. Increasing the hematocrit from 0% to 20% significantly raised the cake collapse temperature from - 37.8°C to -34.8°C. Addition of 5% HSA to a 20% hematocrit RBC suspension further increased the cake collapse temperature to -20.4°C. These data provide a basis for future study of the relationship between cake collapse and overall cell survival, with the object of building a clinically-viable RBC lyophilization protocol.

  3. Softening temperature of lyophilized bovine serum albumin and gamma-globulin as measured by spin-spin relaxation time of protein protons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshioka, S; Aso, Y; Kojima, S

    1997-04-01

    We investigated the usefulness of the spin-spin relaxation time (T2) of protein protons as a probe for evaluating the molecular flexibility of freeze-dried protein formulations. It is proposed that the microscopic softening temperature determined from changes in the T2 of protein protons (Ts(T2)) is an important characteristic of freeze-dried protein formulations, the glass transition temperature (Tg) of which is generally difficult to determine by differential scanning calorimetry. We determined the molecular flexibility of lyophilized bovine serum albumin (BSA) and bovine gamma-globulin (BGG) by measuring the T2 of protein and water protons as well as the spin-lattice relaxation time (T1) of the latter as a function of temperature. The flexibility of freeze-dried BSA and BGG cakes markedly varied at temperatures above and below the Ts(T2), affecting the stability of the proteins. The denaturation and subsequent aggregation of lyophilized BSA and BGG cakes with a relatively high water content was enhanced in the softened state at temperatures above the Ts(T2). Lyophilized cakes with an extremely low water content were significantly denatured, even in the unsoftened state at temperatures below the Ts(T2), probably due to the thermodynamically unstable structures of protein molecules generated by a loss of structural water.

  4. Glucose stability in lyophilized chemistry quality control serum. A study of data from the quality assurance service (QAS) program of the College of American Pathologists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawson, N S; Haven, G T; DiSilvio, T V; Gilmore, B F

    1982-10-01

    Data from 2.5 million glucose analyses on pools of lyophilized human quality control serum were used to evaluate analyte stability in the prereconstitution phase. Input information was from laboratories in Regional Quality Control Programs that use CAP Quality Assurance Service (QAS) data processing. Of 31 pools in use between 1977 and 1981, decreasing glucose concentration was detected by, at least, one method in 26 pools, and by two or more methods in 21 pools. Method-associated average decrease in concentration varied from 0.13 mg/dL/month (glucose oxidase-electrode) to 0.19 mg/dL/month (automated glucose oxidase-colorimetric). Bidirectional instability as a function of analytic method, i.e., increase with "mild" methods, decrease with "rigorous" methods that was noticed previously with pools analyzed between 1973 and 1977, was no longer seen. Dominant directional changes in the later pools were downward by all methods, when statistically significant trends were demonstrated.

  5. Biomimetic super-lyophobic and super-lyophilic materials applied for oil/water separation: a new strategy beyond nature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ben; Liang, Weixin; Guo, Zhiguang; Liu, Weimin

    2015-01-07

    Oil spills and industrial organic pollutants have induced severe water pollution and threatened every species in the ecological system. To deal with oily water, special wettability stimulated materials have been developed over the past decade to separate oil-and-water mixtures. Basically, synergy between the surface chemical composition and surface topography are commonly known as the key factors to realize the opposite wettability to oils and water and dominate the selective wetting or absorption of oils/water. In this review, we mainly focus on the development of materials with either super-lyophobicity or super-lyophilicity properties in oil/water separation applications where they can be classified into four kinds as follows (in terms of the surface wettability of water and oils): (i) superhydrophobic and superoleophilic materials, (ii) superhydrophilic and under water superoleophobic materials, (iii) superhydrophilic and superoleophobic materials, and (iv) smart oil/water separation materials with switchable wettability. These materials have already been applied to the separation of oil-and-water mixtures: from simple oil/water layered mixtures to oil/water emulsions (including oil-in-water emulsions and water-in-oil emulsions), and from non-intelligent materials to intelligent materials. Moreover, they also exhibit high absorption capacity or separation efficiency and selectivity, simple and fast separation/absorption ability, excellent recyclability, economical efficiency and outstanding durability under harsh conditions. Then, related theories are proposed to understand the physical mechanisms that occur during the oil/water separation process. Finally, some challenges and promising breakthroughs in this field are also discussed. It is expected that special wettability stimulated oil/water separation materials can achieve industrial scale production and be put into use for oil spills and industrial oily wastewater treatment in the near future.

  6. Lyophilized bovine hemoglobin as a possible reference material for the determination of hemoglobin derivatives in human blood

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maas, BHA; Buursma, A; Ernst, RAJ; Maas, AHJ; Zijlstra, WG

    1998-01-01

    We investigated the suitability of a lyophilized bovine hemoglobin (LBH) preparation containing various fractions of oxyhemoglobin (O(2)Hb), carboxyhemoglobin (COHb), and methemoglobin (MetHb) for quality assessment in multicomponent analysis (MCA) of hemoglobin derivatives. It was demonstrated that

  7. Development of lyophilization cycle and effect of excipients on the stability of catalase during lyophilization

    OpenAIRE

    Lale, Shantanu V; Goyal, Monu; Bansal, Arvind K.

    2011-01-01

    Introduction: The purpose of the present study was to screen excipients such as amino acids and non-aqueous solvents for their stabilizing effect on catalase, a model protein, for lyophilization. The present study also includes optimization of lyophilization cycle for catalase formulations, which is essential from the commercial point of view, since lyophilization is an extremely costly process. Materials and Methods: Activity of catalase was determined using catalase activity assay. Differen...

  8. Lyophilization -Solid Waste Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Litwiller, Eric; Flynn, Michael; Fisher, John; Reinhard, Martin

    2004-01-01

    This paper discusses the development of a solid waste treatment system that has been designed for a Mars transit exploration mission. The technology described is an energy-efficient lyophilization technique that is designed to recover water from spacecraft solid wastes. Candidate wastes include feces, concentrated brines from water processors, and other solid wastes that contain free water. The system is designed to operate as a stand-alone process or to be integrated into the International Space Station Waste Collection System. In the lyophilization process, water in an aqueous waste is frozen and then sublimed, separating the waste into a dried solid material and liquid water. The sublimed water is then condensed in a solid ice phase and then melted to generate a liquid product. In the subject system the waste solids are contained within a 0.2 micron bio-guard bag and after drying are removed from the system and stored in a secondary container. This technology is ideally suited to applications such as the Mars Reference Mission, where water recovery rates approaching 100% are desirable but production of CO2 is not. The system is designed to minimize power consumption through the use of thermoelectric heat pumps. The results of preliminary testing of a prototype system and testing of the final configuration are provided. A mathematical model of the system is also described.

  9. Development of a Certified Reference Material for Lyophilized Vitamin K 1%维生素 K1冻干标准物质的研制

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张晓光; 黄挺; 张伟; 黄亮; 全灿; 李红梅; 杨屹

    2015-01-01

    采用二甲基亚砜(DMSO)作为冻干标准物质的溶剂,以重量法准确配制维生素 K1/ DMSO 溶液,再进行分装、冷冻干燥,经定性分析、定值分析、均匀性检验、稳定性考察和不确定度评定,研制了维生素 K1冻干标准物质。以维生素 K1纯度标准物质溶液为校准品,对得到的冻干物质进行了高效液相色谱法定值分析,冻干标准物质的准确定值结果为0.96 mg/ mL,相对扩展不确定度为7%。建立的维生素 K1冻干标准物质研制方法,对于临床检验中维生素 K1的准确测定和相关疾病的正确诊断治疗以及维生素 K1长期保存具有重要意义。%Dimethyl sulfone( DMSO)is firstly applied as the solvent for a lyophilized certified reference material (CRM). Vitamin K1 / DMSO solution is prepared by gravimetry,and is sub-divided and lyophilized,the lyophilized vitamin K1 CRM is developed through qualitative analysis,quantitative analysis,homogeneity study,stability study and uncertainty evaluation. Certified value of lyophilization vitamin K1 is analyzed by high performance liquid chromatography method, using the vitamin K1 purity CRM as a calibrant. The certified value is 0. 96 mg/ mL,with the relative expanded uncertainty of 7% . The method of CRM lyophilized vitamin K1 makes great significance for the accurate determination the disease in clinical examination and the long-term preservation of vitamin K1 .

  10. Lyophilization: The process and industrial use

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pržić Dejan S.

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available This article presents a general overview of lyophilization and discusses the underlying principles of the process through the basics of: formulation, freezing, primary drying and secondary drying. In this article lyophilization is defined as a stabilizing process in which the substance is first frozen and then the quantity of the solvent is reduced first by sublimation (primary drying and then by desorption (secondary drying to values that will no longer support biological growth or chemical reactions. Special mention was made of the industrial use of the process and emphasis was placed on the lyophilization of pharmaceutical products and food industry products. Lyophilization equipment, as well as the formulation of materials that can be lyophilized, are described in sufficient detail to give information on the restrictions and advantages of lyophlization. Processing economics and comparison with conventional drying methods are presented. A historical overview of the process and future developments presented from the industrial viewpoint give an insight on the previous application of lyophilization and the prospects of its broad industrial use.

  11. Similarity analysis of Sinisan lyophilized power in serum by HPLC fingerprint%HPLC指纹图谱分析血清中四逆散冻干粉的相似度

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李越峰; 曹瑞; 徐富菊; 张泽国; 牛江涛; 严兴科

    2015-01-01

    Objective To establish a sensitive and specific high per-formance liquid chromatography ( HPLC ) method for similarity analysis of Sinisan lyophilized power in rats serum.Methods HPLC method was applied.The chromatographic conditions were as following: Column:Kromasil C18 column ( 4.6 mm ×250 mm, 5 μm );flow -rate:1.0 mL・ min -1;column temperature:30 ℃.The mobile phase:acetonitrile ( A) and H2 O ( acidified to pH=3 with phosphoric acid) ( B) with a gra-dient elution.The concentration of solvent A was from 10% to 90% in 150 min.Ten batches Sinisan lyophilized powder samples in serum were analyzed by HPLC fingerprint.Results The HPLC chromatographic fingerprin-ting of Sinisan showed 8 characteristic peaks compared with that of blank serum, they were absorbed into blood.The result of sim-ilarity analysis was over 0.99. Conclusion The chromatographic fingerprinting of Sinisan lyophizied power had high specificity and characteristic.%目的:研究四逆散冻干粉血清的高效液相色谱指纹图谱的相似度。方法用HPLC方法,色谱条件:Kromasil C18柱(4.6 mm ×250 mm,5μm),流速1.0 mL・ min-1,柱温30℃,流动相A为乙腈;流动相B为pH=3磷酸水,流动相A梯度洗脱(10%~90%乙腈),分析时间为150 min,采用高效液相指纹图谱方法,分析10批四逆散冻干粉血清样品。结果10批四逆散冻干粉血清样品,在240 nm处获得比空白血清多8个共有峰,四逆散冻干粉一次给药5 h后,产生了8个血中移行成分。相似度分析结果均在0.99以上。结论四逆散冻干粉血清的指纹图谱特征性及专属性强。

  12. Modeling of Dielectric Heating within Lyophilization Process

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    Jan Kyncl

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A process of lyophilization of paper books is modeled. The process of drying is controlled by a dielectric heating system. From the physical viewpoint, the task represents a 2D coupled problem described by two partial differential equations for the electric and temperature fields. The material parameters are supposed to be temperature-dependent functions. The continuous mathematical model is solved numerically. The methodology is illustrated with some examples whose results are discussed.

  13. Influência da taxa de congelamento no comportamento físico-químico e estrutural durante a liofilização da albumina bovina Influence of cooling rate on the structural and phase changes during lyophilization of bovine serum albumin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Virgilio Tattini Jr

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available A liofilização é o método mais comumente utilizado para a preparação de proteínas desidratadas, as quais devem apresentar estabilidade adequada por longo período de armazenagem em temperaturas ambientes. Entretanto, estudos recentes com espectroscopia no infravermelho têm documentado que os problemas relacionados com o congelamento e a desidratação induzidos pela liofilização podem levar ao desdobramento molecular da proteína. Através de análises por espectroscopia Raman, associadas com análise térmica por calorimetria exploratória diferencial (DSC, estudou-se a influência da taxa de congelamento no comportamento físico-químico e estrutural da albumina sérica bovina submetida ao processo de liofilização. Observou-se que a albumina liofilizada com taxa de congelamento de 2,5 °C/min apresentou maior alteração estrutural quando comparada à albumina liofilizada com taxa de congelamento de 30 °C/min, a qual apresentou menores oscilações espectrais nas regiões da amida I, III e pontes de dissulfeto, favorecendo a manutenção da conformação estrutural da proteína.Lyophilization (freeze-drying is the most commonly method used to prepare dehydrated proteins, which should have the desired long-term stability at ambient temperatures. However, recent infrared spectroscopic studies have documented that the acute freezing and dehydration stresses of lyophilization can induce protein unfolding. Through Raman spectroscopy associated with thermal analysis using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC, it was studied the influence of cooling rate on the structural and phase changes during lyophilization of bovine serum albumin. It was observed that bovine serum albumin (BSA lyophilized under slow freezing (2.5 ºC/min presented higher structure damage than the BSA lyophilized under fast freezing (30 ºC/min However, the lyophilization process using cooling rate of 30 ºC/min presented fewer spectra alterations on the Amide I

  14. Lyophilization for Water Recovery From Solid Waste

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flynn, Michael; Litwiller, Eric; Reinhard, Martin

    2003-01-01

    This abstract describes the development of a solid waste treatment system designed for a near term human exploration mission. The technology being developed is an energy- efficient lyophilization technique that recovers water from spacecraft solid waste. In the lyophilization process water in an aqueous waste is frozen and then sublimed, resulting in the separation of the waste into a dried solid material and liquid water. This technology is ideally suited to applications where water recovery rates approaching 100% are desirable but production of CO, is not. Water contained within solid wastes accounts for approximately 3% of the total water balance. If 100% closure of the water loop is desired the water contained within this waste would need to be recovered. To facilitate operation in microgravity thermoelectric heat pumps have be used in place of traditional fluid cycle heat pumps. A mathematical model of a thermoelectric lyophilizer has been developed and used to generate energy use and processing rate parameters. The results of laboratory investigations and discussions with ALS program management have been used to iteratively arrive at a prototype design. This design address operational limitations which were identified in the laboratory studies and handling and health concerns raised by ALS program management. The current prototype design is capable of integration into the ISS Waste Collection System.

  15. Lyophilization for Water Recovery From Solid Waste

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flynn, Michael; Litwiller, Eric; Reinhard, Martin

    2003-01-01

    This abstract describes the development of a solid waste treatment system designed for a near term human exploration mission. The technology being developed is an energy- efficient lyophilization technique that recovers water from spacecraft solid waste. In the lyophilization process water in an aqueous waste is frozen and then sublimed, resulting in the separation of the waste into a dried solid material and liquid water. This technology is ideally suited to applications where water recovery rates approaching 100% are desirable but production of CO, is not. Water contained within solid wastes accounts for approximately 3% of the total water balance. If 100% closure of the water loop is desired the water contained within this waste would need to be recovered. To facilitate operation in microgravity thermoelectric heat pumps have be used in place of traditional fluid cycle heat pumps. A mathematical model of a thermoelectric lyophilizer has been developed and used to generate energy use and processing rate parameters. The results of laboratory investigations and discussions with ALS program management have been used to iteratively arrive at a prototype design. This design address operational limitations which were identified in the laboratory studies and handling and health concerns raised by ALS program management. The current prototype design is capable of integration into the ISS Waste Collection System.

  16. 冻干人尿中汞成分分析标准物质的研制%Development of the certified reference material of mercury in lyophilized human urine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵玮; 张福钢; 李春伶; 杜会芳; 潘亚娟; 张敬; 闫慧芳

    2011-01-01

    Objective To develop the certified reference material of mercury in lyophilized human urine. Methods Human urine samples from normal level mercury districts were filtered, homogenized,dispensed, lyophilized and radio-sterilized. Homogeneity test, stability inspection and certification were conducted using a atom fluorescence spectrophotometric method. The physical and chemical stability of the certified reference material were assessed for 18 months. The certified values are based on analysis made by three independent laboratories. Results The certified values are as follows: low level was (35.6±2.1)μg/L,high level was (50.5±3.0) μg/l. Conclusion The certified reference material of mercury in lyophilized human urine in this research reached the national certified reference material requirements and could be used for the quality control.%目的 研制冻干人尿中汞成分分析标准物质.方法 冻干尿由正常人尿经过滤、加标、混匀、分装、冷冻干燥、辐射灭菌制备而成,使用原子荧光测定方法 对其均匀性和稳定性进行检验,由3家实验室用准确可靠的方法 确定标准值,并对尿中汞研制物的不确定度进行分析.结果 本研制物均匀性良好,-20 ℃保存可稳定18个月,2个水平的量值及不确定度分别为(35.6±2.1)和(50.5±3.0)μg/L.结论 尿中汞成分分析标准物质各项指标符合的要求,可用于实验室检测的质量控制.

  17. Assessment of immune response to a lyophilized peste-des-petitsruminants virus vaccine in three different breeds of goats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. S. Begum

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Immune response to a lyophilized peste-des-petits-ruminants virus (PPRV vaccine was evaluated in three different breeds of goats. Materials and Methods: Three breeds of goats consisting six number of animals in three groups, i.e., Group A (local Assam hill goat, Group B (cross-bred, and Group C (Beetal goats were randomly selected for evaluating the immune response to a lyophilized PPRV vaccine. Results: A higher rise in the overall mean serum antibody titer was observed in Group A (40.50±3.74 than in Group B (37.58±37.58 and Group C (35.90±3.29 during the study period. Conclusion: Initially, a negative PPRV specific serum antibody titer was recorded in all the groups at 0th day of vaccination. Serum antibody titer in the vaccinated goats started rising gradually from the 14th day post vaccination. Later higher rise in the overall mean serum antibody titer in Group A (local Assam hill goat lead to the conclusion that higher serum antibody titer in local non-descript breed might be due to their better adaptation to the environmental condition.

  18. Assessment of immune response to a lyophilized peste-des-petits-ruminants virus vaccine in three different breeds of goats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Begum, S. S.; Mahato, G.; Sharma, P.; Hussain, M.; Saleque, A.

    2016-01-01

    Aim: Immune response to a lyophilized peste-des-petits-ruminants virus (PPRV) vaccine was evaluated in three different breeds of goats. Materials and Methods: Three breeds of goats consisting six number of animals in three groups, i.e., Group A (local Assam hill goat), Group B (cross-bred), and Group C (Beetal goats) were randomly selected for evaluating the immune response to a lyophilized PPRV vaccine. Results: A higher rise in the overall mean serum antibody titer was observed in Group A (40.50±3.74) than in Group B (37.58±37.58) and Group C (35.90±3.29) during the study period. Conclusion: Initially, a negative PPRV specific serum antibody titer was recorded in all the groups at 0th day of vaccination. Serum antibody titer in the vaccinated goats started rising gradually from the 14th day post vaccination. Later higher rise in the overall mean serum antibody titer in Group A (local Assam hill goat) lead to the conclusion that higher serum antibody titer in local non-descript breed might be due to their better adaptation to the environmental condition. PMID:27397978

  19. Lyophilization as a method for pathogens long term preservation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milošević Mirjana B.

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Lyophilization (freeze-drying is one of the most suitable methods used for a long term preservation of pathogens. The aim of this paper was the application of lyophilization for storage of three significant plant pathogens: Fusarium graminearum, Helminthosporium gramineum, and Pseudomonas syringae pv. gylicinea, respectively. The plant material was collected continuously (during a four year period 2002-2006, depending on a plant development stage, from different localities in Vojvodina. Pathogens were isolated from diseased parts with characteristic symptoms, and placed on nutritive media specific for a certain pathogen, using standard phytopathological methods. Lyophilization was carried out in marked and coded ampoules by freezing and drying of pathogen suspension and nutritive medium. Revitalization of lyophilized isolates was done after four days. High percentage of revitalization was characteristic for all studied isolates, and it ranged from 85-92%, confirming that lyophilized pathogens would be capable of keeping viability for a long time in the collection. Besides above mentioned pathogens, there were 200 isolates in the collection, originating mostly from field and vegetable crops. Each isolate that was put into the Collection, was followed by all the necessary data such as: name of the pathogen, number of isolates, locality, host plant year of isolation, name of the researcher and other relevant data.

  20. Lyophilization: a useful approach to the automation of analytical processes?

    OpenAIRE

    de Castro, M. D. Luque; Izquierdo, A.

    1990-01-01

    An overview of the state-of-the-art in the use of lyophilization for the pretreatment of samples and standards prior to their storage and/or preconcentration is presented. The different analytical applications of this process are dealt with according to the type of material (reagent, standard, samples) and matrix involved.

  1. EFFECT OF VARIOUS STABILIZERS ON TITRE OF LYOPHILIZED LIVE-ATTENUATED PESTE DES PETITS RUMINANTS (PPR VACCINE

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    M. ASIM, A. RASHID AND A. H. CHAUDHARY

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Lyophilization stabilizes the biological materials by using two overlapping drying procedure i.e. primary drying by sublimation of the ice crystal from frozen material and secondary drying or desorption by evaporation of the free water adsorbed into the dried product. Three different stabilizers i.e. lactalbumin hydrolysate-sucrose, Weybridge medium and lactalbumin hydrolysate-manitol were used to lyophilize the Peste des petits ruminants (PPR vaccine. Titre of live-attenuated PPR cell culture experimental vaccine was studied after lyophilization which revealed that PPR vaccine lyophilized with Weybridge medium was more stable and maintained the virus titre longer than rest of stabilizers used in the study.

  2. Finite Element Method (FEM) Modeling of Freeze-drying: Monitoring Pharmaceutical Product Robustness During Lyophilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xiaodong; Sadineni, Vikram; Maity, Mita; Quan, Yong; Enterline, Matthew; Mantri, Rao V

    2015-12-01

    Lyophilization is an approach commonly undertaken to formulate drugs that are unstable to be commercialized as ready to use (RTU) solutions. One of the important aspects of commercializing a lyophilized product is to transfer the process parameters that are developed in lab scale lyophilizer to commercial scale without a loss in product quality. This process is often accomplished by costly engineering runs or through an iterative process at the commercial scale. Here, we are highlighting a combination of computational and experimental approach to predict commercial process parameters for the primary drying phase of lyophilization. Heat and mass transfer coefficients are determined experimentally either by manometric temperature measurement (MTM) or sublimation tests and used as inputs for the finite element model (FEM)-based software called PASSAGE, which computes various primary drying parameters such as primary drying time and product temperature. The heat and mass transfer coefficients will vary at different lyophilization scales; hence, we present an approach to use appropriate factors while scaling-up from lab scale to commercial scale. As a result, one can predict commercial scale primary drying time based on these parameters. Additionally, the model-based approach presented in this study provides a process to monitor pharmaceutical product robustness and accidental process deviations during Lyophilization to support commercial supply chain continuity. The approach presented here provides a robust lyophilization scale-up strategy; and because of the simple and minimalistic approach, it will also be less capital intensive path with minimal use of expensive drug substance/active material.

  3. Pulp response of anionic lyophilized collagen matrix with or without hydroxyapatite after pulpotomy in dog's teeth

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    Léa Assed Bezerra da Silva

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to evaluate histologically the pulp response of anionic lyophilized collagen matrix with or without hydroxyapatite as a biomaterial pulp-capping agent in pulpotomy of dogs' teeth. Sixty pre-molar roots from three dogs were used. After pulpotomy, the remaining pulp tissue was capped with one of the following materials: Group I (20 roots: anionic lyophilized collagen matrix; Group II (20 roots: anionic lyophilized collagen matrix associated with hydroxyapatite; Group III (10 roots: calcium hydroxide (p.a. paste in saline; Group IV (10 roots: zinc oxide eugenol cement. After 90 days the animals were killed by anesthetic overdose and the teeth were removed and submitted to histological processing. According to the histopathological results, we concluded that the zinc oxide eugenol cement and anionic lyophilized collagen matrix with or without hydroxyapatite did not present satisfactory pulp response and that calcium hydroxide is the suitable material for pulpotomy.

  4. Lyophilization for Water Recovery III, System Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Litwiller, Eric; Reinhard, Martin; Fisher, John; Flynn, Michael

    2005-01-01

    Mixed liquid/solid wastes, including feces, water processor effluents, and food waste, can be lyophilized (freeze-dried) to recover the water they contain and stabilize the solids that remain. Our previous research has demonstrated the potential benefits of using thermoelectric heat pumps to build a lyophilizer for processing waste in microgravity. These results were used to build a working prototype suitable for ground- based human testing. This paper describes the prototype design and presents results of functional and performance tests.

  5. Effects of lyophilization on the infectivity of enveloped and non-enveloped viruses in bone tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uhlenhaut, Christine; Dörner, Thomas; Pauli, Georg; Pruss, Axel

    2005-11-01

    Recently reported qualitative experiments proved that retroviral infectivity is not destroyed by lyophilization performed on systemically infected bone and tendon. The now accomplished quantitative determination of residual infectivity for enveloped and non-enveloped viruses allows a validation of the production process regarding viral safety in freeze-dried bone transplants. The lyophilization effect on the infectivity of two non-enveloped viruses (Maus Elberfeld virus, MEV; Porcine parvovirus, PPV) and one enveloped virus (Vesicular Stomatitis virus, VSV) was examined for virus-spiked bone material in comparison to lyophilized viruses, original virus stock, and air-dried viruses. All experiments were carried out with both cell-free and cell-associated virus. Significant differences were observed regarding the reduction of virus titers (TCID50). Infectivity of VSV was reduced by about 3-4 log10 using lyophilization in presence of bone matrix and of MEV by 6-7 log10, while no substantial reduction in virus titers was observed for PPV. Lyophilization of cell-free or cell-associated virus is not sufficient to inactivate viruses completely. However, lyophilization could have an additive effect in line with other production steps used in the manufacturing process.

  6. Lyophilized standards for the calibration of real time PCR assay for hepatitis C virus RNA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Lu-nan; WU Jian-min; DENG Wei; SHEN Zi-yu; CHEN Wen-xiang; LI Jin-ming

    2006-01-01

    Background Since October 1997, an international standard for hepatitis C virus (HCV) nucleic acid amplification technology assay, 96/790, has been available. We compared a series of lyophilized standards with known HCV RNA concentrations against the international standard in fluorescence quantitative PCR detection.Methods A series of lyophilized sera were calibrated by ROCHE COBAS AMPLICOR HCV Monitor test against the international standard and sent to various manufacturers to analyse the samples using their own kits.Then calibration curves from the series were compared with that obtained from the external standard calibration curve with the manufacture's series.Results The standard calibration curve with the series of lyophilized serum showed an excellent correlation(R2>0.98), slope and intercept that were similar to those from the manufacture's series. When the standard calibration curve from the series of lyophilized standards were used to define the values of the given sample,lower coefficients of variation between kits from different manufactures were obtained.Conclusion The results showed that the lyophilized standards could be used to setup the standard calibration curve for clinical HCV RNA quantitative PCR detection.

  7. Trehalose lyophilized platelets for wound healing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pietramaggiori, Giorgio; Kaipainen, Arja; Ho, David; Orser, Cindy; Pebley, Walter; Rudolph, Alan; Orgill, Dennis P

    2007-01-01

    Fresh platelet preparations are utilized to treat a wide variety of wounds, although storage limitations and mixed results have hampered their clinical use. We hypothesized that concentrated lyophilized and reconstituted platelet preparations, preserved with trehalose, maintain and possibly enhance fresh platelets' ability to improve wound healing. We studied the ability of a single dose of trehalose lyophilized and reconstituted platelets to enhance wound healing when topically applied on full-thickness wounds in the genetically diabetic mouse. We compared these results with the application of multiple doses of fresh platelet preparations and trehalose lyophilized and reconstituted platelets as well as multiple doses of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and wounds left untreated. Trehalose lyophilized and reconstituted platelets, in single and multiple applications, multiple applications of fresh platelets and multiple applications of VEGF increased granulation tissue deposition, vascularity, and proliferation when compared with untreated wounds, as assessed by histology and immunohistochemistry. Wounds treated with multiple doses of VEGF and a single dose of freeze-dried platelets reached 90% closure faster than wounds left untreated. A single administration of trehalose lyophilized and reconstituted platelet preparations enhanced diabetic wound healing, therefore representing a promising strategy for the treatment of nonhealing wounds.

  8. Transparent Yttrium Aluminium Garnet Obtained by Spark Plasma Sintering of Lyophilized Gels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Suárez

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Lyophilized YAG gel, synthesized by the coprecipitation technique, has been sintered to transparency by spark plasma sintering method at 1500∘C. Whereas conventionally dried gels show large agglomerates, over 1 μm, powders from lyophilized gels show no agglomeration with an average particle size below 100 nm. The absence of agglomerates affects on the optical properties of the sintered materials: conventionally dried powders are opaque after sintering, whereas 0.8 mm thick transparent YAG materials with in-line transmittances close to 60% at 680 nm and over 80% in the infrared range have been obtained for the lyophilized gels.

  9. The influence of spleen aminopeptidase lyophilized powder on serum levels of TGF -β1,MCP -1,SDF -1 in pediatric asthma%脾氨肽口服冻干粉对小儿哮喘血清 TGF-β1、MCP-1、SDF-1水平的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    严波

    2016-01-01

    目的探讨孟鲁司特联合脾氨肽口服冻干粉对小儿哮喘疗效及血清转化生长因子-β1(TGF-β1)、单核细胞趋化蛋白-1(MCP-1)、基质细胞衍生因子-1(SDF-1)水平的影响。方法选取128例小儿哮喘患儿,根据抽签法分为观察组(64例)及对照组(64例),对照组给予孟鲁司特口服治疗,观察组在对照组基础上加服脾氨肽口服冻干粉。观察两组治疗效果及肺功能改善情况。治疗前后应用 ELISA 法测定两组血清TGF-β1、MCP-1、SDF-1水平。结果观察组总有效率为96.87%高于对照组84.37%,差异有统计学意义(χ2=5.885,P =0.015)。观察组治疗后哮喘控制测试表(ACT)评分(24.25±3.98)分、第一秒呼气容积(FEV1)为(80.25±4.25)%和呼气峰值流速(PEF)(7.25±0.69)L/min,显著高于对照组(20.12±4.02)分、(75.02±3.96)%、(5.82±0.70)L/min(t =7.203,6.757,14.459,26.677,均 P <0.01)。观察组治疗后血清TGF-β1(42.23±6.02)ng/mL、MCP-1(48.56±3.96)ρg/mL、SDF-1(252.36±32.22)ng/L 水平低于对照组(42.23±6.02)ng/mL、(59.02±4.22)ρg/mL、(425.25±40.62)ng/L,差异有统计学意义(t =6.757,14.459,26.677,均 P <0.01)。结论孟鲁司特联合脾氨肽口服冻干粉能有效提高哮喘患儿治疗效果,改善患儿肺功能,其可能机制与降低哮喘患儿血清 TGF-β1、MCP-1、SDF-1水平有关。%Objective To investigate the influence of spleen aminopeptidase lyophilized powder on serum levels of transforming growth factor -β1 (TGF -β1),monocyte chemoattractant protein -1 (MCP -1),stromal cell derived factor 1 (SDF -1 )in pediatric asthma.Methods 128 patients with asthma were randomly divided into observation group(64 cases)and control group (64 cases).Two groups of children were given symptomatic

  10. Hexaferrite particles by coprecipitation and lyophilization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calleja, A.; Tijero, E.; Martínez, B.; Piñol, S.; Sandiumenge, F.; Obradors, X.

    1999-05-01

    Fine strontium hexaferrite particles were prepared by lyophilization (known as freeze-drying) and coprecipitation of nitrates and chloride salts, respectively. The resulting powders were calcined at different temperatures between 700°C and 1100°C. As concluded from the measured hysteresis loops at 300 K, the freeze-dried hexaferrite showed good magnetic characteristics, the coercivity being as high as 5690 Oe. However, coprecipitated hexaferrite displayed poor coercivity values, around 1300 Oe at best.

  11. Hygroscopic behavior of lyophilized acerola pulp powder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciana C. Ribeiro

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Powder products are characterized by their practicality and long life. However, fruit powders have high hygroscopicity and tend to agglomerate due to its hydrophilic nature. The isotherms of equilibrium moisture content apply to the study of dehydrated food preservation potential. Acerola is a nutritionally rich fruit, with great economic and industrial potential. The objective of this study was to analyse acerola powder adsorption isotherms obtained by lyophilization and characterize the powder obtained from lyophilized acerola pulp. Analysis of hygroscopicity, solubility and degree of caking were performed. Isotherms were represented by the mathematical models of GAB, BET, Henderson and Oswin, at temperatures of 25, 35 and 45 °C. According to the results, the obtained powder showed hygroscopicity of 5.96 g of absorbed water 100g-1 of solids, solubility of 95.08% and caking of 14.12%. The BET model showed the best fit to the adsorption isotherms of the acerola pulp powder obtained by lyophilization. The obtained isotherm was of type III, with a "J" shape. There was an inversion of the effect of temperature on the isotherms of acerola powders.

  12. Characterizing Protein Structure, Dynamics and Conformation in Lyophilized Solids

    OpenAIRE

    Moorthy, Balakrishnan S.; Iyer, Lavanya K.; Topp, Elizabeth M.

    2015-01-01

    The long-term stability of protein therapeutics in the solid-state depends on the preservation of native structure during lyophilization and in the lyophilized powder. Proteins can reversibly or irreversibly unfold upon lyophilization, acquiring conformations susceptible to degradation during storage. Therefore, characterizing proteins in the dried state is crucial for the design of safe and efficacious formulations. This review summarizes the basic principles and applications of the analytic...

  13. Lyophilized Oral Sustained Release Polymeric Nanoparticles of Nateglinide

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kaleemuddin, Mohammad; Srinivas, Prathima

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this study is to formulate lyophilized oral sustained release polymeric nanoparticles of nateglinide in order to decrease dosing frequency, minimize side effects, and increase bioavailability...

  14. Studies on Lyophilization of Sabin Vaccine 2. Investigation on Long Time Incubation at High and Low Temperatures of Lyophilized Sabin Vaccine

    OpenAIRE

    塩見, 洋; 浦沢, 价子; 浦沢, 正三

    1998-01-01

    Lyophilization of vaccine is one of the possible options for the development of a heat-stable poliovaccine. In our previous study in which conditions affecting the lyophilization of Sabin poliovaccine were investigated, it was found that infectivity titration of lyophilized viruses was under at least three kind of variabilities i. e., i) the variability among different lyophilization experi-ments, ii) the variability within the same lyophilization experiment and iii) the variability inherent ...

  15. Genomic Stability of Lyophilized Sheep Somatic Cells before and after Nuclear Transfer

    OpenAIRE

    Domenico Iuso; Marta Czernik; Fiorella Di Egidio; Silvestre Sampino; Federica Zacchini; Michal Bochenek; Zdzislaw Smorag; Modlinski, Jacek A.; Grazyna Ptak; Pasqualino Loi

    2013-01-01

    The unprecedented decline of biodiversity worldwide is urging scientists to collect and store biological material from seriously threatened animals, including large mammals. Lyophilization is being explored as a low-cost system for storage in bio-banks of cells that might be used to expand or restore endangered or extinct species through the procedure of Somatic Cell Nuclear Transfer (SCNT). Here we report that the genome is intact in about 60% of lyophylized sheep lymphocytes, whereas DNA da...

  16. Assessing the impact of lyophilization process in production of implants based on the bacterial cellulose using Raman spectroscopy method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timchenko, E. V.; Timchenko, P. E.; Pisareva, E. V.; Vlasov, M. Yu; Revin, V. V.; Klenova, N. A.; Asadova, A. A.

    2017-01-01

    In this article we present the research results of lyophilization process influence on the composition of hybrid materials based on the bacterial cellulose (BC) using Raman spectroscopy method. As an object of research was used BC, as well as hybrids based on it, comprising the various combinations of hydroxyapatite (HAP) and collagen. Our studies showed that during the lyophilization process changes the ratio of the individual components. It was found that for samples hybrid based on BC with addition of HAP occurs increase of PO4 3- peak intensity in the region 956 cm-1 with decreasing width, which indicates a change in the degree of HAP crystallinity.

  17. Mesoporous materials modified by aptamers and hydrophobic groups assist ultra-sensitive insulin detection in serum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lei, Chang; Xu, Chun; Noonan, Owen; Meka, Anand Kumar; Zhang, Long; Nouwens, Amanda; Yu, Chengzhong

    2015-09-14

    A novel mesoporous material modified with both insulin-binding-aptamers and hydrophobic methyl groups is synthesized. With rationally designed pore structures and surface chemistry, this material is applied in sample pre-treatment for ELISA, and enables the quantification (0.25-5 pg ml(-1)) of insulin in serum, 30-fold enhancement of the limit-of-detection compared to the commercial ELISA kit.

  18. Protein aggregation and lyophilization: Protein structural descriptors as predictors of aggregation propensity

    OpenAIRE

    Roughton, Brock C.; Iyer, Lavanya K.; Bertelsen, Esben; Topp, Elizabeth M.; Camarda, Kyle V.

    2013-01-01

    Lyophilization can induce aggregation in therapeutic proteins, but the relative importance of protein structure, formulation and processing conditions are poorly understood. To evaluate the contribution of protein structure to lyophilization-induced aggregation, fifteen proteins were co-lyophilized with each of five excipients. Extent of aggregation following lyophilization, measured using size-exclusion chromatography, was correlated with computational and biophysical protein structural desc...

  19. Genomic stability of lyophilized sheep somatic cells before and after nuclear transfer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Domenico Iuso

    Full Text Available The unprecedented decline of biodiversity worldwide is urging scientists to collect and store biological material from seriously threatened animals, including large mammals. Lyophilization is being explored as a low-cost system for storage in bio-banks of cells that might be used to expand or restore endangered or extinct species through the procedure of Somatic Cell Nuclear Transfer (SCNT. Here we report that the genome is intact in about 60% of lyophylized sheep lymphocytes, whereas DNA damage occurs randomly in the remaining 40%. Remarkably, lyophilized nuclei injected into enucleated oocytes are repaired by a robust DNA repairing activity of the oocytes, and show normal developmental competence. Cloned embryos derived from lyophylized cells exhibited chromosome and cellular composition comparable to those of embryos derived from fresh donor cells. These findings support the feasibility of lyophylization as a storage procedure of mammalian cells to be used for SCNT.

  20. A Comparison of Factors that Influence the Lyophilization Process

    OpenAIRE

    Dumitru Mnerie; Gabriela-victoria Anghel; Alin Vasile Mnerie; Constantin Cheveresan

    2007-01-01

    The lyophilization (or freeze drying) process for agro-foods products depends on a series of technological factors that are in an inter-dependence with the process performance. This paper presents an expert method and its application. This method characterizes the influence factors of the lyophilization process, after the importance level of some factors in correlation with other factors, is defined. Only the most important factors were considered; influence considerations were made in relati...

  1. Ceramic/metal nanocomposites by lyophilization: Processing and HRTEM study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gutierrez-Gonzalez, C.F. [Centro de Investigacion en Nanomateriales y Nanotecnologia (CINN), Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Cientificas - CSIC - Universidad de Oviedo - UO - Principado de Asturias - PA, Parque Tecnologico de Asturias, 33428 Llanera (Spain); Agouram, S. [Department of Applied Physics and Electromagnetism, Universitat de Valencia, 46100 Burjassot (Spain); Torrecillas, R. [Centro de Investigacion en Nanomateriales y Nanotecnologia (CINN), Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Cientificas - CSIC - Universidad de Oviedo -UO - Principado de Asturias- PA, Parque Tecnologico de Asturias, 33428 Llanera (Spain); Moya, J.S. [Instituto de Ciencia de Materiales de Madrid, Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Cientificas (ICMM-CSIC), Cantoblanco, 28049 Madrid (Spain); Lopez-Esteban, S., E-mail: s.lopez@cinn.es [Centro de Investigacion en Nanomateriales y Nanotecnologia (CINN), Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Cientificas - CSIC - Universidad de Oviedo - UO - Principado de Asturias - PA, Parque Tecnologico de Asturias, 33428 Llanera (Spain)

    2012-02-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A cryogenic route has been used to obtain ceramic/metal nanostructured powders. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The powders present good homogeneity and dispersion of metal. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The metal nanoparticle size distributions are centred in 17-35 nm. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Both phases, ceramic and metal, present a high degree of crystallinity. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Good metal/ceramic interfaces due to epitaxial growth, studied by HRTEM. -- Abstract: This work describes a wet-processing route based on spray-freezing and subsequent lyophilization designed to obtain nanostructured ceramic/metal powders. Starting from the ceramic powder and the corresponding metal salt, a water-based suspension is sprayed on liquid nitrogen. The frozen powders are subsequently freeze-dried, calcined and reduced. The material was analyzed using X-ray diffraction analysis at all stages. High resolution transmission electron microscopy studies showed a uniform distribution of metal nanoparticles on the ceramic grain surfaces, good interfaces and high crystallinity, with an average metal particle size in the nanometric range.

  2. Evaluation of the Bias of Serum Magnesium Measurements and the Commutability of Processed Materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ge, Menglei; Zhao, Haijian; Yan, Ying; Zhang, Tianjiao; Zeng, Jie; Wang, Yufei; Meng, Qinghui; Zhang, Chuanbao

    2016-01-01

    Measuring serum magnesium plays an important role in the diagnosis of diseases. The performance of serum magnesium measurements is most conveniently monitored by external quality assessment (EQA) or proficiency testing (PT) schemes. However, the commutability of EQA samples and calibrators is often unknown, and the effectiveness of EQA schemes is limited. We designed the present study to evaluate the matrix effects of processed materials and the accuracy of routine methods. Inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry was applied as a comparative method, and 12 routine methods composed of 12 kits, their supporting calibrators, and a Hitachi 7180 automatic analyzer were chosen as the test methods. Serum from 48 single patients and 24 processed materials were quantified by the comparative and routine methods. The 95% prediction intervals and relative bias were calculated at three medical decision levels (0.60 mmol/L, 1.00 mmol/L, and 2.50 mmol/L) according to EP9-A2 and EP14-A2. The commutability of the materials was evaluated by comparing the values of the processed materials with the limit bias, and the accuracy of the routine methods was evaluated by the relative bias. The precision of all of the assays was good (total CV materials were commutable in most of the assays; the calibrators showed matrix effects in some of the assays; the aqueous reference materials showed matrix effects in most of the assays and could only be used in the reference methods. For all of the assays, the range of the mean bias was -0.04 - 0.06 mmol/L (-4.52% - 7.20%), and the range of the expected bias at the three medical decision levels was -0.03 - 0.06 mmol/L (-4.27% - 9.30%) at 0.6 mmol/L, -0.05 - 0.06 mmol/L (-4.79% - 6.31%) at 1.00 mmol/L, and -0.364 - 0.10 mmol/L (-13.66% - 4.05%) at 2.50 mmol/L. For most of the assays, the biases were in an acceptable range, whereas the accuracy of some of the assays needs improvement. Human serum pools prepared from patient samples were commutable

  3. LYOPHILIZATION EFFECT ON PRODUCTIVITY OF BUTANOL-PRODUCING STRAINS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. O. Tigunova

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Investigation of lyophilization effect on the productivity of butanol-producing strains was the aim of our research. For this purpose we used butanol-producing strains; technical glycerol; biomass of switchgrass Panicum virgatum L. Lyophilization was performed using a lyophilization-drying. The effect of the protective medium on residual moisture of freezedrying cultures suspensions depending on the concentration of glucose and sucrose was studed. It was shown that the lowest residual moisture was attained by using glucose and sucrose in amount of 10% and if the samples of freeze-drying bacteria had been saved for one month at 4 οC the productivity did not decrease. As temperature preservation was increased the productivity of the cultures was gradually decreased and it was greatly reduced at 30 οC. So the protective medium composition was optimized for lyophilization of butanol-producing strains as follows: sucrose 10.0%; gelatin 10.0%; agar 0.02%. It was shown that the preservation of samples of freeze-drying bacteria for six months at a temperature of 4 οC did not affect the productivity of strains. It was found that cultures could use glycerol as a carbon source for butanol accumulation before lyophilization.

  4. Clinical and immunohistochemical performance of lyophilized platelet-rich fibrin (Ly-PRF) on tissue regeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jianming; Qi, Xingying; Luo, Xiaoding; Li, Dan; Wang, Haorong; Li, Ting

    2017-06-01

    Platelet-rich fibrin (PRF) has been widely used in oral implantology and other fields, but benefits of the fresh PRF (FPRF (fresh platelet-rich fibrin)) were consequently limited because of its short-term application. Thus, a protocol for the combination of PRF and lyophilization comes up in the present study to address the issue of PRF storage and delayed clinical application, which has little been reported in this field at home and abroad by now. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the applicability of lyophilized platelet-rich fibrin (Ly-PRF) used as the scaffold material for craniofacial tissue regeneration and to compare its biochemical properties with commonly used fresh PRF. Two volunteers with both genders were selected as the source of PRF and Ly-PRF samples. Macro- and micro-scopic appearance evaluation as well as immunohistochemical comparison were performed on PRF samples before and after freeze-drying at -196°C. The second experimental phase was to observe clinical performance when fresh and lyophilized PRF were applied in guided bone regeneration (GBR) operations in 39 patients losing teeth in the anterior maxillary region who required an oral implantation followed by labial bone grafting. The conventional histological and transmission electron microscopy images showed the microstructure of Ly-PRF, which resembled a mesh containing apparently irregularly shaped platelets with less alpha-granule than fresh PRF in micro and a translucent membrane with less elasticity than fresh PRF in macro. Simultaneous immunohistological staining results showed positive expression of PDGF-BB, IL-1, IL-4, TNF, TGF-β1 in both fresh and lyophilized PRF, while the expression of PDGF-BB, IL-1, TNF, TGF-β1 has no statistical difference between them (P > .05) but that of IL-4 in Ly-PRF is statistically higher than in fresh PRF (P  .05). This study strongly supports that lyophilization at -196°C does not largely influence the expression of bioactive

  5. Photolytic labeling to probe molecular interactions in lyophilized powders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iyer, Lavanya K; Moorthy, Balakrishnan S; Topp, Elizabeth M

    2013-12-02

    Local side-chain interactions in lyophilized protein formulations were mapped using solid-state photolytic labeling-mass spectrometry (ssPL-MS). Photoactive amino acid analogues (PAAs) were used as probes and either added to the lyophilized matrix or incorporated within the amino acid sequence of a peptide. In the first approach, apomyoglobin was lyophilized with sucrose and varying concentrations of photoleucine (L-2-amino-4,4'-azipentanoic acid; pLeu). The lyophilized solid was irradiated at 365 nm to initiate photolabeling. The rate and extent of labeling were measured using electrospray ionization/high-performance liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry (ESI-HPLC-MS), with labeling reaching a plateau at ~30 min, forming up to six labeled populations. Bottom-up MS/MS analysis was able to provide peptide-level resolution of the location of pLeu. ssPL-MS was also able to detect differences in side-chain environment between sucrose and guanidine hydrochloride formulations. In the second approach, peptide GCG (1-8)* containing p-benzoyl-L-phenylalanine (pBpA) in the amino acid sequence was lyophilized with various excipients and irradiated. Peptide-peptide and peptide-excipient adducts were detected using MS. Top-down MS/MS on the peptide dimer provided amino acid-level resolution regarding interactions and the cross-linking partner for pBpA in the solid state. The results show that ssPL-MS can provide high-resolution information about protein interactions in the lyophilized environment.

  6. Effect of the hydration state of supports before lyophilization on subtilisin-A activity in organic media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, J; Kim, B G

    1996-06-20

    Subtilisin-A was colyophilized with various types of support materials, such as Amberlite IRC-50, Celite545, chitosan, DEAE-cellulose, DOWEX-1, zeolite, glass bead, and polystyrene. The colyophilized enzyme was used for the optical resolution of racemic 1-phenylethylamine with 2,2,2-trifluoroethylbutyrate in 3-methyl-3-pentanol. The enzyme activity in organic media changed dramatically according to the hydration state of the support materials before lyophilization. This effect was especially marked with supports of high water capacity (aquaphilicity), such as chitosan and DEAE-cellulose. By hydrating these supports of high aquaphilicity prior to lyophilization, subtilisin-A activity in organic media increased ca. 4-8 times, depending upon the supports used. This result suggests that the hydration state of aquaphilic support materials for colyophilization is critical to determining enzyme activity in organic solvents.

  7. Certification of the contents (mass fractions) of Cd, Pb, Se, Cu, Zn, Fe and Mn in wholemeal flour and lyophilized brown bread reference materials. Wholemeal flour - CRM no. 189; brown bread - CRM no. 191

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wagstaffe, P.J.; Griepink, B.; Muntau, H.; Schramel, P.

    1987-01-01

    The report describes the preparation and certification of a wholemeal flour (CRM 189) and a lyophilised brown breas (CRM 191) for their contents (mass fractions) of elements of toxicological and nutritional importance: Cd, Pb, Se, Cu, Zn, Fe and Mn. Indicative values are also given for As, Ca, Cl, Cr, Hg, Mg, Na, Ni, P and K. Details are given of a preliminary intercomparison of methods for these elements in a wholemeal flour sample, homogeneity and stability studies on the two reference materials and the results and evaluation of the certification exercise which involved 21 European Laboratories. Summaries of the certification methods are also presented. The report concludes with a discussion of the most common sources of error in determining the elements of interest and the steps to be taken to control them. With 7 figs., 28 tabs.

  8. Preparation, in vitro release, and pharmacokinetics in rabbits of lyophilized injection of sorafenib solid lipid nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang H

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Hong Zhang, Fu-Ming Zhang, Shi-Jun YanDepartment of Pharmacy, Renmin Hospital of Wuhan University, Wuhan, People’s Republic of ChinaAbstract: Sorafenib solid lipid nanoparticles (S-SLN were prepared by emulsion evaporation–solidification at low temperature. Morphology was examined by transmission electron microscope. Particle size and zeta potential were determined by laser granularity equipment. Encapsulation efficiency (EE was detected by Sephadex gel chromatography and high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC. The in vitro release profile of S-SLN was studied with dialysis technology. The lyophilized injection of S-SLN was prepared by freeze drying and analyzed by differential scanning calorimetry. The plasma concentration of sorafenib in blood was determined by HPLC. The solid lipid nanoparticles assumed a spherical shape with an even distribution of diameter and particle size 108.23 ± 7.01 nm (n = 3. The polydispersity index, zeta potential, and EE were determined to be 0.25 ± 0.02, -16.37 ± 0.65 mV, and 93.49% ± 1.87%, respectively (n = 3. The in vitro release accorded with the Weibull distribution model. An equal volume of 15% (w/v mannitol performed better as the protective agent for a lyophilized injection of S-SLN with a new material phase formation. The pharmacokinetic processes of sorafenib solution and lyophilized injection of S-SLN in vivo were in accordance with the two-compartment and one-compartment models, respectively. S-SLN nanoparticles are thus considered a promising drug-delivery system.Keywords: sorafenib, solid lipid nanoparticles, material phase analysis, HPLC, release profile, pharmacokinetics

  9. Improving Activity of Salt-Lyophilized Enzymes in Organic Media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borole, Abhijeet P.; Davison, Brian H.

    Lyophilization with salts has been identified as an important method of activating enzymes in organic media. Using salt-activated enzymes to transform molecules tethered to solid surfaces in organic phase requires solubilization of enzymes in the solvents. Methods of improving performance of salt-lyophilized enzymes, further, via chemical modification, and use of surfactants and surfactants to create fine emulsions prior to lyophilization are investigated. The reaction system used is transesterification of N-acetyl phenylalanine ethyl ester with methanol or propanol. Initial rate of formation of amino acid esters by subtilisin Carlsberg (SC) was studied and found to increase two to sevenfold by either chemical modification or addition of surfactants in certain solvents, relative to the salt (only)-lyophilized enzyme. The method to prepare highly dispersed enzymes in a salt-surfactant milieu also improved activity by two to threefold. To test the effect of chemical modification on derivatization of drug molecules, acylation of bergenin was investigated using chemically modified SC.

  10. Long Shelf Life of a Lyophilized DNA Aptamer Beacon Assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruno, John G

    2017-03-01

    An aptamer beacon previously developed to detect C-telopeptide (CTx) from human bone collagen breakdown was lyophilized and shown to give a "lights on" concentration-dependent spectral fluorescence response essentially identical to that of the fresh reagent despite storage in a dark dry environment for the past 5.5 years.

  11. Effects of wall materials and lyophilization on the viability of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SAM

    2014-06-16

    Jun 16, 2014 ... decreases the degradation of bacteria in the human gastrointestinal tract, where the ... microencapsulated, and retained the cell viability in 16 and 43% ... viability of LAB during the dehydration and storage stages (Carvalho et ...

  12. [Development studies of lyophilized standard diphtheria-tetanus-pertussis vaccines].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozcengiz, Erkan; Unver, Derya; Cayan, H Hüseyin; Atakan Ablay, Pinar; Kanik, Esin

    2007-04-01

    In this study, diphtheria, tetanus and pertussis vaccine components were prepared as the formulations of diphtheria-tetanus-pertussis (DTP), diphtheria-tetanus (DT) for children, diphtheria-tetanus (Td) for adults, and tetanus toxoid (TT), respectively. Alhydrogel-adsorbed vaccines prepared to contain the stabilizing substances were lyophilized and the immunogenicity tests were carried out both in vivo and in vitro. The potencies of the tetanus component of the vaccines were obtained by the lethal challenge test in mice. The values were found as 144.86 IU/ml for lyophilized adsorbed (LA)-DTP, 116.5 IU/ml for LA-DT, 98.25 IU/ml for LA-Td and 96.2 IU/ml for LA-TT. Anti-tetanus IgG and anti-diphteria IgG levels determined by ELISA method were found high in the sera taken from the mice immunized with the above-mentioned vaccines. Anti-B.pertussis fimbria IgG antibody levels were also high by both ELISA and microagglutination tests. The test preparations were then compared to adsorbed liquid vaccines and it was shown that the components were quite stable in the lyophilized formulations. It was concluded that the formulations prepared in this study can be used as standard vaccines after being calibrated against World Health Organization standards.

  13. Commutability of proficiency testing material containing tobramycin: a study within the framework of the Dutch Calibration 2.000 project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robijns, Karen; Boone, Niels W; Jansen, Rob T P; Kuypers, Aldy W H M; Neef, Cees; Touw, Daan J

    2017-02-01

    Results from external quality assessment schemes (EQASs) can provide information about accuracy and comparability of different measurement methods, provided that the material used in these schemes behave identical to patient samples among the different methods, a characteristic also known as commutability. The aim of this study was to assess the commutability of different matrices for the material used in an EQAS for tobramycin. Proficiency testing material (PTM) and patient samples containing tobramycin were prepared, collected, pooled, and distributed to participating laboratories for analysis. Low, medium, and high tobramycin concentrations in liquid human, liquid bovine and lyophilized bovine serum were tested in this study. The patient serum results of every laboratory were plotted against each of the other laboratories, and the distances of the PTM results to the patient serum regression line were calculated. For comparison, these distances were divided by the average within-laboratory standard deviation (SDwl) of the results reported in the official EQAS for tobramycin, resulting in a relative residual. The commutability decision limit was set at 3 SDwl. With 10 laboratories participating in this study, 45 laboratory couples were formed. For human serum, only one relative residual for high concentrations of tobramycin was found outside the commutability decision limit. For liquid and lyophilized bovine sera, the number of relative residuals outside the decision limit was between 15 and 18 for low, medium, and high tobramycin concentrations. The PTM used for tobramycin is preferably prepared with human serum.

  14. Protein standardization V: value transfer. A practical protocol for the assignment of serum protein values from a Reference Material to a Target Material.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blirup-Jensen, Søren; Johnson, A Myron; Larsen, Marianne

    2008-01-01

    We present a practical protocol for the assignment of values to serum proteins in a Target Material using a Reference Material. This protocol is based on the model of Direct Value Transfer between serum matrices and is intended to improve the value assignment of commercial calibrators using the Reference Material CRM 470 (now labeled ERM-DA 470) or similar reference materials. The procedure describes the general as well as the practical principles involved in the value assignment (with examples). The practical transfer protocol is based on multiple assays of 6 dilutions of the Reference Material and 6 dilutions of the Target Material. The transfer protocol requires several measurements a day repeated on several days, an important prerequisite being that all reconstitutions and dilutions are controlled by weighing thus reducing uncertainty in the transfer. In open systems that allow the use of the Reference Material as calibrator and the Target Material as samples, the proportionality of the two materials (the presence or absence of matrix effects) can now be directly assessed by evaluating a single regression plot. If no matrix effects are found, the regression line will pass through zero with a slope equal to the ratio of the concentrations of the two materials. In closed systems, the dedicated commercial calibrator has to be used as such; the Reference Material and the Target Material are now assayed as samples against this calibrator. Two regression plots are therefore obtained; if no matrix effects are present among the two materials and the calibrator, both the Reference and Target Materials will show zero intercepts, and the ratio of the two slopes will equal the ratio of the concentrations.

  15. Candidates for reference swine serum with anti-Trichinella antibodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez-Morales, Maria Angeles; Ludovisi, Alessandra; Amati, Marco; Pozio, Edoardo

    2015-03-15

    Serology to monitor Trichinella spp. infection in pigs reared in controlled system has been claimed as a possible diagnostic tool. However, no international biological standards or reference materials exist to validate in house tests or commercial kits, and to improve the inter-laboratory comparability for the serological detection of anti-Trichinella IgG in pigs. In this work, potential reference sera have been prepared from four experimentally infected pigs. Sera were tested, aliquot, lyophilized, and maintained at +4°C. Since one of the prerequisites for the development of any reference material is to plan and execute stability studies, isochronous studies for short and long term stability testing were carried out to evaluate the possible degradation effects of transportation and storage. The stability of the lyophilized serum samples at +4°C, was arbitrarily assumed. For the short term stability study, two units were stored at -20°C, +4°C, +20°C, and +50°C for 0, 1, 2, and 4 weeks, and then tested in duplicate. For the long term stability study, the same number of units and replicates per unit were stored at -80°C, -20°C, and +4°C for 0, 6, 12, 18 and 24 months. In both studies, unit samples were selected randomly and tested on the same day under repeatability conditions. The linear regression versus time for each serum at each studied temperature was analyzed and then slopes were tested for significance. Further, uncertainty of the short and long term stability was calculated for a shelf life period of one week and three years, respectively. For all sera but one, and for all the studied temperatures but +50°C, the data from the short term stability study indicate the absence of a significant trend that would hint at degradation. The slopes of the regression lines did not significantly vary from zero. Even if the uncertainty of the short term stability was variable among serum samples, the rate of degradation was considered acceptable. For the long

  16. Facts and evidences on the lyophilization of polymeric nanoparticles for drug delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fonte, Pedro; Reis, Salette; Sarmento, Bruno

    2016-03-10

    Lyophilization has been used to improve the long-term stability of polymeric nanoparticles for drug delivery applications, avoiding their instability in suspension. However, this dehydration process may induce stresses to nanoparticles, mitigated by the use of some excipients such as cryo- and lyoprotectants. Still, the lyophilization of polymeric nanoparticles is frequently based in empirical principles, without considering the physical-chemical properties of formulations and the engineering principles of lyophilization. Therefore, the optimization of formulations and the lyophilization cycle is crucial to obtain a good lyophilizate, and guarantee the preservation of nanoparticle stability. The proper characterization of the lyophilizate and nanoparticles has a great importance in achieving these purposes. This review updates the fundaments involved in the optimization procedures for lyophilization of polymeric nanoparticles, with the aim of obtaining the maximum stability of formulations. Different characterization methods to obtain and guarantee a good lyophilized product are also discussed. A special focus is given to encapsulated therapeutic proteins. Overall, this review is a contribution for the understanding of the parameters involved in the lyophilization of polymeric nanoparticles. This may definitely help future works to obtain lyophilized nanoparticles with good quality and with improved therapeutic benefits.

  17. Pig skin apposite dehydrated by lyophilization; Apositos de piel de cerdo deshidratados por liofilizacion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reyes F, M.L.; Gonzalez V, C.; Flores A, M.; Peralta R, J.; Reboyo B, D.; Rodriguez U, M.D. [ININ, 52750 La Marquesa, Estado de Mexico (Mexico)

    2007-07-01

    Taking like base a work carried out in 2001 in the Radio sterilized Tissue Bank (BTR) in which lyophilized apposite of pig skin were obtained at laboratory scale, this work is presented that had as purpose to process pig skin to produce temporary covers of skin (apposite) dehydrated by lyophilization to commercial scale. (Author)

  18. Sessile Nanodroplets on Elliptical Patches of Enhanced Lyophilicity

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-01

    We theoretically investigate the shape of a nanodroplet on a lyophilic elliptical patch in lyophobic surroundings on a flat substrate. To compute the droplet equilibrium shape, we minimize its interfacial free energy using both Surface Evolver and Monte Carlo calculations, finding good agreement between the two methods. We observe different droplet shapes, which are controlled by the droplet volume and the aspect ratio of the ellipse. In particular, we study the behavior of the nanodroplet contact angle along the three-phase contact line, explaining the different droplet shapes. Although the nanodroplet contact angle is constant and fixed by Young’s law inside and outside the elliptical patch, its value varies along the rim of the elliptical patch. We find that because of the pinning of the nanodroplet contact line at the rim of the elliptical patch, which has a nonconstant curvature, there is a regime of aspect ratios of the elliptical patch in which the nanodroplet starts expanding to the lyophobic part of the substrate, although there is still a finite area of the lyophilic patch free to be wetted. PMID:28248114

  19. Final report on CCQM-K80: Comparison of value-assigned CRMs and PT materials: Creatinine in human serum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camara, Johanna E.; Duewer, David L.; Gasca Aragon, Hugo; Lippa, Katrice A.; Toman, Blaza

    2013-01-01

    The 2009 CCQM-K80 'Comparison of value-assigned CRMs and PT materials: creatinine in human serum' is the first in a series of key comparisons directly testing the chemical measurement services provided to customers by National Metrology Institutes (NMIs) and Designated Institutes. CCQM-K80 compared the assigned serum creatinine values of certified reference materials (CRMs) using measurements made on these materials under repeatability conditions. Six NMIs submitted 17 CRM materials for evaluation, all intended for sale to customers. These materials represent nearly all of the higher-order CRMs then available for this clinically important measurand. The certified creatinine mass fraction in the materials ranged from 3 mg/kg to 57 mg/kg. All materials were stored and prepared according the specifications provided by each NMI. Samples were processed and analyzed under repeatability conditions by one analyst using isotope dilution liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. The instrumental repeatability imprecision, expressed as a percent relative standard deviation, was 1.2%. Given the number of materials and the time required for each analysis, the measurements were made in two measurement campaigns ('runs'). In both campaigns, replicate analyses (two injections of one preparation separated in time) were made on each of two or three independently prepared aliquots from one randomly selected unit of each of the 17 materials. The mean value, between-campaign, between-aliquot and between-replicate variance components, standard uncertainty of the mean value, and the number of degrees of freedom associated with the standard uncertainty were estimated using a linear mixed model. Since several of the uncertainties estimated using this traditional frequentist approach were associated with a single degree of freedom, Markov Chain Monte Carlo Bayesian analysis was used to estimate 95% level-of-confidence coverage intervals, U95. Uncertainty-weighted generalized distance

  20. Development of highly stabilized curcumin nanoparticles by flash nanoprecipitation and lyophilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chow, Shing Fung; Wan, Ka Yee; Cheng, Kwok Kin; Wong, Ka Wai; Sun, Changquan Calvin; Baum, Larry; Chow, Albert Hee Lum

    2015-08-01

    The influence of critical operating parameters on the Flash Nanoprecipitation (FNP) and resulting material properties of curcumin (CUR) nanoparticles has been evaluated using a confined impinging jets-with-dilution mixer (CIJ-D-M). It has been shown that the mixing rate, molecular weight of polymeric stabilizer (i.e., polyethylene glycol-b-poly(dl-lactide) di-block copolymer; PEG-PLA) and drug-to-copolymer mass ratio all exert a significant impact on the particle size and stability of the generated nanosuspensions. The attainable mean particle size and span of the nanoparticles through optimization of these process parameters were approximately 70nm and 0.85 respectively. However, the optimized nanosuspension was only stable for about two hours after preparation. Co-formulation with polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) substantially extended the product lifespan to 5days at ambient conditions and two weeks at 4°C. Results from zeta potential measurement and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) suggested that the enhanced stability is probably due to the formation of an additional protective barrier by PVP around the particle surface, thereby suppressing the dissociation of PEG-PLA from the particles and preventing CUR leakage from inside. Long-term storage stability (>1year) could be achieved by lyophilization of the optimized nanosuspension with Kleptose (hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin), which was shown to be the only effective lyoprotectant among all the ones tested for the CUR nanoparticles. At an optimal concentration of Kleptose (1.25% w/v), the redispersibility (Sf/Si; ratio of the final and initial particle sizes) and encapsulation efficiency of lyophilized CUR nanoparticles were about 1.22% and 94%, respectively.

  1. Preparation of protein imprinted materials by hierarchical imprinting techniques and application in selective depletion of albumin from human serum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jinxiang; Deng, Qiliang; Tao, Dingyin; Yang, Kaiguang; Zhang, Lihua; Liang, Zhen; Zhang, Yukui

    2014-06-01

    Hierarchical imprinting was developed to prepare the protein imprinted materials, as the artificial antibody, for the selective depletion of HSA from the human serum proteome. Porcine serum albumin (PSA) was employed as the dummy template for the fabrication of the recognition sites. To demonstrate the advantages of the hierarchical imprinting, molecularly imprinted polymers prepared by hierarchical imprinting technique (h-MIPs) were compared with those obtained by bulk imprinting (b-MIPs), in terms of the binding capacity, adsorption kinetics, selectivity and synthesis reproducibility. The binding capacity of h-MIPs could reach 12 mg g-1. And saturation binding could be reached in less than 20 min for the h-MIPs. In the protein mixture, h-MIPs exhibit excellent selectivity for PSA, with imprinting factors as about 3.6, much higher than those for non-template proteins. For the proteomic application, the identified protein group number in serum treated by h-MIPs was increased to 422, which is 21% higher than that obtained from the original serum, meanwhile the identified protein group number for the Albumin Removal kit was only 376. The results demonstrate that protein imprinted polymers prepared by hierarchical imprinting technique, might become the artificial antibodies for the selective depletion of high abundance proteins in proteome study.

  2. Lyophilized Cyclamen europaeum tuber extract in the treatment of rhinosinusitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jurkiewicz, Dariusz; Hassmann-Poznańska, Elżbieta; Kaźmierczak, Henryk; Składzień, Jacek; Pietruszewska, Wioleta; Burduk, Paweł; Rapiejko, Piotr

    2016-02-29

    Nasal and sinus mucositis is a significant health problem associated with significant organizational and financial burden for the health care system. In recent years, several important guidelines and positions of expert groups and scientific associations have been published with regard to the diagnostics and treatment of rhinosinusitis, including European Position Paper on Rhinosinusitis and Nasal Polyps (EPOS 2012) [1] and Polish Standards for the Treatment of Rhinitis (PoSLeNN 2013) [2]. The management of viral and postviral rhinosinusitis involves systemic treatment including administration of plant origin products. The goal of this article is to present the current knowledge on the use of intranasal preparations containing natural saponin fractions from the rhizomes of Alpine cyclamen (Cyclamen europaeum). Saponins contained in the extract of Alpine cyclamen (Cyclamen europaeum) rhizomes are surface-active compounds that reduce the surface tension on the nasal mucosal cells while simultaneously stimulating the trigeminal nerve receptors leading to increased production of seromucous secretion and extensive drainage of the nasal and sinus cavities. The analysis of published studies on the efficacy and safety of intranasal products containing lyophilized extracts from Cyclamen europaeum tuber warrants the conclusion that these products are useful in the management of nasal and sinus mucositis due to their beneficial impact on the course of the treatment of acute rhinosinusitis. When used in patients with acute rhinosinusitis, an intranasal preparation containing lyophilized extracts from Cyclamen europaeum tuber efficiently reduces the symptoms, particularly the feeling of pressure and pain in the face. According to the authors of PROSINUS study, single-agent treatment using Cyclamen europaeum extracts is more efficient (in terms of the percentage of success) than other monotherapy or combination regimens.

  3. Lyophilization monophase solution technique for preparation of amorphous flutamide dispersions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elgindy, Nazik; Elkhodairy, Kadria; Molokhia, Abdallah; Elzoghby, Ahmed

    2011-07-01

    Flutamide (FLT) is a poorly soluble anticancer drug. Therefore, lyophilized dispersions (LDs) of FLT with polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) K30, polyethylene glycol (PEG) 6000, and pluronic F127 were prepared via lyophilization monophase solution technique with the aim of increasing its dissolution rate. FLT showed an A(L)-type phase solubility diagrams with PVP and PEG, whereas A(N)-type diagram was obtained with pluronic. The amount of residual tertiary butyl alcohol, determined by gas chromatography, was 0.015-0.021% w/w. Differential scanning calorimetry and X-ray diffractometry revealed that FLT-polymer 1:1 LDs were partially amorphous, whereas the 1:3 and 1:5 LDs were completely amorphous. After 6 months storage, polymers under study inhibited FLT recrystallization maintaining its amorphous form. The particle size of FLT-polymer LDs was between 0.81 and 2.13 μm, with a high surface area (268.43-510.82 m²/g) and porosity (354.01-676.23 e⁻³ mL/g). Also, the poor flow properties of FLT could be improved but to a limited extent. FLT dissolution was significantly enhanced with the fastest dissolution that was achieved using pluronic. After 30 min, about 66.52%, 78.23%, and 81.64% of FLT was dissolved from 1:5 FLT-PVP, PEG, and pluronic LDs, respectively, compared with only 13.45% of FLT. These data suggest that these polymers might be useful adjuncts in preparation and stabilization of amorphous immediate-release FLT LDs.

  4. Stabilization of a recombinant ricin toxin A subunit vaccine through lyophilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassett, Kimberly J; Cousins, Megan C; Rabia, Lilia A; Chadwick, Chrystal M; O'Hara, Joanne M; Nandi, Pradyot; Brey, Robert N; Mantis, Nicholas J; Carpenter, John F; Randolph, Theodore W

    2013-10-01

    Lyophilization was used to prepare dry, glassy solid vaccine formulations of recombinant ricin toxin A-chain containing suspensions of colloidal aluminum hydroxide adjuvant. Four lyophilized formulations were prepared by using combinations of rapid or slow cooling during lyophilization and one of two buffers, histidine or ammonium acetate. Trehalose was used as the stabilizing excipient. Aggregation of the colloidal aluminum hydroxide suspension was reduced in formulations processed with a rapid cooling rate. Aluminum hydroxide particle size distributions, glass transition temperatures, water contents, and immunogenicities of lyophilized vaccines were independent of incubation time at 40 °C for up to 15 weeks. Mice immunized with reconstituted ricin toxin subunit A (RTA) vaccines produced RTA-specific antibodies and toxin-neutralizing antibodies (TNAs) regardless of the length of high temperature vaccine storage or the degree of aluminum adjuvant aggregation that occurred during lyophilization. In murine studies, lyophilized formulations of vaccines conferred protection against exposure to lethal doses of ricin, even after the lyophilized formulations had been stored at 40 °C for 4 weeks. A corresponding liquid formulation of vaccine stored at 40 °C elicited RTA-specific antibody titers but failed to confer immunity during a ricin challenge.

  5. Stability of Staphylococcus aureus phage ISP after freeze-drying (lyophilization).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merabishvili, Maia; Vervaet, Chris; Pirnay, Jean-Paul; De Vos, Daniel; Verbeken, Gilbert; Mast, Jan; Chanishvili, Nino; Vaneechoutte, Mario

    2013-01-01

    Staphylococcus aureus phage ISP was lyophilized, using an Amsco-Finn Aqua GT4 freeze dryer, in the presence of six different stabilizers at different concentrations. Stability of the lyophilized phage at 4 °C was monitored up to 37 months and compared to stability in Luria Bertani broth and physiological saline at 4 °C. Sucrose and trehalose were shown to be the best stabilizing additives, causing a decrease of only 1 log immediately after the lyophilization procedure and showing high stability during a 27 month storage period.

  6. Stability of Staphylococcus aureus phage ISP after freeze-drying (lyophilization.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maia Merabishvili

    Full Text Available Staphylococcus aureus phage ISP was lyophilized, using an Amsco-Finn Aqua GT4 freeze dryer, in the presence of six different stabilizers at different concentrations. Stability of the lyophilized phage at 4 °C was monitored up to 37 months and compared to stability in Luria Bertani broth and physiological saline at 4 °C. Sucrose and trehalose were shown to be the best stabilizing additives, causing a decrease of only 1 log immediately after the lyophilization procedure and showing high stability during a 27 month storage period.

  7. Adaptogenic Activity of Lyophilized Hydroethanol Extract of Pandanus odoratissimus in Swiss Albino Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jadhav, Pranita P.; Ambavade, Shirishkumar D.; Shelke, Tushar

    2014-01-01

    Background. The leaves of Pandanus odoratissimus Linn have been widely used in Ayurveda to treat a variety of common and stress related disorders. In the present investigation, hydroethanol extract of leaves of Pandanus odoratissimus Linn (LEPO) were evaluated for antistress activity in normal and stress induced mice. Furthermore, the extract was studied for nootropic (adaptogenic) activity in mice and in vitro antioxidant potential to correlate with its adaptogenic and antistress activity. LEPO (100 and 200 mg/kg p.o) was evaluated against forced swimming endurance stress test, anoxia stress tolerance and immobilization stress and chronic cold resistant stress tests, and biomarkers (serum glucose, Corticosterone, WBC, RBC, and DLC count) to assess the antistress activity in mice. Withania somnifera (WS) (100 mg/kg p.o) was selected as reference standard. The parameters like anoxia stress tolerance time were recorded in anoxia stress and estimation of biochemical marker levels and determination of organs weight were carried out in immobilization stress models. Results. Concomitant treatment with LEPO 200 mg/kg significantly increased in anoxia stress tolerance time. Dose dependent significant reduction in serum glucose, corticosterone, and WBC, RBC, and DLC was observed in immobilisation stress model as compared to stressed group. LEOP 200 mg/kg and WS 100 mg/kg significantly reversed/inhibited the stress induced changes in these parameters. The results from the present study indicate that these values also express that dose dependent significant adaptogenic activity in stressed animals. Conclusion. The present study provides scientific support for the antistress (adaptogenic) and nootropic activities of lyophilized hydroethanol extract of Pandanus odoratissimus Linn and substantiate the traditional claims for the usage of Pandanus in stress induced disorders. PMID:27379263

  8. Characterization of implant materials in fetal bovine serum and sodium sulfate by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. II. Coarsely sandblasted samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Contu, F; Elsener, B; Böhni, H

    2003-10-01

    Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy is used to investigate the corrosion resistance of coarsely sandblasted implant alloys, commercially pure titanium, Ti6Al4V, Ti6Al7Nb, and CoCrMo in 0.1M sodium sulfate and fetal bovine serum. Coarsely sandblasted samples have a heterogeneous surface constituted by a large number of protrusions and recessions. Impedance spectra collected in sodium sulfate present two time constants (maxima in the phase-angle of the bode plot) associated with the total surface and with the tips, respectively. In bovine serum, the two maxima in the impedance spectra cannot be distinguished because of the formation of an adsorption layer of organic molecules, which causes a decrease in the values of both the total and tips' capacitances as well as an increase in the polarization resistance. Ti6Al4V and Ti6Al7Nb show the highest corrosion rate both in serum and in sodium sulfate. Based on the capacitance values obtained in sodium sulfate, the real surface area of the coarsely sandblasted electrodes has been estimated relative to mechanically polished surfaces. The values of the effective electrode area correlate with the mechanical properties of the samples: in fact, the softest electrode (commercially pure titanium) shows the largest effective electrode area, whereas the hardest material (CoCrMo alloy) shows the smallest surface area.

  9. Effects of Different Lyophilizing Protectants on Lyophilized Trehalose-loading Red Blood Cells%不同冻干保护体系对海藻糖负载红细胞冻干保存影响的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈燕; 陆志刚; 白海

    2013-01-01

    two groups(P <0.05).When 10% glycerol was used as protectants,the recovery rate of hemoglobin was 3.93 ± 1.80%.There was also statistically significant difference between the two groups(P < 0.05).It is concluded that human serum albumin shows an important protective effect on the lyophilization of the trehalose-loading red blood cells.The dextran and PVP at the concentration lower than 40% can decrease the protective effect of trehalose in cells.Glycerol can not be chosen as protectant for lyophilized trehalose-loading red blood cells.%本研究旨在评价冻干保护剂人血白蛋白、葡聚糖、聚乙烯吡咯烷酮和甘油对海藻糖负载后红细胞冰冻干燥保存的影响,筛选最佳冻干保护体系.将浓缩红细胞在37℃,浓度为800 mmol/L的海藻糖溶液中孵育7h,经PBS液冲洗3遍后制成海藻糖负载的浓缩红细胞.对照组为海藻糖负载红细胞不添加保护剂,直接冻干;实验组将人血白蛋白、葡聚糖、聚乙烯吡咯烷酮、甘油等组成的冻干保护体系与海藻糖负载浓缩红细胞混合,两组样品在常温下平衡30 min,移入-80℃深低温冰箱,预冻24h,入冻干机冻干处理24h.用温度为37℃,6%羟乙基淀粉40注射液快速再水化样品,用氰化血红蛋白试剂盒测定血红蛋白溶血率,计算血红蛋白回收率,同时测定干燥样品含水量.结果表明:当样品含水量在3%-4%时,对照组冻干红细胞血红蛋白回收率为(33.57±2.89)%,白蛋白组血红蛋白回收率为(51.15±1.98)%,差异有显著性意义(P<0.05).选用不同浓度的葡聚糖为冻千保护剂,血红蛋白回收率较对照组明显降低,随浓度增加,血红蛋白回收率逐渐升高,当浓度为36%时,血红蛋白回收率为(22.15±4.12)%,差异有显著性意义(P<0.05).不同浓度的聚乙烯吡咯烷酮(PVP)组成的冻千保护体系,当浓度小于40%时,血红蛋白回收率明显低于对照组,差异有显著性意义(P<0.05).10%

  10. Lyophilization, Reconstitution, and DBP Formation in Reverse-Osmosis Concentrated Natural Organic Matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drinking water treatment and disinfection byproduct (DBP) research can be complicated by natural organic matter (NOM) temporal variability. NOM preservation by lyophilization (freeze-drying) has been long practiced to address this issue; however, its applicability for drinking w...

  11. Lyophilization, Reconstitution, and DBP Formation in Reverse-Osmosis Concentrated Natural Organic Matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drinking water treatment and disinfection byproduct (DBP) research can be complicated by natural organic matter (NOM) temporal variability. NOM preservation by lyophilization (freeze-drying) has been long practiced to address this issue; however, its applicability for drinking w...

  12. Live RB51 vaccine lyophilized hydrogel formulations with increased shelf life for practical ballistic delivery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballistic delivery capability is essential to delivering vaccines and other therapeutics effectively to both livestock and wildlife in many global scenarios. Here, lyophilized poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG)-glycolide dimethacrylate crosslinked but degradable hydrogels were assessed as payload vehicles ...

  13. Standardization of lyophilization medium for Streptococcus thermophilus subjected to viability escalation on freeze drying

    OpenAIRE

    Rohit Sharma; Bhagwan S. Sanodiya; Gulab S. Thakur; Pallavi Jaiswal; Anjana Sharma; Bisen, Prakash S.

    2014-01-01

    The objective of the present study is to develop a lyophilization medium for Streptococcus thermophilus (NCIM 2904) as the industrial exploitation of this bacterium totally depends upon preservation and lyophilization protocols. Protective effect of 18 compounds were observed individually and in combinations with different sugars, sugar alcohols, polymers, protein concentrates and buffers. Among all the protectants tested, ammonium citrate (1% w/w), K2HPO4 (1% w/w) and KH2PO4 (1% w/w) provide...

  14. Lyophilization-induced reversible changes in the secondary structure of proteins.

    OpenAIRE

    Griebenow, K; Klibanov, A M

    1995-01-01

    Changes in the secondary structure of some dozen different proteins upon lyophilization of their aqueous solutions have been investigated by means of Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy in the amide III band region. Dehydration markedly (but reversibly) alters the secondary structure of all the proteins studied, as revealed by both the quantitative analysis of the second derivative spectra and the Gaussian curve fitting of the original infrared spectra. Lyophilization substantially increa...

  15. Stability of lyophilized human platelets loaded with small molecule carbohydrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, J X; Yang, C; Wan, W; Liu, M X; Ren, S P; Quan, G B; Han, Y

    2011-01-01

    Long-term preservation of platelets is a great challenge for blood transfusion centers, due to the required narrow storage temperature arange (22 ± 2 degree C). Short shelf life and potential bacterial growth often lead to the shortage of high-quality platelets. Freeze-dried preservation is thus believed to be a potential solution for long-term platelet storage without losing the hemostasis function. Here we report a new platelet preservation method, which uses small molecule carbohydrates to extend storage time and to maintain platelet function. The activities of lyophilized platelets that were stabilized with small molecule carbohydrate (e.g., cell viability, mean platelet volume, activation characteristics, and aggregation kinetics) were maintained after storage of 30, 60, and 90 days at room temperature, 4 degree C, and -20 degree C. The recovery of freeze-dried platelets was 87 percent in comparison to fresh platelets. The mean platelet volume of rehydrated platelets increased (from 6.8 fl to 8.0 fl). About 40 percent of rehydrated platelets was in the early-activated stage (PCA-1 positive) and 30 percent was in the terminal-activated stage (CD62P positive). The cell viability was about 60 percent as measured with CMFDA vital probes. The aggregation rate of rehydrated platelets after 90-day storage was similar to fresh platelets stored at 22 degree C ± 2 degree C.

  16. Nano-structured support materials, their characterisation and serum protein profiling through MALDI/TOF-MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Najam-Ul-Haq, M; Rainer, M; Heigl, N; Szabo, Z; Vallant, R; Huck, C W; Engelhardt, H; Bischoff, K-D; Bonn, G K

    2008-02-01

    In the bioanalytical era, novel nano-materials for the selective extraction, pre-concentration and purification of biomolecules prior to analysis are vital. Their application as affinity binding in this regard is needed to be authentic. We report here the comparative application of derivatised materials and surfaces on the basis of nano-crystalline diamond, carbon nanotubes and fullerenes for the analysis of marker peptides and proteins by material enhanced laser desorption ionisation mass spectrometry MELDI-MS. In this particular work, the emphasis is placed on the derivatization, termed as immobilised metal affinity chromatography (IMAC), with three different support materials, to show the effectiveness of MELDI technique. For the physicochemical characterisation of the phases, near infrared reflectance spectroscopy (NIRS) is used, which is a well-established method within the analytical chemistry, covering a wide range of applications. NIRS enables differentiation between silica materials and different fullerenes derivatives, in a 3-dimensional factor-plot, depending on their derivatizations and physical characteristics. The method offers a physicochemical quantitative description in the nano-scale level of particle size, specific surface area, pore diameter, pore porosity, pore volume and total porosity with high linearity and improved precision. The measurement takes only a few seconds while high sample throughput is guaranteed.

  17. Freeze drying of red blood cells: the use of directional freezing and a new radio frequency lyophilization device.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arav, Amir; Natan, Dity

    2012-08-01

    Red blood cell (RBC) units are administered routinely into patients expressing a wide range of acute and chronic conditions (e.g., anemia, traumatic bleeding, chronic diseases, and surgery). The modern blood banking system has been designed to answer this need and assure a continuous, high quality blood supply to patients. However, RBCs units can be stored under hypothermic conditions for only up to 42 days, which leads to periodic shortages. Cryopreservation can solve these shortages, but current freezing methods employ high glycerol concentrations, which need to be removed and the cells washed prior to transfusion, resulting in a long (more than 1 hour) and cumbersome washing step. Thus, frozen RBCs have limited use in acute and trauma situations. In addition, transportation of frozen samples is complicated and costly. Freeze drying (lyophilization) of RBCs has been suggested as a solution for these problems, since it will allow for a low weight sample to be stored at room temperature, but reaching this goal is not a simple task. We studied the effect of different solutions (IMT2 and IMT3) containing trehalose and antioxidants or trehalose and human serum albumin, respectively, on freezing/thawing and freeze drying of RBCs. In addition, we evaluated the effect of cells concentrations and cooling rates on the post thaw and post rehydration recoveries of the RBCs. Finally, we developed a new radio frequency (RF) lyophilization device for a more rapid and homogeneous sublimation process of the frozen RBCs samples. Recovery and free Hb were measured as well as oxygen association/dissociation and cell's deformability. We found that IMT3 (0.3 M trehalose and 10% HSA) solution that was directionally frozen at a rapid interface velocity of 1 mm/sec (resulting in a cooling rate of 150°C/min) yielded the best results (better than IMT2 solution and slow interface velocity). Freeze thawing gave 100% survival, while freeze drying followed by rehydration with 20% dextran-40k

  18. Stability and biocompatibility of photothermal gold nanorods after lyophilization and sterilization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gomez, Leyre [Department of Chemical Engineering, Nanoscience Institute of Aragon (INA), C/ Mariano Esquillor, R and D Building, University of Zaragoza, 50018 Zaragoza (Spain); Cebrian, Virginia [CIBER de Bioingeniería, Biomateriales y Nanomedicina, CIBER-BBN, Zaragoza (Spain); Hospital Universitario La Paz-IdiPAZ, Paseo de la Castellana 261, 28046 Madrid (Spain); Martin-Saavedra, Francisco [Hospital Universitario La Paz-IdiPAZ, Paseo de la Castellana 261, 28046 Madrid (Spain); CIBER de Bioingeniería, Biomateriales y Nanomedicina, CIBER-BBN, Zaragoza (Spain); Arruebo, Manuel, E-mail: arruebom@unizar.es [Department of Chemical Engineering, Nanoscience Institute of Aragon (INA), C/ Mariano Esquillor, R and D Building, University of Zaragoza, 50018 Zaragoza (Spain); CIBER de Bioingeniería, Biomateriales y Nanomedicina, CIBER-BBN, Zaragoza (Spain); Vilaboa, Nuria [Hospital Universitario La Paz-IdiPAZ, Paseo de la Castellana 261, 28046 Madrid (Spain); CIBER de Bioingeniería, Biomateriales y Nanomedicina, CIBER-BBN, Zaragoza (Spain); Santamaria, Jesus, E-mail: Jesus.Santamaria@unizar.es [Department of Chemical Engineering, Nanoscience Institute of Aragon (INA), C/ Mariano Esquillor, R and D Building, University of Zaragoza, 50018 Zaragoza (Spain); CIBER de Bioingeniería, Biomateriales y Nanomedicina, CIBER-BBN, Zaragoza (Spain)

    2013-10-15

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Morphological changes are observed for CTABr capped gold nanorods over time. • Polystyrenesulfonate (PSS) and polyethyleneglycol (PEG) coated nanorods are stable. • Re-suspendible and sterilizable colloids are prepared using those capping agents. • Those materials are efficient heat sinks potentially used in photothermal therapy. - Abstract: Suspensions in phosphate buffered saline (PBS) of gold nanorods stabilized with cetyltrimethyl ammonium chloride (CTABr), polystyrenesulfonate (PSS) and methyl-polyethyleneglycol-thiol (m-PEG-SH) have been prepared and the evolution of their colloidal stability and plasmonic response over time has been evaluated. Their performance after lyophilization, alcoholic sterilization and resuspension has also been characterized. Sub-cytotoxic doses on HeLa cells were calculated for the three surface functionalizations used. Their heating efficiency at different exposure times was also evaluated after being irradiated with near infrared light. The best results were obtained for m-PEG-SH stabilized rods, which were not only stable, sterilizable and lyophilizable, but also biocompatible at all doses tested, showing potential as a stable, re-suspendible and biocompatible hyperthermic agent.

  19. Effect of certified reference material 470 (CRM 470) on national quality assurance programs for serum proteins in Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, A M; Whicher, J T

    2001-11-01

    The introduction of the international reference material for serum proteins, CRM 470, has resulted in significant reduction of the among-laboratory variance for most proteins assayed in European national quality assurance programs. In general, the CVs have decreased by 5 to 65%. However, both among- and within-manufacturer variances in many cases remain unacceptably high. In addition, concentration-dependent differences in variance and bias are present for some proteins. Although some variance will persist, reducing variance and bias to levels required for the institution of universal reference ranges will necessitate more accurate transfer of values to calibrants and controls and improved calibration curve fitting by manufacturers, as well as better quality control within laboratories.

  20. The Effects of Lyophilization on the Physico-Chemical Stability of Sirolimus Liposomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parvin Zakeri-Milani

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The major limitation in the widespread use of liposome drug delivery system is its instability. Lyophilization is a promising approach to ensure the long-term stability of liposomes. The aim of this study was to prepare sirolimus-loaded liposomes, study their stability and investigate the effect of lyophilization either in the presence or in the absence of lyoprotectant on liposome properties. Methods: Two types of multi-lamellar liposomes, conventional and fusogenic, containing sirolimus were prepared by modified thin film hydration method with different ratio of dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine (DPPC, cholesterol and dioleoylphosphoethanolamine (DOPE, and were lyophilized with or without dextrose as lyoprotectant. Chemical stability investigation was performed at 4°C and 25°C until 6 months using a validated HPLC method. Physical stability was studied with determination of particle size (PS and encapsulation efficiency (EE % of formulations through 6 months. Results: Chemical stability test at 4°C and 25°C until 6 months showed that drug content of liposomes decreased 8.4% and 20.2% respectively. Initial mean EE % and PS were 72.8 % and 582 nm respectively. After 6 months mean EE % for suspended form, lyophilized without lyoprotectant and lyophilized with lyoprotectant were 54.8 %, 62.3% and 67.1 % at 4°C and 48.2%, 60.4 % and 66.8 % at 25°C respectively. Corresponding data for mean PS were 8229 nm, 2397 nm and 688nm at 4°C and 9362 nm, 1944 nm and 737 nm at 25°C respectively. Conclusion: It is concluded that lyophilization with and without dextrose could increase shelf life of liposome and dextrose has lyoprotectant effect that stabilized liposomes in the lyophilization process.

  1. Protective Effects of Different Dosing Position of Misgurnus Anguillicaudatus Lyophilized Power on Chemical Liver Injury in Mice Induced by CCl4%泥鳅不同部位冻干粉对小鼠四氯化碳化学性肝损伤保护作用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    商萌萌; 凌去非; 汪务诚; 刘春宇

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To investigate different dosing position of Misgurnus Anguiliicaudatus lyophilized power on chemical liver injury in mice induced by CCl4, screening of the best effective part. Methods: A mouse model of acute liver injury was induced by carbon tetraohloride, determining of serum ALT and AST activities so as to observe different parts of Misgurnus Anguiliicaudatus lyophilized power protective effect. Results: Misgurnus Anguiliicaudatus whole lyophilized power and muscle lyophilized power can significantly reduce the mice serum ALT and AST activities ( P0.05 ) . Conclusion: The Misgurnus Anguiliicaudatus lyophilized power had significant effect on mice liver injury induced by carbon tetrachloride. The effect of Misgurnus Anguiliicaudatus whole lyophilized power is most obvious, which is the main effective part of liver protection.%目的:本文研究不同部位泥鳅冻干粉对小鼠四氯化碳肝损伤的保护作用,筛选有效部位.方法:采用小鼠四氯化碳急性肝损伤模型,测定小鼠血清ALT、AST活性,观察泥鳅不同部位冻干粉的保护作用.结果:泥鳅全冻干粉和泥鳅肌肉冻干粉显著降低小鼠血清中ALT、AST活性(P<0.05),而泥鳅皮冻干粉的作用不明显(P>0.05).结论:泥鳅冻干粉对小鼠四氯化碳肝损伤具有显著的保护作用,其中泥鳅全冻干粉的作用最明显,是泥鳅保肝的主要有效部位.

  2. The Pyrolytic Profile of Lyophilized and Deep-Frozen Compact Part of the Human Bone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jolanta Lodowska

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Bone grafts are used in the treatment of nonunion of fractures, bone tumors and in arthroplasty. Tissues preserved by lyophilization or deep freezing are used as implants nowadays. Lyophilized grafts are utilized in the therapy of birth defects and bone benign tumors, while deep-frozen ones are applied in orthopedics. The aim of the study was to compare the pyrolytic pattern, as an indirect means of the analysis of organic composition of deep-frozen and lyophilized compact part of the human bone. Methods. Samples of preserved bone tissue were subjected to thermolysis and tetrahydroammonium-hydroxide- (TMAH- associated thermochemolysis coupled with gas chromatography and mass spectrometry (Py-GC/MS. Results. Derivatives of benzene, pyridine, pyrrole, phenol, sulfur compounds, nitriles, saturated and unsaturated aliphatic hydrocarbons, and fatty acids (C12–C20 were identified in the pyrolytic pattern. The pyrolyzates were the most abundant in derivatives of pyrrole and nitriles originated from proteins. The predominant product in pyrolytic pattern of the investigated bone was pyrrolo[1,2-α]piperazine-3,6-dione derived from collagen. The content of this compound significantly differentiated the lyophilized graft from the deep-frozen one. Oleic and palmitic acid were predominant among fatty acids of the investigated samples. The deep-frozen implants were characterized by higher percentage of long-chain fatty acids than lyophilized grafts.

  3. Preservation of aerial conidia and biomasses from entomopathogenic fungi Beauveria brongniartii and Metarhizium anisopliae during lyophilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toegel, Stefan; Salar-Behzadi, Sharareh; Horaczek-Clausen, Andrea; Viernstein, Helmut

    2010-09-01

    In this study, we assessed the stability provided by different formulations to aerial conidia or biomasses (conidia, blastospores, and mycelia) of Beauveria brongniartii and Metarhizium anisopliae subjected to lyophilization. First, the impact of the freezing and drying processes on spore survival was evaluated. Whereas unprotected B. brongniartii spores showed high cryosensitivity, those of M. anisopliae were markedly harmed by the drying process. Then, the protective efficiency of 14 excipients was systematically evaluated and optimized regarding required concentrations. Fructose, glucose, and saccharose significantly enhanced viabilities for B. brongniartii and M. anisopliae spores following lyophilization, especially as a result of their cryoprotective effects. In addition, the effect of various bulking agents on spore survival was studied and dextran 4 was selected to enhance the physical properties of the lyophilized products. The combination of fructose and dextran 4 was further applied to prepare lyophilized biomasses of both fungi. In comparison to freshly harvested biomasses, the lyophilized products showed similar growth rates and a comparable production of virulent secondary metabolites such as destruxin A, destruxin B, or oosporein, suggesting their applicability as biological control agents.

  4. Formulation, lyophilization and solid-state properties of a pegylated protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mosharraf, Mitra; Malmberg, Michael; Fransson, Jonas

    2007-05-24

    In this paper the importance of formulation and process parameters on the solid-state properties of a lyophilized, pegylated growth hormone antagonist (pegvisomant) was studied. The degree of solid-state disorder (amorphicity), protein/polyethylene glycol (PEG)/sucrose interactions, and dissolution characteristics of the resultant cakes were examined. Using isothermal microcalorimetry (IMC) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), it was shown that in co-lyophilized pegylated protein/sucrose systems there was an interaction between sucrose and pegylated protein molecules. This interaction was evidenced by a decrease in the melting temperature (Tm) and melting enthalpy of PEG as a function of sucrose concentration. It was also shown that the sum of the heat of interaction with water for the individual constituents, lyophilized pegylated protein and lyophilized sucrose, was higher than the heat of interaction for the co-lyophilized system. As the concentration of sucrose was increased, the degree of solid-state disorder increased and the solid dissolved faster. A correlation was found among heat of interaction with water, degree of solid-state disorder, and dissolution time. Pegylation caused a shorter dissolution time, lower moisture content, increased amorphicity, and a more rapid moisture-induced crystallization of sucrose.

  5. Effect of Limax Lyophilized Powder on Bronchial Asthma%蛞蝓冻干粉对支气管哮喘的治疗作用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    严鹏科; 林广庆; 罗其富; 谢金魁

    2011-01-01

    Objective; To study the effect of Limax lyophilized powder on bronchial asthma. Methods-.The allergic asthma model was established in guinea pigs by combined utilization of aluminum hydroxide and egg albumin to investigate the effect of Limax lyophilized powder on the bronchial flow and on the level of inflammator in bronchoalveolar lavage and serum. Results:The mortality of asthma laboratory guinea pigs was reduced and the incubation period of asthma was extended significantly in Limax lyophilized powder groups. Its antiasthmatic effect was as efficient as the control drug( aminophylline). The leucocyte count was decreased in peripheral blood and the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid. The infiltration of pulmonary tissues eosinophil was also significantly reduced. Further more,the most efficient effects was showed in Limax lyophilized powder at the moderate dosage (63mg/kg). The bronchial perfusion flow was increased and the level of IL-2 and IL-4 in blood serum and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid was decreased obviously in the aminophylline group and Limax lyophilized powder groups at moderate and high dosage. Conclusion: Limax lyophilized powder could inhibit bronchial asthma evidently.%目的:研究蛞蝓冻干粉对支气管哮喘的治疗作用.方法:运用氢氧化铝加卵白蛋白建立豚鼠支气管哮喘模型,观察蛞蝓冻干粉对支气管哮喘的治疗作用及对卵蛋白致敏豚鼠肺支气管灌流量、肺泡灌流液和血清中炎症因子的影响.结果:蛞蝓冻干粉能减少诱发豚鼠哮喘的死亡数,延长诱喘潜伏期(P<0.05),其抗哮喘作用与对照药氨茶碱相当;能显著降低哮喘豚鼠的外周血和肺泡灌洗液的白细胞计数以及肺组织嗜酸性粒细胞浸润(P<0.05),且在中剂量63 mg/kg时,药物达到最佳效应;氨茶碱和蛞蝓冻干粉中、高剂量治疗组豚鼠肺支气管灌流量显著增加,血清和肺泡灌洗液(BALF)中IL-2和IL-4显著降低(P<0.05).结论:蛞蝓冻干粉能显

  6. Preparation and Analysis of Lyophilization Characterization of Human D-dimer%人D-二聚体的制备及其冻干性质的分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    武建伟; 才蕾; 王继华; 唐时幸

    2014-01-01

    以人源纤维蛋白原为原材料制备D-二聚体,将其制成冻干品并分析其冻干性质。使用凝血酶、Factor XIIIa酶解纤维蛋白原,获得交联纤维蛋白。经纤溶酶降解交联纤维蛋白,生成纤维蛋白降解产物。超滤除去纤维蛋白降解产物中的小分子物质,可获得较高纯度的D-二聚体。通过筛选和优化冻干方案,将D-二聚体制备成冻干品。经检测可知,D-二聚体冻干品可在37℃稳定保存12 d;复溶后在25℃稳定保存8 d;复溶后在4℃稳定保存30 d;复溶时,常用复溶溶剂对其复溶后的活性检测无明显影响。%D-dimer is formed by sequential action of 3 enzymes from fibrinogen. After producing D-dimer, we did the research on its lyophilization process. To produce cross-linked fibrin, fibrinogen was digested by thrombin and Factor XIIa. Then, fibrin degradation products (FDP)was prepared from cross-linked fibrin being degraded by plasmin. D-dimer was purified from FDP through ultrafiltration and prepared into lyophilized powder. By optimizing the lyophilization program, lyophilized D-dimer was stable for at least 12 days at 37℃, stable for at least 8 days at 25℃ and 30 days at 4℃ after reconstitution, and not different when being dissolved by different solvent.The preparation system established in this research is feasible and efficient. Depend on its stability, lyophilized D-dimer could be provided as biological raw materials for further research.

  7. Carbon-deuterium rotational-echo double-resonance NMR spectroscopy of lyophilized aspartame formulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luthra, Suman A; Utz, Marcel; Gorman, Eric M; Pikal, Michael J; Munson, Eric J; Lubach, Joseph W

    2012-01-01

    In this study, changes in the local conformation of aspartame were observed in annealed lyophilized glasses by monitoring changes in the distance between two labeled sites using C-(2)H rotational-echo double-resonance (REDOR) nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy. Confirmation that the REDOR experiments were producing accurate distance measurement was ensured by measuring the (13)C-(15)N distance in glycine. The experiment was further verified by measuring the REDOR dephasing curve on (13)C-(2)H methionine. (13)C-(2)H REDOR dephasing curves were then measured on lyophilized aspartame-disaccharide formulations. In aspartame-sucrose formulation, the internuclear distances increased upon annealing, which correlated with decreased chemical reactivity. By contrast, annealing had only a minimal effect on the dephasing curve in aspartame-trehalose formulation. The results show that stability is a function of both mobility and local structure (conformation), even in a small molecule system such as lyophilized aspartame-sucrose.

  8. Whey protein nanofibrils: the environment-morphology-functionality relationship in lyophilization, rehydration, and seeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loveday, Simon M; Su, Jiahong; Rao, M Anandha; Anema, Skelte G; Singh, Harjinder

    2012-05-23

    Amyloid-like fibrils from β-lactoglobulin have potential as efficient thickening and gelling agents for food and biomedical applications, but the link between fibril morphology and bulk viscosity is poorly understood. We examined how lyophilization and rehydration affects the morphology and rheological properties of semiflexible (i.e., straight) and highly flexible (i.e., curly) fibrils, the latter made with 80 mM CaCl(2). Straight fibrils were fractured into short rods by lyophilization and rehydration, whereas curly fibrils sustained little damage. This was reflected in the viscosities of rehydrated fibril dispersions, which were much lower for straight fibrils than for curly fibrils. Lyophilized straight or curly fibrils seeded new fibril growth, but viscosity enhancement due to seeding was negligible. We believe that the increase in fibril concentration caused by seeding was counterbalanced by a decrease in fibril length, reducing the ability of fibrils to form physical entanglement networks.

  9. Influence of different types of bedding materials on immune response and serum biochemical profile of caged mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vijayakumar . R

    Full Text Available Contact bedding material is an important environmental factor and welfare creator for laboratory mice. It can alter important physiological process and create potential chance for experimental variation which puts hurdle for comparability. The present experiment was conducted to assess the possible impact of different types of bedding material viz CPS, NWS and PH with fifty one albino mice for a period of fifteen weeks in Laboratory Animal Facility. It was observed that local immunity in mice was enhanced in NWS. During in vitro immune assays, mice from NWS showed higher OD value for reactive oxygen radical, produced more NO2 and higher stimulation index i.e. 0.71 ± 0.01, 30.67 ± 0.88 μM and 7.90 ± 0.17, respectively than PH (0.23 ± 0.01, 17.0 ± 1.15 μM and 6.33 ± 0.21 and CPS (0.33 ± 0.03, 15.67 ± 1.20 μM and 6.46 ± 0.27. There was no influence of bedding type on systemic response. Reduced glutathione value in liver was higher in NWS than PH and CPS i.e. 8.54 ± 0.2, 7.09 ± 0.18 and 6.96 ± 0.14 μmole/ gm of tissue. But heart reduced glutathione showed no variation among different types of bedding materials. Serum analysis showed significantly (p<0.05 higher total protein and albumin value for enriched groups. But globulin value was not significantly differing for enriched and non-enriched groups. [Veterinary World 2010; 3(9.000: 417-420

  10. X-ray scattering for the characterization of lyophilized breast tissue samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elshemey, Wael M.; Mohamed, Fayrouz S.; Khater, Ibrahim M.

    2013-09-01

    This work investigates the possibility of characterizing breast cancer by measuring the X-ray scattering profiles of lyophilized excised breast tissue samples. Since X-ray scattering from water-rich tissue is dominated by scattering from water, the removal of water by lyophilization would enhance the characterization process. In the present study, X-ray scattering profiles of 22 normal, 22 malignant and 10 benign breast tissue samples are measured. The cut-offs of scatter diagrams, sensitivity, specificity and diagnostic accuracy of three characterization parameters (full width at half maximum (FWHM) for the peak at 1.1 nm-1, area under curve (AUC), and ratio of 1st to 2nd scattering peak intensities (I1/I2%)) are calculated and compared to the data from non-lyophilized samples. Results show increased sensitivity (up to 100%) of the present data on lyophilized breast tissue samples compared to previously reported data for non-lyophilized samples while the specificity (up to 95.4%), diagnostic accuracy (up to 95.4%) and receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve values (up to 0.9979) for both sets of data are comparable. The present study shows significant differences between normal samples and each of malignant and benign samples. Only subtle differences exist between malignant and benign lyophilized breast tissue samples where FWHM=0.7±0.1 and 0.8±0.3, AUC=1.3±0.2 and 1.4±0.2 and I1/I2%=44.9±11.0 and 52.4±7.6 for malignant and benign samples respectively.

  11. Determination of moisture content of lyophilized allergen vaccines by NIR spectroscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zheng, Yiwu; Lai, Xuxin; Bruun, Susanne Wrang

    2008-01-01

    Moisture content is an important parameter for lyophilized vaccines. Currently, Karl Fischer titration is widely used for moisture determination in routine analysis. However, this method is time-consuming, sample destructive and requires environment polluting reagents, as well as the results rely...... on the random samplings. In this study, near infrared spectroscopy was used as a fast, non-invasive and non-destructive method to determine the moisture content in lyophilized allergy vaccines. Five different vaccine products were investigated, which contained water in the range of 0.17-1.51% (w/w, KF...

  12. Design and Testing of a Lyophilizer for Water Recovery from Solid Waste

    Science.gov (United States)

    Litwiller, Eric; Fisher, John; Flynn, Michael

    2005-01-01

    Mixed liquid/solid wastes, including feces, water processor effluents, and food waste, can be lyophilized (freeze-dried) to recover the water they contain and stabilize the solids remain. Previous research has demonstrated the potential benefits of using thermoelectric heat pumps to build a lyophilizer for processing waste in microgravity. These results were used to build a working prototype suitable for ground-based human testing. This paper describes the prototype design and presents the results of functional and performance tests. Equivalent system mass parameters are calculated, and practical issues such as sanitary waste handling in microgravity are addressed.

  13. Design and Testing of a Lyophilizer for Water Recovery from Solid Waste

    Science.gov (United States)

    Litwiller, Eric; Fisher, John; Flynn, Michael

    2005-01-01

    Mixed liquid/solid wastes, including feces, water processor effluents, and food waste, can be lyophilized (freeze-dried) to recover the water they contain and stabilize the solids remain. Previous research has demonstrated the potential benefits of using thermoelectric heat pumps to build a lyophilizer for processing waste in microgravity. These results were used to build a working prototype suitable for ground-based human testing. This paper describes the prototype design and presents the results of functional and performance tests. Equivalent system mass parameters are calculated, and practical issues such as sanitary waste handling in microgravity are addressed.

  14. Biochemicals characteristics and pre-clinical testing of lyophilized bothropic antivenom against bothrops atrox snake venom

    OpenAIRE

    García, Patricia J.; Centro Nacional de Productos Biológicos, Instituto Nacional de Salud. Lima, Perú. Médico.; Yarlequé, Armando; Laboratorio de Biología Molecular. Facultad de Ciencias Biológicas, Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos, Lima.; Bonilla-Ferreyra, Cesar; Centro Nacional de Productos Biológicos, Instituto Nacional de Salud. Lima, Perú. Biólogo.; Pessah, Silvia; Centro Nacional de Productos Biológicos, Instituto Nacional de Salud. Lima, Perú. Médico.; Vivas, Dan; Laboratorio de Biología Molecular. Facultad de Ciencias Biológicas, Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos. Lima, Perú. Biólogo.; Sandoval, Gustavo Adolfo; Laboratorio de Biología Molecular. Facultad de Ciencias Biológicas, Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos. Lima, Perú. Biólogo; Lazo, Fanny; Laboratorio de Biología Molecular. Facultad de Ciencias Biológicas, Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos. Lima, Perú. Biólogo

    2008-01-01

    Biochemical features and neutralizing capacity of lyophilized bothropic antivenom elaborated by the Peruvian National Health Institute (Lima, Peru). It was found that the antivenom protein contents is 51.4 mg/mL. Lyophilized preparations can be reconstituted in 10 minutes, reaching Abs600nm and pH values reported as 0.091 and 7.0, respectively. Regarding toxicity of the venom for mice, LD50 was 3.33 µg, minimal hemorrhagic dose was 4.10 ± 0.64 µg, minimal myotoxic dose was 30.2 ± 2.5 µg, m...

  15. Using procedure of emulsification-lyophilization to form lipid A-incorporating cochleates as an effective oral mucosal vaccine adjuvant-delivery system (VADS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ning; Wang, Ting; Zhang, Meiling; Chen, Ruonan; Deng, Yihui

    2014-07-01

    Using a procedure of emulsification-lyophilization (PEL), adjuvant lipid A-cochleates (LACs) were prepared as a carrier for model antigen bovine serum albumin (BSA). With phosphatidylserine and lipid A as emulsifiers dissolved in oil phase (O), sucrose and CaCl2 in the inner water phase (W1), and BSA, sucrose and PEG2000 in the outer water phase (W2), the W1/O/W2 emulsions were prepared and subsequently lyophilized to form a dry product which was stable enough to be stored at room temperature. Upon rehydration of the dry products, cochleates formed with a size of 800 nm and antigen association rates of 38%. After vaccination of mice through oral mucosal (o.m.) administration, LACs showed no side effects but induced potent immune responses as evidenced by high levels of IgG in the sera and IgA in the salivary, intestinal and vaginal secretions of mice. In addition, high levels of IgG2a and IFN-γ in the sera or culture supernatants of splenocytes of the immunized mice were also detected. These results revealed that LACs induced a mixed Th1/Th2 response against the loaded antigens. Thus, the LACs prepared by PEL were able to induce both systemic and mucosal immune responses and may act as a potent cold-chain-free oral mucosal vaccine adjuvant delivery system (VADS).

  16. Preparation and characterization of lyophilized antisera against trenbolone and zeranol

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jansen EHJM; van den Berg RH; Enkaalr-Willemsen C; Zomer G; Stephany RW

    1986-01-01

    Antisera tegen trenbolon (TB) en zeranol (Z) werden opgewekt in konijnen door immunisatie met het 7-carboxymethyloxime-runder serum albumine (BSA) conjugaat van Z (Z-7CMO-BSA) en het 17-hemisuccinaat-BSA conjugaat van TB (TB-17HS-BSA). De antisera zijn in de geschikte hoeveelheden geampulleerd, dro

  17. Protein standardization IV: Value transfer procedure for the assignment of serum protein values from a reference preparation to a target material.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blirup-Jensen, S; Johnson, A M; Larsen, M

    2001-11-01

    A new approach for the assignment of values to serum proteins in a target material using a reference preparation has been developed. The procedure describes the general as well as the practical principles involved in the value assignment (with examples). Two models have been developed: 1) The direct value transfer between serum matrices and 2) the indirect value transfer from a pure protein preparation to a serum protein material. The necessary mathematical equations are developed and explained. The data reduction and statistical evaluation are discussed. The practical procedure (the transfer protocol) is based on six dilutions of the reference preparation assayed together with six dilutions of the target material. In this way imprecision is reduced and the proportionality of the two materials (i.e. the presence or absence of matrix effects) can be assessed directly by evaluating a single regression plot. If no matrix effects are found, the regression line will pass through zero with a slope equal to the ratio of the concentrations of the two materials. The transfer protocol is based on a multiple point value assignment obtained by several measurements a day repeated on several days, an important prerequisite being that all reconstitutions and dilutions are controlled by weighing.

  18. In vitro and in vivo evaluation of lyophilized bovine bone biocompatibility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Roberto Galia

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: The use of bone grafts in orthopedic, maxillofacial and dental surgery has been growing. Nevertheless, both fresh autografts and frozen allografts have limitations, and therefore, alternative synthetic or natural biomaterials, such as processed and lyophilized bovine bone graft have been developed. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate in vitro and in vivo biocompatibility of lyophilized bovine bone manufactured in a semi-industrial scale, according to a modifical protocol developed by the authors. METHODS: Samples of bovine cancellous bone were processed according to a protocol developed by Kakiuchi et al., and modified to process samples of bovine cancellous bone. The following trials were performed: in vitro cytotoxicity, in vivo acute systemic toxicity, in vivo oral irritation potential, in vitro pyrogenic reaction, and bioburden. RESULTS: The in vitro evaluation of lyophilized bovine cancellous bone revealed an absence of cytotoxicity in 100% of the samples. Regarding in vivo evaluation of acute systemic toxicity, neither macroscopic abnormalities nor deaths were noted in the animals. Pyrogenicity was not greater than 0.125 UE/ml in any of the samples. The bioburden revealed negative results for microbial growth before sterilization. Regarding the oral irritation potential, in vivo evaluation at 24 and 72 hours showed that the animals had no edema or erythema on the oral mucosa. CONCLUSION: The protocol changes established by the authors to prepare lyophilized bovine cancellous bone at a semi-industrial scale is reproducible and yielded a product with excellent biocompatibility.

  19. The Lyophilization Process Maintains the Chemical and Biological Characteristics of Royal Jelly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andresa Piacezzi Nascimento

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The alternative use of natural products, like royal jelly (RJ, may be an important tool for the treatment of infections caused by antibiotic-resistant bacteria. RJ presents a large number of bioactive substances, including antimicrobial compounds. In this study, we carried out the chemical characterization of fresh and lyophilized RJ and investigated their antibacterial effects with the purpose of evaluating if the lyophilization process maintains the chemical and antibacterial properties of RJ. Furthermore, we evaluated the antibacterial efficacy of the main fatty acid found in RJ, the 10-hydroxy-2-decenoic acid (10H2DA. Chromatographic profile of the RJ samples showed similar fingerprints and the presence of 10H2DA in both samples. Furthermore, fresh and lyophilized RJ were effective against all bacteria evaluated; that is, the lyophilization process maintains the antibacterial activity of RJ and the chemical field of 10H2DA. The fatty acid 10H2DA exhibited a good antibacterial activity against Streptococcus pneumoniae. Therefore, it may be used as an alternative and complementary treatment for infections caused by antibiotic-resistant S. pneumoniae.

  20. Mass spectrometric approaches to study protein structure and interactions in lyophilized powders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moorthy, Balakrishnan S; Iyer, Lavanya K; Topp, Elizabeth M

    2015-04-14

    Amide hydrogen/deuterium exchange (ssHDX-MS) and side-chain photolytic labeling (ssPL-MS) followed by mass spectrometric analysis can be valuable for characterizing lyophilized formulations of protein therapeutics. Labeling followed by suitable proteolytic digestion allows the protein structure and interactions to be mapped with peptide-level resolution. Since the protein structural elements are stabilized by a network of chemical bonds from the main-chains and side-chains of amino acids, specific labeling of atoms in the amino acid residues provides insight into the structure and conformation of the protein. In contrast to routine methods used to study proteins in lyophilized solids (e.g., FTIR), ssHDX-MS and ssPL-MS provide quantitative and site-specific information. The extent of deuterium incorporation and kinetic parameters can be related to rapidly and slowly exchanging amide pools (N fast, N slow) and directly reflects the degree of protein folding and structure in lyophilized formulations. Stable photolytic labeling does not undergo back-exchange, an advantage over ssHDX-MS. Here, we provide detailed protocols for both ssHDX-MS and ssPL-MS, using myoglobin (Mb) as a model protein in lyophilized formulations containing either trehalose or sorbitol.

  1. Assessment of degree of disorder (amorphicity) of lyophilized formulations of growth hormone using isothermal microcalorimetry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mosharraf, Mitra

    2004-05-01

    When determining the degree of disorder of a lyophilized cake of a protein, it is important to use an appropriate analytical technique. Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and X-ray powder diffraction (XRPD) are the most commonly used thermoanalytical techniques for characterizing freeze-dried protein formulations. Unfortunately, these methods are unable to detect solid-state disorder at levels IMC) in the assessment of degree of solid-state disorder (amorphicity) of lyophilized formulations of proteins. For this purpose, two formulations of growth hormone were prepared by lyophilization. These formulations consisted of the same amounts of protein, mannitol, glycine, and phosphate buffer, but differed in the freeze-drying procedure. After lyophilization, the recrystallization of the samples was studied using IMC at 25 degrees C under different relative humidities (58-75%). The effect of available surface area was studied by determining the heat of recrystallization (Q) of the samples before and after disintegration of the cakes. The results showed that, in contrast to DSC, IMC allowed detection of the recrystallization event in the formulations. Although both formulations were completely disordered and indistinguishable according to XRPD method, IMC revealed that formulation B had a different solid-sate structure than formulation A. This difference was the result of differences in the freeze-drying parameters, demonstrating the importance of choosing appropriate analytical methodology.

  2. Effect of Misgurnus anguillicaudatus Lyophilized Power on Liver Fibrosis Induced by CCl 4 in Mice%泥鳅冻干粉抗CCl4小鼠肝纤维化作用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张倩; 商萌萌; 凌去非; 刘春宇

    2014-01-01

    To study the effect of Misgurnus anguillicaudatus lyophilized power on liver fibrosis, the model in mice was established by using CCl4. Given different doses of Misgurnus anguillicaudatus lyophilized power, the serum ALT and AST activities and tissue Hyp content were detected. The pathological changes of liver were observed. Results showed that the AST and ALT activities and Hyp levels were significantly decreased (P<0.05) in three doses groups of Misgurnus Anguillicaudatus lyophilized power, compared with the model group. The pathological improvements were observed. The fibrogenesis in liver tissues were markedly reduced and the formation of liver pseudoluboli was alleviated. The Misgurnus anguillicaudatus lyophilized power can prevent the formation of liver fibrosis induced by CCl4 in mice.%采用CCl4小鼠肝纤维化模型,给予不同剂量泥鳅冻干粉,检测小鼠血清中ALT、AST活性及肝组织中羟脯氨酸(Hyp)含量,并观察肝组织病理变化,探讨泥鳅冻干粉抗CCl4小鼠肝纤维化作用。结果表明,与模型组相比,泥鳅粉冻干粉明显降低CCl4诱导的肝纤维化小鼠血清ALT、AST活性,显著降低肝组织Hyp含量(P<0.05)。病理学观察结果,泥鳅粉冻干粉给药组小鼠胶原纤维沉积明显减轻,假小叶结构明显减少。泥鳅冻干粉能预防小鼠肝纤维化的形成,具有抗肝纤维化作用。

  3. Human milk bactericidal properties: effect of lyophilization and relation to maternal factors and milk components.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salcedo, Jaime; Gormaz, Maria; López-Mendoza, Maria C; Nogarotto, Elisabetta; Silvestre, Dolores

    2015-04-01

    Lyophilization appears to be a viable method for storing human milk, assuring no microbiological contamination and preserving its health benefits and antibacterial properties. The aim of the study is to evaluate and compare the effects of different storage methods (lyophilization and freezing at -20°C and -80°C) and maternal factors (gestational length or time postpartum) upon the microbiological contents and bactericidal activity of human milk. The possible relation between bactericidal activity and the content of certain nutrients and functional components is also investigated. Microbiological content, bactericidal activity, sialic acid, and ganglioside contents, as well as protein, fat, and lactose concentrations were assessed in 125 human milk samples from 65 healthy donors in the Human Milk Bank of La Fe (Valencia, Spain). Lyophilization and storage at -80°C significantly reduced the content of mesophilic aerobic microorganisms and Staphylococcus epidermidis when compared with storage at -20°C. Bactericidal activity was not significantly modified by lyophilization when compared with freezing at either -20°C or -80°C. Bactericidal activity was not correlated with fat, protein, or lactose content, but was significantly correlated to ganglioside content. The bactericidal activity was significantly greater (P milk and in milk from women with term delivery than in milk from early lactation (days 1-7 postpartum) and milk from women with preterm delivery, respectively. Lyophilization and storage at -80°C of human milk yields similar results and are superior to storage at -20C with regard to microbial and bactericidal capacities, being a feasible alternative for human milk banks.

  4. Protein Quantity on the Air-Solid Interface Determines Degradation Rates of Human Growth Hormone in Lyophilized Samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Yemin; Grobelny, Pawel; von Allmen, Alexander; Knudson, Korben; Pikal, Michael; Carpenter, John F.; Randolph, Theodore W.

    2014-01-01

    rhGH was lyophilized with various glass-forming stabilizers, employing cycles that incorporated various freezing and annealing procedures to manipulate glass formation kinetics, associated relaxation processes and glass specific surface areas (SSA’s). The secondary structure in the cake was monitored by IR and in reconstituted samples by CD. The rhGH concentrations on the surface of lyophilized powders were determined from ESCA. Tg, SSA’s and water contents were determined immediately after lyophilization. Lyophilized samples were incubated at 323 K for 16 weeks, and the resulting extents of rhGH aggregation, oxidation and deamidation were determined after rehydration. Water contents and Tg were independent of lyophilization process parameters. Compared to samples lyophilized after rapid freezing, rhGH in samples that had been annealed in frozen solids prior to drying, or annealed in glassy solids after secondary drying retained more native-like protein secondary structure, had a smaller fraction of the protein on the surface of the cake and exhibited lower levels of degradation during incubation. A simple kinetic model suggested that the differences in the extent of rhGH degradation during storage in the dried state between different formulations and processing methods could largely be ascribed to the associated levels of rhGH at the solid-air interface after lyophilization. PMID:24623139

  5. Thiol-Disulfide Exchange in Peptides Derived from Human Growth Hormone during Lyophilization and Storage in the Solid State

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandrasekhar, Saradha; Topp, Elizabeth M.

    2015-01-01

    Lyophilization (freeze-drying) is frequently used to stabilize protein therapeutics. However, covalent modifications such as thiol-disulfide exchange and disulfide scrambling can occur even in the solid state. The effects of lyophilization and storage of lyophilized powders on the mechanism and kinetics of thioldisulfide exchange have not been elucidated and are explored here. Reaction kinetics were monitored in peptides corresponding to tryptic fragments of human growth hormone (T20 + T20-T21 or T20 + cT20-T21) during different stages of lyophilization and during storage of the lyophilized powders at 22 °C and ambient RH. The concentrations of reactants and products were determined using RP-HPLC and product identity confirmed using LC-MS. Loss of native disulfide was observed for the reaction of T20 with both linear (T20-T21) and cyclic (cT20-T21) peptides during the primary drying step, however, the native disulfides were regenerated during secondary drying with no further change till the end of lyophilization. Deviations from Arrhenius parameters predicted from solution studies and the absence of buffer effects during lyophilization suggest that factors such as temperature, initial peptide concentration, buffer type and concentration do not influence thiol-disulfide exchange during lyophilization. Results from a ‘cold finger’ method used to study peptide adsorption to ice indicate that there is no preferential adsorption to the ice surface and that its presence may not influence disulfide reactivity during primary drying. Overall, reaction rates and product distribution differ for the reaction of T20 with T20-T21 or cT20-T21 in the solid state and aqueous solution, while the mechanism of thiol-disulfide remains unchanged. Increased reactivity of the cyclic peptide in the solid state suggests that peptide cyclization does not offer protection against lyophilization and that damage induced by a process stress further affects storage stability at 22 °C and

  6. Comparison of serum calcium measurements with respect to five models of atomic absorption spectrometers using NBS-AACC calcium reference method and isotope-dilution mass spectrometry as the definitive method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Copeland, B E; Grisley, D W; Casella, J; Bailey, H

    1976-10-01

    Utilizing the recently described reference method for calcium (NBS-AACC) and the recently developed definitive (referee) NBS method for serum calcium measurement by isotopedilution mass spectrometry (IDMS), an evaluation of five recent-model atomic absorption spectrometers was carried out. Under optimal conditions of instrument operation using aqueous standards, significant differences were found during the comparative analyses of three lyophilized pool samples and one liquid serum pool sample. Use of the NBS-AACC serum calcium protocol did not guarantee analytic results within +/- 2% of the IDMS value. In four of eight comparisons, differences from IDMS greater than 2% were observed. Several variables were studied to account for these differences. It was shown that a serum matrix, when present in standards used to bracket the unknown sample, reduced differences between instruments in four of four instances and improved the accuracy of the results from a range of -1.1 to +3.5% to +0.1 to +1.0%. It is concluded that a serum sample with a verified IDMS calcium value is a valuable tool that establishes an accurate and stable reference point for serum calcium measurement. The use of transfer-of-NBS-technology multipliers is suggested. Regional quality control serum pools and clinical chemistry survey sample materials that have been analyzed for calcium concentration by the NBS-IDMS definitive method are examples of these multipliers.

  7. Microwave-Assisted Resolution of α-Lipoic Acid Catalyzed by an Ionic Liquid Co-Lyophilized Lipase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ning Liu

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The combination of the ionic liquid co-lyophilized lipase and microwave irradiation was used to improve enzyme performance in enantioselective esterification of α-lipoic acid. Effects of various reaction conditions on enzyme activity and enantioselectivity were investigated. Under optimal condition, the highest enantioselectivity (E = 41.2 was observed with a high enzyme activity (178.1 μmol/h/mg when using the ionic liquid co-lyophilized lipase with microwave assistance. Furthermore, the ionic liquid co-lyophilized lipase exhibited excellent reusability under low power microwave.

  8. Disinfection Byproduct Formation in Reverse-Osmosis Concentrated and Lyophilized Natural Organic Matter from a Drinking Water Source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drinking water treatment and disinfection byproduct (DBP) research can be complicated by natural organic matter (NOM) temporal variability. NOM preservation by lyophilization (freeze-drying) has been long practiced to address this issue; however, its applicability for drinking wa...

  9. Disinfection Byproduct Formation in Reverse-Osmosis Concentrated and Lyophilized Natural Organic Matter from a Drinking Water Source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drinking water treatment and disinfection byproduct (DBP) research can be complicated by natural organic matter (NOM) temporal variability. NOM preservation by lyophilization (freeze-drying) has been long practiced to address this issue; however, its applicability for drinking wa...

  10. A Study on in vitro antiviral activities of lyophilized extracts of Glycyrrhiza glabra on Hepatitis B Virus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sangeetha Vani

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The present study is to determine the effect of lyophilized extracts of different solvents of Glycyrrhiza glabra on Hepatitis B. The lyophilized plant extracts were collected and studied for its cytotoxicity in HepG2 cell line and in vitro antiviral activity of these extracts was investigated by HBs Ag binding Inhibition Assay, Hepatitis B Virus DNA Polymerase Inhibition Assay using fluorescent probes. The results from Glycyrrhiza glabra were promising in acting as a potent antiviral agent.

  11. Characterization and optimization of lyophilization and storage conditions of Leech saliva extract from the tropical leech Hirudinaria manillensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdualkader, Abdualrahman Mohammed; Ghawi, Abbas Mohammad; Alaama, Mohamed; Awang, Mohamed; Merzouk, Ahmed

    2013-05-01

    The medicinal Malaysian leeches have been used in traditional medicine to treat many different ailments. In this study, leech saliva extract (LSE) was collected from the medicinal Malaysian leech Hirudinaria manillensis. Gel electrophoresis of LSE was carried out to estimate the peptide and protein molecular weights of its content. Results showed that LSE contains more than 60 peptides and proteins with molecular masses ranging from 1.9-250kDa. Thrombin time assay in vitro was employed to assess the collected LSE antithrombin activity. First, to study its stability, LSE was lyophilized under the following different conditions: pre-freezing temperature, type of container and lyophilization cycle. Pre-freezed LSE sample at -20°C and lyophilized for 24 hours retained about 100-95% of its original biological activities. Second, the LSE antithrombin activity was monitored for a period of six months. Storage temperature, type of the container and photosensitivity effects on antithrombin activity of the lyophilized (solid state) and non-lyophilized (liquid state) were investigated. Results showed that storage temperature drastically affected the biological activity of LSE with -20 °C as the optimum temperature. Samples stored at ambient temperature and +4 °C were light photosensitive and adversely affected when stored in polypropylene tubes. Lyophilized samples were more stable than non-lyophilized ones over the period of study. To sum up, in order to have a biologically active stock of LSE, it has to be lyophilized for no more than 24 hours following freezing at -20°C and has to be stored at -20°C in glass tubes protected from light.

  12. Disinfection byproduct formation in reverse-osmosis concentrated and lyophilized natural organic matter from a drinking water source.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pressman, Jonathan G; McCurry, Daniel L; Parvez, Shahid; Rice, Glenn E; Teuschler, Linda K; Miltner, Richard J; Speth, Thomas F

    2012-10-15

    Drinking water treatment and disinfection byproduct (DBP) research can be complicated by natural organic matter (NOM) temporal variability. NOM preservation by lyophilization (freeze-drying) has been long practiced to address this issue; however, its applicability for drinking water research has been limited because the selected NOM sources are atypical of most drinking water sources. The purpose of this research was to demonstrate that reconstituted NOM from a lyophilized reverse-osmosis (RO) concentrate of a typical drinking water source closely represents DBP formation in the original NOM. A preliminary experiment assessed DBP formation kinetics and yields in concentrated NOM, which demonstrated that chlorine decays faster in concentrate, in some cases leading to altered DBP speciation. Potential changes in NOM reactivity caused by lyophilization were evaluated by chlorination of lyophilized and reconstituted NOM, its parent RO concentrate, and the source water. Bromide lost during RO concentration was replaced by adding potassium bromide prior to chlorination. Although total measured DBP formation tended to decrease slightly and unidentified halogenated organic formation tended to increase slightly as a result of RO concentration, the changes associated with lyophilization were minor. In lyophilized NOM reconstituted back to source water TOC levels and then chlorinated, the concentrations of 19 of 21 measured DBPs, constituting 96% of the total identified DBP mass, were statistically indistinguishable from those in the chlorinated source water. Furthermore, the concentrations of 16 of 21 DBPs in lyophilized NOM reconstituted back to the RO concentrate TOC levels, constituting 86% DBP mass, were statistically indistinguishable from those in the RO concentrate. This study suggests that lyophilization can be used to preserve concentrated NOM without substantially altering the precursors to DBP formation.

  13. Validation and substantiation of 25 kGy as sterilization dose for lyophilized human amnion membrane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Djefal, A; Tahtat, D; Khodja, A Nacer; Bouzid, S Saad; Remane, N

    2007-01-01

    The validation and substantiation of sterilization dose for lyophilized human amnion membrane by gamma irradiation delivered by Co60 source were investigated. The validation experiments were conducted according to ISO 13409 method B. A total of 120 human amnion membranes were collected. Of these, 10 membranes were used for estimation of bioburden and 20 membranes were used for the individual sterility test at verification dose. The average bioburden per product unit with sample item portion (SIP = 1) for lyophilized human amnion membrane was 572 cfu. The verification dose experiments were done at dose of 8.1 kGy and the results of sterility tests showed that human amnion membrane got one positive. Consequently, the sterilization dose of 25 kGy was confirmed and substantiated.

  14. Storage of ‘umbu-cajá’ pulp powder produced by lyophilization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dyego da C. Santos

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT This work aimed to study the chemical and physical stability of ‘umbu-cajá’ powders produced by lyophilization during storage. ‘Umbu-cajá’ pulps formulated with different concentrations of gum arabic (10, 20 and 30%, previously frozen, were dehydrated in benchtop lyophilizer at -40 °C for 48 h and disintegrated to obtain the powder, which was stored in laminated packages for 180 days at ambient conditions, with physical, chemical and physico-chemical analyzes performed at the beginning and every 30 days of storage. According to the results, all investigated parameters were significantly altered throughout the storage, yet with less intense variations for important variables, such as ascorbic acid, reducing sugars and titratable acidity. At the end of storage, all powders were microbiologically safe.

  15. Successful ram semen cryopreservation with lyophilized egg yolk-based extender.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alcay, Selim; Berk Toker, M; Gokce, Elif; Ustuner, Burcu; Tekin Onder, N; Sagirkaya, Hakan; Nur, Zekariya; Kemal Soylu, M

    2015-10-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of lyophilized egg yolk extender on ram semen cryopreservation. Ejaculates with a thick consistency, rapid wave motion (3-5 on a 0-5 scale) and >75% initial motility were pooled. Sperm were diluted to final concentration of 1/5 (semen/extender) in lyophilized egg yolk or fresh egg yolk extenders using two-step dilution method. The equilibrated semen was frozen in 0.25 mL straws. Semen samples were assessed for sperm motility, plasma membrane functional integrity using hypoosmotic swelling test (HOST), damaged acrosome using FITC-Pisum sativum agglutinin (PSA-FITC) and DNA integrity using terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP nick-end labeling (TUNEL) at three time points: after dilution with extender A, equilibration and post-thaw. The results showed that freezing and thawing procedures (dilution, equilibration and thawing) had negative effects on motility (Pram semen.

  16. Modeling of Heat and Mass Transfer in a TEC-Driven Lyophilizer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Zeng-Guang; Hegde, Uday; Litwiller, Eric; Flynn, Michael; Fisher, John

    2006-01-01

    Dewatering of wet waste during space exploration missions is important for crew safety as it stabilizes the waste. It may also be used to recover water and serve as a preconditioning step for waste compaction. A thermoelectric cooler (TEC)-driven lyophilizer is under development at NASA Ames Research Center for this purpose. It has three major components: (i) an evaporator section where water vapor sublimes from the frozen waste, (ii) a condenser section where this water vapor deposits as ice, and (iii) a TEC section which serves as a heat pump to transfer heat from the condenser to the evaporator. This paper analyses the heat and mass transfer processes in the lyophilizer in an effort to understand the ice formation behavior in the condenser. The analysis is supported by experimental observations of ice formation patterns in two different condenser units.

  17. Determination of moisture content of lyophilized allergen vaccines by NIR spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Yiwu; Lai, Xuxin; Bruun, Susanne Wrang; Ipsen, Henrik; Larsen, Jørgen Nedergaard; Løwenstein, Henning; Søndergaard, Ib; Jacobsen, Susanne

    2008-02-13

    Moisture content is an important parameter for lyophilized vaccines. Currently, Karl Fischer titration is widely used for moisture determination in routine analysis. However, this method is time-consuming, sample destructive and requires environment polluting reagents, as well as the results rely on the random samplings. In this study, near infrared spectroscopy was used as a fast, non-invasive and non-destructive method to determine the moisture content in lyophilized allergy vaccines. Five different vaccine products were investigated, which contained water in the range of 0.17-1.51% (w/w, KF). Different data pre-treatments, wavelength selection and partial least squares regression were applied to construct calibration models. Multi-products model and product-specific models were obtained, which show the possibility of NIR as a rapid method to discriminate whether moisture content fit into the specifications of a pharmaceutical company.

  18. Standardization of lyophilization medium for Streptococcus thermophilus subjected to viability escalation on freeze drying

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rohit Sharma

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the present study is to develop a lyophilization medium for Streptococcus thermophilus (NCIM 2904 as the industrial exploitation of this bacterium totally depends upon preservation and lyophilization protocols. Protective effect of 18 compounds were observed individually and in combinations with different sugars, sugar alcohols, polymers, protein concentrates and buffers. Among all the protectants tested, ammonium citrate (1% w/w, K2HPO4 (1% w/w and KH2PO4 (1% w/w provided lowest protection to these bacterial cells while 10% (w/w sodium caseinate, whey protein concentrate, sweet whey powder, and skim milk showed significant results in viability escalation. Survival in carbon sources like lactose, sucrose and maltodextrine was also favored maximally. Combination of sodium caseinate 10%, skim milk 5%, sucrose 5%, lactose 5% and mono sodium glutamate 1% in distilled water in ratio of 1:5 with S. thermophilus showed survival percentage of 96%.

  19. Lyophilization protects [FeFe]-hydrogenases against O2-induced H-cluster degradation

    OpenAIRE

    Jens Noth; Ramona Kositzki; Kathrin Klein; Martin Winkler; Michael Haumann; Thomas Happe

    2015-01-01

    Nature has developed an impressive repertoire of metal-based enzymes that perform complex chemical reactions under moderate conditions. Catalysts that produce molecular hydrogen (H2) are particularly promising for renewable energy applications. Unfortunately, natural and chemical H2-catalysts are often irreversibly degraded by molecular oxygen (O2). Here we present a straightforward procedure based on freeze-drying (lyophilization), that turns [FeFe]-hydrogenases, which are excellent H2-produ...

  20. Impact of controlled ice nucleation on process performance and quality attributes of a lyophilized monoclonal antibody.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Awotwe-Otoo, David; Agarabi, Cyrus; Read, Erik K; Lute, Scott; Brorson, Kurt A; Khan, Mansoor A; Shah, Rakhi B

    2013-06-25

    An efficient and potentially scalable technology was evaluated to control the ice nucleation step of the freezing process for a model monoclonal antibody formulation and the effect on process performance and quality attributes of the final lyophilized product was compared with the conventional shelf ramping method of freezing. Controlled ice nucleation resulted in uniform nucleation at temperatures between -2.3 and -3.2 °C while uncontrolled nucleation resulted in random nucleation at temperatures between -10 and -16.4 °C. The sublimation rate (dm/dt) during primary drying was higher in the controlled nucleation cycle (0.13 g/h/vial) than in the uncontrolled nucleation cycle (0.11 g/h/vial). This was due to the formation of larger ice crystals, leading to lower product resistance (Rp) and 19% reduction in the primary drying for the controlled nucleation cycle. Controlled ice nucleation resulted in lyophilized cakes with more acceptable appearance, no visible collapse or shrinkage and decreased reconstitution times compared with uncontrolled nucleation. There were no observed differences in the particle size, concentration (A280 nm) and presence of aggregates (A410 nm) between the two nucleation cycles when the lyophilized cakes were reconstituted. These were confirmed by SEC and protein A-HPLC analyses which showed similar peak shapes and retention times between the two cycles. However, uncontrolled nucleation resulted in cakes with larger specific surface area (0.90 m(2)/g) than controlled nucleation (0.46 m(2)/g). SEM images of the lyophilized cakes from uncontrolled nucleation revealed a sponge-like morphology with smaller pores while cakes from controlled nucleation cycle revealed plate-like structures with more open and larger pores. While controlled nucleation resulted in a final product with a higher residual moisture content (2.1±0.08%) than uncontrolled nucleation (1.62±0.11%), this was resolved by increasing the secondary drying temperature.

  1. Co-encapsulation of lyoprotectants improves the stability of protein-loaded PLGA nanoparticles upon lyophilization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fonte, Pedro; Araújo, Francisca; Seabra, Vítor;

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this work was to evaluate the influence of the co-encapsulation of lyoprotectants with insulin into PLGA nanoparticles, on the stability of the protein and nanoparticles upon lyophilization. Different lyoprotectants were used, namely trehalose, glucose, sucrose, fructose and sorbitol...... confirmed by circular dichroism spectroscopy. Surprisingly, the simultaneous co-encapsulation and addition of lyoprotectants was detrimental to protein stabilization. The insulin in vitro release studies demonstrated that formulations with co-encapsulated trehalose, glucose, sucrose, fructose and sorbitol...

  2. Toward low-cost affinity reagents: lyophilized yeast-scFv probes specific for pathogen antigens.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sean A Gray

    Full Text Available The generation of affinity reagents, usually monoclonal antibodies, remains a critical bottleneck in biomedical research and diagnostic test development. Recombinant antibody-like proteins such as scFv have yet to replace traditional monoclonal antibodies in antigen detection applications, in large part because of poor performance of scFv in solution. To address this limitation, we have developed assays that use whole yeast cells expressing scFv on their surfaces (yeast-scFv in place of soluble purified scFv or traditional monoclonal antibodies. In this study, a nonimmune library of human scFv displayed on the surfaces of yeast cells was screened for clones that bind to recombinant cyst proteins of Entamoeba histolytica, an enteric pathogen of humans. Selected yeast-scFv clones were stabilized by lyophilization and used in detection assay formats in which the yeast-scFv served as solid support-bound monoclonal antibodies. Specific binding of antigen to the yeast-scFv was detected by staining with rabbit polyclonal antibodies. In flow cytometry-based assays, lyophilized yeast-scFv reagents retained full binding activity and specificity for their cognate antigens after 4 weeks of storage at room temperature in the absence of desiccants or stabilizers. Because flow cytometry is not available to all potential assay users, an immunofluorescence assay was also developed that detects antigen with similar sensitivity and specificity. Antigen-specific whole-cell yeast-scFv reagents can be selected from nonimmune libraries in 2-3 weeks, produced in vast quantities, and packaged in lyophilized form for extended shelf life. Lyophilized yeast-scFv show promise as low cost, renewable alternatives to monoclonal antibodies for diagnosis and research.

  3. Characterization of implant materials in fetal bovine serum and sodium sulfate by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. I. Mechanically polished samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Contu, F; Elsener, B; Böhni, H

    2002-12-01

    Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy is used to monitor the long-term stability (up to 150 days) of mechanically polished commercial pure titanium, Ti6Al4V, Ti6Al7Nb, and CoCrMo alloys in 0.1M sodium sulfate and fetal bovine serum. A capacitive spectrum in the frequency range from 10(-3) to 10(5) Hz is always found and the impedance spectra can be fitted by a simple parallel RC circuit with a constant phase element. The open circuit potential observed in serum is always more cathodic and the polarization resistance (R(p)) is higher than that recorded in sodium sulfate solutions. The observed variation of the equivalent capacitance in serum bovine suggests that an adsorption layer of organic molecules develops on the electrode surface and it is responsible for both the decrease in open circuit potential and the higher R(p), because it hinders the oxygen evolution reaction and the charge transfer responsible for the passive film dissolution (or growth). Among the alloys studied, Ti6Al4V displayed the highest steady-state values of R(p) both in serum and in sodium sulfate.

  4. Immunogenicity of Lyophilized MVA Vaccine for HIV-1 in Mice Model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Yi-zhe; JIANG Chun-lai; YU Xiang-hui; LOU Chao-ping; ZHAO Dong-hai; WU Yong-ge; JIN Ying-hua; LIU Cheng-shan; KONG Wei

    2007-01-01

    Highly attenuated modified vaccinia Ankara(MVA) is sensitive to repeat freeze-thaw cycle and easy to lose activity. In order to make the activity of MVA vaccine remain stable during its manufacturing, storage, and administration, the lyophilization as a good option could be resorted to; through screening, the right stabilizer composition and its production procedure were obtained. The final moisture content of freezing-dried recombinant MVA-HIV vaccine was lower than 3%. It can be reconstituted quickly and shows regular physical appearance and stable potency. In vivo functional experiment, mice were divided randomly into the liquid vaccination group, the lyophilized vaccination group, and the control group. Having been DNA vaccine priming, the mice were boosted with a dose of 107 pfu MVA-HIV vaccine, which produced indistinguishable antibody titer and cytotoxic T-lymphocyte(CTL) level compared with those of liquid vaccination group(P>0.05). These results demonstrate that lyophilized MVA vaccine can induce high immunogenicity in mice.

  5. Cryoprotection effectiveness of low concentrations of natural and lyophilized LDL (low density lipoproteins on canine spermatozoa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.M. Neves

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the use of low concentrations of natural and lyophilized low density lipoprotein (LDL from hen's egg yolk for cryopreservation of canine semen. Different ammonium sulphate concentrations were tested to extract LDL from egg yolk. The yolk was centrifuged, and LDL was isolated using 10, 20, 40, 45, or 50% ammonium sulphate solution (ASS. The LDL-rich floating fraction was collected for chemical characterization. Dry matter content was lowest (P<0.05 in the LDL extracted with the 50% ASS. The purification of LDL increased in association with increasing ammonium sulphate concentrations. SDS-PAGE showed that the 50% ASS solution yielded a purer fraction of LDL from egg yolk. For semen cryopreservation, TRIS extender was used replacing 20% egg yolk (control by natural or lyophilized LDL using 1, 2, and 3% (w/v. Semen was centrifuged (755Xg for 7 min, diluted with one of the extenders, packed into 0.5mL straws (100x106 sperm/mL, and placed in a programmable cryopreservation machine. Thawed semen (37°C/ 30s was analyzed for sperm motility, morphology, and by the hypoosmotic and epifluorescence tests (CFDA/ PI. Natural LDL extracted with 50% ASS was as effective as whole egg yolk to preserve canine frozen sperm when using low concentrations. The lyophilized LDL, mainly in the two higher concentrations tested (2 and 3%, was unsuitable to maintain the effectiveness of the LDL cryoprotective effect on dog sperm.

  6. VIABILITY AND ANTIMICROBIAL ACTIVITY OF STREPTOMYCES STRAINS FROM NCNM AFTER LYOPHILIZATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oleg CHISELIŢA

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the aspects related to lyophilization of streptomycetes strains, preserved in the National Collection of Nonpathogenic Microorganisms (NCNM. Was determined that lyophilization do not significantly modify the antimicrobial activity of streptomycetes. Maximum viability of strains of genus Streptomyces (83,2-90,2% is ensured after lyophilization at initial titer by 9-11 log10UFC ml-1 in protective medium (gelatin 2,5% + glucose 7,5% by rehydra­tion with distillate water.VIABILITATEA ŞI ACTIVITATEA ANTIMICROBIANĂ A TULPINELOR DE STREPTOMYCES DIN CNMN DUPĂ LIOFILIZAREAcest articol prezintă aspecte legate de liofilizarea tulpinilor de streptomicete, depozitate în Colecţia Naţională de Microorganisme Nepatogene (CNMN. A fost stabilit că liofilizarea nu modifică esenţial activitatea antimicrobiană a streptomicetelor. Viabilitatea maximă a tulpinilor genului Streptomyces (83,2-90,2% este asigurată după liofilizarea la titrul iniţial 9-11 log10UFC ml-1 în mediu protectiv (gelatină 2,5% + glucosă 7,5% şi la rehidratarea cu apă distilată. 

  7. Multiresidue determination of veterinary medicines in lyophilized egg albumen with subsequent consumer exposure evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piątkowska, Marta; Gbylik-Sikorska, Małgorzata; Gajda, Anna; Jedziniak, Piotr; Błądek, Tomasz; Żmudzki, Jan; Posyniak, Andrzej

    2017-08-15

    The process of lyophilization causes that the veterinary drugs residues present in egg albumen do not decompose, as it takes place during the process of high-temperature drying. Thus, lyophilized albumen may be a potential source of their residues for consumers. As a consequence, reliable methods for the determination of veterinary medicinal products from egg albumen are needed. The method for the determination of 85 analytes in lyophilized egg albumen was developed and successfully validated. The recoveries were between 84 and 110%, within laboratory repeatability and reproducibility - in the range of 3.29-16.8% and -5.93 to 19.3%. The presence of enrofloxacin and doxycycline was confirmed in real egg albumen samples. The concentrations ranged from 5.65-596µg/kg for doxycycline to 0.89-134µg/kg for enrofloxacin. Nevertheless, the evaluated daily intake and % of the ADI (Acceptable Daily Intake) received by the consumers' were at a toxicologically accepted level. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Utility of lyophilized PMA and ionomycin to stimulate lymphocytes in whole blood for immunological assays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belouski, Shelley Sims; Wilkinson, Julie; Thomas, John; Kelley, Keith; Wang, Shen-Wu; Suggs, Sid; Ferbas, John

    2010-01-01

    The need to implement robust biomarkers in clinical trials has never been greater, and such efforts can be easily compromised by reagent instability or simple human error during assay set-up. Many biotechnology and pharmaceutical companies are introducing efforts to conduct biomarker studies under more rigorous settings, and the use of plates or tubes pre-loaded with stimulation or staining reagents could be of value for studies that involve flow cytometry. Five reagents lyophilized from ethanol or CHAPS buffer stock solution of phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA) and ionomycin were benchmarked against standard DMSO liquid formulation for their stimulation equivalency. The median fluorescence intensity of phosphorylated ribosomal protein S6 in lymphocytes was assessed on a BD FACSCalibur. We demonstrate here that tubes pre-loaded with lyophilized versions of the liquid reagents can provide equivalent stimulation in healthy volunteer specimens. The value of this approach is that it safeguards against omission or erroneous addition of bulk liquid formulations of PMA and ionomycin to the reaction vessel (i.e., plate or tube) and also lends itself to extended stability/shelf-life of these reagents. On the basis of this initial success, we plan to expand our evaluation of lyophilized reagents so that they can be incorporated into our clinical biomarker campaigns as appropriate.

  9. Physical characterization of pentamidine isethionate during freeze-drying-relevance to development of stable lyophilized product.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sundaramurthi, Prakash; Burcusa, Michael R; Suryanarayanan, Raj

    2012-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to perform physical characterization of pentamidine isethionate (PI) in frozen and freeze-dried systems and to monitor the phase behavior during all the stages of freeze-drying. Frozen aqueous PI solutions as well as the final lyophiles were characterized by differential scanning calorimetry and X-ray diffractometry. The effect of cosolutes, cosolvents, and processing conditions on the PI crystallization behavior during freeze-drying was evaluated. In frozen aqueous solutions, irrespective of the cooling rate and the initial solute concentration, PI readily crystallized as a trihydrate (C(19) H(24) N(4) O(2) ·3H(2) O). It dehydrated to a poorly crystalline anhydrate upon drying at 100 mTorr. The presence of a readily crystallizing cosolute or an organic cosolvent did not influence the physical form of PI in the final lyophile. On the contrary, even in the absence of cosolutes and cosolvents, the crystalline trihydrate was retained when the chamber pressure was increased to 500 mTorr. By altering the drying conditions, it was possible to obtain either a crystalline trihydrate or a poorly crystalline anhydrate. The stability of PI is dependent on its physical form and only the amorphous PI undergoes discoloration. The PI stability can be enhanced by retaining it in a crystalline state in the lyophile.

  10. Investigating factors leading to fogging of glass vials in lyophilized drug products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdul-Fattah, Ahmad M; Oeschger, Richard; Roehl, Holger; Bauer Dauphin, Isabelle; Worgull, Martin; Kallmeyer, Georg; Mahler, Hanns-Christian

    2013-10-01

    Vial "Fogging" is a phenomenon observed after lyophilization due to drug product creeping upwards along the inner vial surface. After the freeze-drying process, a haze of dried powder is visible inside the drug product vial, making it barely acceptable for commercial distribution from a cosmetic point of view. Development studies were performed to identify the root cause for fogging during manufacturing of a lyophilized monoclonal antibody drug product. The results of the studies indicate that drug product creeping occurs during the filling process, leading to vial fogging after lyophilization. Glass quality/inner surface, glass conversion/vial processing (vial "history") and formulation excipients, e.g., surfactants (three different surfactants were tested), all affect glass fogging to a certain degree. Results showed that the main factor to control fogging is primarily the inner vial surface hydrophilicity/hydrophobicity. While Duran vials were not capable of reliably improving the level of fogging, hydrophobic containers provided reliable means to improve the cosmetic appearance due to reduction in fogging. Varying vial depyrogenation treatment conditions did not lead to satisfying results in removal of the fogging effect. Processing conditions of the vial after filling with drug product had a strong impact on reducing but not eliminating fogging.

  11. β-Cyclodextrin cross-linked polymer as solid-phase extraction material coupled with the spectrophotometric method for the analysis of serum albumin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Min; Zhu, Xiashi

    2010-12-01

    The β-cyclodextrin cross-linked polymer (β-CDCP) was synthesized and used as solid-phase extraction material to preconcentrate/analysis bovine serum albumin (BSA) coupled with UV-vis spectroscopy. The method based on the complex (BSA-phenylfluorone (PF)) adsorbed on β-CDCP. Adsorption kinetics and various factors of the formation procedure of BSA-PF and its retention on β-CDCP were investigated. The linear range and detection limit (DL) was 20.0-200.0 and 0.03 mg/L, respectively. Moreover, the β-CDCP could be used repeatedly. The proposed method has been applied to analysis serum albumin with satisfactory results.

  12. Comparison of Lyophilized Glutaraldehyde-Preserved Bovine Pericardium with Different Vascular Prostheses for Use as Vocal Cords Implants: Experimental Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olmos-Zuñiga, J. Raúl; Jasso-Victoria, Rogelio; Gaxiola-Gaxiola, Miguel; Sotres-Vega, Avelina; Hernández-Jiménez, Claudia; Baltazares-Lipp, Matilde; Arredondo del Bosque, Fernando; Santillan-Doherty, Patricio

    2015-01-01

    This study compared the use of lyophilized glutaraldehyde-preserved bovine pericardium (LGPBP), polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE), polyethylene terephthalate (PET), and Teflon felt (TF) as implants for vocal cords (VC) medialization and aimed to assess the endoscopic, macroscopic, and microscopic VC changes after medialization in a canine model. In 18 mongrel dogs, the right VC were medialized with LGPBP and the left were implanted as follows: Group I (n = 6): LGPBP and PTFE; Group II (n = 6): LGPBP and PET; Group III (n = 6): LGPBP and TF. Surgical handling of the implants was compared. Three months after surgery, macroscopic and microscopic changes of VC and implants were evaluated. LGPBP offered the best surgical handling (p = 0.005, Kruskal-Wallis). TF implants showed extrusion (p = 0.005, Kruskal-Wallis) and severe inflammation. All VC formed fibrous capsules around the implants; the ones developed by LGPBP implants were thinner (p = 0.001, ANOVA, Tukey). VC implanted with synthetic materials showed eosinophilic infiltration (p = 0.01, Kruskal-Wallis). We concluded that the LGPBP could be used as an implant for VC medialization because it is biocompatible, easy to handle and remove during surgical procedures, and nonabsorbable or extrudable and produces an inflammatory reaction similar to PTFE and PET. PMID:26075232

  13. Signiifcance of Serum Tumor-Associated Material andβ2-microglobulin Detection in Patients with Non-Hodgkin’s Lymphoma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Xiaoyou; Feng Jifeng; Wu Jianqiu; Tang Weiyan; Liu Yufei; Zhang Yan

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To explore the clinical significance of tumor associated material (TAM) and β2-microglobulin (β2-MG) in the diagnosis and evaluation of chemotherapeutic efifcacy in patients with non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma (NHL). Methods:A total of 161 patients with NHL and another 37 examined healthy people were selected to detect their serum TAM and β2-MG levels and analyze the relationship between TAM and β2-MG with NHL progression and prognosis. Results:Serum TAM and β2-MG levels in NHL patients were higher than in healthy people (P0.05), but were lower in patients with indolent lymphoma than in those with invasive and high-invasive lymphoma (P0.05), which decreased evidently after treatment than treatment before (P<0.05). Conclusion:The levels of serum TAM and β2-MG expression in patients with NHL have a certain guiding signiifcance for clinical staging, pathological malignant severity and tumor invasive severity, and detection of TAM and β2-MG has a certain value in diagnosing the therapeutic responses to NHL, able to be an effective index for the diagnosis and efifcacy evaluation in patients with NHL.

  14. Investigation of the in vitro performance difference of drug-Soluplus® and drug-PEG 6000 dispersions when prepared using spray drying or lyophilization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad A. Altamimi

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To evaluate the physicochemical and in vitro characteristics of solid dispersions using BCS II model drugs with Soluplus® and one of its component homopolymers, PEG 6000. Methods: Nifedipine (NIF and sulfamethoxazole (SMX of 99.3% and 99.5% purity, respectively, were selected as BCS II model drugs, such that an improved dissolution rate and concentration in the gastrointestinal tract should increase oral bioavailability. Soluplus® is an amorphous, tri-block, graft co-polymer with polyvinyl caprolactam, polyvinyl acetate, and polyethylene glycol (PCL:PVAc:PEG6000 in the ratio 57:30:13. PEG 6000 (BASF is a waxy material with melting point of about 60 °C. Solid dispersions were prepared using lyophilization or spray drying techniques. Dissolution study, crystallinity content, and analysis for new chemical bond formation have been used to evaluate the dispersed materials. Results: Although each polymer improved the drug dissolution rate, dissolution from Soluplus® was slower. Enhanced dissolution rates were observed with NIF solid dispersions, but the dissolution profiles were quite different due to the selected technique, polymer, and dissolution medium. For SMX, there was similarity across the dissolution profiles despite the medium, polymer, or applied technique. Each polymer was able to maintain an elevated drug concentration over the three hour duration of the dissolution profile, i.e., supersaturation was supported by the polymer. DSC thermograms revealed no melting endotherm, suggesting that the drug is amorphous or molecularly dispersed. Conclusion: NIF and SMX solid dispersions were successfully prepared by spray drying and lyophilization using Soluplus® or PEG 6000. Each polymer enhanced the drug dissolution rate; NIF dissolution rate was improved to a greater extent. Dispersions with PEG 6000 had a faster dissolution rate due to its hydrophilic nature. DSC analysis showed that no crystalline material exists in the

  15. Investigation of the in vitro performance difference of drug-Soluplus® and drug-PEG 6000 dispersions when prepared using spray drying or lyophilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altamimi, Mohammad A; Neau, Steven H

    2017-03-01

    To evaluate the physicochemical and in vitro characteristics of solid dispersions using BCS II model drugs with Soluplus® and one of its component homopolymers, PEG 6000. Nifedipine (NIF) and sulfamethoxazole (SMX) of 99.3% and 99.5% purity, respectively, were selected as BCS II model drugs, such that an improved dissolution rate and concentration in the gastrointestinal tract should increase oral bioavailability. Soluplus® is an amorphous, tri-block, graft co-polymer with polyvinyl caprolactam, polyvinyl acetate, and polyethylene glycol (PCL:PVAc:PEG6000) in the ratio 57:30:13. PEG 6000 (BASF) is a waxy material with melting point of about 60 °C. Solid dispersions were prepared using lyophilization or spray drying techniques. Dissolution study, crystallinity content, and analysis for new chemical bond formation have been used to evaluate the dispersed materials. Although each polymer improved the drug dissolution rate, dissolution from Soluplus® was slower. Enhanced dissolution rates were observed with NIF solid dispersions, but the dissolution profiles were quite different due to the selected technique, polymer, and dissolution medium. For SMX, there was similarity across the dissolution profiles despite the medium, polymer, or applied technique. Each polymer was able to maintain an elevated drug concentration over the three hour duration of the dissolution profile, i.e., supersaturation was supported by the polymer. DSC thermograms revealed no melting endotherm, suggesting that the drug is amorphous or molecularly dispersed. NIF and SMX solid dispersions were successfully prepared by spray drying and lyophilization using Soluplus® or PEG 6000. Each polymer enhanced the drug dissolution rate; NIF dissolution rate was improved to a greater extent. Dispersions with PEG 6000 had a faster dissolution rate due to its hydrophilic nature. DSC analysis showed that no crystalline material exists in the dispersions.

  16. Effects of Processing and Storage on Pediococcus pentosaceus SB83 in Vaginal Formulations: Lyophilized Powder and Tablets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Borges

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Vaginal probiotics have an important role in preventing the colonization of the vagina by pathogens. This study aimed to investigate different formulations with Pediococcus pentosaceus SB83 (lyophilized powder and tablets with and without retarding polymer in order to verify its stability and antilisterial activity after manufacture and during storage. The bacteriocinogenic activity of P. pentosaceus SB83 against Listeria monocytogenes was evaluated in simulated vaginal fluid. Suspension of Pediococcus pentosaceus SB83 reduced the pathogen only after 2 h and the lyophilized bacteria after 24 h of contact, and, in the tablets, P. pentosaceus SB83 lost the antimicrobial activity. The pH of simulated vaginal fluid decreased for all the tested conditions. As lyophilized powder demonstrated better results concerning antimicrobial activity, this formulation was selected to evaluate the antilisterial activity during the 12 months of storage. During storage at room temperature, lyophilized bacteria totally inhibited the pathogen only until one month of storage. At 4°C, P. pentosaceus SB83 showed antimicrobial activity during all the time of storage investigated. Therefore, the better formulation of P. pentosaceus SB83 is the lyophilized powder stored at 4°C, which may be administered intravaginally as a washing solution.

  17. Lyophilized silica lipid hybrid (SLH) carriers for poorly water-soluble drugs: physicochemical and in vitro pharmaceutical investigations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yasmin, Rokhsana; Tan, Angel; Bremmell, Kristen E; Prestidge, Clive A

    2014-09-01

    Lyophilization was investigated to produce a powdery silica-lipid hybrid (SLH) carrier for oral delivery of poorly water-soluble drugs. The silica to lipid ratio, incorporation of cryoprotectant, and lipid loading level were investigated as performance indicators for lyophilized SLH carriers. Celecoxib, a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug, was used as the model poorly soluble moiety to attain desirable physicochemical and in vitro drug solubilization properties. Scanning electron microscopy and confocal fluorescence imaging verified a nanoporous, homogenous internal matrix structures of the lyophilized SLH particles, prepared from submicron triglyceride emulsions and stabilized by porous silica nanoparticles (Aerosil 380), similar to spray-dried SLH. 20-50 wt % of silica in the formulation have shown to produce nonoily SLH agglomerates with complete lipid encapsulation. The incorporation of a cryoprotectant prevented irreversible aggregation of the silica-stabilized droplets during lyophilization, thereby readily redispersing in water to form micrometre-sized particles (drug solubilization than the pure drug under nondigesting and digesting conditions, respectively. The feasibility of lyophilization for producing nanostructured SLH formulations with desirable lipid loading and drug solubilization properties for enhanced oral delivery of poorly water-soluble therapeutics is confirmed. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. and the American Pharmacists Association.

  18. Effects of ionizing radiation on proteins in lyophilized or frozen demineralized human bone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antebi, Uri; Mathor, Monica Beatriz; da Silva, André Ferreira; Guimarães, Rodrigo Pereira; Honda, Emerson Kiyoshi

    2016-01-01

    Objective The aim was to study the effects of application of ionizing radiation (gamma and electrons) as sterilizing agents at doses of 15 kGy, 25 kGy and 50 kGy, on lyophilized or frozen demineralized bone tissue for use in transplants. Methods Five human femoral diaphyses from different donors of musculoskeletal tissue were demineralized and preserved as lyophilized or frozen at −80 °C. The samples were divided into two groups: non-irradiated (control) and irradiated by means of gamma rays or an electron beam. The bone proteins were extracted and used to determine the concentrations of total protein and BMP 2 and 7. Results Decreases in total protein and BMP 2 and 7 concentrations were observed. The decreases in total protein concentrations, in comparison with the respective control groups, were significant in the lyophilized and frozen samples that were irradiated at a dose of 50 kGy of gamma radiation and electron beam, with reductions of more than 30%. Significant decreases in the levels of BMP 2 and 7 were also observed at higher doses and especially through use of the electron beam. Conclusion The reductions in the concentrations of total proteins and osteoinductive proteins (BMP 2 and 7) were related to the radiation dose, i.e. they increased with higher doses of ionizing radiation type and the type of bone preservation. The largest reductions in concentrations were observed in the bones irradiated by means of an electron beam and at a dose of 50 kGy. However, this type of radiation and this high dose are not usual practices for sterilization of bone tissue. PMID:27069893

  19. Quality of freeze-dried (lyophilized) quarantined single-donor plasma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bux, Jürgen; Dickhörner, Dieter; Scheel, Edgar

    2013-12-01

    Transfusion of plasma is a basic treatment for complex coagulopathies as well as in major blood loss. Early transfusion of plasma after trauma with major hemorrhage has been recommended by retrospective studies. However, the use of plasma is often hampered by the need to maintain a cold chain and the time needed for thawing fresh-frozen plasma (FFP). With freeze-dried (lyophilized) plasma (FDP) both difficulties can be avoided. Here, we describe the production, quality characteristics, and our experiences with FDP. Quarantine plasma samples were freeze-dried. The clotting factors fibrinogen, Factor (F)V, FVIII, FXI, von Willebrand factor (vWF), protein S, antithrombin, plasminogen, and plasmin inhibitor were determined after manufacturing and after storage at room temperature and refrigeration. Reported adverse transfusion events were evaluated and compared to that of FFP. Clinical effectiveness was estimated by inquiry among experienced users. Lyophilization resulted in a loss of coagulation factor activity between 0% and up to 20% to 25% (FVIII, vWF). When stored refrigerated, coagulation factors did not lose more than 10% of their activities. Storage at room temperature for 24 months mainly affected vWF/ristocetin cofactor activity and fibrinogen activity. From 2007 to 2011 more than 230,000 units of FDP were delivered. There were no reports about clinical ineffectiveness. The frequency of transfusion reactions was not different from that of FFP. Lyophilized plasma showed characteristics similar to FFP. Since FDP requires neither complex logistics nor time-consuming thawing, it allows rapid treatment of coagulopathies. © 2013 American Association of Blood Banks.

  20. Size and shape controllable preparation of graphene sponge by freezing, lyophilizing and reducing in container

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAO LianQin; YU BaoWei; ZHANG XiaoLiang; WU RuiHan; LIU XiaoYang; LIAO Rong; YANG ShengTao

    2016-01-01

    Graphene sponge (GS) is a porous 3D structure of graphene.Although hydrothermal reduction,chemical vapor deposition,solution reduction and high temperature annealing could be used for the preparation of GS,the size and shape cannot be well controlled.Herein,we reported a facile method to prepare GS under mild condition in a size and shape controllable way.Graphene oxide was lyophilized to form the spongy structure and reduced by steamy hydrazine hydrate to produce GS.The size and shape of GS prepared were nearly identical to that of the container.The reduction degree of GS could be regulated by the reduction temperature and time.

  1. Preparation and characterization of lyophilized powder of hydroxycamptothecin chitosan nanoparticles%羟基喜树碱壳聚糖纳米冻干粉的制备及表征

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谭欢欢; 邢志华; 沈云; 张秀娟; 任君刚; 张文君

    2014-01-01

    To research the preparation method of lyophilized powder of hydroxycamptothecin using hydroxycamptothecin , folic acid, chitosan and sodium tripolyphosphate as raw materi-als, glucose and mannitol as cryoprotectants , the nanoparticles lyophilized powder was pre-pared with the method of vacuum freeze drying technology .With the appearance and redis-persibility in water of lyophilized powder as examining index , the factors were respectively investigated , including the types , concentration , amount and adding method of the cryopro-tectants .The morphology of the lyophilized powder was observed by scanning electron micro-scope (SEM) and transmitting electron microscope ( TEM) respectively.Results indicated that as cryoprotectant mannitol was better than glucose .When mannitol concentration was 8%, and the volume ratio of nanoparticles water dispersion system to mannitol solution was 1∶1, the lyophilized powder was the whole pie with uniformly yellow , smooth, compact crunchy .Furthermore , it dispersed quickly into a homogeneous emulsion colloid without any suspended substance in distilled water .The morphology of lyophilized powder was regularly spherical and uniform with the average grain diameter of 200 nm under TEM , and appeared petaling under the SEM .The lyophilized powder injection prepared by the process is expec-ted to become a new pharmaceutical dosage form of hydroxycamptothecin .%为研究制备载羟基喜树碱的叶酸-壳聚糖纳米冻干粉的制备方法,以羟基喜树碱、叶酸、壳聚糖、三聚磷酸钠为原料,以葡萄糖和甘露醇为保护剂,应用真空冷冻干燥技术,制备了载羟基喜树碱的叶酸-壳聚糖纳米粒冻干粉。以冻干粉外观及在水中再分散性为指标,分别考察了冻干保护剂的种类、体积分数、用量及加入方式对冻干的影响。并利用扫描电镜及透射电镜对冻干粉的微观形态进行观察。结果表明,甘露醇作为冻干保护剂优于葡

  2. 超声辅助提取冻干番茄粉番茄红素的工艺优化%Technology optimization of ultrasonic-assisted extraction for lycopene from lyophilized tomato powder

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱俊向; 吴昊; 杨绍兰; 王成荣

    2013-01-01

    functional foods raises concerns about green and efficient extraction technology. Conventional solvent extraction (CSE) techniques used for the solvent extraction of natural products are associated with longer extraction times and use of large amount of organic solvents. However, ultrasound assisted extraction (UAE) can be effectively used to improve the extraction rate by increasing the mass transfer rates and rupturing cell walls due to the ultrasonic cavitation effect. Compared with other material pretreatment methods, lyophilization induces better retention of lycopene bioactivity from raw tomatoes. Superfine grinding, pertaining to cellular level pulverizing techniques, can be used to get fruit and vegetable powder with a small particle size and a large specific surface area. However, studies of freeze-drying application in combination with superfine pulverizing technology have not been reported in extraction of lycopene. Thus, in this paper, lyophilization and superfine grinding were applied for the preparation of red ripe tomatoes. Tomato powder, with a particle size interval of < 74 μm, was selected as the extraction material by using standard sieve. The effects of liquid-to-material ratio, ultrasonic temperature, ultrasonic power, and ultrasonic time on the extraction yield of lycopene were studied by single-factor tests. Response surface methodology was used to optimize UAE conditions of lycopene from lyophilized tomato powder. On the basis of the optimum process, a comparison of efficiency with CSE was studied. The results showed that the best extraction conditions for lycopene were as follows: the liquid-to-material ratio was 41:1 mL/g, the ultrasonic temperature was 55℃, the ultrasonic specific power was 18 W/g and the ultrasonic time was 15 min. In the validation test, the average extraction yield of lycopene was 1.82 mg/g with an ultrasonic time of 10 min. The measured value was consistent with the predicted value, which was 1.83 mg/g. The reliability of

  3. PCR amplification of 16S rDNA from lyophilized cell cultures facilitates studies in molecular systematics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wisotzkey, J. D.; Jurtshuk, P. Jr; Fox, G. E.

    1990-01-01

    The sequence of the major portion of a Bacillus cycloheptanicus strain SCH(T) 16S rRNA gene is reported. This sequence suggests that B. cycloheptanicus is genetically quite distinct from traditional Bacillus strains (e.g., B. subtilis) and may be properly regarded as belonging to a different genus. The sequence was determined from DNA that was produced by direct amplification of ribosomal DNA from a lyophilized cell pellet with straightforward polymerase chain reaction (PCR) procedures. By obviating the need to revive cell cultures from the lyophile pellet, this approach facilitates rapid 16S rDNA sequencing and thereby advances studies in molecular systematics.

  4. Lyophilized platelet-rich fibrin (PRF) promotes craniofacial bone regeneration through Runx2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qi; Reed, David A; Min, Liu; Gopinathan, Gokul; Li, Steve; Dangaria, Smit J; Li, Leo; Geng, Yajun; Galang, Maria-Therese; Gajendrareddy, Praveen; Zhou, Yanmin; Luan, Xianghong; Diekwisch, Thomas G H

    2014-05-14

    Freeze-drying is an effective means to control scaffold pore size and preserve its composition. The purpose of the present study was to determine the applicability of lyophilized Platelet-rich fibrin (LPRF) as a scaffold for craniofacial tissue regeneration and to compare its biological effects with commonly used fresh Platelet-rich fibrin (PRF). LPRF caused a 4.8-fold±0.4-fold elevation in Runt-related transcription factor 2 (Runx2) expression in alveolar bone cells, compared to a 3.6-fold±0.2-fold increase when using fresh PRF, and a more than 10-fold rise of alkaline phosphatase levels and mineralization markers. LPRF-induced Runx2 expression only occurred in alveolar bone and not in periodontal or dental follicle cells. LPRF also caused a 1.6-fold increase in osteoblast proliferation (pPRF. When applied in a rat craniofacial defect model for six weeks, LPRF resulted in 97% bony coverage of the defect, compared to 84% for fresh PRF, 64% for fibrin, and 16% without scaffold. Moreover, LPRF thickened the trabecular diameter by 25% when compared to fresh PRF and fibrin, and only LPRF and fresh PRF resulted in the formation of interconnected trabeculae across the defect. Together, these studies support the application of lyophilized PRF as a biomimetic scaffold for craniofacial bone regeneration and mineralized tissue engineering.

  5. The evidence for clinically significant bias in plasma glucose between liquid and lyophilized citrate buffer additive.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juricic, Gordana; Saracevic, Andrea; Kopcinovic, Lara Milevoj; Bakliza, Ana; Simundic, Ana-Maria

    2016-12-01

    Citrate buffer additive has been suggested to be of supreme performance in inhibiting glycolysis. However, there is little evidence in the literature regarding the comparability of glucose concentrations in liquid and lyophilized citrate buffer containing tubes. The aim of this study was to compare glucose concentrations in tubes containing liquid (Glucomedics) and lyophilized citrate buffer (Terumo VENOSAFE™ Glycemia) additive, measured immediately after centrifugation. Blood was collected from forty volunteers into both Glucomedics and Venosafe Glycemia tubes. Blood was centrifuged within 15min from venipuncture and glucose concentration was measured immediately after centrifugation, on the Abbott Architect analyzer. Differences between glucose concentrations in Glucomedics and Terumo tubes were tested using the paired t-test. Mean bias was calculated and compared to recommended quality specification for glucose (i.e. 2.2%). Glucose concentration in Terumo tubes was 3.4% lower than in Glucomedics tubes (Pbuffer additive tubes (Glucomedics vs. Terumo tubes) measured immediately after centrifugation. This difference may affect the patient outcome due to the misclassification of diabetes. Copyright © 2016 The Canadian Society of Clinical Chemists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Lyophilized Platelet-Rich Fibrin (PRF Promotes Craniofacial Bone Regeneration through Runx2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qi Li

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Freeze-drying is an effective means to control scaffold pore size and preserve its composition. The purpose of the present study was to determine the applicability of lyophilized Platelet-rich fibrin (LPRF as a scaffold for craniofacial tissue regeneration and to compare its biological effects with commonly used fresh Platelet-rich fibrin (PRF. LPRF caused a 4.8-fold ± 0.4-fold elevation in Runt-related transcription factor 2 (Runx2 expression in alveolar bone cells, compared to a 3.6-fold ± 0.2-fold increase when using fresh PRF, and a more than 10-fold rise of alkaline phosphatase levels and mineralization markers. LPRF-induced Runx2 expression only occurred in alveolar bone and not in periodontal or dental follicle cells. LPRF also caused a 1.6-fold increase in osteoblast proliferation (p < 0.001 when compared to fresh PRF. When applied in a rat craniofacial defect model for six weeks, LPRF resulted in 97% bony coverage of the defect, compared to 84% for fresh PRF, 64% for fibrin, and 16% without scaffold. Moreover, LPRF thickened the trabecular diameter by 25% when compared to fresh PRF and fibrin, and only LPRF and fresh PRF resulted in the formation of interconnected trabeculae across the defect. Together, these studies support the application of lyophilized PRF as a biomimetic scaffold for craniofacial bone regeneration and mineralized tissue engineering.

  7. A STUDY ABOUT PHYSICOCHEMICAL COMPOSITION OF FRESH AND LYOPHILIZED ROYAL JELLY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    OLIMPIA POPESCU

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper contents a summery about physicochemical composition of frash and lyophilized royal jelly. Royal jelly (RJ is a yellowish and creamy secretion from hypo pharyngeal and mandibular glands of young worker bees (Apis mellifera L. to feed all larvae for the first three days of their life and the queen bee for both her larval life and adulthood.. Royal jelly is a honey bee secretion that is used in the nutrition of the larvae. Queen bees are made, not born, and their feeding with royal jelly is the key to that process. The geographical authenticity of royal jelly can be determined also by pollen analysis (Ricciardelli d'Albore et al., 1978; Ricciardelli d'Albore, 1986. The physicochemical composition of pure royal jelly are analyzed by determining moisture, ash, lipids, proteins, carbohydrates, 10-HDA; and for lyophilized royal jelly are analyzed by determining ash, lipids, protein, carbohydrates, 10-HDA, sugars. 10-HDA content is the criteria of royal jelly quality analysis and it is a freshness parameter(Antinelli J.F., Sarah Zeggane, Renee Davico, Catherine Rognone, Jean Paul Faucon, Louisette Lizzani.

  8. Dental pulp response to bacterial cell wall material.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warfvinge, J; Dahlén, G; Bergenholtz, G

    1985-08-01

    Lipopolysaccharides (LPS) from Bacteroides oralis and Veillonella parvula and cell wall material from Lactobacillus casei were studied for their capacity to induce leukocyte migration in the dental pulp and in an implanted wound chamber. Three adult monkeys were challenged using lyophilized material sealed into buccal Class V cavities prepared in dentin. Pulp tissue responses were observed histologically eight and 72 hours after initiation of the experiment. Subjacent to cut dentinal tubules, bacterial materials induced polymorphonuclear leukocyte (PMN's) infiltration in the pulp tissue of the majority of test teeth examined. Responses were similar for the three bacterial test materials at both time periods. Topical applications of bovine serum albumin (BSA), used as a control, induced significantly less accumulation of PMN's. Assessments of induced exudate volumes and leukocyte densities in chambers implanted in rats showed comparable rankings with pulpal experiment between test (i.e., bacterial) and control (BSA) materials. Analysis of the data indicates that high-molecular-weight complexes of bacterial cell walls may adversely affect pulpal tissue across freshly exposed dentin.

  9. Lectins in extracts of certain Polygonaceae seed precipitate animal and human serums.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanan, E B; Spindler, J W

    1968-06-28

    Seeds of four species of Polygonaceae were tested for lectins that precipitate human and animal serums. Rumex crispus, Polygonum convolvulus, and Polygonum pennsylvanicum developed specific precipitate bands on double diffusion on agar gel plates. These bands were enhanced and increased in number when extracts were tested against serums from patients with certain diseases. When tested against lyophilized serum, no precipitate bands developed. The active substance cannot be dialyzed through cellulose membrane against running tap water for 16 hours, and it is heat stable. Extracts from Fagopyrum esculentum developed no precipitate bands.

  10. Study on mucosal immunity of influenza vaccine lyophilized liposome%流感疫苗脂质体干粉黏膜免疫研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐勇军; 马波; 代云波; 陈建雯; 乔建斌; 王礼燕; 鲁卫东

    2012-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the mucosal immunity effects of H3N2 influenza vaccine lyophilized liposomes, and to compare the antibody levels in different parts of the respiratory tract. Method Experimental mice were divided into the influenza vaccine non-liposome group, the influenza vaccine lyophilized liposome group, positive control group and negative control group (n = 5). 4(xg and 6(xg hemagglutinin (H3N2 subtype) per mouse were delivered intranasally to the influenza vaccine non-liposome group and the influenza vaccine lyophilized liposome group mice, with intraperitoneally injected influenza vaccine non-liposome group and lyophilized liposome group mice as the positive control, and PBS intraperotoneal injection group as the negative control. The indirect ELISA method was used to measure the serum IgG and respiratory mucosal slgA levels after 28 days of immunization. Result The respiratory slgA level of the influenza vaccine lyophilized liposome group was higher than that of the influenza vaccine non-liposome group (P < 0. 05). The slgA level of upper respiratory tract (nasopharynx) was significantly higher than that of the lower respiratory tract (lung) (P < 0. 01). Conclusion The influenza vaccine lyophilized liposome could effectively induce humoral immunity and mucosal immunity of respiratory. The mucosal immunity effect of upper respiratory tract was higher than that of lower respiratory tract. But comparing with non-liposome vaccine ,liposome performs well on lower respiratory tract in terms of adjuvant effect.%目的 考察H3N2单价流感疫苗脂质体诱发呼吸道黏膜免疫的效果,并比较呼吸道不同部位产生抗体水平的差异.方法 将实验小鼠分为非脂质体疫苗原液组、脂质体疫苗冻干粉组、阳性对照和阴性对照组(n=5).非脂质体疫苗原液组和脂质体疫苗冻干粉组各以每只4 μg和6 μg血凝素含量(H3N2亚型)滴鼻免疫,同时以非脂质体疫苗原液腹腔给药和脂质体疫苗冻干

  11. Determination of moisture content in lyophilized mannitol through intact glass vials using NIR micro-spectrometers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristian Rodrigo Muzzio

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Determination of moisture content in lyophilized solids is fundamental to predict quality and stability of freeze-dried products, but conventional methods are time-consuming, invasive and destructive. The aim of this study was to develop and optimize a fast, inexpensive, noninvasive and nondestructive method for determination of moisture content in lyophilized mannitol, based on an NIR micro-spectrometer instead of a conventional NIR spectrometer. Measurements of lyophilized mannitol were performed through the bottom of rotating glass vials by means of a reflectance probe. The root mean standard error of prediction (RMSEP and the correlation coefficient (R²pred, yielded by the pre-treatments and calibration method proposed, was 0.233% (w/w and 0.994, respectively.A determinação do conteúdo de umidade em sólidos liofilizados é fundamental para se prever a qualidade e a estabilidade de produtos liofilizados, mas os métodos convencionais consomem muito tempo, são invasivos e destrutivos. O objetivo desse estudo foi desenvolver e otimizar um método rápido, econômico, não invasivo e não destrutivo para a determinação do conteúdo de umidade em manitol liofilizado, com base em microespectrômetro de infravermelho próximo ao invés de um espectrômetro de infravermelho próximo convencional. As medidas de manitol liofilizado foram realizadas através do fundo de recipiente de vidro em rotação por meio de sonda de reflectância. A raíz do erro médio padrão de predição (RMSEP e o coeficiente de correlação (R²pred obtidos pelo prétratamento e pelo método de calibração proposto foram, respectivamente, 0,233% (p/p e 0,994.

  12. Lyophilized phytosomal nanocarriers as platforms for enhanced diosmin delivery: optimization and ex vivo permeation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Freag MS

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available May S Freag, Yosra SR Elnaggar, Ossama Y AbdallahDepartment of Pharmaceutics, Faculty of Pharmacy, Alexandria University, Alexandria, EgyptAbstract: Diosmin (DSN is an outstanding phlebotonic flavonoid with a tolerable potential for the treatment of colon and hepatocellular carcinoma. Being highly insoluble, DSN bioavailability suffers from high inter-subject variation due to variable degrees of permeation. This work endeavored to develop novel DSN loaded phytosomes in order to improve drug dissolution and intestinal permeability. Three preparation methods (solvent evaporation, salting out, and lyophilization were compared. Nanocarrier optimization encompassed different soybean phospholipid (SPC types, different solvents, and different DSN:SPC molar ratios (1:1, 1:2, and 1:4. In vitro appraisal encompassed differential scanning calorimetry, infrared spectroscopy, particle size, zeta potential, polydispersity index, transmission electron microscopy, drug content, and in vitro stability. Comparative dissolution studies were performed under sink versus non-sink conditions. Ex vivo intestinal permeation studies were performed on rats utilizing noneverted sac technique and high-performance liquid chromatography analysis. The results revealed lyophilization as the optimum preparation technique using SPC and solvent mixture (Dimethyl sulphoxide:t-butylalchol in a 1:2 ratio. Complex formation was contended by differential scanning calorimetry and infrared data. Optimal lyophilized phytosomal nanocarriers (LPNs exhibited the lowest particle size (316 nm, adequate zeta-potential (−27 mV, and good in vitro stability. Well formed, discrete vesicles were revealed by transmission electron microscopy, drug content, and in vitro stability. Comparative dissolution studies were performed. LPNs demonstrated significant enhancement in DSN dissolution compared to crude drug, physical mixture, and generic and brand DSN products. Permeation studies revealed 80% DSN

  13. Use of natural antioxidants from lyophilized water extracts of Borago officinalis in dry fermented sausages enriched in ω-3 PUFA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciriano, Mikel García-Iñiguez de; García-Herreros, Cecilia; Larequi, Eduardo; Valencia, Idoia; Ansorena, Diana; Astiasarán, Iciar

    2009-10-01

    An evaluation of the capacity of a lyophilized water extract of borage leaves to delay the lipid oxidation process in dry fermented sausages enriched with ω-3 PUFAs has been performed. Lyophilized extract (340ppm) showed an antioxidant capacity equivalent to 200ppm of a butylhydroxyanisol (BHA) and butylhydroxytoluene (BHT) mixture. Two batches of dry fermented sausages enriched in ω-3 PUFA were developed. One of them was supplemented with a synthetic antioxidants mixture (200ppm of BHA+BHT) and the other one with natural antioxidants (340ppm of lyophilized water extract of borage leaves). Furthermore, a traditional formulation of this type of dry fermented sausage (Control), was also manufactured. The natural extract gave rise to lower amount of volatile compounds (including hexanal), than the mixture of synthetic antioxidants (2202 and 2713ng dodecane/g dry matter, respectively). TBARS and Cholesterol Oxidation Products (COPs) did not show significant differences between products with different antioxidants. The sensorial analysis showed that lyophilized water extracts of borage leaves did not affect the sensorial properties of the products. From the economical and safety standpoints, the use of a by-product (borage leaves) and water as extracting solvent are valuable alternatives for obtaining natural antioxidants to be added to dry fermented sausages enriched in ω-3 PUFA.

  14. GLYCOHEMOGLOBIN - COMPARISON OF 12 ANALYTICAL METHODS, APPLIED TO LYOPHILIZED HEMOLYSATES BY 101 LABORATORIES IN AN EXTERNAL QUALITY ASSURANCE PROGRAM

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    WEYKAMP, CW; PENDERS, TJ; MUSKIET, FAJ; VANDERSLIK, W

    1993-01-01

    Stable lyophilized ethylenediaminetetra-acetic acid (EDTA)-blood haemolysates were applied in an external quality assurance programme (SKZL, The Netherlands) for glycohaemoglobin assays in 101 laboratories using 12 methods. The mean intralaboratory day-to-day coefficient of variation (CV), calculate

  15. Using the fluorescence red edge effect to assess the long-term stability of lyophilized protein formulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, Ken K; Grobelny, Pawel J; Tyagi, Madhusudan; Cicerone, Marcus T

    2015-04-06

    Nanosecond relaxation processes in sugar matrices are causally linked through diffusional processes to protein stability in lyophilized formulations. Long-term protein degradation rates track mean-squared displacement (⟨u(2)⟩) of hydrogen atoms in sugar glasses, a parameter describing dynamics on a time scale of picoseconds to nanoseconds. However, measurements of ⟨u(2)⟩ are usually performed by neutron scattering, which is not conducive to rapid formulation screening in early development. Here, we present a benchtop technique to derive a ⟨u(2)⟩ surrogate based on the fluorescence red edge effect. Glycerol, lyophilized trehalose, and lyophilized sucrose were used as model systems. Samples containing 10(-6) mole fraction of rhodamine 6G, a fluorophore, were excited at either 532 nm (main peak) or 566 nm (red edge), and the ⟨u(2)⟩ surrogate was determined based the corresponding Stokes shifts. Results showed reasonable agreement between ⟨u(2)⟩ from neutron scattering and the surrogate from fluorescence, although deviations were observed at very low temperatures. We discuss the sources of the deviations and suggest technique improvements to ameliorate these. We expect that this method will be a valuable tool to evaluate lyophilized sugar matrices with respect to their ability to protect proteins from diffusion-limited degradation processes during long-term storage. Additionally, the method may have broader applications in amorphous pharmaceutical solids.

  16. Pluronic F68 enhanced the conformational stability of salmon calcitonin in both aqueous solution and lyophilized solid form.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Ting-Huei; Lin, Shan-Yang

    2011-11-01

    The effects of different surfactants on the conformational stability and structural similarity of salmon calcitonin (sCT) in aqueous solution and lyophilized forms were investigated by using microscopic Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy with second-derivative spectral analysis. Six surfactants, HCO-60, sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS), Tween 80, PEG 400, Pluronic 68, and F127 were selected. The sCT aqueous solution with or without different surfactants was, respectively, incubated at 40°C for up to 35 h. sCT films were casted on the CaF(2) plates and IR spectra were collected as a function of incubation time. Second derivative analysis showed that the native sCT having a major α-helical structure was gradually changed to the combination of α-helix, random coil, and β-sheet conformations in aqueous solution at 40°C. Similar conformational changes with delayed β-sheet formation were obtained for sCT after co-incubation with all the surfactants except Pluronic F68. When the native sCT was freeze-dried alone, a marked conformational alteration was found as illustrated by a poor spectral correlation coefficient (r) value of 0.823 as compared to that of the unlyophilized native sCT. This r value was significantly deviated from 1, strongly indicating the influence of lyophilization stress on the surfactant-free sCT. The r value for sCT after lyophilizing with HCO-60, Pluronic F127, PEG 400, or Pluronic F68 was >0.9, suggesting the possible stabilization of these surfactants in the lyophilization process. The sCT sample after lyophilizing with Pluronic F68 showed a highest r value (>0.968), indicating the most optimal stabilization effect of Pluronic F68 for sCT sample via lyophilization. Pluronic F68 was found to be the preferential surfactant for preventing the secondary structure changes in aqueous solution at 40°C as well as in lyophilized powder.

  17. Photolytic Cross-Linking to Probe Protein-Protein and Protein-Matrix Interactions in Lyophilized Powders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iyer, Lavanya K; Moorthy, Balakrishnan S; Topp, Elizabeth M

    2015-09-08

    Protein structure and local environment in lyophilized formulations were probed using high-resolution solid-state photolytic cross-linking with mass spectrometric analysis (ssPC-MS). In order to characterize structure and microenvironment, protein-protein, protein-excipient, and protein-water interactions in lyophilized powders were identified. Myoglobin (Mb) was derivatized in solution with the heterobifunctional probe succinimidyl 4,4'-azipentanoate (SDA) and the structural integrity of the labeled protein (Mb-SDA) confirmed using CD spectroscopy and liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry (LC-MS). Mb-SDA was then formulated with and without excipients (raffinose, guanidine hydrochloride (Gdn HCl)) and lyophilized. The freeze-dried powder was irradiated with ultraviolet light at 365 nm for 30 min to produce cross-linked adducts that were analyzed at the intact protein level and after trypsin digestion. SDA-labeling produced Mb carrying up to five labels, as detected by LC-MS. Following lyophilization and irradiation, cross-linked peptide-peptide, peptide-water, and peptide-raffinose adducts were detected. The exposure of Mb side chains to the matrix was quantified based on the number of different peptide-peptide, peptide-water, and peptide-excipient adducts detected. In the absence of excipients, peptide-peptide adducts involving the CD, DE, and EF loops and helix H were common. In the raffinose formulation, peptide-peptide adducts were more distributed throughout the molecule. The Gdn HCl formulation showed more protein-protein and protein-water adducts than the other formulations, consistent with protein unfolding and increased matrix interactions. The results demonstrate that ssPC-MS can be used to distinguish excipient effects and characterize the local protein environment in lyophilized formulations with high resolution.

  18. Dielectric properties of residual water in amorphous lyophilized mixtures of sugar and drug

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moznine, R El [School of Pharmacy, De Montfort University, Leiceste (United Kingdom); Smith, G [School of Pharmacy, De Montfort University, Leicester (United Kingdom); Polygalov, E [School of Pharmacy, De Montfort University, Leicester (United Kingdom); Suherman, P M [School of Pharmacy, De Montfort University, Leicester (United Kingdom); Broadhead, J [AstraZeneca Charnwood R and D, Bakewell Rd, Loughborough (United Kingdom)

    2003-02-21

    Dielectric relaxation spectroscopy was used to investigate the properties of residual water in lyophilized formulations of a proprietary tri-phosphate drug containing a sugar (trehalose, lactose or sucrose) or dextran. The dielectric properties of each formulation were determined in the frequency range (0.1 Hz-0.1 MHz) and temperature range (30 deg. C-T{sub g}). The temperature dependence of the relaxation times for all samples showed Arrhenuis behaviour, from which the activation energy was derived. Proton hopping through the hydrogen-bonded network (clusters) of water molecules was suggested as the principle mode of charge transport. Significant differences in dielectric relaxation kinetics and activation energy were observed for the different formulations, which were found to correlate with the amount of monophosphate degradation product.

  19. Preparation and evaluation of (99m)Tc-DMSA lyophilized kit for renal imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jan, Syed Umer; Abbass, Hafiz Ghulam

    2013-05-01

    Dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA) has been evaluated and used with technetium 99m ((99m)Tc) in imaging of kidneys. DMSA lyophilized kits were prepared and radiolabelled with (99m)Tc. Paper and thin-layer chromatography have been employed using various eluent systems for the radiochemical analysis, percentage labeling and binding capacity of (99m)Tc-DMSA. Female albino rabbits were used for this study. Biological data obtained after intravenous injection of radiolabelled DMSA to female albino rabbits revealed 32.42% uptake and long retention time in the kidneys. On the basis of animal biodistribution data, it is suggested that DMSA when labeled with (99m)Tc is useful complex for renal imaging and can be successfully applied as a diagnostic tool in nuclear medicine. Clinical biodistribution and radiation dosimetry studies are planned in future.

  20. A lyophilized red grape pomace containing proanthocyanidin-rich dietary fiber induces genetic and metabolic alterations in colon mucosa of female C57BL/6J mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lizarraga, Daneida; Vinardell, M Pilar; Noé, Véronique; van Delft, Joost H; Alcarraz-Vizán, Gema; van Breda, Simone G; Staal, Yvonne; Günther, Ulrich L; Carrigan, John B; Reed, Michelle A; Ciudad, Carlos J; Torres, Josep L; Cascante, Marta

    2011-09-01

    Diet plays a decisive role in promoting or preventing colon cancer. However, the specific effects of some nutrients remain unclear. The capacity of fruit and vegetables to prevent cancer has been associated with their fiber and antioxidant composition. We investigated whether consumption of a lyophilized red grape pomace containing proanthocyanidin-rich dietary fiber (grape antioxidant dietary fiber, GADF) by female C57BL/6J mice would affect the serum metabolic profile or colon mucosa gene expression using NMR techniques and DNA microarray, respectively. The mice were randomly assigned to 2 groups that for 2 wk consumed a standard rodent diet and were gavaged with 100 mg/kg body weight GADF suspended in water or an equivalent volume of plain tap water (10 mL/kg body weight). The amount of fiber supplemented was calculated to equal the current recommended daily levels of fiber consumption for humans. The inclusion of dietary GADF induced alterations in the expression of tumor suppressor genes and proto-oncogenes as well as the modulation of genes from pathways, including lipid biosynthesis, energy metabolism, cell cycle, and apoptosis. Overexpression of enzymes pertaining to the xenobiotic detoxifying system and endogenous antioxidant cell defenses was also observed. In summary, the genetic and metabolic profiles induced by GADF were consistent with the preventive effects of fiber and polyphenols. On the basis of these observations, we propose that GADF may contribute to reducing the risk of colon cancer.

  1. Alpha-2-Macroglobulin Is Acutely Sensitive to Freezing and Lyophilization: Implications for Structural and Functional Studies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amy R Wyatt

    Full Text Available Alpha-2-macroglobulin is an abundant secreted protein that is of particular interest because of its diverse ligand binding profile and multifunctional nature, which includes roles as a protease inhibitor and as a molecular chaperone. The activities of alpha-2-macroglobulin are typically dependent on whether its conformation is native or transformed (i.e. adopts a more compact conformation after interactions with proteases or small nucleophiles, and are also influenced by dissociation of the native alpha-2-macroglobulin tetramer into stable dimers. Alpha-2-macroglobulin is predominately present as the native tetramer in vivo; once purified from human blood plasma, however, alpha-2-macroglobulin can undergo a number of conformational changes during storage, including transformation, aggregation or dissociation. We demonstrate that, particularly in the presence of sodium chloride or amine containing compounds, freezing and/or lyophilization of alpha-2-macroglobulin induces conformational changes with functional consequences. These conformational changes in alpha-2-macroglobulin are not always detected by standard native polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, but can be measured using bisANS fluorescence assays. Increased surface hydrophobicity of alpha-2-macroglobulin, as assessed by bisANS fluorescence measurements, is accompanied by (i reduced trypsin binding activity, (ii increased chaperone activity, and (iii increased binding to the surfaces of SH-SY5Y neurons, in part, via lipoprotein receptors. We show that sucrose (but not glycine effectively protects native alpha-2-macroglobulin from denaturation during freezing and/or lyophilization, thereby providing a reproducible method for the handling and long-term storage of this protein.

  2. Stability study and lyophilization of vitamin E-loaded nanocapsules prepared by membrane contactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khayata, N; Abdelwahed, W; Chehna, M F; Charcosset, C; Fessi, H

    2012-12-15

    In this research, we studied the accelerated stability of vitamin E-loaded nanocapsules (NCs) prepared by the nanoprecipitation method. Vitamin E-loaded NCs were optimized firstly at the laboratory scale and then scaled up using the membrane contactor technique. The optimum conditions of the membrane contactor preparation (pilot scale) produced vitamin E-loaded NCs with an average size of 253 nm, polydispersity index 0.19 and a zeta potential -16 mV. The average size, polydispersity index and zeta potential values were 185 nm, 0.12 and -15 mV, respectively for the NCs prepared at laboratory scale. No significant changes were noticed in these values after 3 and 6 months of storage at high temperature (40±2 °C) and relative humidity (75±5%) in spite of vitamin E sensitivity to light, heat and oxygen. The entrapment efficiency of NCs prepared at pilot scale was 97% at the beginning of the stability study, and became (95%, 59%) after 3 and 6 months of storage, respectively. These values at lab-scale were (98%, 96%, and 89%) at time zero and after 3 and 6 months of storage, respectively. This confirms the ability of vitamin E encapsulation to preserve its stability, which is one major goal of our work. Lyophilization of the optimized formula at lab-scale was also performed. Four types of cryoprotectants were tested (poly(vinyl pyrrolidone), sucrose, mannitol, and glucose). Freeze-dried NCs prepared with sucrose were found acceptable. The other lyophilized NCs obtained at different conditions presented large aggregates.

  3. Impurities in a lyophilized formulation of BMS-204352: identification and role of sanitizing agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nassar, Munir N; Nesarikar, Vishwas V; Khaselev, Nona; Lozano, Ruben

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify two impurities in the parenteral lyophilized formulation of BMS-204352, investigate the role of sanitizing agents as their potential source, evaluate their effect on drug product stability, and develop a strategy to prevent their contamination of the drug product. The two impurities were identified as o-phenylphenol and 4-t-amylphenol based on liquid chromatography/mass spectroscopy (LC/MS) and chromatographic comparison to authentic samples. The LC/MS spectra of commercially available o-phenylphenol and 4-t-amylphenol showed identical patterns of fragmentation and the same retention times as the impurities identified in the BMS-204352 lyophilized product. Levels of these impurities were low and ranged between 0.2-0.3 microg/vial as determined by HPLC and using an authentic external reference standard. To confirm the hypothesis that the commercial sanitizing agents used in the sterile area were the source of these phenolic impurities, several product samples were spiked with the sanitizing agents. Both o-phenylphenol and 4-t-amylphenol were detected in the spiked samples. Further investigation revealed that o-phenylphenol and 4-t-amylphenol are active ingredients of these commercial sanitizing agents. Drug product samples containing the phenolic impurities showed no potency loss following storage at 30, 50, and 70 degrees C indicating these impurities had no adverse effect on product stability. These studies suggest that sanitizing agents used in the sterile area, although may be present at trace levels below typical cleaning procedure detection methods, need to be properly controlled and closely monitored during the manufacturing of injectable products, particularly highly potent drugs. Sanitizing agents, even though not used on product contact surfaces, may potentially contaminate a product through vapor transfer in an open environment.

  4. Effects of ionizing radiation on proteins in demineralized, lyophilized or frozen human bone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Antebi, Uri; Mathor, Monica B., E-mail: uri@usp.br, E-mail: mathor@ipen.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Guimaraes, Rodrigo P., E-mail: clinicaguimaraes@gmail.com [Santa Casa de Sao Paulo (FCM/SCSP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Ciencias Medicas

    2015-07-01

    The aim is the study of the application of ionizing radiation (gamma and electron) as sterilizing agents at doses of 15 kGy, 25 kGy and 50 kGy, the demineralized bone tissue frozen and freeze-dried for use in transplants. Five human femoral diaphysis of different donors demineralized bone tissues were preserved as lyophilized or frozen at - 80 deg C. The samples were divided into non-irradiated groups (control) and irradiated by gamma rays or electron beam. The bone proteins were extracted and used to determine the concentrations of total protein, BMP 2 and 7. It was observed a decrease in total protein concentrations, and BMP 2 and 7. The decrease in total protein concentrations, as compared to respective control groups was significant in the lyophilized and frozen samples irradiated at a dose of 50 kGy gamma radiation and beam electrons with greater than 30% reduction. The significant decrease in the levels of BMP 2 and 7 were also observed in higher doses and especially by electron beam. The reductions in the concentrations of total protein and osteoinductive proteins (BMP 2 and 7), were related to the radiation dose, i.e., increase with higher doses of ionizing radiation type and the type of preservation of the bones. The largest reductions in concentrations were observed in bone irradiated by electron beam and at a dose of 50 kGy. But this type of radiation and this high dose are not usual practice for the sterilization of bone tissue. Keywords: demineralized bone tissue, ionizing radiation, Tissue Bank, BMP 2, BMP 7, bone proteins. (author)

  5. The freezing step in lyophilization: physico-chemical fundamentals, freezing methods and consequences on process performance and quality attributes of biopharmaceuticals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasper, Julia Christina; Friess, Wolfgang

    2011-06-01

    Lyophilization is a common, but cost-intensive, drying process to achieve protein formulations with long-term stability. In the past, typical process optimization has focused on the drying steps and the freezing step was rather ignored. However, the freezing step is an equally important step in lyophilization, as it impacts both process performance and product quality. While simple in concept, the freezing step is presumably the most complex step in lyophilization. Therefore, in order to get a more comprehensive understanding of the processes that occur during freezing, the physico-chemical fundamentals of freezing are first summarized. The available techniques that can be used to manipulate or directly control the freezing process in lyophilization are also reviewed. In addition, the consequences of the freezing step on quality attributes, such as sample morphology, physical state of the product, residual moisture content, reconstitution time, and performance of the primary and secondary drying phase, are discussed. A special focus is given to the impact of the freezing process on protein stability. This review aims to provide the reader with an awareness of not only the importance but also the complexity of the freezing step in lyophilization and its impact on quality attributes of biopharmaceuticals and process performance. With a deeper understanding of freezing and the possibility to directly control or at least manipulate the freezing behavior, more efficient lyophilization cycles can be developed, and the quality and stability of lyophilized biopharmaceuticals can be improved. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Photo-dynamics of the lyophilized photo-activated adenylate cyclase NgPAC2 from the amoeboflagellate Naegleria gruberi NEG-M strain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Penzkofer, A., E-mail: alfons.penzkofer@physik.uni-regensburg.de [Fakultät für Physik, Universität Regensburg, Universitätsstrasse 31, D-93053 Regensburg (Germany); Tanwar, M.; Veetil, S.K.; Kateriya, S. [Department of Biochemistry, University of Delhi South Campus, Benito Juarez Road, New Delhi 110021 (India); Stierl, M.; Hegemann, P. [Institut für Biologie/Experimentelle Biophysik, Humboldt Universität zu Berlin, Invalidenstrasse 42, D-10115 Berlin (Germany)

    2013-09-23

    Highlights: • Lyophilizing of NgPAC2 from Naegleria gruberi caused loss of BLUF domain activity. • Photo-induced tyrosine to flavin electron transfer in lyophilized NgPAC2. • Photo-induced Tyr–Tyr cross-linking to o,o′-dityrosine in lyophilized NgPAC2. • Photo-induced partial flavin cofactor reduction in lyophilized NgPAC2. • Two NgPAC2 conformations with fast and slow photo-induced electron transfer. - Abstract: The absorption and emission spectroscopic behavior of lyophilized photo-activated adenylate cyclase NgPAC2 from the amoeboflagellate Naegleria gruberi NEG-M strain consisting of a BLUF domain (BLUF = Blue Light sensor Using Flavin) and a cyclase homology domain was studied in the dark, during blue-light exposure and after blue-light exposure at a temperature of 4 °C. The BLUF domain photo-cycle dynamics observed for snap-frozen NgPAC2 was lost by lyophilization (no signaling state formation with flavin absorption red-shift). Instead, blue-light photo-excitation of lyophilized NgPAC2 caused sterically restricted Tyr–Tyr cross-linking (o,o′-ditysosine formation) and partial flavin cofactor reduction.

  7. Evaluation of a reference material for glycated haemoglobin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weykamp, CW; Penders, TJ; Muskiet, FAJ; vanderSlik, W

    1996-01-01

    The use of lyophilized blood as a reference material for glycated haemoglobin was investigated with respect to IFCC criteria for calibrators and control materials. Ninety-two laboratories, using 11 methods, detected no changes in glycated haemoglobin content when the lyophilizate was stored for one

  8. Evaluation of a reference material for glycated haemoglobin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weykamp, CW; Penders, TJ; Muskiet, FAJ; vanderSlik, W

    The use of lyophilized blood as a reference material for glycated haemoglobin was investigated with respect to IFCC criteria for calibrators and control materials. Ninety-two laboratories, using 11 methods, detected no changes in glycated haemoglobin content when the lyophilizate was stored for one

  9. Preparation and quality evaluation of Sodium fusidate lyophilized powder%夫西地酸钠冻干粉的制备及质量评价

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马苗锐; 周立明; 张丽霞

    2015-01-01

    Sodium fusidate lyophilized powder was prepared by lyophilization,the stability was investigated. The Results showed that Sodium fusidate lyophilized powder had been stable at room temperater for 1 years. It was feasible for the clinical application.%采用冷冻干燥技术制备了较稳定的注射用夫西地酸钠冻干粉,并对其进行质量评价.结果表明:该制剂常温储存1年稳定性良好,工艺可行,是理想的临床用药.

  10. Influence of culture conditions and preconditioning on survival of Lactobacillus delbrueckii subspecies bulgaricus ND02 during lyophilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shao, Yuyu; Gao, Shuran; Guo, Huiling; Zhang, Heping

    2014-03-01

    The cryotolerance of Lactobacillus delbrueckii ssp. bulgaricus is weak during vacuum freeze-drying. Many factors affect cryoresistance of these bacteria, such as cryoprotectant composition, the lyophilization technology used, and the intrinsic characteristics of the bacteria. In this research, we explored the fermentation technology and other preconditioning treatments of cells in improving the cryoresistance of Lactobacillus delbrueckii ssp. bulgaricus strains during lyophilization. The addition of yeast extract in the propagation medium exerted a negative effect on the cryotolerance of these bacteria and decreased survival during lyophilization. The count of the freeze-dried cells from medium containing a high level (4%) of yeast extract was only 4.1 × 10(9) cfu/g, indicating a death rate as high as 88%, compared with the culture medium without yeast extract, with a lower death rate of 44.7%. When Lactobacillus delbrueckii ssp. bulgaricus ND02 was propagated in yeast extract-free de Man, Rogosa, and Sharpe broth at a set pH value of 5.1, the cells showed unexpectedly higher survival after freeze-drying. Viable counts of the lyophilized cell of strain ND02 cultivated at pH 5.1 could reach 1.05 × 10(11)cfu/g and survival of the freeze-drying process was 68.3%, whereas at pH 5.7, survival was only 51.2%. We also examined the effects of pretreatment of cells on survival of the bacteria after vacuum freeze-drying. By analyzing the effect of pretreatment conditions on the expression of cold- and heat-shock genes, we established 2 pretreatments that improved survival of cells after lyophilization. Optimal fermentation conditions and pretreatment of the cell-cryoprotectant mixture at 10°C for 2h or 37°C for 30 min improved the cryoresistance of 4 strains of Lactobacillus delbrueckii ssp. bulgaricus to varying degrees. Cells of IMAU20269 and IMAU20291 that were pretreated showed enhanced survival of 16.06 and 16.82%, respectively, after lyophilization. Expression of

  11. Osteointegração de enxertos liofilizados impactados Osteointegration of impacted lyophilized grafts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Roberto Galia

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Avaliar clínica e radiograficamente os resultados e a capacidade de osteointegração dos enxertos ósseos liofilizados humano e bovino impactados em revisões de artroplastia total de quadril (RATQ cimentadas e não-cimentadas. MÉTODOS: Coorte não concorrente de 63 pacientes (66 quadris submetidos à RATQ com enxerto ósseo liofilizado moído e impactado. O estudo foi realizado no Serviço de Ortopedia e Traumatologia do Hospital de Clínicas de Porto Alegre, entre maio/1997 e setembro/2004. Os pacientes foram divididos em dois grupos: Grupo 1 (n=35, enxerto de origem humana; Grupo 2 (n=31, enxerto de origem bovina. O tempo médio de seguimento foi de 59 meses. Os enxertos ósseos liofilizados foram produzidos segundo protocolo desenvolvido pelos autores. A análise clínica baseou-se no escore de Merle, d'Aubigné e Postel; a radiográfica, nos critérios de radioluscência, densidade, formação de trabeculado ósseo, migração dos componentes e floculação, formulando-se um escore radiográfico de osteointegração. RESULTADOS: Não foram encontradas diferenças clínicas ou radiográficas relevantes entre os grupos, obtendo-se em torno de 85% de integração do enxerto, tanto no componente acetabular quanto femoral. CONCLUSÕES: Os enxertos ósseos liofilizados de origem bovina ou humana, produzidos segundo este protocolo, não acarretaram nenhum prejuízo aos pacientes, tendo o enxerto bovino apresentado resultados similares ao humano.OBJECTIVE: The purpose of the study was to provide a clinical and X-ray based evaluation of the results and osteointegration ability of lyophilized human and bovine bone grafts. METHODS: This is a non-concurrent cohort trial of 63 patients (66 hips submitted to revision total hip arthroplasty (RTHA using impacted freeze-dried human and bovine cancellous bone grafts. The study was carried out in the Hospital de Clinicas de Porto Alegre from May 1997 to September 2002. The patients were divided

  12. Application of Optical Coherence Tomography Freeze-Drying Microscopy for Designing Lyophilization Process and Its Impact on Process Efficiency and Product Quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korang-Yeboah, Maxwell; Srinivasan, Charudharshini; Siddiqui, Akhtar; Awotwe-Otoo, David; Cruz, Celia N; Muhammad, Ashraf

    2017-08-07

    Optical coherence tomography freeze-drying microscopy (OCT-FDM) is a novel technique that allows the three-dimensional imaging of a drug product during the entire lyophilization process. OCT-FDM consists of a single-vial freeze dryer (SVFD) affixed with an optical coherence tomography (OCT) imaging system. Unlike the conventional techniques, such as modulated differential scanning calorimetry (mDSC) and light transmission freeze-drying microscopy, used for predicting the product collapse temperature (Tc), the OCT-FDM approach seeks to mimic the actual product and process conditions during the lyophilization process. However, there is limited understanding on the application of this emerging technique to the design of the lyophilization process. In this study, we investigated the suitability of OCT-FDM technique in designing a lyophilization process. Moreover, we compared the product quality attributes of the resulting lyophilized product manufactured using Tc, a critical process control parameter, as determined by OCT-FDM versus as estimated by mDSC. OCT-FDM analysis revealed the absence of collapse even for the low protein concentration (5 mg/ml) and low solid content formulation (1%w/v) studied. This was confirmed by lab scale lyophilization. In addition, lyophilization cycles designed using Tc values obtained from OCT-FDM were more efficient with higher sublimation rate and mass flux than the conventional cycles, since drying was conducted at higher shelf temperature. Finally, the quality attributes of the products lyophilized using Tc determined by OCT-FDM and mDSC were similar, and product shrinkage and cracks were observed in all the batches of freeze-dried products irrespective of the technique employed in predicting Tc.

  13. Caracterização físico-química do enxerto de osso bovino liofilizado Physicochemical characterization of lyophilized bovine bone grafts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Roberto Galia

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Avaliar as características físico-químicas do enxerto bovino liofilizado manufaturado em escala semi-industrial (OrthoGen, Baumer S/A* de acordo com protocolo previamente desenvolvido pelos autores. MÉTODOS: A caracterização do enxerto de osso bovino liofilizado foi feita por meio de microscopia eletrônica de varredura (MEV, energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS, difratometria de raios-X, análise por termogravimetria, análise de calorimetria exploratória diferencial (DSC e espectroscopia por infravermelho Fourier-transform (FT-IR. RESULTADOS: Ca foi o principal componente (60% encontrado nas amostras, seguido por P (28% e O (5%. O tamanho médio (dp dos poros foi 316µm (146,7, variando de 91,2 a 497,8µm, e 333,5µm (304,8, variando de 87,2 a 963,9µm com 50x e 150x magnificação, respectivamente. Picos de hidroxiapatita foram a 26ºC e 32ºC, e perda de massa foi observada entre 250ºC e 640ºC, correspondendo material orgânico e água. Duas transições de temperatura (45,67°C e 91,89°C mostraram desnaturação de colágeno tipo I e desidratação da hidroxiapatita. CONCLUSÃO: A avaliação físico-química do enxerto de osso bovino liofilizado, de acordo com o protocolo desenvolvido em escala semi-industrial, confirma que este produto apresenta excelente biocompatibilidade, com características semelhantes ao osso in natura.OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the physicochemical characteristics of lyophilized bovine grafts manufactured on a semi-industrial scale (Orthogen; Baumer S/A* in accordance with a protocol previously developed by the authors. METHODS: The lyophilized bovine bone grafts were characterized by means of scanning electron microscopy (SEM, energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS, X-ray diffractometry (XRD, thermogravimetric (TG analysis, differential exploratory scanning calorimetry (DSC and Fourier-transform infrared (FT-IR spectroscopy. RESULTS: Ca was the main component (60% found in the samples, followed by P (28

  14. Membranas biológicas homólogas preservadas em solução alcalina seguida de liofilização, glicerina a 98% e por liofilização para implantação em eqüinos Homologous biological membranes persevered in alkaline solution and lyophilized, glycerin 98% and by lyophilization for equines implantation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valcinir Aloisio Scolla Vulcani

    2008-08-01

    to evaluate physicist-chemistries alterations in equines diaphragmatic tendineous centers implants submitted to alkaline solution and lyophilization treatment. The samples had been treated in alkaline solution for 24, 48, 72, 120 and 144 hours and lyophilized. It was analyzed the homogeneity, flexibility and resistance to the suture. After that, they had been submitted to the differential scanner calorimetry and to the scanner electronic microscopy. Samples of 72 hours in alkaline treatment, conserved in glycerin 98% and only lyophilized were implanted in recto abdominis internal fascia of equines. They were removed one, nine and 18 weeks post-implantation to evaluate the existence of tacks. It was verified that the homogeneity and flexibility are directly proportional to the increase of time of treatment in alkaline solution while the resistance is inversely proportional to the time increase, being 72 hour treatment intermediate for these characteristics. The differential scanner calorimetry showed that the treatment do not denature the present collagen in samples. The electronic microscopy showed that the increase of treatment time provides expansion of less dense zones of the material. In relation to the formation of tacks, the samples only lyophilized had presented maximum degree in the proposal classification followed for the conserved in glycerin 98% samples with average degree and the treated in alkaline solution and lyophilized samples had been classified in minimum degree. It was concluded that the treatment for 72 hours would be more appropriate for implantation and that the tissue integration with abdominal wall was better in relation to the samples lyophilized only and to the conserved in glycerin ones.

  15. Evaluation of protein stability and in vitro permeation of lyophilized polysaccharides-based microparticles for intranasal protein delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Hyun-Jong; Balakrishnan, Prabagar; Chung, Suk-Jae; Shim, Chang-Koo; Kim, Dae-Duk

    2011-09-15

    Biocompatible microparticles prepared by lyophilization were developed for intranasal protein delivery. To test for the feasibility of this formulation, stability of the incorporated protein and enhancement of in vitro permeation across the nasal epithelium were evaluated. Lyophilization was processed with hydroxypropylmethylcellulose (HPMC) or water soluble chitosan (WCS) as biocompatible polymers, hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin (HP-β-CD) and d-alpha-tocopheryl poly(ethylene glycol 1000) succinate (TPGS 1000) as permeation enhancers, sugars as cryoprotectants and lysozyme as the model protein. As a result, microparticles ranging from 6 to 12μm were developed where the maintenance of the protein conformation was verified by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE), circular dichroism and fluorescence intensity detection. Moreover, in vitro bioassay showed that the lysozyme activity was preserved during the preparation process while exhibiting less cytotoxicity in primary human nasal epithelial (HNE) cells. Results of the in vitro release study revealed slower release rate in these microparticles compared to that of the lysozyme itself. On the other hand, the in vitro permeation study exhibited a 9-fold increase in absorption of lysozyme when prepared in lyophilized microparticles with HPMC, HP-β-CD and TPGS 1000 (F4-2). These microparticles could serve as efficient intranasal delivery systems for therapeutic proteins. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Hydrophobic ion pairing as a method for enhancing structure and activity of lyophilized subtilisin BPN' suspended in isooctane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kendrick, B S; Meyer, J D; Matsuura, J E; Carpenter, J F; Manning, M C

    1997-11-01

    The use of enzymes in low water environments permits reactions to occur that are difficult or impossible in aqueous solution. In this manner, proteases can be used to form, rather than hydrolyze, ester and amide linkages. Presumably, the native-like structure of the enzyme must remain intact for catalysis to transpire. However, little is known regarding the integrity of the overall structure of lyophilized proteins suspended in organic media. In this study, the structural changes that occur during the freeze-drying process and those effected by suspension in the organic solvent were examined. Using Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy, the secondary structure of lyophilized subtilisin BPN' was monitored and correlated to the level of enzymatic activity when suspended in isooctane. In addition, the ability of ionic detergents to stabilize subtilisin BPN' via ion pairing was evaluated. It was found that subtilisin unfolds to some degree during lyophilization, whether it is ion paired or not. Furthermore, there are structural changes observed when the enzyme is placed in isooctane, although the effects are less with ion-paired subtilisin. This higher level of retention of secondary structure results in increased enzymatic activity.

  17. FTIR study of secondary structure of bovine serum albumin and ovalbumin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abrosimova, K. V.; Shulenina, O. V.; Paston, S. V.

    2016-11-01

    Proteins structure is the critical factor for their functioning. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy provides a possibility to obtain information about secondary structure of proteins in different states and also in a whole biological samples. Infrared spectra of egg white from the untreated and hard-boiled hen's egg, and also of chicken ovalbumin and bovine serum albumin in lyophilic form and in aqueous solution were studied. Lyophilization of investigated globular proteins is accompanied by the decrease of a-helix structures and the increase in amount of intermolecular β-sheets. Analysis of infrared spectrum of egg white allowed to make an estimation of OVA secondary structure and to observe α-to-β structural transformation as a result of the heat denaturation.

  18. Effect of Freezing on Lyophilization Process Performance and Drug Product Cake Appearance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esfandiary, Reza; Gattu, Shravan K; Stewart, John M; Patel, Sajal M

    2016-04-01

    This study highlights the significance of the freezing step and the critical role it can play in modulating process performance and product quality during freeze-drying. For the model protein formulation evaluated, the mechanism of freezing had a significant impact on cake appearance, a potential critical product quality attribute for a lyophilized drug product. Contrary to common knowledge, a freezing step with annealing resulted in 20% increase in primary drying time compared to without annealing. In addition, annealing resulted in poor cake appearance with shrinkage, cracks, and formation of a distinct skin at the top surface of the cake. Finally, higher product resistance (7.5 cm(2).Torr.hr/g) was observed in the case of annealing compared to when annealing was not included (5 cm(2).Torr.hr/g), which explains the longer primary drying time due to reduced sublimation rates. An alternative freezing option using controlled ice nucleation resulted in reduced primary drying time (i.e., 30% reduction compared to annealing) and a more homogenous batch with elegant uniform (i.e., significantly improved) cake appearance. Here, a mechanistic understanding of the distinct differences in cake appearance as a function of freezing mechanism is proposed within the context of ice nucleation temperature, ice crystal growth, and presumed solute distribution within the frozen matrix.

  19. Spray freeze drying as an alternative technique for lyophilization of polymeric and lipid-based nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Mohamed Ehab; Lamprecht, Alf

    2017-01-10

    The use of nanoparticles for drug delivery is still restricted by their limited stability when stored in an aqueous medium. Freeze drying is the standard method for long-term storage of colloidal nanoparticles; however the method needs to be elaborated for each formulation. Spray freeze drying (SFD) is proposed here as a promising alternative for lyophilizing colloidal nanoparticles. Different types of polymeric and lipid nanoparticles were prepared and characterized. Afterwards, samples were spray freeze dried by spraying into a column of cold air with a constant concentration of different cryoprotectants, and the frozen spherules were collected for further freeze drying. Similar samples were prepared using the commonly used technique, freeze drying, as controls. Using SFD, fast-dissolving, spherical and porous nanocomposite microparticles with remarkably high flowability (CI≤10) were produced. On the contrary to similar samples prepared using the freeze drying technique, the investigated polymeric and lipid nanoparticles were completely reconstituted (Sf/Si ratio nanoparticles. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Neuroprotective Effect of Xueshuantong for Injection (Lyophilized in Transient and Permanent Rat Cerebral Ischemia Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xumei Wang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Xueshuantong for Injection (Lyophilized (XST, a Chinese Materia Medica standardized product extracted from Panax notoginseng (Burk., is used extensively for the treatment of cerebrovascular diseases such as acutely cerebral infarction clinically in China. In the present study, we evaluated the acute and extended protective effects of XST in different rat cerebral ischemic model and explored its effect on peroxiredoxin (Prx 6-toll-like receptor (TLR 4 signaling pathway. We found that XST treatment for 3 days could significantly inhibit transient middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO induced infarct volume and swelling percent and regulate the mRNA expression of interleukin-1β (IL-1β, IL-17, IL-23p19, tumor necrosis factor-α (TNFα, and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS in brain. Further study demonstrated that treatment with XST suppressed the protein expression of peroxiredoxin (Prx 6-toll-like receptor (TLR 4 and phosphorylation level of p38 and upregulated the phosphorylation level of STAT3. In permanent MCAO rats, XST could reduce the infarct volume and swelling percent. Moreover, our results revealed that XST treatment could increase the rats’ weight and improve a batch of functional outcomes. In conclusion, the present data suggested that XST could protect against ischemia injury in transient and permanent MCAO rats, which might be related to Prx6-TLR4 pathway.

  1. Product and process understanding to relate the effect of freezing method on glycation and aggregation of lyophilized monoclonal antibody formulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Awotwe-Otoo, David; Agarabi, Cyrus; Read, Erik K; Lute, Scott; Brorson, Kurt A; Khan, Mansoor A

    2015-07-25

    The objective of the study was to analyze the effect of controlled and uncontrolled freezing step of a lyophilization process on the extent of non-enzymatic glycation and aggregation of an IgG1 formulation at two concentrations (1mg/ml and 20mg/ml). The degree of glycation (%) was determined through boronate affinity chromatography and its effect on the formation of soluble aggregates and higher molecular weight species was studied using dynamic light scattering (DLS) and size exclusion chromatography with multi-angle light scattering (SEC-MALS). The effect of non-enzymatic glycation on the secondary structure of the formulations was also studied using circular dichroism (CD) spectroscopy and Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy. Results indicated that controlled nucleation yielded higher residual moisture contents and significantly lower specific surface areas for the two monoclonal antibody concentrations compared with uncontrolled nucleation cycle (p<0.05). For the two concentrations, uncontrolled nucleation resulted in significantly higher levels of glycation compared with controlled nucleation samples (p<0.05). Further, it was observed that higher storage temperatures (25°C/60% RH) versus 5°C resulted in higher glycation. Even though SEC-MALS analyses of the low concentrated formulations did not reveal the formation of higher molecular weight species, DLS analyses at two storage conditions revealed increases in the hydrodynamic radii and polydispersity index of the reconstituted formulations, suggesting the onset of formation of smaller species in the formulations. CD spectroscopy did not reveal any differences in the secondary structure of the mAb for the two concentrations after lyophilization. In conclusion, the freezing step method impacted the extent of glycation in lyophilized samples and the hydrolyzed component of sucrose was critical for increasing glycation. Even though some level of glycation was observed in lyophilized samples, the

  2. Efeitos hemostático e estrutural da esponja de celulose liofilizada Hemostatic and structural effects of lyophilized cellulose sponge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LUÍS RENATO MELLO

    1998-09-01

    fagocitose, fato este ainda não relatado na literatura.Hemostatic effects of oxidized cellulose (Surgicel are well known. Based on a possible similar effect of a sponge obtained after lyophilization of biosynthetic cellulose, two different experimental studies were planned. Phase I - Pieces of cellulose sponge were inserted into small provoked cortical wounds of twelve dogs. The time elapsed to obtain bloodstill after cortical damage and application of cellulose was observed in every dog, searching to detect any possible hemostatic effect of the material. The animals were sacrificed after 7, 30 and 90 days. An average time of 1 minute was elapsed until bleeding control was achieved. No clinical adverse effect was noticed. Microscopy showed histiocytic and mild foreign body reaction at 7 days, which diminished at 30 days. Almost no reaction surrounded the implant at 90 days. Lyophilized cellulose has a peculiar eosinophilic appearance, composed by thin irregular filaments which diminished their thickness with the time. At 90 days only sparse irregular cellulose filaments could be detected. Phase II - Small equal sponge fragments were inserted in the liver of twelve rats and observed 7, 30 and 90 days. At autopsy, small peritoneal adhesions were noticed at 30 and 90 days. Microscopy showed intense histioplasmocytic and foreign body reaction in all animals mainly at 7 days. In two animals, refringent intracellular cellulose particles were evident inside giant foreign body cells after 90 days. This fact evidences that cellulose can be reabsorbed by phagocytic phenomena when implanted in mammalians. A comparative group with other hemostatic material and the same method must be done to clarify the issue of hemostatic effects of this membrane.

  3. Serum sickness

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the problem should be stopped. Avoid using that medicine or antiserum in the future. ... Call your provider if you received medicine or antiserum in the last 4 weeks and have symptoms of serum sickness.

  4. Microbial profile of a kefir sample preparations: grains in natura and lyophilized and fermented suspension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafaela Strada de Oliveira Bergmann

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Probiotics are supplementary foods developed by microbial strains that improve animal health beyond basic nutrition. Probiotics are consumed orally, regardless of being considered as normal inhabitants of the intestines, able to survive in enzimatic and biliary secretions. Kefir is a probiotic originated from the old continent, fermented by several bacteria and yeasts, encapsulated in a polyssacharide matrix, and resembles jelly grains. Kefir is also presented as its sourish product both in sugary or milky suspensions containing vitamins, aminoacids, peptides, carbohydrates, ethanol, and volatile compounds. Kefir is known to have a diverse microbial content depending on the country and fermentative substrates, which cause distinct probiotic effects. In this sense, the purpose of this work was to isolate, identify, and quantify the microbial content of a native sugary kefir sample (fermented suspension and lyophilized natural grains. Serial dilutions were plated on Rogosa agar (AR and De Man, Rogosa and Sharpe (MRS, for Lactobacillus; Brain Heart Infusion (BHI, for total bacteria; Sabouraud-Dextrose-Agar (SDA, for yeasts and filamentous fungi; Thioglycolate Agar (TA, for Streptococcus, Acetobacteria and Leuconostoc; and Coconut Water Agar (CWA, and CWA supplemented with yeast extract (CWAY, for various genera. Genera and species for all strains were identified through biochemical reactions and specific API systems. The microbial profile of kefir was different from other sources of grains despite the presence of similar microorganisms and others which have not been reported yet. The data obtained with the CWA and CWAE media suggest that both substrates are alternative and salutary media for culture of kefir strains.

  5. Lyophilized mucoadhesive-dendrimer enclosed matrix tablet for extended oral delivery of albendazole.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansuri, Shakir; Kesharwani, Prashant; Tekade, Rakesh Kumar; Jain, Narendra Kumar

    2016-05-01

    Dendrimers are multifunctional carriers widely employed for delivering drugs in a variety of disease conditions including HIV/AIDS and cancer. Albendazole (ABZ) is a commonly used anthelmintic drug in human as well as veterinary medicine. In this investigation, ABZ was formulated as a "muco-dendrimer" based sustained released tablet. The mucoadhesive complex was synthesized by anchoring chitosan to fifth generation PPI dendrimer (Muco-PPI) and characterized by UV, FTIR, (1)H NMR spectroscopy and electron microscopy. ABZ was entrapped inside Muco-PPI followed by lyophilization and tableting as matrix tablet. A half-life (t1/2) of 8.06±0.15, 8.17±0.47, 11.04±0.73, 11.49±0.92, 12.52±1.04 and 16.9±1.18h was noted for ABZ (free drug), conventional ABZ tablet (F1), conventional ABZ matrix tablet (F2), PPI-ABZ complex, PPI-ABZ matrix tablet (F3) and Muco-PPI-ABZ matrix tablet (F4), respectively. Thus the novel mucoadhesive-PPI based formulation of ABZ (F4) increased the t1/2 of ABZ significantly by almost twofold as compared to the administration of free drug. The in vivo drug release data showed that the Muco-PPI based formulations have a significantly higher Cmax (2.40±0.02μg/mL) compared with orally administered free ABZ (0.19±0.07μg/mL) as well as conventional tablet (0.20±0.05μg/mL). In addition, the Muco-PPI-ABZ matrix tablet displayed increased mean residence time (MRT) and is therefore a potential candidate to appreciably improve the pharmacokinetic profile of ABZ.

  6. Achieving long-term stability of lipid nanoparticles: examining the effect of pH, temperature, and lyophilization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ball, Rebecca L; Bajaj, Palak; Whitehead, Kathryn A

    2017-01-01

    The broadest clinical application of siRNA therapeutics will be facilitated by drug-loaded delivery systems that maintain stability and potency for long times under ambient conditions. In the present study, we seek to better understand the stability and effect of storage conditions on lipidoid nanoparticles (LNPs), which have been previously shown by our group and others to potently deliver RNA to various cell and organ targets both in vitro and in vivo. Specifically, this study evaluates the influence of pH, temperature, and lyophilization on LNP efficacy in HeLa cells. When stored under aqueous conditions, we found that refrigeration (2°C) kept LNPs the most stable over 150 days compared to storage in the −20°C freezer or at room temperature. Because the pH of the storage buffer was not found to influence stability, it is suggested that the LNPs be stored under physiologically appropriate conditions (pH 7) for ease of use. Although aggregation and loss of efficacy were observed when LNPs were subjected to freeze–thaw cycles, their stability was retained with the use of the cryoprotectants, trehalose, and sucrose. Initially, lyophilization of the LNPs followed by reconstitution in aqueous buffer also led to reductions in efficacy, most likely due to aggregation upon reconstitution. Although the addition of ethanol to the reconstitution buffer restored efficacy, this approach is not ideal, as LNP solutions would require dialysis prior to use. Fortunately, we found that the addition of trehalose or sucrose to LNP solutions prior to lyophilization facilitated room temperature storage and reconstitution in aqueous buffer without diminishing delivery potency. PMID:28115848

  7. 流感疫苗脂质体干粉制备方法对其免疫原性影响研究%A study on immunogenicity of influenza vaccine lyophilized liposome prepared by different methods

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈建雯; 马波; 林华; 乔建斌; 王礼燕; 鲁卫东

    2013-01-01

    negative control group (n=5).4 μg and 6 μg hemagglutinin of H1N1 subtype per mouse were tracheally delivered to the mice for the non-liposome group and the lyophilized liposome groups,with the same dose intraperitoneally delivered groups as the positive control,and the PBS intraperotoneal injection group as the negative control.After 7,14 and 28 d of immunization,serum levels of HA antibodies were measured by the hemagglutination-inhibition method,and serum cytokine levels were measured by the ELISA method.Results:By pulmonary injection of the two liposome groups,the antibody titers of 6 μg dose groups were higher than those of 4 μg dose groups (P < 0.05).HA antibody titers of the two pulmonarily delivered liposome groups were higher than those of the pulmonarily (P <0.05) and intraperitoneally (P < 0.01) injected non-liposome group.Antibody titers of the film-dispersion liposome group for both doses were higher than those of the freeze-thawing lyophilized liposome group.IL-2 and IFN-γproduced by the pulmonary injected liposome groups were higher than those of the intraperitoneally delivered non-liposome group.Conclusion:The humeral and cellular immunities could be effectively induced by pulmonarily delivered vaccine liposomes; The film-dispersion method group is better than the freeze-thawing lyophilized group in terms of immunity strength.For the freeze-thawing lyophilized prepared H1N1 influenza vaccine liposome group,the immune response occurs at 14 d after vaccination,white the titer ratio is only 1.8 for normal vaccinated flu vaccine.The freeze-thawing lyophilized liposome vaccine also stimulates higher levels of cytokines.

  8. Quality by design: impact of formulation variables and their interactions on quality attributes of a lyophilized monoclonal antibody.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Awotwe-Otoo, David; Agarabi, Cyrus; Wu, Geoffrey K; Casey, Elizabeth; Read, Erik; Lute, Scott; Brorson, Kurt A; Khan, Mansoor A; Shah, Rakhi B

    2012-11-15

    The purpose of this study was to use QbD approaches to evaluate the effect of several variables and their interactions on quality of a challenging model murine IgG3κ monoclonal antibody (mAb), and then to obtain an optimized formulation with predefined quality target product profile. This antibody was chosen because it has a propensity to precipitate and thus represents a challenge condition for formulation development. Preliminary experiments were conducted to rule out incompatible buffer systems for the mAb product quality. A fractional factorial experimental design was then applied to screen the effects of buffer type, pH and excipients such as sucrose, sodium chloride (NaCl), lactic acid and Polysorbate 20 on glass transition temperature ( [Formula: see text] ), monoclonal antibody concentration (A(280)), presence of aggregation, unfolding transition temperature (T(m)) of the lyophilized product, and particle size of the reconstituted product. A Box-Behnken experimental design was subsequently applied to study the main, interaction, and quadratic effects of these variables on the responses. Pareto ranking analyses showed that the three most important factors affecting the selected responses for this particular antibody were pH, NaCl, and Polysorbate 20. The presence of curvature in the variables' effects on responses indicated interactions. Based on the constraints set on the responses, a design space was identified for this mAb and confirmed with experiments at three different levels of the variables within the design space. The model indicated a combination of high pH (8) and NaCl (50mM) levels, and a low Polysorbate 20 (0.008 mM) level at which an optimal formulation of the mAb could be achieved. Moisture contents and other analytical procedures such as size exclusion chromatography, protein A analysis and SDS-PAGE of the pre-lyophilized and final reconstituted lyophilized products indicated an intact protein structure with minimal aggregation after

  9. Regulation of the Lyophilized Powder of Earthworm on Cholesterol 7a-Hydroxylase Gene in Hyperlipidemic Mice%蚯蚓冻干粉对高血脂小鼠胆固醇7a-羟化酶基因的调节作用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    武金霞; 刘雪英; 单彪; 张贺迎

    2011-01-01

    Kunming mice were fed with high-level lipid feeds to establish the hyperlipidemic mouse model.The mice were treated with the lyophilized powder of earthworm at dosages of 0.4, 0.2 and 0.1 g/kg, qd and were fed with high-level lipid feeds for 10 weeks.The total RNA of liver was extracted and the changes of liver cholesterol 7α-hydroxylase (CYP7α1) gene expression were analyzed by RT-PCR.The results indicated that the lyophilized powder of earthworm could significantly up-regulated CYP7α1 mRNA transcription.It suggested that the effect of the lyophilized powder of earthworm on reducing serum cholesterol in hyperlipidemia mice was probably involved in upregulating CYP7α1 mRNA transcription.%以高脂饲料饲喂昆明种小鼠构建高血脂小鼠模型,灌胃给予高、中、低剂量(0.4,0.2和0.1 g/kg)蚯蚓冻干粉,每天一次,同时饲喂高脂饲料,共饲养10周.提取小鼠肝脏总RNA,应用逆转录一聚合酶链反应(RT-PCR)技术检测胆固醇7a-羟化酶(CYP7a1)的mRNA水平.结果表明,实验组小鼠的CYP7al mRNA相对含量显著高于高脂饲料组小鼠,提示蚯蚓冻干粉能够降低高血脂小鼠血浆胆固醇水平可能与上调肝CYP7a1 mRNA的表达有关.

  10. The assessment of serum-mediated phagocytosis of necrotic material by polymorphonuclear leukocytes to diagnose and predict the clinical features of systemic lupus erythematosus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Compagno, Michele; Gullstrand, Birgitta; Jacobsen, Søren

    2016-01-01

    with hypocomplementemia, PNC positivity preceded increased Systemic Lupus Erythematosus Disease Activity Index 2000 score, glomerulonephritis, and alopecia. CONCLUSIONS: Serum-mediated PNC by polymorphonuclear leukocytes is commonly but not exclusively seen in patients with SLE. The PNC assay may be used in follow...

  11. Photo-dynamics of the lyophilized photo-activated adenylate cyclase NgPAC2 from the amoeboflagellate Naegleria gruberi NEG-M strain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penzkofer, A.; Tanwar, M.; Veetil, S. K.; Kateriya, S.; Stierl, M.; Hegemann, P.

    2013-09-01

    The absorption and emission spectroscopic behavior of lyophilized photo-activated adenylate cyclase NgPAC2 from the amoeboflagellate Naegleria gruberi NEG-M strain consisting of a BLUF domain (BLUF = Blue Light sensor Using Flavin) and a cyclase homology domain was studied in the dark, during blue-light exposure and after blue-light exposure at a temperature of 4 °C. The BLUF domain photo-cycle dynamics observed for snap-frozen NgPAC2 was lost by lyophilization (no signaling state formation with flavin absorption red-shift). Instead, blue-light photo-excitation of lyophilized NgPAC2 caused sterically restricted Tyr-Tyr cross-linking (o,o‧-ditysosine formation) and partial flavin cofactor reduction.

  12. Randomized Phase II Trial of Lyophilized Strawberries in Patients with Dysplastic Precancerous Lesions of the Esophagus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Tong; Yan, Fei; Qian, Jiaming; Guo, Mingzhou; Zhang, Hongbing; Tang, Xiaofei; Chen, Fang; Stoner, Gary D.; Wang, Xiaomin

    2016-01-01

    Dysplasia is a histologic precursor of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (SCC). We previously showed that dietary freeze-dried, or lyophilized, strawberry powder inhibits N-nitrosomethylbenzylamine-induced SCC in the rat esophagus. On the basis of this observation, we conducted a randomized (noncomparative) phase II trial in China to investigate the effects of two doses of freeze-dried strawberries in patients with esophageal dysplastic lesions in a high-risk area for esophageal cancer. We randomly assigned 75 patients identified by endoscopy to have dysplastic esophageal premalignant lesions to receive freeze-dried strawberry powder at either 30 g/d (37 patients) or 60 g/d (38 patients) for six months; the powder was mixed with water and drunk. After six months, we assessed the changes in histologic grade of these lesions (primary endpoint) in a blinded fashion. The dose of 30 g/d, did not significantly affect histology or any other measured parameter. The dose of 60 g/d, however, reduced the histologic grade of dysplastic premalignant lesions in 29 (80.6%) of the 36 patients at this dose who were evaluated for histology (P < 0.0001). The strawberry powder was well tolerated, with no toxic effects or serious adverse events. Strawberries (60 g/d) also reduced protein expression levels of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) by 79.5% (P < 0.001), cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) by 62.9% (P < 0.001), phospho-nuclear factor kappa B (NFκB)-p65 (pNFκB-p65) by 62.6% (P < 0.001), and phospho-S6 (pS6) by 73.2% (P < 0.001). Freeze-dried strawberries (60 g/d) also significantly inhibited the Ki-67 labeling index by 37.9% (P = 0.023). Our present results indicate the potential of freeze-dried strawberry powder for preventing human esophageal cancer, supporting further clinical testing of this natural agent in this setting. PMID:22135048

  13. Lyophilization-induced protein denaturation in phosphate buffer systems: monomeric and tetrameric beta-galactosidase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pikal-Cleland, K A; Carpenter, J F

    2001-09-01

    During freezing in phosphate buffers, selective precipitation of a less soluble buffer component and subsequent pH shifts may induce protein denaturation. Previous reports indicate significantly more inactivation and secondary structural perturbation of monomeric and tetrameric beta-galactosidase (beta-gal) during freeze-thawing in sodium phosphate (NaP) buffer as compared with potassium phosphate (KP) buffer. This observation was attributed to the significant pH shifts (from 7.0 to as low as 3.8) observed during freezing in the NaP buffer (1). In the current study, we investigated the impact of the additional stress of dehydration after freezing on the recovery of active protein on reconstitution and the retention of the native structure in the dried state. Freeze-drying monomeric and tetrameric beta-gal in either NaP or KP buffer resulted in significant secondary structural perturbations, which were greatest for the NaP samples. However, similar recoveries of active monomeric protein were observed after freeze-thawing and freeze-drying, indicating that most dehydration-induced unfolding was reversible on reconstitution of the freeze-dried protein. In contrast, the tetrameric protein was more susceptible to dehydration-induced denaturation as seen by the greater loss in activity after reconstitution of the freeze-dried samples relative to that measured after freeze-thawing. To ensure optimal protein stability during freeze-drying, the protein must be protected from both freezing and dehydration stresses. Although poly(ethylene glycol) and dextran are preferentially excluded solutes and should confer protection during freezing, they were unable to prevent lyophilization-induced denaturation. In addition, Tween did not foster maintenance of native protein during freeze-drying. However, sucrose, which hydrogen bonds to dried protein in the place of lost water, greatly reduced freezing- and drying-induced denaturation, as observed by the high retention of native

  14. Validation of a stability-indicating RP-LC method for the determination of tigecycline in lyophilized powder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva, Lucélia Magalhães; Salgado, Hérida Regina Nunes

    2013-02-01

    A reversed-phase liquid chromatography (RP-LC) method was validated for the determination of tigecycline in lyophilized powder. The LC method was conducted on a Luna C18 column (250 × 4.6 mm i.d.), maintained at room temperature. The mobile phase consisted of buffer containing sodium phosphate monobasic (0.015M) and oxalic acid (0.015M) (pH 7.0)-acetonitrile (75:25, v/v), run at a flow rate of 1.0 mL/min and using ultraviolet detection at 280 nm. The chromatographic separation was obtained with a retention time of 8.6 min, and was linear in the range of 40-100 µg/mL (r(2) = 0.9997). The specificity and stability-indicating capability of the method was proven through forced degradation studies, which also showed no interference of the excipients. The accuracy was 99.01% with a bias lower than 1.81%. The limits of detection and quantitation were 1.67 and 5.05 µg/mL, respectively. Moreover, method validation demonstrated satisfactory results for precision and robustness. The proposed method was applied for the analysis of the lyophilized powder formulation, contributing to improve the quality control and to assure the therapeutic efficacy.

  15. Extraction efficiency of hydrophilic and lipophilic antioxidants from lyophilized foods using pressurized liquid extraction and manual extraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Jun; Oki, Tomoyuki; Takebayashi, Jun; Takano-Ishikawa, Yuko

    2014-09-01

    The efficient extraction of antioxidants from food samples is necessary in order to accurately measure their antioxidant capacities. α-Tocopherol and gallic acid were spiked into samples of 5 lyophilized and pulverized vegetables and fruits (onion, cabbage, Satsuma mandarin orange, pumpkin, and spinach). The lipophilic and hydrophilic antioxidants in the samples were sequentially extracted with a mixed solvent of n-hexane and dichloromethane, and then with acetic acid-acidified aqueous methanol. Duplicate samples were extracted: one set was extracted using an automated pressurized liquid extraction apparatus, and the other set was extracted manually. Spiked α-tocopherol and gallic acid were recovered almost quantitatively in the extracted lipophilic and hydrophilic fractions, respectively, especially when pressurized liquid extraction was used. The expected increase in lipophilic oxygen radical absorbance capacity (L-ORAC) due to spiking with α-tocopherol, and the expected increase in 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical scavenging activities and total polyphenol content due to spiking with gallic acid, were all recovered in high yield. Relatively low recoveries, as reflected in the hydrophilic ORAC (H-ORAC) value, were obtained following spiking with gallic acid, suggesting an interaction between gallic acid and endogenous antioxidants. The H-ORAC values of gallic acid-spiked samples were almost the same as those of postadded (spiked) samples. These results clearly indicate that lipophilic and hydrophilic antioxidants are effectively extracted from lyophilized food, especially when pressurized liquid extraction is used.

  16. Self-Nanoemulsifying Lyophilized Tablets for Flash Oral Transmucosal Delivery of Vitamin K: Development and Clinical Evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Say, Khalid M; Ahmed, Tarek A; Ahmed, Osama A A; Hosny, Khaled M; Abd-Allah, Fathy I

    2017-09-01

    Owing to limited solubility, vitamin K undergoes low bioavailability with large inter-individual variability after oral administration. This article aimed to prepare self-nanoemulsifying lyophilized tablets (SNELTs) for the flash oral transmucosal delivery of vitamin K. Twenty-one formulae of vitamin K self-nanoemulsifying drug delivery systems (SNEDDS) were prepared using different concentrations of vitamin K, Labrasol, and Transcutol according to mixture design. The SNEDDS was loaded on porous carriers and formulated as lyophilized tablets. The release profile and the pharmacokinetic parameters of vitamin K SNELTs were evaluated in comparison with commercial tablets and ampoules on human volunteers. Results revealed that the optimized SNEDDS showed the smallest and most stable nanoemulsion globules. SNELTs were prepared successfully and showed substantial superiority drug release compared with the commercial tablets. Interestingly, SNELTs enhanced both rate and extent of vitamin K absorption as well as relative bioavailability (169.67%) in healthy subjects compared with the commercial tablets. SNELTs revealed promising no significant difference in the area under the curve compared with the commercial intramuscular injection. SNELTs enhanced dissolution and bioavailability that expected to have the strong impact on the efficiency of vitamin K in the prophylaxis and treatment of bleeding disorders in patients with hepatic dysfunction. Copyright © 2017 American Pharmacists Association®. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glaessgen, Edward H.; Schoeppner, Gregory A.

    2006-01-01

    NASA Langley Research Center has successfully developed an electron beam freeform fabrication (EBF3) process, a rapid metal deposition process that works efficiently with a variety of weldable alloys. The EBF3 process can be used to build a complex, unitized part in a layer-additive fashion, although the more immediate payoff is for use as a manufacturing process for adding details to components fabricated from simplified castings and forgings or plate products. The EBF3 process produces structural metallic parts with strengths comparable to that of wrought product forms and has been demonstrated on aluminum, titanium, and nickel-based alloys to date. The EBF3 process introduces metal wire feedstock into a molten pool that is created and sustained using a focused electron beam in a vacuum environment. Operation in a vacuum ensures a clean process environment and eliminates the need for a consumable shield gas. Advanced metal manufacturing methods such as EBF3 are being explored for fabrication and repair of aerospace structures, offering potential for improvements in cost, weight, and performance to enhance mission success for aircraft, launch vehicles, and spacecraft. Near-term applications of the EBF3 process are most likely to be implemented for cost reduction and lead time reduction through addition of details onto simplified preforms (casting or forging). This is particularly attractive for components with protruding details that would require a significantly large volume of material to be machined away from an oversized forging, offering significant reductions to the buy-to-fly ratio. Future far-term applications promise improved structural efficiency through reduced weight and improved performance by exploiting the layer-additive nature of the EBF3 process to fabricate tailored unitized structures with functionally graded microstructures and compositions.

  18. Development of a lyophilized formulation for preparing the radiopharmaceutical {sup 177}Lu-DOTA-Anti-CD20; Desarrollo de una formulacion liofilizada para la preparacion del radiofarmaco {sup 177}-DOTA-Anti-CD20

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Serrano E, L. A.

    2015-07-01

    The radiolabeled proteins are molecules of interest in nuclear medicine for their diagnostic and therapeutic application in cancer. Antibodies, such as chimeric monoclonal antibody Anti-CD20 rituximab, have established themselves as suitable vectors of radionuclides (e.g. {sup 177}Lu) , introducing high affinity by the surface antigens over- expressed and widely distributed in cells involved in certain diseases. The aim of this work was to design, optimize and document the production process of radiopharmaceutical {sup 177}Lu-DOTA-Anti-CD20 for sanitary registration request to the Comision Federal para la Proteccion contra Riesgos Sanitarios (COFEPRIS). First, a raw material analysis using the Ft-Mir technique and gamma spectrometry was performed. Then, was carried out the development of the lyophilized formulation for the preparation of {sup 177}Lu-DOTA-Anti-CD20, in which an ANOVA was performed where the dependent variable was the radiochemical purity. The optimal pharmaceutical formulation was: 5 mg DOTA-CD20 and 80 mg Mannitol to be reconstituted with 1 m L of acetate buffer 0.25 M, ph 7, with an incubation time of 15 min at 37 degrees Celsius in a dry bath. Once completed the development of the lyophilized formulation, we proceeded to the optimization of the production process, development and validation of the analytical method. Three batches were prepared under protocols of Good Manufacturing Practice, which met pre-established specifications as sterile and endotoxin-free of bacterial formulations, with greater that 95% of radiochemical purity. Currently, is conducting the study of shelf stability. Upon completion of the stability studies, the legal record of {sup 177}Lu-DOTA-Anti-CD20 will be integrated with documented evidence of the quality and stability of the formulation of this radiopharmaceutical. (Author)

  19. A simple method for routine monitoring of glyphosate and its main metabolite in surface waters using lyophilization and LC-FLD+MS/MS. Case study: canals with influence on Biscayne National Park.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramirez, Cesar E; Bellmund, Sarah; Gardinali, Piero R

    2014-10-15

    A novel method was developed for the analysis of the herbicide glyphosate and its main metabolite aminomethylphosphonic acid (AMPA) based on lyophilization. Sample preparation steps are limited to fortification with aspartic acid as internal standard and water removal by lyophilization (3-4 days for 72 samples), followed by suspension of dry residues in borate buffer (pH=9.0) and addition of ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) and 9-fluorenylmethylchloroformate (FMOC-Cl) for pre-column derivatization. The obtained derivatization mixture was injected on a highly endcapped C18 column where a basic pH gradient separation of the anionic analytes from neutral derivatization byproducts was achieved, with simultaneous quantitation by fluorescence and compound confirmation by tandem mass spectrometry. Method detection limits (for 20 mL samples) were 0.058 μg/L and 0.108 μg/L for glyphosate and AMPA, respectively. The method had a high dynamic range (0.1-50.0 μg/L) which allowed quantitation at both background and high levels of the herbicide. As a case study, the methodology was successfully applied to detect the occurrence of these compounds in water canals managed by the South Florida Water Management District. These canals will be used as freshwater source to hydrate estuarine wetlands of Biscayne National Park under the Comprehensive Everglades Restoration Project, in order to decrease ecosystem stress from hypersaline conditions caused by anthropogenic reduction of historical freshwater flow towards the Biscayne Bay. Method development, validation, advantages, limitations and measured environmental concentrations are discussed. This methodology has minimal requirements in terms of materials, instruments and analyst training, which could represent a desirable tool for laboratories interested in the monitoring of glyphosate in surface waters.

  20. Preservation of differentiation and clonogenic potential of human hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells during lyophilization and ambient storage.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandhya S Buchanan

    Full Text Available Progenitor cell therapies show great promise, but their potential for clinical applications requires improved storage and transportation. Desiccated cells stored at ambient temperature would provide economic and practical advantages over approaches employing cell freezing and subzero temperature storage. The objectives of this study were to assess a method for loading the stabilizing sugar, trehalose, into hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells (HPC and to evaluate the effects of subsequent freeze-drying and storage at ambient temperature on differentiation and clonogenic potential. HPC were isolated from human umbilical cord blood and loaded with trehalose using an endogenous cell surface receptor, termed P2Z. Solution containing trehalose-loaded HPC was placed into vials, which were transferred to a tray freeze-dryer and removed during each step of the freeze-drying process to assess differentiation and clonogenic potential. Control groups for these experiments were freshly isolated HPC. Control cells formed 1450+/-230 CFU-GM, 430+/-140 BFU-E, and 50+/-40 CFU-GEMM per 50 microL. Compared to the values for the control cells, there was no statistical difference observed for cells removed at the end of the freezing step or at the end of primary drying. There was a gradual decrease in the number of CFU-GM and BFU-E for cells removed at different temperatures during secondary drying; however, there were no significant differences in the number of CFU-GEMM. To determine storage stability of lyophilized HPC, cells were stored for 4 weeks at 25 degrees C in the dark. Cells reconstituted immediately after lyophilization produced 580+/-90 CFU-GM ( approximately 40%, relative to unprocessed controls p<0.0001, 170+/-70 BFU-E (approximately 40%, p<0.0001, and 41+/-22 CFU-GEMM (approximately 82%, p = 0.4171, and cells reconstituted after 28 days at room temperature produced 513+/-170 CFU-GM (approximately 35%, relative to unprocessed controls, p<0

  1. X-ray absorption spectroscopy of soybean lipoxygenase-1 : Influence of lipid hydroperoxide activation and lyophilization on the structure of the non-heme iron active site

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vliegenthart, J.F.G.; Heijdt, L.M. van der; Feiters, M.C.; Navaratnam, S.; Nolting, H.-F.; Hermes, C.; Veldink, G.A.

    1992-01-01

    X-ray absorption spectra at the Fe K-edge of the non-heme iron site in Fe(II) as well as Fe(III) soybean lipoxygenase-1, in frozen solution or lyophilized, are presented; the latter spectra were obtained by incubation of the Fe(II) enzyme with its product hydroperoxide. An edge shift of about 23 eV

  2. Ufasomes nano-vesicles-based lyophilized platforms for intranasal delivery of cinnarizine: preparation, optimization, ex-vivo histopathological safety assessment and mucosal confocal imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salama, Alaa Hamed; Aburahma, Mona Hassan

    2016-09-01

    To circumvent the low and erratic absorption of orally administrated cinnarizine (CN), intranasal lyophilized gels containing unsaturated fatty acid liposomes (ufasomes) and encapsulating CN were prepared from oleic acid using a simple assembling strategy. The effects of varying drug concentration and cholesterol percentage on ufasomes size, polydispersity index and entrapment efficiency were investigated using 3(1)4(1) full factorial design. The optimized ufasomes that contained 14% cholesterol relative to oleic acid displayed spherical morphology with average size of 788 nm and entrapment efficiency of 80.49%. To overcome the colloidal instability of CN-loaded ufasomes dispersions and their short residence time in the nasal cavity, the ufasomes were incorporated into mucoadhesive hydrogels that were lyophilized into unit dosage forms for accurate dosing. Scanning electron micrographs of the lyophilized gel revealed that the included ufasomes were intact, non-aggregating and maintained their spherical morphology. Rheological characterization of reconstituted ufasomal lyophilized gel ensured ease of application. Furthermore, the gel induced minor histopathological alterations in sheeps' nasal mucosa. Ex-vivo confocal laser imaging confirmed the ability of ufasomes to penetrate deep through nasal mucosa layers. The results highlighted in the current work confirm the feasibility of using CN-loaded ufasomal gels for intranasal drug delivery.

  3. A 10% ready-to-use intravenous human immunoglobulin offers potential economic advantages over a lyophilized product in the treatment of primary immunodeficiency

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kallenberg, C. G. M.

    2007-01-01

    Intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIg) replacement therapy is the standard of care for patients with primary humoral immunodeficiencies. This study evaluated differences in infusion time between a 10% IVIg ready-to-use solution and a 6% IVIg lyophilized product and addressed potential cost implications.

  4. Simple and rapid quantification of total carotenoids in lyophilized apricots (prunus armeniaca L.) by means of reflectance colorimetry and photoacoustic spectrometry spectroscopy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Doka, O.; Ficzek, G.; Luterotti, S.; Bicanic, D.D.; Spruijt, R.B.; Buijnsters, J.; Vegvari, G.

    2013-01-01

    Photoacoustic spectroscopy (PAS) and reflectance colorimetry are suggested as new tools for the analysis of total carotenoids in lyophilized apricot powders. The data obtained by these two techniques from seven apricot cultivars were compared to those acquired by spectrophotometry and high-performan

  5. 葫芦素毫微粒冻干针剂的研究%A Study on Lyophilization Injection of Cucurbitacin Polylactic Acid Nanoparticles

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李超英; 侯世祥; 阳长明; 孙毅毅; 张继芬

    2001-01-01

    目的:制备稳定的、易再分散的葫芦素聚乳酸毫微粒(Cu-PLA-NP)冻干针剂。方法:选用适宜填充剂制备Cu-PLA-NP冻干针剂,并评价其相关理化性质。结果:冻干前后毫微粒形态、粒径、pH、包封率及载药量无明显变化,再分散性良好,制剂稳定,含水量合格。其临界相对湿度为69.52%。结论:在适宜的处方及工艺条件下制备的Cu-PLA-NP冻干针剂是可行的。%Objective:To prepare stable and redispersable Lyophilization injection of cucurbitacin polylactic acid nanoparticles(Cu-PLA-NP).Method:An optimal supporting agent was chosen to prepare the Cu-PLA-NP lyophilization injection.The physical and chemical properties of the injection were evaluated.Result:The shape,diameters,association ratio,drug loading and pH of Cu-PLA-NP colloidal solution and lyophilization injection were not changed.The content of water consisted with the requirement of lyophilization injection.The critical relative humidity was 69.52%.The stability was good.Conclusion:It is practicable to prepare Cu-PLA-NP lyophilization injection with proper formulas and preparation processes.

  6. An integrated process analytical technology (PAT) approach to monitoring the effect of supercooling on lyophilization product and process parameters of model monoclonal antibody formulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Awotwe Otoo, David; Agarabi, Cyrus; Khan, Mansoor A

    2014-07-01

    The aim of the present study was to apply an integrated process analytical technology (PAT) approach to control and monitor the effect of the degree of supercooling on critical process and product parameters of a lyophilization cycle. Two concentrations of a mAb formulation were used as models for lyophilization. ControLyo™ technology was applied to control the onset of ice nucleation, whereas tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy (TDLAS) was utilized as a noninvasive tool for the inline monitoring of the water vapor concentration and vapor flow velocity in the spool during primary drying. The instantaneous measurements were then used to determine the effect of the degree of supercooling on critical process and product parameters. Controlled nucleation resulted in uniform nucleation at lower degrees of supercooling for both formulations, higher sublimation rates, lower mass transfer resistance, lower product temperatures at the sublimation interface, and shorter primary drying times compared with the conventional shelf-ramped freezing. Controlled nucleation also resulted in lyophilized cakes with more elegant and porous structure with no visible collapse or shrinkage, lower specific surface area, and shorter reconstitution times compared with the uncontrolled nucleation. Uncontrolled nucleation however resulted in lyophilized cakes with relatively lower residual moisture contents compared with controlled nucleation. TDLAS proved to be an efficient tool to determine the endpoint of primary drying. There was good agreement between data obtained from TDLAS-based measurements and SMART™ technology. ControLyo™ technology and TDLAS showed great potential as PAT tools to achieve enhanced process monitoring and control during lyophilization cycles. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. and the American Pharmacists Association.

  7. Synthesis and characterization of Gd 2O 3:Eu 3+ phosphor nanoparticles by a sol-lyophilization technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Louis, C.; Bazzi, R.; Flores, Marco A.; Zheng, W.; Lebbou, K.; Tillement, O.; Mercier, B.; Dujardin, C.; Perriat, P.

    2003-07-01

    The characterization and luminescence properties of nanostructured Gd 2O 3:Eu 3+ phosphors synthesized by a sol-lyophilization process are presented. After preparation of gadolinium-based sols from gadolinium nitrate and ammonium hydroxide, the so-prepared sols were freeze dried at -10°C and calcinated at different temperatures. For temperatures lower than 1300 K, highly crystalline samples with the cubic structure can be obtained without concomitant grain growth of the particles (<50 nm). The luminescence spectra contain all possible transitions of Eu 3+ with C2 symmetry and present two major features: an increase of the luminescence efficiencies of the phosphors in comparison with that obtained by solid-state reaction and the presence of an additional peak at about 609 nm at the vicinity of the 5D0→ 7F0…4 transition.

  8. Comparative study and histomorphometric analysis of bone allografts lyophilized and sterilized by autoclaving, gamma irradiation and ethylene oxide in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Otavio Machado de Almeida

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To compare three sterilization methods (autoclave, gamma irradiation and ethylene oxide over non demineralized lyophilized bone allografts. METHODS: Bone allografts were implanted on paravertebral muscles of 21 rats. After 30 days animals were sacrificed and grafts underwent comparative analysis regarding histomorphometric and macroscopic parameters. RESULTS: Allografts that underwent the three sterilization methods presents similar weight gain, cortical thickness similar to control group, and less fibrosis than the control group. Grafts that underwent sterilization in autoclave presented less presence of multinucleated giant cells, although not statistically significant. There was also no statistically significant difference regarding mineralization on the three groups. CONCLUSION: The three sterilization methods cause similar effects on bone allografts regarding macroscopic and histomorphometric parameters.

  9. Interactions among lactose, β-lactoglobulin and starch in co-lyophilized mixtures as determined by Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hajihashemi, Zohreh; Nasirpour, Ali; Scher, Joël; Desobry, Stéphane

    2014-11-01

    Processing and storage change food powders containing a large quantity of lactose due to lactose crystallization and interactions among components. Model food systems were prepared by co-lyophilization of lactose, β-lactoglobulin (BLG), and gelatinized starch. A mixture design was used to define the percentage of each mixture component to simulate a wide range of food powders. Interactions among lactose, BLG and starch were studied using Fourier Transform Infrared (FT-IR) at different relative humidities (RH), before and after 3 months storage. Results showed the presence of hydrogen bonds among these components. Moreover, interactions or formation of hydrogen bonds among lactose, starch and BLG preserved BLG against freezing and freeze-drying shocks. Lactose crystallization could be identified by comparing infrared spectra of amorphous and crystallized lactose at O - H and C - H stretching vibration bands.

  10. Wound-Healing Potential of Cultured Epidermal Sheets Is Unaltered after Lyophilization: A Preclinical Study in Comparison to Cryopreserved CES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Jang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Lyophilized Cultured Epidermal Sheets (L-CES have been reported to be as effective as the cryopreserved CES (F-CES in treating skin ulcers. However, unlike F-CES, no preclinical study assessing wound-healing effects has been conducted for L-CES. The present study was set out to investigate the microstructure, cytokine profile, and wound-healing effects of L-CES in comparison to those of F-CES. Keratinocytes were cultured to prepare CES, followed by cryopreservation at −70°C and lyophilization. Under microscopic observation, intact cells with apparent intracellular junctions were observed in L-CES. The L-CES, like fresh CES, consisted of three to four well-maintained epidermal layers, as shown by the expression of keratins, involucrin, and p63. There were no differences in the epidermal layer or protein expression between L-CES and F-CES, and both CES were comparable to fresh CES. TGF-α, EGF, VEGF, IL-1α, and MMPs were detected in L-CES at levels similar to those in F-CES. In a mouse study, wounds treated with L-CES or F-CES completely healed at least 4 days faster than untreated wounds. CES-treated wounds completely healed by day 10, while the untreated wounds did not heal by day 14. Masson’s trichrome staining showed that collagen deposition in the CES-treated wounds was highly increased in the dermis of the wound center compared to that in the control wounds. Thus, this study demonstrates that L-CES is as clinically effective as F-CES for wound treatment.

  11. Lyophilized allografts without pre-treatment with glutaraldehyde are more suitable than cryopreserved allografts for pulmonary artery reconstruction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.R. Olmos-Zúãiga

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Various methods are available for preservation of vascular grafts for pulmonary artery (PA replacement. Lyophilization and cryopreservation reduce antigenicity and prevent thrombosis and calcification in vascular grafts, so both methods can be used to obtain vascular bioprostheses. We evaluated the hemodynamic, gasometric, imaging, and macroscopic and microscopic findings produced by PA reconstruction with lyophilized (LyoPA grafts and cryopreserved (CryoPA grafts in dogs. Eighteen healthy crossbred adult dogs of both sexes weighing between 18 and 20 kg were used and divided into three groups of six: group I, PA section and reanastomosis; group II, PA resection and reconstruction with LyoPA allograft; group III, PA resection and reconstruction with CryoPA allograft. Dogs were evaluated 4 weeks after surgery, and the status of the graft and vascular anastomosis were examined macroscopically and microscopically. No clinical, radiologic, or blood-gas abnormalities were observed during the study. The mean pulmonary artery pressure (MPAP in group III increased significantly at the end of the study compared with baseline (P=0.02 and final [P=0.007, two-way repeat-measures analysis of variance (RM ANOVA] values. Pulmonary vascular resistance of groups II and III increased immediately after reperfusion and also at the end of the study compared to baseline. The increase shown by group III vs group I was significant only if compared with after surgery and study end (P=0.016 and P=0.005, respectively, two-way RM ANOVA. Microscopically, permeability was reduced by ≤75% in group III. In conclusion, substitution of PAs with LyoPA grafts is technically feasible and clinically promising.

  12. Acceptability and safety of novel infant porridges containing lyophilized meat powder and iron-fortified wheat flour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pachón, Helena; Domínguez, María Reyna Liria; Creed-Kanashiro, Hilary; Stoltzfus, Rebecca J

    2007-03-01

    Lyophilized meat powder with iron-fortified wheat flour can be used to produce an infant porridge with bioavailable iron, but its acceptability and safety are unknown. To evaluate the acceptability and safety of porridges containing lyophilized meat powder and iron-fortified wheat flour. Peruvian mothers' input was used to develop porridges without (no meat) and with meat powder (low or high chicken liver, low or high chicken thigh). Acceptability was determined by maternal hedonic scoring, 9-day infant intake, and videotape analysis of how well infants liked each porridge. Dry and cooked porridges and meat ingredients were tested for microorganisms; meats were tested for pesticides. Mothers gave higher acceptability scores to the no-meat porridge, followed in order by low and high quantities of meat powder (e.g., mean +/- SD "taste"scores were 4.5 +/- 0.9 for the no-meat, 3.7 +/- 1.1 for the low-liver, and 3.3 +/- 1.1 for the high-liver porridges, p = .0001). Infants' porridge intake did not differ: 61.4 +/- 47.1 g of no-meat, 62.1 +/- 44.9 g of low-thigh, and 67.5 +/- 42.0 g of low-liver (p = .7), as supported by the video analysis. Microbiologic safety was acceptable except for marginally acceptable molds and yeasts in dry ingredients. No pesticide residues were detected. Despite mothers' clear preference for no-meat porridges, infants consumed equal amounts of porridges with and without meat. Thus, if mothers can be convinced to feed the meat-containing porridges to the infants despite their own preferences, the infants will consume these porridges. The mold and yeast content of the porridge ingredients must be reduced.

  13. Lyophilized allografts without pre-treatment with glutaraldehyde are more suitable than cryopreserved allografts for pulmonary artery reconstruction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olmos-Zúãiga, J.R.; Jasso-Victoria, R. [Department of Experimental Surgery, National Institute of Respiratory Diseases ' Ismael Cosío Villegas' , Mexico City (Mexico); Díaz-Martínez, N.E. [Medical and Pharmaceutical Biotechnology, Center for Research and Assistance in Technology and Design of the State of Jalisco, Guadalajara, Jalisco (Mexico); Gaxiola-Gaxiola, M.O. [Laboratory of Morphology, National Institute of Respiratory Diseases ' Ismael Cosío Villegas' , Mexico City (Mexico); Sotres-Vega, A.; Heras-Romero, Y.; Baltazares-Lipp, M. [Department of Experimental Surgery, National Institute of Respiratory Diseases ' Ismael Cosío Villegas' , Mexico City (Mexico); Baltazares-Lipp, M.E. [Hemodynamics and Echocardiography Service, National Institute of Respiratory Diseases ' Ismael Cosío Villegas' , Mexico City (Mexico); Santillán-Doherty, P. [Medical Administration, National Institute of Respiratory Diseases ' Ismael Cosío Villegas' , Mexico City (Mexico); Hernández-Jiménez, C. [Department of Experimental Surgery, National Institute of Respiratory Diseases ' Ismael Cosío Villegas' , Mexico City (Mexico)

    2015-12-04

    Various methods are available for preservation of vascular grafts for pulmonary artery (PA) replacement. Lyophilization and cryopreservation reduce antigenicity and prevent thrombosis and calcification in vascular grafts, so both methods can be used to obtain vascular bioprostheses. We evaluated the hemodynamic, gasometric, imaging, and macroscopic and microscopic findings produced by PA reconstruction with lyophilized (LyoPA) grafts and cryopreserved (CryoPA) grafts in dogs. Eighteen healthy crossbred adult dogs of both sexes weighing between 18 and 20 kg were used and divided into three groups of six: group I, PA section and reanastomosis; group II, PA resection and reconstruction with LyoPA allograft; group III, PA resection and reconstruction with CryoPA allograft. Dogs were evaluated 4 weeks after surgery, and the status of the graft and vascular anastomosis were examined macroscopically and microscopically. No clinical, radiologic, or blood-gas abnormalities were observed during the study. The mean pulmonary artery pressure (MPAP) in group III increased significantly at the end of the study compared with baseline (P=0.02) and final [P=0.007, two-way repeat-measures analysis of variance (RM ANOVA)] values. Pulmonary vascular resistance of groups II and III increased immediately after reperfusion and also at the end of the study compared to baseline. The increase shown by group III vs group I was significant only if compared with after surgery and study end (P=0.016 and P=0.005, respectively, two-way RM ANOVA). Microscopically, permeability was reduced by ≤75% in group III. In conclusion, substitution of PAs with LyoPA grafts is technically feasible and clinically promising.

  14. Hypoglycemic activities of lyophilized powder of Gynura divaricata by improving antioxidant potential and insulin signaling in type 2 diabetic mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bing-Qing Xu

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Diabetes mellitus is a serious disease affecting about 5% of people worldwide. Although several studies have indicated hypoglycemic activities of Gynura divaricata (GD, the mechanisms by which GD improves the symptoms of diabetes remain unclear. Objective: The aim of this study was to investigate the potential hypoglycemic effects of GD. Design: The leaves and stems of GD were prepared and lyophilized into a powder, which was added to the diet of mice with type 2 diabetes induced by a high-fat diet in combination with streptozotocin for 4 weeks. During this period, fasting blood glucose (FBG levels and body weight of mice were measured. In addition, at the end of the experiment, a series of assays was performed. Results: GD administration effectively alleviates insulin resistance and induces a decrease in FBG by 59.54% in 1.2% (L GD-treated diabetic group and 56.13% in 4.8% (H GD-treated diabetic group after 4 weeks, respectively, relative to diabetic model mice. The antioxidant capacity was improved by increasing the activities of glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px and total superoxide dismutase (T-SOD by 64.87% and 53.42% in treatment group H, compared to diabetic model mice, while GD treatment induced a significant decrease in malondialdehyde (MDA level by 50% in treatment group L, compared to the level in diabetic model mice. Furthermore, glucose metabolism was ameliorated by the increased glycogen synthesis in the livers of diabetic mice. In addition, we also demonstrated that the messenger RNA (mRNA and protein expression levels of AKT, PI3K and PDK-1, which are involved in insulin signaling, were significantly increased. Conclusions: Oral administration of the GD-lyophilized powder has been effectively hypoglycemic, which is done by activating insulin signaling and improving antioxidant capacity in mice with type 2 diabetes.

  15. BSA对生物材料吸附行为的研究%Study on adsorption of bovine serum albumin on biological materials surfaces

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    靳栋栋; 万涛; 陈晓明

    2013-01-01

    以原子力显微镜为主要研究工具,研究了BSA分子对CoCrMo合金和Al2O3陶瓷的吸附行为,测试了BSA吸附膜的厚度及BSA分子对CoCrMo合金和Al2O3陶瓷的吸附力.%The atomic force microscope was taken as the main tool to investigate the adsorption behavior of bo-vine serum albumin (BSA) molecules on CoCrMo alloys and Al2O3 ceramics in this article. The thickness of the BSA films and the adsorption force between BSA molecules and the samples were tested.

  16. Biomass-derived functional porous carbons as novel electrode material for the practical detection of biomolecules in human serum and snail hemolymph.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veeramani, Vediyappan; Madhu, Rajesh; Chen, Shen-Ming; Lou, Bih-Show; Palanisamy, Jayabal; Vasantha, Vairathevar Sivasamy

    2015-05-22

    The biomass-derived activated carbons (ACs) have been prepared with high surface areas up to 793 m(2) g(-1) is by ZnCl2 activation at three different temperatures, viz. AC700, AC800, and AC900. The AC samples were characterized by a variety of analytical and spectroscopy techniques. The as-synthesized ACs were adopted for the simultaneous electrochemical detection of ascorbic acid (AA), dopamine (DA), and uric acid (UA). For comparison, reduced graphene oxide (RGO) was employed for the proposed sensor. The high surface area, modulated pore size and the presence of oxygen surface functional groups like heteroatoms (83.427% C, 1.085% N, 0.383% S, and 0.861% H) in the biomass-derived AC is found to be responsible for the excellent catalytic activities of biomolecules. Fascinatingly, the facile sensor further used to detect biomolecules levels in the snail hemolymph and human blood serum. Notably, the obtained analytical parameters for the biomolecules detection over the AC modified GCE, outperforming several carbon-based modified electrodes in literatures.

  17. Biomass-derived functional porous carbons as novel electrode material for the practical detection of biomolecules in human serum and snail hemolymph

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veeramani, Vediyappan; Madhu, Rajesh; Chen, Shen-Ming; Lou, Bih-Show; Palanisamy, Jayabal; Vasantha, Vairathevar Sivasamy

    2015-01-01

    The biomass-derived activated carbons (ACs) have been prepared with high surface areas up to 793 m2 g−1 is by ZnCl2 activation at three different temperatures, viz. AC700, AC800, and AC900. The AC samples were characterized by a variety of analytical and spectroscopy techniques. The as-synthesized ACs were adopted for the simultaneous electrochemical detection of ascorbic acid (AA), dopamine (DA), and uric acid (UA). For comparison, reduced graphene oxide (RGO) was employed for the proposed sensor. The high surface area, modulated pore size and the presence of oxygen surface functional groups like heteroatoms (83.427% C, 1.085% N, 0.383% S, and 0.861% H) in the biomass-derived AC is found to be responsible for the excellent catalytic activities of biomolecules. Fascinatingly, the facile sensor further used to detect biomolecules levels in the snail hemolymph and human blood serum. Notably, the obtained analytical parameters for the biomolecules detection over the AC modified GCE, outperforming several carbon-based modified electrodes in literatures. PMID:25998156

  18. Determination of the chemical composition and functional properties of shrimp waste protein concentrate and lyophilized flour Determinação da composição química e das propriedades funcionais de concentrado protéico e de farinha liofilizada de resíduos de camarão

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olivaldo Lacerda Brasileiro

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Wastes from the seafood industry can be easily processed into products with new forms of use. The present study was aimed at determining the chemical composition and functional properties of shrimp waste protein concentrate and lyophilized flour. The raw material used in this study consisted of waste (head of Litopenaeus vannamei. The protein concentrate was obtained by ethanolic extraction, being subsequently submitted to drying in oven at 70° C, while the flour was obtained by lyophilization of shrimp wastes. Moisture, ash, protein and calcium contents showed significant difference between fresh shrimp head waste samples (IN and protein concentrate and lyophilized flour samples. The protein content for protein concentrate (PC and lyophilized flour (LF showed significant increase in relation to protein content in the waste (IN, thus showing that the process for obtaining the protein concentrate was efficient.Resíduos provenientes da indústria do pescado podem ser facilmente transformados em produtos com novas formas de aproveitamento. No presente estudo, objetivou-se determinar a composição química e as propriedades funcionais de farinha liofilizada e concentrado proteico provenientes de resíduos de camarão. A matéria-prima empregada neste estudo foi constituída de resíduos (cabeça de camarão Litopenaeus vannamei. O concentrado proteico foi obtido por extração etanólica e, posteriormente, submetido à secagem em estufa a 70° C, enquanto a farinha foi obtida pelo processo de liofilização do resíduo. Os teores de umidade, cinzas, proteínas e cálcio apresentaram diferença significativa entre as amostras de resíduo de cabeça de camarão in natura (IN e as amostras de concentrado proteico e farinha liofilizada. O teor de proteínas para concentrado protéico (CP e para a farinha liofilizada (FL apresentou aumento significativo em relação ao teor proteico do resíduo (IN, mostrando, assim, que o processo de elaboração do

  19. Study of Serum Amylase and Serum Cholinesterase in Organophosphorus Poisoning

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    Sharan Badiger

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Poisoning due to organophosphorus compounds is most commonly seen. Earlier plasma cholinesterase level was used to assess the severity of poisoning. Presently serum amylase is being recommended as a better indicator of severity. Aims and Objectives: To study plasma cholinesterase and serum amylase levels in acute organophosphorus and to correlate serum amylase levels with clinical severity and outcome. Material and Methods: A total of 80 patients in the study admitted to a tertiary care centre within 24 hours with a history of organophosphorus poisoning were included in study. Estimation of plasma cholinesterase and serum rd amylase was done at the time of admission, and on 3 th day and on 5 day. Results: Occurrence of organophosphorus poisoning was more common among age group 21-30 years and among males (57.5%. They were 25 (31.2% farmers, 23 (28.8% st u d e n ts, a n d 2 2 ( 2 7 . 5% h o u s ewi v e s. Monocrotophos (45.0% was commonly used compound. Mean value of plasma cholinesterase and serum amylase at admission are 3693 U/L, and 185.4 U/L. There was significant inhibition of plasma cholinesterase and elevation of serum amylase at th admission with return to normal values on 5 day. Conclusion: Plasma cholinesterase inhibition 200 U/L has been associated with poor prognosis and proneness to respiratory failure.

  20. Predicting protein aggregation during storage in lyophilized solids using solid state amide hydrogen/deuterium exchange with mass spectrometric analysis (ssHDX-MS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moorthy, Balakrishnan S; Schultz, Steven G; Kim, Sherry G; Topp, Elizabeth M

    2014-06-02

    Solid state amide hydrogen/deuterium exchange with mass spectrometric analysis (ssHDX-MS) was used to assess the conformation of myoglobin (Mb) in lyophilized formulations, and the results correlated with the extent of aggregation during storage. Mb was colyophilized with sucrose (1:1 or 1:8 w/w), mannitol (1:1 w/w), or NaCl (1:1 w/w) or in the absence of excipients. Immediately after lyophilization, samples of each formulation were analyzed by ssHDX-MS and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) to assess Mb conformation, and by dynamic light scattering (DLS) and size exclusion chromatography (SEC) to determine the extent of aggregation. The remaining samples were then placed on stability at 25 °C and 60% RH or 40 °C and 75% RH for up to 1 year, withdrawn at intervals, and analyzed for aggregate content by SEC and DLS. In ssHDX-MS of samples immediately after lyophilization (t = 0), Mb was less deuterated in solids containing sucrose (1:1 and 1:8 w/w) than in those containing mannitol (1:1 w/w), NaCl (1:1 w/w), or Mb alone. Deuterium uptake kinetics and peptide mass envelopes also indicated greater Mb structural perturbation in mannitol, NaCl, or Mb-alone samples at t = 0. The extent of deuterium incorporation and kinetic parameters related to rapidly and slowly exchanging amide pools (Nfast, Nslow), measured at t = 0, were highly correlated with the extent of aggregation on storage as measured by SEC. In contrast, the extent of aggregation was weakly correlated with FTIR band intensity and peak position measured at t = 0. The results support the use of ssHDX-MS as a formulation screening tool in developing lyophilized protein drug products.

  1. A Comparative Study to Evaluate the Effect of Different Carbohydrates on the Stability of Immunoglobulin G during Lyophilization and Following Storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Homa Faghihi 1, Sara Merrikhihaghi 1, Abdolhosein Ruholamini Najafabadi 1, Vahid Ramezani 2, Soroush Sardari 3, Alireza Vatanara 1 *

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Although the stabilizing effects of cyclodextrins (CDs on the liquid protein formulations have been proven, there is no comprehensive data on evaluation of their effects on the lyophilized antibody powders. In this study, the influence of two CD derivatives namely beta-cyclodextrin (βCD and hydroxypropyl beta-cyclodextrin (HPβCD was compared with trehalose and mannitol regarding the molecular and thermodynamic stability of lyophilized IgG formulations as well as its biological activity. Methods: Sugars were separately added to IgG solutions and lyophilization process was conducted. In each group of carbohydrates, the formulations with lowest amounts of aggregates were examined regarding the biological activity. The storage stability of selected formulations was subsequently determined following 1 and 3 month of storage at 45 °C. Results: Trehalose and HPβCD in the ratios of 80% showed the most stabilizing effects by control of aggregated forms in the orders of 1.02% and 0.83%, respectively. Also, it was shown that trehalose and HPβCD could incomparably preserve IgG activity in values of 100% and 96.5%. The results of DSC and SEM analysis confirmed the existence of crystalline parts in mannitol and βCD formulations of antibody. During the storage time, the lowest rate constant of aggregation was observed in formulations containing trehalose 80% (0.16/month. All prepared formulations were beta-dominant and no fragmentation was detected. Conclusion: Molecular, thermodynamic and biological stability of lyophilized IgG was more desirable in the presence of trehalose and HPβCD in comparison to mannitol and βCD.

  2. Comparison of lyophilization, and freezing in honey as techniques to preserve cortical bone allografts used to repair experimental femoral defects in domestic adult cats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.P. Ferreira

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Cats with orthopedic conditions are a prominent part of the clinical work of veterinary. Conditions such as comminuted fractures, bone tumors and non-unions are often difficult to repair and may require the use of bone grafts for treatment. This study evaluated cortical bone allografts preserved in honey, frozen or lyophilized for correcting long bone defects created in the diaphysis of the right femur of domestic cats (n=24. In the control group (n=6, the defect was repaired using autogenous cortical bone graft. In the remaining animals (n=6/group, the defect was repaired with cortical bone allografts preserved in honey, frozen or lyophilized. Success of graft incorporation and length of time for consolidation were assessed through clinical, radiographic and histological evaluations performed up to 180 days. In the control, frozen, honey and lyophylized groups, respectively, success of graft incorporation was 91.6%, 83.3%, 75%, and 25%, with corresponding mean length of time for consolidation of 83.1, 78, 105 and 120 days. Incorporation percentage in the lyophilized group was significantly lower than in the frozen and control groups. In conclusion, bone grafts preserved in honey or frozen were effective for repairing cortical defects in the femurs of cats as compared to autogenous cortical bone grafts.

  3. Homogenization, lyophilization or acid-extraction of meat products improves iron uptake from cereal-meat product combinations in an in vitro digestion/Caco-2 cell model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pachón, Helena; Stoltzfus, Rebecca J; Glahn, Raymond P

    2009-03-01

    The effect of processing (homogenization, lyophilization, acid-extraction) meat products on iron uptake from meat combined with uncooked iron-fortified cereal was evaluated using an in vitro digestion/Caco-2 cell model. Beef was cooked, blended to create smaller meat particles, and combined with electrolytic iron-fortified infant rice cereal. Chicken liver was cooked and blended, lyophilized, or acid-extracted, and combined with FeSO4-fortified wheat flour. In the beef-cereal combination, Caco-2 cell iron uptake, assessed by measuring the ferritin formed by cells, was greater when the beef was blended for the greatest amount of time (360 s) compared with 30 s (P flour combination. Compared to liver blended for 60 s, acid-extraction of liver significantly enhanced iron uptake (P = 0.03) in the liver-flour combination. Homogenization of beef and homogenization, lyophilization, or acid-extraction of chicken liver increases the enhancing effect of meat products on iron absorption in iron-fortified cereals.

  4. Modeling of heat and mass transfer processes for the gap-lyophilization system using the mannitol-trehalose-NaCl formulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuu, Wei Y; Doty, Mark J; Nisipeanu, Eugen; Rebbeck, Christine L; Cho, Yong K; Smit, Mark H

    2014-09-01

    Gap freezing (GF) is a new concept that was developed to reduce the primary drying time using an alternative freezing process. The purpose of this investigation was to determine the gap-tray heat transfer coefficient, Kgtr , and to investigate the effect of gap lyophilization on cycle reduction of a mannitol-trehalose-NaCl (MTN) formulation. The values of Kgtr were measured using the product temperature profiles in three different configurations: (1) shelf freezing followed by shelf drying (denoted as SF-SD), (2) GF followed by SD (denoted as GF-SD), and (3) GF followed by gap drying (denoted as GF-GD). For the lyophilization cycle using shelf drying (SF-SD), 80% of the heat transferred during primary drying was from the bottom shelf to the vial, versus 20% via radiation from the top shelf. For the lyophilization cycle using gap drying (GF-GD), only 37% of the heat transferred during primary drying was from the bottom shelf to the vial versus 63% via radiation from the top shelf. Furthermore, GF in conjunction with annealing significantly reduces the dry layer resistance of the MTN formulation, which is the opposite of what was observed with a conventional freezing cycle.

  5. Degradation of lycopene and beta-carotene in model systems and in lyophilized guava during ambient storage: kinetics, structure, and matrix effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, J E M; Rodriguez-Amaya, D B

    2008-10-01

    Being highly unsaturated, carotenoids are susceptible to isomerization and oxidation during the processing and storage of food. In the present study, the degradation of acyclic lycopene and dicyclic beta-carotene in low-moisture and aqueous model systems, as well as in lyophilized guava, during storage at ambient temperature, in the absence or presence of light, was investigated. Both carotenoids followed first order kinetics under the various conditions investigated. Lycopene degraded much faster than beta-carotene in all the model systems. In a comparison of lycopene isolated from guava, tomato, and watermelon, greater losses were observed with lycopene from tomato. Since the model system was identical in the 3 cases, these results indicated that other compounds from the food sources, co-extracted with lycopene, might have influenced the oxidation. Light consistently and strongly promoted degradation under all conditions studied. The susceptibility of lycopene to degradation was much less in lyophilized guava than in the model systems, showing the marked protective influence of the food matrix. Loss of beta-carotene, found at a concentration of about 18 times lower than lycopene, was only slightly lower than that of lycopene in lyophilized guava, indicating that the effect of matrix and/or the initial concentration overshadowed the structural influence.

  6. Reconstruction of Rabbit Corneal Layer Composed of Corneal Fibroblasts and Corneal Epithelium on the Lyophilized Amniotic Membrane

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Many researchers have employed the cryopreserved amniotic membrane(CAM) and corneal epithelial cells in the treatment of a severely damaged burned cornea, with corneal epithelial cells cultured on an amniotic membrane (AM). The lyophilized amniotic membrane (LAM) has a higher graft take and a longer shelf life; it is easier to store and safer because of gamma irradiation. Two Teflon rings(Ahn's supporter) were made for culturing the cells on the LAM, and were then used to support the LAM. To reconstruct a corneal layer composed of corneal fibroblasts and epithelium, the corneal fibroblasts were first cultivated on the stromal side of LAM for five days, followed by epithelial cells culture on the epithelial side, by using the air-liquid interface culture. The reconstructed corneal layer composed of corneal fibroblasts and corneal epithelial cells has a much healthier basal layer of corneal epithelium than the reconstructed corneal epithelium, which was got by using only corneal epithelial cells, and resembles the epithelium of normal corneas, without the horny layer. Thus, the reconstruction of the corneal layer by using a LAM is considered to be a good in vitro model, not only for its application in toxicological test kits, but also for transplantation in patients with a severely damaged cornea.

  7. Intranasal inoculation of white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus with lyophilized chronic wasting disease prion particulate complexed to montmorillonite clay.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tracy A Nichols

    Full Text Available Chronic wasting disease (CWD, the only known prion disease endemic in wildlife, is a persistent problem in both wild and captive North American cervid populations. This disease continues to spread and cases are found in new areas each year. Indirect transmission can occur via the environment and is thought to occur by the oral and/or intranasal route. Oral transmission has been experimentally demonstrated and although intranasal transmission has been postulated, it has not been tested in a natural host until recently. Prions have been shown to adsorb strongly to clay particles and upon oral inoculation the prion/clay combination exhibits increased infectivity in rodent models. Deer and elk undoubtedly and chronically inhale dust particles routinely while living in the landscape while foraging and rutting. We therefore hypothesized that dust represents a viable vehicle for intranasal CWD prion exposure. To test this hypothesis, CWD-positive brain homogenate was mixed with montmorillonite clay (Mte, lyophilized, pulverized and inoculated intranasally into white-tailed deer once a week for 6 weeks. Deer were euthanized at 95, 105, 120 and 175 days post final inoculation and tissues examined for CWD-associated prion proteins by immunohistochemistry. Our results demonstrate that CWD can be efficiently transmitted utilizing Mte particles as a prion carrier and intranasal exposure.

  8. Precipitation-lyophilization-homogenization (PLH) for preparation of clarithromycin nanocrystals: influencing factors on physicochemical properties and stability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morakul, Boontida; Suksiriworapong, Jiraphong; Leanpolchareanchai, Jiraporn; Junyaprasert, Varaporn Buraphacheep

    2013-11-30

    Nanocrystals is one of effective technologies used to improve solubility and dissolution behavior of poorly soluble drugs. Clarithromycin is classified in BCS class II having low bioavailability due to very low dissolution behavior. The main purpose of this study was to investigate an efficiency of clarithromycin nanocrystals preparation by precipitation-lyophilization-homogenization (PLH) combination method in comparison with high pressure homogenization (HPH) method. The factors influencing particle size reduction and physical stability were assessed. The results showed that the PLH technique provided an effective and rapid reduction of particle size of nanocrystals to 460 ± 10 nm with homogeneity size distribution after only the fifth cycle of homogenization, whereas the same size was attained after 30 cycles by the HPH method. The smallest nanocrystals were achieved by using the combination of poloxamer 407 (2%, w/v) and SLS (0.1%, w/v) as stabilizers. This combination could prevent the particle aggregation over 3-month storage at 4 °C. The results from SEM showed that the clarithromycin nanocrystals were in cubic-shaped similar to its initial particle morphology. The DSC thermogram and X-ray diffraction pattern of nanocrystals were not different from the original drug except for intensity of peaks which indicated the presenting of nanocrystals in the crystalline state and/or partial amorphous form. In addition, the dissolution of the clarithromycin nanocrystals was dramatically increased as compared to the coarse clarithromycin.

  9. The evolving role of lyophilized plasma in remote damage control resuscitation in the French Armed Forces Health Service.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sailliol, Anne; Martinaud, Christophe; Cap, Andrew P; Civadier, Corinne; Clavier, Benoit; Deshayes, Anne-Virginie; Mendes, Anne-Christine; Pouget, Thomas; Demazeau, Nicolas; Chueca, Marine; Martelet, François-Régis; Ausset, Sylvain

    2013-01-01

    Freeze-dried plasma was developed by the US Army for the resuscitation of combat casualties during World War II. The French Military Blood Institute began producing French lyophilized plasma (FLYP) in 1949, in accordance with French blood product guidelines. Since 2010, a photochemical pathogen inactivation process has been implemented to reduce the remaining transfusion-related infectious risk. All quality controls for this procedure verify that the hemostatic properties of FLYP are conserved. FLYP is compatible with all blood types, can be stored at room temperature for 2 years, and its reconstitution requires less than 6 minutes. As a result, FLYP allows quick delivery of all the coagulation proteins and the application of a 1:1 ratio of FLYP and red blood cells in the context of a massive transfusion. Hemovigilance data collected in France since 1994 have included FLYP. Results indicate no reporting of infection related to the use of FLYP. Clinical monitoring with a focus on hemostasis was implemented in 2002 and expanded in 2010. The data, obtained from overseas operations, confirmed the indications, the safety and the clinical efficacy of FLYP. Further research is needed to determine specific indications for FLYP in the therapeutic management of civilian patients with severe hemorrhage.

  10. Development, Optimization, and Validation of a Green and Stability-Indicating HPLC Method for Determination of Daptomycin in Lyophilized Powder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tótoli, Eliane Gandolpho; Salgado, Hérida Regina Nunes

    2015-01-01

    Daptomycin is an antimicrobial that plays an important role in clinical practice today because it is considered a promising drug to combat resistant strains, such as methicilin and vancomycin-resistant Gram-positive bacteria. Considering the analysis of daptomycin in a pharmaceutical dosage form, the only method found in literature uses potentially toxic organic solvents. Therefore, the objective of this work was to develop a green and stability-indicating HPLC method for determination of daptomycin in lyophilized powder. The mobile phase was ethanol-water (55+45, v/v) at pH 4.5 pumped at a flow rate of 0.6 mL/min. A C18 column was used, and UV detection was performed at 221 nm. Stress degradation studies were conducted in order to demonstrate the specificity and stability-indicating capability of the method. The method was validated according to International Conference on Harmonization guidelines, proving to be linear (r=0.9996), precise, accurate, robust (demonstrated by the Plackett-Burman model), and specific within the range 20-70 μg/mL. The retention time of daptomycin was 5.8 min. It can be concluded that the validated method can be a fast, safe, and environmentally friendly alternative for the analysis of daptomycin.

  11. A Preliminary Evaluation of Lyophilized Gelatin Sponges, Enhanced with Platelet-Rich Plasma, Hydroxyapatite and Chitin Whiskers for Bone Regeneration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew J. Spence

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to perform a number of preliminary in vitro evaluations on an array of modified gelatin gel sponge scaffolds for use in a bone graft application. The gelatin gels were modified through the addition of a number of components which each possess unique properties conducive to the creation and regeneration of bone: a preparation rich in growth factors (PRGF, a bioactive, lyophilized form of platelet-rich plasma, hydroxyapatite, and chitin whiskers. Platelet-rich plasma therapy is an emerging practice that has proven effective in a number of clinical applications, including enhancing bone repair through improved deposition of new bony matrix and angiogenesis. As such, the inclusion of PRGF in our gelatin scaffolds was intended to significantly enhance scaffold bioactivity, while the addition of hydroxyapatite and chitin whiskers were anticipated to increase scaffold strength. Additionally, the gelatin sponges, which readily dissolve in aqueous solutions, were subjected to 1-Ethyl-3-[3-dimethylaminopropyl]carbodiimide hydrochloride (EDC cross-linking, either during or post-gelation, to control their rate of degradation. Scaffolds were evaluated in vitro with respect to compressive strength, mass loss/degradation, protein release, and cellular interaction, with results demonstrating the potential of the gelatin gel sponge scaffold for use in the regeneration of bone.

  12. Preparation, Characterization and Luminescence of MCM-41 Immobilized Bovine Serum Albumin Composite Material%MCM-41固载牛血清白蛋白复合材料的制备、表征及发光

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    魏宇辰; 翟庆洲

    2012-01-01

    In this research, nanoscale MCM-41 molecular sieve was prepared using hydrothermal method and then bovine serum albumin (BSA) was immobilized in the above host to prepare ( MCM-41 )-BSA composite materials by physical adsorption method. Chemical analysis showed that BSA had entered into the above-stated host material and its immobilization amount was 55. 68 mg (BSA)/g (MCM-41). Powder X-ray diffraction (XRD) results indicated that crystallinity degree of composite materials was maintained good and basic frameworks of the molecular sieve were preserved intact and were not destructed due to BSA introduction. The low temperature N2 adsorption-desorption study results at 77 K showed that BSA had already partially entered in the molecular sieve pore channels. The measurement results by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) displayed that the diameter of ( MCM-41) -BSA sample was 100 ± 10 nm. The luminescence study showed that in the (MCM-41)-BSA sample the conformation of BSA was not changed.%本研究首先利用水热法制备出了纳米分子筛MCM-41,然后把牛血清白蛋白(Bovine serum albumin,BSA)物理吸附法固载在主体MCM-41中,制备出(MCM-41)-BSA复合材料.化学分析表明,BSA已进入上述主体材料中,固载量为55.68 mg (BSA)/g(MCM-41).粉末X射线衍射(XRD)结果表明,复合材料的结晶度保持良好,分子筛的基本骨架保存完好没有由于BSA的引入而遭到破坏.77 K低温N2吸附-解吸附的研究结果说明,BSA部分进入了分子筛孔道中.扫描电镜(SEM)测量结果显示,(MCM-41)-BSA样品的直径为100±10 nm.发光研究表明,(MCM-41)-BSA样品中BSA的构象未发生变化.

  13. Restricted accessed material-copper(II) ion imprinted polymer solid phase extraction combined with inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectrometry for the determination of free Cu(II) in urine and serum samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Chao; He, Man; Chen, Beibei; Hu, Bin

    2013-11-15

    A novel restricted accessed material (RAM)-Cu(II) ion imprinted polymer (IIP) was synthesized by the surface imprinted-emulsion method, and possessed a high selectivity to Cu(II) and good macromolecules exclusion property. And a novel method of RAM-IIP packed microcolumn solid phase extraction (SPE) combined with inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES) was developed for the determination of trace free Cu(II) in human body fluids. Under the optimized conditions, the adsorption capacity of RAM-IIP for Cu(II) was 15.9 mg g(-1). With a preconcentration factor of 30, the limit of detection was 0.17 µg L(-1), and the relative standard deviation was 2.2% (n=7, c=1 µg L(-1)). The developed method was validated by the analysis of two Certified Reference Materials, and the determined values were in good agreement with the certified values. This method was also successfully applied for the direct analysis of free Cu(II) in human urine and serum samples. While the total Cu can be determined by the proposed method after microwave digestion. The concentrations of free Cu(II) were much lower than that of total Cu, indicating that Cu is mainly coordinated with macromolecules in these biological samples. From this point of view, the developed method exhibits application potential in speciation of free metal ions and metallic complex molecules in biological samples. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Trehalose maintains bioactivity and promotes sustained release of BMP-2 from lyophilized CDHA scaffolds for enhanced osteogenesis in vitro and in vivo.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Zhao

    Full Text Available Calcium phosphate (Ca-P scaffolds have been widely employed as a supportive matrix and delivery system for bone tissue engineering. Previous studies using osteoinductive growth factors loaded Ca-P scaffolds via passive adsorption often experience issues associated with easy inactivation and uncontrolled release. In present study, a new delivery system was fabricated using bone morphogenetic protein-2 (BMP-2 loaded calcium-deficient hydroxyapatite (CDHA scaffold by lyophilization with addition of trehalose. The in vitro osteogenesis effects of this formulation were compared with lyophilized BMP-2/CDHA construct without trehalose and absorbed BMP-2/CDHA constructs with or without trehalose. The release characteristics and alkaline phosphatase (ALP activity analyses showed that addition of trehalose could sufficiently protect BMP-2 bioactivity during lyophilization and achieve sustained BMP-2 release from lyophilized CDHA construct in vitro and in vivo. However, absorbed BMP-2/CDHA constructs with or without trehalose showed similar BMP-2 bioactivity and presented a burst release. Quantitative real-time PCR (RT-qPCR and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA demonstrated that lyophilized BMP-2/CDHA construct with trehalose (lyo-tre-BMP-2 promoted osteogenic differentiation of bone marrow stromal cells (bMSCs significantly and this formulation could preserve over 70% protein bioactivity after 5 weeks storage at 25°C. Micro-computed tomography, histological and fluorescent labeling analyses further demonstrated that lyo-tre-BMP-2 formulation combined with bMSCs led to the most percentage of new bone volume (38.79% ± 5.32% and area (40.71% ± 7.14% as well as the most percentage of fluorochrome stained bone area (alizarin red S: 2.64% ± 0.44%, calcein: 6.08% ± 1.37% and mineral apposition rate (4.13 ± 0.62 µm/day in critical-sized rat cranial defects healing. Biomechanical tests also indicated the maximum stiffness (118.17 ± 15.02 Mpa and

  15. Preparation of Lyophilized Epirubicin Long Circulation Liposome Powder%表柔比星长循环脂质体冻干粉的制备

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周晖; 贺霞; 杨文涛; 姜伟化; 杨磊; 王东凯

    2014-01-01

    目的:对表柔比星长循环脂质体进行冷冻干燥以提高制剂稳定性,并对所得的冻干制剂进行初步质量评价。方法考察冻干保护剂种类、预冻时间及总干燥时间对制剂的影响;并考察表柔比星长循环脂质体冻干粉在温度为(25±2)℃、相对湿度(60±10)%条件下放置3个月的稳定性。结果以海藻糖为保护剂,保护剂与脂质体的比例为31。预冻温度-70℃,预冻时间8 h,冷冻干燥时间24 h。表柔比星长循环脂质体冻干后粒径、包封率、含量基本不变;加速条件下放置3个月,冻干制剂的再分散性好,包封率>94%,含量>99%。结论将表柔比星长循环脂质体进行冷冻干燥,可以有效提高制剂的稳定性。%Objective To improve the stability of epirubicin long circulation liposomes via lyophilizing technology and preliminarily evaluate their quality. Methods The effect of the various cryoprotectant,different pre-freezing and total drying time on the preparation was analyzed. The stability of the lyophilized powder was tested at (25±2) ℃ and (60±10)% relative humidity for 3 months. Results The protective agent trehalose to liposomes was 31. The freeze-drying was conducted with pre-freezing temperature at -70 ℃,precooling for 8 h and total drying for 24 h. There were no significant differences in particle size,encapsulation efficiency and drug content of lyophilized long-circulating liposomes compared with those un-lyophilized. After 3 months under the accelerated condition,it had good redispersibility, entrapment rate (>94%) and drug content (>99%) . Conclusion Lyophilizing the long-circulation epirubicin liposomes can effectively improve the stability of the preparation.

  16. Cellular immunity of monovalent influenza vaccine lyophilized liposome%单价流感疫苗脂质体干粉细胞免疫研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘洁; 马波; 鲁卫东; 徐勇军; 林华; 代云波

    2011-01-01

    从细胞免疫水平考察流感疫苗脂质体干粉肺部免疫的免疫原性,以验证在稳定性提高的同时,流感疫苗脂质体干粉肺部免疫原性不低于现行应用的流感疫苗原液腹腔注射免疫.将实验小鼠分为2个大组,每组分为阴性对照组、疫苗脂质体冻干粉组、非脂质体流感疫苗原液组和阳性对照组(n=5).非脂质体流感疫苗原液组和疫苗脂质体冻干粉组分别以每只6μg血凝素(以H1N1计)肺部灌注免疫,同时以每只6μg非脂质体流感疫苗原液组腹腔免疫作为阳性对照.分别免疫14d和28 d后,用四甲基偶氮唑盐微量酶反应比色法(MTT法)检测脾淋巴细胞增殖情况,以考察其细胞免疫原性.脂质体肺部免疫可以诱导细胞免疫,且其免疫原性明显高于流感疫苗原液传统腹腔注射免疫组.与流感疫苗原液腹腔注射免疫相比,流感疫苗脂质体干粉通过肺部免疫,细胞免疫效果明显提高.%To evaluate the immunogenicity of the influenza vaccine lyophilized liposomes through cellular immunity, it could be confirm that, with the increasing of the stability, the immunogenicity of the influenza vaccine lyophilized liposomes by pulmonary delivery was better than that of the influenza vaccine non-liposome immunized by intraperitoneal injection. Experimental mice were divided into two groups, and each group was divided into the negative control group, the influenza vaccine lyophilized liposome group, the influenza vaccine non-liposome group, and the positive control group (n = 5). The influenza vaccine lyophilized liposome group and the influenza vaccine non-liposome group were immunized with 6 |xg hemagglutinin of H1N1 per mouse through pulmonary deli very, and the positive control group was immunized with 6 u,g hemagglutinin of H1N1 per mouse through intraperitoneal injection. MTT method was used to measure the spleen cell proliferation after immunization to mice 14 days and 28 days in order to study

  17. Five different levels of secondary standard reference material of transaminase prepared with mixed freezing human serum%5种浓度水平冰冻混合人血清ALT、AST二级标准品的研制

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    夏昌宇; 庄俊华; 王兰珍; 张雪莲; 于琴; 刘牧龙; 徐国宾; 刘欧; 李海霞; 刘岩; 齐丽丽; 何振坤; 徐静; 黄宪章

    2011-01-01

    Objective To prepare a stable secondary standard reference materials of serum transaminase ( alanine aminotransferase and aspartate aminotransferase) for accurate value of of serum transaminase level in routine measurement. Methods Human sera without hemolysis and lipemia were pooled which covered 5 different levels of the linearity measuring range. After filtration for sterilization, the mixed sera were distributed into freezing tubes (0.5ml per vial) and stored at -70 ℃ +2 ℃. Transaminase levels in the mixed sera were assessed in 4 laboratories with the recommended reference method recommended by International Federation of Clinical Chemistry (IFCC) containing or non-containing pyridoxal phosphate (PLP). The consistency of transaminase level in the sera measured by 7 commercial biochemical analysis systems and the results were evaluated by linear regression. The homogeneity of the materials was analyzed by one-way ANOVA. The stabilities of materials for short-term and long-term were studied at room temperature ( 15-25 ℃ ), 4 ℃ and -70 ℃ respectively. Results The sera materials were verified to be homogeneous and stable enough for use when stored at room temperature and 4 ℃, and could be preserved at - 70 ℃ for at least one year. The measured values from 4 laboratories were of high consistency with small uncertainties. The materials prepared by mixed sera were proved to be consistent with each other except the level 4 and level 5 which showed a little variation induced by matrix effect of PLP. Conclusion The prepared 5 levels of frozen sera materials were homogeneous, stable and intercommunicatable. All the 5 levels of material may achieve accurate measuring values and serve as the secondary standard reference material of serum transaminase.%目的 研制5个浓度水平冰冻混合人血清丙氨酸氨基转移酶(ALT)和天冬氨酸氨基转移酶(AST)二级标准品,为常规检测ALT、AST提供稳定性和互通性良好的准确度

  18. Toward standardization of carbohydrate-deficient transferrin (CDT) measurements: II. Performance of a laboratory network running the HPLC candidate reference measurement procedure and evaluation of a candidate reference material.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helander, Anders; Wielders, Jos P M; Jeppsson, Jan-Olof; Weykamp, Cas; Siebelder, Carla; Anton, Raymond F; Schellenberg, François; Whitfield, John B

    2010-11-01

    Carbohydrate-deficient transferrin (CDT) is a descriptive term used for a temporary change in the transferrin glycosylation profile caused by alcohol, and used as a biomarker of chronic high alcohol consumption. The use of an array of methods for measurement of CDT in various absolute or relative amounts, and sometimes covering different transferrin glycoforms, has complicated the comparability of results and caused confusion among medical staff. This situation prompted initiation of an IFCC Working Group on CDT standardization. This second publication of the WG-CDT covers the establishment of a network of reference laboratories running a high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) candidate reference measurement procedure, and evaluation of candidate secondary reference materials. The network laboratories demonstrated good and reproducible performance and thus can be used to assign target values for calibrators and controls. A candidate secondary reference material based on native human serum lyophilized with a cryo-/lyoprotectant to prevent protein denaturation was found to be commutable and stable during storage. A proposed strategy for calibration of different CDT methods is also presented. In an external quality assurance study involving 66 laboratories and covering the current routine CDT assays (HPLC, capillary electrophoresis and immunoassay), recalculation of observed results based on the nominal values for the candidate calibrator reduced the overall coefficient of variation from 18.9% to 5.5%. The logistics for distribution of reference materials and review of results were found to be functional, indicating that a full reference system for CDT may soon be available.

  19. Preparation of candidate reference materials for potassium in frozen human mixed serum%冰冻混合人血清钾候选标准物质的研制

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张瑞; 马怀安; 王清涛

    2016-01-01

    目的:研制冰冻混合人血清钾标准物质,应用于校准和评价常规方法,促进血清钾检测标准化进程,实现结果的互认。方法收集正常体检血清,过滤除菌后分装于冻存管中。采用单因素方差分析法,以F<F0.05为判定标准评价候选标准物质的均匀性。通过直线回归方差分析,以直线斜率|b1|<t0.95,n-2・ s(b1)为判定标准进行短期稳定性(2~8℃,室温,37℃)和长期稳定性(-80℃)研究,采用参考方法同位素稀释电感耦合等离子体质谱法( ICP-MS)定值,计算相应不确定度。对3水平的候选标准物质及25份新鲜血清在ICP-MS与FAES及两个常规检测系统间的互通性进行观察,并在33家常规实验室间进行标准物质的正确度验证。结果通过SPSS 17.0统计软件进行统计分析,3个浓度水平的冰冻混合人血清钾候选标准物质均匀性检验F值分别为0.247,0.117,0.162,均小于F0.05(9,20)=2.39;冷藏(2~8℃),室温(20~25℃),37℃分别至少稳定30、12、4 d;-80℃保存在已监测12个月内稳定性良好。定值结果分别为(2.349±0.028) mol/L、(3.845±0.024) mol/L、(5.831±0.042)mol/L;3个水平冰冻混合血清钾标准物质全部在25份血清标本的回归直线95%置信区间范围内,互通性良好;33家实验室的正确度调查中,97%的检验结果均在定值±2.5%(±1/2 CLIA′88Tea)范围内。结论3水平冰冻混合人血清钾候选标准物质均匀性、稳定性、互通性良好,定值准确可靠。(中华检验医学杂志,2016,39:633-638)%Objective To prepare the candidate reference materials for frozen mixed serum potassium, in order to calibrate and evaluate the conventional methods to achieve mutual recognition of the results.Methods Fresh sera without hemolysis,lipemia and choloplania were

  20. Protein electrophoresis - serum

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003540.htm Protein electrophoresis - serum To use the sharing features on ... JavaScript. This lab test measures the types of protein in the fluid (serum) part of a blood ...

  1. Enhanced osteogenic activity and anti-inflammatory properties of Lenti-BMP-2-loaded TiO2 nanotube layers fabricated by lyophilization following trehalose addition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang X

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Xiaochen Zhang,1 Zhiyuan Zhang,1 Gang Shen,2 Jun Zhao2 1Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, 2Department of Orthodontics, College of Stomatology, Ninth People’s Hospital, School of Medicine, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai, People’s Republic of China Abstract: To enhance biocompatibility and osseointegration between titanium implants and surrounding bone tissue, numerous efforts have been made to modify the surface topography and composition of Ti implants. In this paper, Lenti-BMP-2-loaded TiO2 nanotube coatings were fabricated by lyophilization in the presence of trehalose to functionalize the surface. We characterized TiO2 nanotube layers in terms of the following: surface morphology; Lenti-BMP-2 and trehalose release; their ability to induce osteogenesis, proliferation, and anti-inflammation in vitro; and osseointegration in vivo. The anodized TiO2 nanotube surfaces exhibited an amorphous glassy matrix perpendicular to the Ti surface. Both Lenti-BMP-2 and trehalose showed sustained release over the course of 8 days. Results from real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction studies demonstrated that lyophilized Lenti-BMP-2/TiO2 nanotubes constructed with trehalose (Lyo-Tre-Lenti-BMP-2 significantly promoted osteogenic differentiation of bone marrow stromal cells but not their proliferation. In addition, Lyo-Tre-Lenti-BMP-2 nanotubes effectively inhibited lipopolysaccharide-induced interleukin-1β and tumor necrosis factor-α production. In vivo, the formulation also promoted osseointegration. This study presents a promising new method for surface-modifying biomedical Ti-based implants to simultaneously enhance their osteogenic potential and anti-inflammatory properties, which can better satisfy clinical needs. Keywords: osteogenesis, anti-inflammation, TiO2 nanotube layers, Lenti-BMP-2, lyophilization, trehalose 

  2. LC-MS determination and pharmacokinetic study of six phenolic components in rat plasma after taking traditional Chinese medicinal-preparation: Guanxinning lyophilized powder for injection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Xiaorui; Chen, Xiaohui; Li, Li; Shen, Zhenduo; Wang, Xiaoli; Zheng, Ping; Duan, Fangxia; Ma, Yongfen; Bi, Kaishun

    2008-09-15

    A traditional Chinese medicinal preparation (TCMP) named Guanxinning lyophilized powder for injection composed of Salvia miltiorrhiza Bge. (SMB) and Ligusticum chuanxiong Hort. (LCH) was studied. In order to learn the kinetic behaviors of the lyophilized powder and provide proofs for rational administration, we have developed a sensitive and reproducible method for determination and pharmacokinetic study of six main phenolic components {danshensu (DSS), protocatechuic acid (PAC), protocatechuic aldehyde (PAL), chlorogenic acid (CHA), caffeic acid (CAA) and salvianolic acid B (SAB)} of Guanxinning in rat plasma using liquid chromatography-mass spectrometric (LC-MS) method. Sample preparations were carried out by protein precipitation with the addition of methanol followed by liquid-liquid extraction with ethyl acetate-ethyl ether (3:1, v/v) after internal standard (IS, galic acid) spiked. After evaporation to dryness, the resultant residue was reconstituted in methanol and injected onto a Kromasil C(18) column (150 mm x 4.6 mm i.d. with 5 microm particle size). The analytes were analyzed by using negative electrospray ionization (ESI) mass spectrometry in selected ion monitoring (SIM) mode. The method was with good linearity in the range 0.342-85.0 microgmL(-1) for DSS, 0.0647-12.9 microgmL(-1) for PAC, 0.0933-18.7 microgmL(-1) for PAL, 0.0085-3.40 microgmL(-1) for CHA, 0.0138-2.75 microgmL(-1) for CAA and 0.0272-810 microgmL(-1) for SAB (r>0.99). The average extract recoveries of the six analytes from rat plasma were all no less than 75%, the precision and accuracy determined were all within the required limits. This LC-MS method was successfully applied to pharmacokinetic study of the six phenolic components of Guanxinning lyophilized powder for injection in rats.

  3. Serum iron test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fe+2; Ferric ion; Fe++; Ferrous ion; Iron - serum; Anemia - serum iron; Hemochromatosis - serum iron ... A blood sample is needed. Iron levels are highest in the morning. Your health care provider will likely have you do this test in the morning.

  4. Induction of osteogenic differentiation of stem cells via a lyophilized microRNA reverse transfection formulation on a tissue culture plate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wu, Kaimin; Xu, Jie; Liu, Mingzhe

    2013-01-01

    MicroRNA (miRNA) regulation is a novel approach to manipulating the fate of mesenchymal stem cells, but an easy, safe, and highly efficient method of transfection is required. In this study, we developed an miRNA reverse transfection formulation by lyophilizing Lipofectamine 2000-miRNA lipoplexes...... of the intracellular target miRNA level. Reverse transfection formulations containing Lipofectamine 2000 1 µL per well generated much higher transfection efficiency without obvious cytotoxicity compared with conventional and other transfection methods. Further, the transfection efficiency of the reverse transfection...

  5. [Alternate method for closure of oro-antral fistulas. Plastic covering of jaw opening with lyophilized Dura and alcoholic solution of Prolamin].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinner, U; Frenkel, G

    1990-11-01

    The operative closure of an oroantral fistula due to tooth extractions by the method of Rehrmann consists of various disadvantages, e.g. postoperative pain, swelling, flattening of the vestibulum and scar-tissue. Two alternative methods to close fresh oroantral fistulas without surgical intervention are described. By the use of prolamin occlusion gel or lyophilized dura these disadvantages can be avoided. Both techniques were successfully attempted on patients. The rate of failure is on both counts under 4%. Some indications limits must be strictly regarded. Both methods are really a good alternative to the usual operative procedure of Rehrmann and can easily be applied even on patients of great risk.

  6. Novel development of carbonate apatite-chitosan scaffolds based on lyophilization technique for bone tissue engineering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maretaningtias Dwi Ariani

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: The natural biopolymer chitosan (Ch is currently regarded as a candidate for bone tissue engineering. However, Ch is poor for cell adhesion and low bone formation ability. In order to enhance cell adhesion and bone formation ability, combination of Ch with carbonate apatite (CA was developed. Purpose: The aim of this study was to make carbonate apatite-chitosan scaffolds (CAChSs and evaluate its osteoconductivity in terms of cell proliferation. Methods: Chitosan scaffolds (ChSs were made by the following procedure. Twenty-five, 50, 100, 200 and 400 mg Ch was dissolved into 5 ml of 2% acetic acid (CH3COOH, shaked for 15 min and neutralized with 15 ml of 0.1 M sodium hydroxide (NaOH solution. After centrifugation, Ch gel was packed into the molds then frozen at -80°C for 2h and dried in a freeze dry machine for 24h. The sponges were subjected to UV radiation for 2h. To make CA-ChSs, 200 mg Ch was selected. After neutralization, 50 mg of 0.06 M CA were added into the 200 mg Ch gel. The structure of CA-ChSs was observed by scanning electron microscope (SEM. Mouse osteoblast-like cell (MC3T3-E1 proliferation in these scaffolds was investigated at 1, 7, 14 and 21 days. Results: Three dimensional porous structures of CA-ChSs were clearly observed by SEM. Proliferated cell numbers in CA-ChSs was significantly higher than those in ChSs (control at each stage (p<0.05. Conclusion: It can be concluded that newly developed CA-ChSs had three-dimensional interconnected porous structure, good handling property and supporting ability of proliferation of osteoblasts. It is suggested that newly developed CA-ChSs could be considered as a scaffolds material for bone tissue enginearing.Latar belakang: Kitosan yang merupakan biopolimer alami dianggap sebagai salah satu kandidat untuk rekayasa jaringan tulang. Namun, kitosan memiliki kelemahan terhadap adhesi sel dan kurang mampu membentuk tulang yang cukup. Untuk meningkatkan adhesi sel dan kemampuan

  7. Potential Synthetic Biolubricant as an Alternative to Bovine Serum

    OpenAIRE

    Scholes, Susan C.; Colledge, Coral J.; Naylor, Andrew; Mahdi, Mohammed H.; Smith, Alan M.; Joyce, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    It is crucial that orthopaedic implant materials are tested in conditions that replicate the natural body’s environment as closely as possible. Bovine serum is currently recommended for use by the International Organisation for Standardisation (ISO) for the wear testing of these implant materials, however, the rheological properties of bovine serum do not match fully those of the body’s natural lubricant, synovial fluid. This study looks at a potential alternative to bovine serum for the test...

  8. 血清肿瘤标志物检测自制质控品的应用%Application of Control Materials Produced in House for Serum Tumor Markers Detection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨悦林; 胡大春; 钱净; 杨丽琼; 张水丽

    2012-01-01

    目的 探讨自制肿瘤标志物质控品在临床实验室中的应用可行性.方法 收集肿瘤患者检测血清样本,与健康人群血清按比例混合,配制成肿瘤标志物多项目(AFP,CEA,CA125,CA15-3,CA19-9,CA21-1,NSE,CA72-4和TPSA)复合血清,液态分装,-20℃保存,作为自制质控品每工作日检测一次,连续检测3个月,观察其稳定性;统计3个月内自制质控品各项目月均值、累积均值、月CV%、累积CV%和失控次数,探讨其在室内质量控制活动中的应用价值.结果 ①-20℃分装保存3个月的自制肿瘤标志物复合项目质控品冻溶后外观清澈透明,无浑浊及沉淀;该自制质控品-20℃分装保存第1,7,15,30,50,70,90天各项肿瘤标志物量值未见明显变化;对第21~30,51~60,81~90天各项目测定结果进行方差分析,差异无统计学意义(P>0.05).②自制复合质控品用于室内质控活动,对各项目第1,2,3个月结果进行方差分析,差异无统计学意义(P>0.05),各项目月均值及三个月累积均值之间比较,月均值及累积均值未出现均值漂移或趋势变化;各项目月CV%和累积CV%,均在不精密度(cVA%)控制允许范围内(CVA% <0.5倍个体内生物学变异);3个月室内质控活动中,失控报警:13s6次,22s3次,R1s1次.结论 自制肿瘤标志物复合项目冰冻血清作为室内质控品,具有良好的稳定性,可替代其进口产品;其应用于室内质控活动,能及时发现检测系统的不稳定性因素,并加以纠正处理,确保肿瘤标志物检测结果的可靠性.%Objective To investigate possibility for the application of control material produced in house for serum tumor markers detection. Methods The control material of serum tumor markers detection was made from serum of cancer patients and healthy human which were mixed each other according to proportion. The markers included AFP,CEA,CA125, CA15-3,CA19-9,CA21-1,NSE,CA72-4 and TPSA. The self-products of

  9. Matrix effect on serum uric acid determination%血清尿酸测定的基质效应

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张江涛; 王冬环; 张传宝; 曾洁; 马嵘; 赵海舰; 周伟燕; 张天娇; 闫颖; 胡翠华; 汪静

    2016-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the matrix effect of 21 samples (sera and processed materials) on 13 routine determination systems in serum uric acid determination. Methods Determinations were performed according to the health industry standard WS/T356-2011. Isotope dilution liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (ID-LC/MS/MS)was used as comparison method,and 13 kinds of uric acid kits(enzymic assay) were chosen as evaluation method with HITACHI 7180 analyzer. The 21 samples included 4 calibrators,5 kinds of external quality assessment(EQA) samples,6 kinds of quality control materials,3 processed materials (1 kind of spine serum and 2 kinds of liquid solutions),1 kind of standard reference material(SRM) 909c from the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST)and 2 kinds of the External Quality Assessment Scheme for Reference Laboratories in Laboratory Medicine (RELA)samples from the International Federation of Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine(IFCC). A total of 40 fresh frozen sera and the 21 samples were analyzed by comparison method and evaluation method. The results obtained by the 2 methods were analyzed by linear regression analysis. Two-tailed 95% confidence intervals for Y predictive value were computed,and the matrix effect of sera and processed materials was evaluated. Results A total of 5 kinds of evaluation samples (2 EQA samples,1 SRM 909c and 2 RELA samples)from fresh or lyophilized sera showed no matrix effect in all routine methods. Two calibrators (Landau and Dirui) showed matrix effect in 1 routine method. Of 5 EQA samples,except for fresh sera used for trueness verification,other lyophilized sera showed matrix effect in most routine methods. The 4 of 6 quality control materials showed no matrix effect,and 2 quality control materials with high values showed negative matrix effect. Conclusions Fresh serum is a reliable sample and could be used in SRM and quality control material preparation and EQA. Some calibrators could

  10. Improvement of POC-CCA Interpretation by Using Lyophilization of Urine from Patients with Schistosoma mansoni Low Worm Burden: Towards an Elimination of Doubts about the Concept of Trace.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Marcos Zech Coelho

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Accurate diagnostic techniques for schistosomiasis are essential for prevalence determination and identification of positive patients. A point-of-care test for detecting schistosome circulating cathodic antigen (POC-CCA has been evaluated for its accuracy in different endemic regions. This reagent strip/dipstick based assay has showed high sensitivity for individuals with high or moderate worm burden, but the interpretation of light infections is less clear, especially for trace readings.We introduced a urine lyophilization step to the POC-CCA assay to improve its sensitivity and clarify the interpretation of traces. We evaluated POC-CCA sensitivity and specificity within individuals with low parasite burdens in a Brazilian endemic area where a high number of traces were detected. Patients that were positive for other helminths were also evaluated for cross reactions. In all cases, a combined parasitological diagnosis using Kato-Katz (24 slides and Saline Gradient (1 g of feces were used as reference. At baseline, diagnosis by POC-CCA (1-2 cassettes showed 6% sensitivity, inaccurately predicting a low prevalence of Schistosoma mansoni infections (2 POC-CCA positives/32 egg positives. After urine lyophilization, the sensitivity was increased significantly (p < 0.05. Prevalence rates changed from 2% to 32% (27 POC-CCA positives/32 egg positives, equivalent to parasitological techniques. Most of the trace readings changed to positive after lyophilization while some negatives turned into traces. Cross reaction analysis confirmed the specificity of POC-CCA.Trace readings cannot be primarily defined as positive or negative cases. It is critical to verify case-by-case by concentrating urine 10 fold by lyophilization for the diagnosis. Following lyophilization, persistent trace readings should be read as negatives. No trained technician is needed and cost is restricted to the cost of a lyophilizer and the electricity to run it.

  11. Improvement of POC-CCA Interpretation by Using Lyophilization of Urine from Patients with Schistosoma mansoni Low Worm Burden: Towards an Elimination of Doubts about the Concept of Trace

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coelho, Paulo Marcos Zech; Siqueira, Liliane Maria Vidal; Grenfell, Rafaella Fortini Queiroz; Almeida, Nathalie Bonatti Franco; Katz, Naftale; Almeida, Áureo; Carneiro, Nídia Francisca de Figueiredo; Oliveira, Edward

    2016-01-01

    Background Accurate diagnostic techniques for schistosomiasis are essential for prevalence determination and identification of positive patients. A point-of-care test for detecting schistosome circulating cathodic antigen (POC-CCA) has been evaluated for its accuracy in different endemic regions. This reagent strip/dipstick based assay has showed high sensitivity for individuals with high or moderate worm burden, but the interpretation of light infections is less clear, especially for trace readings. Methodology/Principal Findings We introduced a urine lyophilization step to the POC-CCA assay to improve its sensitivity and clarify the interpretation of traces. We evaluated POC-CCA sensitivity and specificity within individuals with low parasite burdens in a Brazilian endemic area where a high number of traces were detected. Patients that were positive for other helminths were also evaluated for cross reactions. In all cases, a combined parasitological diagnosis using Kato-Katz (24 slides) and Saline Gradient (1 g of feces) were used as reference. At baseline, diagnosis by POC-CCA (1–2 cassettes) showed 6% sensitivity, inaccurately predicting a low prevalence of Schistosoma mansoni infections (2 POC-CCA positives/32 egg positives). After urine lyophilization, the sensitivity was increased significantly (p < 0.05). Prevalence rates changed from 2% to 32% (27 POC-CCA positives/32 egg positives), equivalent to parasitological techniques. Most of the trace readings changed to positive after lyophilization while some negatives turned into traces. Cross reaction analysis confirmed the specificity of POC-CCA. Conclusions/Significance Trace readings cannot be primarily defined as positive or negative cases. It is critical to verify case-by-case by concentrating urine 10 fold by lyophilization for the diagnosis. Following lyophilization, persistent trace readings should be read as negatives. No trained technician is needed and cost is restricted to the cost of a

  12. Study on fingerprint of Leech Lyophilized Injection%水蛭冻干粉针剂指纹图谱评价

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐长根; 罗世书; 谢艳华

    2009-01-01

    AIM: To establish fingerprint of Leech Lyophilized Injection for quality control. METHODS: According to the evaluating system 2004A issued by State food and drug administration (SFDA) and appendix of Pharmacopoeia of People's Republic of China I, we filtered the Conditions as chromatographic column, mobile phase, determination wavelength, testing solution preparing and test the fingerprint of 10 patches of Leech Lyophilized Injection. RESULTS: ① The high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method was set up using Kromasil KR100-5C18(250 mm x 4.6 mm,5μm) column with mobile phase of water-methanol-tetra hydrofuran( 100:0. l:0. 05) ,and determination wavelength was 249 nm. In the recorded chromatogram of the test preparation, Relative Standard Deviation ( RSD) of the relative retention time and the relative peak areas of all peaks compared with hypoxanthine peak were measured. The similarity of 10 patches of Leech Lyophilized Injection was appraised by the similarity evaluation system. ②In this chromatogram condition,5 peaks were identified as the characteristic fingerprint of Leech Lyophilized Injection. ③The retention time for hypoxanthine in Leech Lyophilized Injection were consistent with each other. RSD(%) of the relative retention time and the relative peak areas of all peaks compared with hypoxanthine peak fit the requirements of fingerprint. The chromatography showed good similarity up to 92% in 10 patches of I>eech Lyophilized Injection. CONCLUSION: The HPLC method of testing fingerprint of Leech Lyophilized Injection is exact,simple and accurate,and can be used for quality control of Leech Lyophilized Injection.%目的:建立注射用水蛭冻十粉针剂指纹图谱,为其质量控制提供依据.方法:按照国家食品药品监督管理局(SFDA)颁布的"中药色谱指纹图谱相似度评价系统2004A版"评价指南和<中国药典)2005年版一部附录HPLC法,筛选有效和稳定的色谱柱、流动相、检测波长、供试品

  13. Enhanced osteogenic activity and anti-inflammatory properties of Lenti-BMP-2-loaded TiO2 nanotube layers fabricated by lyophilization following trehalose addition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiaochen; Zhang, Zhiyuan; Shen, Gang; Zhao, Jun

    2016-01-01

    To enhance biocompatibility and osseointegration between titanium implants and surrounding bone tissue, numerous efforts have been made to modify the surface topography and composition of Ti implants. In this paper, Lenti-BMP-2-loaded TiO2 nanotube coatings were fabricated by lyophilization in the presence of trehalose to functionalize the surface. We characterized TiO2 nanotube layers in terms of the following: surface morphology; Lenti-BMP-2 and trehalose release; their ability to induce osteogenesis, proliferation, and anti-inflammation in vitro; and osseointegration in vivo. The anodized TiO2 nanotube surfaces exhibited an amorphous glassy matrix perpendicular to the Ti surface. Both Lenti-BMP-2 and trehalose showed sustained release over the course of 8 days. Results from real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction studies demonstrated that lyophilized Lenti-BMP-2/TiO2 nanotubes constructed with trehalose (Lyo-Tre-Lenti-BMP-2) significantly promoted osteogenic differentiation of bone marrow stromal cells but not their proliferation. In addition, Lyo-Tre-Lenti-BMP-2 nanotubes effectively inhibited lipopolysaccharide-induced interleukin-1β and tumor necrosis factor-α production. In vivo, the formulation also promoted osseointegration. This study presents a promising new method for surface-modifying biomedical Ti-based implants to simultaneously enhance their osteogenic potential and anti-inflammatory properties, which can better satisfy clinical needs. PMID:26869786

  14. Enhanced osteogenic activity and anti-inflammatory properties of Lenti-BMP-2-loaded TiO₂ nanotube layers fabricated by lyophilization following trehalose addition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiaochen; Zhang, Zhiyuan; Shen, Gang; Zhao, Jun

    2016-01-01

    To enhance biocompatibility and osseointegration between titanium implants and surrounding bone tissue, numerous efforts have been made to modify the surface topography and composition of Ti implants. In this paper, Lenti-BMP-2-loaded TiO2 nanotube coatings were fabricated by lyophilization in the presence of trehalose to functionalize the surface. We characterized TiO2 nanotube layers in terms of the following: surface morphology; Lenti-BMP-2 and trehalose release; their ability to induce osteogenesis, proliferation, and anti-inflammation in vitro; and osseointegration in vivo. The anodized TiO2 nanotube surfaces exhibited an amorphous glassy matrix perpendicular to the Ti surface. Both Lenti-BMP-2 and trehalose showed sustained release over the course of 8 days. Results from real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction studies demonstrated that lyophilized Lenti-BMP-2/TiO2 nanotubes constructed with trehalose (Lyo-Tre-Lenti-BMP-2) significantly promoted osteogenic differentiation of bone marrow stromal cells but not their proliferation. In addition, Lyo-Tre-Lenti-BMP-2 nanotubes effectively inhibited lipopolysaccharide-induced interleukin-1β and tumor necrosis factor-α production. In vivo, the formulation also promoted osseointegration. This study presents a promising new method for surface-modifying biomedical Ti-based implants to simultaneously enhance their osteogenic potential and anti-inflammatory properties, which can better satisfy clinical needs.

  15. Clove essential oil-in-cyclodextrin-in-liposomes in the aqueous and lyophilized states: From laboratory to large scale using a membrane contactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sebaaly, Carine; Charcosset, Catherine; Stainmesse, Serge; Fessi, Hatem; Greige-Gerges, Hélène

    2016-03-15

    This work is dedicated to prepare liposomal dry powder formulations of inclusion complexes of clove essential oil (CEO) and its main component eugenol (Eug). Ethanol injection method and membrane contactor were applied to prepare liposomes at laboratory and large scale, respectively. Various liposomal formulations were tested: (1) free hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin loaded liposomes; (2) drug in hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin in liposomes (DCL); (3) DCL2 obtained by double loading technique, where the drug is added in the organic phase and the inclusion complex in the aqueous phase. Liposomes were characterized for their particle size, polydispersity index, Zeta potential, morphology, encapsulation efficiency of CEO components and Eug loading rate. Reproducible results were obtained with both injection devices. Compared to Eug-loaded liposomes, DCL and DCL2 improved the loading rate of Eug and possessed smaller vesicles size. The DPPH(•) scavenging activity of Eug and CEO was maintained upon incorporation of Eug and CEO into DCL and DCL2. Contrary to DCL2, DCL formulations were stable after 1 month of storage at 4°C and upon reconstitution of the dried lyophilized cakes. Hence, DCL in aqueous and lyophilized forms, are considered as a promising carrier system to preserve volatile and hydrophobic drugs enlarging their application in cosmetic, pharmaceutical and food industries.

  16. A rapid kinetic chromogenic method for quantification of bacterial endotoxins in lyophilized reagents for labeling with {sup 99m}Tc radiopharmaceuticals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fukumori, Neuza T.O.; Campos, Domingos G.; Silva, Laercio; Fernandes, Adriana V.; Mengatti, Jair; Silva, Constancia P.G.; Matsuda, Margareth M.N. [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2009-07-01

    A rapid quantitative kinetic chromogenic test in an automated Portable Test System (PTS) has been developed for determination of bacterial endotoxins in water, in-process and end-products using the Limulus amebocyte lysate (LAL). The aim of this work was to validate the method for lyophilized reagents for labeling with {sup 99m}Tc radiopharmaceuticals with no interfering factors. Experiments were performed in three consecutive batches of the lyophilized reagents Methylenediphosphonic Acid (MDP) and Pyrophosphate (PYRO) produced at IPEN-CNEN/ SP using the PTS from Endosafe, Inc.{sup TM}, Charleston, SC. The Maximum Valid Dilution (MVD) was calculated to establish the extent of dilution to avoid interfering test conditions (MVD=500). Better results were obtained above 1:20 dilution factor for MDP and 1:100 for PYRO. The parameters of coefficient correlation (R) -0.980, RPPC between 50 - 200% and coefficient variation (CV) of the samples less than 25% were satisfied and the endotoxin concentration was lower than the lowest concentration of the standard curve (0.05 EU mL{sup -1}), therefore less than the established limit in pharmacopoeias. The PTS is a rapid, simple and accurate technique using the quantitative kinetic chromogenic method for bacterial endotoxin determination. For this reason, it is very practical in the radiopharmaceutical area and it trends to be the method of choice for the pyrogen test. For MDP and PYRO, the validation was successfully performed. (author)

  17. 索拉非尼固体脂质纳米粒冻干粉制备及体外释药特性研究%Preparation and in Vitro Release of Lyophilized Powder of Sorafenib Solid Lipid Nanoparticles

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张洪; 张福明; 闫士君

    2013-01-01

    目的 制备索拉非尼固体脂质纳米粒,并考察其理化性质及体外释药特性.方法 采用乳化蒸发-低温固化法制备索拉非尼固体脂质纳米粒,透射电镜观察形态,激光粒度仪测定粒径和Zeta电位,葡聚糖凝胶法和HPLC测定其包封率,透析法考察其体外释药特性,冷冻干燥法制备索拉非尼固体脂质纳米粒冻干粉,差示扫描量热分析其物相状态.结果 制得索拉非尼固体脂质纳米粒为类球形实体,粒径分布比较均匀,平均粒径为(108.2±7.0)nm,多分散指数为(0.250±0.022),Zeta电位为(-16.4±0.7)mV;测得3批样品的平均包封率为(73.49±1.87)%;体外释放符合Weibull模型;等体积15%甘露醇作冻干保护剂效果较好;DSC分析证明纳米粒已形成.结论 乳化蒸发-低温固化法适用于索拉非尼固体脂质纳米粒的制备,所制纳米粒各项物理指标稳定,具有明显缓释作用.%OBJECTIVE To prepare sorafenib solid lipid nanoparticles and investigate its physicochemical properties and in vitro release profile. METHODS Sorafenib solid lipid nanoparticles were prepared by emulsion evaporation-solidification at low temperature. The morphology was examined by transmission electron microscope. The particle size and Zeta potential were determined by laser granularity equipment. The encapsulation efficiency was detected by Sephadex gel chromatography and HPLC. The in vitro release profile of sorafenib solid lipid nanoparticles was studied using dialysis technology. The lyophilized powder of sorafenib solid lipid nanoparticles was prepared by refrigerated air dryer and its material phase was analyzed by DSC. RESULTS The sorafenib solid lipid nanoparticles assumed spherical shape. The distribution of diameter was even with average particle size of ( 108. 2 ±7. 0) nm. The PDI and Zeta potential were (0.250 ±0.022) and ( - 16. 4 ±0.7) mV, respectively. The average encapsulation efficiency was (73.49 ± 1. 87) %. The release

  18. Valor nutricional da polpa de açaí (Euterpe oleracea Mart liofilizada Lyophilized açaí pulp (Euterpe oleracea, Mart. nutritional value

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ellen Mayra da Silva Menezes

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available O Brasil é o maior produtor, consumidor e exportador da bebida açaí produzida a partir dos frutos do açaizeiro. Esta bebida ou a polpa de açaí são normalmente comercializadas a temperatura ambiente ou na forma congelada, levando à perdas nutricionais importantes. Este trabalho objetivou analisar alguns nutrientes da polpa de açaí liofilizada. Os resultados de determinações analíticas mostraram que esse produto na forma de pó é um alimento altamente calórico, 489,39 Kcal/100 g de polpa liofilizada principalmente em função dos altos conteúdos de lipídeos (40,75%, dos quais 52,70% representado pelo ácido oléico (C18:1 e 25,56% pelo palmítico (C16:0. O teor de carboidratos totais foi de 42,53% ± 3,56 e o de proteínas foi de 8,13 g ± 0,63 por 100 g de açaí liofilizado. Na avaliação do perfil de minerais foi demonstrado que o potássio (900 mg/100 g de polpa de açaí liofilizado e o cálcio (330 mg/100 g de polpa de açaí liofilizada foram os minerais observados em maior abundância. O magnésio também apresentou concentrações importantes (124,4 mg em 100 g de polpa liofilizada, diferente do ferro (4,5 mg em 100 g de polpa liofilizada. Diante dos resultados obtidos na avaliação da composição nutricional da polpa de açaí liofilizada, é possível concluir que esse processo pode ser considerado como uma excelente alternativa de conservação dessa polpa devido a presença de importantes componentes nutricionais encontrados na mesma.Brazil is the biggest producer, consumer and exporter of açaí drink, made from the açaí palm's fruit. This drink or açaí pulp is usually commercialized under room temperature or in a frozen way resulting in important nutritional losses. This study aimed to evaluate some nutrients from the lyophilized açaí pulp. Humidity, total solids, ash and total lipids values were analyzed using the AOAC method. Carbohydrates including fibers were calculated by difference and the total

  19. Serum pneumoproteins in firefighters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Greven, Frans; Krop, Esmeralda; Burger, Nena; Kerstjens, Huib; Heederik, Dick

    2011-01-01

    Serum Clara cell protein (CC16) and surfactant-associated protein A (SP-A) were measured in a cross-sectional study in 402 firefighters. For the population as a whole, no associations were detected between serum pneumoproteins and smoke exposure. SP-A levels were increased in symptomatic subjects ex

  20. Induction of osteogenic differentiation of stem cells via a lyophilized microRNA reverse transfection formulation on a tissue culture plate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wu K

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Kaimin Wu,1,* Jie Xu,2,* Mengyuan Liu,1 Wen Song,1 Jun Yan,1 Shan Gao,3 Lingzhou Zhao,2 Yumei Zhang1 1Department of Prosthetic Dentistry, 2Department of Periodontology and Oral Medicine, School of Stomatology, The Fourth Military Medical University, Xi’an, People’s Republic of China; 3The Interdisciplinary Nanoscience Center and Department of Molecular Biology and Genetics, Aarhus University, Aarhus C, Denmark; School of Stomatology, Tianjin Medical University, Tianjin, People’s Republic of China*Both authors contributed equally to this workAbstract: MicroRNA (miRNA regulation is a novel approach to manipulating the fate of mesenchymal stem cells, but an easy, safe, and highly efficient method of transfection is required. In this study, we developed an miRNA reverse transfection formulation by lyophilizing Lipofectamine 2000-miRNA lipoplexes on a tissue culture plate. The lipoplexes can be immobilized on a tissue culture plate with an intact pseudospherical structure and lyophilization without any lyoprotectant. In this study, reverse transfection resulted in highly efficient cellular uptake of miRNA and enabled significant manipulation of the intracellular target miRNA level. Reverse transfection formulations containing Lipofectamine 2000 1 µL per well generated much higher transfection efficiency without obvious cytotoxicity compared with conventional and other transfection methods. Further, the transfection efficiency of the reverse transfection formulations did not deteriorate during 90 days of storage at 4°C and -20°C. We then assessed the efficiency of the miRNA reverse transfection formulation in promoting osteogenic differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells. We found that transfection with anti-miR-138 and miR-148b was efficient for enhancing osteogenic differentiation, as indicated by enhanced osteogenesis-related gene expression, amount of alkaline phosphatase present, production of collagen, and matrix mineralization. Overall

  1. Comparison between optical coherence tomography technique and mechanical compression assay to evaluate ionizing radiation effects in frozen and lyophilized bone Tissue

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santin, Stefany Plumeri; Freitas, Anderson Zanardi de; Martinho Junior, Antonio Carlos; Dias, Djalma Batista; Soares, Fernando Augusto Neves; Pino, Eddy Segura; Veloso, Marcelo Noronha; Mathor, Monica B., E-mail: spsantin@usp.br, E-mail: mathor@ipen.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Santos, Luiz Augusto Ubirajara, E-mail: augustosantos@terra.com.br [Universidade de Sao Paulo (IOT/HCFUSP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Fac. de Medicina. Instituto de Ortopedia e Traumatologia

    2013-07-01

    Currently tissue banks have utilized ionizing radiation to sterilize bone tissues to be used as allograft. This method is advantageous when compared with other techniques, because the tissue is sterilized in its final packaging avoiding later contaminations, another advantage is due to the fact occur only a minimal increase in temperature, in addition to provide a Sterility Assurance Level (SAL) of 10{sup -6}, as recommended by national and international standards. However, there are several studies investigating the modifications that this method of sterilization may cause to the bone matrix, for example, alterations in the resistance to compression force. The compressive mechanical tests are highly used to evaluate the decrease in the mechanical strength; however it is a destructive assay. In this study, we used Optical Coherence Tomography to evaluate these possible changes. This technique is advantageous, for do not destroy the sample and enable the performing of other assays with the same sample. In literature, it is possible to find several studies about mechanical changes occasioned by destructive tests. Therefore, this study aims to compare the results of both techniques. It was selected four donors to obtain eight samples of fibula, through a partnership with the Tissue Bank (Instituto de Traumatologia do Hospital das Clinicas da Universidade de Sao Paulo). From each donor were separated twelve samples for preservation by freezing and twelve samples for preservation by lyophilization. The samples were analyzed by Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT) after irradiation at different doses (15, 25 and 50 kGy), in addition to non-irradiated control. After the samples were analyzed by Optical Coherence Tomography the same were subjected to mechanical testing. The data were analyzed by software developed by Dr. Anderson Zanardi de Freitas to calculate the total attenuation coefficient of photons. Nevertheless, only the preservation method may induce to alterations

  2. Variation in the Extraction Efficiency of Estradiol and Progesterone in Moist and Lyophilized Feces of the Black Howler Monkey (Alouatta pigra): Alternative Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres-Pelayo, Vianey del R.; Rovirosa-Hernández, M. J.; García-Orduña, F.; Chavira-Ramírez, R. D.; Boeck, L.; Canales-Espinosa, D.; Rodríguez-Landa, J. F.

    2011-01-01

    Several fecal steroid extraction techniques have been developed to measure the ovary function in different species of mammals. However, regardless of the method of extraction and the sample type chosen, it has been observed that they can yield results with different percentages of recuperation. The objective of this study was to determine whether the type of substratum, solvent and extraction method used have any influence on the extraction efficiency in the feces of Alouatta pigra (black howler monkey). For this purpose we used two methods: agitation and ebullition. With each method, we utilized moist and lyophilized feces. The validation of radioimmunoassay method was accurate and precise for quantify estradiol and progesterone in lyophilized feces of A. pigra. To both of which ethanol and methanol, absolute and at 80%, were added, besides the hormones 125I-Estradiol and 125I-Progesterone. The extraction efficiency for 125I-Estradiol was from 87.72 ± 3.97 to 41.24 ± 2.67%, and for 125I-Progesterone from 71.15 ± 4.24 to 42.30 ± 1.19% when we used the agitation method. Whereas with the ebullition method, the extraction efficiency for 125I-Estradiol ranged from 86.89 ± 2.66 to 71.68 ± 3.02% and for 125I-Progesterone from 98.31 ± 1.26 to 85.40 ± 1.98%. Due to the differences found in these assays, which depend on the method used, the type of feces employed and the type of solvent added to them, we recommend the ebullition method and the lyophilized feces of A. pigra for extracting the hormones, since in moist feces there may exist variables which might interfere in the quantification of 125I-Estradiol and 125I-Progesterone. PMID:22194723

  3. Correlation between Serum T3 Resin Uptake and Serum Lipid Profile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dinarvand, GH. ( MSc

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objective: T3 resin uptake test indicates the availability of thyroxin binding globulin (TBG, which is the carrier of a large amount of T3 and T4 in blood. We aimed to study the relationship between serum T3 Resin Uptake and serum lipids profile. Material and Methods: The participants aged 14.80 ± 38.29 were both males (59; 29.5% and females (141; 70.5 %. T3 Resin Uptake was measured by Immunoassay method and serum lipid profile components (cholesterol, triglycerides, HDL-C, LDL-C, and VLDL were measured by the kit. Results: Significant negative correlation was observed between serum T3 Resin Uptake and cholesterol, triglycerides and LDL-C (P≤ 0.05, but that was not the case for HDL-C and VLDL. Conclusion: Serum T3 Resin Uptake can be evaluated to assess the risk factors related to cardiovascular disorders

  4. Preparation and quality evaluation of Ponatinib Nanosuspension Lyoph-ilized Powder%泊那替尼纳米混悬剂冻干粉的制备及其质量评价

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    彭锐; 张洪; 张英; 魏丹芸

    2015-01-01

    Objective To prepare Ponatinib Nanosuspension Lyophilized Power and investigate the cryoprotector, drug loading and stability. Methods Ponatinib Nanosuspension Lyophilized Power was prepared by solvent evaporation tech-nology, the particle size and morphology were characterized by laser nanometer particle sizer and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The optimal cryoprotector was selected, the drug loading and stability of Ponatinib Nanosuspension Lyophilized Power were determined by HPLC. Results The mean diameter of redissolved Ponatinib Nanosuspension Lyophilized Power was (92.2±5.6) nm, with polydisperse index of 0.29±0.65. TEM images showed spherical shape and uniform distribution. The nanosuspension which was lyophilized with 10% lactose presented optimal properties. The mean drug loading of Ponatinib Nanosuspension Lyophilized Power determined by HPLC was (16.3±0.8)%, with a good stability. Conclusion The preparation method of Ponatinib Nanosuspension Lyophilized Power is simple, which promis-es to be a novel nanometer drug delivery system for injection of Ponatinib.%目的:制备泊那替尼纳米混悬剂冻干粉,并对其冻干保护剂、载药量及稳定性进行考察。方法采用溶剂蒸发技术制备泊那替尼纳米混悬剂冻干粉,利用激光纳米粒度仪、透射电镜对其粒径及形态进行表征,筛选最佳冻干保护剂,利用高效液相色谱法对其载药量和稳定性进行考察。结果泊那替尼纳米混悬剂冻干粉复溶后平均粒径为(92.2±5.6)nm,多分散指数为0.29±0.65,且形态圆整,分布均匀;以10%乳糖为冻干保护剂制得冻干粉的性质最佳;高效液相色谱法测得泊那替尼平均载药量为(16.3±0.8)%,稳定性较好。结论泊那替尼纳米混悬剂冻干粉制备方法简便,有望成为泊那替尼的新型纳米给药系统。

  5. Preparation of lyophilized kit of HYNIC-[Tyr3]-Octreotate and labelling studies with 99m-Technetium; Preparo do reagente liofilizado HYNIC-[Ty3{sup 3}]-Octreotato e estudo de marcacao com Tecnecio-99m

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Melo, Ivani Bortoleti

    2008-07-01

    The development of radiolabeled molecules with high specificity for an organ ar tumor has been contributed to the precise diagnostic in nuclear medicine. Somatostatin labeled derivatives constitutes a particular example of labeled peptide applied in the localization of neuroendocrine tumors. Nowadays, the {sup 111}In DTPA-octreotide is the radiopharmaceutical applied in diagnostic procedures for the visualization of tumors with high expression of somatostatin receptors. However, the 111-indium is a radionuclide that presents some limitations related to availability (cyclotron production), half-life (67 hours) and the emission of medium energy photons (171 keV e 245 keV), not favorable to the acquisition of images in SPECT (Single Photon Emission Computed Tomography). The favorable physical properties of the {sup 99m}-technetium ({sup 99m}Tc) make this radionuclide the more favorable to substitute the 111-indium on peptide labeling procedures. This work studied the preparation and labeling of a lyophilized kit of HYNIC-Tyr{sup 3}-octreotate (HYNIC-octreotate) with {sup 99m}Tc, base on previously described procedures and using tricine and EDDA (ethylendiaminediacetic acid) as coligands. It was studied the labeling parameters (incubation time, temperature, volume and perthecnetate activity) and the stability of the lyophilized preparation. Additionally, it was studied the influence of the pre-freezing using liquid nitrogen in the stability of the lyophilized preparation, as well as the influence of manitol in the labeling yield and biological distribution of the complex. The stability studies showed that the lyophilization using liquid nitrogen pre-freezing resulted in a lyophilized preparation with stability over 4 month when stored under refrigeration. The stability of the lyophilized preparation obtained without liquid nitrogen pre-freezing was similar.The labeling studies determined the best labeling conditions, resulting in a radiochemical yield superior than 90

  6. Metodología para la validación del llenado aséptico en un proceso de liofilización Methodology for the validation of the aseptic filling in a lyophilization process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cindy Marlene Fernández López

    2007-04-01

    2.5 ºC y 32.5 ± 2.5 ºC for 14 days, respectively, in order to detect the possibility of microbial contamination on carrying out the process. During the first three proceses, the microbiological monitoring of environments, surfaces and operators took place. Petrifilm was used in the sampling to detect aerobic mesophiles and yeasts, a procedure accomplished under rest and operation conditions. Likewise, the counting of particulars was made in the area and sterility tests were done for the packing materials (caps and vials. Finally, the validation methodology was designed for the sterilization of the lyophilizer, and Bacillus stearothermophilus was used as an indicator microorganism. The design of the test was made taking into account the recommendations of the Food and Drug Administration (FDA and the World Health Organization (WHO for products of parenteral administration.These are the reference organizations for the production and quality control used by the enterprise of veterinary products , where the test was performed. The filled vials were read by turbidity (presence of contamination, and the acceptance criteria were established by the 2 above mentioned entities. To conclude, it was indicated a plan of microbiological monitoring for the evaluated area, in which points of strategical sampling were included, as well as the accomplishment of specific standard operative procedures for this area.

  7. Research on the Lyophilization Technology of 1,2-Methylene Dichloride%1,2-二氯乙烷冷冻干燥工艺的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张金娜; 祁锦成; 朱春来

    2012-01-01

    1,2-二氯乙烷是一种常用的有机溶剂,在很多工业生产中作为溶剂时可重复使用,但在一些要求无水条件下进行反应的生产中,需对其回收后进行干燥,达到要求后方可使用.文章对二氯乙烷回收采用的冷冻干燥工艺进行研究.%1,2- methylene dichloride is a kind of common organic solvent and can be recycled in industrial production. But some reactions need it without any water. So it can be used only after it is reclaimed and dried. To recycle it, the lyophilization technology of 1,2 - methylene dichloride is researched in the article.

  8. Study on Lyophilized Protective for Recombinant Anti - artherosclerosis Protein on the Basis of SAK Backbone%重组SRH蛋白冻干保护剂的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邹民吉; 徐涛; 刘深; 付文亮; 徐东刚

    2011-01-01

    Objective To select a lyophilized protective for recombinant anti - artherosclerosis protein on the basis of SAK backbone. Methods Mannitol, dextran 40, sucrose,and glycine in their different concentrations were selected to make up a single recipe or different complex recipes of their concentrations. After lyophilization, the thrombolytic activity and plasticity change should be examined, in the meantime, the lyophilized sample was rapidly thowed at 371 and the changes of thrombolytic activity and plasticity also should be examined. Results The protective effects on the protein of interest were not significantly different between glyceral and dextran 40 in their different concentrations. Both of them possessed better protective effect, however, that of the sucrose and glycine in different concentrations were less effective. The complex recipe of dextran 40, sucrose and glycine displayed the best protective effect on the protein of interest among the complex recipes, but the complex of gyceral, sucrose and glycine in the different concentrations had no obvious protective effect. Conclusion The dextran 40, sucrose and gycine in differet concentrations possess a significantly protective effect on the lyophilized process of the recombinant anti - artherosclerosis protein on the basis of SAK backbone.%目的 筛选并优化重组SRH蛋白的冻千保护剂,使其能够保持良好的生物学活性.方法 选择不同浓度的冻干保护剂,包括甘露醇、右旋糖酐40、蔗糖和甘氨酸等组成不同浓度的单一和复合配方,冷冻干燥后检测冻干样品的溶栓活性和成型的变化,同时,冻干样品经过37℃加速实验后,检测其溶栓活性和成型状况的改变,对比分析各组保护剂的效果.结果 不同浓度的甘露醇和右旋糖苷40对SRH蛋白的保护作用良好,没有明显差异,而不同浓度的蔗糖和甘氨酸保护效果较差.复方中以右旋糖苷40、蔗糖和甘胺酸的复合对目的蛋白的保

  9. Determination of the worst case for cleaning validation of equipment used in the radiopharmaceutical production of lyophilized reagents for {sup 99m}Tc labelling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Porto, Luciana Valeria Ferrari Machado; Fukumori, Neuza Taeko Okasaki; Matsuda, Margareth Mie Nakamura, E-mail: luciana.porto@anvisa.gov.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Centro de Radiofarmacia

    2016-01-15

    Cleaning validation, a requirement of the current Good Manufacturing Practices (cGMP) for Drugs, consists of documented evidence that cleaning procedures are capable of removing residues to predetermined acceptance levels. This report describes a strategy for the selection of the worst case product for the production of lyophilized reagents (LRs) for labeling with {sup 99m}Tc from the Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN-CNEN/Sao Paulo). The strategy is based on the calculation of a 'worst case index' that incorporates information about drug solubility, cleaning difficulty, and occupancy rate in the production line. It allowed a reduction in the required number of validations considering the possible manufacturing flow of a given product and the subsequent flow, thus facilitating the process by reducing operation time and cost. The products identified as 'worst case' were LRs PUL-TEC and MIBI-TEC. (author). (author)

  10. Determination of the worst case for cleaning validation of equipment used in the radiopharmaceutical production of lyophilized reagents for 99mTc labeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciana Valéria Ferrari Machado Porto

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Cleaning validation, a requirement of the current Good Manufacturing Practices (cGMP for Drugs, consists of documented evidence that cleaning procedures are capable of removing residues to predetermined acceptance levels. This report describes a strategy for the selection of the worst case product for the production of lyophilized reagents (LRs for labeling with 99mTc from the Instituto de Pesquisas Energéticas e Nucleares (IPEN-CNEN/São Paulo. The strategy is based on the calculation of a "worst case index" that incorporates information about drug solubility, cleaning difficulty, and occupancy rate in the production line. It allowed a reduction in the required number of validations considering the possible manufacturing flow of a given product and the subsequent flow, thus facilitating the process by reducing operation time and cost. The products identified as "worst case" were LRs PUL-TEC and MIBI-TEC.

  11. [Serum sickness in diphtheria].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vozianova, Zh I; Chepilko, K I

    1999-01-01

    As many as 2247 patients with different clinical forms of diphtheria were examined. Antidiphtheric serum (ADS) was administered in 1556 children, the dosage being determined by condition of the patient. Serum sickness developed at day 7 to 9 in 24 (1.5%); 10 patients were found to run a mild course, 14--moderately severe. 6 patients had allergic reactions: 3--to antibiotic (penicillin), urticaria type, 1--to pertussoid-tetanic anatoxin, 2 had pollinosis-type reaction. Thus, serum sickness has practical value, which fact requires a detailed allergic history together with skin tests to be performed before the administration of ADS.

  12. Serum YKL-40

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mylin, Anne K; Abildgaard, Niels; Johansen, Julia S

    2015-01-01

    In a time of increasing treatment options for multiple myeloma bone disease, risk factors predicting progression need to be elucidated. This study investigated the value of serum YKL-40, previously shown to be associated with radiographic progression of bone destruction, as a predictor for time...... for SRE and at 9 and 24 months for radiographic progression. Elevated serum YKL-40 was seen in 47% of patients and associated with high-risk disease (International Staging System stage III; p serum CTX/MMP; p ... to clinical progression, i.e. skeletal-related events (SREs), in 230 newly diagnosed patients with multiple myeloma receiving intravenous bisphosphonates. Serum concentrations of YKL-40 and biochemical bone markers (CTX-MMP, CTX-I, PINP) were measured at diagnosis. Patients were evaluated every third month...

  13. Biocompatibility and superiority of lyophilized acellular ligament scaffolds%冻干韧带脱细胞支架材料的生物相容性及优势

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王辉; 陈雄生; 周盛源; 黄俊俊; 蔡弢艺

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Acellular matrix ligament removes the cellular components within the ligament tissue and reduce the immunogenicity through a variety of acellular ways. Simultaneously, the damage to scaffold structure is mild in the process of decellularization, and it retains the mechanical properties of the extracellular matrix.OBJECTIVE: To verify the biocompatibility and superiority of rabbit patellar tendon acellular scaffold after frozen and lyophilized processing.METHODS: Patellar ligaments were treated with 1% sodium deoxycholate for preparation of acellular ligaments with or without lyophilization. RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: No residual nuclear component was detected in all ligaments. Collagen structure was maintained.No significant differences in elastic modulus and ultimate tensile stress were found between non-lyophilized acellular scaffolds and lyophilized ones. The in vitro cytotoxicity test showed the cells grew well in all groups with or without extracts from lyophilized acellular scaffold. No significant difference was found between the control group and the experiment group. Toxicity symptoms were not obvious.Pyrogen detection experiment showed that no pyrogen was found in the lyophilized acellular scaffold extracts. Percutaneous stimulation test was negative as primary stimulation index was 0. In vivo implantation experiment showed that lyophilized acellular ligament scaffold showed the characteristics of little immunogenicity and light inflammation. Lyophilized acellular ligament scaffold treated with 1% DCA method not only maintains the mechanical characteristics of the non-lyophilized ones, but also has good biological compatibility. Because of its preparation, disinfection, packaging and preservation was easy and convenient, the lyophilized acellular ligament scaffold will be an ideal scaffold for tissue engineering ligament.%背景:韧带脱细胞基质是通过各种脱细胞方法将韧带组织内的细胞成分清除,降低免疫

  14. Osso bovino esponjoso inorgânico liofilizado em bloco no reparo de fístula oronasal induzida em cães Lyophilized inorganic bovine bone cancellous block for iatrogenic oronasal fistula repair in dogs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kleber Gomes

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available O reparo de fístulas oronasais representa um desafio para o cirurgião, devido à freqüente ocorrência de recidivas. Com o intuito de avaliar o emprego de osso bovino esponjoso inorgânico liofilizado em bloco (OBEILB no tratamento dessa afecção, foi realizado um experimento utilizando dez cães sem raça definida, fêmeas com peso variando entre 8-17kg, submetidos à indução de fístulas oronasais após exodontia dos caninos. O procedimento cirúrgico foi realizado em duas etapas: na fístula do lado esquerdo, foi feito reparo imediato após realização do defeito, e, no lado direito, o reparo foi efetuado após sete dias, ambos preenchidos com OBEILB e recobertos com retalho de mucosa de origem gengival. Os animais foram avaliados clínica e radiograficamente, semanalmente, entre sete e 120 dias. O material usado é eficaz no reparo de fístulas oronasais do alvéolo do dente canino maxilar, não apresentando evidências de rejeição e recidivas.The oronasal fistula repair still represents a challenge to the surgeons, due to the high incidence of recidivation. An experiment using 10 adult mongrel dogs weighting between 8 and 17 kilograms was performed in order to evaluate the in block lyophilized inorganic bovine bone cancellous (BLIBBC in the treatment of this disease. Each dog had an exodontic procedure of both canine teeth, in order to produce an oronasal fistula. The surgical procedure realized consisted in two different surgical steps: the left side defect was repaired right after the defect have been produced, while the right side defect was repaired seven days after the fistula induction; both sides were repaired using BLIBBC and covered with gengival flap. The animals were radiological and clinicaly evaluated every week for 120 days. The material used was effective in the repair of both fistulas, without rejection or recurrence.

  15. marital status and occupation versus serum total cholesterol and hdl

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DR. AMIN

    subjects had higher mean serum TC and HDL – CH levels than male ... MATERIALS AND METHODS ... Fasting various blood (5cm3) sample was collected ... in personal lifestyle and dietary habits of the subjects ... Nutrition 5: 231 – 237.

  16. Observation of Spleen Aminopeptide Oral Lyophilized Powder Treatment of Immunocompromised%脾氨肽治疗免疫功能低下的疗效观察

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄琍

    2014-01-01

    Objective:To discuss the clinical effect of using spleen Aminopeptide Oral Lyophilized Powder in treatment of children with bronchial asthma and the effect on children's immune system.Method:86 cases of bronchial asthma were selected from March 2008 to March 2010 in our hospital, they were randomly divided into the test group and the control group,43 cases in each group.The control group was given conventional therapy of bronchial asthma,the test group on the basis of the control group was given Spleen Aminopeptide Oral Lyophilized Powder treatment.Immunoglobulin levels before and after treatment and the clinical curative effect of the two groups were compared.Result:The total efficiency of the test group was 97.67%,it was significantly higher than 58.14%of the control group,the difference was statistically significant(P0.05),but after treatment,IgA and IgG levels were significantly higher than that before treatment and the control group,the differences were statistically significant(P0.05).Conclusion:Spleen Aminopeptide Oral Lyophilized Powder of safe and convenient use,can effectively regulate immune function in children with low,and has a good clinical efficacy in children with asthma.%目的:探讨使用脾氨肽口服冻干粉治疗小儿支气管哮喘的临床疗效以及对患儿免疫系统的影响。方法:选取2008年3月-2010年3月在本院接受治疗的86例支气管哮喘患儿,按照随即数字表法将其分为试验组和对照组各43例,对照组给予支气管哮喘常规基础治疗,试验组在对照组的治疗方案基础上采用脾氨肽口服冻干粉治疗,比较两组患儿的临床疗效及治疗前后的免疫球蛋白水平。结果:试验组患儿总有效率97.67%明显高于对照组的58.14%,比较差异有统计学意义(P0.05),但治疗后的IgA以及IgG水平均明显高于治疗前与对照组,差异均有统计学意义(P0.05)。结论:脾氨肽口服冻干粉使用安全、方便,可有

  17. Study on the Quality Standard of Fresh Gastrodia elata Lyophilized Powder%鲜天麻冻干粉的质量标准研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    左爱萍; 王传方; 潘梅; 唐靖雯; 张丽艳; 吴浩

    2015-01-01

    目的:为建立鲜天麻冻干粉的质量标准提供参考。方法:采用薄层色谱(TLC)法对制剂中的天麻进行定性鉴别;采用高效液相色谱法测定制剂中天麻素的含量。色谱柱为Diamonsil C18,流动相为乙腈-0.05%磷酸(3∶97,V/V),流速为1.0 ml/min,检测波长为220 nm,柱温为25℃,进样量为10μl。结果:鲜天麻冻干粉的TLC图斑点清晰、分离度好。天麻素检测质量浓度线性范围为2.9~14.5μg/ml(r=0.9999);精密度、稳定性、重复性试验的RSD≤1.00%;加样回收率为98.07%~102.70%,RSD为1.74%(n=6)。结论:该方法操作简便、结果准确、重复性好,适用于鲜天麻冻干粉的质量控制。%OBJECTIVE:To provide reference for the establishment of quality standard for Fresh Gastrodia elata lyophilized powder. METHODS:TLC was conducted for the qualitative identification of G. elata in preparation,and HPLC was conducted for the content determination of gastrodin in preparation. The column was Diamonsil C18 with mobile phase of acetonitrile-0.05% phos-phoric acid(3∶97,V/V)at a flow rate of 1.0 ml/min,detection wavelength was 220 nm,column temperature was 25 ℃ and vol-ume injection was 10 μl. RESULTS:TLC pots of Fresh G. elata lyophilized powder were clear and well-separated. The linear of gastrodin was 2.9-14.5 μg/ml(r=0.999 9);RSDs of precision,stability and reproducibility tests were no more than 1.00%;recov-ery was 98.07%-102.70%(RSD=1.74%,n=6). CONCLUSIONS:The method is simple,accurate and reproducible,and suitable for the quality control of Fresh G. elata lyophilized powder.

  18. 牛肌腱冻干脱细胞支架的生物力学特性%Biomechanical properties of a decellularized scaffold of lyophilized bovine tendon

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    钱闯; 陈雄生; 周盛源; 朱巍

    2015-01-01

    背景:目前的脱细胞方法在去除细胞的同时对细胞外基质存在一定的损伤,降低了脱细胞支架的生物力学性能.目的:分析冻干牛肌腱脱细胞支架的生物力学特性.方法:取新鲜小牛趾伸屈肌腱,去除小牛肌腱表面的滑膜、腱膜及软组织,双蒸水冲洗干净后低压冻干,通过物理方法制备肌腱纤维束60个,随机均分为两组,实验组于无菌操作下置入丝氨酸蛋白酶抑制剂,室温下持续24 h,无菌PBS冲洗后,再移入低浓度胰酶+乙醇混合溶液中,在不破坏细胞外基质的情况下去除细胞壁,室温下持续5 h,再将纤维束移入脱氧核糖核酸酶溶液中持续5 h,最后将已完成脱细胞步骤的支架使用PBS冲洗48 h,无菌室内室温下干燥;对照组不做处置.检测两组材料的弹性模量、耐久性及最大应力.结果与结论:两组耐久性相似,但实验组在相同位移处的应力小于对照组;两组弹性模量比较差异无显著性意义,但实验组最大应力低于对照组(P < 0.01).说明冻干脱细胞支架能够在一定程度上模仿牛肌腱的生物力学功能.%BACKGROUND:Current decelularized methods have the certain damage to the extracelular matrix and reduce the biomechanical properties of acelular scaffolds. OBJECTIVE:To explore the biomechanical properties of decelularized scaffold of lyophilized bovine tendon. METHODS:Sixty lyophilized fiber bundles from fresh flexion tendon of calf toes were randomly divided into two groups: control group and experimental group. In the experimental group, serine protease inhibitors were placed asepticaly for 24 hours at room temperature, then the samples were rinsed with PBS and transferred to the low concentration of trypsin+ethanol mixed solution to remove the cel wal without destruction of the extracelular matrix at room temperature for 5 hours; after that, the fiber bundles were cultured in DNA enzyme solution for 5 hours, finaly the acelular scaffold was

  19. 水蛭素冻干粉对大鼠的致畸性研究%Teratogenicity of lyophilized hirudin powder in rats 

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄超培; 何为涛; 赵鹏; 李彬; 王彦武; 傅伟忠; 何励; 苏爱荣

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine the potentially teratogenic effects of lyophilized hirudin powder in rats. METHODS: Sixty pregnant rats were divided randomly into 5 groups, 3 groups treated with lyophilized hirudin powder (contain 3 mg which was equivalent to 50 AT-U natural hirudin per gram) with doses of 312.5,1 250,5 000 mg/kg, one negative control(distilled water) and a positive control(300 mg/kg aspirin), 12 pregnant rats in each group. The drugs were given orally for 10 days from 6th to 15tb day after gestation. At 20th day the rats were sacrificed to examine the appearance,viscera, bones and physical growth of the fetuses. RESULTS: The body weight of pregnant rats, litter weight, live birth rate, fetal body weight and length in all treated groups were not significantly different from negative control group (P>0. 05),and no abnormality of organ or appearance was observed in the fetuses of treated groups. CONCLUSION: Lyophilized hirudin powder had no maternal toxicity, embryo toxicity and teratogenicity in rats at doses tested.%目的:检测水蛭素冻干粉的致畸性.方法:将60只妊娠大鼠随机分为水蛭素冻干粉(每克含3mg、相当于50抗凝血酶单位的天然水蛭素)312.5、1 250、5 000 mg/kg 3个剂量组,同时设蒸馏水阴性对照和阿司匹林(300 mg/kg)阳性对照组,共5组,每组12只.各组孕鼠于妊娠第6~15天灌胃给予受试物,每天1次,连续灌胃10d,于妊娠第20天解剖孕鼠,检查胎鼠外观、内脏和骨骼及生长发育等指标.结果:水蛭素冻干粉各剂量组的孕鼠体质量、窝质量、胎鼠体质量、身长、尾长、活胎率、吸收胎率及死胎率与阴性对照组比较,差异均无统计学意义(P>0.05),未见胎鼠外观、内脏和骨骼发育异常及畸形.结论:水蛭素冻干粉在本实验条件下,对大鼠无母体毒性、胚胎毒性和致畸性.

  20. Study on material basis of Dracocephalum moldavica for protecting cardiomyocyte against hypoxia/reoxygenation injury by traditional Chinese medicine serum chemical and pharmacological methods%基于中药血清化学及血清药理学方法探讨香青兰保护心肌细胞缺氧/复氧损伤物质基础

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    田友清; 尚靖; 何婷; 蔡旻煊; 阿布卡德

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To study the material basis of Dracocephalum moldavica for protecting cardiomyocyte against hypoxia/ reoxygenation injury by using traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) serum chemical and pharmacological methods. Method; The extract of D. Moldavica (DME) and its content absorbed into blood were determined, while blank serum and medicinal serum of rats before and after intragastrical administration of DME were also compared by HPLC. The Na2S2 O4, or N2-based hypoxia/reoxygenation injury model was established by cultivating primary neonate rat cardiomyocytes or H9c2 cells in vitro. Cell viability, LDH release, T-SOD activity , MDA production and apoptosis were detected to learn the effect of DME, medicated serum and different treatments of medicinal serums under different dosage and action duration of DME on cardiomyocyte against hypoxia/reoxygenation injury. Result: Four transitional components of DME absorbed into blood after intragastrical administration were found, three of which were original components and one possible metabolite. Furthermore, compared with the model group or the blank serum group, LDH release and MDA production (P <0.05, P <0.01) of DME extracts, medicated serum or different treatments of medicinal serum under different dosage and action duration of DME. However, T-SOD and cell viability were improved significantly (P < 0. 05, P < 0. 01) , while apoptosis of cardiomyocytes were also obviously inhibited. Conclusion: The four components absorbed into blood are probably the material basis of DME used for protecting cardiomyocyte agastin hypoxia/reoxygenation injury.%目的:利用中药血清化学及血清药理学方法探讨香青兰保护心肌细胞缺氧/复氧损伤的物质基础.方法:测定和比较香青兰提取物及其灌胃给药前后大鼠空白血清和含药血清的HPLC,寻找香青兰入血成分;体外培养乳大鼠原代心肌细胞及H9c2细胞,用Na2S2O4或N2为缺氧剂建立缺氧/复氧损伤模型,以细

  1. 水飞蓟素纳米混悬剂冻干粉的制备及表征%Development of silymarin nanocrystals lyophilized power applying nanosuspension technology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵晓宇; 王国华; 张保献; 李慧; 聂其霞; 臧琛; 赵小妹

    2009-01-01

    Objective:To prepare silymarin nanosuspension and lyophilized power for enhancing the dissilution of poorly soluble drugs.Method:The precipitation technique was adapted to produce the silymarin nanosuspensions respectivly applying Tween 80, SDS and Poloxamerl88 as stabilizers.The lyophilized formula contained 5% mannitol as cryoprotectant.Particle size, Polydispersity index and Zeta potential were detected by Mastersizer nano ZS ( Malvern England).Morphological character was observed with Transmission Electron Microscopy.The product's structure was performed with X-ray diifractometer.Result:The silymarin nanosuspension was successfully prepared, in which the drug particle size was about 100-300 nm,and the particles had ball-like shape and good dispersive properties.Conclusion:This study provided potential for the neotype dosage form development of the Chinese Traditional Medicine.%目的:制备水飞蓟素纳米混悬剂以及冻干粉并进行相关的理化表征.方法:采用沉淀法,分别将聚氧乙烯脱水山梨醇单油酸酯(Tween 80),十二烷基硫酸钠(SDS),泊洛沙姆(Poloxamer 188),3种表面活性剂作为稳定剂制备水飞蓟素纳米混悬剂,同时为保持制剂稳定性,以5%甘露醇作为冻干载体制备混悬剂冻干粉;采用激光散射粒径仪测定混悬剂的粒径、多分散指数、Zeta电位;采用透射电镜观察其形态,采用X光衍射及差示扫描量热法考察其物相变化.结果:成功制备了水飞蓟素纳米混悬剂及冻干粉,电镜观察形态圆整,大小均一,粒径为100~300 nm,X光射线衍射显示水飞蓟素纳米混悬剂有其专属特征.结论:将水难溶性的有效部位制备成纳米混悬剂可行,同时为中药新剂型开发提供实验依据.

  2. Utilización de Colloss® para el tratamiento de quistes mandibulares: Descripción de una serie clínica The use of lyophilized bovine collagen (Colloss® for treating mandibular cysts: Description of a clinical series

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Arias Gallo

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available La enucleación de quistes óseos conlleva la aparición de defectos óseos. Se acepta que los cuando son menores de 3 cm. de diámetro y están alejados del reborde alveolar se rellenan de hueso neoformado en unos meses. Por el contrario, defectos óseos mayores no regeneran completamente. "Colloss®" parece ser un interesante material osteoinductivo. Se trata de un complejo liofilizado de las proteínas extracelulares extraídas del hueso bovino diafisario. Contiene fundamentalmente colágeno tipo I y cantidades variables de BMPs. En el período comprendido entre Febrero de 2002 y Enero de 2004 se utilizó colágeno liofilizado bovino para la reconstrucción ósea de 7 pacientes con quistes mandibulares tratados en el Hospital Universitario La Paz (Madrid. Este material se combinó con injertos óseos autólogos o con mallas de titanio en varios de los casos. Se observó en la totalidad de los casos una adecuada regeneración ósea. En dos de los casos, en los que se mezcló Colloss® con hueso autólogo se produjo el rechazo de este último. Tras sus retirada el proceso curativo discurrió sin incidencias. También se constató una tendencia a la exposición intraoral de las mallas de titanio sin que ello se viese reflejado en el proceso de curación. Podemos señalar como ventajas de la utilización del colágeno liofilizado bovino (Colloss® para el tratamiento de quistes odontogénicos: su capacidad osteoinductiva demostrada; la ausencia de efectos adversos de importancia y su utilidad en la determinación precoz de recidivas. Como posibles desventajas destacaríamos: su difícil manejo; la conveniencia de encontrar un carrier adecuado que permitiese una manipulación más sencilla, la necesidad de ajustar la dosis necesaria de forma precisa y, por último, las complicaciones potenciales relacionadas con cualquier tipo de xenoinjerto de origen bovino.The treatment of mandible bone cysts commonly leads to the development of bone defects

  3. Simulating and Analyzing on the Vapor Flow in Pharmaceutical Lyophilizer%LY0型冻干机冻干箱内压力场模拟分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭彦伟; 李保国; 郭柏松; 杨春生

    2014-01-01

    Vacuum freeze-drying technology has been widely used in the biotechnology industry,which is especially applicable to temperature-sensitive and easy-deteriorated substances that require the preservation of the original states.The purpose of this work was to study the factors that may influence the rarefied water vapor flow characteristics in the lyophilizer.This study ex-plored the effect of distance between the shelves and the size of the shelf and the sublimation flow rate upon the performance of water vapor flow in the lyophilizer through Computational Fluid Dynamics.The simulation results can be applied to understand the lyophilization process and to determine the lyophilizer key structure and process parameters.%为了研究药品冻干机冻干室内水蒸气压力分布状态,使用FLUENT软件对LYO型冻干机不同结构的干燥室内水蒸气流场进行了模拟,模拟分析了干燥室中搁板面积、搁板间距、水蒸气升华量对干燥室内水蒸气压力分布的影响。模拟计算结果表明不同结构的干燥室内的水蒸气压力存在明显差异。模拟计算结果可以用于评估冻干机冻干箱内不同部位物料的干燥速率,并为确定冻干机关键结构及工艺参数提供一定的理论参考依据。

  4. Serum biochemical markers in carcinoma breast.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seth R

    2003-08-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Despite the extensive research for many years throughout the world, the etiopathogenesis of cancer still remains obscure. For the early detection of carcinoma of various origins, a number of biochemical markers have been studied to evaluate the malignancy. AIM: To analyse serum gamma glutamyl transpeptidase (GGTP, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH and superoxide dismutase (SOD in carcinoma breast patients. SETTINGS & DESIGN: The serum biochemical markers were estimated in twenty five histopathologically confirmed patients with carcinoma breast and equal number of healthy age- matched individuals served as control. MATERIAL & METHODS: Serum gamma glutamyl transpeptidase (GGTP, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH and superoxide dismutase (SOD were estimated and their sensitivity determined. Statistics: Data was analysed with student′s ′t′-test and sensitivity score of these markers was determined. RESULTS & CONCLUSIONS: The mean serum GGTP, LDH and SOD activities in patients with carcinoma breast were tremendously increased as compared to controls, and a steady increase was observed in their activities from stage I through stage IV as well as following distant metastasis. Serum GGTP, LDH and SOD might prove to be most sensitive biomarkers in carcinoma breast in early detection of the disease.

  5. Effect of lyophilized water extracts of Melissa officinalis on the stability of algae and linseed oil-in-water emulsion to be used as a functional ingredient in meat products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Ciriano, Mikel García-Iñiguez; Rehecho, Sheyla; Calvo, Maria Isabel; Cavero, Rita Yolanda; Navarro, Iñigo; Astiasarán, Iciar; Ansorena, Diana

    2010-06-01

    Previous work pointed out the possibility to enhance the nutritional value of meat products using long chain omega-3 PUFA enriched emulsions. Oil-in-water emulsions elaborated with a mixture of algae and linseed oils (15:10) in order to be used as functional ingredient were stabilized with BHA (butylhydroxyanisol) or with a lyophilized water extract of Melissa officinalis L. (Lemon balm). The lipid profile of the oil mixture showed a high amount of DHA (31.7%), oleic (25.4%) and alpha-linolenic acid (12.7%) resulting in a very low omega-6/omega-3 ratio (0.12). The lyophilized extract of M. officinalis showed a high antioxidant activity (being 62ppm of the lyophilized water extract of Melissa equivalent to 200ppm of BHA, using the DPPH assay as reference), and high total phenolic content. Studying the oxidation process in the emulsions during 15days at room temperature, it could be concluded that this extract was as efficient as BHA in order to control the thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) formation. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Titanium implant insertion into dog alveolar ridges augmented by allogenic material

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pinholt, E M; Haanaes, H R; Donath, K

    1994-01-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to evaluate whether titanium endosseous implants would osseointegrate in dog alveolar ridges augmented by allogenic material. In 8 dogs en bloc resection, including 2 pre-molars, was performed bilaterally in the maxilla and the mandible. After a healing period...... of 6 weeks allogenic, demineralized and lyophilized dentin or bone was implanted subperiosteally. Titanium implants were installed 5.5 months later in some of the regions. Light and fluorescence microscopic evaluation revealed fibrous encapsulation of the implanted allogenic material, no osteoinduction...... and only minimal osteoconduction, few multinuclear giant cells and a sparse inflammatory reaction. The titanium implants healed mainly by fibrous encapsulation....

  7. Transitioning from preclinical to clinical chemopreventive assessments of lyophilized black raspberries: interim results show berries modulate markers of oxidative stress in Barrett's esophagus patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kresty, Laura A; Frankel, Wendy L; Hammond, Cynthia D; Baird, Maureen E; Mele, Jennifer M; Stoner, Gary D; Fromkes, John J

    2006-01-01

    Increased fruit and vegetable consumption is associated with decreased risk of a number of cancers of epithelial origin, including esophageal cancer. Dietary administration of lyophilized black raspberries (LBRs) has significantly inhibited chemically induced oral, esophageal, and colon carcinogenesis in animal models. Likewise, berry extracts added to cell cultures significantly inhibited cancer-associated processes. Positive results in preclinical studies have supported further investigation of berries and berry extracts in high-risk human cohorts, including patients with existing premalignancy or patients at risk for cancer recurrence. We are currently conducting a 6-mo chemopreventive pilot study administering 32 or 45 g (female and male, respectively) of LBRs to patients with Barrett's esophagus (BE), a premalignant esophageal condition in which the normal stratified squamous epithelium changes to a metaplastic columnar-lined epithelium. BE's importance lies in the fact that it confers a 30- to 40-fold increased risk for the development of esophageal adenocarcinoma, a rapidly increasing and extremely deadly malignancy. This is a report on interim findings from 10 patients. To date, the results support that daily consumption of LBRs promotes reductions in the urinary excretion of two markers of oxidative stress, 8-epi-prostaglandin F2alpha (8-Iso-PGF2) and, to a lesser more-variable extent, 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG), among patients with BE.

  8. Functional, textural and sensory properties of dry pasta supplemented with lyophilized tomato matrix or with durum wheat bran extracts produced by supercritical carbon dioxide or ultrasound.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasqualone, Antonella; Gambacorta, Giuseppe; Summo, Carmine; Caponio, Francesco; Di Miceli, Giuseppe; Flagella, Zina; Marrese, Pier Paolo; Piro, Gabriella; Perrotta, Carla; De Bellis, Luigi; Lenucci, Marcello Salvatore

    2016-12-15

    A study was carried out to produce functional pasta by adding bran aqueous extract (BW) and bran oleoresin (BO) obtained using ultrasound and supercritical CO2, respectively, or a powdery lyophilized tomato matrix (LT). The bioactive compounds, hydrophilic and lipophilic antioxidant activity (HAA and LAA) in vitro, were evaluated. BW supplementation did not improve antioxidant activity, whilst LT pasta showed unconventional taste and odor. BO pasta had good levels of tocochromanols (2551μg/100g pasta f.w.) and carotenoids (40.2μg/100g pasta f.w.), and the highest HAA and LAA. The oleoresin altered starch swelling and gluten network, as evidenced by scanning electron microscopy, therefore BO pasta had structural characteristics poor compared with the control (4.8% vs. 3.2% cooking loss), although this difference did not affect significantly overall sensory judgment (74 vs. 79 for BO and control, respectively). BO supplementation was most effective for increasing antioxidant activity without jeopardizing pasta quality.

  9. The Actions of Lyophilized Apple Peel on the Electrical Activity and Organization of the Ventricular Syncytium of the Hearts of Diabetic Rats

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    Elideth Martínez-Ladrón de Guevara

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was designed to examine the effects of lyophilized red delicious apple peel (RDP on the action potentials (APs and the input resistance-threshold current relationship. The experiments were performed on isolated papillary heart muscles from healthy male rats, healthy male rats treated with RDP, diabetic male rats, and diabetic male rats treated with RDP. The preparation was superfused with oxygenated Tyrode’s solution at 37°C. The stimulation and the recording of the APs, the input resistance, and the threshold current were made using conventional electrophysiological methods. The RDP presented no significant effect in normal rats. Equivalent doses in diabetic rats reduced the APD and ARP. The relationship between input resistance and threshold current established an inverse correlation. The results indicate the following: (1 The functional structure of the cardiac ventricular syncytium in healthy rats is heterogeneous, in terms of input resistance and threshold current. Diabetes further accentuates the heterogeneity. (2 As a consequence, conduction block occurs and increases the possibility of reentrant arrhythmias. (3 These modifications in the ventricular syncytium, coupled with the increase in the ARP, are the adequate substrate so that, with diabetes, the heart becomes more arrhythmogenic. (4 RDP decreases the APD, the ARP, and most syncytium irregularity caused by diabetes.

  10. 血塞通对局灶性脑梗死大鼠海马Nogo-A表达的影响%Effects of Xuesaitong Lyophilized Powder on Expression of Nogo-A in Hippocampus in Rats with Focal Cerebral Ischemia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴建华; 张晓倩; 朱陵群

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To observe the expression of Nogo—A in rat hippocampus at different times in SD rat model of middle cerebral artery occlusion and to explore the protective mechanism after cerebral ischemia and dose-effect relationship of Xuesaitong Lyophilized Powder. Methods: The SD rats were divided randomly into different groups after the model of middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) was established by improved Longa EZ method. In these models,some indices were observed including the change of nerve functions,pathomorphology and the expression of Nogo—A in rat hippocampus at different time points. Results: Compared with the control group,the expression of Nogo—A was increased in the model group which presented the descending trends with times. These indicators in the Xuesaitong Lyophilized Powder group were lower than those in the model group at different times such as the nerve function damage,the pathomorphology and the expression of Nogo-A. Conclusion: Xuesaitong Lyophilized Powder can reduce the expression of Nogo-A effectively and promote reconstruction of central nervous system.The effect of the large dose of Xuesaitong Lyophilized Powder group is better than that of small dose of Xuesaitong Lyophilized Powder group.%目的 探讨血塞通对大脑中动脉阻塞(MCAO)模型SD大鼠脑组织的保护、促进功能恢复的机理,以及血塞通不同剂量的疗效.方法 使用改良的Longa方法建立大鼠大脑中动脉阻塞(MCAO)模型,随机分组,选取不同恢复时间点,观察不同组别大鼠的神经功能、海马的病理形态学以及Nogo-A蛋白表达的变化.结果 与正常组比较,模型组术后Nogo-A表达变化均有增高,并随时间出现下降趋势,血塞通组不同时间点的神经功能损伤、病理形态改变、Nogo-A基因的表达水平均低于同期模型组.结论 血塞通可以有效降低Nogo-A基因表达,促进中枢神经功能的恢复;同时发现血塞通大剂量组作用优于小剂量组.

  11. 冻干工艺及保护剂对羟基喜树碱脂质体质量的影响%Effects of Lyophilization Process and Lyoprotectants on the Quality of Hydroxycamptothecine Liposomes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邓礼荷; 韦敏燕; 汤晨懿; 吴传斌; 徐月红

    2012-01-01

    The liposomes loaded with 10-hydroxycamptothecine were prepared by thin film hydration and high pressure homogenize method. The liposomes and free drug were separated by Sephadex G-75, the encapsulation efficiency was determined by HPLC. The eutectic points and glass transition temperatures of liposomes containing different lyopro-tectants were determined by differential scanning calorimeter. The appearance, encapsulation efficiency and particle size before and after lyophilization of the products were compared to optimize the process and lyoprotectants. The results showed that 6% sucrose was the suitable lyoprotectant, and the lyophilization process moved from prefreezing condition of 4 ℃ for 1 h, -18 ℃ for 12 h and -35 ℃ for 5 h, then lyophilized at -54 ℃ for 24 h. The lyophilized product was of good appearance, the encapsulation efficiency was (87.0±2.7) % . The particle size varied little before and after lyophilization.%用薄膜水化-高压均质法制备羟基喜树碱脂质体,以葡聚糖凝胶色谱法分离脂质体和游离药物,采用HPLC法测定包封率.通过差示扫描量热法测定含不同保护剂的脂质体的最低共熔点和玻璃化转变温度,并比较冻干品外观、冻干前后脂质体包封率和粒径的变化,优选出最佳的冻干工艺、冻干保护剂种类及比例.结果表明,以6%蔗糖为冻干保护剂,经4℃、1h,-18℃、12 h和-35℃、5h逐步预冻,然后于-54℃冷冻干燥24 h,制得的冻干品外观良好,脂质体复溶后粒径变化小,包封率达(87.0±2.7)%.

  12. The human serum metabolome.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikolaos Psychogios

    Full Text Available Continuing improvements in analytical technology along with an increased interest in performing comprehensive, quantitative metabolic profiling, is leading to increased interest pressures within the metabolomics community to develop centralized metabolite reference resources for certain clinically important biofluids, such as cerebrospinal fluid, urine and blood. As part of an ongoing effort to systematically characterize the human metabolome through the Human Metabolome Project, we have undertaken the task of characterizing the human serum metabolome. In doing so, we have combined targeted and non-targeted NMR, GC-MS and LC-MS methods with computer-aided literature mining to identify and quantify a comprehensive, if not absolutely complete, set of metabolites commonly detected and quantified (with today's technology in the human serum metabolome. Our use of multiple metabolomics platforms and technologies allowed us to substantially enhance the level of metabolome coverage while critically assessing the relative strengths and weaknesses of these platforms or technologies. Tables containing the complete set of 4229 confirmed and highly probable human serum compounds, their concentrations, related literature references and links to their known disease associations are freely available at http://www.serummetabolome.ca.

  13. Preservation of rhizobia by lyophilization with trehalose Preservação de rizóbio por liofilização com trealose

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    Pedro Antonio Arraes Pereira

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to determine if trehalose can effectively enhance the viability and storage lifetime of Rhizobium tropici and Rhizobium etli after lyophilization as compared to the traditional protective combination of sucrose and peptone. Two strains of bean-nodulating rhizobia were effectively preserved in the lyophilized state by 100 mM trehalose, and survived for at least 12 days, even when stored under non-ideal conditions. Trehalose provided better protection than the sucrose/peptone combination. When protective excipients were introduced inside the cells, strain CFN 42 was more sensitive to the type of additive used than strain CIAT 899, probably because CIAT 899 produces beta (1-2 glucan, which may have a protective effect. beta (1-2 glucan combined with sucrose protected better than trehalose against leakage from freeze-dried liposomes, but by itself it had no protective capability. There was a high level of unfrozen water associated with the hydrated glucan, in addition to a thermal event at approximately 70ºC, corresponding to an observed gel-sol transition in the glucan. These findings may shed light on the mechanism by which the glucan contributes to the protection of dried cells and liposomes, and may lead to further improvements in rhizobial inoculants.O objetivo deste estudo foi determinar se a trealose pode aumentar a viabilidade e o tempo de preservação de estirpes de Rhizobium tropici e Rhizobium etli após a liofilização, comparada com a proteção proporcionada pela combinação tradicional de sacarose e peptona. Duas estirpes de rizóbio para feijão foram preservadas liofilizadas com 100 mM de trealose e sobreviveram por pelo menos 12 dias, mesmo quando armazenadas sob condições não-ideais. A trealose proporcionou uma proteção superior à combinação de sacarose peptona. Quando agentes protetores foram introduzidos dentro da célula, a estirpe CFN 42 foi mais sensível em relação ao tipo de

  14. Experimental Study on Lyophilization Preservation of Human Platelets Pretreated by Ultrasound%超声波预处理的人血小板冻干保存实验

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    范菊莉; 张绍志; 徐梦洁; 许先国; 陈光明

    2012-01-01

    Trehalose can be loaded into platelets cells by heat incubation, and ultrasound is employed to enhance the loading of trehalose into human platelets. Then treated platelets are freeze-dried and rehy-drated. The influence of the pre-treatment of ultrasound radiation on lyophilized platelets are studied, and the platelets only subjected to heat incubation are used as the controls. The results show that the in-tracellular trahalose concentration is (28. 9 ±4. 48) mmol/L after radiation for 30 min by ultrasound (frequency of 25 kHz, intensity of 0. 8 W/cm2). This concentration value is 118. 9% higher than that of the controls. And the treated platelets show normal characteristics by several hematology examination. After freeze-drying and rehydration, the recovery of the freeze-dried samples is (83. 3±4. 88) %, PDW is (18.9±1. 55)%, while for the control ones, the recovery and the PDW are (80. 8±4.54)% and (18. l± 15)%, respectively. There is no significant differences. Based on the experimental results, the ultrasound used as a pre-treatment of platelets lyophilization is feasible.%在热孵化的基础上增加超声波辐射以强化海藻糖载入血小板,将处理后的血小板进行冷冻干燥保存,以未经超声波辐射仅受热孵化预处理的血小板为对照组,研究超声波预处理对人血小板冻干保存的影响.结果表明,经25 kHz,0.8W/cm2的超声波辐射30 min的血小板细胞内海藻糖浓度达到(28.9士4.48)mmol/L,比对照组提高118.9%,超声处理后样品经血液学检测各项指标均为正常.两组血小板同时进行冻干后复水,经检验,样品组冻干血小板数值恢复率为(83.3±4.88)%,血小板分布宽度值(Platelet distribution width,PDW)为(18.9±1.55)%;对照组血小板数值恢复率为(80.8±4.54)%,PDW值为(18.1士1.15)%,两者不存在统计学差异.据此实验结果可以认为,超声波载糖法用于血小板冻干预处理是可行的,这为进一步进行血小板冻干研究提供了参考.

  15. Effects of a lyophilized aqueous extract of Feretia apodanthera Del. (Rubiaceae) on pentylenetetrazole-induced kindling, oxidative stress, and cognitive impairment in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taiwe, G S; Moto, F C O; Ayissi, E R M; Ngoupaye, G T; Njapdounke, J S K; Nkantchoua, G C N; Kouemou, N; Omam, J P O; Kandeda, A K; Pale, S; Pahaye, D; Ngo Bum, E

    2015-02-01

    Feretia apodanthera Del. (Rubiaceae) is extensively used in ethnomedicine in Cameroon and Nigeria for epilepsy, febrile convulsions, and rheumatic pains and for enhancing cognitive performance. The aim of the present study was to examine the effects of a lyophilized aqueous extract of F. apodanthera on the course of kindling development, kindling-induced learning deficit, oxidative stress markers, and cholinesterase activity in pentylenetetrazole (PTZ)-kindled mice. Pentylenetetrazole, 30mg/kg, induced kindling in mice after 30.00±1.67days. The aqueous extract of F. apodanthera showed dose-dependent antiseizure effects. Feretia apodanthera (150-200mg/kg) significantly increased the latency to myoclonic jerks, clonic seizures, and generalized tonic-clonic seizures. The extract also improved the seizure score and decreased the number of myoclonic jerks. Pentylenetetrazole kindling induced significant oxidative stress and cognitive impairment which were reversed by pretreatment with F. apodanthera in a dose-dependent manner. The significant decrease in cholinesterase activity observed in the PTZ-kindled mice was reversed by pretreatment with the F. apodanthera extract. The results indicated that pretreatment with the aqueous extract of F. apodanthera antagonizes seizures, oxidative stress, and cognitive impairment in PTZ-kindled mice. The aqueous extract of F. apodanthera also showed anxiolytic activities, but the inhibition of memory impairment was not attributed to the anxiolytic activities of the plant. These results thus suggest the potential of F. apodanthera as an adjuvant in epilepsy both to prevent seizures as well as to protect against seizure-induced oxidative stress and memory impairment.

  16. The Influence of Lyophilized EmuGel Silica Microspheres on the Physicomechanical Properties, In Vitro Bioactivity and Biodegradation of a Novel Ciprofloxacin-Loaded PCL/PAA Scaffold

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mostafa Mabrouk

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available A new composite poly(caprolactone (PCL and poly(acrylic acid (PAA (PCL:PAA 1:5 scaffold was synthesized via dispersion of PCL particles into a PAA network. Silica microspheres (Si (2–12 μm were then prepared by a lyophilized micro-emulsion/sol-gel (Emugel system using varying weight ratios. The model drug ciprofloxacin (CFX was used for in situ incorporation into the scaffold. The physicochemical and thermal integrity, morphology and porosity of the system was analyzed by X-Ray Diffraction (XRD, Attenuated Total Refelctance Fourier Transform Infrared (ATR-FTIR, Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC, SEM, surface area analysis and liquid displacement, respectively. The mechanical properties of the scaffold were measured by textural analysis and in vitro bioactivity, biodegradation and pH variations were evaluated by XRD, FTIR and SEM after immersion in Simulated Body Fluid (SBF. The in vitro and in vivo studies of the prepared scaffold were considered as future aspects for this study. CFX release was determined in phosphate buffer saline (PBS (pH 7.4; 37 °C. The incorporation of the Si microspheres and CFX into the scaffold was confirmed by XRD, FTIR, DSC and SEM, and the scaffold microstructure was dependent on the concentration of Si microspheres and the presence of CFX. The system displayed enhanced mechanical properties (4.5–14.73 MPa, in vitro bioactivity, biodegradation and controlled CFX release. Therefore, the PCL/PAA scaffolds loaded with Si microspheres and CFX with a porosity of up to 87% may be promising for bone tissue engineering.

  17. Transplantation of reconstructed corneal layer composed of corneal epithelium and fibroblasts on a lyophilized amniotic membrane to severely alkali-burned cornea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, In-Keun; Ahn, Jae-Il; Shin, Jun-Seop; Kwon, Young-Sam; Ryu, Yang-Hwan; Lee, Jeong-Kyu; Park, Jung-Keug; Song, Kye-Yong; Yang, Eun-Kyung; Kim, Jae-Chan

    2006-06-01

    The purpose of this article was to evaluate the graft efficacy of reconstructed corneal layer, composed of autologous corneal epithelium and fibroblasts on a lyophilized amniotic membrane (LAM), in a severely alkali-burned corneal model. After biopsy specimens were obtained from the left eyes of 24 rabbits, the corneal epithelial cells and fibroblasts were expanded in vitro and the corneal layer was reconstructed on LAM. Thirty-six eyes of rabbits underwent alkali burn (1 N NaOH, 30 s) to create a limbal deficiency and a deeply damaged corneal stroma. Four weeks later, group 1 underwent a graft of the reconstructed corneal layer composed of autologous corneal epithelium and fibroblasts on LAM. Group 2 was transplanted with a graft of the reconstructed autologous corneal epithelium, and group 3 served as a control without surgery. Wound healing and stabilization of the ocular surfaces occurred much faster in group 1 than in groups 2 and 3. The eyes in group 3 revealed typical limbal deficiencies with conjuctivalization and persistent corneal epithelial defects. However, the corneas in group 1 developed only mild peripheral neovascularization. Immunohistochemical staining in group 1 demonstrated that p63, cytokeratin 3, E-cadherin, transforming growth factor (TGF)-beta1, and collagen IV were expressed strongly in the corneal epithelium and basement membrane. On the basis of these results, transplantation of the reconstructed corneal layer, composed of autologous corneal epithelium and fibroblasts on LAM, partially accelerated the recovery of the alkali-injured rabbit ocular surface, and might be useful therapeutically for the treatment of patients with severely damaged cornea.

  18. Biokinetics and dosimetry in patients of {sup 99m}Tc-EDDA/HYNIC-Tyr{sup 3}-octreotide prepared from lyophilized kits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonzalez-Vazquez, Armando [Departamento de Medicina Nuclear, Hospital Militar (Mexico); Facultad de Medicina, Universidad Autonoma del Estado de Mexico (Mexico); Ferro-Flores, Guillermina [Departamento de Materiales Radiactivos, Gerencia de Aplicaciones Nucleares en la Salud, Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares, Km. 36.5 Carretera Mexico-Toluca, Ocoyoacac, Estado de Mexico, C.P. 52045 (Mexico)]. E-mail: gff@nuclear.inin.mx; Arteaga de Murphy, Consuelo [Departamento de Medicina Nuclear, Instituto Nacional de Ciencias Medicas y Nutricion Salvador Zubiran (Mexico); Gutierrez-Garcia, Zohar [Departamento de Medicina Nuclear, Hospital Militar (Mexico)

    2006-07-15

    {sup 99m}Tc-EDDA/HYNIC-Tyr{sup 3}-octreotide ({sup 99m}Tc-HYNIC-TOC) has shown high in vitro and in vivo stability, rapid background clearance and rapid detection of somatostatin receptor-positive tumors. The aim of this study was to establish a biokinetic model for {sup 99m}Tc-HYNIC-TOC prepared from lyophilized kits, and to evaluate its dosimetry as a tumor imaging agent in patients with histologically confirmed neuroendocrine tumors. Whole-body images from eight patients were acquired at 5, 60, 90, 180 min and 24 h after {sup 99m}Tc-HYNIC-TOC administration obtained from instant freeze-dried kit formulations with radiochemical purities >95%. Regions of interest (ROIs) were drawn around source organs on each time frame. The same set of ROIs was used for all eight scans and the count per minute (cpm) of each ROI was converted to activity using the conjugate view counting method. The image sequence was used to extrapolate {sup 99m}Tc-HYNIC-TOC time-activity curves in each organ, to adjust a biokinetic model using the SAAM software, and to calculate the total number of disintegrations (N) that occurred in the source regions. N data were the input for the OLINDA/EXM code to calculate internal radiation dose estimates. Images showed an average tumor/blood (heart) ratio of 4.3{+-}0.7 in receptor-positive tumors at 1 h. The mean radiation absorbed dose calculated for a study using 740 MBq was 24, 21.5, 5.5 and 1.0 mSv for spleen, kidneys, liver and bone marrow respectively and the effective dose was 4.4 mSv.

  19. A Method of Lyophilizing Vaccines Containing Aluminum Salts into a Dry Powder Without Causing Particle Aggregation or Decreasing the Immunogenicity Following Reconstitution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xinran; Thakkar, Sachin G.; Ruwona, Tinashe B.; Williams, Robert O.; Cui, Zhengrong

    2015-01-01

    Many currently licensed and commercially available human vaccines contain aluminum salts as vaccine adjuvants. A major limitation with these vaccines is that they must not be exposed to freezing temperatures during transport or storage such that the liquid vaccine freezes, because freezing causes irreversible coagulation that damages the vaccines (e.g., loss of efficacy). Therefore, vaccines that contain aluminum salts as adjuvants are formulated as liquid suspensions and are required to be kept in cold chain (2–8°C) during transport and storage. Formulating vaccines adjuvanted with aluminum salts into dry powder that can be readily reconstituted before injection may address the limitation. Spray freeze-drying of vaccines with low concentrations of aluminum salts and high concentrations of trehalose alone, or a mixture of sugars and amino acids, as excipients can convert vaccines containing aluminum salts into dry powder, but fails to preserve the particle size and/or immunogenicity of the vaccines. In the present study, using ovalbumin as a model antigen adsorbed onto aluminum hydroxide or aluminum phosphate, a commercially available tetanus toxoid vaccine adjuvanted with potassium alum, a human hepatitis B vaccine adjuvanted with aluminum hydroxide, and a human papillomavirus vaccine adjuvanted with aluminum hydroxyphosphate sulfate, it was shown that vaccines containing a relatively high concentration of aluminum salts (i.e., up to ~1%, w/v, of aluminum hydroxide) can be converted into a dry powder by thin-film freezing followed by removal of the frozen solvent by lyophilization while using low levels of trehalose (i.e., as low as 2% w/v) as an excipient. Importantly, the thin-film freeze-drying process did not cause particle aggregation, nor decreased the immunogenicity of the vaccines. Moreover, repeated freezing-and-thawing of the dry vaccine powder did not cause aggregation. Thin-film freeze-drying is a viable platform technology to produce dry powders of

  20. Serum Potassium Levels in Sigmoid Volvulus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atamanalp, S. Selcuk; Keles, M. Sait; Aydinli, Bulent

    2009-01-01

    Objective: This study aimed to determine the serum potassium concentrations in patients with sigmoid volvulus (SV), which is a rare large bowel obstruction. Materials and Methods: The records of 86 patients with SV were reviewed retrospectively, while the records of 41 patients diagnosed with obstructive rectosigmoid cancer (ORC) were considered as the control group and as such, served as a source for comparison. Results: The analysis revealed a mean serum potassium concentration of 3.9 ± 0.6 mEq/L for the patients with SV, while the mean potassium concentration was 3.9 ± 0.5 mEq/L for the patients diagnosed with ORC (t:0.1, P>0.05). The number of hypokalemic and hyperkalemic patients identified in this study sample were 11 versus 5 patients and 1 versus 0 patients, respectively for the SV and ORC groups (x2 = 0.1 and 0.5, respectively with a P>0.05). Conclusions: No cause-and-effect relationship was observed between the serum potassium concentrations and SV. The serum potassium concentration is not pathognomonic for SV. PMID:25610090

  1. Serum chromium levels in gestational diabetes mellitus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P G Sundararaman

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To measure serum chromium level in women with gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM from Chennai, South India. Materials and Methods: Thirty women with gestational diabetes, 60 age matched controls. Inclusion criteria: Gestational age 22-28 weeks, age group 20-35 years. Exclusion Criteria: Gestational age beyond 28 weeks, malnutrition or presence of infection. Serum chromium was measured using inductive couple plasma emission spectrometer. Results: Serum chromium levels of women with GDM, 1.59+/-0.02 ng/ml (range: 0.16-4.0 ng/ml were lower than in controls (4.58+/-0.62 ng/ml; range 0.82-5.33 ng/ml (P < 0.001. However, there were no significant differences among cases and controls when subdivided by parity. Conclusions: Women with GDM from a South Indian city had lower levels of serum chromium compared to pregnant women without GDM. Studies may be done whether chromium supplementation is useful in this group of women.

  2. Serum hypercoagulability states in Coats’ disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghassemi, Fariba; Shields, Carol L; Mohebbi, Masoumeh; Nili Ahmadabadi, Mehdi; Morsali, Fatemeh; Sabour, Siamak

    2017-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of this study was to investigate the serum hypercoagulability state and common viral and protozoan infections in Coats’ disease versus a normal control group. Materials and methods In this comparative case series, 22 consecutive patients with Coats’ disease and 19 non-Coats’ patients undergoing lensectomy for congenital, traumatic, or senile cataract between January 2011 and June 2014 were included. Laboratory data for hypercoagulability states and common viral and protozoan infections were investigated. Results The mean age for the Coats’ group was 14.5 years (median 8 years, range: 2 months to 59 years), and for the control group it was 30.6 years (median 17 years, range: 2–82 years). In patients aged 10 years or younger, anticytomegalovirus immunoglobulin G (IgG) (P≤0.01), homocysteine (P=0.03), and serum beta globulin (P<0.001) were associated with Coats’ disease. In those older than 10 years, higher serum protein S (P=0.04), beta globulin (P=0.05), and gamma globulin (P=0.04) were related to Coats’ diagnosis. After adjusting for sex and age as confounding factors, only beta globulin was found to be associated with Coats’ disease in logistic regression analysis (odds ratio: 1.8, 95% confidence interval: 1.0–3.1, P=0.02). Conclusion Serum beta globulin levels appear to be elevated in patients with Coats’ disease. PMID:28223774

  3. Production of dry Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG preparations by spray drying and lyophilization in aqueous two-phase systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katarzyna Leja

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Background. Drying is the oldest method of food preservation. It works by removing water from the food, which prevents the growth of microorganisms and decay. Moreover, spray or freeze drying is also used for the preservation of probiotic cultures. The aim of this study was to compare a survival rate of probiotic bacteria Lactobacillus rhamnosus during spray and freeze drying in ATPS. These results were also compared with survival rate of cells dried under the same conditions but suspended only in skim milk, 6% solution of PVP or 6% solution of dextran. Material and methods. The bacteria Lactobacillus rhamnosus GGwere suspended and spray or freeze dried in various types of aqueous two-phase emulsions: PVP/dextran, PEG4000/dextran and PEG8000/dextran. These emulsions consisted of different types of polymers and had varying ratio of polymers in dispersed (dextran and dispersing (PEG and PVP phases. Results. The research demonstrated that survival rate of bacteria directly after drying depended mainly on protective reagent, rather than on drying method. After 30-day-storage of the dried bacteria cell specimens, the highest survival rate was noted in case of freeze dried cells in milk. In case of spray drying the highest cell survival rate was observed when emulsion PVP3.6%/dextran2.4% was used as a drying medium. Conclusions. Finally, it has been found that cell survival rate was not strongly influenced by the storage temperature of the powder but it depended on the drying medium.  

  4. Effect of fiber crosslinking on collagen-fiber reinforced collagen-chondroitin-6-sulfate materials for regenerating load-bearing soft tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shepherd, J H; Ghose, S; Kew, S J; Moavenian, A; Best, S M; Cameron, R E

    2013-01-01

    Porous collagen-glycosaminoglycan structures are bioactive and exhibit a pore architecture favorable for both cellular infiltration and attachment; however, their inferior mechanical properties limit use, particularly in load-bearing situations. Reinforcement with collagen fibers may be a feasible route for enhancing the mechanical characteristics of these materials, providing potential for composites used for the repair and regeneration of soft tissue such as tendon, ligaments, and cartilage. Therefore, this study investigates the reinforcement of collagen-chondroitin-6-sulfate (C6S) porous structures with bundles of extruded, reconstituted type I collagen fibers. Fiber bundles were produced through extrusion and then, where applicable, crosslinked using a solution of 1-ethyl-3-(3-dimethylaminopropyl) carbodiimide/N-hydroxysuccinimide. Fibers were then submerged in the collagen-C6S matrix slurry before being lyophilized. A second 1-ethyl-3-(3-dimethylaminopropyl) carbodiimide and N-hydroxysuccinimide crosslinking process was then applied to the composite material before a secondary lyophilization cycle. Where bundles had been previously crosslinked, composites withstood a load of approximately 60 N before failure, the reinforcing fibers remained dense and a favorable matrix pore structure resulted, with good interaction between fiber and matrix. Fibers that had not been crosslinked before lyophilization showed significant internal porosity and a channel existed between them and the matrix. Mechanical properties were significantly reduced, but the additional porosity could prove favorable for cell migration and has potential for directing aligned tissue growth.

  5. SERUM PARAOXONASE ACTIVITY AND ITS RELATION TO SERUM LIPIDS IN CORONARY ARTERY DISEASE

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    Rakhi S

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Human serum paraoxonase1 (PON1 is a calcium dependent es terase enzyme that hydrolyses lipid peroxides accumulating on low density lipoproteins. In the serum, PON1 enzyme is almost exclusively located on the high density lipoprotein (HDL. It hydrolyses oxidised lipids in low density lipoprotein (LDL and could therefore retard the development of atherosclerosis. As PON1 activity has a role in preventing atherosclerosis and coronary heart disease is common in Kerala, this study was conducted to assess the activity of the enzyme and its corelation to serum lipids. MATERIALS AND METHODS : In this case - control study, one hundred patients with coronary artery disease and one hundred healthy controls were included. Serum paraoxonase activity was meausured using phenyl acetate as substrate and lipid profile was done in a uto analyzer . RESULTS : The mean PON 1 activity {(70.21  27.62 in cases against (135.86  33.48 in controls (p value .000} was significantly low in CAD group compared to the control group. The CHD group had a significantly lower mean total cholesterol level (202.82  57.77 against 219.45  46.08 and lower mean HDL level (40.88  10.08 against 56.79  17.24. Correlation of the activity of PON1 with other variables for the combined group ( C ases and controls taken together showed that age is negatively correlated an d HDL is positively correlated with PON 1 activity. CONCLUSIONS : The activity of serum paraoxonase enzyme (PON1 is low in patients with coronary artery disease compared to healthy controls. Thus low serum PON1 enzyme activity is a risk factor for CAD. The activity of the serum PON1 enzyme increases with increase in HDL level and decreases with increase in age for the combined group.

  6. Interpreting serum risperidone concentrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boerth, Joel M; Caley, Charles F; Goethe, John W

    2005-02-01

    Risperidone is an atypical antipsychotic commonly used for treatment of schizophrenia and other psychotic disorders. Although therapeutic drug monitoring is not routine for any of the atypical antipsychotics, serum antipsychotic concentrations are measured routinely to assess treatment nonadherence. In humans, risperidone is metabolized by cytochrome P450 2D6 to 9-hydroxyrisperidone; together these constitute the active moiety. Dose-proportional increases in serum concentrations have not been reported for the parent drug, but have been reported for 9-hydroxyrisperidone and the active moiety (i.e., the combined concentrations of risperidone and 9-hydroxyrisperidone). We describe a 34-year-old Caucasian man of Sicilian descent with a history of schizophrenia, disorganized type. He was suspected to be noncompliant with his risperidone therapy. Initially, active moiety risperidone concentrations increased linearly with prescribed dosage increases. However, with continued increases, active moiety concentrations adjusted downward and remained 17-36% below anticipated levels. We propose a method for estimating target active moiety concentrations of risperidone based on dosage-a method that may be used to guide clinicians in assessing nonadherence to risperidone treatment.

  7. Screening and optimization of the formulation of cryoprotectants for the lyophilized Bifidobacterium infantis%婴儿双歧杆菌冻干保护剂配方的筛选与优化

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    沈颐涵

    2014-01-01

    Objective:To develop a better technique for the production of probioticBifidobacterium infantisand improve the survival rate of the lyophilized powder.Methods:In this improved technique, The types of cryoprotectants added in the lyophilization ofBiifdobacterium infantis and their optimized formulations were studied by orthogonal test.Results:The survival rate of the lyophilized powder ofBiifdobacterium infantiscould be signiifcantly improved from about 43% to 85.42%and the viable cell counts maintained at above 4.1×1010cfu/g when a formulation of cryoprotectant consisting of 10% skim milk powder, 3% mannitol, 1% Vc-Na and 0.5% monosodium glutamate was used.Conclusion:This formulation will have a good beneift when applied to the probiotic production.%目的:构建一种更好的婴儿双歧杆菌微生态制剂生产工艺,提高冻干菌粉的活菌存活率。方法:通过正交试验,对婴儿双歧杆菌冻干过程中加入的保护剂种类及其最佳配比进行研究。结果:以脱脂奶粉10%,甘露醇3%, Vc-Na 1%,味精0.5%作为冻干保护剂,可使婴儿双歧杆菌冻干菌粉的活菌存活率由43%左右提高到85.42%、活菌量保持在4.1×1010 cfu/g。结论:该配方用于微生态制剂的生产将有较好的效益。

  8. Degradation Kinetics Analysis of Main Ingredients in Salvianolate Lyophilized Injection%注射用丹参多酚酸中主要成分的降解动力学分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张慧杰; 任晓亮; 崔明磊; 蒲位凌; 马思萌; 戚爱棣

    2013-01-01

    Objective:To investigate degradation kinetics of main ingredients (salvianolic acid B and rosmarinic acid) of salvianolate lyophilized injection under different pH and temperatures.Method:HPLC was adopted to determine the content of salvianolic acid B and rosmarinic acid at different pH values and temperatures,degradation kinetic parameters of these two ingredients were evaluated by chemical kinetics.Result:Reaction of salvianolic acid B and rosmarinic acid at different pH values and temperatures were accord with the first-order kinetics,degradation rate accelerated by increasing of pH value and temperature.According to arrhenius equation,activation energy (Ea) of salvianolic acid B in aqueous solution and salvianolate lyophilized injection were 48.54,95.19 kJ · mol-1,respectively.Ea of rosmarinic acid in aqueous solution and salvianolate lyophilized injection were 49.83,83.56 kJ·mol-1,respectively.Conclusion:Salvianolic acid B and rosmarinic acid were sensitive to strong alkaline and high temperature conditions,but salvianolate lyophilized injection could obviously improve their stability.%目的:探索注射用丹参多酚酸中主要活性成分(丹酚酸B和迷迭香酸)在不同pH和温度下的降解规律.方法:采用HPLC测定迷迭香酸、丹酚酸B含量,研究二者在不同pH(1~13)和温度(60,70,80,90℃)下含量变化,通过化学动力学法计算降解动力学参数.结果:丹酚酸B与迷迭香酸在不同pH和温度下降解反应均属于一级动力学反应,降解速率随pH及温度的升高而增加.丹酚酸B和迷迭香酸在水溶液中的降解活化能(Ea)分别为48.54,49.83 kJ· mol-1,在注射用丹参多酚酸中则分别为95.19,83.56 kJ· mol-1.结论:丹酚酸B与迷迭香酸在碱性条件及高温条件下易降解,与对照品相比较,二者在注射用丹参多酚酸中更为稳定.

  9. Study of Serum Alanine Transaminase: Serum Lactate Dehydrogenase Ratio for Typhoid Hepatits

    OpenAIRE

    Damor PB; Prajapati VJ; Patel SV; Vasavada H; Panchal AR; Shukla P

    2016-01-01

    "Introduction: Typhoid hepatitis clinically mimics acute viral hepatitis. Differentiation between these two illnesses is very important as typhoid hepatitis requires definitive treatment in form of antimicrobial drugs. This study was undertaken to study pattern of hepatic involvement in enteric fever and to evaluate serum ALT:LDH ratio for differentiating it from acute viral hepatitis. Material and Method :This was a clinical observational study .Patients of enteric fever with hepatic mani...

  10. Study of Serum Alanine Transaminase: Serum Lactate Dehydrogenase Ratio for Typhoid Hepatits

    OpenAIRE

    Damor PB; Prajapati VJ; Patel SV; Vasavada H; Panchal AR; Shukla P.

    2016-01-01

    "Introduction: Typhoid hepatitis clinically mimics acute viral hepatitis. Differentiation between these two illnesses is very important as typhoid hepatitis requires definitive treatment in form of antimicrobial drugs. This study was undertaken to study pattern of hepatic involvement in enteric fever and to evaluate serum ALT:LDH ratio for differentiating it from acute viral hepatitis. Material and Method :This was a clinical observational study .Patients of enteric fever with hepatic mani...

  11. Bone density of defects treated with lyophilized amniotic membrane versus collagen membrane: a tomographic and histomorfogenic study in rabbit´s femur

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liz Katty Ríos

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The aim of this study was to compare the bone density of bone defects treated with lyophilizated amniotic membrane (LAM and collagen Membrane (CM, at 3 and 5 weeks. Two bone defects of 4 mm in diameter and 6 mm deep were created in left distal femoral diaphysis of New Zealand rabbits (n = 12. The animals were randomly divided into 2 groups. One of the defects was covered with lyophilized amniotic membrane (Rosa Chambergo Tissue Bank/National Institute of Child Health-IPEN, Lima, Peru or collagen Membrane (Dentium Co, Seoul, Korea. The second was left uncovered (NC. The rabbits were killed after 3 and 5 weeks (3 rabbits/period. The results showed a high bone density and repair of the defect by new bone. The tomographic study revealed that the bone density of the defects treated with LAM at 3 weeks was equivalent to the density obtained with CM and higher density compared with NC (p 0.05. The results show that lyophilizated amniotic membrane provides bone density equal or higher to the collagen membrane. RESUMEN El propósito de este estudio fue comparar la densidad ósea (DO de defectos óseos tratados con membrana amniótica liofilizada (MAL y membrana de colágeno (MC, a las 3 y 5 semanas. Se crearon dos defectos óseos, de 4 mm de diámetro y 6 mm de profundidad, en la diáfisis femoral distal izquierda de conejos Nueva Zelanda (n=12. Los animales fueron divididos aleatoriamente en 2 grupos. Uno de los defectos fue cubierto con membrana amniótica liofilizada (Banco de tejidos Rosa Chambergo/INSN-IPEN, Lima, Perú o membrana de colágeno (Dentium Co, Seoul, Korea. El segundo se dejó sin cubrir (NC. Los conejos fueron sacrificados después de 3 y 5 semanas (3 conejos/periodo. Los resultados mostraron una alta DO y reparación del defecto por hueso neoformado. El estudio tomográfico reveló que la DO de los defectos tratados con MAL a las 3 semanas fue comparable a la densidad obtenida con MC y mayor comparado con la densidad de NC (p

  12. Preparation and evaluation of modified composition for lyophilized kits of [Cu(MIBI4]BF4 for [99mTc] technetium labeling

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    Marisa de Jesus de C. Lima

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available The [Cu(MIBI4]BF4 complex was synthesized and different formulations for lyophilized kits that could be cost-effectively used with different routines in nuclear medicine laboratories were investigated. In one preparation the kit components were kept similar to the Cardiolite® , except that the SnCl2.2H2O concentration was increased to 0.150 mg. In a second formulation, component concentrations were reduced to 1/5 of the original value and the SnCl2.2H2O concentration was adjusted to 0.04 mg. These products were labeled with maximum activities of 55.5 GBq and 8.14 GBq, respectively, and have shown an average radiochemical purity of 95 %. Biodistribution of the products was assessed by dissection in mice and in rabbits, and did not show any statistical difference when compared to Cardiolite®. In the synthesis of [Cu(MIBI4]BF4 a new procedure was introduced for the synthesis of N-(2-methyl-propenyl-formamide, with the use of microwave radiation as heat source. This modification reduced the reaction time to 25 seconds, while maintaining a yield of 68%.Neste trabalho são apresentados dados relativos a síntese do complexo [Cu(MIBI4]BF4 e à utilização do mesmo para produção de kit liofilizado para obtenção do radiofármaco [[99mTc](MIBI6]+. No processo de síntese foi utilizado radiação de microondas como fonte de aquecimento em uma etapa do processo, permitindo que a reação fosse executada em 25 segundos, obtendo rendimento de 68 %. Na preparação dos kits liofilizados, um deles denominado FULL, nos quais a quantidade dos componentes foi mantida igual ao produto comercial Cardiolite®, e outro denominado FRACTION, nos quais as quantidades foram reduzidas a 1/5 do total, foram adicionadas quantidades extras de SnCl2.2H2O. Deste modo, tornou-se possível marcar os kits liofilizados com atividades máximas de 55,5 GBq e 8,14 GBq, respectivamente. A biodistribuição dos produtos marcados, em camundongos e coelhos, não mostrou diferen

  13. Pharmacokinetics, Safety, and Tolerability of Amygdalin and Paeoniflorin After Single and Multiple Intravenous Infusions of Huoxue-Tongluo Lyophilized Powder for Injection in Healthy Chinese Volunteers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiaobing; Shi, Fuguo; Zhang, Run; Sun, Chenglong; Gong, Chuting; Jian, Lingyan; Ding, Li

    2016-02-01

    Huoxue-Tongluo lyophilized powder for injection (HTLPI), a traditional Chinese medicine preparation, is a compound of Persicae semen and Paeoniae Radix Rubra that is used mainly for treating blood-stasis obstruction syndrome in the acute stage of cerebral ischemic stroke. Amygdalin (AD) and paeoniflorin (PF) are 2 typical bioactive components in HTLPI and were selected as indicators for this pharmacokinetic study of HTLPI. The objective of this study was to investigate the safety profile, tolerability, and pharmacokinetic properties of AD and PF after single and multiple intravenous infusions of HTLPI in healthy Chinese volunteers. Twenty-one healthy Chinese subjects were recruited for this open-label, single ascending-dose (3, 6, and 9 g) and multiple-dose (6 g, once daily) study. Safety profile was assessed by adverse events and physical examination throughout the study. Serial plasma and urine samples were analyzed by HPLC-MS/MS. Pharmacokinetic parameters of AD and PF were calculated using noncompartmental analysis. In the single-dose phase of the study, the mean maximum plasma concentration and the mean area under the plasma concentration-time curve of AD and PF increased proportionally with each dose escalation. In the multiple-dose phase, the steady state was achieved by day 4 after multiple-dose administration of 6 g HTLPI. Mean pharmacokinetic parameters achieved on day 1 were similar to those on day 7. No significant accumulation was observed after repeat doses of 6 g HTLPI. Approximately 79.6% of the administered AD and 48.4% of the administered PF were excreted unchanged in urine within 24 hours. No serious adverse events were observed during the entire study. The pharmacokinetic properties of AD and PF were linear after a single intravenous infusion of HTLPI in the dose range of 3-9 g. No systemic accumulation was observed with repeat doses of HTLPI. Sex had no significant effect on the pharmacokinetic properties of AD and PF. Intravenous infusion of

  14. The relationship between serum levels of vitamin D and migraine

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    Tayebeh Mottaghi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Migraine is common worldwide. In recent years, vitamin D deficiency has been determined as a global health problem. A few studies have shown inverse relationship between serum vitamin D levels and headache. Thus, in this study, we assessed relationship between serum vitamin D levels with migraine. Materials and Methods: The present study was a cross-sectional. Seventy-six migraine patients aged 10-61 years were included. The multiple linear regression was used to show association between serum 25-0H-D3 and migraine. Adjustments were performed for age, sex, waist circumference, body mass index (BMI, number of chronic diseases, and education level . Results: The positive weak relationship was observed between serum vitamin D and headache diary result (P = 0.042, r = 0.19. But, no significant relationship was observed between serum vitamin D and migraine severity (P = 0.741. Conclusion: High levels of serum 25-OH-D3 was related to higher headache diary result. After adjustment for confounding variables, this significant association remained. No significant relationship was shown between serum vitamin D and migraine severity.

  15. Evaluation of the serum zinc level in patients with vitiligo

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    Majid Rostami Mogaddam

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction : Vitiligo is an acquired, idiopathic disorder characterized by circumscribed depigmented macules and patches, which affects approximately 0.1–2% of the general population worldwide. Zinc is an essential trace element that is necessary for growth and development at all stages of life. Some studies have reported an association between serum zinc levels and vitiligo. Aim : To measure the serum zinc level in patients with vitiligo compared to healthy subjects. Material and methods : One hundred patients with vitiligo and 100 healthy controls were referred to our clinic. The two groups were matched for age and sex. Atomic absorption spectrophotometry was used to measure serum zinc levels. The statistical analysis was performed using SPSS software. Results : The mean serum level of zinc in vitiligo patients and controls was 80.11 ±17.10 µg/dl and 96.10 ±16.16 µg/dl, respectively. The serum zinc level in patients with vitiligo was significantly lower than in healthy controls (p = 0.0001. Conclusions : The results of our study revealed a significant association between vitiligo and serum zinc levels. A relative decrease in the serum zinc level in vitiligo patients can highlight the role of zinc in the pathogenesis of vitiligo, and large-scale studies need to be conducted to confirm these findings and assess the effect of oral zinc supplements in patients with low zinc levels.

  16. SERUM ZINC LEVEL IN PATIENTS WITH SIMPLE FEBRILE SEIZURE

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    Farhad HEYDARIAN

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available ObjectiveTo evaluate the serum zinc level of the patients with simple febrile seizure and compare them with febrile children without seizure.Materials & MethodsThis prospective case - control study was performed on 60 patients aged 6 months to 6 years from Apr. 2009 to Jan.2010 in Ghaem, Imam Reza and Dr. Sheikh Hospitals in Mashhad. The serum zinc level was assessed and compared between the cases (30 individuals who suffered from simple febrile seizure and the controls (30 individuals who had fever without seizure.ResultsMean serum zinc level was 663.7 µg /l and 758.33  µg /l in the case group and the control group, respectively (PConclusionIt was revealed that the serum level of zinc was significantly lower in children with simple febrile seizure in comparison with febrile children without seizure.Keywords: Simple febrile seizure, children, zinc, CSF (cerebrospinal fluid

  17. Experimental Study on Lyophilization Preservation of Human Bone Marrow Mesenchymal Stem Cells%冷冻干燥法保存人骨髓间充质干细胞的实验初探

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    范菊莉; 张绍志; 孙洁; 陈光明

    2012-01-01

    The lyophilization preservation of hBM-MSCs was conducted . 30% PVP and 20%Trehalose were used as freeze-drying protecta-nts. The vitrification temperatures of samples were measured by DSC in order to define the freeze-drying temperature scientifically. After lyophilization, hBM-MSCs were successfully resuscitated,the recovery rate reached at (55. 2 ± 7. 66)%. This work will make certain references to the researches of hBM-MSCs preservation.%尝试用冷冻干燥法来保存骨髓间充质干细胞.通过差示扫描量热仪(DSC)测量样品玻璃化转变温度,从而科学确定冻干工艺温度,合理设计冷冻干燥工艺,实验实现了以30% PVP、20%海藻糖为保护液的骨髓间充质干细胞的冻干保存,其复水率达(55.2±7.66)%.该研究对解决现有的hBM-MSCs的保存瓶颈具有一定的参考价值.

  18. Estudo in vivo do comportamento de bioprótese liofilizada: seguimento de 3 meses em carneiros jovens In vivo study of lyophilized bioprostheses: 3 month follow-up in young sheep

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fábio Papa Taniguchi

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Para melhorar as propriedades mecânicas e imunogênicas, o glutaraldeído é utilizado no tratamento do pericárdio bovino que é utilizado em biopróteses. A liofilização do pericárdio bovino tratado com glutaraldeído diminui os radicais aldeído, com provável redução do potencial para calcificação. O objetivo deste estudo é avaliar os efeitos da liofilização em biopróteses valvares de pericárdio bovino como mecanismo protetor na diminuição da disfunção estrutural valvar. MÉTODOS: Foi realizado o implante de biopróteses de pericárdio bovino tratado com glutaraldeído, liofilizadas ou não, em carneiros de 6 meses de idade, sendo os animais eutanasiados com 3 meses de seguimento. As biopróteses foram implantadas em posição pulmonar, com auxílio de circulação extracorpórea. Um grupo controle e outro grupo liofilizado foram avaliados quanto ao gradiente ventrículo direito/artéria pulmonar (VD/AP no implante e explante; análise quantitativa de cálcio; inflamação; trombose e pannus. O nível de significância estabelecido foi de 5%. RESULTADOS: O gradiente médio VD/AP, no grupo controle, no implante, foi 2,04 ± 1,56 mmHg e, no grupo de liofilização, foi 6,61 ± 4,03 mmHg. No explante, esse gradiente aumentou para 7,71 ± 3,92 mmHg e 8,24 ± 6,2 mmHg, respectivamente, nos grupos controle e liofilização. O teor de cálcio médio, após 3 meses, nas biopróteses do grupo controle foi 21,6 ± 39,12 µg Ca+2/mg de peso seco, em comparação com um teor médio de 41,19 ± 46,85 µg Ca+2/mg de peso seco no grupo liofilizado (P = 0,662. CONCLUSÃO: A liofilização de próteses valvares com pericárdio bovino tratado com glutaraldeído não demonstrou diminuição da calcificação neste experimento.OBJECTIVE: Glutaraldehyde is currently used in bovine pericardium bioprosthesis to improve mechanical and immunogenic properties. Lyophilization is a process that may decrease aldehyde residues in the

  19. Potential Synthetic Biolubricant as an Alternative to Bovine Serum

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    Susan C. Scholes

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available It is crucial that orthopaedic implant materials are tested in conditions that replicate the natural body’s environment as closely as possible. Bovine serum is currently recommended for use by the International Organisation for Standardisation (ISO for the wear testing of these implant materials, however, the rheological properties of bovine serum do not match fully those of the body’s natural lubricant, synovial fluid. This study looks at a potential alternative to bovine serum for the testing of orthopaedic implant materials; 0.5% gellan gum fluid gel. Wear tests using multidirectional motion were conducted on ultra-high molecular weight polyethylene (UHMWPE pins rubbing against stainless steel plates. Roughness measurements were performed during testing along with particle analysis of the testing lubricant. At two million cycles (equivalent to 121.3 km of sliding, the mean wear factor for the four UHMWPE pins was 0.25 (standard deviation (SD 0.03 × 10−6 mm3/Nm and there was no evidence of any transfer film on the plate surfaces. The wear factor produced by 0.5% gellan gum fluid gel was lower than that measured in previous studies using bovine serum as the lubricant but greater than the wear factor shown in published work using a similar alternative lubricant (sodium alginate mixed with gellan gum. Work on the development of a suitable alternative lubricant to bovine serum will continue.

  20. Serum Adiponectin in Women with Gestational Diabetes

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    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Background &Objective: Adiponectin is an adipose tissue adipokin that may contribute to obesity and insulin resistantance. The aim of this study was to evaluate the associations between serum concentrations of adiponectin and insulin resistance in gestational diabetes (GDM.Materials & Methods: Serum adiponectin levels, fasting blood sugar (FBS, glycated hemoglobin (HbA1C, insulin levels and blood lipids were measured in 66 women with GDM and 70 pregnant women without GDM. The associations between serum concentrations of adiponectin and insulin resistance were evaluated using the homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA–IR and quantitative insulin sensitivity check index (QUICKI.Results: There were statistically significant between-group differences in FBS, HbA1C and HOMA–IR. Adiponectin concentrations were not significantly different in GDM women in comparison with the control group. However, GDM women above the age of 30 have significantly lower adiponectin concentrations than those without GDM. Adiponectin was positively associated with QUICKI (r = 0.268, P < 0.03 and inversely related to HOMA–IR (r = 0.238, P < 0.05.Conclusion: Adiponectin is significantly decreased in older women with GDM. Deficiency of adiponectin may correlate with insulin resistance in GDM.

  1. Childhood serum sickness: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chao, Y K; Shyur, S D; Wu, C Y; Wang, C Y

    2001-09-01

    Childhood serum sickness is a rare allergic disease that follows the administration of a foreign antigenic material, most commonly caused by injecting a protein or haptenic drug. The disease is a type III hypersensitivity reaction mediated by deposits of circulating immune complexes in small vessels, which leads to complement activation and subsequent inflammation. The clinical features are fever, cutaneous eruptions, lymphadenopathy, arthralgias, albuminuria, and nephritis. Serum sickness is an acute self-limited disease. We report a 3-year-old child who presented with fever and a rash; an invasive bacterial infection was strongly suspected. He was therefore given penicillin and gentamicin and responded well. At day 4 after admission, he developed a serum sickness reaction and showed symptoms of arthralgias, generalized edema, purpura, and gross hematuria. The white blood cell count was 12 190/mm3 with 7% eosinophils. Urinalysis revealed red blood cell above 100 per high power field, white blood cell 10 to 15 per high power field, and proteinuria. The antibiotics were discontinued and hydrocortisone (20 mg/kg/d), diphenhydramine HCl (4 mg/kg/d), aspirin (66 mg/kg/d) was administered, plus 1 dose of epinephrine (0.01 mL/kg) administered intramuscularly. On day 7, the 3rd day after withholding antibiotics, his condition dramatically improved. The clinical symptoms resolved progressively and his urinalysis returned to normal.

  2. Serum copeptin and pregnancy outcome in preeclampsia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kehinde Sola Akinlade

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: A number of biochemical predictors of preeclampsia have been reported, but little is known about their possible relationship with maternal and fetal outcomes. This study determined serum copeptin in pregnant women with preeclampsia and assessed its relationship with pregnancy outcomes. Materials and Methods: Thirty women with severe preeclampsia (SP, 30 with mild preeclampsia (MP, and 30 with uncomplicated pregnancy were enrolled into this study. Serum copeptin, creatinine, and liver function were determined using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and colorimetry as appropriate. Pregnancy outcomes, both maternal and fetal, were taken using standard methods. Results: Copeptin was significantly elevated in preeclampsia subjects compared with controls and in SP compared with MP. Assessing the diagnostic property of copeptin for preeclampsia, the area under the curve for copeptin was 0.99. Nine (30% and 3 (10% of SP and MP, respectively had abruptio placenta while 6 (20%, 2 (6.7%, and 1 (3.3% still births were recorded in SP, MP, and controls, respectively. Neonates of mothers with preeclampsia had significantly lower birth weight, infant length, ponderal index, and head circumference compared with neonates of the controls. Copeptin had a significant inverse relationship with birth weight, ponderal index, head circumference, Apgar score, and infant length in neonates of mothers with preeclampsia. Conclusion: Serum copeptin level in the third trimester could predict preeclampsia and its elevation is associated with adverse perinatal outcome.

  3. Serum albumin: touchstone or totem?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Margarson, M P; Soni, N

    1998-08-01

    A decrease in serum albumin concentrations is an almost inevitable finding in disease states, and is primarily mediated in the acute phase by alterations in vascular permeability and redistribution. This change is not disease specific but marked changes that persist are generally associated with a poorer prognosis. Critical appraisal of long-standing practices and the availability of alternative colloid solutions have led to a reduction in albumin replacement therapy, and a widespread tolerance of lower albumin concentrations in patients. The factors determining serum albumin concentrations, their measurement and the implications of hypoalbuminaemia are reviewed. The clinical value of serum albumin measurement is discussed.

  4. Autologous serum for anterior tissue necrosis after porous orbital implant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saurabh Kamal

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Orbital implants are now routinely used after enucleation and evisceration. However exposure of the implant can lead to infection and extrusion. Hence, early repair of larger exposure with graft material is required. We describe three cases where early postoperative mucosal dehiscence was successfully managed with autologous serum.

  5. Contrast Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Physician Resources Professions Site Index A-Z Contrast Materials What are contrast materials and how do they ... material? Pregnancy and contrast materials What are contrast materials and how do they work? Contrast materials, also ...

  6. Simple and Rapid Quantification of Total Carotenoids in Lyophilized Apricots (Prunus armeniaca L. by Means of Reflectance Colorimetry and Photoacoustic Spectroscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gitta Ficzek

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Photoacoustic spectroscopy (PAS and reflectance colorimetry are suggested as new tools for the analysis of total carotenoids in lyophilized apricot powders. The data obtained by these two techniques from seven apricot cultivars were compared to those acquired by spectrophotometry and high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC. Best correlations were found between the total carotenoid (TC content (obtained by VIS spectrophotometry: 1.2–3.4 mg per 100 g of fresh mass and colorimetric index a* (a* represents the redness of the investigated sample, as well as either argon-ion laser- or xenon-lamp-based PAS. In all three cases linear correlations were comparable. However, according to the sensitivity and precision data, expressed via limit of detection (LOD and measurement repeatability, the Xe-lamp-based PAS is a preferred approach, followed by colorimetric index a* and Ar-ion laser PAS. Both PAS methods exhibit practically the same Pearson's correlation coefficient (R=0.987 and R=0.991 values. Nevertheless, residual sum of squares (RSS and residual standard deviation of the linear regression (sy/x differ markedly. For Xe-lamp-based PAS these parameters were much lower than in the case of Ar-ion laser PAS. Likewise, analysis imprecision amounted to relative standard deviation (RSD of 1–3 % for Xe-lamp PAS and 2–6 % for Ar-ion laser PAS. On the other hand, as expected, the calibration sensitivity achieved for the PAS signal induced by an Ar-ion laser at 481 nm was substantially higher than that of a Xe-lamp at 470 nm. Nevertheless, according to much lower sy/x, the corresponding LOD for Xe-lamp PAS was still two times lower than that of Ar-ion-based laser PAS (0.59 vs. 1.10 mg per 100 g. Unlike this, Ar-ion laser PAS showed more favourable instrumental precision and standard error of the weighed mean when compared to the Xe-lamp PAS (0.1–0.6 and 0.1–0.3 % vs. 0.5–8.0 and 0.4–1.7 %, respectively. As far as colorimetric indices are

  7. 肌萎灵冻干粉对运动神经元的保护作用%Protective effects of Jiweiling lyophilized powder on the motor neurons

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张秋艳; 王玲玲; 张东蛟; 王宏涛; 张会欣; 刘克剑; 崔庆飞; 宋剑; 赵韶华

    2011-01-01

    目的 观察肌萎灵冻干粉对大鼠脊髓损伤后的神经保护作用,并研究其对谷氨酸诱导的原代神经细胞凋亡的影响.方法 以质量30 g静态压迫硬膜外脊髓10 min建立大鼠脊髓损伤模型,于术后第1天、7天、14天进行各实验组神经功能评价,并观察损伤处脊髓形态学改变;建立低浓度谷氨酸诱导原代神经细胞的兴奋性毒性损伤模型,MTT法检测细胞活力,流式细胞仪检测细胞凋亡率,Western检测Bcl-2、Bax蛋白表达变化.结果 (1)肌萎灵冻干粉可明显提高脊髓损伤大鼠各时间段的BBB评分,改善后肢运动功能,减轻脊髓神经元水肿.(2)肌萎灵冻干粉可增强谷氨酸损伤后的神经细胞活力,缓解神经细胞损伤.(3)肌萎灵冻干粉能显著减少谷氨酸诱导的神经细胞凋亡.(4)肌萎灵冻干粉可不同程度的上调Bcl-2蛋白表达,下调Bax蛋白表达.结论 肌萎灵冻干粉可促进脊髓损伤大鼠后肢运动功能恢复,增强神经细胞活力,抑制谷氨酸诱导的神经细胞凋亡,调节凋亡相关蛋白表达,具有一定的神经保护作用.%Objective To observe the protective effects of Jiweiling lyophilized powder ( JWLF ) on the neuron of spinal cord injury ( SCI ) rats, and the influence on primary neuron apoptosis induced by glutamate in vitro, also explore the molecular mechanism of JWLF on the motor neuron disease ( MND ). Methods The SCI model of rats were developed with static compressive pressure of 30 g on the spinal epidural for 10 min, the neuron function was evaluated at 1 d,7 d and 14 d after the surgery and the morphologic changes of the damaged spinal were determined. The primary cortical neuron was damaged by glutamate at low concentration, then measure the viability and the expression of Bcl-2,Bax with methods of MTT, flow cytometry and Western blot. Results ( 1 )JWLF could obviously improve BBB rating score on SCI rats at different time and release the edema of spinal neurons. ( 2

  8. Second Trimester Maternal Serum Screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: Was this page helpful? Also known as: AFP Maternal; Maternal Serum AFP; MSAFP; msAFP; Triple Screen; Triple Test; Quad Screen; ... Free Fetal DNA Were you looking instead for AFP tumor markers , used to help diagnose and monitor ...

  9. SERUM LIPIDS IN ANXIETY NEUROSIS

    OpenAIRE

    Mishra, T.K.; Shankar, R.; Sharma, I.; Srivastava, P. K.

    1984-01-01

    SUMMARY Serum cholesterol, total triglycerides, HDL-cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol, VLDL-cholesterol, free cholesterol and total phospholipids were studied in 36 patients of anxiety neurosis and 24 control subjects. Serum triglycerides, VLDL-cholesterol and free-cholesterol were found to be significantly raised while esterified cholesterol WJS significantly lowered in anxiety neurosis. A significant negative correlation was observed between the anxiety score and free cholesterol in ferrule pati...

  10. Serum Iron, Haemoglobin and Serum Lipid Peroxidation in Neonates with Respiratory Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sushama P. Dhonde

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Respiratory disorders are the most common cause for higher morbidity and mortality rate in India. Higher oxygen concentration of extrauterine existence causes increased erythrocyte lysis lead to release of iron in neonates. Iron is known to catalyze the formation of Reactive oxygen species. Involvement of hemoglobin and iron in oxygen-mediated reactions stimulate us to study the role of these in neonates.Objectives :iTo estimate the concentration of Haemoglobin, serum iron, serum lipid peroxidation in neonates with respiratory disorders; and compare those with that of healthy controls. iiTo study the role of these parameters in neonates with respiratory disorders.Materials and Methods: Present study includes 50 neonates suffering from respiratory disorders and 50 healthy neonates as controls. Samples collected from these were used for the estimation of haemoglobin, serum iron, and serum lipid peroxidation.Observations: Significantly (p<0.001 increased levels of serum iron and lipid peroxidation were observed in neonates with respiratory disorders when compared those with control values. These levels were found significantly (p<0.001 higher in preterm than full-term neonates. Concentration of haemoglobin showed no significant difference in both groups.Conclusion: Exacerbation of oxidative stress in neonates with respiratory disorders may be due to hypoxia induced free radical generation, higher oxidative tendency of HbF and elevated iron. Premature neonates are probably unprepared for extra uterine life in an oxygen rich environment and due to this they are more prone to oxidative insult. Thus this study reveals the pro-oxidant role of HbF and iron, which enhances the oxidative stress in respiratory disorder.

  11. Within-person variation in serum lipids: implications for clinical trials

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pereira, M.A.; Weggemans, R.M.; Jacobs, D.R.; Hannan, P.J.; Zock, P.L.; Ordovas, J.M.; Katan, M.B.

    2004-01-01

    Background Little is known about the degree to which behavioural, biological, and genetic traits contribute to within-person variation in serum cholesterol. Materials and Methods The authors studied within-person variation in serum total and high density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol in 458 particip

  12. Within-person variation in serum lipids: implications for clinical trials

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pereira, M.A.; Weggemans, R.M.; Jacobs, D.R.; Hannan, P.J.; Zock, P.L.; Ordovas, J.M.; Katan, M.B.

    2004-01-01

    Background Little is known about the degree to which behavioural, biological, and genetic traits contribute to within-person variation in serum cholesterol. Materials and Methods The authors studied within-person variation in serum total and high density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol in 458 particip

  13. 注射用丹参粉针剂治疗溃疡性结肠炎患者出凝血时影响%Effect of Danshen Lyophilized Powder for Injection on Thromboxane Function of Ulcerative Colitis Patients

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘伟; 刘允; 张春阳; 张雪; 何磊; 李露

    2011-01-01

    Objective : To observe the therapeutic efficacy of Danshen Lyophilized Powder for injection on uicerative Colitis Patients and the effect on thromboxane function. Methods; The patients were classified into two groups. One group ( control group) were recievecd the conventional therapy, Danshen Lyophilized Powder for Injection was used as the basis of the conventional therapy on the other group ( treatment group). After being treated, the therapeutic efficacy was observed and the thromboxane function was detected. Results -.The effective power of treatment group was 95. 69% and the effective power of control group was 82. 05% , The difference between them was significant (P <0.05). The levels of PT, APTT,Fbg,PLT between them were significant too(f <0.05). Conclusion;Danshen Lyophilized Powder for Injection can increase the therapeutic efficacy of uicerative colitis patients and improve the hypercoagulabale state.%目地:观察注射用丹参对溃疡性结肠炎的疗效及对出凝血时的影响.方法:符合纳入标准的患者被随机分到注射用丹参治疗组和西药常规治疗组.治疗结束后,观察两组治疗效果,测定治疗前后患者出凝血时(PT、APTT、Fbg)及血小板(PLT)水平.结果:丹参治疗组有效率为95.69%,对照组为82.05%,两者比较差异具有统计学差异(P<0.05);两组治疗前后PT、APTT、Fbg、PLT水平差异均有统计学差异(P<0.05),并且丹参治疗组改善效果更明显(P<0.05).结论:联合应用注射用丹参能提高溃疡性结肠炎疗效,并能改善患者高凝状态.

  14. 注射用益气复脉(冻干)与果糖注射液的配伍稳定性考察%Compatible stability of Yiqi Fumai lyophilized injection with fructose injection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吕芳; 叶正良; 李德坤; 刘君动; 杨悦武; 周大铮

    2013-01-01

    [Objective] To investigate the compatible stability of Yiqi Fumai lyophilized injection with fructose injection at room temperature(25± 1)℃. [Methods] At room temperature(25±l)℃, 8 bottles of Yiqi Fumai lyophilized injection were added into 250 mL fructose injection. The appearance and color, pH value of mixture, insoluble particle, the ultraviolet wavelength scanning mapping, saponins in 6 h were observed. The content of ginsenosides and schisandrin was determined by HPLC, and the fingerprint of ginsenosides and lignans was investigated. [Results] At room temperature(25±l)℃, there were no changes in appearance, color, pH value, insoluble particle, the ultraviolet wavelength scanning graph, the content of saponins and schisandrin, the fingerprint of ginsenosides and lignans of mixture within 0~6 h. [Conclusion] At room temperature (25±1)℃, the compatibility of Yiqi Fumai lyophilized injection with fructose injection is stable within 6 h.%[目的]考察注射用益气复脉(冻干)在室温(25±1)℃下与果糖注射液配伍的稳定性.[方法]模拟临床用药浓度,将注射用益气复脉(冻干)8瓶,分别用注射用水溶解后转注入5%果糖注射液250 mL中,混合均匀后,在室温(25±1)℃下考察6h内配伍液的色泽、澄清度、pH值、不溶性微粒、紫外全波长扫描图谱、总皂苷变化情况,并采用高效液相色谱法测定皂苷及五味子醇甲的含量,同时考察皂苷及木脂素的指纹图谱变化情况.[结果]在室温(25±1)℃下,0~6 h配伍液的色泽、性状、pH值、不溶性微粒、紫外全波长扫描图谱、皂苷、五味子醇甲含量、皂苷及木脂素指纹图谱均无明显变化.[结论]注射用益气复脉(冻干)与果糖注射液配伍,在室温(25±1)℃下6h内配伍稳定.

  15. 添加精氨酸的多西他赛聚合物胶束冻干粉的制备%Lyophilized Formulations of Docetaxel Loaded Polymeric Micelles Containing Arginine as a Stabilizing Agent

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郦江平; 吴仁荣; 徐晓枫; 涂家生

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the stability and physicochemieal properties of the dispersed docetaxel lyophilized polymeric micelle formulations containing arginine as a stabilizing agent. Methods: Arginine containing (experimental group) and arginine free (control group) lyophilized formulations were respectively prepared using monomethoxy poly (ethylene glycol)-block-poly (D,L-lactide) (mPEG-PLA) as a carrier by evaporation and hot melt method. We explored the stability of the micelle solution by monitoring micelle size and content of docetaxel over time at room temperature. The entrapment efficiency and drug content were characterized by HPLC. The morphology, diameter, size distribution and zeta potential of the micelles were characterized by atomic force microscopy (AFM), dynamic light scattering (DIS) and zeta potential analyzer, respectively. The in vitro release behavior of docetaxel from polymeric micelles was investigated using dialysis method. Results: The dispersed docetaxel lyophilized polymeric micelle solution remained stable at room temperature over 12 hours. Conclusion: The incorporation of arginine improves the stability of docetaxel loaded polymeric micelle.%目的:考察以精氨酸作为稳定剂的多西他赛嵌段聚合物胶束冻干粉的复溶稳定性与理化性质.方法:以聚乙二醇单甲醚-聚乳酸嵌段共聚物(mPEG-PLA)为载体制备多西他赛胶束冻干粉对照组制剂与实验组制剂(含精氨酸).通过动态光散射法(DLS)与高效液相色谱法(HPLC)测定了制剂复溶后胶束粒径与多西他赛含量随时间的变化.分别使用(HPLC)、原子力显微镜、动态光散射法和Zeta电位分析仪对包封率、胶束形态、粒径与分布、Zeta电位和pH进行了表征;采用透析法考察了载药聚合物胶束的体外释放.结果:室温条件下实验组制剂复溶后胶束溶液在考察的12h内保持稳定.结论:精氨酸的加入使实验组制剂稳定得到极大提高.

  16. The Effect Observation of Spleen Amino Peptide Oral Lyophilized Powder in the Treatment of Infantile Anorexia%脾胺肽口服冻干粉治疗小儿厌食疗效观察

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    叶国静

    2014-01-01

    Objective To investigate the effect of Spleen Aminopeptide Oral Lyophilized Powder in the treatment of infantile ano-rexia. Methods 85 cases with infantile anorexia were randomly selected from June 2011 to June 2013 and were divided into two groups. The observation group (45 cases) was treated with Spleen Aminopeptide Oral Lyophilized Powder, while the control group (40 cases) was given regular treatment. Clinical curative effect and the change of blood trace elements before and after treatment were com-pared between the two groups. Results The total clinical effectiveness was 95.56% in the observation group, significantly higher than that of the control group (72.5%), and there was statistical significance (P0.05). Conclusion Spleen Aminopeptide Oral Lyophilized Powder has good effect in the treatment of infantile anorexia, and the patients' symptoms and trace ele-ments level have improved obviously. It is worthwhile to be widely applied clinically.%目的探讨脾胺肽口服冻干粉治疗小儿厌食症的疗效。方法随机选择我院2011年6月至2013年6月85例非器质性小儿厌食症患儿,随机分两组,观察组45例给予脾胺肽口服冻干粉治疗,对照组40例给予常规治疗,比较两组患儿临床疗效和治疗前、后血微量元素的变化。结果观察组临床治疗总有效率95.56%,显著高于对照组(72.5%),差异有统计学意义(P0.05)。结论脾胺肽口服冻干粉治疗非器质性小儿厌食症的疗效显著,患者症状和微量元素水平明显改善,值得临床推广使用。

  17. 阿克拉霉素A聚乳酸毫微粒冻干针剂在兔体内的血浆药动学研究%Study on Pharmacokinetics of Aclacinomycin A Polylactide Lyophilized Nanoparticle in Plasma of Rabbit

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何林; 蒋学华

    2001-01-01

    OBJECTIVE:To study the pharmacokinetics of aclacinomycin A polylactide lyophilized nanopartical (ACM-A-PLA-NP) in plasma of rabbit.METHODS:HPLC was selected to determine the concentration of aclacinomycin A in plasma after a single dose of ACM-A-PLA-NP and lyophilized ACM-A.RESULTS:The pharmacokinetic parameters of these two dosage forms were obtained by 3p87.CONCLUSION:The lyophilized ACM-A-PLA-NP has a more sustained release character comparing with the lyophilized ACM-A.%目的:研究阿克拉霉素A聚乳酸毫微粒冻干针剂在兔体内的血浆药代动力学。方法:采用HPLC法测定给药后的血浆药物浓度。结果:经3p87药动学程序处理,得到两种制剂的药代动力学参数。结论:与阿克拉霉素A相比,阿克拉霉素A聚乳酸毫微粒具有显著的缓释特性。

  18. Evaluating of Serum Adenosine Deaminase Isoenzymes in Lung Contusion

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

          Aim: We aimed to investigate the activity of ADA isoenzymes in serum of rats with lung contusion Material and Method: Lung contusion was induced in twelve male wistar albino rats by dropping a cylindrical weight from a height of 50 cm with a mobile platform positioned over the thorax. Rats were killed at 24 hour (n=6) and 72 hour (n=6) after contusion. ADA isoenzymes were measured in serum traumatic and control (n=6) (uninjured) rats. Results: Our results indica...

  19. Optimization of the production process of a lyophilized formulation for radiopharmaceutical obtaining {sup 99m}Tc-EDDA/HYNIC-E-[c(RGDfK)]{sub 2}; Optimizacion del proceso de fabricacion de una formulacion liofilizada para la obtencion del radiofarmaco {sup 99m}Tc-EDDA/HYNIC-E-[c(RGDfK)]{sub 2}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanchez R, S.

    2013-07-01

    In this work was optimized the production process of a lyophilized pharmaceutical formulation for the preparation of radiopharmaceutical {sup 99m}Tc-EDDA/HYNIC-E-[c(RGDfK)]{sub 2}, the union specifies to the integrin s α{sub v}β{sub 3} was demonstrated to be used in the nuclear medicine cabinets in the obtaining of scan images for the opportune detection of breast cancer. The good lyophilized pharmaceutical formulation for the preparation of radiopharmaceutical {sup 99m}Tc-EDDA/HYNIC-E-[c(RGDfK)]{sub 2} was established like: HYNIC-E-[c(RGDfK)]{sub 2} - 25 μg; Stannous chloride (SnCl{sub 2}) 20 μg; Ethylenediamine diacetic acid (EDDA) 10 mg; N-tris(hydroxymethyl)methyl glycin (Tricine) 20 mg; Mannitol 50 mg. The results of radiochemical purity of the sterile formulation and free of bacterial endotoxins for the three validation lots prepared under protocols of good manufacturing practices were 97.62 ± 1.48%, 96.54 ± 1.89%, and 97.66 ± 0.57%, for what the production procedure complies the predefined specifications. The radiopharmaceutical {sup 99m}Tc-EDDA/HYNIC-E-[c(RGDfK)]2 prepared from the lyophilized pharmaceutical formulation showed to be stable during a period 24 hours, for what can be used in the centers of molecular nuclear medicine. Images in vivo were obtained of the integrin s over-expression α{sub v}β{sub 3} from the radiopharmaceutical {sup 99m}Tc-EDDA/HYNIC-E-[c(RGDfK)]2 obtained of the lyophilized and optimized pharmaceutical formulation. The lyophilized pharmaceutical formulation (HYNIC-RGD-Sn) showed stability during 12 months, due to this factor, is requested before the COFEPRIS the radiopharmaceutical expiration for this same period (accession number 123300401A0155). (Author)

  20. [The experience with the application of a lyophilized xenodermograft for the treatment of the patients suffering from frequently recurring inflammation of the maxillary sinus in combination with alveolar fistula].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skakun, L N; Tsimbaliuk, A V

    2015-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to summarize the data of the special literature concerning methods of the surgical treatment of odontogenic maxillary sinusitis complicated by the alveolar fistula with the purpose of using them for the improvement of the effectiveness of the treatment of the patients presenting with this pathology. The study group was comprised of 39 patients with odontogenic diseases of paranasal sinuses and alveolar fistulas. The alveolar fistulas were closed in 20 patients by means of plastic surgery with the use of a lyophilized xenodermograft prepared from the pig's skin. Not a single case of relapse of the inflammatory process in the maxillary sinuseswas documented within one year after the treatment by means of the closure of the alveolar fistula using the lyophilizedxenodermografts.

  1. Determination of β-Elemene in Lyophilized Powder for Injection of β-Elemene-Polybutylcyanoacrylate Nanoparticles by HPLC%HPLC测定β-榄香烯冻干针剂中主药的含量

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    袁子民; 赵琳; 王静; 程岚

    2012-01-01

    Objective; To develop a HPLC method for the, simultaneous determination of β-elemene in lyophilized powder for injection of β-elemene-polybutylcyanoacrylate nanoparticles. Method: The analysis was performed on Diamonsil C18 (4.6 mm x 200 mm, 5 u,m). The mobile phase was MeOH-water (95: 5) , The wavelength of the detector was set at 210 nm. Result; β-Elemene presented a good linear correlation in range of 0. 224-1. 792 μg (r = 0. 999 6). The average recovery was 97. 0% ( RSD 1.3%). Conclusion: The method is simple, rapid and accurate, and suitable for the quality control of lyophilized powder for injection of β-ELE-PBCA-NP.%目的:建立HPLC测定β-榄香烯纳米粒冻干针剂中主药含量的测定方法.方法:采用高效液相色谱法,以甲醇-水(95∶5)为流动相,柱温室温,检测波长210 nm.结果:β-榄香烯在0.224 ~1.792 μg呈良好线性关系(r=0.999 6),平均加样回收率为97.0%,RSD为1.3%.结论:本法简便、灵敏、准确、重复性好,可用于β-榄香烯纳米粒冻干针剂中β-榄香烯的含量测定.

  2. Effect of lyophilized lactobacilli and 0.03 mg estriol (Gynoflor®) on vaginitis and vaginosis with disrupted vaginal microflora: a multicenter, randomized, single-blind, active-controlled pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donders, G G G; Van Bulck, B; Van de Walle, P; Kaiser, R R; Pohlig, G; Gonser, S; Graf, F

    2010-01-01

    To evaluate the efficacy of lyophilized lactobacilli in combination with 0.03 mg estriol when compared to metronidazole in the treatment of bacterial vaginal infections. Multicenter, randomized, single-blind, active-controlled pilot study in 3 independent gynecological practices in Belgium. Forty-six, 18- to 50-year-old premenopausal women with a disrupted vaginal flora due to a bacterial vaginal infection (bacterial vaginosis, aerobic vaginitis) were included, provided that fresh phase-contrast microscopy of the vaginal fluid showed lactobacillary flora grade 2B or 3. Patients were given a blinded box with either 12 vaginal tablets of Gynoflor® (study medication) or 6 vaginal suppositories containing 500 mg metronidazole (control medication). Eight efficacy variables were studied to assess the status of the vaginal flora at entry, 3-7 days (control 1), 4-6 (control 2) weeks and 4 months after the end of therapy. At control 1, the combined variables equally improved in the lactobacilli group as in the metronidazole group. At control 2, the lactobacillus preparation showed slightly inferior results when compared to metronidazole. At 4 months, this analysis could not be performed due to low numbers, but analysis of recurrence rate and extra medication needed was not different between both groups. Lyophilized lactobacilli in combination with low-dose estriol are equivalent to metronidazole in the short-term treatment of bacterial vaginal infections, but have less effect after 1 month. Further studies are required to evaluate the long-term efficacy of lactobacilli when applied repeatedly. Copyright © 2010 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  3. Study of the role of serum folic acid in atopic dermatitis: A correlation with serum IgE and disease severity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maha A Shaheen

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background : Most atopic dermatitis (AD patients have elevated serum immunoglobulin E (IgE. Impaired folic acid (FA metabolism was found to reduce the intracellular methyl donor pool, associated with a higher prevalence of atopy. Aim : To assess serum IgE and FA in AD patients and to correlate their levels with the disease severity, and with each other. Materials and Methods : Twenty patients with AD were assessed for serum FA and IgE, compared with 20 age- and sex-matched controls. Patients were classified into three groups (mild, moderate, and severe AD based on clinical severity according to Nottingham index. In both patients and controls, serum IgE was measured using Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay technique and serum FA was measured using Microparticle Enzyme Immunoassay technique. Results : Serum FA levels were lower in AD patients compared with controls, but the difference was not statistically significant. FA levels did not show statistically significant difference among disease severity groups and did not correlate with serum IgE levels. On the other hand, serum IgE levels were significantly elevated in AD patients compared with controls, and among AD patients, its levels were significantly elevated in severe AD compared with mild and moderate disease. Conclusion : Serum IgE is useful in assessment of AD severity and activity. FA contribution to AD needs further investigations.

  4. Variations of serum copper values in pregnancy

    OpenAIRE

    Vukelić Jelka; Kapamadžija Aleksandra; Petrović Đorđe; Grujić Zorica; Novakov-Mikić Aleksandra; Kopitović Vesna; Bjelica Artur

    2012-01-01

    Introduction. Copper is essential micronutrient and has an important role in the human body. The serum copper increases during pregnancy and is doubled at full term. Lower levels of serum copper in pregnancy are connected with some pathological conditions. Objective. The aim of this study was to estimate the levels of serum copper in normal and pathological pregnancies, comparing them with values of serum copper in non-pregnant women, to determine if serum copper is lower in some pathol...

  5. Blood serum mercury test report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandenberge, J; Moodie, A S; Keller, R E

    1977-06-01

    A clinical blood serum mercury test of 111 dentists and auxiliaries revelaed that more than 50% had above normal serum mercury levels. This study showed that there may be a mercury health hazard in some dental environments. Acute mercury poisoning may be corrected simply by removing the cause, but long-term chronic effects are not known. Frequent screening of offices and personnel is advised. Experience reported here indicates that large amounts of mercury vapor are emitted when an amalgam carrier is heated over a flame ot dislodge particles, and also, that water-covered amalgam scrap relesases mercury vapor.

  6. Evaluating of Serum Adenosine Deaminase Isoenzymes in Lung Contusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Berrak Güven

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available       Aim: We aimed to investigate the activity of ADA isoenzymes in serum of rats with lung contusion Material and Method: Lung contusion was induced in twelve male wistar albino rats by dropping a cylindrical weight from a height of 50 cm with a mobile platform positioned over the thorax. Rats were killed at 24 hour (n=6 and 72 hour (n=6 after contusion. ADA isoenzymes were measured in serum traumatic and control (n=6 (uninjured rats. Results: Our results indicated that serum total ADA activities were significantly decreased at 72 h after contusion. There was a significant decreased in ADA1 activity at 24 and 72 h after contusion when compared with controls. On the other hand, the increase in the ADA2 activity at 24 h and 72 h was not statistically significant. Discussion: In conclusion, serum ADA2 became predominant isozyme because of the inflammatory response in the lung contusion. However, further studies are needed to elucidate the regulatory mechanisms that effect the activity of serum ADA1.

  7. Serum Electrolytes During Different Phases Of Menstrual Cycle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr. M. A. Lanje,

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Although the coordinated sequence of hormonal changes during the normal menstrual cycle are well characterized, whether similar or parallel changes occur in the distribution of various electrolytes has not been clearly established. Materials and methods: This corollary follow up study on 50 healthy normal menstruating females presents variation in serum calcium, magnesium, sodium and potassium during menstrual, follicular and luteal phases of menstrual cycle. Results: The study demonstrated that serum calcium levels were significantly (p < 0.001 higher in follicular phase than menstrual and luteal phases. Serum magnesium levels were significantly (p < 0.001 lower in follicular phase than menstrual and luteal phases. Serum sodium levels were significantly lower in luteal phase than the menstrual and follicular phases. Serum potassium levels were higher (non-significant in luteal phase than menstrual and follicular phases. Conclusion: The concurrence of these cyclical changes in these electrolytes supports the claim of many women that they suffer changes in fluid and electrolyte balance in the premenstrual days. Moreover, these changes may have significance in terms of the normal reference interval, hence necessitate small but significant lterations to the normal reference interval.

  8. Serum Iron and Ferritin Levels in Patients with Vitiligo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayşe Tülin Mansur

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Background and Design: In recent years, the role of oxidative stress in vitiligo has been widely investigated. Iron and ferritin have important roles in inflammation and oxidative reactions. However, up to date, there are very limited studies on iron metabolism in patients with vitiligo. In this study, we aimed to investigate serum iron and ferritin levels in patients with localized and generalized vitiligo in comparison with a control group.Material and Method: The study groups comprised 68 patients with vitiligo who did not receive systemic treatment or phototherapy in the preceding month, and 72 age- and sex-matched patients with skin disorders other than vitiligo including tinea pedis, melanocytic nevi, and keratoses. Blood samples for serum iron and ferritin levels were obtained before breakfast, after verbal informed consent.Results: No statistically significant differences were found between vitilligo patients and control population with regard to serum levels of iron and ferritin (p=0.478, p=0.307. Patients with localized and generalized vitiligo were also similar for these parameters (p=0.054, p=0.867. Moreover, serum levels of iron and ferritin did not show any significant correlation with disease duration (p=0.382, p=0.485. Conclusion: Our results showed that serum iron and ferritin levels were similar in patients with vitiligo and control subjects. Further studies determining the skin levels of iron and ferritin may elucidate the probable role of these molecules in vitiligo.

  9. Piezoelectric microcantilever serum protein detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capobianco, Joseph A.

    The development of a serum protein detector will provide opportunities for better screening of at-risk cancer patients, tighter surveillance of disease recurrence and better monitoring of treatment. An integrated system that can process clinical samples for a number of different types of biomarkers would be a useful tool in the early detection of cancer. Also, screening biomarkers such as antibodies in serum would provide clinicians with information regarding the patient's response to treatment. Therefore, the goal of this study is to develop a sensor which can be used for rapid, all-electrical, real-time, label-fee, in-situ, specific quantification of cancer markers, e.g., human epidermal receptor 2 (Her2) or antibodies, in serum. To achieve this end, piezoelectric microcantilever sensors (PEMS) were constructed using an 8 mum thick lead magnesium niobate-lead titanate (PMN-PT) freestanding film as the piezoelectric layer. The desired limit of detection is on the order of pg/mL. In order to achieve this goal the higher frequency lateral extension modes were used. Also, as the driving and sensing of the PEMS is electrical, the PEMS must be insulated in a manner that allows it to function in aqueous solutions. The insulation layer must also be compatible with standardized bioconjugation techniques. Finally, detection of both cancer antigens and antibodies in serum was carried out, and the results were compared to a standard commercialized protocol. PEMS have demonstrated the capability of detecting Her2 at a concentration of 5 pg/mL in diluted human serum (1:40) in less than 1 hour. The approach can be easily translated into the clinical setting because the sensitivity is more than sufficient for monitoring prognosis of breast cancer patients. In addition to Her2 detection, antibodies in serum were assayed in order to demonstrate the feasibility of monitoring the immune response for antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC) in patients on antibody therapies

  10. Preparation and preliminary characterization of lyophilized astragaloside Ⅳ- loaded nanostructured lipid carriers%黄芪甲苷纳米结构脂质载体冻干粉的制备及其初步质量评价

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈佳; 龚涛

    2011-01-01

    目的 制备黄芪甲苷纳米结构脂质载体(AST-NLC),初步研究其冻干工艺,并考察其理化性质.方法 采用薄膜-超声分散法制备AST-NLC;选用不同冻干保护剂制备AST-NLC冻干粉末,以外观、色泽、再分散性、粒径和PDI为综合指标,优选保护剂的种类和浓度,拟定冻干工艺;考察AST-NLC的形态和冻干前后的粒径分布、Zeta电位、包封率及载药量.结果 以10%的蔗糖作为冻干保护剂、-40℃超低温冰箱中预冻4h后,迅速放入冷冻干燥机中冷冻干燥24h,所得冻干粉末的外观、色泽、再分散性均较好;AST-NLC在透射电镜下呈球形;冻干前(后)的平均粒径为104.3±1.25 nm(144.1±17.08nn),PDI为0.118±0.033(0.132±0.055),Zeta电位为-7.00±0.35 mV(-11.2±0.9 mV),包封率为94.37%±0.39%(96.60%±0.45%),载药量为2.80%±0.02%(2.60%±0.05%).结论 所用AST-NLC的制备工艺简便,制得的AST-NLC包封率较高;采用优化后的冻干工艺可得到令人满意的AST-NLC冻干粉末.%OBJECTIVE To prepare and characterize the lyophilized Astragaloside IV -loaded nanostructured lipid carriers (AST -NLC). METHODS AST - NLC was prepared by film - ultrasound dispersion technique. The lyophilized AST - NLC were prepared using different supporting agent. The type and concentration of the supporting agents were optimized by the shape,color,redispersion, size and PDI of the lyophilized AST - NLC. The characteristics of AST - NLC, including shape, size, PDI, Zeta potential, entrapment efficiency( EE% ) and drug loading ( DL% ) , before and after freeze - drying were investigated. RESULTS Satisfied lyophilized AST - NLC could be prepared using 10% sucrose as the supporting agent. The freeze - drying process was as follow; pre - cooled at 40℃ for 4 h,freeze -drying for 24 h. AST - NLC presented a spherical shape under transmission elecctron microscopy(TEM). The characteristics before freeze - drying were as follows: average diameter

  11. Serum anti-Helicobacter pylori immunoglobulin G titer correlates with grade of histological gastritis, mucosal bacterial density, and levels of serum biomarkers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tu, Huakang; Sun, Liping; Dong, Xiao; Gong, Yuehua; Xu, Qian; Jing, Jingjing; Yuan, Yuan

    2014-03-01

    OBJECTIVE. Clinical implications of serum anti-Helicobacter pylori immunoglobulin G (IgG) titer were unclear. This study investigated the associations of serum anti-H. pylori IgG titer with grade of histological gastritis, mucosal bacterial density and levels of serum biomarkers, including pepsinogen (PG) I, PGII, PGI/II ratio and gastrin-17. MATERIAL AND METHODS. Study participants were from a screening program in northern China. Serum anti-H. pylori IgG measurements were available for 5922 patients with superficial gastritis. Serum anti-H. pylori IgG titer and serum biomarkers were measured using ELISA, and gastric biopsies were evaluated using standardized criteria. RESULTS. In patients with mild, moderate or severe superficial gastritis, the mean serum anti-H. pylori IgG titers were 17.3, 33.4 and 54.4 EIU (p for trend gastritis, mucosal bacterial density and concentrations of serum PGI, PGII and gastrin-17, and negatively with PGI/II ratio.

  12. Correlation of serum neutrophil gelatinase associated lipocalin with disease severity in hypertensive disorders of pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rekha Sachan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Vascular endothelial dysfunction is considered central to the pathogenesis of hypertensive disorders of pregnancy (HDP. Serum level of neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL is closely related to endothelial injury. The aim of this study was to examine the correlation of serum NGAL with disease severity in HDP. Materials and Methods: This prospective case-control study was carried out for one year. After informed consent, ethical clearance, total 1,850 pregnant women were screened. Analysis was performed on 142 cases of HDP and 31 healthy controls. Quantitative measurement of serum NGAL levels was done by the enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA technique, by using sandwich ELISA kit. Results: Mean serum NGAL value in patients with oliguria was significantly higher when compared with non-oliguric patients (P < 0.001. Serum NGAL had a positive correlation with systolic blood pressure (r ~ 0.5973, diastolic blood pressure (r ~ 0.6195, blood urea (r ~ 0.4392, serum creatinine (r ~ 0.6112, serum uric acid (r ~ 0.3878. Sensitivity and specificity of serum NGAL using a cut-off value of 545 pg/ml, for the diagnosis of HDP, was 97.89% and 93.55% respectively, using 95% confidence interval. Conclusion: Between the two groups, we found that serum NGAL had a positive correlation with disease severity and better sensitivity and specificity in the evaluation of HDP.

  13. The Effect of PRF on Serum Starved Human Dermal Fibroblast.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunardi Radiono

    2016-12-01

    Hasil: FDM yang berpuasa serum ternyata secara signifikan (p < 0,05 mengalami penurunan kemampuan menimbun kolagen sebesar 10%, proliferasi sebesar 20% dan penurunan kemampuan migrasi sebesar 25%. Penambahan lisat FKP ternyata dapat memulihkan aktivitas selular tersebut. Dari eksperimen ini dapat disimpulkan bahwa FKP merupakan material biologis yang dapat dikembangkan untuk memacu penyembuhan ulkus khronis. Bagaimanapun juga, untuk memperoleh bukti-bukti klinis yang baik, uji klinis tetap diperlukan.

  14. 冻干重组人脑利钠肽治疗充血性心力衰竭疗效观察%Clinical efficacy of lyophilized recombinant human brain natriuretic peptide in the treatment of patients with congestive heart failure

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    苏素缺; 郑朝霞; 代东艳; 王鹏

    2014-01-01

    目的 探讨冻干重组人脑利钠肽治疗充血性心力衰竭的临床疗效和安全性.方法 选择120例充血性心力衰竭患者,按照随机数字分组法分为两组,观察组58例患者采用冻干重组人脑利钠肽进行治疗,对照组62例患者采用硝普钠进行治疗,比较两组患者的临床疗效、超声心动图指标、血流动力学指标的变化情况以及不良反应的发生情况.结果 治疗后,观察组总有效率为91.37%,明显高于对照组(x2=4.23,P<0.05),观察组治疗后的LVEF、氨基末端脑钠肽前体水平分别为(59.0±8.2)%和(535.4±123.8) ng/L,其改善程度较对照组更为明显(P<0.05),两组不良反应的发生率基本相当(P>0.05).结论 冻干重组人脑利钠肽在治疗充血性心力衰竭具有十分显著的疗效,其安全可靠.%Objective To investigate the clinical efficacy and safety of lyophilized recombinant human brain natriuretic peptide(rhBNP) in the treatment of patients with congestive heart failure (CHF).Methods 120 CHF patients were randomly divided into two groups.58 cases in the observation group were given lyophilized rhBNP,and 62 patients in the control group were given sodium nitroprusside.The clinical effect,changes of echocardiographic indicators and hemodynamic parameters,adverse reactions were observed.Results After treatment,the total effective rate of the observation group was 91.37%,which was significantly higher than that of the control group(x2 =4.23,P < 0.05).The LVEF and NT-proBNP levels in observation group were (59.0 ± 8.2)% and (535.4 ± 123.8)ng/L,which had higher improvement than control group (P < 0.05).The incidence rate of adverse reactions between the two groups had no significant difference (P> 0.05).Conclusion Lyophilized rhBNP in the treatment of CHF has significant effect,and it is worthy of clinical application and promotion.

  15. Increased serum potassium affects renal outcomes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Miao, Y; Dobre, D; Heerspink, H J Lambers;

    2011-01-01

    To assess the effect of an angiotensin receptor blocker (ARB) on serum potassium and the effect of a serum potassium change on renal outcomes in patients with type 2 diabetes and nephropathy.......To assess the effect of an angiotensin receptor blocker (ARB) on serum potassium and the effect of a serum potassium change on renal outcomes in patients with type 2 diabetes and nephropathy....

  16. Serum ferritin levels in hospital patients

    OpenAIRE

    竹田, 芳弘; 平木, 祥夫; 森本,節夫; 戸上, 泉; 白神, 敏明; 白石,則之; 木本, 真; 上者,郁夫; 橋本, 啓二; 青野, 要

    1985-01-01

    Serum ferritin levels were determined in 75 hematologic, 1205 malignant, and 538 benign diseases. In hematologic diseases the serum ferritin level was generally low in iron deficiency anemia, but high in hemochromatosis, aplastic anemia, and leukemia. In malignant diseases the serum ferritin concentration was increased remarkably in lung, liver, biliary, and urogential diseases and in malignant lymphoma. Among benign diseases hepatitis cases showed a tendency for high serum ferritin levels. S...

  17. Serum ferritin levels in hospital patients

    OpenAIRE

    竹田,芳弘; 平木,祥夫; 森本, 節夫; 戸上, 泉; 白神, 敏明; 白石, 則之; 木本, 真; 上者, 郁夫; 橋本, 啓二; 青野,要

    1985-01-01

    Serum ferritin levels were determined in 75 hematologic, 1205 malignant, and 538 benign diseases. In hematologic diseases the serum ferritin level was generally low in iron deficiency anemia, but high in hemochromatosis, aplastic anemia, and leukemia. In malignant diseases the serum ferritin concentration was increased remarkably in lung, liver, biliary, and urogential diseases and in malignant lymphoma. Among benign diseases hepatitis cases showed a tendency for high serum ferritin levels. S...

  18. Label-Free Proteomics of Serum

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Govorukhina, N.I; Horvatovich, P.; Bischoff, Rainer

    2008-01-01

    In this chapter we describe a method to analyze human serum with the goal of discovering disease-related changes in the serum proteome. The methodology is based on the removal of the six most abundant serum proteins by immunoaffinity chromatography. This step is followed by trypsin digestion and

  19. Evaluation on Impact of Leakage of Lyophilizer on Sterility of Drugs%冻干机泄漏对药品无菌特性的影响评估

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王家新; 吕东娟

    2016-01-01

    目的:提供一种方法来评估由于冻干机泄漏而造成的产品无菌风险。方法:依据理想气体状态方程“pV=nRT”,结合冻干机泄漏率数值,计算泄漏测试过程中进入冻干机内的非无菌气体的体积,结合生产工艺监控参数来评估产品的无菌风险。结果:泄漏率分别为0.010 mbar.L/s和0.013 mbar.L/s时,泄漏的气体量分别为71.8465 mL和89.8081 mL,泄漏气体量的差异为17.9616 mL。结论:该批产品的无菌保证值能够得到充分满足,产品放行数据充分。%ABSTRACTObjective:To provide a method for evaluation on impact of leakage of lyophilizer on sterility of drugs. Methods:The volume of non-sterile gas entering the lyophilizer during leakage test was calculated according to the equation pV=nRT combined with the leakage rate,based on which the sterility risk of product was evaluated in combination with the monitoring paramaters of production process.Results:When the leakage rates were 0.010 and 0.013 mbar.L/s,the volumes of unsterile leaked gas were 71.846 5 and 89.808 1 mL,respectively,between which the difference was 17.961 6 mL.Conclusion:This batch of drug completely met the requirement for SAL value,of which the data for product release was sufficient.

  20. 四逆散冻干粉对剥夺睡眠果蝇的睡眠影响%The effection of Lyophilized Powder of Sinisan on sleep Duration in Sleep Deprived Drosophila

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李玉萍; 徐瑞鑫; 李廷利; 张茹

    2011-01-01

    近年来国内外科学家将果蝇作为一种模式生物进行睡眠研究,希望能够通过对这种相对简单的生物的睡眠过程的研究,加速人类对睡眠认识的进程.本实验观察四逆散冻干粉对睡眠剥夺模型果蝇的睡眠改善作用.采用光照刺激剥夺睡眠和机械刺激剥夺睡眠两种方法复制果蝇睡眠剥夺模型,利用果蝇DAMS监测器和数据采集自动记录系统评价,以果蝇24 h累积睡眠时间为观察指标,观察各组果蝇睡眠时间.结果显示,与空白组比较,睡眠剥夺组果蝇睡眠时间明显减少,具有显著性差异(P<0.05),说明果蝇睡眠剥夺模型造模成功;与睡眠剥夺模型组比较,给药组果蝇睡眠时间明显延长,具有极显著性差异(P<0.01),说明四逆散冻干粉对两种睡眠剥夺模型果蝇睡眠均有一定的改善作用.%In recent years, Drosophila is a model organism for sleep by domestic and foreign scientists, to further understand human sleep, through this relatively simple biological processes of sleep. The experimental observation of Lyophilized Powder of Sinisan on sleep deprivation ( SD ) improve Drosophila Sleep Time. SD by light stimulation and mechanical stimulation are two ways to copy models, using DAMS monitors and data acquisition system to evaluate flies 24 h accumulated sleep time, it was observed to result in each group. The results show that compared with the control group,SD group flies sleep time was significantly reduced, with significant difference ( P < 0. 05 ), this result indicates Drosophila SD model was successful, and compared with SD group, treatment group was significantly longer sleep time, with highly significant difference ( P < 0. 01 ), this result indicates Lyophilized Powder of Sinisan on SD improve Drosophila Sleep Time.

  1. Development of lyophilized kit of Tin-Glucoheptonate for in vitro labeling of leucocytes with {sup 99m}Tc; Desenvolvimento de reagente liofilizado de glucoheptonato-estanho para marcacao de leucocitos com Tecnecio-99m in vitro

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nascimento, Rosemeire Fagundes

    2007-07-01

    The study and localization of inflammatory and infection process in Nuclear Medicine represents a relevant tool in diagnostic procedures. In same cases, the diagnostic is easy and based on anamnesis and clinical observation; in other cases, the patients are asymptomatic or present non specific symptoms that difficult the diagnostic. The early diagnostic of inflammatory or infectious process allow the early introduction of therapy and prevents complications. Farther, the differentiation between inflammation and infection is of extreme importance as well as the localization of the focus. The use of labeled leucocytes, studied and applied in much pathologies, is the method of choice for the visualization of inflammation and infection. The scintigraphy using labeled leucocytes was introduced at 1976 by McAffe and Thakur and since of this is used in the diagnostic of different pathologies related to leucocyte infiltration like intestinal inflammatory disease, bone or prosthetic-vascular infections. The in vitro labeling of leucocytes with {sup 111}In was performed using oxime or tropolone as ligand and with {sup 99m}Tc using hexamethylpropylene amine oxime (HMPAO) as ligand, resulting in a lipophilic complex. The {sup 99m}Tc-HMPAG complex was preferably employed in many indications and countries do to the ideal physical properties of {sup 99m}Tc that results in low dose to the patient. However, the labeling employing the HMPAO complex results in some disadvantages like the low stability of the complex, and some requirements related to the {sup 99m}Tc elution (like the time pos elution), beyond the high cost of the compound that is imported. The aim of this work was the development of a tin-glucoheptonate lyophilized kit for in vitro leucocytes labeling with {sup 99m}Tc using the pre-stannization method. The optimization of the labeling technique was developed using leucocytes isolated from total blood and employing different volumes of the tinglucoheptonate reagent and

  2. Electrode materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amine, Khalil; Abouimrane, Ali; Belharouak, Ilias

    2017-01-31

    A process for forming a surface-treatment layer on an electroactive material includes heating the electroactive material and exposing the electroactive material to a reducing gas to form a surface-treatment layer on the electroactive material, where the surface-treatment layer is a layer of partial reduction of the electroactive material.

  3. SERUM AMYLASE: AN EARLY MARKER OF RENAL DAMAGE IN HYPERTENSION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rangaswamy

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available : INTRODUCTION: Hypertension is one of the risk factors for cardiovascular disease and causes progressive damage to kidney in a long term process. Hypertension impairs glomerular function and also leads to subclinical atherogenesis, there is a excretion of low molecular weight compounds like albumin and amylase in urine. This study was conducted to analyze the changes in amylase levels in hypertension. MATERIAL AND METHODS: This is a hospital based study. The patients attending the medicine department were selected for the study. 60 subjects were selected based on history and clinical examination consisting of 30 hypertensive patients and 30 normotensive subjects in the age group 35-60 years. Blood samples collected in vacutainers were analyzed in the clinical biochemistry laboratory. Serum samples were analyzed for total protein, albumin and amylase. RESULT: The study showed a statistically significant change in the levels of serum albumin and amylase. The level of serum albumin was 3.71 ± 0.22 g/dl in cases while it was 4.14 ± 0.20 g/dl in controls. The serum amylase levels were 99.79 ±13.63 U/L in cases while it was 137.76 ± 16.86 U/L in the control. The p-value was 0.0001 which was statistically significant. CONCLUSION: The initial damage to glomerulus can be detected by the alteration in serum amylase values in hypertension. Thus serum amylase can be considered as an early marker for detecting the renal damage in hypertension

  4. Serum cortisol and testosterone levels in idiopathic central serous chorioretinopathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zakir Shaik

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Context : The preferential occurrence of idiopathic central serous chorioretinopathy (ICSC in males with a typical Type A personality and behavior and a relative absence in females is a possible indicator towards the role of serum cortisol and /or the male sex hormone testosterone. Aims : To study levels of cortisol and testosterone in ICSC. Settings and Design : Case-control study in a tertiary care teaching hospital. Materials and Methods : The study was conducted on 23 cases of ICSC. Twelve patients with unilateral sudden painless loss of vision of less than one month duration served as controls. Serum cortisol and testosterone levels at 8.00 a.m. were estimated by radioimmunoassay in both groups. Statistical analysis used : Statistical analysis was done using SPSS 13.0 software. Independent Sample t-test was applied to analyze statistical significance between the two groups. Results : Mean age of patients with ICSC was 37.1 ± 9.7 years and 96% of the patients were males. Mean serum cortisol levels were significantly higher (P=0.002 in patients with ICSC i.e., 495.02 ± 169.47 nano moles/liter (nmol/L as compared to controls i.e., 362.25 ± 51.54 nmol/L. Mean serum testosterone levels were 3.85 ± 1.81 nano grams/ml (ngm/ml and 4.23 ± 1.89 ngm/ml in cases and controls respectively and the difference was not statistically significant (P=0.58. Conclusions : ICSC is associated with elevated 8.00 a.m. serum cortisol levels. However, mean serum testosterone levels in both patients of ICSC and controls were within normal range.

  5. Assessment of serum L-fucose in brain tumor cases

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    Manjula S

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Glycosylation of altered tumor cell in relation to cellular heterogeneity in human intracranial tumors remains relatively unexposed. Serum protein-bound carbohydrate, L-Fucose is reported to be overexpressed during tumor progression by many investigators. Therefore, there is a need to determine the diagnostic, prognostic, functional significance of glycoprotein elevations in various cases of tumors. Objective: The objective of the present study was to evaluate the clinical utility of serum L-fucose in patients with brain tumor. Materials and Methods: Serum glyco-conjugate levels were estimated in 99 patients with brain tumors. Estimation of L-fucose was carried out colorimetrically by the method of Winzler using cysteine hydrochloride. Results: There was a significant increase in L-fucose level in most of the patients. In the posttreatment cases, the L-fucose levels were apparently low compared to preoperative values. Conclusion: Our results showed that the rise in serum L-fucose may be used as a general marker for brain tumors in addition to other markers.

  6. Serum Vitamin D in patients with alopecia areata

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    Ola Ahmed Bakry

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Alopecia areata (AA is a common, recurrent, autoimmune hair disorder. It has been found that vitamin D deficiency is associated with many autoimmune diseases. Aims: The current study aimed to estimate serum levels of 25-hydroxy vitamin D in patients with AA. Materials and Methods: This case–control study included 60 patients with AA and 60 age, gender, skin phototype, and body mass index-matched healthy subjects as a control group. Levels of serum 25-hydroxy vitamin D were estimated using ELISA technique. Results: Serum 25-hydroxy vitamin D levels were significantly lower in AA cases when compared with healthy controls (P < 0.001. The least values were significantly associated with alopecia totalis/universalis compared with patchy AA (P< 0.001 and ophiasis (P = 0.04. Severe AA showed significantly the lowest vitamin D levels compared with cases with mild (P = 0.002 and moderate disease (P = 0.03. A significant inverse correlation was found between 25-hydroxy vitamin D levels and age of the patients (r = −0.38; P = 0.03. There was no significant association between serum 25-hydroxy vitamin D levels and gender, disease duration, disease recurrence, nail affection, duration of sun exposure/day, or positive family history of AA. Conclusion: AA patients have lower levels of 25-hydroxy vitamin D than healthy subjects. More studies are required to assess the value of vitamin D supplementation in the treatment of that disease.

  7. Serum ferritin and hematological feature among malaria patients in Assam

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    Jitendra Sharma

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Assam is considered as a vulnerable state for malarial infection. Malarial patient exhibit several divergent values in their blood cell parameter as well as changes in concentration of normal serum ferritin level. The study was intended to observe the concentration of serum ferritin level and estimation of hematological feature among malaria patients in Assam. Materials and Methods: During the period from August 2012 to January 2013, a total of 77 blood samples have been collected from 77 individuals suspected with malaria from different malaria endemic districts of Assam. Results: A total of 36 cases were found to be malaria positive of which 25 were symptomatic and 11 were asymptomatic. Overall the percentage of parasitaemia was found 0.1-15%. Distribution of malaria cases was observed in all age groups and both the sexes. Hematological values among the malaria positive patients revealed that about 89% were having anaemia, 66.67% with Thrombocytopenia and 47% Lymphocytopenia. Iron deficiency anaemia was recorded in 63.87% of the patients. Other haematological status includes 30.56% individual with Granulocytosis and 50.00% subjects with low Mean platelet volume etc. Results also showed that the serum ferritin level in the malaria positive population ranged in from 70 ng/ml to 300 ng/ml, with a mean value of 114 ng/ml. Conclusion: In our study, hematological abnormality and low serum ferritin level is observed as an imperative marker for identification of malaria patients.

  8. How effective is autologous serum therapy in chronic autoimmune urticaria

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    Imran Majid

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Chronic autoimmune urticaria (CAU is one of the most challenging therapeutic problems faced by a dermatologist. Recently, weekly autologous serum injections have been shown to induce a prolonged remission in this disease. Aim: To evaluate the efficacy of repeated autologous serum injections in patients with CAU. Materials and Methods: Seventy patients of CAU were prospectively analyzed for the efficacy of nine consecutive weekly autologous serum injections with a post-intervention follow-up of 12 weeks. Total urticaria severity score (TSS was monitored at the baseline, at the end of treatment and lastly at the end of 12 weeks of follow up. Response to treatment was judged by the percentage reduction in baseline TSS at the end of treatment and again at the end of 12 weeks-follow-up. Results: Out of the 70 patients enrolled, 11 dropped out of the injection treatment after one or the first few doses only. Among the rest of 59 patients, only 7 patients (12% went into a partial or complete remission and remained so over the follow-up period of 12 weeks. Forty patients (68% did not demonstrate any significant reduction in TSS at the end of the treatment period. Rest of the 12 patients showed either a good or excellent response while on weekly injection treatment, but all of them relapsed over the follow-up period of 12 weeks. Conclusion: Autologous serum therapy does not seem to lead to any prolonged remission in patients of CAU.

  9. Effects of Nitroglycerin and Lyophilized Recombinant Human BNP on Treatment of the Peripartum Cardiomyopathy Heart Failure%新活素治疗围生期心肌病心力衰竭

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    卢苇; 王永春; 张大勇

    2009-01-01

    目的 观察米力农(milrinone)与冻干重组人脑利钠(lyophilized recombinant human brain natriuretic peptide,Lrh-BNP)治疗围生期心肌病(peripartum cardiomyopathy,PPCM)的疗效.方法 对36例PPCM患者在基础抗心衰治疗上分别应用米力农和Lrh-BNP治疗.结果 Lrh-BNP组总有效率(95%)显著高于米力农组(73.6%);两组治疗前后左心室射血分数(LVEF)、左心室短轴缩短率(Fs)、舒张早期最大充盈速度(E)与舒张晚期最大充盈速度(A)的比值(E/A)、每搏输出量(SV)、心排出量(CO)、心脏指数(CI)、24h尿量、呼吸困难均可得到明显的改善.但Lrh-BNP可以更明显地改善心功能、不增加心率、不降低平均动脉压(MAP).结论 Lrh-BNP可以更明显地改善PPCM患者心功能且具有更高的临床有效率而无明显的不良反应.

  10. Development of a formulation lyophilized for the obtention of a antimicrobial peptide Ubiquicidine labelled with {sup 99m} Tc; Desarrollo de una formulacion liofilizada para la obtencion del peptido antimicrobiano Ubiquicidina marcado con Tc-99m

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Palomares R, P.; Hernandez B, C.A.; Contreras N, G.; Garcia P, M.L.; Pantoja H, I.E. [UAEM, Toluca (Mexico); Ferro F, G. [ININ, A.P. 18-1027, 11801 Mexico D.F. (Mexico)]. E-mail: patodish@hotmail.com

    2004-07-01

    The {sup 99m} Tc-UBI 29-41 are a labelled fragment of the antimicrobial human peptide Ubiquicidine proposed as a new radiopharmaceutical able to differentiate an infectious process of an inflammatory one through the gamma graphic image. It has been demonstrated that the {sup 99m} Tc-UBI 29-41 unite to bacteria in vitro and that accumulates in infection sites in human with minimum captivation in inflammation sites. In this work the development of a pharmaceutical lyophilized formulation is presented for the instantaneous marked one of the UBI 29-41 with {sup 99m} Tc. The selection of the components of the formulation settled down by means of the employment of an experimental design of 3 factors with mixed levels, evaluating the effect of the diluent type, concentration of tinny chloride and the reaction volume. The obtained formulations showed to be stable until for 6 months, being obtained complexes of the radiolabelled peptide with radiochemical purity > 95 % in sterile form and apirogen. The developed pharmaceutical form, will facilitate the routinary use of this new radiopharmaceutical in the diverse hospital departments of nuclear medicine. (Author)

  11. Serum and urinary electrolytes level in the subjects of two different environmental conditions

    OpenAIRE

    Shailendra Kumar Tripathi; Bhanu Prakash Mishra; Ruchi Tripathi; Manish Mishra; Kamlakar Tripathi

    2011-01-01

    The serum electrolytes, Sodium and Potassium are the important macronutrient to the human and it is supplied to the body via the solid and liquid food materials. These electrolytes have different roles in the body and these functions are crucial for life. Its rate of consumption and excretion may vary to the different geographical region, and this may cause the variable medical fitness. We investigated the serum & urinary profile of Na+ & K+, and compared it with their dietary intake ...

  12. Serum monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 is a biomarker in patients with diabetes and periodontitis

    OpenAIRE

    Preethi Radhakrishnan; Padma Srikanth; Seshadri, Krishna G.; Ramya Barani; Maitreya Samanta

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: The role of serum Monocyte Chemoattractant Protein-1 (MCP-1) as a biomarker of periodontitis is well documented; however, its role in diabetic patients with periodontitis is unknown. Aim : This study was conducted to determine the presence and concentration of serum MCP-1 in diabetic patients with and without periodontitis and correlate it glycemic status with periodontitis. Materials and Methods: Adult diabetic patients were enrolled and grouped into group I, II, and III based ...

  13. Building Materials

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    @@ Building Materials Sub-council of CCPIT is the other sub-council in construction field. CCPIT Building Materials Sub-council (CCPITBM), as well as CCOIC Build-ing Materials Chamber of Commerce, is au-thorized by CCPIT and state administration of building materials industry in 1992. CCPITBM is a sub-organization of CCPIT and CCOIC.

  14.  Is serum cystatin C a better marker of kidney function than serum creatinine in septic newborns?

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    Iwona Maruniak-Chudek

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available [sub][/sub] Introduction:Several studies have claimed that the estimation of serum cystatin C could be a better marker of kidney excretory function than serum creatinine. However, its role in the diagnosis of reduced kidney function was not unquestionably confirmed. The aim of this study was to analyze the concentrations of serum cystatin C in neonates with sepsis.Material/Methods:Thirty-two neonates (gestational age from 34 to 40 weeks admitted to the NICU during the first 14 days of life were enrolled. Serum cystatin C concentrations were estimated by ELISA during three successive days in neonates treated for infection. The study group consisted of 9 newborns with sepsis, 14 with severe sepsis and 9 with septic shock.Results/Discussion:At the beginning of the observational period the mean serum concentration of cystatin C in the study group was 1.35 mg/L (95�0CI 1.20–1.49. Surprisingly, the lowest concentration of cystatin was observed in patients with septic shock (1.23 mg/L; 95 0.92–1.54 within the observation period. Higher concentrations were found in neonates with sepsis (1.47 mg/L; 95 1.04–1.90 and severe sepsis (1.50; 1.12–1.87. There was no correlation between serum cystatin C concentration and serum creatinine or gestational age.A significant correlation was discovered between chronological age and cystatin C (R=–0.439, p=0.01. There was a tendency for cystatin C to decline during the second observational day in patients with sepsis (to 1.53 mg/L; 95: 1.19–1.86 and severe sepsis (to 1.32 mg/L; 95: 1.07–1.57, while a slight insignificant increase in patient with septic shock (to 1.28 mg/L; 95: 0.88–1.68 was revealed. The interrelation between age and cystatin C concentration disappeared in the following days of stay in the NICU. Even in patients who died in the course of septic shock the observed changes in cystatin C levels were small and did not exceed those of serum creatinine.Conclusions:Cystatin C is not a

  15. Optimization of Stabilizer for Lyophilization of Lactobacillus reuteri by Quadratic Orthogonal Rotation Combination Design%二次正交旋转组合设计优化猪源罗伊乳杆菌冷冻干燥保护剂

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱战波; 刘存霞; 刘宇; 贾永全; 谭磊; 崔莉; 马晓静; 车车; 崔玉东

    2009-01-01

    目的 优化猪源罗伊乳杆菌冷冻干燥的保护剂配方,提高冻干后的菌体存活率.方法 应用SAS V8.0统计分析软件中的二次正交旋转组合设计方案.进行冷冻干燥保护剂组分配比优化的试验设计,并通过响应面法分析各因素对响应值的效应关系.应用优化的冻干保护剂配方进行3次重复冻干试验,验证预测结果的准确性.结果 经优化后,保护剂各组分最佳配比为:蔗糖15%,甘油3%,山梨醇15%,脱脂乳15%.应用优化保护剂进行的3次重复冻干试验,菌体冻干存活率的平均值为71.6%.与预测值(73.6%)基本相符.结论 应用二次正交旋转组合设计结合响应面法,优化了猪源罗伊乳杆菌的冷冻干燥保护剂组分.%Objective To optimize the stabilizer for lyophilization of Lactobacillus reuteri and increase the survival rate of bacteria after lyophilization.Methods The formula of stabilizer was optimized by the Quadratic Orthogonal Rotation Combination Design in SAS V8.0 statistical analyze software.The effect of various factom on response value was analyzed by Response Surface Methodology.Three repeat lyophilization tests were performed on the Lactobacillus reuteri preparation using the optimal stabilizer to verify the accuracy of predicted result.Results The formula of stabilizer was optimized as follows:15%sucrose,3%glycerine,15%sorbitol and 15%skimmed milk.The three repeat lyophilization tests proved that the mean survival rate of Lactobacillus reuteri using the optimal stabilizer was 7 1.6%.which Was basically consistent with the predicted value(73.6%).Conclusion The stabilizer for lyophilization of Lactobacillus reuteri was optimized by Quadratic Orthogonal Rotation Combination Design and Response Surface Methodology.

  16. Materials Development

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Brian Tomlinson

    2005-01-01

    @@ Introduction Materials development is both a field of study and a practical undertaking. As a field it studies the principles and procedures of the design, implementation and evaluation and adaptation of language teaching materials, by teachers for their own classrooms and by materials writers for sale or distribution. Ideally these two aspects of materials development are interactive in that the theoretical studies inform and are informed by the development and use of classroom materials (e. g. Tomlinson 1998c).

  17. Transitioning from preclinical to clinical chemopreventive assessments of lyophilized black raspberries: interim results show berries modulate markers of oxidative stress in Barrett's esophagus patients.

    OpenAIRE

    Kresty, Laura A.; Frankel, Wendy L.; Hammond, Cynthia D.; Baird, Maureen E.; Mele, Jennifer M.; Stoner, Gary D.; Fromkes, John J.

    2006-01-01

    Dietary modulation of cancer & cancer biomarkers; Dietary modulation of carcinogenesis-related pathwaysDietary item or component studied: black raspberries. Outcome studied: 8-epi-prostaglandin F2alpha (8-Iso-PGF2); 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG)Study type: humansStudy design: cohort study. Study size: 10 Barrett's esophagus (BE) cases. Tissue/biological material/sample size: urine. Mode of exposure: dietary. Impact on outcome (including dose-response): Mean concentrations of 8-Iso-PGF...

  18. Materials Chemistry

    CERN Document Server

    Fahlman, Bradley D

    2011-01-01

    The 2nd edition of Materials Chemistry builds on the strengths that were recognized by a 2008 Textbook Excellence Award from the Text and Academic Authors Association (TAA). Materials Chemistry addresses inorganic-, organic-, and nano-based materials from a structure vs. property treatment, providing a suitable breadth and depth coverage of the rapidly evolving materials field. The 2nd edition continues to offer innovative coverage and practical perspective throughout. After briefly defining materials chemistry and its history, seven chapters discuss solid-state chemistry, metals, semiconducting materials, organic "soft" materials, nanomaterials, and materials characterization. All chapters have been thoroughly updated and expanded with, for example, new sections on ‘soft lithographic’ patterning, ‘click chemistry’ polymerization, nanotoxicity, graphene, as well as many biomaterials applications. The polymer and ‘soft’ materials chapter represents the largest expansion for the 2nd edition. Each ch...

  19. Leptin in first trimester pregnancy serum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hedley, Paula; Pihl, Kasper; Krebs, Lone

    2009-01-01

    Leptin is an adipocytokine that is also synthesized by the placenta. Leptin and its receptor, which is also expressed by the placenta, are believed to play an auto- and paracrine role in trophoblast invasion and placental development. The leptin concentration in first trimester maternal serum......, gestational age and body mass index (BMI). All were non-smokers. Leptin was measured in maternal serum in weeks 8-13 and was normalized for BMI with concentrations expressed as multiples of the median for the actual BMI. It was found that maternal serum leptin increased strongly (r = 0.7, P ... maternal BMI. There was no significant difference in maternal serum leptin concentrations between SGA and AGA pregnancies. In conclusion, SGA pregnancies are not associated with a lower maternal serum leptin concentration in first trimester. The maternal serum leptin concentration is largely determined...

  20. Circulating serum trefoil factors increase dramatically during pregnancy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Samson, Mie Hessellund; Vestergaard, Else Marie; Milman, N

    2008-01-01

    in pregnant women carrying trisomy 21 foetuses and in women with normal pregnancies, throughout pregnancy and postpartum. Material and methods. Employing ELISA methods, serum collected at gestational weeks (GW) 18, 32, 39 and 8 weeks postpartum from women carrying normal foetuses (n = 141) was analysed...... comparable to concentrations previously measured in non-pregnant women. TFF1 concentrations rose throughout pregnancy and postpartum, being 1.5 times higher postpartum compared to 18 GW. No differences in the levels of TFFs were observed between women carrying trisomy 21 and those with healthy foetuses......Objective. Trefoil factors (TFF1-3) are 7-12 kDa peptides secreted by mucosal surfaces, with changing levels of expression reflected in serum concentrations. The genes for the peptides are located on chromosome 21, the chromosome duplicated in trisomy 21. We studied the levels of circulating TFFs...

  1. The Prognostic Value of Serum Biomarkers in Localized Bone Sarcoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aggerholm-Pedersen, Ninna; Maretty-Kongstad, Katja; Keller, Johnny

    2016-01-01

    sarcoma were included. Of these patients, 63 were diagnosed with chondrosarcoma and 109 patients with Ewing/osteosarcoma. The median age was 55 years for chondrosarcoma and 19 years for Ewing/osteosarcoma patients. The overall 5-year mortality was 31% [95% confidence interval (CI): 21-44] and 41% (95% CI......OBJECTIVE: Certain biomarkers such as the C-reactive protein, serum albumin, and the neutrophils to lymphocyte ratio are of prognostic significance regarding survival in different types of cancers. Data from sarcoma patients are sparse and mainly derived from soft tissue sarcoma and/or metastatic...... with localized bone sarcomas and to adjust for potential confounders. MATERIAL AND METHODS: All patients diagnosed with localized intermediate and high-grade bone sarcoma during 1994 to 2008 were extracted from the Aarhus Sarcoma Registry. The serum levels of albumin, C-reactive protein, hemoglobin, neutrophils...

  2. CORRELATION OF GALLSTONE FORMATION WITH SERUM IRON LEVELS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rohini Bipin Bhadre

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION Gallstones are one of the most common problem associated with the gallbladder, affecting millions of people throughout the world. Bile is excreted from liver and gallbladder into Duodenum for digestion. After digestion, if the gallbladder is not emptied out completely, the Bile Juice that remains in the gallbladder can become too concentrated with cholesterol leading to gallstone formation. Cholesterol and calcium bilirubinate are the two main substances involved in gallstone formation. Gallstones derived from bile consists of mixture of cholesterol, bilirubin with or without calcium. Based on their chemical composition, gallstones found in the gallbladder are classified as cholesterol, pigmented or mixed stones. Iron deficiency has been shown to alter the activity of several hepatic enzymes, leading to increased gallbladder bile cholesterol saturation and promotion of cholesterol crystal formation. AIMS & OBJECTIVE Attempt to establish a correlation with gallstones and decreased serum iron levels. MATERIAL & METHODS This study was a prospective cohort study which included 100 consecutive patients with imaging studies suggestive of Cholelithiasis. The Gallstone surgically removed was crushed with mortar and pestle and then analysed for cholesterol, calcium, phosphate and bilirubin (pigment. Serum samples were analysed for Cholesterol, iron and iron binding capacity. RESULTS 86% patients had increased cholesterol levels (p=0.04 and 93% had decreased serum Iron levels (p=0.96. The most common type of gallstone was found to be Cholesterol type of gallstone followed by Mixed and Pigment gallstones. CONCLUSION Serum cholesterol levels were found to be raised in majority of the patients and serum iron was found to be low in these majority of the patients indicating iron deficiency may play a role in gallstone formation.

  3. Serum fetuin-A and recurrent urolithiasis in young adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Domenico Prezioso

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Recurrence of urolithiasis is frequent. There are no reliable markers able to indicate recurrent stone former patients. Fetuin-A inhibits hydroxyapatite crystals formation and expansion. This study aims at evaluating whether serum fetuin-A may predict recurrent urolithiasis in young adults. Materials and methods: This is a multicentre study. Young adults patients with recurrent urolithiasis attending 3 urology clinics were enrolled from July 2011 to December 2012. Inclusion criteria were: age 18-40 years, presence of more than one kidney stone. Exclusion criteria were: diabetes mellitus, metabolic disorders, obesity, hypertension, cardiovascular disease, infection diseases. Controls were participants without history of urolithiasis and currently undetected stones. Routine biochemistry, serum concentration of oxalate, fetuin-A, and parathyroid hormone (PTH were assessed; 24/h urinary excretion of creatinine, uric acid, calcium, sodium, phosphorus, potassium, magnesium, glucose, oxalate, amylase, and protein was measured. Kidney ultrasonography and plain X-ray examination was performed. Results: The total cohort was represented by 120 young adults participants (90 patients, and 30 controls. Clinical characteristics were not different between patients and controls. No significant differences were found in serum concentrations as well as in 24/h urinary excretion of recorded variables. No significant difference was found in serum concentration of fetuin-A (median 35.1 ± 18.62 SD Vs 35.12 ± 14.12, μg/ml; p = 0,908. Conclusions: The data of present study do not substantiate the hypothesis that serum fetuin-A may be a reliable predictor of recurrent urolithiasis in young adults.

  4. Preparation of material to control precision of calcium selective electrodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fyffe, J A; Jenkins, A S; Bolland, C J; Dryburgh, F J; Gardner, M D

    1981-03-01

    A simple procedure is described for the preparation of a stable precision quality control material for use in the measurement of level of ionised calcium in serum at or near the reference range. Repeat analyses on a Nova 2 ionised calcium analyser of serum pools stored at different temperatures over a period of three months showed coefficients of variation less of less than 4%.

  5. Variations of serum copper values in pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vukelić Jelka

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Copper is essential micronutrient and has an important role in the human body. The serum copper increases during pregnancy and is doubled at full term. Lower levels of serum copper in pregnancy are connected with some pathological conditions. Objective. The aim of this study was to estimate the levels of serum copper in normal and pathological pregnancies, comparing them with values of serum copper in non-pregnant women, to determine if serum copper is lower in some pathological pregnancies and if this is of some importance. Methods. A total of 2170 plasma samples for copper analyses were made in the following groups: healthy non-pregnant women; healthy pregnant women from the 5th-40th gestational week, during the first delivery stage and during the first three postpartum weeks, in pregnant women with habitual abortion, imminent abortion, abortion in progress, missed abortion (9th-24th weeks, missed labour and premature rupture of membranes (29th-40th weeks. Levels of serum copper were determined by colorimetric technique of bathocuproin with disulphate as a chromogen. Results. Serum copper values in non-pregnant women range from 11.6-25.8 μmol/L. In healthy pregnant women, there is a constant trend of the increase of serum copper. The mean serum copper values revealed three significant peaks at the 22nd, 27th and 35th gestational week. Serum copper values in the patients with some pathological pregnancies in relation to the serum copper values of the healthy pregnant women were significantly lower. Conclusion. Serum copper values can be used as an indicator of some pathological pregnancies.

  6. Variations of serum copper values in pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vukelić, Jelka; Kapamadzija, Aleksandra; Petrović, Djordje; Grujić, Zorica; Novakov-Mikić, Aleksandra; Kopitović, Vesna; Bjelica, Artur

    2012-01-01

    Copper is essential micronutrient and has an important role in the human body. The serum copper increases during pregnancy and is doubled at full term. Lower levels of serum copper in pregnancy are connected with some pathological conditions. The aim of this study was to estimate the levels of serum copper in normal and pathological pregnancies, comparing them with values of serum copper in non-pregnant women, to determine if serum copper is lower in some pathological pregnancies and if this is of some importance. A total of 2170 plasma samples for copper analyses were made in the following groups: healthy non-pregnant women; healthy pregnant women from the 5th-40th gestational week, during the first delivery stage and during the first three postpartum weeks, in pregnant women with habitual abortion, imminent abortion, abortion in progress, missed abortion (9th-24th weeks), missed labour and premature rupture of membranes (29th-40th weeks). Levels of serum copper were determined by colorimetric technique of bathocuproin with disulphate as a chromogen. Serum copper values in non-pregnant women range from 11.6-25.8 micromol/L. In healthy pregnant women, there is a constant trend of the increase of serum copper. The mean serum copper values revealed three significant peaks at the 22nd, 27th and 35th gestational week. Serum copper values in the patients with some pathological pregnancies in relation to the serum copper values of the healthy pregnant women were significantly lower. Serum copper values can be used as an indicator of some pathological pregnancies.

  7. Carbon nanotube scaffolds with controlled porosity as electromagnetic absorbing materials in the gigahertz range.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González, M; Crespo, M; Baselga, J; Pozuelo, J

    2016-05-19

    Control of the microscopic structure of CNT nanocomposites allows modulation of the electromagnetic shielding in the gigahertz range. The porosity of CNT scaffolds has been controlled by two freezing protocols and a subsequent lyophilization step: fast freezing in liquid nitrogen and slow freezing at -20 °C. Mercury porosimetry shows that slowly frozen specimens present a more open pore size (100-150 μm) with a narrow distribution whereas specimens frozen rapidly show a smaller pore size and a heterogeneous distribution. 3D-scaffolds containing 3, 4, 6 and 7% CNT were infiltrated with epoxy and specimens with 2, 5 and 8 mm thicknesses were characterized in the GHz range. Samples with the highest pore size and porosity presented the lowest reflected power (about 30%) and the highest absorbed power (about 70%), which allows considering them as electromagnetic radiation absorbing materials.

  8. Correlation of mandibular radiomorphometric indices with serum calcium and serum estradiol in pre- and post-menopausal women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lina Govind Chandak

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Osteoporosis is a disease that is seen commonly with increasing age. The purpose of this study was to compare the bone quality of pre- and post-menopausal women using the quantitative indices determined by measurements on panoramic radiographs (mental index, inferior and superior panoramic mandibular indices, antegonion index [AGI], and gonion index and to determine the effects of serum calcium and serum estradiol levels on alveolar bone loss. Materials and Methods: Sixty female patients in the age group of 25–55 years were included in the study. The patients were divided into three equal groups, i.e., control Group A (twenty - premenopausal women, study Group B (twenty - postmenopausal women with healthy periodontium, study Group C (twenty - postmenopausal women with periodontitis. Quantitative indices were measured on digital panoramic radiographs of the patients and serum calcium and estradiol levels were determined. Results: Correlation of serum calcium with radiomorphometric indices of all the groups showed statistically nonsignificant differences. On correlating mean estradiol levels with radiographic indices of patients of Group A and Group B showed statistically nonsignificant differences. On correlating mean estradiol levels with radiographic indices of patients of Group C patients showed statistically significant difference with positive correlation with cortical width (P = 0.04 and AGI (P = 0.02 while statistically nonsignificant correlation with other indices. The statistical tests used for the analysis of the result were one-way ANOVA, multiple comparison Tukey test, Chi-square test, Student's t-test. Conclusion: There is a little evidence of correlation of these indices with serum estradiol and calcium levels, and therefore, detailed further research about this correlation is required.

  9. Analytic materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milton, Graeme W

    2016-11-01

    The theory of inhomogeneous analytic materials is developed. These are materials where the coefficients entering the equations involve analytic functions. Three types of analytic materials are identified. The first two types involve an integer p. If p takes its maximum value, then we have a complete analytic material. Otherwise, it is incomplete analytic material of rank p. For two-dimensional materials, further progress can be made in the identification of analytic materials by using the well-known fact that a 90(°) rotation applied to a divergence-free field in a simply connected domain yields a curl-free field, and this can then be expressed as the gradient of a potential. Other exact results for the fields in inhomogeneous media are reviewed. Also reviewed is the subject of metamaterials, as these materials provide a way of realizing desirable coefficients in the equations.

  10. Analytic Materials

    CERN Document Server

    Milton, Graeme W

    2016-01-01

    The theory of inhomogeneous analytic materials is developed. These are materials where the coefficients entering the equations involve analytic functions. Three types of analytic materials are identified. The first two types involve an integer $p$. If $p$ takes its maximum value then we have a complete analytic material. Otherwise it is incomplete analytic material of rank $p$. For two-dimensional materials further progress can be made in the identification of analytic materials by using the well-known fact that a $90^\\circ$ rotation applied to a divergence free field in a simply connected domain yields a curl-free field, and this can then be expressed as the gradient of a potential. Other exact results for the fields in inhomogeneous media are reviewed. Also reviewed is the subject of metamaterials, as these materials provide a way of realizing desirable coefficients in the equations.

  11. Hazardous materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... can cause cancer. Know how to use the material and how to store it or throw it away when you are done. Other tips include: Never enter an area where radiation ... materials from one area to another. Check bottles, containers, ...

  12. Bone mineralisation in premature infants cannot be predicted from serum alkaline phosphatase or serum phosphate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Faerk, J; Peitersen, Birgit; Petersen, S

    2002-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The bone mineral content of premature infants at term is lower than in mature infants at the same postconceptional age. Serum alkaline phosphatase and serum phosphate are often used as indicators of bone mineralisation. OBJECTIVE: To analyse the association between bone mineral content...... and serum alkaline phosphatase and serum phosphate. METHODS: Serum alkaline phosphatase and phosphate were measured at weekly intervals during admission in 108 premature infants of gestational age below 32 weeks (mean (SD) gestational age 29 (2) weeks; mean (SD) birth weight 1129 (279) g). Bone mineral...... content was measured at term (mean gestational age 41 weeks) by dual energy x ray absorptiometry and corrected for body size. RESULTS: Serum alkaline phosphatase was significantly negatively associated with serum phosphate (p serum alkaline...

  13. Preliminary Study on Serum Lactate Dehydrogenase (LDH)-Prognostic Biomarker in Carcinoma Breast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gandhe, Mahendra Bhauraoji; Gupta, Dilip; Reddy, M.V.R.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Serum Lactate Dehydrogenase (LDH) is one of the biochemical markers for breast cancer. Serum LDH is enzyme required for anaerobic glycolysis. One of its isoenzyme is increased in breast cancer due to up-regulation in its gene. It leads to increase in serum LDH level in breast cancer patients. Serum LDH is economical, easily available and easy to estimate. Aim In the present study, we evaluated the LDH levels in circulation of newly diagnosed patients of breast cancer and tried to correlate it with different TNM staging of carcinoma breast before interventions and after adjuvant therapy of these patients. Materials and Methods This prospective study was done on 83 diagnosed patients of breast cancer was conducted among poor patients in rural area. This study was conducted in the Department of Surgery between October 2008 to October 2010, at MGIMS, Sevagram, Maharashtra, a rural medical college located in Central India. Out of total 83 participants, 10 participants were having adverse events following surgery and remaining 73 participants were without adverse events following surgery. The significant difference in serum LDH levels between two groups, with and without adverse surgical outcome was calculated by Mann-Whitney U test. Results Patients with higher clinical TNM staging were having higher serum LDH levels. The serum LDH levels at sixth months following surgery showed a trend of statistically significant difference between patients with and without adverse events. As increased serum LDH levels in breast cancer patients shows poor prognosis, surgical outcome or advanced metastases. Conclusion Serum LDH monitoring can be used as a prognostic biomarker in patients of breast cancer. For confirmation of this finding, we require further more studies on larger sample size and long-term follow-up in patients specifically with higher serum LDH levels. PMID:27134855

  14. Peranan Kadar Feritin Serum terhadap Kejadian Preeklampsia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mega Ulfah

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstrak Preeklampsia merupakan penyebab utama kematian maternal dan perinatal diseluruh dunia. Peningkatan kadar serum besi dan feritin memiliki potensi untuk digunakan secara diagnostik untuk memperingatkan preeklampsia tahap awal. Tujuan penelitian ini adalah untuk menentukan peranan kadar serum feritin terhadap kejadianpreeklampsia. Penelitian ini merupakan penelitian analitik observasional dengan desain case-control. Penelitian dilakukan dari Agustus 2013 hingga Juli 2014, bertempat di RS dr. M. Djamil, RS dr. Reksodiwiryo dan Laboratorium Biomedik UNAND Padang.  Jumlah sampel yang diteliti adalah 40 responden dimana sampel terdiri dari 2 kelompok,masing-masing terdiri dari 20 sampel. Pemeriksaan serum feritin dilakukan dengan metode ELISA. Perbedaan rerata kadar feritin serum antara kelompok preeklampsia dan kehamilan normal dianalisa dengan mengunakan independen ttest. Hasil penelitian diperoleh rerata kadar serum feritin pada kelompok preeklampsia dan kehamilan normal adalah50,46+4,37 ng/ml dan 17,64+1,6 ng/ml, dengan nilai p=0,004. Kadar feritin pada kedua kelompok masih dalam batas normal dan tidak ditemukan indikasi adanya kelebihan besi sebagai faktor resiko preeklampsia. Kesimpulan penelitian ini yaitu kadar serum feritin tidak memiliki peranan terhadap kejadian preeklampsia. Kata kunci: preeklampsia, hipertensi dalam kehamilan, serum feritin Abstract Preeclampsia is a major cause of worldwide maternal and prenatal mortality. The increase in iron serum and ferritin can be used as a diagnosis to warn of the early stage of preeclampsia. The objective of this study was to determine the impact of ferritin serum levels on preeclampsia. This study was an observational analytic study withcase-control design. It has been done from August 2013 to Juli 2014, in RS dr. M. Djamil, RS dr. Reksodiwiryo and Biomedical Laboratory of Andalas University Padang. Total sample evaluated was 40 samples. The sample consist of two groups, each group

  15. Efeito da heparina liofilizada e da líquida sobre a medida do pH do sangue do cordão umbilical Effect of lyophilized and liquid heparin on umbilical cord blood pH measure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Mauro Madi

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: avaliar o efeito da heparina liofilizada e da líquida sobre a medida do pH do sangue do cordão umbilical. MÉTODOS: estudo prospectivo que incluiu cento e duas amostras de sangue arterial do cordão umbilical de recém-nascidos no Serviço de Obstetrícia do Hospital Geral de Caxias do Sul. As amostras foram divididas em 51 seringas previamente preparadas com heparina liofilizada (seringa A e 51 seringas preparadas com heparina líquida (seringa B no momento da coleta sangüínea. A obtenção das amostras foi realizada por duplo clampeamento do cordão entre pinças, imediatamente após o desprendimento fetal. O pH arterial do sangue obtido foi analisado em no máximo 20 minutos, em analisador de pH da marca AVL OMNI (Viena, Áustria. RESULTADOS: a média dos valores de pH no sangue contido nas seringas dos grupos A e B foi de 7,246±0,086 e 7,244±0,084, respectivamente. A análise estatística demonstrou não haver diferença significante entre os valores de pH entre as amostras de sangue contidas em ambos os conjuntos de seringas. CONCLUSÃO: as duas formas de heparinização de seringas assemelham-se quanto aos efeitos sobre o pH do sangue dos vasos umbilicais, o que permite a escolha daquela de menor custo.PURPOSE: to evaluate the effect of lyophilized and liquid heparin on umbilical cord blood pH measure. METHOD: we carried out a prospective study with 102 newborn arterial umbilical cord blood samples at the Obstetrics Department of the "Hospital Geral de Caxias do Sul". The authors used 51 syringes previously prepared with lyophilized heparin (syringe A and 51 syringes prepared with liquid heparin (syringe B for sample collection. Immediately after delivery a segment of the umbilical cord was doubly clamped and blood samples were obtained for measurements of pH and gases. The umbilical arterial blood pH was analyzed within 20 minutes by an AVL OMNI pH analyzer (Vienna, Austria. RESULTS: the average values of umbilical cord

  16. Characterization of feline serum-cobalt binding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schnelle, Amy N; Barger, Anne M; MacNeill, Amy L; Mitchell, Mark M; Solter, Philip

    2015-06-01

    Oxidative stress inhibits albumin's ability to complex with cobalt. Feline serum-cobalt binding has not been described. The objective was to develop a cobalt binding test for use with feline serum, and correlate the results with other biochemical and cellular constituents in blood, and with clinical diseases of cats. A colorimetric test of cobalt binding, based on the oxidation-reduction reaction of Co(+2) and dithiothreitol, was developed using feline serum. The test was used to measure cobalt binding in stored serum from 176 cats presented to the University of Illinois Veterinary Teaching Hospital for a variety of disease conditions. Time-matched hematology and biochemical data, and clinical information, were obtained from the medical record of each cat and correlated with the serum-cobalt binding results. Serial dilution of feline serum with phosphate-buffered saline resulted in a highly linear decrease in serum-cobalt binding (r(2)  = .9984). Serum-cobalt binding of the clinical samples also correlated with albumin concentrations in a stepwise linear regression model (r(2)  = .425), and both cobalt binding and albumin were significantly decreased in cases of inflammation. Albumin and cobalt binding also shared significant correlations with several erythron variables, and serum concentration of total calcium and bilirubin. The correlation of cobalt binding measured by a colorimetric test with albumin concentration in the clinical samples and with serum dilution is consistent with feline albumin-cobalt complex formation. Hypoalbuminemia is the likely cause of reduced serum-cobalt binding in inflammation and the correlations observed between cobalt binding and other variables. © 2015 American Society for Veterinary Clinical Pathology.

  17. Clinical Non-inferiority Trial on Treatment of Coronary Heart Disease Angina Pectoris of Xin-blood Stasis Syndrome Type with Lyophilized Salvia Salt of Lithospermic Acid Powder for Injection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the effectiveness and safety of lyophilized Salvia salt of lithospermic acid powder for injection (SSLA) in treating coronary heart diseases angina pectoris (CHD-AP) of Xin-blood positive control. Methods: An non-inferiority clinical layered, segmented, randomized, and blinded trial on three parallel and multiple centered groups was conducted in 480 patients with stable effort angina grade Ⅰ ,Ⅱ and Ⅲ, who had two or more times of attack every week. The 240 patients in test group A were treated with SSLA 200 mg added in 250 ml of 5% glucose solution for intravenous dripping every day; the 120 patients in test group B were treated with SSLA but the dosage doubled; and the 120 patients in the control group were treated with DSI 20 ml daily in the same method as SSLA was given. The clinical effectiveness and safety were evaluated after the patients were treated for 14 days. Results: The results showed that the markedly effective rate in test groups A, B and control group was 37.45 %, 36.75 % and 30.09 % respectively, while the total effective rate in them was 88.09%, 89.74% and 67.26% respectively. Statistical significance was shown in comparisons of the therapeutic effect between control group with test group A and test group B, with that in the two test groups superior to that in the control group, and non-inferiority trial showed eligibility (P<0.01). Adverse reaction appeared in 8 patients in the test groups and 2 in the control group.Conclusion: SSLA has definite therapeutic effect in treating patients with CHD-AP, with its effect not inferior to that of DSl, and no evident toxic-adverse reaction.

  18. Composite Materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Lauge Fuglsang

    This book deals with the mechanical and physical behavior of composites as influenced by composite geometry. "Composite Materials" provides a comprehensive introduction for researchers and students to modern composite materials research with a special emphasis on the significance of phase geometry....... The book enables the reader to a better understanding of the behavior of natural composites, improvement of such materials, and design of new materials with prescribed properties. A number of examples are presented: Special composite properties considered are stiffness, shrinkage, hygro-thermal behavior...... materials. Numerical procedures are outlined which facilitate the practical analysis of any feature considered in this book. Examples are presented which illustrate the analysis of well-known materials such as concrete, hardening cement paste, ceramics, tile, wood, impregnated and reinforced materials...

  19. 产胞外多糖的嗜热链球菌ST冷冻干燥制剂的研究%Exopolysaccharide production and lyophilization preparation from Streptococcus thermophilus ST

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴荣荣; 王立平; 高莉莉; 刘伯衢; 张柏林

    2008-01-01

    ST strain, isolated from yogurt purchased from a local market and identified as Streptococcus thermophilus based on physiological-biochemical characteristics and 16S rDNA sequence, produced 55.62mg·L-1 of exopolysaccharides (EPS). The EPS level produced by strain ST depended upon incubation time (24h), temperature (40℃), initial pH (7.0) of the medium and supplemented glucose (20g·L-1). The major monosaccharide of EPS formed by this strain was confirmed to be glucose. Moreover, data from the lyophilization preparation of strain ST showed that the optimal medium containing NFMS (100.0g·L-1), yeast extract (3.0g·L-1), CaCO3(9.0g·L-1) and whey powder (20.0g·L-1) promoted its viable cells to a level of 1.05×109CFU·mL-1. The combination of NFMS (160.0g·L-1), glycerol (30.0g·L-1), sodium glutamate (30.0g·L-1) and Tween 80 (5.0g·L-1) was proved to be a good cytoprotectant for the protection of strain ST against the stresses of freeze-drying. Temperature, pH and rotation speed were important factors for gaining high viable counts in pilot-plant production of strain ST lyophilizator. The optimal combination including fermentation temperature (37℃), rotation speed (90r·min-1) and pH (5.9), resulted in a direct-vat-inoculation preparation of strain ST that contained viable cells of 1.7×1011CFU·g-1 after lyophilization. Use of lyophilized strain ST preparation to directly ferment 80.0g·L-1 reconstituted skim milk to yogurt produced lower whey separation than that of yogurt made with non-EPS strains used as controls.%从当地市售的传统酸奶中分离出一株产胞外多糖的链球菌,经生理生化和16S rDNA序列分析,将该菌株确定为嗜热链球菌ST.在补充了20g·L-1的葡萄糖,初始pH7.0的培养基上,40℃,培养24h后,其胞外多糖产量为55.62mg·L-1.进一步的结构分析显示,此多糖的主要单糖组成为葡萄糖.在生产嗜热链球菌ST冷冻干燥制剂时,其最佳的增殖培养基组成为脱脂奶粉100.0g

  20. Analysis of release kinetics of growth factors in porcine platelet-rich plasma lyophilized powder%猪富血小板血浆冻干粉细胞因子释放的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    潘龙; 徐剑炜

    2016-01-01

    Objective On the basis of acquiring enough porcine platelet rich plasma (PRP) with high concentration of platelets,we further seek an appropriate way to preserve PRP by lyophilization and explored the kinetics of growth factors released by PRP lyophilized powder.Methods Four experimental groups were arranged as following:(1) Fresh porcine PRP,(2) Group of PRP activated by calcium chloride (CaCl2) (Ca PRP),(3) Activated PRP followed by freeze drying (Ca-FD PRP),and (4) Freeze-dried PRP activated by CaCl2(FD-Ca PRP).All FD PRP samples were kept for 4 weeks at room temperature (22 ℃C).Concentrations of transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1),platelet-derived growth factor-AB (PDGF-AB),and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) were determined at time points of 15 min and 1 h respectively.Results Concentration of all growth factors in Ca PRP at 1 h were significantly higher than that in the PRP at same time point (P < 0.05).There was no statistical significance in variance of PDGF-AB concentrations between FD-Ca PRP [15 min:(6 137.5 ± 800.3) ng/L;1 h:(5 659.1± 656.4) ng/L] and Ca PRP [15 min:(5629.8± 580.1) ng/L;1 h:(5294.6±679.2) ng/L,P > 0.05].Levels of VEGF between Ca-FD PRP [15 min:(942.6 ± 178.5) ng/L;1 h:(895.8± 110.0) ng/L] and Ca PRP [15 min:(589.7± 272.9) ng/L;1 h:(782.5±109.5) ng/L] was not significantly different (P>0.05).However,TGF-β1 concentration in Ca-FDPRP[(14 801.5 ±445.2) ng/L] at 15 min was higher than that in Ca PRP [(7 812.6 ±571.0) ng/L,P < 0.05].Conclusion PRP can be activated efficiently by calcium chloride.Lyophilized PRP is still rich in growth factors after four weeks' preservation at room temperature,which reveals easy-to-use performance and wide possibility for clinical applications.%目的 在制备较高血小板浓度的猪富血小板血浆(PRP)基础上,探索PRP冷冻干燥(FD)方法,研究PRP冻干粉中细胞因子释放动力学.方法 实验分组:静置PRP组、PRP钙剂激活组(Ca PRP

  1. Aerospace materials and material technologies

    CERN Document Server

    Wanhill, R

    2017-01-01

    This book is a comprehensive compilation of chapters on materials (both established and evolving) and material technologies that are important for aerospace systems. It considers aerospace materials in three Parts. Part I covers Metallic Materials (Mg, Al, Al-Li, Ti, aero steels, Ni, intermetallics, bronzes and Nb alloys); Part II deals with Composites (GLARE, PMCs, CMCs and Carbon based CMCs); and Part III considers Special Materials. This compilation has ensured that no important aerospace material system is ignored. Emphasis is laid in each chapter on the underlying scientific principles as well as basic and fundamental mechanisms leading to processing, characterization, property evaluation and applications. A considerable amount of materials data is compiled and presented in appendices at the end of the book. This book will be useful to students, researchers and professionals working in the domain of aerospace materials.

  2. Serum release boosts sweetness intensity in gels

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sala, G.; Stieger, M.A.; Velde, van de F.

    2010-01-01

    This paper describes the effect of serum release on sweetness intensity in mixed whey protein isolate/gellan gum gels. The impact of gellan gum and sugar concentration on microstructure, permeability, serum release and large deformation properties of the gels was determined. With increasing gellan

  3. Serum biochemistries of Pacific black brant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franson, J. Christian; Flint, Paul L.; Schmutz, Joel A.

    2017-01-01

    The data set contains results for nine serum biochemistries in molting Pacific black brant (Branta bernicla nigricans). These data were used to calculate reference intervals (sometimes referred to as normal values) for the nine serum biochemistries. All brant were after-hatch year. All samples were collected in 2006 and 2007 in the Teshekpuk Lake Special Area, Alaska.

  4. Serum Protein Profile Alterations in Hemodialysis Patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murphy, G A; Davies, R W; Choi, M W; Perkins, J; Turteltaub, K W; McCutchen-Maloney, S L; Langlois, R G; Curzi, M P; Trebes, J E; Fitch, J P; Dalmasso, E A; Colston, B W; Ying, Y; Chromy, B A

    2003-11-18

    Background: Serum protein profiling patterns can reflect the pathological state of a patient and therefore may be useful for clinical diagnostics. Here, we present results from a pilot study of proteomic expression patterns in hemodialysis patients designed to evaluate the range of serum proteomic alterations in this population. Methods: Surface-Enhanced Laser Desorption/Ionization Time-of-Flight Mass Spectrometry (SELDI-TOFMS) was used to analyze serum obtained from patients on periodic hemodialysis treatment and healthy controls. Serum samples from patients and controls were first fractionated into six eluants on a strong anion exchange column, followed by application to four array chemistries representing cation exchange, anion exchange, metal affinity and hydrophobic surfaces. A total of 144 SELDI-TOF-MS spectra were obtained from each serum sample. Results: The overall profiles of the patient and control samples were consistent and reproducible. However, 30 well-defined protein differences were observed; 15 proteins were elevated and 15 were decreased in patients compared to controls. Serum from one patient exhibited novel protein peaks suggesting possible additional changes due to a secondary disease process. Conclusion: SELDI-TOF-MS demonstrated dramatic serum protein profile differences between patients and controls. Similarity in protein profiles among dialysis patients suggests that patient physiological responses to end-stage renal disease and/or dialysis therapy have a major effect on serum protein profiles.

  5. Serum paraoxonase 1 activity in dogs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rossi, Gabriele; Giordano, Alessia; Pezzia, Francesca

    2013-01-01

    Serum activity of paraoxonase (PON1) decreases during inflammation in many species. Little information is available on paraoxon-based tests and the possible role of PON1 in dogs.......Serum activity of paraoxonase (PON1) decreases during inflammation in many species. Little information is available on paraoxon-based tests and the possible role of PON1 in dogs....

  6. Serum triglycerides and risk of cardiovascular disease.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boullart, I.; Graaf, J. de; Stalenhoef, A.F.H.

    2012-01-01

    Dyslipidemia, especially elevated serum levels of cholesterol, is causally related to cardiovascular disease. The specific role of triglycerides has long been controversial. In this article we discuss the role of serum triglycerides in relation to the risk of cardiovascular disease. First, the

  7. A STUDY OF ESTIMATION OF SERUM URIC ACID LEVEL IN PATIENTS WITH PSORIASIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shanmugasundaram

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Psoriasis is a disease characterized by increased epidermal cell turnover and hence an increase in purine catabolism. The serum uric acid levels in psoriasis are expected to be raised because of the high purine catabolism. AIM To study the levels of serum uric acid in 25 cases of uncomplicated chronic plaque type psoriasis. MATERIALS AND METHODS Twenty five consecutive patients with chronic plaque type psoriasis attending the Dermatology OPD of a Tertiary Care Hospital were selected and their serum uric acid levels were estimated. RESULTS The average uric acid levels in males psoriatic patients was between 3.6-7.7mg/dl and in the female psoriasis patients, the serum uric acid values were between 2.5-6.8mg/dl. DISCUSSION The serum levels of uric acid in uncomplicated chronic plaque type psoriasis were within the normal ranges for both male and female patients. Since only chronic plaque type psoriasis patients were included in the study and the severity of disease is less in such patients when compared to erythrodermic or unstable psoriasis, the serum uric levels were observed to be within the normal ranges. CONCLUSION This study concludes that the serum uric acid levels are not raised in chronic plaque type psoriasis, patients with less disease severity.

  8. Serum Ferritin: Past, Present and Future

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wei; Knovich, Mary Ann; Coffman, Lan G.; Torti, Frank M.; Torti, Suzy V.

    2010-01-01

    Background Serum ferritin was discovered in the 1930’s, and was developed as a clinical test in the 1970’s. Many diseases are associated with iron overload or iron deficiency. Serum ferritin is widely used in diagnosing and monitoring these diseases. Scope of Review In this chapter, we discuss the role of serum ferritin in physiological and pathological processes and its use as a clinical tool. Major Conclusions Although many aspects of the fundamental biology of serum ferritin remain surprisingly unclear, a growing number of roles have been attributed to extracellular ferritin, including newly described roles in iron delivery, angiogenesis, inflammation, immunity, signaling and cancer. General Significance Serum ferritin remains a clinically useful tool. Further studies on the biology of this protein may provide new biological insights. PMID:20304033

  9. Novel Utilization of Serum in Tissue Decellularization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gui, Liqiong; Chan, Stephen A.; Breuer, Christopher K.

    2010-01-01

    Decellularization of native tissues is a promising technique with numerous applications in tissue engineering and regenerative medicine. However, there are various limitations of currently available decellularization methods, such as alteration of extracellular matrix mechanics and restricted use on certain tissues. This study was conducted to explore the effect of serum on the decellularization of various types of tissues. Fetal bovine serum–containing cell culture medium endothelial growth media-2 removed DNA but not cellular β-actin from human umbilical artery after detergent treatment, without compromising the tissue mechanical strength assessed by burst pressure. In addition, the effect of serum-containing endothelial growth media-2 on DNA removal was replicated in other types of tissues such as tissue-engineered vessels and myocardium. Other types of serum, including human serum, were also shown to remove DNA from detergent-pretreated tissues. In conclusion, we describe a novel utilization of serum that may have broad applications in tissue decellularization. PMID:19419244

  10. Effectiveness of autologous serum as an alternative to fetal bovine serum in adipose-derived stem cell engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Jaehoon; Chung, Jee-Hyeok; Kwon, Geun-Yong; Kim, Ki-Wan; Kim, Sukwha; Chang, Hak

    2013-09-01

    In cell culture, medium supplemented with fetal bovine serum is commonly used, and it is widely known that fetal bovine serum supplies an adequate environment for culture and differentiation of stem cells. Nevertheless, the use of xenogeneic serum can cause several problems. We compared the effects of four different concentrations of autologous serum (1, 2, 5, and 10%) on expansion and adipogenic differentiation of adipose-derived stem cells using 10% fetal bovine serum as a control. The stem cells were grafted on nude mice and the in vivo differentiation capacity was evaluated. The isolation of adipose-derived stem cells was successful irrespective of the culture medium. The proliferation potential was statistically significant at passage 2, as follows: 10% autologous serum > 10% fetal bovine serum = 5% autologous serum > 2% autologous serum = 1% autologous serum. The differentiation capacity appeared statistically significant at passage 4, as follows: 10% fetal bovine serum > 10% autologous serum = 5% autologous serum > 2% autologous serum = 1% autologous serum. Ten percent autologous serum and 10% fetal bovine serum had greater differentiation capacity than 1 and 2% autologous serum in vivo, and no significant difference was observed between the groups at ≥ 5% concentration at 14 weeks. In conclusion, 10% autologous serum was at least as effective as 10% fetal bovine serum with respect to the number of adipose-derived stem cells at the end of both isolation and expansion, whereas 1 and 2% autologous serum was inferior.

  11. Tribological comparison of materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Bing

    surface chemistry, wettability, morphology, microstructure, etc. The dry, lubricated, and cell culture friction tests showed that bovine serum albumin solution and culture media performed as lubricants. Frictional properties varied. Glass and TR-2 (PET, polyethylene terephthalate) showed good cell culture results and low friction. Both are suitable materials, both as artificial joint implant coatings and as substrates for preparing total joint implants via tissue engineering.

  12. [Serum hyaluronic acid in osteoarthritis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balblanc, J C; Hartmann, D; Noyer, D; Mathieu, P; Conrozier, T; Tron, A M; Piperno, M; Richard, M; Vignon, E

    1993-03-01

    In this prospective study, serum hyaluronate (SH) was assayed using a radiometric method (Pharmacia) in 73 osteoarthritis patients and 39 controls. All assays were performed between 8 h 00 and 9 h 00 a.m. because SH levels exhibit circadian variations. SH levels were significantly higher in patients with osteoarthritis than in controls (92 +/- 66 micrograms/l and 39 +/- 21 micrograms/l, respectively, p = 0.0001). Among 50 patients with osteoarthritis, including 29 with knee involvement and 21 with hip involvement, SH levels were not correlated with morning stiffness, duration of symptoms, Lequesne's algofunctional index, erythrocyte sedimentation rate, C-reactive protein, severity of roentgenographic changes in the affected knee or hip, disease extension, or severity. The lack of any relationship between changes in SH levels and Lequesne's is index values in 25 patients or between SH levels and joint space narrowing evaluated retrospectively in 16 patients, as well as the prompt return to high SH levels after arthroplasty and synovectomy in 14 patients with hip joint osteoarthritis, suggest that this potential marker is not useful for monitoring osteoarthritis in a single joint.

  13. The role of serum vitamin D levels in vitiligo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karagün, Ebru; Baysak, Sevim; Erden, Gönül; Aktaş, Habibullah; Ekiz, Özlem

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Vitiligo is a common acquired pigmentary skin disorder. Vitamin D is responsible for skin pigmentation, increases tyrosinase activity and melanogenesis, and exhibits immunoregulatory functions. Low levels of vitamin D are associated with many autoimmune diseases, including systemic lupus, diabetes mellitus, rheumatoid arthritis, multiple sclerosis and alopecia areata. Few reports have evaluated serum vitamin D levels in vitiligo patients, and their results are conflicting. Aim To evaluate serum vitamin D levels of vitiligo patients and compare the results with controls. Material and methods In total, 50 vitiligo patients and 47 controls were enrolled in the study. Vitamin D levels were measured from blood samples. Group comparisons were performed using appropriate statistical methods. Results The patients had lower serum vitamin D levels than the controls, but this difference was not significant (p = 0.570). Conclusions It remains unknown whether vitamin D deficiency causes vitiligo. Larger controlled studies are required to prove whether low circulating vitamin D is a causative factor in vitiligo. PMID:27605903

  14. Serum enzymes activities in Plasmodium falciparum infection in Southern Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koay Yen Chin

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Serum levels of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH,aspartate aminotranferase (AST, alanine aminotransferase(ALT, and alkaline phosphatase (ALP were assessed todetermine the liver functions of patients infected withPlasmodium falciparum. The enzyme activities were assessedin 60 malarial patients and a control group of 44 people.Materials and Methods: The data for the study was collectedfrom the survey conducted from Liaquat University of medicaland health sciences Hospital, Hyderabad, Pakaistan. Sample of60 patients aged between 20 and 50 years were collected. Acontrol group of 44 healthy individual adults was also assessedfor comparative purposes. All the malaria patients who visitedthe OPD during the study period enrolled in the study.Results: The LDH activity in male patients was found to be674.89 ± 33.354 IU/L. This is above the control LDH activity of296.59 ± 14.476 IU/L. Similarly, in female patients, the serumLDH activity of 580.25 ± 24.507 IU/L is over twice the controlfemale serum LDH activity of 302.18 ± 18.082 IU/L. Furtherone-way anova test was performed to find any significance ininfected and control male and female.Conclusion: Hepatic dysfunction was found to be associated toP. falciparum malaria infection.

  15. Clinical significance of serum lipids in idiopathic pulmonary alveolar proteinosis

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    Fang Cun S

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background It is well known that pulmonary alveolar proteinosis(PAP is characterised by accumulation of surfactant lipids and proteins within airspaces. However, few previous data describe the serum lipid levels associated with PAP. Materials and methods We retrospectively reviewed 25 patients with idiopathic PAP(iPAP. The serum lipid levels of patients with idiopathic PAP were compared with those of the healthy volunteers. In patients and healthy subjects, the LDL-C/HDL-C ratios were 2.94 ± 1.21 and 1.60 ± 0.70, respectively (p p A-aO2 (r = -0.685, p = 0.003, and r = 0.688, p = 0.003, respectively. The values of LDL-C/HDL-C ratios also correlated with PaO2 levels and PA-aO2 levels (r = -0.698, p = 0.003, and r = 0.653, p = 0.006, respectively. 11 and 13 patients experienced respectively a decline in TC and LDL-C levels following whole lung lavage(WLL, the median decline was 0.71 mmol/L(p p Conclusions the serum lipid levels, especially the levels of LDL-C and LDL-C/HDL-C, may reflect the severity of the disease in PAP patients, and predict the therapeutic effect of WLL.

  16. The role of serum vitamin D levels in vitiligo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ebru Karagün

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction : Vitiligo is a common acquired pigmentary skin disorder. Vitamin D is responsible for skin pigmentation, increases tyrosinase activity and melanogenesis, and exhibits immunoregulatory functions. Low levels of vitamin D are associated with many autoimmune diseases, including systemic lupus, diabetes mellitus, rheumatoid arthritis, multiple sclerosis and alopecia areata. Few reports have evaluated serum vitamin D levels in vitiligo patients, and their results are conflicting. Aim : To evaluate serum vitamin D levels of vitiligo patients and compare the results with controls. Material and methods : In total, 50 vitiligo patients and 47 controls were enrolled in the study. Vitamin D levels were measured from blood samples. Group comparisons were performed using appropriate statistical methods. Results : The patients had lower serum vitamin D levels than the controls, but this difference was not significant (p = 0.570. Conclusions : It remains unknown whether vitamin D deficiency causes vitiligo. Larger controlled studies are required to prove whether low circulating vitamin D is a causative factor in vitiligo.

  17. Evaluation of serum level of IL-12 in patients with

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Kazemi Arababadi1

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available (Received 26 August, 2009 ; Accepted 18 Novamber, 2009AbstractBackground and purpose: Occult hepatitis B infection (OBI is a form of hepatitis in which despite the absence of detectable HBsAg, HBV-DNA is present in peripheral blood of patients. Investigators believed that the genetics and immunological parameters may be different in resistant individuals and patients. Cytokines, such as IL-12, could be leading to alteration in viral immune response. The main aim of this study was to investigate the serum level of IL12 in OBI patients.Materials and methods: In this study, the plasma samples of 3700 HBsAg negative blood donors were tested for anti-HBs by ELISA. The HBsAg negative and anti-HBc positive samples were selected and screened for HBV-DNA by PCR. HBV-DNA positive samples were assigned as OBI cases and ELISA technique were performed to examine the serum level of IL-12 in OBI and 100 healthy controls.Results: Our results showed that there was no significant difference in serum level of IL-12 between OBI patients and controls.Conclusion: In order to be clear of viruses, L-12 is increased in viral infection. Based on the results of this study, it is concluded that OBI patients can not produce enough IL-12 to clear HBV. J Mazand Univ Med Sci 2009; 19(72: 81-83 (Persian

  18. 辅酶Q10长循环脂质体及冻干制剂的制备与质量控制%Preparation and Quality Control of Coenzyme Q10 Long-circulating Liposomes and Lyophilized Prepara-tion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨硕晔; 王乐; 刘娜; 王贯宇; 潘梦宇; 胡元森

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE:To prepare Coenzyme Q10 long-circulating liposomes,establish the determination method of content and entrapment efficiency,and prepare it into lyophilized preparation to improve its stability. METHODS:Coenzyme Q10 long-cir-culating liposomes were prepared by film dispersion method. Particle size and Zeta potential of liposomes were determined,and HPLC assay was used to determine the content of coenzyme Q10. Free drugs and liposomes were separated using protamine aggre-gation method,and the encapsulation efficiency was calculated. Lyophilized preparation was prepared by coenzyme Q10 long-circu-lating liposomes,and the changes of content and encapsulation efficiency of drugs were determined 0,30 and 90 days after lyophi-lization. RESULTS:The liposomes were homogeneous in size with mean diameter of(166.0±5.3)nm and Zeta potential of(-22.2± 1.4)mV. Average content(the percentage of content accounted for labeled amount)and entrapment efficiency of 3 batches of sam-ple were 98.2%(RSD=2.8%) and 93.2%(RSD=4.6%),respectively. Compared with 0 d after lyophilization,coenzyme Q10 long-circulating liposomes had no obvious change in the content and encapsulation efficiency 90 d after lyophilization. CONCLU-SIONS:Coenzyme Q10 long-circulating liposomes with high quality and entrapment efficiency and lyophilized preparation being stored stably for 90 d have been prepared successfully.%目的:制备辅酶Q10长循环脂质体,建立含量与包封率测定方法,并将其制成冻干制剂以提高稳定性。方法:以薄膜分散法制备辅酶Q10长循环脂质体。检测所制脂质体的粒径和Zeta电位;采用高效液相色谱法测定药物含量;鱼精蛋白沉淀法分离脂质体与游离药物,计算包封率。将辅酶Q10长循环脂质体制成冻干制剂,检测其冻干0、30、90 d后药物含量与包封率变化。结果:所制备的辅酶Q10长循环脂质体大小均匀,粒径约为(166.0±5.3

  19. 冻干重组人三突变型HIF-1α腺病毒生物学效应考察%Characterization of the biological activities of lyophilized recombinant adenovirus expressing the triple mutant of hypoxia inducible factor-lα

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陶宇; 王月刚; 魏旋; 刘城; 陈冬冬; 吴平生

    2011-01-01

    To investigate the influence of lyophilization on the biological activity of recombinant adenovirus-mediated triple mutant of hypoxia inducible factor-la (Ad-HIF-la-564/402/803). Methods Ad-HIF-la-564/ 402/803 was amplified from HEK293A cells and purified by ultracentrifugation in CsCl gradient solutions. The infection efficiency was observed by X-gal staining. The lyophilized adenovirus was prepared under appropriate conditions. Before and after lyophilization, the effect of Ad-HIF-la-564/402/803 on hMVEC proliferation was evaluated by MTS assay. The recombinant adenovirus was confirmed by PCR and DNA sequence analysis before and 1 day, 6 months and 12 months after lyophilization, and hMVECs infected with Ad-HIF-la-564/402/803 at these time points were examined for HIF-la protein expression using Western blotting. Results No significant changes were observed in the effect of lyophilized Ad-HIF-la-564/402/803 on hMVECs proliferation at the optimal multiplicity of infection of 100 pfu/cell (P>0.05). At the 4 time points, the recombinant adenovirus HIF-la showed no structural alterations or significant changes in the expression level of HIF-la protein in the transfected hMVECs (P>0.05). Conclusion Lyophilized Ad-HIF-la-564/402/803 can maintain its biological activities for a long time.%目的 研究冻干对重组人三突变型HIF-1α病毒(Ad-HIF-1α-564/402/803)生物学效应的影响.方法 将前期构建的Ad-HIF-1α-564/402/803在HEK293A细胞中进行扩增,用氯化铯浓度梯度离心法进行腺病毒纯化,X-Gal染色法测定重组腺病毒转染效率,在适宜的条件下制成冻于剂.采用MTS试剂盒观察冻干前后Ad-HIF-1α-564/402/803对hMvECs增殖的影响.分别在冻干前、冻干后1 d、6月、12月四个时间点提取病毒DNA,进行PCR及PCR产物测序鉴定重组人三突变型HIF-1α腺病毒基因;并在4个时间点以Ad-HIF-1α-564/402/803转染hMVECs,提取蛋白进行western blot检测HIF-1α蛋白的表达.结果 X

  20. Material Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Mads Brath; Mortensen, Henrik Rubæk; Mullins, Michael;

    2009-01-01

    This paper describes and reflects upon the results of an investigative project which explores the setting up of a material system - a parametric and generative assembly consisting of and taking into consideration material properties, manufacturing constraints and geometric behavior. The project...... approaches the subject through the construction of a logic-driven system aiming to explore the possibilities of a material system that fulfills spatial, structural and performative requirements concurrently and how these are negotiated in situations where they might be conflicting....

  1. Material Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Mads Brath; Mortensen, Henrik Rubæk; Mullins, Michael

    2009-01-01

    This paper describes and reflects upon the results of an investigative project which explores the setting up of a material system - a parametric and generative assembly consisting of and taking into consideration material properties, manufacturing constraints and geometric behavior. The project...... approaches the subject through the construction of a logic-driven system aiming to explore the possibilities of a material system that fulfills spatial, structural and performative requirements concurrently and how these are negotiated in situations where they might be conflicting....

  2. [Serum iron and serum copper balance in the early diagnosis of metastases of breast cancer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wöllgens, P; Kuhne-Velte, H J; Franke-Lompa, C

    1980-02-01

    In a study made in the follow-up clinic on 684 patients with mammary carcinoma it was found that there were 64 cases of local recurrence and 244 cases of distant metastases. In both groups the serum iron and the serum copper balance in blood tests, in relation to the clinical proof of local recurrence and/or distant metastases, was investigated. It was found that there were 43.7% pathological serum iron and serum copper findings with local recurrences and 62.7% with distant metastases. The drift apart tendency of the blood serum values in patients with distant metastases could be proved in 78.7% of the cases and in 77.5% of the cases before any clinical proof. Thus, these observations allow the statement that the blood serum iron and serum copper imbalance in blood tests is of very real value in the early diagnosis of distant metastases.

  3. ESTIMATION OF SERUM URIC ACID LEVELS IN NORMAL PREDIABETIC AND DIABETIC PERSON

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prakash Gurupad Mantur

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Raised serum uric acid has been associated with a lot of diseases like hypertension, cardiovascular diseases, chronic kidney disease, peripheral vascular diseases and metabolic disorders. But, the association of serum uric acid levels to that of diabetes mellitus has not been successfully understood. A sincere effort has been put in this study to find out the serum uric acid levels in normal individuals, prediabetics and diabetics and come to a conclusion on the correlation of serum uric acid in diabetes mellitus. MATERIALS AND METHODS One hundred eighty people who visited the Department of Medicine were selected. The study included ninety males and ninety females and in each group there were thirty non-diabetic, thirty prediabetics and thirty diabetics. Prediabetics were considered as 110 to 125 mg/dL (6.1 mM/L to 6.9 mM/L - that is WHO criteria was followed. All the subjects were aged between 40-60 years. The correlations were made between the serum uric acid levels and serum fasting glucose, serum postprandial and HbA1c. RESULTS The results show a rise in the serum uric acid levels in the prediabetic and not so much in the non-diabetics and the confirmed diabetics. CONCLUSION The serum uric acid level measurements can be used as a powerful tool in identifying the prediabetic condition and help an individual to make the necessary lifestyle adjustments so that the progression of the diseases can be stopped or maybe infinitely delayed.

  4. High levels of serum hyaluronic acid in adults with dermatomyositis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alana Ausciutti Victorino

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Background / objectives. Hyaluronic acid (HA is rarely described in dermatomyositis (DM. Thus, we determined any clinical association of serum levels of hyaluronic acid (HA in patients with dermatomyositis (DM. Materials and Methods. This cross-sectional single-center analysis 75 DM and 75 healthy individuals, during the period from January 2012 to July 2013. An anti-HA antibody assay was performed using specific ELISA/EIA kits, according to the manufacturer’s protocol. Results. The patients with DM and control subjects had comparable demographic distributions (p>0.05. The median time duration between disease diagnosis and initial symptoms was 6.0 [3.0-12.0] months, with a median DM disease duration of 4.0 [1.0-7.0] years. The median level of serum HA was significantly increased in patients with DM compared to the control group [329.0 (80.0-958.0 vs. 133.0 (30.0-262.0 ng/mL, respectively; p0.05. Serum HA also did not correlate with gender, ethnicity, auto-antibodies or drug use (p>0.05, but did correlate with cutaneous features, such as photosensitivity (p=0.001, “shawl” sign (p=0.018, “V-neck” sign (p=0.005 and cuticular hypertrophy (p=0.014. Conclusions. A high level of serum AH was observed in DM compared to healthy individuals. In DM, HA did not correlate to demographic, auto-antibodies and therapy parameters. However, HA correlated specifically with some cutaneous features, suggesting that this glycosaminoglycan could be involved in modulating cutaneous inflammation in this population. More studies are necessary to understand the correlation between AH and patients with DM.

  5. Comparison of Serum CRP in Migraine Sufferers and Normal Population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Aminianfar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: CRP (C-reactive protein is one of the known inflammatory markers in the body. Studies claim that the level of this marker in patients with migraine is higher than normal peoples. Despite the result of various studies, even the relation between serum CRP and migraine is not detected thoroughly and is in a halo of ambiguity, therefore in this study, we intended to assess the relation between migraine and serum CRP levels. Materials and Methods: The present study was performed as a case-control on 47 migraine suffers that presented Besat hospital on year 2011, at intervals between their attacks and 50 normal individuals. Serum CRP level was measured at interval between attacks or at least 72 hour after the completion of the last attack and was compared with obtained results from normal population. Results: The comparison of CRP level in two groups, indicated that the median CRP at case group was 16.40 mg/dl and at control group 9.76 mg/dl (p≤0.05. The comparison of CRP median between the sufferers of classic migraine, migraine without aura and individuals without migraine, indicated that the CRP median difference at without aura migraine sufferers and normal population was not meaningful, but classic migraine suffers had higher serum CRP level than the other two groups. Conclusion: Finally, we should stay that the present study demonstrate that CRP inflammatory marker was higher at migraine suffers in comparison with normal general population and could explained the role of inflammation in creation and progression of this type of headache.

  6. SERUM CHEMISTRY ABNORMALITIES IN CHILDREN WITH UNPROVOKED SEIZURES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Akhondian MD

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available ObjectiveMost children brought to the emergency department (ED for evaluation of seizures undergo an extensive laboratory workup. Since results are usually negative, the value of such routine laboratory workups has been questioned. A group of children with unprovoked seizures was prospectively studied to determine the diagnostic values of routine serum chemistries and to identify risk factors predictive of abnormal findings.Materials & MethodsAll patients evaluated at the ED of the Ghaem hospital during a consecutive 12 months period between Jan 2004 through Jan 2005 were studied. We collected data for patient's demographics, details of the history of present illness (including vomiting, diarrhea, apnea, medication use, past history of seizures, family history of seizures, metabolic disorders or other chronic medical illnesses, neonatal history and neurological examination as well as nutritional status, type and time of seizure. The role of abnormal serum chemistries as a seizure trigger factor was assessed in patients with a history of seizure.ResultsA total of 210 patients (mean age 19.2 months with unprovoked seizures were evaluated. Twenty- three serum abnormalities were noted in the patients (12 cases of hyponatremia, 7 of hypoglycemia, 4 of hypokalemia, 4 of uremia. The incidence of abnormal serum biochemical values was higher in patients with a first seizure, younger patients, and those with gastrointestinal symptoms.ConclusionAccording to the present study, one can conclude that in children younger than 2 years and having no structural CNS abnormality, electrolyte and glucose screening is recommended only for a first unprovoked seizure, when gastrointestinal symptoms or symptoms suggesting electrolyte disturbances are present.Keywords:Unprovoked, Seizure, Biochemistry, Children

  7. SERUM CHEMISTRY ABNORMALITIES IN CHILDREN WITH UNPROVOKED SEIZURES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Akhondian MD,

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available ObjectiveMost children brought to the emergency department (ED for evaluation of seizures undergo an extensive laboratory workup. Since results are usually negative, the value of such routine laboratory workups has been questioned. A group of children with unprovoked seizures was prospectively studied to determine the diagnostic values of routine serum chemistries and to identify risk factors predictive of abnormal findings.Materials & MethodsAll patients evaluated at the ED of the Ghaem hospital during a consecutive 12 months period between Jan 2004 through Jan 2005 were studied. We collected data for patient's demographics, details of the history of present illness (including vomiting, diarrhea, apnea, medication use, past history of seizures, family history of seizures, metabolic disorders or other chronic medical illnesses, neonatal history and neurological examination as well as nutritional status, type and time of seizure. The role of abnormal serum chemistries as a seizure trigger factor was assessed in patients with a history of seizure.ResultsA total of 210 patients (mean age 19.2 months with unprovoked seizures were evaluated. Twenty- three serum abnormalities were noted in the patients (12 cases of hyponatremia, 7 of hypoglycemia, 4 of hypokalemia, 4 of uremia. The incidence of abnormal serum biochemical values was higher in patients with a first seizure, younger patients, and those with gastrointestinal symptoms.ConclusionAccording to the present study, one can conclude that in children younger than 2 years and having no structural CNS abnormality, electrolyte and glucose screening is recommended only for a first unprovoked seizure, when gastrointestinal symptoms or symptoms suggesting electrolyte disturbances are present.

  8. Relation between Serum Ferritin and Iron Parameters with Preeclampsia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robabeh Taheripanah

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Preeclampsia is one of the most important complications of pregnancy that is associated with increased morbidity and mortality. The aim of this study was to investigate the relation between serum iron status and ferritin with pre-eclampsia. Materials and Methods: This case control study evaluated 33 preeclamptic patients and 33 normal pregnant women before parturition in Imam Hossein hospital, from March 2003 till March 2004. Anemia, diabetes and multiple pregnancies were excluded from the study. Blood samples were taken before delivery and patients with HELLP syndrome were considered separately.  Data were analyzed using the SPSS software and P value <0.05 was considered statistically significant. T-test, chi-square and Fisher exact test were used.  Results: The mean of serum iron level in case and control group was 79.9±32.4µg/dl and 88.6±40.8 µg/dl, respectively (NS. TIBC was 443.4±55.0 µmol/l and 383.7±63.6 µmol/l in normal patients and preeclamptics respectively (P = 0.002. Mean serum ferritin was 32.1±16.2 ng/dl in control group and 123.8±46.1 ng/dl in preeclamptics (P<0.001. No meaningful relation was observed between hematocrit, ferritin and iron. Conclusions: Ferritin increases and TIBC decreases in preeclampsia regardless of hepatic function. It seems that elevated serum ferritin (as an oxidative stress can accelerate vascular damage. So, routine iron supplementation in preeclamptic women is questationable.

  9. Serum Prohepcidin Levels in Children with Thalassemia Major and Intermedia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Celil Yılmaz

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To determine the role of hepcidin hormone levels in iron accumulation in patients with thalassemia major (TM and thalassemia intermedia (TI. Materials and Methods: Serum prohepcidin and ferritin levels were determined in 34 patient with TM, 10 patient with TI, who attended the Department of Pediatric Hematology Adnan Menderes University Medical Faculty and the Department of Pediatrics at Aydın Atatürk State Hospital between 1 September 2006 and 30 September 2007 and 40 control patients without infection/inflammation, hepatitis or liver failure. Serum prohepcidin levels were measured using a commercial enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay kit (DRG International, Inc. Marburg, Germany; ferritin was studied with chemiluminescence method (Immulite 2000 DPC. Results: Mean serum ferritin levels in TM, TI and control groups were 2347.97±1724.81 ng/mL (range: 144-8015 ng/mL, 1352.40±918.94 ng/mL (range: 311-3109 ng/mL, and 33.35±12.03 ng/mL (range: 20-69.1 ng/mL, respectively. Serum prohepcidin levels in the same groups were 221.78±74.38 ng/mL (range: 7l.14-446.57 ng/mL, 173.31±52.14 ng/mL (range: 100.83-267.69 ng/mL, and 218.20±50.37 ng/mL (range: 116.18-330.43 ng/mL, respectively. There was a statistically significant difference in prohepcidin levels between patients with TI and control group only (p=0.016. No correlation was found between prohepcidin and ferritin levels in all groups (r=-0.023, p=0.839. Conclusion: Low levels of prohepcidin in patients with TI may be related to increased erythropoietic activity. Prohepcidin can be an indicator of active erythropoiesis.

  10. Temperature stability of Poly-[hemoglobin-superoxide dismutase-catalase-carbonic anhydrase] in the form of a solution or in the lyophilized form during storage at -80 °C, 4 °C, 25 °C and 37 °C or pasteurization at 70 °C.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bian, Y Z; Guo, C; Chang, T M S

    2016-01-01

    Polyhemoglobin-superoxide dismutase-catalase-carbonic anhydrase (Poly-[Hb-SOD-CAT-CA]) contains all three major functions of red blood cells (RBCs) at an enhanced level. It transports oxygen, removes oxygen radicals and transports carbon dioxide. Our previous studies in a 90-min 30 mm Hg Mean Arterial Pressure (MAP) sustained hemorrhagic shock rat model shows that it is more effective than blood in the lowering of elevated intracellular pCO2, recovery of ST-elevation and histology of the heart and intestine. This paper is to analyze the storage and temperature stability. Allowable storage time for RBC is about 1 d at room temperature and 42 d at 4 °C. Also, RBC cannot be pasteurized to remove infective agents like HIV and Ebola. PolyHb can be heat sterilized and can be stored for 1 year even at room temperature. However, Poly-[Hb-SOD-CAT-CA] contains both Hb and enzymes and enzymes are particularly sensitive to storage and heat. We thus carried out studies to analyze its storage stability at different temperatures and heat pasteurization stability. Results of storage stability show that lyophilization extends the storage time to 1 year at 4 °C and 40 d at room temperature (compared to respectively, 42 d and 1 d for RBC). After the freeze-dry process, the enzyme activities of Poly-[SFHb-SOD-CAT-CA] was 100 ± 2% for CA, 100 ± 2% for SOD and 93 ± 3.5% for CAT. After heat pasteurization at 70 °C for 2 h, lyophilized Poly-[Hb-SOD-CAT-CA] retained good enzyme activities of CA 97 ± 4%, SOD 100 ± 2.5% and CAT 63.8 ± 4%. More CAT can be added during the crosslinking process to maintain the same enzyme ratio after heat pasteurization. Heat pasteurization is possible only for the lyophilized form of Poly-[Hb-SOD-CAT-CA] and not for the solution. It can be easily reconstituted by dissolving in suitable solutions that continues to have good storage stability though less than that for the lyophilized form. According to the P50 value, Poly-[SFHb-SOD-CAT-CA] retains its

  11. Serum adipokine profiles in Kawasaki disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kemmotsu, Yasushi; Saji, Tsutomu; Kusunoki, Natsuko; Tanaka, Nahoko; Nishimura, Chiaki; Ishiguro, Akira; Kawai, Shinichi

    2012-02-01

    Adipokines are cytokines derived from adipose tissue. Recently it has been established that adipokines are closely linked to the pathophysiology of not only metabolic diseases, such as diabetes mellitus, obesity, and atherosclerosis, but also to inflammation and immune diseases. In this study we measured serum levels of adipokines in patients with acute Kawasaki disease to investigate the role of adipokines in the pathophysiology of Kawasaki disease. Serum resistin, high-molecular-weight (HMW) adiponectin, leptin, and visfatin levels were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay in a total of 117 subjects: 56 patients with acute Kawasaki disease, 30 healthy children, and 31 patients with acute infectious diseases. Serum resistin levels in patients with Kawasaki disease were significantly higher than those of healthy children and patients with acute infectious diseases. In contrast, mean serum HMW adiponectin, leptin, and visfatin levels in patients with Kawasaki disease exhibited no statistically significant differences compared with those in healthy children and patients with infectious diseases. Serum resistin levels decreased significantly after administration of intravenous immune globulin. Serum resistin levels on admission were significantly higher in nonresponders compared with responders to intravenous immune globulin therapy. A multivariate model revealed that C-reactive protein was a factor that was significantly related to elevated serum resistin level in patients with Kawasaki disease. In patients with Kawasaki disease, serum resistin levels were elevated, but decreased to nearly normal after intravenous administration of immune globulin. In contrast, serum HMW adiponectin, leptin, and visfatin levels showed no statistically significant changes. These findings suggest that resistin plays an important role, while other adipokines do not play a major role, in the pathogenesis of Kawasaki disease.

  12. Materials characterization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheung, N.W.; Nicolet, M.A.

    1986-01-01

    This book presents the papers given at a symposium on the methods used in the chemical analysis of materials. Topics considered at the symposium included emerging techniques for materials microanalysis, scanning electron microscopy, Raman spectroscopy, Auger electron spectroscopy, crystal lattices, computerized tomography using synchrotron radiation, epitaxy, photoconductivity, elastic properties, neutron-induced particle track mapping of elemental distributions, and point defects in crystals.

  13. Modeling Serum Creatinine in Septic ICU Patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    De Gaetano, Andrea; Cortese, Giuliana; Pedersen, Morten Gram

    2004-01-01

    Serum creatinine is a metabolite assumed to be constantly produced by the normally functioning muscle mass and is a good measure for monitoring daily renal function in the intensive care unit (ICU). High serum creatinine levels or an abnormal departure from normal pre-disease basal levels....... The present work details the structure of a model describing observed creatinine serum concentration (CSC) variations, depending on the time-varying septic insult to renal function in ICU patients, as well as the estimation of its parameters. CSC determinations were routinely obtained from 12 patients...

  14. Serum gold concentrations during treatment with auranofin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Riel, P L; Gribnau, F W; Van de Putte, L B; Arts, C W; Van Aernsbergen, A

    1987-03-01

    Serum gold concentrations were measured in rheumatoid arthritis patients during chronic treatment with the orally adsorbable gold compound auranofin. In agreement with data in the literature, the highest serum gold concentration was reached after 16 weeks of treatment with 6 mg auranofin daily. A striking finding in this study was that thereafter the serum gold concentrations did not appear to plateau but declined gradually. Statistically this resulted in a significantly lower concentration after one year as compared with week 16 (p less than 0.05, paired t-test). It is suggested that a shift from protein bound gold to cell-bound gold might be the explanation.

  15. Bioresponsive materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Yue; Aimetti, Alex A.; Langer, Robert; Gu, Zhen

    2016-10-01

    'Smart' bioresponsive materials that are sensitive to biological signals or to pathological abnormalities, and interact with or are actuated by them, are appealing therapeutic platforms for the development of next-generation precision medications. Armed with a better understanding of various biologically responsive mechanisms, researchers have made innovations in the areas of materials chemistry, biomolecular engineering, pharmaceutical science, and micro- and nanofabrication to develop bioresponsive materials for a range of applications, including controlled drug delivery, diagnostics, tissue engineering and biomedical devices. This Review highlights recent advances in the design of smart materials capable of responding to the physiological environment, to biomarkers and to biological particulates. Key design principles, challenges and future directions, including clinical translation, of bioresponsive materials are also discussed.

  16. Composite material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutchens, Stacy A.; Woodward, Jonathan; Evans, Barbara R.; O'Neill, Hugh M.

    2012-02-07

    A composite biocompatible hydrogel material includes a porous polymer matrix, the polymer matrix including a plurality of pores and providing a Young's modulus of at least 10 GPa. A calcium comprising salt is disposed in at least some of the pores. The porous polymer matrix can comprise cellulose, including bacterial cellulose. The composite can be used as a bone graft material. A method of tissue repair within the body of animals includes the steps of providing a composite biocompatible hydrogel material including a porous polymer matrix, the polymer matrix including a plurality of pores and providing a Young's modulus of at least 10 GPa, and inserting the hydrogel material into cartilage or bone tissue of an animal, wherein the hydrogel material supports cell colonization in vitro for autologous cell seeding.

  17. Periodontal materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darby, I

    2011-06-01

    Periodontics is more associated with debridement of periodontal pockets and not generally thought of as using dental materials in the treatment of patients. However, the last 30 years have seen the development of materials used in regeneration of the periodontal tissues following periodontal disease, guided tissue regeneration, and the use of these materials in bone regeneration more recently, guided bone regeneration. The materials used include bone grafts and membranes, but also growth factors and cells-based therapies. This review provides an overview of the materials currently used and looks at contemporary research with a view to what may be used in the future. It also looks at the clinical effectiveness of these regenerative therapies with an emphasis on what is available in Australia.

  18. Bioresponsive materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Yue; Aimetti, Alex A.; Langer, Robert; Gu, Zhen

    2017-01-01

    'Smart' bioresponsive materials that are sensitive to biological signals or to pathological abnormalities, and interact with or are actuated by them, are appealing therapeutic platforms for the development of next-generation precision medications. Armed with a better understanding of various biologically responsive mechanisms, researchers have made innovations in the areas of materials chemistry, biomolecular engineering, pharmaceutical science, and micro- and nanofabrication to develop bioresponsive materials for a range of applications, including controlled drug delivery, diagnostics, tissue engineering and biomedical devices. This Review highlights recent advances in the design of smart materials capable of responding to the physiological environment, to biomarkers and to biological particulates. Key design principles, challenges and future directions, including clinical translation, of bioresponsive materials are also discussed.

  19. Serum Lipids and Lipoproteins Levels and Selected Trace Metals In ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Serum Lipids and Lipoproteins Levels and Selected Trace Metals In Newly ... This study aim to determine the serum levels of trace metals and correlate same with serum levels of lipoproteins (an established marker of HBP) in ... Article Metrics.

  20. Serum obestatin and omentin levels in patients with diabetic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2016-04-08

    Apr 8, 2016 ... Results: While serum omentin levels did not differ among two groups (P = 0.407), serum obestatin levels were .... creatine kinase (CK), serum iron, total iron binding capacity (TIBC), ferritin, complete blood count (CBC),.

  1. Serum squamous cell carcinoma antigen and CYFRA 21-1 in cervical cancer treatment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pras, E; Willemse, PHB; Canrinus, AA; de Bruijn, HWA; Sluiter, WJ; ten Hoor, KA; Aalders, JG; Szabo, BG; de Vries, EGE

    2002-01-01

    Purpose: To analyze whether serum squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) antigen and cytokeratin-19 fragments (CYFRA) levels can assist in selecting patients with locally advanced cervical cancer who will benefit from combined treatment or additive surgery. Methods and Materials: Of 114 patients with cervica

  2. Effects of Indoor Cycling Associated with Diet on Body Composition and Serum Lipids

    Science.gov (United States)

    do Valle, Valeria S.; de Mello, Danielli B.; Fortes, Marcos de Sa R.; Dantas, Estelio H. M.

    2009-01-01

    Study aim: To determine the effects of indoor cycling training combined with restricted diet, lasting 12 weeks, on serum lipid concentrations in obese women. Material and methods: Twenty women aged 23.8 [plus or minus] 3.6 years were randomly assigned into two groups: control (C) and experimental (E), the latter subjected to indoor cycling at…

  3. SERUM CHOLINESTERASE AND PLEURAL CHOLINESTERASE LEVELS AND ITS USAGE TO DIFFERENTIATE PLEURAL TRANSUDATES AND EXUDATES

    OpenAIRE

    Suresh S.; Shoukath

    2014-01-01

    AIMS AND OBJECTIVES: Evaluation of pleural fluid cholinesterase level and comparison of study of pleural fluid cholinesterase levels and serum cholinesterase levels to differentiate transudates from exudates. Light’s criteria were used to compare transudate from exudate. MATERIALS AND METHODS: 56 patients of pleural effusion of different diseases like tuberculosis, malignancy, Para pneumonic effusion, congestive heart failure, nephrotic syndrome, pancreatitis were selected...

  4. Performance of VIDISCA-454 in Feces-Suspensions and Serum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lia van der Hoek

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Virus discovery combining sequence unbiased amplification with next generation sequencing is now state-of-the-art. We have previously determined that the performance of the unbiased amplification technique which is operational at our institute, VIDISCA-454, is efficient when respiratory samples are used as input. The performance of the assay is, however, not known for other clinical materials like blood or stool samples. Here, we investigated the sensitivity of VIDISCA-454 with feces-suspensions and serum samples that are positive and that have been quantified for norovirus and human immunodeficiency virus type 1, respectively. The performance of VIDISCA-454 in serum samples was equal to its performance in respiratory material, with an estimated lower threshold of 1,000 viral genome copies. The estimated threshold in feces-suspension is around 200,000 viral genome copies. The decreased sensitivity in feces suspension is mainly due to sequences that share no recognizable identity with known sequences. Most likely these sequences originate from bacteria and phages which are not completely sequenced.

  5. Radioimmunoassay of secretin in human serum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bonora, G.; Vezzadini, P.; Toni, R.; Labo, G. (Bologna Univ. (Italy))

    1984-06-27

    A sensitive radioimmunoassay for secretin has been developed. Antisera were raised against synthetic porcine secretin coupled to bovine serum albumin. N-..cap alpha..-desaminotyrosyl-..beta..-alanyl secretin was radioiodinated by a slight modification of the chloramine-T method. Pure synthetic porcine secretin was used as a standard. Free and bound hormone were separated by dextran-coated charcoal. No cross-reactivity was found with structurally and physiologically related peptides. The sensitivity of the assay was high enough to measure fasting secretin levels in human serum. Patients with acute or chronic pancreatitis had mean serum secretin concentration not significantly different from healthy subjects. In patients with pancreatic carcinoma the mean serum secretin concentration was significantly lower than in healthy subjects, although a wide overlap of the two groups was evident.

  6. Serum Prolactin in Diagnosis of Epileptic Seizures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Gordon Millichap

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available The results of studies in databases and references concerning serum prolactin levels (PRL in patients with suspected seizures were rated for quality and analyzed by members of the Therapeutics Subcommittee of the American Academy of Neurology.

  7. Ketoprofen analysis in serum by capillary electrophoresis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedberg, M; Shihabi, Z K

    1997-07-18

    A method for the quantification of ketoprofen, a new non-prescription non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug, in serum, by capillary zone electrophoresis for therapeutic monitoring and emergency toxicology is described. Serum is deproteinized with acetonitrile in the presence of an internal standard, to remove serum proteins and to induce sample stacking. The migration time was about 10 min. The assay was linear between 1-10 mg/l without any interferences. The method compared well to an HPLC assay. The HPLC afforded a better detection limit, but the CE was less expensive to operate. This method demonstrates that capillary electrophoresis is a simple and effective method for determination of ketoprofen as well as other drugs in human serum at levels close to 1 mg/l.

  8. Autologous serum therapy in chronic urticaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharmila Patil

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Autologous serum therapy is a promising therapy for treatment resistant urticaria. This is useful in developing countries as this is economical option. Minimum instruments like centrifuge, syringe and needles are required for the procedure.

  9. The optimum time of trehalose and glucose loading red blood cells for lyophilization%不同负载时间下红细胞内海藻糖和葡萄糖含量比较

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姚根宏; 陈艳丽; 唐雯; 吴永政; 栾建凤; 朱培元; 叶东; 严京梅

    2012-01-01

    Objective The aim of this shirty is to explore the optimum time of trehalose and glucose loading red blood cells for lyophilization. Methods Red blood cells were loaded with 0, 0. 125 , 0. 25 , 0.5 or 1 mol/L trehalose and glucose at 37℃ for 4 , 6 or 8 hours, followed by determination of the levels of trelose and glucose in the loaded red blood cells. Results The concentrations of trelose and glucose in the loaded red blood cells were increased in a time- and dose-dependent manner. The level of glucose in the loaded red blood cells was significantly higher in the 8 h than in the 6 h group, but that of trehalose showed no significant difference between the two. Conclusion The concentrations of trehalose and glucose with which red blood cells were loaded for 6 hours could satisfy the requirement of lyphilization.%目的 探索适合海藻糖和葡萄糖联合负载红细胞的时间,为冷冻干燥红细胞提供基础.方法 分别采用0、0.125、0.25、0.5和1mol/L的海藻糖联合葡萄糖,在37℃下负载红细胞4、6和8h.然后检测负载红细胞内海藻糖和葡萄糖的浓度.结果 随着负载时间的延长,进入红细胞内的海藻糖和葡萄糖数量增加.并且随着负载液浓度的增加,红细胞内的海藻糖和葡萄糖数量增加.负载时间为8h时,进入红细胞的葡萄糖比6h组明显增加.但是,延长负载时间为8h后,进入红细胞的海藻糖浓度与6h组比较,差异无统计学意义.结论海藻糖联合葡萄糖负载红细胞6h后,进入红细胞内的海藻糖和葡萄糖,能够满足冰冻干燥红细胞的负载要求.

  10. Enxerto bovino liofilizado: comportamento histológico após seguimento de 49 meses em seres humanos Bovine lyophilized graft (BLG: histological analysis on behavior in humans after 49 months

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Roberto Galia

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Analisar o comportamento histológico do ELB, produzido conforme protocolo desenvolvido pelo autor principal, em seres humanos no decorrer de 49 meses através da aferição da proporção enxerto/osso neoformado em relação ao total de área mineralizada. MÉTODOS: Série de casos com 12 pacientes, oito femininos (66% e quatro masculinos (34%, totalizando 13 biópsias, nos quais utilizou-se ELB e que posteriormente houve necessidade de reintervenção cirúrgica, no período de 2000 a 2011. As lâminas produzidas, coradas com hematoxilina-eosina (HE, foram analisadas por patologista e digitalizadas para a avaliação proposta. RESULTADOS: A média etária foi de 57 anos e o tempo médio de seguimento de 49 meses (6-115. A proporção média de ELB foi de 42% (13-85 e de osso neoformado de 58% (15-87 em relação ao total de área mineralizada. CONCLUSÕES: O presente estudo demonstra que o ELB utilizado apresenta característica osteocondutora e biocompatibilidade. O ELB apresentado é opção terapêutica a ser utilizada em cirurgias ortopédicas que necessitem preenchimento de deficiências ósseas.OBJECTIVE: To analyze the histological behavior of bovine lyophilized grafts (BLG produced according to a protocol developed by the first author, in humans over a 49-month period by measuring the graft/bone neoformation ratio in relation to the total mineralized area. METHODS: This was a case series involving 12 patients: eight females (66% and four males (34%, totaling 13 biopsies. BLG was used, and surgical reintervention was subsequently required during the period 2000 to 2011. The slides produced were stained with hematoxylin-eosin (HE, were analyzed by a pathologist and were digitized for the proposed evaluation. RESULTS: The mean age was 57 years and the mean follow-up was 49 months (range: 6-115. The average proportion of BLG was 42% range: 13-85 and neoformed bone, 58% (range: 15-87 in relation to the total area mineralized

  11. The relationship between serum magnesium level and febrile convulsion in 6 months to 6 years old children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reza Derakhshan

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: The pathogenesis of febrile convulsion (FC which is the most frequent seizure disorder in childhood isn’t clear but changes in the serum level of neurotransmitters and trace elements such as magnesium are known to contributing risk factors.Materials and Methods: In this case-control study serum magnesium of 32 children with FC and 33 children without FC were compared. Results: 25% of children with FC had serum magnesium level under 1.5 mg/dl. In the normal group no one had serum magnesium level under 1.5 mg/dl (p=0.05.Conclusion: Decreasing serum level in FC may be one contributing factor in the FC. It does not need to be lower than normal range in these groups of patients

  12. Radioactive Material

    CERN Multimedia

    2004-01-01

    The Radiation Protection Group of the Safety Commission is responsible for shipping of radioactive material from CERN to any external institute or organisation. The RP group is equally responsible for the reception of radioactive material shipped to any of the CERN sites. Anyone who needs to ship from or import into CERN radioactive material must contact the Radioactive Shipping Service of the RP group in advance. Instructions are available at: http://cern.ch/rp-shipping or in the Radiation Protection Procedure PRP13: https://edms.cern.ch/document/346823 Radiation Protection Group

  13. Radioactive Material

    CERN Multimedia

    2004-01-01

    The Radiation Protection Group of the Safety Commission is responsible for shipping of radioactive material from CERN to any external institute or organisation. The RP group is equally responsible for the reception of radioactive material shipped to any of the CERN sites. Anyone who needs to ship from or import into CERN radioactive material must contact the Radioactive Shipping Service of the RP group in advance. Instructions are available at: http://cern.ch/rp-shipping or in the Radiation Protection Procedure PRP13: https://edms.cern.ch/document/346823 Radiation Protection Group

  14. Assessing possible hazards of reducing serum cholesterol.

    OpenAIRE

    Law, M. R.; Thompson, S. G.; Wald, N J

    1994-01-01

    OBJECTIVE--To assess whether low serum cholesterol concentration increases mortality from any cause. DESIGN--Systematic review of published data on mortality from causes other than ischaemic heart disease derived from the 10 largest cohort studies, two international studies, and 28 randomised trials, supplemented by unpublished data on causes of death obtained when necessary. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES--Excess cause specific mortality associated with low or lowered serum cholesterol concentration....

  15. Revisiting the cardiometabolic relevance of serum amylase

    OpenAIRE

    Munakata Hiromi; Muneyuki Toshitaka; Nakajima Kei; Kakei Masafumi

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background The pancreas has dual functions as a digestive organ and as an endocrine organ, by secreting digestive enzymes and endocrine hormones. Some early studies have revealed that serum amylase levels are lower in individuals with chronic pancreatitis, severe long-term type 2 diabetes or type 1 diabetes. Regarding this issue, we recently reported that low serum amylase levels were associated with metabolic syndrome and diabetes in asymptomatic adults. In the light of this, we fur...

  16. Estimation of Serum Creatinine by Routine Jaffé’s Method and by Dry Chemistry in Icteric and Hemolytic Serum Samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Padmanabhan Preeti

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Newer analytical methods are introduced in clinical biochemistry laboratory for the purpose of improvement of quality, automation, to reduce the cost or to simply measure a new analyte. Serum creatinine is one of the renal function test. Creatinine is measured in serum by modified Jaffé’s method which involves wet chemistry (SCrMJ and the new dry chemistry which utilizes the microslides and involves enzymes (SCrMS. Various kits available commercially which are based on enzymatic methods to overcome the shortcomings and problems inherent in the Jaffé’s method. Aim: The aim of the present study is to compare the results of creatinine estimation by modified Jaffé’s method (SCrMJ or wet chemistry and dry chemistry (SCrMS in icteric and haemolytic serum samples. Methods and Materials: Forty serum samples each of icterus and haemolysis were analyzed by modified Jaffé’s method (SCrMJ (wet method and patented dry chemistry (SCrMS method developed by ortho clinical diagnostics. Results: The Creatinine concentration in serum is comparatively lower when estimated by dry chemistry (SCrMS developed by ortho clinical diagnostics on Vitros 250 analyzer as compared to modified Jaffé’s method (wet chemistry. The values of creatinine are found to be both accurate and precise by the enzymatic method in icteric and haemolytic serum samples. Conclusions: Dry chemistry eliminates the possibility of overestimation of creatinine in icteric and haemolytic samples and estimate the true value of creatinine in serum for better treatment planning

  17. Revisiting the cardiometabolic relevance of serum amylase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Munakata Hiromi

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The pancreas has dual functions as a digestive organ and as an endocrine organ, by secreting digestive enzymes and endocrine hormones. Some early studies have revealed that serum amylase levels are lower in individuals with chronic pancreatitis, severe long-term type 2 diabetes or type 1 diabetes. Regarding this issue, we recently reported that low serum amylase levels were associated with metabolic syndrome and diabetes in asymptomatic adults. In the light of this, we further investigated the fundamental relationship between serum amylase and cardiometabolic aspects by reanalyzing previous data which comprised subjects without diabetes treatment with oral hypoglycemic drugs or insulin (n = 2,344. Findings Serum amylase was inversely correlated with body mass index independently of age. Higher serum amylase levels were noted in older subjects aged 55 years old or more (n = 1,114 than in younger subjects (P P Conclusions Revisiting the cardiometabolic relevance of serum amylase may yield novel insight not only into glucose homeostasis and metabolic abnormalities related to obesity, but also possibly carbohydrate absorption in the gut.

  18. Serum angiotensin converting enzyme in pemphigus vulgaris

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reza M Robati

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Pemphigus vulgaris is an autoimmune blistering skin disease with unknown etiology. Drugs such as angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE inhibitors may contribute in the pathogenesis of pemphigus. Objective: We plan this essay to evaluate the serum ACE level in pemphigus vulgaris patients in comparison with healthy controls to recognize its possible role in disease pathogenesis or activity. Methods: This study was planned and performed in the dermatology clinics of Shahid Beheshti University of MedicalSciences′ Hospitals between July 2010 and June 2011. Patients with new onset of pemphigus vulgaris were enrolled in our study. Control subjects were frequency-matched to cases by sex and age. Serum ACE was determined by the spectrophotometric method. Results: Thirty-four patients with pemphigus vulgaris and 35 healthy individuals were recruited in the study. No statistical significant difference was detected in the mean level of serum ACE of the two groups (t-test, P = 0.11. The mean ACE level was significantly lower in male patients compared with male controls (P = 0.04. Moreover, a significant higher serum ACE level of patients with cutaneous involvement was observed compared to patients with mucosal involvement (P = 0.02. Conclusions: Despite lack of any significant difference of serum ACE level between pemphigus and control group, the serum ACE level was considerably lower in male pemphigus vulgaris patients compared with male controls. Therefore, ACE might have some association with pemphigus vulgaris especially in male patients; however, further studies are required to confirm this association.

  19. Virtual materiality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søndergaard, Dorte Marie

    an interesting platform for further development including virtual materiality and agency. If we choose to proceed along this line – some of our steps would include attention to the following points: 1. Working with virtual realities first of all undermines a pure realist conceptualization of materiality. We need......There are two questions that feed the curiosity of this paper: a theoretical question connected to the conceptualization of materiality across the real/virtual divide and an empirical question connected to the understanding of virtual experiences in children’s lives when studied in relation...... as their recounts of them and 3. the consumption of other media products like movies, reality shows, YouTube videos etc. How do we theorize ‘matter’ in such dimensions? Is it possible to theorize virtual matter as ‘materiality’ in line with any real life materiality? What conceptualization will help us understand...

  20. Encountering Materiality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svabo, Connie

    2016-01-01

    DHT researcher Connie Svabo and artist Charlotte Grum did a joint performance presentation titled Becoming Sheep, Becoming Animal at the international conference Encountering Materiality – Transdisciplinary Conversations, held in Geneve, Schwitzerland, June 23-25 2016.......DHT researcher Connie Svabo and artist Charlotte Grum did a joint performance presentation titled Becoming Sheep, Becoming Animal at the international conference Encountering Materiality – Transdisciplinary Conversations, held in Geneve, Schwitzerland, June 23-25 2016....

  1. Background Material

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zandersen, Marianne; Hyytiäinen, Kari; Saraiva, Sofia

    2016-01-01

    This document serves as a background material to the BONUS Pilot Scenario Workshop, which aims to develop harmonised regional storylines of socio-ecological futures in the Baltic Sea region in a collaborative effort together with other BONUS projects and stakeholders.......This document serves as a background material to the BONUS Pilot Scenario Workshop, which aims to develop harmonised regional storylines of socio-ecological futures in the Baltic Sea region in a collaborative effort together with other BONUS projects and stakeholders....

  2. Encountering Materiality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svabo, Connie

    2016-01-01

    DHT researcher Connie Svabo and artist Charlotte Grum did a joint performance presentation titled Becoming Sheep, Becoming Animal at the international conference Encountering Materiality – Transdisciplinary Conversations, held in Geneve, Schwitzerland, June 23-25 2016.......DHT researcher Connie Svabo and artist Charlotte Grum did a joint performance presentation titled Becoming Sheep, Becoming Animal at the international conference Encountering Materiality – Transdisciplinary Conversations, held in Geneve, Schwitzerland, June 23-25 2016....

  3. Propulsion materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wall, Edward J. [U.S. Dept. of Energy, Washington, D.C. (United States); Sullivan, Rogelio A. [U.S. Dept. of Energy, Washington, D.C. (United States); Gibbs, Jerry L. [U.S. Dept. of Energy, Washington, D.C. (United States)

    2008-01-01

    The Department of Energy’s (DOE’s) Office of Vehicle Technologies (OVT) is pleased to introduce the FY 2007 Annual Progress Report for the Propulsion Materials Research and Development Program. Together with DOE national laboratories and in partnership with private industry and universities across the United States, the program continues to engage in research and development (R&D) that provides enabling materials technology for fuel-efficient and environmentally friendly commercial and passenger vehicles.

  4. Nanostructured Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-30

    with macroscopic reinforcements such as fiber, clay, glass mineral and other fillers. The nano-alloyed polymers are particularly useful for producing...applications, including space-sur- vivable materials and seals, gaskets, cosmetics , and personal care. 25 Claims, 10 Drawing Sheets B-3 U.S. Patent Mar...the incorporation of fluorinated nanostructured chemicals onto the surface of a secondary material (such as Ti02 , CaC03 , glass or mineral

  5. Preparation of collagen-based materials for wound dressing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴志谷; 盛志勇; 孙同柱; 耿淼; 黎君友; 姚咏明; 黄祖琇

    2003-01-01

    Objective To describe the methods which were used to develop collagen-based materials for wound dressing.Methods Fresh frozen bovine tendon was treated with 0.05 mol/L acetic acid at pH 3.2 for 48-72 hours, homogenized, filtered, mixed with 8% chondroitin sulphate, for creating a deaerated 1.5%-2.5% collagen solution. The solution was lyophilized in either a pre-frozen or non-pre-frozen mould. The collagen sponge was then cross-linked with 0.25% glutaraldehyde for 24 hours. Three other types of wound dressings were developed using a similar method: collagen membrane with a polyurethane membrane onlay, polyurethane-coated collagen membrane and collagen membrane on gauze.Results It was demonstrated that the use of frozen bovine tendon was stable, and that the prepared collagen sponge contained pores of 50-400 μm in diameter. Conclusions Collagen could be used as wound dressing.

  6. Enhanced Materials from Nature: Nanocellulose from Citrus Waste

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mayra Mariño

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Nanocellulose is a relatively inexpensive, highly versatile bio-based renewable material with advantageous properties, including biodegradability and nontoxicity. Numerous potential applications of nanocellulose, such as its use for the preparation of high-performance composites, have attracted much attention from industry. Owing to the low energy consumption and the addition of significant value, nanocellulose extraction from agricultural waste is one of the best alternatives for waste treatment. Different techniques for the isolation and purification of nanocellulose have been reported, and combining these techniques influences the morphology of the resultant fibers. Herein, some of the extraction routes for obtaining nanocellulose from citrus waste are addressed. The morphology of nanocellulose was determined by Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM and Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscopy (FESEM, while cellulose crystallinity indexes (CI from lyophilized samples were determined using solid-state Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR and X-Ray Diffraction (XRD measurements. The resultant nanofibers had 55% crystallinity, an average diameter of 10 nm and a length of 458 nm.

  7. Enhanced materials from nature: nanocellulose from citrus waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mariño, Mayra; Lopes da Silva, Lucimara; Durán, Nelson; Tasic, Ljubica

    2015-04-03

    Nanocellulose is a relatively inexpensive, highly versatile bio-based renewable material with advantageous properties, including biodegradability and nontoxicity. Numerous potential applications of nanocellulose, such as its use for the preparation of high-performance composites, have attracted much attention from industry. Owing to the low energy consumption and the addition of significant value, nanocellulose extraction from agricultural waste is one of the best alternatives for waste treatment. Different techniques for the isolation and purification of nanocellulose have been reported, and combining these techniques influences the morphology of the resultant fibers. Herein, some of the extraction routes for obtaining nanocellulose from citrus waste are addressed. The morphology of nanocellulose was determined by Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) and Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscopy (FESEM), while cellulose crystallinity indexes (CI) from lyophilized samples were determined using solid-state Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) and X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) measurements. The resultant nanofibers had 55% crystallinity, an average diameter of 10 nm and a length of 458 nm.

  8. THE EFFECT OF SLEEP DEPRIVATION ON SERUM IGG RESPONSES TO AEROBIC ACTIVITY IN COLLEGE STUDENT ATHLETES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saeed Jamshidi Far

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Background & Aims: Sleep is a restorative process for the immune system. There are many situations in which sleep is disturbed prior to an athletic event. However, the effect of sleep deprivation on immune indices in response to exercise remains unknown. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of sleep deprivation on serum IgG responses to aerobic activity. Materials & Methods: In this quasi-experimental study, 10 male physical education students were voluntarily participated. Study was performed in two separate occasions; control and experimental within two weeks. In the control occasion, normal sleep and aerobic activity and in the experimental occasion, sleep deprivation and aerobic activity was applied. Aerobic activity was performed on bicycle ergometer for 30 minutes at intensity of 70 to 75 percent of maximum heart rate. Changes in serum IgG concentrations in pre-test, before and after aerobic activity in both occasions were analyzed by the two repeated measures ANOVA and dependent T-test using SPSS software. Results: The results showed that sleep deprivation not significantly effect on Serum IgG response to aerobic activity (p=0.130. Also, aerobic activity not significantly effect on Serum IgG concentration (p=0.357. But sleep deprivation caused a significantly increase in serum IgG concentration (p=0.035. Conclusion: No significant effect of sleep deprivation on serum IgG concentrations response to aerobic activity.

  9. Association between Serum Cortisol and DHEA-S Levels and Response to Antipsychotic Treatment in Schizophrenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zoja Babinkostova

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Previous studies suggested that alterations in serum cortisol and DHEA-S levels may play a role in the pathophysiology of schizophrenia. AIM: To compare serum cortisol and DHEA-S levels between patients with schizophrenia and healthy controls and to evaluate their association with the response to antipsychotic treatment. MATERIAL AND METHODS: In this clinical prospective study were included 60 patients with schizophrenia and 40 healthy age and sex matched control subjects. Clinical evaluation of patients was performed using the Positive and Negative Symptom Scale. A questionnaire for socio-demographic and clinical data collection was used. For the purposes of the study, the examined group was divided in two subgroups: responders and nonresponders. Serum cortisol and DHEA-S levels were measured at baseline in all participants and after 3 and 6 weeks of the antipsychotic treatment in patients with schizophrenia. RESULTS: Patients with schizophrenia had significantly higher serum cortisol and DHEA-S levels in comparison to the control group. Responders had significantly higher serum cortisol and DHEA-S levels compared with nonresponders. CONCLUSION: Elevated serum cortisol and DHEA-S levels may play a role in the pathophysiology of schizophrenia and they may be related to positive response to antipsychotic treatment in patients with schizophrenia.

  10. The Level of Serum and Urinary Nephrin in Normal Pregnancy and Pregnancy with Subsequent Preeclampsia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Yun Ji; Cho, Hee Young; Cho, SiHyun; Kim, Young Han; Jeon, Jin-Dong; Kim, Young-Jin; Lee, Sanghoo; Park, Jimyeong; Kim, Ha Yan; Park, Yong-Won

    2017-01-01

    Purpose The aim of this study was to evaluate serum and urinary nephrin levels of normal pregnancy to establish a standard reference value and to compare them with patients who subsequently developed preeclampsia (PE). Materials and Methods In this prospective study, 117 healthy singleton pregnancies were enrolled between 6 to 20 weeks of gestation at 2 participating medical centers during October 2010 to March 2012. Urine and serum samples were collected at the time of enrollment, each trimester, and at 4 to 6 weeks postpartum. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for nephrin was performed and samples from patients who subsequently developed PE were compared to the normal patients. Results Of 117 patients initially enrolled, 99 patients delivered at the study centers and of those patients, 12 (12.1%) developed PE at a median gestational age of 34+4 weeks (range 29+5–36+6). In the normal patients (n=68), serum nephrin level decreased and urinary nephrin level increased during the latter of pregnancy. In 12 patients who subsequently developed PE, a significant rise in the 3rd trimester serum and urinary nephrin levels, compared to the controls, was observed (p<0.001), and this increase occurred 9 days prior to the onset of clinical disease. Conclusion As the onset of PE was preceded by the rise in the serum and urinary nephrin in comparison to normal pregnancy, serum and urinary nephrin may be a useful predictive marker of PE. PMID:28120572

  11. Serum Anti-Müllerian Hormone Levels in Patients with Epithelial Ovarian Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pawel Walentowicz

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. The aim of our study was to examine serum anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH concentration in ovarian cancer patients in relation to clinicopathological features, such as a pathological subtype of the tumor, (FIGO stage, grading, and overall 5-year survival. Material and Methods. We enrolled 72 epithelial ovarian cancer patients in our study, aged 45–79 years, who underwent optimal cytoreductive surgery. In all patients, serum AMH concentration was measured using a two-step sandwich type enzyme immunoassay before surgery. As a reference value for women over 45 years we accepted anti-Müllerian hormone concentration below 1 ng/mL. Results. In the whole group of patients with ovarian cancer, median serum concentration of AMH was 0.07 (0.0–0.37 ng/mL, whereas in the group of those with positive AMH values (≥0.14 ng/mL it was 0.31 (0.15–0.73 ng/mL. No significant correlation was found between serum AMH levels and FIGO stage, histological subtype, or grading (. The analysis of five-year survival rate related to AMH levels showed no statistically significant differences. There were no differences in survival rates between patients with positive or negative serum AMH levels. Conclusion. Measurement of serum anti-Müllerian hormone levels was not useful in predicting clinicopathological features and survival in patients with ovarian cancer.

  12. Serum Magnesium and Vitamin D Levels as Indicators of Asthma Severity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed Nadeem Shaikh

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Serum magnesium levels affect the concentration of circulating vitamin D in blood and subsequently it affects the immunity; thus it plays significant role in the pathogenesis of asthma. Asthma, in adults, is less studied and hypomagnesemia along with vitamin D deficiency and insufficiency is common in asthmatic individuals, which causes frequent asthma attacks, respiratory infections, severe exacerbations, and poor response to bronchodilators. Objective. To detect the magnitude of vitamin D insufficiency and deficiency and serum magnesium levels among asthmatic patients and to correlate them with the severity of asthma. Materials and Methods. This is a cross-sectional case-control study which includes 60 patients of chronic stable asthma and 60 healthy controls. After taking clinical history and systemic examination, pulmonary function test was done. Serum levels of magnesium, 25-hydroxycholecalciferol [25(OHD], and calcium were measured in all the subjects. Results. Significant correlation was found between vitamin D deficiency, hypomagnesemia, and asthma severity. Serum calcium levels were unaffected by that. Conclusion. Vitamin D and serum magnesium deficiency are highly prevalent in patients with asthma. Increased asthma severity, frequency of attacks, and exacerbation are associated with lower levels of one or both. Serum 25(OHD and magnesium levels may serve as important markers of asthma severity.

  13. Serum lactic dehydrogenase isoenzymes and serum hydroxy butyric dehydrogenase in myocardial infarction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kanekar D

    1979-01-01

    Full Text Available Total serum lactate dehydrogenase activity in cases of myocar-dial infarct is difficult to interpret as abnormal values can occur in diseases of liver, kidney and skeletal muscle. The estimation of its isoenzymes is of better diagnostic help because of its tissue specificity. Serum LDH isoenzymes were studied in patients o f myocardial infarction and results are quantitated by densitometry. As LDH 1 represents serum hydroxybutyric dehydrogenase when 2-oxylbutyrate is used as substrate, serum hydroxybutyric dehydro-genase was also estimated in above patients. Greater specificity in diagnosis is achieved with SHBDH because of its myocardial nature and lower incidence of false positive results.

  14. Treatment of serum with supernatants from cultures of Candida albicans reduces its serum-dependent phagocytosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santos Aderbal Antonio dos

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Candida albicans is a potent activator of the complement system, and heat labile opsonins produced by activation of C3 (C3b and iC3b enhance phagocytosis of C. albicans mediated by complement receptors. In this study we treated mouse serum with supernatants from cultures of a protease producer strain of C. albicans and evaluated the ability of this serum to enhance phagocytosis of C. albicans. Cell-free supernatants from cultures of C. albicans were concentrated 5 fold and added to mouse serum for 30 min at 37ºC, before using this serum for opsonization of glutaraldehyde-fixed yeast cells. We observed that normal mouse serum increased about 3 fold the phagocytosis of C. albicans by mice peritoneal macrophages, whereas supernatant-treated serum did not increase phagocytosis. This effect of supernatants on serum was prevented by addition of pepstatin (5 µg/ ml; an inhibitor of C. albicans acid proteases to the medium. Serum treated with supernatants from cultures of a protease-deficient mutant of C. albicans also increased about 3 fold phagocytosis of the yeast. These results suggest that a protease produced by C. albicans causes proteolysis of serum opsonins, thereby reducing the phagocytosis of the yeast.

  15. Protective effect of Zige lyophilized powder on hypoxia/reoxygenation injury of human umbilical vein endothelial cells%梓葛冻干粉对人脐静脉内皮细胞缺氧/复氧损伤的保护作用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张聪聪; 马强; 薛强; 陈刚; 徐晓玉

    2012-01-01

    目的:研究中药单体组方梓葛冻干粉对人脐静脉内皮细胞(HUVECs)缺氧/复氧损伤的保护作用.方法:体外培养HUVECs.采用Krebs液建立缺氧/复氧损伤模型.用梓葛冻干粉干预后,采用MTT比色法测定细胞活力、黄嘌呤氧化酶法测定细胞内超氧化物歧化酶(SOD)活性、硫代巴比妥酸显色法测定丙二醛(MDA)含量、硝酸还原酶法测定一氧化氮(NO)含量、2,4-二硝基苯肼显色法测定细胞外乳酸脱氢酶(LDH)释放量;Western blot法分析细胞凋亡相关蛋白Bcl-2,Bax,Caspase-3 的表达.结果:与模型组相比,梓葛冻干粉12.5 nmg·L-1显著提高细胞活力(P<0.05);梓葛冻干粉49.0,24.5,12.5 mg·L-1 均显著提高缺氧/复氧后细胞SOD活性(P<0.05);梓葛冻干粉24.5,12.5 mg·L-1能显著减少LDH的释放量及降低MDA和NO的含量(P<0.05),并上调细胞Bcl-2蛋白表达(P<0.05,P<0.01);梓葛冻干粉49.0,24.5,12.5 mg·L-1显著降低Bax的表达并上调Bcl-2/Bax(P<0.05,P<0.01),且梓葛冻干粉49.0,24.5 mg·L-1显著降低Caspase-3的表达(P<0.01).结论:梓葛冻干粉可显著拮抗缺氧/复氧对HUVECs的损伤,可能与其抑制细胞过氧化损伤,增强细胞抗氧化和抗凋亡能力有关.%Objective: To study the protective effect of single prescription of traditional Chinese medicine Zige lyophilized powder on hypoxia/reoxygenation injury of human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs). Method: HUVECs were cultured in vitro and Krebs liquid was adopted to establish the hypoxia/reoxygenation injury model. After intervention of Zige lyophilized powder, MTT colorimetric method was used to determine cell activity, the xanthine oxidase method is adopted to detect the activity of superoxide dis-mutases (SOD) in cells, the thibabituric acid developing method was adopted to determine the content of malondialdehyde (MDA), the nitrate reductase method was used to detect the content of nitric oxide (NO), the 2

  16. Lyophilization conditions for the storage of monooxygenases

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Beek, Hugo L.; Beyer, Nina; Janssen, Dick B.; Fraaije, Marco W.

    2015-01-01

    Cyclohexanone monooxygenase (CHMO) was used as a model enzyme to find suitable freeze-drying conditions for long-term storage of an isolated monooxygenase. CHMO is a Baeyer-Villiger monooxygenase (BVMO) known for its ability to catalyze a large number of oxidation reactions. With a focus on establis

  17. Serum IL-10, MMP-7, MMP-9 Levels in Helicobacter pylori Infection and Correlation with Degree of Gastritis

    OpenAIRE

    Gontar Siregar; Sahat Halim; Ricky Sitepu

    2016-01-01

    AIM: Helicobacter pylori causes gastric mucosal inflammation and immune reaction. However, the increase of IL-10, MMP-7, and MMP-7 levels in the serum is still controversial. The objective of this study was to investigate the serum levels of IL-10, MMP-7 & MMP-9 in gastritis patients with H. pylori infection. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A cross-sectional study was done on seventy gastritis patients that consecutive admitted to endoscopy units. The diagnosis of gastritis was made based on histo...

  18. Serum IL-10, MMP-7, MMP-9 Levels in Helicobacter pylori Infection and Correlation with Degree of Gastritis

    OpenAIRE

    Siregar, Gontar; Halim, Sahat; Sitepu, Ricky

    2016-01-01

    AIM: Helicobacter pylori causes gastric mucosal inflammation and immune reaction. However, the increase of IL-10, MMP-7, and MMP-7 levels in the serum is still controversial. The objective of this study was to investigate the serum levels of IL-10, MMP-7 & MMP-9 in gastritis patients with H. pylori infection.MATERIALS AND METHODS: A cross-sectional study was done on seventy gastritis patients that consecutive admitted to endoscopy units. The diagnosis of gastritis was made based on histopatho...

  19. Elevated serum progesterone/ MII oocyte ratio on the day of human chorionic gonadotropin administration can predict impaired endometrial receptivity

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    Background: Increased serum progesterone on the day of human chorionic gonadotropin administration may affect in vitro fertilization (IVF) outcome. Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate whether progesterone elevation on the day of human chorionic gonadotropin administration is associated with poor IVF outcome. Materials and Methods: To determine the relationship between serum progesterone on the day of HCG and the outcome of IVF-embryo transfer treatment, 378 infertile patients und...

  20. Serum protein profiling by miniaturized solid-phase extraction and matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Callesen, Anne K; Mohammed, Shabaz; Bunkenborg, Jakob;

    2005-01-01

    for translation of MALDI-MS based diagnostic methods to clinical applications. We have investigated a number of MALDI matrices and several miniaturized solid-phase extraction (SPE) methods for serum protein concentration and desalting with the aim of generating reproducible, high-quality protein profiles by MALDI...... mass spectra (m/z 1000-12,000) to be obtained from serum. In a proof-of-principle application, SPE with chelating material and MALDI-MS identified protein peaks in serum that had been previously reported for distinguishing a person diagnosed with breast cancer from a control. These preliminary results...

  1. The serum protein carbonyl content level in relation to exercise stress test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Titiporn Mekrungruangwong

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Protein carbonyl (P is oxidatively-modified protein with diagnostic potential for acute myocardial infarction. However, many findings indicated the elevation of serum PC content level related to exercise, which could cause false positive results and limiting the specificity for acute coronary syndrome diagnosis. This study aims to evaluate the level of serum protein carbonyl content in healthy volunteers subjected to exercise stress test (EST. Materials and Methods: Serum from healthy volunteers was collected 5-10 min before performing EST and 1 hour after the EST was achieved. The serum was collected, and the serum PC content level was determined by spectrophotometric DNPH assay. Results: The serum PC content level after exercise stress test was significantly higher than that of before performing EST (0.373 ± 0.05 nM/mg vs. 0.275 ± 0.02 nM/mg, P < 0.0001. The results demonstrated that in both male and female, serum PC content level after EST was significantly higher than that of before performing EST (0.29 ± 0.03 nM/mg vs. 0.36 ± 0.05 nM/mg P < 0.0001 in male, 0.27 ± 0.02 nM/mg vs. 0.38 ± 0.06 nM/mg P < 0.0001 in female, respectively. Conclusions: This study demonstrated that exercise stress test could result in non-specificity and false positive increasing in serum PC content level in healthy subjects, which may cause misinterpretation when using PC as cardiac marker, especially in patients, who underwent exercise stress test or patients who performing heavy physical activities.

  2. Fluorimetric determination of cholesterol in hypercholesterolemia serum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lan, Xiufeng; Liu, Jiangang; Liu, Ying; Luo, Xiaosen; Lu, Jian; Ni, Xiaowu

    2005-01-01

    With the increase of people"s living standard and the changes of living form, the number of people who suffer from hypercholesterolemia is increasing. It is not only harmful to heart and blood vessel, but also leading to obstruction of cognition