WorldWideScience

Sample records for lyophilization

  1. Lyophilized skeletal imaging composition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vanduzee, B.F.

    1983-01-01

    This invention encompasses a process for producing a dry-powder skeletal imaging kit. An aqueous solution of a diphosphonate, a stannous reductant, and, optionally, a stabilizer is prepared. The solution is adjusted to a pH within the range 4.2 to 4.8 and the pH-adjusted solution is then lyophilized. The adjustment of pH, within a particular range, during the process of manufacturing lyophilized diphosphonate containing skeletal imaging kits yields a kit which produces a technetium skeletal imaging agent with superior imaging properties. This improved performance is manifested through faster blood clearance and higher skeletal uptake of the technetium imaging agent

  2. Radiation decontamination of meat lyophilized products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Owczarczyk, H.B.; Migdal, W.

    2002-01-01

    There is an increasing demand for powder soups and sauces compose with lyophilized products. Technology of lyophilization is not always accompanied by thermal treatment of raw materials. That is the reason the products lyophilization process does not ensure as good microbiological quality as is required. Degree of microbiological decontamination and organoleptic properties of lyophilized meat were investigated after radiation treatment. (author)

  3. Process for making lyophilized radiographic imaging kit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grogg, T.W.; Bates, P.E.; Bugaj, J.E.

    1985-01-01

    A process for making a lyophilized composition useful for skeletal imaging whereby an aqueous solution containing an ascorbate, gentisate, or reductate stabilizer is contacted with tin metal or an alloy containing tin and, thereafter, lyophilized. Preferably, such compositions also comprise a tissue-specific carrier and a stannous compound. It is particularly preferred to incorporate stannous oxide as a coating on the tin metal

  4. Pig skin apposite dehydrated by lyophilization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reyes F, M.L.; Gonzalez V, C.; Flores A, M.; Peralta R, J.; Reboyo B, D.; Rodriguez U, M.D.

    2007-01-01

    Taking like base a work carried out in 2001 in the Radio sterilized Tissue Bank (BTR) in which lyophilized apposite of pig skin were obtained at laboratory scale, this work is presented that had as purpose to process pig skin to produce temporary covers of skin (apposite) dehydrated by lyophilization to commercial scale. (Author)

  5. Development of lyophilization cycle and effect of excipients on the stability of catalase during lyophilization

    OpenAIRE

    Lale, Shantanu V; Goyal, Monu; Bansal, Arvind K

    2011-01-01

    Introduction: The purpose of the present study was to screen excipients such as amino acids and non-aqueous solvents for their stabilizing effect on catalase, a model protein, for lyophilization. The present study also includes optimization of lyophilization cycle for catalase formulations, which is essential from the commercial point of view, since lyophilization is an extremely costly process. Materials and Methods: Activity of catalase was determined using catalase activity assay. Differen...

  6. Lyophilization: The process and industrial use

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pržić Dejan S.

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available This article presents a general overview of lyophilization and discusses the underlying principles of the process through the basics of: formulation, freezing, primary drying and secondary drying. In this article lyophilization is defined as a stabilizing process in which the substance is first frozen and then the quantity of the solvent is reduced first by sublimation (primary drying and then by desorption (secondary drying to values that will no longer support biological growth or chemical reactions. Special mention was made of the industrial use of the process and emphasis was placed on the lyophilization of pharmaceutical products and food industry products. Lyophilization equipment, as well as the formulation of materials that can be lyophilized, are described in sufficient detail to give information on the restrictions and advantages of lyophlization. Processing economics and comparison with conventional drying methods are presented. A historical overview of the process and future developments presented from the industrial viewpoint give an insight on the previous application of lyophilization and the prospects of its broad industrial use.

  7. Excipients used in lyophilization of small molecules

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ankit Baheti

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available This review deals with the excipients used in various lyophilized formulations of small molecules. The role of excipients such as bulking agents, buffering agents, tonicity modifiers, antimicrobial agents, surfactants and co-solvents has been discussed. Additionally, a decision making process for their incorporation into the formulation matrix has been proposed. A list of ingredients used in lyophilized formulations marketed in USA has been created based on a survey of the Physician Desk Reference (PDR and the Handbook on Injectable Drugs. Information on the recommended quantities of various excipients has also been provided, based on the details given in the Inactive Ingredient Guide (IIG.

  8. Modeling of Dielectric Heating within Lyophilization Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Kyncl

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A process of lyophilization of paper books is modeled. The process of drying is controlled by a dielectric heating system. From the physical viewpoint, the task represents a 2D coupled problem described by two partial differential equations for the electric and temperature fields. The material parameters are supposed to be temperature-dependent functions. The continuous mathematical model is solved numerically. The methodology is illustrated with some examples whose results are discussed.

  9. Lyophilization for Water Recovery From Solid Waste

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flynn, Michael; Litwiller, Eric; Reinhard, Martin

    2003-01-01

    This abstract describes the development of a solid waste treatment system designed for a near term human exploration mission. The technology being developed is an energy- efficient lyophilization technique that recovers water from spacecraft solid waste. In the lyophilization process water in an aqueous waste is frozen and then sublimed, resulting in the separation of the waste into a dried solid material and liquid water. This technology is ideally suited to applications where water recovery rates approaching 100% are desirable but production of CO, is not. Water contained within solid wastes accounts for approximately 3% of the total water balance. If 100% closure of the water loop is desired the water contained within this waste would need to be recovered. To facilitate operation in microgravity thermoelectric heat pumps have be used in place of traditional fluid cycle heat pumps. A mathematical model of a thermoelectric lyophilizer has been developed and used to generate energy use and processing rate parameters. The results of laboratory investigations and discussions with ALS program management have been used to iteratively arrive at a prototype design. This design address operational limitations which were identified in the laboratory studies and handling and health concerns raised by ALS program management. The current prototype design is capable of integration into the ISS Waste Collection System.

  10. Hygroscopic behavior of lyophilized acerola pulp powder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciana C. Ribeiro

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Powder products are characterized by their practicality and long life. However, fruit powders have high hygroscopicity and tend to agglomerate due to its hydrophilic nature. The isotherms of equilibrium moisture content apply to the study of dehydrated food preservation potential. Acerola is a nutritionally rich fruit, with great economic and industrial potential. The objective of this study was to analyse acerola powder adsorption isotherms obtained by lyophilization and characterize the powder obtained from lyophilized acerola pulp. Analysis of hygroscopicity, solubility and degree of caking were performed. Isotherms were represented by the mathematical models of GAB, BET, Henderson and Oswin, at temperatures of 25, 35 and 45 °C. According to the results, the obtained powder showed hygroscopicity of 5.96 g of absorbed water 100g-1 of solids, solubility of 95.08% and caking of 14.12%. The BET model showed the best fit to the adsorption isotherms of the acerola pulp powder obtained by lyophilization. The obtained isotherm was of type III, with a "J" shape. There was an inversion of the effect of temperature on the isotherms of acerola powders.

  11. Studies on Lyophilization of Sabin Vaccine. 2. Investigation on Long Time Incubation at High and Low Temperatures of Lyophilized Sabin Vaccine

    OpenAIRE

    塩見, 洋; 浦沢, 价子; 浦沢, 正三

    1998-01-01

    Lyophilization of vaccine is one of the possible options for the development of a heat-stable poliovaccine. In our previous study in which conditions affecting the lyophilization of Sabin poliovaccine were investigated, it was found that infectivity titration of lyophilized viruses was under at least three kind of variabilities i. e., i) the variability among different lyophilization experi-ments, ii) the variability within the same lyophilization experiment and iii) the variability inherent ...

  12. Allogenic lyophilized cartilage grafts for craniomaxillofacial reconstruction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pill Hoon Choung

    1999-01-01

    Allogenic lyophilized cartilages were made in our clinic after Sailer methods and some modification. In our clinic, we have used allogenic cartilage grafts on 102 defects of craniomaxillofacial area; 1) for defects from cyst or ameloblastoma, 2) for lack of continuity of the mandible, 3) for rhinoplasty, 4) for paranasal augmentation, 5) for augmentation genioplasty, 6) for reconstruction of orbital floor, 7) for oroantral fistula, 8) for temporal augmentation, 9) for TMJ surgery 10) for condyle defect as a costochondral graft, 11) for filling of tooth socket and alveolus augmentation,12) for correction or orbital height and 13) for guided bone regeneration in peripheral implant. The types of lyophilized cartilage used were chip, sheet and block types developed by freeze-dried methods. Some grafts showed change of ossification, in which case we could perform implant on it. We have good results on reconstruction of craniomaxillofacial defects. Allogenic cartilage have advantages such as 1) it has no immune reaction clinically, 2) it is more tolerable to infection than that of autogenous cartilage, 3) it has character of less resorption which require no over correction, 4) it is easy to manipulate contouring, and 5) it has possibility of undergoing ossification. Allogenic cartilage has been considered as good substitutes for bone. The author would like to report the results on 102 allogenic cartilage have

  13. A Comparison of Factors that Influence the Lyophilization Process

    OpenAIRE

    Mnerie, Dumitru; Anghel, Gabriela Victoria; Mnerie, Alin Vasile; Cheveresan, Constantin

    2007-01-01

    The lyophilization (or freeze drying) process for agro-foods products depends on a series of technological factors that are in an inter-dependence with the process performance. This paper presents an expert method and its application. This method characterizes the influence factors of the lyophilization process, after the importance level of some factors in correlation with other factors, is defined. Only the most important factors were considered; influence considerations were made in relati...

  14. Lyophilization as a method for pathogens long term preservation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milošević Mirjana B.

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Lyophilization (freeze-drying is one of the most suitable methods used for a long term preservation of pathogens. The aim of this paper was the application of lyophilization for storage of three significant plant pathogens: Fusarium graminearum, Helminthosporium gramineum, and Pseudomonas syringae pv. gylicinea, respectively. The plant material was collected continuously (during a four year period 2002-2006, depending on a plant development stage, from different localities in Vojvodina. Pathogens were isolated from diseased parts with characteristic symptoms, and placed on nutritive media specific for a certain pathogen, using standard phytopathological methods. Lyophilization was carried out in marked and coded ampoules by freezing and drying of pathogen suspension and nutritive medium. Revitalization of lyophilized isolates was done after four days. High percentage of revitalization was characteristic for all studied isolates, and it ranged from 85-92%, confirming that lyophilized pathogens would be capable of keeping viability for a long time in the collection. Besides above mentioned pathogens, there were 200 isolates in the collection, originating mostly from field and vegetable crops. Each isolate that was put into the Collection, was followed by all the necessary data such as: name of the pathogen, number of isolates, locality, host plant year of isolation, name of the researcher and other relevant data.

  15. LYOPHILIZATION EFFECT ON PRODUCTIVITY OF BUTANOL-PRODUCING STRAINS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. O. Tigunova

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Investigation of lyophilization effect on the productivity of butanol-producing strains was the aim of our research. For this purpose we used butanol-producing strains; technical glycerol; biomass of switchgrass Panicum virgatum L. Lyophilization was performed using a lyophilization-drying. The effect of the protective medium on residual moisture of freezedrying cultures suspensions depending on the concentration of glucose and sucrose was studed. It was shown that the lowest residual moisture was attained by using glucose and sucrose in amount of 10% and if the samples of freeze-drying bacteria had been saved for one month at 4 οC the productivity did not decrease. As temperature preservation was increased the productivity of the cultures was gradually decreased and it was greatly reduced at 30 οC. So the protective medium composition was optimized for lyophilization of butanol-producing strains as follows: sucrose 10.0%; gelatin 10.0%; agar 0.02%. It was shown that the preservation of samples of freeze-drying bacteria for six months at a temperature of 4 οC did not affect the productivity of strains. It was found that cultures could use glycerol as a carbon source for butanol accumulation before lyophilization.

  16. Experimental study on lyophilized irradiation sterilized nerve allografts in rabbits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Zhiyuan; Sun Shiquan; Liu Hechen

    1991-01-01

    Lyophilized irradiation sterilized nerve grafts in rabbits were used in allogeneic nerve transplantation. The result show that about 76% of experimental rabbits had fairly well morphologic (microscopic and electron microscopic) and electrophysiological recovery 3 month after operation. Preservation of neurilemmal tubes in nerve grafts, repopulation of Schwann cells in this tube and suppression of immune rejection are the key points in allogeneic nerve transplantation

  17. Lyophilization: a useful approach to the automation of analytical processes?

    OpenAIRE

    de Castro, M. D. Luque; Izquierdo, A.

    1990-01-01

    An overview of the state-of-the-art in the use of lyophilization for the pretreatment of samples and standards prior to their storage and/or preconcentration is presented. The different analytical applications of this process are dealt with according to the type of material (reagent, standard, samples) and matrix involved.

  18. A comparative study of lyophilized bovine pericardium and tunica ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of this study is to investigate the effectiveness of lyophilized bovine pericardium and tunica vaginalis in repairing large abdominal wall defect in a rabbit model. Full thickness (all the layers of muscles except the skin) abdominal wall defects (3 x 4 cm) were created in 18 anaesthetized male clinically healthy New ...

  19. Nonculturable forms of bacteria in lyophilized probiotic preparations

    OpenAIRE

    Larisa Blinkova; Danik Martirosyan; Yury Pakhomov; Olga Dmitrieva; Rachel Vaughan; Michael Altshuler

    2014-01-01

    Background: Nonculturable cells are formed under stress. These viable but nonculturable (VBNC) cells retain the ability to revert to active growth and division when conditions become favorable, or after treatment with resuscitating factors. Information about the possible presence of VBNC in bacterial lyophilized probiotic preparations, foodstuffs, live vaccines, etc., indicates that human as well as animal intestines are a significant area for research. Methods: Samples were...

  20. ENAA of iodine in standard reference material lyophilized human urine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Yongbao; Wang Ke; Wang Ganfeng

    1997-01-01

    The contents of iodine in two kinds of standard reference materials lyophilized human urine are determined by ENAA. The sensitivity of this method is ten times higher than that of TNAA, and the relative standard deviations of ten measurements are 2.9% and 3.3%, respectively. Two certificated reference samples are used for verification of the analysis. The analytical results are in agreement with the recommended values, and the relative error is less than 3%

  1. β-ray photography of lyophilized animal sections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baba, Shigeo; Kimata, Hideki; Matsuzawa, Takashi

    1997-01-01

    A new photographic method that images the density distribution of lyophilized animal sections approximately 50 μm in thickness is described. The new method involves sandwiching the animal section between a radiation sensor and a 147 Pm planar radiation source. Either conventional photographic film or an imaging plate for radioluminography can be used as the sensor. The method described herein will find promising applications in whole body autoradiography as well as in the study of osteoporosis in experimental animals. (Author)

  2. Lyophilization of a triply unsaturated phospholipid: Effects of trace metal contaminants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Payton, N.M.; Wempe, M.F.; Betker, Jamie L.; Randolph, T.W.; Anchordoquy, T.J.

    2013-01-01

    As liquid liposomal formulations are prone to chemical degradation and aggregation, these formulations often require freeze drying (e.g. lyophilization) to achieve sufficient shelf-life. However, liposomal formulations may undergo oxidation during lyophilization and/or during prolonged storage. The goal of the current study was to characterize the degradation of 1, 2-dilinolenoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (DLPC) during lyophilization, and to also probe the influence of metal contaminants in promoting the observed degradation. Aqueous sugar formulations containing DLPC (0.01 mg/ml) were lyophilized, and DLPC degradation was monitored using HPLC/UV and GC/MS methods. The effect of ferrous ion and sucrose concentration, as well as lyophilization stage promoting lipid degradation, was investigated. DLPC degradation increased with higher levels of ferrous ion. After lyophilization, 103.1% ± 1.1%, 66.9% ± 0.8%, and 28.7% ± 0.7% DLPC remained in the sucrose samples spiked with 0.0 ppm, 0.2 ppm and 1.0 ppm ferrous ion, respectively. Lipid degradation predominantly occurs during the freezing stage of lyophilization. Sugar concentration and buffer ionic strength also influence the extent of lipid degradation, and DLPC loss correlated with degradation product formation. We conclude that DLPC oxidation during the freezing stage of lyophilization dramatically compromises the stability of lipid-based formulations. In addition, we demonstrate that metal contaminants in sugars can become highly active when lyophilized in the presence of a reducing agent. PMID:23567484

  3. Physicochemical characteristics of the kanamycin-lyophilized kit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eva Maria Widyasari; Misyetti; Teguh Hafiz Ambar W; Witri Nuraeni

    2013-01-01

    Kanamycin is a broad-spectrum antibiotic and usually used for the treatment of infections when antibiotics like penicillin are less powerful and can not be given. This research was performed to obtain several physicochemical character of 99m Tc-kanamycin which were made in the form of lyophilized kanamycin kit to ensure the later application in humans. Kanamycin diagnostic kit were provided in lyophilized kit comprising kanamycin as ligand compound, pyrophosphate as co-ligand and SnCl 2 as reducing agent. The radiochemical purity was determined by instant thin layer chromatography (ITLC-SG) using 0.5 N NaOH as the mobile phase and ascending paper chromatography using Whatman paper 3 with acetone as the mobile phase. The plasma binding protein of 99m Tc-kanamycin was investigated in vitro by precipitation method using 5% of trichloro acetic acid (TCA) solution, whereas the lipophilicity (log P) was obtained by determination the partition coefficient in organic solvent-water system. Studies on the effect of the amount of radioactivity and the volume of Na 99m TcO 4 solution to the radiochemical purity of 99m Tc-kanamycin were also performed. From this experiment it was obtained that kanamycin lyophilized-kit was hydrophilic, 59.54% of solutions bound to plasma, radiochemical purity was more than 95%, and the final volume of 2 ml dosage was stable up to 2 hours after the addition of 99m Tc with a radioactivity of less then 3 mCi. (author)

  4. Nonculturable forms of bacteria in lyophilized probiotic preparations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Larisa Blinkova

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Nonculturable cells are formed under stress. These viable but nonculturable (VBNC cells retain the ability to revert to active growth and division when conditions become favorable, or after treatment with resuscitating factors. Information about the possible presence of VBNC in bacterial lyophilized probiotic preparations, foodstuffs, live vaccines, etc., indicates that human as well as animal intestines are a significant area for research. Methods: Samples were stored for different periods of time (up to 30 years according to the manufacturers’ manuals. Total counts were conducted using the Goryaev-Thoma counting chamber and actual viability was assessed by luminescence microscopy after staining with Live/Dead® (Baclight™. CFU/ml counts were made using solid or semisolid media. Viable cells that lacked the ability to form colonies were considered VBNC. Results: We studied 11 batches of commercial probiotics (Russia from different sources, containing lyophilized E. coli, lactobacilli, or bifidobacteria, in ampoules or vials. In E. coli preparations, depending on storage periods, the amounts of VBNC varied from 4.1% (3 years to 99.7% (30 years and showed different total viability (52.2 – 91.3%, as well as the percentage of VBNC cells. A different sample that had been expired for 11 years was 79.5% NC. It is also noteworthy that the 5-dose vials, 4 years past expiration, from yet another source, showed a higher amount of VBNC cells (85.5%. Two different batches that had been expired for three years contained 4.1 and 21.3% VBNC cells. 4 of the 5-dose vials of lyophilized lactobacilli were not expired and contained 58.8 – 80.4% VBNC cells. Total viability varied from 92.9 to 100%, and there was an unmistakable positive correlation between total viability and culturability. The last batch, which had expired 6 years earlier, has 23.7% viable cells and about 98% VBNC. Nonexpired bifidobacterial samples contained 70.7 and 95.5% of

  5. Facts and evidences on the lyophilization of polymeric nanoparticles for drug delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fonte, Pedro; Reis, Salette; Sarmento, Bruno

    2016-03-10

    Lyophilization has been used to improve the long-term stability of polymeric nanoparticles for drug delivery applications, avoiding their instability in suspension. However, this dehydration process may induce stresses to nanoparticles, mitigated by the use of some excipients such as cryo- and lyoprotectants. Still, the lyophilization of polymeric nanoparticles is frequently based in empirical principles, without considering the physical-chemical properties of formulations and the engineering principles of lyophilization. Therefore, the optimization of formulations and the lyophilization cycle is crucial to obtain a good lyophilizate, and guarantee the preservation of nanoparticle stability. The proper characterization of the lyophilizate and nanoparticles has a great importance in achieving these purposes. This review updates the fundaments involved in the optimization procedures for lyophilization of polymeric nanoparticles, with the aim of obtaining the maximum stability of formulations. Different characterization methods to obtain and guarantee a good lyophilized product are also discussed. A special focus is given to encapsulated therapeutic proteins. Overall, this review is a contribution for the understanding of the parameters involved in the lyophilization of polymeric nanoparticles. This may definitely help future works to obtain lyophilized nanoparticles with good quality and with improved therapeutic benefits. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Pig skin apposite dehydrated by lyophilization; Apositos de piel de cerdo deshidratados por liofilizacion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reyes F, M.L.; Gonzalez V, C.; Flores A, M.; Peralta R, J.; Reboyo B, D.; Rodriguez U, M.D. [ININ, 52750 La Marquesa, Estado de Mexico (Mexico)

    2007-07-01

    Taking like base a work carried out in 2001 in the Radio sterilized Tissue Bank (BTR) in which lyophilized apposite of pig skin were obtained at laboratory scale, this work is presented that had as purpose to process pig skin to produce temporary covers of skin (apposite) dehydrated by lyophilization to commercial scale. (Author)

  7. Fungitoxicity of lyophilized and spray-dried garlic extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tedeschi, Paola; Maietti, Annalisa; Boggian, Marisa; Vecchiati, Giorgio; Brandolini, Vincenzo

    2007-01-01

    Among the compounds discussed for anti-microbial and anti-fungal use allicin (allylthiosulfinate, diallyl disulfide-S-monoxide), an active ingredient of garlic, has attracted considerable attention. The objective of this study is to determine the antifungal activity of a local garlic ecotype (Voghiera) extracts against different pathogens. Primary screening was carried out by the agar plates technique using ethanol garlic extract at four final concentrations against the following organisms: Alternaria alternata, Aspergillus spp., Colletotrichum acutatum, Didymella bryoniae, Fusarium culmorum, Fusarium avenaceum, Fusarium gramineareum, Gliocladium roseum 47, Pythium splendens, Rhizoctonia solani, Sclerotium rolfsii, Stemphylium vesicarium, Trichoderma longibranchiatum, and Botrytis cinerea. Secondary screening was carried out using a lyophilized and a spray-dried preparation at different concentrations against the organisms selected for the high inhibition garlic effect in the primary screening and compared with the commercial fungicides mancozeb and iprodione. The best results were observed for the spray-dried garlic compound that showed a good fungicidal activity at the concentration of 1.5 g/10 mL while lyophilized garlic at the same concentration exhibited less inhibition activity against the four fungi analyzed in the second screening.

  8. Hygroscopic trend of lyophilized ‘mangaba’ pulp powder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana Conegero

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Mangaba is a widely-consumed fruit in the Northeast of Brazil, which is usually exploited through extractivism. This fruit is rich in various nutrients, especially in vitamin C, with pleasant taste and aroma. The lyophilization process transforms these fruits into amorphous powders, which must be analyzed regarding their properties and hygroscopic trend. Thus, the objective of this study was to characterize and evaluate the physico-chemical properties of adsorption isotherms of the lyophilized ‘mangaba’ pulp powder, with addition of maltodextrin (DE 20. The pH, titratable acidity, soluble solids, ascorbic acid and water activity were analyzed. Regarding the isotherms, the mathematical models of GAB, BET, Oswin, and Henderson were used at temperatures of 25, 30, 35 and 40 °C. The obtained powder presented pH of 3.14, titratable acidity of 1.95 mg of citric acid 100g-1 of powder, soluble solid contents of 99 ºBrix, ascorbic acid content of 55.97 mg 100g-1 and water activity of 0.16. Henderson was the mathematical model that best fitted the data of the adsorption isotherms at the four evaluated temperatures, with average errors ranging from 5.76 to 9.70% and R2 from 0.9974 to 0.9995.

  9. Stabilization of a recombinant ricin toxin A subunit vaccine through lyophilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassett, Kimberly J; Cousins, Megan C; Rabia, Lilia A; Chadwick, Chrystal M; O'Hara, Joanne M; Nandi, Pradyot; Brey, Robert N; Mantis, Nicholas J; Carpenter, John F; Randolph, Theodore W

    2013-10-01

    Lyophilization was used to prepare dry, glassy solid vaccine formulations of recombinant ricin toxin A-chain containing suspensions of colloidal aluminum hydroxide adjuvant. Four lyophilized formulations were prepared by using combinations of rapid or slow cooling during lyophilization and one of two buffers, histidine or ammonium acetate. Trehalose was used as the stabilizing excipient. Aggregation of the colloidal aluminum hydroxide suspension was reduced in formulations processed with a rapid cooling rate. Aluminum hydroxide particle size distributions, glass transition temperatures, water contents, and immunogenicities of lyophilized vaccines were independent of incubation time at 40 °C for up to 15 weeks. Mice immunized with reconstituted ricin toxin subunit A (RTA) vaccines produced RTA-specific antibodies and toxin-neutralizing antibodies (TNAs) regardless of the length of high temperature vaccine storage or the degree of aluminum adjuvant aggregation that occurred during lyophilization. In murine studies, lyophilized formulations of vaccines conferred protection against exposure to lethal doses of ricin, even after the lyophilized formulations had been stored at 40 °C for 4 weeks. A corresponding liquid formulation of vaccine stored at 40 °C elicited RTA-specific antibody titers but failed to confer immunity during a ricin challenge. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Finite Element Method (FEM) Modeling of Freeze-drying: Monitoring Pharmaceutical Product Robustness During Lyophilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xiaodong; Sadineni, Vikram; Maity, Mita; Quan, Yong; Enterline, Matthew; Mantri, Rao V

    2015-12-01

    Lyophilization is an approach commonly undertaken to formulate drugs that are unstable to be commercialized as ready to use (RTU) solutions. One of the important aspects of commercializing a lyophilized product is to transfer the process parameters that are developed in lab scale lyophilizer to commercial scale without a loss in product quality. This process is often accomplished by costly engineering runs or through an iterative process at the commercial scale. Here, we are highlighting a combination of computational and experimental approach to predict commercial process parameters for the primary drying phase of lyophilization. Heat and mass transfer coefficients are determined experimentally either by manometric temperature measurement (MTM) or sublimation tests and used as inputs for the finite element model (FEM)-based software called PASSAGE, which computes various primary drying parameters such as primary drying time and product temperature. The heat and mass transfer coefficients will vary at different lyophilization scales; hence, we present an approach to use appropriate factors while scaling-up from lab scale to commercial scale. As a result, one can predict commercial scale primary drying time based on these parameters. Additionally, the model-based approach presented in this study provides a process to monitor pharmaceutical product robustness and accidental process deviations during Lyophilization to support commercial supply chain continuity. The approach presented here provides a robust lyophilization scale-up strategy; and because of the simple and minimalistic approach, it will also be less capital intensive path with minimal use of expensive drug substance/active material.

  11. Stability of Staphylococcus aureus phage ISP after freeze-drying (lyophilization.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maia Merabishvili

    Full Text Available Staphylococcus aureus phage ISP was lyophilized, using an Amsco-Finn Aqua GT4 freeze dryer, in the presence of six different stabilizers at different concentrations. Stability of the lyophilized phage at 4 °C was monitored up to 37 months and compared to stability in Luria Bertani broth and physiological saline at 4 °C. Sucrose and trehalose were shown to be the best stabilizing additives, causing a decrease of only 1 log immediately after the lyophilization procedure and showing high stability during a 27 month storage period.

  12. Ultrasonication, lyophilization, freezing and storage effects on fat loss during mechanical infusion of expressed human milk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dhar, J.; Davidson, A.G.F.; Martinez, F.E.; Barr, S.; Desai, I.D.; Nakai, S.

    1995-01-01

    Ultrasonic homogenization was extended to situations where expressed human milk needs to be stored before being administered. We investigated whether the effect of ultrasonication would persist during storage in the frozen or lyophilized form. Recovery of fat was higher in ultrasonicated and frozen milk (stored for both 1 and 4 mo), than in milk stored following ultrasonication and lyophilization. The low tat recovery from stored lyophilized milk was increased by ultrasonicating the milk after storage and reconstitution (instead of prior to storage). Protein recovery was virtually complete with both methods

  13. Viability of Bacillus popilliae after Lyophilization of Liquid Nitrogen Frozen Cells1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lingg, A. J.; Mcmahon, K. J.; Herzmann, Cheryl

    1967-01-01

    The per cent viability of Bacillus popilliae after lyophilization of liquid nitrogen frozen cells was determined. Lyophilization of 9- to 12-hr cells which had been suspended in 5% sodium glutamate plus 0.5% gum tragacanth, frozen in liquid nitrogen vapor, and dried 4 to 5 hr with the ampoules exposed to room temperature resulted in survival of 64.6% of the original cells. After storage of these lyophilized preparations for 6 months at room temperature, 10.5% of the original cells were still viable. PMID:6031431

  14. Live RB51 vaccine lyophilized hydrogel formulations with increased shelf life for practical ballistic delivery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballistic delivery capability is essential to delivering vaccines and other therapeutics effectively to both livestock and wildlife in many global scenarios. Here, lyophilized poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG)-glycolide dimethacrylate crosslinked but degradable hydrogels were assessed as payload vehicles ...

  15. Lyophilization, Reconstitution, and DBP Formation in Reverse-Osmosis Concentrated Natural Organic Matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drinking water treatment and disinfection byproduct (DBP) research can be complicated by natural organic matter (NOM) temporal variability. NOM preservation by lyophilization (freeze-drying) has been long practiced to address this issue; however, its applicability for drinking w...

  16. Lyophilized histidine investigated using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and cryogenics: Deprotonation in vacuum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cardenas, Juan F.; Groebner, Gerhard

    2005-01-01

    Lyophilized histidine samples were investigated using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). Lyophilized samples were prepared from aqueous solutions at a pH in the range between ∼1.5 and ∼10, and with no further addition of electrolyte. The use of cryogenics allowed the determination of protonated to unprotonated molar ratios of sites in L-histidine, which correlates well with the dissociation constants of the residual amino acid sites. When cryogenics was not used deprotonation of the lyophilized samples occurred, where the degree and the total concentration of deprotonated sites correlates well with the formation constants and the decrease in Cl concentration, respectively. This later relation clearly indicates a correlation between deprotonation and the desorption of HCl from lyophilized samples

  17. Lyophilized histidine investigated using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and cryogenics: Deprotonation in vacuum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cardenas, Juan F. [Inorganic Chemistry, Umeaa University, 90187 Umeaa (Sweden)]. E-mail: juan.cardenas@chem.umu.se; Groebner, Gerhard [Biophysical Chemistry, Umeaa University, 90187 Umeaa (Sweden)

    2005-08-15

    Lyophilized histidine samples were investigated using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). Lyophilized samples were prepared from aqueous solutions at a pH in the range between {approx}1.5 and {approx}10, and with no further addition of electrolyte. The use of cryogenics allowed the determination of protonated to unprotonated molar ratios of sites in L-histidine, which correlates well with the dissociation constants of the residual amino acid sites. When cryogenics was not used deprotonation of the lyophilized samples occurred, where the degree and the total concentration of deprotonated sites correlates well with the formation constants and the decrease in Cl concentration, respectively. This later relation clearly indicates a correlation between deprotonation and the desorption of HCl from lyophilized samples.

  18. A search for losses of chromium and other trace elements during lyophilization of human liver tissue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goeij, J.J.M. de; Volkers, K.J.; Tjioe, P.S.

    1979-01-01

    Human liver tissues were investigated for possible trace-element losses during lyophilization by comparison of concentrations of lyophilized and untreated (wet) samples. When destructive neutron activation analysis (n.a.a.) was used, no significant losses were observed for As, Br, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Hg, Mo, Sb, Se, and Zn. The advantages of n.a.a. over radio-tracer techniques for studies of trace-element volatility are discussed. (Auth.)

  19. Lyophilized microculture susceptibility test for ketoconazole, miconazole, clotrimazole, and griseofulvin against dermatophytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granade, T C; Mothershead, M A; Artis, W M

    1983-07-01

    A lyophilized microculture antimycotic susceptibility testing system for ketoconazole, miconazole, griseofulvin, and clotrimazole is described. Microculture plates were loaded with 100 microliters of medium and 10 microliters of appropriate concentrations of the four antimycotics and were lyophilized to complete dryness. The lyophilized plates were stored at -70 degrees C or 4 degrees C or in a desiccator at 25 degrees C. Samples from each storage condition were rehydrated at 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 8, 10, and 12 months and inoculated with Trichophyton mentagrophytes (Robin) Blanchard ATCC 18748. All of the minimal inhibitory concentrations (MICs) generated from the lyophilized microcultures were within one experimental dilution of MICs derived from fresh microcultures. The ability of reconstituted lyophilized microcultures to consistently produce MICs comparable to MICs derived from fresh microcultures was characterized. Nine dermatophyte isolates were tested five times each over a 70-day period. The MICs derived were reproducible and comparable to MICs determined by freshly prepared microculture tests. Lyophilization of freshly prepared antimycotic-containing microcultures does not alter the MIC resolution of the testing system and provides an effective method of storage of prepared antimycotic tests for ketoconazole, miconazole, clotrimazole, and griseofulvin.

  20. Ceramic/metal nanocomposites by lyophilization: Processing and HRTEM study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gutierrez-Gonzalez, C.F.; Agouram, S.; Torrecillas, R.; Moya, J.S.; Lopez-Esteban, S.

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► A cryogenic route has been used to obtain ceramic/metal nanostructured powders. ► The powders present good homogeneity and dispersion of metal. ► The metal nanoparticle size distributions are centred in 17–35 nm. ► Both phases, ceramic and metal, present a high degree of crystallinity. ► Good metal/ceramic interfaces due to epitaxial growth, studied by HRTEM. -- Abstract: This work describes a wet-processing route based on spray-freezing and subsequent lyophilization designed to obtain nanostructured ceramic/metal powders. Starting from the ceramic powder and the corresponding metal salt, a water-based suspension is sprayed on liquid nitrogen. The frozen powders are subsequently freeze-dried, calcined and reduced. The material was analyzed using X-ray diffraction analysis at all stages. High resolution transmission electron microscopy studies showed a uniform distribution of metal nanoparticles on the ceramic grain surfaces, good interfaces and high crystallinity, with an average metal particle size in the nanometric range.

  1. The Effects of Lyophilization on the Physico-Chemical Stability of Sirolimus Liposomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parvin Zakeri-Milani

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The major limitation in the widespread use of liposome drug delivery system is its instability. Lyophilization is a promising approach to ensure the long-term stability of liposomes. The aim of this study was to prepare sirolimus-loaded liposomes, study their stability and investigate the effect of lyophilization either in the presence or in the absence of lyoprotectant on liposome properties. Methods: Two types of multi-lamellar liposomes, conventional and fusogenic, containing sirolimus were prepared by modified thin film hydration method with different ratio of dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine (DPPC, cholesterol and dioleoylphosphoethanolamine (DOPE, and were lyophilized with or without dextrose as lyoprotectant. Chemical stability investigation was performed at 4°C and 25°C until 6 months using a validated HPLC method. Physical stability was studied with determination of particle size (PS and encapsulation efficiency (EE % of formulations through 6 months. Results: Chemical stability test at 4°C and 25°C until 6 months showed that drug content of liposomes decreased 8.4% and 20.2% respectively. Initial mean EE % and PS were 72.8 % and 582 nm respectively. After 6 months mean EE % for suspended form, lyophilized without lyoprotectant and lyophilized with lyoprotectant were 54.8 %, 62.3% and 67.1 % at 4°C and 48.2%, 60.4 % and 66.8 % at 25°C respectively. Corresponding data for mean PS were 8229 nm, 2397 nm and 688nm at 4°C and 9362 nm, 1944 nm and 737 nm at 25°C respectively. Conclusion: It is concluded that lyophilization with and without dextrose could increase shelf life of liposome and dextrose has lyoprotectant effect that stabilized liposomes in the lyophilization process.

  2. [Improvement of epirubicin-induced phlebitis to switch from liquid preparation to lyophilized formulation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suga, Yukio; Kumazaki, Masafumi; Nishigami, Jun; Takeda, Kazuyoshi; Kawagishi, Atsufumi; Ishizaki, Junko; Inokuchi, Masafumi; Miyamoto, Ken-Ichi; Arai, Kunizo

    2009-01-01

    Adjuvant chemotherapy containing epirubicin is commonly used to treat patients with pre- or post-operative breast cancer. It is known that the epirubicin(FarmorubicinRTU)preparation often caused phlebitis, whereas dexamethasone has been used to prevent that reaction. We examined whether the lyophilized formulation of epirubicin(Farmorubicin)can reduces the incidence of phlebitis compared with the preparation. All infusions were administered through a peripheral vein. Adverse drug reaction including phlebitis was evaluated after each infusion and at the subsequent visit to four or six cycles. Sixty-two patients were given the preparation and 35 the lyophilized formulation. Epirubicininduced phlebitis was observed in 45.7% of patients given the preparation and in 48.4% of those given the lyophilized formulation. There was no statistically significant difference between the two groups(p=0.41). However, the incidence of severe phlebitis requiring treatment with steroid ointment was significantly increased among patients treated with the preparation(27.4% vs 9.7%, pphlebitis between the two groups. In this study, lyophilized formulations of epirubicin significantly reduced the incidence of severe phlebitis compared with that among patients receiving the preparation. Using lyophilized formulations of epirubicin should be considered to prevent a reduction in QOL with epirubicin-induced phlebitis in patients with breast cancer.

  3. The Influence of Tissue Lyophilization and Gamma Irradiation on the Solubility of Proteins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Komender, J.; Jendyk, J.; Leibschang, J.

    1967-01-01

    Most recent methods of tissue preservation are based on lyophilization and sterilization with gamma rays. Unfortunately the tissues preserved by this method lose their viability, this being connected with protein denaturation. The denaturing influence either of lyophilization or sterilization with gamma rays on different materials has been described. However, no observations on denaturation of proteins in prepared grafts are known. The work aimed at establishing the influence of individual stages of the procedure used in a tissue bank on the solubility of proteins. An experiment was performed using rat liver as a model tissue. Solubility of protein was determined in five groups of material, as follows: (1) fresh tissue, used as a control, (2) frozen tissue, (3) frozen and lyophilized tissue, (4) frozen, lyophilized and irradiated tissue, and (5) fresh irradiated tissue. Folin's method was used for determination of protein in water extracts of tissues. It was found that: (1) the whole procedure considerably diminished the protein solubility, (2) freezing diminishes the protein solubility by 35% on average, (3) lyophilization causes no further protein denaturation, (4) protein solubility is reduced most (by about 65%) by sterilization with gamma rays. (author)

  4. Effect of the Freezing Step in the Stability and Bioactivity of Protein-Loaded PLGA Nanoparticles Upon Lyophilization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fonte, Pedro; Andrade, Fernanda; Azevedo, Cláudia

    2016-01-01

    , sucrose and sorbitol as cryoprotectants was evaluated. METHODS: Cryoprotectants were co-encapsulated with insulin into PLGA nanoparticles and lyophilized using an optimized cycle with freezing at -80°C, in liquid nitrogen, or ramped cooling at -40°C. Upon lyophilization, the stability of protein structure...

  5. Design and Testing of a Lyophilizer for Water Recovery from Solid Waste

    Science.gov (United States)

    Litwiller, Eric; Fisher, John; Flynn, Michael

    2005-01-01

    Mixed liquid/solid wastes, including feces, water processor effluents, and food waste, can be lyophilized (freeze-dried) to recover the water they contain and stabilize the solids remain. Previous research has demonstrated the potential benefits of using thermoelectric heat pumps to build a lyophilizer for processing waste in microgravity. These results were used to build a working prototype suitable for ground-based human testing. This paper describes the prototype design and presents the results of functional and performance tests. Equivalent system mass parameters are calculated, and practical issues such as sanitary waste handling in microgravity are addressed.

  6. X-ray scattering for the characterization of lyophilized breast tissue samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elshemey, Wael M.; Mohamed, Fayrouz S.; Khater, Ibrahim M.

    2013-01-01

    This work investigates the possibility of characterizing breast cancer by measuring the X-ray scattering profiles of lyophilized excised breast tissue samples. Since X-ray scattering from water-rich tissue is dominated by scattering from water, the removal of water by lyophilization would enhance the characterization process. In the present study, X-ray scattering profiles of 22 normal, 22 malignant and 10 benign breast tissue samples are measured. The cut-offs of scatter diagrams, sensitivity, specificity and diagnostic accuracy of three characterization parameters (full width at half maximum (FWHM) for the peak at 1.1 nm −1 , area under curve (AUC), and ratio of 1st to 2nd scattering peak intensities (I 1 /I 2 %)) are calculated and compared to the data from non-lyophilized samples. Results show increased sensitivity (up to 100%) of the present data on lyophilized breast tissue samples compared to previously reported data for non-lyophilized samples while the specificity (up to 95.4%), diagnostic accuracy (up to 95.4%) and receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve values (up to 0.9979) for both sets of data are comparable. The present study shows significant differences between normal samples and each of malignant and benign samples. Only subtle differences exist between malignant and benign lyophilized breast tissue samples where FWHM=0.7±0.1 and 0.8±0.3, AUC=1.3±0.2 and 1.4±0.2 and I 1 /I 2 %=44.9±11.0 and 52.4±7.6 for malignant and benign samples respectively. - Highlights: • X-ray scattering profiles of breast tissue samples are acquired. • Three X-ray profile characterization parameters are calculated. • The cut-offs, sensitivity, specificity and diagnostic accuracy are calculated. • They are compared to the data from non-lyophilized samples. • Results show increased sensitivity in case of lyophilized samples

  7. Composition of lyophilized kit for radiopharmaceutical 99mTc-DTPA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kovacheva, S.P.; Bychvarova, K.A.; Donev, T.N.

    1988-01-01

    The composition finds application for functional radioisotope studies of kidneys and brain. The radiopharmaceuticals, obtained from lyophilized kit with this composition possess a high radiochemical purity, long shelf life and minimal content of reduced hydrolised technetium. They are stable in vivo and in vitro and ensure high quality of examinations at low body background. The composition of the lyophilized kit is based on diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid, tin dichloride dihydrate and ascorbic acid accordingly in relation 61:1:1 and concentrations 10.4 mg, 0.17 mg and 0.17 mg. 1 cl

  8. Pharmacologic and toxicologic properties of lyophilic extract Achillea setacea Waldst. et Kit.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. P. Smoylovska

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Infusions based on Achillea setacea Waldst. et Kit. are traditionally used as antiinflammatory, hepatic, appetizing, spasmolytic agents, they are used as well in hemorrhages of different etiology, thrombophlebitis and varicose ulcers. Diverse pharmacologic properties are due to the presence of essential oils, proazulene, sesquiterpenic lactones, hydroxycinnamomic acids, flavonoids, vitamin K1 in medicinal raw materials. In using infusion phylloquinone, ascorbinic acid, flavonoids, hydroxycinnamomic acids, Calcium salts, tannins, achileine contribute to regulation of blood coagulation. It is very timely to assess hemostatic activity for lyophilic plant extracts which are perfectly soluble in water and have high biologic availability. The aim of research is to assess the degree of acute toxicity and hemostatic activity for lyophilic extract of herb Achillea setacea Waldst. et Kit. Materials and methods. Lyophilic extracts based on infusion of herb Achillea setacea Waldst. et Kit. obtained by dry sublimation have been used for the research. Lyophilic extracts obtained have been standardized for available vitamin K1 and have been studied for acute toxicity and hemostatic activity. Studying blood coagulation system has been carried out in animals with experimental toxic hepatitis for the following indices: blood coagulation time, prothrombin time, fibrin concentration in the blood. Results. Lyophilic extract based on Achillea setacea Waldst. et Kit. is friable amorphous light yellow mass with bitter taste, containing phylloquinone in concentration 5.79 ± 0.05 %. When studying acute toxicity median lethal dose for lyophilic extracts of Achillea setacea Waldst. et Kit. was above 2000 mg/ml (practically nontoxic ones. Course therapy of extract Achillea setacea Waldst. et Kit. and solution of “Vikasol” for animals with toxic hepatitis led to decreasing hypocoagulation: decreasing prothrombin time and clotting time, increasing fibrin concentration in

  9. Certification of lead and cadmium in three lyophilized blood materials. CRM No. 194, 195, 196

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yeoman, W B; Colinet, E; Griepink, B

    1985-01-01

    The report describes the work for certification of lead and cadmium in three lyophilized samples of bovine blood materials. Homogeneity and stability tests were carried out and are presented in the report. The concentrations of lead and cadmium in each sample of the reconstituted blood are certified. A variety of well established methods were used for certification of the materials.

  10. The Lyophilization Process Maintains the Chemical and Biological Characteristics of Royal Jelly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andresa Piacezzi Nascimento

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The alternative use of natural products, like royal jelly (RJ, may be an important tool for the treatment of infections caused by antibiotic-resistant bacteria. RJ presents a large number of bioactive substances, including antimicrobial compounds. In this study, we carried out the chemical characterization of fresh and lyophilized RJ and investigated their antibacterial effects with the purpose of evaluating if the lyophilization process maintains the chemical and antibacterial properties of RJ. Furthermore, we evaluated the antibacterial efficacy of the main fatty acid found in RJ, the 10-hydroxy-2-decenoic acid (10H2DA. Chromatographic profile of the RJ samples showed similar fingerprints and the presence of 10H2DA in both samples. Furthermore, fresh and lyophilized RJ were effective against all bacteria evaluated; that is, the lyophilization process maintains the antibacterial activity of RJ and the chemical field of 10H2DA. The fatty acid 10H2DA exhibited a good antibacterial activity against Streptococcus pneumoniae. Therefore, it may be used as an alternative and complementary treatment for infections caused by antibiotic-resistant S. pneumoniae.

  11. Lyophilized Carnobacterium divergens AS7 bacteriocin preparation improves performance of broiler chickens challenged with Clostridium perfringens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jozefiak, D; Sip, A; Rutkowski, A

    2012-01-01

    isolates. In total, 480 one-day-old male Ross 308 chicks were randomly assigned to 4 experimental groups (12 replicate pens of 10 birds per treatment). The diets were either nonsupplemented or supplemented with a lyophilized preparation of divercin AS7. On d 18, 19, and 20, half of the birds were...

  12. Highly photoactive anatase foams prepared from lyophilized aqueous colloids of peroxo-polytitanic acid

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pližingrová, Eva; Volfová, Lenka; Svora, Petr; Labhsetwar, N.; Klementová, Mariana; Szatmáry, Lórant; Šubrt, Jan

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 240, FEB (2015), s. 107-113 ISSN 0920-5861 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA14-20744S Institutional support: RVO:61388980 Keywords : Anatase * Lyophilization * Photocatalysis * Hydroxyl radical * Peroxo-polytitanic acid foams Subject RIV: CA - Inorganic Chemistry Impact factor: 4.312, year: 2015

  13. Effect of cryopreservation and lyophilization on viability and growth of strict anaerobic human gut microbes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bircher, Lea; Geirnaert, Annelies; Hammes, Frederik; Lacroix, Christophe; Schwab, Clarissa

    2018-04-17

    Strict anaerobic gut microbes have been suggested as 'next-generation probiotics' for treating several intestinal disorders. The development of preservation techniques is of major importance for therapeutic application. This study investigated cryopreservation (-80°C) and lyophilization survival and storage stability (4°C for 3 months) of the strict anaerobic gut microbes Bacteroides thetaiotaomicron, Faecalibacterium prausnitzii, Roseburia intestinalis, Anaerostipes caccae, Eubacterium hallii and Blautia obeum. To improve preservation survival, protectants sucrose and inulin (both 5% w/v) were added for lyophilization and were also combined with glycerol (15% v/v) for cryopreservation. Bacterial fitness, evaluated by maximum growth rate and lag phase, viability and membrane integrity were determined using a standardized growth assay and by flow cytometry as markers for preservation resistance. Lyophilization was more detrimental to viability and fitness than cryopreservation, but led to better storage stability. Adding sucrose and inulin enhanced viability and the proportion of intact cells during lyophilization of all strains. Viability of protectant-free B. thetaiotaomicron, A. caccae and F. prausnitzii was above 50% after cryopreservation and storage and increased to above 80% if protectants were present. The addition of glycerol, sucrose and inulin strongly enhanced the viability of B. obeum, E. hallii and R. intestinalis from 0.03-2% in protectant-free cultures to 11-37%. This is the first study that quantitatively compared the effect of cryopreservation and lyophilization and the addition of selected protectants on viability and fitness of six strict anaerobic gut microbes. Our results suggest that efficiency of protectants is process- and species-specific. © 2018 The Authors. Microbial Biotechnology published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd and Society for Applied Microbiology.

  14. Disinfection Byproduct Formation in Reverse-Osmosis Concentrated and Lyophilized Natural Organic Matter from a Drinking Water Source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drinking water treatment and disinfection byproduct (DBP) research can be complicated by natural organic matter (NOM) temporal variability. NOM preservation by lyophilization (freeze-drying) has been long practiced to address this issue; however, its applicability for drinking wa...

  15. Lyophilized bovine hemoglobin as a possible reference material for the determination of hemoglobin derivatives in human blood

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maas, BHA; Buursma, A; Ernst, RAJ; Maas, AHJ; Zijlstra, WG

    1998-01-01

    We investigated the suitability of a lyophilized bovine hemoglobin (LBH) preparation containing various fractions of oxyhemoglobin (O(2)Hb), carboxyhemoglobin (COHb), and methemoglobin (MetHb) for quality assessment in multicomponent analysis (MCA) of hemoglobin derivatives. It was demonstrated that

  16. Lyophilized bovine hemoglobin as a possible reference material for the determination of hemoglobin derivatives in human blood

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maas, BHA; Buursma, A; Ernst, RAJ; Maas, AHJ; Zijlstra, WG

    We investigated the suitability of a lyophilized bovine hemoglobin (LBH) preparation containing various fractions of oxyhemoglobin (O(2)Hb), carboxyhemoglobin (COHb), and methemoglobin (MetHb) for quality assessment in multicomponent analysis (MCA) of hemoglobin derivatives. It was demonstrated that

  17. Disinfection byproduct formation in reverse-osmosis concentrated and lyophilized natural organic matter from a drinking water source.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pressman, Jonathan G; McCurry, Daniel L; Parvez, Shahid; Rice, Glenn E; Teuschler, Linda K; Miltner, Richard J; Speth, Thomas F

    2012-10-15

    Drinking water treatment and disinfection byproduct (DBP) research can be complicated by natural organic matter (NOM) temporal variability. NOM preservation by lyophilization (freeze-drying) has been long practiced to address this issue; however, its applicability for drinking water research has been limited because the selected NOM sources are atypical of most drinking water sources. The purpose of this research was to demonstrate that reconstituted NOM from a lyophilized reverse-osmosis (RO) concentrate of a typical drinking water source closely represents DBP formation in the original NOM. A preliminary experiment assessed DBP formation kinetics and yields in concentrated NOM, which demonstrated that chlorine decays faster in concentrate, in some cases leading to altered DBP speciation. Potential changes in NOM reactivity caused by lyophilization were evaluated by chlorination of lyophilized and reconstituted NOM, its parent RO concentrate, and the source water. Bromide lost during RO concentration was replaced by adding potassium bromide prior to chlorination. Although total measured DBP formation tended to decrease slightly and unidentified halogenated organic formation tended to increase slightly as a result of RO concentration, the changes associated with lyophilization were minor. In lyophilized NOM reconstituted back to source water TOC levels and then chlorinated, the concentrations of 19 of 21 measured DBPs, constituting 96% of the total identified DBP mass, were statistically indistinguishable from those in the chlorinated source water. Furthermore, the concentrations of 16 of 21 DBPs in lyophilized NOM reconstituted back to the RO concentrate TOC levels, constituting 86% DBP mass, were statistically indistinguishable from those in the RO concentrate. This study suggests that lyophilization can be used to preserve concentrated NOM without substantially altering the precursors to DBP formation. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  18. Co-encapsulation of lyoprotectants improves the stability of protein-loaded PLGA nanoparticles upon lyophilization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fonte, Pedro; Araújo, Francisca; Seabra, Vítor

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this work was to evaluate the influence of the co-encapsulation of lyoprotectants with insulin into PLGA nanoparticles, on the stability of the protein and nanoparticles upon lyophilization. Different lyoprotectants were used, namely trehalose, glucose, sucrose, fructose and sorbitol...... formulations with externally added lyoprotectants, except trehalose, showed crystallinity. FTIR assessment showed that co-encapsulating lyoprotectants better preserved insulin structure upon lyophilization with a spectral area overlap of 82-87%, compared to only 72% in lyoprotectant absence. These results were...... confirmed by circular dichroism spectroscopy. Surprisingly, the simultaneous co-encapsulation and addition of lyoprotectants was detrimental to protein stabilization. The insulin in vitro release studies demonstrated that formulations with co-encapsulated trehalose, glucose, sucrose, fructose and sorbitol...

  19. Modeling of Heat and Mass Transfer in a TEC-Driven Lyophilizer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Zeng-Guang; Hegde, Uday; Litwiller, Eric; Flynn, Michael; Fisher, John

    2006-01-01

    Dewatering of wet waste during space exploration missions is important for crew safety as it stabilizes the waste. It may also be used to recover water and serve as a preconditioning step for waste compaction. A thermoelectric cooler (TEC)-driven lyophilizer is under development at NASA Ames Research Center for this purpose. It has three major components: (i) an evaporator section where water vapor sublimes from the frozen waste, (ii) a condenser section where this water vapor deposits as ice, and (iii) a TEC section which serves as a heat pump to transfer heat from the condenser to the evaporator. This paper analyses the heat and mass transfer processes in the lyophilizer in an effort to understand the ice formation behavior in the condenser. The analysis is supported by experimental observations of ice formation patterns in two different condenser units.

  20. Determination by neutron activation analysis of loss of arsenic, antimony, bromine and mercury during lyophilization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carlson, M.; Litman, R.

    1978-01-01

    Neutron activation analysis has been used to monitor the loss of arsenic, as dimethylarsinic acid, (CH 3 ) 2 AsOOH, or as sodium arsenate (Na 2 HAsO 4 .7H 2 O), antimony (as potassium antimony, tartrate, KSbC 4 O 7 .1/2H 2 O) and bromine (as bromide ion) during lyophilization of acidified and neutral aqueous synthetic and environmental samples. Losses of Sb and As ranged from zero to 60%, while losses of bromine were constant (at 91%) in acidic solutions. The variable losses of As and Sb were due solely to the presence of and partial decomposition of the (CH 3 ) 2 AsOOH. Electrochemical oxidation of Br - to Br 2 is responsible for the high losses of bromine. In addition losses of mercury (as methylmercuric chloride) were 1O0% in both acidic and neutral aqueous synthetic samples during lyophilization. (author)

  1. Effect of gamma sterilization on the fatty acid profile of lyophilized buffalo cheese

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ivanova, S.; Nacheva, I.; Miteva, D.; Loginovska, K.; Tsvetkov, Ts.

    2009-01-01

    The changes in the fatty acid profile of buffalo cheese after lyophilization and gamma rays treatment at 2 kGy and 4 kGy doses have been studied with the objective of its shelf-live prolongation. The results of the experiments show a decrease of the content of the saturated fatty acids after irradiation at the aforesaid gamma rays doses. A favorable effect on human organism has the decrease of the quantity of the short-chain fatty acids – by 13.16 % on irradiation at 2 kGy and by 18.73% on irradiation at 4 kGy, compared to the control sample. A satisfactory correlation between the essential fatty acids omega-6/omega3 has been observed in the lyophilized buffalo cheese. In the process of irradiation this balanced correlation changes and increases up to 7.32 and 8.31 at 2 kGy and 4 kGy respectively

  2. Genomic stability of lyophilized sheep somatic cells before and after nuclear transfer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Domenico Iuso

    Full Text Available The unprecedented decline of biodiversity worldwide is urging scientists to collect and store biological material from seriously threatened animals, including large mammals. Lyophilization is being explored as a low-cost system for storage in bio-banks of cells that might be used to expand or restore endangered or extinct species through the procedure of Somatic Cell Nuclear Transfer (SCNT. Here we report that the genome is intact in about 60% of lyophylized sheep lymphocytes, whereas DNA damage occurs randomly in the remaining 40%. Remarkably, lyophilized nuclei injected into enucleated oocytes are repaired by a robust DNA repairing activity of the oocytes, and show normal developmental competence. Cloned embryos derived from lyophylized cells exhibited chromosome and cellular composition comparable to those of embryos derived from fresh donor cells. These findings support the feasibility of lyophylization as a storage procedure of mammalian cells to be used for SCNT.

  3. Determination of moisture content of lyophilized allergen vaccines by NIR spectroscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zheng, Yiwu; Lai, Xuxin; Bruun, Susanne Wrang

    2008-01-01

    Moisture content is an important parameter for lyophilized vaccines. Currently, Karl Fischer titration is widely used for moisture determination in routine analysis. However, this method is time-consuming, sample destructive and requires environment polluting reagents, as well as the results rely...... on the random samplings. In this study, near infrared spectroscopy was used as a fast, non-invasive and non-destructive method to determine the moisture content in lyophilized allergy vaccines. Five different vaccine products were investigated, which contained water in the range of 0.17-1.51% (w/w, KF......). Different data pre-treatments, wavelength selection and partial least squares regression were applied to construct calibration models. Multi-products model and product-specific models were obtained, which show the possibility of NIR as a rapid method to discriminate whether moisture content fit...

  4. Genomic stability of lyophilized sheep somatic cells before and after nuclear transfer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iuso, Domenico; Czernik, Marta; Di Egidio, Fiorella; Sampino, Silvestre; Zacchini, Federica; Bochenek, Michal; Smorag, Zdzislaw; Modlinski, Jacek A; Ptak, Grazyna; Loi, Pasqualino

    2013-01-01

    The unprecedented decline of biodiversity worldwide is urging scientists to collect and store biological material from seriously threatened animals, including large mammals. Lyophilization is being explored as a low-cost system for storage in bio-banks of cells that might be used to expand or restore endangered or extinct species through the procedure of Somatic Cell Nuclear Transfer (SCNT). Here we report that the genome is intact in about 60% of lyophylized sheep lymphocytes, whereas DNA damage occurs randomly in the remaining 40%. Remarkably, lyophilized nuclei injected into enucleated oocytes are repaired by a robust DNA repairing activity of the oocytes, and show normal developmental competence. Cloned embryos derived from lyophylized cells exhibited chromosome and cellular composition comparable to those of embryos derived from fresh donor cells. These findings support the feasibility of lyophylization as a storage procedure of mammalian cells to be used for SCNT.

  5. Formulation design and optimization of novel fast dissolving tablet of chlorpheniramine maleate by using lyophilization techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vivek Dave

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Fast dissolving tablets (FDTs have received more interest in the pharmaceutical industry for those categories of drug which show slow dissolution and less oral bioavailability. Nowadays various technologies have been developed for FDTs with improved patient compliance and convenience. FDTs tablets provide an advantage particularly for the pediatric and geriatric patients who have difficulty in swallowing and also for that who are travelling for a long and suffers from lack of water availability. Lyophilization (freeze-drying is a process in which water is sublimated from the product after freezing at a specific temperature and pressure. Lyophilization technique is used in order to improve the dissolution of the given substance and improve the oral bioavailability of the drugs with poor solubility and high permeability. In this work, chlorpheniramine maleate FDTs was formulated by lyophilization method. The prepared tablets were subjected to various evaluation such as hardness (2.4–2.9 kg/cm2, friability (0.68–0.79%, disintegration time (10–19 s, drug content (95.32–99.09%, water absorption ratio (31–53%, wetting time (64–106 s and in-vitro drug release shown in 5 min (96.04–99.92%. FTIR studies showed that there is no interaction between drug and polymer. Stability studies showed that there is no change in drug content within three and six months. Results revealed that fast dissolving tablets of chlorpheniramine maleate prepared by lyophilization method result in rapid dissolution.

  6. "Product on Stopper" in a Lyophilized Drug Product: Cosmetic Defect or a Product Quality Concern?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehta, Shyam B; Roy, Shouvik; Yang, Han-Chang Cathy

    2018-06-01

    During manufacturing of a lyophilized drug product, operator errors in product handling during loading of product filled vials onto the lyophilizer can lead to a seemingly cosmetic defect which can impact certain critical quality attributes of finished product. In this study, filling of a formulated monoclonal antibody in vials was performed using a peristaltic pump filling unit, and subsequently, the product was lyophilized. After lyophilization, upon visual inspection, around 40% of vials had cosmetic defect with residual product around stopper of the vial and were categorized as "product on stopper" vials, whereas remaining 60% vials with no cosmetic defect were called "acceptable vials." Both groups of vials from 1 single batch were tested for critical quality attributes including protein concentration (ultraviolet absorbance at 280), residual moisture (Karl Fischer), sterility (membrane filtration), and container closure integrity (CCI) (blue dye ingress). Analysis of protein quality attributes such as aggregation, protein concentration, residual moisture showed no significant difference between vials with "product on stopper" and "acceptable vials." However, CCI of the "product on stopper" vials was compromised due to the presence of product around stopper of the vial. The results from this case study demonstrate the following 2 important findings: (1) that a seemingly cosmetic defect may impact product quality, compromising the integrity of the product and (2) that CCI test method can be used as an orthogonal method to sterility testing to evaluate sterility assurance of the product. The corrective action proposed to mitigate this defect is use of a larger sized vial that can potentially minimize this defect that arises because of product handling errors. Copyright © 2018 American Pharmacists Association®. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Toward low-cost affinity reagents: lyophilized yeast-scFv probes specific for pathogen antigens.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sean A Gray

    Full Text Available The generation of affinity reagents, usually monoclonal antibodies, remains a critical bottleneck in biomedical research and diagnostic test development. Recombinant antibody-like proteins such as scFv have yet to replace traditional monoclonal antibodies in antigen detection applications, in large part because of poor performance of scFv in solution. To address this limitation, we have developed assays that use whole yeast cells expressing scFv on their surfaces (yeast-scFv in place of soluble purified scFv or traditional monoclonal antibodies. In this study, a nonimmune library of human scFv displayed on the surfaces of yeast cells was screened for clones that bind to recombinant cyst proteins of Entamoeba histolytica, an enteric pathogen of humans. Selected yeast-scFv clones were stabilized by lyophilization and used in detection assay formats in which the yeast-scFv served as solid support-bound monoclonal antibodies. Specific binding of antigen to the yeast-scFv was detected by staining with rabbit polyclonal antibodies. In flow cytometry-based assays, lyophilized yeast-scFv reagents retained full binding activity and specificity for their cognate antigens after 4 weeks of storage at room temperature in the absence of desiccants or stabilizers. Because flow cytometry is not available to all potential assay users, an immunofluorescence assay was also developed that detects antigen with similar sensitivity and specificity. Antigen-specific whole-cell yeast-scFv reagents can be selected from nonimmune libraries in 2-3 weeks, produced in vast quantities, and packaged in lyophilized form for extended shelf life. Lyophilized yeast-scFv show promise as low cost, renewable alternatives to monoclonal antibodies for diagnosis and research.

  8. 500-Gray γ-Irradiation May Increase Adhesion Strength of Lyophilized Cadaveric Split-Thickness Skin Graft to Wound Bed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Lin-Gwei; Chen, Chieh-Feng; Wang, Chi-Hsien; Cheng, Ya-Chen; Li, Chun-Chang; Chiu, Wen-Kuan; Wang, Hsian-Jenn

    2017-03-01

    Human cadaveric skin grafts are considered as the "gold standard" for temporary wound coverage because they provide a more conductive environment for natural wound healing. Lyophilization, packing, and terminal sterilization with gamma-ray can facilitate the application of cadaveric split-thickness skin grafts, but may alter the adhesion properties of the grafts. In a pilot study, we found that 500 Gy γ-irradiation seemed not to reduce the adherence between the grafts and wound beds. We conducted this experiment to compare the adherences of lyophilized, 500-Gy γ-irradiated skin grafts to that of lyophilized, nonirradiated grafts. Pairs of wounds were created over the backs of Sprague- Dawley rats. Pairs of "lyophilized, 500-Gy γ-irradiated" and "lyophilized, nonirradiated" cadaveric split-thickness skin grafts were fixed to the wound beds. Adhesion strength between the grafts and the wound beds was measured and compared. On post-skin-graft day 7 and day 10, the adhesion strength of γ-irradiated grafts was greater than that of the nonirradiated grafts. Because lyophilized cadaveric skin grafts can be vascularized and the collagen of its dermal component can be remodeled after grafting, the superior adhesion strength of 500-Gy γ-irradiated grafts can be explained by the collagen changes from irradiation.

  9. Cryoprotection effectiveness of low concentrations of natural and lyophilized LDL (low density lipoproteins on canine spermatozoa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.M. Neves

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the use of low concentrations of natural and lyophilized low density lipoprotein (LDL from hen's egg yolk for cryopreservation of canine semen. Different ammonium sulphate concentrations were tested to extract LDL from egg yolk. The yolk was centrifuged, and LDL was isolated using 10, 20, 40, 45, or 50% ammonium sulphate solution (ASS. The LDL-rich floating fraction was collected for chemical characterization. Dry matter content was lowest (P<0.05 in the LDL extracted with the 50% ASS. The purification of LDL increased in association with increasing ammonium sulphate concentrations. SDS-PAGE showed that the 50% ASS solution yielded a purer fraction of LDL from egg yolk. For semen cryopreservation, TRIS extender was used replacing 20% egg yolk (control by natural or lyophilized LDL using 1, 2, and 3% (w/v. Semen was centrifuged (755Xg for 7 min, diluted with one of the extenders, packed into 0.5mL straws (100x106 sperm/mL, and placed in a programmable cryopreservation machine. Thawed semen (37°C/ 30s was analyzed for sperm motility, morphology, and by the hypoosmotic and epifluorescence tests (CFDA/ PI. Natural LDL extracted with 50% ASS was as effective as whole egg yolk to preserve canine frozen sperm when using low concentrations. The lyophilized LDL, mainly in the two higher concentrations tested (2 and 3%, was unsuitable to maintain the effectiveness of the LDL cryoprotective effect on dog sperm.

  10. Influence of preirradiational and postirradiational heating of lyophilized Micrococcus radioproteolyticus cells on their survival

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ryznar, L; Drasil, V [Ceskoslovenska Akademie Ved, Brno. Biofysikalni Ustav

    1981-12-10

    The survival curve of Micrococcus radioproteolyticus following gamma irradiation of lyophilized cells is characterized by a broad shoulder reaching as far as the dose range 10 - 20 kGy (1 - 2 Mrad). The course of the curve indicates that under these conditions most of the changes induced by irradiation have the character of sublethal damage, which the cell can repair. The course of the survival curve does not change if the lyophilized cells are heated prior to irradiation for 2 h at 60 /sup 0/C. Certain changes do occur if the preirradiational temperature is 80 /sup 0/C. If the cells are exposed to increased temperature after irradiation even a temperature of 60 /sup 0/C brings about a marked decrease in survival. A temperature of 80 /sup 0/C after irradiation leads to extensive changes in the shape of survival curves, which are characterized by a narrowing or even disappearing of the shoulders. It can be concluded from the results obtained that an increased temperature modifies the capability of irradiated lyophilized cells to repair radiation damage.

  11. Influence of preirradiational and postirradiational heating of lyophilized Micrococcus radioproteolyticus cells on their survival

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ryznar, L.; Drasil, V.

    1981-01-01

    The survival curve of Micrococcus radioproteolyticus following gamma irradiation of lyophilized cells is characterized by a broad shoulder reaching as far as the dose range 10 - 20 kGy (1 - 2 Mrad). The course of the curve indicates that under these conditions most of the changes induced by irradiation have the character of sublethal damage, which the cell can repair. The course of the survival curve does not change if the lyophilized cells are heated prior to irradiation for 2 h at 60 0 C. Certain changes do occur if the preirradiational temperature is 80 0 C. If the cells are exposed to increased temperature after irradiation even a temperature of 60 0 C brings about a marked decrease in survival. A temperature of 80 0 C after irradiation leads to extensive changes in the shape of survival curves, which are characterized by a narrowing or even disappearing of the shoulders. It can be concluded from the results obtained that an increased temperature modifies the capability of irradiated lyophilized cells to repair radiation damage. (author)

  12. Reduction of the radiogenic tumor incidence by stimulation with lyophilized fetal cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bause, R.; Gros, C.J.; Landsberger, A.; Renner, H.; Klinikum Nuernberg

    1983-01-01

    The effect of an immunization treatment with lyophilized xenogenic fetal cells was studied in 7 months old, female albino rats (strain Wistar). The tumor incidence was measured after a sublethal whole-body irradiation with 600 cGy. Furthermore, the spleen of the individual animals was histologically examined. 3,5 to 6 months after a whole-body irradiation with 600 cGy, the tumor incidence was 55%. The tumors found were tubular adenocarcinomas of the thyroid gland. A significant reduction of the tumor incidence can be achieved by an immunostimulation with xenogenic, lyophilized, fetal cells (connective tissue and bone marrow, respectively) administered twice, namely eight days before and four days after the whole-body irradiation. The tumor incidence measured after 3,5 months was 10% and 15%, respectively, and after 6 months 15% and 25%, respectively. No significant tumor protection is achieved, however, by a single stimulation before whole-body irradiation and by a stimulation performed one or two times after whole-body irradiation. Histologic examinations of the spleen show in the immunostimulized animals a strong regeneration of the immune system with a significantly increased number of follicles and a significant increase of lumphocytes in the red pulp. The authors stress the possible clinical importance for radio-oncology of an immunostimulation with lyophilized, xenogenic, fetal cells. (orig.) [de

  13. VIABILITY AND ANTIMICROBIAL ACTIVITY OF STREPTOMYCES STRAINS FROM NCNM AFTER LYOPHILIZATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oleg CHISELIŢA

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the aspects related to lyophilization of streptomycetes strains, preserved in the National Collection of Nonpathogenic Microorganisms (NCNM. Was determined that lyophilization do not significantly modify the antimicrobial activity of streptomycetes. Maximum viability of strains of genus Streptomyces (83,2-90,2% is ensured after lyophilization at initial titer by 9-11 log10UFC ml-1 in protective medium (gelatin 2,5% + glucose 7,5% by rehydra­tion with distillate water.VIABILITATEA ŞI ACTIVITATEA ANTIMICROBIANĂ A TULPINELOR DE STREPTOMYCES DIN CNMN DUPĂ LIOFILIZAREAcest articol prezintă aspecte legate de liofilizarea tulpinilor de streptomicete, depozitate în Colecţia Naţională de Microorganisme Nepatogene (CNMN. A fost stabilit că liofilizarea nu modifică esenţial activitatea antimicrobiană a streptomicetelor. Viabilitatea maximă a tulpinilor genului Streptomyces (83,2-90,2% este asigurată după liofilizarea la titrul iniţial 9-11 log10UFC ml-1 în mediu protectiv (gelatină 2,5% + glucosă 7,5% şi la rehidratarea cu apă distilată. 

  14. The preparation of 99Tcm-GSA and its instant lyophilized kit for hepatic receptor imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mao Yilei; Dong Yinv; Yang Wenjiang; Zhang Xianzhong; Tang Zhigang; Wang Xuebin

    2008-01-01

    The ligand GSA (diethylenetriamine pentaacetic acid-galactosyl-human serum albumin) was synthesized by introducing bifunctional chelator DTPA (diethylenetriamine pentaacetic acid) to human serum albumin (HSA) via DTPA anhydride first, and then coupling galactosyl units (2-imino-2-methoxyethyl-thio-galactose) to DTPA-HSA. GSA was labeled with 99 Tc m by using SnCl 2 as reductant and the labeling conditions of 99 Tc m -GSA were optimized. Lyophilized kit of GSA was also developed for instant preparing of 99 Tc m - GSA. The labeling yields in excess of 96% by using both of liquid and lyophilized labeling methods. Biodistribution of 99 Tc m -GSA was investigated in both normal and liver-injury model mice. 99 Tc m -GSA showed high liver uptake in normal mice (>70%ID·g -1 at 30 min after injection). The liver uptake in liver-injury model mice is lower than that of in nor- mal mice (P=0.0324). The promising biological properties of 99 Tc m -GSA combined with the development of reliable and instant lyophilized GSA kit afford the opportunity of liver receptor imaging for routine clinical assessment of hepatocyte function. (authors)

  15. The evidence for clinically significant bias in plasma glucose between liquid and lyophilized citrate buffer additive.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juricic, Gordana; Saracevic, Andrea; Kopcinovic, Lara Milevoj; Bakliza, Ana; Simundic, Ana-Maria

    2016-12-01

    Citrate buffer additive has been suggested to be of supreme performance in inhibiting glycolysis. However, there is little evidence in the literature regarding the comparability of glucose concentrations in liquid and lyophilized citrate buffer containing tubes. The aim of this study was to compare glucose concentrations in tubes containing liquid (Glucomedics) and lyophilized citrate buffer (Terumo VENOSAFE™ Glycemia) additive, measured immediately after centrifugation. Blood was collected from forty volunteers into both Glucomedics and Venosafe Glycemia tubes. Blood was centrifuged within 15min from venipuncture and glucose concentration was measured immediately after centrifugation, on the Abbott Architect analyzer. Differences between glucose concentrations in Glucomedics and Terumo tubes were tested using the paired t-test. Mean bias was calculated and compared to recommended quality specification for glucose (i.e. 2.2%). Glucose concentration in Terumo tubes was 3.4% lower than in Glucomedics tubes (Pglucose concentrations in liquid and lyophilized citrate buffer additive tubes (Glucomedics vs. Terumo tubes) measured immediately after centrifugation. This difference may affect the patient outcome due to the misclassification of diabetes. Copyright © 2016 The Canadian Society of Clinical Chemists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Carbon-deuterium rotational-echo double-resonance NMR spectroscopy of lyophilized aspartame formulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luthra, Suman A; Utz, Marcel; Gorman, Eric M; Pikal, Michael J; Munson, Eric J; Lubach, Joseph W

    2012-01-01

    In this study, changes in the local conformation of aspartame were observed in annealed lyophilized glasses by monitoring changes in the distance between two labeled sites using C-(2)H rotational-echo double-resonance (REDOR) nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy. Confirmation that the REDOR experiments were producing accurate distance measurement was ensured by measuring the (13)C-(15)N distance in glycine. The experiment was further verified by measuring the REDOR dephasing curve on (13)C-(2)H methionine. (13)C-(2)H REDOR dephasing curves were then measured on lyophilized aspartame-disaccharide formulations. In aspartame-sucrose formulation, the internuclear distances increased upon annealing, which correlated with decreased chemical reactivity. By contrast, annealing had only a minimal effect on the dephasing curve in aspartame-trehalose formulation. The results show that stability is a function of both mobility and local structure (conformation), even in a small molecule system such as lyophilized aspartame-sucrose. Copyright © 2011 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  17. Differential enumeration of subpopulations in concentrated frozen and lyophilized cultures of Lactobacillus delbrueckii ssp. bulgaricus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shao, Yuyu; Wang, Zhaoxia; Bao, Qiuhua; Zhang, Heping

    2017-11-01

    Differential enumeration of subpopulations in concentrated frozen and lyophilized cultures of Lactobacillus delbrueckii ssp. bulgaricus ND02 derived from 2 propagation procedures was determined. The subpopulations consisted of 3 categories (physiological states): viable cells capable of forming colonies on agar plates (VC+), viable cells incapable of forming colonies on agar plates (VC-), widely referred to as viable but nonculturable (VBNC) cells, and nonviable or dead cells (NVC). Counts of VC+ were recorded using a conventional plate count procedure. A fluorescent vital staining procedure that discriminates between viable (VC+ and VC-) and NVC cells was used to determine the number of viable and nonviable cells. Both propagation procedures had 2 variables: in procedure (P)1, the propagation medium was rich in yeast extract (4.0%) and the pH was maintained at 5.7; in P2, the medium was devoid of yeast extract and the pH was maintained at 5.1. The results showed that post-propagation operations-concentration of cells by centrifugation and subsequent freezing or lyophilization of cell concentrate-induced different degrees of transience from VC+ to VC- states in cells derived from P1 and P2. Compared with cells derived from P2, cells from P1 were more labile to stress associated with centrifugation, freezing, and lyophilization, as revealed by differential counting. Copyright © 2017 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Formation of zinc-peptide spherical microparticles during lyophilization from tert-butyl alcohol/water co-solvent system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, Feng; Ni, Nina; Chen, Jia-Wen; Desikan, Sridhar; Naringrekar, Vijay; Hussain, Munir A; Barbour, Nancy P; Smith, Ronald L

    2008-12-01

    To understand the mechanism of spherical microparticle formation during lyophilizing a tert-Butyl alcohol (TBA)/water solution of a zinc peptide adduct. A small peptide, PC-1, as well as zinc PC-1 at (3:2) and (3:1) ratios, were dissolved in 44% (wt.%) of TBA/water, gradually frozen to -50 degrees C over 2 h ("typical freezing step"), annealed at -20 degrees C for 6 h ("annealing step"), and subsequently lyophilized with primary and secondary drying. Zinc peptide (3:1) lyophile was also prepared with quench cooling instead of the typical freezing step, or without the annealing step. Other TBA concentrations, i.e., 25%, 35%, 54% and 65%, were used to make the zinc peptide (3:1) adduct lyophile with the typical freezing and annealing steps. The obtained lyophile was analyzed by Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM). The zinc peptide solutions in TBA/water were analyzed by Differential Scanning Calorimeter (DSC). The surface tension of the TBA/water co-solvent system was measured by a pendant drop shape method. With typical freezing and annealing steps, the free peptide lyophile showed porous network-like structure that is commonly seen in lyophilized products. However, with increasing the zinc to peptide ratio, uniform particles were gradually evolved. Zinc peptide (3:1) adduct lyophiles obtained from 25%, 35% and 44% TBA exhibit a distinctive morphology of uniform and spherical microparticles with diameters of approximately 3-4 microm, and the spherical zinc peptide particles are more predominant when the TBA level approaches 20%. Adopting quench cooling in the lyophilization cycle leads to irregular shape fine powders, and eliminating the annealing step causes rough particles surface. When TBA concentration increases above 54%, the lyophiles demonstrate primarily irregular shape particles. A proposed mechanism of spherical particle formation of the 3:1 zinc peptide encompasses the freezing of a TBA/water solution (20-70% TBA) causing the formation of a TBA hydrate

  19. Evaluation and Characterization of The Radiopharmaceutical Lyophilized-Kit of Ciprofloxacin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nurlaila Zainuddin; Eva Maria Widyasari

    2009-01-01

    The 99m Tc-ciprofloxacin radiopharmaceutical is available in the lyophilized-kit which is separately packed in two vials, ciprofloxacin lactate and Sn-tartrate, respectively. Preparation of 99m Tc-ciprofloxacin was performed by adding 99m Tc radionuclide into ciprofloxacin lactate solution, followed by addition of Sn-tartrate solution. The complement information was needed by user in order to assure the successful preparation and utilization of this radiopharmaceutical. Meanwhile, this investigation was performed to obtained the several physicochemical and biological characters of 99m Tc-ciprofloxacin prepared from the radiopharmaceutical lyophilized-kit of ciprofloxacin lactate. The radiochemical purity was determined with instant thin layer chromatography (ITLC-SG) using acetone and solution of dichloromethane : methanol : ammonium hydroxide : acetonitrile : (4:4:2:1) as a mobile phases. The plasma binding protein of 99m Tc-ciprofloxacin was investigated in-vitro by precipitation method using 5% of trichloro acetic acid solution, whereas the lipophilicity (P) was obtained by determination of octanol-water partition. Beside that, studies on the effect of volume of Na 99m TcO4 solution to radiochemical purity of 99m Tc-ciprofloxacin has been carried out. From the experiment, it was obtained that 99m Tc-ciprofloxacin has 95.85 ± 2.10 % of radiochemical purity, the human plasma binding protein of 58.35 ± 2.05 % and the lipophilicity (P) = 0.024 ± 0.005. The volume more than 2 mL of Na 99m TcO4 solution on the labelling of ciprofloxacin gave less than 90 % of radiochemical purity. The labelling efficiency of 44.79 % was obtained after filtration of 99m Tc-ciprofloxacin. The stability test on 99m Tc-ciprofloxacin and ciprofloxacin lyophilized-kit were performed by determining their radiochemical purities. The 99m Tcciprofloxacin was still able to be used until 4 hours after labelling with radiochemical purity of 91.61 ± 1.60 %. The stability determination showed

  20. Titania aerogels with tailored nano and microstructure: Comparison of lyophilization and supercritical drying

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Šubrt, Jan; Pližingrová, Eva; Palkovská, Monika; Boháček, Jaroslav; Klementová, Mariana; Kupčík, Jaroslav; Bezdička, Petr; Sovová, Helena

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 89, č. 4 (2017), s. 501-509 ISSN 0033-4545. [International Conference Solid State Chemistry 2016 /12./. Prague, 18.09.2016-23.09.2016] R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LM2015073 Institutional support: RVO:61388980 ; RVO:67985858 Keywords : Aerogels * Critical point drying * Lyophilization * Peroxo-polytitanic acid * Titanium dioxide Subject RIV: CA - Inorganic Chemistry; CI - Industrial Chemistry, Chemical Engineering (UCHP-M) OBOR OECD: Inorganic and nuclear chemistry; Chemical process engineering (UCHP-M) Impact factor: 2.626, year: 2016

  1. Wetting kinetics of nanodroplets on lyophilic nanopillar-arrayed surfaces: A molecular dynamics study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zong, Diyuan; Yang, Zhen; Duan, Yuanyuan

    2017-10-01

    Wetting kinetics of water droplets on substrates with lyophilic nanopillars was investigated using molecular dynamics simulations. Early spreading of the droplet is hindered by the nanopillars because of the penetration of the liquid which induce an extra dissipation in the droplet. Droplet spreading is mainly controlled by liquid viscosity and surface tension and not dependent on solid wettability. Propagation of the fringe film is hindered by the enhanced solid wettability because of the energy barrier introduced by the interaction between water molecules and nanopillars which increase with solid wettability.

  2. INAA applied to halogen (Br and I) stability in long-term storage of lyophilized biological materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zaichick, V.; Zaichick, S.

    2000-01-01

    Instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) was used to determine the Br and I concentration in the same ten lyophilized and homogenized human thyroid samples prior and after a 20-year storage at room temperature. It was found that long-term storage had no effect on the iodine content. At the same time, the bromine content was about 2-fold lower (p<0.01). It was assumed that possible losses of other halogens can occur under long-term storage of lyophilized biological materials at room temperature. (author)

  3. Assessing the impact of lyophilization process in production of implants based on the bacterial cellulose using Raman spectroscopy method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Timchenko, E V; Timchenko, P E; Pisareva, E V; Vlasov, M Yu; Revin, V V; Klenova, N A; Asadova, A A

    2017-01-01

    In this article we present the research results of lyophilization process influence on the composition of hybrid materials based on the bacterial cellulose (BC) using Raman spectroscopy method. As an object of research was used BC, as well as hybrids based on it, comprising the various combinations of hydroxyapatite (HAP) and collagen. Our studies showed that during the lyophilization process changes the ratio of the individual components. It was found that for samples hybrid based on BC with addition of HAP occurs increase of PO 4 3- peak intensity in the region 956 cm -1 with decreasing width, which indicates a change in the degree of HAP crystallinity. (paper)

  4. Assessing the impact of lyophilization process in production of implants based on the bacterial cellulose using Raman spectroscopy method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timchenko, E. V.; Timchenko, P. E.; Pisareva, E. V.; Vlasov, M. Yu; Revin, V. V.; Klenova, N. A.; Asadova, A. A.

    2017-01-01

    In this article we present the research results of lyophilization process influence on the composition of hybrid materials based on the bacterial cellulose (BC) using Raman spectroscopy method. As an object of research was used BC, as well as hybrids based on it, comprising the various combinations of hydroxyapatite (HAP) and collagen. Our studies showed that during the lyophilization process changes the ratio of the individual components. It was found that for samples hybrid based on BC with addition of HAP occurs increase of PO4 3- peak intensity in the region 956 cm-1 with decreasing width, which indicates a change in the degree of HAP crystallinity.

  5. Short communication: Protection of lyophilized milk starter Lactobacillus casei Zhang by glutathione.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Juan; Liu, Qian; Chen, Wei; Du, Guocheng; Chen, Jian

    2016-03-01

    Lyophilization is considered an effective way to preserve the activity of milk starters, such as lactic acid bacteria, in which proper protective agents play key roles. In this study, Lactobacillus casei Zhang, a probiotic bacterium applied as a milk starter in China, was used to investigate the effects of various cryoprotectants according to cell survival rate and physiological characteristics. The result showed a significant survival improvement to 86.6% when glutathione (GSH) was added as an ideal cryoprotectant. Further study revealed that GSH plays a key role on maintaining higher unsaturation ratio of cell membrane and shorter chain length of saturated fatty acids. In this case, the intact cell structure can be obtained. These findings will contribute not only to deepen the understanding of cells during lyophilization but also to improve the industrial performance of certain milk starters such as L. casei Zhang by application of GSH as cryoprotectant. Copyright © 2016 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Lyophilized allogeneic bone grafts for cystic and discontinuity defects of the jaws

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pill Hoon Choung; Eun Seok Kim

    1999-01-01

    Allogenic bone grafts have been used after various processing in each institute was made by lyophilized allogenic bone and used for maxillofacial reconstruction. Three types of lyophilized allogenic bone grafts as powder, chip and block form were performed to reconstruct the following defects: 1) maxillectomy, 2) mandiblectomy, 3) cystectomy, 4) cleft alveolus, 5) gap in orthognathic osteotomy, 6) peri-implant defect, 7) extraction socket, and 8) facial contouring. Above defects can be classified as cystic and discontinuity defects of the maxilia and the mandible. Because discontinuity defects have more difficult problems to reconstruct considering mechanical strength of the allogenic bone. We performed allogenic bone grafts on 50 cystic defects and 12 discontinuity defects of the jaws. Among them, 3 cases were removed due to infection, and the others had no complications. In reconstruction of cystic defects, the defects were filled with allogenic chip which were made from allogenic block bone at the surgery, which later were changed to host bone. Three cases of them showed tooth eruption through the allogenic bone grafting site, changing the eruption pathway, which was interrupted by the lesion. in reconstruction of discontinuity defects, usually allogenic bone has been used as a tray, in which PMCB or demineralized bone chips were filled. But we tried to reconstruct this discontinuity defect using allogeneic bone block without inside filling of PMCB different from tray type. We will present the results of allogenic bone grafts using cranial bone, costochondral graft, and the mandible

  7. Spectrophotometric determination of Sn+2 in lyophilized kit for labeling with 99mTc

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Araujo, Elaine Bortoleti; Sampel, Carolina Judith; Melo, Ivani Bortoleti; Okamoto, Miriam R.Y; Silva, Constancia P.G

    2004-01-01

    The preparation of 99 mTc labeled radiopharmaceuticals depends on the reduction of the technetium pertechnetate, commonly by stannous chloride (SnCl 2 ). The determination of the Sn +2 contents in the lyophilized preparations represents an important quality control procedure that may be applied to the process and to the final product. The objective os this work is the optimization of an spectrophotometric assay to the determination os Sn +2 contents in a citrate-stannous lyophilized kit for 99 mTc labeling. The spectrophotometric methodology employed is based in the colour development when Sn +2 reacts with sodium molybdate in the presence of potasium thiocyanate in chloridric medium. The colourfull reaction studied showed high stability after 60 minutes of the mixtures preparation. The sequence of reagents introduction in the reaction mixture was determinant to the assay. The molibdenium-stannous-tiocianate sequence produces calibration curves with good correlations (R2 ≥ 0.99). The concentrations of the molibdenium solution was also studied, in order to determine a ideal concentration for the Sn +2 range. The spectrophotometric method studied was usefull to the determination of Sn +2 content in different batches of citrate-stannous preparations. The method was fast and easy and can be applied to different stages of the production process, in order to guarantee the content of Sn +2 in the preparations (Au)

  8. Lyophilized platelet-rich fibrin (PRF) promotes craniofacial bone regeneration through Runx2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qi; Reed, David A; Min, Liu; Gopinathan, Gokul; Li, Steve; Dangaria, Smit J; Li, Leo; Geng, Yajun; Galang, Maria-Therese; Gajendrareddy, Praveen; Zhou, Yanmin; Luan, Xianghong; Diekwisch, Thomas G H

    2014-05-14

    Freeze-drying is an effective means to control scaffold pore size and preserve its composition. The purpose of the present study was to determine the applicability of lyophilized Platelet-rich fibrin (LPRF) as a scaffold for craniofacial tissue regeneration and to compare its biological effects with commonly used fresh Platelet-rich fibrin (PRF). LPRF caused a 4.8-fold±0.4-fold elevation in Runt-related transcription factor 2 (Runx2) expression in alveolar bone cells, compared to a 3.6-fold±0.2-fold increase when using fresh PRF, and a more than 10-fold rise of alkaline phosphatase levels and mineralization markers. LPRF-induced Runx2 expression only occurred in alveolar bone and not in periodontal or dental follicle cells. LPRF also caused a 1.6-fold increase in osteoblast proliferation (pfibrin, and 16% without scaffold. Moreover, LPRF thickened the trabecular diameter by 25% when compared to fresh PRF and fibrin, and only LPRF and fresh PRF resulted in the formation of interconnected trabeculae across the defect. Together, these studies support the application of lyophilized PRF as a biomimetic scaffold for craniofacial bone regeneration and mineralized tissue engineering.

  9. A STUDY ABOUT PHYSICOCHEMICAL COMPOSITION OF FRESH AND LYOPHILIZED ROYAL JELLY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    OLIMPIA POPESCU

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper contents a summery about physicochemical composition of frash and lyophilized royal jelly. Royal jelly (RJ is a yellowish and creamy secretion from hypo pharyngeal and mandibular glands of young worker bees (Apis mellifera L. to feed all larvae for the first three days of their life and the queen bee for both her larval life and adulthood.. Royal jelly is a honey bee secretion that is used in the nutrition of the larvae. Queen bees are made, not born, and their feeding with royal jelly is the key to that process. The geographical authenticity of royal jelly can be determined also by pollen analysis (Ricciardelli d'Albore et al., 1978; Ricciardelli d'Albore, 1986. The physicochemical composition of pure royal jelly are analyzed by determining moisture, ash, lipids, proteins, carbohydrates, 10-HDA; and for lyophilized royal jelly are analyzed by determining ash, lipids, protein, carbohydrates, 10-HDA, sugars. 10-HDA content is the criteria of royal jelly quality analysis and it is a freshness parameter(Antinelli J.F., Sarah Zeggane, Renee Davico, Catherine Rognone, Jean Paul Faucon, Louisette Lizzani.

  10. Lyophilized Platelet-Rich Fibrin (PRF Promotes Craniofacial Bone Regeneration through Runx2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qi Li

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Freeze-drying is an effective means to control scaffold pore size and preserve its composition. The purpose of the present study was to determine the applicability of lyophilized Platelet-rich fibrin (LPRF as a scaffold for craniofacial tissue regeneration and to compare its biological effects with commonly used fresh Platelet-rich fibrin (PRF. LPRF caused a 4.8-fold ± 0.4-fold elevation in Runt-related transcription factor 2 (Runx2 expression in alveolar bone cells, compared to a 3.6-fold ± 0.2-fold increase when using fresh PRF, and a more than 10-fold rise of alkaline phosphatase levels and mineralization markers. LPRF-induced Runx2 expression only occurred in alveolar bone and not in periodontal or dental follicle cells. LPRF also caused a 1.6-fold increase in osteoblast proliferation (p < 0.001 when compared to fresh PRF. When applied in a rat craniofacial defect model for six weeks, LPRF resulted in 97% bony coverage of the defect, compared to 84% for fresh PRF, 64% for fibrin, and 16% without scaffold. Moreover, LPRF thickened the trabecular diameter by 25% when compared to fresh PRF and fibrin, and only LPRF and fresh PRF resulted in the formation of interconnected trabeculae across the defect. Together, these studies support the application of lyophilized PRF as a biomimetic scaffold for craniofacial bone regeneration and mineralized tissue engineering.

  11. Determination of moisture content in lyophilized mannitol through intact glass vials using NIR micro-spectrometers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristian Rodrigo Muzzio

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Determination of moisture content in lyophilized solids is fundamental to predict quality and stability of freeze-dried products, but conventional methods are time-consuming, invasive and destructive. The aim of this study was to develop and optimize a fast, inexpensive, noninvasive and nondestructive method for determination of moisture content in lyophilized mannitol, based on an NIR micro-spectrometer instead of a conventional NIR spectrometer. Measurements of lyophilized mannitol were performed through the bottom of rotating glass vials by means of a reflectance probe. The root mean standard error of prediction (RMSEP and the correlation coefficient (R²pred, yielded by the pre-treatments and calibration method proposed, was 0.233% (w/w and 0.994, respectively.A determinação do conteúdo de umidade em sólidos liofilizados é fundamental para se prever a qualidade e a estabilidade de produtos liofilizados, mas os métodos convencionais consomem muito tempo, são invasivos e destrutivos. O objetivo desse estudo foi desenvolver e otimizar um método rápido, econômico, não invasivo e não destrutivo para a determinação do conteúdo de umidade em manitol liofilizado, com base em microespectrômetro de infravermelho próximo ao invés de um espectrômetro de infravermelho próximo convencional. As medidas de manitol liofilizado foram realizadas através do fundo de recipiente de vidro em rotação por meio de sonda de reflectância. A raíz do erro médio padrão de predição (RMSEP e o coeficiente de correlação (R²pred obtidos pelo prétratamento e pelo método de calibração proposto foram, respectivamente, 0,233% (p/p e 0,994.

  12. Lyophilized phytosomal nanocarriers as platforms for enhanced diosmin delivery: optimization and ex vivo permeation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Freag MS

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available May S Freag, Yosra SR Elnaggar, Ossama Y AbdallahDepartment of Pharmaceutics, Faculty of Pharmacy, Alexandria University, Alexandria, EgyptAbstract: Diosmin (DSN is an outstanding phlebotonic flavonoid with a tolerable potential for the treatment of colon and hepatocellular carcinoma. Being highly insoluble, DSN bioavailability suffers from high inter-subject variation due to variable degrees of permeation. This work endeavored to develop novel DSN loaded phytosomes in order to improve drug dissolution and intestinal permeability. Three preparation methods (solvent evaporation, salting out, and lyophilization were compared. Nanocarrier optimization encompassed different soybean phospholipid (SPC types, different solvents, and different DSN:SPC molar ratios (1:1, 1:2, and 1:4. In vitro appraisal encompassed differential scanning calorimetry, infrared spectroscopy, particle size, zeta potential, polydispersity index, transmission electron microscopy, drug content, and in vitro stability. Comparative dissolution studies were performed under sink versus non-sink conditions. Ex vivo intestinal permeation studies were performed on rats utilizing noneverted sac technique and high-performance liquid chromatography analysis. The results revealed lyophilization as the optimum preparation technique using SPC and solvent mixture (Dimethyl sulphoxide:t-butylalchol in a 1:2 ratio. Complex formation was contended by differential scanning calorimetry and infrared data. Optimal lyophilized phytosomal nanocarriers (LPNs exhibited the lowest particle size (316 nm, adequate zeta-potential (−27 mV, and good in vitro stability. Well formed, discrete vesicles were revealed by transmission electron microscopy, drug content, and in vitro stability. Comparative dissolution studies were performed. LPNs demonstrated significant enhancement in DSN dissolution compared to crude drug, physical mixture, and generic and brand DSN products. Permeation studies revealed 80% DSN

  13. Lyophilized silica lipid hybrid (SLH) carriers for poorly water-soluble drugs: physicochemical and in vitro pharmaceutical investigations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yasmin, Rokhsana; Tan, Angel; Bremmell, Kristen E; Prestidge, Clive A

    2014-09-01

    Lyophilization was investigated to produce a powdery silica-lipid hybrid (SLH) carrier for oral delivery of poorly water-soluble drugs. The silica to lipid ratio, incorporation of cryoprotectant, and lipid loading level were investigated as performance indicators for lyophilized SLH carriers. Celecoxib, a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug, was used as the model poorly soluble moiety to attain desirable physicochemical and in vitro drug solubilization properties. Scanning electron microscopy and confocal fluorescence imaging verified a nanoporous, homogenous internal matrix structures of the lyophilized SLH particles, prepared from submicron triglyceride emulsions and stabilized by porous silica nanoparticles (Aerosil 380), similar to spray-dried SLH. 20-50 wt % of silica in the formulation have shown to produce nonoily SLH agglomerates with complete lipid encapsulation. The incorporation of a cryoprotectant prevented irreversible aggregation of the silica-stabilized droplets during lyophilization, thereby readily redispersing in water to form micrometre-sized particles (water-soluble therapeutics is confirmed. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. and the American Pharmacists Association.

  14. GLYCOHEMOGLOBIN - COMPARISON OF 12 ANALYTICAL METHODS, APPLIED TO LYOPHILIZED HEMOLYSATES BY 101 LABORATORIES IN AN EXTERNAL QUALITY ASSURANCE PROGRAM

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    WEYKAMP, CW; PENDERS, TJ; MUSKIET, FAJ; VANDERSLIK, W

    Stable lyophilized ethylenediaminetetra-acetic acid (EDTA)-blood haemolysates were applied in an external quality assurance programme (SKZL, The Netherlands) for glycohaemoglobin assays in 101 laboratories using 12 methods. The mean intralaboratory day-to-day coefficient of variation (CV),

  15. Using the fluorescence red edge effect to assess the long-term stability of lyophilized protein formulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, Ken K; Grobelny, Pawel J; Tyagi, Madhusudan; Cicerone, Marcus T

    2015-04-06

    Nanosecond relaxation processes in sugar matrices are causally linked through diffusional processes to protein stability in lyophilized formulations. Long-term protein degradation rates track mean-squared displacement (⟨u(2)⟩) of hydrogen atoms in sugar glasses, a parameter describing dynamics on a time scale of picoseconds to nanoseconds. However, measurements of ⟨u(2)⟩ are usually performed by neutron scattering, which is not conducive to rapid formulation screening in early development. Here, we present a benchtop technique to derive a ⟨u(2)⟩ surrogate based on the fluorescence red edge effect. Glycerol, lyophilized trehalose, and lyophilized sucrose were used as model systems. Samples containing 10(-6) mole fraction of rhodamine 6G, a fluorophore, were excited at either 532 nm (main peak) or 566 nm (red edge), and the ⟨u(2)⟩ surrogate was determined based the corresponding Stokes shifts. Results showed reasonable agreement between ⟨u(2)⟩ from neutron scattering and the surrogate from fluorescence, although deviations were observed at very low temperatures. We discuss the sources of the deviations and suggest technique improvements to ameliorate these. We expect that this method will be a valuable tool to evaluate lyophilized sugar matrices with respect to their ability to protect proteins from diffusion-limited degradation processes during long-term storage. Additionally, the method may have broader applications in amorphous pharmaceutical solids.

  16. Preparation of lyophilized kit of HYNIC-[Tyr3]-Octreotate and labelling studies with 99m-Technetium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Melo, Ivani Bortoleti

    2008-01-01

    The development of radiolabeled molecules with high specificity for an organ ar tumor has been contributed to the precise diagnostic in nuclear medicine. Somatostatin labeled derivatives constitutes a particular example of labeled peptide applied in the localization of neuroendocrine tumors. Nowadays, the 111 In DTPA-octreotide is the radiopharmaceutical applied in diagnostic procedures for the visualization of tumors with high expression of somatostatin receptors. However, the 111-indium is a radionuclide that presents some limitations related to availability (cyclotron production), half-life (67 hours) and the emission of medium energy photons (171 keV e 245 keV), not favorable to the acquisition of images in SPECT (Single Photon Emission Computed Tomography). The favorable physical properties of the 99m -technetium ( 99m Tc) make this radionuclide the more favorable to substitute the 111-indium on peptide labeling procedures. This work studied the preparation and labeling of a lyophilized kit of HYNIC-Tyr 3 -octreotate (HYNIC-octreotate) with 99m Tc, base on previously described procedures and using tricine and EDDA (ethylendiaminediacetic acid) as coligands. It was studied the labeling parameters (incubation time, temperature, volume and perthecnetate activity) and the stability of the lyophilized preparation. Additionally, it was studied the influence of the pre-freezing using liquid nitrogen in the stability of the lyophilized preparation, as well as the influence of manitol in the labeling yield and biological distribution of the complex. The stability studies showed that the lyophilization using liquid nitrogen pre-freezing resulted in a lyophilized preparation with stability over 4 month when stored under refrigeration. The stability of the lyophilized preparation obtained without liquid nitrogen pre-freezing was similar.The labeling studies determined the best labeling conditions, resulting in a radiochemical yield superior than 90%. The use of manitol in

  17. [Construction of cTnC-linker-TnI (P) Genes, Expression of Fusion Protein and Preparation of Lyophilized Protein].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Xiaoli; Liu, Xiaoyun; Cai, Lei; Wu, Jianwei; Wang, Jihua

    2015-12-01

    In order to construct and express human cardiac troponin C-linker-troponin I(P) [ cTnC-linker-TnI(P)] fusion protein, detect its activity and prepare lyophilized protein, we searched the CDs of human cTnC and cTnI from GenBank, synthesized cTnC and cTnI(30-110aa) into cloning vector by a short DNA sequence coding for 15 neutral amino acid residues. pCold I-cTnC-linker-TnI(P) was constructed and transformed into E. coli BL21(DE3). Then, cTnC-linker-TnI(P) fusion protein was induced by isopropyl-β-D-thiogalactopyranoside (IPTG). Soluable expression of cTnC-linker-TnI(P) in prokaryotic system was successfully obtained. The fusion protein was purified by Ni²⁺ Sepharose 6 Fast Flow affinity chromatography with over 95% purity and prepared into lyophilized protein. The activity of purified cTnC-linker-TnI(P) and its lyophilized protein were detected by Wondfo Finecare™ cTnI Test. Lyophilized protein of cTnC-linker-TnI(P) was stable for 10 or more days at 37 °C and 4 or more months at 25 °C and 4 °C. The expression system established in this research is feasible and efficient. Lyophilized protein is stable enough to be provided as biological raw materials for further research.

  18. Dielectric properties of residual water in amorphous lyophilized mixtures of sugar and drug

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moznine, R El [School of Pharmacy, De Montfort University, Leiceste (United Kingdom); Smith, G [School of Pharmacy, De Montfort University, Leicester (United Kingdom); Polygalov, E [School of Pharmacy, De Montfort University, Leicester (United Kingdom); Suherman, P M [School of Pharmacy, De Montfort University, Leicester (United Kingdom); Broadhead, J [AstraZeneca Charnwood R and D, Bakewell Rd, Loughborough (United Kingdom)

    2003-02-21

    Dielectric relaxation spectroscopy was used to investigate the properties of residual water in lyophilized formulations of a proprietary tri-phosphate drug containing a sugar (trehalose, lactose or sucrose) or dextran. The dielectric properties of each formulation were determined in the frequency range (0.1 Hz-0.1 MHz) and temperature range (30 deg. C-T{sub g}). The temperature dependence of the relaxation times for all samples showed Arrhenuis behaviour, from which the activation energy was derived. Proton hopping through the hydrogen-bonded network (clusters) of water molecules was suggested as the principle mode of charge transport. Significant differences in dielectric relaxation kinetics and activation energy were observed for the different formulations, which were found to correlate with the amount of monophosphate degradation product.

  19. Sup(99m)Tc-Sn-pyrophosphate complex. A stable, lyophilized radiopharmaceutical for skeletal scanning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cvoric, J; Jovanovic, V; Bzenic, J [Institut za Nuklearne Nauke Boris Kidric, Belgrade (Yugoslavia); Stefanovic, Lj; Selir, Z [Institute for Tuberculosis and Pectoral Diseases, Radioisotope Applications, Sremska Kamenica (Yugoslavia)

    1978-01-01

    After a systematic investigation of the different phosphate polymers, viz. hexametaphosphate, tripolyphosphate, meta- and diphosphonate, pyrophosphate (Na/sub 4/P/sub 2/O/sub 7/) was selected for sceletal scintigraphy. A procedure has been developed for obtaining a sup(99m)Tc-labelled Sn(II): PyP complex by addition of a sterile, apyrogenic pertechnetate solution from a sup(99m)Tc-generator to a lyophilized solution of Sn(II)-tetrasodium phosphate. ''Kit'' composition was determined on the basis of biodynamic data obtained when the Sn/pyrophosphate ratio, pH and other parameters were varied. In vivo distribution of different sup(99m)Tc-Sn-pyrophosphate complexes permitted the selection of the most suitable complex for sceletal scanning. The investigated complex is being successfully applied in human scintigraphy of bones in the Laboratory for Radioisotope Applications of the Institute for Tubercolosis and Pectoral Diseases in Sremska Kamenica.

  20. Alpha-2-Macroglobulin Is Acutely Sensitive to Freezing and Lyophilization: Implications for Structural and Functional Studies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amy R Wyatt

    Full Text Available Alpha-2-macroglobulin is an abundant secreted protein that is of particular interest because of its diverse ligand binding profile and multifunctional nature, which includes roles as a protease inhibitor and as a molecular chaperone. The activities of alpha-2-macroglobulin are typically dependent on whether its conformation is native or transformed (i.e. adopts a more compact conformation after interactions with proteases or small nucleophiles, and are also influenced by dissociation of the native alpha-2-macroglobulin tetramer into stable dimers. Alpha-2-macroglobulin is predominately present as the native tetramer in vivo; once purified from human blood plasma, however, alpha-2-macroglobulin can undergo a number of conformational changes during storage, including transformation, aggregation or dissociation. We demonstrate that, particularly in the presence of sodium chloride or amine containing compounds, freezing and/or lyophilization of alpha-2-macroglobulin induces conformational changes with functional consequences. These conformational changes in alpha-2-macroglobulin are not always detected by standard native polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, but can be measured using bisANS fluorescence assays. Increased surface hydrophobicity of alpha-2-macroglobulin, as assessed by bisANS fluorescence measurements, is accompanied by (i reduced trypsin binding activity, (ii increased chaperone activity, and (iii increased binding to the surfaces of SH-SY5Y neurons, in part, via lipoprotein receptors. We show that sucrose (but not glycine effectively protects native alpha-2-macroglobulin from denaturation during freezing and/or lyophilization, thereby providing a reproducible method for the handling and long-term storage of this protein.

  1. Effects of ionizing radiation on proteins in demineralized, lyophilized or frozen human bone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Antebi, Uri; Mathor, Monica B., E-mail: uri@usp.br, E-mail: mathor@ipen.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Guimaraes, Rodrigo P., E-mail: clinicaguimaraes@gmail.com [Santa Casa de Sao Paulo (FCM/SCSP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Ciencias Medicas

    2015-07-01

    The aim is the study of the application of ionizing radiation (gamma and electron) as sterilizing agents at doses of 15 kGy, 25 kGy and 50 kGy, the demineralized bone tissue frozen and freeze-dried for use in transplants. Five human femoral diaphysis of different donors demineralized bone tissues were preserved as lyophilized or frozen at - 80 deg C. The samples were divided into non-irradiated groups (control) and irradiated by gamma rays or electron beam. The bone proteins were extracted and used to determine the concentrations of total protein, BMP 2 and 7. It was observed a decrease in total protein concentrations, and BMP 2 and 7. The decrease in total protein concentrations, as compared to respective control groups was significant in the lyophilized and frozen samples irradiated at a dose of 50 kGy gamma radiation and beam electrons with greater than 30% reduction. The significant decrease in the levels of BMP 2 and 7 were also observed in higher doses and especially by electron beam. The reductions in the concentrations of total protein and osteoinductive proteins (BMP 2 and 7), were related to the radiation dose, i.e., increase with higher doses of ionizing radiation type and the type of preservation of the bones. The largest reductions in concentrations were observed in bone irradiated by electron beam and at a dose of 50 kGy. But this type of radiation and this high dose are not usual practice for the sterilization of bone tissue. Keywords: demineralized bone tissue, ionizing radiation, Tissue Bank, BMP 2, BMP 7, bone proteins. (author)

  2. Safer and healthier reduced nitrites turkey meat sausages using lyophilized Cystoseira barbata seaweed extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sellimi, Sabrine; Benslima, Abdelkarim; Ksouda, Ghada; Montero, Veronique Barragan; Hajji, Mohamed; Nasri, Moncef

    2017-10-21

    Background Nitrite salts are still common additives in the meat industry. The present study provides a first approach on the employment of the lyophilized aqueous extract (WE) of the Tunisian seaweed Cystoseira barbata for the quality enhancement of turkey meat sausage. Methods WE was supplemented as a natural antioxidant agent to investigate its effectiveness in delaying lipid oxidation turkey meat sausages containing reduced amounts of sodium nitrites. Results On storage day 5, all concentrations of WE (0.01-0.4 %) reduced the meat lipid oxidation by approximately 36 %, as compared to the negative control containing only 80 mg/kg of meat of sodium nitrites as antioxidant. It was noted that within 15 days of refrigerated storage, a meat system containing 80 mg/kg of meat of sodium nitrites and 0.02 % and 0.04 % of WE had similar Thiobarbituric Acid Reactive Substances (TBARS) levels (19±1.32 and 17±1.12 µmol/kg of meat, respectively), which were comparable to the positive control containing sodium nitrites (150 mg/kg of meat) and 0.045 % vitamin C (18.46±1.27 µmol/kg of meat). In-depth, the metabolomic profiling using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC/MS) and liquid chromatography-quadripole-time-of-flight-mass spectrometry (LC-QTOF-MS) analyses of the Tunisian seaweed C. barbata solvent extracts showed that the main active compounds were phenolic compounds, fatty acids and sterols. Conclusions Overall, the cold medium containing C. barbata lyophilized aqueous extrac, with strong antioxidant activity and antihypertensive properties, may open the way to the development of a natural quality enhancement strategy for new functional and ever healthier reduced nitrites meat sausages based on algae.

  3. Free Radicals Formation of Irradiated Lyophilized Can-Cellous Human and Bovine Bone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abbas, Basril; Sudiro, Sutjipto; Hilmy, Nazly

    2000-01-01

    Radiation sterilization of lyophilized human and bovine bone as allograft and xenograft have been produced and used in orthopaedic practice in Indonesia routinely. It is well known from radio biologic studies that one of the most pronounce effects of ionizing radiation on biologic species produced the free radicals that influence the physico-chemical as well as the mechanical properties of irradiated bone. The aim of our study is to investigate the free radicals formation of irradiated lyophilized cancellous triple A bone (Autolyzed Antigen-Extracted Allograft) produced by Batan Research Tissue Bank in Jakarta. The cancellous triple A were prepared according to AATB (American Association of Tissue Bank) method. Gamma Irradiations was done at doses of 10, 20 and 30 kGy with a dose rate of 7,5 kGy/h at room temperature (30 o C± 2 o C). Measurements of free radicals was done at 24 o C ±1 o C within 30 minutes after irradiational and measurement were continued up to 9 months of storage using a JES-REIX ESR Spectrophotometer (JEOL) with Mn exp. ++ standard. Parameters measured, were the effects of mechanical grinding, water immersion and irradiation dose on free radicals formation in the bone. Results show that the signal area of ESR spectra from irradiated bovine bone of 30 kGy was higher than those of human bone I.e. 1,4 x 10 exp. 7 dan 6,4 x 10 exp. 6 Au (arbitrary unit)/g samples respectively. The signal of ESR spectra increased linearly with increasing dose in the range of 10-30 kGy and it will reduce about 30% caused by water immersion. The ESR signal reduced sharply after 2 days and gradually decreased up to 14 days and then became constant up to 9 months of storage at room temperature. A certain method of crushing can produce free radicals. Key Words: free radical, irradiation, allograft, xenograft, mechanical-grinding

  4. Effects of ionizing radiation on proteins in demineralized, lyophilized or frozen human bone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Antebi, Uri; Mathor, Monica B.; Guimaraes, Rodrigo P.

    2015-01-01

    The aim is the study of the application of ionizing radiation (gamma and electron) as sterilizing agents at doses of 15 kGy, 25 kGy and 50 kGy, the demineralized bone tissue frozen and freeze-dried for use in transplants. Five human femoral diaphysis of different donors demineralized bone tissues were preserved as lyophilized or frozen at - 80 deg C. The samples were divided into non-irradiated groups (control) and irradiated by gamma rays or electron beam. The bone proteins were extracted and used to determine the concentrations of total protein, BMP 2 and 7. It was observed a decrease in total protein concentrations, and BMP 2 and 7. The decrease in total protein concentrations, as compared to respective control groups was significant in the lyophilized and frozen samples irradiated at a dose of 50 kGy gamma radiation and beam electrons with greater than 30% reduction. The significant decrease in the levels of BMP 2 and 7 were also observed in higher doses and especially by electron beam. The reductions in the concentrations of total protein and osteoinductive proteins (BMP 2 and 7), were related to the radiation dose, i.e., increase with higher doses of ionizing radiation type and the type of preservation of the bones. The largest reductions in concentrations were observed in bone irradiated by electron beam and at a dose of 50 kGy. But this type of radiation and this high dose are not usual practice for the sterilization of bone tissue. Keywords: demineralized bone tissue, ionizing radiation, Tissue Bank, BMP 2, BMP 7, bone proteins. (author)

  5. Development of a lyophilized formulation for preparing the radiopharmaceutical 177Lu-DOTA-Anti-CD20

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Serrano E, L. A.

    2015-01-01

    The radiolabeled proteins are molecules of interest in nuclear medicine for their diagnostic and therapeutic application in cancer. Antibodies, such as chimeric monoclonal antibody Anti-CD20 rituximab, have established themselves as suitable vectors of radionuclides (e.g. 177 Lu) , introducing high affinity by the surface antigens over- expressed and widely distributed in cells involved in certain diseases. The aim of this work was to design, optimize and document the production process of radiopharmaceutical 177 Lu-DOTA-Anti-CD20 for sanitary registration request to the Comision Federal para la Proteccion contra Riesgos Sanitarios (COFEPRIS). First, a raw material analysis using the Ft-Mir technique and gamma spectrometry was performed. Then, was carried out the development of the lyophilized formulation for the preparation of 177 Lu-DOTA-Anti-CD20, in which an ANOVA was performed where the dependent variable was the radiochemical purity. The optimal pharmaceutical formulation was: 5 mg DOTA-CD20 and 80 mg Mannitol to be reconstituted with 1 m L of acetate buffer 0.25 M, ph 7, with an incubation time of 15 min at 37 degrees Celsius in a dry bath. Once completed the development of the lyophilized formulation, we proceeded to the optimization of the production process, development and validation of the analytical method. Three batches were prepared under protocols of Good Manufacturing Practice, which met pre-established specifications as sterile and endotoxin-free of bacterial formulations, with greater that 95% of radiochemical purity. Currently, is conducting the study of shelf stability. Upon completion of the stability studies, the legal record of 177 Lu-DOTA-Anti-CD20 will be integrated with documented evidence of the quality and stability of the formulation of this radiopharmaceutical. (Author)

  6. Photo-dynamics of the lyophilized photo-activated adenylate cyclase NgPAC2 from the amoeboflagellate Naegleria gruberi NEG-M strain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Penzkofer, A.; Tanwar, M.; Veetil, S.K.; Kateriya, S.; Stierl, M.; Hegemann, P.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • Lyophilizing of NgPAC2 from Naegleria gruberi caused loss of BLUF domain activity. • Photo-induced tyrosine to flavin electron transfer in lyophilized NgPAC2. • Photo-induced Tyr–Tyr cross-linking to o,o′-dityrosine in lyophilized NgPAC2. • Photo-induced partial flavin cofactor reduction in lyophilized NgPAC2. • Two NgPAC2 conformations with fast and slow photo-induced electron transfer. - Abstract: The absorption and emission spectroscopic behavior of lyophilized photo-activated adenylate cyclase NgPAC2 from the amoeboflagellate Naegleria gruberi NEG-M strain consisting of a BLUF domain (BLUF = Blue Light sensor Using Flavin) and a cyclase homology domain was studied in the dark, during blue-light exposure and after blue-light exposure at a temperature of 4 °C. The BLUF domain photo-cycle dynamics observed for snap-frozen NgPAC2 was lost by lyophilization (no signaling state formation with flavin absorption red-shift). Instead, blue-light photo-excitation of lyophilized NgPAC2 caused sterically restricted Tyr–Tyr cross-linking (o,o′-ditysosine formation) and partial flavin cofactor reduction

  7. Photo-dynamics of the lyophilized photo-activated adenylate cyclase NgPAC2 from the amoeboflagellate Naegleria gruberi NEG-M strain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Penzkofer, A., E-mail: alfons.penzkofer@physik.uni-regensburg.de [Fakultät für Physik, Universität Regensburg, Universitätsstrasse 31, D-93053 Regensburg (Germany); Tanwar, M.; Veetil, S.K.; Kateriya, S. [Department of Biochemistry, University of Delhi South Campus, Benito Juarez Road, New Delhi 110021 (India); Stierl, M.; Hegemann, P. [Institut für Biologie/Experimentelle Biophysik, Humboldt Universität zu Berlin, Invalidenstrasse 42, D-10115 Berlin (Germany)

    2013-09-23

    Highlights: • Lyophilizing of NgPAC2 from Naegleria gruberi caused loss of BLUF domain activity. • Photo-induced tyrosine to flavin electron transfer in lyophilized NgPAC2. • Photo-induced Tyr–Tyr cross-linking to o,o′-dityrosine in lyophilized NgPAC2. • Photo-induced partial flavin cofactor reduction in lyophilized NgPAC2. • Two NgPAC2 conformations with fast and slow photo-induced electron transfer. - Abstract: The absorption and emission spectroscopic behavior of lyophilized photo-activated adenylate cyclase NgPAC2 from the amoeboflagellate Naegleria gruberi NEG-M strain consisting of a BLUF domain (BLUF = Blue Light sensor Using Flavin) and a cyclase homology domain was studied in the dark, during blue-light exposure and after blue-light exposure at a temperature of 4 °C. The BLUF domain photo-cycle dynamics observed for snap-frozen NgPAC2 was lost by lyophilization (no signaling state formation with flavin absorption red-shift). Instead, blue-light photo-excitation of lyophilized NgPAC2 caused sterically restricted Tyr–Tyr cross-linking (o,o′-ditysosine formation) and partial flavin cofactor reduction.

  8. Influence of culture conditions and preconditioning on survival of Lactobacillus delbrueckii subspecies bulgaricus ND02 during lyophilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shao, Yuyu; Gao, Shuran; Guo, Huiling; Zhang, Heping

    2014-03-01

    The cryotolerance of Lactobacillus delbrueckii ssp. bulgaricus is weak during vacuum freeze-drying. Many factors affect cryoresistance of these bacteria, such as cryoprotectant composition, the lyophilization technology used, and the intrinsic characteristics of the bacteria. In this research, we explored the fermentation technology and other preconditioning treatments of cells in improving the cryoresistance of Lactobacillus delbrueckii ssp. bulgaricus strains during lyophilization. The addition of yeast extract in the propagation medium exerted a negative effect on the cryotolerance of these bacteria and decreased survival during lyophilization. The count of the freeze-dried cells from medium containing a high level (4%) of yeast extract was only 4.1 × 10(9) cfu/g, indicating a death rate as high as 88%, compared with the culture medium without yeast extract, with a lower death rate of 44.7%. When Lactobacillus delbrueckii ssp. bulgaricus ND02 was propagated in yeast extract-free de Man, Rogosa, and Sharpe broth at a set pH value of 5.1, the cells showed unexpectedly higher survival after freeze-drying. Viable counts of the lyophilized cell of strain ND02 cultivated at pH 5.1 could reach 1.05 × 10(11)cfu/g and survival of the freeze-drying process was 68.3%, whereas at pH 5.7, survival was only 51.2%. We also examined the effects of pretreatment of cells on survival of the bacteria after vacuum freeze-drying. By analyzing the effect of pretreatment conditions on the expression of cold- and heat-shock genes, we established 2 pretreatments that improved survival of cells after lyophilization. Optimal fermentation conditions and pretreatment of the cell-cryoprotectant mixture at 10°C for 2h or 37°C for 30 min improved the cryoresistance of 4 strains of Lactobacillus delbrueckii ssp. bulgaricus to varying degrees. Cells of IMAU20269 and IMAU20291 that were pretreated showed enhanced survival of 16.06 and 16.82%, respectively, after lyophilization. Expression of

  9. Simple and rapid quantification of total carotenoids in lyophilized apricots (prunus armeniaca L.) by means of reflectance colorimetry and photoacoustic spectrometry spectroscopy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Doka, O.; Ficzek, G.; Luterotti, S.; Bicanic, D.D.; Spruijt, R.B.; Buijnsters, J.; Vegvari, G.

    2013-01-01

    Photoacoustic spectroscopy (PAS) and reflectance colorimetry are suggested as new tools for the analysis of total carotenoids in lyophilized apricot powders. The data obtained by these two techniques from seven apricot cultivars were compared to those acquired by spectrophotometry and

  10. ISOTOPE-DILUTION AMMONIA CHEMICAL-IONIZATION MASS FRAGMENTOGRAPHIC ANALYSIS OF URINARY 3-O-METHYLATED CATECHOLAMINE METABOLITES - RAPID SAMPLE CLEANUP BY DERIVATIZATION AND EXTRACTION OF LYOPHILIZED SAMPLES

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    KEMA, IP; MEIBORG, G; NAGEL, GT; STOB, GJ; MUSKIET, FAJ

    1993-01-01

    We developed a method for simultaneous quantification of the urinary 3-O-methylated catecholamine metabolites 3-methoxytyramine, normetanephrine and metanephrine by stable isotope-dilution ammonia chemical ionization mass fragmentography. Prepurification of lyophilized samples was done by

  11. Application of Optical Coherence Tomography Freeze-Drying Microscopy for Designing Lyophilization Process and Its Impact on Process Efficiency and Product Quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korang-Yeboah, Maxwell; Srinivasan, Charudharshini; Siddiqui, Akhtar; Awotwe-Otoo, David; Cruz, Celia N; Muhammad, Ashraf

    2018-01-01

    Optical coherence tomography freeze-drying microscopy (OCT-FDM) is a novel technique that allows the three-dimensional imaging of a drug product during the entire lyophilization process. OCT-FDM consists of a single-vial freeze dryer (SVFD) affixed with an optical coherence tomography (OCT) imaging system. Unlike the conventional techniques, such as modulated differential scanning calorimetry (mDSC) and light transmission freeze-drying microscopy, used for predicting the product collapse temperature (Tc), the OCT-FDM approach seeks to mimic the actual product and process conditions during the lyophilization process. However, there is limited understanding on the application of this emerging technique to the design of the lyophilization process. In this study, we investigated the suitability of OCT-FDM technique in designing a lyophilization process. Moreover, we compared the product quality attributes of the resulting lyophilized product manufactured using Tc, a critical process control parameter, as determined by OCT-FDM versus as estimated by mDSC. OCT-FDM analysis revealed the absence of collapse even for the low protein concentration (5 mg/ml) and low solid content formulation (1%w/v) studied. This was confirmed by lab scale lyophilization. In addition, lyophilization cycles designed using Tc values obtained from OCT-FDM were more efficient with higher sublimation rate and mass flux than the conventional cycles, since drying was conducted at higher shelf temperature. Finally, the quality attributes of the products lyophilized using Tc determined by OCT-FDM and mDSC were similar, and product shrinkage and cracks were observed in all the batches of freeze-dried products irrespective of the technique employed in predicting Tc.

  12. In vitro and in vivo gene delivery using chitosan/hyaluronic acid nanoparticles: Influences of molecular mass of hyaluronic acid and lyophilization on transfection efficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Toshinori; Nakata, Mitsuhiro; Yang, Zhihong; Torizuka, Yu; Kishimoto, Satoko; Ishihara, Masayuki

    2017-08-01

    Lyophilization is an effective method for preserving nonviral gene vectors. To improve the stability and transgene expression of lyophilized plasmid DNA (pDNA) complexes, we coated the surfaces of pDNA/chitosan complexes with hyaluronic acid (HA) of varying molecular masses. The transgene expression of pDNA/chitosan/HA ternary complexes was characterized in vitro and in vivo. pDNA complexes were lyophilized overnight and the resultant products with spongy, porous consistencies were stored at -30, 4 or 25°C for 2 weeks. Rehydrated complexes were characterized using gel retardation assays, aiming to confirm complex formation, measure particle size and evaluate zeta potential, as well as conduct luciferase gene reporter assays. The anti-tumor effects of pDNA ternary complexes were evaluated using suicide gene (pTK) coding thymidine kinase in Huh7-implanted mice. Transfection efficiencies of pDNA/chitosan/HA ternary complexes were dependent on the average molecular masses of HA. The coating of pDNA/chitosan complexes with HA maintained the cellular transfection efficiencies of lyophilized pDNA ternary complexes. Furthermore, intratumoral injection of lyophilized, rehydrated pDNA ternary complexes into tumor-bearing mice showed a significant suppression of tumor growth. The coating of pDNA/chitosan complexes with high-molecular-weight HA augmented the stability and cellular transfection ability of the complexes after lyophilization-rehydration. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  13. Whole Lyophilized Olives as Sources of Unexpectedly High Amounts of Secoiridoids: The Case of Three Tuscan Cultivars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cecchi, Lorenzo; Migliorini, Marzia; Cherubini, Chiara; Innocenti, Marzia; Mulinacci, Nadia

    2015-02-04

    The phenolic profiles of three typical Tuscan olive cultivars, Frantoio, Moraiolo, and Leccino, stored in different conditions (fresh, frozen, and whole lyophilized fruits), have been compared during the ripening period. Our main goals were to evaluate the phenolic content of whole freeze-dried fruits and to test the stability of the corresponding cake in oxidative-stress conditions. The comparison of fresh and whole freeze-dried fruits from the 2012 season gave unexpected results; e.g., oleuropein in lyophilized fruits was up to 20 times higher than in fresh olives with values up to 80.3 g/kg. Over time we noted that the olive pastes obtained from lyophilized olives contained highly stable phenolic compounds, even under strong oxidative stress conditions. Finally, it was also observed that the cake/powder obtained from unripe freeze-dried olives was very poor in oil content and therefore quite suitable for use in nutritional supplements rich in phenolic compounds, such as secoiridoids, which are not widely present in the human diet.

  14. Liposomes incorporating essential oil of Brazilian cherry (Eugenia uniflora L.): characterization of aqueous dispersions and lyophilized formulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshida, P A; Yokota, D; Foglio, M A; Rodrigues, R A F; Pinho, S C

    2010-01-01

    Multilamellar liposomes incorporating essential oil of Brazilian cherry (Eugenia uniflora L.) leaves were produced by dry film hydration. Gas chromatography demonstrated the compounds found in the essential oil were effectively incorporated in the aqueous dispersions of liposomes. Differential scanning calorimetry analyses revealed the incorporation of the essential oil did not cause phase separation in the membrane structure; the gel-liquid crystalline transition temperature (main transition) remained the same despite the higher heterogeneity indicated by the transition peak broadening. Different cryoprotectors (sucrose and trehalose) were added to the liposomal formulations to be tested in their ability to protect the liposomal structure during the lyophilization. The morphological aspect of the lyophilized powders analysed by scanning electron microscopy showed significant differences among the samples with and without cryoprotectors. Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy indicated the cryoprotectors interacted effectively with the polar heads of phospholipids in the bilayer. In terms of water absorption, trehalose was identified as a much more effective protector agent against it than sucrose. The cryoprotectors showed different degrees of effectiveness of preservation of the liposomal structure when the rehydration assays of lyophilized liposomes were carried out, as particle size measurements indicated a moderate process of fusion when the formulations with sucrose were rehydrated.

  15. Production of lyophilized macroaggregated albumin (MAA) kits to be labelled with sup(99m)Tc for lung scanning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamada, E.S.; Muramoto, E.; Brito, R.H.; Sosa de Pereira, N.P.; Almeida, M.A.T. de.

    1991-06-01

    Among the various macroaggregation procedures described in the literature, we have developed a rapid and reliable method for the routine production of lyophilized Sn-Macroaggregated Albumin (Sn-MAA) kits to be labelled with 99m Tc for lung perfusion scanning. The reaction vial contains a lyophilized suspension having the following components: 1,0mg of Aggregated Human Serum Albumin (MAA), 0,12mg of hydrated stannous chloride (SnCl 2 .2H 2 O), 5,0mg of Normal Human Serum Albumin (HSA) and 1% of Tween 80 as emulsifying agent. In this method the Sn-MAA kits were performed in a single step process, and a consistent suitable range of particle size (10-80 mu) was obtained. The size of the particles and the effect of storage time on the stability for the lyophilized kits were also investigated. The radiochemical purity, higher than 98% in 99m Tc Macroaggregated was determined by using ascending paper chromatography (Whatman n.3 and 85% methanol): biodistribution studies in rats have shown the high uptake in the lungs 85%/D with low liver uptake 2%/d and lung-liver ratios 98 ± 1%. Excellent human lung images for clinical practice were obtained with these kits, which are prepared at IPEN-CNEN/SP for brazilian physicians. (author)

  16. Detection of Collapse and Crystallization of Saccharide, Protein and Mannitol Formulations by Optical Fibers in Lyophilization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horn, Jacqueline; Friess, Wolfgang

    2018-01-01

    The collapse temperature (Tc) and the glass transition temperature of freeze-concentrated solutions (Tg’) as well as the crystallization behavior of excipients are important physicochemical characteristics which guide the cycle development in freeze-drying. The most frequently used methods to determine these values are differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and freeze-drying microscopy (FDM). The objective of this study was to evaluate the optical fiber system (OFS) unit as alternative tool for the analysis of Tc, Tg’ and crystallization events. The OFS unit was also tested as a potential online monitoring tool during freeze-drying. Freeze/thawing and freeze-drying experiments of sucrose, trehalose, stachyose, mannitol and highly concentrated IgG1 and lysozyme solutions were carried out and monitored by the OFS. Comparative analyses were performed by DSC and FDM. OFS and FDM results correlated well. The crystallization behavior of mannitol could be monitored by the OFS during freeze/thawing as it can be done by DSC. Online monitoring of freeze-drying runs detected collapse of amorphous saccharide matrices. The OFS unit enabled the analysis of both Tc and crystallization processes, which is usually carried out by FDM and DSC. The OFS can hence be used as novel measuring device. Additionally, detection of these events during lyophilization facilitate online-monitoring. Thus the OFS is a new beneficial tool for the development and monitoring of freeze-drying processes.

  17. Risk analysis methodology in microbiological assays of 99mTc lyophilized kits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castro Isaac, Marilín; Suárez Beyries, Karina; Alberti Ramírez, Alejandro

    2016-01-01

    The operations with medications require of the execution of requirements settled down in the Good Practices, with the objective of guaranteeing the quality, security and effectiveness of the same ones. The Good Practices of Production of Pharmaceutical Products (BPF), are essential parts of the Quality Management System, to which incorporates like integral part the Quality Risk Assessment (ARC). The System of ARC is directed mainly to guarantee the patient's health, which can be affected so much by the lack of readiness of the medications, like for a quality, security and inadequate effectiveness of these products. As part of the process of ARC, tools will be applied with the objective of establishing a process of taking of decisions with a scientific and practice bases. The Modal Analysis of Flaw and Effect (AMFE) is one of the tools that is used to evaluate the shortcomings that can happen in a process and their probable consequences in the results and/or in the behavior of the products. In this work the methodology settled down to carry out the evaluation of the risk of flaw of the quality microbiological of the lyophilized taken place in CENTIS, using the method AMFE. The scales of values settled down for the severity (S), the occurrence probability (OR) and the detection probability (D) and the levels of risk starting from the risk matrix obtained.

  18. Influence of lyophilization factors and gelatin concentration on pore structures of atelocollagen/gelatin sponge biomaterial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Longqiang; Tanabe, Koji; Miura, Tadashi; Yoshinari, Masao; Takemoto, Shinji; Shintani, Seikou; Kasahara, Masataka

    2017-07-26

    This study aimed to investigate influences of lyophilization factors and gelatin concentration on pore structures of ACG sponge. ACG sponges of different freezing temperatures (-30, -80 and -196 o C), freezing times (1, 2 and 24 h), gelatin concentrations (0.6%AC+0.15%G, 0.6%AC+0.6%G and 0.6%AC+2.4%G), and with 500 μM fluvastatin were fabricated. Pore structures including porosity and pore size were analyzed by scanning electron microscopy and ImageJ. The cytotoxic effects of ACG sponges were evaluated in vitro. Freezing temperature did not affect porosity while high freezing temperature (-30 o C) increased pore size. The high gelatin concentration group (0.6%AC+2.4%G) had decreased porosity and pore size. Freezing time and 500 μM fluvastatin did not affect pore structures. The cytotoxicity and cell proliferation assays revealed that ACG sponges had no cytotoxic effects on human mesenchymal stromal cell growth and proliferation. These results indicate that ACG sponge may be a good biomaterial scaffold for bone regeneration.

  19. The influence of a cryoprotective medium containing glycerol on the lyophilization of lactic acid bacteria (NOTE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JOSIP BARAS

    2001-07-01

    Full Text Available The aims of liophilization (freeze-drying of lactic acid bacteria are to preserve pure cultures or to prepare starters for the dairy industry. In both cases, the choice of the cryoprotectant is very important. In this work, samples of Bifidobacterium breve A71 and Bifidobacterium bifidum BbTD were freeze-dried in a new cryoprotective medium containing lactose, gelatine and glycerol (medium B. The reference medium contained saccharose, gelatine and skim milk (medium A. Before liophilization, the eutectic points of both media were determined, because the products must be cooled to a temperature below its freezing point. The success of the cryoprotectants was estimated in terms of the number of surviving organisms after lyophilization. Bifidobacterium breve A71 and Bifidobacterium bifidum BbTD freeze-dried in media A and B showed high survival rates. Bifidobacterium breve A71 showed a greater percentage survival in combination with medium B than with medium A. These results could be utilized in the manufacture of Bifidobacterium breve A71 as a starter in the diary industry because it is a human isolate which, except for acidification, has probiotic activity.

  20. Free radicals from irradiated lyophilized DNA: influence of water of hydration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huettermann, J.; Roehrig, M.; Koehnlein, W.

    1992-01-01

    Lyophilized DNA equilibrated with water vapour at various relative humidities (0-95% H 2 O or D 2 O) was X-irradiated at 77 K and analysed for free radicals by electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy in the temperature range 77-280 K. Analysis of spectra according to variation in humidity, microwave power and temperature generally yielded a doublet and a triplet spectrum at 77 K. The doublet partially converted into the 5-thymyl radical (TH . ). DNA containing deuterated thymine (dTDNA) revealed that the doublet of ''normal'' DNA should be composed of two similar doublets, one of which should be assigned to the thymine anion, the other possibly the cytosine anion. The triplet signal was more stable and could be related to the guanine cation or its deprotonated successor. Several other patterns were detected among them an allyl radical in highly aquated DNA (95% humidity). Other features occurred either predominantly or exclusively in DNA equilibrated above 66% relative humidity and were ascribed to an influence of the secondary structure. (author)

  1. Stability and biocompatibility of photothermal gold nanorods after lyophilization and sterilization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gomez, Leyre [Department of Chemical Engineering, Nanoscience Institute of Aragon (INA), C/ Mariano Esquillor, R and D Building, University of Zaragoza, 50018 Zaragoza (Spain); Cebrian, Virginia [CIBER de Bioingeniería, Biomateriales y Nanomedicina, CIBER-BBN, Zaragoza (Spain); Hospital Universitario La Paz-IdiPAZ, Paseo de la Castellana 261, 28046 Madrid (Spain); Martin-Saavedra, Francisco [Hospital Universitario La Paz-IdiPAZ, Paseo de la Castellana 261, 28046 Madrid (Spain); CIBER de Bioingeniería, Biomateriales y Nanomedicina, CIBER-BBN, Zaragoza (Spain); Arruebo, Manuel, E-mail: arruebom@unizar.es [Department of Chemical Engineering, Nanoscience Institute of Aragon (INA), C/ Mariano Esquillor, R and D Building, University of Zaragoza, 50018 Zaragoza (Spain); CIBER de Bioingeniería, Biomateriales y Nanomedicina, CIBER-BBN, Zaragoza (Spain); Vilaboa, Nuria [Hospital Universitario La Paz-IdiPAZ, Paseo de la Castellana 261, 28046 Madrid (Spain); CIBER de Bioingeniería, Biomateriales y Nanomedicina, CIBER-BBN, Zaragoza (Spain); Santamaria, Jesus, E-mail: Jesus.Santamaria@unizar.es [Department of Chemical Engineering, Nanoscience Institute of Aragon (INA), C/ Mariano Esquillor, R and D Building, University of Zaragoza, 50018 Zaragoza (Spain); CIBER de Bioingeniería, Biomateriales y Nanomedicina, CIBER-BBN, Zaragoza (Spain)

    2013-10-15

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Morphological changes are observed for CTABr capped gold nanorods over time. • Polystyrenesulfonate (PSS) and polyethyleneglycol (PEG) coated nanorods are stable. • Re-suspendible and sterilizable colloids are prepared using those capping agents. • Those materials are efficient heat sinks potentially used in photothermal therapy. - Abstract: Suspensions in phosphate buffered saline (PBS) of gold nanorods stabilized with cetyltrimethyl ammonium chloride (CTABr), polystyrenesulfonate (PSS) and methyl-polyethyleneglycol-thiol (m-PEG-SH) have been prepared and the evolution of their colloidal stability and plasmonic response over time has been evaluated. Their performance after lyophilization, alcoholic sterilization and resuspension has also been characterized. Sub-cytotoxic doses on HeLa cells were calculated for the three surface functionalizations used. Their heating efficiency at different exposure times was also evaluated after being irradiated with near infrared light. The best results were obtained for m-PEG-SH stabilized rods, which were not only stable, sterilizable and lyophilizable, but also biocompatible at all doses tested, showing potential as a stable, re-suspendible and biocompatible hyperthermic agent.

  2. Detection of Collapse and Crystallization of Saccharide, Protein, and Mannitol Formulations by Optical Fibers in Lyophilization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacqueline Horn

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The collapse temperature (Tc and the glass transition temperature of freeze-concentrated solutions (Tg' as well as the crystallization behavior of excipients are important physicochemical characteristics which guide the cycle development in freeze-drying. The most frequently used methods to determine these values are differential scanning calorimetry (DSC and freeze-drying microscopy (FDM. The objective of this study was to evaluate the optical fiber system (OFS unit as alternative tool for the analysis of Tc, Tg' and crystallization events. The OFS unit was also tested as a potential online monitoring tool during freeze-drying. Freeze/thawing and freeze-drying experiments of sucrose, trehalose, stachyose, mannitol, and highly concentrated IgG1 and lysozyme solutions were carried out and monitored by the OFS. Comparative analyses were performed by DSC and FDM. OFS and FDM results correlated well. The crystallization behavior of mannitol could be monitored by the OFS during freeze/thawing as it can be done by DSC. Online monitoring of freeze-drying runs detected collapse of amorphous saccharide matrices. The OFS unit enabled the analysis of both Tc and crystallization processes, which is usually carried out by FDM and DSC. The OFS can hence be used as novel measuring device. Additionally, detection of these events during lyophilization facilitates online-monitoring. Thus the OFS is a new beneficial tool for the development and monitoring of freeze-drying processes.

  3. Lyophilized sustained release mucoadhesive chitosan sponges for buccal buspirone hydrochloride delivery: formulation and in vitro evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kassem, Mohamed A A; ElMeshad, Aliaa N; Fares, Ahmed R

    2015-06-01

    This work aims to prepare sustained release buccal mucoadhesive lyophilized chitosan sponges of buspirone hydrochloride (BH) to improve its systemic bioavailability. Chitosan sponges were prepared using simple casting/freeze-drying technique according to 3(2) factorial design where chitosan grade was set at three levels (low, medium, and high molecular weight), and concentration of chitosan solution at three levels (0.5, 1, and 2%). Mucoadhesion force, ex vivo mucoadhesion time, percent BH released after 8 h (Q8h), and time for release of 50% BH (T50%) were chosen as dependent variables. Additional BH cup and core buccal chitosan sponge were prepared to achieve uni-directional BH release toward the buccal mucosa. Sponges were evaluated in terms of drug content, surface pH, scanning electron microscopy, swelling index, mucoadhesion strength, ex vivo mucoadhesion time, and in vitro drug release. Cup and core sponge (HCH 0.5E) were able to adhere to the buccal mucosa for 8 h. It showed Q8h of 68.89% and exhibited a uni-directional drug release profile following Higuchi diffusion model.

  4. Neuroprotective Effect of Xueshuantong for Injection (Lyophilized in Transient and Permanent Rat Cerebral Ischemia Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xumei Wang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Xueshuantong for Injection (Lyophilized (XST, a Chinese Materia Medica standardized product extracted from Panax notoginseng (Burk., is used extensively for the treatment of cerebrovascular diseases such as acutely cerebral infarction clinically in China. In the present study, we evaluated the acute and extended protective effects of XST in different rat cerebral ischemic model and explored its effect on peroxiredoxin (Prx 6-toll-like receptor (TLR 4 signaling pathway. We found that XST treatment for 3 days could significantly inhibit transient middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO induced infarct volume and swelling percent and regulate the mRNA expression of interleukin-1β (IL-1β, IL-17, IL-23p19, tumor necrosis factor-α (TNFα, and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS in brain. Further study demonstrated that treatment with XST suppressed the protein expression of peroxiredoxin (Prx 6-toll-like receptor (TLR 4 and phosphorylation level of p38 and upregulated the phosphorylation level of STAT3. In permanent MCAO rats, XST could reduce the infarct volume and swelling percent. Moreover, our results revealed that XST treatment could increase the rats’ weight and improve a batch of functional outcomes. In conclusion, the present data suggested that XST could protect against ischemia injury in transient and permanent MCAO rats, which might be related to Prx6-TLR4 pathway.

  5. Albumin-coated structural lyophilized bone allografts: a clinical report of 10 cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klára, Tamás; Csönge, Lajos; Janositz, Gábor; Csernátony, Zoltán; Lacza, Zsombor

    2014-03-01

    Bone replacement and the use of bone supplementary biological substances have become widespread in clinical practice. Although autografts have excellent properties, their limited availability, difficulties with shaping and donor site morbidity have made allografts a viable and increasingly preferred alternative. The main drawback of allografts is that the preparation destroys osteogenic cells and results in denaturation of osteoinductive proteins. Serum albumin is a well-known constituent of stem cell culture media and we found that lyophilizing albumin onto bone allografts markedly improves stem-cell attachment and bone healing in animal models thus replacing some of the osteoinductive potential. As a first step in the clinical introduction of albumin coated grafts, we aimed to test surgical handling and early incorporation in aseptic revision arthroplasty in humans. We selected patients who needed large structural allografts and the current operation was the last attempt at preserving a moving joint. In a series of 10 cases of hip and knee revision surgery we did not experience any drawbacks of the albumin-coated grafts during handling and implantation. Twelve months radiographic and SPECT-CT follow-up showed that the graft was well received by the host and active remodelling was observed. The lack of graft-related complications and the good 1-year results indicate that controlled trials may be initiated in more common bone grafting indications where long-term effectiveness can be evaluated.

  6. Stability and biocompatibility of photothermal gold nanorods after lyophilization and sterilization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gomez, Leyre; Cebrian, Virginia; Martin-Saavedra, Francisco; Arruebo, Manuel; Vilaboa, Nuria; Santamaria, Jesus

    2013-01-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Morphological changes are observed for CTABr capped gold nanorods over time. • Polystyrenesulfonate (PSS) and polyethyleneglycol (PEG) coated nanorods are stable. • Re-suspendible and sterilizable colloids are prepared using those capping agents. • Those materials are efficient heat sinks potentially used in photothermal therapy. - Abstract: Suspensions in phosphate buffered saline (PBS) of gold nanorods stabilized with cetyltrimethyl ammonium chloride (CTABr), polystyrenesulfonate (PSS) and methyl-polyethyleneglycol-thiol (m-PEG-SH) have been prepared and the evolution of their colloidal stability and plasmonic response over time has been evaluated. Their performance after lyophilization, alcoholic sterilization and resuspension has also been characterized. Sub-cytotoxic doses on HeLa cells were calculated for the three surface functionalizations used. Their heating efficiency at different exposure times was also evaluated after being irradiated with near infrared light. The best results were obtained for m-PEG-SH stabilized rods, which were not only stable, sterilizable and lyophilizable, but also biocompatible at all doses tested, showing potential as a stable, re-suspendible and biocompatible hyperthermic agent

  7. [Optimization on trehalose loading technique as protective conditioning for lyophilization of human platelets].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jing-Han; Zhou, Jun; Ouyang, Xi-Lin; Li, Xi-Jin; Lu, Fa-Qiang

    2005-08-01

    This study was aimed to further optimize trehalose loading technique including loading temperature, loading time, loading solution and loading concentration of trehalose, based on the established parameters. Loading efficiency in plasma was compared with that in buffer at 37 degrees C; the curves of intracellular trehalose concentration versus loading time at 37 degrees C and 16 degrees C were measured; curves of mean platelet volume (MPV) versus loading time and loading concentration were investigated and compared. According to results obtained, the loaing time, loading temperature, loading solution and trehalose concentration were ascertained for high loading efficiency of trehalose into human platelet. The results showed that the loading efficiency in plasma was markedly higher than that in buffer at 37 degrees C, the loading efficiency in plasma at 37 degrees C was significantly higher than that at 16 degrees C and reached 19.51% after loading for 4 hours, but 6.16% at 16 degrees C. MPV at 16 degrees C was increased by 43.2% than that at 37 degrees C, but had no distinct changes with loading time and loading concentration. In loading at 37 degrees C, MPV increased with loading time and loading concentration positively. Loading time and loading concentration displayed synergetic effect on MPV. MPV increased with loading time and concentration while trehalose loading concentration was above 50 mmol/L. It is concluded that the optimization parameters of trehalose loading technique are 37 degrees C (temperature), 4 hours (leading time), plasma (loading solution), 50 mmol/L (feasible trehalose concentration). The trehalose concentration can be adjusted to meet the requirement of lyophilization.

  8. Adaptogenic Activity of Lyophilized Hydroethanol Extract of Pandanus odoratissimus in Swiss Albino Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adkar, Prafulla P; Jadhav, Pranita P; Ambavade, Shirishkumar D; Bhaskar, V H; Shelke, Tushar

    2014-01-01

    Background. The leaves of Pandanus odoratissimus Linn have been widely used in Ayurveda to treat a variety of common and stress related disorders. In the present investigation, hydroethanol extract of leaves of Pandanus odoratissimus Linn (LEPO) were evaluated for antistress activity in normal and stress induced mice. Furthermore, the extract was studied for nootropic (adaptogenic) activity in mice and in vitro antioxidant potential to correlate with its adaptogenic and antistress activity. LEPO (100 and 200 mg/kg p.o) was evaluated against forced swimming endurance stress test, anoxia stress tolerance and immobilization stress and chronic cold resistant stress tests, and biomarkers (serum glucose, Corticosterone, WBC, RBC, and DLC count) to assess the antistress activity in mice. Withania somnifera (WS) (100 mg/kg p.o) was selected as reference standard. The parameters like anoxia stress tolerance time were recorded in anoxia stress and estimation of biochemical marker levels and determination of organs weight were carried out in immobilization stress models. Results. Concomitant treatment with LEPO 200 mg/kg significantly increased in anoxia stress tolerance time. Dose dependent significant reduction in serum glucose, corticosterone, and WBC, RBC, and DLC was observed in immobilisation stress model as compared to stressed group. LEOP 200 mg/kg and WS 100 mg/kg significantly reversed/inhibited the stress induced changes in these parameters. The results from the present study indicate that these values also express that dose dependent significant adaptogenic activity in stressed animals. Conclusion. The present study provides scientific support for the antistress (adaptogenic) and nootropic activities of lyophilized hydroethanol extract of Pandanus odoratissimus Linn and substantiate the traditional claims for the usage of Pandanus in stress induced disorders.

  9. The evaluation of lyophilized polymer matrices for administering recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein-2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duggirala, S S; Rodgers, J B; DeLuca, P P

    1996-07-01

    Novel unitary devices, prepared by lyophilization of viscous solutions of sodium carboxymethylcellulose (CMC) and methylcellulose (MC), were evaluated as sustained-release delivery systems for recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein-2 (rhBMP-2). In vitro characterization of the unitary devices, which contained rhBMP-2-loaded poly (d,l lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA) bioerodible particles (BEPs), was conducted over a 2-month period. Determinations included buffer uptake, mass and molecular weight loss and rhBMP-2 release from the unitary devices. CMC devices imbibed approximately 16 times their weight of buffer, while with MC, equilibrium uptake was approximately 6 times the dry weight of the devices. Overall mass loss percentages were approximately 55 and 35%, respectively, for CMC and MC devices. rhBMP-2 release from the devices was essentially a triphasic process: an initial phase during which "free" protein (rhBMP-2 present on the surface and within the pores of the PLGA BEPs) was released, a lag period during which no release was discerned, and then release of "bound" rhBMP-2 (protein adsorbed to the BEPs). The release of bound protein correlated with the mass loss of the polymer which began after 3 weeks. Release from the unitary devices was lower than that from the BEPs alone, due to a retardation effect of the gelled CMC/MC polymers. In rabbits in which full-thickness cranial bone defects were created, the implants were well tolerated and induced significant new bone growth during an 8-week evaluation period. The CMC devices appear to have induced bone earlier (at 2 weeks), but this did not affect eventual 8-week results. CMC devices without rhBMP-2 appeared to provide some bone conduction, in contrast to the blank MC devices.

  10. Microbial profile of a kefir sample preparations: grains in natura and lyophilized and fermented suspension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafaela Strada de Oliveira Bergmann

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Probiotics are supplementary foods developed by microbial strains that improve animal health beyond basic nutrition. Probiotics are consumed orally, regardless of being considered as normal inhabitants of the intestines, able to survive in enzimatic and biliary secretions. Kefir is a probiotic originated from the old continent, fermented by several bacteria and yeasts, encapsulated in a polyssacharide matrix, and resembles jelly grains. Kefir is also presented as its sourish product both in sugary or milky suspensions containing vitamins, aminoacids, peptides, carbohydrates, ethanol, and volatile compounds. Kefir is known to have a diverse microbial content depending on the country and fermentative substrates, which cause distinct probiotic effects. In this sense, the purpose of this work was to isolate, identify, and quantify the microbial content of a native sugary kefir sample (fermented suspension and lyophilized natural grains. Serial dilutions were plated on Rogosa agar (AR and De Man, Rogosa and Sharpe (MRS, for Lactobacillus; Brain Heart Infusion (BHI, for total bacteria; Sabouraud-Dextrose-Agar (SDA, for yeasts and filamentous fungi; Thioglycolate Agar (TA, for Streptococcus, Acetobacteria and Leuconostoc; and Coconut Water Agar (CWA, and CWA supplemented with yeast extract (CWAY, for various genera. Genera and species for all strains were identified through biochemical reactions and specific API systems. The microbial profile of kefir was different from other sources of grains despite the presence of similar microorganisms and others which have not been reported yet. The data obtained with the CWA and CWAE media suggest that both substrates are alternative and salutary media for culture of kefir strains.

  11. Biomimetic multidirectional scaffolds for zonal osteochondral tissue engineering via a lyophilization bonding approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clearfield, Drew; Nguyen, Andrew; Wei, Mei

    2018-04-01

    The zonal organization of osteochondral tissue underlies its long term function. Despite this, tissue engineering strategies targeted for osteochondral repair commonly rely on the use of isotropic biomaterials for tissue reconstruction. There exists a need for a new class of highly biomimetic, anisotropic scaffolds that may allow for the engineering of new tissue with zonal properties. To address this need, we report the facile production of monolithic multidirectional collagen-based scaffolds that recapitulate the zonal structure and composition of osteochondral tissue. First, superficial and osseous zone-mimicking scaffolds were fabricated by unidirectional freeze casting collagen-hyaluronic acid and collagen-hydroxyapatite-containing suspensions, respectively. Following their production, a lyophilization bonding process was used to conjoin these scaffolds with a distinct collagen-hyaluronic acid suspension mimicking the composition of the transition zone. Resulting matrices contained a thin, highly aligned superficial zone that interfaced with a cellular transition zone and vertically oriented calcified cartilage and osseous zones. Confocal microscopy confirmed a zone-specific localization of hyaluronic acid, reflecting the depth-dependent increase of glycosaminoglycans in the native tissue. Poorly crystalline, carbonated hydroxyapatite was localized to the calcified cartilage and osseous zones and bordered the transition zone. Compressive testing of hydrated scaffold zones confirmed an increase of stiffness with scaffold depth, where compressive moduli of chondral and osseous zones fell within or near ranges conducive for chondrogenesis or osteogenesis of mesenchymal stem cells. With the combination of these biomimetic architectural and compositional cues, these multidirectional scaffolds hold great promise for the engineering of zonal osteochondral tissue. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res Part A: 106A: 948-958, 2018. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals

  12. Antioxidant and cytotoxic properties of lyophilized beer extracts on HL-60 cell line.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tedesco, Idolo; Nappo, Annunziata; Petitto, Fabio; Iacomino, Giuseppe; Nazzaro, Filomena; Palumbo, Rosanna; Russo, Gian Luigi

    2005-01-01

    An impressive number of studies have suggested that red wine can be considered the protective beverage of choice against chronic and degenerative pathologies. Only few and controversial data are available on a potential, similar role for beer, which represents a more cost-effective, safe, and widely available beverage. Starting from the evidence that many antioxidant compounds present in red wine are also present at similar or even higher concentrations in beers, we first screened 48 commercially available beers and selected one (Mrt-HP) with very high polyphenol concentration and antioxidant activity estimated by ferric reducing antioxidant power. We demonstrated that a lyophilized preparation of Mrt-HP beer was cytotoxic with respect to a beer with low polyphenolic content (Trt-LP) when assayed on HL-60 human leukemia cell line. We measured a 60% decrease in cell viability at a polyphenol concentration of 250 microM quercetin equivalents. We also demonstrated that Mrt-HP cytotoxicity was not an artifact due to cell growth conditions because addition of Mrt-HP extracts to cell medium generated peroxide levels indistinguishable from controls. By means of cytofluorimetric analysis of pre-G1 population and caspase 3 activation, we demonstrated that Mrt-HP extracts activated apoptosis in HL-60 cell line. Finally, we found that the concentration of quercetin, resveratrol, and gallic acid in Mrt-HP was 10, 4.6, and 4.6-fold higher, respectively, than in Trt-LP, suggesting that the presence of these molecules might be responsible for the observed cytotoxicity. These data, together with the low in vivo beer toxicity reported in the literature, suggest a possible chemopreventive role for this beverage that requires further studies in animal models.

  13. Lyophilized mucoadhesive-dendrimer enclosed matrix tablet for extended oral delivery of albendazole.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansuri, Shakir; Kesharwani, Prashant; Tekade, Rakesh Kumar; Jain, Narendra Kumar

    2016-05-01

    Dendrimers are multifunctional carriers widely employed for delivering drugs in a variety of disease conditions including HIV/AIDS and cancer. Albendazole (ABZ) is a commonly used anthelmintic drug in human as well as veterinary medicine. In this investigation, ABZ was formulated as a "muco-dendrimer" based sustained released tablet. The mucoadhesive complex was synthesized by anchoring chitosan to fifth generation PPI dendrimer (Muco-PPI) and characterized by UV, FTIR, (1)H NMR spectroscopy and electron microscopy. ABZ was entrapped inside Muco-PPI followed by lyophilization and tableting as matrix tablet. A half-life (t1/2) of 8.06±0.15, 8.17±0.47, 11.04±0.73, 11.49±0.92, 12.52±1.04 and 16.9±1.18h was noted for ABZ (free drug), conventional ABZ tablet (F1), conventional ABZ matrix tablet (F2), PPI-ABZ complex, PPI-ABZ matrix tablet (F3) and Muco-PPI-ABZ matrix tablet (F4), respectively. Thus the novel mucoadhesive-PPI based formulation of ABZ (F4) increased the t1/2 of ABZ significantly by almost twofold as compared to the administration of free drug. The in vivo drug release data showed that the Muco-PPI based formulations have a significantly higher Cmax (2.40±0.02μg/mL) compared with orally administered free ABZ (0.19±0.07μg/mL) as well as conventional tablet (0.20±0.05μg/mL). In addition, the Muco-PPI-ABZ matrix tablet displayed increased mean residence time (MRT) and is therefore a potential candidate to appreciably improve the pharmacokinetic profile of ABZ. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Stability assessment of lyophilized intravenous immunoglobulin after reconstitution in glass containers and poly(vinyl chloride) bags.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parti, R; Mankarious, S

    1997-02-01

    Human intravenous immunoglobulin (IGIV) has been in use for the past 20 years. This biological product is commonly provided in liquid or lyophilized dosage form. When the lyophilized product is rehydrated, it is usually administered within 2-3 h from time of complete dissolution. While this practice is advisable whenever possible, occasionally the patient or care-giver may need to delay the infusion. Hence, a study of the stability of lyophilized IGIV after reconstitution with water for injection was conducted. The reconstituted product was stored either in its original glass container or pooled into poly(vinyl chloride) (PVC) bags. The effect of extended storage on the active ingredient (IgG), excipients (glucose, albumin) and extractables [sodium from glass vials, and di-(2-ethyl-hexyl) phthalate and cyclohexanone from PVC bags] was evaluated. The stability of the active ingredient was evaluated by physico-chemical tests (molecularsize distribution, pH, appearance, total protein), monitoring titres of a specific antibody (hepatitis B surface antigen) and an antibody functional test (bacterial opsonization). To evaluate the risk of microbial contamination during reconstitution and pooling procedures, sterility, pyrogen and animal-safety tests were included in the protocol. The potential of IgG polymerizing in solution during storage and subsequent complement activation was evaluated by assaying for non-specific binding of complement (anti-complement activity). Results show that aseptically reconstituted IGIV is stable and remains sterile up to 48 h at 5 degrees C. The reconstituted product was also found to be stable at room temperature (25 degrees C) up to 12 h.

  15. Treating Severe Hypoglycemia: Rapid Mixing of Lyophilized Glucagon and Diluent at Point of Care With the Enject GlucaPen

    OpenAIRE

    Rylander, Dick

    2014-01-01

    Severe hypoglycemia (SH) is a common problem in type 1 diabetes (T1D). Annually, nearly 1 of 5 persons with long-standing T1D will have SH. Though injections of glucagon are effective in treating SH, liquid formulations of glucagon are biochemically very unstable. For this reason, available preparations of glucagon are lyophilized; the powder and the diluent must be mixed at the point of care prior to administration and any remaining drug must be discarded. The process of mixing and delivery ...

  16. Dose reduction of bone morphogenetic protein-2 for bone regeneration using a delivery system based on lyophilization with trehalose

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang X

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Xiaochen Zhang,1,* Quan Yu,2,* Yan-an Wang,1 Jun Zhao2 1Department of Oral and Maxillofacial-Head and Neck Oncology, 2Department of Orthodontics, College of Stomatology, Ninth People’s Hospital, School of Medicine, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai, China *These authors contributed equally to this work Introduction: To induce sufficient new bone formation, high doses of bone morphogenetic protein-2 (BMP-2 are applied in regenerative medicine that often induce serious side effects. Therefore, improved treatment strategies are required. Here, we investigate whether the delivery of BMP-2 lyophilized in the presence of trehalose reduced the dose of BMP-2 required for bone regeneration. Materials and methods: A new growth factor delivery system was fabricated using BMP-2-loaded TiO2 nanotubes by lyophilization with trehalose (TiO2-Lyo-Tre-BMP-2. We measured BMP-2 release characteristics, bioactivity, and stability, and determined the effects on the osteogenic differentiation of bone marrow stromal cells in vitro. Additionally, we evaluated the ability of this formulation to regenerate new bone around implants in rat femur defects by micro-computed tomography (micro-CT, sequential fluorescent labelling, and histological analysis. Results: Compared with absorbed BMP-2-loaded TiO2 nanotubes (TiO2-BMP-2, TiO2-Lyo-Tre-BMP-2 exhibited sustained release, consistent bioactivity, and higher stability of BMP-2, and resulted in greater osteogenic differentiation of BMSCs. Eight weeks post-operation, TiO2-Lyo-Tre-BMP-2 nanotubes, with various dosages of BMP-2, regenerated larger amounts of new bone than TiO2-BMP-2 nanotubes. Conclusion: Our findings indicate that delivery of BMP-2 lyophilized with trehalose may be a promising method to reduce the dose of BMP-2 and avoid the associated side effects. Keywords: bone morphogenetic protein-2, dose reduction, delivery system, trehalose, lyophilization, TiO2 nanotubes, BMP-2, regenerative medicine, surface

  17. Lyophilization Cycle Design for Dual Chamber Cartridges and a Method for Online Process Control: The "DCC LyoMate" Procedure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korpus, Christoph; Friess, Wolfgang

    2017-08-01

    Freeze-drying process design is a challenging task that necessitates a profound understanding of the complex interrelation among critical process parameters (e.g., shelf temperature and chamber pressure), heat transfer characteristics of the involved materials (e.g., product containers and holder devices), and critical quality attributes of the product (e.g., collapse temperatures). The Dual Chamber Cartridge "(DCC) LyoMate" (from lyophilization and automated) is a manometric temperature measurement-based process control strategy that was developed within this study to streamline this complicated task. It was successfully applied using 5% sucrose formulations with 0.5 and 1 mL fill volumes. The system was further challenged using 2, 20, and 100 mg/mL monoclonal antibody formulations. The DCC LyoMate method did not only produce pharmaceutically acceptable cakes but was also able to maintain the desired product temperature irrespective of formulation and protein content. It enabled successful process design even at high protein concentrations and aided the design and online control of the lyophilization process for drying in DCCs within a single development run. Thus, it helps to reduce development cost and the DCC LyoMate can also be easily installed on every freeze-dryer capable of performing a manometric temperature measurement, without the need for hardware modification. Copyright © 2017 American Pharmacists Association®. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Extraction efficiency of hydrophilic and lipophilic antioxidants from lyophilized foods using pressurized liquid extraction and manual extraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Jun; Oki, Tomoyuki; Takebayashi, Jun; Takano-Ishikawa, Yuko

    2014-09-01

    The efficient extraction of antioxidants from food samples is necessary in order to accurately measure their antioxidant capacities. α-Tocopherol and gallic acid were spiked into samples of 5 lyophilized and pulverized vegetables and fruits (onion, cabbage, Satsuma mandarin orange, pumpkin, and spinach). The lipophilic and hydrophilic antioxidants in the samples were sequentially extracted with a mixed solvent of n-hexane and dichloromethane, and then with acetic acid-acidified aqueous methanol. Duplicate samples were extracted: one set was extracted using an automated pressurized liquid extraction apparatus, and the other set was extracted manually. Spiked α-tocopherol and gallic acid were recovered almost quantitatively in the extracted lipophilic and hydrophilic fractions, respectively, especially when pressurized liquid extraction was used. The expected increase in lipophilic oxygen radical absorbance capacity (L-ORAC) due to spiking with α-tocopherol, and the expected increase in 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical scavenging activities and total polyphenol content due to spiking with gallic acid, were all recovered in high yield. Relatively low recoveries, as reflected in the hydrophilic ORAC (H-ORAC) value, were obtained following spiking with gallic acid, suggesting an interaction between gallic acid and endogenous antioxidants. The H-ORAC values of gallic acid-spiked samples were almost the same as those of postadded (spiked) samples. These results clearly indicate that lipophilic and hydrophilic antioxidants are effectively extracted from lyophilized food, especially when pressurized liquid extraction is used. © 2014 Institute of Food Technologists®

  19. [A long-term follow-up of treatment of adult unicameral bone cysts with allograft of lyophilized cancellous bone].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yonggang; Wang, Yan; Cheng, Jiying

    2005-08-01

    To investigate the long-term clinical results of treatment of adult unicameral bone cyst with cancellous allograft. From 1993 to 1998, 15 patients with unicameral bone cyst were treated by allograft with lyophilized cancellous bone. Among 15 patients, there were 5 males and 10 females, aging 19-41 years with an average of 27 years. The average follow-up time was 7.5 years (6-11 years). The X-ray films were taken and the CT scanning were carried out. The X-ray films showed that the allograft particles became vague 2-3 months after operation, that the allograft particles fused and began to form new bone and the bone density increased 5 months after operation, and that new bone formation completed after 7 months of operation. At the end of follow-up, remodelling in new bone occurred. Recurrence was not found in all patients. The symptom of pain disappeared or relieved obviously. Allograft of lyophilized cancellous bone is an effective treatment for adult unicameral bone cysts.

  20. Self-Nanoemulsifying Lyophilized Tablets for Flash Oral Transmucosal Delivery of Vitamin K: Development and Clinical Evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Say, Khalid M; Ahmed, Tarek A; Ahmed, Osama A A; Hosny, Khaled M; Abd-Allah, Fathy I

    2017-09-01

    Owing to limited solubility, vitamin K undergoes low bioavailability with large inter-individual variability after oral administration. This article aimed to prepare self-nanoemulsifying lyophilized tablets (SNELTs) for the flash oral transmucosal delivery of vitamin K. Twenty-one formulae of vitamin K self-nanoemulsifying drug delivery systems (SNEDDS) were prepared using different concentrations of vitamin K, Labrasol, and Transcutol according to mixture design. The SNEDDS was loaded on porous carriers and formulated as lyophilized tablets. The release profile and the pharmacokinetic parameters of vitamin K SNELTs were evaluated in comparison with commercial tablets and ampoules on human volunteers. Results revealed that the optimized SNEDDS showed the smallest and most stable nanoemulsion globules. SNELTs were prepared successfully and showed substantial superiority drug release compared with the commercial tablets. Interestingly, SNELTs enhanced both rate and extent of vitamin K absorption as well as relative bioavailability (169.67%) in healthy subjects compared with the commercial tablets. SNELTs revealed promising no significant difference in the area under the curve compared with the commercial intramuscular injection. SNELTs enhanced dissolution and bioavailability that expected to have the strong impact on the efficiency of vitamin K in the prophylaxis and treatment of bleeding disorders in patients with hepatic dysfunction. Copyright © 2017 American Pharmacists Association®. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Preservation of differentiation and clonogenic potential of human hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells during lyophilization and ambient storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchanan, Sandhya S; Pyatt, David W; Carpenter, John F

    2010-09-01

    Progenitor cell therapies show great promise, but their potential for clinical applications requires improved storage and transportation. Desiccated cells stored at ambient temperature would provide economic and practical advantages over approaches employing cell freezing and subzero temperature storage. The objectives of this study were to assess a method for loading the stabilizing sugar, trehalose, into hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells (HPC) and to evaluate the effects of subsequent freeze-drying and storage at ambient temperature on differentiation and clonogenic potential. HPC were isolated from human umbilical cord blood and loaded with trehalose using an endogenous cell surface receptor, termed P2Z. Solution containing trehalose-loaded HPC was placed into vials, which were transferred to a tray freeze-dryer and removed during each step of the freeze-drying process to assess differentiation and clonogenic potential. Control groups for these experiments were freshly isolated HPC. Control cells formed 1450+/-230 CFU-GM, 430+/-140 BFU-E, and 50+/-40 CFU-GEMM per 50 microL. Compared to the values for the control cells, there was no statistical difference observed for cells removed at the end of the freezing step or at the end of primary drying. There was a gradual decrease in the number of CFU-GM and BFU-E for cells removed at different temperatures during secondary drying; however, there were no significant differences in the number of CFU-GEMM. To determine storage stability of lyophilized HPC, cells were stored for 4 weeks at 25 degrees C in the dark. Cells reconstituted immediately after lyophilization produced 580+/-90 CFU-GM ( approximately 40%, relative to unprocessed controls pGM (approximately 35%, relative to unprocessed controls, p<0.0001), 112+/-68 BFU-E (approximately 26%, p<0.0001), and 36+/-17 CFU-GEMM ( approximately 82%, p = 0.2164) These studies are the first to document high level retention of CFU-GEMM following lyophilization and

  2. Preservation of differentiation and clonogenic potential of human hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells during lyophilization and ambient storage.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandhya S Buchanan

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Progenitor cell therapies show great promise, but their potential for clinical applications requires improved storage and transportation. Desiccated cells stored at ambient temperature would provide economic and practical advantages over approaches employing cell freezing and subzero temperature storage. The objectives of this study were to assess a method for loading the stabilizing sugar, trehalose, into hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells (HPC and to evaluate the effects of subsequent freeze-drying and storage at ambient temperature on differentiation and clonogenic potential. HPC were isolated from human umbilical cord blood and loaded with trehalose using an endogenous cell surface receptor, termed P2Z. Solution containing trehalose-loaded HPC was placed into vials, which were transferred to a tray freeze-dryer and removed during each step of the freeze-drying process to assess differentiation and clonogenic potential. Control groups for these experiments were freshly isolated HPC. Control cells formed 1450+/-230 CFU-GM, 430+/-140 BFU-E, and 50+/-40 CFU-GEMM per 50 microL. Compared to the values for the control cells, there was no statistical difference observed for cells removed at the end of the freezing step or at the end of primary drying. There was a gradual decrease in the number of CFU-GM and BFU-E for cells removed at different temperatures during secondary drying; however, there were no significant differences in the number of CFU-GEMM. To determine storage stability of lyophilized HPC, cells were stored for 4 weeks at 25 degrees C in the dark. Cells reconstituted immediately after lyophilization produced 580+/-90 CFU-GM ( approximately 40%, relative to unprocessed controls p<0.0001, 170+/-70 BFU-E (approximately 40%, p<0.0001, and 41+/-22 CFU-GEMM (approximately 82%, p = 0.4171, and cells reconstituted after 28 days at room temperature produced 513+/-170 CFU-GM (approximately 35%, relative to unprocessed controls, p<0

  3. X-ray absorption spectroscopy of soybean lipoxygenase-1 : Influence of lipid hydroperoxide activation and lyophilization on the structure of the non-heme iron active site

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vliegenthart, J.F.G.; Heijdt, L.M. van der; Feiters, M.C.; Navaratnam, S.; Nolting, H.-F.; Hermes, C.; Veldink, G.A.

    1992-01-01

    X-ray absorption spectra at the Fe K-edge of the non-heme iron site in Fe(II) as well as Fe(III) soybean lipoxygenase-1, in frozen solution or lyophilized, are presented; the latter spectra were obtained by incubation of the Fe(II) enzyme with its product hydroperoxide. An edge shift of about 23 eV

  4. An integrated process analytical technology (PAT) approach to monitoring the effect of supercooling on lyophilization product and process parameters of model monoclonal antibody formulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Awotwe Otoo, David; Agarabi, Cyrus; Khan, Mansoor A

    2014-07-01

    The aim of the present study was to apply an integrated process analytical technology (PAT) approach to control and monitor the effect of the degree of supercooling on critical process and product parameters of a lyophilization cycle. Two concentrations of a mAb formulation were used as models for lyophilization. ControLyo™ technology was applied to control the onset of ice nucleation, whereas tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy (TDLAS) was utilized as a noninvasive tool for the inline monitoring of the water vapor concentration and vapor flow velocity in the spool during primary drying. The instantaneous measurements were then used to determine the effect of the degree of supercooling on critical process and product parameters. Controlled nucleation resulted in uniform nucleation at lower degrees of supercooling for both formulations, higher sublimation rates, lower mass transfer resistance, lower product temperatures at the sublimation interface, and shorter primary drying times compared with the conventional shelf-ramped freezing. Controlled nucleation also resulted in lyophilized cakes with more elegant and porous structure with no visible collapse or shrinkage, lower specific surface area, and shorter reconstitution times compared with the uncontrolled nucleation. Uncontrolled nucleation however resulted in lyophilized cakes with relatively lower residual moisture contents compared with controlled nucleation. TDLAS proved to be an efficient tool to determine the endpoint of primary drying. There was good agreement between data obtained from TDLAS-based measurements and SMART™ technology. ControLyo™ technology and TDLAS showed great potential as PAT tools to achieve enhanced process monitoring and control during lyophilization cycles. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. and the American Pharmacists Association.

  5. Optimization of the production process of a lyophilized formulation for radiopharmaceutical obtaining 99mTc-EDDA/HYNIC-E-[c(RGDfK)]2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanchez R, S.

    2013-01-01

    In this work was optimized the production process of a lyophilized pharmaceutical formulation for the preparation of radiopharmaceutical 99m Tc-EDDA/HYNIC-E-[c(RGDfK)] 2 , the union specifies to the integrin s α v β 3 was demonstrated to be used in the nuclear medicine cabinets in the obtaining of scan images for the opportune detection of breast cancer. The good lyophilized pharmaceutical formulation for the preparation of radiopharmaceutical 99m Tc-EDDA/HYNIC-E-[c(RGDfK)] 2 was established like: HYNIC-E-[c(RGDfK)] 2 - 25 μg; Stannous chloride (SnCl 2 ) 20 μg; Ethylenediamine diacetic acid (EDDA) 10 mg; N-tris(hydroxymethyl)methyl glycin (Tricine) 20 mg; Mannitol 50 mg. The results of radiochemical purity of the sterile formulation and free of bacterial endotoxins for the three validation lots prepared under protocols of good manufacturing practices were 97.62 ± 1.48%, 96.54 ± 1.89%, and 97.66 ± 0.57%, for what the production procedure complies the predefined specifications. The radiopharmaceutical 99m Tc-EDDA/HYNIC-E-[c(RGDfK)]2 prepared from the lyophilized pharmaceutical formulation showed to be stable during a period 24 hours, for what can be used in the centers of molecular nuclear medicine. Images in vivo were obtained of the integrin s over-expression α v β 3 from the radiopharmaceutical 99m Tc-EDDA/HYNIC-E-[c(RGDfK)]2 obtained of the lyophilized and optimized pharmaceutical formulation. The lyophilized pharmaceutical formulation (HYNIC-RGD-Sn) showed stability during 12 months, due to this factor, is requested before the COFEPRIS the radiopharmaceutical expiration for this same period (accession number 123300401A0155). (Author)

  6. Lyophilization and rehydration of polymer-coated lipid vesicles containing a lipophilic chelator in the presence of sucrose: Labeling with99m Tc and biodistribution studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Szucs, Margaret; Tilcock, Colin

    1995-01-01

    In this paper we describe studies of the effect of lyophilization and rehydration of polymer-coated lipid vesicles bearing a lipophilic surface chelator upon subsequent labeling with technetium-99m and in vivo biodistribution behavior. Unilamellar vesicles of average diameter 100 nm were prepared containing 2 mol% of the lipophilic chelator phosphatidylethanolamine-diethylenetriaminetetraacetic acid (PE-DTTA) and either 0 or 3 mol% of the lipid-polymer conjugate, dipalmitoyl-phosphatidylethanolamine-monomethoxy polyethylene glycol 5000 (PE-MPEG) in 0.9% sodium chloride to which was added varying amounts of sucrose to a final concentration of 100-500 mM. The size of the vesicles in sucrose was determined before lyophilization and after rehydration and the effect of sucrose on the ability to label the vesicles with pertechnetate in the presence of stannous chloride was determined. Biodistribution studies were done in rabbits with vesicles before lyophilization and after rehydration in order to determine whether the rate of clearance from the blood pool was affected by the lyophilization/rehydration procedure. Results demonstrate that vesicles containing PE-DTTA and without PE-MPEG can be lyophilized and rehydrated with no change in average size or size distribution so long as the external sucrose concentration is greater than approx. 250 mM. When PE-MPEG is also present in the membrane the average vesicle size increases from approx. 140 to 200 nm, consistent with vesicle fusion. However, this small change in vesicle size makes no difference to the resulting circulation half-life. In no case does the presence of sucrose on the exterior of the vesicle interfere with technetium labeling of the vesicle surface

  7. Comparative study and histomorphometric analysis of bone allografts lyophilized and sterilized by autoclaving, gamma irradiation and ethylene oxide in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Otavio Machado de Almeida

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To compare three sterilization methods (autoclave, gamma irradiation and ethylene oxide over non demineralized lyophilized bone allografts. METHODS: Bone allografts were implanted on paravertebral muscles of 21 rats. After 30 days animals were sacrificed and grafts underwent comparative analysis regarding histomorphometric and macroscopic parameters. RESULTS: Allografts that underwent the three sterilization methods presents similar weight gain, cortical thickness similar to control group, and less fibrosis than the control group. Grafts that underwent sterilization in autoclave presented less presence of multinucleated giant cells, although not statistically significant. There was also no statistically significant difference regarding mineralization on the three groups. CONCLUSION: The three sterilization methods cause similar effects on bone allografts regarding macroscopic and histomorphometric parameters.

  8. Therapeutic effect of lyophilized, Kefir-fermented milk on constipation among persons with mental and physical disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maki, Rumiko; Matsukawa, Mayumi; Matsuduka, Atsuko; Hashinaga, Masahiko; Anai, Hirofumi; Yamaoka, Yoshio; Hanada, Katsuhiro; Fujii, Chieko

    2017-11-06

    Constipation is a serious problem for persons with mental and physical disabilities in Japan. However, prophylaxis is extremely difficult because the major causes of constipation in these individuals are related to their mental and physical disabilities. Constipation can be successfully treated with glycerol enemas (GEs) and other aperients. As constipation is a lifetime issue for these persons, dietary regimens to prevent constipation can be important. This study evaluated the probiotic effects of kefir-fermented milk for preventing constipation in 42 persons with mental and physical disabilities. The participants were administered 2 g of lyophilized kefir with each meal for 12 weeks and their bowel movements, the administration of GE and other aperients, and stool shape were recorded. The intake of kefir significantly reduced constipation, compared with the baseline status. Some individuals showed complete relief of constipation, whereas others showed no effect. Despite individual variations, consuming kefir daily could prevent constipation. © 2017 Japan Academy of Nursing Science.

  9. Kinetic analysis of batch ethanol acetylation in isothermal non-stationary multiphase systems by lyophilized mycelium of Aspergillus oryzae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emilio Palazzi

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available A relatively complex network of reactions has been investigated, using as a network model the isothermal batch esterification of acetic acid with ethanol in n-heptane catalyzed by lyophilized mycelium of Aspergillus oryzae. The kinetic analysis was firstly carried out on the whole system, without any simplification, by means of the well-known integral method. Owing to the poor results obtained by this way, we developed an alternative approach, combining initial rates and integral analysis and reducing the number of empirical parameters to be determined by the use of equilibrium data. All the values of the parameters calculated according to this "composite" approach to kinetic analysis well correlate with experimental data.

  10. Lyophilized allografts without pre-treatment with glutaraldehyde are more suitable than cryopreserved allografts for pulmonary artery reconstruction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olmos-Zúãiga, J.R.; Jasso-Victoria, R. [Department of Experimental Surgery, National Institute of Respiratory Diseases ' Ismael Cosío Villegas' , Mexico City (Mexico); Díaz-Martínez, N.E. [Medical and Pharmaceutical Biotechnology, Center for Research and Assistance in Technology and Design of the State of Jalisco, Guadalajara, Jalisco (Mexico); Gaxiola-Gaxiola, M.O. [Laboratory of Morphology, National Institute of Respiratory Diseases ' Ismael Cosío Villegas' , Mexico City (Mexico); Sotres-Vega, A.; Heras-Romero, Y.; Baltazares-Lipp, M. [Department of Experimental Surgery, National Institute of Respiratory Diseases ' Ismael Cosío Villegas' , Mexico City (Mexico); Baltazares-Lipp, M.E. [Hemodynamics and Echocardiography Service, National Institute of Respiratory Diseases ' Ismael Cosío Villegas' , Mexico City (Mexico); Santillán-Doherty, P. [Medical Administration, National Institute of Respiratory Diseases ' Ismael Cosío Villegas' , Mexico City (Mexico); Hernández-Jiménez, C. [Department of Experimental Surgery, National Institute of Respiratory Diseases ' Ismael Cosío Villegas' , Mexico City (Mexico)

    2015-12-04

    Various methods are available for preservation of vascular grafts for pulmonary artery (PA) replacement. Lyophilization and cryopreservation reduce antigenicity and prevent thrombosis and calcification in vascular grafts, so both methods can be used to obtain vascular bioprostheses. We evaluated the hemodynamic, gasometric, imaging, and macroscopic and microscopic findings produced by PA reconstruction with lyophilized (LyoPA) grafts and cryopreserved (CryoPA) grafts in dogs. Eighteen healthy crossbred adult dogs of both sexes weighing between 18 and 20 kg were used and divided into three groups of six: group I, PA section and reanastomosis; group II, PA resection and reconstruction with LyoPA allograft; group III, PA resection and reconstruction with CryoPA allograft. Dogs were evaluated 4 weeks after surgery, and the status of the graft and vascular anastomosis were examined macroscopically and microscopically. No clinical, radiologic, or blood-gas abnormalities were observed during the study. The mean pulmonary artery pressure (MPAP) in group III increased significantly at the end of the study compared with baseline (P=0.02) and final [P=0.007, two-way repeat-measures analysis of variance (RM ANOVA)] values. Pulmonary vascular resistance of groups II and III increased immediately after reperfusion and also at the end of the study compared to baseline. The increase shown by group III vs group I was significant only if compared with after surgery and study end (P=0.016 and P=0.005, respectively, two-way RM ANOVA). Microscopically, permeability was reduced by ≤75% in group III. In conclusion, substitution of PAs with LyoPA grafts is technically feasible and clinically promising.

  11. Wound-Healing Potential of Cultured Epidermal Sheets Is Unaltered after Lyophilization: A Preclinical Study in Comparison to Cryopreserved CES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Jang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Lyophilized Cultured Epidermal Sheets (L-CES have been reported to be as effective as the cryopreserved CES (F-CES in treating skin ulcers. However, unlike F-CES, no preclinical study assessing wound-healing effects has been conducted for L-CES. The present study was set out to investigate the microstructure, cytokine profile, and wound-healing effects of L-CES in comparison to those of F-CES. Keratinocytes were cultured to prepare CES, followed by cryopreservation at −70°C and lyophilization. Under microscopic observation, intact cells with apparent intracellular junctions were observed in L-CES. The L-CES, like fresh CES, consisted of three to four well-maintained epidermal layers, as shown by the expression of keratins, involucrin, and p63. There were no differences in the epidermal layer or protein expression between L-CES and F-CES, and both CES were comparable to fresh CES. TGF-α, EGF, VEGF, IL-1α, and MMPs were detected in L-CES at levels similar to those in F-CES. In a mouse study, wounds treated with L-CES or F-CES completely healed at least 4 days faster than untreated wounds. CES-treated wounds completely healed by day 10, while the untreated wounds did not heal by day 14. Masson’s trichrome staining showed that collagen deposition in the CES-treated wounds was highly increased in the dermis of the wound center compared to that in the control wounds. Thus, this study demonstrates that L-CES is as clinically effective as F-CES for wound treatment.

  12. Lyophilized allografts without pre-treatment with glutaraldehyde are more suitable than cryopreserved allografts for pulmonary artery reconstruction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olmos-Zúãiga, J.R.; Jasso-Victoria, R.; Díaz-Martínez, N.E.; Gaxiola-Gaxiola, M.O.; Sotres-Vega, A.; Heras-Romero, Y.; Baltazares-Lipp, M.; Baltazares-Lipp, M.E.; Santillán-Doherty, P.; Hernández-Jiménez, C.

    2015-01-01

    Various methods are available for preservation of vascular grafts for pulmonary artery (PA) replacement. Lyophilization and cryopreservation reduce antigenicity and prevent thrombosis and calcification in vascular grafts, so both methods can be used to obtain vascular bioprostheses. We evaluated the hemodynamic, gasometric, imaging, and macroscopic and microscopic findings produced by PA reconstruction with lyophilized (LyoPA) grafts and cryopreserved (CryoPA) grafts in dogs. Eighteen healthy crossbred adult dogs of both sexes weighing between 18 and 20 kg were used and divided into three groups of six: group I, PA section and reanastomosis; group II, PA resection and reconstruction with LyoPA allograft; group III, PA resection and reconstruction with CryoPA allograft. Dogs were evaluated 4 weeks after surgery, and the status of the graft and vascular anastomosis were examined macroscopically and microscopically. No clinical, radiologic, or blood-gas abnormalities were observed during the study. The mean pulmonary artery pressure (MPAP) in group III increased significantly at the end of the study compared with baseline (P=0.02) and final [P=0.007, two-way repeat-measures analysis of variance (RM ANOVA)] values. Pulmonary vascular resistance of groups II and III increased immediately after reperfusion and also at the end of the study compared to baseline. The increase shown by group III vs group I was significant only if compared with after surgery and study end (P=0.016 and P=0.005, respectively, two-way RM ANOVA). Microscopically, permeability was reduced by ≤75% in group III. In conclusion, substitution of PAs with LyoPA grafts is technically feasible and clinically promising

  13. Lyophilized allografts without pre-treatment with glutaraldehyde are more suitable than cryopreserved allografts for pulmonary artery reconstruction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.R. Olmos-Zúãiga

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Various methods are available for preservation of vascular grafts for pulmonary artery (PA replacement. Lyophilization and cryopreservation reduce antigenicity and prevent thrombosis and calcification in vascular grafts, so both methods can be used to obtain vascular bioprostheses. We evaluated the hemodynamic, gasometric, imaging, and macroscopic and microscopic findings produced by PA reconstruction with lyophilized (LyoPA grafts and cryopreserved (CryoPA grafts in dogs. Eighteen healthy crossbred adult dogs of both sexes weighing between 18 and 20 kg were used and divided into three groups of six: group I, PA section and reanastomosis; group II, PA resection and reconstruction with LyoPA allograft; group III, PA resection and reconstruction with CryoPA allograft. Dogs were evaluated 4 weeks after surgery, and the status of the graft and vascular anastomosis were examined macroscopically and microscopically. No clinical, radiologic, or blood-gas abnormalities were observed during the study. The mean pulmonary artery pressure (MPAP in group III increased significantly at the end of the study compared with baseline (P=0.02 and final [P=0.007, two-way repeat-measures analysis of variance (RM ANOVA] values. Pulmonary vascular resistance of groups II and III increased immediately after reperfusion and also at the end of the study compared to baseline. The increase shown by group III vs group I was significant only if compared with after surgery and study end (P=0.016 and P=0.005, respectively, two-way RM ANOVA. Microscopically, permeability was reduced by ≤75% in group III. In conclusion, substitution of PAs with LyoPA grafts is technically feasible and clinically promising.

  14. Lyophilized allografts without pre-treatment with glutaraldehyde are more suitable than cryopreserved allografts for pulmonary artery reconstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olmos-Zúñiga, J R; Jasso-Victoria, R; Díaz-Martínez, N E; Gaxiola-Gaxiola, M O; Sotres-Vega, A; Heras-Romero, Y; Baltazares-Lipp, M; Baltazares-Lipp, M E; Santillán-Doherty, P; Hernández-Jiménez, C

    2016-02-01

    Various methods are available for preservation of vascular grafts for pulmonary artery (PA) replacement. Lyophilization and cryopreservation reduce antigenicity and prevent thrombosis and calcification in vascular grafts, so both methods can be used to obtain vascular bioprostheses. We evaluated the hemodynamic, gasometric, imaging, and macroscopic and microscopic findings produced by PA reconstruction with lyophilized (LyoPA) grafts and cryopreserved (CryoPA) grafts in dogs. Eighteen healthy crossbred adult dogs of both sexes weighing between 18 and 20 kg were used and divided into three groups of six: group I, PA section and reanastomosis; group II, PA resection and reconstruction with LyoPA allograft; group III, PA resection and reconstruction with CryoPA allograft. Dogs were evaluated 4 weeks after surgery, and the status of the graft and vascular anastomosis were examined macroscopically and microscopically. No clinical, radiologic, or blood-gas abnormalities were observed during the study. The mean pulmonary artery pressure (MPAP) in group III increased significantly at the end of the study compared with baseline (P=0.02) and final [P=0.007, two-way repeat-measures analysis of variance (RM ANOVA)] values. Pulmonary vascular resistance of groups II and III increased immediately after reperfusion and also at the end of the study compared to baseline. The increase shown by group III vs group I was significant only if compared with after surgery and study end (P=0.016 and P=0.005, respectively, two-way RM ANOVA). Microscopically, permeability was reduced by ≤75% in group III. In conclusion, substitution of PAs with LyoPA grafts is technically feasible and clinically promising.

  15. Homogenization, lyophilization or acid-extraction of meat products improves iron uptake from cereal-meat product combinations in an in vitro digestion/Caco-2 cell model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pachón, Helena; Stoltzfus, Rebecca J; Glahn, Raymond P

    2009-03-01

    The effect of processing (homogenization, lyophilization, acid-extraction) meat products on iron uptake from meat combined with uncooked iron-fortified cereal was evaluated using an in vitro digestion/Caco-2 cell model. Beef was cooked, blended to create smaller meat particles, and combined with electrolytic iron-fortified infant rice cereal. Chicken liver was cooked and blended, lyophilized, or acid-extracted, and combined with FeSO4-fortified wheat flour. In the beef-cereal combination, Caco-2 cell iron uptake, assessed by measuring the ferritin formed by cells, was greater when the beef was blended for the greatest amount of time (360 s) compared with 30 s (P meat products on iron absorption in iron-fortified cereals.

  16. Development of lyophilized kit of Tin-Glucoheptonate for in vitro labeling of leucocytes with 99mTc

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nascimento, Rosemeire Fagundes

    2007-01-01

    The study and localization of inflammatory and infection process in Nuclear Medicine represents a relevant tool in diagnostic procedures. In same cases, the diagnostic is easy and based on anamnesis and clinical observation; in other cases, the patients are asymptomatic or present non specific symptoms that difficult the diagnostic. The early diagnostic of inflammatory or infectious process allow the early introduction of therapy and prevents complications. Farther, the differentiation between inflammation and infection is of extreme importance as well as the localization of the focus. The use of labeled leucocytes, studied and applied in much pathologies, is the method of choice for the visualization of inflammation and infection. The scintigraphy using labeled leucocytes was introduced at 1976 by McAffe and Thakur and since of this is used in the diagnostic of different pathologies related to leucocyte infiltration like intestinal inflammatory disease, bone or prosthetic-vascular infections. The in vitro labeling of leucocytes with 111 In was performed using oxime or tropolone as ligand and with 99m Tc using hexamethylpropylene amine oxime (HMPAO) as ligand, resulting in a lipophilic complex. The 99m Tc-HMPAG complex was preferably employed in many indications and countries do to the ideal physical properties of 99m Tc that results in low dose to the patient. However, the labeling employing the HMPAO complex results in some disadvantages like the low stability of the complex, and some requirements related to the 99m Tc elution (like the time pos elution), beyond the high cost of the compound that is imported. The aim of this work was the development of a tin-glucoheptonate lyophilized kit for in vitro leucocytes labeling with 99m Tc using the pre-stannization method. The optimization of the labeling technique was developed using leucocytes isolated from total blood and employing different volumes of the tinglucoheptonate reagent and different incubation times at

  17. Predicting protein aggregation during storage in lyophilized solids using solid state amide hydrogen/deuterium exchange with mass spectrometric analysis (ssHDX-MS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moorthy, Balakrishnan S; Schultz, Steven G; Kim, Sherry G; Topp, Elizabeth M

    2014-06-02

    Solid state amide hydrogen/deuterium exchange with mass spectrometric analysis (ssHDX-MS) was used to assess the conformation of myoglobin (Mb) in lyophilized formulations, and the results correlated with the extent of aggregation during storage. Mb was colyophilized with sucrose (1:1 or 1:8 w/w), mannitol (1:1 w/w), or NaCl (1:1 w/w) or in the absence of excipients. Immediately after lyophilization, samples of each formulation were analyzed by ssHDX-MS and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) to assess Mb conformation, and by dynamic light scattering (DLS) and size exclusion chromatography (SEC) to determine the extent of aggregation. The remaining samples were then placed on stability at 25 °C and 60% RH or 40 °C and 75% RH for up to 1 year, withdrawn at intervals, and analyzed for aggregate content by SEC and DLS. In ssHDX-MS of samples immediately after lyophilization (t = 0), Mb was less deuterated in solids containing sucrose (1:1 and 1:8 w/w) than in those containing mannitol (1:1 w/w), NaCl (1:1 w/w), or Mb alone. Deuterium uptake kinetics and peptide mass envelopes also indicated greater Mb structural perturbation in mannitol, NaCl, or Mb-alone samples at t = 0. The extent of deuterium incorporation and kinetic parameters related to rapidly and slowly exchanging amide pools (Nfast, Nslow), measured at t = 0, were highly correlated with the extent of aggregation on storage as measured by SEC. In contrast, the extent of aggregation was weakly correlated with FTIR band intensity and peak position measured at t = 0. The results support the use of ssHDX-MS as a formulation screening tool in developing lyophilized protein drug products.

  18. The influence of temperature and X-ray dose on the deprotonation of lyophilized phenylalanine during X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cardenas, Juan F. [Department of Chemistry, P.O. Box 1033, Blindern, N-0315 Oslo (Norway)]. E-mail: juan.cardenas@kjemi.uio.no; Groebner, Gerhard [Biophysical Chemistry, Umea University, 90187 Umea (Sweden)

    2006-06-15

    Lyophilized phenylalanine (LP) samples were prepared from aqueous solutions at pH {approx} 1.3 and subsequently analysed using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) in combination with cryogenics. When samples are measured at temperatures above {approx}0 deg. C deprotonation occurs, which gradually proceeds with X-ray bombardment. In addition, deprotonation scales linearly with the difference between the Cl and the Na concentration, which strongly suggests that HCl sublimates from the sample.

  19. Modeling of heat and mass transfer processes for the gap-lyophilization system using the mannitol-trehalose-NaCl formulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuu, Wei Y; Doty, Mark J; Nisipeanu, Eugen; Rebbeck, Christine L; Cho, Yong K; Smit, Mark H

    2014-09-01

    Gap freezing (GF) is a new concept that was developed to reduce the primary drying time using an alternative freezing process. The purpose of this investigation was to determine the gap-tray heat transfer coefficient, Kgtr , and to investigate the effect of gap lyophilization on cycle reduction of a mannitol-trehalose-NaCl (MTN) formulation. The values of Kgtr were measured using the product temperature profiles in three different configurations: (1) shelf freezing followed by shelf drying (denoted as SF-SD), (2) GF followed by SD (denoted as GF-SD), and (3) GF followed by gap drying (denoted as GF-GD). For the lyophilization cycle using shelf drying (SF-SD), 80% of the heat transferred during primary drying was from the bottom shelf to the vial, versus 20% via radiation from the top shelf. For the lyophilization cycle using gap drying (GF-GD), only 37% of the heat transferred during primary drying was from the bottom shelf to the vial versus 63% via radiation from the top shelf. Furthermore, GF in conjunction with annealing significantly reduces the dry layer resistance of the MTN formulation, which is the opposite of what was observed with a conventional freezing cycle. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. and the American Pharmacists Association.

  20. A facile lyophilization synthesis of MoS{sub 2} QDs@graphene as a highly active electrocatalyst for hydrogen evolution reaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Wenzhu; Li, Feng; Wang, Xiang; Tang, Yu; Yang, Yuanyuan; Gao, Wenbin [State Key Laboratory of Applied Organic Chemistry (SKLAOC), College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Lanzhou University, Lanzhou 730000 (China); Gansu Provincial Engineering Laboratory for Chemical Catalysis, College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Lanzhou University, Lanzhou 730000 (China); Li, Rong, E-mail: liyirong@lzu.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Applied Organic Chemistry (SKLAOC), College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Lanzhou University, Lanzhou 730000 (China); Gansu Provincial Engineering Laboratory for Chemical Catalysis, College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Lanzhou University, Lanzhou 730000 (China)

    2017-04-15

    Highlights: • The target catalyst was prepared by a facile and novel lyophilization method. • The HER activity of various morphologies of MoS{sub 2}-based catalysts were studied. • The catalyst owns superior dispersion, large active sites and high conductivity. • The catalyst exhibits superior HER activity and long-term stability. - Abstract: The development of robust, active and nonprecious electrocatalysts for hydrogen evolution reaction is quite urgent but still challenging. Here MoS{sub 2} QDs@Graphene is prepared via a facile lyophilization method, which leads to a better dispersion of MoS{sub 2} QDs on the graphene and optimizes the electronic mobility between the MoS{sub 2} layers. Impressively, the electrocatalyst MoS{sub 2} QDs@Graphene demonstrates the remarkable activity for HER in 0.5 M H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} solution, with a current density of 10 mA cm{sup −2} at a low overpotential of 140 mV and strong stability in acid condition. The achieved excellent performance is attributed to its morphology with large amount of active sites fabricated by the lyophilization method. This new method opens new pathway for the fabrication of non-precious metal electrocatalysts achieving high activity.

  1. Phytochemical screening and analgesic profile of the lyophilized aqueous extract obtained from Chrysobalanus icaco leaves in experimental protocols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araújo-Filho, Heitor G; Dias, Jessica Deise Santos; Quintans-Júnior, Lucindo J; Santos, Márcio R V; White, Pollyanna A S; Barreto, Rosana S S; Barreto, André S; Estevam, Charles S; Araujo, Silvan S; Almeida, Jackson R G S; Menezes, Irwin R A; Coutinho, Henrique D M; Quintans, Jullyana S S

    2016-12-01

    Chrysobalanus icaco L. (Chrysobalanaceae) has been used for the treatment of abdominal pain and cramps. Assess the chemical and pharmacological profile of the lyophilized aqueous extract from C. icaco leaves (AEC). Chromatographic methods were used to assess compounds from AEC. Mice were treated with vehicle (control group) or AEC (100, 200 or 400 mg/kg, p.o.) (group with 7-8 mice) and the analgesic profile was assessed employing the acetic acid-induced writhing, formalin, hot plate tests and hyperalgesia induced by carrageenan (CG) or tumour necrosis factor-alpha. The animal motor performance was assessed using rota-rod and grip strength tests. The chromatographic profile of AEC demonstrated the presence of terpenoid compounds. The acute pretreatment with AEC, at all doses, produced a significant (p acetic acid-induced writhing test. In the formalin test, AEC were effective in the second phase (p analgesic and anti-inflammatory properties. So, these results corroborate the experiments using the AEC in inflammatory pain protocols. Our results suggest that AEC act against inflammatory pain.

  2. EPR study of free radicals in non- and gamma-irradiated nutritive supplements containing anthocyanins concentrate from lyophilized red wine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mladenova, Ralitsa B., E-mail: ralitsa@ic.bas.b [Institute of Catalysis, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, 1113 Sofia (Bulgaria); Firzov, Cyril [Institute of Cryobiology and Food Technology, 1162 Sofia (Bulgaria); Yordanov, Nicola D. [Institute of Catalysis, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, 1113 Sofia (Bulgaria)

    2010-09-15

    Nutritive supplements Enoviton, Enoviton C and Enoviton CE containing standardized anthocyanins from lyophilized red wine, vitamins (some of them) and excipients were investigated by EPR spectrometry before and after gamma-irradiation. Non-irradiated samples exhibit one singlet line with g=2.0039{+-}0.0002, most probably due to free radicals from anthocyanins. After irradiation with 10 kGy gamma-rays, tablets of Enoviton, Enoviton S and Enoviton SE, all exhibit complex EPR signals centered at a g-value of g=2.0034. The EPR spectrum of irradiated Enoviton is different from that of Enoviton S or Enoviton SE due to the overlap of the spectra of microcrystalline cellulose and the background singlet spectrum present in all tablets with the EPR resonance due to irradiated ascorbic acid (in Enoviton S and Enoviton SE). Gamma-induced free radicals exhibit long time stability-for a six months period the intensity of central peak decrease with 30-40%.

  3. EPR study of free radicals in non- and gamma-irradiated nutritive supplements containing anthocyanins concentrate from lyophilized red wine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mladenova, Ralitsa B.; Firzov, Cyril; Yordanov, Nicola D.

    2010-09-01

    Nutritive supplements Enoviton, Enoviton C and Enoviton CE containing standardized anthocyanins from lyophilized red wine, vitamins (some of them) and excipients were investigated by EPR spectrometry before and after gamma-irradiation. Non-irradiated samples exhibit one singlet line with g=2.0039±0.0002, most probably due to free radicals from anthocyanins. After irradiation with 10 kGy gamma-rays, tablets of Еnoviton, Еnoviton С and Еnoviton СЕ, all exhibit complex EPR signals centered at a g-value of g=2.0034. The EPR spectrum of irradiated Enoviton is different from that of Еnoviton С or Еnoviton СЕ due to the overlap of the spectra of microcrystalline cellulose and the background singlet spectrum present in all tablets with the EPR resonance due to irradiated ascorbic acid (in Еnoviton С and Еnoviton СЕ). Gamma-induced free radicals exhibit long time stability—for a six months period the intensity of central peak decrease with 30-40%.

  4. An example of the application of Mössbauer spectroscopy for determination of concentration of iron in lyophilized brain tissue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rzepecka Patrycja

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Mössbauer spectroscopy is not routinely used for the determination of the concentration of iron. However, as this method does not need any pre-treatment of samples before measurements, it may be of extreme importance for the assessment of iron in samples, which can then be used for further investigations. Biological samples are a good example, however, as the concentrations of iron are very low in these, it is important to exclude possible artefacts from the background spectrum related to iron present in the counter and cryostat windows. The aim of this study was to compare two methods of determination of the amounts of iron in investigated sample: one, in which the background spectrum was subtracted from the sample spectrum measured, and the other, in which the obtained non-elaborated spectrum was fitted with two doublets - a doublet for the measured sample and a doublet for the background spectrum. Three samples containing known amounts of natural iron (400, 800 and 1600 μg and a sample of lyophilized human brain tissue obtained from globus pallidus were assessed. Both methods led to the creation of a very good calibration curve with a correlation coefficient of 0.99. Although both methods gave similar results for the concentration of iron in the sample, the subtraction of the background spectrum had a significantly lower error of the final result.

  5. Precipitation-lyophilization-homogenization (PLH) for preparation of clarithromycin nanocrystals: influencing factors on physicochemical properties and stability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morakul, Boontida; Suksiriworapong, Jiraphong; Leanpolchareanchai, Jiraporn; Junyaprasert, Varaporn Buraphacheep

    2013-11-30

    Nanocrystals is one of effective technologies used to improve solubility and dissolution behavior of poorly soluble drugs. Clarithromycin is classified in BCS class II having low bioavailability due to very low dissolution behavior. The main purpose of this study was to investigate an efficiency of clarithromycin nanocrystals preparation by precipitation-lyophilization-homogenization (PLH) combination method in comparison with high pressure homogenization (HPH) method. The factors influencing particle size reduction and physical stability were assessed. The results showed that the PLH technique provided an effective and rapid reduction of particle size of nanocrystals to 460 ± 10 nm with homogeneity size distribution after only the fifth cycle of homogenization, whereas the same size was attained after 30 cycles by the HPH method. The smallest nanocrystals were achieved by using the combination of poloxamer 407 (2%, w/v) and SLS (0.1%, w/v) as stabilizers. This combination could prevent the particle aggregation over 3-month storage at 4 °C. The results from SEM showed that the clarithromycin nanocrystals were in cubic-shaped similar to its initial particle morphology. The DSC thermogram and X-ray diffraction pattern of nanocrystals were not different from the original drug except for intensity of peaks which indicated the presenting of nanocrystals in the crystalline state and/or partial amorphous form. In addition, the dissolution of the clarithromycin nanocrystals was dramatically increased as compared to the coarse clarithromycin. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Intranasal inoculation of white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus with lyophilized chronic wasting disease prion particulate complexed to montmorillonite clay.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tracy A Nichols

    Full Text Available Chronic wasting disease (CWD, the only known prion disease endemic in wildlife, is a persistent problem in both wild and captive North American cervid populations. This disease continues to spread and cases are found in new areas each year. Indirect transmission can occur via the environment and is thought to occur by the oral and/or intranasal route. Oral transmission has been experimentally demonstrated and although intranasal transmission has been postulated, it has not been tested in a natural host until recently. Prions have been shown to adsorb strongly to clay particles and upon oral inoculation the prion/clay combination exhibits increased infectivity in rodent models. Deer and elk undoubtedly and chronically inhale dust particles routinely while living in the landscape while foraging and rutting. We therefore hypothesized that dust represents a viable vehicle for intranasal CWD prion exposure. To test this hypothesis, CWD-positive brain homogenate was mixed with montmorillonite clay (Mte, lyophilized, pulverized and inoculated intranasally into white-tailed deer once a week for 6 weeks. Deer were euthanized at 95, 105, 120 and 175 days post final inoculation and tissues examined for CWD-associated prion proteins by immunohistochemistry. Our results demonstrate that CWD can be efficiently transmitted utilizing Mte particles as a prion carrier and intranasal exposure.

  7. Development of a formulation lyophilized for the obtention of a antimicrobial peptide Ubiquicidine labelled with 99m Tc

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palomares R, P.; Hernandez B, C.A.; Contreras N, G.; Garcia P, M.L.; Pantoja H, I.E.; Ferro F, G.

    2004-01-01

    The 99m Tc-UBI 29-41 are a labelled fragment of the antimicrobial human peptide Ubiquicidine proposed as a new radiopharmaceutical able to differentiate an infectious process of an inflammatory one through the gamma graphic image. It has been demonstrated that the 99m Tc-UBI 29-41 unite to bacteria in vitro and that accumulates in infection sites in human with minimum captivation in inflammation sites. In this work the development of a pharmaceutical lyophilized formulation is presented for the instantaneous marked one of the UBI 29-41 with 99m Tc. The selection of the components of the formulation settled down by means of the employment of an experimental design of 3 factors with mixed levels, evaluating the effect of the diluent type, concentration of tinny chloride and the reaction volume. The obtained formulations showed to be stable until for 6 months, being obtained complexes of the radiolabelled peptide with radiochemical purity > 95 % in sterile form and apirogen. The developed pharmaceutical form, will facilitate the routinary use of this new radiopharmaceutical in the diverse hospital departments of nuclear medicine. (Author)

  8. A Preliminary Evaluation of Lyophilized Gelatin Sponges, Enhanced with Platelet-Rich Plasma, Hydroxyapatite and Chitin Whiskers for Bone Regeneration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew J. Spence

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to perform a number of preliminary in vitro evaluations on an array of modified gelatin gel sponge scaffolds for use in a bone graft application. The gelatin gels were modified through the addition of a number of components which each possess unique properties conducive to the creation and regeneration of bone: a preparation rich in growth factors (PRGF, a bioactive, lyophilized form of platelet-rich plasma, hydroxyapatite, and chitin whiskers. Platelet-rich plasma therapy is an emerging practice that has proven effective in a number of clinical applications, including enhancing bone repair through improved deposition of new bony matrix and angiogenesis. As such, the inclusion of PRGF in our gelatin scaffolds was intended to significantly enhance scaffold bioactivity, while the addition of hydroxyapatite and chitin whiskers were anticipated to increase scaffold strength. Additionally, the gelatin sponges, which readily dissolve in aqueous solutions, were subjected to 1-Ethyl-3-[3-dimethylaminopropyl]carbodiimide hydrochloride (EDC cross-linking, either during or post-gelation, to control their rate of degradation. Scaffolds were evaluated in vitro with respect to compressive strength, mass loss/degradation, protein release, and cellular interaction, with results demonstrating the potential of the gelatin gel sponge scaffold for use in the regeneration of bone.

  9. A Preliminary Evaluation of Lyophilized Gelatin Sponges, Enhanced with Platelet-Rich Plasma, Hydroxyapatite and Chitin Whiskers for Bone Regeneration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, Isaac A.; Sell, Scott A.; McCool, Jennifer M.; Saxena, Gunjan; Spence, Andrew J.; Bowlin, Gary L.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to perform a number of preliminary in vitro evaluations on an array of modified gelatin gel sponge scaffolds for use in a bone graft application. The gelatin gels were modified through the addition of a number of components which each possess unique properties conducive to the creation and regeneration of bone: a preparation rich in growth factors (PRGF, a bioactive, lyophilized form of platelet-rich plasma), hydroxyapatite, and chitin whiskers. Platelet-rich plasma therapy is an emerging practice that has proven effective in a number of clinical applications, including enhancing bone repair through improved deposition of new bony matrix and angiogenesis. As such, the inclusion of PRGF in our gelatin scaffolds was intended to significantly enhance scaffold bioactivity, while the addition of hydroxyapatite and chitin whiskers were anticipated to increase scaffold strength. Additionally, the gelatin sponges, which readily dissolve in aqueous solutions, were subjected to 1-Ethyl-3-[3-dimethylaminopropyl]carbodiimide hydrochloride (EDC) cross-linking, either during or post-gelation, to control their rate of degradation. Scaffolds were evaluated in vitro with respect to compressive strength, mass loss/degradation, protein release, and cellular interaction, with results demonstrating the potential of the gelatin gel sponge scaffold for use in the regeneration of bone. PMID:24709699

  10. Investigations into, and development of, a lyophilized and formulated recombinant human factor IX produced from CHO cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almeida, Aline G; Pinto, Rodrigo C V; Smales, C Mark; Castilho, Leda R

    2017-08-01

    To develop a recombinant human factor IX (rFIX) formulation equivalent to commercially available products in terms of cake appearance, residual moisture, proportion of soluble aggregates and activity maintenance for 3 months at 4-8 °C. NaCl and low bulking agent/cryoprotectant mass ratio had a negative impact on cake quality upon lyophilisation for a wide range of formulations tested. Particular devised formulations maintained rFIX activity after lyophilization with a similar performance when compared with the rFIX formulated using the excipients reported for a commercially available FIX formulation (Benefix). rFIX remained active after 3 months when stored at 4 °C, though this was not the case with samples stored at 40 °C. Interestingly, particular formulations had an increase in residual moisture after 3 months storage, but not above a 3% threshold. All four formulations tested were equivalent to the Benefix formulation in terms of particle size distribution and cake appearance. Three specific formulations, consisting of surfactant polysorbate-80, sucrose or trehalose as cryoprotectant, mannitol or glycine as bulking agent, L-histidine as buffering agent, and NaCl added in the reconstitution liquid at 0.234% (w/v) were suitable for use with a CHO cell-derived recombinant FIX.

  11. Individual carotenoid content of SRM 1548 total diet and influence of storage temperature, lyophilization, and irradiation on dietary carotenoids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Craft, N.E.; Wise, S.A.

    1993-01-01

    A modified version of the AOAC procedure for the extraction of carotenoids from mixed feeds was coupled with an isocratic reversed-phase liquid chromatography (LC) method to measure individual carotenoids in SRM 1548 total diet and in a high-carotenoid mixed diet (HCMD). The major carotenoids identified in SRM 1548 were lycopene, beta-carotene, lutein, alpha-carotene, and zeaxanthin in descending order of concentration. The concentration of all carotenoids in SRM 1548 decreased as storage temperature increased. Significant differences in carotenoid concentrations occurred between -80 and 4 degrees C storage temperatures. Lyophilization of the HCMD significantly decreased beta-carotene and lycopene concentrations and produced an apparent increase in xanthophyll concentrations. Exposure to gamma-irradiation significantly decreased alpha-carotene and beta-carotene concentrations and led to an apparent increase in P-cryptoxanthin. SRM 1548 was found to be unsuitable for use as a reference material for carotenoid measurements, while HCMD has greater potential as a reference material

  12. Trehalose maintains bioactivity and promotes sustained release of BMP-2 from lyophilized CDHA scaffolds for enhanced osteogenesis in vitro and in vivo.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Zhao

    Full Text Available Calcium phosphate (Ca-P scaffolds have been widely employed as a supportive matrix and delivery system for bone tissue engineering. Previous studies using osteoinductive growth factors loaded Ca-P scaffolds via passive adsorption often experience issues associated with easy inactivation and uncontrolled release. In present study, a new delivery system was fabricated using bone morphogenetic protein-2 (BMP-2 loaded calcium-deficient hydroxyapatite (CDHA scaffold by lyophilization with addition of trehalose. The in vitro osteogenesis effects of this formulation were compared with lyophilized BMP-2/CDHA construct without trehalose and absorbed BMP-2/CDHA constructs with or without trehalose. The release characteristics and alkaline phosphatase (ALP activity analyses showed that addition of trehalose could sufficiently protect BMP-2 bioactivity during lyophilization and achieve sustained BMP-2 release from lyophilized CDHA construct in vitro and in vivo. However, absorbed BMP-2/CDHA constructs with or without trehalose showed similar BMP-2 bioactivity and presented a burst release. Quantitative real-time PCR (RT-qPCR and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA demonstrated that lyophilized BMP-2/CDHA construct with trehalose (lyo-tre-BMP-2 promoted osteogenic differentiation of bone marrow stromal cells (bMSCs significantly and this formulation could preserve over 70% protein bioactivity after 5 weeks storage at 25°C. Micro-computed tomography, histological and fluorescent labeling analyses further demonstrated that lyo-tre-BMP-2 formulation combined with bMSCs led to the most percentage of new bone volume (38.79% ± 5.32% and area (40.71% ± 7.14% as well as the most percentage of fluorochrome stained bone area (alizarin red S: 2.64% ± 0.44%, calcein: 6.08% ± 1.37% and mineral apposition rate (4.13 ± 0.62 µm/day in critical-sized rat cranial defects healing. Biomechanical tests also indicated the maximum stiffness (118.17 ± 15.02 Mpa and

  13. Development of a kit lyophilized of Anti-CEA to be labeled with Tc-99m, radionuclide obtained by extraction with MEK, complemented with studies of stability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robles Nique, Anita E.

    2006-01-01

    The colorectal cancer places the sixth place in Peru, more than 350 persons are diagnosed annually with this illness, for that reason, the present work contributes with the development of a lyophilized kit of monoclonal antibody Anti-CEA to be labelled by the radionuclide Tc-99m, for the early diagnosis of tumours embryonic adenocarcinoma. For the lack of a generator of adsorption of 99 Mo / 99m Tc in the country, the Tc-99m is used instead of this, coming from a generator of extraction, that use the methylethylketone (MEK) like solvent. First, it was designed systematically 4 lyophilized formulations and through the determination of the radiochemical purity of 99m Tc-Anti-CEA, the effect of the molar relation has been evaluated of the MoAb: 2-ME (1:1000 and 1:2000), the increasing of the reductor agent (3,50 to 5,95 μg SnF2) and the reduced protein (1,0 to 1,2 mg Anti-CEA). Second. On the base of the evaluation of the results of these 4 lyophilized formulations, 4 experimental lots have been prepared. The developed methodology initiates with the reduction of the protein for the direct method with 2-ME, the purification in column of PD10, then the addition of the SnF 2 and MDP, finally the lyophilization. Lyophilized kit is labeled by Tc-99m by the direct method to obtain 99m Tc-Anti-CEA and the radiochemical purity is determined by chromatography in ITLC-SG and HPLC, activity support and volume of Tc-99m, biological distribution in healthy mice, immunoreactivity is determined by chromatography of affinity, challenge with L-cysteine determined by chromatography in ITLC-SG. It complements itself with studies of stability in real-time for the lyophilized kit and for 99m Tc-Anti-CEA. The results of the first part, its 1st; 2nd; 3rd and 4th lyophilized formulation had a radiochemical purity of 71, 92, 94 and 97 % respectively, to a pH of labelled between 7,0 to 7,5. The results of the second part, 4 experimental lots had in average of radiochemical purity more than 95

  14. Biokinetics and dosimetry in patients of 99mTc-EDDA/HYNIC-Tyr3-octreotide prepared from lyophilized kits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Vázquez, Armando; Ferro-Flores, Guillermina; Arteaga de Murphy, Consuelo; Gutiérrez-García, Zohar

    2006-07-01

    99mTc-EDDA/HYNIC-Tyr3-octreotide (99mTc-HYNIC-TOC) has shown high in vitro and in vivo stability, rapid background clearance and rapid detection of somatostatin receptor-positive tumors. The aim of this study was to establish a biokinetic model for 99mTc-HYNIC-TOC prepared from lyophilized kits, and to evaluate its dosimetry as a tumor imaging agent in patients with histologically confirmed neuroendocrine tumors. Whole-body images from eight patients were acquired at 5, 60, 90, 180 min and 24 h after 99mTc-HYNIC-TOC administration obtained from instant freeze-dried kit formulations with radiochemical purities >95%. Regions of interest (ROIs) were drawn around source organs on each time frame. The same set of ROIs was used for all eight scans and the count per minute (cpm) of each ROI was converted to activity using the conjugate view counting method. The image sequence was used to extrapolate 99mTc-HYNIC-TOC time-activity curves in each organ, to adjust a biokinetic model using the SAAM software, and to calculate the total number of disintegrations (N) that occurred in the source regions. N data were the input for the OLINDA/EXM code to calculate internal radiation dose estimates. Images showed an average tumor/blood (heart) ratio of 4.3+/-0.7 in receptor-positive tumors at 1 h. The mean radiation absorbed dose calculated for a study using 740 MBq was 24, 21.5, 5.5 and 1.0 mSv for spleen, kidneys, liver and bone marrow respectively and the effective dose was 4.4 mSv.

  15. Biokinetics and dosimetry in patients of 99mTc-EDDA/HYNIC-Tyr3-octreotide prepared from lyophilized kits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonzalez-Vazquez, Armando; Ferro-Flores, Guillermina; Arteaga de Murphy, Consuelo; Gutierrez-Garcia, Zohar

    2006-01-01

    99m Tc-EDDA/HYNIC-Tyr 3 -octreotide ( 99m Tc-HYNIC-TOC) has shown high in vitro and in vivo stability, rapid background clearance and rapid detection of somatostatin receptor-positive tumors. The aim of this study was to establish a biokinetic model for 99m Tc-HYNIC-TOC prepared from lyophilized kits, and to evaluate its dosimetry as a tumor imaging agent in patients with histologically confirmed neuroendocrine tumors. Whole-body images from eight patients were acquired at 5, 60, 90, 180 min and 24 h after 99m Tc-HYNIC-TOC administration obtained from instant freeze-dried kit formulations with radiochemical purities >95%. Regions of interest (ROIs) were drawn around source organs on each time frame. The same set of ROIs was used for all eight scans and the count per minute (cpm) of each ROI was converted to activity using the conjugate view counting method. The image sequence was used to extrapolate 99m Tc-HYNIC-TOC time-activity curves in each organ, to adjust a biokinetic model using the SAAM software, and to calculate the total number of disintegrations (N) that occurred in the source regions. N data were the input for the OLINDA/EXM code to calculate internal radiation dose estimates. Images showed an average tumor/blood (heart) ratio of 4.3±0.7 in receptor-positive tumors at 1 h. The mean radiation absorbed dose calculated for a study using 740 MBq was 24, 21.5, 5.5 and 1.0 mSv for spleen, kidneys, liver and bone marrow respectively and the effective dose was 4.4 mSv

  16. A lyophilized etoposide submicron emulsion with a high drug loading for intravenous injection: preparation, evaluation, and pharmacokinetics in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hao; Shi, Shuai; Zhao, Mingming; Zhang, Ling; He, Haibing; Tang, Xing

    2010-12-01

    To develop a submicron emulsion for etoposide with a high drug loading capacity using a drug-phospholipid complex combined with drug freeze-drying techniques. An etoposide-phospholipid complex (EPC) was prepared and its structure was confirmed by X-ray diffraction and differential scanning calorimetry analysis. A freeze-drying technique was used to produce lyophilized etoposide emulsions (LEPE), and LEPE was investigated with regard to their appearance, particle size, and zeta potential. The pharmacokinetic study in vivo was determined by the UPLC/MS/MS system. It showed that EPC significantly improved the liposolubility of etoposide, indicating a high drug loading intravenous emulsion could be easily prepared by EPC. Moreover, the obtained loading of etoposide in the submicron emulsion was 3.0 mg/mL, which was three times higher than that of the previous liquid emulsions. The optimum cryoprotectant was trehalose (15%) in freeze-drying test. The median diameter, polydispersity index, and zeta potential of the optimum formulation of LEPE were 226.1 ± 5.1 nm, 0.107 ± 0.011, and -36.20 ± 1.13 mV, respectively. In addition, these parameters had no significant change during 6 months storage at 4 ± 2°C. The main pharmacokinetic parameters exhibited no significant differences between LEPE and etoposide commercial solution except for area under the concentration-time curve and clearance. The stable etoposide emulsion with a high drug loading was successfully prepared, indicating the amount of excipients such as the oil phase and emulsifiers significantly decreased following administration of the same dose of drug, effectively reducing the metabolism by patients while increasing their compliance. Therefore, LEPE has a great potential for clinical applications.

  17. Mandibular angle augmentation with the use of distraction and homologous lyophilized cartilage in a case of morphing to Michael Jackson surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mommaerts, M Y; Abeloos, J S; Gropp, H

    2001-08-01

    Correction of an ill-defined mandibular angle is not an easy task, whether it is requested by the "congenital, orthognathic or cosmetic" patient. Deliberate over-correction has not been reported to our knowledge. This article presents a combination of distraction osteogenesis and lyophilized cartilage used to three-dimensionally over-augment the mandibular angle of a long-face prognathic patient who had the wish to be morphed to Michael Jackson or at least as far as current technique and his endogenic features allowed.

  18. Improvement of POC-CCA Interpretation by Using Lyophilization of Urine from Patients with Schistosoma mansoni Low Worm Burden: Towards an Elimination of Doubts about the Concept of Trace.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Marcos Zech Coelho

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Accurate diagnostic techniques for schistosomiasis are essential for prevalence determination and identification of positive patients. A point-of-care test for detecting schistosome circulating cathodic antigen (POC-CCA has been evaluated for its accuracy in different endemic regions. This reagent strip/dipstick based assay has showed high sensitivity for individuals with high or moderate worm burden, but the interpretation of light infections is less clear, especially for trace readings.We introduced a urine lyophilization step to the POC-CCA assay to improve its sensitivity and clarify the interpretation of traces. We evaluated POC-CCA sensitivity and specificity within individuals with low parasite burdens in a Brazilian endemic area where a high number of traces were detected. Patients that were positive for other helminths were also evaluated for cross reactions. In all cases, a combined parasitological diagnosis using Kato-Katz (24 slides and Saline Gradient (1 g of feces were used as reference. At baseline, diagnosis by POC-CCA (1-2 cassettes showed 6% sensitivity, inaccurately predicting a low prevalence of Schistosoma mansoni infections (2 POC-CCA positives/32 egg positives. After urine lyophilization, the sensitivity was increased significantly (p < 0.05. Prevalence rates changed from 2% to 32% (27 POC-CCA positives/32 egg positives, equivalent to parasitological techniques. Most of the trace readings changed to positive after lyophilization while some negatives turned into traces. Cross reaction analysis confirmed the specificity of POC-CCA.Trace readings cannot be primarily defined as positive or negative cases. It is critical to verify case-by-case by concentrating urine 10 fold by lyophilization for the diagnosis. Following lyophilization, persistent trace readings should be read as negatives. No trained technician is needed and cost is restricted to the cost of a lyophilizer and the electricity to run it.

  19. Study On Preparation Of Lyophilized DISIDA Kit For Labeling With 99mTc Using In Nuclear Medicine To Diagnose Hepatobiliary Diseases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duong Van Dong; Bui Van Cuong; Pham Ngoc Dien; Chu Van Khoa; Mai Phuoc Tho; Nguyen Thi Thu; Vo Thi Cam Hoa

    2011-01-01

    Lyophilization is the method of choice for preserving a variety of health care pharmaceutical as the type of kit used labeled with radioactive isotopes. Lyophilization ensures the overall stability of the product, inhibit bacterial growth and create good conditions for transportation. A more significant is that it helps ensure the durability of stannous chloride in the composition of the kit. In the process of freeze-dried, the first product to be frozen, then reducing the surrounding pressure and temperature increase sufficient to allow the water molecules in the material sublimates directly from solid to gas. This report presents freeze-drying method and quality control of compound iminoacetic 2,6-diisopropylcetanilido acid (DISIDA) for long term storage, convenient for transportation to remote areas for nuclear medicine diagnosis of hepatobiliary disease. The purpose of the study were the survey of labeling process of 99m Tc with DISIDA and established freeze-drying process of DISIDA having standard quality for nuclear medicine diagnosis of hepatobiliary diseases. (author)

  20. Clove essential oil-in-cyclodextrin-in-liposomes in the aqueous and lyophilized states: From laboratory to large scale using a membrane contactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sebaaly, Carine; Charcosset, Catherine; Stainmesse, Serge; Fessi, Hatem; Greige-Gerges, Hélène

    2016-03-15

    This work is dedicated to prepare liposomal dry powder formulations of inclusion complexes of clove essential oil (CEO) and its main component eugenol (Eug). Ethanol injection method and membrane contactor were applied to prepare liposomes at laboratory and large scale, respectively. Various liposomal formulations were tested: (1) free hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin loaded liposomes; (2) drug in hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin in liposomes (DCL); (3) DCL2 obtained by double loading technique, where the drug is added in the organic phase and the inclusion complex in the aqueous phase. Liposomes were characterized for their particle size, polydispersity index, Zeta potential, morphology, encapsulation efficiency of CEO components and Eug loading rate. Reproducible results were obtained with both injection devices. Compared to Eug-loaded liposomes, DCL and DCL2 improved the loading rate of Eug and possessed smaller vesicles size. The DPPH(•) scavenging activity of Eug and CEO was maintained upon incorporation of Eug and CEO into DCL and DCL2. Contrary to DCL2, DCL formulations were stable after 1 month of storage at 4°C and upon reconstitution of the dried lyophilized cakes. Hence, DCL in aqueous and lyophilized forms, are considered as a promising carrier system to preserve volatile and hydrophobic drugs enlarging their application in cosmetic, pharmaceutical and food industries. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. A rapid kinetic chromogenic method for quantification of bacterial endotoxins in lyophilized reagents for labeling with 99mTc radiopharmaceuticals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fukumori, Neuza T.O.; Campos, Domingos G.; Silva, Laercio; Fernandes, Adriana V.; Mengatti, Jair; Silva, Constancia P.G.; Matsuda, Margareth M.N.

    2009-01-01

    A rapid quantitative kinetic chromogenic test in an automated Portable Test System (PTS) has been developed for determination of bacterial endotoxins in water, in-process and end-products using the Limulus amebocyte lysate (LAL). The aim of this work was to validate the method for lyophilized reagents for labeling with 99m Tc radiopharmaceuticals with no interfering factors. Experiments were performed in three consecutive batches of the lyophilized reagents Methylenediphosphonic Acid (MDP) and Pyrophosphate (PYRO) produced at IPEN-CNEN/ SP using the PTS from Endosafe, Inc. TM , Charleston, SC. The Maximum Valid Dilution (MVD) was calculated to establish the extent of dilution to avoid interfering test conditions (MVD=500). Better results were obtained above 1:20 dilution factor for MDP and 1:100 for PYRO. The parameters of coefficient correlation (R) -0.980, RPPC between 50 - 200% and coefficient variation (CV) of the samples less than 25% were satisfied and the endotoxin concentration was lower than the lowest concentration of the standard curve (0.05 EU mL -1 ), therefore less than the established limit in pharmacopoeias. The PTS is a rapid, simple and accurate technique using the quantitative kinetic chromogenic method for bacterial endotoxin determination. For this reason, it is very practical in the radiopharmaceutical area and it trends to be the method of choice for the pyrogen test. For MDP and PYRO, the validation was successfully performed. (author)

  2. Preparation of Vitexin Nanoparticles by Combining the Antisolvent Precipitation and High Pressure Homogenization Approaches Followed by Lyophilization for Dissolution Rate Enhancement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Chengbo; Liu, Ziwei; Yuan, Xiaohan; Li, Wang; Zu, Yuangang; Fu, Yujie

    2017-11-22

    Vitexin, a natural flavonoid found in many medicinal plants, is well known for its rich pharmacological activities. However, the poor water solubility of vitexin has limited its therapeutic application. The aim of this study was to prepare the nanoparticles of vitexin by combining the antisolvent precipitation (ASP) and high pressure homogenization (HPH) approaches followed by lyophilization for improving the dissolution rate of this poorly water-soluble drug. The effects of main factors influencing the mean particle size (MPS) of vitexin were investigated and optimized. Under optimum conditions, vitexin nanosuspensions with an MPS of 80.5 nm were obtained and then lyophilized to form nanoparticles. The obtained vitexin nanoparticles were further characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), mass spectrometry (MS), X-ray powder diffraction (XRPD), gas chromatography (GC) and dissolution testing. The results showed that the nanoparticles of vitexin were converted into an amorphous form, with its chemical structure unchanged. Additionally, the residual dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) is lower than the International Conference on Harmonization (ICH) limit for class 3 solvents. The dissolution rate of processed vitexin was significantly higher (5.58-fold) than that of raw drug. Overall, the combinative process we developed is an effective way to produce vitexin nanoparticles with markedly enhanced dissolution rate.

  3. Efeitos hemostático e estrutural da esponja de celulose liofilizada Hemostatic and structural effects of lyophilized cellulose sponge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LUÍS RENATO MELLO

    1998-09-01

    fagocitose, fato este ainda não relatado na literatura.Hemostatic effects of oxidized cellulose (Surgicel are well known. Based on a possible similar effect of a sponge obtained after lyophilization of biosynthetic cellulose, two different experimental studies were planned. Phase I - Pieces of cellulose sponge were inserted into small provoked cortical wounds of twelve dogs. The time elapsed to obtain bloodstill after cortical damage and application of cellulose was observed in every dog, searching to detect any possible hemostatic effect of the material. The animals were sacrificed after 7, 30 and 90 days. An average time of 1 minute was elapsed until bleeding control was achieved. No clinical adverse effect was noticed. Microscopy showed histiocytic and mild foreign body reaction at 7 days, which diminished at 30 days. Almost no reaction surrounded the implant at 90 days. Lyophilized cellulose has a peculiar eosinophilic appearance, composed by thin irregular filaments which diminished their thickness with the time. At 90 days only sparse irregular cellulose filaments could be detected. Phase II - Small equal sponge fragments were inserted in the liver of twelve rats and observed 7, 30 and 90 days. At autopsy, small peritoneal adhesions were noticed at 30 and 90 days. Microscopy showed intense histioplasmocytic and foreign body reaction in all animals mainly at 7 days. In two animals, refringent intracellular cellulose particles were evident inside giant foreign body cells after 90 days. This fact evidences that cellulose can be reabsorbed by phagocytic phenomena when implanted in mammalians. A comparative group with other hemostatic material and the same method must be done to clarify the issue of hemostatic effects of this membrane.

  4. Comparison between optical coherence tomography technique and mechanical compression assay to evaluate ionizing radiation effects in frozen and lyophilized bone Tissue

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santin, Stefany Plumeri; Freitas, Anderson Zanardi de; Martinho Junior, Antonio Carlos; Dias, Djalma Batista; Soares, Fernando Augusto Neves; Pino, Eddy Segura; Veloso, Marcelo Noronha; Mathor, Monica B., E-mail: spsantin@usp.br, E-mail: mathor@ipen.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Santos, Luiz Augusto Ubirajara, E-mail: augustosantos@terra.com.br [Universidade de Sao Paulo (IOT/HCFUSP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Fac. de Medicina. Instituto de Ortopedia e Traumatologia

    2013-07-01

    Currently tissue banks have utilized ionizing radiation to sterilize bone tissues to be used as allograft. This method is advantageous when compared with other techniques, because the tissue is sterilized in its final packaging avoiding later contaminations, another advantage is due to the fact occur only a minimal increase in temperature, in addition to provide a Sterility Assurance Level (SAL) of 10{sup -6}, as recommended by national and international standards. However, there are several studies investigating the modifications that this method of sterilization may cause to the bone matrix, for example, alterations in the resistance to compression force. The compressive mechanical tests are highly used to evaluate the decrease in the mechanical strength; however it is a destructive assay. In this study, we used Optical Coherence Tomography to evaluate these possible changes. This technique is advantageous, for do not destroy the sample and enable the performing of other assays with the same sample. In literature, it is possible to find several studies about mechanical changes occasioned by destructive tests. Therefore, this study aims to compare the results of both techniques. It was selected four donors to obtain eight samples of fibula, through a partnership with the Tissue Bank (Instituto de Traumatologia do Hospital das Clinicas da Universidade de Sao Paulo). From each donor were separated twelve samples for preservation by freezing and twelve samples for preservation by lyophilization. The samples were analyzed by Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT) after irradiation at different doses (15, 25 and 50 kGy), in addition to non-irradiated control. After the samples were analyzed by Optical Coherence Tomography the same were subjected to mechanical testing. The data were analyzed by software developed by Dr. Anderson Zanardi de Freitas to calculate the total attenuation coefficient of photons. Nevertheless, only the preservation method may induce to alterations

  5. Induction of osteogenic differentiation of stem cells via a lyophilized microRNA reverse transfection formulation on a tissue culture plate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wu K

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Kaimin Wu,1,* Jie Xu,2,* Mengyuan Liu,1 Wen Song,1 Jun Yan,1 Shan Gao,3 Lingzhou Zhao,2 Yumei Zhang1 1Department of Prosthetic Dentistry, 2Department of Periodontology and Oral Medicine, School of Stomatology, The Fourth Military Medical University, Xi’an, People’s Republic of China; 3The Interdisciplinary Nanoscience Center and Department of Molecular Biology and Genetics, Aarhus University, Aarhus C, Denmark; School of Stomatology, Tianjin Medical University, Tianjin, People’s Republic of China*Both authors contributed equally to this workAbstract: MicroRNA (miRNA regulation is a novel approach to manipulating the fate of mesenchymal stem cells, but an easy, safe, and highly efficient method of transfection is required. In this study, we developed an miRNA reverse transfection formulation by lyophilizing Lipofectamine 2000-miRNA lipoplexes on a tissue culture plate. The lipoplexes can be immobilized on a tissue culture plate with an intact pseudospherical structure and lyophilization without any lyoprotectant. In this study, reverse transfection resulted in highly efficient cellular uptake of miRNA and enabled significant manipulation of the intracellular target miRNA level. Reverse transfection formulations containing Lipofectamine 2000 1 µL per well generated much higher transfection efficiency without obvious cytotoxicity compared with conventional and other transfection methods. Further, the transfection efficiency of the reverse transfection formulations did not deteriorate during 90 days of storage at 4°C and -20°C. We then assessed the efficiency of the miRNA reverse transfection formulation in promoting osteogenic differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells. We found that transfection with anti-miR-138 and miR-148b was efficient for enhancing osteogenic differentiation, as indicated by enhanced osteogenesis-related gene expression, amount of alkaline phosphatase present, production of collagen, and matrix mineralization. Overall

  6. Comparison between optical coherence tomography technique and mechanical compression assay to evaluate ionizing radiation effects in frozen and lyophilized bone Tissue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santin, Stefany Plumeri; Freitas, Anderson Zanardi de; Martinho Junior, Antonio Carlos; Dias, Djalma Batista; Soares, Fernando Augusto Neves; Pino, Eddy Segura; Veloso, Marcelo Noronha; Mathor, Monica B.; Santos, Luiz Augusto Ubirajara

    2013-01-01

    Currently tissue banks have utilized ionizing radiation to sterilize bone tissues to be used as allograft. This method is advantageous when compared with other techniques, because the tissue is sterilized in its final packaging avoiding later contaminations, another advantage is due to the fact occur only a minimal increase in temperature, in addition to provide a Sterility Assurance Level (SAL) of 10 -6 , as recommended by national and international standards. However, there are several studies investigating the modifications that this method of sterilization may cause to the bone matrix, for example, alterations in the resistance to compression force. The compressive mechanical tests are highly used to evaluate the decrease in the mechanical strength; however it is a destructive assay. In this study, we used Optical Coherence Tomography to evaluate these possible changes. This technique is advantageous, for do not destroy the sample and enable the performing of other assays with the same sample. In literature, it is possible to find several studies about mechanical changes occasioned by destructive tests. Therefore, this study aims to compare the results of both techniques. It was selected four donors to obtain eight samples of fibula, through a partnership with the Tissue Bank (Instituto de Traumatologia do Hospital das Clinicas da Universidade de Sao Paulo). From each donor were separated twelve samples for preservation by freezing and twelve samples for preservation by lyophilization. The samples were analyzed by Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT) after irradiation at different doses (15, 25 and 50 kGy), in addition to non-irradiated control. After the samples were analyzed by Optical Coherence Tomography the same were subjected to mechanical testing. The data were analyzed by software developed by Dr. Anderson Zanardi de Freitas to calculate the total attenuation coefficient of photons. Nevertheless, only the preservation method may induce to alterations in

  7. Probing the Conformation of an IgG1 Monoclonal Antibody in Lyophilized Solids Using Solid-State Hydrogen-Deuterium Exchange with Mass Spectrometric Analysis (ssHDX-MS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moussa, Ehab M; Singh, Satish K; Kimmel, Michael; Nema, Sandeep; Topp, Elizabeth M

    2018-02-05

    Therapeutic proteins are often formulated as lyophilized products to improve their stability and prolong shelf life. The stability of proteins in the solid-state has been correlated with preservation of native higher order structure and/or molecular mobility in the solid matrix, with varying success. In the studies reported here, we used solid-state hydrogen-deuterium exchange with mass spectrometric analysis (ssHDX-MS) to study the conformation of an IgG1 monoclonal antibody (mAb) in lyophilized solids and related the extent of ssHDX to aggregation during storage in the solid phase. The results demonstrate that the extent of ssHDX correlated better with aggregation rate during storage than did solid-state Fourier-transform infrared (ssFTIR) spectroscopic measurements. Interestingly, adding histidine to sucrose at different formulation pH conditions decreased aggregation of the mAb, an effect that did not correlate with structural or conformational changes as measured by ssFTIR or ssHDX-MS. Moreover, peptide-level ssHDX-MS analysis in four selected formulations demonstrated global changes across the structure of the mAb when lyophilized with sucrose, trehalose, or mannitol, whereas site-specific changes were observed when lyophilized with histidine as the sole excipient.

  8. Early treatment with lyophilized plasma protects the brain in a large animal model of combined traumatic brain injury and hemorrhagic shock

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Imam, Ayesha M; Jin, Guang; Sillesen, Martin

    2013-01-01

    Combination of traumatic brain injury (TBI) and hemorrhagic shock (HS) can result in significant morbidity and mortality. We have previously shown that early administration of fresh frozen plasma (FFP) in a large animal model of TBI and HS reduces the size of the brain lesion as well as the assoc...... as the associated edema. However, FFP is a perishable product that is not well suited for use in the austere prehospital settings. In this study, we tested whether a shelf-stable, low-volume, lyophilized plasma (LSP) product was as effective as FFP.......Combination of traumatic brain injury (TBI) and hemorrhagic shock (HS) can result in significant morbidity and mortality. We have previously shown that early administration of fresh frozen plasma (FFP) in a large animal model of TBI and HS reduces the size of the brain lesion as well...

  9. Induction of osteogenic differentiation of stem cells via a lyophilized microRNA reverse transfection formulation on a tissue culture plate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wu, Kaimin; Xu, Jie; Liu, Mingzhe

    2013-01-01

    MicroRNA (miRNA) regulation is a novel approach to manipulating the fate of mesenchymal stem cells, but an easy, safe, and highly efficient method of transfection is required. In this study, we developed an miRNA reverse transfection formulation by lyophilizing Lipofectamine 2000-miRNA lipoplexes...... of the intracellular target miRNA level. Reverse transfection formulations containing Lipofectamine 2000 1 µL per well generated much higher transfection efficiency without obvious cytotoxicity compared with conventional and other transfection methods. Further, the transfection efficiency of the reverse transfection...... formulations did not deteriorate during 90 days of storage at 4°C and -20°C. We then assessed the efficiency of the miRNA reverse transfection formulation in promoting osteogenic differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells. We found that transfection with anti-miR-138 and miR-148b was efficient for enhancing...

  10. Determination of the worst case for cleaning validation of equipment used in the radiopharmaceutical production of lyophilized reagents for {sup 99m}Tc labelling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Porto, Luciana Valeria Ferrari Machado; Fukumori, Neuza Taeko Okasaki; Matsuda, Margareth Mie Nakamura, E-mail: luciana.porto@anvisa.gov.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Centro de Radiofarmacia

    2016-01-15

    Cleaning validation, a requirement of the current Good Manufacturing Practices (cGMP) for Drugs, consists of documented evidence that cleaning procedures are capable of removing residues to predetermined acceptance levels. This report describes a strategy for the selection of the worst case product for the production of lyophilized reagents (LRs) for labeling with {sup 99m}Tc from the Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN-CNEN/Sao Paulo). The strategy is based on the calculation of a 'worst case index' that incorporates information about drug solubility, cleaning difficulty, and occupancy rate in the production line. It allowed a reduction in the required number of validations considering the possible manufacturing flow of a given product and the subsequent flow, thus facilitating the process by reducing operation time and cost. The products identified as 'worst case' were LRs PUL-TEC and MIBI-TEC. (author). (author)

  11. Determination of the worst case for cleaning validation of equipment used in the radiopharmaceutical production of lyophilized reagents for 99mTc labelling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Porto, Luciana Valeria Ferrari Machado; Fukumori, Neuza Taeko Okasaki; Matsuda, Margareth Mie Nakamura

    2016-01-01

    Cleaning validation, a requirement of the current Good Manufacturing Practices (cGMP) for Drugs, consists of documented evidence that cleaning procedures are capable of removing residues to predetermined acceptance levels. This report describes a strategy for the selection of the worst case product for the production of lyophilized reagents (LRs) for labeling with 99m Tc from the Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN-CNEN/Sao Paulo). The strategy is based on the calculation of a 'worst case index' that incorporates information about drug solubility, cleaning difficulty, and occupancy rate in the production line. It allowed a reduction in the required number of validations considering the possible manufacturing flow of a given product and the subsequent flow, thus facilitating the process by reducing operation time and cost. The products identified as 'worst case' were LRs PUL-TEC and MIBI-TEC. (author). (author)

  12. Partial structure of the phylloxin gene from the giant monkey frog, Phyllomedusa bicolor: parallel cloning of precursor cDNA and genomic DNA from lyophilized skin secretion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Tianbao; Gagliardo, Ron; Walker, Brian; Zhou, Mei; Shaw, Chris

    2005-12-01

    Phylloxin is a novel prototype antimicrobial peptide from the skin of Phyllomedusa bicolor. Here, we describe parallel identification and sequencing of phylloxin precursor transcript (mRNA) and partial gene structure (genomic DNA) from the same sample of lyophilized skin secretion using our recently-described cloning technique. The open-reading frame of the phylloxin precursor was identical in nucleotide sequence to that previously reported and alignment with the nucleotide sequence derived from genomic DNA indicated the presence of a 175 bp intron located in a near identical position to that found in the dermaseptins. The highly-conserved structural organization of skin secretion peptide genes in P. bicolor can thus be extended to include that encoding phylloxin (plx). These data further reinforce our assertion that application of the described methodology can provide robust genomic/transcriptomic/peptidomic data without the need for specimen sacrifice.

  13. Dermatoxin and phylloxin from the waxy monkey frog, Phyllomedusa sauvagei: cloning of precursor cDNAs and structural characterization from lyophilized skin secretion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Tianbao; Walker, Brian; Zhou, Mei; Shaw, Chris

    2005-07-15

    Amphibian skin is a morphologically, biochemically and physiologically complex organ that performs the wide range of functions necessary for amphibian survival. Here we describe the primary structures of representatives of two novel classes of amphibian skin antimicrobials, dermatoxin and phylloxin, from the skin secretion of Phyllomedusa sauvagei, deduced from their respective precursor encoding cDNAs cloned from a lyophilized skin secretion library. A degenerate primer, designed to a highly conserved domain in the 5'-untranslated region of analogous peptide precursor cDNAs from Phyllomedusa bicolor, was employed in a 3'-RACE reaction. Peptides with molecular masses coincident with precursor-deduced mature toxin peptides were identified in LC/MS fractions of skin secretion and primary structures were confirmed by MS/MS fragmentation. This integrated experimental approach can thus rapidly expedite the primary structural characterization of amphibian skin peptides in a manner that circumvents specimen sacrifice whilst preserving robustness of scientific data.

  14. Temporal growth factor release from platelet-rich plasma, trehalose lyophilized platelets, and bone marrow aspirate and their effect on tendon and ligament gene expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarrel, Taralyn; Fortier, Lisa

    2009-08-01

    Platelet-rich plasma (PRP) has generated substantial interest for tendon and ligament regeneration because of the high concentrations of growth factors in platelet alpha-granules. This study compared the temporal release of growth factors from bone marrow aspirate (BMA), PRP, and lyophilized platelet product (PP), and measured their effects on tendon and ligament gene expression. Blood and BMA were collected and processed to yield PRP and plasma. Flexor digitorum superficialis tendon (FDS) and suspensory ligament (SL) explants were cultured in 10% plasma in DMEM (control), BMA, PRP, or PP. TGF-beta1 and PDGF-BB concentrations were determined at 0, 24, and 96 h of culture using ELISA. Quantitative RT-PCR for collagen types I and III (COL1A1, COL3A1), cartilage oligomeric matrix protein (COMP), decorin, and matrix metalloproteinases-3 and 13 (MMP-3, MMP-13) was performed. TGF-beta1 and PDGF-BB concentrations were highest in PRP and PP. Growth factor quantity was unchanged in BMA, increased in PRP, and decreased in PP over 4 days. TGF-beta1 and platelet concentrations were positively correlated. Lyophilized PP and PRP resulted in increased COL1A1:COL3A1 ratio, increased COMP, and decreased MMP-13 expression. BMA resulted in decreased COMP and increased MMP-3 and MMP-13 gene expression. Platelet concentration was positively correlated with COL1A1, ratio of COL1A1:COL3A1, and COMP, and negatively correlated with COL3A1, MMP-13, and MMP-3. White blood cell concentration was positively correlated with COL3A1, MMP3, and MMP13, and negatively correlated with a ratio of COL1A1:COL3A1, COMP, and decorin. These findings support further in vivo investigation of PRP and PP for treatment of tendonitis and desmitis. Copyright 2009 Orthopaedic Research Society. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Evaluation of Two Lyophilized Molecular Assays to Rapidly Detect Foot-and-Mouth Disease Virus Directly from Clinical Samples in Field Settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howson, E L A; Armson, B; Madi, M; Kasanga, C J; Kandusi, S; Sallu, R; Chepkwony, E; Siddle, A; Martin, P; Wood, J; Mioulet, V; King, D P; Lembo, T; Cleaveland, S; Fowler, V L

    2017-06-01

    Accurate, timely diagnosis is essential for the control, monitoring and eradication of foot-and-mouth disease (FMD). Clinical samples from suspect cases are normally tested at reference laboratories. However, transport of samples to these centralized facilities can be a lengthy process that can impose delays on critical decision making. These concerns have motivated work to evaluate simple-to-use technologies, including molecular-based diagnostic platforms, that can be deployed closer to suspect cases of FMD. In this context, FMD virus (FMDV)-specific reverse transcription loop-mediated isothermal amplification (RT-LAMP) and real-time RT-PCR (rRT-PCR) assays, compatible with simple sample preparation methods and in situ visualization, have been developed which share equivalent analytical sensitivity with laboratory-based rRT-PCR. However, the lack of robust 'ready-to-use kits' that utilize stabilized reagents limits the deployment of these tests into field settings. To address this gap, this study describes the performance of lyophilized rRT-PCR and RT-LAMP assays to detect FMDV. Both of these assays are compatible with the use of fluorescence to monitor amplification in real-time, and for the RT-LAMP assays end point detection could also be achieved using molecular lateral flow devices. Lyophilization of reagents did not adversely affect the performance of the assays. Importantly, when these assays were deployed into challenging laboratory and field settings within East Africa they proved to be reliable in their ability to detect FMDV in a range of clinical samples from acutely infected as well as convalescent cattle. These data support the use of highly sensitive molecular assays into field settings for simple and rapid detection of FMDV. © 2015 The Authors. Transboundary and Emerging Diseases Published by Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  16. Caracterização físico-química do enxerto de osso bovino liofilizado Physicochemical characterization of lyophilized bovine bone grafts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Roberto Galia

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Avaliar as características físico-químicas do enxerto bovino liofilizado manufaturado em escala semi-industrial (OrthoGen, Baumer S/A* de acordo com protocolo previamente desenvolvido pelos autores. MÉTODOS: A caracterização do enxerto de osso bovino liofilizado foi feita por meio de microscopia eletrônica de varredura (MEV, energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS, difratometria de raios-X, análise por termogravimetria, análise de calorimetria exploratória diferencial (DSC e espectroscopia por infravermelho Fourier-transform (FT-IR. RESULTADOS: Ca foi o principal componente (60% encontrado nas amostras, seguido por P (28% e O (5%. O tamanho médio (dp dos poros foi 316µm (146,7, variando de 91,2 a 497,8µm, e 333,5µm (304,8, variando de 87,2 a 963,9µm com 50x e 150x magnificação, respectivamente. Picos de hidroxiapatita foram a 26ºC e 32ºC, e perda de massa foi observada entre 250ºC e 640ºC, correspondendo material orgânico e água. Duas transições de temperatura (45,67°C e 91,89°C mostraram desnaturação de colágeno tipo I e desidratação da hidroxiapatita. CONCLUSÃO: A avaliação físico-química do enxerto de osso bovino liofilizado, de acordo com o protocolo desenvolvido em escala semi-industrial, confirma que este produto apresenta excelente biocompatibilidade, com características semelhantes ao osso in natura.OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the physicochemical characteristics of lyophilized bovine grafts manufactured on a semi-industrial scale (Orthogen; Baumer S/A* in accordance with a protocol previously developed by the authors. METHODS: The lyophilized bovine bone grafts were characterized by means of scanning electron microscopy (SEM, energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS, X-ray diffractometry (XRD, thermogravimetric (TG analysis, differential exploratory scanning calorimetry (DSC and Fourier-transform infrared (FT-IR spectroscopy. RESULTS: Ca was the main component (60% found in the samples, followed by P (28

  17. Development of a lyophilized formulation for preparing the radiopharmaceutical 68Ga-DOTA-Nal3-Octreotide for the diagnosis of tumors of neuroendocrine origin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lorenzo L, G. A.

    2015-01-01

    The present study aimed to develop a radiopharmaceutical consisting of an emitter positrons radionuclide ( 68 Ga) which is used in imaging by positron emission tomography; and a peptide capable of binding to somatostatin receptors subtypes 2, 3 and 5; which together serve as a diagnostic support of tumors of neuroendocrine origin. The peptide characterization DOTA-1-Naphthylalanine 3 -Octreotide (DOTA-NOC) by infrared spectroscopy technique by Fourier transform was performed, in which the principal functional groups belonging to this molecule were identified as well as its identification by UV-Vis spectroscopy. Subsequently, a variance analysis taking into account three different levels of amounts of sodium acetate, and three different levels of amounts of the peptide was performed. These masses were subjected to lyophilization for a period of 21 h; after completion of lyophilization, were labeled with 2 m L of 68 GaCl 3 eluates of a 68 Ge/ 68 Ga ITG generator to determine the percentage of radiochemical purity of the different formulations. It was observed that the ideal formulation must contain 75 μg of peptide and 14 mg of NaOAc, according to studies, was determined that the amount of peptide does not influence the response of radiochemical purity in the same way that the amount of added sodium acetate, which produces different effects on the dependent variable. Finally the radiopharmaceutical formulation was obtained with greater than 95% of radiochemical purity. The validation of the analytical method was performed describing the system accuracy and linearity, specificity and accuracy; linearity and precision of the method, taking into account acceptance criteria based on the guidance of validation of analytical methods published by the National Association of Pharmacists Chemical Biologists of Mexico, A. C.; the parameters evaluated met the specifications given by the guide validation of analytical methods. Uptake and internalization tests of the

  18. Effect of lyophilized water extracts of Melissa officinalis on the stability of algae and linseed oil-in-water emulsion to be used as a functional ingredient in meat products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Ciriano, Mikel García-Iñiguez; Rehecho, Sheyla; Calvo, Maria Isabel; Cavero, Rita Yolanda; Navarro, Iñigo; Astiasarán, Iciar; Ansorena, Diana

    2010-06-01

    Previous work pointed out the possibility to enhance the nutritional value of meat products using long chain omega-3 PUFA enriched emulsions. Oil-in-water emulsions elaborated with a mixture of algae and linseed oils (15:10) in order to be used as functional ingredient were stabilized with BHA (butylhydroxyanisol) or with a lyophilized water extract of Melissa officinalis L. (Lemon balm). The lipid profile of the oil mixture showed a high amount of DHA (31.7%), oleic (25.4%) and alpha-linolenic acid (12.7%) resulting in a very low omega-6/omega-3 ratio (0.12). The lyophilized extract of M. officinalis showed a high antioxidant activity (being 62ppm of the lyophilized water extract of Melissa equivalent to 200ppm of BHA, using the DPPH assay as reference), and high total phenolic content. Studying the oxidation process in the emulsions during 15days at room temperature, it could be concluded that this extract was as efficient as BHA in order to control the thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) formation. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Bone density of defects treated with lyophilized amniotic membrane versus colagen membrane: a tomographic and histomorfogenic study in a rabbi´s femur.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liz Ríos

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to compare the bone density of bone defects treated with lyophilizated amniotic membrane (LAM and collagen Membrane (CM, at 3 and 5 weeks. Two bone defects of 4mm in diameter and 6mm deep were created in left distal femoral diaphysis of New Zealand rabbits (n=12. The animals were randomly divided into 2 groups. One of the defects was covered with lyophilized amniotic membrane (Rosa Chambergo Tissue Bank/National Institute of Child Health-IPEN, Lima, Peru or collagen Membrane (Dentium Co, Seoul, Korea. The second was left uncovered (NC. The rabbits were killed after 3 and 5 weeks (3 rabbits/period. The results showed a high bone density and repair of the defect by new bone. The tomographic study revealed that the bone density of the defects treated with LAM at 3 weeks was equivalent to the density obtained with CM and higher density compared with NC (p0.05. The results show that lyophilizated amniotic membrane provides bone density equal or higher to the collagen membrane.

  20. Evaluation of the thermal stability of a novel strain of live-attenuated mumps vaccine (RS-12 strain) lyophilized in different stabilizers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamil, Razieh Kamali; Taqavian, Mohammad; Sadigh, Zohreh-Azita; Shahkarami, Mohammad-Kazem; Esna-Ashari, Fatemeh; Hamkar, Rasool; Hosseini, Seyedeh-Marzieh; Hatami, Alireza

    2014-04-01

    The stability of live-attenuated viral vaccines is important for immunization efficacy. Here, the thermostabilities of lyophilized live-attenuated mumps vaccine formulations in two different stabilizers, a trehalose dihydrate-based stabilizer and a stabilizer containing sucrose, human serum albumin and sorbitol were investigated using accelerated stability tests at 4°C, 25°C and 37°C at time points between 4h (every 4h for the first 24h) and 1 week. Even under the harshest storage conditions of 37°C for 1 week, the 50% cell culture infective dose (CCID50) determined from titrations in Vero cells dropped by less than 10-fold using each stabilizer formulation and thus complied with the World Health Organization's requirements for the potency of live-attenuated mumps vaccines. However, as the half-life of the RS-12 strain mumps virus infectivity was lengthened substantially at elevated temperatures using the trehalose dihydrate (TD)-based stabilizer, this stabilizer is recommended for vaccine use. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. The Actions of Lyophilized Apple Peel on the Electrical Activity and Organization of the Ventricular Syncytium of the Hearts of Diabetic Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elideth Martínez-Ladrón de Guevara

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was designed to examine the effects of lyophilized red delicious apple peel (RDP on the action potentials (APs and the input resistance-threshold current relationship. The experiments were performed on isolated papillary heart muscles from healthy male rats, healthy male rats treated with RDP, diabetic male rats, and diabetic male rats treated with RDP. The preparation was superfused with oxygenated Tyrode’s solution at 37°C. The stimulation and the recording of the APs, the input resistance, and the threshold current were made using conventional electrophysiological methods. The RDP presented no significant effect in normal rats. Equivalent doses in diabetic rats reduced the APD and ARP. The relationship between input resistance and threshold current established an inverse correlation. The results indicate the following: (1 The functional structure of the cardiac ventricular syncytium in healthy rats is heterogeneous, in terms of input resistance and threshold current. Diabetes further accentuates the heterogeneity. (2 As a consequence, conduction block occurs and increases the possibility of reentrant arrhythmias. (3 These modifications in the ventricular syncytium, coupled with the increase in the ARP, are the adequate substrate so that, with diabetes, the heart becomes more arrhythmogenic. (4 RDP decreases the APD, the ARP, and most syncytium irregularity caused by diabetes.

  2. Functional, textural and sensory properties of dry pasta supplemented with lyophilized tomato matrix or with durum wheat bran extracts produced by supercritical carbon dioxide or ultrasound.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasqualone, Antonella; Gambacorta, Giuseppe; Summo, Carmine; Caponio, Francesco; Di Miceli, Giuseppe; Flagella, Zina; Marrese, Pier Paolo; Piro, Gabriella; Perrotta, Carla; De Bellis, Luigi; Lenucci, Marcello Salvatore

    2016-12-15

    A study was carried out to produce functional pasta by adding bran aqueous extract (BW) and bran oleoresin (BO) obtained using ultrasound and supercritical CO2, respectively, or a powdery lyophilized tomato matrix (LT). The bioactive compounds, hydrophilic and lipophilic antioxidant activity (HAA and LAA) in vitro, were evaluated. BW supplementation did not improve antioxidant activity, whilst LT pasta showed unconventional taste and odor. BO pasta had good levels of tocochromanols (2551μg/100g pasta f.w.) and carotenoids (40.2μg/100g pasta f.w.), and the highest HAA and LAA. The oleoresin altered starch swelling and gluten network, as evidenced by scanning electron microscopy, therefore BO pasta had structural characteristics poor compared with the control (4.8% vs. 3.2% cooking loss), although this difference did not affect significantly overall sensory judgment (74 vs. 79 for BO and control, respectively). BO supplementation was most effective for increasing antioxidant activity without jeopardizing pasta quality. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Membranas biológicas homólogas preservadas em solução alcalina seguida de liofilização, glicerina a 98% e por liofilização para implantação em eqüinos Homologous biological membranes persevered in alkaline solution and lyophilized, glycerin 98% and by lyophilization for equines implantation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valcinir Aloisio Scolla Vulcani

    2008-08-01

    to evaluate physicist-chemistries alterations in equines diaphragmatic tendineous centers implants submitted to alkaline solution and lyophilization treatment. The samples had been treated in alkaline solution for 24, 48, 72, 120 and 144 hours and lyophilized. It was analyzed the homogeneity, flexibility and resistance to the suture. After that, they had been submitted to the differential scanner calorimetry and to the scanner electronic microscopy. Samples of 72 hours in alkaline treatment, conserved in glycerin 98% and only lyophilized were implanted in recto abdominis internal fascia of equines. They were removed one, nine and 18 weeks post-implantation to evaluate the existence of tacks. It was verified that the homogeneity and flexibility are directly proportional to the increase of time of treatment in alkaline solution while the resistance is inversely proportional to the time increase, being 72 hour treatment intermediate for these characteristics. The differential scanner calorimetry showed that the treatment do not denature the present collagen in samples. The electronic microscopy showed that the increase of treatment time provides expansion of less dense zones of the material. In relation to the formation of tacks, the samples only lyophilized had presented maximum degree in the proposal classification followed for the conserved in glycerin 98% samples with average degree and the treated in alkaline solution and lyophilized samples had been classified in minimum degree. It was concluded that the treatment for 72 hours would be more appropriate for implantation and that the tissue integration with abdominal wall was better in relation to the samples lyophilized only and to the conserved in glycerin ones.

  4. Preservation of rhizobia by lyophilization with trehalose Preservação de rizóbio por liofilização com trealose

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Antonio Arraes Pereira

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to determine if trehalose can effectively enhance the viability and storage lifetime of Rhizobium tropici and Rhizobium etli after lyophilization as compared to the traditional protective combination of sucrose and peptone. Two strains of bean-nodulating rhizobia were effectively preserved in the lyophilized state by 100 mM trehalose, and survived for at least 12 days, even when stored under non-ideal conditions. Trehalose provided better protection than the sucrose/peptone combination. When protective excipients were introduced inside the cells, strain CFN 42 was more sensitive to the type of additive used than strain CIAT 899, probably because CIAT 899 produces beta (1-2 glucan, which may have a protective effect. beta (1-2 glucan combined with sucrose protected better than trehalose against leakage from freeze-dried liposomes, but by itself it had no protective capability. There was a high level of unfrozen water associated with the hydrated glucan, in addition to a thermal event at approximately 70ºC, corresponding to an observed gel-sol transition in the glucan. These findings may shed light on the mechanism by which the glucan contributes to the protection of dried cells and liposomes, and may lead to further improvements in rhizobial inoculants.O objetivo deste estudo foi determinar se a trealose pode aumentar a viabilidade e o tempo de preservação de estirpes de Rhizobium tropici e Rhizobium etli após a liofilização, comparada com a proteção proporcionada pela combinação tradicional de sacarose e peptona. Duas estirpes de rizóbio para feijão foram preservadas liofilizadas com 100 mM de trealose e sobreviveram por pelo menos 12 dias, mesmo quando armazenadas sob condições não-ideais. A trealose proporcionou uma proteção superior à combinação de sacarose peptona. Quando agentes protetores foram introduzidos dentro da célula, a estirpe CFN 42 foi mais sensível em relação ao tipo de

  5. Biokinetics and dosimetry in patients of {sup 99m}Tc-EDDA/HYNIC-Tyr{sup 3}-octreotide prepared from lyophilized kits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonzalez-Vazquez, Armando [Departamento de Medicina Nuclear, Hospital Militar (Mexico); Facultad de Medicina, Universidad Autonoma del Estado de Mexico (Mexico); Ferro-Flores, Guillermina [Departamento de Materiales Radiactivos, Gerencia de Aplicaciones Nucleares en la Salud, Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares, Km. 36.5 Carretera Mexico-Toluca, Ocoyoacac, Estado de Mexico, C.P. 52045 (Mexico)]. E-mail: gff@nuclear.inin.mx; Arteaga de Murphy, Consuelo [Departamento de Medicina Nuclear, Instituto Nacional de Ciencias Medicas y Nutricion Salvador Zubiran (Mexico); Gutierrez-Garcia, Zohar [Departamento de Medicina Nuclear, Hospital Militar (Mexico)

    2006-07-15

    {sup 99m}Tc-EDDA/HYNIC-Tyr{sup 3}-octreotide ({sup 99m}Tc-HYNIC-TOC) has shown high in vitro and in vivo stability, rapid background clearance and rapid detection of somatostatin receptor-positive tumors. The aim of this study was to establish a biokinetic model for {sup 99m}Tc-HYNIC-TOC prepared from lyophilized kits, and to evaluate its dosimetry as a tumor imaging agent in patients with histologically confirmed neuroendocrine tumors. Whole-body images from eight patients were acquired at 5, 60, 90, 180 min and 24 h after {sup 99m}Tc-HYNIC-TOC administration obtained from instant freeze-dried kit formulations with radiochemical purities >95%. Regions of interest (ROIs) were drawn around source organs on each time frame. The same set of ROIs was used for all eight scans and the count per minute (cpm) of each ROI was converted to activity using the conjugate view counting method. The image sequence was used to extrapolate {sup 99m}Tc-HYNIC-TOC time-activity curves in each organ, to adjust a biokinetic model using the SAAM software, and to calculate the total number of disintegrations (N) that occurred in the source regions. N data were the input for the OLINDA/EXM code to calculate internal radiation dose estimates. Images showed an average tumor/blood (heart) ratio of 4.3{+-}0.7 in receptor-positive tumors at 1 h. The mean radiation absorbed dose calculated for a study using 740 MBq was 24, 21.5, 5.5 and 1.0 mSv for spleen, kidneys, liver and bone marrow respectively and the effective dose was 4.4 mSv.

  6. The Influence of Lyophilized EmuGel Silica Microspheres on the Physicomechanical Properties, In Vitro Bioactivity and Biodegradation of a Novel Ciprofloxacin-Loaded PCL/PAA Scaffold

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mostafa Mabrouk

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available A new composite poly(caprolactone (PCL and poly(acrylic acid (PAA (PCL:PAA 1:5 scaffold was synthesized via dispersion of PCL particles into a PAA network. Silica microspheres (Si (2–12 μm were then prepared by a lyophilized micro-emulsion/sol-gel (Emugel system using varying weight ratios. The model drug ciprofloxacin (CFX was used for in situ incorporation into the scaffold. The physicochemical and thermal integrity, morphology and porosity of the system was analyzed by X-Ray Diffraction (XRD, Attenuated Total Refelctance Fourier Transform Infrared (ATR-FTIR, Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC, SEM, surface area analysis and liquid displacement, respectively. The mechanical properties of the scaffold were measured by textural analysis and in vitro bioactivity, biodegradation and pH variations were evaluated by XRD, FTIR and SEM after immersion in Simulated Body Fluid (SBF. The in vitro and in vivo studies of the prepared scaffold were considered as future aspects for this study. CFX release was determined in phosphate buffer saline (PBS (pH 7.4; 37 °C. The incorporation of the Si microspheres and CFX into the scaffold was confirmed by XRD, FTIR, DSC and SEM, and the scaffold microstructure was dependent on the concentration of Si microspheres and the presence of CFX. The system displayed enhanced mechanical properties (4.5–14.73 MPa, in vitro bioactivity, biodegradation and controlled CFX release. Therefore, the PCL/PAA scaffolds loaded with Si microspheres and CFX with a porosity of up to 87% may be promising for bone tissue engineering.

  7. Lyophilized insulin nanoparticles prepared from quaternized N-aryl derivatives of chitosan as a new strategy for oral delivery of insulin: in vitro, ex vivo and in vivo characterizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahjub, Reza; Radmehr, Moojan; Dorkoosh, Farid Abedin; Ostad, Seyed Naser; Rafiee-Tehrani, Morteza

    2014-12-01

    The purpose of this research was the development, in vitro, ex vivo and in vivo characterization of lyophilized insulin nanoparticles prepared from quaternized N-aryl derivatives of chitosan. Insulin nanoparticles were prepared from methylated N-(4-N,N-dimethylaminobenzyl), methylated N-(4 pyridinyl) and methylated N-(benzyl). Insulin nanoparticles containing non-modified chitosan and also trimethyl chiotsan (TMC) were also prepared as control. The effects of the freeze-drying process on physico-chemical properties of nanoparticles were investigated. The release of insulin from the nanoparticles was studied in vitro. The mechanism of the release of insulin from different types of nanoparticles was determined using curve fitting. The secondary structure of the insulin released from the nanoparticles was analyzed using circular dichroism and the cell cytotoxicity of nanoparticles on a Caco-2 cell line was determined. Ex vivo studies were performed on excised rat jejunum using Frantz diffusion cells. In vivo studies were performed on diabetic male Wistar rats and blood glucose level and insulin serum concentration were determined. Optimized nanoparticles with proper physico-chemical properties were obtained. The lyophilization process was found to cause a decrease in zeta potential and an increase in PdI as well as and a decrease in entrapment efficiency (EE%) and loading efficiency (LE%) but conservation in size of nanoparticles. Atomic force microscopy (AFM) images showed non-aggregated, stable and spherical to sub-spherical nanoparticles. The in vitro release study revealed higher release rates for lyophilized compared to non-lyophilized nanoparticles. Cytotoxicity studies on Caco-2 cells revealed no significant cytotoxicity for prepared nanoparticles after 3-h post-incubation but did show the concentration-dependent cytotoxicity after 24 h. The percentage of cumulative insulin determined from ex vivo studies was significantly higher in nanoparticles prepared

  8. Development of a lyophilized formulation for the preparation of radiopharmaceutical 68Ga-DOTA-E-[c(RGDfK)]2 for the diagnosis of breast cancer tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Terron A, E. J.

    2015-01-01

    Radiopharmaceuticals of third generation by its design that includes peptides capable of selectively directing the radiation to a specific molecular target are useful in molecular medicine for obtaining molecular images that allow recording in vivo phenomena temporal-space of molecular or cellular processes, with diagnostic or therapeutic applications. Generally, peptides that recognize cellular receptors that are over-expressed in cancer cells of interest are used; such is the case of RGD (arginine-glycine-aspartic acid) a tri-peptide sequence which recognizes to the membrane receptors α(v)β(3) and α(v)β(5) that are involved in metastasis and angiogenic processes as well as in tumor cells of breast glioma. The high affinity and selectivity of RGD peptide with integrin s α(v)β(3) and α(v)β(5) is the basis for designing radiopharmaceuticals for diagnostic of breast cancer and the metastasis and angiogenic processes. In this paper a useful lyophilized formulation was development for obtaining 68 Ga-DOTA-E-[c(RGDfK)] 2 radiopharmaceutical that for its effectiveness, stability and security can be used in humans. The production process of core-equipment DOTA-E-[c(RGDfK] 2 /Buffer sodium acetate 1.0 M was optimized, and the formulation was transferred to the radiopharmaceuticals production plant of the Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares (ININ). The optimized formulation of the core-equipment for the 68 Ga-DOTA-E-[c(RGDfK)] 2 radiopharmaceutical preparation is: DOTA-E-[c(RGDfK)] 2 peptide - 75 μg; Mannitol - 50 mg; Sodium acetate - 14 mg; Sodium acetate buffer 1.0 M ph 4.3 - 0.5 m L. The production process was validated and stability studies were carried out to the validation batches in compliance with the validation master plan of the ININ and in adherence to compliance of the applicable national and international regulations. Also the legal dossier was drawn up in order to make the application of sanitary registration before Comision Federal para

  9. Lyophilized kits of diamino dithiol compounds for labelling with 99m-technetium. Pharmacokinetics studies and distribution compartmental models of the related complexes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Araujo, Elaine Bortoleti de

    1995-01-01

    The present work reflects the clinical interest for labelling diamino dithiol compounds with technetium-99m. Both chosen compounds, L,L-Ethylene dicysteine (L,L-EC) and L,L-Ethylene dicysteine diethyl esther (L,L-ECD) were obtained with relative good yield and characterized by IR and NMR. The study of labelling conditions with technetium-99m showed the influence of the type and mass of reducing agent as well as the pH on the formation of complexes with desired biological characteristics. Radiochemical purity was determined by thin layer chromatography (TLC) and high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Lyophilised kits of L,L-EC and L,L-ECD for labelling with 99m Tc were obtained, with stability superior to 120 days, when stored under refrigeration, enabling the kits marketing. The ideal formulation of the kits as well as the use of liquid nitrogen in the freezing process, determined the lyophilization success. Distribution biological studies of the 99m Tc complexes were performed on mice by invasive method and on bigger animals by scintigraphic evaluation. Biological distribution studies of the complex 99m Tc-L,L-EC showed fast blood clearance, with the elimination of about 90% of the administered dose after 60 minutes, almost exclusively by the urinary system. The biological distribution results were adjusted to a three compartmental distribution model, as expected for a radiopharmaceutical designed to renal dynamic studies, with tubular elimination. The complex interaction with renal tubular receptors is related with structural characteristics of the compound, more specifically with the presence and location of polar groups. In comparison with 99m Tc-L,L-EC, biological studies of the complex 99m Tc -L,L-ECD showed different distribution aspects, despite some structural similarities. The presence of ethyl groups confers to the complex neutrality and lipophilicity. It cross the intact blood brain barrier and is retained in the brain for enough period

  10. Estudo in vivo do comportamento de bioprótese liofilizada: seguimento de 3 meses em carneiros jovens In vivo study of lyophilized bioprostheses: 3 month follow-up in young sheep

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fábio Papa Taniguchi

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Para melhorar as propriedades mecânicas e imunogênicas, o glutaraldeído é utilizado no tratamento do pericárdio bovino que é utilizado em biopróteses. A liofilização do pericárdio bovino tratado com glutaraldeído diminui os radicais aldeído, com provável redução do potencial para calcificação. O objetivo deste estudo é avaliar os efeitos da liofilização em biopróteses valvares de pericárdio bovino como mecanismo protetor na diminuição da disfunção estrutural valvar. MÉTODOS: Foi realizado o implante de biopróteses de pericárdio bovino tratado com glutaraldeído, liofilizadas ou não, em carneiros de 6 meses de idade, sendo os animais eutanasiados com 3 meses de seguimento. As biopróteses foram implantadas em posição pulmonar, com auxílio de circulação extracorpórea. Um grupo controle e outro grupo liofilizado foram avaliados quanto ao gradiente ventrículo direito/artéria pulmonar (VD/AP no implante e explante; análise quantitativa de cálcio; inflamação; trombose e pannus. O nível de significância estabelecido foi de 5%. RESULTADOS: O gradiente médio VD/AP, no grupo controle, no implante, foi 2,04 ± 1,56 mmHg e, no grupo de liofilização, foi 6,61 ± 4,03 mmHg. No explante, esse gradiente aumentou para 7,71 ± 3,92 mmHg e 8,24 ± 6,2 mmHg, respectivamente, nos grupos controle e liofilização. O teor de cálcio médio, após 3 meses, nas biopróteses do grupo controle foi 21,6 ± 39,12 µg Ca+2/mg de peso seco, em comparação com um teor médio de 41,19 ± 46,85 µg Ca+2/mg de peso seco no grupo liofilizado (P = 0,662. CONCLUSÃO: A liofilização de próteses valvares com pericárdio bovino tratado com glutaraldeído não demonstrou diminuição da calcificação neste experimento.OBJECTIVE: Glutaraldehyde is currently used in bovine pericardium bioprosthesis to improve mechanical and immunogenic properties. Lyophilization is a process that may decrease aldehyde residues in the

  11. Simple and Rapid Quantification of Total Carotenoids in Lyophilized Apricots (Prunus armeniaca L. by Means of Reflectance Colorimetry and Photoacoustic Spectroscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gitta Ficzek

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Photoacoustic spectroscopy (PAS and reflectance colorimetry are suggested as new tools for the analysis of total carotenoids in lyophilized apricot powders. The data obtained by these two techniques from seven apricot cultivars were compared to those acquired by spectrophotometry and high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC. Best correlations were found between the total carotenoid (TC content (obtained by VIS spectrophotometry: 1.2–3.4 mg per 100 g of fresh mass and colorimetric index a* (a* represents the redness of the investigated sample, as well as either argon-ion laser- or xenon-lamp-based PAS. In all three cases linear correlations were comparable. However, according to the sensitivity and precision data, expressed via limit of detection (LOD and measurement repeatability, the Xe-lamp-based PAS is a preferred approach, followed by colorimetric index a* and Ar-ion laser PAS. Both PAS methods exhibit practically the same Pearson's correlation coefficient (R=0.987 and R=0.991 values. Nevertheless, residual sum of squares (RSS and residual standard deviation of the linear regression (sy/x differ markedly. For Xe-lamp-based PAS these parameters were much lower than in the case of Ar-ion laser PAS. Likewise, analysis imprecision amounted to relative standard deviation (RSD of 1–3 % for Xe-lamp PAS and 2–6 % for Ar-ion laser PAS. On the other hand, as expected, the calibration sensitivity achieved for the PAS signal induced by an Ar-ion laser at 481 nm was substantially higher than that of a Xe-lamp at 470 nm. Nevertheless, according to much lower sy/x, the corresponding LOD for Xe-lamp PAS was still two times lower than that of Ar-ion-based laser PAS (0.59 vs. 1.10 mg per 100 g. Unlike this, Ar-ion laser PAS showed more favourable instrumental precision and standard error of the weighed mean when compared to the Xe-lamp PAS (0.1–0.6 and 0.1–0.3 % vs. 0.5–8.0 and 0.4–1.7 %, respectively. As far as colorimetric indices are

  12. Worst-case study for cleaning validation of equipment in the radiopharmaceutical production of lyophilized reagents: Methodology validation of total organic carbon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Porto, Luciana Valeria Ferrari Machado

    2015-01-01

    Radiopharmaceuticals are defined as pharmaceutical preparations containing a radionuclide in their composition, mostly intravenously administered, and therefore compliance with the principles of Good Manufacturing Practices (GMP) is essential and indispensable. Cleaning validation is a requirement of the current GMP, and consists of documented evidence, which demonstrates that the cleaning procedures are able to remove residues to pre-determined acceptance levels, ensuring that no cross contamination occurs. A simplification of cleaning processes validation is accepted, and consists in choosing a product, called 'worst case', to represent the cleaning processes of all equipment of the same production area. One of the steps of cleaning validation is the establishment and validation of the analytical method to quantify the residue. The aim of this study was to establish the worst case for cleaning validation of equipment in the radiopharmaceutical production of lyophilized reagent (LR) for labeling with 99m Tc, evaluate the use of Total Organic Carbon (TOC) content as indicator of equipment cleaning used in the LR manufacture, validate the method of Non-Purgeable Organic Carbon (NPOC), and perform recovery tests with the product chosen as worst case. Worst case product's choice was based on the calculation of an index called 'Worst Case Index' (WCI), using information about drug solubility, difficulty of cleaning the equipment and occupancy rate of the products in line production. The products indicated 'worst case' was the LR MIBI-TEC. The method validation assays were performed using carbon analyser model TOC-Vwp coupled to an autosampler model ASI-V, both from Shimadzu®, controlled by TOC Control-V software. It was used the direct method for NPOC quantification. The parameters evaluated in the validation method were: system suitability, robustness, linearity, detection limit (DL) and quantification limit (QL), precision

  13. Preparation and radiolabeling of a lyophilized (kit) formulation of DOTA-rituximab with ⁹⁰Y and ¹¹¹In for domestic radioimmunotherapy and radioscintigraphy of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gholipour, Nazila; Jalilian, Amir Reza; Khalaj, Ali; Johari-Daha, Fariba; Yavari, Kamal; Sabzevari, Omid; Khanchi, Ali Reza; Akhlaghi, Mehdi

    2014-07-29

    On the basis of results of our previous investigations on 90Y-DTPA-rituximab and in order to fulfil national demands to radioimmunoconjugates for radioscintigraphy and radioimmunotherapy of Non-Hodgkin's Lymphoma (NHL), preparation and radiolabeling of a lyophilized formulation (kit) of DOTA-rituximab with 111In and 90Y was investigated. 111In and 90Y with high radiochemical and radionuclide purity were prepared by 112Cd (p,2n)111In nuclear reaction and a locally developed 90Sr/90Y generator, respectively. DOTA-rituximab immunoconjugates were prepared by the reaction of solutions of p-SCN-Bz-DOTA and rituximab in carbonate buffer (pH = 9.5) and the number of DOTA per molecule of conjugates were determined by transchelation reaction between DOTA and arsenaso yttrium(III) complex. DOTA-rituximab immunoconjugates were labeled with 111In and 90Y and radioimmunoconjugates were checked for radiochemical purity by chromatography methods and for immunoreactivity by cell-binding assay using Raji cell line. The stability of radiolabeled conjugate with the approximate number of 7 DOTA molecules per one rituximab molecule which was prepared in moderate yield and showed moderate immunoreactivity, compared to two other prepared radioimmunoconjugates, was determined at different time intervals and against EDTA and human serum by chromatography methods and reducing SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, respectively. The biodistribution of the selected radioimmunoconjugate in rats was determined by measurement of the radioactivity of different organs after sacrificing the animals by ether asphyxiation. The radioimmunoconjugate with approximate DOTA/rituximab molar ratio of 7 showed stability after 24 h at room temperature, after 96 h at 4°C, as the lyophilized formulation after six months storage and against EDTA and human serum. This radioimmunoconjugate had a biodistribution profile similar to that of 90Y-ibritumomab, which is approved by FDA for radioimmunotherapy of NHL

  14. Optimization of the production process of a lyophilized formulation for radiopharmaceutical obtaining {sup 99m}Tc-EDDA/HYNIC-E-[c(RGDfK)]{sub 2}; Optimizacion del proceso de fabricacion de una formulacion liofilizada para la obtencion del radiofarmaco {sup 99m}Tc-EDDA/HYNIC-E-[c(RGDfK)]{sub 2}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanchez R, S.

    2013-07-01

    In this work was optimized the production process of a lyophilized pharmaceutical formulation for the preparation of radiopharmaceutical {sup 99m}Tc-EDDA/HYNIC-E-[c(RGDfK)]{sub 2}, the union specifies to the integrin s α{sub v}β{sub 3} was demonstrated to be used in the nuclear medicine cabinets in the obtaining of scan images for the opportune detection of breast cancer. The good lyophilized pharmaceutical formulation for the preparation of radiopharmaceutical {sup 99m}Tc-EDDA/HYNIC-E-[c(RGDfK)]{sub 2} was established like: HYNIC-E-[c(RGDfK)]{sub 2} - 25 μg; Stannous chloride (SnCl{sub 2}) 20 μg; Ethylenediamine diacetic acid (EDDA) 10 mg; N-tris(hydroxymethyl)methyl glycin (Tricine) 20 mg; Mannitol 50 mg. The results of radiochemical purity of the sterile formulation and free of bacterial endotoxins for the three validation lots prepared under protocols of good manufacturing practices were 97.62 ± 1.48%, 96.54 ± 1.89%, and 97.66 ± 0.57%, for what the production procedure complies the predefined specifications. The radiopharmaceutical {sup 99m}Tc-EDDA/HYNIC-E-[c(RGDfK)]2 prepared from the lyophilized pharmaceutical formulation showed to be stable during a period 24 hours, for what can be used in the centers of molecular nuclear medicine. Images in vivo were obtained of the integrin s over-expression α{sub v}β{sub 3} from the radiopharmaceutical {sup 99m}Tc-EDDA/HYNIC-E-[c(RGDfK)]2 obtained of the lyophilized and optimized pharmaceutical formulation. The lyophilized pharmaceutical formulation (HYNIC-RGD-Sn) showed stability during 12 months, due to this factor, is requested before the COFEPRIS the radiopharmaceutical expiration for this same period (accession number 123300401A0155). (Author)

  15. Development of a lyophilized formulation for preparing the radiopharmaceutical {sup 177}Lu-DOTA-Anti-CD20; Desarrollo de una formulacion liofilizada para la preparacion del radiofarmaco {sup 177}-DOTA-Anti-CD20

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Serrano E, L. A.

    2015-07-01

    The radiolabeled proteins are molecules of interest in nuclear medicine for their diagnostic and therapeutic application in cancer. Antibodies, such as chimeric monoclonal antibody Anti-CD20 rituximab, have established themselves as suitable vectors of radionuclides (e.g. {sup 177}Lu) , introducing high affinity by the surface antigens over- expressed and widely distributed in cells involved in certain diseases. The aim of this work was to design, optimize and document the production process of radiopharmaceutical {sup 177}Lu-DOTA-Anti-CD20 for sanitary registration request to the Comision Federal para la Proteccion contra Riesgos Sanitarios (COFEPRIS). First, a raw material analysis using the Ft-Mir technique and gamma spectrometry was performed. Then, was carried out the development of the lyophilized formulation for the preparation of {sup 177}Lu-DOTA-Anti-CD20, in which an ANOVA was performed where the dependent variable was the radiochemical purity. The optimal pharmaceutical formulation was: 5 mg DOTA-CD20 and 80 mg Mannitol to be reconstituted with 1 m L of acetate buffer 0.25 M, ph 7, with an incubation time of 15 min at 37 degrees Celsius in a dry bath. Once completed the development of the lyophilized formulation, we proceeded to the optimization of the production process, development and validation of the analytical method. Three batches were prepared under protocols of Good Manufacturing Practice, which met pre-established specifications as sterile and endotoxin-free of bacterial formulations, with greater that 95% of radiochemical purity. Currently, is conducting the study of shelf stability. Upon completion of the stability studies, the legal record of {sup 177}Lu-DOTA-Anti-CD20 will be integrated with documented evidence of the quality and stability of the formulation of this radiopharmaceutical. (Author)

  16. Effect of lyophilized lactobacilli and 0.03 mg estriol (Gynoflor®) on vaginitis and vaginosis with disrupted vaginal microflora: a multicenter, randomized, single-blind, active-controlled pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donders, G G G; Van Bulck, B; Van de Walle, P; Kaiser, R R; Pohlig, G; Gonser, S; Graf, F

    2010-01-01

    To evaluate the efficacy of lyophilized lactobacilli in combination with 0.03 mg estriol when compared to metronidazole in the treatment of bacterial vaginal infections. Multicenter, randomized, single-blind, active-controlled pilot study in 3 independent gynecological practices in Belgium. Forty-six, 18- to 50-year-old premenopausal women with a disrupted vaginal flora due to a bacterial vaginal infection (bacterial vaginosis, aerobic vaginitis) were included, provided that fresh phase-contrast microscopy of the vaginal fluid showed lactobacillary flora grade 2B or 3. Patients were given a blinded box with either 12 vaginal tablets of Gynoflor® (study medication) or 6 vaginal suppositories containing 500 mg metronidazole (control medication). Eight efficacy variables were studied to assess the status of the vaginal flora at entry, 3-7 days (control 1), 4-6 (control 2) weeks and 4 months after the end of therapy. At control 1, the combined variables equally improved in the lactobacilli group as in the metronidazole group. At control 2, the lactobacillus preparation showed slightly inferior results when compared to metronidazole. At 4 months, this analysis could not be performed due to low numbers, but analysis of recurrence rate and extra medication needed was not different between both groups. Lyophilized lactobacilli in combination with low-dose estriol are equivalent to metronidazole in the short-term treatment of bacterial vaginal infections, but have less effect after 1 month. Further studies are required to evaluate the long-term efficacy of lactobacilli when applied repeatedly. Copyright © 2010 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  17. A comparative study of efficacy and safety of the lyophilized powder alpha-erythropoietin and the liquid form alpha-erythropoietin for hemoglobin maintenance in patients with hemodialysis treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satirapoj, Bancha; Supasyndh, Ouppatham; Choovichian, Panbubpa

    2014-09-01

    Insufficient production oferythropoietin (EPO) is the primary cause ofanemia in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD). The EPO treatment is an established treatment for renal anemia. The study investigated the therapeutic outcome between lyophilized powder and liquid form of EPO alpha by intravenous (IV) administration in hemoglobin maintenance of anemic treatment for CKD patients receiving hemodialysis. Forty patients were randomly assigned to either lyophilized powder of EPO alpha (treatment, n = 21) or liquidform of EPO alpha (control, n = 19) for 12 weeks by lVadministration. The hemoglobin was maintained within the target range of 10. 0 to 12.0 g/dL by adjusting the dosage of EPO. The clinical and biochemical profiles including transferrin saturation andferritin were measured. Adverse events were documented. The mean hemoglobin ofboth groups at baseline was 11.2±0.6 g/dL. Mean hemoglobin and mean hematocrit levels at baseline, and follow-up data of both groups were not statistically different. The mean weekly dosage of EPO in the treatment and control groups had no statistical significance within the same group and between groups as well. Stable hemoglobin levels were maintained without EPO dosage adjustment in the majority ofpatients in both groups (treatment group, 90.5%, control group, 94.7%). During the 12-week study period, no serious side effect was detected The present study demonstrated that the lyophilizedpowder ofEPO alpha was effective and safe as the standard liquid form of EPO alpha when it was administered by IV route in hemoglobin maintenance of anemia treatment.

  18. Influência da taxa de congelamento no comportamento físico-químico e estrutural durante a liofilização da albumina bovina Influence of cooling rate on the structural and phase changes during lyophilization of bovine serum albumin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Virgilio Tattini Jr

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available A liofilização é o método mais comumente utilizado para a preparação de proteínas desidratadas, as quais devem apresentar estabilidade adequada por longo período de armazenagem em temperaturas ambientes. Entretanto, estudos recentes com espectroscopia no infravermelho têm documentado que os problemas relacionados com o congelamento e a desidratação induzidos pela liofilização podem levar ao desdobramento molecular da proteína. Através de análises por espectroscopia Raman, associadas com análise térmica por calorimetria exploratória diferencial (DSC, estudou-se a influência da taxa de congelamento no comportamento físico-químico e estrutural da albumina sérica bovina submetida ao processo de liofilização. Observou-se que a albumina liofilizada com taxa de congelamento de 2,5 °C/min apresentou maior alteração estrutural quando comparada à albumina liofilizada com taxa de congelamento de 30 °C/min, a qual apresentou menores oscilações espectrais nas regiões da amida I, III e pontes de dissulfeto, favorecendo a manutenção da conformação estrutural da proteína.Lyophilization (freeze-drying is the most commonly method used to prepare dehydrated proteins, which should have the desired long-term stability at ambient temperatures. However, recent infrared spectroscopic studies have documented that the acute freezing and dehydration stresses of lyophilization can induce protein unfolding. Through Raman spectroscopy associated with thermal analysis using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC, it was studied the influence of cooling rate on the structural and phase changes during lyophilization of bovine serum albumin. It was observed that bovine serum albumin (BSA lyophilized under slow freezing (2.5 ºC/min presented higher structure damage than the BSA lyophilized under fast freezing (30 ºC/min However, the lyophilization process using cooling rate of 30 ºC/min presented fewer spectra alterations on the Amide I

  19. Development of lyophilized kit of Tin-Glucoheptonate for in vitro labeling of leucocytes with {sup 99m}Tc; Desenvolvimento de reagente liofilizado de glucoheptonato-estanho para marcacao de leucocitos com Tecnecio-99m in vitro

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nascimento, Rosemeire Fagundes

    2007-07-01

    The study and localization of inflammatory and infection process in Nuclear Medicine represents a relevant tool in diagnostic procedures. In same cases, the diagnostic is easy and based on anamnesis and clinical observation; in other cases, the patients are asymptomatic or present non specific symptoms that difficult the diagnostic. The early diagnostic of inflammatory or infectious process allow the early introduction of therapy and prevents complications. Farther, the differentiation between inflammation and infection is of extreme importance as well as the localization of the focus. The use of labeled leucocytes, studied and applied in much pathologies, is the method of choice for the visualization of inflammation and infection. The scintigraphy using labeled leucocytes was introduced at 1976 by McAffe and Thakur and since of this is used in the diagnostic of different pathologies related to leucocyte infiltration like intestinal inflammatory disease, bone or prosthetic-vascular infections. The in vitro labeling of leucocytes with {sup 111}In was performed using oxime or tropolone as ligand and with {sup 99m}Tc using hexamethylpropylene amine oxime (HMPAO) as ligand, resulting in a lipophilic complex. The {sup 99m}Tc-HMPAG complex was preferably employed in many indications and countries do to the ideal physical properties of {sup 99m}Tc that results in low dose to the patient. However, the labeling employing the HMPAO complex results in some disadvantages like the low stability of the complex, and some requirements related to the {sup 99m}Tc elution (like the time pos elution), beyond the high cost of the compound that is imported. The aim of this work was the development of a tin-glucoheptonate lyophilized kit for in vitro leucocytes labeling with {sup 99m}Tc using the pre-stannization method. The optimization of the labeling technique was developed using leucocytes isolated from total blood and employing different volumes of the tinglucoheptonate reagent and

  20. Development of a formulation lyophilized for the obtention of a antimicrobial peptide Ubiquicidine labelled with {sup 99m} Tc; Desarrollo de una formulacion liofilizada para la obtencion del peptido antimicrobiano Ubiquicidina marcado con Tc-99m

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Palomares R, P; Hernandez B, C A; Contreras N, G; Garcia P, M L; Pantoja H, I E [UAEM, Toluca (Mexico); Ferro F, G [ININ, A.P. 18-1027, 11801 Mexico D.F. (Mexico)

    2004-07-01

    The {sup 99m} Tc-UBI 29-41 are a labelled fragment of the antimicrobial human peptide Ubiquicidine proposed as a new radiopharmaceutical able to differentiate an infectious process of an inflammatory one through the gamma graphic image. It has been demonstrated that the {sup 99m} Tc-UBI 29-41 unite to bacteria in vitro and that accumulates in infection sites in human with minimum captivation in inflammation sites. In this work the development of a pharmaceutical lyophilized formulation is presented for the instantaneous marked one of the UBI 29-41 with {sup 99m} Tc. The selection of the components of the formulation settled down by means of the employment of an experimental design of 3 factors with mixed levels, evaluating the effect of the diluent type, concentration of tinny chloride and the reaction volume. The obtained formulations showed to be stable until for 6 months, being obtained complexes of the radiolabelled peptide with radiochemical purity > 95 % in sterile form and apirogen. The developed pharmaceutical form, will facilitate the routinary use of this new radiopharmaceutical in the diverse hospital departments of nuclear medicine. (Author)

  1. Metodología para la validación del llenado aséptico en un proceso de liofilización Methodology for the validation of the aseptic filling in a lyophilization process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cindy Marlene Fernández López

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Se presentó la metodología propuesta para la validación de un llenado aséptico en un proceso de liofilización. Para esto se realizaron 3 pruebas en las cuales se envasaron 3 lotes de 15 000 viales cada uno, con caldo casoy que se incubaron a 22,5 ± 2,5 ºC y 32,5 ± 2,5 ºC por 14 días respectivamente, con el fin de detectar la posibilidad de contaminación microbiana en la realización del proceso. Durante las 3 pruebas se realizó el monitoreo microbiológico de ambientes, superficies y operarios; en el muestreo se utilizó Petrifilm para detección de mesófilos aerobios y levaduras, procedimiento ejecutado en condiciones de reposo y operación. Así mismo, se efectuó el conteo de partículas en el área y pruebas de esterilidad para los materiales de envase (tapones y viales; finalmente, se diseñó la metodología de validación para la esterilización del liofilizador y se empleó como microorganismo indicador a Bacillus stearothermophilus. El diseño de la prueba se realizó teniendo en cuenta las recomendaciones de la Food Drug Administration (FDA y la Organización Mundial de la Salud (OMS para productos de administración parenteral. Estas son las organizaciones de referencia para la producción y control de calidad que utiliza la empresa de productos veterinarios en las que se hizo la prueba. Los viales envasados se leyeron por turbidez (presencia de contaminación y los criterios de aceptación se establecieron por las 2 entidades nombradas anteriormente. Finalmente, se indicó un plan de monitoreo microbiológico para el área evaluada en el cual se incluyeron puntos de muestreo estratégicos; así como la realización de procedimientos operativos estándar específicos para esta área.The methodology proposed for the validation of an aseptic filling in a lyophilization process was presented. To this end, 3 tests were made in which 3 batches of 15 000 vials each one were filled with casoy broth. They were incubated at 22.5

  2. Determination of the chemical composition and functional properties of shrimp waste protein concentrate and lyophilized flour Determinação da composição química e das propriedades funcionais de concentrado protéico e de farinha liofilizada de resíduos de camarão

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olivaldo Lacerda Brasileiro

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Wastes from the seafood industry can be easily processed into products with new forms of use. The present study was aimed at determining the chemical composition and functional properties of shrimp waste protein concentrate and lyophilized flour. The raw material used in this study consisted of waste (head of Litopenaeus vannamei. The protein concentrate was obtained by ethanolic extraction, being subsequently submitted to drying in oven at 70° C, while the flour was obtained by lyophilization of shrimp wastes. Moisture, ash, protein and calcium contents showed significant difference between fresh shrimp head waste samples (IN and protein concentrate and lyophilized flour samples. The protein content for protein concentrate (PC and lyophilized flour (LF showed significant increase in relation to protein content in the waste (IN, thus showing that the process for obtaining the protein concentrate was efficient.Resíduos provenientes da indústria do pescado podem ser facilmente transformados em produtos com novas formas de aproveitamento. No presente estudo, objetivou-se determinar a composição química e as propriedades funcionais de farinha liofilizada e concentrado proteico provenientes de resíduos de camarão. A matéria-prima empregada neste estudo foi constituída de resíduos (cabeça de camarão Litopenaeus vannamei. O concentrado proteico foi obtido por extração etanólica e, posteriormente, submetido à secagem em estufa a 70° C, enquanto a farinha foi obtida pelo processo de liofilização do resíduo. Os teores de umidade, cinzas, proteínas e cálcio apresentaram diferença significativa entre as amostras de resíduo de cabeça de camarão in natura (IN e as amostras de concentrado proteico e farinha liofilizada. O teor de proteínas para concentrado protéico (CP e para a farinha liofilizada (FL apresentou aumento significativo em relação ao teor proteico do resíduo (IN, mostrando, assim, que o processo de elaboração do

  3. Temperature stability of Poly-[hemoglobin-superoxide dismutase-catalase-carbonic anhydrase] in the form of a solution or in the lyophilized form during storage at -80 °C, 4 °C, 25 °C and 37 °C or pasteurization at 70 °C.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bian, Y Z; Guo, C; Chang, T M S

    2016-01-01

    Polyhemoglobin-superoxide dismutase-catalase-carbonic anhydrase (Poly-[Hb-SOD-CAT-CA]) contains all three major functions of red blood cells (RBCs) at an enhanced level. It transports oxygen, removes oxygen radicals and transports carbon dioxide. Our previous studies in a 90-min 30 mm Hg Mean Arterial Pressure (MAP) sustained hemorrhagic shock rat model shows that it is more effective than blood in the lowering of elevated intracellular pCO2, recovery of ST-elevation and histology of the heart and intestine. This paper is to analyze the storage and temperature stability. Allowable storage time for RBC is about 1 d at room temperature and 42 d at 4 °C. Also, RBC cannot be pasteurized to remove infective agents like HIV and Ebola. PolyHb can be heat sterilized and can be stored for 1 year even at room temperature. However, Poly-[Hb-SOD-CAT-CA] contains both Hb and enzymes and enzymes are particularly sensitive to storage and heat. We thus carried out studies to analyze its storage stability at different temperatures and heat pasteurization stability. Results of storage stability show that lyophilization extends the storage time to 1 year at 4 °C and 40 d at room temperature (compared to respectively, 42 d and 1 d for RBC). After the freeze-dry process, the enzyme activities of Poly-[SFHb-SOD-CAT-CA] was 100 ± 2% for CA, 100 ± 2% for SOD and 93 ± 3.5% for CAT. After heat pasteurization at 70 °C for 2 h, lyophilized Poly-[Hb-SOD-CAT-CA] retained good enzyme activities of CA 97 ± 4%, SOD 100 ± 2.5% and CAT 63.8 ± 4%. More CAT can be added during the crosslinking process to maintain the same enzyme ratio after heat pasteurization. Heat pasteurization is possible only for the lyophilized form of Poly-[Hb-SOD-CAT-CA] and not for the solution. It can be easily reconstituted by dissolving in suitable solutions that continues to have good storage stability though less than that for the lyophilized form. According to the P50 value, Poly-[SFHb-SOD-CAT-CA] retains its

  4. Enxerto bovino liofilizado: comportamento histológico após seguimento de 49 meses em seres humanos Bovine lyophilized graft (BLG: histological analysis on behavior in humans after 49 months

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Roberto Galia

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Analisar o comportamento histológico do ELB, produzido conforme protocolo desenvolvido pelo autor principal, em seres humanos no decorrer de 49 meses através da aferição da proporção enxerto/osso neoformado em relação ao total de área mineralizada. MÉTODOS: Série de casos com 12 pacientes, oito femininos (66% e quatro masculinos (34%, totalizando 13 biópsias, nos quais utilizou-se ELB e que posteriormente houve necessidade de reintervenção cirúrgica, no período de 2000 a 2011. As lâminas produzidas, coradas com hematoxilina-eosina (HE, foram analisadas por patologista e digitalizadas para a avaliação proposta. RESULTADOS: A média etária foi de 57 anos e o tempo médio de seguimento de 49 meses (6-115. A proporção média de ELB foi de 42% (13-85 e de osso neoformado de 58% (15-87 em relação ao total de área mineralizada. CONCLUSÕES: O presente estudo demonstra que o ELB utilizado apresenta característica osteocondutora e biocompatibilidade. O ELB apresentado é opção terapêutica a ser utilizada em cirurgias ortopédicas que necessitem preenchimento de deficiências ósseas.OBJECTIVE: To analyze the histological behavior of bovine lyophilized grafts (BLG produced according to a protocol developed by the first author, in humans over a 49-month period by measuring the graft/bone neoformation ratio in relation to the total mineralized area. METHODS: This was a case series involving 12 patients: eight females (66% and four males (34%, totaling 13 biopsies. BLG was used, and surgical reintervention was subsequently required during the period 2000 to 2011. The slides produced were stained with hematoxylin-eosin (HE, were analyzed by a pathologist and were digitized for the proposed evaluation. RESULTS: The mean age was 57 years and the mean follow-up was 49 months (range: 6-115. The average proportion of BLG was 42% range: 13-85 and neoformed bone, 58% (range: 15-87 in relation to the total area mineralized

  5. Lyophilization conditions for the storage of monooxygenases

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Beek, Hugo L.; Beyer, Nina; Janssen, Dick B.; Fraaije, Marco W.

    2015-01-01

    Cyclohexanone monooxygenase (CHMO) was used as a model enzyme to find suitable freeze-drying conditions for long-term storage of an isolated monooxygenase. CHMO is a Baeyer-Villiger monooxygenase (BVMO) known for its ability to catalyze a large number of oxidation reactions. With a focus on

  6. Preservation of Penicillium Species by Lyophilization | Ibatsam ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    African Journal of Food, Agriculture, Nutrition and Development. Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 12, No 3 (2012) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads.

  7. Utilización de Colloss® para el tratamiento de quistes mandibulares: Descripción de una serie clínica The use of lyophilized bovine collagen (Colloss® for treating mandibular cysts: Description of a clinical series

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Arias Gallo

    2007-08-01

    . When the defects are less than 3 cm and located away from the alveolar ridge, they usually heal spontaneously within a 6 to 12 month period. However, if the defect is larger, the regenerative ability of the body is overcome. Colloss® appears to be an interesting osteoinductive biomaterial. It is a lyophilized complex from extracellular matrix proteins of bovine bone. It is composed primarily of type I collagen and variable amounts of BMPs. Between February 2002 and January 2004, 7 patients with mandible cysts were treated with lyophilized collagen to enhance bone regeneration. In some of the cases this was combined with autologous bone or a titanium mesh. We observed incompatibility with autologous bone and a slight tendency for intraoral exposure of the titanium mesh. Apart from this, we noted adequate bone healing and regeneration in all the cases. For the authors of this paper, the advantages of lyophilized collagen are the following: osteoinductive capacity, absence of any major adverse effects and the role played in the early detection of recurrence. Its possible disadvantages are its difficult handling and the inherent complications related to bovine xenografts.

  8. Development of a lyophilized formulation for preparing the radiopharmaceutical {sup 68}Ga-DOTA-Nal{sup 3}-Octreotide for the diagnosis of tumors of neuroendocrine origin; Desarrollo de una formulacion liofiizada para la preparacion del radiofarmaco {sup 68}Ga-DOTA-Nal{sup 3}-Octreotido para el diagnostico de tumores de origen neuroendocrino

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lorenzo L, G. A.

    2015-07-01

    The present study aimed to develop a radiopharmaceutical consisting of an emitter positrons radionuclide ({sup 68}Ga) which is used in imaging by positron emission tomography; and a peptide capable of binding to somatostatin receptors subtypes 2, 3 and 5; which together serve as a diagnostic support of tumors of neuroendocrine origin. The peptide characterization DOTA-1-Naphthylalanine{sup 3}-Octreotide (DOTA-NOC) by infrared spectroscopy technique by Fourier transform was performed, in which the principal functional groups belonging to this molecule were identified as well as its identification by UV-Vis spectroscopy. Subsequently, a variance analysis taking into account three different levels of amounts of sodium acetate, and three different levels of amounts of the peptide was performed. These masses were subjected to lyophilization for a period of 21 h; after completion of lyophilization, were labeled with 2 m L of {sup 68}GaCl{sub 3} eluates of a {sup 68}Ge/{sup 68}Ga ITG generator to determine the percentage of radiochemical purity of the different formulations. It was observed that the ideal formulation must contain 75 μg of peptide and 14 mg of NaOAc, according to studies, was determined that the amount of peptide does not influence the response of radiochemical purity in the same way that the amount of added sodium acetate, which produces different effects on the dependent variable. Finally the radiopharmaceutical formulation was obtained with greater than 95% of radiochemical purity. The validation of the analytical method was performed describing the system accuracy and linearity, specificity and accuracy; linearity and precision of the method, taking into account acceptance criteria based on the guidance of validation of analytical methods published by the National Association of Pharmacists Chemical Biologists of Mexico, A. C.; the parameters evaluated met the specifications given by the guide validation of analytical methods. Uptake and

  9. Development of a lyophilized formulation for the preparation of radiopharmaceutical {sup 68}Ga-DOTA-E-[c(RGDfK)]{sub 2} for the diagnosis of breast cancer tumors; Desarrollo de una formulacion liofilizada para la preparacion del radiofarmaco {sup 68}Ga-DOTA-E-[c(RGDfK)]{sub 2} para el diagnostico de tumores de cancer de mama

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Terron A, E. J.

    2015-07-01

    Radiopharmaceuticals of third generation by its design that includes peptides capable of selectively directing the radiation to a specific molecular target are useful in molecular medicine for obtaining molecular images that allow recording in vivo phenomena temporal-space of molecular or cellular processes, with diagnostic or therapeutic applications. Generally, peptides that recognize cellular receptors that are over-expressed in cancer cells of interest are used; such is the case of RGD (arginine-glycine-aspartic acid) a tri-peptide sequence which recognizes to the membrane receptors α(v)β(3) and α(v)β(5) that are involved in metastasis and angiogenic processes as well as in tumor cells of breast glioma. The high affinity and selectivity of RGD peptide with integrin s α(v)β(3) and α(v)β(5) is the basis for designing radiopharmaceuticals for diagnostic of breast cancer and the metastasis and angiogenic processes. In this paper a useful lyophilized formulation was development for obtaining {sup 68}Ga-DOTA-E-[c(RGDfK)]{sub 2} radiopharmaceutical that for its effectiveness, stability and security can be used in humans. The production process of core-equipment DOTA-E-[c(RGDfK]{sub 2}/Buffer sodium acetate 1.0 M was optimized, and the formulation was transferred to the radiopharmaceuticals production plant of the Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares (ININ). The optimized formulation of the core-equipment for the {sup 68}Ga-DOTA-E-[c(RGDfK)]{sub 2} radiopharmaceutical preparation is: DOTA-E-[c(RGDfK)]{sub 2} peptide - 75 μg; Mannitol - 50 mg; Sodium acetate - 14 mg; Sodium acetate buffer 1.0 M ph 4.3 - 0.5 m L. The production process was validated and stability studies were carried out to the validation batches in compliance with the validation master plan of the ININ and in adherence to compliance of the applicable national and international regulations. Also the legal dossier was drawn up in order to make the application of sanitary registration

  10. Avaliação da resistência ao desgaste de aluminas nanométricas produzidas a partir da decomposição térmica de acetato de alumínio liofilizado Evaluation of wear resistance of nanometric aluminas produced by thermal decomposition of lyophilized aluminum acetate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Fagury Neto

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Ensaios de resistência ao desgaste, na modalidade pino-contra-disco com pares deslizantes, foram realizados em pinos confeccionados a partir de pós de alumina proveniente do processo de decomposição térmica de acetato de alumínio liofilizado. Pós de alumina referentes às fases alfa-Al2O3 e gama-Al2O3, com e sem aditivos de sinterização (MgO e La2O3, foram usados para confeccionar pinos de desgaste. Pinos feitos também a partir de alumina comercial (A1000 SG foram analisados e os resultados foram comparados. Os ensaios foram feitos de acordo com norma ASTM e mostraram que os pinos confeccionados a partir de alfa-Al2O3 têm elevada resistência ao desgaste, comprovada pelos ensaios de perda de massa e microscopia eletrônica. Os pinos de gama-Al2O3 tiveram desempenho intermediário e os pinos de A1000 SG mostraram resultados menos expressivos.Wear resistance tests, using the pin-on-disk test method with sliding pairs, were carried out on pins produced from alumina powders prepared by thermal decomposition of lyophilized aluminum acetate. Alumina powders of alpha-Al2O3 and gamma-Al2O3 phases, with and without sintering additives (MgO and La2O3, were used to produce wear pins. In addition, pins made of commercial alumina (A1000 SG were tested and the results compared. The tests, carried out according to the ASTM standard, indicated that the pins made with alpha-Al2O3 powder showed high wear resistance, a finding corroborated by mass loss tests and scanning electron microscopy. The gamma-Al2O3 pins showed an intermediary performance while the A1000 SG pins showed less interesting results.

  11. Lyophilized kits of diamino dithiol compounds for labelling with {sup 99m}-technetium. Pharmacokinetics studies and distribution compartmental models of the related complexes; Conjuntos de reativos liofilizados de compostos diaminoditiolicos para marcacao com tecnecio-99m. Estudo farmacocinetico e elaboracao de modelos compartimentalizados dos respectivos complexos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Araujo, Elaine Bortoleti de

    1995-07-01

    The present work reflects the clinical interest for labelling diamino dithiol compounds with technetium-99m. Both chosen compounds, L,L-Ethylene dicysteine (L,L-EC) and L,L-Ethylene dicysteine diethyl esther (L,L-ECD) were obtained with relative good yield and characterized by IR and NMR. The study of labelling conditions with technetium-99m showed the influence of the type and mass of reducing agent as well as the pH on the formation of complexes with desired biological characteristics. Radiochemical purity was determined by thin layer chromatography (TLC) and high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Lyophilised kits of L,L-EC and L,L-ECD for labelling with {sup 99m}Tc were obtained, with stability superior to 120 days, when stored under refrigeration, enabling the kits marketing. The ideal formulation of the kits as well as the use of liquid nitrogen in the freezing process, determined the lyophilization success. Distribution biological studies of the {sup 99m}Tc complexes were performed on mice by invasive method and on bigger animals by scintigraphic evaluation. Biological distribution studies of the complex {sup 99m}Tc-L,L-EC showed fast blood clearance, with the elimination of about 90% of the administered dose after 60 minutes, almost exclusively by the urinary system. The biological distribution results were adjusted to a three compartmental distribution model, as expected for a radiopharmaceutical designed to renal dynamic studies, with tubular elimination. The complex interaction with renal tubular receptors is related with structural characteristics of the compound, more specifically with the presence and location of polar groups. In comparison with {sup 99m}Tc-L,L-EC, biological studies of the complex {sup 99m}Tc -L,L-ECD showed different distribution aspects, despite some structural similarities. The presence of ethyl groups confers to the complex neutrality and lipophilicity. It cross the intact blood brain barrier and is retained in the brain

  12. Bio-synthesis and hydrolysis of ethyl phenylacetate and ethyl 2-phenylpropionate in organic solvent by lyophilized mycelia Biossíntese e hidrólise de fenilacetato de etila e 2-fenilpropionato de etila em solvente orgânico por meio de micélios liofilizados

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paolo Torre

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available To select the best biocatalysts for ethanol acylations with phenylacetic and 2-phenylpropionic acids, lyophilized mycelia of Aspergillus oryzae CBS 10207, A. oryzae MIM, Rhizopus oryzae CBS 11207, R. oryzae CBS 39134, R. oryzae CBS 26028 and R. oryzae CBS 32847 were tested in this study. The carboxylesterase activities of A. oryzae MIM and R. oryzae 11207, which revealed to be the best biocatalysts, were investigated either in 0.1 M phosphate buffer or in n-heptane to catalyze the hydrolysis or the synthesis of ethyl esters of these acids, respectively. A. oryzae proved more effective than R. oryzae, probably due to more favorable microenvironment conditions and thermodynamic scenario. The results in terms of product formation and substrate consumption versus time were used to estimate the maximum conversion yields, the equilibrium constants and the times needed to reach half maximum conversion, thus providing sufficient information about these equilibria.Micélios liofilizados de Aspergillus oryzae CBS 10207, A. oryzae MIM, Rhizopus oryzae CBS 11207, R. oryzae CBS 39134, R. oryzae CBS 26028 e R. oryzae CBS 32847 foram testados neste estudo com vista à seleção do melhor biocatalisador para efetuar a acilação de etanol com ácidos fenilacético e 2-fenilpropiônico. As atividades carboxilesterásicas de A. oryzae MIM e R. oryzae 11207, que resultaram ser os melhores biocatalisadores, foram investigadas tanto em tampão fosfato 0,1 M como em n-heptano para catalisar a hidrólise ou a síntese dos ésteres etílicos destes ácidos. A. oryzae pareceu ser mais eficaz que R. oryzae, provavelmente devido a condições micro-ambientais e a um cenário termodinâmico mais favoráveis. Os resultados obtidos em termos de formação do produto e consumo dos substratos em função do tempo foram usados para a estimativa dos rendimentos de conversão máximos, as constantes de equilíbrio e os tempos necessários para alcançar metade da conversão m

  13. Optimization of Lyophilized Plasma for Use in Combat Casualties

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-03-01

    ratio of NS infused at a rate of 165 ml/min, minus any given during the controlled hemorrhage to induce acidosis and coagulopathy. This reflects...antioxidant effect suggesting the potential to reduce acute respiratory distress syndrome and multiple organ failure in combat casualties. This model

  14. development and evaluation of lyophilized thiolated-chitosan wafers

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    THIOLATED-CHITOSAN WAFERS FOR BUCCAL DELIVERY. OF PROTEIN ... of the thiolated polymer incorporating per polymer weight, 10 % each of glycerol as plasticizer, D-mannitol as ..... delivery systems: in vitro stability, in vivo fate, and ...

  15. Determination of thermal-diffusive properties of lyophilized food products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaplon, J.; Kramkowski, R.; Berdzik, M.

    1998-01-01

    Experimental results of vacuum freeze drying were presented. Water solutions of skim milk were dried under various pressures and distribution of temperature and moisture as a function of drying time were determined. Unilateral radiant heating of the material was applied. On the basis of experiment results and URIF model of vacuum freeze drying the thermal conductivity and vapour diffusion coefficients in dry layer were determined

  16. Evaluation of lyophility of carbon materials for electrodes of supercapacitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kompan, M. E.; Agafonov, D. V.; Bursian, A. E.; Dmitriev, D. S.; Mikryukova, M. A.

    2016-12-01

    The heats of wetting have been measured experimentally for some of the solvents used for the preparation of electrolytes of supercapacitors. For the first time, the heat of wetting has been measured for a new promising solvent—tributyl phosphate. Using acetonitrile as an example, the possible orientation of the molecule at the adsorbing surface has been investigated by the technique of surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) (effect of giant enhancement of the scattering by a conducting surface). The calculated estimates have been obtained for the quantities found in the experiment.

  17. Lyophilization and Reconstitution of Reverse Osmosis Concentrated Natural Organic Matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Disinfection by-product (DBP) research can be complicated by difficulties in shipping large water quantities and changing natural organic matter (NOM) characteristics over time. To overcome these issues, it is advantageous to have a reliable method for concentrating and preservin...

  18. Evaluation of mercury retention during the lyophilization process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Monteiro, Lucilena R.; Costa, Manuel Q. da

    1997-01-01

    Shrimp and fish samples were studied by comparing the mercury retention during the freeze drying process. Advantages and disadvantages of this technique, a preview procedure, were identified. The food response concerning water mass los and stability on storage are evaluated after freeze drying process. (author). 10 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs

  19. A comparative study of lyophilized bovine pericardium and tunica ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Jane

    2011-08-15

    Aug 15, 2011 ... were then spread on freeze-drier steel dishes and stored in a deep freezer overnight at -80°C. ... pentobarbital (CEVA, France) at a rate of 100 mg/kg. Macroscopic ..... Basic physiology of wound healing in horse. Equine. Vet.

  20. Effects of wall materials and lyophilization on the viability of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SAM

    2014-06-16

    Jun 16, 2014 ... The protective effect of wall materials was ... successfully used in the preservation and protection of ... functional nutrient in drinks and ice cream (Martínez- ..... isolated from skin juice, gel juice and flower of Aloe vera Miller. J.

  1. Consumo, digestibilidade e balanço de nitrogênio em novilhos alimentados com cama de frango e suplemento à base de microbiota ruminal liofilizada Intake, digestibility and nitrogen balance of steers fed broiler litter and supplement based on lyophilized ruminal microbiota

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ronaldo Lopes Oliveira

    1999-08-01

    Full Text Available Este experimento foi realizado para avaliar o efeito de dois níveis de cama de frango (15,0 e 30,0%, associada ou não a um suplemento à base de microbiota ruminal liofilizada de bovinos adultos (0 e 10 g/animal•dia, na alimentação de novilhos Holandês/Zebu. Quatro novilhos fistulados no rúmen e abomaso foram distribuídos em um quadrado latino 4 x 4 em arranjo fatorial e alimentados individualmente à vontade. O consumo e as digestibilidades totais e parciais dos nutrientes foram avaliados. Não houve efeito do nível de cama de frango sobre o consumo e os coeficientes de digestibilidade da matéria seca (MS, matéria orgânica (MO e fibra em detergente neutro (FDN. O aumento do nível de cama de frango na dieta elevou o coeficiente de digestibilidade intestinal e total da proteína bruta (PB, porém, quando se adicionou o suplemento à dieta com 15,0% de cama de frango, a digestibilidade intestinal aumentou e àquela contendo 30,0% diminuiu. Quando se adicionou o suplemento à dieta com 15,0% de cama de frango, o coeficiente de digestibilidade total não sofreu efeito, mas diminuiu para a dieta com 30%. A ingestão diária de 10 g do suplemento, por animal, não alterou o consumo e os coeficientes de digestibilidade da MS, MO e FDN.This experiment was conducted to evaluate the effect of two levels of broiler litter (15.0 and 30.0%, associated or not to a supplement based on bovine lyophilized ruminal microbiota (0 and 10 g/animal•day, in the Holstein Zebu steers feeding. Four steers with ruminal and abomasal fistulae were allotted to a 4 x 4 latin square in a factorial arrangement and individually fullfed. The intake and total and partial digestibilities were evaluated. There was no effect of broiler litter level on the intake and coefficients of digestibilities of dry matter (DM, organic matter (OM and neutral detergent fiber (NDF. The increase of the level of broiler litter in the diet increased the total and intestinal crude

  2. Worst-case study for cleaning validation of equipment in the radiopharmaceutical production of lyophilized reagents: Methodology validation of total organic carbon; Estudo do pior caso na validação de limpeza de equipamentos de produção de radiofármacos de reagentes liofilizados: validação de metodologia de carbono orgânico total

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Porto, Luciana Valeria Ferrari Machado

    2015-07-01

    Radiopharmaceuticals are defined as pharmaceutical preparations containing a radionuclide in their composition, mostly intravenously administered, and therefore compliance with the principles of Good Manufacturing Practices (GMP) is essential and indispensable. Cleaning validation is a requirement of the current GMP, and consists of documented evidence, which demonstrates that the cleaning procedures are able to remove residues to pre-determined acceptance levels, ensuring that no cross contamination occurs. A simplification of cleaning processes validation is accepted, and consists in choosing a product, called 'worst case', to represent the cleaning processes of all equipment of the same production area. One of the steps of cleaning validation is the establishment and validation of the analytical method to quantify the residue. The aim of this study was to establish the worst case for cleaning validation of equipment in the radiopharmaceutical production of lyophilized reagent (LR) for labeling with {sup 99m}Tc, evaluate the use of Total Organic Carbon (TOC) content as indicator of equipment cleaning used in the LR manufacture, validate the method of Non-Purgeable Organic Carbon (NPOC), and perform recovery tests with the product chosen as worst case. Worst case product's choice was based on the calculation of an index called 'Worst Case Index' (WCI), using information about drug solubility, difficulty of cleaning the equipment and occupancy rate of the products in line production. The products indicated 'worst case' was the LR MIBI-TEC. The method validation assays were performed using carbon analyser model TOC-Vwp coupled to an autosampler model ASI-V, both from Shimadzu®, controlled by TOC Control-V software. It was used the direct method for NPOC quantification. The parameters evaluated in the validation method were: system suitability, robustness, linearity, detection limit (DL) and quantification limit (QL), precision

  3. Conservation of jucara pulp (Euterpe edulis) submitted to gamma radiation, pasteurization, lyophilization and spray drying

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, Paula Porrelli Moreira da

    2013-01-01

    In Brazil there are unexplored fruit species, which represent an opportunity for producers to access special markets, where consumers appreciate the exotic character and presence of nutrients capable of preventing degenerative diseases. In this context, jucara palm (Euterpe edulis), native of the Atlantic Forest, has long been explored only for the removal of the stem, but currently the pulp of its fruit is becoming more popular. The intense purple color is due to the presence of anthocyanins, powerful antioxidants that act by inhibiting or decreasing the effects unleashed by free radicals. The pulp is highly perishable and its preservation is impossible at room temperature, lowering its market value in sales. In face of this, we need technologies that minimize nutritional and sensorial losses in order to produce healthy, tasty and long lasting foods. This study consists of five experiments with jucara pulp, which aimed to: evaluate the physico-chemical, mineral and lipid composition; realize the sensory characterization by Quantitative Descriptive Analysis (QDA); evaluate the physico-chemical and sensory conservation when submitted to radiation gamma, acidification and pasteurization, and dehydration by spray and freeze drying. The fruits have been obtained at Parque das Neblinas (Mogi das Cruzes/SP) and depulped at Agribusiness, Food and Nutrition Department (ESALQ/USP). Was verified that jucara pulp is excellent source of energy and minerals K, Fe, Co, Mg, Cu, Zn, Mn and Mo; rich in anthocyanins and fatty oils of good quality (palmitic, oleic and linoleic). The irradiation of pulp was performed at the Institute of Energy and Nuclear Research (IPEN - Sao Paulo, SP) at doses 0,0, 2,5, 5,0, 7,5 and 10,0 kGy and stored at 6 degree C for 30 days (fortnightly assessments). That process was not promising for the conservation of the product at 6 degree C, because the degradation of anthocyanins and phenolic compounds was accelerated and the color changed from purple to brown, in addition to lacking been accepted sensorially. Further, eight combinations have been studied among acidification (pH<4.0), pasteurization (85 degree C/5 min.) and storage at 6 degree C and -18 degree C for 60 days with biweekly tests. The pasteurized and acidified pulp was that best maintained the physicochemical and sensory characteristics, and the freezing storage was the variable of the better result. The evaluation of quality pulp dehydrated by freeze and spray drying, packaged in bags of polyethylene (PE) and polyethylene-coated aluminum layer (PA) for 120 days at room temperature and protected from light, revealed that both processes conferred physicochemical quality satisfactory and conservation during storage, the packaging PA is the most suitable due to lower absorption of moisture and prevention of oxidation. Sensorially, as reconstituted juice and added to sugar and banana nanica, jucara pulp freeze dried was the more accepted. For the QDA have been trained team for the evaluation of frozen and post packaging pasteurized samples (85 degree C/5 min.) stored under refrigeration and freezing, in order to obtain the sensory profile of each. The frozen pasteurized pulp presented the best sensory characteristics, being described as aerated, slightly heterogeneous, taste slightly bitter and slightly astringent. (author)

  4. Determination of Sn{sup 2+} in lyophilized radiopharmaceuticals by voltammetry, using hydrochloric acid as electrolyte

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dadda, Adilio S.; Teixeira, Ariane C.; Feltes, Paula K.; Campos, Maria M.; Moriguchi-Jeckel, Cristina M., E-mail: adiliosd@yahoo.com.br [Pontifícia Universidade Católica do Rio Grande do Sul (PUC-RS), Porto Alegre-RS (Brazil); Leite, Carlos E. [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul (UFRGS), Porto Alegre-RS (Brazil)

    2014-07-01

    This work aimed to develop and validate a routine method for the specific determination of Sn{sup 2+} 2-methoxy isobutyl isonitrile (MIBI) radiopharmaceutical kits. A voltammetric electrochemical technique was used for the analysis. Screening experiments revealed that 1 mol L{sup -1} HCl electrolyte showed the best results, among all the tested solutions. Stability experiments showed a gradual decline in the current of MIBI, and 23 days after the preparation of the solution, the current corresponding to stannous ion disappeared. To confirm the selectivity of the technique using HCl, we have induced oxidation of SnCl{sub 2} that resulted in a proportional decline of the current in the voltammogram. The reliability of the method was observed with the values of precision and accuracy intra- and inter-assay, and also its robustness. We provide novel evidence on the selective detection of Sn{sup 2+} in the presence of its oxidized form in radiopharmaceutical kits, by using 1 mol L{sup -1} HCl as electrolyte. (author)

  5. Non-cooperative immobilization of residual water bound in lyophilized photosynthetic lamellae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harańczyk, Hubert; Baran, Ewelina; Nowak, Piotr; Florek-Wojciechowska, Małgorzata; Leja, Anna; Zalitacz, Dorota; Strzałka, Kazimierz

    2015-12-01

    This study applied 1H-NMR in time and in frequency domain measurements to monitor the changes that occur in bound water dynamics at decreased temperature and with increased hydration level in lyophilizates of native wheat photosynthetic lamellae and in photosynthetic lamellae reconstituted from lyophilizate. Proton relaxometry (measured as free induction decay = FID) distinguishes a Gaussian component S within the NMR signal (o). This comes from protons of the solid matrix of the lamellae and consists of (i) an exponentially decaying contribution L1 from mobile membrane protons, presumably from lipids, and from water that is tightly bound to the membrane surface and thus restricted in mobility; and (ii) an exponentially decaying component L2 from more mobile, loosely bound water pool. Both proton relaxometry data and proton spectroscopy show that dry lyophilizate incubated in dry air, i.e., at a relative humidity (p/p0) of 0% reveals a relatively high hydration level. The observed liquid signal most likely originates from mobile membrane protons and a tightly bound water fraction that is sealed in pores of dry lyophilizate and thus restricted in mobility. The estimations suggest that the amount of sealed water does not exceed the value characteristic for the main hydration shell of a phospholipid. Proton spectra collected for dry lyophilizate of photosynthetic lamellae show a continuous decrease in the liquid signal component without a distinct freezing transition when it is cooled down to -60ºC, which is significantly lower than the homogeneous ice nucleation temperature [Bronshteyn, V.L. et al. Biophys. J. 65 (1993) 1853].

  6. Lyophilization and Reconstitution of Reverse-Osmosis Concentrated Natural Organic Matter from a Drinking Water Source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Disinfection by-product (DBP) research can be complicated by difficulties in shipping large water quantities and changing natural organic matter (NOM) characteristics over time. To overcome these issues, it is advantageous to have a reliable method for concentrating NOM with min...

  7. Lyophilization monophase solution technique for improvement of the solubility and dissolution of piroxicam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dixit, M; Kulkarni, P K

    2012-01-01

    Piroxicam (PX), an anti-inflammatory drug, exhibits poor water solubility, dissolution and flow properties. Thus, the aim of the present study was to improve the solubility and dissolution rate of PX by freeze drying technique using dimethylformamide (DMF), chloroform and water as co-solvent system. The prepared crystals containing PX were evaluated for DMF and chloroform solvent residual by gas chromatography and solubility and in vitro dissolution. The prepared formulations were characterized by scanning electron microscopy, differential scanning calorimeter; X-ray diffraction and fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. Dissolution profile of the freeze dried crystals was compared with its recrystallized and pure samples. The samples were stored in stability chamber to investigate their physical stability. Solvent residual of DMF and chloroform was found to be within the toxic level. Freeze dried crystals exhibited decreased crystallinity and the solubility and dissolution of the PX crystals were significantly improved compared to its recrystallized and pure samples. In stability test, the release profile of the freeze dried crystals was almost unchanged as compared with the freshly prepared freeze dried crystals stored at 40°C and 75% relative humidity for 90 days. Hence, this technique can be used for formulation of PX tablets by direct compression with directly compressible tablet excipients.

  8. Reuse prevention syringes for reconstitution of lyophilized vaccines: Operational study and UNICEF plans for expanding introduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleming, Jessica A; Hoekstra, Edward John; Moniaga, Vanda; Widjaya, Anton; Soepardi, Jane; Supartha, Nyoman; Salovaara, Annika; Khamassi, Selma; Nelson, Carib

    2009-01-01

    Since the 1990s, the United Nation's Children's Fund has encouraged injection safety for immunizations through bundling vaccines with appropriate amounts of supporting equipment and by supplying autodisable (AD) syringes for injections. However, poor vaccine reconstitution practices continue to be reported worldwide. By 2009, UNICEF will begin to phase out the distribution of standard disposable syringes for vaccine reconstitution and replace them with reuse prevention (RUP) syringes, with a full transition expected by the end of 2010. A field evaluation in Indonesia was conducted to identify introduction requirements, issues with healthcare worker training and acceptance, and RUP syringe performance and safety. Managers and health workers felt that RUP syringes improved injection safety and fit easily into country logistical systems. Healthcare workers felt they were intuitive to use, but recommended special training. The integration of RUP reconstitution syringes by UNICEF could increase injection safety by preventing the reuse of syringes and reducing vaccine contamination.

  9. Incompatibility of lyophilized inactivated polio vaccine with liquid pentavalent whole-cell-pertussis-containing vaccine

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kraan, H.; Have, Ten R.; Maas, van der L.; Kersten, G.F.A.; Amorij, J.P.

    2016-01-01

    A hexavalent vaccine containing diphtheria toxoid, tetanus toxoid, whole cell pertussis, Haemophilius influenza type B, hepatitis B and inactivated polio vaccine (IPV) may: (i) increase the efficiency of vaccination campaigns, (ii) reduce the number of injections thereby reducing needlestick

  10. Lyophilized sponges loaded with curcumin solid lipid nanoparticles for buccal delivery: Development and characterization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hazzah, Heba A; Farid, Ragwa M; Nasra, Maha M A; El-Massik, Magda A; Abdallah, Ossama Y

    2015-08-15

    This study aimed to prepare and evaluate mucoadhesive sponges as dosage forms for delivering solid lipid nanoparticles. For this purpose curcumin (Cur) was formulated as solid nanoparticles (SLN) using Gelucire 50/13, and polaxomer 407. The prepared CurSLN dispersion was thickened with different mucoadhesive polymers. Different concentrations of glycerol, and mannitol of range (0.25-20%), and (0-1%), respectively were also examined. The formed gel was poured into oblong molds and freeze dried to form mucoadhesive sponge to be applied to the buccal mucosa. The prepared sponges were evaluated for their, in-vivo residence time, in-vitro and in-vivo drug release, and hydration capacity. Surface morphology for the different sponges were examined using SEM. TEM was also carried out for sponge fragments previously dispersed into water. Infrared spectroscopy was conducted to investigate interaction between used ingredients. The results showed that the CurSLN loaded HPMC, and Polycarbophil sponges showed 4, and 15 h in-vivo residence time, respectively, providing a considerable amount of curcumin into saliva. The incorporation of glycerol and mannitol at concentration of 1% provided elegant and flexible sponges. The SEM showed that the deposition of CurSLN differed according to the type of polymer used. TEM confirmed the integrity of liberated CurSLN from sponges. IR spectra showed an interaction between HPMC and poloxamer 407, which affected its behavior as a gelling agent. The obtained results provide an efficient approach for delivering solid lipid nanoparticles in a solid dosage form keeping the nanoparticle characters and integrity. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Evaluation of lyophilization for the preconcentration of natural water samples prior to neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harrison, S.H.; LaFleur, P.D.; Zoller, W.H.

    1975-01-01

    Water is preconcentrated by freeze drying using a method which virtually eliminates sample contamination and trace element losses. To test the possibility of losses of volatile elements during the drying process, known quantities of radioactive tracers for 21 elements were added to water, the solutions freeze dried, and the tracer residues counted. The results confirm that at least 95 percent of all but the most volatile elements studied (Hg and I) were retained in the residue. The problem of transferring quantitatively the dry residue from the freeze drying container to an irradiation container was eliminated by designing a freeze drying container that would also serve as an irradiation and counting container. (U.S.)

  12. Mineralization and Characterization of Composite Lyophilized Gelatin Sponges Intended for Early Bone Regeneration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isaac Rodriguez

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The application of freeze-dried gelatin sponges as alternative bone grafting substitutes has many advantages, including the ability to swell, high porosity, tailorable degradation, and versatility to incorporate multiple components such as growth factors and nanofillers. The purpose of this study was to mineralize (M and further characterize 1-Ethyl-3-[3-dimethylaminopropyl]carbodiimide hydrochloride (EDC cross-linked gelatin sponges enhanced with preparations rich in growth factors, hydroxyapatite, and chitin whiskers (PHCE. Sponges were characterized for their swelling and in vitro mineralization potential, surface characteristics, protein release, mechanical properties, and MG-63 cell attachment and infiltration. All sponges swelled up to 50% of their original volume upon hydration. Scanning electron microscopy showed sparse mineral deposition for gelatin-M scaffolds while PHCE-M scaffolds exhibited more uniform mineral nucleation. Over 21 days, PHCE-M scaffolds cumulatively released significantly more (30% of its initial protein content than all other scaffolds. PHCE-M scaffolds reported lower modulus values (1.3–1.6 MPa when compared to gelatin control scaffolds (1.6–3.2 MPa. Increased cell attachment and infiltration was noticed on PHCE and PHCE-M scaffolds. The results of the study demonstrate the enhanced performance of PHCE and PHCE-M scaffolds to serve as bone healing scaffolds. Their potential to release incorporated factors, comparable composition/mechanical properties to tissues developed in the early stages of bone healing, and enhanced initial cellular response make them suitable for further studies evaluating more complex cellular interactions.

  13. Novel development of carbonate apatite-chitosan scaffolds based on lyophilization technique for bone tissue engineering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maretaningtias Dwi Ariani

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: The natural biopolymer chitosan (Ch is currently regarded as a candidate for bone tissue engineering. However, Ch is poor for cell adhesion and low bone formation ability. In order to enhance cell adhesion and bone formation ability, combination of Ch with carbonate apatite (CA was developed. Purpose: The aim of this study was to make carbonate apatite-chitosan scaffolds (CAChSs and evaluate its osteoconductivity in terms of cell proliferation. Methods: Chitosan scaffolds (ChSs were made by the following procedure. Twenty-five, 50, 100, 200 and 400 mg Ch was dissolved into 5 ml of 2% acetic acid (CH3COOH, shaked for 15 min and neutralized with 15 ml of 0.1 M sodium hydroxide (NaOH solution. After centrifugation, Ch gel was packed into the molds then frozen at -80°C for 2h and dried in a freeze dry machine for 24h. The sponges were subjected to UV radiation for 2h. To make CA-ChSs, 200 mg Ch was selected. After neutralization, 50 mg of 0.06 M CA were added into the 200 mg Ch gel. The structure of CA-ChSs was observed by scanning electron microscope (SEM. Mouse osteoblast-like cell (MC3T3-E1 proliferation in these scaffolds was investigated at 1, 7, 14 and 21 days. Results: Three dimensional porous structures of CA-ChSs were clearly observed by SEM. Proliferated cell numbers in CA-ChSs was significantly higher than those in ChSs (control at each stage (p<0.05. Conclusion: It can be concluded that newly developed CA-ChSs had three-dimensional interconnected porous structure, good handling property and supporting ability of proliferation of osteoblasts. It is suggested that newly developed CA-ChSs could be considered as a scaffolds material for bone tissue enginearing.Latar belakang: Kitosan yang merupakan biopolimer alami dianggap sebagai salah satu kandidat untuk rekayasa jaringan tulang. Namun, kitosan memiliki kelemahan terhadap adhesi sel dan kurang mampu membentuk tulang yang cukup. Untuk meningkatkan adhesi sel dan kemampuan pembentukan tulang, telah dikembangkan suatu scaffolds yang menggabungkan kitosan dengan carbonate apatite (CA. Tujuan: Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk membuat carbonate apatite-chitosan scaffolds (CA-ChSs serta mengevaluasi osteokonduktivitas CA-ChSs dari sudut pandang proliferasi sel. Metode: Chitosan scaffolds (ChSs dibuat dengan prosedur berikut ini. Dua puluh lima, 50, 100, 200 dan 400 mg bubuk kitosan dilarutkan dalam 5 ml asam asetat (CH3COOH 2%, dikocok selama 15 menit dan dinetralkan dengan 15 ml 0,1 M larutan sodium hidroksia (NaOH. Setelah sentrifugasi, gel kitosan dikemas ke dalam cetakan teflon kemudian dibekukan pada suhu -80°C selama 2 jam dan dikeringkan dalam mesin beku kering pada suhu -54°C selama 24 jam. Selanjutnya dilakukan radiasi ultraviolet pada ChSs selama 2 jam. Untuk membuat CA-ChSs, dipilih ChSs yang berisi 200 mg bubuk kitosan. Setelah dinetralisir, 50 mg dari 0.06 M CA ditambahkan ke dalam kitosan gel yang berisi 200 mg bubuk kitosan. Struktur CA-ChSs diamati dengan scanning electron microscope (SEM. Proliferasi mouse osteoblast-like cell (MC3T3-E1 dalam ChSs dan CA-ChSs dievaluasi pada hari ke-1, 7 dan 14. Hasil: CA-ChSs dengan struktur tiga dimensi yang berpori dapat diamati dengan jelas menggunakan SEM. Jumlah pertumbuhan dan perkembangan sel pada CA-ChSs secara signifikan lebih banyak dibandingkan pada ChSs (kontrol pada setiap tahap pengamatan di hari ke-1, 7, 14 dan 21 (p<0.05. Kesimpulan: Dapat disimpulkan bahwa CA-ChSs mempunyai struktur tiga dimensi dengan pori-pori yang saling berhubungan satu sama lain dan dapat meningkatkan proliferasi osteoblast. Hal ini menunjukkan bahwa CA-ChSs adalah kandidat untuk rekayasa jaringan tulang.

  14. In Vitro Antimicrobial and Antioxidant Activities of Ethanolic Extract of Lyophilized Mycelium of Pleurotus ostreatus PQMZ91109

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emanuel Vamanu

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The antioxidant and antimicrobial potential of the ethanolic extract of Pleurotus ostreatus PQMZ91109 mycelium was determined based on inorganic and organic nitrogen sources in the culture medium. The presence of ammonium sulfate resulted in a greater accumulation of bioactive compounds compared with the organic ones. This finding was also confirmed by the low values of the ascertained EC50 and minimum inhibitory concentration (MICs. Among the organic sources, peptone followed by corn extract, led to a more important radical-scavenging activity. The extracts selectively inhibited the tested strains, mainly the two of the genus Candida, at an MIC value of 1.25 mg/mL. The antioxidant potential was evaluated by the inhibition capacity of the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH radical, β-carotene-linoleic acid, which is the reducing power. In addition, the quantity of the compounds with antioxidant effects confirmed the data obtained, they being present in the extracts.

  15. Developing and Validating a Rapid Small-Scale Column Test Procedure for GAC Selection using Reconstituted Lyophilized NOM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cost effective design and operation of Granular Activated Carbon (GAC) facilities requires the selection of GAC that is optimal for a specific site. Rapid small-scale column tests (RSSCTs) are widely used for GAC assessment due to several advantages, including the ability to simu...

  16. An isocratic HPLC method for the simultaneous determination of cholesterol, cardiolipin, and DOPC in lyophilized lipids and liposomal formulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simonzadeh, Ninus

    2009-04-01

    Phospholipids, such as 1,2-dioleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (DOPC), and 1,1',2,2'-tetramyristoyl cardiolipin, along with cholesterol, form liposomes in aqueous media and have been investigated at NeoPharm (Lake Bluff, IL) as drug-delivery systems. To accurately assess the effectiveness of various formulations involving the use of aforementioned phospholipids and cholesterol, their quantitative determination is essential. An isocratic high-performance liquid chromatographic method for the simultaneous determination of cholesterol, cardiolipin, and DOPC in various pharmaceutical formulations containing the active drug substance has consequently been developed and is presented here. The current method utilizes an ASTEC-diol analytical column and is shown to be stability-indicating and free from interference from any of the formulation excipients, such as sucrose, sodium chloride, and sodium lactate. The analytes are detected using an evaporative light scattering detector (Alltech or Polymer Laboratories). The quantitation of each lipid component is performed using non-linear regression analysis. The retention characteristics of the analytes are examined as a function of eluent composition (e.g., pH, salt content, organic to aqueous phase ratio) and column temperature. The method was validated and was found to be sensitive, specific, rugged, and cost-effective. The current method provides enhanced chromatographic separation for lipid components as well as degradation products as compared to similar methods reported in the literature. It is also inherently simpler than other similar methods reported in the literature that typically use complex gradient elution.

  17. Highly photoactive 2D titanium dioxide nanostructures prepared from lyophilized aqueous colloids of peroxo-polytitanic acid

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Šubrt, Jan; Pulišová, Petra; Boháček, Jaroslav; Bezdička, Petr; Pližingrová, Eva; Volfová, Lenka; Kupčík, Jaroslav

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 49, JAN (2014), s. 405-412 ISSN 0025-5408 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA203/09/1117 Institutional support: RVO:61388980 Keywords : Oxides * Layered compounds * Electron microscopy * Raman spectroscopy * X-ray diffraction Subject RIV: CA - Inorganic Chemistry Impact factor: 2.288, year: 2014

  18. Incorporation of lipophilic drugs in sugar glasses by lyophilization using a mixture of water and tertiary butyl alcohol as solvent

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Drooge, D.J.; Hinrichs, W.L.J.; Frijlink, H.W.

    2004-01-01

    In this study, anew and robust method was evaluated to prepare physically stable solid dispersions. Trehalose, sucrose, and two inulins having different chain lengths were used as carrier. Diazepam, nifedipine, Delta(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol, and cyclosporine A were used as model drugs. The sugar was

  19. Spray-dried powders improve the controlled release of antifungal tioconazole-loaded polymeric nanocapsules compared to with lyophilized products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ribeiro, Roseane Fagundes; Motta, Mariana Heldt; Härter, Andréia Pisching Garcia; Flores, Fernanda Cramer; Beck, Ruy Carlos Ruver; Schaffazick, Scheila Rezende

    2016-01-01

    This work aimed to obtain solid formulations from polymeric nanocapsules and nanoemulsions containing tioconazole, a broad spectrum antifungal drug. Two dehydration methods were used: spray-drying and freeze-drying, using lactose as adjuvant (10%, w/v). The liquid formulations had a mean particle size around 206 nm and 182 nm for nanocapsules and nanoemulsions, respectively, and an adequate polydispersity index. Tioconazole content was close to the theoretical amount (1.0 mg/mL). After drying, the content ranged between 98 and 102% with a mean nanometric size of the dried products after redispersion. Scanning electron microscopy showed that the particles are rounded, sphere-shaped for the dried products obtained by spray-drying, and shapeless and irregular shapes for those obtained by freeze-drying. In the microbiological evaluation, all dried products remained active against the yeast Candida albicans when compared to the original systems. The dried products obtained by spray-drying from nanocapsules presented better control of the tioconazole release when compared to the freeze-drying products. - Highlights: • Polymeric nanocapsule suspensions containing tioconazole were submitted to spray-drying and freeze-drying. • Dried products from nanocapsule suspensions were stable for 30 days. • Release studies showed that the dried products presented greater control of drug release compared to the original suspension.

  20. Spray-dried powders improve the controlled release of antifungal tioconazole-loaded polymeric nanocapsules compared to with lyophilized products

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ribeiro, Roseane Fagundes [Programa de Pós-Graduação em Ciências Farmacêuticas, Universidade Federal de Santa Maria, Av. Roraima, 1000, Santa Maria, RS, 97105-900 (Brazil); Motta, Mariana Heldt [Curso de Farmácia, Centro de Ciências da Saúde, Universidade Federal de Santa Maria, Av. Roraima, 1000, Santa Maria, RS, 97105-900 (Brazil); Härter, Andréia Pisching Garcia; Flores, Fernanda Cramer [Programa de Pós-Graduação em Ciências Farmacêuticas, Universidade Federal de Santa Maria, Av. Roraima, 1000, Santa Maria, RS, 97105-900 (Brazil); Beck, Ruy Carlos Ruver [Programa de Pós-Graduação em Ciências Farmacêuticas, Faculdade de Farmácia, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Av. Ipiranga, 2752, Porto Alegre, RS, 90610-000 (Brazil); Schaffazick, Scheila Rezende [Programa de Pós-Graduação em Ciências Farmacêuticas, Universidade Federal de Santa Maria, Av. Roraima, 1000, Santa Maria, RS, 97105-900 (Brazil); and others

    2016-02-01

    This work aimed to obtain solid formulations from polymeric nanocapsules and nanoemulsions containing tioconazole, a broad spectrum antifungal drug. Two dehydration methods were used: spray-drying and freeze-drying, using lactose as adjuvant (10%, w/v). The liquid formulations had a mean particle size around 206 nm and 182 nm for nanocapsules and nanoemulsions, respectively, and an adequate polydispersity index. Tioconazole content was close to the theoretical amount (1.0 mg/mL). After drying, the content ranged between 98 and 102% with a mean nanometric size of the dried products after redispersion. Scanning electron microscopy showed that the particles are rounded, sphere-shaped for the dried products obtained by spray-drying, and shapeless and irregular shapes for those obtained by freeze-drying. In the microbiological evaluation, all dried products remained active against the yeast Candida albicans when compared to the original systems. The dried products obtained by spray-drying from nanocapsules presented better control of the tioconazole release when compared to the freeze-drying products. - Highlights: • Polymeric nanocapsule suspensions containing tioconazole were submitted to spray-drying and freeze-drying. • Dried products from nanocapsule suspensions were stable for 30 days. • Release studies showed that the dried products presented greater control of drug release compared to the original suspension.

  1. Impact of lyophilized Lactobacillus salivarius DSPV 001P administration on growth performance, microbial translocation, and gastrointestinal microbiota of broilers reared under low ambient temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blajman, J E; Olivero, C A; Fusari, M L; Zimmermann, J A; Rossler, E; Berisvil, A P; Romero Scharpen, A; Astesana, D M; Soto, L P; Signorini, M L; Zbrun, M V; Frizzo, L S

    2017-10-01

    This study was undertaken with the aim of investigating the effects of dietary supplementation of probiotic strain Lactobacillus salivarius DSPV 001P on growth performance, microbial translocation, and gastrointestinal microbiota of broilers reared under low ambient temperature. Two hundred and forty, one-day-old male Cobb broilers were randomly distributed into two treatment groups, a probiotic group and a control group, with four replicates per treatment and 30 broilers per replicate. The temperature of the broiler house was maintained at 18-22°C during the first three weeks, after which the temperature was at range of 8°C to 12°C. The results showed that probiotic treatment significantly improved body weight of broilers when compared with the control group. After 42days, the weight means were 2905±365.4g and 2724±427.0g, respectively. Although there were no significant differences, dietary inclusion of L. salivarius tended to increase feed intake and to reduce feed conversion ratio during the six-week experimental period. Similarly, supplementation tended to reduce the rate of mortality, with 12 deaths occurring in the probiotic group, and 20 in the control group. However, no differences were observed in intestinal bacterial concentrations of Enterobacteriaceae, E.coli, and lactic acid bacteria in both crop and caecum among treatments. Through our study, it appears that L. salivarius DSPV 001P was non-pathogenic, safe and beneficial to broilers, which implies that it could be a promising feed additive, thus enhancing the growth performance of broilers and improving their health. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. An application for impedance spectroscopy in the characterisation of the glass transition during the lyophilization cycle: the example of a 10% w/v maltodextrin solution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Geoff; Arshad, Muhammad Sohail; Polygalov, Eugene; Ermolina, Irina

    2013-11-01

    Impedance spectroscopy has been used for the measurement of the glass transition of a 10 % maltodextrin solution contained within a glass vial, with externally attached electrodes. Features of the pseudo-relaxation process, associated with the composite impedance of the glass vial-solution assembly, were characterised by the peak amplitude, C(peak)(″), and peak frequency, f(peak), of the capacitance spectra and the equivalent circuit elements that model the impedance spectra (i.e. the solution resistance and solution capacitance) and monitored every 3 min during re-heating of the solution. The time derivatives of all four parameters studied provided a glass transition in close agreement with DSC measurements (-17 °C) and at a precision of ± 0.5 °C. The temperature dependencies of the solution resistance and peak frequency were then characterised with the Arrhenius and Vogel-Fulcher-Tammann fit functions, at temperatures below and above Tg, respectively. The energy of activation (below Tg) was estimated at ~20 kJ mol(-1), and the fragility index (If) of the glass forming liquid (above Tg) was estimated at 0.9. The significance of the fragility index to the development, optimisation and control of the freeze-drying cycle is highlighted. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Characterization of dynamics in complex lyophilized formulations: I. Comparison of relaxation times measured by isothermal calorimetry with data estimated from the width of the glass transition temperature region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chieng, Norman; Mizuno, Masayasu; Pikal, Michael

    2013-10-01

    The purposes of this study are to characterize the relaxation dynamics in complex freeze dried formulations and to investigate the quantitative relationship between the structural relaxation time as measured by thermal activity monitor (TAM) and that estimated from the width of the glass transition temperature (ΔT(g)). The latter method has advantages over TAM because it is simple and quick. As part of this objective, we evaluate the accuracy in estimating relaxation time data at higher temperatures (50 °C and 60 °C) from TAM data at lower temperature (40 °C) and glass transition region width (ΔT(g)) data obtained by differential scanning calorimetry. Formulations studied here were hydroxyethyl starch (HES)-disaccharide, HES-polyol, and HES-disaccharide-polyol at various ratios. We also re-examine, using TAM derived relaxation times, the correlation between protein stability (human growth hormone, hGH) and relaxation times explored in a previous report, which employed relaxation time data obtained from ΔT(g). Results show that most of the freeze dried formulations exist in single amorphous phase, and structural relaxation times were successfully measured for these systems. We find a reasonably good correlation between TAM measured relaxation times and corresponding data obtained from estimates based on ΔT(g), but the agreement is only qualitative. The comparison plot showed that TAM data are directly proportional to the 1/3 power of ΔT(g) data, after correcting for an offset. Nevertheless, the correlation between hGH stability and relaxation time remained qualitatively the same as found with using ΔT(g) derived relaxation data, and it was found that the modest extrapolation of TAM data to higher temperatures using ΔT(g) method and TAM data at 40 °C resulted in quantitative agreement with TAM measurements made at 50 °C and 60 °C, provided the TAM experiment temperature, is well below the Tg of the sample. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Survey of total error of precipitation and homogeneous HDL-cholesterol methods and simultaneous evaluation of lyophilized saccharose-containing candidate reference materials for HDL-cholesterol

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C.M. Cobbaert (Christa); H. Baadenhuijsen; L. Zwang (Louwerens); C.W. Weykamp; P.N. Demacker; P.G.H. Mulder (Paul)

    1999-01-01

    textabstractBACKGROUND: Standardization of HDL-cholesterol is needed for risk assessment. We assessed for the first time the accuracy of HDL-cholesterol testing in The Netherlands and evaluated 11 candidate reference materials (CRMs). METHODS: The total error (TE) of

  5. Clinical utility of indigenously formulated single-vial lyophilized HYNIC-TOC kit in evaluating Gastro-entero Pancreatic neuro endocrine tumours

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shinto, Ajit S; Kamaleshwaran, K; Vyshak, K; Sudhakar, Natarajan; Banerjee, Sharmila; Korde, Aruna; Samuel, Grace; Mallia, Madhav

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the performance and utility of 99m Tc HYNIC-TOC planar scintigraphy and SPECT/CT in the diagnosis, staging and management of gastroenteropancreatic neuroendocrine tumors (GPNETs). 22 patients (median age, 46 years) with histologically proven gastro- entero- pancreatic NETs underwent 99m Tc HYNIC-TOC whole body scintigraphy and regional SPECT/CT as indicated. Scanning was performed after injection of 370-550 MBq (10-15 mCi) of 99m Tc HYNIC-TOC intravenously. Images were evaluated by two experienced nuclear medicine physicians both qualitatively as well as semi quantitatively (tumor to background and tumor to normal liver ratios on SPECT -CT images). Results of SPECT/CT were compared with the results of conventional imaging. Histopathology results and follow-up somatostatin receptor scintigraphy with 99m Tc HYNIC TOC or conventional imaging with biochemical markers were considered to be the reference standards. 99m Tc HYNIC TOC showed sensitivity and specificity of 87.5% and 85.7%, respectively, for primary tumor and 100% and 86% for metastases. It was better than conventional imaging modalities for the detection of both primary tumor (P<0.001) and metastases (P<0.0001). It changed the management strategy in 6 patients (31.8%) and supported management decisions in 8 patients (36.3%). 99m Tc HYNIC TOC SPECT/CT appears to be a highly sensitive and specific modality for the detection and staging of GPNETs. It is better than conventional imaging for the evaluation of GPNETs and can have a significant impact on patient management and planning further therapeutic options

  6. Clinical utility of indigenously formulated single-vial lyophilized HYNIC-TOC kit in evaluating Gastro-entero Pancreatic neuro endocrine tumours.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shinto, Ajit S; Kamaleshwaran, K; Vyshak, K; Sudhakar, Natarajan; Banerjee, Sharmila; Korde, Aruna; Samuel, Grace; Mallia, Madhav

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the performance and utility of (99m)Tc HYNIC-TOC planar scintigraphy and SPECT/CT in the diagnosis, staging and management of gastroenteropancreatic neuroendocrine tumors (GPNETs). 22 patients (median age, 46 years) with histologically proven gastro- entero- pancreatic NETs underwent (99m)Tc HYNIC-TOC whole body scintigraphy and regional SPECT/CT as indicated. Scanning was performed after injection of 370-550 MBq (10-15 mCi) of (99m)Tc HYNIC-TOC intravenously. Images were evaluated by two experienced nuclear medicine physicians both qualitatively as well as semi quantitatively (tumor to background and tumor to normal liver ratios on SPECT -CT images). Results of SPECT/CT were compared with the results of conventional imaging. Histopathology results and follow-up somatostatin receptor scintigraphy with (99m)Tc HYNIC TOC or conventional imaging with biochemical markers were considered to be the reference standards. (99m)Tc HYNIC TOC showed sensitivity and specificity of 87.5% and 85.7%, respectively, for primary tumor and 100% and 86% for metastases. It was better than conventional imaging modalities for the detection of both primary tumor (PTOC SPECT/CT appears to be a highly sensitive and specific modality for the detection and staging of GPNETs. It is better than conventional imaging for the evaluation of GPNETs and can have a significant impact on patient management and planning further therapeutic options.

  7. Clinical utility of indigenously formulated single-vial lyophilized HYNIC-TOC kit in evaluating Gastro-entero Pancreatic neuro endocrine tumours

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ajit S Shinto

    2014-05-01

    Results: 99mTc HYNIC TOC showed sensitivity and specificity of 87.5% and 85.7%, respectively, for primary tumor and 100% and 86% for metastases. It was better than conventional imaging modalities for the detection of both primary tumor (P

  8. Development and Validation of a Micellar Capillary Electrophoresis Method for Determination of IFNβ-1b in Lyophilized Formulation of a Biosimilar Product.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dadgarnejad, Manuchehr; Rastegar, Hosein; Ilka, Hooshmand; Shekarchi, Maryam; Adib, Nooshin; Alebouyeh, Mahmood; Keypour, Nadia; Shoeibi, Shahram; Kobarfard, Farzad; Fazeli, Mohammad Reza

    2015-01-01

    Human interferons (IFNs) are key cytokines secreted by immune system. They have several effects such as antiviral and anti tumors activity, activating immune cells and healing of multiple sclerosis. The type IFNs present in humans are α ,β and Υ. IFN β is a polypeptide, normally produced by fibroblasts and seems to be more species-specific than IFN. Structural properties of IFNs are important for their biologic effects. There are a few analytical techniques for separation, identification and determination of IFNs in its formulations such as mass spectroscopy, RP-HPLC and capillary electrophoresis (CE). In this study we used Micellar Electrokinetic Chromatography (MEKC) as a unique mode of CE because of its capability to separate neutral as well as charged solutes. We used sodium tetraborate (Borax) as buffer without any modifier and sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) as surfactant. The optimum MECK running buffer consisted of Borate 50 Mm; SDS 20 mM pH =9.6. The validated method was used for determination of the IFN β-1b formulation which is manufactured in Iran. From 9 collected different batches, all of them had acceptable potency as claimed on their label with average 102.25 ±10.030 %. This is the first time that a MEKC method is introduced for quantification of IFN β-1b in its pharmaceutical dosage forms. The method is reliable safe, rapid and accurate.

  9. Valor nutricional da polpa de açaí (Euterpe oleracea Mart) liofilizada Lyophilized açaí pulp (Euterpe oleracea, Mart.) nutritional value

    OpenAIRE

    Ellen Mayra da Silva Menezes; Amanda Thiele Torres; Armando Ubirajara Sabaa Srur

    2008-01-01

    O Brasil é o maior produtor, consumidor e exportador da bebida açaí produzida a partir dos frutos do açaizeiro. Esta bebida ou a polpa de açaí são normalmente comercializadas a temperatura ambiente ou na forma congelada, levando à perdas nutricionais importantes. Este trabalho objetivou analisar alguns nutrientes da polpa de açaí liofilizada. Os resultados de determinações analíticas mostraram que esse produto na forma de pó é um alimento altamente calórico, 489,39 Kcal/100 g de polpa liofili...

  10. LC/MS/MS analysis of α-tocopherol and coenzyme Q10 content in lyophilized royal jelly, beebread and drone homogenate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hryniewicka, Marta; Karpinska, Agnieszka; Kijewska, Marta; Turkowicz, Monika Joanna; Karpinska, Joanna

    2016-11-01

    This study shows the results of application liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC/MS/MS) for assay of the content of α-tocopherol and coenzyme Q 10 in bee products of animal origin, i.e. royal jelly, beebread and drone homogenate. The biological matrix was removed using extraction with n-hexane. It was found that drone homogenate is a rich source of coenzyme Q 10 . It contains only 8 ± 1 µg/g of α-tocopherol and 20 ± 2 µg/g of coenzyme Q 10 . The contents of assayed compounds in royal jelly were 16 ± 3 and 8 ± 0.2 µg/g of α-tocopherol and coenzyme Q 10 , respectively. Beebread appeared to be the richest of α-tocopherol. Its level was 80 ± 30 µg/g, while the level of coenzyme Q 10 was only 11.5 ± 0.3 µg/g. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  11. FROM THE PRAGMATIC OF THE FRAGMENTED SPECIALIZATION TO THE PRAGMATIC OF THE MORE FLEXIBLE LYOPHILIZATION: THE WAYS OF THE EDUCATION IN THE CAPITALIST MODE OF PRODUCTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Antunes

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Our presentation treats the proposed theme – Mode of production and education – by seeking an initial sistematisation of this problematic in the form of three notes. The first suggests some elements for a broad understanding of Marx’s concept of mode of production. The second suggests some differences present in different forms of alienation and estrangement present in the Twentieth century, and the third explores some distinct modes of education for capital under capitalism, which we define as the pragmatism of specialisation, in its taylorist-fordist variant, and the pragmatism of flexible liofilization in the eara of toyotism and flexible accumulation. I have concluded with a brief excerpt introducing some angles for considering education beyond the constraints of capital.

  12. Synergistic Effect of Trehalose and Saccharose Pretreatment on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    maintenance of lyophilized human red blood cell (RBC) quality. Methods: RBCs were pre-treated with trehalose and saccharose, and then lyophilized and .... different concentrations of trehalose and saccharose as described above.

  13. Evaluation of the selective pressure and of the addition of lyophilized bacteria like alternative of improvement of a seed of raw activated mud thickened for the outburst of reactors UASB

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sierra C, Jorge H; Saldarriaga M, Julio C

    2001-01-01

    A sample of thickened activated sludge, from El Retiro sewage treatment plant, was acclimated under anaerobic conditions in a batch reactor. Two types of treatment were tested to check effectiveness in the start up time and granule formation. This would enhance the anaerobic treatment technology for UASB (up flow anaerobic sludge blanket) systems. Three UASB pilot reactors were used, with 7,6 I capacity each: a control reactor inoculated with acclimated sludge; a reactor inoculated with acclimated sludge to which lyophilised bacteria were added; and a reactor inoculated with acclimated sludge that was previously run under selective pressure mode. The substrate used was prepared with brown sugar to render a solution with a DQO of 800 mg/1. It was always necessary to add sodium bicarbonate (1 g/ l feed) for alkalinity control. Reactors operated under different decreasing hydraulic retention times. This was aimed at accelerating system acclimation. Applied up flow rates gradually varied from 0,1 m/h to 0,42 m/h. It was observed that, when the relative rate was increased, organic load dramatically increased, the system went out of equilibrium; when this latter condition was reached it was not possible to restore it. In that situation DQO removal fell from 75 to 28% (control), 18% (lyophilised) and 26% (washed), values that increased to 39% (control), 43% (Lyophilises) and 40% (washed) at the end of the experimentation period, which reveals some recuperation

  14. Certification of the contents (mass fractions) of Cd, Pb, Se, Cu, Zn, Fe and Mn in wholemeal flour and lyophilized brown bread reference materials. Wholemeal flour - CRM no. 189; brown bread - CRM no. 191

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wagstaffe, P J; Griepink, B; Muntau, H; Schramel, P

    1987-01-01

    The report describes the preparation and certification of a wholemeal flour (CRM 189) and a lyophilised brown breas (CRM 191) for their contents (mass fractions) of elements of toxicological and nutritional importance: Cd, Pb, Se, Cu, Zn, Fe and Mn. Indicative values are also given for As, Ca, Cl, Cr, Hg, Mg, Na, Ni, P and K. Details are given of a preliminary intercomparison of methods for these elements in a wholemeal flour sample, homogeneity and stability studies on the two reference materials and the results and evaluation of the certification exercise which involved 21 European Laboratories. Summaries of the certification methods are also presented. The report concludes with a discussion of the most common sources of error in determining the elements of interest and the steps to be taken to control them. With 7 figs., 28 tabs.

  15. Conservation of jucara pulp (Euterpe edulis) submitted to gamma radiation, pasteurization, lyophilization and spray drying; Conservacao de polpa de jucara (Euterpe edulis) submetida a radiacao gama, pasteurizacao, liofilizacao e atomizacao

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Paula Porrelli Moreira da

    2013-08-01

    In Brazil there are unexplored fruit species, which represent an opportunity for producers to access special markets, where consumers appreciate the exotic character and presence of nutrients capable of preventing degenerative diseases. In this context, jucara palm (Euterpe edulis), native of the Atlantic Forest, has long been explored only for the removal of the stem, but currently the pulp of its fruit is becoming more popular. The intense purple color is due to the presence of anthocyanins, powerful antioxidants that act by inhibiting or decreasing the effects unleashed by free radicals. The pulp is highly perishable and its preservation is impossible at room temperature, lowering its market value in sales. In face of this, we need technologies that minimize nutritional and sensorial losses in order to produce healthy, tasty and long lasting foods. This study consists of five experiments with jucara pulp, which aimed to: evaluate the physico-chemical, mineral and lipid composition; realize the sensory characterization by Quantitative Descriptive Analysis (QDA); evaluate the physico-chemical and sensory conservation when submitted to radiation gamma, acidification and pasteurization, and dehydration by spray and freeze drying. The fruits have been obtained at Parque das Neblinas (Mogi das Cruzes/SP) and depulped at Agribusiness, Food and Nutrition Department (ESALQ/USP). Was verified that jucara pulp is excellent source of energy and minerals K, Fe, Co, Mg, Cu, Zn, Mn and Mo; rich in anthocyanins and fatty oils of good quality (palmitic, oleic and linoleic). The irradiation of pulp was performed at the Institute of Energy and Nuclear Research (IPEN - Sao Paulo, SP) at doses 0,0, 2,5, 5,0, 7,5 and 10,0 kGy and stored at 6 degree C for 30 days (fortnightly assessments). That process was not promising for the conservation of the product at 6 degree C, because the degradation of anthocyanins and phenolic compounds was accelerated and the color changed from purple to brown, in addition to lacking been accepted sensorially. Further, eight combinations have been studied among acidification (pH<4.0), pasteurization (85 degree C/5 min.) and storage at 6 degree C and -18 degree C for 60 days with biweekly tests. The pasteurized and acidified pulp was that best maintained the physicochemical and sensory characteristics, and the freezing storage was the variable of the better result. The evaluation of quality pulp dehydrated by freeze and spray drying, packaged in bags of polyethylene (PE) and polyethylene-coated aluminum layer (PA) for 120 days at room temperature and protected from light, revealed that both processes conferred physicochemical quality satisfactory and conservation during storage, the packaging PA is the most suitable due to lower absorption of moisture and prevention of oxidation. Sensorially, as reconstituted juice and added to sugar and banana nanica, jucara pulp freeze dried was the more accepted. For the QDA have been trained team for the evaluation of frozen and post packaging pasteurized samples (85 degree C/5 min.) stored under refrigeration and freezing, in order to obtain the sensory profile of each. The frozen pasteurized pulp presented the best sensory characteristics, being described as aerated, slightly heterogeneous, taste slightly bitter and slightly astringent. (author)

  16. Caracterização físico-química e comportamento higroscópico de sapoti liofilizado Physico chemical and hygroscopic behavior of sapodilla lyophilized

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valéria Santos de Oliveira

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available O sapoti é uma fruta considerada exótica e como outras apresenta alta pericibilidade e perdas pós-colheita. A desidratação por liofilização pode ser uma tecnologia para aproveitar o excedente da produção deste fruto disponibilizando para o mercado consumidor produtos estáveis e seguros e permitindo também distribuição mais ampla do produto. O objetivo do trabalho foi caracterizar o sapoti liofilizado quanto à composição físico-química, mineral e avaliar seu comportamento higroscópico por isotermas de adsorção. Para efeito de comparação, a caracterização físico-química foi realizada tanto para a polpa do sapoti, quanto para o pó obtido a partir dos cortes do fruto liofilizado. As análises foram: pH, sólidos solúveis totais, acidez total titulável, ácido ascórbico, açúcares totais, açúcares redutores, açúcares não redutores e umidade. O pó de sapoti sendo um produto mais concentrado apresentou altos teores de açúcares redutores (9,67% - 36,09%, sólidos solúveis totais (15,67 - 65,50 ºBrix e ácido ascórbico (8,45 - 9,84mg/100 g. O pó de sapoti analisado mostrou-se como boa fonte de minerais, destacando-se os elementos potássio e fósforo. As isotermas de adsorção foram construídas através do ajuste de dados experimentais aos modelos matemáticos de BET, GAB, Oswin e Henderson. Os modelos de GAB e Oswin foram aqueles que melhor se ajustaram para o pó de sapoti liofilizado com erro de 18,01% e 18,10% respectivamente, enquanto o modelo de BET apresentou um elevado erro para este mesmo produto analisado de 41,75%. A partir desses resultados pode-se estudar embalagens apropriadas que visem uma melhor conservação para este produto avaliado.The sapodilla is a fruit considered exotic, as other fruits have high rates post-harvest losses. Dehydration by freeze drying demonstrates to be a good technique to take advantage of the excess of production offering to the consumer safety and stable products. The aim of this study is to evaluate the hygroscopic behavior, physicochemical and mineral composition of sapodilla powder obtained by freeze-drying using adsorption isotherms. The following analysis were performed: pH, total soluble solids, total titratable acidity, ascorbic acid, total, reducing and non-reducing sugar and moisture. The sapodilla powder, as a concentrated product, showed high levels of reducing sugars (9.67% - 36.09%, total soluble solids (15.67 to 65.50 º Brix and ascorbic acid (8.45 to 9.84mg/100 g. The sapodilla powder showed to be a good source of minerals, mainly potassium and phosphorus. The adsorption isotherms were constructed adjusting experimental data to mathematical models of BET, GAB, Oswin and Henderson. The models of GAB and Oswin were more appropriate to fit the experimental data for the sapodilla powder with errors of 18.01% and 18.10% respectively, while BET model showed a higher error for this product.

  17. Synthesis of 2,6-diisopropyl-phenylcarbamoylmethyl-iminodiacetic acid (DISIDA) and 4-n-p-butyl-phenylcarbamoylmethyl-iminodiacetic acid (BUTYL-IDA). Preparation of lyophilized kit to be used as 99(supm)Tc agent in hepatobiliary system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamada, E.S.; Barbosa, M.F. de; Theodora, M.A.; Almeida, M. de; Colturato, M.T.; Muramoto, E.; Silva, C.P.G. da.

    1987-08-01

    The synthesis of 2,6 diisopropyl IDA (DISIDA) and 4-n-butyl IDA (BUTIL-IDA) is described. Their spectroscopic properties, radiopharmaceutical preparation and their use as 99 (sup m)Tc complex agent in hepatobiliary studies, are also reported. (Author) [pt

  18. The application of dual-electrode through vial impedance spectroscopy for the determination of ice interface temperatures, primary drying rate and vial heat transfer coefficient in lyophilization process development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Geoff; Jeeraruangrattana, Yowwares; Ermolina, Irina

    2018-06-22

    Through vial impedance spectroscopy (TVIS) is a product non-invasive process analytical technology which exploits the frequency dependence of the complex impedance spectrum of a composite object (i.e. the freeze-drying vial and its contents) in order to track the progression of the freeze-drying cycle. This work demonstrates the use of a dual electrode system, attached to the external surface of a type I glass tubing vial (nominal capacity 10 mL) in the prediction of (i) the ice interface temperatures at the sublimation front and at the base of the vial, and (ii) the primary drying rate. A value for the heat transfer coefficient (for a chamber pressure of 270 µbar) was then calculated from these parameters and shown to be comparable to that published by Tchessalov[1]. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  19. セービンワクチンウイルスの凍結乾燥に関する研究 第1報. 凍結乾燥に関する基礎的条件の検討

    OpenAIRE

    塩見, 洋; 浦沢, 价子; 浦沢, 正三

    1997-01-01

    The development of a heat-stable poliovaccine preparation is urgently needed for the eradication of polio in tropical countries. In the present study, in order to obtain heat-stable lyophilized poliovaccine (type 1, 2 and 3 Sabin strains), conditions affecting the lyophilization of the vaccine viruses were studied. With regard to lyophilizing medium (medium used for suspending virus before lyophilization), the effect of a single chemical component, and double and tripple chemical components o...

  20. [Properties of live antibiotics-resistant anthrax vaccine STI-PR after long-term storage].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aksenova, L Iu; Buravtseva, N P; Kogotkova, O I; Eremenko, E I; Tsygankova, O I

    2007-01-01

    Study showed that cultural, morphologic, genetic, immunologic characteristics, and resistance to antibiotics of STI-PR anthrax vaccine did not change after storage during 20 years in lyophilized condition. It has been shown that medium for lyophilization plays important role in preservation of vitality of anthrax spores. Optimal preservative properties have been observed for thioureal and sucrose-gelatinous media for lyophilization. Obtained results give reasons for prolongation of shelf live of STI-PR vaccine from 2 - 3 to 5 - 8 years.

  1. Plant dried powders as biocatalysts: Hydrolysis of 1- phenylpropanol ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The hydrolytic ability of plant dried powders, lyophilized or acetone dried, was tested on the hydrolysis of racemic 1-phenylpropanol acetate. Most of the twenty powders tested showed hydrolytic activity, however the best values of conversion and enantioselectivity were reached with the lyophilized powder of nopal (27% ...

  2. 21 CFR 529.469 - Competitive exclusion culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Competitive exclusion culture. 529.469 Section 529... Competitive exclusion culture. (a) Specifications. Each packet of lyophilized culture contains either 2,000 or... contents of one 2,000-dose packet of lyophilized culture. Mix thoroughly. (2) For 5,000-dose packet, add...

  3. Spectroscopic properties of a reconstituted light-harvesting complex from the green sulfur bacterium Chlorobium tepidum containing CsmA and bacteriochlorophyll a

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Marie Østergaard; Pham, Lan; Steensgaard, Dorte Bjerre

    2008-01-01

    chlorosomes were lyophilized and extracted with chloroform/methanol (1:1, v/v). The . Isolated chlorosomes were lyophilized and extracted with chloroform/methanol (1:1, v/v). The extract was further purified using gel filtration and reverse-phase HPLC and the purity of the preparation confirmed by SDS...

  4. STANDARDIZATION OF GLYCOHEMOGLOBIN RESULTS AND REFERENCE VALUES IN WHOLE-BLOOD STUDIED IN 103 LABORATORIES USING 20 METHODS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    WEYKAMP, CW; PENDERS, TJ; MUSKIET, FAJ; VANDERSLIK, W

    We investigated the effect of calibration with lyophilized calibrators on whole-blood glycohemoglobin (glyHb) results. One hundred three laboratories, using 20 different methods, determined glyHb in two lyophilized calibrators and two whole-blood samples. For whole-blood samples with low (5%) and

  5. Cyanide wastes treatment by bioremediation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deloya Martinez, Alma

    2012-01-01

    The results of the development of an autochthonous consortium of degrader microorganisms of the cyanide for the application in the biological treatment of the dangerous wastes of cyanide, were presented. The autochthonous microorganisms obtained were lyophilized in different protective environments, such as gelatin and lactose broth at different temperatures (-35, -45, -55 and -65). A pretreatment method in slurry was applied for the preliminary treatment of the cyanide wastes: for the preliminary leaching of the waste, with periods between 3 and 5 days and a posterior treatment, by aerated lagoons, applying the consortium of lyophilized microorganisms. Eight different lyophilized were obtained in different temperature conditions and with two lyophilization protective media that have presented excellent recovery at six months of lyophilization. The consortium of lyophilized microorganisms has presented 70 to 80 percent of viability, with cyanide removal percentages higher than 95% and it can be conserved active for a prolonged time (for years). The lyophilized microorganisms can be applied in the biodegradation of the cyanide wastes from the gold mines or any other cyanide waste such as metal electroplanting baths, as well as from jewelry manufacturing. (author) [es

  6. Comparing the acidities of aqueous, frozen, and freeze-dried phosphate buffers: Is there a "pH memory" effect?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vetráková, Ľubica; Vykoukal, Vít; Heger, Dominik

    2017-09-15

    The concept of "pH memory" has been established in the literature for the correlation between the pH of a pre-lyophilization solution and the ionization state of freeze-dried powder (lyophile). In this paper, the concept of "pH memory" is explored for the system of an aqueous solution, a frozen solution, and a lyophile. Sodium and potassium phosphate buffers in the pH range of 5-9 were frozen and lyophilized with sulfonephthalein indicators as acidity probes, and their Hammett acidity functions were compared to the initial pH of the aqueous solution. The results show that the acidities of the lyophiles are somewhat changed compared to the initial pHs, but the acidities in the frozen state differ more substantially. The Hammett acidity functions of the frozen buffers were found to be markedly dissimilar from the initial pH, especially in the sodium phosphate frozen at 233K, where an increase in the initial pH led to a decrease in the Hammett acidity function of the frozen state at a certain pH range. The large acidification observed after freezing the sodium phosphate buffer was not detected in the lyophiles after the sample had been dried; the phenomenon is explained considering the formed crystals analyzed by X-ray powder diffraction. The results suggest that monitoring the final acidity of a lyophile is not sufficient to predict all the acidity changes throughout the whole lyophilization process. The importance of well-controlled freezing and lyophilization conditions follows from the results of the research. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Room-temperature solid phase ionic liquid (RTSPIL) coated Ω-transaminases: Development and application in organic solvents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grabner, B.; Nazario, M. A.; Gundersen, M. T.

    2018-01-01

    ω-Transaminases ATA-40, ATA-47 and ATA-82P were coated with room-temperature solid phase ionic liquids (RTSPILs) by means of three methods, melt coating, precipitation coating, and co‐lyophilization, and showed increased stability in all of the five tested organic solvents. Co‐lyophilization and ......ω-Transaminases ATA-40, ATA-47 and ATA-82P were coated with room-temperature solid phase ionic liquids (RTSPILs) by means of three methods, melt coating, precipitation coating, and co‐lyophilization, and showed increased stability in all of the five tested organic solvents. Co...

  8. Injectable porous nano-hydroxyapatite/chitosan/tripolyphosphate scaffolds with improved compressive strength for bone regeneration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uswatta, Suren P.; Okeke, Israel U. [Department of Bioengineering, The University of Toledo, Toledo, OH 43614 (United States); Jayasuriya, Ambalangodage C., E-mail: a.jayasuriya@utoledo.edu [Department of Bioengineering, The University of Toledo, Toledo, OH 43614 (United States); Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, The University of Toledo, Toledo, OH 43614 (United States)

    2016-12-01

    In this study we have fabricated porous injectable spherical scaffolds using chitosan biopolymer, sodium tripolyphosphate (TPP) and nano-hydroxyapatite (nHA). TPP was primarily used as an ionic crosslinker to crosslink nHA/chitosan droplets. We hypothesized that incorporating nHA into chitosan could support osteoconduction by emulating the mineralized cortical bone structure, and improve the Ultimate Compressive Strength (UCS) of the scaffolds. We prepared chitosan solutions with 0.5%, 1% and 2% (w/v) nHA concentration and used simple coacervation and lyophilization techniques to obtain spherical scaffolds. Lyophilized spherical scaffolds had a mean diameter of 1.33 mm (n = 25). Further, portion from each group lyophilized scaffolds were soaked and dried to obtain Lyophilized Soaked and Dried (LSD) scaffolds. LSD scaffolds had a mean diameter of 0.93 mm (n = 25) which is promising property for the injectability. Scanning Electron Microscopy images showed porous surface morphology and interconnected pore structures inside the scaffolds. Lyophilized and LSD scaffolds had surface pores < 10 and 2 μm, respectively. 2% nHA/chitosan LSD scaffolds exhibited UCS of 8.59 MPa compared to UCS of 2% nHA/chitosan lyophilized scaffolds at 3.93 MPa. Standardize UCS values were 79.98 MPa and 357 MPa for 2% nHA/chitosan lyophilized and LSD particles respectively. One-way ANOVA results showed a significant increase (p < 0.001) in UCS of 1% and 2% nHA/chitosan lyophilized scaffolds compared to 0% and 0.5% nHA/chitosan lyophilized scaffolds. Moreover, 2% nHA LSD scaffolds had significantly increased (p < 0.005) their mean UCS by 120% compared to 2% nHA lyophilized scaffolds. In a drawback, all scaffolds have lost their mechanical properties by 95% on the 2nd day when fully immersed in phosphate buffered saline. Additionally live and dead cell assay showed no cytotoxicity and excellent osteoblast attachment to both lyophilized and LSD scaffolds at the end of 14th day of in vitro

  9. Injectable porous nano-hydroxyapatite/chitosan/tripolyphosphate scaffolds with improved compressive strength for bone regeneration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uswatta, Suren P.; Okeke, Israel U.; Jayasuriya, Ambalangodage C.

    2016-01-01

    In this study we have fabricated porous injectable spherical scaffolds using chitosan biopolymer, sodium tripolyphosphate (TPP) and nano-hydroxyapatite (nHA). TPP was primarily used as an ionic crosslinker to crosslink nHA/chitosan droplets. We hypothesized that incorporating nHA into chitosan could support osteoconduction by emulating the mineralized cortical bone structure, and improve the Ultimate Compressive Strength (UCS) of the scaffolds. We prepared chitosan solutions with 0.5%, 1% and 2% (w/v) nHA concentration and used simple coacervation and lyophilization techniques to obtain spherical scaffolds. Lyophilized spherical scaffolds had a mean diameter of 1.33 mm (n = 25). Further, portion from each group lyophilized scaffolds were soaked and dried to obtain Lyophilized Soaked and Dried (LSD) scaffolds. LSD scaffolds had a mean diameter of 0.93 mm (n = 25) which is promising property for the injectability. Scanning Electron Microscopy images showed porous surface morphology and interconnected pore structures inside the scaffolds. Lyophilized and LSD scaffolds had surface pores < 10 and 2 μm, respectively. 2% nHA/chitosan LSD scaffolds exhibited UCS of 8.59 MPa compared to UCS of 2% nHA/chitosan lyophilized scaffolds at 3.93 MPa. Standardize UCS values were 79.98 MPa and 357 MPa for 2% nHA/chitosan lyophilized and LSD particles respectively. One-way ANOVA results showed a significant increase (p < 0.001) in UCS of 1% and 2% nHA/chitosan lyophilized scaffolds compared to 0% and 0.5% nHA/chitosan lyophilized scaffolds. Moreover, 2% nHA LSD scaffolds had significantly increased (p < 0.005) their mean UCS by 120% compared to 2% nHA lyophilized scaffolds. In a drawback, all scaffolds have lost their mechanical properties by 95% on the 2nd day when fully immersed in phosphate buffered saline. Additionally live and dead cell assay showed no cytotoxicity and excellent osteoblast attachment to both lyophilized and LSD scaffolds at the end of 14th day of in vitro

  10. Long term storage of virus templated fluorescent materials for sensing applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seetharam, Raviraja N; Guerra, Charles; Satir, Peter [Department of Anatomy and Structural Biology, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, 1300 Morris Park Avenue, Bronx, NY 10461 (United States); Blum, Amy Szuchmacher; Soto, Carissa M; Ratna, Banahalli R [Center for Bio/Molecular Science and Engineering, Naval Research Laboratory, 4555 Overlook Avenue SW, Washington, DC 20375 (United States); Whitley, Jessica L [Geo-Centers, Incorporated, Newton, MA 02459 (United States); Sapsford, Kim E [George Mason University, 10910 University Boulevard, Manassas, VA 20110 (United States); Chatterji, Anju; Lin Tianwei; Johnson, John E [Department of Molecular Biology, The Scripps Research Institute, 10550 North Torrey Pines Road, La Jolla, CA 92037 (United States)], E-mail: amy.blum@nrl.navy.mil

    2008-03-12

    Wild type, mutant, and chemically modified Cowpea mosaic viruses (CPMV) were studied for long term preservation in the presence and absence of cryoprotectants. Viral complexes were reconstituted and tested via fluorescence spectroscopy and a UV/vis-based RNase assay for structural integrity. When viruses lyophilized in the absence of cryoprotectant were rehydrated and RNase treated, UV absorption increased, indicating that the capsids were damaged. The addition of trehalose during lyophilization protected capsid integrity for at least 7 weeks. Measurements of the fluorescence peak maximum of CPMV lyophilized with trehalose and reconstituted also indicate that the virus remained intact. Microarray binding assays indicated that CPMV particles chemically modified for use as a fluorescent tracer were intact and retained binding specificity after lyophilization in the presence of trehalose. Thus, we demonstrate that functionalized CPMV nanostructures can be stored for the long term, enabling their use in practical sensing applications.

  11. Histopathologic Study Following Administration of Liposome-Encapsulated Hemoglobin in the Normovolemic Rat

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Rudolph, Alan

    1995-01-01

    ... bovine hemoglobin in the normovolemic rat. We have also examined the administration of the liposome vehicle, tetrameric bovine hemoglobin, and liposome encapsulated bovine hemoglobin that had been lyophilized with 300 mM trehalose...

  12. Genetic variability of European honey bee, Apis mellifera in mid hills ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Bassi

    2014-02-19

    Feb 19, 2014 ... honey bees: bee brood was lyophilized, and ground with liquid nitrogen solution with .... fied RAPD loci in nine genotypes of A. mellifera (Figure. 3). The amplified .... used the polymorphism and segregation of RAPD markers.

  13. Sample (S): SE37_S14 [Metabolonote[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available oot (aerial part) and root were separated with a scalpel and they were immediately frozen using liquid nitrogen. After lyophilization, the sample was stored at room temperature. ...

  14. Method for obtaining more precise measures of excreted organic carbon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1977-01-01

    A new method for concentrating and measuring excreted organic carbon by lyophilization and scintillation counting is efficient, improves measurable radioactivity, and increases precision for estimates of organic carbon excreted by phytoplankton and macrophytes

  15. Sample (S): SE37_S13 [Metabolonote[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available oot (aerial part) and root were separated with a scalpel and they were immediately frozen using liquid nitrogen. After lyophilization, the sample was stored at room temperature. ...

  16. Long term storage of virus templated fluorescent materials for sensing applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seetharam, Raviraja N; Guerra, Charles; Satir, Peter; Blum, Amy Szuchmacher; Soto, Carissa M; Ratna, Banahalli R; Whitley, Jessica L; Sapsford, Kim E; Chatterji, Anju; Lin Tianwei; Johnson, John E

    2008-01-01

    Wild type, mutant, and chemically modified Cowpea mosaic viruses (CPMV) were studied for long term preservation in the presence and absence of cryoprotectants. Viral complexes were reconstituted and tested via fluorescence spectroscopy and a UV/vis-based RNase assay for structural integrity. When viruses lyophilized in the absence of cryoprotectant were rehydrated and RNase treated, UV absorption increased, indicating that the capsids were damaged. The addition of trehalose during lyophilization protected capsid integrity for at least 7 weeks. Measurements of the fluorescence peak maximum of CPMV lyophilized with trehalose and reconstituted also indicate that the virus remained intact. Microarray binding assays indicated that CPMV particles chemically modified for use as a fluorescent tracer were intact and retained binding specificity after lyophilization in the presence of trehalose. Thus, we demonstrate that functionalized CPMV nanostructures can be stored for the long term, enabling their use in practical sensing applications

  17. Sample (S): SE37_S15 [Metabolonote[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available oot (aerial part) and root were separated with a scalpel and they were immediately frozen using liquid nitrogen. After lyophilization, the sample was stored at room temperature. ...

  18. Investigation of particle-functionalized tissue engineering scaffolds using X-ray tomographic microscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nygaard, J V; Andersen, M Ø; Howard, K A

    2008-01-01

    A low-density, porous chitosan/poly-(dl-lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA) microparticle composite scaffold was produced by thermally induced phase separation followed by lyophilization, to provide a bicontinuous microstructure potentially suitable for tissue engineering and locally controlled drug...

  19. n-Alkanes in surficial sediments of Visakhapatnam harbour, east ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Visakhapatnam harbour, a semi-enclosed water body is one of the .... PDB − 1. } × 1000. 2.5 Extraction of lipids. Total lipids (TL) were extracted from lyophilized sediments following ..... 2010 Sources of OM and microbial community structure.

  20. Microencapsulation of a hydrophilic model molecule through vibration nozzle and emulsion phase inversion technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorati, Rossella; Genta, Ida; Modena, Tiziana; Conti, Bice

    2013-01-01

    The goal of the present work was to evaluate and discuss vibration nozzle microencapsulation (VNM) technology combined to lyophilization, for the microencapsulation of a hydrophilic model molecule into a hydrophilic polymer. Fluorescein-loaded alginate microparticles prepared by VNM and emulsion phase inversion microencapsulation (EPIM) were lyophilized. Morphology, particle size distribution, lyophilized microspheres stability upon rehydration, drug loading and in vitro release were evaluated. Well-formed microspheres were obtained by the VNM technique, with higher yields of production (93.3-100%) and smaller particle size (d50138.10-158.00) than the EPIM microspheres. Rehydration upon lyophilization occurred in 30 min maintaining microsphere physical integrity. Fluorescein release was always faster from the microspheres obtained by VNM (364 h) than from those obtained by EPIM (504 h). The results suggest that VNM is a simple, easy to be scaled-up process suitable for the microencapsulation hydrophilic drugs.

  1. Development and Validation of a RP-HPLC Method for Assay of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Tropical Journal of Pharmaceutical Research October 2014; 13 (10): 1681- ... for atorvastatin analysis in nanoformulations and pharmaceutical dosage forms. .... lyophilized to yield a stable dry powder. ... The dissolution test was performed at.

  2. Ideal storage conditions study of the second antibody for radioimmunoassay (RIA) totality produced in the country (sheep serum anti-IgG of rabbit)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, S.R.; Borghi, V.C.; Mesquita, C.M.; Wajchenberg, B.L.

    1994-01-01

    This work has been carried out to establishing the ideal storage conditions of the second RIA antibody produced at IPEN-CNEN/SP. Small samples of these antisera were submitted to two kinds of freezing forms (slow and fast), both followed by lyophilization. The interference of the frozen and lyophilization processes were compared through the antibody dilution curve. The obtained values showed that no significant difference between the freezing forms occurred. (author). 9 refs, 2 figs, 3 tabs

  3. Alveolar ridge augmentation in rats by combined hydroxylapatite and osteoinductive material

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pinholt, E M; Bang, G; Haanaes, H R

    1991-01-01

    , lyophilized dentin or bone and implanted subperiosteally for alveolar ridge augmentation purposes and heterotopically in the abdominal muscles in rats. Light microscopic evaluation revealed that HA was surrounded by fibrous connective tissue containing foreign body giant cells and it had neither...... an osteoinductive nor an osteoconductive effect. The newly formed bone induced from the implanted allogenic, demineralized, lyophilized dentin or bone was never found in close contact with the HA and did not incorporate the implant....

  4. Acute and Subchronic Toxic Effects of the Fruits of Physalis peruviana L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Basak Ozlem Perk

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The fruit of Physalis peruviana L. (PPL has been traditionally used as antispasmodic, diuretic, antiseptic, sedative, and analgesic all over the world. We aimed to perform qualitative content analysis of the fruits of PPL and to clarify the in vitro genotoxicity and in vivo acute and subchronic toxicity of the fruit. Lyophilized fruit juice does not induce genetic damage. In the acute toxicity studies, LD50 value of the fruit was found to be more than 5000 mg kg−1 for both sexes. According to the subchronic toxicity studies, hepatic, renal, and hematological toxic effects were not induced in both sexes. Plasma troponin I (only in the group treated with 5000 mg kg−1 of lyophilized fruit juice and troponin T levels were significantly increased in male groups treated with lyophilized fruit juice compared to the control group. Furthermore, potassium level was significantly increased in the male group treated with 5000 mg kg−1 of lyophilized fruit juice. These findings were considered to indicate the myocardial damage particularly in the male group treated with 5000 mg kg−1 of lyophilized fruit juice. In conclusion, lyophilized fruit juice of PPL is shown to induce cardiac toxicity only at high doses and in male gender.

  5. Acute and Subchronic Toxic Effects of the Fruits of Physalis peruviana L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perk, Basak Ozlem; Ilgin, Sinem; Atli, Ozlem; Duymus, Hale Gamze; Sirmagul, Basar

    2013-01-01

    The fruit of Physalis peruviana L. (PPL) has been traditionally used as antispasmodic, diuretic, antiseptic, sedative, and analgesic all over the world. We aimed to perform qualitative content analysis of the fruits of PPL and to clarify the in vitro genotoxicity and in vivo acute and subchronic toxicity of the fruit. Lyophilized fruit juice does not induce genetic damage. In the acute toxicity studies, LD50 value of the fruit was found to be more than 5000 mg kg(-1) for both sexes. According to the subchronic toxicity studies, hepatic, renal, and hematological toxic effects were not induced in both sexes. Plasma troponin I (only in the group treated with 5000 mg kg(-1) of lyophilized fruit juice) and troponin T levels were significantly increased in male groups treated with lyophilized fruit juice compared to the control group. Furthermore, potassium level was significantly increased in the male group treated with 5000 mg kg(-1) of lyophilized fruit juice. These findings were considered to indicate the myocardial damage particularly in the male group treated with 5000 mg kg(-1) of lyophilized fruit juice. In conclusion, lyophilized fruit juice of PPL is shown to induce cardiac toxicity only at high doses and in male gender.

  6. Recombinant human G6PD for quality control and quality assurance of novel point-of-care diagnostics for G6PD deficiency.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Kahn

    Full Text Available A large gap for the support of point-of-care testing is the availability of reagents to support quality control (QC of diagnostic assays along the supply chain from the manufacturer to the end user. While reagents and systems exist to support QC of laboratory screening tests for glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD deficiency, they are not configured appropriately to support point-of-care testing. The feasibility of using lyophilized recombinant human G6PD as a QC reagent in novel point-of-care tests for G6PD deficiency is demonstrated.Human recombinant G6PD (r-G6PD was expressed in Escherichia coli and purified. Aliquots were stored at -80°C. Prior to lyophilization, aliquots were thawed, and three concentrations of r-G6PD (representing normal, intermediate, and deficient clinical G6PD levels were prepared and mixed with a protective formulation, which protects the enzyme activity against degradation from denaturation during the lyophilization process. Following lyophilization, individual single-use tubes of lyophilized r-G6PD were placed in individual packs with desiccants and stored at five temperatures for one year. An enzyme assay for G6PD activity was used to ascertain the stability of r-G6PD activity while stored at different temperatures.Lyophilized r-G6PD is stable and can be used as a control indicator. Results presented here show that G6PD activity is stable for at least 365 days when stored at -80°C, 4°C, 30°C, and 45°C. When stored at 55°C, enzyme activity was found to be stable only through day 28.Lyophilized r-G6PD enzyme is stable and can be used as a control for point-of-care tests for G6PD deficiency.

  7. Gelatin as a carrier system for delivery of polyphenols compounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jovanović Aleksandra

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, the influence of different encapsulation techniques (lyophilization and spray drying on gelatin, as a carrier system for delivery of polyphenols compounds, on wild thyme extracts and on encapsulated extracts was investigated. FTIR analyses has shown the presence of carbohydrates, polysaccharides, polyphenols, flavonoids, monoterpenes and carboxylates in the dried extracts, while FTIR spectrum of the encapsulated extracts has shown almost exclusively gelatin-based stripes, indicating the efficient encapsulation of the active ingredients of the extracts and therefore their protection. Scanning electron microscopy has shown that the lyophilization process produced irregularly shaped particles, while spray drying formed spherical and pseudo-spherical particles with rough surface. Using the method of diffraction of laser light, it has been found that spray dried encapsulate possessed significantly lower particle size and significantly better uniformity in comparison to the lyophilized sample. According to the results obtained in differential scanning calorimetry, endothermic peak of lyophilized gelatin encapsulate appeared at higher temperature, thus it can be concluded that lyophilized sample was more thermostable than spray dried parallel. Additionally, the values of enthalpy of gelatin encapsulates were significantly higher compared to pure extracts, which confirmed the presence of stabilizing interactions between the encapsulated components and a carrier.

  8. Development of a DNA-liposome complex for gene delivery applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rasoulianboroujeni, M. [Marquette University School of Dentistry, Milwaukee, WI 53233 (United States); Kupgan, G. [Department of Chemical Engineering, Oklahoma State University, 423 Engineering North, Stillwater, OK 74078 (United States); Moghadam, F. [School of Biological and Health Systems Engineering, Arizona State University, Tempe, AZ (United States); Tahriri, M. [Marquette University School of Dentistry, Milwaukee, WI 53233 (United States); Boughdachi, A. [Polymer Engineering Department, Amirkabir University of Technology, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Khoshkenar, P. [Program in Molecular Medicine, University of Massachusetts Medical School, Worcester, MA 01605 (United States); Ambrose, J.J. [Biomedical Engineering Department, Louisiana Tech University, Ruston, LA 71272 (United States); Kiaie, N. [Tissue Engineering Department, Faculty of Biomedical Engineering, Amirkabir University of Technology, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Vashaee, D. [Electrical and Computer Engineering Department, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC 27606 (United States); Ramsey, J.D. [Department of Chemical Engineering, Oklahoma State University, 423 Engineering North, Stillwater, OK 74078 (United States); Tayebi, L., E-mail: lobat.tayebi@marquette.edu [Marquette University School of Dentistry, Milwaukee, WI 53233 (United States)

    2017-06-01

    The association structures formed by cationic liposomes and DNA (Deoxyribonucleic acid)-liposome have been effectively utilized as gene carriers in transfection assays. In this research study, cationic liposomes were prepared using a modified lipid film hydration method consisting of a lyophilization step for gene delivery applications. The obtained results demonstrated that the mean particle size had no significant change while the polydispersity (PDI) increased after lyophilization. The mean particle size slightly reduced after lyophilization (520 ± 12 nm to 464 ± 25 nm) while the PDI increased after lyophilization (0.094 ± 0.017 to 0.220 ± 0.004). In addition. The mean particle size of vesicles increases when DNA is incorporated to the liposomes (673 ± 27 nm). According to the Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) images, the spherical shape of liposomes confirmed their successful preservation and reconstitution from the powder. It was found that liposomal formulation has enhanced transfection considerably compared to the naked DNA as negative control. Finally, liposomal formulation in this research had a better function than Lipofectamine® 2000 as a commercialized product because the cellular activity (cellular protein) was higher in the prepared lipoplex than Lipofectamine® 2000. - Highlights: • Liposomal formulation in this research had a better function than Lipofectamine® 2000. • The average particle size had no significant change while the PDI increased after lyophilization. • LacZ expression of the developed cationic liposomes is approximately equal to the Lipofectamine® 2000.

  9. [Analysis on preparation and characterization of asiaticoside-loaded flexible nanoliposomes].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Yan; He, Xing-Dong; Shang, Bei-Cheng; Bao, Xiu-Kun; Wang, Yan-Fang; Ma, Ji-Sheng

    2013-10-01

    Asiaticoside is a compound extracted from traditional Chinese medicine Centella asiatica, and mainly used in wound healing and scar repair in clinical, with notable efficacy. However, its poor transdermal absorption and short action time restrict its wide application. In this experiment, the reserve-phase-extrusion-lyophilization method was conducted to prepare the lyophilized asiaticoside-loaded flexible nanoliposomes (LAFL). Its characteristics including electron microscope structure, particle size, Zeta potential, entrapment rate, drug-loading rate, stability and drug release were determined with the intelligent transdermal absorption instrument. LAFL were white spheroids, with pH, particle size and zeta potential of 7. 03, 70. 14 nm and - 36. 5 mV, respectively. The average entrapment rate of the 3 batch samples were 31. 43% , and the average asiaticoside content in 1 mg lyophilized simple was 0. 134 mg. The results indicated that LAFL have good physicochemical properties and pharmaceutical characteristics, with an improved transdermal performance.

  10. Unexpected effect of drying method on the microstructure and electrocatalytic properties of bentonite/alpha-nickel hydroxide nanocomposite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nunes, Cícero V.; Danczuk, Marins; Bortoti, Andressa A.; Gonçalves, Josué M.; Araki, Koiti; Anaissi, Fauze J.

    2015-11-01

    The degree of crystallinity, morphology and electrochemical properties of a nanocomposite formed by stabilized alpha-Ni(OH)2 nanoparticles and bentonite nanoflakes is strongly influenced by the vacuum drying process, either at room temperature or by freeze-drying (lyophilization). Alpha-Ni(OH)2 nanoparticles induced the formation of intercalation nanocomposites exhibiting higher structural organization than in the precursor clay. Also, lyophilization process preserved the structure of the nanocomposites in aqueous suspension and/or induced the disaggregation of nanoflakes, producing materials with lower degree of crystallinity, larger interlamellar distances and electrochemically more active than those obtained by conventional vacuum drying. In fact, the lyophilized materials exhibited more than twice as large density of current for electrocatalytic oxidation of methanol (37 against 14 mA cm-2) indicating its potentiality for development of sensors and fuel cells.

  11. Study on the treatment of cranio-facial bones fractures and defects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ge Zili

    2003-01-01

    Objective: To observe treatment results of 19 patients suffering from frontal sinus, nasal bone and zygomatic complex fractures. Methods: The 3-D imaging technique was obligatory diagnostic tools pre-operatively. The bicoronal incision was used as the standard surgical approach for all cases. After neurosurgical interventions frontal sinus were obliterated by lyophilized cartilage chips. Anatomic restoration was carried out. Transplantation of lyophilized cartilage was used to reconstruct defects of bone. Results: There was good external contour in all cases after average 21 months postoperatively. X-rays revealed a regular structure of bone trabecular and progressive calcification within the cartilage material post-operatively. Conclusions: 3-D imaging technique, bicoronal incision and lyophilized cartilage implantation can offer three advantages: precise diagnosis, improvement of treatment quality and decrease of operative injury

  12. Crystal shapes on striped surface domains

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valencia, Antoni

    2004-01-01

    The equilibrium shapes of a simple cubic crystal in contact with a planar chemically patterned substrate are studied theoretically using an effective interface model. The substrate is primarily made of lyophobic material and is patterned with a lyophilic (easily wettable) stripe domain. Three regimes can be distinguished for the equilibrium shapes of the crystal. The transitions between these regimes as the volume of the crystal is changed are continuous or discontinuous depending on the strength of the couplings between the crystal and the lyophilic and lyophobic surface domains. If the crystal grows through a series of states close to equilibrium, the discontinuous transitions correspond to growth instabilities. These transitions are compared with similar results that have been obtained for a volume of liquid wetting a lyophilic stripe domain

  13. 2-Alkylcyclobutanones as makers in the detection of irradiated liquid egg -a modified method of processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ammon, J.; Mildau, G.; Vater, N.

    1994-01-01

    Drying for several hours at 100 C may result in a considerable loss of 2-alkylcyclobutanones. It also tends to lead to interfering peaks so that results obtained by mass spectrometry in connection with the SIM technique may wrongly suggest the presence of small amounts of 2-alkylcyclobutanones. An alternative to this procedure is offered by lyophilization. This method also has its limitations in that it is largely dependent upon the available facilities and conditions of lyophilization (duration, vacuum, sample heating). It would therefore appear wise for any laboratory to thoroughly analyze the recovery rate of its lyophilization plant and, if required, to resort to other methods of drying (like short-term drying for 2 h at 100 C). The North Hessian Supervisory Office recommends to avoid drying altogether. Instead, liquid egg should be mixed with large quantities of sodium sulfate and then directly subjected to fat extraction using the Soxhlet apparatus (recovery rate approx. 90%). (orig./vhe) [de

  14. Separation and Identification of 1,2,4-Trihydroxynaphthalene-1-O-glucoside in Impatiens glandulifera Royle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Moos

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Methanolic extract from lyophilized roots of Impatiens glandulifera Royle was analyzed by high performance liquid chromatography using DAD and FLD detection and this revealed one dominant highly fluorescent very unstable substance. The stability of this derivative is strongly dependent on the plant material drying procedure and extraction procedure used. The structure of the substance was established as 1,2,4-trihydroxynaphthalene-1-O-glucoside (THNG according LC-MS and NMR measurements. When lyophilized plant material was extracted with methanol an almost four times higher amount of THNG was found in the extract, compared to the amount of 2-hydroxy-1,4-naphthoquinone obtained, while in the case of the same lyophilized plant material extracted with water there was no THNG in the extract. The main compounds in this case was 2-hydroxy-1,4-naphthoquinone. In the plant material dried at the laboratory temperature and extracted by methanol there are only traces of THNG.

  15. Development of hemoglobin typing control materials for laboratory investigation of thalassemia and hemoglobinopathies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pornprasert, Sakorn; Tookjai, Monthathip; Punyamung, Manoo; Pongpunyayuen, Panida; Jaiping, Kanokwan

    2016-01-01

    To date, the hemoglobin (Hb) typing control materials for laboratory investigation of thalassemia with low (1.8%-3.2%) and high (4%-6%) levels of HbA2 are available but there are no Hb typing quality control materials for analysis of thalassemia and hemoglobinopathies which are highly prevalent in South-East Asian countries. The main aim of the present study was to develop the lyophilized Hb typing control materials for laboratory investigation of thalassemia and hemoglobinopathies that are commonly found in South-East Asia. Erythrocytes of blood samples containing Hb Bart's, HbH, HbE, HbF, Hb Constant Spring (CS), Hb Hope, and Hb Q-Thailand were washed and dialysed with 0.85% saline solution. The erythrocytes were then lysed in 5% sucrose solution. The lyophilized Hb typing control materials were prepared by using a freeze drying (lyophilization) method. The high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) analysis of lyophilized Hb was performed after the storage at -20 °C for 1 year and also after reconstitution and storage at 4 or -20 °C for 30 days. In addition, the Hb analysis was compared between the three different methods of HPLC, low pressure liquid chromatography (LPLC) and capillary electrophoresis (CE). Following a year of storage at -20 °C, the HPLC chromatograms of lyophilized Hb typing control materials showed similar patterns to the equivalent fresh whole blood. The stability of reconstituted Hb typing control materials was also observed through 30 days after reconstitution and storage at -20 °C. Moreover, the Hb typing control materials could be analyzed by three methods, HPLC, LPLC and CE. Even a degraded peak of HbCS was found on CE electropherogram. The lyophilized Hb typing control materials could be developed and used as control materials for investigation of thalassemia and hemoglobinopathies.

  16. Increasing the quality and safety of meat products through high technology methods during their storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miteva, D.; Nacheva, I.; Georgieva, L.

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this study was to increase the quality and safety of different meat products by applying two high technology methods – lyophilization and gamma-irradiation. Object of study were chicken, pork and beef meat products. The organoleptic, physicochemical and microbiological properties after lyophilization, irradiation with gamma-rays and during the preservation of the samples were studied. The results indicated that the application of the two original technologies for preservation could ensure qualitative and long-lasting preservation of meat products with excellently preserved taste and organoleptic properties

  17. Skeletal imaging composition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vanduzee, B.F.; Degenhardt, C.R.

    1983-01-01

    This invention is based on the discovery that the adjustment of pH, within a particular range, during the process of manufacturing lyophilized diphosphonate-containing skeletal imaging kits yields a kit which produces a technetium skeletal imaging agent with superior imaging properties. This increased performance is manifested through faster blood clearance and higher skeletal uptake of the technetium imaging agent. The process for producing a dry-powder imaging kit comprises the steps of: preparing a solution of a diphosphonate carrier, stannous reductant, and a stabilizer in water; adjusting the pH to between 5.5 and 6.5; and lyophilizing the solution

  18. Analysis for trace mercury concentration. I. Critical evaluation of current procedures. II. A proposed method for determination by instrumental neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Litman, R.

    1975-01-01

    Current methods of sample pretreatments, digestion, lyophilization and extraction, have been found to lead to considerable loss of mercury, at an initial mercury concentration of 1 μg/g, and less. Storage of solutions of mercury at concentrations of less than 1 μg/ml, in glass, Teflon and polyethylene containers, leads to losses by adsorption. Electrochemical reduction of mercury to the metal, and subsequent volatilization, is postulated as the mechanism of loss from the samples studied during lyophilization. A method of instrumental neutron activation analysis, which obviates the above pretreatments, has been developed for mercury concentrations as low as 1 ng/ml

  19. Improving Heat Transfer at the Bottom of Vials for Consistent Freeze Drying with Unidirectional Structured Ice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosa, Mónica; Tiago, João M; Singh, Satish K; Geraldes, Vítor; Rodrigues, Miguel A

    2016-10-01

    The quality of lyophilized products is dependent of the ice structure formed during the freezing step. Herein, we evaluate the importance of the air gap at the bottom of lyophilization vials for consistent nucleation, ice structure, and cake appearance. The bottom of lyophilization vials was modified by attaching a rectified aluminum disc with an adhesive material. Freezing was studied for normal and converted vials, with different volumes of solution, varying initial solution temperature (from 5°C to 20°C) and shelf temperature (from -20°C to -40°C). The impact of the air gap on the overall heat transfer was interpreted with the assistance of a computational fluid dynamics model. Converted vials caused nucleation at the bottom and decreased the nucleation time up to one order of magnitude. The formation of ice crystals unidirectionally structured from bottom to top lead to a honeycomb-structured cake after lyophilization of a solution with 4% mannitol. The primary drying time was reduced by approximately 35%. Converted vials that were frozen radially instead of bottom-up showed similar improvements compared with normal vials but very poor cake quality. Overall, the curvature of the bottom of glass vials presents a considerable threat to consistency by delaying nucleation and causing radial ice growth. Rectifying the vials bottom with an adhesive material revealed to be a relatively simple alternative to overcome this inconsistency.

  20. Radiation decontamination of meat lyophylized products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Migdal, W.; Owczarczyk, H.B.

    2002-01-01

    There is an increasing demand for a powder soups and sauces composed with lyophylizated meat. Technology of lyophylization is not always accompanied by thermal treatment of raw materials. That is the reason the meat lyophylization process does not ensure as good microbiological quality as is required. Degree of microbiological decontamination and organoleptic properties of lyophilized meat were investigated after radiation treatment

  1. Chem mical c a compo uxiliar sition ry treat of med tments dicina s ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SAM

    samples were further processed by lyophilization of the plant mucilage (A. vera) ... 100 and the sum (in dry matter) of the ether extract, protein, ash and total dietary fiber. ..... meability of cell membranes (Francis et al., 2002); this information highlights the ... plasma by forming micelles in the small intestine with bile acids, thus ...

  2. An exoproteome approach to monitor safety of a cheese-isolated Lactococcus lactis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Genovese, Federica; Coïsson, Jean Daniel; Majumder, Avishek

    2013-01-01

    . A DIGE comparative exoproteomic analysis was performed on the L. lactis 11D strain grown on glucose and the disaccharide trehalose, examined here due to its common use as lyophilization stabilizer, respectively. The experiment showed that chitinase biosynthesis was enhanced in presence of trehalose...

  3. Assessment of the indicators atherogenic index and lipid preventive score of white brine cheese by buffalo milk after technological processing and storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ivanova, S.; Nacheva, I.; Miteva, D.

    2011-01-01

    The present investigation had the objective to study the changes in the atherogenic index - AI and the lipid preventive score - LPS as nutritious indicators for assessment of the risk of cardio-vascular diseases, on the basis of the fatty acid composition of white brine cheese by buffalo milk after applying of two methods of preservation – freeze-drying and dry gamma sterilization with 2 and 4 kGy. The analysis was made with the aid of gas chromatograph SHIMADZU 2010. The lyophilized cheese is characterized by a comparatively low AI - 2.59 after lyophilization and is preserved during storage - 2.55. After lyophilization the LPS of the cheese was the highest – 103.70, while after irradiation a decrease of its value was observed up to 97.73 with 2 kGy and 96.91 with 4 kGy. Key words: white brine cheese by buffalo milk, atherogenic index, lipid preventive score, freeze-drying - lyophilization, gamma sterilization

  4. Assessment of the Indicators Atherogenic Index and Lipid Preventive Score of White Brine Cheese by Buffalo Milk after Technological Processing and Storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ivanova, S.; Nacheva, I.; Miteva, D.

    2011-01-01

    The present investigation had the objective to study the changes in the atherogenic index - AI and the lipid preventive score - LPS as nutritious indicators for assessment of the risk of cardio-vascular diseases, on the basis of the fatty acid composition of white brine cheese by buffalo milk after applying of two methods of preservation – freeze-drying and dry gamma sterilization with 2 and 4 kGy. The analysis was made with the aid of gas chromatograph SHIMADZU 2010. The lyophilized cheese is characterized by a comparatively low AI - 2.59 after lyophilization and is preserved during storage - 2.55. After lyophilization the LPS of the cheese was the highest – 103.70, while after irradiation a decrease of its value was observed up to 97.73 with 2 kGy and 96.91 with 4 kGy. Key words: white brine cheese by buffalo milk, atherogenic index, lipid preventive score, freeze-drying - lyophilization, gamma sterilization

  5. A new method of prefabricated vascularized allogenic bone grafts for maxillo-mandibular reconstruction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pill-Hoon Choung

    1999-01-01

    Although there are various applications of allogenic bone grafts, a new technique of prevascularized lyophilized allogenic bone grafting for maxillo-mandibular reconstruction will be presented. Allogenic bone has been made by author's protocol for jaw defects as a powder, chip or block bone type. The author used lyophilized allogenic bone grafts for discontinuity defects as a block bone. In those cases, neovascularization and resorption of the allogenic bone were important factors for success of grafting. To overcome the problems, the author designed the technique of prefabricated vascularization of allogenic bone, which was lyophilized cranium, with an application of bovine BMP or not. Lyophilized cranial bone was designed for the defects and was put into the scalp. After confirming a hot spot via scintigram several months later, vascularized allogenic bone was harvested pedicled on the parietotemporal fascia based on the superficial temporal artery and vein. Vascularized allogenic cranial bone was rotated into the defect and fixed rigidly. Postoperatively, there was no severe resorption and functional disturbance of the mandible. In this technique, BMP seems to be an important role to help osteogenesis and neovascularization. Eight patients underwent prefabricated vascularization of allogenic bone grafts. Among them, four cases of reconstruction in mandibular discontinuity defects and one case of reconstruction in maxillectomy defect underwent this method, which will be presented with good results. This method may be an alternative technique of microvascular free bone graft

  6. Molecular Cloning and Nucleotide Sequence of the Gene Encoding the Major Peptidoglycan Hydrolase of Lactococcus lactis, a Muramidase Needed for Cell Separation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buist, Girbe; Kok, Jan; Leenhouts, Kees J.; Dabrowska, Magdalena; Venema, Gerhardus; Haandrikman, Alfred J.

    A gene of Lactococcus lactis subsp, cremoris MG1363 encoding a peptidoglycan hydrolase was identified in a genomic library of the strain in pUC19 by screening Escherichia coli transformants for cell wall lysis activity on a medium containing autoclaved, lyophilized Micrococcus lysodeikticus cells,

  7. Serum phenylalanine in preterm newborns fed different diets of human milk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Débora M. Thomaz

    2014-09-01

    Conclusion: The observed results demonstrated that human milk with fortifiers derived from human milk acted as a good substratum for preterm infant feeding both in the evaporated or the lyophilized form, without significant increases in plasma phenylalanine levels in comparison to human milk with commercial fortifier.

  8. CHARACTERIZATION OF PB2+ UPTAKE AND SEQUESTRATION IN PSEUDOMONAS AERUGINOSA CHL004

    Science.gov (United States)

    In laboratory studies, the soil isolate Pseudomonas aeruginosa CHL004 (Vesper et al 1996) has been found to concentrated Pb2+ in the cytoplasm by formation of particles that contain Pb2+ and phosphorus. Upon examination of the washed lyophilized cells grown in the presence of lea...

  9. Eudragit E100 and Polysaccharide Polymer Blends as Matrices for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To compare the effects of two states of polymer/polymer blending (dry and aqueous/lyophilized) on the physicomechanical properties of tablets, containing blends of locust bean gum (LB) with Eudragit® E100 (E100) and sodium carboxymethylcellulose (SCMC) as matrices. Methods: LB, SCMC and E100 were ...

  10. Study of chicken liver and spleen by Moessbauer spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oshtrakh, M. I., E-mail: oshtrakh@mail.utnet.ru [Ural State Technical University-UPI, Division of Applied Biophysics, Faculty of Physical Techniques and Devices for Quality Control (Russian Federation); Milder, O. B.; Semionkin, V. A. [Ural State Technical University-UPI, Faculty of Experimental Physics (Russian Federation); Malakheeva, L. I. [Simbio Holding, Science Consultation Department (Russian Federation); Prokopenko, P. G. [Russian State Medical University, Faculty of Biochemistry (Russian Federation)

    2005-09-15

    A preliminary study of purified normal human liver ferritin, normal chicken liver and spleen tissues in lyophilized form showed differences in room temperature Moessbauer hyperfine parameters. An additional study of liver and spleen tissues with lower iron content from chicken with lymphoid leukemia indicated small differences between the quadrupole splittings in these samples compared with those in normal tissues.

  11. total phenols and antioxidant activities of natural honeys

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    B. S. Chandravanshi

    Lyophilizer (Operon, OPR-FDU-5012, Korea), Double beam UV/VIS NIR ... All samples were stored in capped airtight plastic and glass jars at room temperature ... propolis sample was weighed and mixed with 70% ethyl alcohol in a ratio of 1 g ...

  12. Bioaccumulation of toxic metals by fish in a semi enclosed tropical ecosystem

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Nair, M.; Jayalakshmy, K.V.; Balachandran, K.K.; Joseph, T.

    separated, transferred to polypropylene vials, and lyophilized for a period of 1 week. Before digestion, the tissue was ground in mortar to homogenize the sample. Aliquots of approximately 0.3 g of the dry tissue were digested in a Teflon ©R bomb for 1hat100...

  13. Development of a kit for Tc-MIBI preparation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cruz, J.; Lopez, M.; Hernandez, I.; Chiotellis, E.

    1994-01-01

    The development and evaluation of formulation to obtain 99 mTc-MIBI were carried out. The work consisted of ligand synthesis, development of a suitable formulation, study of the product biological behaviour in laboratory animals and the lyophilized product stability. (L.C.J.A.). 5 refs, 1 fig, 5 tabs

  14. ( Myrciaria jaboticaba ) peel on blood glucose and cholesterol levels ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Berg) peel was lyophilized and the proximate composition, total anthocyanins and polyphenolic content were determined. The effect of the freeze-dried jaboticaba peels (FJP) in the plasmatic levels of glucose, lipid fractions, aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) in Wistar adult male rats was ...

  15. Assessing Dietary Exposure to Pyrethroid Insecticides by LCIMS/MS of Food Composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Method Commercially-obtained vegetables, chips, cereal, meat, and other solid food products were homogenized together to create composited control matrices at 1%, 5%, and 100/0 fat content. Lyophilized homogenates were spiked with 7 pyrethroids, 6 degradation products, bisphen...

  16. Study of chicken liver and spleen by Moessbauer spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oshtrakh, M. I.; Milder, O. B.; Semionkin, V. A.; Malakheeva, L. I.; Prokopenko, P. G.

    2005-01-01

    A preliminary study of purified normal human liver ferritin, normal chicken liver and spleen tissues in lyophilized form showed differences in room temperature Moessbauer hyperfine parameters. An additional study of liver and spleen tissues with lower iron content from chicken with lymphoid leukemia indicated small differences between the quadrupole splittings in these samples compared with those in normal tissues.

  17. Third EU MAT intercomparison on methods for the determination of vitamins B-1, B-2 and B-6 in food

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berg, H. van den; Schaik, F. van; Finglas, P.M.; Froidmont-Görtz, I. de

    1996-01-01

    An intercomparison study on the determination of vitamin B-1, B-2 and B-6 was performed as part of the EU MAT project involving 16 laboratories. Each laboratory was requested to analyse three different food samples (lyophilized pig's liver, mixed vegetables and wholemeal flour, respectively) using

  18. Analysis of the effect of diluent for rehydration of PoulVac MycoF on vaccination seroconversion results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Direct eye drop vaccination of poultry using live Mycoplasma gallisepticum vaccines provides the most efficient route of vaccination. The research reported in this study examines the effect of diluent used to rehydrate lyophilized M. gallisepticum vaccines on its ability to induce a measurable humo...

  19. Biosynthesis of silver nanoparticles by marine bacterium, Idiomarina ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The plates were incubated at 30. ◦. C for 24h and the colonies obtained were purified by re-streaking on the isolation medium. Puri- fied bacterial culture was ... Cell pellets obtained from 48h cultures were washed with deionized water and lyophilized. XRD measure- ments of the SNPs were taken on a Rigaku Miniflex from ...

  20. Inulin sugar glasses preserve the structural integrity and biological activity of influenza virosomes during freeze-drying and storage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Jonge, Jørgen; Amorij, Jean-Pierre; Hinrichs, Wouter L.J.; Wilschut, Jan; Huckriede, Anke; Frijlink, Henderik W.

    Influenza virosomes are reconstituted influenza virus envelopes that may be used as vaccines or as carrier systems for cellular delivery of therapeutic molecules. Here we present a procedure to generate influenza virosomes as a stable dry-powder formulation by freeze-drying (lyophilization) using an

  1. An International Standard for specifying the minimum potency of anti-D blood-grouping reagents: evaluation of a candidate preparation in an international collaborative study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thorpe, S. J.; Fox, B.; Heath, A. B.; Scott, M.; de Haas, M.; Kochman, S.; Padilla, A.

    2006-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate a lyophilized monoclonal immunoglobulin M (IgM) anti-D preparation for use as an International Standard to specify a recommended minimum acceptable potency of anti-D blood-grouping reagents. The candidate International Standard (99/836) for specifying the

  2. from Anatase to Rutile Nanorods

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    NJD

    thermal6,7) lyophilization, laser ablation, electrodeposition and a range of ... nucleation,5,16 surface protection,15,16,23 and proposals that the reaction can fall ..... Nanoparticles, M.Sc. thesis, University of the Witwatersrand, Johan- nesburg ...

  3. Live Skin Allograft in the Management of Severe Burns

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    skin substitute should in some way be incorporated into the healing wound as ... liquid nitrogen or they may be lyophilized and freeze- dried (4, 5). ... more severe the burn the greater the degree of immunosuppresion. ... Humby knife under spinal anesthesia. .... Alloantibody Effect on Skin Graft Survival in Mice. Hiroshima J ...

  4. Eudragit E100 and Polysaccharide Polymer Blends as Matrices for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Methods: LB, SCMC and E100 were blended in their dry (as purchased) state or modified by aqueous blending and subsequent lyophilization, prior to use as matrices in tablets. ... pullulan from Aureobasidium pullulans, 3-(3,4- .... the frozen polymer before sublimation and drying). Subsequently, milling generated a more.

  5. Combustion water purification techniques influence on OBT analysing using liquid scintillation counting method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Varlam, C.; Vagner, I.; Faurescu, I.; Faurescu, D. [National Institute for Cryogenics and Isotopic Technologies, Valcea (Romania)

    2015-03-15

    In order to determine organically bound tritium (OBT) from environmental samples, these must be converted into water, measurable by liquid scintillation counting (LSC). For this purpose we conducted some experiments to determine OBT level of a grass sample collected from an uncontaminated area. The studied grass sample was combusted in a Parr bomb. However usual interfering phenomena were identified: color or chemical quench, chemiluminescence, overlap over tritium spectrum because of other radionuclides presence as impurities ({sup 14}C from organically compounds, {sup 36}Cl as chloride and free chlorine, {sup 40}K as potassium cations) and emulsion separation. So the purification of the combustion water before scintillation counting appeared to be essential. 5 purification methods were tested: distillation with chemical treatment (Na{sub 2}O{sub 2} and KMnO{sub 4}), lyophilization, chemical treatment (Na{sub 2}O{sub 2} and KMnO{sub 4}) followed by lyophilization, azeotropic distillation with toluene and treatment with a volcanic tuff followed by lyophilization. After the purification step each sample was measured and the OBT measured concentration, together with physico-chemical analysis of the water analyzed, revealed that the most efficient method applied for purification of the combustion water was the method using chemical treatment followed by lyophilization.

  6. Preparation, characterization and in vitro study of biocompatible ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The morphology and crystalline structure of lyophilized hydrogels were investigated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and wide-angle diffractometry, respectively while the surface functional groups were analyzed by FT-IR. The thermal behavior was also studied by means of differential scanning calorimetry and ...

  7. The impact of hydration changes in fresh bio-tissue on THz spectroscopic measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Png, G M; Ng, B W-H; Mickan, S P; Abbott, D; Choi, J W; Zhang, X-C

    2008-01-01

    We present a study of how residual hydration in fresh rat tissue samples can vastly alter their extracted terahertz (THz) optical properties and influence their health assessment. Fresh (as opposed to preserved) tissue most closely mimics in vivo conditions, but high water content creates many challenges for tissue handling and THz measurement. Our THz measurements of fresh tissue over time highlight the effect of tissue hydration on tissue texture and dimension, the latter directly influencing the accuracy of calculated optical properties. We then introduce lyophilization (freeze drying) as a viable solution for overcoming hydration and freshness problems. Lyophilization removes large amounts of water while retaining sample freshness. In addition, lyophilized tissue samples are easy to handle and their textures and dimensions do not vary over time, allowing for consistent and stable THz measurements. A comparison of lyophilized and fresh tissue shows for the first time that freeze drying may be one way of overcoming tissue hydration issues while preserving tissue cellular structure. Finally, we compare THz measurements from fresh tissue against necrotic tissue to verify freshness over time. Indeed, THz measurements from fresh and necrotic tissues show marked differences

  8. Alveolar ridge augmentation by osteoinduction in rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pinholt, E M; Bang, G; Haanaes, H R

    1990-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate bone substitutes for alveolar ridge augmentation by osteoinduction. Allogenic, demineralized, and lyophilized dentin and bone was tested for osteoinductive properties in order to establish an experimental model for further studies. Implantations were perf...

  9. Precision of glucose measurements in control sera by isotope dilution/mass spectrometry: proposed definitive method compared with a reference method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pelletier, O.; Arratoon, C.

    1987-01-01

    This improved isotope-dilution gas chromatographic/mass spectrometric (GC/MS) method, in which [ 13 C]glucose is the internal standard, meets the requirements of a Definitive Method. In a first study with five reconstituted lyophilized sera, a nested analysis of variance of GC/MS values indicated considerable among-vial variation. The CV for 32 measurements per serum ranged from 0.5 to 0.9%. However, concentration and uncertainty values (mmol/L per gram of serum) assigned to one serum by the NBS Definitive Method (7.56 +/- 0.28) were practically identical to those obtained with the proposed method (7.57 +/- 0.20). In the second study, we used twice more [ 13 C]glucose diluent to assay four serum pools and two lyophilized sera. The CV ranged from 0.26 to 0.5% for the serum pools and from 0.28 to 0.59% for the lyophilized sera. In comparison, results by the hexokinase/glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase reference method agreed within acceptable limits with those by the Definitive Method but tended to be slightly higher (up to 3%) for lyophilized serum samples or slightly lower (up to 2.5%) for serum pools

  10. A reconstituted light-harvesting complex from the green sulfur bacterium Chlorobium tepidum containing CsmA and bacteriochlorophyll a

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Marie Ø; Pham, Lan; Steensgaard, Dorte B

    2008-01-01

    chlorosomes were lyophilized and extracted with chloroform/methanol (1:1, v/v). The extract was further purified using gel filtration and reverse-phase HPLC and the purity of the preparation confirmed by SDS-PAGE. Mass spectrometric analysis showed an m/z of 6154.8, in agreement with the calculated mass...

  11. Biotransformation of indigo carmine to isatin sulfonic acid by ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Indigo carmine (IC) was biotrasformed to 5-isatinsulfonic acid using intracellular and associated enzymes from Trametes versicolor lyophilized mycelia; even when extracellular enzymes were absent, in high concentration solutions of IC (4 000 mg L-1) and non-sterile condition. T. versicolor was grown in wheat strew and ...

  12. Influence of different sugar cryoprotectants on the stability and physico-chemical characteristics of freeze-dried 5-fluorouracil plurilamellar vesicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Mahmoud Nounou

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available Lyophilization increases the shelf-life of liposomes by preserving it in a dry form as lyophilized cake to be reconstituted with water immediately prior to administration. Aiming at increasing stability and availability of 5-Fluorouracil liposomal products, 5-Fluorouacil Stable Plurilamellar Vesicles were prepared. Freeze dried liposomal dispersions were prepared with or without cryoprotectants. The cryoprotectants used were glucose, mannitol or trehalose in 1, 2 and 4 grams per gram phospholipids. The results showed that lyophilized cake of liposomes without cryoprotectants was compact and difficult to reconstitute, in comparison with fluffy cakes which reconstituted easily and quickly when using cryoprotectants. The percentage of 5-Fluorouracil retained in liposomes freeze-dried without cryoprotectants was 18.29% ± 0.96% and the percentage of 5-Fluorouracil retained in stable plurilamellar vesicles was 31.22% ± 0.62% using 4 grams trehalose as cryoprotectant per gram of lipid. Physico-chemical and release stability studies showed superior potentials of the lyophilized product after reconstitution in comparison to dispersion product. It may be concluded that all tested sugars have cryoprotectant effects that stabilized liposomes in the freeze dried state, where trehalose offered the most superior cryoprotectant effect for freeze dried 5-fluorouracil liposomes.

  13. Enzyme activity and allosteric characteristics of gamma-irradiated solid aspartate transcarbamylase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bigler, W.N.; Tolbert, B.M.

    1977-01-01

    Aspartate transcarbamylase purified from E. coli was lyophilized, irradiated in vacuo with γ radiation from a cesium-137 source, redissolved in buffer under a nitrogen atmosphere, and assayed for enzyme activity. Lyophilized and redissolved enzyme had normal catalytic and allosteric kinetic characteristics. The average D 37 observed with saturating substrate, 25 mM aspartate, was 4.1 Mrad. With less than saturating substrate, 5 mM aspartate, the activity increases from zero to 1.6 Mrad and then decreases with a D 37 of 7.2 Mrad. Inclusion of 1 mM CTP, an allosteric inhibitor, in the 5 mM aspartate assays results in a more pronounced maximum in the activity curve occurring at slightly higher dose, 2.2 Mrad. Inhibitability by CTP has a D 37 of 2.3 Mrad with doses below the activity maximum. Enzyme lyophilized in the presence of 1 mM CTP has a D 37 of 2.9 Mrad. ATCase activity changes caused by irradiation of lyophylized bacteria were qualitatively like the changes observed in the detailed studies with the purified enzyme. Apparent radiation sensitivities of ATCase in lyophilized bacteria were observed to vary with the technique used to disrupt the resuspended bacteria

  14. Large acceleration of a-chymotrypsin-catalyzed dipeptide formation by 18-crown-6 in organic solvents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Unen, D.J.; Engbersen, Johannes F.J.; Reinhoudt, David

    1998-01-01

    The effects of 18-crown-6 on the synthesis of peptides catalyzed by α-chymotrypsin are reported. Lyophilization of the enzyme in the presence of 50 equivalents of 18-crown-6 results in a 425-fold enhanced activity when the reaction between the 2-chloroethylester of N-acetyl-L-phenylalanine and

  15. Crude extract and purified components isolated from the stems of Tinospora crispa exhibit positive inotropic effects on the isolated left atrium of rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Praman, Siwaporn; Mulvany, Michael J.; Williams, David E.

    2013-01-01

    -butanol soluble material was concentrated and dried under reduced pressure and lyophilized to obtain a crude powder (Tinospora crispa extract). The active components of Tinospora crispa extract were separated by column chromatography and preparative HPLC. The effects and mechanisms of the n-butanol extract...

  16. DRY COMPOSITION OF STARTER CULTURES FORM LACTIC ACID MICROORGANISMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    At. Kraevska

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this work is to investigate the possibility of producing of lyophilized lactic acid starter Lb. plantarum strain 226/1, designed for a starter culture in the production of pickles. The results of our studies demonstrate achievement of this goal by the specified process parameters.

  17. Method for preparing 99mTc-labelled radiopharmaceuticals for myocardial scintigraphy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seifert, S.; Syhre, R.; Muenze, R.

    1987-01-01

    Radiopharmaceuticals which preferably concentrate in myocardial tissue are prepared, in particular technetium compounds with the reducing ligand molecule DMPE. A method is introduced to convert pertechnetate in one step into the proposed compound by means of a saline, slow-oxidizing and lyophilized form of the reducing ligand DMPE, preferably DMPE x 2HCl

  18. Changes in DNA methylation levels during seed development in ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    User

    flowering and seeds were collected every week starting from 6thday after fertilization (DAP) till ... (Mitutoyo, Japan).Seeds for DNA isolation were lyophilized at -55 0C for 24 hours in a ... phase(stages 4, 5, 6 and7),seed length increased to 21.14 mm.During the .... Government of India, for providing fellowship for this work.

  19. Use of chromatography tubes in triiodothyronine and thyroxine ria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inbar, D.; Tamir, Y.; Derfler, S.; Feingers, J.; Wagner, D.

    1980-01-01

    Simple, convenient radioimmunoassay for total triiodothyronine and total thyroxine in human serum are described. Ascending dry column chromatography is used to separate the free and antibody-bound hormone. The method allows for separation by absorption, without centrifugation. The use of test tubes containing pre-measured quantities of lyophilized radioactive reagent obviates unnecessary handling of radioactive solutions. (Auth.)

  20. Long-term preservation of anammox bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rothrock, Michael J; Vanotti, Matias B; Szögi, Ariel A; Gonzalez, Maria Cruz Garcia; Fujii, Takao

    2011-10-01

    Deposit of useful microorganisms in culture collections requires long-term preservation and successful reactivation techniques. The goal of this study was to develop a simple preservation protocol for the long-term storage and reactivation of the anammox biomass. To achieve this, anammox biomass was frozen or lyophilized at two different freezing temperatures (-60°C and in liquid nitrogen (-200°C)) in skim milk media (with and without glycerol), and the reactivation of anammox activity was monitored after a 4-month storage period. Of the different preservation treatments tested, only anammox biomass preserved via freezing in liquid nitrogen followed by lyophilization in skim milk media without glycerol achieved stoichiometric ratios for the anammox reaction similar to the biomass in both the parent bioreactor and in the freshly harvested control treatment. A freezing temperature of -60°C alone, or in conjunction with lyophilization, resulted in the partial recovery of the anammox bacteria, with an equal mixture of anammox and nitrifying bacteria in the reactivated biomass. To our knowledge, this is the first report of the successful reactivation of anammox biomass preserved via sub-zero freezing and/or lyophilization. The simple preservation protocol developed from this study could be beneficial to accelerate the integration of anammox-based processes into current treatment systems through a highly efficient starting anammox biomass.

  1. Effectiveness of matured Morus nigra L. (black mulberry) fruit extract ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ajl yemi

    2011-11-14

    Nov 14, 2011 ... sulfoxide; HPLC, high performance liquid chromatography. India. Its fruits can ... 2.2% protein, 0.2% lipid, 2% glucose, 2.3% fructose,. 2.2% diet ... Lyophilized samples were maintained at -20°C prior to analysis. Preparation of ...

  2. Reliability of nucleic acid amplification methods for detection of Chlamydia trachomatis in urine: results of the first international collaborative quality control study among 96 laboratories

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R.P.A.J. Verkooyen (Roel); G.T. Noordhoek; P.E. Klapper; J. Reid; J. Schirm; G.M. Cleator; M. Ieven; G. Hoddevik

    2003-01-01

    textabstractThe first European Quality Control Concerted Action study was organized to assess the ability of laboratories to detect Chlamydia trachomatis in a panel of urine samples by nucleic acid amplification tests (NATs). The panel consisted of lyophilized urine samples,

  3. Chromoproteinoids and their ability to form boundary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heinz, B.

    1992-01-01

    Model systems for boundary structures and cellular systems, particularly when they are a result of natural simulation experiments, are always valuable for the study of the ''Origins of Life''. Lyophilization of chromoproteinoids - peptide like molecules containing prosthetic groups - leads to the formation of boundary structures

  4. Nicotine-magnesium aluminum silicate microparticle surface modified with chitosan for mucosal delivery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kanjanakawinkul, Watchara; Rades, Thomas; Puttipipatkhachorn, Satit

    2013-01-01

    Magnesium aluminum silicate (MAS), a negatively charged clay, and nicotine (NCT), a basic drug, can interact electrostatically to form microparticles. Chitosan (CS) was used for the surface modification of the microparticles, and a lyophilization method was used to preserve the original particle...

  5. Oral Tolerance Induction in Hemophilia B Dogs Fed with Transplastomic Lettuce.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herzog, Roland W; Nichols, Timothy C; Su, Jin; Zhang, Bei; Sherman, Alexandra; Merricks, Elizabeth P; Raymer, Robin; Perrin, George Q; Häger, Mattias; Wiinberg, Bo; Daniell, Henry

    2017-02-01

    Anti-drug antibodies in hemophilia patients substantially complicate treatment. Their elimination through immune tolerance induction (ITI) protocols poses enormous costs, and ITI is often ineffective for factor IX (FIX) inhibitors. Moreover, there is no prophylactic ITI protocol to prevent anti-drug antibody (ADA) formation. Using general immune suppression is problematic. To address this urgent unmet medical need, we delivered antigen bioencapsulated in plant cells to hemophilia B dogs. Commercial-scale production of CTB-FIX fusion expressed in lettuce chloroplasts was done in a hydroponic facility. CTB-FIX (∼1 mg/g) in lyophilized cells was stable with proper folding, disulfide bonds, and pentamer assembly after 30-month storage at ambient temperature. Robust suppression of immunoglobulin G (IgG)/inhibitor and IgE formation against intravenous FIX was observed in three of four hemophilia B dogs fed with lyophilized lettuce cells expressing CTB-FIX. No side effects were detected after feeding CTB-FIX-lyophilized plant cells for >300 days. Coagulation times were markedly shortened by intravenous FIX in orally tolerized treated dogs, in contrast to control dogs that formed high-titer antibodies to FIX. Commercial-scale production, stability, prolonged storage of lyophilized cells, and efficacy in tolerance induction in a large, non-rodent model of human disease offer a novel concept for oral tolerance and low-cost production and delivery of biopharmaceuticals. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Optimized determination method for trans-10-hydroxy-2-decenoic acid content in royal jelly by high-performance liquid chromatography with an internal standard.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Jinhui; Xue, Xiaofeng; Li, Yi; Zhang, Jinzhen; Zhao, Jing

    2007-01-01

    An optimized reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography method was developed to detect the trans-10-hydroxy-2-decenoic acid (10-HDA) content in royal jelly cream and lyophilized powder. The sample was extracted using absolute ethanol. Chromatographic separation of 10-HDA and methyl 4-hydroxybenzoate as the internal standard was performed on a Nova-pak C18 column. The average recoveries were 95.0-99.2% (n = 5) with relative standard deviation (RSD) values of 1.3-2.1% for royal jelly cream and 98.0-100.0% (n = 5) with RSD values of 1.6-3.0% for lyophilized powder, respectively. The limits of detection and quantitation were 0.5 and 1.5 mg/kg, respectively, for both royal jelly cream and lyophilized powder. The method was validated for the determination of practical royal jelly products. The concentration of 10-HDA ranged from 1.26 to 2.21% for pure royal jelly cream samples and 3.01 to 6.19% for royal jelly lyophilized powder samples. For 30 royal jelly products, the 10-HDA content varied from not detectable to 0.98%.

  7. Natural Chlorinated Auxins Labeled with Radioactive Chloride in Immature Seeds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engvild, Kjeld Christensen

    1975-01-01

    Immature seeds were harvested from 15 species grown in perlite/vermiculite containing 36Cl-, but with very low levels of cold Cl-. Autoradiograms of one- and two-dimensional thin layer chromatograms of butanol extracts of lyophilized seeds indicated several radioactive compounds besides the 36Cl-...

  8. Eudragit E100 and Polysaccharide Polymer Blends as Matrices for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    aqueous/lyophilized) of locust bean gum with Eudragit® E100 and sodium carboxymethylcellulose on swelling and ... Xanthan gum [2,3], guar gum [4,5], gum. Arabic [6,7] ..... tablets based on low density foam powder: effects of formulation and ...

  9. Analysis of the organic matter which are present in solid organic wastes from urban areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Canellas, Luciano Pasqualoto; Santos, Gabriel de Araujo; Amarai Sobrinho, Nelson Moura Brasil do; Mazur, Nelson; Moraes, Anselmo Alpande

    1997-01-01

    This study analyses the organic matter which are present in the solid wastes from the Rio de Janeiro city - Brazil. The humic acids were extracted and purified. After the purification, the humic acids were dried by lyophilization. Visible UV, infrared and NMR spectra were obtained for the humic acids extracted

  10. Biodegradable polymersomes for targeted ultrasound imaging

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhou, W.; Hennink, W.E.; Feijen, J.; Meng, Fenghua; Sam, T; Engbers, G.H.M.; Feijen, Jan

    2006-01-01

    Biodegradable polymersomes with a sub-micron size were prepared by using poly(ethylene glycol)–polylactide (PEG–PDLLA) block-copolymers in aqueous media. Air-encapsulated polymersomes could be obtained by a lyophilization/rehydration procedure. Preliminary results showed that these polymersomes were

  11. Clinical and radiological studies upon a combined method for guided bone regeneration in experimental mandibular defects in dogs - a preliminary communication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borissov, I.; Uzunov, N.; Paskalev, M.

    2004-01-01

    The treated bone defects were compared clinically and radiologically. After a 3-month period of survey, the best results were obtained in the group treated with partially demineralized bone matrix, enzymatically processed and lyophilized dura mater and mucoperiosteal flap. The placement of titanium screw dental implants did not impair the guided bone regeneration, that was confirmed by their good osteointegration

  12. Combustion water purification techniques influence on OBT analysing using liquid scintillation counting method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Varlam, C.; Vagner, I.; Faurescu, I.; Faurescu, D.

    2015-01-01

    In order to determine organically bound tritium (OBT) from environmental samples, these must be converted into water, measurable by liquid scintillation counting (LSC). For this purpose we conducted some experiments to determine OBT level of a grass sample collected from an uncontaminated area. The studied grass sample was combusted in a Parr bomb. However usual interfering phenomena were identified: color or chemical quench, chemiluminescence, overlap over tritium spectrum because of other radionuclides presence as impurities ( 14 C from organically compounds, 36 Cl as chloride and free chlorine, 40 K as potassium cations) and emulsion separation. So the purification of the combustion water before scintillation counting appeared to be essential. 5 purification methods were tested: distillation with chemical treatment (Na 2 O 2 and KMnO 4 ), lyophilization, chemical treatment (Na 2 O 2 and KMnO 4 ) followed by lyophilization, azeotropic distillation with toluene and treatment with a volcanic tuff followed by lyophilization. After the purification step each sample was measured and the OBT measured concentration, together with physico-chemical analysis of the water analyzed, revealed that the most efficient method applied for purification of the combustion water was the method using chemical treatment followed by lyophilization

  13. Targeting doxorubicin encapsulated in stealth liposomes to solid tumors by non thermal diode laser.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghannam, Magdy M; El Gebaly, Reem; Fadel, Maha

    2016-04-05

    The use of liposomes as drug delivery systems is the most promising technique for targeting drug especially for anticancer therapy. In this study sterically stabilized liposomes was prepared from DPPC/Cholesterol/PEG-PE encapsulated doxorubicin. The effect of lyophilization on liposomal stability and hence expiration date were studied. Moreover, the effect of diode laser on the drug released from liposomesin vitro and in vivo in mice carrying implanted solid tumor were also studied. The results indicated that lyophilization of the prepared liposomes encapsulating doxorubicin led to marked stability when stored at 5 °C and it is possible to use the re-hydrated lyophilized liposomes within 12 days post reconstitution. Moreover, the use of low energy diode laser for targeting anticancer drug to the tumor cells is a promising method in cancer therapy. We can conclude that lyophilization of the liposomes encapsulating doxorubicin lead to marked stability for the liposomes when stored at 5 °C. Moreover, the use of low energy diode laser for targeting anticancer drug to the tumor cells through the use of photosensitive sterically stabilized liposomes loaded with doxorubicin is a promising method. It proved to be applicable and successful for treatment of Ehrlich solid tumors implanted in mice and eliminated toxic side effects of doxorubicin.

  14. Ox peripheral nerve myelin membrane. Purification and partial characterization of two basic proteins

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    London, Y.

    1971-01-01

    Two basic proteins were purified from the peripheral nervous system. The isolation was achieved by (1) delipidation with chloroform-butanol mixtures, dry acetone, and dry ether, (2) acid extraction at pH 2 and then (3) dialysis against distilled water, lyophilization, and solubilization in pH-10.7

  15. Antiproliferative and antibacterial activity evaluation of red ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Antibacterial activity of these extracts was also tested against Salmonella choleraesuis, Listeria monocytogenes and Staphylococcus aureus. All extracts were obtained from lyophilized biomass of red microalgae. Extract A was obtained using 40% ammonium sulfate precipitation and gel filtration chromatography with G-25 ...

  16. Hypolipidemic effect of beer proteins in experiment on rats

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Gorinstein, S.; Leontowicz, H.; Lojek, Antonín; Leontowicz, M.; Číž, Milan; Stager, M. A. G.; Montes, J. M. B.; Toledo, F.; Arancibia-Avila, P.; Trakhtenberg, S.

    2002-01-01

    Roč. 35, č. 3 (2002), s. 265-271 ISSN 0023-6438 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z5004920 Keywords : lyophilized polyphenol-free beer * proteins * lipids Subject RIV: BO - Biophysics Impact factor: 0.746, year: 2002

  17. Protective Effect of Purple Sweet Potato (Ipomoea batatas Linn ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ISSN: 1596-5996 (print); 1596-9827 (electronic) ... oxide (NO) levels were measured using Griess assay. Inducible NO synthase (iNOS) ... IBE also scavenged DPPH radicals in a dose-dependent manner (p < 0.05 at 10 μg/ml ... filtered and lyophilized to obtain ethanol extract concentrate. ... temperature, 298 °K. Cell culture ...

  18. Evaluation of a reference material for glycated haemoglobin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weykamp, CW; Penders, TJ; Muskiet, FAJ; vanderSlik, W

    The use of lyophilized blood as a reference material for glycated haemoglobin was investigated with respect to IFCC criteria for calibrators and control materials. Ninety-two laboratories, using 11 methods, detected no changes in glycated haemoglobin content when the lyophilizate was stored for one

  19. Development and Translation of a Tissue-Engineered Disc in a Preclinical Rodent Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-12-01

    Following testing, DAPS samples were stored frozen, lyophilized, papain digested and assayed for collagen, GAG, and DNA content. Likewise, media...collagen content was determined after papain digestion. Paraffin embedded sections (8µm) were stained with Alcian Blue for proteoglycan (PG) and

  20. Degradation of L-Ascorbic Acid in the Amorphous Solid State.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez, Juan O; Ismail, Yahya; Christina, Belinda; Mauer, Lisa J

    2018-03-01

    Ascorbic acid degradation in amorphous solid dispersions was compared to its degradation in the crystalline state. Physical blends and lyophiles of ascorbic acid and polymers (pectins and polyvinylpyrrolidone [PVP]) were prepared initially at 50:50 (w/w), with further studies using the polymer that best inhibited ascorbic acid crystallization in the lyophiles in 14 vitamin : PVP ratios. Samples were stored in controlled environments (25 to 60 °C, 0% to 23% RH) for 1 mo and analyzed periodically to track the physical appearance, change in moisture content, physical state (powder x-ray diffraction and polarized light microscopy), and vitamin loss (high performance liquid chromatography) over time. The glass transition temperatures of select samples were determined using differential scanning calorimetry, and moisture sorption profiles were generated. Ascorbic acid in the amorphous form, even in the glassy amorphous state, was more labile than in the crystalline form in some formulations at the highest storage temperature. Lyophiles stored at 25 and 40 °C and those in which ascorbic acid had crystallized at 60 °C (≥70% ascorbic acid : PVP) had no significant difference in vitamin loss (P > 0.05) relative to physical blend controls, and the length of storage had little effect. At 60 °C, amorphous ascorbic acid lyophiles (≤60% ascorbic acid : PVP) lost significantly more vitamin (P vitamin loss significantly increased over time. In these lyophiles, vitamin degradation also significantly increased (P vitamins are naturally present or added at low concentrations and production practices may promote amorphization of the vitamin. Vitamin C is one of the most unstable vitamins in foods. This study documents that amorphous ascorbic acid is less stable than crystalline ascorbic acid in some environments (for example, higher temperatures within 1 wk), especially when the vitamin is present at low concentrations in a product. These findings increase the understanding of

  1. Stability and antimicrobial effect of amikacin-loaded solid lipid nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Solmaz Ghaffari

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Solmaz Ghaffari1, Jaleh Varshosaz1, Afrooz Saadat2, Fatemeh Atyabi21Department of Pharmaceutics, Faculty of Pharmacy and Isfahan Pharmaceutical Sciences Research Center, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Isfahan, Iran; 2Department of Pharmaceutics, Faculty of Pharmacy, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, IranAbstract: Solid lipid nanoparticles (SLNs of amikacin were designed in this study for pulmonary delivery to reduce the dose or its administration intervals leading to reduction of its toxicities especially in long term treatment. Nanoparticles of amikacin were prepared from cholesterol by solvent diffusion technique and homogenization. The size, zeta potential, loading efficiency, and release profile of the nanoparticles were studied. The conventional broth macrodilution tube method was used to determine the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC and minimum bacteriostatic concentration (MBC of amikacin SLNs with respect to Pseudomonas aeruginosa in vitro. To guarantee the stability of desired SLNs, they were lyophilized using cryoprotectants. Results showed that considering the release profile of amikacin from the studied nanocarrier, MIC and MBC of amikacin could be about two times less in SLNs of amikacin compared to the free drug. Therefore, fewer doses of amikacin in SLNs can clear the infection with less adverse effects and more safety. Particle size enlargement after lyophilization of desired SLNs after two months storage was limited in comparison with non-lyophilized particles, 996 and 194 nm, respectively. Zeta potential of lyophilized particles was increased to +17 mV from +4 mV before lyophilization. Storage of particles in higher temperature caused accelerated drug release.Keywords: amikacin, antimicrobial effects, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, solid lipid nanoparticles, stability

  2. Role of atopy patch test for diagnosis of food allergy-related gastrointestinal symptoms in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boonyaviwat, Onsuree; Pacharn, Punchama; Jirapongsananuruk, Orathai; Vichyanond, Pakit; Visitsunthorn, Nualanong

    2015-12-01

    Double-blind, placebo-controlled food challenge is the gold standard for diagnosing food allergy. However, it is a time-consuming procedure and requires onsite medical supervision and resuscitating medicines and devices on hand. The objective of this study was to compare the atopy patch test (APT) with the oral food challenge test (OFC) in children with suspected food allergy-related gastrointestinal (GI) symptoms. A prospective self-controlled study enrolled children with a history of suspected food allergy-related GI symptoms. Skin prick test (SPT) and APT using lyophilized and commercial allergen extracts for cow's milk, egg, wheat, soy, and shrimp were evaluated, and OFC was performed. Thirty-nine patients (25 boys, median age 2.4 yrs) with 76 events of suspected food allergy-related GI symptoms were enrolled. SPT was positive in 11/76 events (14.5%). Sensitivity, specificity, predictive values, and likelihood ratio were calculated related to the food challenge outcome. Of 41 OFC, 30 (73.2%) were positive. APT using lyophilized allergen extracts yielded high sensitivity (80%) and high positive predictive value (85.7%). APT using commercial allergen extracts yielded low sensitivity (30%) but high specificity (90%). The negative predictive value of APT using lyophilized and commercial allergen extracts was 53.8% and 32.2%, respectively. All cases with positive APT using lyophilized allergen extracts together with positive SPT also had positive OFC. In contrast to commercial extracts, APT with lyophilized allergen extracts is reliable, safe, and maybe useful for the diagnosis of suspected food allergy-related GI symptoms in children. OFC is still needed in most of the cases. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Physicochemical and Biological Analysis of 99mTc-Glutathione Radiopharmaceuticals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    ME- Sriyani; N- Zainuddin

    2013-01-01

    99m Tc-glutathion ( 99m Tc-GSH) radiopharmaceutical is available in the GSH lyophilized-kit in which ready to use directly after adding 99m Tc radionuclide. In nuclear medicine, 99m Tc-GSH diagnostic kit is a radiopharmaceutical commonly utilized for cancer diagnoses using imaging method. This paper described the physicochemical and biological characteristics as well as the quality of 99m Tc-GSH diagnostic kit prepared from the GSH lyophilized-kit. The radiochemical purity was determined with thin layer chromatography (TLC) method, performed on a TLC-SG stationary phase with a mobile phase of a dried acetone and 0,9% of NaCl solution. Studies on the effect of volume and radioactivity of Na 99m TcO 4 solution to the radiochemical purity of 99m Tc-GSH were carried out. The sterility of GSH-lyophilized kit and toxicity of 99m Tc-GSH were also investigated. The stability test on GSH lyophilized kit and 99m Tc-GSH in several storage conditions, as well as the plasma stability of 99m Tc-GSH was performed. The analysis result showed that the GSH lyophilized-kit was sterile; the 99m Tc-GSH was non toxic with 99.54 ± 0.01% of radiochemical purity and remained stable 5 hours either at room temperature or 4℃. The volume more than 4 mL of Na 99m TcO 4 solution on the labeling of GSH could decreased the 99m Tc-GSH radiochemical purity, while the radioactivity more than 20 mCi in 7 mL of volume extended the incubation time. In-vitro stability test of 99m Tc-GSH in plasma showed that in the two hours of storage, the radiochemical purity decreased to 51.84 ± 2.52%, and until 5 hours of storage it did not change significantly. From the result, it can be concluded that the GSH lyophilized-kit was remained stable after 13 month of storage either at room temperature or 4℃ with 99% of 99m Tc-GSH radiochemical purity. (author)

  4. Administration of follitropin alfa and lutropin alfa combined in a single injection: a feasibility assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agostinetto Rita

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Gonadotrophins are routinely administered in assisted reproductive technology (ART treatment protocols. Recombinant human follicle-stimulating hormone (r-hFSH; follitropin alfa and recombinant human luteinizing hormone (r-hLH; lutropin alfa can be administered individually or in a fixed combination. The ability to vary the FSH to LH dose ratio in a single injection without compromising the bioactivity of either gonadotrophin or generating losses of active principle is important for physicians and patients alike. Methods This study investigated whether follitropin alfa (GONAL-f (R, as lyophilized powder for reconstitution or solution from the GONAL-f (R (filled-by-mass [FbM] Prefilled Pen, could be used to reconstitute Pergoveris TM (follitropin alfa/lutropin alfa 150 IU/75 IU lyophilized powder. In Ratio Groups 1 and 2, the r-hFSH:r-hLH ratio was 3:1; in Ratio Groups 3 and 4, the ratios of r-hFSH:r-hLH were 5:1 and 8:1, respectively. The protein content and bioactivity of each mixed solution were evaluated. The r-hFSH and r-hLH content was determined using reverse-phase high performance liquid chromatography. The biological activity of r-hFSH and r-hLH was assessed using the Steelman-Pohley and Van Hell in vivo bioassays in rats, respectively. Results Follitropin alfa/lutropin alfa 150 IU/75 IU lyophilized powder could be successfully mixed with follitropin alfa 75 IU FbM solution that was either reconstituted from lyophilized powder or injected directly from the prefilled pen to create solutions with ratios of r-hFSH and r-hLH from 3:1 to 8:1. The measured content of r-hFSH and r-hLH corresponded favourably with the target protein content in Ratio Groups 1–4. The in vivo target and measured bioactivity of r-hFSH and r-hLH were also closely matched in all Ratio Groups. Conclusion Follitropin alfa lyophilized powder or solution can be accurately mixed with follitropin alfa/lutropin alfa 150 IU/75 IU lyophilized powder to

  5. Euterpe edulis Extract but Not Oil Enhances Antioxidant Defenses and Protects against Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease Induced by a High-Fat Diet in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Barros Freitas

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We investigated the effects of E. edulis bioproducts (lyophilized pulp [LEE], defatted lyophilized pulp [LDEE], and oil [EO] on nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD induced by a high-fat diet (HFD in rats. All products were chemically analyzed. In vivo, 42 rats were equally randomized into seven groups receiving standard diet, HFD alone or combined with EO, LEE, or LDEE. After NAFLD induction, LEE, LDEE, or EO was added to the animals’ diet for 4 weeks. LEE was rich in polyunsaturated fatty acids. From LEE degreasing, LDEE presented higher levels of anthocyanins and antioxidant capacity in vitro. Dietary intake of LEE and especially LDEE, but not EO, attenuated diet-induced NAFLD, reducing inflammatory infiltrate, steatosis, and lipid peroxidation in liver tissue. Although both E. edulis bioproducts were not hepatotoxic, only LDEE presented sufficient benefits to treat NAFLD in rats, possibly by its low lipid content and high amount of phenols and anthocyanins.

  6. Effect of Co-60 irradiation on hyperimmune antimeningococcus globulins-gamma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Galguera, M.; Le Riverand, E.; Padron, S.

    1990-01-01

    Globulins-gamma from voluntary blood donors immunized with the Cuban BC antimeningococcus vaccine is now being used in our country for the treatment of the meningococcus disease. This study of the effect of Co-60 irradiation on antimeningococcus globulins-gamma was carried out to try to eliminate the inconvenience shown by the traditionally used sterilization procedures (losses in the filter and persistence of viral contamination). globulins-gamma was obtained by ethanol fractionation and was irradiated at a different dose in solution with different stabilizers and it was also lyophilized. Results of the chemical controls carried out lead to the conclusion that it is possible to use radiosterilization on this product in a lyophilized form. The preservation of bactericidal activity, even after the highest irradiation doses, confirms the above mentioned. 13 refs

  7. FTIR study of secondary structure of bovine serum albumin and ovalbumin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abrosimova, K V; Shulenina, O V; Paston, S V

    2016-01-01

    Proteins structure is the critical factor for their functioning. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy provides a possibility to obtain information about secondary structure of proteins in different states and also in a whole biological samples. Infrared spectra of egg white from the untreated and hard-boiled hen's egg, and also of chicken ovalbumin and bovine serum albumin in lyophilic form and in aqueous solution were studied. Lyophilization of investigated globular proteins is accompanied by the decrease of a-helix structures and the increase in amount of intermolecular β-sheets. Analysis of infrared spectrum of egg white allowed to make an estimation of OVA secondary structure and to observe α-to-β structural transformation as a result of the heat denaturation. (paper)

  8. Comparative analysis of methods for concentrating venom from jellyfish Rhopilema esculentum Kishinouye

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Cuiping; Yu, Huahua; Feng, Jinhua; Chen, Xiaolin; Li, Pengcheng

    2009-02-01

    In this study, several methods were compared for the efficiency to concentrate venom from the tentacles of jellyfish Rhopilema esculentum Kishinouye. The results show that the methods using either freezing-dry or gel absorption to remove water to concentrate venom are not applicable due to the low concentration of the compounds dissolved. Although the recovery efficiency and the total venom obtained using the dialysis dehydration method are high, some proteins can be lost during the concentrating process. Comparing to the lyophilization method, ultrafiltration is a simple way to concentrate the compounds at high percentage but the hemolytic activities of the proteins obtained by ultrafiltration appear to be lower. Our results suggest that overall lyophilization is the best and recommended method to concentrate venom from the tentacles of jellyfish. It shows not only the high recovery efficiency for the venoms but high hemolytic activities as well.

  9. Scaffold of chitosan-sodium alginate and hydroxyapatite with application potential for bone regeneration; Scaffold de quitosana-alginato de sodio e hidroxiapatita com potencial de aplicacao para regeneracao ossea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rebelo, Marcia de A.; Alves, Thais F.R.; Lopes, Francielly C.C.N; Oliveira Junior, Jose Martins de; Pontes, Katiusca S.; Fogaca, Bruna A.C.; Chaud, Marco V., E-mail: marco.chaud@prof.uniso.br [Universidade de Sorocaba (LABNUS/UNISO), Sorocaba, SP (Brazil). Laboratorio de Biomateriais e Nanotecnologia

    2015-07-01

    Scaffold for organic tissue regeneration are architectural, three-dimensional, porous, biocompatible and biodegradable devices. The first challenges to be met in the development of these devices to mimic the biomechanical properties of the target tissue. The aim of this study was to develop and to characterize scaffolds composed of chitosan (Ch), sodium alginate (SA), hydroxyapatite (HA). The scaffolds were obtained by lyophilization. HA has been incorporated into the polymer dispersion in Ch-AS concentration of 20 and 60%. The mechanical properties of the scaffold were determined by tensile and compression tests. Swelling capacity was assessed in the presence of simulated saliva, purified water, HCl 0.01M, NaOH 0.01M. The calcium content was quantified using fluorescence X-rays. Analysis of the results indicates that the Qt-AS-HA-60% scaffold obtained by lyophilization meets promising properties for bone tissue regeneration. (author)

  10. Design of magnetic akaganeite-cyanobacteria hybrid biofilms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dahoumane, Si Amar; Djediat, Chakib; Yepremian, Claude; Coute, Alain; Fievet, Fernand; Brayner, Roberta

    2010-01-01

    Common Anabaena cyanobacteria are shown to form intra-cellularly akaganeite β-FeOOH nanorods of well-controlled size and unusual morphology at room temperature. High-resolution transmission electron microscopy showed that these nanorods present a complex arrangement of pores forming a spongelike structure. These hybrid akaganeite-cyanobacteria were used to form 'one-pot' hybrid biofilms. The hybrid biofilm presents higher coercivity (H c = 44.6 kA m -1 (560 Oe)) when compared to lyophilized akaganeite-cyanobacteria powder (H c = 0.8 kA m -1 (10 Oe)) due to the quasi-assembly of the cells on the glass substrate compared to the lyophilized randomly akaganeite-cyanobacteria powder.

  11. Method of preparing radionuclide doses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuperus, J.H.

    1987-01-01

    A method is described of preparing aliquot dosea of a tracer material useful in diagnostic nuclear medicine comprising: storing discrete quantities of a lyophilized radionuclide carrier in separate tubular containers from which air and moisture is excluded, selecting from the tubular containers a container in which is stored a carrier appropriate for a nuclear diagnostic test to be performed, interposing the selected container between the needle and the barrel of a hypodermic syringe, and drawing a predetermined amount of a liquid containing a radionuclide tracer in known concentration into the hypodermic syringe barrel through the hypodermic needle and through the selected container to dissolve the discrete quantity of lyophilized carrier therein to combine the carrier with the radionuclide tracer to form an aliquot dose of nuclear diagnostic tracer material, as needed

  12. Preparation of glucoheptonate - sup(99m) Tc using stannous ascorbate as reducing agent for TcO-4 ion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barboza, M.R.F.F. de; Silva, C.P.G. da.

    1983-12-01

    A preparation procedure of stannous ascorbate in lyophilized form is presented. This reducing agent was employed for the preparation of kits of calcium glucoheptonate (GHA) to be labelled with sup(99m) Tc for use in kidney scintigraphy. Comparative studies between kits prepared with stannous ascorbate and those prepared with stannous chloride as reducing agent were made. The labelling yield during 18 hours after the addition of sup(99m) TcO - 4 was higher when stannous ascorbate was used. The stability of kits of calcium glucoheptonate - sup(99m) Tc containing stannous ascorbate was studied during five months after its preparation in the lyophilized form. On the fifth month the labelling yield of GHA - sup(99m) Tc was 89-95%, being therefore suitable for kidney scintigraphy. (Author) [pt

  13. Scaffold of chitosan-sodium alginate and hydroxyapatite with application potential for bone regeneration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rebelo, Marcia de A.; Alves, Thais F.R.; Lopes, Francielly C.C.N; Oliveira Junior, Jose Martins de; Pontes, Katiusca S.; Fogaca, Bruna A.C.; Chaud, Marco V.

    2015-01-01

    Scaffold for organic tissue regeneration are architectural, three-dimensional, porous, biocompatible and biodegradable devices. The first challenges to be met in the development of these devices to mimic the biomechanical properties of the target tissue. The aim of this study was to develop and to characterize scaffolds composed of chitosan (Ch), sodium alginate (SA), hydroxyapatite (HA). The scaffolds were obtained by lyophilization. HA has been incorporated into the polymer dispersion in Ch-AS concentration of 20 and 60%. The mechanical properties of the scaffold were determined by tensile and compression tests. Swelling capacity was assessed in the presence of simulated saliva, purified water, HCl 0.01M, NaOH 0.01M. The calcium content was quantified using fluorescence X-rays. Analysis of the results indicates that the Qt-AS-HA-60% scaffold obtained by lyophilization meets promising properties for bone tissue regeneration. (author)

  14. Verification of presence of caprolactam in sprouted achenes of Fagopyrum esculentum Moench and its influence on plant phenolic compound content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalinová, Jana P; Tříska, Jan; Vrchotová, Naděžda; Moos, Martin

    2014-08-15

    The presence of caprolactam, a precursor of Nylon-6, among those synthetic polymers which are widely-spread throughout the environment, could be the reason for its being found in plants. The aim of this work was to confirm the previously described presence of caprolactam in dry and sprouted achenes, as well as in achene exudates of common buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum Moench). When the lyophilized sprouted and dry buckwheat achenes, along with exudates from growth experiments, with caprolactam-free medium were analysed by HPLC, no caprolactam was found. After addition of caprolactam into the growth medium, we confirmed the uptake of caprolactam in the lyophilized sprouted buckwheat achenes. The uptake of caprolactam is also a function of light conditions during the growth experiments. Caprolactam also inhibits the content of phenolic compounds; especially rutin, vitexin, isovitexin, orientin, and homoorientin in buckwheat plants. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Wound healing activity of an aqueous extract of the Lingzhi or Reishi medicinal mushroom Ganoderma lucidum (higher Basidiomycetes).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Asheesh; Kirar, Vandana; Keshri, Gaurav Kr; Gola, Shefali; Yadav, Anju; Negi, Prem Singh; Misra, Kshipra

    2014-01-01

    The Lingzhi or Reishi medicinal mushroom Ganoderma lucidum (higher Basidiomycetes) is popular because of its health-promoting properties. The effects of G. lucidum extract on cancer, hypertension, hypercholesterolemia, and hepatitis have been reported by many researchers. This investigation was undertaken to evaluate the healing efficacy of an aqueous lyophilized extract of G. lucidum from the Indian Himalayan region on dermal excision wound in experimental rats. The extract used in the study was found to be rich in total polyphenol and flavonoid contents. The healing efficacy was comparatively assessed with a reference povidone-iodine ointment. The G. lucidum extract showed significant enhanced healing activity, evidenced by an increase in wound contraction, collagen accumulation (hydroxyproline), hexosamine, and total protein contents. Histopathological findings further supported the biochemical indices. The results suggest that aqueous lyophilized extract of G. lucidum possesses significant wound-healing activity.

  16. Characterization of ß-Glucans Isolated from Brewer’s Yeast and Dried by Different Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vesna Zechner-Krpan

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Two different procedures have been used for isolation of water-insoluble ß-glucans from brewer’s yeast: alkaline-acidic isolation (AA and alkaline-acidic isolation with mannoprotein removal (AAM. The obtained ß-glucans were then dried by air-drying, lyophilization and combination of sonication and spray-drying. ß-Glucan preparations obtained by AA and AAM isolations had similar values of dry mass, total polysaccharides, proteins and organic elemental microanalysis. The mass fractions of ß-glucan in total polysaccharides were significantly affected by different isolation procedures. Fourier transform infrared (FTIR spectra of all preparations had the appearance typical for (1→3-ß-D-glucan. Lyophilization and especially air-drying caused a higher degree of agglomeration and changes in ß-glucan microstructure. Sonication followed by spray-drying resulted in minimal structural changes and negligible formation of agglomerates.

  17. Activity and Longevity of Antibody in Paper-Based Blood Typing Diagnostics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clare A. Henderson

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Paper-based diagnostics provide a low-cost, reliable and easy to use mode of blood typing. The shelf-life of such products, however, can be limited due to the reduced activity of reagent antibodies sorbed on the paper cellulose fibers. This study explores the effects of aging on antibody activity for periods up to 12 months on paper and in solution under different aging and drying conditions—air-dried, lyophilized, and kept as a liquid. Paper kept wet with undiluted antibody is shown to have the longest shelf-life and the clearest negatives. Antibody diluted with bovine serum albumin (BSA protects against the lyophilization process, however, beyond 9 months aging, false positives are seen. Paper with air-dried antibodies is not suitable for use after 1 month aging. These results inform preparation and storage conditions for the development of long shelf-life blood grouping paper-based diagnostics.

  18. The Influence of Biochemical Modification on the Properties of Adhesive Compounds

    OpenAIRE

    Anna Rudawska; Izabela Haniecka; Magdalena Jaszek; Monika Osińska-Jaroszuk

    2016-01-01

    The main objective of this study was to determine the effect of biochemical modification of epoxy adhesive compounds on the mechanical properties of a cured adhesive exposed to various climatic factors. The epoxy adhesive was modified by lyophilized fungal metabolites and prepared by three methods. Additionally, the adhesive compound specimens were seasoned for two months at a temperature of 50 °C and 50% humidity in a climate test chamber, Espec SH 661. The tensile strength tests of the adh...

  19. Methods to increase the rate of mass transfer during osmotic dehydration of foods

    OpenAIRE

    Anna Chwastek

    2014-01-01

    Traditional methods of food preservation such as freezing, freeze drying (lyophilization), vacuum drying, convection drying are often supplemented by new technologies that enable obtaining of high quality products. Osmotic dehydration is more and more often used during processing of fruits and vegetables. This method allows maintaining good organoleptic and functional properties in the finished product. Obtaining the desired degree of dehydration or saturation of the material with an osmoacti...

  20. Productivity of lactating cows fed on a diet of haylage from a vetch pea-oat mixture with the introduction of new biological preservative

    OpenAIRE

    P. I. Baryshnikov; V. N. Khaustov; S. V. Burtseva; R. V. Nekrasov; M. G. Chabaev; A. А. Zelenchikova; D. A. Durnikin

    2016-01-01

    The effect of a new biological preservative representing a mix of lyophilized Lactobacillus plantarum VKPM V-4173, Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis VKPM V-2092 and Propionibacterium acidipropionici VKPMV-5723 strains (40 : 40 : 20) on the quality of haylage prepared from a mix of vetch, oats, and pea has been studied. The total bacteria content in the preservative was 1·1011 CFU/g. Five different variants of conservation of alfalfa haylage prepared at the budding stage were evaluated under la...

  1. Building a world class, globally competitive pharmaceutical business out of South Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Nicolaou, Stavros

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available -bed dried products (2A) & oven dried products (2B) End state solid packing for domestic market Eye drops, lyophilized vials, ampoules and vials for domestic and export markets Warehousing for domestic and export markets Warehousing... view of Aspen’s Global Manufacturing Base in Port Elizabeth Sterile Lyophillisation & Eye drop Facility Technical Centre UNIT 1 : Oral Solids Sterile Warehouse UNIT 4: High Containment Suite Construction UNIT 3 : General Facility UNIT 2...

  2. Humeral repair in birds by guided tissue regeneration and external and internal associated fixation techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delogu, M.

    1993-01-01

    Ten pigeons (Columba livia domestic form) with humeral diaphyseal fracture were treated with external and internal fixation techniques (Boston technique and intamedullary pin). Longitudinal space was intentionally left between fracture surfaces during osteosynthesis. This space was filled with bovine lyophilized collagen, set around an intramedullary pin, in five samples. Ossification process was checked by radiography every seven days. Results show the utility of this technique in pneumatic bird bones. In fact, shortening control and callus formation facility were observed [it

  3. Comparison of hypotensive, diuretic and renal effects between cladodes of Opuntia ficus-indica and furosemide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakour, Meryem; Al-Waili, Noori; El-Haskoury, Redouan; El-Menyiy, Nawal; Al-Waili, Thia; Al-Waili, Ali; Lyoussi, Badiaa

    2017-09-01

    To investigate the diuretic, hypotensive and renal effect of Opuntia ficus-indica in two different species in oral and intravenous administration. Diuretic activity was evaluated in rats with the plant cladode gel and aqueous extract administrated orally, and was evaluated in rabbits with plant extract administered intravenously. Single and repeated doses of cladode gel or aqueous extract of cladode were tested. Urine volume and blood and urine creatinine, sodium and potassium were measured, and creatinine clearance was calculated. The hypotensive effect of lyophilized extract of cladode was evaluated in rabbits. Two polyethylene PE50 catheters were used: one in the jugular vein for the infusion of the plant extract and the other in the carotid for the evaluation of the arterial pressure. The cladode gel or aqueous extract increased urine volume, creatinine clearance and urinary excretion of sodium and potassium without significant effect on serum creatinine or blood urea. Furosemide, gel and aqueous extract of cladode insignificantly lowered plasma potassium in rats. Intravenous administration of the lyophilized extract caused a significant decrease in mean arterial pressure in rabbits with a significant increase in urine volume and urine sodium and potassium; the effect was dose dependent. Intravenous administration of lyophilized extract did not affect plasma sodium or potassium. Gel and aqueous extract of Opuntia ficus-indica cladode have a significant diuretic effect on rats, and the lyophilized extract has a diuretic and hypotensive effect on normotensive rabbits without deterioration in renal function test. Additional studies on active ingredients are essential to pave the way for clinical studies on diuretic and hypotensive effect of the plant. Copyright © 2017 Hainan Medical University. Production and hosting by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Neurotransmitter Receptors and Their Ionic Channels as Targets for Drugs and Toxins

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-01-06

    over a period of three months, the glands and venom sacs were removed, frozen in liquid nitrogen then lyophilized. This honey bee wolf (Philanthus...uses a paralytic venom to immobilize honey bee workers and steal their honey . Water extractU oF lvophilized venom sacs and glands injected into honey bee ...specifically with any of these regulatory proteins and to under- stand mechanisms by which these receptors regulate the selective transloca- tion of

  5. Conformational and bioactivity analysis of insulin: freeze-drying TBA/water co-solvent system in the presence of surfactant and sugar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yong; Deng, Yingjie; Wang, Xueli; Xu, Jinghua; Li, Zhengqiang

    2009-04-17

    Despite the extensive research into the freeze-drying of aqueous solutions of proteins, it remains unknown whether proteins can survive the lyophilization process in a water-organic co-solvent system and how the process and additives affect the structural stability and activity of the proteins. In the present study, a conformational analysis of insulin in the absence/presence of bile salt and trehalose was carried out, before and after freeze-drying of a tert-butyl alcohol (TBA)/water co-solvent system at volume ratios of TBA to water ranging from 50/50 to 0/100. The study involved the use of ultraviolet derivative and fluorescence spectroscopy, circular dichroism (CD) and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy. Also the bioactivity of insulin was evaluated in vivo using the streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic mice as an animal model. Initial investigations indicate that the extent of the structural change of insulin depends significantly both on the TBA content and on the concentration of additives, such as sodium deoxycholate, prior to lyophilization. This could be accounted for by the phase behavior properties of the TBA/water co-solvent system, surface denaturation together with the selective and/or forced dispersion of insulin during phase separation. Lyophilized insulin in the presence of bile salt and trehalose retained more of its bioactivity and native-like structure in the solid state compared with that in the absence of additives at various TBA/water ratios, although in all cases there was a major and reversible rearrangement of secondary structure after rehydration, except for insulin at 50% TBA (v/v). Furthermore, both lyophilization in non-eutectic systems and less structural changes in the formulation process lead to more bioactivity.

  6. Wound healing activity of Ullucus tuberosus, an Andean tuber crop

    OpenAIRE

    Nathalie Heil; Karent Bravo; Andrés Montoya; Sara Robledo; Edison Osorio

    2017-01-01

    Objective: This study was designed to investigate the wound healing activity of aqueous extracts of Ullucus tuberosus (U. tuberosus) using in vitro models. Methods: Lyophilized pulp and acetone extracts of U. tuberosus were produced using ultrasound extraction. The capacity for collagenase activation was evaluated using fluorescence detection of the enzymatic activity. Then, the influence of U. tuberosus extracts on cell proliferation, cell migration and synthesis of the extracellular matr...

  7. A novel approach radiolabeling detonation nanodiamonds through the tritium thermal activation method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Badun, Gennadii A.; Chernysheva, Maria G.; Semenenko, Mikhail N.; Lisichkin, Georgii V. [Lomonosov Moscow State Univ. (Russian Federation). Chemistry Dept.; Yakovlev, Ruslan Yu.; Leonidov, Nikolai B. [Pavlov Ryazan State Medical Univ. (Russian Federation)

    2014-07-01

    Tritium labeling was introduced into detonation nanodiamonds (ND) through the tritium thermal activation method. Two target preparation techniques were developed to increase the radioactivity and the specific radioactivity of the labeled product: the desiccation of the waterless solvent suspension and the lyophilization of the hydrosol. The specific radioactivity of the labeled product was shown to correlate with the hydrogen content in the starting material and to achieve 2.6 TBq/g.

  8. A novel approach radiolabeling detonation nanodiamonds through the tritium thermal activation method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Badun, Gennadii A.; Chernysheva, Maria G.; Semenenko, Mikhail N.; Lisichkin, Georgii V.

    2014-01-01

    Tritium labeling was introduced into detonation nanodiamonds (ND) through the tritium thermal activation method. Two target preparation techniques were developed to increase the radioactivity and the specific radioactivity of the labeled product: the desiccation of the waterless solvent suspension and the lyophilization of the hydrosol. The specific radioactivity of the labeled product was shown to correlate with the hydrogen content in the starting material and to achieve 2.6 TBq/g.

  9. Garlic, Cilantro and Chlorella’s Effect on Kidney Histoarchitecture Changes in Cd-intoxicated Prussian carp (Carassius gibelio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marioara Nicula

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Natural chelators from some natural sources have been shown their detox heavy metals ability in human and animals. So the present study was carried out to histological compare the aspect of kidney tissue of Prussian carp’s specimens, subjected to chronic Cd intoxication with and without garlic, cilantro and chlorella dietary supplementation. 150 Prussian carps, with weight of 10-12 g were divided according to the following treatments for 21 days: C (without treatment, E1 (10 ppm Cd into water as CdCl2 x ½ H2O, E2 (10 ppm Cd into water+2% lyophilized garlic in feed, E3 (10 ppm Cd into water+2% lyophilized cilantro in feed, E4 (10 ppm Cd into water+2% lyophilized chlorella in feed. The potential protective effect of the three lyophilized products against the impact of cadmium toxicity was evaluated in terms of hystopathological characteristics. For this purpose, fragments of kidney were removed and routinely processed at the end of experimental period and analyzed in light microscopy. A specific QuickPHOTO Micro 2.2 software has been used for the histological study. Tissue alterations were assessed using the histopathological score ranging from - to +++ depending on the degree and extend of lesions: (- none, (+ mild occurrence, (++ moderate occurrence, (+++ severe occurrence. Cd contamination has definitely affected the kidney, inducing severe damage in its structure as: swelling and hypertrophy of tubules with nuclear deterioration, pyknosis and cariorrexis, nucleus and cytoplasm degeneration, capillary ectasia and congestions. Active compounds from garlic and cilantro powder have shown the most chelating and antioxidant potential, leading to the evident recovery of kidney architecture, while the response at chlorella treatment was less effective than E2 group and without significant difference compared with E3 group.

  10. Methods of amorphization and investigation of the amorphous state

    OpenAIRE

    EINFALT, TOMAŽ; PLANINŠEK, ODON; HROVAT, KLEMEN

    2013-01-01

    The amorphous form of pharmaceutical materials represents the most energetic solid state of a material. It provides advantages in terms of dissolution rate and bioavailability. This review presents the methods of solid-state amorphization described in literature (supercooling of liquids, milling, lyophilization, spray drying, dehydration of crystalline hydrates), with the emphasis on milling. Furthermore, we describe how amorphous state of pharmaceuticals differ depending on method of prepara...

  11. A Fusion-Inhibiting Peptide against Rift Valley Fever Virus Inhibits Multiple, Diverse Viruses

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-12

    performance liquid chroma- tography to greater than 95% purity (Bio-synthesis, Inc., Lewisville, TX). Lyophilized peptides were initially resuspended in...lesser extent RVFV-6sc, were found to precipitate Gc (Figure 5); however, in the presence of the non- ionic detergent Triton-X, which will solubilize...Viral membrane fusion. Nat Struct Mol Biol 15: 690–698. 12. Allison SL, Schalich J, Stiasny K, Mandl CW, Kunz C, et al. (1995) Oligomeric rearrangement

  12. Garlic, Cilantro and Chlorella’s Effect on Intestine Histoarchitecture Changes in Cd-Intoxicated Prussian Carp (Carassius gibelio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mărioara Nicula

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Bioactive compounds from natural sources can act as oxygen free radical scavengers or metal chelators, which enables them to be used as natural antagonists to heavy metals toxicity. So the present study was carried out to histological compare the aspect of intestine tissue of Prussian carp’s specimens, subjected to chronic Cd intoxication with and without garlic, cilantro and chlorella dietary supplementation.150 Prussian carps, with weight of 10-12 g were divided according to the following treatments for 21 days: C (without treatment, E1 (10 ppm Cd into water, E2 (10 ppm Cd into water+2% lyophilized garlic in feed, E3 (10 ppm Cd into water+2% lyophilized cilantro in feed, E4 (10 ppm Cd into water+2% lyophilized chlorella in feed. Cadmium toxicity and the potential protective effect of the three lyophilized products against the impact of cadmium toxicity were histopathologically assessed. For this purpose, fragments of intestine were removed and routinely processed at the end of experimental period and analyzed in light microscopy. A specific QuickPHOTO Micro 2.2 software has been used for the histological study. Tissue alterations were assessed using the histopathological score ranging from – to +++ depending on the degree and extend of lesions: (- none, (+ mild occurrence, (++ moderate occurrence, (+++ severe occurrence. Our research findings show that Cd induces a significant increase in histopathological changes like vascular network hypertrophies and reach infiltrating leukocyte cells. In the same time, chlorella powder added to the fish diet, expressed the most effectiveness on the intestinal recovery of the cadmium-intoxicated fish followed by while cilantro and garlic powder.

  13. Living Membranes as Environmental Detectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-02-19

    temperatures. Membranes were then rehydrated (for lyophilized samples) or washed with PBS, and GFP or RFP signal was detected in the cellulose...temperatures, to be reconstituted and respond functionally to control stimuli. However, the rehydration time required was longer than optimal...In order to reduce that time, pellicles were grown with bovine gelatin to facilitate a more rapid rehydration . A range of gelatin was added to the

  14. Stability studies on piroxicam encapsulated niosomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ertekin, Zehra Ceren; Bayindir, Zerrin Sezgin; Yuksel, Nilufer

    2015-01-01

    Drug delivery systems which yield ideal treatments are currently the center of interest for researchers. Niosomes have numerous advantages over other drug delivery systems. However, stability issue is not clear yet and is a serious drawback for niosomes. In this study, the stability of niosomes was the center of interest. Piroxicam which was chosen as the model drug was loaded to niosomes. Niosomes were prepared by thin-film method and different forms (aqueous dispersion, lyophilized powder and lyophilized powder with cryoprotectant) of the original niosome formulation were prepared. The samples were stored either at 5°C±3°C or 25°C±2°C/60% RH±5% RH for 3 months. The drug leakage percent, particle size and distribution, zeta potential, drug release profiles were determined and niosomes were visualized under optic microscope. Niosome formulation provided sustained release of piroxicam. The drug leakage from stored niosomes was observed at the level of 1.56-6.63 %. Individual vesicle images were obtained for all samples by optical microscope. However, particle size of niosomes was increased upon storage. The zeta potential values were neither related to time nor physical form. Drug release profiles and amounts were quite similar for all forms of niosomes and the original formulation but a slight decrease was noticed on drug release amounts by time. This indicates that niosomes become more rigid by time. Although the ideal storage was obtained with lyophilized niosomes at 5±3°C in this study, the usage of suitable cryoprotectant and optimized lyophilization process should be further evaluated.

  15. Autologous Marrow-Derived Stem Cell-Seeded Gene-Supplemented Collagen Scaffolds for Spinal Cord Regeneration as a Treatment for Paralysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-11-01

    seeded scaffolds Chondrocytes were isolated by enzymatic digestion of articular cartilage from the knee (stifle) joint of an adult dog. The cartilage...lyophilized and enzymatically digested using proteinase K (Roche Diagnostics, Indianapo- lis, IN) for DNA and GAG biochemical analyses. DNA analysis The DNA...Gelatin nanoencapsulation of protein/ peptide drugs using an emulsifier-free emulsion method. J Microencapsul 1998;15:163–172. 17. Truong-Le VL, August JT

  16. Picibanil (OK-432) in the treatment of head and neck lymphangiomas in children

    OpenAIRE

    Rebuffini, Elena; Zuccarino, Luca; Grecchi, Emma; Carinci, Francesco; Merulla, Vittorio Emanuele

    2012-01-01

    Background: Picibanil (OK-432) is a lyophilized mixture of group A Streptococcus pyogenes with antineoplastic activity. Because of its capacity to produce a selective fibrosis of lymphangiomas (LMs), it has been approved by Japanese administration in 1995 for the treatment of LMs. Materials and Methods: We treated 15 children (age range: 6-60 months) affected by head and neck macrocystic LMs with intracystic injections (single dose of 0.2 mL) of Picibanil (1-3 injections). Results: Co...

  17. The Drying of Foods and its Effect on the Physical-Chemical, Sensorial and Nutritional Properties

    OpenAIRE

    Guiné, Raquel

    2017-01-01

    Drying of foods is an ancient practice that has been adopted to preserve foods beyond their natural shelf life. The process started with the exposure of foods to the sun, to extract from them a great proportion of the water, thus contributing for their conservation. The traditional solar dying with direct exposure to the sun had many disadvantages and presently more modern methods are used, such as hot air drying, spray drying, lyophilization, infrared, microwave or radiofrequency drying, osm...

  18. 2D-Titanium dioxide nanosheets modified with Nd, Ag and Au: Preparation, characterization and photocatalytic activity

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pližingrová, Eva; Klementová, Mariana; Bezdička, Petr; Boháček, Jaroslav; Barbieriková, Z.; Dvoranová, D.; Mazúr, M.; Krýsa, J.; Šubrt, Jan; Brezová, V.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 281, MAR (2017), s. 165-180 ISSN 0920-5861 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA14-20744S; GA MŠk(CZ) 7AMB14SK178 Institutional support: RVO:61388980 Keywords : Modified titanium dioxide * Photocatalysis * Plasmonic effect * EPR spectroscopy * Lyophilization * Spin trapping Subject RIV: CA - Inorganic Chemistry OBOR OECD: Inorganic and nuclear chemistry Impact factor: 4.636, year: 2016

  19. Technical problems associated with the production of technetium Tc 99m tin(II) pyrophosphate kits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kowalsky, R.J.; Dalton, D.R.

    1981-01-01

    The amount of tin(II) required for adequate reduction, complexation, and stability of technetium Tc 99m pertechnetate in radiopharmaceutical kits, and methods of preventing the loss of tin(II) during formulation of these lyophilized kits are investigated. Tin(II) loss from stannous chloride solutions was studied under several conditions, including room air versus nitrogen atmospheres, during vial filling in a laminar-flow hood with samples frozen on dry ice versus samples at room temperature, during lyophilization, and during storage under refrigerated, ambient, and elevated temperatures. Various amounts of stannous chloride, ranging from 5 to 1000 microgram/ml, were used in formulating sodium pertechnetate Tc 99m kits containing 100 mCi technetium Tc 99m and 0.4 microgram total technetium. Samples were removed at various times; hydrolyzed technetium, pertechnetate, and technetium Tc 99m pyrophosphate were isolated on instant thin-layer chromatography-silica gel and quantified with a scintillation counter. The time necessary to deoxygenate distilled water by nitrogen purging was measured. Several sources of stannous chloride were assayed for tin(II) content. Tin(II) loss occurs rapidly in solution (15% in one hour) unless continuously protected with nitrogen, and during vial filling in a laminar-flow hood unless frozen with dry ice. No substantial loss of tin(II) was detected during lyophilization or during storage of lyophilized product at any of the three temperatures. A minimum of 400 microgram tin(II) was required to provide 90% technetium Tc 99m pyrophosphate at six hours after preparation. Adequate deoxygenation of small quantities (450 ml) of water was accomplished in less than one hour. Some stannous chloride salts were highly oxidized in the dry state, and only high-purity elemental tin wire gave acceptable yields of tin

  20. A simple field kit for the determination of drug susceptibility in Plasmodium falciparum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen-Dinh, P; Magloire, R; Chin, W

    1983-05-01

    A field kit has been developed which greatly simplifies the performance of the 48-hour in vitro test for drug resistance in Plasmodium falciparum. The kit uses an easily reconstituted lyophilized culture medium, and requires only a fingerprick blood sample. In parallel tests with 13 isolates of P. falciparum in Haiti, the new technique had a success rate equal to that of the previously described method, with comparable results in terms of parasite susceptibility in vitro to chloroquine and pyrimethamine.

  1. The DTIC Review: Volume 2, Number 4, Surviving Chemical and Biological Warfare

    Science.gov (United States)

    1996-12-01

    formulated with PA strategic defeat. plus Monophosphoryl Lipid A (MPL) in a Squalenel Lecithin / Tween 80 emulsion (SLT) and PA plus the saponin QS-21...PIGS, LYOPHILIZATION, IMMUNOGENS, LECITHIN . IDENTIFIERS: (U) MPL (MONOPHOSPHORYL LIPID A), SLT(SQUELENEL LECITHIN /TWEEN) + Included in The DTIC Review...mass spectrometric methods have and expressed in E. coli, and has been shown to hydrolyze the been developed as independent highly sensitive techniques

  2. Alveolar ridge augmentation by osteoinductive materials in goats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pinholt, E M; Haanaes, H R; Roervik, M

    1992-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to determine whether alveolar ridge augmentation could be induced in goats. In 12 male goats allogenic, demineralized, and lyophilized dentin or bone was implanted subperiosteally on the buccal sides of the natural edentulous regions of the alveolar process...... of the mandible. Light microscopic evaluation revealed fibrous encapsulation, a few multinuclear giant cells, little inflammatory reaction, and no osteoinduction. It was concluded that no osteoinduction took place in goats....

  3. Assessment of the effect of the technological processing and the storage term on the fatty acid composition of buffalo yoghurt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ivanova, S.; Miteva, D.; Tsvetkov, Ts.

    2011-01-01

    The fatty acid composition of the milk fat of buffalo yoghurt after lyophilization and gamma ray treatment with dozes 2 and 4 kGy has been investigated.It has been established that the fatty acid spectrums of these fat contain a considerable number of short, medium and long chain fatty acids.The buffalo milk fat after treatment has fatty acid composition a typical specific quantitative balancing

  4. Determination of polysaccharide yield from the fruiting bodies and mycelium of selected mushroom species

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shaiful Azuar Mohamad; Mat Rasol Awang

    2006-01-01

    Numerous polysaccharides and polysaccharides-protein complexes have been isolated from mushrooms and used as a source of therapeutic agents. The mycelium of Pleurotus sajor caju, Pleurotus tuber-regium, black ganoderma, and the fruiting bodies of Pleurotus sajor caju and Pleurotus florida were used to determine the percentage of polysaccharides obtained from the mushroom raw material. Hot water extraction method was used followed by refrigerated centrifuge and lyophilization. The yield from the various species will be compared. (Author)

  5. A study of human liver ferritin and chicken liver and spleen using Moessbauer spectroscopy with high velocity resolution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oshtrakh, M. I., E-mail: oshtrakh@mail.utnet.ru [Ural State Technical University-UPI, Faculty of Physical Techniques and Devices for Quality Control (Russian Federation); Milder, O. B.; Semionkin, V. A. [Ural State Technical University-UPI, Faculty of Experimental Physics (Russian Federation)

    2008-01-15

    Lyophilized samples of human liver ferritin and chicken liver and spleen were measured at room temperature using Moessbauer spectroscopy with high velocity resolution. An increase in the velocity resolution of Moessbauer spectroscopy permitted us to increase accuracy and decrease experimental error in determining the hyperfine parameters of human liver ferritin and chicken liver and spleen. Moessbauer spectroscopy with high velocity resolution may be very useful for revealing small differences in hyperfine parameters during biomedical research.

  6. Fabrication of highly porous biodegradable biomimetic nanocomposite as advanced bone tissue scaffold

    OpenAIRE

    Abdalla Abdal-hay; Khalil Abdelrazek Khalil; Abdel Salam Hamdy; Fawzi F. Al-Jassir

    2017-01-01

    Development of bioinspired or biomimetic materials is currently a challenge in the field of tissue regeneration. In-situ 3D biomimetic microporous nanocomposite scaffold has been developed using a simple lyophilization post hydrothermal reaction for bone healing applications. The fabricated 3D porous scaffold possesses advantages of good bonelike apatite particles distribution, thermal properties and high porous interconnected network structure. High dispersion bonelike apatite nanoparticles ...

  7. Challenges to Improve the Stability and Efficacy of an Intravesical BCG Product

    OpenAIRE

    Hozouri, Hamidreza; Norouzian, Dariush; Nafissi-Varcheh, Nastaran; Aboofazeli, Reza

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this investigation was to improve the storage stability and survival rate of an intravesical BCG product, manufactured with an attenuated strain of Mycobacterium bovis (Pasteur strain 1173P2 of BCG) in the presence of sodium glutamate. Formulations with various concentrations of trehalose (a known protectant) were developed as liquid and lyophilized forms. Formulations were evaluated by different methods, including optical density measurement, safety assessment, skin reaction test,...

  8. Influence of heat treatment on physicochemical and rheological characteristics of natural yogurts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana Aparecida Célia

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to assess the influence of heat treatment on physicochemical and rheological characteristics of natural yogurts, as well as the influence of lyophilization process on natural yogurts after reconstitution. In the first experiment, three yogurt treatments were processed, as follows: Treatment 1, yogurt produced with raw refrigerated milk; Treatment 2, yogurt produced with refrigerated pasteurized milk; and Treatment 3, yogurt produced with UHT (ultra-high temperature milk, in addition to analyses of fat, protein, moisture, titratable acidity, and pH. The shelf life of yogurts at 1, 8, 15, 22, and 29 days of storage, as well as pH, acidity, syneresis, viscosity, viable lactic bacteria, and total coliforms were also assessed. In the second experiment, yogurts were submitted to lyophilization process, performed by scanning electron microscopy analysis and subsequently in those reconstituted, in addition to being assessed the physicochemical, rheological, and viable lactic bacteria characteristics. The results found in the first experiment showed that heat treatment was positive for viscosity, syneresis, and lactic bacteria, being viable until the 15th day of storage only for yogurts submitted to heat treatment. In the second experiment, lyophilization preserved the physicochemical characteristics of yogurts, but the number of initial lactic bacteria was different, also negatively affecting yogurt viscosity.

  9. Study and preparation of 99Tcm-GP kit for lung ventilation imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu Lin; Meng Fanmin; Zhang Jihong; Hong Tao; Liu Yunzhong; Liu Xiujie

    1997-01-01

    The preparation of the lyophilizing reagent, D-glucose-l-phosphate (GP) kit and the method of using this kit to label 99 Tc m to form 99 Tc m -GP for lung ventilation imaging at room temperature in a simple, rapid procedure are described. The stability of the lyophilizing reagent kit under various stock conditions is examined. The results show that all of the 99 Tc m -GP yields by the lyophilizing reagent kit are above 95% at 4 degree C (cold), 20-25 degree C (room temperature) and 40 degree C (oven) for 180, 90 and 3 days, respectively. The clinical practice indicates that in comparison with 99 Tc m -DTPA, 99 Tc m -GP has remarkable difference (P 99 Tc m -GP is an ideal radioaerosol for SPECT studies of lung ventilation. It has high alveolar deposition rate but low adhesion in the major airways compared to those of 99 Tc m -DTPA. 99 Tc m -GP also features prolonged pulmonary clearance time

  10. Tempeh flour as a substitute for soybean flour in coconut cookies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Santos Leite

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to prepare roasted and lyophilized tempeh flour with soybean cultivar BRS 267 to apply them in the formulation of coconut biscuits. The cookies produced with whole soy flour and mixed flour of soybean and tempeh were evaluated for proximate composition, fatty acid profile, and isoflavone aglycones in order to verify the effects of inoculation with the fungus Rhizopus oligosporus and those of the drying processes of roasting and lyophilization on the chemical characteristics of the final product. Sensory acceptance and purchase intention of the formulated products were also evaluated. The results indicate the maintenance of linolenic acid, which is important in the prevention of coronary diseases, and an increase in the aglycones levels when the tempeh flour was used. Lipids and proteins showed differences, and the sensory analyses demonstrated similarity between the cookies with satisfactory scores for aroma, flavor, texture, and overall acceptability for both samples. when compared to the control. Purchase intent was also positive for the lyophilized and toasted tempeh flours, thus enabling the use of the roasting process as a simple drying method, for processing tempeh and obtaining a flour rich in proteins and aglycones that can be used as a partial substitute for soy flour in cookies and other bakery products.

  11. Analysis of gamma irradiated pepper constituents, 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takagi, Kazuko; Ochiai, Junko; Okuyama, Tsuneo

    1988-01-01

    Black pepper, white pepper, frozen green pepper and real pink pepper (kept in vinegar) were analyzed by reversed phase IIPLC. The extraction method and HPLC conditions were same as the first report, that is, the extraction from pepper was performed by Automatic Air Hammer and the extracted samples were separated on a reversed phase C 8 column with a concave gradient from 0.1% trifluoro aceticacid (TFA) in water to 75% acetonitrile - 0.1% TFA in water for 60 minutes and detected at 210 nm, 280 nm. The different constituents were observed clearly on chromatogram between black pepper and white pepper. The different constituents were observed between different producing white peppers, and as the result that the analyzed pepper was distinguished its producing district by HPLC chromatogram. In order to investigate of effect of lyophilization on white pepper extracts, lyophilized extraction was analyzed by this HPLC method. Some peaks were decreased by lyophilization. The effect of heat on white pepper constituents was examined. White pepper was heated by electronic oven and thermostat. When the former method was used, decreased peak number (peak height was lower than without heat treatment) was more than latter method. These subtle change was able to be recognized by these HPLC chromatograms. (author)

  12. Heavy metal accumulation by carrageenan and agar producing algae

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burdin, K.S. [Moscow State Univ. (Russian Federation). Faculty of Biology; Bird, K.T. [North Carolina Univ., Wilmington, NC (United States). Center for Marine Science Research

    1994-09-01

    The accumulation of six heavy metals Cu, Cd, Ni, Zn, Mn and Pb was measured in living and lzophilized algal thalli. The agar producing algae were Gracilaria tikvahiae and Gelidium pusillum. The carrageenan producing macroalgae were Agardhiella subulata and the gametophyte and tetrasporophyte phases of Chondrus crispus. These produce primarily iota, kappa and lambda carrageenans, respectively. At heavy metal concentrations of 0.5 mg L{sup -1}, living thalli of Gracilaria tikvahiae generally showed the greatest amount of accumulation of the 6 heavy metals tested. The accumulation of Pb was greater in the living thalli of all four species than in the lyophilized thalli. Except for Agardhiella subulata, lyophilized thalli showed greater accumulation of Ni, Cu and Zn. There was no difference in heavy metal accumulation between living and lyophilized thalli in the accumulation of Cd. Manganese showed no accumulation at the tested concentration. There did not appear to be a relationship between algal hydrocolloid characteristics and the amounts of heavy metals accumulated. (orig.)

  13. Evaluation of factors affecting on lipid extraction for recovery of fatty acids from Nannochloropsis oculata micro-algae to biodiesel production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Malakootian

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: This study aimed at determining the appropriate method for dewatering and drying biomass and selecting a suitable organic solvent for lipid extraction. Methods: NannochloropsisOculata was cultured in Gillard F/2 medium and after reaching the end of the stationary growth phase, algal biomass was separated from aqueous by centrifuge and dried through three methods: Oven, Air-dried and Lyophilized. Soxhlet apparatus achieved lipid extraction of all samples: diethyl ether, n-hexane and n-pentane using three solvents. At each stage, the quantity and quality of the extracted lipids were determined by Gas Chromatography. Results: In all three drying methods, palmitic acid and palmitoleic acid, and most significantly fatty acid composition of microalgae were extracted. The fatty acid composition of palmitic acid extracted by Diethyl ether was significantly more than the other two solvents. Maximum production of triglyceride was observed in Lyophilized and air-dried microalgae where lipid extraction was performed with diethyl ether solvents and are 75.03% and 76.72% of fatty acid. Conclusion: The use of Lyophilized method for dewatering and drying of biomass and Diethyl ether as solvent for the extraction of lipids from biomass, studied in this paper, as compared to other methods, had higher yields and researches proved that the production of biodiesel from microalgae’s lipid was more efficient.

  14. Rheological Properties, Water-Holding and Oil-Binding Capacities of Particulate β-Glucans Isolated from Spent Brewer’s Yeast by Three Different Procedures

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    Vlatka Petravić-Tominac

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Particulate β-glucans were isolated from brewer’s yeast using three different procedures – alkaline (A, alkaline-acidic (AA and alkaline-acidic with mannoprotein removal (AAM and dried using three different methods – air drying (AD, lyophilization (L and spray drying (SD. In this work, the obtained β-glucan preparations were tested for their microstructure, rheological properties, swelling, water-holding and oil-binding capacities. According to their rheological properties, suspensions containing 1 and 2 % (by mass of spray-dried samples belong to the category of dilatant fluids. Among the spray-dried samples, rheological behaviour and water-holding capacity of the preparation AA-SD differed from those obtained by other two procedures (A-SD and AAM-SD. Concerning different drying methods applied, swelling was the lowest in the lyophilized samples and the most pronounced in the air-dried ones. Oil-binding capacity was the highest in the lyophilized preparations and increased proportionally to the number of processing steps applied in the isolation procedure.

  15. Validation of the aseptic filling at the Parenteral Products Plant 3 in BioCen

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    Marisol Álvarez-González

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available As part of the continuous improvement process, a new parenterals production plant (PPP3 was constructed at the National Center for Bioproducts. The validation of the aseptic filling process is a key element to carry out before manufacturing products. Therefore, the aim of this work was to obtain documented evidence that all the operations were carried out according the regulations of Good Manufacturing Practices for liquid and lyophilized sterile products during the aseptic filling at the Parenterals Product Plant 3. The study was designed for lyophilized products connected to the manifold of the peristaltic pump and to the four rotary piston pumps. Besides, during the filling operation four interventions were planned. The validation was carried out with three consecutive batches of media fill. In the first processed lot no vial was contaminated, but in the second and third lots there was one contaminated vial. For that reason, an investigation was performed in order to know the cause of the contamination. Finally, with this wok the validated condition was obtained, following the regulations of Good Manufacturing Practices for sterile liquids and lyophilizes products during the aseptic filling process at the Parenterals Products Plant 3.

  16. Survival or revival: long-term preservation induces a reversible viable but non-culturable state in methane-oxidizing bacteria.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sven Hoefman

    Full Text Available Knowledge on long-term preservation of micro-organisms is limited and research in the field is scarce despite its importance for microbial biodiversity and biotechnological innovation. Preservation of fastidious organisms such as methane-oxidizing bacteria (MOB has proven difficult. Most MOB do not survive lyophilization and only some can be cryopreserved successfully for short periods. A large-scale study was designed for a diverse set of MOB applying fifteen cryopreservation or lyophilization conditions. After three, six and twelve months of preservation, the viability (via live-dead flow cytometry and culturability (via most-probable number analysis and plating of the cells were assessed. All strains could be cryopreserved without a significant loss in culturability using 1% trehalose in 10-fold diluted TSB (TT as preservation medium and 5% DMSO as cryoprotectant. Several other cryopreservation and lyophilization conditions, all of which involved the use of TT medium, also allowed successful preservation but showed a considerable loss in culturability. We demonstrate here that most of these non-culturables survived preservation according to viability assessment indicating that preservation induces a viable but non-culturable (VBNC state in a significant fraction of cells. Since this state is reversible, these findings have major implications shifting the emphasis from survival to revival of cells in a preservation protocol. We showed that MOB cells could be significantly resuscitated from the VBNC state using the TT preservation medium.

  17. Preparation of N-(3-BROMO-2,4,6-trimethylacetanilide) iminodiacetic acid and its 99MTc-complex for hepatobiliary imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Ok Ja; Hong, Young Don; Gwon, Hui Jeong; Choi, Sang Mu; Choi, Sun Ju

    2005-01-01

    N-(3-bromo-2,4,6-trimethylacetanilide) iminodiacetic acid (BrTIDA) was synthesized using nitrilotriacetic anhydride prepared in situ, and lyophilized vials were prepared which contained 20 mg of BrTIDA and 0.4 mg of SnCl 2 . To evaluate the clinical efficacy of the in-house prepared lyophilized kit, a technetium-99m complex of BrTIDA was prepared; its in vivo pharmacokinetic behavior was evaluated via animal studies to assess the hepatocytic function and the functional status of the cystic duct and the gallbladder. Serial static image scans of rabbits and the biodistribution in mice injected with 99m Tc-BrTIDA revealed that none of the tissues except for the hepatobiliary system showed radioactivity concentrations, and a rapid clearance from the organs was observed. In conclusion, a lyophilized kit and its prepared 99m Tc-BrTIDA can be applied as a hepatobiliary imaging agent for the evaluation of the functional status of the hepatocytes and the patency of the biliary duct

  18. Inactivation of viruses in labile blood derivatives. II. Physical methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horowitz, B.; Wiebe, M.E.; Lippin, A.; Vandersande, J.; Stryker, M.H.

    1985-01-01

    The thermal inactivation of viruses in labile blood derivatives was evaluated by addition of marker viruses (VSV, Sindbis, Sendai, EMC) to anti-hemophilic factor (AHF) concentrates. The rate of virus inactivation at 60 degrees C was decreased by at least 100- to 700-fold by inclusion of 2.75 M glycine and 50 percent sucrose, or 3.0 M potassium citrate, additives which contribute to retention of protein biologic activity. Nonetheless, at least 10(4) infectious units of each virus was inactivated within 10 hours. Increasing the temperature from 60 to 70 or 80 degrees C caused a 90 percent or greater loss in AHF activity. An even greater decline in the rate of virus inactivation was observed on heating AHF in the lyophilized state, although no loss in AHF activity was observed after 72 hours of heating at 60 degrees C. Several of the proteins present in lyophilized AHF concentrates displayed an altered electrophoretic mobility as a result of exposure to 60 degrees C for 24 hours. Exposure of lyophilized AHF to irradiation from a cobalt 60 source resulted in an acceptable yield of AHF at 1.0, but not at 2.0, megarads. At 1 megarad, greater than or equal to 6.0 logs of VSV and 3.3 logs of Sindbis virus were inactivated

  19. Effect of chemical stabilizers on the thermostability and infectivity of a representative panel of freeze dried viruses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boris Pastorino

    Full Text Available As a partner of the European Virus Archive (EVA FP7 project, our laboratory maintains a large collection of freeze-dried viruses. The distribution of these viruses to academic researchers, public health organizations and industry is one major aim of the EVA consortium. It is known that lyophilization requires appropriate stabilizers to prevent inactivation of the virus. However, few studies have investigated the influence of different stabilizers and lyophilization protocols on the thermostability of different viruses. In order to identify optimal lyophilization conditions that will deliver maximum retention of viral infectivity titre, different stabilizer formulations containing trehalose, sorbitol, sucrose or foetal bovine serum were evaluated for their efficacy in stabilizing a representative panel of freeze dried viruses at different storage temperatures (-20°C, +4°C and +20°C for one week, the two latter mimicking suboptimal shipping conditions. The Tissue Culture Infectious Dose 50% (TCID50 assay was used to compare the titres of infectious virus. The results obtained using four relevant and model viruses (enveloped/non enveloped RNA/DNA viruses still serve to improve the freeze drying conditions needed for the development and the distribution of a large virus collection.

  20. Rapid Reconstitution Packages (RRPs) implemented by integration of computational fluid dynamics (CFD) and 3D printed microfluidics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chi, Albert; Curi, Sebastian; Clayton, Kevin; Luciano, David; Klauber, Kameron; Alexander-Katz, Alfredo; D'hers, Sebastian; Elman, Noel M

    2014-08-01

    Rapid Reconstitution Packages (RRPs) are portable platforms that integrate microfluidics for rapid reconstitution of lyophilized drugs. Rapid reconstitution of lyophilized drugs using standard vials and syringes is an error-prone process. RRPs were designed using computational fluid dynamics (CFD) techniques to optimize fluidic structures for rapid mixing and integrating physical properties of targeted drugs and diluents. Devices were manufactured using stereo lithography 3D printing for micrometer structural precision and rapid prototyping. Tissue plasminogen activator (tPA) was selected as the initial model drug to test the RRPs as it is unstable in solution. tPA is a thrombolytic drug, stored in lyophilized form, required in emergency settings for which rapid reconstitution is of critical importance. RRP performance and drug stability were evaluated by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) to characterize release kinetics. In addition, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs) were performed to test for drug activity after the RRPs were exposed to various controlled temperature conditions. Experimental results showed that RRPs provided effective reconstitution of tPA that strongly correlated with CFD results. Simulation and experimental results show that release kinetics can be adjusted by tuning the device structural dimensions and diluent drug physical parameters. The design of RRPs can be tailored for a number of applications by taking into account physical parameters of the active pharmaceutical ingredients (APIs), excipients, and diluents. RRPs are portable platforms that can be utilized for reconstitution of emergency drugs in time-critical therapies.

  1. Microcapsules loaded with the probiotic Lactobacillus paracasei BGP-1 produced by co-extrusion technology using alginate/shellac as wall material: Characterization and evaluation of drying processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Marluci P; Tulini, Fabricio L; Ribas, Marcela M; Penning, Manfred; Fávaro-Trindade, Carmen S; Poncelet, Denis

    2016-11-01

    Microcapsules containing Lactobacillus paracasei BGP-1 were produced by co-extrusion technology using alginate and alginate-shellac blend as wall materials. Sunflower oil and coconut fat were used as vehicles to incorporate BGP-1 into the microcapsules. The microcapsules were evaluated with regard the particle size, morphology, water activity and survival of probiotics after 60days of storage at room temperature. Fluidized bed and lyophilization were used to dry the microcapsules and the effect of these processes on probiotic viability was also evaluated. Next, dried microcapsules were exposed to simulated gastrointestinal fluids to verify the survival of BGP-1. Microcapsules dried by fluidized bed had spherical shape and robust structures, whereas lyophilized microcapsules had porous and fragile structures. Dried microcapsules presented a medium size of 0.71-0.86mm and a w ranging from 0.14 to 0.36, depending on the drying process. When comparing the effects of drying processes on BGP-1 viability, the fluidized bed was less aggressive than lyophilization. The alginate-shellac blend combined with coconut fat as core effectively protected the encapsulated probiotic under simulated gastrointestinal conditions. Thus, the production of microcapsules by co-extrusion followed by drying using the fluidized bed is a promising strategy for protection of probiotic cells. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. 99mTc-Dextran-70: preparation and quality control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herrerias, Rosana; Muramoto, Emiko; Hamada, Elena S.; Barboza, Marycel F. de; Silva, Constancia P.G. da

    1997-01-01

    Dextran-70 labelled with 99m Tc is used for lymphocintigraphy in Nuclear Medicine. The aims of this work were: the lyophilized kit formulation; the radiochemical quality control determination and the biodistribution studies in Wistar rats. Each lyophilized vial contains: 50 mg Dextran-70 (Sigma); 750 μg Sn Cl 2 . 2 H 2 O, pH = 4.0. For the radiochemical determination the following parameters were assayed: Chromatography systems (Whatman 3MM, TLC-SG (Silica-gel) e TLC-A1 (aluminium); the 99m Tc activities (37, 111 and 1850 MBq); the 99m Tc volumes (1,3,5 and 8 mL) and the stability after the lyophilization process (1, 3, 6, 12 and 24 months). The Whatman 3MM chromatography system using acetone as solvent presented a purity yield of 99.88; 99.70; 99.00 and 98.92% using 1, 3, 5 and 8 mL of 99m Tc, respectively. The yield of labelling showed 99.80 % of radiochemical purity using 1850 MBq of 99m Tc, after 24 months. The biological studies were performed in Wistar rats, average weight 250g, after intravenous administration of 99m Tc-Dextran-70 (2.96 MBq). A slow blood decrease with high hepatic uptake was mesured. The high kidney uptake observed, during the experiment, was due the experiment, was due the fact that the animals were kept under anaesthesic effect. (author). 4 refs., 2 figs., 4 tabs

  3. A combined bottom-up/top-down approach to prepare a sterile injectable nanosuspension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Xi; Chen, Xi; Zhang, Ling; Lin, Xia; Zhang, Yu; Tang, Xing; Wang, Yanjiao

    2014-09-10

    To prepare a uniform nanosuspension of strongly hydrophobic riboflavin laurate (RFL) allowing sterile filtration, physical modification (bottom-up) was combined with high-pressure homogenization (top-down) method. Unlike other bottom-up approaches, physical modification with surfactants (TPGS and PL-100) by lyophilization controlled crystallization and compensated for the poor wettability of RFL. On one hand, crystal growth and aggregation during freezing was restricted by a stabilizer-layer adsorbed on the drug surface by hydrophobic interaction. On the other hand, subsequent crystallization of drug in the sublimation process was limited to the interstitial spaces between solvent crystals. After lyophilization, modified drug with a smaller particle size and better wettability was obtained. When adding surfactant solution, water molecules passed between the hydrophilic groups of surface active molecules and activated the polymer chains allowing them to stretch into water. The coarse suspension was crushed into a nanosuspension (MP=162 nm) by high-pressure homogenization. For long term stability, lyophilization was applied again to solidify the nanosuspension (sorbitol as cryoprotectant). A slight crystal growth to about 600 nm was obtained to allow slow release for a sustained effect after muscular administration. Moreover, no paw-licking responses and very slight muscular inflammation demonstrated the excellent biocompatibility of this long-acting RFL injection. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Development of formulation device for periodontal disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Yasuhiko; Oba, Takuma; Watanabe, Norio; Danjo, Kazumi

    2012-01-01

    In addition to providing standard surgical treatment that removes the plaque and infected tissues, medications that can regenerate periodontal tissue are also required in the treatment of periodontal disease. As a form of regenerative medication, various growth factors are expected to be used while treating periodontal disease. A protein-like growth factor is often developed as a lyophilized product with dissolution liquid, considering its instability in the solution state. We have clarified that the formulation for periodontal disease needs to be viscous. When the lyophilized product was dissolved using a sticky solution, various problems were encountered, difficulty in dissolving and air bubbles, for example, and some efforts were needed to prepare the formulation. In this research, to identify the problem of preparing a viscous formulation, a lyophilized product (placebo) and sticky liquid were prepared by using vial and ampoule as the conventional containers. Based on these problems, a prototype administration device was developed, and its functionality was confirmed. As a result, it was suggested that the device with a useful mixing system that could shorten the preparation time was developed.

  5. A dual strategy to improve psychotic patients’ compliance using sustained release quetiapine oral disintegrating tablets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Refaat Ahmed

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Quetiapine (QT is a short acting atypical antipsychotic drug effective in schizophrenia and bipolar disorder. This study aims at designing a novel dosage form of sustained release taste-masked QT orally disintegrating tablets (ODTs based on solid lipid micro-pellets (SLMPs. QT SLMPs were prepared using the hot melt extrusion technique and utilizing three lipid carriers: Compritol, Precirol and white beeswax either alone or in mixtures. They showed sustained QT release and a taste masking effect. The selected QT SLMP was further blended with an aqueous solution containing polyvinylpyrollidone (2.5 %, croscarmellose sodium (2 % and mannitol (50 %; it was then lyophilized into ODT in a mass ratio of 1:2, respectively. ODTs containing QT SLMPs showed: average wetting time (40.92 s, average oral disintegration time (21.49 s, average hardness (16.85 N and also imparted suitable viscosity to suspend pellets during the lyophilization process. In conclusion, lyophilization is a promising technique for the formulation of multiparticulate systems into ODTs.

  6. Expression of the multimeric and highly immunogenic Brucella spp. lumazine synthase fused to bovine rotavirus VP8d as a scaffold for antigen production in tobacco chloroplasts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edgardo Federico Alfano

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Lumazine synthase from Brucella spp. (BLS is a highly immunogenic decameric protein which can accommodate foreign polypeptides or protein domains fused to its N-termini, markedly increasing their immunogenicity.The inner core domain (VP8d of VP8 spike protein from bovine rotavirus (BRV is responsible for viral adhesion to sialic acid residues and infection. It also displays neutralizing epitopes, making it a good candidate for vaccination.In this work, the BLS scaffold was assessed for the first time in plants for recombinant vaccine development by N-terminally fusing BLS to VP8d and expressing the resulting fusion (BLSVP8d in tobacco chloroplasts. Transplastomic plants were obtained and characterized by Southern, northern and western blot. BLSVP8d was highly expressed, representing 40% of total soluble protein (TSP (4.85 mg/g fresh tissue. BLSVP8d remained soluble and stable during all stages of plant development and even in lyophilized leaves stored at room temperature. Soluble protein extracts from fresh and lyophilized leaves were able to induce specific neutralizing IgY antibodies in a laying hen model. This work presents BLS as an interesting platform for highly immunogenic injectable, or even oral, subunit vaccines. Lyophilization of transplastomic leaves expressing stable antigenic fusions to BLS would further reduce costs and simplify downstream processing, purification and storage, allowing for more practical vaccines.

  7. Correlation of particle properties with cytotoxicity and cellular uptake of hydroxyapatite nanoparticles in human gastric cancer cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cui, Xinhui [State Key Laboratory of Bioreactor Engineering, East China University of Science and Technology, Shanghai 200237 (China); Liang, Tong [Engineering Research Center for Biomedical Materials of Ministry of Education, East China University of Science and Technology, Shanghai 200237 (China); Liu, Changsheng [State Key Laboratory of Bioreactor Engineering, East China University of Science and Technology, Shanghai 200237 (China); Engineering Research Center for Biomedical Materials of Ministry of Education, East China University of Science and Technology, Shanghai 200237 (China); Yuan, Yuan, E-mail: yyuan@ecust.edu.cn [Engineering Research Center for Biomedical Materials of Ministry of Education, East China University of Science and Technology, Shanghai 200237 (China); Qian, Jiangchao, E-mail: jiangchaoqian@ecust.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Bioreactor Engineering, East China University of Science and Technology, Shanghai 200237 (China)

    2016-10-01

    Three types of hydroxyapatite nanoparticles (HAPNs) were synthesized employing a sonochemistry-assisted microwave method by changing microwave power (from 200 to 300 W) or using calcination treatment: L200 (200 W, lyophilization), L300 (300 W, lyophilization) and C200 (200 W, lyophilization & calcination). Their physiochemical properties were characterized and correlated with cytotoxicity to human gastric cancer cells (MGC80-3). The major differences among these HAPN preparations were their size and specific surface area, with the L200 showing a smaller size and higher specific surface area. Although all HAPNs inhibited cell proliferation and induced apoptosis of cancer cells, L200 exhibited the greatest toxicity. All types of HAPNs were internalized through energy-dependent pathways, but the L200 nanoparticles were more efficiently uptaken by MGC80-3 cells. Inhibitor studies with dynasore and methyl-β-cyclodextrin suggested that caveolae-mediated endocytosis and, to a much lesser extent, clathrin-mediated endocytosis, were involved in cellular uptake of the various preparations, whereas the inhibition of endocytosis was more obvious for L200. Using fluorescein isothiocyanate-labeled HAPNs and laser-scanning confocal microscopy, we found that all forms of nanoparticles were present in the cytoplasm, and some L200 HAPNs were even found within nuclei. Treatment with all HAPN preparations led to the increase in the intracellular calcium level with the highest level detected for L200. - Highlights: • Three types of HAPNs (L200, L300 and C200) were synthesized employing a sonochemistry-assisted microwave method. • L200 exhibited the greatest cytotoxicity to human gastric cancer (MGC80-3) cells. • L200 showed a smaller size and higher specific surface area. • The L200 nanoparticles were more efficiently uptaken by MGC80-3 cells through energy-dependent pathways. • L200 caused the most significant increase in the intracellular calcium level.

  8. Evaluation of the antioxidant activity of Betula pendula leaves extract and its effects on model foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azman, Nurul Aini Mohd; Skowyra, Monika; Muhammad, Kwestan; Gallego, María Gabriela; Almajano, Maria Pilar

    2017-12-01

    Betula pendula Roth (Betulaceae) exhibits many pharmacological activities in humans including anticancer, antibacterial, and antiviral effects. However, the antioxidant activity of BP towards lipid degradation has not been fully determined. The BP ethanol and methanol extracts were evaluated to determine antioxidant activity by an in vitro method and lyophilized extract of BP was added to beef patties to study oxidative stability. Antioxidant activities of extracts of BP were determined by measuring scavenging radical activity against methoxy radical generated by Fenton reaction 2,2'-azino-bis-3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid (TEAC) radical cation, the oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) and the ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) assays. The lipid deterioration in beef patties containing 0.1% and 0.3% (w/w) of lyophilized extract of BP stored in 80:20 (v/v) O 2 :CO 2 modified atmosphere (MAP) at 4 °C for 10 days was determined using thiobarbituric acid reacting substances (TBARS), % metmyoglobin and colour value. The BP methanol extract revealed the presence of catechin, myricetin, quercetin, naringenin, and p-coumaric acid. The BP ethanol (50% w/w) extract showed scavenging activity in TEAC, ORAC and FRAP assays with values of 1.45, 2.81, 1.52 mmol Trolox equivalents (TE)/g DW, respectively. Reductions in lipid oxidation were found in samples treated with lyophilized BP extract (0.1% and 0.3% w/w) as manifested by the changes of colour and metmyoglobin concentration. A preliminary study film with BP showed retard degradation of lipid in muscle food. The present results indicated that the BP extracts can be used as natural food antioxidants.

  9. Preparation and evaluation of 99mTc-EDDA/HYNIC-[Lys 3]-bombesin for imaging gastrin-releasing peptide receptor-positive tumours.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferro-Flores, Guillermina; Arteaga de Murphy, Consuelo; Rodriguez-Cortés, Jeanette; Pedraza-López, Martha; Ramírez-Iglesias, María Teresa

    2006-04-01

    Bombesin is a peptide that was initially isolated from frog skin and which belongs to a large group of neuropeptides with many biological functions. The human equivalent is gastrin-releasing peptide (GRP), whose receptors are over-expressed in a variety of malignant tumours. To prepare a HYNIC-[Lys 3]-bombesin analogue that could be easily labelled with 99mTc from lyophilized kit formulations and to evaluate its potential as an imaging agent for GRP receptor-positive tumours. HYNIC was conjugated to the epsilon-amino group of Lys 3 residue at the N-terminal region of bombesin via succinimidyl-N-Boc-HYNIC at pH 9.0. 99mTc labelling was performed by addition of sodium pertechnetate solution and 0.2 M phosphate buffer pH 7.0 to a lyophilized formulation. Stability studies were carried out by reversed phase HPLC and ITLC-SG analyses in serum and cysteine solutions. In-vitro internalization was tested using human prostate cancer PC-3 cells with blocked and non-blocked receptors. Biodistribution and tumour uptake were determined in PC-3 tumour-bearing nude mice. 99mTc-EDDA/HYNIC-[Lys 3]-bombesin was obtained with radiochemical purities >93% and high specific activity ( approximately 0.1 GBq.nmol). Results of in-vitro studies demonstrated a high stability in serum and cysteine solutions, specific cell receptor binding and rapid internalization. Biodistribution data showed a rapid blood clearance, with predominantly renal excretion and specific binding towards GRP receptor-positive tissues such as pancreas and PC-3 tumours. 99mTc-EDDA/HYNIC-[Lys 3]-bombesin obtained from lyophilized kit formulations has promising characteristics for the diagnosis of malignant tumours that over-express the GRP receptor.

  10. The evaluation of temperature and pH influences on equilibrium swelling of poly(n-isopropylacrylamide-co-acrylic acid hydrogels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zdravković Aleksandar S.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Hydrogels are synthesized by the method of radical polymerization of monomers: N-isopropylacrylamide (NIPAM and acrylic acid (AA. Characterization of poly(N-isopropylacrylamide- co-acrylic acid hydrogels, p(NIPAM/AA, has been performed by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR, X-ray diffraction (XRD and by determination of the swelling behaviour in aqueous solutions at different temperatures (25, 31 and 37°C and pH values (2.2, 4.5, 6 and 6.8. After lyophilisation in the solution at pH 6 and temperature of 25°C, p(NIPAM/AA hydrogels have rapidly reached equilibrium degree of swelling, αe, in comparison to non-lyophilized samples. The mechanism of solvent transport within matrix in lyophilized samples corresponds to less Fickian diffusion, whereas Super case II diffusion is characteristic for non-lyophilized samples. p(NIPAM/AA hydrogel with 1.5 mol% of ethylene glycol dimethacrylate (EGDM at the temperature of 25°C and pH 6.8, has reached the highest swelling equilibrium degree, αe = 259.8. The results of swelling studies have shown that p(NIPAM/AA hydrogels can be classified as superabsorbent polymers (SAPs. For the evaluation of pH and temperature influences on synthesized hydrogels swelling, a full three-level experimental design has been used. Two-factor interaction model (2FI is the most optimal model of a full three-level experimental design for representing the swelling equilibrium degree of p(NIPAM/AA hydrogels as a function of investigated parameters, i.e., temperature and pH. [Project of the Serbian Ministry of Education, Science and Technological Development, Grant no. TR-34012

  11. Preparation and quality control of 99m Tc-MDPA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bernardes, Dulcila M. Lessa; Castanheira, Claudia Elisabete; Castro, Jose Alberto de; Mengatti, Jair; Muramoto, Emiko; Pereira, Claudia Regina; Vicente, Irene

    2005-01-01

    Since the early 1970s a number of 99 mTc-phosphate compounds have been introduced for bone imaging. The three extensively studies diphosphonates are: 1-hydroxyethylidene diphosphonate (HEDP), methylene diphosphonate (MDP) and hydroxymethylene diphosphonate (HMDP or HDP) of which MDP and HDP are most commonly used in nuclear medicine. This report describes the routine production and quality control of MDP ('multidose') at IPEN-CNEN/SP, in lyophilized form for labeled with high activities of 99m Tc (9,250 MBq). The process was done under vacuum and low temperature in Super Modulyo -'Edwards' lyophilizator and each lyophilized vial contains: 5.0 mg of MDP; 1.0 mg SnCl 2 .H 2 O; 0.1mg ascorbic acid and 20.0 mg sodium pyrophosphate at pH = 6.0. The radiochemical purity was determined by thin layer chromatography system in Whatman 3MM paper (1 x 8 cm), using acetone and saline (0.9% NaCl) as solvents, respectively. Sterility and pyrogen tests were performed by the microbiology procedures outlined in the pharmacopoeias and by the 'in-vitro' Limulus test, respectively. Biological distribution in Wistar rats was evaluated in different organs (% dose / organ). The method was validated for routine production at Radiopharmacy Center, the radiochemical purities of 99m Tc-MDP ('multidose') was > 95%. The biological distribution in rats showed high uptake in bone tissue, and low activities in thyroid, liver and stomach. Sterility and pyrogen tests were negative in all the delivered lyophilized vials. (author)

  12. Clean room for the production of cold kits: two year experience with the production of kits for 99mTc radiopharmaceuticals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muralidharan, Sheela H.; Nair, Preeti; Ghodke, Archana S.; Pillai, Thara; Sheri, Kumar Uma; Vanaja, R.; Mehra, Kiran S.; Sachdev, S.S.; Sivaprasad, N.

    2010-01-01

    A new clean room has been designed and constructed at Radiopharmaceuticals Programme, BRIT keeping in view the functional aspects for the production of 'cold' kits for the preparation of 99m Tc radiopharmaceuticals for supply to nuclear medicine centers and is in operation, since October, 2008. This clean room is the first clean room in the country designed exclusively for cold kit production. The clean room was validated and trial batches were produced and quality controlled prior to put it in regular production operation. The clean environment is maintained by separate AHU (air handling unit) located out side the clean room. A technical crew maintain the AHU unit and maintain record of parameters such as humidity, air flow, blower speed, chiller temperature etc. During a typical batch production not more than two persons are present in the formulation room. The formulated solution (filtered through 0.22μ membrane filter) is passed though a pass box between the formulation and dispensing area. The no. of people allowed in the dispensing area which is a critical area of class 100 is restricted to not more than four that too no person is allowed to be in between direct flow of HEPA filtered air and the dispensing table. The number of vials to be dispensed is arranged in trays and 1 ml of the formulated sterile solution is dispensed into each vial and the vials are transferred in to the lyophilization chamber. Sterile vials are introduced into class 100 area and the vials are removed after lyophilization though a pass box. After lyophilization vials are sealed with aluminum caps and stored at 2-10 deg C. Since the commissioning of the new clean room, about 120 batches of 10 different kit products were prepared and 1,20,000 kit vials were supplied to various hospitals for nuclear medicine investigation

  13. Dietary supply of selenium for adolescents in three residential care orphanages in Southern Ghana

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adotey, Dennis K.; Stibilj, Vekoslava; Serfor-Armah, Yaw; Nyarko, Benjamin J.B.; Jaćimović, Radojko

    2011-01-01

    Adolescents require optimum dietary supply of the essential trace mineral selenium (Se); however the absence of reliable and accurate data on the dietary supply of selenium for the adolescent population in Ghanaian residential care orphanages have made it difficult for public health nutritionists to assess the adequacy of the dietary supply. The dietary supply of selenium for adolescents (12–15 years) in three residential care orphanages, (Osu, Tutu-Akwapim and Teshie), in Southern Ghana have been evaluated by sampling their 24-h duplicate diets (including water) for 7-consecutive days using the duplicate diet sampling technique. The mass fraction of selenium in the blended lyophilized homogenates of duplicate diets was determined by radiochemical neutron activation analysis (RNAA). The validity of the RNAA method for selenium determination was checked by analyses of NIST SRM 1548a (Typical diet). The chemical yield of the radiochemical separation was determined by spectrophotometry. The average mass fractions of selenium in the blended lyophilized 24-hour duplicate diets for Osu, Tutu-Akwapim and Teshie were; 165 ± 61 [117.2–285.2], 203 ± 68 [110.5–304.9] and 250 ± 92 [128.8–408.0] ng Se g −1 lyophilized matter respectively. The average dietary supply of Se were, 57.6 ± 17.3 [42.2–88.4], 82.0 ± 30.7 [44.3–136.2] and 91.7 ± 44.2 [46.0–153.4] μg Se day −1 for Osu, Tutu-Akwapim and Teshie orphanages respectively. The data generated will help public health nutritionists in the provision of dietary advice and nutritional support for the studied orphanages, as well as other orphanages. The data will also help in the planning of institutional diets.

  14. Dry Gel Containing Optimized Felodipine-Loaded Transferosomes: a Promising Transdermal Delivery System to Enhance Drug Bioavailability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kassem, Mohammed Ali; Aboul-Einien, Mona Hassan; El Taweel, Mai Magdy

    2018-04-30

    Felodipine has a very low bioavailability due to first-pass metabolism. The aim of this study was to enhance its bioavailability by transdermal application. Felodipine-loaded transferosomes were prepared by thin-film hydration using different formulation variables. An optimized formula was designed using statistical experimental design. The independent variables were the used edge activator, its molar ratio to phosphatidylcholine, and presence or absence of cholesterol. The responses were entrapment efficiency of transferosomes, their size, polydispersity index, zeta potential, and percent drug released after 8 h. The optimized formula was subjected to differential scanning calorimetry studies and its stability on storage at 4°C for 6 months was estimated. This formula was improved by incorporation of different permeation enhancers where ex vivo drug flux through mice skin was estimated and the best improved formula was formulated in a gel and lyophilized. The prepared gel was subjected to in vivo study using Plendil® tablets as a reference. According to the calculated desirability, the optimized transferosome formula was that containing sodium deoxycholate as edge activator at 5:1 M ratio to phosphatidylcholine and no cholesterol. The thermograms of this formula indicated the incorporation of felodipine inside the prepared vesicles. None of the tested parameters differed significantly on storage. The lyophilized gel of labrasol-containing formula was chosen for in vivo study. The relative bioavailability of felodipine from the designed gel was 1.7. In conclusion, topically applied lyophilized gel containing felodipine-loaded transferosomes is a promising transdermal delivery system to enhance its bioavailability.

  15. The Effect of Active Principles of Cilantro and Spirulina Powder on Lead Antagonism to Copper and Chromium in Carassius gibelio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mărioara Nicula

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The goal of our work was to highlight the detoxifying potential of the active principles from lyophilized cilantro and spirulina in experimental contamination with lead, to Carassius gibelio, and their effect on lead antagonism to copper and chromium. 120 Prussian carps, weighing 22-25 g each were divided according to the following treatments for 21 days: C group (without treatment, E1 group (75 ppm Pb into water as Pb(NO32x ½H2O, E2 group (75 ppm Pb into water+2% lyophilized cilantro in feed, E3 group (75 ppm Pb into water+2% lyophilized spirulina in feed. At the end of the experimental period, tissue samples (gills, muscles myotome– epaxial, heart, skin and scales, intestine, liver, brain, gonads, kidney were collected after a starving for 12 hours, and fish euthanasia with clove oil. Determination of Cu and Cr concentration in biological samples was performed using atomic absorption spectrophotometer AAS-VARIAN. Pb addition into water in dose of 75 ppm, has resulted in Cu and Cr mobilization from fish tissues. Decreasing of Cu tissue level occurred less intensive in tissues sampled from groups receiving cilantro and spiriulina powder in feed, maximum efficiency in the counteracting the antagonism against Pb showing spirulina on the heart, liver, and kidney. Cr was maintained at relatively low values, although, cilantro powder has induced in some wise the Pb complexing. In contrast, the freeze-dried spirulina brought the tissue level of Cr close to that of the control group or even has determined its more efficient takeover from the feed.

  16. Preparation, characterization and in vitro dissolution study of Nitrazepam: Cyclodextrin inclusion complex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J S Patel

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The objectives of this research were to prepare and characterize inclusion complexes of Nitrazepam with Hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin (HPβCD and Sulfobutyl ether β-cyclodextrin (SBEβCD to study the effect of complexation on the dissolution rate of Nitrazepam, a water-insoluble drug. The phase solubility profile of Nitrazepam with Hydroxypropyl- β-cyclodextrin and Sulfobutyl ether β-cyclodextrin was an AP-type, indicating the formation of 2:1 stoichiometric inclusion complexes. Gibbs free energy values were all negative, indicating the spontaneous nature Nitrazepam solubilization and their value decreased with increase in the cyclodextrin concentration, demonstrating that the reaction conditions became more favorable as the concentration of cyclodextrins increased. Complexes of Nitrazepam were prepared with cyclodextrin using various methods such as physical mixing, kneading, spray-drying and lyophilization. The complexes were characterized by Differential scanning calorimetry, Fourier-transform infrared, scanning electron microscopy and powder X-ray diffraction studies. These studies indicated that a complex prepared by lyophilization had successful inclusion of the Nitrazepam molecule into the cyclodextrin cavity. Complexation resulted in a marked improvement in the solubility and wettability of Nitrazepam. Among all the samples, a complex prepared with Sulfobutyl ether β-cyclodextrin by lyophilization had the greatest improvement in the in vitro rate of Nitrazepam dissolution. The mean dissolution time for Nitrazepam decreased significantly after preparing complexes. The similarity factor indicated a significant difference between the release profiles of Nitrazepam from complexes, physical mixtures and plain Nitrazepam. To conclude that, the tablets containing complexes prepared with Cyclodextrins had significant improvement in the release profile of Nitrazepam as compared to tablets containing Nitrazepam without cyclodextrin.

  17. 2, 3-dimercaptosuccinic acid-modified iron oxide clusters for magnetic resonance imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Fei; Yan, Caiyun; Tian, Jilai; Geng, Kunkun; Zhu, Ziyi; Song, Lina; Zhang, Yu; Mulvale, Matthew; Gu, Ning

    2014-12-01

    Over the last decade, various magnetic nanomaterials have been developed as magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) contrast agents; the greatest challenges encountered for clinical application have been insufficient stability. In this paper, a lyophilization method for 2, 3-dimercaptosuccinic acid-modified iron oxide (γ-Fe2 O3 @DMSA) nanoparticles was developed to simultaneously overcome two disadvantages; these include insufficient stability and low-magnetic response. After lyophilization, the clusters of γ-Fe2 O3 @DMSA with the size of 156.7 ± 15.3 nm were formed, and the stability of the lyophilized powder (γ-Fe2 O3 @DMSA-LP) increased up to over 3 years. It was also found that rehydrated γ-Fe2 O3 @DMSA-LP could be ingested by RAW264.7 cells in very large quantities. Results of pharmacokinetics and biodistribution studies in vivo indicated that γ-Fe2 O3 @DMSA-LP is a promising liver-targeted material. Furthermore, it also exhibited higher MRI efficiency and longer imaging time in the liver than the well-known product Feridex(®) . Moreover, results of vascular irritation and long-term toxicity experiments demonstrated γ-Fe2 O3 @DMSA-LP could be a nontoxic, biocompatible contrast agent in vivo. Therefore, the proposed γ-Fe2 O3 @DMSA-LP can be used as a potential MRI contrast agent in clinic for hepatic diseases. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. and the American Pharmacists Association.

  18. Estabilidade de micro-organismos potencialmente probióticos em barra de cereais - efeito da técnica de incorporação

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo Almeida Bastos

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho objetivou desenvolver formulações de barras de cereais contendo Lactobacillus acidophilus e Saccharomyces boulardii e avaliar a estabilidade destes micro-organismos potencialmente probióticos no produto elaborado durante o tempo de armazenamento (shelf life. Foram formuladas barras de cereais contendo separadamente os agentes probióticos S. boulardii e L. acidophilus, ambos nas formas liofilizada, granulados com lactose e encapsulados em alginato de cálcio. Foi avaliada a estabilidade dos micro-organismos durante o tempo de armazenamento. Tanto a levedura S. boulardii quanto a bactéria L. acidophilus apresentaram maior sobrevida na forma liofilizada, quando comparado com as outras formas de incorporação, mantendo contagem na faixa de 7 log UFC/g, durante oito semanas e na faixa de 7 log UFC/g, durante seis semanas, respectivamente. Comparando os resultados da incorporação dos dois micro-organismos na forma livre liofilizada observouse que a população de S. boulardii apresentou melhores resultados de viabilidade quando comparada com a população de L. acidophilus. Este estudo mostrou que é possível incorporar micro-organismos potencialmente probióticos em barras de cereais, preferencialmente na forma liofilizada, por proporcionar maior sobrevida dos micro-organismos.Palavras-chave: Barra de cereais. Probiótico. Saccharomyces boulardii. Lactobacillus acidophilus. ABSTRACT This study aims to develop formulations of cereal bars that contain Lactobacillus acidophilus and Saccharomyces boulardii and evaluate the stability of these potentially probiotic microorganisms in the elaborated product during the time of storage (shelf life. Cereal bars were designed containing separately the probiotic agents S. boulardii and L. acidophilus, both in the lyophilized form, granulated with lactose form and encapsulated in calcium alginate form. The stability of microorganisms during storage time was evaluated. Both, the yeast S

  19. Rapid, portable detection of endocrine disrupting chemicals through ligand-nuclear hormone receptor interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunt, J Porter; Schinn, Song-Min; Jones, Matthew D; Bundy, Bradley C

    2017-12-04

    Endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDC) are structurally diverse compounds that can interact with nuclear hormone receptors, posing significant risk to human and ecological health. Unfortunately, many conventional biosensors have been too structure-specific, labor-intensive or laboratory-oriented to detect broad ranges of EDC effectively. Recently, several technological advances are providing more rapid, portable, and affordable detection of endocrine-disrupting activity through ligand-nuclear hormone receptor interactions. Here, we overview these recent advances applied to EDC biosensors - including cell lyophilization, cell immobilization, cell-free systems, smartphone-based signal detection, and improved competitive binding assays.

  20. Fatty Acid Composition of Buffalo Milk Yellow Cheese after Technological Processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ivanova, S.; Nacheva, I.; Miteva, D.

    2010-01-01

    The fatty acid composition of buffalo milk yellow cheese in fresh condition and after combining of two technological approaches – lyophilization and gamma sterilization with 1, 2 and 4 kGy, aiming at a prolongation of its shelf life, was investigated. The fat extraction from the milk samples was realized by the method of Roese-Gottlieb. The analysis of the fatty acids was made with the aid of gas chromatograph Shimadzu 2010. Minimal changes in the fatty acid composition of the buffalo milk yellow cheese after freeze-drying and gamma ray treatment were established

  1. Fatty acid composition of buffalo milk yellow cheese after technological processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ivanova, S.; Nacheva, I.; Miteva, D.

    2010-01-01

    The fatty acid composition of buffalo milk yellow cheese in fresh condition and after combining of two technological approaches – lyophilization and gamma sterilization with 1, 2 and 4 kGy, aiming at a prolongation of its shelf life, was investigated. The fat extraction from the milk samples was realized by the method of Roese-Gottlieb. The analysis of the fatty acids was made with the aid of gas chromatograph Shimadzu 2010. Minimal changes in the fatty acid composition of the buffalo milk yellow cheese after freeze-drying and gamma ray treatment were established

  2. Influence of free radicals generated by gamma irradiation on the trehalose levels in Saccharomyces boulardii leaven cells; Influencia de radicais livres gerados pela irradiacao gama nos niveis de trealose em celulas da levedura Saccharomyces boulardii

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martins, Flaviano dos Santos; Vianna, Cristina Roscoe [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Lab. de Radiobiologia]|[Minas Gerais Univ, Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Dept. de Microbiologia; Neves, Maria Jose [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Lab. de Radiobiologia

    2002-07-01

    Lyophilized cells of yeast Saccharomyces boulardii were submit to the gamma irradiation ({sup 60} Cobalt). It was noted that the yeast cells surviving to gamma irradiation had more trehalose than control cells. The incubation of cells with H{sub 2}0{sub 2} induces the synthesis of trehalose but the exposition to CdCl{sub 2} induces the accumulation of trehalose only in low concentrations. Apparently there is a positive correlation between of trehalose level and gamma irradiation resistance of S. boulardii cells. It was not observed any correlation with the level of trehalose determined and the oxidative stress tested. (author)

  3. Extended safe preservation period of foods of plant origin through combined technological methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miteva, D.; Nacheva, I.; Dzhakova, A.; Tsvetkov, Tsv.

    2008-01-01

    The sublimation drying of fruits as an innovative technology for preservation their composition and enzyme activity is applied to various fruits: apricots, strawberries, plumbs, peaches and apples. The authors present the main methods of lyophilization as an original biotechnology for cryopreservation of fruits and afterwards are subjected to cold sterilization with 1.5 and 3 kGy doses of gamma irradiation. The combined application of both technologies provides safe and extended preservation of fresh fruits with high content of vitamins, mineral salts, maximum preserved enzyme system, aroma-tasty complex and microbiological purity

  4. Production of dispersed nanometer sized YAG powders from alkoxide, nitrate and chloride precursors and spark plasma sintering to transparency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suarez, M.; Fernandez, A.; Menendez, J.L.; Torrecillas, R.

    2010-01-01

    Yttrium aluminum garnet (YAG) was synthesized from different starting materials, i.e., alkoxide, nitrate and chloride precursors. The conversion steps from the precursors to crystalline YAG were studied by Raman spectroscopy. Dispersed YAG powders were formed at a relatively low temperature, around 800 o C by the chlorides route, whereas alkoxide precursors needed firing over 900 o C and nitrates even over 1100 o C. Lyophilized YAG gel was sintered to transparency by the spark plasma sintering method at 1500 o C with in-line transmittances close to 60% at 680 nm and over 80% in the infrared range.

  5. Single vial kit formulation for preparation of PET radiopharmaceutical. 68Ga-DOTA-TOC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Archana Mukherjee; Usha Pandey; Rubel Chakravarty; Ashutosh Dash; Haladhar Dev Sarma

    2014-01-01

    This paper describes the development of a lyophilized cold kit of DOTA-[Tyr 3 ]-Octreotide (DOTA-TOC) for instant compounding of 68 Ga-DOTA-TOC, suitable for diagnosis of neuroendocrine tumors. The work involved formulation of DOTA-TOC kits, optimization of radiolabeling, quality control of 68 Ga-DOTA-TOC and animal biodistribution studies. The prepared kits enable a reliable method for preparation of 68 Ga-DOTA-TOC of high radiochemical purity and excellent stability. Availability of such kits along with 68 Ge/ 68 Ga generators is expected to stimulate the widespread use of 68 Ga-DOTA-TOC in nuclear medicine practice in developing countries. (author)

  6. Effects of sample preparation conditions on biomolecular solid-state NMR lineshapes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jakeman, David L.; Mitchell, Dan J.; Shuttleworth, Wendy A.; Evans, Jeremy N.S. [Washington State University, Department of Biochemistry and Biophysics (United States)

    1998-10-15

    Sample preparation conditions with the 46 kDa enzyme complex of 5-enolpyruvyl-shikimate-3-phosphate (EPSP) synthase, shikimate-3-phosphate (S3P) and glyphosate (GLP) have been examined in an attempt to reduce linewidths in solid-state NMR spectra. The linewidths of {sup 13}P resonances associated with enzyme bound S3P and GLP in the lyophilized ternary complex have been reduced to 150 {+-} 12 Hz and 125 {+-} 7 Hz respectively, by a variety of methods involving additives and freezing techniques.

  7. Diagnostic reagent system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1976-01-01

    A solid phase reagent for use in radioimmunoassay of antigens and antibodies is described. The reagent is prepared by mixing specific antibody or radiolabeled antigen with polyethylene glycol (4000-6000) and gamma globulin in a buffer at pH 4-10 and lyophilizing, the antigens being thyroxine, triiodothyronine, digoxin and digitoxin (1-1000 μCi 125 I/μg). The buffer consists of a 0.08 molar sodium barbital solution containing 0.1% of ox-serum albumin and 0.35% of 8-anilino-1-naftalene sulfonic acid

  8. Technology, Applications, and Process Challenges of Dual Chamber Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werk, Tobias; Ludwig, Imke S; Luemkemann, Joerg; Mahler, Hanns-Christian; Huwyler, Joerg; Hafner, Mathias

    2016-01-01

    Dual-chamber systems provide an option as a drug and device combination product, when home care and emergency lyophilized products are intended. Nevertheless, until today, there are only a few products on the market, due to the challenges and limitations in manufacturability, product formulation, and product stability in a dual-chamber configuration, as well as economic considerations. This review serves to describe currently available dual-chamber systems and to discuss factors to be considered for appropriate selection and establishing fill-finish processes. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  9. An ESR study of radicals induced in irradiated fresh mango

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kikuchi, Masahiro; Hussain, Mohammed S.; Morishita, Norio; Kobayashi, Yasuhiko; Ukai, Mitsuko; Shimoyama, Yuhei

    2009-01-01

    An electron spin resonance (ESR) spectroscopic study was performed on the radicals induced irradiated fresh mangoes. Fresh Philippine mangoes were irradiated by the γ-rays, lyophilized and powdered. The ESR spectrum of the dry specimen showed a strong main peak at g=2.004 and a pair of peaks at both magnetic fields of the main peak. The main peak detected from flesh and skin specimens faded away in a few days after the irradiation. On the other hand, the side peaks showed a well-defined dose response even 9 days after the irradiation. The side-peak is a useful mean to define the irradiation on fresh mangoes. (author)

  10. Interaction of sodium diclofenac with freeze-dried soya phosphatidylcholine and unilamellar liposomes Interação do diclofenaco com fosfatidilcolina de soja e lipossomas unilamelares liofilizados

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciana Biagini Lopes

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Phospholipids are widely used as structural amphiphilic compounds in liposome formulations. In this study, we have analyzed the interaction the sodium diclofenac (SD with soya phosphaditylcholine (PC and soya phosphatidylcholine from lyophilized small unilamellar liposomes (SUV. The changes in the properties of the co-lyophilized drug/PC from SUV liposomes, lyophilized PC from SUV liposomes, and lyophilized soya phosphatidylcholine, were studied by Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC. The DSC data showed that the previous organization of phospholipids molecules to form liposome affects intensely the thermal behavior of PC when compared to non-lipossomal PC. SD modified the thermal properties of PC from liposomes. It was verified that SD affects intensely the located group peaks in the regions of 120-140 ºC and in the higher temperature region of 240-260 ºC. The results of this work demonstrated that the presence of the drug modified the DSC behavior for both liposomal and non-liposomal PC and that these modifications can be easily monitored by DSC analysis.Fosfolipídios são freqüentemente usados como compostos anfifílicos estruturais em formulações de lipossomas. Neste estudo foi analisada a interação do diclofenaco sódico (SD com a fosfatidilcolina de soja liofilizada e a fosfatidilcolina de soja (PC obtida de lipossomas unilamelares pequenos liofilizados (SUV. As modificações nas propriedades da mistura fármaco/PC co-liofilizados a partir de SUV pré-formados, lipossomas de PC vazios e PC liofilizada foram estudadas por Calorimetria Diferencial de Varredura (DSC. Os resultados de DSC mostraram que a organização prévia das moléculas PC para formar lipossomas interfere significativamente no perfil de DSC da PC, quando comparada ao perfil de DSC da PC não-lipossômica. Verificou-se que o SD afeta intensamente o grupo de picos situados nas regiões de 120-140ºC e na região de mais alta temperatura (240-260ºC. Os resultados

  11. Diffuse reflectance infrared fourier transform spectroscopic (DRIFTS) investigation of E.coli, Staphylococcus aureus and Candida albicans

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    DeSouza, L.; PrabhaDevi; Kamat, T.; Naik, C.G.

    -quadrant streak pattern. Sample preparation and DRIFT spectroscopic analysis A single colony of culture cells in replicates of 5, were carefully removed from the fourth quadrant using a platinum loop. The cells were transferred into sterile glass vials... and dried in an incubator at 45°C for 30 min. Special care was taken to free samples completely from moisture by vacuum treatment using a Jouan lyophilizer (RC10-22, Heto DRYWINNER, France). Microbial cells weighing 0.9-1.3 mg dry weight was thoroughly...

  12. A highly stable blood meal alternative for rearing Aedes and Anopheles mosquitoes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ted Baughman

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available We investigated alternatives to whole blood for blood feeding of mosquitoes with a focus on improved stability and compatibility with mass rearing programs. In contrast to whole blood, an artificial blood diet of ATP-supplemented plasma was effective in maintaining mosquito populations and was compatible with storage for extended periods refrigerated, frozen, and as a lyophilized powder. The plasma ATP diet supported rearing of both Anopheles and Aedes mosquitoes. It was also effective in rearing Wolbachia-infected Aedes mosquitoes, suggesting compatibility with vector control efforts.

  13. Design of New-Generation Usable Forms of Topical Haemostatic Agents Containing Chitosan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorota Zielińska

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Designing usable forms of topical haemostatic agents is the most important activity during the design process, resulting in strengthened functional properties of the final medical devices. This study aimed to propose indications for a research programme based on risk management supporting the development of two usable forms of a topical haemostatic agent: chitosan/alginate lyophilized foam and chitosan/alginate impregnated gauze. Both of the usable forms of the topical haemostatic agent, being the main part of the modified combat gauze, were fabricated using the chitosan/alginate complex. Risk analysis is helpful in developing an appropriate research programme, significantly reducing the risk to an acceptable level.

  14. [Unsuccessful treatment with OK-432 picibanil for orbital lymphangioma].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanuza García, A; Bañón Navarro, R; Llorca Cardeñosa, A; Delgado Navarro, C

    2012-01-01

    Lymphangioma is a malformation of the lymphatic system. The classic approach is surgery. We report a case of orbital lymphangioma in a girl who was given OK-432 to avoid surgery and its complications. OK-432 is a lyophilized mixture of group A Streptococcus pyogenes which produces a fibrosis limited to the lesion with a high cure rate. The main advantages are the easy intra-lesional application. with no scars and or damage of closed areas. Its main disadvantage is a significant local inflammatory reaction. Copyright © 2011 Sociedad Española de Oftalmología. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  15. Stability of ‘mangaba’ pulp powder obtained by freeze drying

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana Conegero

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT This work examined the stability of lyophilized ‘mangaba’ pulp powder, rolled and packaged in plastic containers, with and without vacuum during 90 days of storage under room temperature, with evaluation of the parameters every 15 days. Analyses of ascorbic acid concentration, pH, color and water activity were carried out. It was found that ascorbic acid remained in accordance with the standards specified for daily consumption according to the Brazilian legislation in all analyzed packages, with preservation of stability in the laminated package with vacuum, which was also effective in maintaining water activity, which contributes to better stability of the product.

  16. Radioprotective effect of Geranium Sanguineum concentrate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Velev, G.; Marinov, V.P.

    1993-01-01

    An extract of Geranium Sanguineum had been subjected to sublimation drying following a 24-hour soaking in ethyl alcohol (96 o ) or distilled water. The lyophilized mixture obtained was tested upon non-thoroughbred white male mice to establish its prophylactic and therapeutic effect. The effect proved to be dependent on the dose of the dry substance. The correlation was manifested in a moderate prophylactic effect as concerns the survival rate of the experimental animals in contrast to the control group as well as in statistically reliable increase in the endogenic spleen colonies. (author)

  17. Radioprotective preparation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stefanova, D.; Frattadochi, A.; Gattavecchia, E.; Ferri, E.; Tonnelli, D.

    1988-01-01

    The invention is intended for radiation injuries prophylaxis in mammals. It has an well expressed radioprotective effect against acute gamma irradiation on cellular level as well as a prolonged action when applied up to 48 hours before the acute irradiation. The preparation is a coprecipitate of the natural tripeptide glutathione (reduced form) and polyvinyl pyrrolidone (pvp) in ratio 30-60/70-40. It is obtained by incubation method with subsequent lyophilization from water solution of the initial components. The molecular mass of the pvp is 20 till 360.10 3 . 2 claims

  18. Oxidative stability of pork emulsion containing tomato products and pink guava pulp during refrigerated aerobic storage

    OpenAIRE

    Joseph, Serlene; Chatli, Manish K.; Biswas, Ashim K.; Sahoo, Jhari

    2012-01-01

    Lipid oxidation-induced quality problems can be minimized with the use of natural antioxidants. Antioxidant potential of tomato puree (10 %; T-1), tomato pulp (12.5 %; T-2), lyophilized tomato peel (6 %; T-3), and pink guava pulp (10 %; T-4) was evaluated in raw pork emulsion during refrigerated storage for 9 days under aerobic packaging. The lycopene and β-carotene content varied in pork emulsion as T-3 > T-1 > T-2 > T-4 and decreased (P 

  19. Sperm immobilization by dental focus microorganisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linossier, A; Thumann, A; Bustos-Obregon, E

    1982-01-01

    Focal infections and their ability to produce alterations in different tissues have been in dispute for long time. The purpose of this work was to observe "in vitro" the effect of an Escherichia coli filtrate obtained from open pulpar necrosis on human sperm motility. It was observed that the E. coli filtrate produced a loss in sperm motility. The immobilizating factor was studied and characterized as a heat-stable, resistant to lyophilization and non-dializable substance, which could via blood stream reach the male reproductive system and affect sperm motility.

  20. Some comments on the effectiveness of the therapy for Β-thalassemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, K.; Ma, W. Y.; Ortalli, I.; Pedrazzi, G.; Zhang, X.; Izzi, G. C.

    1994-12-01

    In the present study, twenty-five samples of red blood cells (RBCs) and two samples of lyophilized serum, drawn from thirteen patients with Β-thanassemia major, have been examined by Mössbauer spectroscopy. All these patients undergo long-term therapy by regular blood transfusion and deferoxamine. The samples were obtained at the end of one cycle of treatments, before the successive blood transfusion. The results show, within the experimental errors, that the ferritin-like iron appears to be absent in the RBCs of the patients but it is still present in the serum.

  1. determination of mercury content in milk powder

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jovchev, M.; Grigorov, T.; Apostolov, D.

    1985-01-01

    Four samples of humanized full cream cow milk powder of Bulgarian origin for new-born, sucklings, small children and soured milk powder were activated for 18-24 h in a neutron flux of 5.10 12 , resp. 2.10 13 n/cm 2 .sec in quartz ampules. The samples were activated without preliminary lyophilization, thus avoiding possible mistakes from mercury losses. Ag-110m, being eliminated in the amalgam, was not an obstacle to the mercury determination. The results obtained for the mercury content are in the same order as in other investigations and many times lower than the admissible norm for foodstuffs - 50 ppb

  2. Preparation of99mTc - dextran-500 for use in lymphoscintigraphy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamada, E.S.; Muramoto, E.; Pereira, N.P.S. de; Brito, R.H.; Silva, C.P.G. da.

    1990-03-01

    This paper reported the preparation of lyophilized kit Dextran-500 for labelling with 99m Tc used in Nuclear Medicine as a lymphoscintigraphic agent. Each vial contains 100 mg Dextran-500 and 1,5 mg stannous chloride. The radiopharmaceutical was checked by ITLC, and the radiochemical purity and stability were determined. The studies of biological distribution were made in Wistar rats and the clinical evaluation in men was realized. Our results permited to incorporate Dextran-500 formulation as an ideal agent for routine use in lymphoscintigraphic. (author) [pt

  3. Radiation inactivation method provides evidence that membrane-bound mitochondrial creatine kinase is an oligomer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quemeneur, E.; Eichenberger, D.; Goldschmidt, D.; Vial, C.; Beauregard, G.; Potier, M.

    1988-01-01

    Lyophilized suspensions of rabbit heart mitochondria have been irradiated with varying doses of gamma rays. Mitochondrial creatine kinase activity was inactivated exponentially with a radiation inactivation size of 352 or 377 kDa depending upon the initial medium. These values are in good agreement with the molecular mass previously deduced from by permeation experiments: 357 kDa. This is the first direct evidence showing that the native form of mitochondrial creatine kinase is associated to the inner membrane as an oligomer, very likely an octamer

  4. Influence of free radicals generated by gamma irradiation on the trehalose levels in Saccharomyces boulardii leaven cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martins, Flaviano dos Santos; Vianna, Cristina Roscoe; Minas Gerais Univ, Belo Horizonte, MG; Neves, Maria Jose

    2002-01-01

    Lyophilized cells of yeast Saccharomyces boulardii were submit to the gamma irradiation ( 60 Cobalt). It was noted that the yeast cells surviving to gamma irradiation had more trehalose than control cells. The incubation of cells with H 2 0 2 induces the synthesis of trehalose but the exposition to CdCl 2 induces the accumulation of trehalose only in low concentrations. Apparently there is a positive correlation between of trehalose level and gamma irradiation resistance of S. boulardii cells. It was not observed any correlation with the level of trehalose determined and the oxidative stress tested. (author)

  5. Determination of total solutes in synfuel wastewaters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wallace, J.R.; Bonomo, F.S.

    1984-03-01

    Efforts to investigate both lyophilization and the measurement of colligative properties as an indication of total solute content are described. The objective of the work described is to develop a method for measuring total dissolved material in retort wastewaters which is simple and rugged enough to be performed in a field laboratory in support of pollution control tests. The analysis should also be rapid enough to provide timely and pertinent data to the pollution control plant operator. To be of most value, the technique developed also should be applicable to other synfuel wastewaters, most of which contain similar major components as oil shale retort waters. 4 references, 1 table.

  6. Nitrosyl hemoglobins: EPR above 80 K

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wajnberg, E.; Bemski, G.; El-Jaick, L.J.; Alves, O.C.

    1995-03-01

    The EPR spectra of nitrosyl hemoglobin and myoglobin in different conditions (native, denatured and lyophilized), as well as of hematin-NO were obtained in the temperature range of 80 K-280 K. There is a substantial and reversible.decrease of the areas of the EPR spectra of all the hemoglobin samples above 150 K. The interpretation of the results implies the existence of two conformational states in thermal equilibrium only one of which is EPR detectable. Thermodynamical parameters are determined for the hexa and penta-coordinated cases. (author). 25 refs, 3 figs.

  7. Effect of storage on osteoinductive properties of demineralized bone in rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pinholt, E M; Solheim, E

    1994-01-01

    A requirement for the clinical use of demineralized bone is the possibility of storing the material without loss of its osteoinductive properties. Seventy-five 8-week-old male Wistar rats were randomly assigned to one of five groups of 15 rats each. Lyophilized demineralized allogeneic bone...... was prepared and implanted in the abdominal muscle either without prior storage (control group) or after storage for 9 or 14 months at -70 degrees C or 4 degrees C (four experimental groups). Bone formation in the implants was evaluated quantitatively 4 weeks postoperatively by measuring the strontium 85...

  8. Nitrosyl hemoglobins: EPR above 80 K

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wajnberg, E.; Bemski, G.; El-Jaick, L.J.; Alves, O.C.

    1995-03-01

    The EPR spectra of nitrosyl hemoglobin and myoglobin in different conditions (native, denatured and lyophilized), as well as of hematin-NO were obtained in the temperature range of 80 K-280 K. There is a substantial and reversible.decrease of the areas of the EPR spectra of all the hemoglobin samples above 150 K. The interpretation of the results implies the existence of two conformational states in thermal equilibrium only one of which is EPR detectable. Thermodynamical parameters are determined for the hexa and penta-coordinated cases. (author). 25 refs, 3 figs

  9. Transfer of radioactivity of HSA-containing samples of /sup 125/I insulin preparations during their storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kopoldova, J [Ceskoslovenska Akademie Ved, Prague

    1982-10-01

    In /sup 125/I insulin preparations, preserved in the form of lyophilized solutions with human serum albumin, the transfer of radioactivity from the insulin molecules to the higher molecular weight fractions was observed. After one month storage this transfer corresponded to 7% of the total radioactivity and it increased proportionally to the length of the storage of iodinated preparations under simultaneous decrease of their biological activity. The results obtained with stored /sup 125/I insulin preparations and these preparations irradiated with external gamma-source were compared and discussed.

  10. KB425796-A, a novel antifungal antibiotic produced by Paenibacillus sp. 530603.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kai, Hirohito; Yamashita, Midori; Takase, Shigehiro; Hashimoto, Michizane; Muramatsu, Hideyuki; Nakamura, Ikuko; Yoshikawa, Koji; Ezaki, Masami; Nitta, Kumiko; Watanabe, Masato; Inamura, Noriaki; Fujie, Akihiko

    2013-08-01

    The novel antifungal macrocyclic lipopeptidolactone, KB425796-A (1), was isolated from the fermentation broth of bacterial strain 530603, which was identified as a new Paenibacillus species based on morphological and physiological characteristics, and 16S rRNA sequences. KB425796-A (1) was isolated as white powder by solvent extraction, HP-20 and ODS-B column chromatography, and lyophilization, and was determined to have the molecular formula C79H115N19O18. KB425796-A (1) showed antifungal activities against Aspergillus fumigatus and the micafungin-resistant infectious fungi Trichosporon asahii, Rhizopus oryzae, Pseudallescheria boydii and Cryptococcus neoformans.

  11. Caracterização físico-química de filmes comestíveis de amido adicionado de acerola (Malphigia emarginata D.C.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mônica Guimarães Farias

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Edibles films are an alternative to synthetic materials used for packing food products. Barbados cherry is rich in vitamin C and carotenoids. The aim of this study was to characterize and develop films by casting from cassava starch, lyophilized Barbados cherry pulp and glycerol. The films were characterized with respect to thickness, water vapor permeability (WVP, water solubility, vitamin C, carotene and mechanical properties. The interaction of pulp and glycerol reduced film thickness. An increase in pulp concentration up to 60% increased WVP but beyond this concentration reduced both WVP and solubility leading to an increased level of vitamin C and β carotene in the films.

  12. Pharmacological assay of Cordia verbenacea. III: Oral and topical antiinflammatory activity and gastrotoxicity of a crude leaf extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sertié, J A; Basile, A C; Panizza, S; Oshiro, T T; Azzolini, C P; Penna, S C

    1991-02-01

    The antiinflammatory effects and gastrotoxicity of a lyophilized 70% ethanol extract of the leaves of Cordia verbenacea were investigated through experimental models in rats and mice. The oral administration of 1.24 mg/kg of the extract significantly inhibited nystatin-induced oedema. Topical application of the extract at a dose of 0.09 mg/ear in mice was clearly more effective than 1.0 mg/ear of naproxen in the reduction of the ear oedema induced by corton oil. At antiinflammatory doses, the extract showed an important protective effect on the gastric mucosa, reducing significantly the number of gastric lesions.

  13. Eight Annual Conference on Shock

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-11-01

    elevatedIabove1 the rate measured in 6 controls (15.6±2.0 umole.kg -min vs 6.7±0.7 pmole’kg -min respectively). If the endogenous FFA were completely...beneficial effect would be expected from the infusion of endogenous lipids for nutritional support in burn patients. Abstracts 18 CHANGES OF CITRULLINE...lyophilized powder of Su-strain Streptococcus pyrogenes A3, would improve survival and RES function following sepsis in cirrhotic rats. Cirrhosis was

  14. Effect of production conditions on the stability of a human bifidobacterial species Bifidobacterium longum in yogurt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abe, F; Tomita, S; Yaeshima, T; Iwatsuki, K

    2009-12-01

    Human bifidobacteria are more sensitive to external environmental factors than animal bifidobacteria, and it is difficult to ensure their stable survival in yogurt. The purpose of this investigation was to observe the survival of human bifidobacteria in yogurts produced under various production conditions. Frozen or lyophilized bifidobacteria starters containing Bifidobacterium longum BB536 originally isolated from an infant, and commercial lyophilized yogurt starters were used for yogurt preparation. After producing yogurts under various conditions, the survival of bifidobacteria in these yogurts over various storage periods was observed. Although there were some differences in bifidobacterial survival in yogurt between various production conditions, more than 1.0 x 10(7) CFU g(-1) of Bif. longum survived in yogurt after 35 days' storage at 5 degrees C. Lower fermentation temperature (37 degrees C) and inclusion of Lactococcus lactis in the starter significantly (P yogurt. In this investigation, the human bifidobacterial strain Bif. longum survived adequately in yogurt, although the fermentation temperature and starter composition affect bifidobacterial survival. This investigation indicates that stable probiotic yogurt using human bifidobacteria can be produced by choosing optimal production conditions.

  15. Influence of drying temperature on the chemical constituents of jaboticaba (Plinia Jaboticaba (Vell. Berg skin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Paula de C. Alves

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Jaboticaba is a fruit native to Brazil. Its skin represents up to 43% of the fruit and contains high levels of fiber, minerals and phenolic compounds. The use of the skin waste adds value to the fruit. However, one of the drawbacks of skin storage is the high water content, which requires drying processes to preserve the skin without leading to the loss of nutrients and antioxidants. The influence of different drying temperatures on the levels of nutrients and antioxidants was investigated. Jaboticaba (Plinia jaboticaba (Vell. Berg, genotype Sabará skins were lyophilized or dried at three temperatures (30, 45, and 60ºC, using food dryers. The skins were then ground, stored (protected from light and subjected to analysis of proximate composition, vitamin C, phytate, polyphenols, anthocyanins and antioxidant activity. The drying process had little effect on the proximate composition of the flour, presenting significant difference only for crude protein, fiber and non-nitrogenous extract. The greatest preservation of chemical constituents occurs in the lyophilized jaboticaba skins. Among the drying temperatures tested, however, the skins dried at 45 and60°C had more highly preserved nutritional substances and antioxidants.

  16. Development of New Lipid-Based Paclitaxel Nanoparticles Using Sequential Simplex Optimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Xiaowei; Mattingly, Cynthia A.; Tseng, Michael; Cho, Moo; Adams, Val R.; Mumper, Russell J.

    2008-01-01

    The objective of these studies was to develop Cremophor-free lipid-based paclitaxel (PX) nanoparticle formulations prepared from warm microemulsion precursors. To identify and optimize new nanoparticles, experimental design was performed combining Taguchi array and sequential simplex optimization. The combination of Taguchi array and sequential simplex optimization efficiently directed the design of paclitaxel nanoparticles. Two optimized paclitaxel nanoparticles (NPs) were obtained: G78 NPs composed of glyceryl tridodecanoate (GT) and polyoxyethylene 20-stearyl ether (Brij 78), and BTM NPs composed of Miglyol 812, Brij 78 and D-alpha-tocopheryl polyethylene glycol 1000 succinate (TPGS). Both nanoparticles successfully entrapped paclitaxel at a final concentration of 150 μg/ml (over 6% drug loading) with particle sizes less than 200 nm and over 85% of entrapment efficiency. These novel paclitaxel nanoparticles were stable at 4°C over three months and in PBS at 37°C over 102 hours as measured by physical stability. Release of paclitaxel was slow and sustained without initial burst release. Cytotoxicity studies in MDA-MB-231 cancer cells showed that both nanoparticles have similar anticancer activities compared to Taxol®. Interestingly, PX BTM nanocapsules could be lyophilized without cryoprotectants. The lyophilized powder comprised only of PX BTM NPs in water could be rapidly rehydrated with complete retention of original physicochemical properties, in-vitro release properties, and cytotoxicity profile. Sequential Simplex Optimization has been utilized to identify promising new lipid-based paclitaxel nanoparticles having useful attributes. PMID:19111929

  17. Graphene-wrapped ZnO nanospheres as a photocatalyst for high performance photocatalysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Da; Wang, Dongfang; Ge, Qisheng; Ping, Guangxing; Fan, Meiqiang; Qin, Laishun; Bai, Liqun; Lv, Chunju; Shu, Kangying

    2015-01-01

    In this work, graphene-wrapped ZnO nanospheres (ZnO–graphene nanocomposites) were prepared by a simple facile lyophilization method, followed by thermal treatment process. ZnO nanospheres with the size of about 100–400 nm, composed of numerous nanocrystals with hexagonal wurtzite structure, were well separated from each other and wrapped with transparent graphene sheets. Compared to ZnO nanospheres, the ZnO–graphene nanocomposites showed a significant enhancement in the photodegradation of methylene blue. This enhanced photocatalytic activity could be attributed to their favorable dye-adsorption affinity and increased optical absorption as well as the efficient charge transfer of the photogenerated electrons in the conduction band of ZnO to graphene. Thus, this work could provide a facile and low-cost method for the development of graphene-based nanocomposites with promising applications in photocatalysis, solar energy conversion, sensing, and so on. - Highlights: • Graphene-wrapped ZnO nanospheres were prepared by a facile lyophilization method. • ZnO nanospheres were separated from each other and wrapped with 2D graphene sheets. • Graphene-wrapped ZnO nanospheres exhibited superior photocatalytic activities. • The photocatalytic mechanisms of graphene-wrapped ZnO nanospheres were discussed

  18. Kit for preparing a technetium-99m myocardial imaging agent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woulfe, S.R.; Deutsch, E.A.; Dyszlewski, M.; Neumann, W.L.

    1992-01-01

    This patent describes a kit for preparing a technetium 99m myocardial imaging agent. It comprises a first vial containing a lyophilized pyrogen free, sterile mixture of an effective reducing agent and a first ligand having the following general formula: wherein the R 1 groups may be the same or different and are selected from the group consisting of hydrogen, hydroxy, C 1 - C 5 alkyl, C 1 - C 5 alkyl substituted by hydroxyl, ether, ester, amide, ketone, aldehyde and nitrile; the R 2 groups may be the same or different and are selected from the group consisting of hydrogen, hydroxy, C 1 - C 5 alkyl, C 1 - C 5 alkyl substituted by hydroxyl, ether, ester, amide, ketone, aldehyde, and nitrile; the X and Y groups may be the same or different and are selected from the group consisting of oxygen and sulfur; and n is equal to 1 or 2; and a second vial containing a lyophilized pyrogen free, sterile protected salt of a phosphine ligand

  19. Studies of unicellular microorganisms Saccharomyces cerevisiae by means of positron annihilation lifetime spectroscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kubicz Ewelina

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Results of positron annihilation lifetime spectroscopy (PALS and microscopic studies on simple microorganisms, brewing yeasts, are presented. Lifetime of ortho-positronium (o-Ps were found to change from 2.4 to 2.9 ns (longer-lived component for lyophilized and aqueous yeasts, respectively. Also hygroscopicity of yeasts in time was examined, allowing to check how water – the main component of the cell – affects PALS parameters, thus lifetime of o-Ps were found to change from 1.2 to 1.4 ns (shorter-lived component for the dried yeasts. The time sufficient to hydrate the cells was found below 10 hours. In the presence of liquid water, an indication of reorganization of yeast in the molecular scale was observed. Microscopic images of the lyophilized, dried, and wet yeasts with best possible resolution were obtained using inverted microscopy (IM and environmental scanning electron microscopy (ESEM methods. As a result, visible changes to the surface of the cell me mbrane were observed in ESEM images.

  20. Multifrequency EPR study on freeze-dried fruits before and after X-ray irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yordanov, N.D. [Laboratory EPR, Institute of Catalysis, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, 1113 Sofia (Bulgaria)]. E-mail: ndyepr@bas.bg; Aleksieva, K. [Laboratory EPR, Institute of Catalysis, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, 1113 Sofia (Bulgaria); Dimitrova, A. [Laboratory EPR, Institute of Catalysis, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, 1113 Sofia (Bulgaria); Georgieva, L. [Institute of Cryobiology and Food Technologies, 1162 Sofia (Bulgaria); Tzvetkova, E. [Institute of Cryobiology and Food Technologies, 1162 Sofia (Bulgaria)

    2006-09-15

    X-, K- and Q-band EPR studies on lyophilized whole pulp parts of blue plum, apricot, peach, melon as well as achens and pulp separately of strawberry before and after X-ray irradiation are reported. Before irradiation all samples show in X band a weak singlet EPR line with g=2.0030+/-0.0005, except melon, which is EPR silent. Immediately after irradiation all samples exhibit complex fruit-depending spectra, which decay with time and change to give, in ca. 50days, an asymmetric singlet EPR line with g=2.0041+/-0.0005. Only apricot pulp gave a typical ''sugar-like'' EPR spectrum. Singlet EPR lines recorded after irradiation in X -band are K- and Q-band resolved as typical anisotropic EPR spectra with g{sub ||}=2.0023+/-0.0003 and g{sub -}bar =2.0041+/-0.0005. In addition, K- and Q-band EPR spectra of all samples show a superposition with the six EPR lines of Mn{sup 2+} naturally present in the fruits. The saturation behavior of the EPR spectra of achens of lyophilized and fresh strawberry is also studied. The differences in g factors of samples before and after X-ray irradiation might be used for the identification of radiation processing of fruits in the case of pulp and the differences in the EPR saturation behavior might be used for the achens of strawberry.