WorldWideScience

Sample records for lynx pardinus information

  1. Chronic Vitamin D Intoxication in Captive Iberian Lynx (Lynx pardinus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñoz, Luis; Raya, Ana; Lopez, Guillermo; Aguilera-Tejero, Escolástico

    2016-01-01

    To document the biochemical and pathologic features of vitamin D intoxication in lynx and to characterize mineral metabolism in healthy lynx, blood samples were obtained from 40 captive lynx that had been receiving excessive (approximately 30 times the recommended dose) vitamin D3 in the diet, and from 29 healthy free ranging lynx. Tissue samples (kidney, stomach, lung, heart and aorta) were collected from 13 captive lynx that died as a result of renal disease and from 3 controls. Vitamin D intoxication resulted in renal failure in most lynx (n = 28), and widespread extraskeletal calcification was most severe in the kidneys and less prominent in cardiovascular tissues. Blood minerals and calciotropic hormones in healthy lynx were similar to values reported in domestic cats except for calcitriol which was higher in healthy lynx. Changes in mineral metabolism after vitamin D intoxication included hypercalcemia (12.0 ± 0.3 mg/dL), hyperphosphatemia (6.3 ± 0.4 mg/dL), increased plasma calcidiol (381.5 ± 28.2 ng/mL) and decreased plasma parathyroid hormone (1.2 ± 0.7 pg/mL). Hypercalcemia and, particularly, hyperphosphatemia were of lower magnitude that what has been previously reported in the course of vitamin D intoxication in other species. However, extraskeletal calcifications were severe. The data suggest that lynx are sensitive to excessive vitamin D and extreme care should be taken when supplementing this vitamin in captive lynx diets. PMID:27243456

  2. Chronic Vitamin D Intoxication in Captive Iberian Lynx (Lynx pardinus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ignacio Lopez

    Full Text Available To document the biochemical and pathologic features of vitamin D intoxication in lynx and to characterize mineral metabolism in healthy lynx, blood samples were obtained from 40 captive lynx that had been receiving excessive (approximately 30 times the recommended dose vitamin D3 in the diet, and from 29 healthy free ranging lynx. Tissue samples (kidney, stomach, lung, heart and aorta were collected from 13 captive lynx that died as a result of renal disease and from 3 controls. Vitamin D intoxication resulted in renal failure in most lynx (n = 28, and widespread extraskeletal calcification was most severe in the kidneys and less prominent in cardiovascular tissues. Blood minerals and calciotropic hormones in healthy lynx were similar to values reported in domestic cats except for calcitriol which was higher in healthy lynx. Changes in mineral metabolism after vitamin D intoxication included hypercalcemia (12.0 ± 0.3 mg/dL, hyperphosphatemia (6.3 ± 0.4 mg/dL, increased plasma calcidiol (381.5 ± 28.2 ng/mL and decreased plasma parathyroid hormone (1.2 ± 0.7 pg/mL. Hypercalcemia and, particularly, hyperphosphatemia were of lower magnitude that what has been previously reported in the course of vitamin D intoxication in other species. However, extraskeletal calcifications were severe. The data suggest that lynx are sensitive to excessive vitamin D and extreme care should be taken when supplementing this vitamin in captive lynx diets.

  3. Latest Early Pleistocene remains of Lynx pardinus (Carnivora, Felidae) from the Iberian Peninsula: Taxonomy and evolutionary implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boscaini, Alberto; Alba, David M.; Beltrán, Juan F.; Moyà-Solà, Salvador; Madurell-Malapeira, Joan

    2016-07-01

    The Iberian lynx (Lynx pardinus) is a critically endangered felid that, during the last fifty years, has been subject to an intensive conservation program in an attempt to save it from extinction. This species is first recorded at ca. 1.7-1.6 Ma (late Villafranchian, late Early Pleistocene) in NE Iberian Peninsula, roughly coinciding with the large faunal turnover that occurred around the middle to late Villafranchian boundary. Here we describe the largest collection of L. pardinus remains available to date from the Iberian late Early Pleistocene (Epivillafranchian), including localities from the Vallparadís Section (Vallès-Penedès Basin, NE Iberian Peninsula) and Cueva Victoria (Cartagena, SE Iberian Peninsula). The morphology and biometry of the studied material attests to the widespread occurrence of L. pardinus in the Mediterranean coast of the Iberian Peninsula since the latest Early Pleistocene, i.e., about 0.5 million years earlier than it was generally accepted (i.e., at the beginning of the Middle Pleistocene). Based on the features observed in the large sample studied in this paper, we conclude that Lynx spelaeus is a junior synonym of L. pardinus and further propose to assign all the Epivillafranchian and younger fossil lynxes from SW Europe to the extant species L. pardinus. Due to the arrival of the Eurasian lynx (Lynx lynx) into Europe at the beginning of the Late Pleistocene, the attribution of specimens younger than MIS 5e to either this species or L. pardinus solely on morphological grounds has proven equivocal. Here we discuss the main diagnostic features of both species of European lynxes and further review their evolutionary history and paleobiogeography throughout the Pleistocene.

  4. Feline leukemia virus and other pathogens as important threats to the survival of the critically endangered Iberian lynx (Lynx pardinus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina L Meli

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The Iberian lynx (Lynx pardinus is considered the most endangered felid species in the world. In order to save this species, the Spanish authorities implemented a captive breeding program recruiting lynxes from the wild. In this context, a retrospective survey on prevalence of selected feline pathogens in free-ranging lynxes was initiated. METHODOLOGY/ PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We systematically analyzed the prevalence and importance of seven viral, one protozoan (Cytauxzoon felis, and several bacterial (e.g., hemotropic mycoplasma infections in 77 of approximately 200 remaining free-ranging Iberian lynxes of the Doñana and Sierra Morena areas, in Southern Spain, between 2003 and 2007. With the exception of feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV, evidence of infection by all tested feline pathogens was found in Iberian lynxes. Fourteen lynxes were feline leukemia virus (FeLV provirus-positive; eleven of these were antigenemic (FeLV p27 positive. All 14 animals tested negative for other viral infections. During a six-month period in 2007, six of the provirus-positive antigenemic lynxes died. Infection with FeLV but not with other infectious agents was associated with mortality (p<0.001. Sequencing of the FeLV surface glycoprotein gene revealed a common origin for ten of the eleven samples. The ten sequences were closely related to FeLV-A/61E, originally isolated from cats in the USA. Endogenous FeLV sequences were not detected. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: It was concluded that the FeLV infection most likely originated from domestic cats invading the lynx's habitats. Data available regarding the time frame, co-infections, and outcome of FeLV-infections suggest that, in contrast to the domestic cat, the FeLV strain affecting the lynxes in 2007 is highly virulent to this species. Our data argue strongly for vaccination of lynxes and domestic cats in and around lynx's habitats in order to prevent further spread of the virus as well as reduction the

  5. Feline Leukemia Virus and Other Pathogens as Important Threats to the Survival of the Critically Endangered Iberian Lynx (Lynx pardinus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meli, Marina L.; Cattori, Valentino; Martínez, Fernando; López, Guillermo; Vargas, Astrid; Simón, Miguel A.; Zorrilla, Irene; Muñoz, Alvaro; Palomares, Francisco; López-Bao, Jose V.; Pastor, Josep; Tandon, Ravi; Willi, Barbara; Hofmann-Lehmann, Regina; Lutz, Hans

    2009-01-01

    Background The Iberian lynx (Lynx pardinus) is considered the most endangered felid species in the world. In order to save this species, the Spanish authorities implemented a captive breeding program recruiting lynxes from the wild. In this context, a retrospective survey on prevalence of selected feline pathogens in free-ranging lynxes was initiated. Methodology/ Principal Findings We systematically analyzed the prevalence and importance of seven viral, one protozoan (Cytauxzoon felis), and several bacterial (e.g., hemotropic mycoplasma) infections in 77 of approximately 200 remaining free-ranging Iberian lynxes of the Doñana and Sierra Morena areas, in Southern Spain, between 2003 and 2007. With the exception of feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV), evidence of infection by all tested feline pathogens was found in Iberian lynxes. Fourteen lynxes were feline leukemia virus (FeLV) provirus-positive; eleven of these were antigenemic (FeLV p27 positive). All 14 animals tested negative for other viral infections. During a six-month period in 2007, six of the provirus-positive antigenemic lynxes died. Infection with FeLV but not with other infectious agents was associated with mortality (p<0.001). Sequencing of the FeLV surface glycoprotein gene revealed a common origin for ten of the eleven samples. The ten sequences were closely related to FeLV-A/61E, originally isolated from cats in the USA. Endogenous FeLV sequences were not detected. Conclusions/Significance It was concluded that the FeLV infection most likely originated from domestic cats invading the lynx's habitats. Data available regarding the time frame, co-infections, and outcome of FeLV-infections suggest that, in contrast to the domestic cat, the FeLV strain affecting the lynxes in 2007 is highly virulent to this species. Our data argue strongly for vaccination of lynxes and domestic cats in and around lynx's habitats in order to prevent further spread of the virus as well as reduction the domestic cat

  6. First evidence of non-parental male infanticide in the endangered Iberian Lynx (Lynx pardinus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José M. Gil-Sánchez

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Based on both radio-tracking and photo-trapping data, we present in this paper the first evidence of a non-parental male infanticide in the Iberian lynx. This paper is focused on the behaviour of 3 Iberian lynxes [one resident male (RM; one resident female (RF, and one incoming male (IM] of the Doñana population, recorded in the spring of 2007. The first two animals were monitored by radio-tacking and the third one by camera trapping. During the mating season of 2007, RM and RF were the only adult lynxes detected in the area. In February, a new incoming adult male was first spotted within RF’s territory. In March, RM was found dead due to a Feline Leukaemia Virus infection. A few days later RF cubs were found dead, and the evidences collected point out to a case of infanticide committed by IM. More research on this type of behaviour is necessary, since it can represent a relevant threat to population reproductive success and increasing rate. Based on this event, when a replacement of males takes place during the first three months of lactation in the vicinity of a reproductive female home-range, the cubs could suffer a potential infanticide event. Conservation managers should take this into account by increasing cub surveillance or by considering cub removal for captive breeding.

  7. Detection of antibiotic resistant enterococci and Escherichia coli in free range Iberian Lynx (Lynx pardinus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonçalves, Alexandre; Igrejas, Gilberto; Radhouani, Hajer; Santos, Tiago; Monteiro, Ricardo; Pacheco, Rui; Alcaide, Eva; Zorrilla, Irene; Serra, Rodrigo; Torres, Carmen; Poeta, Patrícia

    2013-07-01

    Thirty fecal samples from wild specimens of Iberian lynx were collected and analyzed for Enterococcus spp. (27 isolates) and Escherichia coli (18 isolates) recovery. The 45 isolates obtained were tested for antimicrobial resistance, molecular mechanisms of resistance, and presence of virulence genes. Among the enterococci, Enterococcus faecium and Enterococcus hirae were the most prevalent species (11 isolates each), followed by Enterococcus faecalis (5 isolates). High percentages of resistance to tetracycline and erythromycin (33% and 30%, respectively) were detected among enterococcal isolates. The tet(M) and/or tet(L), erm(B), aac(6')-Ie-aph(2″)-Ia, ant(6)-Ia, or aph(3')-IIIa genes were detected among resistant enterococci. Virulence genes were detected in one E. faecalis isolate (cpd, cylB, and cylL) and one E. hirae isolate (cylL). High percentages of resistance were detected in E. coli isolates to tetracycline (33%), streptomycin (28%), nalidixic acid (28%), and sulfamethoxazole-trimethoprim (SXT, 22%). Additionally, the blaTEM, tet(A), aadA, cmlA, and different combinations of sul genes were detected among most ampicillin, tetracycline, streptomycin, chloramphenicol and SXT-resistant isolates, respectively. Two isolates contained a class 1 integron with the gene cassette arrays dfrA1 + aadA1 and dfrA12 + aadA2. The E. coli isolates were ascribed to phylo-groups A (n=5); B1 (n=4); B2 (n=6), and D (n=3), with the virulence gene fimA present in all E. coli isolates. This study found resistance genes in wild specimens of Iberian lynx. Thus, it is important to notice that multiresistant bacteria have reached species as rare and completely non-synanthropic as the Iberian lynx. Furthermore, the susceptibility of this endangered species to bacterial infection may be affected by the presence of these virulence and resistance genes.

  8. Aspectos Sanitarios y Reproductivos del Programa de Conservación Ex situ del Lince Ibérico (Lynx pardinus). Fernando Martínez, 2013

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    El lince ibérico (Lynx pardinus) es la especie de felino en mayor riesgo de extinción según la Unión Internacional para la Conservación de la Naturaleza. En el 2004 se inicia un programa de cría en cautividad para apoyar los esfuerzos de conservación y recuperación de la especie en la naturaleza. El presente estudio sobre la morbilidad, mortalidad y la reproducción de la especie en cautividad se ha realizado con el objetivo de mejorar el manejo de la especie y recomendar líneas de investigaci...

  9. The molecular detection of relaxin and its receptor RXFP1 in reproductive tissue of Felis catus and Lynx pardinus during pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braun, Beate C; Vargas, Astrid; Jewgenow, Katarina

    2012-03-01

    Relaxin acts as a pregnancy-specific signal in feline species, but specific information about protein structure and binding is essential for the improvement of pregnancy diagnosis in endangered feline species, like the Iberian lynx. To generate a felid-specific relaxin antibody, the DNA and protein sequences of lynx and cat were determined and peptides were chosen for antibody generation. In addition, relaxin and relaxin receptor (RXFP1) mRNA expressions were measured in uteri and ovaries of pregnant domestic cats and lynx placentae. Using real-time PCR and immunohistochemistry, it was established that feline placenta is the main source of relaxin during pregnancy. In other tested tissues, relaxin mRNA expression was weak. The RXFP1 mRNA expression was found mainly in cat uterine tissue and feline placentae. It was assumed that these tissues were main targets for relaxin. In the ovary, relaxin immunostaining was associated with blood vessels, signifying its role in vascularization.

  10. Ancient DNA reveals past existence of Eurasian lynx in Spain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rodríguez-Varela, R.; García, N.; Nores, C.

    2016-01-01

    The known distribution of the Iberian lynx Lynx pardinus within the Iberian Peninsula since the Middle Pleistocene and the lack of reliable records of Eurasian lynx Lynx lynx in this region have led to the assumption that the Iberian lynx was the sole inhabitant of Iberia. In this study, we ident...

  11. Extreme genomic erosion after recurrent demographic bottlenecks in the highly endangered Iberian lynx

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abascal, Federico; Corvelo, André; Cruz, Fernando;

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Genomic studies of endangered species provide insights into their evolution and demographic history, reveal patterns of genomic erosion that might limit their viability, and offer tools for their effective conservation. The Iberian lynx (Lynx pardinus) is the most endangered felid and...

  12. Estimating detection probability for Canada lynx Lynx canadensis using snow-track surveys in the northern Rocky Mountains, Montana, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    John R. Squires; Lucretia E. Olson; David L. Turner; Nicholas J. DeCesare; Jay A. Kolbe

    2012-01-01

    We used snow-tracking surveys to determine the probability of detecting Canada lynx Lynx canadensis in known areas of lynx presence in the northern Rocky Mountains, Montana, USA during the winters of 2006 and 2007. We used this information to determine the minimum number of survey replicates necessary to infer the presence and absence of lynx in areas of similar lynx...

  13. The situation of the lynx (Lynx lynx in Austria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Huber

    1998-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Nine wild lynx were translocated from the Carpathian Mountains to Styria between 1977 and 1979 in order to reintroduce this species into the Austrian Alps. Field projects continued until 1982, when monitoring of the released animals ceased. After five years the lynx had spread as far as 120 km from the site of re-introduction, but observations were few and seldom confirmed. Only in the district of Carinthia, where lynx activity was strongest, did the hunters' association gather data by means of observation report forms. Lynx reports became scarce during the 1980s, and re-introduction seemed to have failed, when in 1989 a series of sheep kills by lynx in Carinthia re-activated the interest of the public in the lynx, and more observations were reported. The Carinthian Hunters' Association formed a lynx group to verify these reports. More intensive training of the menbers of the group since 1992 has revealed that much of the information collected was not valid proof of lynx presence. There is no established lynx population in the Austrian Alps at present. The most regular and reliable observations come from the original region of the releases and from southern Carinthia, where lynx immigrating from Slovenia may sustain the Austrian population.

  14. Lynx: a database and knowledge extraction engine for integrative medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sulakhe, Dinanath; Balasubramanian, Sandhya; Xie, Bingqing; Feng, Bo; Taylor, Andrew; Wang, Sheng; Berrocal, Eduardo; Dave, Utpal; Xu, Jinbo; Börnigen, Daniela; Gilliam, T Conrad; Maltsev, Natalia

    2014-01-01

    We have developed Lynx (http://lynx.ci.uchicago.edu)--a web-based database and a knowledge extraction engine, supporting annotation and analysis of experimental data and generation of weighted hypotheses on molecular mechanisms contributing to human phenotypes and disorders of interest. Its underlying knowledge base (LynxKB) integrates various classes of information from >35 public databases and private collections, as well as manually curated data from our group and collaborators. Lynx provides advanced search capabilities and a variety of algorithms for enrichment analysis and network-based gene prioritization to assist the user in extracting meaningful knowledge from LynxKB and experimental data, whereas its service-oriented architecture provides public access to LynxKB and its analytical tools via user-friendly web services and interfaces.

  15. An Overview of Lynx

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-08-01

    through the C compiler without complaint. Programmers are in general unaware of the C back end. On the Butterfl \\. ever Lynx process allocates a...flags that are set. 23 4.2. Thy Cost of Message-Passing In our Butterfl \\ implementation of Lynx. the simplest remote operations complete in less than tAo...miliisc’ond>. To place this ugure in perspectuvc, a call to an empty procedure takes 10 microseconds on an mndi idu_! Butterfl \\ nude. An atomic tes

  16. Ontogenia del comportamiento del lince ibérico ("Lynx pardinus") en cautividad

    OpenAIRE

    Yerga Rufo, Francisco Javier

    2016-01-01

    El lince ibérico es una de las especies de mamífero más amenazada del mundo. Su cría en cautividad es una de las medidas puestas en marcha para la conservación de esta especie. Esta Tesis Doctoral tiene como objetivo describir la ontogenia física y del comportamiento de los cachorros de lince ibérico nacidos en cautividad, y conocer los factores que van a influir en su desarrollo, para mejorar el manejo de la especie en cautividad. Se realizó el seguimiento del comportamiento de los cachorros...

  17. Present status and distribution of the Lynx in the Swiss Alps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anja Molinari-Jobin

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract To evaluate the population trend of lynx in the Swiss Alps, we analysed the spatial and numerical development of signs of presence found from 1995 to 1999 and compared them with previous years. Three sources of information on the presence of lynx are available: (1 reports of lynx killed or found dead; (2 records of livestock killed by lynx; (3 records of wild prey remains, tracks, scats, sightings, and vocalisations. We distinguished three levels of reliability: Quality 1 represent the hard facts, e.g. all reports of lynx killed or found dead, photographs of lynx as well as young orphaned lynx caught in the wild and taken into captivity. Quality 2 include all records of livestock killed, wild prey remains, tracks and scats reported by people who have attended special courses, e.g. mainly game wardens. Quality 3 are all wild prey remains and tracks reported by the general public as well as all sightings, scats and vocalisations, e.g. signs that cannot be verified. More than 1600 signs of presence were recorded in the Swiss Alps in this 5-year-period. A high number of quality 1 and 2 records showed that (1 the lynx population in the north-western Swiss Alps increased from 1994 to 1999, that (2 there is a moderate presence of the species in the central and south-western parts and (3 none or hardly any lynx are found in the eastern Alps of Switzerland. Based on a radio-telemetry study and the number of quality 2 data, we were able to estimate the number of lynx in the Swiss Alps at 70 individuals. To counterpart the uneven distribution of lynx in Switzerland, lynx are being translocated from the north-western Alps to the eastern Swiss Alps, as the expansion of the Swiss lynx population is crucial for the conservation of the lynx in the whole Alps.

  18. Risk-taking by Eurasian lynx (Lynx lynx) in a human-dominated landscape : Effects of sex and reproductive status.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bunnefeld, N; Linnell, J.D C; Odden, J; van Duijn, M.A.J.; Andersen, R.A.

    2006-01-01

    This study aimed to test how the sex and reproductive status of Eurasian lynx influenced their use of 'attractive sinks' - habitats with high prey density and high mortality risks. Locations of 24 Eurasian lynx Lynx lynx were obtained by radio-telemetry in a mixed forest and agricultural habitat in

  19. Broad-scale predictors of canada lynx occurrence in eastern North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoving, C.L.; Harrison, D.J.; Krohn, W.B.; Joseph, R.A.; O'Brien, M.

    2005-01-01

    The Canada lynx (Lynx canadensis) is listed as a threatened species throughout the southern extent of its geographic range in the United States. Most research on lynx has been conducted in the western United States and Canada; little is known about the ecology of lynx in eastern North America. To fill critical knowledge gaps about this species, we modeled and mapped lynx occurrence using habitat and weather data from 7 eastern states and 3 Canadian provinces. Annual snowfall, road density, bobcat (L. rufus) harvest, deciduous forest, and coniferous forest were compared at 1,150 lynx locations and 1,288 random locations. Nineteen a priori models were developed using the information-theoretic approach, and logistic regression models were ranked using Akaike's Information Criterion (AIC) and by our ability to correctly classify reserved data (Kappa). Annual snowfall and deciduous forest predicted lynx presence and absence for a reserved dataset (n = 278) with 94% accuracy. A map of the probability of lynx occurrence throughout the region revealed that 92% of the potential habitat (i.e., >50% probability of occurrence) was concentrated in a relatively contiguous complex encompassing northern Maine, New Brunswick, and the Gaspe?? peninsula of Quebec. Most of the remaining potential habitat (5%) was on northern Cape Breton Island in Nova Scotia. Potential habitat in New Hampshire, Vermont, and New York was small (1,252 km2), fragmented, and isolated (>200 km) from known lynx populations. When federally listed as threatened in the contiguous United States in 2000, inadequate regulations on federal lands were cited as the primary threat to Canada lynx. However, the majority of potential lynx habitat in the eastern United States is on private lands and continuous with potential habitat in Canada. Therefore, lynx conservation in eastern North America will need to develop partnerships across national, state, and provincial boundaries as well as with private landowners.

  20. Lynx: a knowledge base and an analytical workbench for integrative medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sulakhe, Dinanath; Xie, Bingqing; Taylor, Andrew; D'Souza, Mark; Balasubramanian, Sandhya; Hashemifar, Somaye; White, Steven; Dave, Utpal J; Agam, Gady; Xu, Jinbo; Wang, Sheng; Gilliam, T Conrad; Maltsev, Natalia

    2016-01-04

    Lynx (http://lynx.ci.uchicago.edu) is a web-based database and a knowledge extraction engine. It supports annotation and analysis of high-throughput experimental data and generation of weighted hypotheses regarding genes and molecular mechanisms contributing to human phenotypes or conditions of interest. Since the last release, the Lynx knowledge base (LynxKB) has been periodically updated with the latest versions of the existing databases and supplemented with additional information from public databases. These additions have enriched the data annotations provided by Lynx and improved the performance of Lynx analytical tools. Moreover, the Lynx analytical workbench has been supplemented with new tools for reconstruction of co-expression networks and feature-and-network-based prioritization of genetic factors and molecular mechanisms. These developments facilitate the extraction of meaningful knowledge from experimental data and LynxKB. The Service Oriented Architecture provides public access to LynxKB and its analytical tools via user-friendly web services and interfaces.

  1. Repetitive sequences in Eurasian lynx (Lynx lynx L.) mitochondrial DNA control region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sindičić, Magda; Gomerčić, Tomislav; Galov, Ana; Polanc, Primož; Huber, Duro; Slavica, Alen

    2012-06-01

    Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) control region (CR) of numerous species is known to include up to five different repetitive sequences (RS1-RS5) that are found at various locations, involving motifs of different length and extensive length heteroplasmy. Two repetitive sequences (RS2 and RS3) on opposite sides of mtDNA central conserved region have been described in domestic cat (Felis catus) and some other felid species. However, the presence of repetitive sequence RS3 has not been detected in Eurasian lynx (Lynx lynx) yet. We analyzed mtDNA CR of 35 Eurasian lynx (L. lynx L.) samples to characterize repetitive sequences and to compare them with those found in other felid species. We confirmed the presence of 80 base pairs (bp) repetitive sequence (RS2) at the 5' end of the Eurasian lynx mtDNA CR L strand and for the first time we described RS3 repetitive sequence at its 3' end, consisting of an array of tandem repeats five to ten bp long. We found that felid species share similar RS3 repetitive pattern and fundamental repeat motif TACAC.

  2. Molecular identification of Taenia spp. in the Eurasian lynx (Lynx lynx) from Finland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavikainen, A; Haukisalmi, V; Deksne, G; Holmala, K; Lejeune, M; Isomursu, M; Jokelainen, P; Näreaho, A; Laakkonen, J; Hoberg, E P; Sukura, A

    2013-04-01

    Cestodes of the genus Taenia are parasites of mammals, with mainly carnivores as definitive and herbivores as intermediate hosts. Various medium-sized cats, Lynx spp., are involved in the life cycles of several species of Taenia. The aim of the present study was to identify Taenia tapeworms in the Eurasian lynx (Lynx lynx) from Finland. In total, 135 tapeworms from 72 lynx were subjected to molecular identification based on sequences of 2 mtDNA regions, the cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 and the NADH dehydrogenase subunit 1 genes. Available morphological characters of the rostellar hooks and strobila were compared. Two species of Taenia were found: T. laticollis (127 samples) and an unknown Taenia sp. (5 samples). The latter could not be identified to species based on mtDNA, and the rostellar hooks were short relative to those described among other Taenia spp. recorded in felids from the Holarctic region. In the phylogenetic analyses of mtDNA sequences, T. laticollis was placed as a sister species of T. macrocystis, and the unknown Taenia sp. was closely related to T. hydatigena and T. regis. Our analyses suggest that these distinct taeniid tapeworms represent a putative new species of Taenia. The only currently recognized definitive host is L. lynx and the intermediate host is unknown.

  3. Gene Sets for Utilization of Primary and Secondary Nutrition Supplies in the Distal Gut of Endangered Iberian Lynx

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alcaide, María; Messina, Enzo; Richter, Michael; Bargiela, Rafael; Peplies, Jörg; Huws, Sharon A.; Newbold, Charles J.; Golyshin, Peter N.; Simón, Miguel A.; López, Guillermo; Yakimov, Michail M.; Ferrer, Manuel

    2012-01-01

    Recent studies have indicated the existence of an extensive trans-genomic trans-mural co-metabolism between gut microbes and animal hosts that is diet-, host phylogeny- and provenance-influenced. Here, we analyzed the biodiversity at the level of small subunit rRNA gene sequence and the metabolic composition of 18 Mbp of consensus metagenome sequences and activity characteristics of bacterial intra-cellular extracts, in wild Iberian lynx (Lynx pardinus) fecal samples. Bacterial signatures (14.43% of all of the Firmicutes reads and 6.36% of total reads) related to the uncultured anaerobic commensals Anaeroplasma spp., which are typically found in ovine and bovine rumen, were first identified. The lynx gut was further characterized by an over-representation of ‘presumptive’ aquaporin aqpZ genes and genes encoding ‘active’ lysosomal-like digestive enzymes that are possibly needed to acquire glycerol, sugars and amino acids from glycoproteins, glyco(amino)lipids, glyco(amino)glycans and nucleoside diphosphate sugars. Lynx gut was highly enriched (28% of the total glycosidases) in genes encoding α-amylase and related enzymes, although it exhibited low rate of enzymatic activity indicative of starch degradation. The preponderance of β-xylosidase activity in protein extracts further suggests lynx gut microbes being most active for the metabolism of β-xylose containing plant N-glycans, although β-xylosidases sequences constituted only 1.5% of total glycosidases. These collective and unique bacterial, genetic and enzymatic activity signatures suggest that the wild lynx gut microbiota not only harbors gene sets underpinning sugar uptake from primary animal tissues (with the monotypic dietary profile of the wild lynx consisting of 80–100% wild rabbits) but also for the hydrolysis of prey-derived plant biomass. Although, the present investigation corresponds to a single sample and some of the statements should be considered qualitative, the data most likely

  4. Gene sets for utilization of primary and secondary nutrition supplies in the distal gut of endangered Iberian lynx.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Alcaide

    Full Text Available Recent studies have indicated the existence of an extensive trans-genomic trans-mural co-metabolism between gut microbes and animal hosts that is diet-, host phylogeny- and provenance-influenced. Here, we analyzed the biodiversity at the level of small subunit rRNA gene sequence and the metabolic composition of 18 Mbp of consensus metagenome sequences and activity characteristics of bacterial intra-cellular extracts, in wild Iberian lynx (Lynx pardinus fecal samples. Bacterial signatures (14.43% of all of the Firmicutes reads and 6.36% of total reads related to the uncultured anaerobic commensals Anaeroplasma spp., which are typically found in ovine and bovine rumen, were first identified. The lynx gut was further characterized by an over-representation of 'presumptive' aquaporin aqpZ genes and genes encoding 'active' lysosomal-like digestive enzymes that are possibly needed to acquire glycerol, sugars and amino acids from glycoproteins, glyco(aminolipids, glyco(aminoglycans and nucleoside diphosphate sugars. Lynx gut was highly enriched (28% of the total glycosidases in genes encoding α-amylase and related enzymes, although it exhibited low rate of enzymatic activity indicative of starch degradation. The preponderance of β-xylosidase activity in protein extracts further suggests lynx gut microbes being most active for the metabolism of β-xylose containing plant N-glycans, although β-xylosidases sequences constituted only 1.5% of total glycosidases. These collective and unique bacterial, genetic and enzymatic activity signatures suggest that the wild lynx gut microbiota not only harbors gene sets underpinning sugar uptake from primary animal tissues (with the monotypic dietary profile of the wild lynx consisting of 80-100% wild rabbits but also for the hydrolysis of prey-derived plant biomass. Although, the present investigation corresponds to a single sample and some of the statements should be considered qualitative, the data most likely

  5. Favourable areas for expansion and reintroduction of Iberian lynx accounting for distribution trends and genetic variation of the wild rabbit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Márcia Barbosa

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Although on a local scale Iberian lynx distribution is determined by the availability of prey rabbits, recent modelling analyses have uncovered broad-scale disagreements between these two species’ distribution trends. These analyses showed also that the lynx had become restricted to only a fraction of the rabbit’s genetic variability, and that this could be jeopardising its survival in the face of environmental hazards and uncertainty. In the present paper, a follow-up was carried out through the building of lynx and rabbit distribution models based on the most recent Spanish mammal atlas. The predictions of environmental favourability (which is an indicator of abundance for lynx and rabbit were positively correlated within the lynx's current distribution area, but they were negatively correlated within the total Spanish area where lynx occurred in the 1980’s. Environmental favourability for rabbits was significantly higher where lynx maintains reproductive populations than where it recently disappeared, indicating that rabbit favourability plays an important role and can be a good predictor of lynx persistence. The lynx and rabbit models were extrapolated to predict favourable areas for both species in Spain as well as in Portugal, on the original scale of the distribution data (10x10 km and on a 100 times finer spatial resolution (1x1 km. The lynx and rabbit models were also combined through fuzzy logic to forecast the potential for lynx occurrence incorporating information on favourable areas for its main prey. Several areas are proposed as favourable for lynx expansion or re-introduction, encompassing both countries and both genetic lineages of the rabbit.

  6. Situation and distribution of the Lynx (Lynx lynx L. in Slovenia from 1995-1999

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cvetko Stanisa

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In this paper we analyse signs of lynx presence and their distribution to evaluate the status of lynx in Slovenia. From 1995-1999, a total of 499 signs of lynx presence were reported that allowed us to distinguish between 4 different regions: (1 The southern part of the country comprising the area south-east of the Ljubljana-Trst highway (Kocevska, Notranjska where lynx were re-introduced and the lynx number is still the highest. (2 The western part of the country with the Julian Alps, where lynx have started to immigrate in the mid 1980s. (3 The Karavanke and Kamniško-Savinjske Alps in the north of the country, as well as some other isolated areas where only a very low number of lynx signs of presence were collected. (4 The fourth region comprises the north-east of Slovenia where lynx is still absent. Based on the available data, we estimated the number of lynx in southern Slovenia between 30 to 40 individuals, while in the west of the Jesenice-Ljubljana-Trst highway we estimated that around 10 individuals are present. The area of lynx occurrence has not increased during the past five years, on the contrary, the fact that the annual hunting quota has not been reached since 1992 - even though the quotas were set considerably lower than previously - indicates that the number of lynx has decreased. The Slovenian lynx population was always considered the most vital Alpine occurrence, as it has shown rapid expansion into neighbouring Croatia, Italy and Austria. However, during the past years a slight regression in lynx numbers was observed, in contrast to the brown bear and wolf.

  7. Molecular identification of Taenia spp. In the Eurasian Lynx (Lynx lynx) from Finland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cestodes of the genus Taenia are parasites of mammals, with mainly carnivores as definitive and herbivores as intermediate hosts. Various medium-sized cats, Lynx spp., are involved in the life cycles of several species of Taenia. The aim of the present study was to identify Taenia tapeworms in the E...

  8. Large-scale genetic structuring of a widely distributed carnivore--the Eurasian lynx (Lynx lynx.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eli K Rueness

    Full Text Available Over the last decades the phylogeography and genetic structure of a multitude of species inhabiting Europe and North America have been described. The flora and fauna of the vast landmasses of north-eastern Eurasia are still largely unexplored in this respect. The Eurasian lynx is a large felid that is relatively abundant over much of the Russian sub-continent and the adjoining countries. Analyzing 148 museum specimens collected throughout its range over the last 150 years we have described the large-scale genetic structuring in this highly mobile species. We have investigated the spatial genetic patterns using mitochondrial DNA sequences (D-loop and cytochrome b and 11 microsatellite loci, and describe three phylogenetic clades and a clear structuring along an east-west gradient. The most likely scenario is that the contemporary Eurasian lynx populations originated in central Asia and that parts of Europe were inhabited by lynx during the Pleistocene. After the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM range expansions lead to colonization of north-western Siberia and Scandinavia from the Caucasus and north-eastern Siberia from a refugium further east. No evidence of a Berinigan refugium could be detected in our data. We observed restricted gene flow and suggest that future studies of the Eurasian lynx explore to what extent the contemporary population structure may be explained by ecological variables.

  9. Estudio y conservación del lince ibérico ("Lynx pardinus") en España

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    El conocimiento de la distribución y abundancia de las especies, así como sus tasas de supervivencia y causas de mortalidad, juegan un papel importante a la hora de establecer sus requerimientos ecológicos, evaluar el estado de sus poblaciones y predecir la evolución de las mismas. Obtener esta información es particularmente difícil en el caso de los felinos silvestres debido a que suelen ser escasos y tienen hábitos elusivos. Los trabajos que componen esta tesis doctoral se han desarrollado...

  10. Physiologically persistent Corpora lutea in Eurasian lynx (Lynx lynx - longitudinal ultrasound and endocrine examinations intra-vitam.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johanna Painer

    Full Text Available Felids generally follow a poly-estrous reproductive strategy. Eurasian lynx (Lynx lynx display a different pattern of reproductive cyclicity where physiologically persistent corpora lutea (CLs induce a mono-estrous condition which results in highly seasonal reproduction. The present study was based around a sono-morphological and endocrine study of captive Eurasian lynx, and a control-study on free-ranging lynx. We verified that CLs persist after pregnancy and pseudo-pregnancy for at least a two-year period. We could show that lynx are able to enter estrus in the following year, while CLs from the previous years persisted in structure and only temporarily reduced their function for the period of estrus onset or birth, which is unique among felids. The almost constant luteal progesterone secretion (average of 5 ng/ml serum seems to prevent folliculogenesis outside the breeding season and has converted a poly-estrous general felid cycle into a mono-estrous cycle specific for lynx. The hormonal regulation mechanism which causes lynx to have the longest CL lifespan amongst mammals remains unclear. The described non-felid like ovarian physiology appears to be a remarkably non-plastic system. The lynx's reproductive ability to adapt to environmental and anthropogenic changes needs further investigation.

  11. Serologic survey for viral and bacterial infections in western populations of Canada Lynx (Lynx canadensis)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roman Biek; Randall L. Zarnke; Colin Gillin; Margaret Wild; John R. Squires; Mary Poss

    2002-01-01

    A serologic survey for exposure to pathogens in Canada lynx (Lynx canadensis) in western North America was conducted. Samples from 215 lynx from six study areas were tested for antibodies to feline parvovirus (FPV), feline coronavirus, canine distemper virus, feline calicivirus, feline herpesvirus, Yersinia pestis, and Francisella tularensis. A subset of...

  12. On the skull of a Lynx, Lynx lynx (Linnaeus, 1758), found in the Roman castellum at Valkenburg, province of Zuid-Holland, The Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bree, van P.J.H.; Clason, A.T.

    1971-01-01

    The authors report on the almost complete skull of a Lynx, Lynx lynx (Linnaeus, 1758) found during excavation of a Roman castellum at Valkenburg, Province of Zuid-Holland, the Netherlands in 1962. Photographs and measurements of the skull are presented as well as a review of the Lynx remains found i

  13. Polonium-210 and Caesium-137 in lynx (Lynx lynx), wolverine (Gulo gulo) and wolves (Canis lupus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gjelsvik, Runhild; Holm, Elis; Kålås, John Atle; Persson, Bertil; Asbrink, Jessica

    2014-12-01

    Wolves, lynx and wolverines are on the top of the food-chain in northern Scandinavia and Finland. (210)Po and (137)Cs have been analysed in samples of liver, kidney and muscle from 28 wolves from Sweden. In addition blood samples were taken from 27 wolves. In 9 of the wolves, samples of muscle, liver and blood were analysed for (210)Po. Samples of liver and muscle were collected from 16 lynx and 16 wolverines from Norway. The liver samples were analysed for (210)Po and (137)Cs. Only (137)Cs analyses were carried out for the muscle samples. The wolves were collected during the winter 2010 and 2011, while the samples for lynx and wolverines were all from 2011. The activity concentrations of (210)Po in wolves were higher for liver (range 20-523 Bq kg(-1) d.w.) and kidney (range 24-942 Bq kg(-1) d.w.) than muscle (range 1-43 Bq kg(-1) d.w.) and blood (range 2-54 Bq kg(-1) d.w.). Activity ratios, (210)Po/(210)Pb, in wolf samples of muscle, liver and blood were in the ranges 2-77, 9-56 and 2-54. Using a wet weight ratio of 3.8 the maximal absorbed dose from (210)Po to wolf liver was estimated to 3500 μGy per year. Compared to wolf, the ranges of (210)Po in liver samples were lower in lynx (range 22-211 Bq kg(-1) d.w.) and wolverine (range16-160 Bq kg(-1) d.w.). Concentration of (137)Cs in wolf samples of muscle, liver, kidney and blood were in the ranges 70-8410 Bq kg(-1) d.w., 36-4050 Bq kg(-1) d.w., 31-3453 Bq kg(-1) d.w. and 4-959 Bq kg(-1) d.w., respectively. (137)Cs in lynx muscle and liver samples were in the ranges 44-13393 Bq kg(-1) d.w. and 125-10260 Bq kg(-1) d.w. The corresponding values for (137)Cs in wolverine were 22-3405 Bq kg(-1) d.w. for liver and 53-4780 Bq kg(-1) d.w. for muscle. The maximal absorbed dose from (137)Cs to lynx was estimated to 3000 μGy per year.

  14. Suckling behavior in Eurasian lynx (Lynx lynx L.) cubs: characteristics and correlation with competitive interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glukhova, Alla; Naidenko, Sergey

    2014-01-01

    There is substantial evidence in the literature that the offspring of many mammal species prefer a particular pair of nipples. There is also a definite "nipple order" in individual litters in which each young predominantly uses one or two particular nipples. In combination with early competitive interactions, such "constancy" can play an important role in the social development of the young. In this study, we reveal an unequal use of different pairs of mothers' nipples by 42 Eurasian lynx cubs in 16 litters and investigate the relationship of this phenomenon with the early competitive interactions of the cubs and their physical development. For the lynx cubs, the most often used pair of nipples is the middle pair. There is also definite "nipple order" in each litter. We found a negative correlation between nipples use by the offspring and their competitive activity. No influence of "nipple order" on the cubs' growth rate was detected.

  15. Patterns of variation in reproductive parameters in Eurasian lynx (Lynx lynx).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nilsen, Erlend B; Linnell, John D C; Odden, John; Samelius, Gustaf; Andrén, Henrik

    2012-07-01

    Detailed knowledge of the variation in demographic rates is central for our ability to understand the evolution of life history strategies and population dynamics, and to plan for the conservation of endangered species. We studied variation in reproductive output of 61 radio-collared Eurasian lynx females in four Scandinavian study sites spanning a total of 223 lynx-years. Specifically, we examined how the breeding proportion and litter size varied among study areas and age classes (2-year-old vs. >2-year-old females). In general, the breeding proportion varied between age classes and study sites, whereas we did not detect such variation in litter size. The lack of differences in litter sizes among age classes is at odds with most findings in large mammals, and we argue that this is because the level of prenatal investment is relatively low in felids compared to their substantial levels of postnatal care.

  16. Diagnostic Exercise: Gastroenteritis and Pneumonia Due to Mesocestoides spp. and Toxascaris leonina in a Eurasian Lynx (Lynx lynx

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yavuz Selim Sağlam

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Pathological and parasitological findings of a parasitic gastroenteritis due to Mesocestoides spp. and Toxascaris leonina in a two-year-old lynx (Lynx lynx was identified. The lynx was injured due to an accident in the forest in İspir-Erzurum, Turkey. At necropsy, there was erosive and hemorrhagic tissue loss on different regions of the head, especially on the nose. Numerous parasites were found in the stomach and intestine. At histopathological examination, along with necrotic debris and gastric contents in the luminal surface of the stomach, various parasitic forms were identified. Similar parasitic forms were observed in the intestine. Fecal examination revealed Toxascaris leonina eggs. It was concluded that parasitic gastroenteritis and pneumonia due to Mesocestoides spp. and Toxascaris leonina were the causes of death in a wild lynx and this is the first reported from Turkey according to the current literature.

  17. DATA MINING IN CANADIAN LYNX TIME SERIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.Karnaboopathy

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper sums up the applications of Statistical model such as ARIMA family timeseries models in Canadian lynx data time series analysis and introduces the method of datamining combined with Statistical knowledge to analysis Canadian lynx data series.

  18. Evidences for the Lynx recovery in Bulgaria: the Lynx discovered in Western Rhodopes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    NIKOLAI SPASSOV

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available On photographs taken by a camera trap in the region of Yagodina village, Western Rhodopes, (Bulgaria the presence of the Eurasian Lynx Lynx lynx L. has been registered in the summer of 2014. This is the most reliable to date argument for the presence in Rhodope mountains of this critically endangered species in Bulgaria and for its gradual dispersal from the western mountainous border region of Bulgaria to more appropriate country habitats inland.

  19. Re-introduction and present status of the lynx (Lynx Lynx in Switzerland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Urs Breitenmoser

    1998-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract A lynx recovery programme started in Switzerland in 1970. From 1970-76, at least 14 lynx were translocated from the Carpathian Mountains into the Swiss Alps. Another re-introduction took place in the Jura Mountains, but no corridors exist as a connection between these two popula- tions in Switzerland. The development of the populations was not monitored at first. In 1980 systematic research was initiated, which gradually evolved into the Swiss Lynx Project. Not all releases were successful, but the re-introduction in the northern and western Alps founded a population that covered an area of some 4000 km² in 1981. In the western Swiss Alps, lynx moved into Italian and French territory. Towards the eastern Swiss Alps, the expansion was slower and ceased about ten years ago. During the last five years, there even has been a reduction of the area occupied. Today, the population covers an area of about 10000 km² in the Swiss Alps, of which 50% is suitable lynx habitat. Based on size and overlap of average home ranges of radio-tagged lynx, the population was estimated to include some 50 adult residents. At present, the growth rate of the population appears to be too low to allow a further expansion in range. It is uncertain whether recruitment is sufficient to compensate for the high losses among resident adults induced by traffic accidents and illegal killing.

  20. Present status and distribution of the Eurasian Lynx (Lynx lynx in the Italian Alps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paolo Molinari

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract To analyse the status and distribution of lynx in the Italian Alps from 1995 to 1999, all signs of lynx presence found were pooled, evaluated and interpreted with the same method. We distinguished three levels of reliability in accordance with the SCALP guidelines and the possibility to verify the collected data: Quality 1 (Q1 represent the hard facts, e.g. all reports of lynx killed, found dead or photographs and videos of lynx. Quality 2 (Q2 include all records of wild prey remains, livestock killed, tracks and scats confirmed by people who attended special courses, e.g. mainly game and forest wardens. Quality 3 (Q3 are all signs of presence reported by the general public as well as all sightings and vocalisations, e.g. mainly signs that cannot be verified. A total of 261 signs of lynx presence were recorded in the Italian Alps, of which 85 were Q2, the remaining were Q3 as no Q1 data was reported. The Q2 data was confined to four different areas whereas the Q3 data showed a scattered distribution in all the Alps. The dynamics in the Italian Alps during the past pentad was characterised by four main events: (1 the positive trend that had been observed in the north-east of Friuli V.G. (the Tarvisiano up until 1995 decreased, but (2 at the same time an increased number of data was reported from north-east of the Veneto (Province of Belluno. Consequently, in the south-eastern Alps more data were collected over a bigger area than in the previous pentad. (3 The lynx occurrence of unknown origin in the Trentino has gone extinct again. And (4 the suspected presence of lynx in the Val d'Aosta and in the northernmost Piemonte (Val d'Ossola was confirmed by Q2 data. In Italy, lynx still have not established a vital population even though suitable habitat is available from the south-western through to the eastern Alps. With the exception of the new occurrence in the province of Belluno, lynx occur only in areas bordering with

  1. Presence of the Eurasian lynx (Lynx lynx in three contiguous valleys of the Verbania Province (Piemonte, northern Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Di Lorenzo

    2000-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The presence of the Eurasian lynx (Lynx lynx L. 1758 was revealed during an investigation performed from I991 to 1994 in three contiguous valleys (Antigorio valley, Formazza valley and Devero valley of the Verbania province in Piemonte. In this investigation two methods were employed: interviews with the people who saw a lynx and/or found evidence of its presence (prints, faeces, scratchings on trees and meal remains and field research by means of line transects, as reported by Ragni et al. (1993. The research area was of about 250 km². Lynx signs were obtained in 1991, 1992 and 1994 between 600 and 1800 m a.s.1. and during all seasons. The lynx was usually observed at night and at dusk. The research shows that the Eurasian lynx is present, although sporadically, in this area of the western Italian Alps.

  2. Contaminants in fish and wildlife of Lynx Lake, Arizona

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Sediment, water, crayfish, and fish were collected at Lynx Creek and Lynx Lake, Arizona in 2004 and 2005. Granite Basin Lake was used as a reference site. Both sites...

  3. Habitat selection and risk of predation: re-colonization by lynx had limited impact on habitat selection by roe deer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustaf Samelius

    Full Text Available Risk of predation is an evolutionary force that affects behaviors of virtually all animals. In this study, we examined how habitat selection by roe deer was affected by risk of predation by Eurasian lynx - the main predator of roe deer in Scandinavia. Specifically, we compared how habitat selection by roe deer varied (1 before and after lynx re-established in the study area and (2 in relation to habitat-specific risk of predation by lynx. All analyses were conducted at the spatial and temporal scales of home ranges and seasons. We did not find any evidence that roe deer avoided habitats in which the risk of predation by lynx was greatest and information-theoretic model selection showed that re-colonization by lynx had limited impact on habitat selection by roe deer despite lynx predation causing 65% of known mortalities after lynx re-colonized the area. Instead we found that habitat selection decreased when habitat availability increased for 2 of 5 habitat types (a pattern referred to as functional response in habitat selection. Limited impact of re-colonization by lynx on habitat selection by roe deer in this study differs from elk in North America altering both daily and seasonal patterns in habitat selection at the spatial scales of habitat patches and home ranges when wolves were reintroduced to Yellowstone National Park. Our study thus provides further evidence of the complexity by which animals respond to risk of predation and suggest that it may vary between ecosystems and predator-prey constellations.

  4. Esophageal hiatal hernia in three exotic felines--Lynx lynx, Puma concolore, Panthera leo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hettlich, Bianca F; Hobson, H Phil; Ducoté, Julie; Fossum, Theresa W; Johnson, James H

    2010-03-01

    Hiatal hernia was diagnosed in three exotic felines-lynx (Lynx lynx), cougar (Puma concolore), and lion (Panthera leo). All cats had a history of anorexia. Thoracic and abdominal radiographs showed evidence of a soft tissue mass within the caudal mediastinum suggestive of a hiatal hernia in all animals. A barium esophagram was performed in one case. All animals underwent thoracic or abdominal surgery for hernia reduction. Surgical procedures included: intercostal thoracotomy with herniorrhaphy and esophagopexy (lynx and cougar), and incisional gastropexy (lion). Concurrent surgical procedures performed were gastrotomy for gastric foreign body removal and jejunostomy tube placement. Clinical signs related to the hiatal hernia disappeared after surgery and recurrence of signs was not reported for the time of follow-up.

  5. Habitat fragmentation and the persistence of lynx populations in Washington state

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gary M Koehler; Benjamin T. Maletzke; Jeff A. Von Kienast; Keith B. Aubry; Robert B. Wielgus; Robert H. Naney

    2008-01-01

    Lynx (Lynx canadensis) occur in the northern counties of Washington state, USA; however, current distribution and status of lynx in Washington are poorly understood. During winters 2002-2004 we snow-tracked lynx for 155 km within a 211-km2 area in northern Washington, to develop a model of lynx-habitat relationships that we...

  6. Iberian lynx conservation in Portugal: dilemmas and solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarmento, P.

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Ateam of biologists and field assistants conducted, between January 2002 and May 2003, a survey on the status of the Iberian lynx in Portugal. The survey was performed on previously identified lynx areas, during studies carried out in the 1970-s and 1990-s Intensive search for lynx scats, for DNA analysis, and camera trapping provided a basis for identifying potential lynx areas. Over 4200 km were covered during a global searching effort of 1975 man-hours. This effort resulted in the collection of 168 potential scats that were submitted to genetic validation with no positive lynx amplifications. Camera trapping was applied in a total effort of 5647 camera days, in three lynx potential areas. No positive detections were achieved. At the same time, a study on wild rabbit distribution reveals that most historical nuclei do not support lynx viable populations. Although we can not confirm extinction, the scenario is highly pessimistic. The Iberian lynx is presently in the verge of extinction. Intensive rabbit regression and massive habitat destruction are identified as the main causes of decline in recent decades. In the Portuguese lynx historical range, we could only identify significant areas suitable for lynx in the South-eastern part of the country, particularly in the Andalusian border, where we lack on recent evidence of lynx presence. Being aware of the considerable difficulties pointed above, the ICN developed a Conservation Action Plan for the Iberian lynx in order to provide a consistent and effective approach to conserve the species in Portuguese territory. This proposal describes guidance that retains future options, provides management consistent, offers necessary flexibility, in order to achieve the maximum goal of conserving the lynx in Portugal. Conservation measures have the goal of provide guiding lines for conservations agents in order to conduct actions that can positively affect lynx and/or to help avoid negative impacts through

  7. The lynx in the Italian South-Eastern Alps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paolo Molinari

    1998-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract From 1986 to May 1995 I collected records of signs of lynx presence in the region of Friuli Venezia Giulia. A series of regularly checked trail transects, explorative excursions, and the collection of second-hand observations led to a total of 150 records. They confirm lynx presence and allow an assessment of the situation. The first lynx are believed to have immigrated to the northern part of the study area from Austria. An increase and the distribution in the signs of presence show a south-westerly expansion. The trend in the Julian Alps and Pre-Alps is also increasing. Some interpretations of the status of this new population are made. The study area is in the far south-eastern Alps. This area is important as a corridor between the Alps and the Balkans, where a reintroduced lynx population exists which would be able to support the Alpine lynx population through dispersing lynx.

  8. Linking climate change to population cycles of hares and lynx.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Chuan; Stenseth, Nils Chr; Krebs, Charles J; Zhang, Zhibin

    2013-11-01

    The classic 10-year population cycle of snowshoe hares (Lepus americanus, Erxleben 1777) and Canada lynx (Lynx canadensis, Kerr 1792) in the boreal forests of North America has drawn much attention from both population and community ecologists worldwide; however, the ecological mechanisms driving the 10-year cyclic dynamic pattern are not fully revealed yet. In this study, by the use of historic fur harvest data, we constructed a series of generalized additive models to study the effects of density dependence, predation, and climate (both global climate indices of North Atlantic Oscillation index (NAO), Southern Oscillation index (SOI) and northern hemispheric temperature (NHT) and local weather data including temperature, rainfall, and snow). We identified several key pathways from global and local climate to lynx with various time lags: rainfall shows a negative, and snow shows a positive effect on lynx; NHT and NAO negatively affect lynx through their positive effect on rainfall and negative effect on snow; SOI positively affects lynx through its negative effect on rainfall. Direct or delayed density dependency effects, the prey effect of hare on lynx and a 2-year delayed negative effect of lynx on hare (defined as asymmetric predation) were found. The simulated population dynamics is well fitted to the observed long-term fluctuations of hare and lynx populations. Through simulation, we find density dependency and asymmetric predation, only producing damped oscillation, are necessary but not sufficient factors in causing the observed 10-year cycles; while extrinsic climate factors are important in producing and modifying the sustained cycles. Two recent population declines of lynx (1940-1955 and after 1980) were likely caused by ongoing climate warming indirectly. Our results provide an alternative explanation to the mechanism of the 10-year cycles, and there is a need for further investigation on links between disappearance of population cycles and global

  9. Assessment of a recombinant F1-V fusion protein vaccine intended to protect Canada lynx (Lynx canadensis) from plague

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolfe, Lisa L.; Shenk, Tanya M.; Powell, Bradford; Rocke, Tonie E.

    2011-01-01

    As part of an ongoing restoration program in Colorado, USA, we evaluated adverse reactions and seroconversion in captive Canada lynx (Lynx canadensis) after vaccination with a recombinant F1-V fusion protein vaccine against Yersinia pestis, the bacterium that causes plague. Ten adult female lynx received the F1-V vaccine; 10 source- and age-matched lynx remained unvaccinated as controls. All of the vaccinated and control lynx remained apparently healthy throughout the confinement period. We observed no evidence of injection site or systemic reactions to the F1-V vaccine. Among vaccinated lynx, differences in log10 reciprocal antibody titers measured in sera collected before and after vaccination (two doses) ranged from 1.2 to 5.2 for anti-F1 antibodies and from 0.6 to 5.2 for anti-V antibodies; titers in unvaccinated lynx did not change appreciably over the course of confinement prior to release, and thus differences in anti-F1 (P=0.003) and anti-V (P=0.0005) titers were greater among vaccinated lynx than among controls. Although our findings suggest that the F1-V fusion protein vaccine evaluated here is likely to stimulate antibody responses that may help protect Canada lynx from plague, we observed no apparent differences in survival between vaccinated and unvaccinated subject animals. Retrospectively, 22 of 50 (44%; 95% confidence interval 29–59%) unvaccinated lynx captured or recaptured in Colorado during 2000–08 had passive hemagglutination antibody titers >1:16, consistent with exposure to Y. pestis; paired pre- and postrelease titers available for eight of these animals showed titer increases similar in magnitude to those seen in response to vaccination, suggesting at least some lynx may naturally acquire immunity to plague in Colorado habitats.

  10. Status and distribution of the lynx in the German Alps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petra Kaczensky

    1998-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The lynx (Lynx lynx had been eradicated in the German Alps by the middle of the 19th century. Since the early 1970s there have been several attempts to initiate the re-introduction of lynx into the German Alps, but none of the projects could be carried out because of the still very controversial attitudes towards the species, and because of competition between institutions. Natural re-colonization of the German Alps by lynx can be expected sooner or later from Switzerland or Austria. Although lynx are already present in some parts of Germany outside the Alps, neither an organized monitoring system nor compensation regulations for losses of livestock exist. For a successful comeback of lynx into Germany, including the German Alps, more efforts than a year-round protection by the federal hunting law is needed. Initiative management actions and intensive public education are necessary to obtain and secure public acceptance of the lynx.

  11. Diet and Predatory Behavior of Lynx in Sweden

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moshøj, Charlotte Margaret

    2002-01-01

    4. Diet and Predatory Behavior of Lynx in Sweden CHARLOTTE MOSHØJ1,2 1University of Copenhagen Department of Population Ecology, Zoological Institute Universitetsparken 15 DK-2100 Copenhagen Denmark cmmoshoj@zi.ku.dk 2Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences Department of Conservation Biology...... (reindeer and roe deer) comprised the greatest part of the diet, while a regional division indicated that while lynxes from northern regions had a narrower diet niche, they were in better condition than lynxes from south of the reindeer husbandry districts. Lynx gender and status also influenced diet......, predation and condition, while temporal variations in prey density and availability affected seasonal predation rates, as well as between year variations and diet composition. Variable prey species and environmental factors, such as snow and the availability of cover, furthermore affected lynx predatory...

  12. Lynx distribution in the French Alps (1995-1999

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philippe Stahl

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract From 1995 to 1999, 69 data were recorded on lynx presence in the French Alps, in an area of 3,636 km². Lynx presence was recorded in the major forested regions of the pré-Alpes (Chablais, Glière/Aravis, Bauges, Chartreuse, Vercors, Diois/Beauchène, in the Chamonix and Maurienne valleys and the Briançon region, but no large continuous area of presence was shown. Lynx have probably been permanently present in certain locations during the past years, but the presence of a large lynx population in the Alps is improbable in the northern French Alps. In the future, we recommend that habitat suitability for lynx in the northern French-Alps should be assessed, together with possibilities of connection between alpine regions and possible bias in the monitoring system.

  13. Selective actions of Lynx proteins on different nicotinic acetylcholine receptors in the locust, Locusta migratoria manilensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xin; Bao, Haibo; Sun, Huahua; Zhang, Yixi; Fang, Jichao; Liu, Qinghong; Liu, Zewen

    2015-08-01

    Nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) are major neurotransmitter receptors and targets of neonicotinoid insecticides in the insect nervous system. The full function of nAChRs is often dependent on associated proteins, such as chaperones, regulators and modulators. Here, three Lynx (Ly-6/neurotoxin) proteins, Loc-lynx1, Loc-lynx2 and Loc-lynx3, were identified in the locust, Locusta migratoria manilensis. Co-expression with Lynx resulted in a dramatic increase in agonist-evoked macroscopic currents on nAChRs Locα1/β2 and Locα2/β2 in Xenopus oocytes, but no changes in agonist sensitivity. Loc-lynx1 and Loc-lynx3 only modulated nAChRs Locα1/β2 while Loc-lynx2 modulated Locα2/β2 specifically. Meanwhile, Loc-lynx1 induced a more significant increase in currents evoked by imidacloprid and epibatidine than Loc-lynx3, and the effects of Loc-lynx1 on imidacloprid and epibatidine were significantly higher than those on acetylcholine. Among three lynx proteins, only Loc-lynx1 significantly increased [(3) H]epibatidine binding on Locα1/β2. The results indicated that Loc-lynx1 had different modulation patterns in nAChRs compared to Loc-lynx2 and Loc-lynx3. Taken together, these findings indicated that three Lynx proteins were nAChR modulators and had selective activities in different nAChRs. Lynx proteins might display their selectivities from three aspects: nAChR subtypes, various agonists and different modulation patterns. Insect Lynx (Ly-6/neurotoxin) proteins act as the allosteric modulators on insect nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs), the important targets of insecticides. We found that insect lynx proteins showed their selectivities from at least three aspects: nAChR subtypes, various agonists and different modulation patterns.

  14. First estimation of Eurasian lynx (Lynx lynx abundance and density using digital cameras and capture–recapture techniques in a German national park

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weingarth, K.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Eurasian lynx are individually identifiable by their unique coat markings, making them ideal candidates for capture–recapture (CMR surveys. We evaluated the use of digital photography to estimate Eurasian lynx population abundance and density within the Bavarian Forest National Park. From November 2008 to January 2009 we placed 24 camera trap sites, each with two cameras facing each other on well–used walking tracks. The units were placed based on a systematic grid of 2.7 km. We captured five independent and three juvenile lynx and calculated abundance estimates using Program Mark. We also compared density estimates based on the MMDM method (Mean Maximum Distance Moved from telemetry data (½MMDMGPS and from camera trapping data (½MMDMCAM. We estimated that in an effectively sampled area of 664 km2 the Eurasian lynx density was 0.9 individuals/100 km2 with ½MMDMCAM. The Eurasian lynx density calculated with ½MMDMGPS was 0.4 individuals/100 km2 in an effectively sampled area of 1,381 km2. Our results suggest that long–term photographic CMR sampling on a large scale may be a useful tool to monitor population trends of Eurasian lynx in accordance with the Fauna–Flora–Habitat Directive of the European Union.

  15. Met stille trom? Nederland en de Europese lynx

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groot Bruinderink, G.W.T.A.; Kuipers, H.; Lammertsma, D.R.; DeSmet, K.; Petrak, M.; Eylert, J.H.

    2006-01-01

    Dit artikel geeft gegevens over nieuwe vestigingen van de Europese lynx in Midden- en West-Europa; op grond van de mogelijkheid tot gebruikmaking van ecologische verbindingszones. Gecombineerd onderzoek vanuit Wageningen, Brussel en Bonn

  16. The subtle role of climate change on population genetic structure in Canada lynx.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Row, Jeffrey R; Wilson, Paul J; Gomez, Celine; Koen, Erin L; Bowman, Jeff; Thornton, Daniel; Murray, Dennis L

    2014-07-01

    Anthropogenically driven climatic change is expected to reshape global patterns of species distribution and abundance. Given recent links between genetic variation and environmental patterns, climate change may similarly impact genetic population structure, but we lack information on the spatial and mechanistic underpinnings of genetic-climate associations. Here, we show that current genetic variability of Canada lynx (Lynx canadensis) is strongly correlated with a winter climate gradient (i.e. increasing snow depth and winter precipitation from west-to-east) across the Pacific-North American (PNO) to North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) climatic systems. This relationship was stronger than isolation by distance and not explained by landscape variables or changes in abundance. Thus, these patterns suggest that individuals restricted dispersal across the climate boundary, likely in the absence of changes in habitat quality. We propose habitat imprinting on snow conditions as one possible explanation for this unusual phenomenon. Coupling historical climate data with future projections, we also found increasingly diverging snow conditions between the two climate systems. Based on genetic simulations using projected climate data (2041-2070), we predicted that this divergence could lead to a threefold increase in genetic differentiation, potentially leading to isolated east-west populations of lynx in North America. Our results imply that subtle genetic structure can be governed by current climate and that substantive genetic differentiation and related ecological divergence may arise from changing climate patterns. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Enhancement in motor learning through genetic manipulation of the Lynx1 gene.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julie M Miwa

    Full Text Available The cholinergic system is a neuromodulatory neurotransmitter system involved in a variety of brain processes, including learning and memory, attention, and motor processes, among others. The influence of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors of the cholinergic system are moderated by lynx proteins, which are GPI-anchored membrane proteins forming tight associations with nicotinic receptors. Previous studies indicate lynx1 inhibits nicotinic receptor function and limits neuronal plasticity. We sought to investigate the mechanism of action of lynx1 on nicotinic receptor function, through the generation of lynx mouse models, expressing a soluble version of lynx and comparing results to the full length overexpression. Using rotarod as a test for motor learning, we found that expressing a secreted variant of lynx leads to motor learning enhancements whereas overexpression of full-length lynx had no effect. Further, adult lynx1KO mice demonstrated comparable motor learning enhancements as the soluble transgenic lines, whereas previously, aged lynx1KO mice showed performance augmentation only with nicotine treatment. From this we conclude the motor learning is more sensitive to loss of lynx function, and that the GPI anchor plays a role in the normal function of the lynx protein. In addition, our data suggests that the lynx gene plays a modulatory role in the brain during aging, and that a soluble version of lynx has potential as a tool for adjusting cholinergic-dependent plasticity and learning mechanisms in the brain.

  18. Lynx web services for annotations and systems analysis of multi-gene disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sulakhe, Dinanath; Taylor, Andrew; Balasubramanian, Sandhya; Feng, Bo; Xie, Bingqing; Börnigen, Daniela; Dave, Utpal J; Foster, Ian T; Gilliam, T Conrad; Maltsev, Natalia

    2014-07-01

    Lynx is a web-based integrated systems biology platform that supports annotation and analysis of experimental data and generation of weighted hypotheses on molecular mechanisms contributing to human phenotypes and disorders of interest. Lynx has integrated multiple classes of biomedical data (genomic, proteomic, pathways, phenotypic, toxicogenomic, contextual and others) from various public databases as well as manually curated data from our group and collaborators (LynxKB). Lynx provides tools for gene list enrichment analysis using multiple functional annotations and network-based gene prioritization. Lynx provides access to the integrated database and the analytical tools via REST based Web Services (http://lynx.ci.uchicago.edu/webservices.html). This comprises data retrieval services for specific functional annotations, services to search across the complete LynxKB (powered by Lucene), and services to access the analytical tools built within the Lynx platform.

  19. Lynx: Automatic Elderly Behavior Prediction in Home Telecare

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez-Guede, Jose Manuel; Moreno-Fernandez-de-Leceta, Aitor; Martinez-Garcia, Alexeiw; Graña, Manuel

    2015-01-01

    This paper introduces Lynx, an intelligent system for personal safety at home environments, oriented to elderly people living independently, which encompasses a decision support machine for automatic home risk prevention, tested in real-life environments to respond to real time situations. The automatic system described in this paper prevents such risks by an advanced analytic methods supported by an expert knowledge system. It is minimally intrusive, using plug-and-play sensors and machine learning algorithms to learn the elder's daily activity taking into account even his health records. If the system detects that something unusual happens (in a wide sense) or if something is wrong relative to the user's health habits or medical recommendations, it sends at real-time alarm to the family, care center, or medical agents, without human intervention. The system feeds on information from sensors deployed in the home and knowledge of subject physical activities, which can be collected by mobile applications and enriched by personalized health information from clinical reports encoded in the system. The system usability and reliability have been tested in real-life conditions, with an accuracy larger than 81%. PMID:26783514

  20. Lynx: Automatic Elderly Behavior Prediction in Home Telecare

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jose Manuel Lopez-Guede

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper introduces Lynx, an intelligent system for personal safety at home environments, oriented to elderly people living independently, which encompasses a decision support machine for automatic home risk prevention, tested in real-life environments to respond to real time situations. The automatic system described in this paper prevents such risks by an advanced analytic methods supported by an expert knowledge system. It is minimally intrusive, using plug-and-play sensors and machine learning algorithms to learn the elder’s daily activity taking into account even his health records. If the system detects that something unusual happens (in a wide sense or if something is wrong relative to the user’s health habits or medical recommendations, it sends at real-time alarm to the family, care center, or medical agents, without human intervention. The system feeds on information from sensors deployed in the home and knowledge of subject physical activities, which can be collected by mobile applications and enriched by personalized health information from clinical reports encoded in the system. The system usability and reliability have been tested in real-life conditions, with an accuracy larger than 81%.

  1. Missing lynx and trophic cascades in food webs: A reply to Ripple et al.

    Science.gov (United States)

    John R. Squires; Nicholas J. DeCesare; Mark Hebblewhite; Joel Berger

    2012-01-01

    Ripple et al. (2011) proposed a hypothesis that the recovery of gray wolves (Canis lupus) may positively affect the viability of threatened Canada lynx (Lynx canadensis) populations in the contiguous United States through indirect species interactions. Ripple et al. (2011) proposed 2 key trophic linkages connecting wolf restoration with lynx recovery. First, recovering...

  2. Selection and drift influence genetic differentiation of insular Canada lynx (Lynx canadensis) on Newfoundland and Cape Breton Island.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prentice, Melanie B; Bowman, Jeff; Khidas, Kamal; Koen, Erin L; Row, Jeffrey R; Murray, Dennis L; Wilson, Paul J

    2017-05-01

    Island populations have long been important for understanding the dynamics and mechanisms of evolution in natural systems. While genetic drift is often strong on islands due to founder events and population bottlenecks, the strength of selection can also be strong enough to counteract the effects of drift. Here, we used several analyses to identify the roles of genetic drift and selection on genetic differentiation and diversity of Canada lynx (Lynx canadensis) across eastern Canada, including the islands of Cape Breton and Newfoundland. Specifically, we assessed whether we could identify a genetic component to the observed morphological differentiation that has been reported across insular and mainland lynx. We used a dinucleotide repeat within the promoter region of a functional gene that has been linked to mammalian body size, insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1). We found high genetic differentiation at neutral molecular markers but convergence of allele frequencies at the IGF-1 locus. Thus, we showed that while genetic drift has influenced the observed genetic structure of lynx at neutral molecular markers, natural selection has also played a role in the observed patterns of genetic diversity at the IGF-1 locus of insular lynx.

  3. Present status and distribution of the Lynx in the German Alps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manfred Wölfl

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The period 1995 to 1999 did not yield any confirmed lynx data in the German part of the Alpine Arc. Only from the area of Berchtesgaden, 6 Q3-data exist. Outside of the Alpine arc Germany hosts some areas with lynx evidence. For a better understanding of the real situation in the Alps it would be necessary to have a few skilled persons who could check any lynx signs quickly and/or interview people that suspect lynx presence. Because of possible lynx immigrations, especially from eastern Switzerland, and its central location, it would be important that Germany starts to play a more active role in lynx conservation in the Alps. Conservation strategies and possible actions need to be assessed in the near future.

  4. Relative accuracy of spatial predictive models for lynx Lynx canadensis derived using logistic regression-AIC, multiple criteria evaluation and Bayesian approaches

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hejun KANG; Shelley M.ALEXANDER

    2009-01-01

    We compared probability surfaces derived using one set of environmental variables in three Geographic Information Systems (GIS) -based approaches: logistic regression and Akaike's Information Criterion (AIC),Multiple Criteria Evaluation (MCE),and Bayesian Analysis (specifically Dempster-Shafer theory). We used lynx Lynx canadensis as our focal species,and developed our environment relationship model using track data collected in Banff National Park,Alberta,Canada,during winters from 1997 to 2000. The accuracy of the three spatial models were compared using a contingency table method. We determined the percentage of cases in which both presence and absence points were correctly classified (overall accuracy),the failure to predict a species where it occurred (omission error) and the prediction of presence where there was absence (commission error). Our overall accuracy showed the logistic regression approach was the most accurate (74.51% ). The multiple criteria evaluation was intermediate (39.22%),while the Dempster-Shafer (D-S) theory model was the poorest (29.90%). However,omission and commission error tell us a different story: logistic regression had the lowest commission error,while D-S theory produced the lowest omission error. Our results provide evidence that habitat modellers should evaluate all three error measures when ascribing confidence in their model. We suggest that for our study area at least,the logistic regression model is optimal. However,where sample size is small or the species is very rare,it may also be useful to explore and/or use a more ecologically cautious modelling approach (e.g. Dempster-Shafer) that would over-predict,protect more sites,and thereby minimize the risk of missing critical habitat in conservation plans.

  5. Relative accuracy of spatial predictive models for lynx Lynx canadensis derived using logistic regression-AIC, multiple criteria evaluation and Bayesian approaches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shelley M. ALEXANDER

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available We compared probability surfaces derived using one set of environmental variables in three Geographic Information Systems (GIS-based approaches: logistic regression and Akaike’s Information Criterion (AIC, Multiple Criteria Evaluation (MCE, and Bayesian Analysis (specifically Dempster-Shafer theory. We used lynx Lynx canadensis as our focal species, and developed our environment relationship model using track data collected in Banff National Park, Alberta, Canada, during winters from 1997 to 2000. The accuracy of the three spatial models were compared using a contingency table method. We determined the percentage of cases in which both presence and absence points were correctly classified (overall accuracy, the failure to predict a species where it occurred (omission error and the prediction of presence where there was absence (commission error. Our overall accuracy showed the logistic regression approach was the most accurate (74.51%. The multiple criteria evaluation was intermediate (39.22%, while the Dempster-Shafer (D-S theory model was the poorest (29.90%. However, omission and commission error tell us a different story: logistic regression had the lowest commission error, while D-S theory produced the lowest omission error. Our results provide evidence that habitat modellers should evaluate all three error measures when ascribing confidence in their model. We suggest that for our study area at least, the logistic regression model is optimal. However, where sample size is small or the species is very rare, it may also be useful to explore and/or use a more ecologically cautious modelling approach (e.g. Dempster-Shafer that would over-predict, protect more sites, and thereby minimize the risk of missing critical habitat in conservation plans[Current Zoology 55(1: 28 – 40, 2009].

  6. Performance analysis and kernel size study of the Lynx real-time operating system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yuan-Kwei; Gibson, James S.; Fernquist, Alan R.

    1993-01-01

    This paper analyzes the Lynx real-time operating system (LynxOS), which has been selected as the operating system for the Space Station Freedom Data Management System (DMS). The features of LynxOS are compared to other Unix-based operating system (OS). The tools for measuring the performance of LynxOS, which include a high-speed digital timer/counter board, a device driver program, and an application program, are analyzed. The timings for interrupt response, process creation and deletion, threads, semaphores, shared memory, and signals are measured. The memory size of the DMS Embedded Data Processor (EDP) is limited. Besides, virtual memory is not suitable for real-time applications because page swap timing may not be deterministic. Therefore, the DMS software, including LynxOS, has to fit in the main memory of an EDP. To reduce the LynxOS kernel size, the following steps are taken: analyzing the factors that influence the kernel size; identifying the modules of LynxOS that may not be needed in an EDP; adjusting the system parameters of LynxOS; reconfiguring the device drivers used in the LynxOS; and analyzing the symbol table. The reductions in kernel disk size, kernel memory size and total kernel size reduction from each step mentioned above are listed and analyzed.

  7. Performance analysis and kernel size study of the Lynx real-time operating system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yuan-Kwei; Gibson, James S.; Fernquist, Alan R.

    1993-01-01

    This paper analyzes the Lynx real-time operating system (LynxOS), which has been selected as the operating system for the Space Station Freedom Data Management System (DMS). The features of LynxOS are compared to other Unix-based operating system (OS). The tools for measuring the performance of LynxOS, which include a high-speed digital timer/counter board, a device driver program, and an application program, are analyzed. The timings for interrupt response, process creation and deletion, threads, semaphores, shared memory, and signals are measured. The memory size of the DMS Embedded Data Processor (EDP) is limited. Besides, virtual memory is not suitable for real-time applications because page swap timing may not be deterministic. Therefore, the DMS software, including LynxOS, has to fit in the main memory of an EDP. To reduce the LynxOS kernel size, the following steps are taken: analyzing the factors that influence the kernel size; identifying the modules of LynxOS that may not be needed in an EDP; adjusting the system parameters of LynxOS; reconfiguring the device drivers used in the LynxOS; and analyzing the symbol table. The reductions in kernel disk size, kernel memory size and total kernel size reduction from each step mentioned above are listed and analyzed.

  8. Influence of tourism and traffic on the Eurasian lynx hunting activity and daily movements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Belotti, E.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Human presence influences survival of large carnivores in several ways and even outdoor activities can be a source of disturbance. As ungulate prey provide the Eurasian lynx (Lynx lynx with food for several nights and the pattern of lynx activity is mainly shaped by searching for and consuming large prey, the need to move decreases strongly while the prey is eaten. However, during the day, human activity may drive lynx to move to safe shelters and habitat features such as dense vegetation may increase tolerance. In the Bohemian Forest (Czech Republic, we found 116 prey killed by five GPS–collared lynxes. We tested whether the kill sites were located farther from roads or tourist trails than a set of randomly generated locations and whether presence of roads or tourist trails and habitat structure influenced the distance ‘kill site to daytime resting sites’. At night, with low human activity, lynxes did not avoid roads and even selected the surroundings of tourist trails. The distance ‘kill site to daytime resting sites’ correlated negatively with presence of habitat concealment and distance to tourist trails, suggesting that outdoor activities may have to be considered in lynx management plans.

  9. Large impact of Eurasian lynx predation on roe deer population dynamics.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henrik Andrén

    Full Text Available The effects of predation on ungulate populations depend on several factors. One of the most important factors is the proportion of predation that is additive or compensatory respectively to other mortality in the prey, i.e., the relative effect of top-down and bottom-up processes. We estimated Eurasian lynx (Lynx lynx kill rate on roe deer (Capreolus capreolus using radio-collared lynx. Kill rate was strongly affected by lynx social status. For males it was 4.85 ± 1.30 S.E. roe deer per 30 days, for females with kittens 6.23 ± 0.83 S.E. and for solitary females 2.71 ± 0.47 S.E. We found very weak support for effects of prey density (both for Type I (linear and Type II (non-linear functional responses and of season (winter, summer on lynx kill rate. Additionally, we analysed the growth rate in a roe deer population from 1985 to 2005 in an area, which lynx naturally re-colonized in 1996. The annual roe deer growth rate was lower after lynx re-colonized the study area, but it was also negatively influenced by roe deer density. Before lynx colonized the area roe deer growth rate was λ = 1.079 (± 0.061 S.E., while after lynx re-colonization it was λ = 0.94 (± 0.051 S.E.. Thus, the growth rate in the roe deer population decreased by Δλ = 0.14 (± 0.080 S.E. after lynx re-colonized the study area, which corresponded to the estimated lynx predation rate on roe deer (0.11 ± 0.042 S.E., suggesting that lynx predation was mainly additive to other mortality in roe deer. To conclude, this study suggests that lynx predation together with density dependent factors both influence the roe deer population dynamics. Thus, both top-down and bottom-up processes operated at the same time in this predator-prey system.

  10. Lynx1 and Aβ1-42 bind competitively to multiple nicotinic acetylcholine receptor subtypes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Morten S; Arvaniti, Maria; Jensen, Majbrit M

    2016-01-01

    Lynx1 regulates synaptic plasticity in the brain by regulating nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs). It is not known to which extent Lynx1 can bind to endogenous nAChR subunits in the brain or how this interaction is affected by Alzheimer's disease pathology. We apply affinity purification...... to demonstrate that a water-soluble variant of human Lynx1 (Ws-Lynx1) isolates α3, α4, α5, α6, α7, β2, and β4 nAChR subunits from human and rat cortical extracts, and rat midbrain and olfactory bulb extracts, suggesting that Lynx1 forms complexes with multiple nAChR subtypes in the human and rodent brain....... Incubation with Ws-Lynx1 decreases nicotine-mediated extracellular signal-regulated kinase phosphorylation in PC12 cells and striatal neurons, indicating that binding of Ws-Lynx1 is sufficient to inhibit signaling downstream of nAChRs. The effect of nicotine in PC12 cells is independent of α7 or α4β2 n...

  11. Northwest Boreal Lynx Project: 2016 Summary Report for Tetlin National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — A summary of efforts to live-capture and collar Canada lynx on Tetlin National Wildlife Refuge from 2014-2016 for the purposes of tracking their movements during a...

  12. Canada Lynx Dispersal, Space and Habitat Use Patterns During a Snowshoe Hare Population Cycle products

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Products resulting from the Tetlin NWR project "Canada Lynx Dispersal, Space and Habitat Use Patterns During a Snowshoe Hare Population Cycle" (PRIMR survey...

  13. Evidence for large-scale effects of competition: niche displacement in Canada lynx and bobcat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peers, Michael J L; Thornton, Daniel H; Murray, Dennis L

    2013-12-22

    Determining the patterns, causes and consequences of character displacement is central to our understanding of competition in ecological communities. However, the majority of competition research has occurred over small spatial extents or focused on fine-scale differences in morphology or behaviour. The effects of competition on broad-scale distribution and niche characteristics of species remain poorly understood but critically important. Using range-wide species distribution models, we evaluated whether Canada lynx (Lynx canadensis) or bobcat (Lynx rufus) were displaced in regions of sympatry. Consistent with our prediction, we found that lynx niches were less similar to those of bobcat in areas of sympatry versus allopatry, with a stronger reliance on snow cover driving lynx niche divergence in the sympatric zone. By contrast, bobcat increased niche breadth in zones of sympatry, and bobcat niches were equally similar to those of lynx in zones of sympatry and allopatry. These findings suggest that competitively disadvantaged species avoid competition at large scales by restricting their niche to highly suitable conditions, while superior competitors expand the diversity of environments used. Our results indicate that competition can manifest within climatic niche space across species' ranges, highlighting the importance of biotic interactions occurring at large spatial scales on niche dynamics.

  14. NMR structure and action on nicotinic acetylcholine receptors of water-soluble domain of human LYNX1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyukmanova, Ekaterina N; Shenkarev, Zakhar O; Shulepko, Mikhail A; Mineev, Konstantin S; D'Hoedt, Dieter; Kasheverov, Igor E; Filkin, Sergey Yu; Krivolapova, Alexandra P; Janickova, Helena; Dolezal, Vladimir; Dolgikh, Dmitry A; Arseniev, Alexander S; Bertrand, Daniel; Tsetlin, Victor I; Kirpichnikov, Mikhail P

    2011-03-25

    Discovery of proteins expressed in the central nervous system sharing the three-finger structure with snake α-neurotoxins provoked much interest to their role in brain functions. Prototoxin LYNX1, having homology both to Ly6 proteins and three-finger neurotoxins, is the first identified member of this family membrane-tethered by a GPI anchor, which considerably complicates in vitro studies. We report for the first time the NMR spatial structure for the water-soluble domain of human LYNX1 lacking a GPI anchor (ws-LYNX1) and its concentration-dependent activity on nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs). At 5-30 μM, ws-LYNX1 competed with (125)I-α-bungarotoxin for binding to the acetylcholine-binding proteins (AChBPs) and to Torpedo nAChR. Exposure of Xenopus oocytes expressing α7 nAChRs to 1 μM ws-LYNX1 enhanced the response to acetylcholine, but no effect was detected on α4β2 and α3β2 nAChRs. Increasing ws-LYNX1 concentration to 10 μM caused a modest inhibition of these three nAChR subtypes. A common feature for ws-LYNX1 and LYNX1 is a decrease of nAChR sensitivity to high concentrations of acetylcholine. NMR and functional analysis both demonstrate that ws-LYNX1 is an appropriate model to shed light on the mechanism of LYNX1 action. Computer modeling, based on ws-LYNX1 NMR structure and AChBP x-ray structure, revealed a possible mode of ws-LYNX1 binding.

  15. NMR Structure and Action on Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptors of Water-soluble Domain of Human LYNX1*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyukmanova, Ekaterina N.; Shenkarev, Zakhar O.; Shulepko, Mikhail A.; Mineev, Konstantin S.; D'Hoedt, Dieter; Kasheverov, Igor E.; Filkin, Sergey Yu.; Krivolapova, Alexandra P.; Janickova, Helena; Dolezal, Vladimir; Dolgikh, Dmitry A.; Arseniev, Alexander S.; Bertrand, Daniel; Tsetlin, Victor I.; Kirpichnikov, Mikhail P.

    2011-01-01

    Discovery of proteins expressed in the central nervous system sharing the three-finger structure with snake α-neurotoxins provoked much interest to their role in brain functions. Prototoxin LYNX1, having homology both to Ly6 proteins and three-finger neurotoxins, is the first identified member of this family membrane-tethered by a GPI anchor, which considerably complicates in vitro studies. We report for the first time the NMR spatial structure for the water-soluble domain of human LYNX1 lacking a GPI anchor (ws-LYNX1) and its concentration-dependent activity on nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs). At 5–30 μm, ws-LYNX1 competed with 125I-α-bungarotoxin for binding to the acetylcholine-binding proteins (AChBPs) and to Torpedo nAChR. Exposure of Xenopus oocytes expressing α7 nAChRs to 1 μm ws-LYNX1 enhanced the response to acetylcholine, but no effect was detected on α4β2 and α3β2 nAChRs. Increasing ws-LYNX1 concentration to 10 μm caused a modest inhibition of these three nAChR subtypes. A common feature for ws-LYNX1 and LYNX1 is a decrease of nAChR sensitivity to high concentrations of acetylcholine. NMR and functional analysis both demonstrate that ws-LYNX1 is an appropriate model to shed light on the mechanism of LYNX1 action. Computer modeling, based on ws-LYNX1 NMR structure and AChBP x-ray structure, revealed a possible mode of ws-LYNX1 binding. PMID:21252236

  16. Patterns of Lynx Predation at the Interface between Protected Areas and Multi-Use Landscapes in Central Europe.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisa Belotti

    Full Text Available In Central Europe, protected areas are too small to ensure survival of populations of large carnivores. In the surrounding areas, these species are often persecuted due to competition with game hunters. Therefore, understanding how predation intensity varies spatio-temporally across areas with different levels of protection is fundamental. We investigated the predation patterns of Eurasian lynx (Lynx lynx on roe deer (Capreolus capreolus and red deer (Cervus elaphus in both protected areas and multi-use landscapes of the Bohemian Forest Ecosystem. Based on 359 roe and red deer killed by 10 GPS-collared lynx, we calculated the species-specific annual kill rates and tested for effects of season and lynx age, sex and reproductive status. Because roe and red deer in the study area concentrate in unprotected lowlands during winter, we modeled spatial distribution of kills separately for summer and winter and calculated-the probability of a deer killed by lynx and-the expected number of kills for areas with different levels of protection. Significantly more roe deer (46.05-74.71/year/individual lynx were killed than red deer (1.57-9.63/year/individual lynx, more deer were killed in winter than in summer, and lynx family groups had higher annual kill rates than adult male, single adult female and subadult female lynx. In winter the probability of a deer killed and the expected number of kills were higher outside the most protected part of the study area than inside; in summer, this probability did not differ between areas, and the expected number of kills was slightly larger inside than outside the most protected part of the study area. This indicates that the intensity of lynx predation in the unprotected part of the Bohemian Forest Ecosystem increases in winter, thus mitigation of conflicts in these areas should be included as a priority in the lynx conservation strategy.

  17. 同胞侵犯对猞猁幼仔行为的影响%Effect of sibling aggression on kittens' behavior in Eurasian lynx Lynx lynx

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Anastasiya ANTONEVICH; Sergey NAIDENKO

    2008-01-01

    The changes in play, affiliative and aggressive relations among lynx littermates were studied for 11 kittens from 4 different litters in captivity. Sibling fights were observed in these litters at the age of 36-57 days. The fights resulted in a decrease in the frequency of playful contacts in the litters. This "fight period" coincided with the intense development of playful behavior and dietary changes. The asymmetry of playful contacts and siblings' preferences were much clearer after the fights. These fights led to the establishment of ahierarchical dominance structure in the litters.%研究了非自由生活的4窝11只猞猁幼仔的玩耍行为、亲和及入侵关系的变化.观察到36-57日龄幼仔的同胞打斗行为,这些打斗减少了这些幼仔之间游戏性接触的频次.这个"打斗期"与游戏行为和食性的变化同步发生.打斗后,幼仔游戏性接触的非对称性以及同胞之间的偏爱更加清楚.这些打斗导致了不同窝的幼仔之间等级结构的建立.

  18. Landscape permeability for large carnivores in Washington: a geographic information system weighted-distance and least-cost corridor assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peter H. Singleton; William L. Gaines; John F. Lehmkuhl

    2002-01-01

    We conducted a regional-scale evaluation of landscape permeability for large carnivores in Washington and adjacent portions of British Columbia and Idaho. We developed geographic information system based landscape permeability models for wolves (Canis lupus), wolverine (Gulo gulo), lynx (Lynx canadensis),...

  19. Density of wild prey modulates lynx kill rates on free-ranging domestic sheep.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Odden

    Full Text Available Understanding the factors shaping the dynamics of carnivore-livestock conflicts is vital to facilitate large carnivore conservation in multi-use landscapes. We investigated how the density of their main wild prey, roe deer Capreolus capreolus, modulates individual Eurasian lynx Lynx lynx kill rates on free-ranging domestic sheep Ovis aries across a range of sheep and roe deer densities. Lynx kill rates on free-ranging domestic sheep were collected in south-eastern Norway from 1995 to 2011 along a gradient of different livestock and wild prey densities using VHF and GPS telemetry. We used zero-inflated negative binomial (ZINB models including lynx sex, sheep density and an index of roe deer density as explanatory variables to model observed kill rates on sheep, and ranked the models based on their AICc values. The model including the effects of lynx sex and sheep density in the zero-inflation model and the effect of lynx sex and roe deer density in the negative binomial part received most support. Irrespective of sheep density and sex, we found the lowest sheep kill rates in areas with high densities of roe deer. As roe deer density decreased, males killed sheep at higher rates, and this pattern held for both high and low sheep densities. Similarly, females killed sheep at higher rates in areas with high densities of sheep and low densities of roe deer. However, when sheep densities were low females rarely killed sheep irrespective of roe deer density. Our quantification of depredation rates can be the first step towards establishing fairer compensation systems based on more accurate and area specific estimation of losses. This study demonstrates how we can use ecological theory to predict where losses of sheep will be greatest, and can be used to identify areas where mitigation measures are most likely to be needed.

  20. Habitat Loss, Not Fragmentation, Drives Occurrence Patterns of Canada Lynx at the Southern Range Periphery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hornseth, Megan L.; Walpole, Aaron A.; Walton, Lyle R.; Bowman, Jeff; Ray, Justina C.; Fortin, Marie-Josée; Murray, Dennis L.

    2014-01-01

    Peripheral populations often experience more extreme environmental conditions than those in the centre of a species' range. Such extreme conditions include habitat loss, defined as a reduction in the amount of suitable habitat, as well as habitat fragmentation, which involves the breaking apart of habitat independent of habitat loss. The ‘threshold hypothesis’ predicts that organisms will be more affected by habitat fragmentation when the amount of habitat on the landscape is scarce (i.e., less than 30%) than when habitat is abundant, implying that habitat fragmentation may compound habitat loss through changes in patch size and configuration. Alternatively, the ‘flexibility hypothesis’ predicts that individuals may respond to increased habitat disturbance by altering their selection patterns and thereby reducing sensitivity to habitat loss and fragmentation. While the range of Canada lynx (Lynx canadensis) has contracted during recent decades, the relative importance of habitat loss and habitat fragmentation on this phenomenon is poorly understood. We used a habitat suitability model for lynx to identify suitable land cover in Ontario, and contrasted occupancy patterns across landscapes differing in cover, to test the ‘threshold hypothesis’ and ‘flexibility hypothesis’. When suitable land cover was widely available, lynx avoided areas with less than 30% habitat and were unaffected by habitat fragmentation. However, on landscapes with minimal suitable land cover, lynx occurrence was not related to either habitat loss or habitat fragmentation, indicating support for the ‘flexibility hypothesis’. We conclude that lynx are broadly affected by habitat loss, and not specifically by habitat fragmentation, although occurrence patterns are flexible and dependent on landscape condition. We suggest that lynx may alter their habitat selection patterns depending on local conditions, thereby reducing their sensitivity to anthropogenically-driven habitat

  1. Habitat loss, not fragmentation, drives occurrence patterns of Canada lynx at the southern range periphery.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Megan L Hornseth

    Full Text Available Peripheral populations often experience more extreme environmental conditions than those in the centre of a species' range. Such extreme conditions include habitat loss, defined as a reduction in the amount of suitable habitat, as well as habitat fragmentation, which involves the breaking apart of habitat independent of habitat loss. The 'threshold hypothesis' predicts that organisms will be more affected by habitat fragmentation when the amount of habitat on the landscape is scarce (i.e., less than 30% than when habitat is abundant, implying that habitat fragmentation may compound habitat loss through changes in patch size and configuration. Alternatively, the 'flexibility hypothesis' predicts that individuals may respond to increased habitat disturbance by altering their selection patterns and thereby reducing sensitivity to habitat loss and fragmentation. While the range of Canada lynx (Lynx canadensis has contracted during recent decades, the relative importance of habitat loss and habitat fragmentation on this phenomenon is poorly understood. We used a habitat suitability model for lynx to identify suitable land cover in Ontario, and contrasted occupancy patterns across landscapes differing in cover, to test the 'threshold hypothesis' and 'flexibility hypothesis'. When suitable land cover was widely available, lynx avoided areas with less than 30% habitat and were unaffected by habitat fragmentation. However, on landscapes with minimal suitable land cover, lynx occurrence was not related to either habitat loss or habitat fragmentation, indicating support for the 'flexibility hypothesis'. We conclude that lynx are broadly affected by habitat loss, and not specifically by habitat fragmentation, although occurrence patterns are flexible and dependent on landscape condition. We suggest that lynx may alter their habitat selection patterns depending on local conditions, thereby reducing their sensitivity to anthropogenically-driven habitat

  2. Habitat loss, not fragmentation, drives occurrence patterns of Canada lynx at the southern range periphery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hornseth, Megan L; Walpole, Aaron A; Walton, Lyle R; Bowman, Jeff; Ray, Justina C; Fortin, Marie-Josée; Murray, Dennis L

    2014-01-01

    Peripheral populations often experience more extreme environmental conditions than those in the centre of a species' range. Such extreme conditions include habitat loss, defined as a reduction in the amount of suitable habitat, as well as habitat fragmentation, which involves the breaking apart of habitat independent of habitat loss. The 'threshold hypothesis' predicts that organisms will be more affected by habitat fragmentation when the amount of habitat on the landscape is scarce (i.e., less than 30%) than when habitat is abundant, implying that habitat fragmentation may compound habitat loss through changes in patch size and configuration. Alternatively, the 'flexibility hypothesis' predicts that individuals may respond to increased habitat disturbance by altering their selection patterns and thereby reducing sensitivity to habitat loss and fragmentation. While the range of Canada lynx (Lynx canadensis) has contracted during recent decades, the relative importance of habitat loss and habitat fragmentation on this phenomenon is poorly understood. We used a habitat suitability model for lynx to identify suitable land cover in Ontario, and contrasted occupancy patterns across landscapes differing in cover, to test the 'threshold hypothesis' and 'flexibility hypothesis'. When suitable land cover was widely available, lynx avoided areas with less than 30% habitat and were unaffected by habitat fragmentation. However, on landscapes with minimal suitable land cover, lynx occurrence was not related to either habitat loss or habitat fragmentation, indicating support for the 'flexibility hypothesis'. We conclude that lynx are broadly affected by habitat loss, and not specifically by habitat fragmentation, although occurrence patterns are flexible and dependent on landscape condition. We suggest that lynx may alter their habitat selection patterns depending on local conditions, thereby reducing their sensitivity to anthropogenically-driven habitat alteration.

  3. Invertebrates outcompete vertebrate facultative scavengers in simulated lynx kills in the Bavarian Forest National Park, Germany

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ray, R.–R.

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Understanding the role of scavengers in ecosystems is important for species conservation and wildlife management. We used road–killed animals, 15 in summer 2003 (June–August and nine in winter 2003/2004 (from November to January, to test the following hypotheses: (1 vertebrate scavengers such as raven (Corvus corax, red fox (Vulpes vulpes and wild boar (Sus scrofa consume a higher proportion of the carcasses than invertebrates; (2 the consumption rate is higher in winter than in summer due to the scarcity of other food resources; and (3 vertebrate scavengers are effective competitors of Eurasian lynx. We monitored 65 animals belonging to eight different mammal and bird species with camera traps. Surprisingly, Eurasian lynx (Lynx lynx was the most important vertebrate scavenger. However, in both seasons, the consumption of vertebrate scavengers was of minor impact. In summer, the carcasses were completely consumed within 10 days, mostly by invertebrates. In winter, only 5% of the carcasses were consumed within 10 days and 16% within 15 days. We conclude that vertebrates in the Bavarian Forest National Park are not strong competitors for lynx.

  4. PE-46 The Design of the Lynx X-Ray Microcalorimeter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bandler, Simon; Dipirro, Michael; Eckart, Megan; Sakai, Kazuhiro; Smith, Stephen; Yoon, Wonsik; Bennett, Douglas; Kotsubo, Vincent; Mates, Benjamin; Swetz, Daneil; hide

    2017-01-01

    Lynx is an x-ray telescope, one of four large satellite mission concepts currently being studied by NASA to be the next astrophysics flagship mission after WFIRST. One of Lynx's three instruments is an imaging spectrometer consisting of an x-ray microcalorimeter behind an X-ray optic with an angular resolution of 0.5 arc-seconds and approximately 3 sq m of area at 1 keV. This instrument will provide unparalleled diagnostics of distant extended structures and in particular will allow the detailed study of the role of cosmic feedback in the evolution of the Universe. We discuss the design and read-out of the of the array configuration including a number of sub-array options for increasing the capabilities to maximize the scientific return of the Lynx observatory.

  5. A Near-extinction Event in Lynx: Do Microsatellite Data Tell the Tale?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goran Spong

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available Fluctuations in population size can have a profound impact on effective population size and the maintenance of genetic variation within a population. A number of tests based on microsatellite data have been developed for the detection of bottleneck events in a population's past. In this paper, we search for signs of a bottleneck in microsatellite data on the Scandinavian lynx (Lynx lynx population. This population was hunted to the brink of extinction, with fewer than 100 animals (one estimate was as low as 30 individuals remaining in the late 1920s. Protection allowed recovery of the population, which currently numbers about 2000 adults. Despite this pronounced demographic bottleneck (more than 95% of the population was killed, we could find no conclusive genetic evidence of a bottleneck using four of the recently developed tests for detecting such events.

  6. Recapture of lynx individual B132 in the Trentino province, Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brugnoli A

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available In February 2010, B132 - a male lynx born in 2006 in north-eastern Switzerland - was recaptured in a box trap set above Molveno Lake, in Brenta Massif eastern slopes, and fit with a new GPS/GSM radiocollar by staff members of the Forest and Wildlife Service of the Autonomous Province of Trento. His 2008 dispersal into the Adamello-Brenta Natural Park area in the Trentino province was the furthest one ever documented outside of Scandinavia for a Eurasian lynx. The complete recovery of the lynx in the entire Alpine arc, after 40 years since the first reintroduction, will be a long-term task, and documentation of B132’s dispersal and spatial behaviour is of crucial interest in this respect.

  7. Genes and evolution of two-domain toxins from lynx spider venom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sachkova, Maria Y; Slavokhotova, Anna A; Grishin, Eugene V; Vassilevski, Alexander A

    2014-03-01

    Spiderines are comparatively long polypeptide toxins (∼110 residues) from lynx spiders (genus Oxyopes). They are built of an N-terminal linear cationic domain (∼40 residues) and a C-terminal knottin domain (∼60 residues). The linear domain empowers spiderines with strong cytolytic activity. In the present work we report 16 novel spiderine sequences from Oxyopes takobius and Oxyopes lineatus classified into two subfamilies. Strikingly, negative selection acts on both linear and knottin domains. Genes encoding Oxyopes two-domain toxins were sequenced and found to be intronless. We further discuss a possible scenario of lynx spider modular toxin evolution.

  8. [Bacterial expression of water-soluble domain of Lynx1, endogenic neuromodulator of human nicotinic acetylcholine receptors].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shulepko, M A; Liukmanova, E N; Kasheverov, I E; Dolgikh, D A; Tsetlin, V I; Kirpichnikov, M P

    2011-01-01

    Lynx1 expresses in the central nervous system and plays important role in a regulation of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors. Successful milligram-quantitive expression of ws-Lynx1 was achieved only in the case of its production in the form of cytoplasm inclusion bodies. Different conditions of ws-Lynx1 refolding for yield optimization were performed. The obtained recombinant protein was characterized by means of mass spectrometry and CD spectroscopy. The binding experiments on the nAChRs from Torpedo californica membranes revealed that ws-Lynxl is biologically active and blocks muscle nAChR with IC50-20-30 microM.

  9. Predation may not be the major cause for hare-lynx cycles

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    @@ The classic hare-lynx cycle has been cited as a prime example of how interactions between predators and preys might lead to regular population variation.However, a recent study by CAS zoologists shows that it might not be the case. Their work published in the July issue of the Germany-based Climate Research.

  10. Habitat fragmentation and interspecific competition: Implications for lynx conservation [Chapter 4

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steven W. Buskirk

    2000-01-01

    Habitat fragmentation and interspecific competition are two important forces that potentially affect lynx populations. Fragmentation operates by various mechanisms, including direct habitat loss, vehicle collisions and behavioral disturbance from roads, and changes in landscape features such as edges. Competition takes two forms: Exploitation competition involves...

  11. The re-introduction of the lynx in Slovenia and its present status in Slovenia and Croatia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Urs; Christine Breitenmoser; Breitenmoser-Würsten

    1998-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The lynx disappeared from Slovenia and Croatia at the beginning of the 20th century. In 1973, six lynx from the Slovakian Carpathian Mountains were translocated to Kocevje in southern Slovenia. In this densely forested region where prey animals are plentiful, a core population developed immediately and spread over Slovenia and Croatia. In 1984 the first lynx reached the Julian Alps and crossed over to Italy. The population increased so fast that already in 1978, hunting of lynx was legalised. From 1978 to the present, a total of 229 individuals were hunted, another 48 deaths from other reasons are also known. The intense harvest hindered further expansion of the population, especially the re-colonisation of the Alps. In recent years the hunting season and the hunting quota were reduced, and in Slovenia hunting is now restricted to the core area of the population.

  12. Wild Rabbit management in the Iberian Peninsula: state of the art and future perspectives for iberian lynx conservation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catarina Manuel Andrade de Campos Ferreira

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The Iberian lynx is the most endangered cat in the world. At present, this felid is only found in Mediterranean forests and scrublands of southern Spain, restricted to two populations, Doñana and eastern Sierra Morena. However, these two isolated populations alone are not sufficient to support this emblematic species in the long-term. Natural expansion from these populations is limited which turns Iberian lynx reintroduction programs into the only alternative to save the species from extinction. Therefore, one of the priorities of lynx reintroduction programs is inevitably the spatial expansion of wild rabbit populations, it main prey, by boosting its numbers. In this paper we briefly review historical and recent wild rabbit population trends and provide management guidelines to promote the efficiency of conservation planning in the context of future Iberian lynx reintroductions.

  13. Activity patterns of Eurasian lynx are modulated by light regime and individual traits over a wide latitudinal range.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Heurich

    Full Text Available The activity patterns of most terrestrial animals are regarded as being primarily influenced by light, although other factors, such as sexual cycle and climatic conditions, can modify the underlying patterns. However, most activity studies have been limited to a single study area, which in turn limit the variability of light conditions and other factors. Here we considered a range of variables that might potentially influence the activity of a large carnivore, the Eurasian lynx, in a network of studies conducted with identical methodology in different areas spanning latitudes from 49°7'N in central Europe to 70°00'N in northern Scandinavia. The variables considered both light conditions, ranging from a day with a complete day-night cycle to polar night and polar day, as well as individual traits of the animals. We analysed activity data of 38 individual free-ranging lynx equipped with GPS-collars with acceleration sensors, covering more than 11,000 lynx days. Mixed linear additive models revealed that the lynx activity level was not influenced by the daily daylight duration and the activity pattern was bimodal, even during polar night and polar day. The duration of the active phase of the activity cycle varied with the widening and narrowing of the photoperiod. Activity varied significantly with moonlight. Among adults, males were more active than females, and subadult lynx were more active than adults. In polar regions, the amplitude of the lynx daily activity pattern was low, likely as a result of the polycyclic activity pattern of their main prey, reindeer. At lower latitudes, the basic lynx activity pattern peaked during twilight, corresponding to the crepuscular activity pattern of the main prey, roe deer. Our results indicated that the basic activity of lynx is independent of light conditions, but is modified by both individual traits and the activity pattern of the locally most important prey.

  14. 基于自动相机技术的欧亚猞猁(Lynx lynx)个体识别和行为研究%Individual identification and behavior study of Eurasian lynx (Lynx lynx) based on camera trap ping technique

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周许伟; 鲍清泉; 宋景良; 夏文军; 孟和达来; 张书理; 杨永昕; 鲍伟东

    2015-01-01

    猫科动物具有夜行性和活动隐蔽的特点,难以在野外通过直接观察的方式调查种群数量。近年来兴起的自动相机技术,为解决这一难题提供了有效的观察记录手段。为明确欧亚猞猁( Lynx lynx)的种群数量及其野外行为特征,于2010—2012年采用自动相机技术对内蒙古赛罕乌拉国家级自然保护区部分区域进行了调查。在可能出现猞猁的兽道和有蹄类动物投食站等地放置自动相机,3年间共布放90台次,累积25704个相机日,拍摄到猞猁照片154张和录像185段。经对比身体斑纹特征和活动空间,确认2012年在该区域至少有5只猞猁个体,其中2011年和2012年分别发现有母兽与幼兽同时活动,表明该区域分布有一个小而相对稳定的猞猁繁殖种群。猞猁的活动节律表现为典型的夜行性,偶尔也会在白天活动。猞猁的行为类型有取食、威胁、标记、试探、玩耍、舔幼和嗅闻等。调查中没有发现猞猁对自动相机的远红外光产生趋避行为,利用自动相机技术可以作为猞猁种群动态监测和行为研究的重要工具。%The elusive activity of wild cats made it difficult to conduct direct field survey and behavioral studies .With the quick devel-opment in technology , camera trapping is becoming an effective non-invasive approach in studying these species .Under the situation of few similar field works domestically , we conducted a camera trapping research on Eurasian lynx ( Lynx lynx) to reveal the population trend and field behavior .Camera traps were set along animal trails , feeding stations and around prey remains for getting more photo-graphs in identifying individual lynx at Saihanwula National Nature Reserve in Inner Mongolia from 2010 to 2012 .The results showed that 154 photos and 185 video segments with lynx were recorded after 90 cameras had been set with the total sampling efforts of 25704 camera-days.Five adult

  15. Quantifying home range habitat requirements for bobcats (Lynx rufus) in Vermont, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donovan, Therese; Freeman, Mark; Abouelezz, Hanem; Royar, K.; Howard, Alan D.; Mickey, R.

    2011-01-01

    We demonstrate how home range and habitat use analysis can inform landscape-scale conservation planning for the bobcat, Lynx rufus, in Vermont USA. From 2005 to 2008, we outfitted fourteen bobcats with GPS collars that collected spatially explicit locations from individuals every 4 h for 3–4 months. Kernel home range techniques were used to estimate home range size and boundaries, and to quantify the utilization distribution (UD), which is a spatially explicit, topographic mapping of how different areas within the home range are used. We then used GIS methods to quantify both biotic (e.g. habitat types, stream density) and abiotic (e.g. slope) resources within each bobcat’s home range. Across bobcats, upper 20th UD percentiles (core areas) had 18% less agriculture, 42% less development, 26% more bobcat habitat (shrub, deciduous, coniferous forest, and wetland cover types), and 33% lower road density than lower UD percentiles (UD valleys). For each bobcat, we used Akaike’s Information Criterion (AIC) to evaluate and compare 24 alternative Resource Utilization Functions (hypotheses) that could explain the topology of the individual’s UD. A model-averaged population-level Resource Utilization Function suggested positive responses to shrub, deciduous, coniferous forest, and wetland cover types within 1 km of a location, and negative responses to roads and mixed forest cover types within 1 km of a location. Applying this model-averaged function to each pixel in the study area revealed habitat suitability for bobcats across the entire study area, with suitability scores ranging between −1.69 and 1.44, where higher values were assumed to represent higher quality habitat. The southern Champlain Valley, which contained ample wetland and shrub habitat, was a concentrated area of highly suitable habitat, while areas at higher elevation areas were less suitable. Female bobcat home ranges, on average, had an average habitat suitability score of near 0, indicating

  16. Water-soluble LYNX1 residues important for interaction with muscle-type and/or neuronal nicotinic receptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyukmanova, Ekaterina N; Shulepko, Mikhail A; Buldakova, Svetlana L; Kasheverov, Igor E; Shenkarev, Zakhar O; Reshetnikov, Roman V; Filkin, Sergey Y; Kudryavtsev, Denis S; Ojomoko, Lucy O; Kryukova, Elena V; Dolgikh, Dmitry A; Kirpichnikov, Mikhail P; Bregestovski, Piotr D; Tsetlin, Victor I

    2013-05-31

    Human LYNX1, belonging to the Ly6/neurotoxin family of three-finger proteins, is membrane-tethered with a glycosylphosphatidylinositol anchor and modulates the activity of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChR). Recent preparation of LYNX1 as an individual protein in the form of water-soluble domain lacking glycosylphosphatidylinositol anchor (ws-LYNX1; Lyukmanova, E. N., Shenkarev, Z. O., Shulepko, M. A., Mineev, K. S., D'Hoedt, D., Kasheverov, I. E., Filkin, S. Y., Krivolapova, A. P., Janickova, H., Dolezal, V., Dolgikh, D. A., Arseniev, A. S., Bertrand, D., Tsetlin, V. I., and Kirpichnikov, M. P. (2011) NMR structure and action on nicotinic acetylcholine receptors of water-soluble domain of human LYNX1. J. Biol. Chem. 286, 10618-10627) revealed the attachment at the agonist-binding site in the acetylcholine-binding protein (AChBP) and muscle nAChR but outside it, in the neuronal nAChRs. Here, we obtained a series of ws-LYNX1 mutants (T35A, P36A, T37A, R38A, K40A, Y54A, Y57A, K59A) and examined by radioligand analysis or patch clamp technique their interaction with the AChBP, Torpedo californica nAChR and chimeric receptor composed of the α7 nAChR extracellular ligand-binding domain and the transmembrane domain of α1 glycine receptor (α7-GlyR). Against AChBP, there was either no change in activity (T35A, T37A), slight decrease (K40A, K59A), and even enhancement for the rest mutants (most pronounced for P36A and R38A). With both receptors, many mutants lost inhibitory activity, but the increased inhibition was observed for P36A at α7-GlyR. Thus, there are subtype-specific and common ws-LYNX1 residues recognizing distinct targets. Because ws-LYNX1 was inactive against glycine receptor, its "non-classical" binding sites on α7 nAChR should be within the extracellular domain. Micromolar affinities and fast washout rates measured for ws-LYNX1 and its mutants are in contrast to nanomolar affinities and irreversibility of binding for α-bungarotoxin and similar

  17. Water-soluble LYNX1 Residues Important for Interaction with Muscle-type and/or Neuronal Nicotinic Receptors*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyukmanova, Ekaterina N.; Shulepko, Mikhail A.; Buldakova, Svetlana L.; Kasheverov, Igor E.; Shenkarev, Zakhar O.; Reshetnikov, Roman V.; Filkin, Sergey Y.; Kudryavtsev, Denis S.; Ojomoko, Lucy O.; Kryukova, Elena V.; Dolgikh, Dmitry A.; Kirpichnikov, Mikhail P.; Bregestovski, Piotr D.; Tsetlin, Victor I.

    2013-01-01

    Human LYNX1, belonging to the Ly6/neurotoxin family of three-finger proteins, is membrane-tethered with a glycosylphosphatidylinositol anchor and modulates the activity of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChR). Recent preparation of LYNX1 as an individual protein in the form of water-soluble domain lacking glycosylphosphatidylinositol anchor (ws-LYNX1; Lyukmanova, E. N., Shenkarev, Z. O., Shulepko, M. A., Mineev, K. S., D'Hoedt, D., Kasheverov, I. E., Filkin, S. Y., Krivolapova, A. P., Janickova, H., Dolezal, V., Dolgikh, D. A., Arseniev, A. S., Bertrand, D., Tsetlin, V. I., and Kirpichnikov, M. P. (2011) NMR structure and action on nicotinic acetylcholine receptors of water-soluble domain of human LYNX1. J. Biol. Chem. 286, 10618–10627) revealed the attachment at the agonist-binding site in the acetylcholine-binding protein (AChBP) and muscle nAChR but outside it, in the neuronal nAChRs. Here, we obtained a series of ws-LYNX1 mutants (T35A, P36A, T37A, R38A, K40A, Y54A, Y57A, K59A) and examined by radioligand analysis or patch clamp technique their interaction with the AChBP, Torpedo californica nAChR and chimeric receptor composed of the α7 nAChR extracellular ligand-binding domain and the transmembrane domain of α1 glycine receptor (α7-GlyR). Against AChBP, there was either no change in activity (T35A, T37A), slight decrease (K40A, K59A), and even enhancement for the rest mutants (most pronounced for P36A and R38A). With both receptors, many mutants lost inhibitory activity, but the increased inhibition was observed for P36A at α7-GlyR. Thus, there are subtype-specific and common ws-LYNX1 residues recognizing distinct targets. Because ws-LYNX1 was inactive against glycine receptor, its “non-classical” binding sites on α7 nAChR should be within the extracellular domain. Micromolar affinities and fast washout rates measured for ws-LYNX1 and its mutants are in contrast to nanomolar affinities and irreversibility of binding for α-bungarotoxin and

  18. Forensic veterinary radiology: ballistic-radiological 3D computertomographic reconstruction of an illegal lynx shooting in Switzerland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thali, Michael J; Kneubuehl, Beat P; Bolliger, Stephan A; Christe, Andreas; Koenigsdorfer, Urs; Ozdoba, Christoph; Spielvogel, Elke; Dirnhofer, Richard

    2007-08-24

    The lynx, which was reintroduced to Switzerland after being exterminated at the beginning of the 20th century, is protected by Swiss law. However, poaching occurs from time to time, which makes criminal investigations necessary. In the presented case, an illegally shot lynx was examined by conventional plane radiography and three-dimensional multislice computertomography (3D MSCT), of which the latter yielded superior results with respect to documentation and reconstruction of the inflicted gunshot wounds. We believe that 3D MSCT, already described in human forensic-pathological cases, is also a suitable and promising new technique for veterinary pathology.

  19. 外观像平板电脑的LynxA3D相机

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2013-01-01

    Kickstarter推出的这款LynxA3D相机,有别于传统的相机,但学习过程就像一部普通相机那样简单。该公司很看重这件产品的易用性,并称其为世上第一部rpoint—and—shootj的3D相机,其外观毫不像一部相机,反而像一部平板电脑。

  20. Lynx multi-mode SAR in support of NATO Unified Vision 2012 trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunkel, R.; Verge, T.; Linnehan, R.; Doerry, A.

    2013-05-01

    In June 2012, General Atomics Aeronautical Systems, Inc. (GA-ASI) Reconnaissance Systems Group participated in the NATO Unified Vision 2012 (UV12) Joint ISR (JISR) Trial at Orland Main Air Station in Brekstad, Norway. GA-ASI supplied a modified King Air 200 as a Predator B/MQ-9 Reaper Remotely Piloted Aircraft (RPA) surrogate outfitted with a Lynx Block 30 Multi-mode Synthetic Aperture Radar/Ground Moving Target Indicator (SAR/GMTI), a FLIR Star SAFIRE 3800HD Electro-optical/Infrared (EO/IR) sensor, and a L-3 Tactical Common Data Link. This airborne platform was combined with GA-ASI's new System for Tactical Archival, Retrieval, and Exploitation (STARE) for full integration into the NATO ISR exploitation community. UV12 was an event sponsored by the NATO Joint Capability Group on Intelligence, Surveillance, and Reconnaissance (ISR) to focus on the interoperability of national ISR assets and improving JISR concept of operations. The Predator B RPA surrogate flew alongside multiple NATO ISR assets in nine missions that showcased the platform's all-weather ISR capabilities focusing on the Lynx SAR/GMTI and Maritime Wide Area Search (MWAS) modes. The inclusion of the STARE technology allowed GA-ASI's radar and Full Motion Video (FMV) data to be seamlessly processed and passed to joint networks where the data was fused with other NATO ISR products, resulting in a full battlefield reconnaissance picture.

  1. Non-invasive monitoring of hormones: a tool to improve reproduction in captive breeding of the Eurasian lynx.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dehnhard, M; Naidenko, S; Frank, A; Braun, B; Göritz, F; Jewgenow, K

    2008-07-01

    The survival of many critical endangered mammal species is often depending on successful captive breeding programmes which include the future option of reintroduction to the wild. Breeding in captivity also demands the application of modern assisted reproductive techniques to ensure maximal biodiversity, but knowledge on reproductive physiology is often limited. Therefore, non-invasive monitoring of urinary and faecal hormones has become an important tool for reproductive management. To exemplify the importance of non-invasive hormone monitoring, we choose the Eurasian lynx as a model for the world's most endangered felid species, the Iberian lynx. We analysed faecal samples of pregnant and pseudo-pregnant female Eurasian lynxes during a 3-year study period. Compared to pre-mating levels faecal progesterone metabolite profiles revealed a tendency towards higher levels in pregnant and pseudo-pregnant females with no difference between both categories. Oestrogen levels raised in both pregnant and pseudo-pregnant females with a tendency to be more elevated and prolonged in pregnant females. Surprisingly both E2 and P4 metabolites were highly correlated (r(2) =0.8131, p hormone sources during and after pregnancy (corpus luteum, placenta). We hypothesize, that placental steroid analysis in combination with other highly sophisticated analytical techniques, like liquid chromatography mass spectrometry or urinary relaxin analysis may led to analytical options to confirm pregnancy and to differentiate this from pseudo-pregnancy in lynx species.

  2. Reconsidering the specialist-generalist paradigm in niche breadth dynamics: resource gradient selection by Canada lynx and bobcat.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael J L Peers

    Full Text Available The long-standing view in ecology is that disparity in overall resource selection is the basis for identifying niche breadth patterns, with species having narrow selection being classified "specialists" and those with broader selection being "generalists". The standard model of niche breadth characterizes generalists and specialists as having comparable levels of overall total resource exploitation, with specialists exploiting resources at a higher level of performance over a narrower range of conditions. This view has gone largely unchallenged. An alternate model predicts total resource use being lower for the specialized species with both peaking at a comparable level of performance over a particular resource gradient. To reconcile the niche breadth paradigm we contrasted both models by developing range-wide species distribution models for Canada lynx, Lynx canadensis, and bobcat, Lynx rufus. Using a suite of environmental factors to define each species' niche, we determined that Canada lynx demonstrated higher total performance over a restricted set of variables, specifically those related to snow and altitude, while bobcat had higher total performance across most variables. Unlike predictions generated by the standard model, bobcat level of exploitation was not compromised by the trade-off with peak performance, and Canada lynx were not restricted to exploiting a narrower range of conditions. Instead, the emergent pattern was that specialist species have a higher total resource utilization and peak performance value within a smaller number of resources or environmental axes than generalists. Our results also indicate that relative differences in niche breadth are strongly dependent on the variable under consideration, implying that the appropriate model describing niche breadth dynamics between specialists and generalists may be more complex than either the traditional heuristic or our modified version. Our results demonstrate a need to re

  3. Scavenging behavior of Lynx rufus on human remains during the winter months of Southeast Texas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rippley, Angela; Larison, Nicole C; Moss, Kathryn E; Kelly, Jeffrey D; Bytheway, Joan A

    2012-05-01

    Animal-scavenging alterations on human remains can be mistaken as human criminal activity. A 32-day study, documenting animal scavenging on a human cadaver, was conducted at the Southeast Texas Applied Forensic Science facility, Sam Houston State University, Huntsville, Texas. A Stealth Cam Rogue IR was positioned near the cadaver to capture scavenging activity. An atypical scavenger, the bobcat, Lynx rufus, was recorded feeding on the cadaver. Scavenging by bobcats on human remains is not a predominant behavior and has minimal documentation. Scavenging behaviors and destruction of body tissues were analyzed. Results show that the bobcat did not feed on areas of the body that it does for other large animal carcasses. Results also show the bobcat feeds similarly during peak and nonpeak hours. Understanding the destruction of human tissue and covering of the body with leaf debris may aid forensic anthropologists and pathologists in differentiating between nefarious human activity and animal scavenging. © 2012 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  4. 除了细节!还是细节!Lynx Studio Hilo

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    展超

    2013-01-01

      CAS(Computer Audio System)是目前两声道音响玩家所关注的焦点之一。在这部分玩家之中,老一辈的玩家会在传统两声道系统的基础上进行升级改造,年轻一族更钟情于DAC配有源音箱。我正是后者!在我个人的角度来看,始终都认为CAS系统的构成应该参考音乐后期制作室中的配置。像专业数字接口卡+外置DAC+独立时钟+前级+有源音箱是我梦想的终极配置,可惜以我目前微薄的收入还实现不了,但专业DAC加前级配有源音箱的简洁配置却能实现。对于从事专业录音的人,他们对Lynx Studio这个美国专业音频品牌相当熟悉。它从成立以来相当专注于数字音频处理产品的制作,我最近就使用了Lynx Studio新推出的Hilo AD/DA转换器。尽管AD部分我基本用不上,但优秀的DA转换设计却让Hilo给我带来了惊喜。

  5. Comparative VME Performance Tests for MEN A20 Intel-L865 and RIO-3 PPC-LynxOS platforms

    CERN Document Server

    Andersen, M; CERN. Geneva. BE Department

    2009-01-01

    This benchmark note presents test results from reading values over VME using different methods and different sizes of data registers, running on two different platforms Intel-L865 and PPC-LynxOS. We find that the PowerPC is a factor 3 faster in accessing an array of contiguous VME memory locations. Block transfer and DMA read accesses are also tested and compared with conventional single access reads.

  6. Long-range gene flow and the effects of climatic and ecological factors on genetic structuring in a large, solitary carnivore: the Eurasian lynx.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirosław Ratkiewicz

    Full Text Available Due to their high mobility, large terrestrial predators are potentially capable of maintaining high connectivity, and therefore low genetic differentiation among populations. However, previous molecular studies have provided contradictory findings in relation to this. To elucidate patterns of genetic structure in large carnivores, we studied the genetic variability of the Eurasian lynx, Lynx lynx throughout north-eastern Europe using microsatellite, mitochondrial DNA control region and Y chromosome-linked markers. Using SAMOVA we found analogous patterns of genetic structure based on both mtDNA and microsatellites, which coincided with a relatively little evidence for male-biased dispersal. No polymorphism for the cytochrome b and ATP6 mtDNA genes and Y chromosome-linked markers were found. Lynx inhabiting a large area encompassing Finland, the Baltic countries and western Russia formed a single genetic unit, while some marginal populations were clearly divergent from others. The existence of a migration corridor was suggested to correspond with distribution of continuous forest cover. The lowest variability (in both markers was found in lynx from Norway and Białowieża Primeval Forest (BPF, which coincided with a recent demographic bottleneck (Norway or high habitat fragmentation (BPF. The Carpathian population, being monomorphic for the control region, showed relatively high microsatellite diversity, suggesting the effect of a past bottleneck (e.g. during Last Glacial Maximum on its present genetic composition. Genetic structuring for the mtDNA control region was best explained by latitude and snow cover depth. Microsatellite structuring correlated with the lynx's main prey, especially the proportion of red deer (Cervus elaphus in its diet. Eurasian lynx are capable of maintaining panmictic populations across eastern Europe unless they are severely limited by habitat continuity or a reduction in numbers. Different correlations of mtDNA and

  7. Gene flow and pathogen transmission among bobcats (Lynx rufus) in a fragmented urban landscape

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Justin S.; Ruell, Emily W.; Boydston, Erin E.; Lyren, Lisa M.; Alonso, Robert S.; Troyer, Jennifer L.; Crooks, Kevin R.; VandeWoude, Sue

    2012-01-01

    Urbanization can result in the fragmentation of once contiguous natural landscapes into a patchy habitat interspersed within a growing urban matrix. Animals living in fragmented landscapes often have reduced movement among habitat patches because of avoidance of intervening human development, which potentially leads to both reduced gene flow and pathogen transmission between patches. Mammalian carnivores with large home ranges, such as bobcats (Lynx rufus), may be particularly sensitive to habitat fragmentation. We performed genetic analyses on bobcats and their directly transmitted viral pathogen, feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV), to investigate the effects of urbanization on bobcat movement. We predicted that urban development, including major freeways, would limit bobcat movement and result in genetically structured host and pathogen populations. We analysed molecular markers from 106 bobcats and 19 FIV isolates from seropositive animals in urban southern California. Our findings indicate that reduced gene flow between two primary habitat patches has resulted in genetically distinct bobcat subpopulations separated by urban development including a major highway. However, the distribution of genetic diversity among FIV isolates determined through phylogenetic analyses indicates that pathogen genotypes are less spatially structured--exhibiting a more even distribution between habitat fragments. We conclude that the types of movement and contact sufficient for disease transmission occur with enough frequency to preclude structuring among the viral population, but that the bobcat population is structured owing to low levels of effective bobcat migration resulting in gene flow. We illustrate the utility in using multiple molecular markers that differentially detect movement and gene flow between subpopulations when assessing connectivity.

  8. Pre-layout AC decoupling analysis with Mentor Graphics HyperLynx

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hnatiuc, Mihaela; Iov, Cǎtǎlin J.

    2015-02-01

    Considerable resources have been used since the humans got interested to discover the world around. Any discovery and science advance was taken tremendously amount of time, money, sometimes lives. All of these define the cost of a discovery, developing process. Getting back to electronics, this field faced in the last 20-30 years, a big boom in terms of technologies and opportunities. Thousands of equipment were developed and placed on the market. The big difference between various competitors is made at the moment by that we call the time to market. A mobile, for instance, has a time to market of around 6 months and the tendency is to have it smaller than that. That means between the concept and the first model sale, no more than 6 months should be passing. That is why new approaches are needed. The one extensively used now is the simulation. We call the simulation virtual prototyping. The virtual prototyping takes into account more than the components only. It takes into account some other project parameters that would affect the final product. Certified tools can handle such analysis. In our paper we present the case of HyperLynx, a concept developed by Mentor Graphics Company, assisting the hardware designer throughout the designing process, from thermal point of view. A test case board was analyzed at the pre-layout stage and the results presented.

  9. The " Daphnia" Lynx Mark I Suborbital Flight Experiment: Hardware Qualification at the Drop Tower Bremen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knie, Miriam; Schoppmann, Kathrin; Eck, Hendrik; Ribeiro, Bernard Wolfschoon; Laforsch, Christian

    2016-06-01

    The Drop Tower Bremen, a ground-based facility enabling research under real microgravity conditions, is an excellent platform for testing new types of experimental hardware to ensure full performance when deployed in costly and rare flight opportunities such as suborbital flights. Here we describe the " Daphnia" experiment which will fly on XCOR Aerospace Lynx Mark I and our experience from the hardware tests with the catapult system at the drop tower. The aim of the " Daphnia" experiment is to obtain data on the biological performance of daphnids and predator-prey interactions in microgravity, which are important for the development of aquatic bioregenerative life support systems (BLSS). The experiment consists of two subunits: The first unit is dedicated to predator-prey interactions, where behavioural analysis should reveal if microgravity interfere with prey ( Daphnia) detection or feeding and therefore may interrupt the trophic cascade. The functioning of such an artificial food web is indispensable for a long-lasting BLSS suitable for long-duration manned space missions or Earth-based explorations to extreme habitats. The second unit is designed to investigate the impact of microgravity on gene expression and the cytoskeleton in Daphnia. Next to data collection, the real microgravity conditions at the drop tower have helped to identify the weak points of the " Daphnia" experimental hardware and lead to further improvement. Hence, the drop tower is ideal for testing new experimental hardware which is indispensable before the implementation in suborbital flights.

  10. Study of Galaxies in the Lynx--Cancer Void. IV. Photometric Properties

    CERN Document Server

    Perepelitsyna, Yu A; Kniazev, A Yu

    2014-01-01

    We present the results of a photometric study of 85 objects from the updated sample of galaxies residing in the nearby Lynx--Cancer void. We perform our photometry on u, g, r, and i-band images of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey. We determine model-independent galaxy parameters such as the integrated magnitudes and colors, effective radii and the corresponding surface brightness values, optical radii and Holmberg radii. We analyze the radial surface brightness profiles to determine the central brightness values and scale lengths of the model discs. We analyze the colors of the outer parts of the galaxies and compare them with model evolutionary tracks computed using the PEGASE2 software package. This allowed us to estimate the time T_SF elapsed since the onset of star formation, which turned out to be on the order of the cosmological time T_0 for the overwhelming majority of the galaxies studied. However, for 13 galaxies of the sample the time T_SF does not exceed T_0/2 ~ 7 Gyr, and for 7 of them T_SF -13.2. We...

  11. Study of the Lynx-Cancer void galaxies-V. The extremely isolated galaxy UGC4722

    CERN Document Server

    Chengalur, J N; Makarov, D I; Perepelitsyna, Y A; Safonova, E S; Karachentsev, I D

    2015-01-01

    We present a detailed study of the extremely isolated Sdm galaxy UGC4722 (M_B = -17.4) located in the nearby Lynx-Cancer void. UGC4722 is a member of the catalogue of isolated galaxies, and has also been identified as one of the most isolated galaxies in the Local Supercluster. Optical images of the galaxy however show that it has a peculiar morphology with an elongated ~ 14 kpc long plume. New observations with the Russian 6-m telescope (BTA) and the Giant Metrewave Radio Telescope (GMRT) of the ionised and neutral gas in UGC4722 reveal the second component responsible for the disturbed morphology of the system. This is a small, almost completely destroyed, very gas-rich dwarf (M_B = -15.2, M_HI/L_B ~4.3). We estimate the oxygen abundance for both galaxies to be 12+log(O/H) ~ 7.5-7.6, which is 2-3 times lower than what is expected from the luminosity-metallicity relation for similar galaxies in denser environments. The ugr colours of the plume derived from Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) images are consisten...

  12. Interacting effects of climate change, landscape conversion, and harvest on carnivore populations at the range margin: marten and lynx in the northern Appalachians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carroll, Carlos

    2007-08-01

    Assessing the effects of climate change on threatened species requires moving beyond simple bioclimatic models to models that incorporate interactions among climatic trends, landscape change, environmental stochasticity, and species life history. Populations of marten (Martes americana) and lynx (Lynx canadensis) in southeastern Canada and the northeastern United States represent peninsular extensions of boreal ranges and illustrate the potential impact of these threats on semi-isolated populations at the range margin. Decreased snowfall may affect marten and lynx through decreased prey vulnerability and decreased competitive advantage over sympatric carnivores. I used a spatially explicit population model to assess potential effects of predicted changes in snowfall by 2055 on regional marten and lynx populations. The models' habitat rankings were derived from previous static models that correlated regional distribution with snowfall and vegetation data. Trapping scenarios were parameterized as a 10% proportional decrease in survival, and logging scenarios were parameterized as a 10% decrease in the extent of older coniferous or mixed forest. Both species showed stronger declines in the simulations due to climate change than to overexploitation or logging. Marten populations declined 40% because of climate change, 16% because of logging, and 30% because of trapping. Lynx populations declined 59% because of climate change, 36% because of trapping, and 20% in scenarios evaluating the effects of population cycles. Climate change interacted with logging in its effects on the marten and with trapping in its effects on the lynx, increasing overall vulnerability. For both species larger lowland populations were vulnerable to climate change, which suggests that contraction may occur in the core of their current regional range as well as among smaller peripheral populations. Despite their greater data requirements compared with bioclimatic models, mesoscale spatial

  13. Prostate stem cell antigen is an endogenous lynx1-like prototoxin that antagonizes alpha7 containing nicotinic receptors and prevents programmed cell death of parasympathetic neurons

    OpenAIRE

    2009-01-01

    Vertebrate alpha-bungarotoxin-like molecules of the Ly-6 superfamily have been implicated as balancers of activity and survival in the adult nervous system. To determine whether a member of this family could be involved in the development of the avian ciliary ganglion, we identified 6 Gallus genes by their homology in structure to mouse lynx1 and lynx2. One of these genes, an ortholog of prostate stem cell antigen (psca), is barely detectable at embryonic day (E) 8, before neuronal cell loss ...

  14. Evolution of puma lentivirus in bobcats (Lynx rufus) and mountain lions (Puma concolor) in North America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Justin S; Bevins, Sarah N; Serieys, Laurel E K; Vickers, Winston; Logan, Ken A; Aldredge, Mat; Boydston, Erin E; Lyren, Lisa M; McBride, Roy; Roelke-Parker, Melody; Pecon-Slattery, Jill; Troyer, Jennifer L; Riley, Seth P; Boyce, Walter M; Crooks, Kevin R; VandeWoude, Sue

    2014-07-01

    Mountain lions (Puma concolor) throughout North and South America are infected with puma lentivirus clade B (PLVB). A second, highly divergent lentiviral clade, PLVA, infects mountain lions in southern California and Florida. Bobcats (Lynx rufus) in these two geographic regions are also infected with PLVA, and to date, this is the only strain of lentivirus identified in bobcats. We sequenced full-length PLV genomes in order to characterize the molecular evolution of PLV in bobcats and mountain lions. Low sequence homology (88% average pairwise identity) and frequent recombination (1 recombination breakpoint per 3 isolates analyzed) were observed in both clades. Viral proteins have markedly different patterns of evolution; sequence homology and negative selection were highest in Gag and Pol and lowest in Vif and Env. A total of 1.7% of sites across the PLV genome evolve under positive selection, indicating that host-imposed selection pressure is an important force shaping PLV evolution. PLVA strains are highly spatially structured, reflecting the population dynamics of their primary host, the bobcat. In contrast, the phylogeography of PLVB reflects the highly mobile mountain lion, with diverse PLVB isolates cocirculating in some areas and genetically related viruses being present in populations separated by thousands of kilometers. We conclude that PLVA and PLVB are two different viral species with distinct feline hosts and evolutionary histories. Importance: An understanding of viral evolution in natural host populations is a fundamental goal of virology, molecular biology, and disease ecology. Here we provide a detailed analysis of puma lentivirus (PLV) evolution in two natural carnivore hosts, the bobcat and mountain lion. Our results illustrate that PLV evolution is a dynamic process that results from high rates of viral mutation/recombination and host-imposed selection pressure.

  15. Helminth species diversity and biology in the bobcat, Lynx rufus (Schreber), from Nebraska.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiekotter, K L

    1985-04-01

    Cestodes of 4 species and nematodes of 9 species were collected from 75 bobcats, Lynx rufus (Schreber), in Nebraska from 1977 to 1979. Of these 75, 11 were trapped from 6 border counties in 3 border states: South Dakota, 7 carcasses/3 counties; Kansas, 3/2; and Wyoming, 1/1. Helminths recovered included: Mesocestoides corti Hoeppli, 1925 (15% prevalence), Taenia rileyi Loewen, 1929 (67%), Taenia pisiformis (Bloch, 1780) Gmelin, 1790 (27%), Taenia macrocystis (Diesing, 1850) Lühe, 1910 (19%), Physaloptera praeputialis von Linstow, 1889 (55%), Physaloptera rara Hall and Wigdor, 1918 (32%), Toxascaris leonina (von Linstow, 1902) Leiper, 1907 (31%), Toxocara cati (Schrank, 1780) (39%), Ancylostoma tubaeforme (Zeder, 1800) von Linstow, 1885 (5%), Pterygodermatites (Multipectines) cahirensis (Jägerskiöld, 1909) Quentin, 1969 (1%), Vogeloides felis (Vogel, 1928) Davtian, 1933 (7%), Cylicospirura felineus (Chandler, 1925) Sandground, 1932 (12%), and Capillaria aerophila (Creplin, 1839) (4%). One bobcat was not infected; 74 had 1 to 7 species (means = 3). Simpson's index for helminth species was moderately low (0.12), indicating a relatively diverse helminth fauna. Mean levels of infection between prominent species pairs and within each species were compared with bobcat sex and age differences using Student's t-test. Mean intensity of Physaloptera praeputialis was significantly (P less than 0.01) greater than that of Toxocara cati; mean intensity of Mesocestoides corti was significantly (P less than 0.01) greater than that of all other prominent species. No significant intensity differences were indicated among bobcat sex and age categories. G-tests computed for prevalence of prominent species with bobcat age indicated no significance.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  16. Study of galaxies in the Lynx-Cancer void. VI. HI-observations with the Nancay Radio Telescope

    CERN Document Server

    Pustilnik, S A

    2016-01-01

    Context. Void population consists mainly of late-type and low surface brightness (LSB) dwarf galaxies whose atomic hydrogen is the main component of their baryonic matter. Therefore, observations of void galaxy HI are mandatory in order to understand their evolution and dynamics. Aims. Our aim was to obtain integrated HI parameters for a fainter part of the nearby Lynx-Cancer void galaxy sample (total of 45 objects) with the Nancay Radio Telescope (NRT) and to conduct the comparative analysis of all the 103 void galaxies with known HI data with a sample of similar galaxies residing in denser environments of the Local Volume. Methods. For HI observations we used the NRT with its sensitive antenna/receiver system FORT and standard processing. The comparison of the void and control samples on the parameter M(HI)/L_B is conducted with the non-parametric method `The 2x2 Contingency Table test'. Results. We obtained new HI data for about 40% of the Lynx-Cancer galaxy sample. Along with data from the literature, we ...

  17. Artificial Feeding and Reproduction of the Lynx(Lynx Lynx)%猞猁的人工饲养和繁殖

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱正强; 王季彤; 严炳坤

    2012-01-01

    We studied a pair of lynx(Lynx lynx)that was raised in Huaian Cherry Blossom Park(North Jiangsu Wildlife Zoo)of Huaian City in Jiangsu Province.We summarized the diets,rearing environment,daily management,common disease prevention and control,reproduction and cub nursery procedures with reference to artificial feeding.Our objective was to develop practical methods for future feeding,management and breeding of captive lynx.%以江苏省淮安市樱花园(苏北野生动物园)内人工饲养的1对猞猁为研究对象,对其在人工饲养条件下的日粮组成、饲养环境、日常管理、常见疫病防治及繁殖育幼情况的初步小结,以期为今后猞猁在人工饲养条件下的饲养、繁殖工作提供一定的实践依据。

  18. Antibody detection and molecular characterization of toxoplasma gondii from bobcats (Lynx rufus), domestic cats (Felis catus), and wildlife from Minnesota, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Little is known of the epidemiology of toxoplasmosis in Minnesota. In this study, we evaluated Toxoplasma gondii infection in 50 wild bobcats (Lynx rufus) and 75 other animals on/near 10 cattle farms. Antibodies to T. gondii were assayed in serum samples or tissue fluids by the modified agglutinatio...

  19. Detection of vancomycin-resistant enterococci from faecal samples of Iberian wolf and Iberian lynx, including Enterococcus faecium strains of CC17 and the new singleton ST573.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonçalves, Alexandre; Igrejas, Gilberto; Radhouani, Hajer; López, María; Guerra, Ana; Petrucci-Fonseca, Francisco; Alcaide, Eva; Zorrilla, Irene; Serra, Rodrigo; Torres, Carmen; Poeta, Patrícia

    2011-12-01

    The aim of this study was to perform the molecular characterization of vancomycin resistant enterococci (VRE) within the faecal flora of Iberian wolf and Iberian lynx. The association with other resistance genes and the detection of virulence genes were also analysed. From 2008 to 2010, 365 faecal samples from Iberian wolf and Iberian lynx were collected and tested for VRE recovery. Mechanisms of resistance to vancomycin and other antibiotics, as well as genes encoding virulence factors were detected through PCR. Multilocus Sequence Typing (MLST) was performed for Enterococcus faecium strains. VRE were recovered in 8 of the 365 analysed samples. The vanA gene was identified in two E. faecium isolates recovered from Iberian wolf faecal samples and the remaining six showed intrinsic resistance (3 vanC1-E. gallinarum and 3 vanC2-E. casseliflavus, from Iberian wolf and Iberian lynx faecal samples, respectively). One vanA-containing isolate showed tetracycline and erythromycin resistance [with erm(B) and tet(L) genes] and the other one also exhibited ampicillin and kanamycin resistance [with erm(B), tet(M) and aph(3')-III genes]. One of the vanA-isolates revealed a new sequence type named ST573 and the other one belonged to the CC17 clonal complex (ST18). The hyl gene was detected in one E. casseliflavus and three E. gallinarum but not among vanA-positive isolates, and the occurrence of cylA and cylL genes was confirmed in two E. casseliflavus isolates. A low prevalence of VRE has been detected in faecal samples of Iberian wolf and Iberian lynx and strains with an acquired mechanism of resistance to vancomycin have not been detected among Iberian lynx.

  20. PROGRESSIVE SYRINGOHYDROMYELIA AND DEGENERATIVE AXONOPATHY IN A BOBCAT (LYNX RUFUS) FOLLOWING SURGICAL CORRECTION OF A CHIARI-LIKE MALFORMATION.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadler, Ryan; Schumacher, Juergen; Ramsay, Edward; McCleery, Brynn; Baine, Katherine; Thomas, William; Nobrega-Lee, Michelle; Henry, George A; Newman, Shelley J

    2016-03-01

    A 3-yr-old male captive bobcat (Lynx rufus) presented with chronic ataxia and right-sided head tilt. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) revealed cerebellar crowding and compression consistent with Chiari-like malformation. The clinical signs did not improve after surgical occipital craniectomy, and 2 mo postoperatively a second MRI showed hydromyelia and continued cerebellar compression. The bobcat was euthanized, and necropsy showed chronic focal cerebellar herniation and chronic multifocal atlanto-occipital joint osteophyte proliferation. Histology confirmed the presence of a thick fibrous membrane along the caudal aspect of the cerebellar vermis, suggestive of postoperative adhesions, and axonal degeneration of the cervical spinal cord, even in sections without a central canal lesion. These lesions appear to have been complications associated with surgical correction of the Chiari-like malformation.

  1. PCR screening of tick-borne agents in sensitive conservation areas, Southeast Portugal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos-Silva, Maria Margarida; Melo, Pedro; Santos, Nuno; Antunes, Sandra; Duarte, Luís Raposo; Ferrolho, Joana; Milhano, Natacha; Santos, Patrícia Tavares; Domingos, Ana; Santos, Ana Sofia

    2017-02-01

    The Southeast region of Portugal, particularly the Guadiana valley, is currently the reintroduction territory of Lynx pardinus (Iberian lynx), one of the most endangered felids in the world that is only found in the Iberian Peninsula. Over the last century, populations have declined, placing L. pardinus at extremely high risk of extinction in the wild and relying on reintroduction projects. Among the aspects taken into account in the establishment of new populations is the sanitary status of the selected habitats, especially concerning infectious diseases, including tick-borne pathogens (TBPs). This study presents the results of TBPs survey on ticks collected at sensitive conservation areas of Southeast Portugal. From 2012 to 2014, 231 ticks obtained from vegetation, sympatric domestic and wild animals were submitted for analysis. The presence of Babesia spp., Cytauxzoon spp., Theileria spp., Hepatozoon spp., Anaplasma spp., Ehrlichia spp., Candidatus Neoehrlichia mikurensis, among other Anaplasmataceae, and Coxiella burnetii were investigated by PCR. Six tick species were recorded, Dermacentor marginatus (n = 13/5.6%), Hyalomma lusitanicum (n = 175/75.8%), Ixodes ricinus (n = 4/1.7%), Rhipicephalus bursa (n = 7/3.0%), R. pusillus (n = 21/9.1%) and R. sanguineus sensu lato (n = 11/4.8%). The molecular screening confirmed the presence of two tick-borne pathogens, C. burnetii (N = 34) and Anaplasma platys (N = 1), and one tick-endosymbiont, Candidatus Midichloria mitochondrii (N = 45). The results obtained provide new information on the circulation of ticks and TBPs with potential veterinary importance in Iberian lynx habitat. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Apoptosis-Related Factors in the Luteal Phase of the Domestic Cat and Their Involvement in the Persistence of Corpora Lutea in Lynx.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga Amelkina

    Full Text Available The corpus luteum (CL is a transient gland formed in the ovary after ovulation and is the major source of progesterone. In the Iberian and Eurasian lynx, CL physiologically persist after parturition and retain their capacity to produce progesterone, thus suppressing the ovarian activity. This unique reproductive characteristic has a big impact on the success of assisted reproduction techniques in the endangered Iberian lynx. The mechanisms behind CL persistence are not yet understood and require extensive studies on potential luteotropic and luteolytic factors in felids. Because the apoptosis system has been shown to be involved in structural regression of CL in many species, we aimed to investigate the capacity of perCL to undergo apoptosis. In addition, we performed initial studies on the apoptosis system in the luteal phase of the domestic cat. No previous research on this system has been made in this species. Our factors of interest included agents of the intrinsic apoptosis pathway, i.e., pro-survival B-cell CLL/lymphoma 2 (BCL2 and pro-apoptotic BCL2-associated X protein (BAX, the executioner caspase-3 (CASP3, as well as of the extrinsic pathway, i.e., pro-apoptotic receptor FAS, and tumor necrosis factor (TNF and its receptors (pro-apoptotic TNFRSF1A and pro-survival TNFRSF1B. We analyzed the relative mRNA levels of these factors, as well as protein localization of CASP3 and TNF during stages of pregnancy and the non-pregnant luteal phase in CL of domestic cats. The same factors were investigated in freshly ovulated CL (frCL and perCL of Iberian and Eurasian lynx, which were histologically analyzed. All factors were present in the CL tissue of both domestic cat and lynx throughout all analyzed stages. The presence of pro-apoptotic factors BAX, CASP3, FAS and TNFRSF1A in perCL of the Eurasian and Iberian lynx might indicate the potential sensitivity of perCL to apoptotic signals. The expression of pro-survival factors BCL2 and TNFRSF1B was

  3. UGC 3672: An unusual merging triplet of gas-rich galaxies in the Lynx-Cancer void

    CERN Document Server

    Chengalur, Jayaram N; Egorova, E S

    2016-01-01

    We present HI 21cm and optical observations of UGC 3672 which is located near the centre of the nearby Lynx-Cancer void. We find that UGC 3672 consists of an approximately linearly aligned triplet of gas rich dwarfs with large scale velocity continuity along the triplet axis. The faintest component of the triplet is extremely gas-rich (MHI/LB ~ 17) and also extremely metal deficient (12+log(O/H) ~ 7.0). The metallicity of this dwarf is close to the 'floor' observed in star forming galaxies. Low resolution HI images show that the galaxy triplet is located inside a common HI envelope, with fairly regular, disk like kinematics. At high angular resolution however, the gas is found to be confined to several filamentary tidal tails and bridges. The linear alignment of the galaxies, along with the velocity continuity that we observe, is consistent with the galaxies lying along a filament. We argue that the location of this highly unusual system in an extremely low density environment is not a coincidence, but is a c...

  4. Forecasts for the Canadian Lynx time series using method that bombine neural networks, wavelet shrinkage and decomposition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Levi Lopes Teixeira

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Time series forecasting is widely used in various areas of human knowledge, especially in the planning and strategic direction of companies. The success of this task depends on the forecasting techniques applied. In this paper, a hybrid approach to project time series is suggested. To validate the methodology, a time series already modeled by other authors was chosen, allowing the comparison of results. The proposed methodology includes the following techniques: wavelet shrinkage, wavelet decomposition at level r, and artificial neural networks (ANN. Firstly, a time series to be forecasted is submitted to the proposed wavelet filtering method, which decomposes it to components of trend and linear residue. Then, both are decomposed via level r wavelet decomposition, generating r + 1 Wavelet Components (WCs for each one; and then each WC is individually modeled by an ANN. Finally, the predictions for all WCs are linearly combined, producing forecasts to the underlying time series. For evaluating purposes, the time series of Canadian Lynx has been used, and all results achieved by the proposed method were better than others in existing literature.

  5. Protein secondary structure of Green Lynx spider dragline silk investigated by solid-state NMR and X-ray diffraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Dian; Shi, Xiangyan; Thompson, Forrest; Weber, Warner S; Mou, Qiushi; Yarger, Jeffery L

    2015-11-01

    In this study, the secondary structure of the major ampullate silk from Peucetia viridans (Green Lynx) spiders is characterized by X-ray diffraction and solid-state NMR spectroscopy. From X-ray diffraction measurement, β-sheet nanocrystallites were observed and found to be highly oriented along the fiber axis, with an orientational order, fc≈0.98. The size of the nanocrystallites was determined to be on average 2.5nm×3.3nm×3.8nm. Besides a prominent nanocrystalline region, a partially oriented amorphous region was also observed with an fa≈0.89. Two-dimensional (13)C-(13)C through-space and through-bond solid-state NMR experiments were employed to elucidate structure details of P. viridans silk proteins. It reveals that β-sheet nanocrystallites constitutes 40.0±1.2% of the protein and are dominated by alanine-rich repetitive motifs. Furthermore, based upon the NMR data, 18±1% of alanine, 60±2% glycine and 54±2% serine are incorporated into helical conformations. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Discovery of an extremely gas-rich dwarf triplet near the center of the Lynx-Cancer void

    CERN Document Server

    Chengalur, Jayaram N

    2012-01-01

    Giant Metrewave Radio Telescope (GMRT) HI observations, done as part of an ongoing study of dwarf galaxies in the Lynx-Cancer void, resulted in the discovery of a triplet of extremely gas rich galaxies located near the centre of the void.The triplet members SDSS J0723+3621, J0723+3622 and J0723+3624 have absolute magnitudes M_B of -14.2, -11.9 and -9.7 and M(HI)/L_B of \\sim 2.9, ~10 and ~25, respectively. The gas mass fractions, as derived from the SDSS photometry and the GMRT data are 0.93, 0.997, 0.997 respectively. The faintest member of this triplet SDSS J0723+3624 is one of the most gas rich galaxies known. We find that all three galaxies deviate significantly from the Tully-Fisher relation, but follow the baryonic Tully-Fisher relation. All three galaxies also have a baryon fraction that is significantly smaller than the cosmic baryon fraction. For the largest galaxy in the triplet, this is in contradiction to numerical simulations. The discovery of this very unique dwarf triplet lends support to the id...

  7. Seroprevalence, isolation and co-infection of multiple Toxoplasma gondii strains in individual bobcats (Lynx rufus) from Mississippi, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verma, Shiv K; Sweeny, Amy R; Lovallo, Matthew J; Calero-Bernal, Rafael; Kwok, Oliver C; Jiang, Tiantian; Su, Chunlei; Grigg, Michael E; Dubey, Jitender P

    2017-04-01

    Toxoplasma gondii causes lifelong chronic infection in both feline definitive hosts and intermediate hosts. Multiple exposures to the parasite are likely to occur in nature due to high environmental contamination. Here, we present data of high seroprevalence and multiple T. gondii strain co-infections in individual bobcats (Lynx rufus). Unfrozen samples (blood, heart, tongue and faeces) were collected from 35 free ranging wild bobcats from Mississippi, USA. Toxoplasma gondii antibodies were detected in serum by the modified agglutination test (1:≥200) in all 35 bobcats. Hearts from all bobcats were bioassayed in mice and viable T. gondii was isolated from 21; these strains were further propagated in cell culture. Additionally, DNA was extracted from digests of tongues and hearts of all 35 bobcats; T. gondii DNA was detected in tissues of all 35 bobcats. Genetic characterisation of DNA from cell culture-derived isolates was performed by multiplex PCR using 10 PCR-RFLP markers. Results showed that ToxoDB genotype #5 predominated (in 18 isolates) with a few other types (#24 in two isolates, and #2 in one isolate). PCR-DNA sequencing at two polymorphic markers, GRA6 and GRA7, detected multiple recombinant strains co-infecting the tissues of bobcats; most possessing Type II alleles at GRA7 versus Type X (HG-12) alleles at GRA6. Our results suggest that individual bobcats have been exposed to more than one parasite strain during their life time. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  8. Presence of Echinococcus oligarthrus (Diesing, 1863) Lühe, 1910 in Lynx rufus texensis Allen, 1895 from San Fernando, Tamaulipas state, in north-east Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salinas-López, N; Jiménez-Guzmán, F; Cruz-Reyes, A

    1996-07-01

    A bobcat was found recently killed on "Highway 101" near the town of San Fernando, Tamaulipas State, Mexico (100 km south of Brownsville, TX, U.S.A.). The cat (Lynx rufus texensis) was parasitized by several species of nematodes and trematodes, but mainly by a cestode, Echinococcus oligarthrus. The diagnostic characteristics of this cestode are described and illustrated. E. oligarthrus has not been reported previously in North America. This is the first time that the strobilar stage has been recovered from a "bobcat". A potential public health problem may be raised by the presence of this cestode in Mexico.

  9. Cylicospirura species (Nematoda: Spirocercidae) and stomach nodules in cougars (Puma concolor) and bobcats (Lynx rufus) in Oregon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferguson, Jayde A; Woodberry, Karen; Gillin, Colin M; Jackson, DeWaine H; Sanders, Justin L; Madigan, Whitney; Bildfell, Robert J; Kent, Michael L

    2011-01-01

    The stomachs and proximal duodena of 160 cougars (Puma concolor) and 17 bobcats (Lynx rufus), obtained throughout Oregon during 7 yr, were examined for Cylicospirura spp. and associated lesions. Prevalence in cougars was 73%, with a range in intensity of 1-562 worms. The mean diameter of nodules was 1.2 cm (SD=0.5), and many extended through the submucosa to the muscularis. About 83% of cougars had nodules; most nodules contained worms, but 14% of the smaller nodules (<0.2 cm) contained porcupine (Erethizon dorsatum) quills. A mean of 12.4 worms/nodule (SD=34.1) was observed, with a maximum of 340 worms/nodule. Prevalence in bobcats was 53%, with an intensity of 1-25 worms. About 65% of bobcats had nodules, which were slightly smaller than those in cougars but appeared to involve similar layers of gastrointestinal tissue. One to 25 Cylicospirura sp. were found in all but two small nodules in bobcats. Cougars killed for livestock damage or safety concerns had a significantly higher median worm intensity than did those that died of other causes. Also, the median worm intensity of older cougars was higher than that of younger lions. There were more males than females killed for livestock damage or safety concerns. The cylicospirurid from cougars was Cylicospirura subaequalis, and that of bobcats was Cylicospirura felineus. These two similar species were separated morphologically by differences in tooth and sex organ morphology. They were also differentiated by DNA sequence analysis of the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 gene (cox1). Worm sequences from cougars differed from those from bobcats by 11%, whereas essentially no difference was found among worms from the same host. Phylogenetic analysis showed that within the order Spirurida, both cylicospirurids were most closely related to Spirocerca lupi, based on this gene sequence.

  10. Serum chemistry, hematologic, and post-mortem findings in free-ranging bobcats (Lynx rufus) with notoedric mange

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serieys, Laurel E.K.; Foley, Janet; Owens, Sean; Woods, Leslie; Boydston, Erin E.; Lyren, Lisa M.; Poppenga, Robert H.; Clifford, Deana L.; Stephenson, Nicole; Rudd, Jaime; Riley, Seth P.D.

    2013-01-01

    Notoedric mange was responsible for a population decline of bobcats (Lynx rufus) in 2 Southern California counties from 2002–2006 and is now reported to affect bobcats in Northern and Southern California. With this study we document clinical laboratory and necropsy findings for bobcats with mange. Bobcats in this study included free-ranging bobcats with mange (n = 34), a control group of free-ranging bobcats without mange (n = 11), and a captive control group of bobcats without mange (n = 19). We used 2 control groups to evaluate potential anomalies due to capture stress or diet. Free-ranging healthy and mange-infected bobcats were trapped or salvaged. Animals were tested by serum biochemistry, complete blood count, urine protein and creatinine, body weight, necropsy, and assessment for anticoagulant rodenticide residues in liver tissue. Bobcats with severe mange were emaciated, dehydrated, and anemic with low serum creatinine, hyperphosphatemia, hypoglycemia, hypernatremia, and hyperchloremia, and sometimes septicemic when compared to control groups. Liver enzymes and leukocyte counts were elevated in free-ranging, recently captured bobcats whether or not they were infested with mange, suggesting capture stress. Bobcats with mange had lower levels of serum cholesterol, albumin, globulin, and total protein due to protein loss likely secondary to severe dermatopathy. Renal insufficiency was unlikely in most cases, as urine protein:creatinine ratios were within normal limits. A primary gastrointestinal loss of protein or blood was possible in a few cases, as evidenced by elevated blood urea nitrogen, anemia, intestinal parasitism, colitis, gastric hemorrhage, and melena. The prevalence of exposure to anticoagulant rodenticides was 100% (n = 15) in bobcats with mange. These findings paint a picture of debilitating, multisystemic disease with infectious and toxic contributing factors that can progress to death in individuals and potential decline in populations.

  11. UGC 3672: an unusual merging triplet of gas-rich galaxies in the Lynx-Cancer void

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chengalur, J. N.; Pustilnik, S. A.; Egorova, E. S.

    2017-02-01

    We present H I 21 cm and optical observations of UGC 3672 which is located near the centre of the nearby Lynx-Cancer void. We find that UGC 3672 consists of an approximately linearly aligned triplet of gas-rich dwarfs with large-scale velocity continuity along the triplet axis. The faintest component of the triplet is extremely gas-rich M_{H I}/L_B ˜ 17) and also extremely metal deficient (12 + log (O/H) ∼ 7.0). The metallicity of this dwarf is close to the 'floor' observed in star-forming galaxies. Low-resolution H I images show that the galaxy triplet is located inside a common H I envelope, with fairly regular, disc-like kinematics. At high angular resolution however, the gas is found to be confined to several filamentary tidal tails and bridges. The linear alignment of the galaxies, along with the velocity continuity that we observe, is consistent with the galaxies lying along a filament. We argue that the location of this highly unusual system in an extremely low-density environment is not a coincidence, but is a consequence of structure formation proceeding more slowly and also probing smaller scales than in regions with average density. Our observations also indicate that wet mergers of galaxies flowing along filaments is a possible pathway for the formation of gas-rich discs. The UGC 3672 system provides an interesting opportunity to study the kind of interactions typical between high-redshift extremely gas-rich unevolved small systems that lie at base of the hierarchical galaxy formation model.

  12. Information

    CERN Document Server

    Ritchie, L David

    1991-01-01

    This volume thoroughly covers the sub-field of information, and is one of the first in a series which synthesizes the research literature on major concepts in the field of communication. Each concise volume includes a research definition (concept explication) and presents a state-of-the-art analysis of theory and empirical findings related to the concept. After defining the word `information', the author contrasts non-linear and reflexive ideas about human communication with linear perspectives. Information is equated with uncertainty. The result presents a pattern for the process of conceptua

  13. Analysis and Simulation of Volatile Components of LYNX CLICK Fragrance%凌仕契合香精的香气分析及模拟研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周如隽; 朱建才; 顾永波; 牛云蔚; 肖作兵

    2012-01-01

    通过顶空固相微萃取-气相色谱/质谱技术,结合感官分析,对凌仕契合香精的香气组成和香韵结构进行了分析,得出了果香韵、醛香韵、青香韵、木香韵、花香韵和海洋香韵等6种不同香韵,以及34种调配原料.考察了不同香韵组成对香精主体特征香气的影响,最终模拟得到了香气相似度较好的凌仕契合香精.%The odor composition of the LYNX CLICK fragrance was analyzed by means of headspace-solid extraction GC/MS. The results showed that the fragrance includes six odor types such as fruit, aldehyde, green, wood, flower, ocean and consists of 34 kinds of aromatic materials. Meanwhile the relationship of odor types and characteristic odor of the fragrance was researched. And the smell of imitated LYNX CLICK fragrance is very similar to that of sample.

  14. Prostate stem cell antigen is an endogenous lynx1-like prototoxin that antagonizes alpha7-containing nicotinic receptors and prevents programmed cell death of parasympathetic neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hruska, Martin; Keefe, Julie; Wert, David; Tekinay, Ayse Begum; Hulce, Jonathan J; Ibañez-Tallon, Ines; Nishi, Rae

    2009-11-25

    Vertebrate alpha-bungarotoxin-like molecules of the Ly-6 superfamily have been implicated as balancers of activity and survival in the adult nervous system. To determine whether a member of this family could be involved in the development of the avian ciliary ganglion, we identified 6 Gallus genes by their homology in structure to mouse lynx1 and lynx2. One of these genes, an ortholog of prostate stem cell antigen (psca), is barely detectable at embryonic day (E) 8, before neuronal cell loss in the ciliary ganglion, but increases >100-fold as the number of neurons begins to decline between E9 and E14. PSCA is highly expressed in chicken and mouse telencephalon and peripheral ganglia and correlates with expression of alpha7-containing nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (alpha7-nAChRs). Misexpressing PSCA before cell death in the ciliary ganglion blocks alpha7-nAChR activation by nicotine and rescues the choroid subpopulation from dying. Thus, PSCA, a molecule previously identified as a marker of prostate cancer, is a member of the Ly-6 neurotoxin-like family in the nervous system, and is likely to play a role as a modulator of alpha7 signaling-induced cell death during development.

  15. Valuing the chances of survival of two distinct Eurasian lynx populations in Poland - do people want to keep the doors open?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartczak, Anna; Meyerhoff, Jürgen

    2013-11-15

    This study investigates individuals' preferences toward protection programs aimed at increasing the chances of survival of the two distinct Eurasian lynx populations in Poland. Those two groups, the Lowland and the Carpathian population, are exposed to different risks of extinction as they have different numbers, different-sized areas of occupation and different migration possibilities. Using a discrete choice experiment we examine the influence of the initial degree of endangerment on the allocation of respondents' funds. The results show that people prefer to invest in the conservation of the lynx population, which has initially lower chances of survival. The main driver of respondents' choices seems to be loss aversion rather than the urge to invest in an option with an expected higher outcome. This observation can be interpreted as people trying to keep all the options - doors - open by devoting more funds to the more vulnerable population than to the more stable one. Employing a scale-extended latent class model allowed us to detect segments among individuals showing different types of response behavior, including a form of serial non-participation.

  16. The Effect of Illumination and Time of Day on Movements of Bobcats (Lynx rufus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rockhill, Aimee P.; DePerno, Christopher S.; Powell, Roger A.

    2013-01-01

    Understanding behavioral changes of prey and predators based on lunar illumination provides insight into important life history, behavioral ecology, and survival information. The objectives of this research were to determine if bobcat movement rates differed by period of day (dark, moon, crepuscular, day), lunar illumination (90%), and moon phase (new, full). Bobcats had high movement rates during crepuscular and day periods and low movement rates during dark periods with highest nighttime rates at 10-full moon). The behaviors we observed are consistent with prey availability being affected by light level and by limited vision by bobcats during darkness. PMID:23861963

  17. The effect of illumination and time of day on movements of bobcats (Lynx rufus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aimee P Rockhill

    Full Text Available Understanding behavioral changes of prey and predators based on lunar illumination provides insight into important life history, behavioral ecology, and survival information. The objectives of this research were to determine if bobcat movement rates differed by period of day (dark, moon, crepuscular, day, lunar illumination (90%, and moon phase (new, full. Bobcats had high movement rates during crepuscular and day periods and low movement rates during dark periods with highest nighttime rates at 10-<50% lunar illumination. Bobcats had highest movement rates during daytime when nighttime illumination was low (new moon and higher movement rates during nighttime when lunar illumination was high (full moon. The behaviors we observed are consistent with prey availability being affected by light level and by limited vision by bobcats during darkness.

  18. 圈养猞猁多雄交配雄性的成功繁殖%Eurasian lynx male reproductive success with multi-male mating in captivity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sergey NAIDENKO; Mariya EROFEEVA; Frank GOERITZ; Katrin NEUBAUER; Joerns FICKEL; Katarina JEWGENOW

    2007-01-01

    The consequences of multi-male mating and male reproductive success in Eurasian lynx Lynx lynx in captivity were investigated. Males were paired at random with females in estrus. Their reproductive success (numbers of kittens sired) did not depend on mating order, number and duration of copulations, genetic relatedness to the females or the behavioral traits of males, but seemed to depend on sperm quality, particularly the percentage of morphologically normal spermatozoa. The reproductively more successful male had a higher percentage of morphologically normal sperm than its competitors and appeared to be more successful in stimulating the ovulation of its female partner. Dual paternities were proved in 20% of all litters. In all these cases the two competing males mated with the female within a 24 hour interval[Acta Zoologica Sinica 53(3):408-416,2007].%研究了笼养猞猁多雄交配的结果以及雄性的成功繁殖. 雄兽与发情雌兽随机配对,其繁殖成功(所产生的后代数量)不取决于与雌兽的交配顺序、交配次数与持续时间、遗传关系或雄兽的行为特征,但似乎取决于精子质量,特别是取决于形态正常精子的百分率. 繁殖成功的雄兽比其竞争对手具有更多的形态正常的精子,似乎更能成功地诱发交配雌兽的排卵.证实了4窝(占总窝数的20%)幼兽的双重父亲身份.在所有情形下,2雄1雌的交配间隔为24 h[动物学报 53(3):408-416,2007].

  19. Information

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    There are unstructured abstracts (no more than 256 words) and structured abstracts (no more than 480). The specific requirements for structured abstracts are as follows:An informative, structured abstracts of no more than 4-80 words should accompany each manuscript. Abstracts for original contributions should be structured into the following sections. AIM (no more than 20 words): Only the purpose should be included. Please write the aim as the form of "To investigate/ study/..."; MATERIALS AND METHODS (no more than 140 words); RESULTS (no more than 294 words): You should present P values where appropnate and must provide relevant data to illustrate how they were obtained, e.g. 6.92 ± 3.86 vs 3.61 ± 1.67, P< 0.001; CONCLUSION (no more than 26 words).

  20. Aprovechamiento cárnico de lince (Lynx pardina durante el Pleistoceno Superior en el interior de la Península Ibérica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Yravedra Sainz de los Terreros

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Durante el trascurso del Pleistoceno Superior en la Península Ibérica es frecuente que los yacimientos paleolíticos presenten restos de lince. El problema es que casi siempre se refieren a muestras óseas fragmentarias que no permiten ir más allá de la mera identificación taxonómica. En esta ocasión presentamos los restos de Lynx pardina localizados en el yacimiento Magdaleniense de la Peña de Estebanvela (Segovia y, tambien ciertas alteraciones tafonómicas de origen antrópico que parecen indicar un aprovechamiento cárnico de este animal en los momentos finales del Pleistoceno superior.

  1. First evidence of hemoplasma infection in free-ranging Namibian cheetahs (Acinonyx jubatus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krengel, Annika; Meli, Marina L; Cattori, Valentino; Wachter, Bettina; Willi, Barbara; Thalwitzer, Susanne; Melzheimer, Jörg; Hofer, Heribert; Lutz, Hans; Hofmann-Lehmann, Regina

    2013-03-23

    Infections with feline hemotropic mycoplasmas (hemoplasmas) have been documented in domestic cats and free-ranging feline species with high prevalences in Iberian lynxes (Lynx pardinus), Eurasian lynxes (Lynx lynx), European wildcats (Felis silvestris silvestris), African lions (Panthera leo) in Tanzania and domestic cats in South Africa. The prevalence of hemoplasmas has not yet been investigated in free-ranging felids in southern Africa. In this study we screened 73 blood samples from 61 cheetahs in central Namibia for the presence of hemoplasmas using quantitative real-time PCR. One of the cheetahs tested PCR-positive. Phylogenetic analysis based on partial sequencing of the 16S rRNA and RNAse P genes revealed that the isolate belongs to the Mycoplasma haemofelis/haemocanis group. This is the first molecular evidence of a hemoplasma infection in a free-ranging cheetah. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Characterization of the commercially-available fluorescent chloroquine-BODIPY conjugate, LynxTag-CQGREEN, as a marker for chloroquine resistance and uptake in a 96-well plate assay.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheryl C Y Loh

    Full Text Available Chloroquine was a cheap, extremely effective drug against Plasmodium falciparum until resistance arose. One approach to reversing resistance is the inhibition of chloroquine efflux from its site of action, the parasite digestive vacuole. Chloroquine accumulation studies have traditionally relied on radiolabelled chloroquine, which poses several challenges. There is a need for development of a safe and biologically relevant substitute. We report here a commercially-available green fluorescent chloroquine-BODIPY conjugate, LynxTag-CQGREEN, as a proxy for chloroquine accumulation. This compound localized to the digestive vacuole of the parasite as observed under confocal microscopy, and inhibited growth of chloroquine-sensitive strain 3D7 more extensively than in the resistant strains 7G8 and K1. Microplate reader measurements indicated suppression of LynxTag-CQGREEN efflux after pretreatment of parasites with known reversal agents. Microsomes carrying either sensitive- or resistant-type PfCRT were assayed for uptake; resistant-type PfCRT exhibited increased accumulation of LynxTag-CQGREEN, which was suppressed by pretreatment with known chemosensitizers. Eight laboratory strains and twelve clinical isolates were sequenced for PfCRT and Pgh1 haplotypes previously reported to contribute to drug resistance, and pfmdr1 copy number and chloroquine IC50s were determined. These data were compared with LynxTag-CQGREEN uptake/fluorescence by multiple linear regression to identify genetic correlates of uptake. Uptake of the compound correlated with the logIC50 of chloroquine and, more weakly, a mutation in Pgh1, F1226Y.

  3. Current Status and Protection of Felis Lynx Population in the Northeast of China%东北地区猞猁种群现状及其保护

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    田家龙; 李贵臣; 孙红瑜

    2002-01-01

    猞猁(Felis Lynx)属食肉目猫科动物,在我国主要分布在东北、华北、青藏高原等地,近年来由于森林资源的大量开发,严重地破坏了生态平衡,特别是由于无限制地猎取野兔,使其食物链巨减,因此,各地猞猁种群明显下降.我们利用三阶抽样法,查清了东北地区猞猁种群的分布及数量情况.结果表明,东北地区猞猁分布区域只剩下大小兴安岭及长白山部分地区,总栖息面积仅有200 000km2,平均密度为0.013238只/kma,既每75km2有1只,数量不到3000只,种群处于极其濒危状态,应禁止任何理由的猎捕利用,严加保护并采取一切措施,使野生种群尽快恢复.

  4. Early-type galaxies at z = 1.3. I. The Lynx supercluster: cluster and groups at z=1.3. Morphology and color-magnitude relation

    CERN Document Server

    Mei, Simona; Holden, Brad P; Raichoor, Anand; Postman, Marc; Nakata, Fumiaki; Finoguenov, Alexis; Ford, Holland C; Illingworth, Garth D; Kodama, Tadayuki; Rosati, Piero; Tanaka, Masayuki; Huertas-Company, Marc; Rettura, Alessandro; Shankar, Francesco; Carrasco, E Rodrigo; Demarco, Ricardo; Eisenhardt, Peter; Jee, Myungkook J; Koyama, Yusei; White, Richard L

    2012-01-01

    We confirm the detection of 3 groups in the Lynx supercluster, at z~1.3, and give their redshifts and masses. We study the properties of the group galaxies as compared to the central clusters, RXJ0849+4452 and RXJ0848+4453, selecting 89 galaxies in the clusters and 74 galaxies in the groups. We morphologically classify galaxies by visual inspection, noting that our early-type galaxy (ETG) sample would have been contaminated at the 30% -40% level by simple automated classification methods (e.g. based on Sersic index). In luminosity selected samples, both clusters and groups show high fractions of Sa galaxies. The ETG fractions never rise above ~50% in the clusters, which is low compared to the fractions observed in clusters at z~1. However, ETG plus Sa fractions are similar to those observed for ETGs in clusters at z~1. Bulge-dominated galaxies visually classified as Sas might also be ETGs with tidal features or merger remnants. They are mainly red and passive, and span a large range in luminosity. Their star ...

  5. A baseline and watershed assessment in the Lynx Creek, Brenot Creek, and Portage Creek watersheds near Hudson's Hope, BC : summary report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matscha, G.; Sutherland, D. [British Columbia Ministry of Water, Land and Air Protection, Prince George, BC (Canada)

    2005-06-15

    This report summarized a baseline monitoring program for the Lynx Creek, Brenot Creek, and Portage Creek watersheds located near Hudson's Hope, British Columbia (BC). The monitoring program was designed to more accurately determine the effects of potential coalbed gas developments in the region, as well as to assess levels of agricultural and forest harvesting, and the impacts of current land use activities on water quantity and quality. Water quality was sampled at 18 sites during 5 different flow regimes, including summer and fall low flows; ice cover; spring run-off; and high flows after a heavy summer rain event. Sample sites were located up and downstream of both forest and agricultural activities. The water samples were analyzed for 70 contaminants including ions, nutrients, metals, hydrocarbons, and hydrocarbon fractions. Results showed that while many analyzed parameters met current BC water quality guidelines, total organic carbon, manganese, cadmium, E. coli, fecal coliforms, and fecal streptococci often exceeded recommended guidelines. Aluminum and cobalt values exceeded drinking water guidelines. The samples also had a slightly alkaline pH and showed high conductance. A multiple barrier approach was recommended to reduce potential risks of contamination from the watersheds. It was concluded that a more refined bacteria source tracking method is needed to determine whether fecal pollution has emanated from human, livestock or wildlife sources. 1 tab., 9 figs.

  6. Isolation and Genetic Characterization of Toxoplasma gondii from Black Bears (Ursus americanus), Bobcats (Lynx rufus), and Feral Cats (Felis catus) from Pennsylvania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubey, Jitender P; Verma, Shiv K; Calero-Bernal, Rafael; Cassinelli, Ana B; Kwok, Oliver C H; Van Why, Kyle; Su, Chunlei; Humphreys, Jan G

    2015-01-01

    Toxoplasma gondii infects virtually all warm-blooded hosts worldwide. Recently, attention has been focused on the genetic diversity of the parasite to explain its pathogenicity in different hosts. It has been hypothesized that interaction between feral and domestic cycles of T. gondii may increase unusual genotypes in domestic cats and facilitate transmission of potentially more pathogenic genotypes to humans, domestic animals, and wildlife. In the present study, we tested black bear (Ursus americanus), bobcat (Lynx rufus), and feral cat (Felis catus) from the state of Pennsylvania for T. gondii infection. Antibodies to T. gondii were found in 32 (84.2%) of 38 bears, both bobcats, and 2 of 3 feral cats tested by the modified agglutination test (cut off titer 1:25). Hearts from seropositive animals were bioassayed in mice, and viable T. gondii was isolated from 3 of 32 bears, 2 of 2 bobcats, and 2 of 3 feral cats. DNA isolated from culture-derived tachyzoites of these isolates was characterized using multilocus PCR-RFLP markers. Three genotypes were revealed, including ToxoDB PCR-RFLP genotype #1 or #3 (Type II, 1 isolate), #5 (Type 12, 3 isolates), and #216 (3 isolates), adding to the evidence of genetic diversity of T. gondii in wildlife in Pennsylvania. Pathogenicity of 3 T. gondii isolates (all #216, 1 from bear, and 2 from feral cat) was determined in outbred Swiss Webster mice; all three were virulent causing 100% mortality. Results indicated that highly mouse pathogenic strains of T. gondii are circulating in wildlife, and these strains may pose risk to infect human through consuming of game meat. Published 2014. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  7. Linking movement behavior and fine-scale genetic structure to model landscape connectivity for bobcats (Lynx rufus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawn M. Reding; Samuel A. Cushman; Todd E. Gosselink; William R. Clark

    2013-01-01

    Spatial heterogeneity can constrain the movement of individuals and consequently genes across a landscape, influencing demographic and genetic processes. In this study, we linked information on landscape composition, movement behavior, and genetic differentiation to gain a mechanistic understanding of how spatial heterogeneity may influence movement and gene flow of...

  8. Description and life-cycle of Taenia lynciscapreoli sp. n. (Cestoda, Cyclophyllidea)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haukisalmi, Voitto; Konyaev, Sergey; Lavikainen, Antti; Isomursu, Marja; Nakao, Minoru

    2016-01-01

    Abstract A new species of tapeworm, Taenia lynciscapreoli sp. n. (Cestoda, Cyclophyllidea), is described from the Eurasian lynx (Lynx lynx), the main definitive host, and the roe deer (Capreolus capreolus and Capreolus pygargus), the main intermediate hosts, from Finland and Russia (Siberia and the Russian Far East). The new species was found once also in the wolf (Canis lupus) and the Eurasian elk/moose (Alces alces), representing accidental definitive and intermediate hosts, respectively. The conspecificity of adult specimens and metacestodes of Taenia lynciscapreoli sp. n. in various host species and regions, and their distinction from related species of Taenia, was confirmed by partial nucleotide sequences of the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 gene. Morphologically, Taenia lynciscapreoli sp. n. can be separated unambiguously from all other species of Taenia by the shape of its large rostellar hooks, particularly the characteristically short, wide and strongly curved blade. If the large rostellar hooks are missing, Taenia lynciscapreoli may be separated from related species by a combination of morphological features of mature proglottids. It is suggested that Taenia lynciscapreoli has been present in published materials concerning the tapeworms of Lynx lynx and Lynx pardinus in Europe, but has been misidentified as Taenia pisiformis (Bloch, 1780). Taenia lynciscapreoli sp. n. has not been found in lynx outside the range of roe deer, suggesting a transmission pathway based on a specific predator–prey relationship. The present study applies a novel, simple approach to compare qualitative interspecific differences in the shape of rostellar hooks. PMID:27199592

  9. Description and life-cycle of Taenia lynciscapreoli sp. n. (Cestoda, Cyclophyllidea).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haukisalmi, Voitto; Konyaev, Sergey; Lavikainen, Antti; Isomursu, Marja; Nakao, Minoru

    2016-01-01

    A new species of tapeworm, Taenia lynciscapreoli sp. n. (Cestoda, Cyclophyllidea), is described from the Eurasian lynx (Lynx lynx), the main definitive host, and the roe deer (Capreolus capreolus and Capreolus pygargus), the main intermediate hosts, from Finland and Russia (Siberia and the Russian Far East). The new species was found once also in the wolf (Canis lupus) and the Eurasian elk/moose (Alces alces), representing accidental definitive and intermediate hosts, respectively. The conspecificity of adult specimens and metacestodes of Taenia lynciscapreoli sp. n. in various host species and regions, and their distinction from related species of Taenia, was confirmed by partial nucleotide sequences of the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 gene. Morphologically, Taenia lynciscapreoli sp. n. can be separated unambiguously from all other species of Taenia by the shape of its large rostellar hooks, particularly the characteristically short, wide and strongly curved blade. If the large rostellar hooks are missing, Taenia lynciscapreoli may be separated from related species by a combination of morphological features of mature proglottids. It is suggested that Taenia lynciscapreoli has been present in published materials concerning the tapeworms of Lynx lynx and Lynx pardinus in Europe, but has been misidentified as Taenia pisiformis (Bloch, 1780). Taenia lynciscapreoli sp. n. has not been found in lynx outside the range of roe deer, suggesting a transmission pathway based on a specific predator-prey relationship. The present study applies a novel, simple approach to compare qualitative interspecific differences in the shape of rostellar hooks.

  10. 猞猁和豹猫肝脏结构的观察比较及AQP -8在肝脏中的表达%On Liver Structure and Expression of AQP - 8 in Felis lynx and Prionailurus bengalensis liver

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王昱

    2015-01-01

    The liver structure of Felis lynx and Prionailurus bengalensis was compared with light microscope and expression of aquaporin - 8(AQP - 8)was measured by immunohistochemistry. The results show that the basic structure of the livers of Felis lynx and Prionailurus bengalensis was similar with the basic structure of most mammalian livers. The outer layer of the liver was a connective tissue capsule. The hepatic lobules were unclear. The hepatic cords,hepatic sinusoids and space of Disse arranged radially around a central vein and formed an ex-tensive spongework. The hepatic cords were comprised one row of hepatocytes. Interlobular artery,interlobular vein and interlobular bile duct in portal area were observed easily. The hepatic lobules of Prionailurus bengalensis were more regular than those of Felis lynx,but the diameter of hepatocytes of Prionailurus bengalensis was smaller than that of Felis lynx. The adjacent hepatocytes in the hepatic cords of Felis lynx were loose,the hepatic sinu-soids were very abundant. The expression of AQP - 8 in Felis lynx liver was stronger than that in Prionailurus ben-galensis liver. These indicate that the liver structure of Felis lynx and Prionailurus bengalensis and expression of AQP - 8 are adaptable to the life habit.%利用生物显微技术对猞猁(Felis lynx)和豹猫(Prionailurus bengalensis)肝脏进行了比较,应用免疫组织化学方法检测了水通道蛋白-8(AQP -8)在肝脏中的表达情况。结果显示,与多数哺乳类相似,猞猁和豹猫的肝脏外被覆一层结缔组织薄膜,肝小叶的界限不清楚,中央静脉周围放射状排列着肝板、肝血窦及狄氏间隙,单层排肝细胞构成肝板,在门管区可清晰观察到小叶间静脉、小叶间动脉和小叶间胆管豹猫肝小叶的肝细胞排列较猞猁的规则,但肝细胞的直径较猞猁的小。猞猁肝细胞间比较松散,肝血窦较豹猫的发达。猞猁肝脏 AQP -8的表达较豹猫的

  11. Inform@ed space

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjerrum, Peter; Olsen, Kasper Nefer

    2001-01-01

    Inform@ed space Sensorial Perception And Computer Enchancement - bidrag til Nordisk Arkitekturforskningsforenings IT-konference, AAA april 2001.......Inform@ed space Sensorial Perception And Computer Enchancement - bidrag til Nordisk Arkitekturforskningsforenings IT-konference, AAA april 2001....

  12. Information and Informality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsson, Magnus; Segerstéen, Solveig; Svensson, Cathrin

    2011-01-01

    leaders were thus seen to function on the level of the organization as a whole, and in cooperation with formal leaders. Drawing on existing theory of leadership in creative and professional contexts, this cooperation can be specified to concern task structuring. The informal leaders in our study......The article presents an empirical study of informal leadership in an international high-tech company. The empirical work consisted of qualitative observation and shadowing of managers in the company, and a total of 14 interviews. The transcribed fieldnotes and audio recordings of observations...... and interviews were analyzed thematically, resulting in three central themes: informality, information based authority, and information brokering. The general informal character of interactions at work included a network based information dissemination. In these networks, persons were percieved as informal...

  13. Responses of a top and a meso predator and their prey to moon phases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penteriani, Vincenzo; Kuparinen, Anna; del Mar Delgado, Maria; Palomares, Francisco; López-Bao, José Vicente; Fedriani, José María; Calzada, Javier; Moreno, Sacramento; Villafuerte, Rafael; Campioni, Letizia; Lourenço, Rui

    2013-11-01

    We compared movement patterns and rhythms of activity of a top predator, the Iberian lynx Lynx pardinus, a mesopredator, the red fox Vulpes vulpes, and their shared principal prey, the rabbit Oryctolagus cuniculus, in relation to moon phases. Because the three species are mostly nocturnal and crepuscular, we hypothesized that the shared prey would reduce its activity at most risky moon phases (i.e. during the brightest nights), but that fox, an intraguild prey of lynx, would avoid lynx activity peaks at the same time. Rabbits generally moved further from their core areas on darkest nights (i.e. new moon), using direct movements which minimize predation risk. Though rabbits responded to the increased predation risk by reducing their activity during the full moon, this response may require several days, and the moon effect we observed on the rabbits had, therefore, a temporal gap. Lynx activity patterns may be at least partially mirroring rabbit activity: around new moons, when rabbits moved furthest and were more active, lynxes reduced their travelling distances and their movements were concentrated in the core areas of their home ranges, which generally correspond to areas of high density of rabbits. Red foxes were more active during the darkest nights, when both the conditions for rabbit hunting were the best and lynxes moved less. On the one hand, foxes increased their activity when rabbits were further from their core areas and moved with more discrete displacements; on the other hand, fox activity in relation to the moon seemed to reduce dangerous encounters with its intraguild predator.

  14. Theorizing Information for Information Science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornelius, Ian

    2002-01-01

    Considers whether information science has a theory of information. Highlights include guides to information and its theory; constructivism; information outside information science; process theories; cognitive views of information; measuring information; meaning; and misinformation. (Contains 89 references.) (LRW)

  15. Oxygen isotope composition of North American bobcat (Lynx rufus) and puma (Puma concolor) bone phosphate: implications for provenance and climate reconstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pietsch, Stephanie J; Tütken, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    Feline carnivores are threatened by illegal wildlife trade. Tracing the provenance of unknown felid tissues via stable isotope analysis could provide important information in wildlife crime investigations. The oxygen isotope composition of mammalian skeletal phosphate (δ(18)Op) is widely applied to trace the origin of animal remains and to reconstruct migratory patterns in palaeontological, archaeological, ecological and wildlife forensic applications. Teeth and bones of terrestrial mammals form at constant body temperature in isotope equilibrium with body water, which is predominantly controlled by ingested meteoric water (δ(18)Ow) that varies systematically with latitude, altitude and climate. Here we analysed δ(18)Op of 106 North American puma and bobcat bones of known geographic origin to establish the first δ(18)Op-δ(18)Ow regression for feline carnivores: δ(18)Op = 0.40(±0.04) * δ(18)Ow + 20.10(±0.40) (R(2) = 0.46, n = 106). This was compared with those from their respective prey species (deer and rabbit), a canid carnivore (fox) and other placental mammals. Effects of species, sex and relative humidity on the feline δ(18)Op-δ(18)Ow correlation were analysed and additional intra-individual tissue comparisons (hair δ(18)Oh vs. bone δ(18)Op) were performed for some bobcat individuals. Bobcats and pumas exhibited only a moderate δ(18)Op-δ(18)Ow correlation, which differed from canid carnivores and other placental mammals. However, feline δ(18)Op values revealed a moderate relation with δ(18)Ow, which lacks for the δ(18)Oh of hair from the same bobcat individuals. This indicates a difference in oxygen isotope routing from body water to bioapatite and hair. Most herbivores and omnivores track δ(18)Ow in their bioapatite δ(18)Op values much better, whereas δ(18)Op and especially δ(18)Oh values of feline carnivores are less precise proxies for meteoric water δ(18)Ow values and thus for provenance determination in wildlife

  16. Information configuration?

    OpenAIRE

    Lauro Cesar Araujo; Mamede Lima-Marques

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: The term "configuration information" has emerged in the works of Information Architecture; however, there isn’t a conceptualization of “configuration” within Information Architecture. Objective: The objective is propose a definition for "configuration" and "information configuration" within the Information Architecture discipline, and indicate a teleological corpus from configuration management that can be used as paxis in Information Architecture. Methodolo...

  17. Information Crisis

    CERN Document Server

    Losavio, Michael

    2012-01-01

    Information Crisis discusses the scope and types of information available online and teaches readers how to critically assess it and analyze potentially dangerous information, especially when teachers, editors, or other information gatekeepers are not available to assess the information for them. Chapters and topics include:. The Internet as an information tool. Critical analysis. Legal issues, traps, and tricks. Protecting personal safety and identity. Types of online information.

  18. Information Forecasting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanneman, Gerhard J.

    Information forecasting provides a means of anticipating future message needs of a society or predicting the necessary types of information that will allow smooth social functioning. Periods of unrest and uncertainty in societies contribute to "societal information overload," whereby an abundance of information channels can create communication…

  19. Information Relations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viktor Ya.Tsvetkov

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The article organizes information relations. The article explores the implicative, quantitative, qualitative, logical and situational information relations. The article introduces the concept of implicative and situational relations. Article clarifies the definition of information relations. The article describes examples of information relations. The article shows the difference between the information field and information space. The article uses the concept of Aristotle "logical square" to explain the logic of information relations. This work combines scientific fields of linguistics, philosophy, logic, computer science, artificial intelligence.

  20. Social information

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Fernando de Barros Campos

    Full Text Available Based on Erving Goffman's work, the article aims to discuss a definition of information centered on the type conveyed by individuals in a multimodal way, encompassing language and body in situations of co-presence, where face-to-face interaction occurs, and influencing inter-subjective formation of the self. Six types of information are highlighted: material information, expressive information, ritualized information, meta-information, strategic information, and information displays. It is argued that the construction of this empirical object tends to dissolve the tension among material, cognitive and pragmatic aspects, constituting an example of the necessary integration among them. Some vulnerable characteristics of the theory are critically mentioned and it is suggested that the concept of information displays could provide a platform to approach the question of the interaction order in its relations with the institutional and social orders, and consequently, to reassess the scope of the notion of social information analyzed.

  1. Information Sciences: Information Centers and Special Libraries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    BIBLIOGRAPHIES, *LIBRARIES, *TECHNICAL INFORMATION CENTERS, DATA PROCESSING, AUTOMATION, INFORMATION SYSTEMS, DOCUMENTS, INFORMATION CENTERS, INFORMATION RETRIEVAL, SUBJECT INDEXING, INFORMATION SCIENCES .

  2. Caratterizzazione di presunte predazioni di lince (Lynx lynx in Friuli Venezia Giulia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonella Stravisi

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available Dal 1998 al giugno del 2003 sono state registrate in Friuli Venezia Giulia 38 predazioni attribuibili alla lince. Nel presente studio sono stati considerati solamente 23 casi, a carico di capriolo, cervo e capra attribuibili alla lince con un grado di sicurezza Q2 (segni indiretti rilevati da personale qualificato formato attraverso corsi specifici. Il capriolo è la specie più frequentemente predata (78% dei casi considerati e 90% di quelli su specie selvatiche. Il 94% dei caprioli predati sono femmine, da 1 a 4 anni. L?altitudine dei siti di predazione varia tra i 110 (Carso ed i 1320 m s.l.m. (Alpi Giulie in funzione della stagione (media=814, mentre l?altitudine media del totale delle segnalazioni (n=66 è stata di 827 m (min=105 m s.l.m., max=2000 m s.l.m.. Dalla valutazione necroscopica di 20 carcasse (15 caprioli, 2 cervi e 3 capre è risultato che gli animali vengono attaccati con morsi localizzati alla parte facciale della testa (regioni masseterina e temporo-mandibolare e alle regioni laterali e ventrali nella porzione craniale del collo. I morsi appaiono non laceranti, a margini netti e i fori dei canini di diametro 5 mm e distanza 25-30 mm. Per la valutazione del consumo della carcassa sono stati esclusi gli animali che non presentavano alcun consumo o con evidenti segni di alimentazione da parte di necrofagi e quelli ritrovati dopo più di 24 ore dal momento della morte. Il consumo medio è pari a 3.2 kg (n=11; d.s.=1,1 kg, corrispondenti al 15% dell'animale (d.s.=5%. È interessata prevalentemente la muscolatura degli arti posteriori (regione glutea e della coscia, consumata nel 100% dei casi e in media per il 36% (d.s.= 13% delle quote muscolari disponibili. La muscolatura della regione spalla-braccio e quella della parte facciale della testa (mm. massetere e, solo parzialmente, pterigoideo e digastrico sono consumate rispettivamente nel 18% (media consumo 23%, d.s.=11% e nel 27% dei casi (media consumo 43%, d.s.=12%. Per quanto riguarda i visceri, alcuni organi pelvici (apparato genitale femminile e retto sono consumati nel 18% dei casi, gli organi addominali e toracici non sono mai interessati. Raramente (9% dei casi vengono consumati alcuni organi cefalici (es. lingua ed esofago. Nel caso di predazioni attribuibili ad individui subadulti si osserva un frequente consumo di alcuni organi pelvici tra cui in particolare il retto e l?apparato riproduttore femminile. Eventuali feti e annessi fetali presenti non sono mai interessati. Il consumo della muscolatura cefalica e quello dei visceri pelvici sono correlati positivamente (r=0,85, emergono inoltre relazioni negative tra il consumo totale della regione glutea e della coscia e quello delle altre regioni anatomiche. I dati, in particolare quelli riferiti alla modalità e quantità del consumo carneo nelle prime 24 ore, appaiono coerenti con quelli riportati in bibliografia e ottenuti da studi di telemetria: 3,2-3,4 kg per notte (± 1,7 kg in funzione del sesso.

  3. LYNX: A Linked Eulerian and Lagrangian Code. Volume II. LYNX Computer Listing

    Science.gov (United States)

    1975-11-01

    KMI-X0H(J,KM)«OLTH-XiJ*l .KZ) YM»YPlJtKH!»DVI J,KH|- TDH ( j|KM)»CLTM-r ( J*l . X Z > TXX4-TAXCJ*liKZ) TYY1-TYYIJ*l»*L) TXY4-TAY1J*liKZ) IF...VCUCÜT WC X XON XMSS XPLRHX T TDH YPLRUN TVINT | 00101 00103 S 00107 00126 00132 00133 00134 00135 00136 00137 00140 00141...White Sands Missile Range New Mexico 88002 President US Army Infantry Board Fort Benning, GA 31905 1 HQDA (DAMA, LTC Shelton) Washington, DC 20310

  4. Information cultures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to suggest a genealogy of the concept of information beyond the 20th century. The article discusses how the concept of information culture might provide a way of formulating such a genealogic strategy. The article approaches this purpose by providing a general...... narrative of premodern information cultures, examining works on early-modern scholars and 18th century savants and discussion of what seems to be a Foucauldian rupture in the conceptualization of information in 19th century England. The findings of the article are situated in the thinking that a genealogy...... of information would reveal that information had specific purposes in specific settings....

  5. Information Concepts

    CERN Document Server

    Marchionini, Gary

    2010-01-01

    Information is essential to all human activity, and information in electronic form both amplifies and augments human information interactions. This lecture surveys some of the different classical meanings of information, focuses on the ways that electronic technologies are affecting how we think about these senses of information, and introduces an emerging sense of information that has implications for how we work, play, and interact with others. The evolutions of computers and electronic networks and people's uses and adaptations of these tools manifesting a dynamic space called cyberspace. O

  6. Information Literacy

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ian

    Whereas learning to be information literate implies an end to a process, information .... According to Christenbury (1989), cultural literacy refers to a familiarity with the ..... number of doctoral level IL studies that have been done in Brazil, Mexico ...

  7. Information Integrity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graves, Eric

    2013-01-01

    This dissertation introduces the concept of Information Integrity, which is the detection and possible correction of information manipulation by any intermediary node in a communication system. As networks continue to grow in complexity, information theoretic security has failed to keep pace. As a result many parties whom want to communicate,…

  8. Information Integrity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graves, Eric

    2013-01-01

    This dissertation introduces the concept of Information Integrity, which is the detection and possible correction of information manipulation by any intermediary node in a communication system. As networks continue to grow in complexity, information theoretic security has failed to keep pace. As a result many parties whom want to communicate,…

  9. Informal Taxation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olken, Benjamin A; Singhal, Monica

    2011-10-01

    Informal payments are a frequently overlooked source of local public finance in developing countries. We use microdata from ten countries to establish stylized facts on the magnitude, form, and distributional implications of this "informal taxation." Informal taxation is widespread, particularly in rural areas, with substantial in-kind labor payments. The wealthy pay more, but pay less in percentage terms, and informal taxes are more regressive than formal taxes. Failing to include informal taxation underestimates household tax burdens and revenue decentralization in developing countries. We discuss various explanations for and implications of these observed stylized facts.

  10. Information Presentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holden, Kritina L.; Thompson, Shelby G.; Sandor, Aniko; McCann, Robert S.; Kaiser, Mary K.; Adelstein, Barnard D.; Begault, Durand R.; Beutter, Brent R.; Stone, Leland S.; Godfroy, Martine

    2009-01-01

    The goal of the Information Presentation Directed Research Project (DRP) is to address design questions related to the presentation of information to the crew. In addition to addressing display design issues associated with information formatting, style, layout, and interaction, the Information Presentation DRP is also working toward understanding the effects of extreme environments encountered in space travel on information processing. Work is also in progress to refine human factors-based design tools, such as human performance modeling, that will supplement traditional design techniques and help ensure that optimal information design is accomplished in the most cost-efficient manner. The major areas of work, or subtasks, within the Information Presentation DRP for FY10 are: 1) Displays, 2) Controls, 3) Procedures and Fault Management, and 4) Human Performance Modeling. The poster will highlight completed and planned work for each subtask.

  11. Information Width

    CERN Document Server

    Ratsaby, Joel

    2008-01-01

    Kolmogorov argued that the concept of information exists also in problems with no underlying stochastic model (as Shannon's information representation) for instance, the information contained in an algorithm or in the genome. He introduced a combinatorial notion of entropy and information $I(x:\\sy)$ conveyed by a binary string $x$ about the unknown value of a variable $\\sy$. The current paper poses the following questions: what is the relationship between the information conveyed by $x$ about $\\sy$ to the description complexity of $x$ ? is there a notion of cost of information ? are there limits on how efficient $x$ conveys information ? To answer these questions Kolmogorov's definition is extended and a new concept termed {\\em information width} which is similar to $n$-widths in approximation theory is introduced. Information of any input source, e.g., sample-based, general side-information or a hybrid of both can be evaluated by a single common formula. An application to the space of binary functions is con...

  12. Information Distance

    CERN Document Server

    Bennett, Charles H; Li, Ming; Vitanyi, Paul M B; Zurek, Wojciech H

    2010-01-01

    While Kolmogorov complexity is the accepted absolute measure of information content in an individual finite object, a similarly absolute notion is needed for the information distance between two individual objects, for example, two pictures. We give several natural definitions of a universal information metric, based on length of shortest programs for either ordinary computations or reversible (dissipationless) computations. It turns out that these definitions are equivalent up to an additive logarithmic term. We show that the information distance is a universal cognitive similarity distance. We investigate the maximal correlation of the shortest programs involved, the maximal uncorrelation of programs (a generalization of the Slepian-Wolf theorem of classical information theory), and the density properties of the discrete metric spaces induced by the information distances. A related distance measures the amount of nonreversibility of a computation. Using the physical theory of reversible computation, we give...

  13. Information Managerx

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    Communication technologies (ICTs) to Library Operations and Routines in Selected Nigerian Federal University. Libraries. Survey ... expectations from any information providing system .... and Classification Unit, Customer Services Division.

  14. Informality revisited

    OpenAIRE

    Maloney, William

    2003-01-01

    The author develops a view of the informal sector in developing countries primarily as an unregulated micro-entrepreneurial sector and not as a disadvantaged residual of segmented labor markets. Drawing on recent work from Latin America, he offers alternative explanations for many of the characteristics of the informal sector customarily regarded as evidence of its inferiority.

  15. Information War

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-01-01

    Expertise typically involves combining information with heuristic rules, rare facts, metaknowledge and metacognition , and compiled forms of behavior...aids, or upon any single source of information, lest he be completely disabled by their failure at a critical moment. 34 CHAPTER IX SOME IMPLICATIONS... intellectual effort. communications intelligence (COMINT) and its counterpart, communications security (COMSEC). Successes in these fields only suggest

  16. Information extraction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhang, Lei; Hoede, C.

    2002-01-01

    In this paper we present a new approach to extract relevant information by knowledge graphs from natural language text. We give a multiple level model based on knowledge graphs for describing template information, and investigate the concept of partial structural parsing. Moreover, we point out that

  17. Information evaluation

    CERN Document Server

    Capet, Philippe

    2014-01-01

    During the reception of a piece of information, we are never passive. Depending on its origin and content, from our personal beliefs and convictions, we bestow upon this piece of information, spontaneously or after reflection, a certain amount of confidence. Too much confidence shows a degree of naivety, whereas an absolute lack of it condemns us as being paranoid. These two attitudes are symmetrically detrimental, not only to the proper perception of this information but also to its use. Beyond these two extremes, each person generally adopts an intermediate position when faced with the recep

  18. Subscription information

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    ISSN print edition: 1672-1799 ISSN electronic edition: 1862-2844 Volume 51 (12 issues) will appear in 2008 Subscription rates For information on subscription rates please contact: Customer Service China: sales@scichina.org North

  19. Subscription information

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    ISSN print edition: 1006-9321 ISSN electronic edition: 1862-281X Volume 51 (12 issues) will appear in 2008 Subscription rates For information on subscription rates please contact: Customer Service China

  20. Position Information

    Data.gov (United States)

    Social Security Administration — The Position Information Data Asset provides the ability to search for active SSA position descriptions using various search criteria. An individual may search by PD...

  1. Supporting Information

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This is the supporting information for the journal article. This dataset is associated with the following publication: Rankin, K., S. Mabury, T. Jenkins, and J....

  2. INFORMATION MANAGERx

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    This study assessed the virtual library of distance learning education programme of the National Teachers Institute. Kaduna. .... (1991) argues that the action of information seeking depends on ..... seeking behavior of library users: Results from.

  3. INFORMATION MANAGERx

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    This study investigates the use of on-line information sources in Federal Universities' Medical Libraries in North. West Geo-Political ... advances and resolve to embed ICT, therefore medical ..... Among Teaching Staff of Schools of Nursing in.

  4. AIRLINE INFORMATION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Cathay Pacific Airways Launches New Mobile Service Cathay Pacific Airways has recently launched a new mobile service that offers pas-sengers more convenience and better mobility by connecting them to useful travel information through their mobile devices.

  5. Supplemental information

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Supplemental information showing results of inter-comparison between C-PORT, AERMOD and R-LINE dispersion algorithms. This dataset is associated with the following...

  6. UBS INFORMATION

    CERN Document Server

    UBS

    2002-01-01

    As a supplement to the information published on 27.05.2002, we inform you that the works foreseen in the building 504 will begin July 1st. The alterations become necessary force us to suspend the contomat service for a duration of one month. From July 1st the services of counter will be offered in the building 500. We ask you to excuse us for this interruption and thank you for your understanding. Your UBS

  7. Information engineering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hunt, D.N.

    1997-02-01

    The Information Engineering thrust area develops information technology to support the programmatic needs of Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory`s Engineering Directorate. Progress in five programmatic areas are described in separate reports contained herein. These are entitled Three-dimensional Object Creation, Manipulation, and Transport, Zephyr:A Secure Internet-Based Process to Streamline Engineering Procurements, Subcarrier Multiplexing: Optical Network Demonstrations, Parallel Optical Interconnect Technology Demonstration, and Intelligent Automation Architecture.

  8. Information Presentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holden, K.L.; Boyer, J.L.; Sandor, A.; Thompson, S.G.; McCann, R.S.; Begault, D.R.; Adelstein, B.D.; Beutter, B.R.; Stone, L.S.

    2009-01-01

    The goal of the Information Presentation Directed Research Project (DRP) is to address design questions related to the presentation of information to the crew. The major areas of work, or subtasks, within this DRP are: 1) Displays, 2) Controls, 3) Electronic Procedures and Fault Management, and 4) Human Performance Modeling. This DRP is a collaborative effort between researchers at Johnson Space Center and Ames Research Center.

  9. Information Literacy

    OpenAIRE

    Silva Novljan

    2015-01-01

    Information literacy is a concept which is well established in theory while in practice it is only slowly breaking ground in accordance with the understanding of its significance and the possibilities of its realisation. Based on fundamental works, the characteristics of information literacy, its cognitive foundations and significance for individuals as well as for society, are argumented in the article. The analyzed content of this concept is connected with the content of a librarian’s knowl...

  10. Informal Innovation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hartmann, Mia Rosa Koss; Hartmann, Rasmus Koss

    Informal innovation, defined as the development and putting-into-use of novel solutions by non-R&D employees without prior formal approval from or subsequent revealing to superiors, has been recurrently observed in organizational research. But even as it is increasingly recognized that R&D is not......Informal innovation, defined as the development and putting-into-use of novel solutions by non-R&D employees without prior formal approval from or subsequent revealing to superiors, has been recurrently observed in organizational research. But even as it is increasingly recognized that R......&D is not the only plausible source of innovation inside organizations, informal innovation has yet to be systematically explored or theorized. We propose a theory of informal innovation based on analyses of prior literature and mixed-method, multi-site studies of innovation at the working level of two extreme......-case organizations. We propose that informal innovation occurs as 1) employees personally experience problems that they believe are not recognized or prioritized by superiors; 2) some employees are able to develop solutions, essentially at no cost; 3) innovators face no benefits from revealing to superiors, but can...

  11. Informal Innovation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hartmann, Mia Rosa Koss; Hartmann, Rasmus Koss

    Informal innovation, defined as the development and putting-into-use of novel solutions by non-R&D employees without prior formal approval from or subsequent revealing to superiors, has been recurrently observed in organizational research. But even as it is increasingly recognized that R&D is not......Informal innovation, defined as the development and putting-into-use of novel solutions by non-R&D employees without prior formal approval from or subsequent revealing to superiors, has been recurrently observed in organizational research. But even as it is increasingly recognized that R......&D is not the only plausible source of innovation inside organizations, informal innovation has yet to be systematically explored or theorized. We propose a theory of informal innovation based on analyses of prior literature and mixed-method, multi-site studies of innovation at the working level of two extreme......-case organizations. We propose that informal innovation occurs as 1) employees personally experience problems that they believe are not recognized or prioritized by superiors; 2) some employees are able to develop solutions, essentially at no cost; 3) innovators face no benefits from revealing to superiors, but can...

  12. Information Ecology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Ellen Tove

    2006-01-01

    in the 1960ties, and chosen here because it integrates cultural and psychological trajectories in a theory of living settings. The pedagogical-didactical paradigm comprises three distinct information ecologies, named after their intended outcome: the problem-setting, the exploration-setting, and the fit......The paper describes a pedagogical didactical paradigm for teaching student-designers how to deal with context issues. Form/context-relationships are conceptualized as information ecologies and described as behavioral settings using a key concept developed by social psychologist R.A. Baker......-setting. It is specified how context issues can be treated within each of these information ecologies. The paper concludes by discussing the outcome of applying this paradigm with respect to the student-designers’ competence as reflective practitioners....

  13. [Informed consent].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medina Castellano, Carmen Delia

    2009-10-01

    At present times, numerous complaints claiming defects produced at some point in the process of obtaining informed consent are filed in courts of justice; in these complaints there is an underlying comment element which is the roles that health professionals have in these processes. In obtaining this consent, one can see this more as a means to obtain judicial protection for professional practices rather than this process being a respectful exercise for the dignity and freedom which health service patients have. This article reflects on two basic rights related to informed consent: adequately obtaining this consent and the need to protect those people who lack, either partially or totally, the capacity to make this decision by themselves. Afterwards, the author makes some considerations about the necessity to obtain informed consent for nursing practices and treatment.

  14. Viral information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rohwer, Forest; Barott, Katie

    2013-03-01

    Viruses are major drivers of global biogeochemistry and the etiological agents of many diseases. They are also the winners in the game of life: there are more viruses on the planet than cellular organisms and they encode most of the genetic diversity on the planet. In fact, it is reasonable to view life as a viral incubator. Nevertheless, most ecological and evolutionary theories were developed, and continue to be developed, without considering the virosphere. This means these theories need to be to reinterpreted in light of viral knowledge or we need to develop new theory from the viral point-of-view. Here we briefly introduce our viral planet and then address a major outstanding question in biology: why is most of life viral? A key insight is that during an infection cycle the original virus is completely broken down and only the associated information is passed on to the next generation. This is different for cellular organisms, which must pass on some physical part of themselves from generation to generation. Based on this premise, it is proposed that the thermodynamic consequences of physical information (e.g., Landauer's principle) are observed in natural viral populations. This link between physical and genetic information is then used to develop the Viral Information Hypothesis, which states that genetic information replicates itself to the detriment of system energy efficiency (i.e., is viral in nature). Finally, we show how viral information can be tested, and illustrate how this novel view can explain existing ecological and evolutionary theories from more fundamental principles.

  15. Subscription information

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    ISSN print edition:1006-9283 ISSN electronic edition:1862-2763 Volume 50(12 issues)will appear in 2007 Subscription rates For information on subscription rates please contact: Customer Service Chine:sales@ scichina.org North and South America: journals-ny @ springer.com Outside North and South America: subscriptions@springer.com Orders and inquiries:

  16. Informational precaution

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pieters, Wolter; Mainzer, K.

    2010-01-01

    In environmental ethics, the precautionary principle states that parties should refrain from actions in the face of scientific uncertainties about serious or irreversible harm to public health or the environment. A similar principle is lacking when judging effects of information technology. Such a p

  17. GEOSPATIAL INFORMATION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    This paper aimed the problems of limited performance of servers and network in traditional C/S mode, analyzed the characteristic and combination between P2P and KML geospatial information services, and designed new cooperated architecture. The test from practical application in digital city project approved the model can improve date transmission,

  18. JOB INFORMATION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Training Information: TEFL in China Certificate Training Program, with job placement This intensive training program will prepare you as a native speaker of English to be qualified to teach oral English in China, even without previous teaching experience. Dates, venues and fees: Tuition:4,000 yuan

  19. Information Security

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hartel, Pieter; Suryana Herman, Nanna; Leukfeldt, E.R.; Stol, W.Ph.

    2012-01-01

    Information security is all about the protection of digital assets, such as digital content, personal health records, state secrets etc. These assets can be handled by a party who is authorised to access and control the asset or a party who is not authorised to do so. Authorisation determines who is

  20. Information Ecology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Ellen Tove

    2006-01-01

    The paper describes a pedagogical didactical paradigm for teaching student-designers how to deal with context issues. Form/context-relationships are conceptualized as information ecologies and described as behavioral settings using a key concept developed by social psychologist R.A. Baker...

  1. Information week...

    CERN Multimedia

    Staff Association

    2007-01-01

    Here we are at the end of a series of public information meetings held in the Departments. We thank all those who came to find out about the subjects presented and to exchange ideas and opinions. All the positive feedback we have received shows how much you appreciate these meetings. And well, so do we!

  2. Information Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-01-01

    infrastructure protection ( CIIP ), interoperability, spectrum shortages, and a lack of R&D funding. Additionally, the US government must consider...Challenge: Critical Information Infrastructure Protection ( CIIP ) Issue: The US relies on various infrastructures (transportation, energy...significant progress that can only be made when industry, government and other security experts work together.83 Recommendations: CIIP should be a high

  3. Information Managerx

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    1996-10-01

    Oct 1, 1996 ... major functions of parliament, namely representation, ... settled in nucleus urban patterns, well linked by a ... working, upright, studious and very articulate. ... discussion about the affairs and problems affecting ... concepts programmes and projects (UNDP, 2006). ... information centre and other sources for.

  4. Informational precaution

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pieters, Wolter; Mainzer, K.

    2010-01-01

    In environmental ethics, the precautionary principle states that parties should refrain from actions in the face of scientific uncertainties about serious or irreversible harm to public health or the environment. A similar principle is lacking when judging effects of information technology. Such a p

  5. Yesterday's Information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKay, Martin D.; Stout, J. David

    1999-01-01

    Discusses access to Internet resources in school libraries, including the importance of evaluating content and appropriate use. The following online services that provide current factual information from legitimate resources are described: SIRS (Social Issues Resource Series), InfoTrac, EBSCO Host, SearchBank, and the Electric Library. (MES)

  6. Yesterday's Information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKay, Martin D.; Stout, J. David

    1999-01-01

    Discusses access to Internet resources in school libraries, including the importance of evaluating content and appropriate use. The following online services that provide current factual information from legitimate resources are described: SIRS (Social Issues Resource Series), InfoTrac, EBSCO Host, SearchBank, and the Electric Library. (MES)

  7. Informational precaution

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pieters, Wolter; Mainzer, K.

    2010-01-01

    In environmental ethics, the precautionary principle states that parties should refrain from actions in the face of scientific uncertainties about serious or irreversible harm to public health or the environment. A similar principle is lacking when judging effects of information technology. Such a

  8. Information Security

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hartel, Pieter H.; Suryana Herman, Nanna; Leukfeldt, E.R.; Stol, W.Ph.

    2012-01-01

    Information security is all about the protection of digital assets, such as digital content, personal health records, state secrets etc. These assets can be handled by a party who is authorised to access and control the asset or a party who is not authorised to do so. Authorisation determines who is

  9. Information, please... ?

    CERN Document Server

    Ginsparg, Paul H

    2004-01-01

    Stephen Hawking's recent concession that black holes do not irretrievably eradicate information after all has garnered much attention. It is refreshing to see the public focused, if just for a moment, on an important conundrum that has fascinated theoretical physicists for three decades, and prompted much conceptual progress. The scientific issues, however, remain much less settled than Dr. Hawking's celebrated wager on the question.

  10. INFORMATION MANAGERx

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    ESSENTIAL COMPETENCIES FOR EFFECTIVE INFORMATION SERVICE DELIVERY IN ... The new innovation in university library processes has brought a lot of changes on the roles and expectations of the .... schools and those required by the labour market. This ... Creating online instructional materials/products; How.

  11. Information geometry

    CERN Document Server

    Ay, Nihat; Lê, Hông Vân; Schwachhöfer, Lorenz

    2017-01-01

    The book provides a comprehensive introduction and a novel mathematical foundation of the field of information geometry with complete proofs and detailed background material on measure theory, Riemannian geometry and Banach space theory. Parametrised measure models are defined as fundamental geometric objects, which can be both finite or infinite dimensional. Based on these models, canonical tensor fields are introduced and further studied, including the Fisher metric and the Amari-Chentsov tensor, and embeddings of statistical manifolds are investigated. This novel foundation then leads to application highlights, such as generalizations and extensions of the classical uniqueness result of Chentsov or the Cramér-Rao inequality. Additionally, several new application fields of information geometry are highlighted, for instance hierarchical and graphical models, complexity theory, population genetics, or Markov Chain Monte Carlo. The book will be of interest to mathematicians who are interested in geometry, inf...

  12. Rehabilitating Information

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gary Fuhrman

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available In an early paper on logic, C.S. Peirce defined a concept of ‘information’ very different from the later conceptions which gave rise to ‘information science’, and indirectly to current problems such as an overload of ‘useless information’. A study of further developments in Peircean semiotics, and in related conceptual frameworks including the cybernetics of Bateson and the cybersemiotics of Brier, reveals deep relations between Peirce's concept of information and the irreducibly triadic nature of signs. Since all sciences, indeed all cognition and communication, are semiotic processes, the core semiotic principle implicit in the Peircean concept may clarify how our uses of language and other symbolic media can actually inform–and thus transform–the way we humans inhabit the biosphere.

  13. GEOSPATIAL INFORMATION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    Research on Lightning Monitoring System Based on the Geo-spatial Combined with the contemporary application of lightning monitoring, this paper aimed to analyze the structure, working principle, and functions of the Lightning Monitoring System based on the geo-spatial framework, which merged modern surveying and mapping of geographic information technologies, and also present the more ac- curate and more in-depth research about lightning disasters.

  14. JOB INFORMATION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    1. Questionnaire By Beijing Review and Chinajob.com Thanks for your close attention to our column. We very much appreciate your feedback, on which we depend to offer you the information you need and make this page valuable reading! 1. What are your usual channels for seeking jobs in China? 2. Do you prefer a full-time job or part-time job? 3. What is your preferred job: language teacher, professional in a company or manager?

  15. HOTEL INFORMATION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Capital Hotel Mid-Autumn Festival is a time for reunion with family and loved ones. Treat them to a special gift-Capital Hotel moon cakes. This year we present six types of moon cakes, including both traditional favorites and new specialties. Tasty delicacies in fine gift packing, Capital Hotel moon cakes are also an ideal choice for your business associates. For more information or orders, please contact us at 86-10-58159988 ext. 3401/3240.

  16. Information Engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-01-01

    34 continuously over time " through a division of labor and responsibility " integrated by INFORMATION-BASED decision process * in an environment of stress...responsibilities for learning in a particular field. This division of labor is especially true for staff members who must develop expertise in particular...likely founa a commano clima e with: - Multiple layering - Sub optimization Policy of no surprises - Lip service to feedback - Over centralization and non

  17. JOB INFORMATION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    See more at www.chinajob.com The following employers are currently looking to fill positions: 1.Beijing Commercial Information and Consultation Center Contact: Wang Yueyi Phone: 010-62073667 / 010-82012420-672 Web Site: www.bcinet.com.cn E-mail: wangyueyi@bcicc.com 2. Jinan Foreign Language School Contact: Shi Fenghong Phone: 0531-82623006 Web Site: www.jnfls.com E-mail: shhong668@yahoo.com.cn 3. Center for Overseas Academic and Cultural Exchanges,

  18. Medizinbibliotheken: Information

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bauer, Bruno

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available [english] The focus of the current issue 3/2014 of GMS Medizin – Bibliothek – Information is the annual conference 2014 of the German Medical Libraries Association in Mannheim. The motto of the conference was “Medical libraries: Information”. The authors in this issue are Michaele Adam (Bibliometrics 2.0 – Altmetrics in Medicine, Bruno Bauer (Open access cooperation in Austria: Open Access Network Austria and Austria – recent developments since 2012, Fabian Gail & Ulrich Korwitz (Market and strategy – results of the ZB MED market study, Sabine Gehrlein (Library goes Anatomy: Anatomical teaching media at Heidelberg University Library, Kaja Scheliga (Opening science: New publication forms in science, Ulrike Ostrzinski (The four types of social media user in the academic and research community. Results of a nationwide study, Sandra Pfob & Alena Ittner (First aid for library use on PC: webinars increase library visits, reach everyone, save costs, Simone Waldboth (Integration of e-learning in the lecture “Information Literacy” at the Provincial College for Health-Care Professions Claudiana, Maike Piegler (The pick up box of the library of the Hamburg medical association – a way to bring scientific information to medical specialists and Christoph Wehrmüller & Heidrun Janka (Medical : Information – Annual meeting 2014 of the German MLA, September 22 to 24 in Mannheim.Furthermore this focus issue features articles from Bruno Bauer (: transformation strategies for subscription-based journaleport on the 8 Open Access Days at Cologne, September 8–9 2014, Eike Hentschel (German MLA News; Pioneer projects in medical libraries 2014: Introduction of the winners; Pioneer projects in medical libraries 2015 – Announcement and Franz J. Kühnen (Klaus Gerber 1934–2014.

  19. HOTEL INFORMATION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Grand Hyatt Beijing Share irresistible moon cakes under the full moon of mid-autumn with friends and family. This year, savor traditional moon cakes prepared with the finest quality. Golden Moon Cake Hamper at 238 yuan consists of eight pieces made of red or white lotus paste, green tea and red been paste. Opening Hours: 7:00 a.m.-9:00 p.m. For more information, please call 010-85181234 ext. 6362

  20. JOB INFORMATION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Training Information: TEFL in China Certificate Training Program, with job placement This intensive training program will prepare you as a native speaker of English to be qualified to teach oral English in China, even without previous teaching experience. Dates, location and fees: Tuition: 4,000 yuan Date: August 12-19 Venue: Friendship Hotel, 1 Zhongguancun Nanjie Street, Beijing Date: August 20-27 Venue: Friendship Hotel, 1 Zhongguancun Nanjie Street, Beijing Date: August 20-27 Venue: Zhongshan City, G...

  1. JOB INFORMATION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Training Information: TEFL in China Certificate Training Program, with joh placement This intensive training program will prepare you as a native speaker of English to be qualified to teach oral English in China, even without previous teaching experience. Dates, venues and fees: Tuition: 4,000 yuan Date: August 12-19 Venue: Friendship Hotel,1 Zhongguancun Nanjie Street, Beijing Date: August 20-27 Venue: Friendship Hotel, 1 Zhongguancun Nanjie Street, Beijing Date: August 20-27 Venue: Zhongshan City, Guan...

  2. JOB INFORMATION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Training Information: TEFL in China Certificate Training Program, with job placement This intensive training program will prepare you as a native speaker of English to be qualified to teach oral English in China, even without previous teaching experience. Dates, venues and tuition: Tuition: 4,000 yuan Date: August 12-19 Venue: Friendship Hotel, 1 Zhongguancun Nanjie Street, Beijing Date: August 20-27 Venue: Friendship Hotel, 1 Zhongguancun Nanjie Street, Beijing

  3. Information services and information processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    1975-01-01

    Attempts made to design and extend space system capabilities are reported. Special attention was given to establishing user needs for information or services which might be provided by space systems. Data given do not attempt to detail scientific, technical, or economic bases for the needs expressed by the users.

  4. Protecting Information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loepp, Susan; Wootters, William K.

    2006-09-01

    For many everyday transmissions, it is essential to protect digital information from noise or eavesdropping. This undergraduate introduction to error correction and cryptography is unique in devoting several chapters to quantum cryptography and quantum computing, thus providing a context in which ideas from mathematics and physics meet. By covering such topics as Shor's quantum factoring algorithm, this text informs the reader about current thinking in quantum information theory and encourages an appreciation of the connections between mathematics and science.Of particular interest are the potential impacts of quantum physics:(i) a quantum computer, if built, could crack our currently used public-key cryptosystems; and (ii) quantum cryptography promises to provide an alternative to these cryptosystems, basing its security on the laws of nature rather than on computational complexity. No prior knowledge of quantum mechanics is assumed, but students should have a basic knowledge of complex numbers, vectors, and matrices. Accessible to readers familiar with matrix algebra, vector spaces and complex numbers First undergraduate text to cover cryptography, error-correction, and quantum computation together Features exercises designed to enhance understanding, including a number of computational problems, available from www.cambridge.org/9780521534765

  5. Informal learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callanan, Maureen; Cervantes, Christi; Loomis, Molly

    2011-11-01

    We consider research and theory relevant to the notion of informal learning. Beginning with historical and definitional issues, we argue that learning happens not just in schools or in school-aged children. Many theorists have contrasted informal learning with formal learning. Moving beyond this dichotomy, and away from a focus on where learning occurs, we discuss five dimensions of informal learning that are drawn from the literature: (1) non-didactive, (2) highly socially collaborative, (3) embedded in meaningful activity, (4) initiated by learner's interest or choice, and (5) removed from external assessment. We consider these dimensions in the context of four sample domains: learning a first language, learning about the mind and emotions within families and communities, learning about science in family conversations and museum settings, and workplace learning. Finally, we conclude by considering convergences and divergences across the different literatures and suggesting areas for future research. WIREs Cogni Sci 2011 2 646-655 DOI: 10.1002/wcs.143 For further resources related to this article, please visit the WIREs website.

  6. Information Security

    OpenAIRE

    Hartel, Pieter; Suryana Herman, Nanna; Leukfeldt, E.R.; Stol, W. Ph.

    2005-01-01

    Information security is all about the protection of digital assets, such as digital content, personal health records, state secrets etc. These assets can be handled by a party who is authorised to access and control the asset or a party who is not authorised to do so. Authorisation determines who is trusted to actually handle an asset. Two concepts complement authorisation. Authentication deter-mines who makes a request to handle an asset. To decide who is authorised, a system needs to au-the...

  7. JOB INFORMATION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    See more at www.chinajob.com Teaching Vacancies: Capital University of Economics & Business is looking for for eign teachers with teaching experience. Offer package: 4,000 yuan per month, free accommodation and airfare. For more information, please contact cuebwsb@ 263.net.cn and visit www.cueb.edu.cn Huijia Kindergarten Beijing is looking for kindergarten ESL teachers. Salary is 4,000-6,000 yuan per month. Contact: shin-ingcj1981 @ hotmail.com Website: www.hjkids.com

  8. Information Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Follen, Gregory J.; Naiman, Cynthia

    2003-01-01

    The objective of GRC CNIS/IE work is to build a plug-n-play infrastructure that provides the Grand Challenge Applications with a suite of tools for coupling codes together, numerical zooming between fidelity of codes and gaining deployment of these simulations onto the Information Power Grid. The GRC CNIS/IE work will streamline and improve this process by providing tighter integration of various tools through the use of object oriented design of component models and data objects and through the use of CORBA (Common Object Request Broker Architecture).

  9. JOB INFORMATION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Training Information: TEFL in China Certificate Training Program,with Job Placement This intensive training program will prepare you as a native speaker of English to be qualified to teach oral English in China, even without previous teaching experience. Dates,Iocation and fees: Tuition:4.000 yuan Date: August 12-19 Venue: Friendship Hotel, 1 Zhongguancun Nanjie Street,Beijing Date: August 20-27 Venue: Friendship Hotel, 1 Zhongguancun Nanjie Street, Beijing Date: Augast 20-27 Venue: Zhongshan City, Guang...

  10. Informed Consent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-Pierre CLÉRO

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Informed consent is one pillar of the nowadays’ medical relation; it is a main element of the Copernican revolution of the care ethics: where the doctor was at the centre of the system, the patient has now taken the place at the focus of the care’s process. The new deal with the doctor goes through the informed consent. The change is not always easily accepted. French people which just have a quiet revolution in endowing the patient with a large autonomy in the medical act – nevertheless speak of refus de soin (word for word: refusal of treatment when the patient wants his treatment to be stopped; whereas English-speaking people rightly draw a distinction between to waive and to refuse. There is no a slight difference between to waive and to refuse, between a waiver and a refusal even though a quick translation can take a word for another. A patient may decide to stop the treatment prescribed by the doctor, a treatment that he so far followed, without his waiver be a refusal. He is not necessarily somebody who is spoiling to a fight with the nursing staff. Even when they are Republican, the States are not at ease with the consent they try to restrain by all possible means. Caught between liberalism and republicanism, ethics seem, on the field of consent, prevented by the politics to take its autonomy.

  11. Quantum information

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodgers, P

    1998-03-01

    There is more to information than a string of ones and zeroes the ability of ''quantum bits'' to be in two states at the same time could revolutionize information technology. In the mid-1930s two influential but seemingly unrelated papers were published. In 1935 Einstein, Podolsky and Rosen proposed the famous EPR paradox that has come to symbolize the mysteries of quantum mechanics. Two years later, Alan Turing introduced the universal Turing machine in an enigmatically titled paper, On computable numbers, and laid the foundations of the computer industry one of the biggest industries in the world today. Although quantum physics is essential to understand the operation of transistors and other solid-state devices in computers, computation itself has remained a resolutely classical process. Indeed it seems only natural that computation and quantum theory should be kept as far apart as possible surely the uncertainty associated with quantum theory is anathema to the reliability expected from computers? Wrong. In 1985 David Deutsch introduced the universal quantum computer and showed that quantum theory can actually allow computers to do more rather than less. The ability of particles to be in a superposition of more than one quantum state naturally introduces a form of parallelism that can, in principle, perform some traditional computing tasks faster than is possible with classical computers. Moreover, quantum computers are capable of other tasks that are not conceivable with their classical counterparts. Similar breakthroughs in cryptography and communication followed. (author)

  12. Information management - Assessing the demand for information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, William H.

    1991-01-01

    Information demand is defined in terms of both information content (what information) and form (when, how, and where it is needed). Providing the information richness required for flight crews to be informed without overwhelming their information processing capabilities will require a great deal of automated intelligence. It is seen that the essence of this intelligence is comprehending and capturing the demand for information.

  13. Fourism Information

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Steam Locomotive Tour Tiefa Coal Industry Group Corp. Ltd. is headquartered in Tieling City, Liaoning Province. At present, the group has 21 steam locomotives and all of them can still be operated. Since 2000, the group has held four steam iocomotive-themed tourist festivals, and has built a special website for steam locomotive tours, an exhibition hall and several special tourist railways, becoming China and the world’s only tourist attraction with operational steam locomotives. In recent years, the tourist attraction has received tourist groups from dozens of countries, including Britain, the United States, France, Japan and Australia, and many domestic tourists, being honored with a "floating steam locomotive museum." Visit http://www.steam-locomotive.cn/ for more information.

  14. Information findability :

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stoecker, Nora Kathleen

    2014-03-01

    A Systems Analysis Group has existed at Sandia National Laboratories since at least the mid-1950s. Much of the groups work output (reports, briefing documents, and other materials) has been retained, along with large numbers of related documents. Over time the collection has grown to hundreds of thousands of unstructured documents in many formats contained in one or more of several different shared drives or SharePoint sites, with perhaps five percent of the collection still existing in print format. This presents a challenge. How can the group effectively find, manage, and build on information contained somewhere within such a large set of unstructured documents? In response, a project was initiated to identify tools that would be able to meet this challenge. This report documents the results found and recommendations made as of August 2013.

  15. For information

    CERN Multimedia

    2004-01-01

    UNIVERSITE DE GENEVE Ecole de physique Département de physique nucléaire et corspusculaire 24, Quai Ernest-Ansermet 1211 GENEVE 4 Tél : (022) 379 62 73 Fax: (022) 379 69 92 Mercredi 1er décembre SEMINAIRE DE PHYSIQUE CORPUSCULAIRE à 17:00 - École de Physique, Auditoire Stückelberg, 24, quai Ernest-Ansermet, 1211 Genève 4 Rare Kaon Decays : Opportunities at CERN Prof. Augusto Ceccucci / Experiment NA48, NA48/2, NA48/1 - CERN A review of the current experimental situation will be given with emphasis on recent results obtained at CERN. The speaker will argue that the availability of high energy kaon beams at CERN allows one to make incisive tests of the Standard Model. In particular the NA48 Collaboration has studied the possibility to measure the reaction K' ? ?+ ??- leading to a ~10% precision on the knowledge of the |Vtd| CKM parameter. Prospects to study of the CP-Violating ecays KL ? ?0 e+e-) ?+?- and KL ? ?0 ??- will also be briefly described. Information: http://dpnc.unige.ch/seminaire...

  16. Informal mentorship

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nataša Kermavnar

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Knowledge and understanding are two virtues which we can not be acquired and produced permanently because they are never completed. Learning is an assignment through life, it means we bring knowledge to ourselves and also life, but the emphasis is on one’s own impulse. Life constantly changes and forces us to adapt to changes and therefore the education only through formal ways to modern human is not enough anymore. We have access to useful knowledge which we approach through informal ways in different environments and circumstances. We learn from those close to us, at home, at work, and it is therefore correct to focus our thinking also in the conditions and environment where these leanings take place. When the conditions and relationships are good and we have encouraging environment we can expect better leaning with more quality and lasting knowledge. People prefer to learn from individuals to whom they can trust, are kind, available and know how to listen. The results of our research, and those previous regarding this topic, could lead us to think about how to improve formal mentor relationships which are common form of education at work place and also how to improve their efficiency.

  17. From Information Capitalism to Information Socialism

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XiaoFeng

    2005-01-01

    Information technology and information capital are both neutral in character and can serve socialism as well as capitalism. As Karst pointed out, the information society is culturally and institutionally diverse. If in their transformation into social morphology information technology and capital may both end in socialism as well as capitalism, then what is the essential distinction between information capitalism and information socialism?

  18. Rethinking Defensive Information Warfare

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-06-01

    electronic warfare, and special information operations. Defensive information operations ensure timely, accurate, and relevant information access...information and information systems. IA, physical security, OPSEC, counter-deception, counter-psyops, CI, EW, and special information operations. Ensure

  19. Information Theory: a Multifaceted Model of Information

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark Burgin

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available A contradictory and paradoxical situation that currently exists in information studies can be improved by the introduction of a new information approach, which is called the general theory of information. The main achievement of the general theory of information is explication of a relevant and adequate definition of information. This theory is built as a system of two classes of principles (ontological and sociological and their consequences. Axiological principles, which explain how to measure and evaluate information and information processes, are presented in the second section of this paper. These principles systematize and unify different approaches, existing as well as possible, to construction and utilization of information measures. Examples of such measures are given by Shannon’s quantity of information, algorithmic quantity of information or volume of information. It is demonstrated that all other known directions of information theory may be treated inside general theory of information as its particular cases.

  20. Information and information flow an introduction

    CERN Document Server

    Bremer, Manuel

    2004-01-01

    This book is conceived as an introductory text into the theory of syntactic and semantic information, and information flow. Syntactic information theory is concerned with the information contained in the very fact that some signal has a non-random structure. Semantic information theory is concerned with the meaning or information content of messages and the like. The theory of information flow is concerned with deriving some piece of information from another. The main part will take us to situation semantics as a foundation of modern approaches in information theory. We give a brief overview o

  1. Structural equation modeling for observational studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grace, J.B.

    2008-01-01

    Structural equation modeling (SEM) represents a framework for developing and evaluating complex hypotheses about systems. This method of data analysis differs from conventional univariate and multivariate approaches familiar to most biologists in several ways. First, SEMs are multiequational and capable of representing a wide array of complex hypotheses about how system components interrelate. Second, models are typically developed based on theoretical knowledge and designed to represent competing hypotheses about the processes responsible for data structure. Third, SEM is conceptually based on the analysis of covariance relations. Most commonly, solutions are obtained using maximum-likelihood solution procedures, although a variety of solution procedures are used, including Bayesian estimation. Numerous extensions give SEM a very high degree of flexibility in dealing with nonnormal data, categorical responses, latent variables, hierarchical structure, multigroup comparisons, nonlinearities, and other complicating factors. Structural equation modeling allows researchers to address a variety of questions about systems, such as how different processes work in concert, how the influences of perturbations cascade through systems, and about the relative importance of different influences. I present 2 example applications of SEM, one involving interactions among lynx (Lynx pardinus), mongooses (Herpestes ichneumon), and rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus), and the second involving anuran species richness. Many wildlife ecologists may find SEM useful for understanding how populations function within their environments. Along with the capability of the methodology comes a need for care in the proper application of SEM.

  2. Information Impact | Journal of Information and Knowledge ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Information Impact | Journal of Information and Knowledge Management

    Information Impact | Journal of Information and Knowledge Management ... The university library is the centre of academic activities such as learning, ... of providing information and access to its users, infrastructure and skilled personnel play a.

  3. Detection of Sarcocystis spp. infection in bobcats (Lynx rufus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verma, S. K.; Calero-Bernal, R.; Lovallo, M. J.; Sweeny, A. R.; Grigg, M. E.; Dubey, J. P.

    2015-01-01

    The protozoan Sarcocystis neurona is an important cause of severe clinical disease of horses (called equine protozoal myeloencephalitis, EPM), marine mammals, companion animals, and several species of wildlife animals in the Americas. The Virginia opossum (Didelphis virginiana) is its definitive host in the USA and other animals act as intermediate or aberrant hosts. Samples of tongue and heart from 35 bobcats hunted for fur and food from Mississippi State, USA in February, 2014 were used for the present study. Muscles were examined for Sarcocystis infection by microscopic examination of either unfixed muscle squash preparations or pepsin digests, by histopathology of fixed samples, and by molecular methods. Sarcocystis-like bradyzoites were found in digests of 14 hearts and 10 tongues of 35 bobcats. In histological sections, sarcocysts were found in 26 of 35 bobcats; all appeared relatively thin-walled similar to S. felis sarcocysts under light microscope at 1000x magnification. S. neurona-like sarcocysts having thickened villar tips were seen in unstained muscle squash of tongue of two bobcats and PCR-DNA sequencing identified them definitively as S. neurona-like parasite. DNA extracted from bradyzoites obtained from tongue and heart muscle digests was analyzed by PCR-DNA sequencing at the ITS1 locus. Results indicated the presence of S. neurona-like parasite in 26 of 35 samples. ITS1 sequences identical to S. dayspi were identified in 3 bobcats, 2 of which were also co-infected with S. neurona-like parasite. The high prevalence of sarcocysts in bobcat tissues suggested an efficient sylvatic cycle of Sarcocystis spp. in the remote regions of Mississippi State with the bobcat as a relevant intermediate host. PMID:26138150

  4. 捷豹XJ-S V12 HE Lynx Eventer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2016-01-01

    Lynx创办于60年代末,专门从事旧型捷豹翻新,70年代开始涉足休闲市场,制作了备受赞誉的复制C-Type和D-Type,其后又把焦点放到XJ-S身上,继抢先捷豹九年打造敞篷版本后,更在1982年着手开发Eventer。

  5. Secreted Isoform of Human Lynx1 (SLURP-2)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lyukmanova, E N; Shulepko, M A; Shenkarev, Z O

    2016-01-01

    Human-secreted Ly-6/uPAR-related protein-2 (SLURP-2) regulates the growth and differentiation of epithelial cells. Previously, the auto/paracrine activity of SLURP-2 was considered to be mediated via its interaction with the α3β2 subtype of the nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs). Here, we......-evoked currents at concentrations via...... interactions with α3β2-nAChRs, while it inhibited cell growth via α7-nAChRs. SLURP-2/mAChRs interactions are also probably involved in the control of keratinocyte growth. Computer modeling revealed possible SLURP-2 binding to the 'classical' orthosteric agonist/antagonist binding sites at α7 and α3β2-nAChRs....

  6. Study on information utility

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    Information has two aspects. One aspect is the objective one; another aspect is the subjective one. Shannon has discussed the objective aspect of information in information theory. But the subjective aspect of information has not been fully discussed. Someone use "Bayesian approaches" to evaluate the value of information. But in some cases it does not meet the information user's need. This paper is focus on the subjective aspect of objectively measurable information and gives formal definitions for information, information utility, and marginal information utility, normalized calculation of information utility. The information discussed in the paper has interdisciplinary nature. This work can be the foundation of many application areas.

  7. Information in organisations: directions for information management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joyce Kirk

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available The work of managers in small and medium-sized enterprises is very information-intensive and the environment in which it is done is very information rich. But are managers able to exploit the wealth of information which surrounds them? And how can information be managed in organisations so that its potential for improving business performance and enhancing the competitiveness of these enterprises can be realised? Answers to these questions lie in clarifying the context of the practice of information management by exploring aspects of organisations and managerial work and in exploring the nature of information at the level of the organisation and the individual manager. From these answers it is possible to suggest some guidelines for managing the integration of business strategy and information, the adoption of a broadly-based definition of information and the development of information capabilities.

  8. Informed consent - Providing information about prenatal examinations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahl, Katja; Kesmodel, Ulrik; Hvidman, Lone

    Prenatal care has gradually moved away from paternalism, to a state where patient autonomy and information is vital. It is known from other health care settings that the way information is presented affects understanding.The objective is to summarize current knowledge on aspects of informing...... pregnant women about prenatal examinations. Women's knowledge, decisional conflict, satisfaction and anxiety will be explored as compared with different ways and different groups of health professionals providing information. To what extent information empowers informed decision making will be explored......, individual sessions and by way of written materials. None of the interventions leads to a raise in anxiety scores or influence up-take rates. Satisfaction with information provided is found unrelated to level of knowledge, but associated with having expectations for information met. Information does not seem...

  9. Agricultural Libraries and Information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, Keith W., Ed.; Pisa, Maria G., Ed.

    1990-01-01

    Eleven articles address issues relating to agricultural libraries and information, including background on agricultural libraries and information, trend management, document delivery, reference services, user needs and library services, collection development, technologies for international information management, information sources,…

  10. Information Impact | Journal of Information and Knowledge ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Information Impact | Journal of Information and Knowledge management

    Keywords: digital libraries, digital reference service, information service, reference ... resource placed at the disposal of someone seeking answers in an online ... User behavior is changing and information provision has to follow new modes of ...

  11. Rethinking information handling: designing for information offload

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Lone Koefoed; Pedersen, Peter Dalsgård; Eriksson, Eva

    2005-01-01

    This paper introduces information offload as a supplement way of responding to and designing for information. By presenting iFlush, a design concept aiming at providing the user with a possibility to offload information and then instantly dispose of it, the paper presents an approach towards...... designing for reflection and also serves as a critique towards information overload. Furthermore, the absence of reflection on the role played by HCI community in the constant augmenting of all spaces is addressed....

  12. Rethinking information handling: designing for information offload

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Lone Koefoed; Pedersen, Peter Dalsgård; Eriksson, Eva

    2005-01-01

    This paper introduces information offload as a supplement way of responding to and designing for information. By presenting iFlush, a design concept aiming at providing the user with a possibility to offload information and then instantly dispose of it, the paper presents an approach towards...... designing for reflection and also serves as a critique towards information overload. Furthermore, the absence of reflection on the role played by HCI community in the constant augmenting of all spaces is addressed....

  13. Evolving Information Filtering for Personalized Information Service

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    田范江; 李丛蓉; 王鼎兴

    2001-01-01

    Information filtering (IF) systems are important for personalized information service. However, most current IF systems suffer from low quality and long training time. In this paper, a refined evolving information filtering method is presented. This method describes user's information need from multi-aspects and improves filtering quality through a process like natural selection. Experimental result shows this method can shorten training time, improve filtering quality, and reduce the relevance between filtering results and training sequence.

  14. Information Assurance Security in the Information Environment

    CERN Document Server

    Blyth, Andrew

    2006-01-01

    Intended for IT managers and assets protection professionals, this work aims to bridge the gap between information security, information systems security and information warfare. It covers topics such as the role of the corporate security officer; Corporate cybercrime; Electronic commerce and the global marketplace; Cryptography; and, more.

  15. Information Impact | Journal of Information and Knowledge ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Information Impact | Journal of Information and Knowledge Management

    Information Impact | Journal of Information and Knowledge Management. 22 ... In view of the current economic recession in Nigeria, tertiary institutions are turning to information technology for .... Mobile e-mail devices such as smartphones, may affect social dynamics by enabling .... Report on the students' welfare,.

  16. Information Impact: Journal of Information and Knowledge ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Information Impact: Journal of Information and Knowledge Management

    Information Impact: Journal of Information and Knowledge Management. 55 ... for the provision of enough security personnel for adequate monitoring of the ... libraries; they contain the latest information on research findings which are of great importance .... Serials can be regarded as the nerve-centre of any university library ...

  17. Foundations of Information Theory

    OpenAIRE

    Burgin, Mark

    2008-01-01

    Information is the basic concept of information theory. However, there is no definition of this concept that can encompass all uses of the term information in information theories and beyond. Many question a possibility of such a definition. However, foundations of information theory developed in the context of the general theory of information made it possible to build such a relevant and at the same time, encompassing definition. Foundations of information theory are built in a form of onto...

  18. Quantum Information Theory

    OpenAIRE

    Nielsen, M. A.

    2000-01-01

    Quantum information theory is the study of the achievable limits of information processing within quantum mechanics. Many different types of information can be accommodated within quantum mechanics, including classical information, coherent quantum information, and entanglement. Exploring the rich variety of capabilities allowed by these types of information is the subject of quantum information theory, and of this Dissertation. In particular, I demonstrate several novel limits to the informa...

  19. Computing handbook information systems and information technology

    CERN Document Server

    Topi, Heikki

    2014-01-01

    Disciplinary Foundations and Global ImpactEvolving Discipline of Information Systems Heikki TopiDiscipline of Information Technology Barry M. Lunt and Han ReichgeltInformation Systems as a Practical Discipline Juhani IivariInformation Technology Han Reichgelt, Joseph J. Ekstrom, Art Gowan, and Barry M. LuntSociotechnical Approaches to the Study of Information Systems Steve Sawyer and Mohammad Hossein JarrahiIT and Global Development Erkki SutinenUsing ICT for Development, Societal Transformation, and Beyond Sherif KamelTechnical Foundations of Data and Database ManagementData Models Avi Silber

  20. Information architecture for an economy of information

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mac Amaral Cartaxo

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The information is intended as a basic raw material, which depend on the processes for decision or learning in the organizational context. Thus the information instead of constituting a primary assumption about the economy is actually more than that, to the extent that it is desired as well by any other economic agents. Objective: The objective of this study was to identify evidence of the conceptual nature of the heterogeneity of information as an important phenomenon that produces a significant impact on the market balance and the welfare of economic agents. Methodology: The research is characterized as a review of literature in the fields of information science, specifically with respect to information architecture, contrasting with the Economy to establish a parallel about the so-called information economy. Results: The main results indicate that having an Information Architecture that enables the ostensible information, enables easy access to knowledge sought by those who demand, is due to its clarity, connectivity, contextualized content to the level of knowledge of users, enabling organizations to maximize the effectiveness of decisions. Conclusion: With regard to the use of an information architecture within an information economy, it is seen that consumers increase the level of utility as the translated information of cheap, light and easily knowledge reduces the degree of dispersion and price volatility.

  1. Dynamics of Information Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Hirsch, Michael J; Murphey, Robert

    2010-01-01

    Our understanding of information and information dynamics has outgrown classical information theory. This book presents the research explaining the importance of information in the evolution of a distributed or networked system. It presents techniques for measuring the value or significance of information within the context of a system

  2. Information Centers at NAL.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frank, Robyn C.

    1989-01-01

    Descriptions of the 12 specialized information centers of the National Agricultural Library (NAL) include subject coverage, information services provided, information technologies used, and staffing. The development of the Rural Information Center, a joint venture between the Extension Service and NAL to provide information services to local…

  3. Information for disasters, information disasters, and disastrous information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonnell, Sharon M; Perry, Helen N; McLaughlin, Brooke; McCurdy, Bronwen; Parrish, R Gibson

    2007-01-01

    Information is needed to support humanitarian responses in every phase of a disaster. Participants of a multilateral working group convened to examine how best to meet these information needs. Although information systems based on routine reporting of diseases are desirable because they have the potential to identify trends, these systems usually do not deliver on their promise due to inadequate organization and management to support them. To identify organizational and management characteristics likely to be associated with successful information systems in disaster settings, evaluations of the Integrated Disease Surveillance and Response (IDSR) programs in 12 participating countries were reviewed. Characteristics that were mentioned repeatedly in the evaluations as associated with success were grouped into nine categories: (1) human resources management and supervision; (2) political support; (3) strengthened laboratory capacity; (4) communication and feedback (through many mechanisms); (5) infrastructure and resources; (6) system design and capacity; (7) coordination and partnerships with stakeholders; (8) community input; and (9) evaluation. Selected characteristics and issues within each category are discussed. Based on the review of the IDSR evaluations and selected articles in the published literature, recommendations are provided for improving the short- and long-term organization and management of information systems in humanitarian responses associated with disasters. It is suggested that information systems that follow these recommendations are more likely to yield quality information and be sustainable even in disaster settings.

  4. Stem Cell Information: Glossary

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Tips Info Center Research Topics Federal Policy Glossary Stem Cell Information General Information Clinical Trials Funding Information Current ... here Home » Glossary Back to top Glossary Adult stem cell Astrocyte Blastocoel Blastocyst Bone marrow stromal cells Bone ...

  5. Personal Information Databases

    CERN Document Server

    Al-Fedaghi, Sabah S

    2009-01-01

    One of the most important aspects of security organization is to establish a framework to identify security significant points where policies and procedures are declared. The (information) security infrastructure comprises entities, processes, and technology. All are participants in handling information, which is the item that needs to be protected. Privacy and security information technology is a critical and unmet need in the management of personal information. This paper proposes concepts and technologies for management of personal information. Two different types of information can be distinguished: personal information and nonpersonal information. Personal information can be either personal identifiable information (PII), or nonidentifiable information (NII). Security, policy, and technical requirements can be based on this distinction. At the conceptual level, PII is defined and formalized by propositions over infons (discrete pieces of information) that specify transformations in PII and NII. PII is ca...

  6. Game Information System

    CERN Document Server

    Warnars, Spits; Kingdom, United; 10.5121/ijcsit.2010.2310

    2010-01-01

    In this Information system age many organizations consider information system as their weapon to compete or gain competitive advantage or give the best services for non profit organizations. Game Information System as combining Information System and game is breakthrough to achieve organizations’ performance. The Game Information System will run the Information System with game and how game can be implemented to run the Information System. Game is not only for fun and entertainment, but will be a challenge to combine fun and entertainment with Information System. The Challenge to run the information system with entertainment, deliver the entertainment with information system all at once. Game information system can be implemented in many sectors as like the information system itself but in difference’s view. A view of game which people can joy and happy and do their transaction as a fun things.

  7. Information Development in Portugal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abreu Nunes, Luis Filipe de

    1985-01-01

    Discusses Portuguese information sector (computers, libraries, specialized information services), which is described as very underdeveloped in comparison with other European countries. Highlights include computer applications in information services including national industrial database, INFOLNETI; access to international databases; official…

  8. Financial Assistance Information

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Other Sites: Genetic and Rare Diseases Information Center Financial Assistance Information The National Institutes of Health (NIH) ... area call 900-638-0742. Top of page Financial Aid for Medical Treatments Information on financial aid ...

  9. Carbon Monoxide Information Center

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Sitemap RSS E-mail Inside CPSC Accessibility Privacy Policy Budget, Performances & Finance Open Government Freedom of Information ( ... and Information Sitemap RSS E-mail Accessibility Privacy Policy Budget & Performance Open Government Freedom of Information (FOIA) ...

  10. Least Information Modeling for Information Retrieval

    CERN Document Server

    Ke, Weimao

    2012-01-01

    We proposed a Least Information theory (LIT) to quantify meaning of information in probability distribution changes, from which a new information retrieval model was developed. We observed several important characteristics of the proposed theory and derived two quantities in the IR context for document representation. Given probability distributions in a collection as prior knowledge, LI Binary (LIB) quantifies least information due to the binary occurrence of a term in a document whereas LI Frequency (LIF) measures least information based on the probability of drawing a term from a bag of words. Three fusion methods were also developed to combine LIB and LIF quantities for term weighting and document ranking. Experiments on four benchmark TREC collections for ad hoc retrieval showed that LIT-based methods demonstrated very strong performances compared to classic TF*IDF and BM25, especially for verbose queries and hard search topics. The least information theory offers a new approach to measuring semantic qua...

  11. Energy information sheets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-07-01

    The National Energy Information Center (NEIC), as part of its mission, provides energy information and referral assistance to Federal, State, and local governments, the academic community, business and industrial organizations, and the public. The Energy Information Sheets was developed to provide general information on various aspects of fuel production, prices, consumption, and capability. Additional information on related subject matter can be found in other Energy Information Administration (EIA) publications as referenced at the end of each sheet.

  12. Information protection playbook

    CERN Document Server

    Kane, Greg

    2013-01-01

    The primary goal of the Information Protection Playbook is to serve as a comprehensive resource for information protection (IP) professionals who must provide adequate information security at a reasonable cost. It emphasizes a holistic view of IP: one that protects the applications, systems, and networks that deliver business information from failures of confidentiality, integrity, availability, trust and accountability, and privacy. Using the guidelines provided in the Information Protection Playbook, security and information technology (IT) managers will learn how to

  13. Institutionalizing information security.

    OpenAIRE

    2008-01-01

    Information security has become a much discussed subject all over the world in the last few years. This is because information security is no longer a luxury, but a necessity in all organisations. The securing of information is not an easy task because information security is flexible and always seems to be in a state of development. This means that information security has undergone different development changes due to new technologies in the past few years. Information security became promi...

  14. Towards Information Security Awareness

    OpenAIRE

    Marius Petrescu; Delia Mioara Popescu; Nicoleta Sirbu

    2010-01-01

    Information security has come to be recognized as increasingly important because global communication and information systems allow a potentially large number of unauthorized users to access and possibly alter information from around the world. As the dependence on information systems grows, so the security of information networks becomes ever more critical to any entity, no matter if it is a company or a public institution. Information security involves both technology and people. Any securi...

  15. Strategic information security

    CERN Document Server

    Wylder, John

    2003-01-01

    Introduction to Strategic Information SecurityWhat Does It Mean to Be Strategic? Information Security Defined The Security Professional's View of Information Security The Business View of Information SecurityChanges Affecting Business and Risk Management Strategic Security Strategic Security or Security Strategy?Monitoring and MeasurementMoving Forward ORGANIZATIONAL ISSUESThe Life Cycles of Security ManagersIntroductionThe Information Security Manager's Responsibilities The Evolution of Data Security to Information SecurityThe Repository Concept Changing Job Requirements Business Life Cycles

  16. Information Technology - Information Overload for Strategic Leaders

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-11-02

    levels of war. Information technology has also eroded the concept of centralized control and decentralized execution. This paper seeks to identify...weaknesses associated with information technology and increase the awareness of its undesired effects. The paper will first describe systems essential...leaders and organizations. It will conclude with considerations needed to ensure information technology is seen as a commodity and not a detriment.

  17. INFORMATION SCIENCES, 1965

    Science.gov (United States)

    identification and classification, (c) transmission of information, (d) adaptive and self-organizing systems, (e) language and linguistics research, and (f) theoretical foundations of information sciences .

  18. Aeronautical Information System -

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Transportation — The Aeronautical Information System (AIS) is a leased weather automated system that provides a means of collecting and distributing aeronautical weather information...

  19. Collaborative information seeking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hertzum, Morten

    2008-01-01

    , the activities involved in information seeking are often performed by varying subgroups of actors. Consequently, collaborative grounding is necessary to share information among collaborating actors and, thereby, establish and maintain the common ground necessary for their collaborative work. By focusing......Since common ground is pivotal to collaboration, this paper proposes to define collaborative information seeking as the combined activity of information seeking and collaborative grounding. While information-seeking activities are necessary for collaborating actors to acquire new information...... on the collaborative level, collaborative information seeking aims to avoid both individual reductionism and group reductionism, while at the same time recognizing that only some information and understanding need be shared....

  20. Information about Musculoskeletal Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... AAOS Orthopaedic Disclosure Program Position Statements Information Statements Ethics Resources Resolutions Patient, Public & Media Information OrthoInfo Patient Education Newsroom/Media Resources Find ...

  1. Aeronautical Information System Replacement -

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Transportation — Aeronautical Information System Replacement is a web-enabled, automation means for the collection and distribution of Service B messages, weather information, flight...

  2. FFRRO Program Information

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This asset includes information related to Cleanups at Federal Facilities. Information is provided about contaminated federal facility sites in specific communities,...

  3. Too Much Information Sharing?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ganuza, Juan José; Jansen, Jos

    2013-01-01

    By using general information structures and precision criteria based on the dispersion of conditional expectations, we study how oligopolists’ information acquisition decisions may change the effects of information sharing on the consumer surplus. Sharing information about individual cost...... parameters gives the following trade-off in Cournot oligopoly. On the one hand, it decreases the expected consumer surplus for a given information precision, as the literature shows. On the other hand, information sharing increases the firms’ incentives to acquire information, and the consumer surplus...... increases in the precision of the firms’ information. Interestingly, the latter effect may dominate the former effect....

  4. What is Quantum Information?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lombardi, Olimpia; Fortin, Sebastian; Holik, Federico; López, Cristian

    2017-04-01

    Preface; Introduction; Part I. About the Concept of Information: 1. About the concept of information Sebastian Fortin and Olimpia Lombardi; 2. Representation, information, and theories of information Armond Duwell; 3. Information, communication, and manipulability Olimpia Lombardi and Cristian López; Part II. Information and quantum mechanics: 4. Quantum versus classical information Jeffrey Bub; 5. Quantum information and locality Dennis Dieks; 6. Pragmatic information in quantum mechanics Juan Roederer; 7. Interpretations of quantum theory: a map of madness Adán Cabello; Part III. Probability, Correlations, and Information: 8. On the tension between ontology and epistemology in quantum probabilities Amit Hagar; 9. Inferential versus dynamical conceptions of physics David Wallace; 10. Classical models for quantum information Federico Holik and Gustavo Martin Bosyk; 11. On the relative character of quantum correlations Guido Bellomo and Ángel Ricardo Plastino; Index.

  5. Informational trends for organizations in information society

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Companies have always been very carefully managed money, raw materials, machines and human resources. Today, they recognize the growing importance of the fifth big resource: information. They have finally understood that the within the global market with increased competition, using modern methods for planning, coordination and control, a company can-not function without acknowledging information and communications technology progress.

  6. Floridi's Philosophy of Information and Information Ethics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ess, Charles

    2009-01-01

    In order to evaluate Floridi's philosophy of information (PI) and correlative information ethics (IE) as potential frameworks for a global information and computing ethics (ICE), I review a range of important criticisms, defenses, and extensions of PI and IE, along with Floridi's responses to these......, as gathered together in a recent special issue of Ethics and Information Technology. A revised and expanded version of PI and IE emerges here, one that brings to the foreground PI's status as a philosophical naturalism—one with both current application and important potential in the specific domains...... of privacy and information law. Further, the pluralism already articulated by Floridi in his PI is now more explicitly coupled with an ethical pluralism in IE that will be enhanced through IE's further incorporation of discourse ethics. In this form, PI and IE emerge as still more robust frameworks...

  7. Health information seeking in the information society.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukherjee, Abir; Bawden, David

    2012-09-01

    This article is the second student contribution to the Dissertations into Practice feature. It reports on a study that investigated the everyday health information-seeking practices of a small group of the 'general public' and the implications for information-seeking theory and health information provision. The first student article, about the implementation of radio frequency identification (RFID) in a hospital library, was very different, and the two articles illustrate the broad spectrum of possible subjects for the Dissertations into Practice feature. This study was conducted in summer 2011 by Abir Mukherjee for his MSc dissertation in the Library and Information Sciences programme at City University London. Further information and copies of the full dissertation may be obtained from Abir Mukherjee or David Bawden. AM.

  8. INFORMATION SCIENCES, 1967

    Science.gov (United States)

    Summaries of projects current during fiscal year 1967 (1 July 1966 through 30 June 1967) are given within six categories: (a) information systems research, (b) information identification and classification, (c) transmission of information, (d) adaptive and self-organizing systems, (e) language and linguistics research, and (f) theoretical foundations of information sciences . Brief comments are made about each category

  9. Mission Medical Information System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson-Throop, Kathy A.; Joe, John C.; Follansbee, Nicole M.

    2008-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation gives an overview of the Mission Medical Information System (MMIS). The topics include: 1) What is MMIS?; 2) MMIS Goals; 3) Terrestrial Health Information Technology Vision; 4) NASA Health Information Technology Needs; 5) Mission Medical Information System Components; 6) Electronic Medical Record; 7) Longitudinal Study of Astronaut Health (LSAH); 8) Methods; and 9) Data Submission Agreement (example).

  10. Dialing Up Telecommunications Information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bates, Mary Ellen

    1993-01-01

    Describes how to find accurate, current information about telecommunications industries, products and services, rates and tariffs, and regulatory information using electronic information resources available from the private and public sectors. A sidebar article provides contact information for producers and service providers. (KRN)

  11. Spatial Information Storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir Markelov

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The article describes the spatial information storage, shows the features of spatial information and of such storage systems formation. Requirements for information storage technologies and for the data management in storage systems are determined. Cartographic information storage and updating features are shown. The article proves that intelligent solutions are the most efficient means of working with large amounts of spatial data.

  12. Information Systems Security Audit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gheorghe Popescu

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available The article covers:Defining an information system; benefits obtained by introducing new information technologies; IT management;Defining prerequisites, analysis, design, implementation of IS; Information security management system; aspects regarding IS security policy; Conceptual model of a security system; Auditing information security systems and network infrastructure security.

  13. Is Information Out There?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. van den Herik (Jasper)

    2013-01-01

    textabstractIn this paper, I argue that the distinction between information and data lies at the root of much confusion that surrounds the concept of information. Although data are ‘out there’ and concrete, informational content is abstract and always co-constituted by information agents – a set

  14. Information science in transition

    CERN Document Server

    Gilchrist, Alan

    2013-01-01

    Are we at a turning point in digital information? The expansion of the internet is unprecedented. Will information science become part of computer science and does rise of the term informatics demonstrate convergence of information science and information technology - a convergence that must surely develop? This work reflects on such issues.

  15. Aquaculture Information Package

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boyd, T.; Rafferty, K. [editors

    1998-01-01

    This package of information is intended to provide background to developers of geothermal aquaculture projects. The material is divided into eight sections and includes information on market and price information for typical species, aquaculture water quality issues, typical species culture information, pond heat loss calculations, an aquaculture glossary, regional and university aquaculture offices and state aquaculture permit requirements.

  16. Comparing Information Access Approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chalmers, Matthew

    1999-01-01

    Presents a broad view of information access, drawing from philosophy and semiology in constructing a framework for comparative discussion that is used to examine the information representations that underlie four approaches to information access--information retrieval, workflow, collaborative filtering, and the path model. Contains 32 references.…

  17. Information Systems Security Audit

    OpenAIRE

    Gheorghe Popescu; Veronica Adriana Popescu; Cristina Raluca Popescu

    2007-01-01

    The article covers:Defining an information system; benefits obtained by introducing new information technologies; IT management;Defining prerequisites, analysis, design, implementation of IS; Information security management system; aspects regarding IS security policy; Conceptual model of a security system; Auditing information security systems and network infrastructure security.

  18. Survey of information security

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHEN ChangXiang; ZHANG HuangGuo; FENG DengGuo; CAO ZhenFu; HUANG JiWu

    2007-01-01

    The 21st century is the age of information when information becomes an important strategic resource. The information obtaining, processing and security guarantee capability are playing critical roles in comprehensive national power, and information security is related to the national security and social stability. Therefore, we should take measures to ensure the information security of our country. In recent years, momentous accomplishments have been obtained with the rapid development of jnformation security technology. There are extensive theories about information security and technology. However, due to the limitation of length, this article mainly focuses on the research and development of cryptology, trusted computing, security of network, and information hiding, etc.

  19. Handbook of information science

    CERN Document Server

    Stock, Wolfgang G

    2013-01-01

    Dealing with information is one of the vital skills in thetwenty-first century. It takes a fair degree of information savvy to create, represent and supply information as well as to search for and retrieve relevant knowledge. This Handbook is a basic work of information science, providing a comprehensive overview of the current state of information retrieval and knowledge representation. It addresses readers from all professions and scientific disciplines, but particularly scholars, practitioners and students of Information Science, Library Science, Computer Science, Information Management, an

  20. Delaying information search

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yaniv Shani

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available In three studies, we examined factors that may temporarily attenuate information search. People are generally curious and dislike uncertainty, which typically encourages them to look for relevant information. Despite these strong forces that promote information search, people sometimes deliberately delay obtaining valuable information. We find they may do so when they are concerned that the information might interfere with future pleasurable activities. Interestingly, the decision to search or to postpone searching for information is influenced not only by the value and importance of the information itself but also by well-being maintenance goals related to possible detrimental effects that negative knowledge may have on unrelated future plans.

  1. Information, learning and falsification

    CERN Document Server

    Balduzzi, David

    2011-01-01

    Broadly speaking, there are two approaches to quantifying information. The first, Shannon information, takes events as belonging to ensembles and quantifies the information resulting from observing the given event in terms of the number of alternate events that have been ruled out. The second, algorithmic information or Kolmogorov complexity, takes events as strings and, given a universal Turing machine, quantifies the information content of a string as the length of the shortest program producing it. This note describes a new method of quantifying information, effective information, that links algorithmic information to Shannon information, and also links both to capacities arising in statistical learning theory. After introducing the measure, we show that it provides a non-universal analog of algorithmic information. We then apply it to derive basic capacities in statistical learning theory: empirical VC-entropy and empirical Rademacher complexity. A nice byproduct of our approach is an interpretation of th...

  2. Measures of Information

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Walton

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper builds an integrated framework of measures of information based on the Model for Information (MfI developed by the author. Since truth is expressed using information, an analysis of truth depends on the nature of information and its limitations. These limitations include those implied by the geometry of information and those implied by the relativity of information. This paper proposes an approach to truth and truthlikeness that takes these limitations into account by incorporating measures of the quality of information. Another measure of information is the amount of information. This has played a role in two important theoretical difficulties—the Bar-Hillel Carnap paradox and the “scandal of deduction”. This paper further provides an analysis of the amount of information, based on MfI, and shows how the MfI approach can resolve these difficulties.

  3. Quantum information theory

    CERN Document Server

    Nielsen, M A

    1998-01-01

    Quantum information theory is the study of the achievable limits of information processing within quantum mechanics. Many different types of information can be accommodated within quantum mechanics, including classical information, coherent quantum information, and entanglement. Exploring the rich variety of capabilities allowed by these types of information is the subject of quantum information theory, and of this Dissertation. In particular, I demonstrate several novel limits to the information processing ability of quantum mechanics. Results of especial interest include: the demonstration of limitations to the class of measurements which may be performed in quantum mechanics; a capacity theorem giving achievable limits to the transmission of classical information through a two-way noiseless quantum channel; resource bounds on distributed quantum computation; a new proof of the quantum noiseless channel coding theorem; an information-theoretic characterization of the conditions under which quantum error-cor...

  4. Electronic healthcare information security

    CERN Document Server

    Dube, Kudakwashe; Shoniregun, Charles A

    2010-01-01

    The ever-increasing healthcare expenditure and pressing demand for improved quality and efficiency of patient care services are driving innovation in healthcare information management. The domain of healthcare has become a challenging testing ground for information security due to the complex nature of healthcare information and individual privacy. ""Electronic Healthcare Information Security"" explores the challenges of e-healthcare information and security policy technologies. It evaluates the effectiveness of security and privacy implementation systems for anonymization methods and techniqu

  5. Information technology made simple

    CERN Document Server

    Carter, Roger

    1991-01-01

    Information Technology: Made Simple covers the full range of information technology topics, including more traditional subjects such as programming languages, data processing, and systems analysis. The book discusses information revolution, including topics about microchips, information processing operations, analog and digital systems, information processing system, and systems analysis. The text also describes computers, computer hardware, microprocessors, and microcomputers. The peripheral devices connected to the central processing unit; the main types of system software; application soft

  6. Information Security Management

    OpenAIRE

    Huang, Lu

    2015-01-01

    The main purpose of the thesis was to present different areas of information security controls based on the international information security standard ISO 27001. The thesis also describes the methods of risk analysis and how to establish, implement, maintain and improve information security system in organizations. Most of the material was collected from books and various online resources. Some information was taken also from the teaching materials of the information security course. ...

  7. CAREERS IN INFORMATION SCIENCE,

    Science.gov (United States)

    Information Science . Sets forth that Information Science is concerned with the properties, behavior, and flow of information...Describes how it is used, both by individuals and in large systems. Discusses the opportunities in Information Science and outlines three relatively...6or participation in these career areas. Concludes that Information Science is a new but rapidly growing field pushing the frontiers of human knowledge and, thus, 3ontributing to human wellbeing and progress.

  8. Evolutionary Information Theory

    OpenAIRE

    Mark Burgin

    2013-01-01

    Evolutionary information theory is a constructive approach that studies information in the context of evolutionary processes, which are ubiquitous in nature and society. In this paper, we develop foundations of evolutionary information theory, building several measures of evolutionary information and obtaining their properties. These measures are based on mathematical models of evolutionary computations, machines and automata. To measure evolutionary information in an invariant form, we const...

  9. Informed Consent and Routinisation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ploug, Thomas; Holm, Søren

    2013-01-01

    This article introduces the notion of ‘routinisation’ into discussions of informed consent. It is argued that the routinisation of informed consent poses a threat to the protection of the personal autonomy of a patient through the negotiation of informed consent. On the basis of a large survey, we...... on the character of the information exchanged, and we uncover a range of causes of routinisation. Finally, the article discusses possible ways of countering the problem of routinisation of informed consent....

  10. Aquaculture information package

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boyd, T.; Rafferty, K.

    1998-08-01

    This package of information is intended to provide background information to developers of geothermal aquaculture projects. The material is divided into eight sections and includes information on market and price information for typical species, aquaculture water quality issues, typical species culture information, pond heat loss calculations, an aquaculture glossary, regional and university aquaculture offices and state aquaculture permit requirements. A bibliography containing 68 references is also included.

  11. Digital Information and Value

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Walton

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Digital information changes the ways in which people and organisations interact. This paper examines the nature of this change in the context of the author’s Model for Information (MfI. It investigates the relationship between outcomes and value, selection processes and some attributes of information and explores how this relationship changes in the move from analogue to digital information. Selection processes shape the evolution of information ecosystems in which conventions are established for the ways in which information is used. The conventions determine norms for information friction and information quality as well as the sources of information and channels used. Digital information reduces information friction, often dramatically, and changes information quality. The increasing use of analytics in business increasingly delivers predictive or prescriptive digital information. These changes are happening faster than information ecosystem conventions can change. The relationships established in the paper enable an analysis of, and guide changes to, these conventions enabling a more effective use of digital information.

  12. Information Impact | Journal of Information and Knowledge ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Information Impact | Journal of Information and Knowledge Management

    The paper discussed the establishment of Federal Teaching ... operating temporally at the then Gombe state general hospital. After the ... The traditional information system in the library has been dependent largely on manual processing and ...

  13. Information Impact | Journal of Information and Knowledge ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Information Impact | Journal of Information and Knowledge Management

    management of parent institutions, librarians may see such as additional ... agencies like libraries, archives and museums, information resource centres, ..... practitioners who are set of trained personnel that understand the taxonomy of ...

  14. Avoiding health information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbour, Joshua B; Rintamaki, Lance S; Ramsey, Jason A; Brashers, Dale E

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated why and how individuals avoid health information to support the development of models of uncertainty and information management and offer insights for those dealing with the information and uncertainty inherent to health and illness. Participants from student (n = 507) and community (n = 418) samples reported that they avoided health information to (a) maintain hope or deniability, (b) resist overexposure, (c) accept limits of action, (d) manage flawed information, (e) maintain boundaries, and (f) continue with life/activities. They also reported strategies for avoiding information, including removing or ignoring stimuli (e.g., avoiding people who might provide health advice) and controlling conversations (e.g., withholding information, changing the subject). Results suggest a link between previous experience with serious illness and health information avoidance. Building on uncertainty management theory, this study demonstrated that health information avoidance is situational, relatively common, not necessarily unhealthy, and may be used to accomplish multiple communication goals.

  15. Evolutionary Information Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark Burgin

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Evolutionary information theory is a constructive approach that studies information in the context of evolutionary processes, which are ubiquitous in nature and society. In this paper, we develop foundations of evolutionary information theory, building several measures of evolutionary information and obtaining their properties. These measures are based on mathematical models of evolutionary computations, machines and automata. To measure evolutionary information in an invariant form, we construct and study universal evolutionary machines and automata, which form the base for evolutionary information theory. The first class of measures introduced and studied in this paper is evolutionary information size of symbolic objects relative to classes of automata or machines. In particular, it is proved that there is an invariant and optimal evolutionary information size relative to different classes of evolutionary machines. As a rule, different classes of algorithms or automata determine different information size for the same object. The more powerful classes of algorithms or automata decrease the information size of an object in comparison with the information size of an object relative to weaker4 classes of algorithms or machines. The second class of measures for evolutionary information in symbolic objects is studied by introduction of the quantity of evolutionary information about symbolic objects relative to a class of automata or machines. To give an example of applications, we briefly describe a possibility of modeling physical evolution with evolutionary machines to demonstrate applicability of evolutionary information theory to all material processes. At the end of the paper, directions for future research are suggested.

  16. Finding information. Academic, informative, or research skill

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Álvarez, Juan Carlos

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper is intended to describe the results of a study of training the ability to obtain scientific data. The need and importance of the topic, in the era of the information and the knowledge, is backed up. Global current tendencies on the abilities in the handling and use of the scientific information are reviewed on the basis of regularities and inconsistencies. This leads to define the ability and its corresponding operational system.

  17. Informativeness of Economics and Information Terminology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elvyra Tadauskienė

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Informativeness of economics and information terminology is being discussed in the article. As there exist too types of the terminology (international and Lithuanian, when translating it is necessary to make them uniform. Recommendations are given when to use international words and when their Lithuanian equi-valents. When dealing with the problem a bigger contribution should be introduced to this by the language surveillance institutions and the authors of the dictionaries.

  18. Energy information sheets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-12-02

    The National Energy Information Center (NEIC), as part of its mission, provides energy information and referral assistance to Federal, State, and local governments, the academic community, business and industrial organizations, and the general public. Written for the general public, the EIA publication Energy Information Sheets was developed to provide information on various aspects of fuel production, prices, consumption and capability. The information contained herein pertains to energy data as of December 1991. Additional information on related subject matter can be found in other EIA publications as referenced at the end of each sheet.

  19. Wind energy information directory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1979-10-01

    Wind Energy Information has been prepared to provide researchers, designers, manufacturers, distributors, dealers, and users of wind energy conversion systems with easy access to technical information. This directory lists organizations and publications which have the main objective of promoting the use of wind energy conversion systems, some organizations that can respond to requests for information on wind energy or make referrals to other sources of information, and some publications that occasionally include information on wind energy. The bibliography contains references to information for both the neophyte and the expert.

  20. RCRA Facility Information

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This asset includes hazardous waste information, which is mostly contained in the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act Information (RCRAInfo) System, a national...

  1. Carbon Monoxide Information Center

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Us Sitemap RSS E-mail Inside CPSC Accessibility Privacy Policy Budget, Performances & Finance Open Government Freedom of ... News and Information Sitemap RSS E-mail Accessibility Privacy Policy Budget & Performance Open Government Freedom of Information ( ...

  2. National Rehabilitation Information Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... including News and Notes) Welcome to the National Rehabilitation Information Center! We are conducting improvements to the ... experience. We apologize for any inconvenience The National Rehabilitation Information Center ( NARIC ) is the library of the ...

  3. Informed Food Choice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Coff, Christian

    2014-01-01

    Food production and consumption influence health, the environment, social structures, etc. For this reason consumers are increasingly interested in information about these effects. Disclosure of information about the consequences of food production and consumption is essential for the idea...... of informed food choice. An informed food choice is an enlightened food choice made by the individual based on the information made available. Food choices are made when shopping for food or when eating/drinking, and information is believed to give clarity to the options by increasing market transparency......, supporting rationality (the best choice), consumers’ self-governance (autonomy) and life coherence (integrity). On a practical level, informed food choice remains an ideal to strive for, as information on food often is inadequate....

  4. Geographical information systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Möller, Bernd

    2004-01-01

    The chapter gives an introduction to Geographical Information Systems (GIS) with particular focus on their application within environmental management.......The chapter gives an introduction to Geographical Information Systems (GIS) with particular focus on their application within environmental management....

  5. Informative document waste plastics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nagelhout D; Sein AA; Duvoort GL

    1989-01-01

    This "Informative document waste plastics" forms part of a series of "informative documents waste materials". These documents are conducted by RIVM on the indstruction of the Directorate General for the Environment, Waste Materials Directorate, in behalf of the program of

  6. Informed food choice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Coff, Christian Eyde

    2014-01-01

    Food production and consumption influence health, the environment, social structures, etc. For this reason consumers are increasingly interested in information about these effects. Disclosure of information about the consequences of food production and consumption is essential for the idea...... of informed food choice. An informed food choice is an enlightened food choice made by the individual based on the information made available. Food choices are made when shopping for food or when eating/drinking, and information is believed to give clarity to the options by increasing market transparency......, supporting rationality (the best choice), consumers’ self-governance (autonomy) and life coherence (integrity). On a practical level, informed food choice remains an ideal to strive for, as information on food often is inadequate....

  7. Informed Food Choice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Coff, Christian

    2014-01-01

    of informed food choice. An informed food choice is an enlightened food choice made by the individual based on the information made available. Food choices are made when shopping for food or when eating/drinking, and information is believed to give clarity to the options by increasing market transparency......, supporting rationality (the best choice), consumers’ self-governance (autonomy) and life coherence (integrity). On a practical level, informed food choice remains an ideal to strive for, as information on food often is inadequate.......Food production and consumption influence health, the environment, social structures, etc. For this reason consumers are increasingly interested in information about these effects. Disclosure of information about the consequences of food production and consumption is essential for the idea...

  8. Geographical information systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Möller, Bernd

    2004-01-01

    The chapter gives an introduction to Geographical Information Systems (GIS) with particular focus on their application within environmental management.......The chapter gives an introduction to Geographical Information Systems (GIS) with particular focus on their application within environmental management....

  9. information manger-2012-editedx

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Library _info_Sc_ 1

    The advances in information and communications technologies (ICT) have made possible ... recent statistics and information pertaining to socio-economic and technological development in the ... established since the early 1990s, when rapid.

  10. ICT literacy, information l

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Information Impact | Journal of Information and Knowledge Management

    This paper discussed information communication technology (ICT) literacy as ... Questionnaire was used for data collection which yielded a 79.7% response ... Keywords: ICT literacy, information literacy, university libraries, computer literacy,.

  11. INFORMATION AND COMMUNICATION

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    of information and communication technology on the development of educational management. Various challenges ... With the proliferation of computer networks and information technology there is increased .... transmit audio and video data.

  12. National Pesticide Information Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... any pest." Herbicides Disinfectants Fungicides Insecticides Natural and Biological Pesticides Repellents Rodenticides Other types of pesticides Local Contacts Find local pesticide & pest control information Pesticide Information and Resources: Frequently Asked Questions: ...

  13. What is quantum information ?

    CERN Document Server

    Fortin, Sebastian; Holik, Federico; López, Cristian

    2017-01-01

    Combining physics and philosophy, this is a uniquely interdisciplinary examination of quantum information science which provides an up-to-date examination of developments in this field. The authors provide coherent definitions and theories of information, taking clearly defined approaches to considering information in connection with quantum mechanics, probability, and correlations. Concepts addressed include entanglement of quantum states, the relation of quantum correlations to quantum information, and the meaning of the informational approach for the foundations of quantum mechanics. Furthermore, the mathematical concept of information in the communicational context, and the notion of pragmatic information are considered. Suitable as both a discussion of the conceptual and philosophical problems of this field and a comprehensive stand-alone introduction, this book will benefit both experienced and new researchers in quantum information and the philosophy of physics.

  14. Indiana Health Information Exchange

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Indiana Health Information Exchange is comprised of various Indiana health care institutions, established to help improve patient safety and is recognized as a best practice for health information exchange.

  15. Contingent Information Systems Development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Slooten, C.; Schoonhoven, Bram

    1996-01-01

    Situated approaches based on project contingencies are becoming more and more an important research topic for information systems development organizations. The Information Services Organization, which was investigated, has recognized that it should tune its systems development approaches to the

  16. Sleep Apnea Information Page

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Page You are here Home » Disorders » All Disorders Sleep Apnea Information Page Sleep Apnea Information Page Search Disorders Search NINDS SEARCH ... Institutes of Health (NIH) conduct research related to sleep apnea in laboratories at the NIH, and also ...

  17. Integrated inventory information system

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Sarupria, J.S.; Kunte, P.D.

    The nature of oceanographic data and the management of inventory level information are described in Integrated Inventory Information System (IIIS). It is shown how a ROSCOPO (report on observations/samples collected during oceanographic programme...

  18. Informal Information Sources and Information Seeking Behavior: Investigating the Causes and Factors Affecting Users’ Inclination towards Informal Information Sources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reza Mokhtarpour

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Research within Library and Information Sciences bespeaks of the significant tendency of (expert and non-expert users towards informal information sources. Nevertheless, it seems that the literature have not dealt adequately with causes and factors affecting such tendency. The present paper provides a retrospect on some of the researches conducted with respect to the typology of information resources used by searchers. It further attempts to enunciate the most important reasons for users preference toward informal information sources. The author maintains that the very social nature of man, the principle of least effort, human sense of credulity, economic considerations as well as information overloads are among the most important reasons for using informal resources. Author maintains that the increasing tendency of users towards informal sources would in not too distant future result in user apathy towards such traditional information sources as book and library.

  19. Designing information systems

    CERN Document Server

    Blethyn, Stanley G

    2014-01-01

    Designing Information Systems focuses on the processes, methodologies, and approaches involved in designing information systems. The book first describes systems, management and control, and how to design information systems. Discussions focus on documents produced from the functional construction function, users, operators, analysts, programmers and others, process management and control, levels of management, open systems, design of management information systems, and business system description, partitioning, and leveling. The text then takes a look at functional specification and functiona

  20. Quantum information causality

    OpenAIRE

    Pitalúa-García, Damián

    2012-01-01

    How much information can a transmitted physical system fundamentally communicate? We introduce the principle of quantum information causality, which states the maximum amount of quantum information that a quantum system can communicate as a function of its dimension, independently of any previously shared quantum physical resources. We present a new quantum information task, whose success probability is upper bounded by the new principle, and show that an optimal strategy to perform it combin...

  1. Types of quantum information

    OpenAIRE

    Griffiths, Robert B.

    2007-01-01

    Quantum, in contrast to classical, information theory, allows for different incompatible types (or species) of information which cannot be combined with each other. Distinguishing these incompatible types is useful in understanding the role of the two classical bits in teleportation (or one bit in one-bit teleportation), for discussing decoherence in information-theoretic terms, and for giving a proper definition, in quantum terms, of ``classical information.'' Various examples (some updating...

  2. Passenger Information System Simulation

    OpenAIRE

    Botha, Louis

    2015-01-01

    This thesis goes through the development process of a Passenger Information System simulator for a customer to test their route information databases on before distributing these to the rolling stock. The paper starts by describing the basic components and devices of a Mitron passenger information system and the purpose of the passenger information system simulator ordered by the customer. The paper continues by describing the initial design that was offered to the customer. The 11 ma...

  3. Information security culture.

    OpenAIRE

    2008-01-01

    The current study originated from the realisation that information security is no longer solely dependent on technology. Information security breaches are often caused by users, most of the time internal to the organisation, who compromise the technology-driven solutions. This interaction between people and the information systems is seemingly the weakest link in information security. A people-oriented approach is needed to address this problem. Incorporating the human element into informatio...

  4. Public informations guidelines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1986-06-01

    The purpose of these Public Information Guidelines is to provide principles for the implementation of the NWPA mandate and the Mission Plan requirements for the provision of public information. These Guidelines set forth the public information policy to be followed by all Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management (OCRWM) performance components. The OCRWM offices should observe these Guidelines in shaping and conducting public information activities.

  5. Evaluating personal information retrieval

    OpenAIRE

    Kelly, Liadh; Bunbury, Paul; Jones, Gareth J.F.

    2012-01-01

    Evaluation of personal search over an individual’s personal information space on the desktop or elsewhere is problematic for reasons relating both to the personal and private nature of the data and the associated personal information needs of collection owners. Indeed challenges associated with evaluation in this space are recognised as one of the key factors hindering the development of research in personal information retrieval. We present the “personal information retrieval evaluatio...

  6. Personal Information Databases

    OpenAIRE

    Al-Fedaghi, Sabah S.; Thalheim, Bernhard

    2009-01-01

    One of the most important aspects of security organization is to establish a framework to identify security significant points where policies and procedures are declared. The (information) security infrastructure comprises entities, processes, and technology. All are participants in handling information, which is the item that needs to be protected. Privacy and security information technology is a critical and unmet need in the management of personal information. This paper proposes concepts ...

  7. Algorithmic information theory

    OpenAIRE

    Grünwald, P.D.; Vitányi, P.M.B.; Adriaans, P.; van Benthem, J.

    2008-01-01

    We introduce algorithmic information theory, also known as the theory of Kolmogorov complexity. We explain the main concepts of this quantitative approach to defining 'information'. We discuss the extent to which Kolmogorov's and Shannon's information theory have a common purpose, and where they are fundamentally different. We indicate how recent developments within the theory allow one to formally distinguish between 'structural' (meaningful) and 'random' information as measured by the Kolmo...

  8. Algorithmic information theory

    OpenAIRE

    Grünwald, P.D.; Vitányi, P.M.B.

    2008-01-01

    We introduce algorithmic information theory, also known as the theory of Kolmogorov complexity. We explain the main concepts of this quantitative approach to defining `information'. We discuss the extent to which Kolmogorov's and Shannon's information theory have a common purpose, and where they are fundamentally different. We indicate how recent developments within the theory allow one to formally distinguish between `structural' (meaningful) and `random' information as measured by the Kolmo...

  9. Situational appropriation of information

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    Purpose In contrast to the interest of describing and managing the social processes of knowing, information science and information and knowledge management research have put less emphasis on discussing how particular information becomes usable and how it is used in different contexts and situations. The purpose of this paper is to address this major gap, and introduce and discuss the applicability of the notion of situational appropriation of information for shedding light on this particular...

  10. Energy information directory 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-10-01

    The National Energy Information Center provides energy information and referral assistance to Federal, State, and local governments, the academic community, business and industrial organizations, and the general public. This Energy Information Directory is used to assist the Center staff as well as other DOE staff in directing inquires to the proper offices.

  11. Strategic Information Systems Planning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowley, Jennifer

    1995-01-01

    Strategic Information Systems Planning (SISP) is the process of establishing a program for implementation and use of information systems in ways that will optimize effectiveness of information resources and use them to support the objectives of the organization. Basic steps in SISP methodology are outlined. (JKP)

  12. Information sources [Chapter 12

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniel G. Neary; John N. Rinne; Alvin L. Medina

    2012-01-01

    The main information sources for the UVR consist of several web sites with general information and bibliographies. RMRS has publications on its Air, Water, Aquatic Environments (AWAE) Program Flagstaff web site. Another RMRS and University of Arizona website on semi-arid and arid watersheds contains a large, searchable bibliography of supporting information from the...

  13. Informed Consent and Routinisation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ploug, Thomas; Holm, Søren

    2013-01-01

    This article introduces the notion of ‘routinisation’ into discussions of informed consent. It is argued that the routinisation of informed consent poses a threat to the protection of the personal autonomy of a patient through the negotiation of informed consent. On the basis of a large survey, we...

  14. Information technology ethics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hongladarom, Soraj; Ess, Charles

    This book was the first publication to take a genuinely global approach to the diverse ethical issues evoked by Information and Communication Technologies and their possible resolutions. Readers will gain a greater appreciation for the problems and possibilities of genuinely global information...... ethics, which are urgently needed as information and communication technologies continue their exponential growth...

  15. Shifting Boundaries in Information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schiller, Anita

    1981-01-01

    Social interest in information as a shared resource is diminishing, while proprietary interest in information as a profitable resource increases. Technological advancement in information processing and services, considerations of cost recovery by public agencies, and opportunities for commercial profit are blurring distinctions between the public…

  16. Mobile Student Information System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asif, Muhammad; Krogstie, John

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: A mobile student information system (MSIS) based on mobile computing and context-aware application concepts can provide more user-centric information services to students. The purpose of this paper is to describe a system for providing relevant information to students on a mobile platform. Design/methodology/approach: The research…

  17. Security classification of information

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quist, A.S.

    1993-04-01

    This document is the second of a planned four-volume work that comprehensively discusses the security classification of information. The main focus of Volume 2 is on the principles for classification of information. Included herein are descriptions of the two major types of information that governments classify for national security reasons (subjective and objective information), guidance to use when determining whether information under consideration for classification is controlled by the government (a necessary requirement for classification to be effective), information disclosure risks and benefits (the benefits and costs of classification), standards to use when balancing information disclosure risks and benefits, guidance for assigning classification levels (Top Secret, Secret, or Confidential) to classified information, guidance for determining how long information should be classified (classification duration), classification of associations of information, classification of compilations of information, and principles for declassifying and downgrading information. Rules or principles of certain areas of our legal system (e.g., trade secret law) are sometimes mentioned to .provide added support to some of those classification principles.

  18. Algorithmic information theory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P.D. Grünwald; P.M.B. Vitányi

    2008-01-01

    We introduce algorithmic information theory, also known as the theory of Kolmogorov complexity. We explain the main concepts of this quantitative approach to defining `information'. We discuss the extent to which Kolmogorov's and Shannon's information theory have a common purpose, and where they are

  19. Algorithmic information theory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P.D. Grünwald; P.M.B. Vitányi

    2008-01-01

    We introduce algorithmic information theory, also known as the theory of Kolmogorov complexity. We explain the main concepts of this quantitative approach to defining 'information'. We discuss the extent to which Kolmogorov's and Shannon's information theory have a common purpose, and where they are

  20. Information Design Theories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pettersson, Rune

    2014-01-01

    Information design has practical and theoretical components. As an academic discipline we may view information design as a combined discipline, a practical theory, or as a theoretical practice. So far information design has incorporated facts, influences, methods, practices, principles, processes, strategies, and tools from a large number of…

  1. Algorithmic information theory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grünwald, P.D.; Vitányi, P.M.B.

    2008-01-01

    We introduce algorithmic information theory, also known as the theory of Kolmogorov complexity. We explain the main concepts of this quantitative approach to defining `information'. We discuss the extent to which Kolmogorov's and Shannon's information theory have a common purpose, and where they are

  2. Algorithmic information theory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grünwald, P.D.; Vitányi, P.M.B.; Adriaans, P.; van Benthem, J.

    2008-01-01

    We introduce algorithmic information theory, also known as the theory of Kolmogorov complexity. We explain the main concepts of this quantitative approach to defining 'information'. We discuss the extent to which Kolmogorov's and Shannon's information theory have a common purpose, and where they are

  3. Perspectives on Information

    CERN Document Server

    Ramage, Magnus

    2011-01-01

    This book presents an insider's perspective on information in a wide range of disciplines, from quantum physics to library science. It reflects the diversity of understanding of information within these disciplines, but also brings clarity and coherence to the different perspectives through promoting information as a unifying concept.

  4. Information Technology Initiative (Videorecording),

    Science.gov (United States)

    Physical description: 1 VHS video; col.; sd.; mono.; standard playback sp.; 35:40 mins.; 1/2 in. In this video, Dr. Kurt Fisher, Deputy Director for Information Technology , introduces the Corporate Information Management (CIM) program and explains the following major technical initiatives: reuse/repositories; I-case; data administration; information technology architecture; software process improvement; standards.

  5. Traveler response to information

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chorus, C.G.

    2007-01-01

    The past few years have witnessed an impressive progress in the capabilities of travel information services. It is expected that in a few years, travelers will be constantly informed, pre-trip as well as en-route, about their optimal departure time, route and transport mode. The information is based

  6. Teaching Information Technology Law

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, M. J.; Jones, R. P.; Haggerty, J.; Gresty, D.

    2009-01-01

    In this paper we discuss an approach to the teaching of information technology law to higher education computing students that attempts to prepare them for professional computing practice. As information technology has become ubiquitous its interactions with the law have become more numerous. Information technology practitioners, and in particular…

  7. Information Retrieval Models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hiemstra, Djoerd; Göker, Ayse; Davies, John

    2009-01-01

    Many applications that handle information on the internet would be completely inadequate without the support of information retrieval technology. How would we find information on the world wide web if there were no web search engines? How would we manage our email without spam filtering? Much of the

  8. Mobile Student Information System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asif, Muhammad; Krogstie, John

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: A mobile student information system (MSIS) based on mobile computing and context-aware application concepts can provide more user-centric information services to students. The purpose of this paper is to describe a system for providing relevant information to students on a mobile platform. Design/methodology/approach: The research…

  9. Information system metaphors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gazendam, Henk W.M.

    1999-01-01

    Metaphors are useful because they are efficient: they transfer a complex of meaning in a few words. Information systems are social constructs. Therefore, metaphors seem to be especially useful for explaining the space of possible meaning complexes or designs of information systems. Three information

  10. Geothermal Greenhouse Information Package

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rafferty, K. [P.E.; Boyd, T. [ed.

    1997-01-01

    This package of information is intended to provide a foundation of background information for developers of geothermal greenhouses. The material is divided into seven sections covering such issues as crop culture and prices, operating costs for greenhouses, heating system design, vendors and a list of other sources of information.

  11. Is Information Still Relevant?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Lia

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: The term "information" in information science does not share the characteristics of those of a nomenclature: it does not bear a generally accepted definition and it does not serve as the bases and assumptions for research studies. As the data deluge has arrived, is the concept of information still relevant for information…

  12. Evaluating Health Information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millions of consumers get health information from magazines, TV or the Internet. Some of the information is reliable and up to date; some is not. How can ... the site have an editorial board? Is the information reviewed before it is posted? Be skeptical. Things ...

  13. The Information Search

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doraiswamy, Uma

    2011-01-01

    This paper in the form of story discusses a college student's information search process. In this story we see Kuhlthau's information search process: initiation, selection, exploration, formulation, collection, and presentation. Katie is a student who goes in search of information for her class research paper. Katie's class readings, her interest…

  14. Kuhlthau's Information Search Process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shannon, Donna

    2002-01-01

    Explains Kuhlthau's Information Search Process (ISP) model which is based on a constructivist view of learning and provides a framework for school library media specialists for the design of information services and instruction. Highlights include a shift from library skills to information skills; attitudes; process approach; and an interview with…

  15. Futures Information Interchange.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massachusetts Univ., Amherst. School of Education.

    This newsletter is an information exchange effort on the part of the Futures Information Center being established at the University of Massachusetts. Typical issues will contain information on innovative lesson plans, ideas, materials, project descriptions, or other facets which are being implemented at various levels and schools on the topic of…

  16. Medical Information Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Kent A.

    1986-01-01

    Description of information services from the National Library of Medicine (NLM) highlights a new system for retrieving information from NLM's databases (GRATEFUL MED); a formal Regional Medical Library Network; DOCLINE; the Unified Medical Language System; and Integrated Academic Information Management Systems. Research and development and the…

  17. Information Retrieval Models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hiemstra, Djoerd; Göker, Ayse; Davies, John

    2009-01-01

    Many applications that handle information on the internet would be completely inadequate without the support of information retrieval technology. How would we find information on the world wide web if there were no web search engines? How would we manage our email without spam filtering? Much of the

  18. Connectionist Interaction Information Retrieval.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dominich, Sandor

    2003-01-01

    Discussion of connectionist views for adaptive clustering in information retrieval focuses on a connectionist clustering technique and activation spreading-based information retrieval model using the interaction information retrieval method. Presents theoretical as well as simulation results as regards computational complexity and includes…

  19. Museums, Environments, Information

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koutamanis, A.

    2015-01-01

    Modern digital media already permeate the physical world. The portability of information devices and the ubiquity of networks allow us to access information practically anyplace, creating digital overlays on reality. This also allows us to bring information we routinely archive in museums and collec

  20. Information Law and Copyright.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marx, Peter A.

    1986-01-01

    Because of information law's inability to keep up with rapid changes in information technology and impreciseness of the law, copyrighting of databases poses unique problems. Interpretation of fair use doctrine, privately owned computer "downloading," impact of federal electronic filing, and questions concerning information businesses need to be…

  1. MILITARY INFORMATION SYSTEMS,

    Science.gov (United States)

    upward are usually indications of how effectively the system is developing or operating. The use of computers in information systems tends to increase...computers into information systems must always begin at the lowest level of aggregation in the job hierarchy. Only those information-processing jobs

  2. Lofar information system design

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Valentijn, E.; Belikov, A. N.

    2009-01-01

    The Lofar Information System is a solution for Lofar Long Term Archive that is capable to store and handle PBs of raw and processed data. The newly created information system is based on Astro-WISE - the information system for wide field astronomy. We review an adaptation of Astro-WISE for the new t

  3. Information Interoperability Domains

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lasschuyt, E.

    2004-01-01

    Coalition-wide interoperability can be improved considerably by better harmonisation of all major information standardisation efforts within NATO. This notion is supported by the concept of dividing the NATO C3 information area into more or less independent “information interoperability domains”, co

  4. What Is Information Design?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redish, Janice C. (Ginny)

    2000-01-01

    Defines two meanings of information design: the overall process of developing a successful document; and the way the information is presented on the screen (layout, typography, color, and so forth). Discusses the future importance of both of these meanings of information design, in terms of design for the web and single-sources (planning…

  5. Closing the Information Loop

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marck, J.W.; Gosliga, S.P. van

    2008-01-01

    Decision support systems require a form of situation awareness. to generate situation awareness information is needed. not all available information is necessary or equally influential. this paper proposes a way to determine which and when information is relevant. the goal of this is to minimize

  6. Dynamic statistical information theory

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XING; Xiusan

    2006-01-01

    In recent years we extended Shannon static statistical information theory to dynamic processes and established a Shannon dynamic statistical information theory, whose core is the evolution law of dynamic entropy and dynamic information. We also proposed a corresponding Boltzmman dynamic statistical information theory. Based on the fact that the state variable evolution equation of respective dynamic systems, i.e. Fokker-Planck equation and Liouville diffusion equation can be regarded as their information symbol evolution equation, we derived the nonlinear evolution equations of Shannon dynamic entropy density and dynamic information density and the nonlinear evolution equations of Boltzmann dynamic entropy density and dynamic information density, that describe respectively the evolution law of dynamic entropy and dynamic information. The evolution equations of these two kinds of dynamic entropies and dynamic informations show in unison that the time rate of change of dynamic entropy densities is caused by their drift, diffusion and production in state variable space inside the systems and coordinate space in the transmission processes; and that the time rate of change of dynamic information densities originates from their drift, diffusion and dissipation in state variable space inside the systems and coordinate space in the transmission processes. Entropy and information have been combined with the state and its law of motion of the systems. Furthermore we presented the formulas of two kinds of entropy production rates and information dissipation rates, the expressions of two kinds of drift information flows and diffusion information flows. We proved that two kinds of information dissipation rates (or the decrease rates of the total information) were equal to their corresponding entropy production rates (or the increase rates of the total entropy) in the same dynamic system. We obtained the formulas of two kinds of dynamic mutual informations and dynamic channel

  7. Management of information organizations

    CERN Document Server

    Afzal, Waseem

    2012-01-01

    This book is a significant step towards developing a body of management knowledge pertinent to the context of Library Information Science (LIS) and provides a succinct but deep account of management and information organizations. Management of Information Organizations presents a broad view of the information organizations and the nature of management in these organizations, and how information professionals are affected by such management systems. The book equips the reader with the knowledge that will enable them to develop a strong intellectual foundation relating to management and its mani

  8. Information society studies

    CERN Document Server

    Duff, Alistair S

    2013-01-01

    We are often told that we are ""living in an information society"" or that we are ""information workers."" But what exactly do these claims mean, and how might they be verified? In this important methodological study, Alistair S. Duff cuts through the rhetoric to get to the bottom of the ""information society thesis."" Wide-ranging in coverage, this study will be of interest to scholars in information science, communication and media studies and social theory. It is a key text for the newly-unified specialism of information society studies, and an indispensable guide to the future of this disc

  9. Information behaviour and practice

    CERN Document Server

    Rafferty, Pauline; Baker, David

    2015-01-01

    This special issue explores information behaviour and practice in general, and specifically focuses on the implications for library and information services. Information seeking behaviour and information practice remain areas of importance in information science and librarianship, perhaps even more so in the digital age. This special issue is an opportunity to share ideas and scholarship and to explore models and methods. The papers chosen for inclusion cover a range of topics and approach them from a number of different epistemological and methodological positions demonstrating the liveliness

  10. Information systems project management

    CERN Document Server

    Olson, David

    2014-01-01

    Information Systems Project Management addresses project management in the context of information systems. It deals with general project management principles, with focus on the special characteristics of information systems. It is based on an earlier text, but shortened to focus on essential project management elements.This updated version presents various statistics indicating endemic problems in completing information system projects on time, within budget, at designed functionality. While successful completion of an information systems project is a challenge, there are some things that ca

  11. Information: A Conceptual Investigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wolfgang Lenski

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper is devoted to a study of the concept of information. We first situate the concept of information within the context of other philosophical concepts. However, an analysis of the concept of knowledge turns out to be the key when clarifying the concept of information. Our investigations produce the ‘missing link’ for the “severely neglected connection between theories of information and theories of knowledge” (Capurro/Hjørland. The results presented here clarify what information is and have the potential to provide answers to several of Floridi’s “open problems in the philosophy of information”.

  12. Metric adjusted skew information

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Frank

    2008-01-01

    establish a connection between the geometrical formulation of quantum statistics as proposed by Chentsov and Morozova and measures of quantum information as introduced by Wigner and Yanase and extended in this article. We show that the set of normalized Morozova-Chentsov functions describing the possible...... quantum statistics is a Bauer simplex and determine its extreme points. We determine a particularly simple skew information, the "¿-skew information," parametrized by a ¿ ¿ (0, 1], and show that the convex cone this family generates coincides with the set of all metric adjusted skew informations.......We extend the concept of Wigner-Yanase-Dyson skew information to something we call "metric adjusted skew information" (of a state with respect to a conserved observable). This "skew information" is intended to be a non-negative quantity bounded by the variance (of an observable in a state...

  13. Information Impact | Journal of Information and Knowledge ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Information Impact | Journal of Information and Knowledge Management

    the percentage of the respondents that read about breast cancer from the print ... Journal of Information and. Knowledge Management. 2017, Vol. 8 (1) Pg. 13 - 21 ... believed to be a leading female malignancy in the world and most common in ...

  14. Information Assurance and the Information Society

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Luiijf, H.A.M.

    1998-01-01

    Society is on the verge of a new era: the information age. Economical changes, a new way of looking at services and new types of conflict are forecasted. Some glimpses of these changes were noticed during the Persian Gulf War. Government decision units, organisations, society and critical industries

  15. Information Assurance and the Information Society

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Luiijf, H.A.M.

    1998-01-01

    Society is on the verge of a new era: the information age. Economical changes, a new way of looking at services and new types of conflict are forecasted. Some glimpses of these changes were noticed during the Persian Gulf War. Government decision units, organisations, society and critical industries

  16. Information Assurance and the Information Society

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Luiijf, H.A.M.

    1999-01-01

    Society is on the verge of a new era: the information age. Economical changes, a new way of looking at services and new types of conflict are forecasted. Some glimpses of these changes were noticed during the Persian Gulf War. Government decision units, organisations, society and critical industries

  17. Newcomer information seeking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moring, Camilla Elisabeth

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: Research on socialization and learning processes among organizational newcomers is offering valuable insight into the role of information seeking in the workplace, and to why, and how newcomers seek information when entering a new organization. Analysis: The aim of the paper...... is to outline and discuss the significance of information seeking in newcomer socialization and learning, and analyse how different approaches influence our understanding of the role of information seeking in the workplace. Results: It is argued, that a development in research on newcomer information seeking...... in organizations newcomers access to participate and negotiate meaning in practice becomes essential. Information seeking hereby plays a significant role in newcomers learning by establishing, developing, and maintaining a relationship to a given organizational practice. Through accessing textual, social...

  18. Quantum biological information theory

    CERN Document Server

    Djordjevic, Ivan B

    2016-01-01

    This book is a self-contained, tutorial-based introduction to quantum information theory and quantum biology. It serves as a single-source reference to the topic for researchers in bioengineering, communications engineering, electrical engineering, applied mathematics, biology, computer science, and physics. The book provides all the essential principles of the quantum biological information theory required to describe the quantum information transfer from DNA to proteins, the sources of genetic noise and genetic errors as well as their effects. Integrates quantum information and quantum biology concepts; Assumes only knowledge of basic concepts of vector algebra at undergraduate level; Provides a thorough introduction to basic concepts of quantum information processing, quantum information theory, and quantum biology; Includes in-depth discussion of the quantum biological channel modelling, quantum biological channel capacity calculation, quantum models of aging, quantum models of evolution, quantum models o...

  19. The Physics of Information

    CERN Document Server

    Bais, F Alexander

    2007-01-01

    We review of the interface between (theoretical) physics and information for non-experts. The origin of information as related to the notion of entropy is described, first in the context of thermodynamics then in the context of statistical mechanics. A close examination of the foundations of statistical mechanics and the need to reconcile the probabilistic and deterministic views of the world leads us to a discussion of chaotic dynamics, where information plays a crucial role in quantifying predictability. We then discuss a variety of fundamental issues that emerge in defining information and how one must exercise care in discussing concepts such as order, disorder, and incomplete knowledge. We also discuss an alternative form of entropy and its possible relevance for nonequilibrium thermodynamics. In the final part of the paper we discuss how quantum mechanics gives rise to the very different concept of quantum information. Entirely new possibilities for information storage and computation are possible due t...

  20. On Quantifying Semantic Information

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon D’Alfonso

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to look at some existing methods of semantic information quantification and suggest some alternatives. It begins with an outline of Bar-Hillel and Carnap’s theory of semantic information before going on to look at Floridi’s theory of strongly semantic information. The latter then serves to initiate an in-depth investigation into the idea of utilising the notion of truthlikeness to quantify semantic information. Firstly, a couple of approaches to measure truthlikeness are drawn from the literature and explored, with a focus on their applicability to semantic information quantification. Secondly, a similar but new approach to measure truthlikeness/information is presented and some supplementary points are made.

  1. The philosophy of information

    CERN Document Server

    Floridi, Luciano

    2013-01-01

    Luciano Floridi presents a book that will set the agenda for the philosophy of information. Pi is the philosophical field concerned with (1) the critical investigation of the conceptual nature and basic principles of information, including its dynamics, utilisation, and sciences, and (2) the elaboration and application of information-theoretic and computational methodologies to philosophical problems. This book lays down, for the first time, the conceptual foundations for this new area of research. It does so systematically, by pursuing three goals. Its metatheoretical goal is to describe what the philosophy of information is, its problems, approaches, and methods. Its introductory goal is to help the reader to gain a better grasp of the complex and multifarious nature of the various concepts and phenomena related to information. Its analytic goal is to answer several key theoretical questions of great philosophical interest, arising from the investigation of semantic information.

  2. Information, Genetics and Entropy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julio Ernesto Rubio Barrios

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The consolidation of the informational paradigm in molecular biology research concluded on a system to convert the epistemic object into an operational technological object and a stable epistemic product. However, the acceptance of the informational properties of genetic acids failed to clarify the meaning of the concept of information. The “information”’ as a property of the genetic molecules remained as an informal notion that allows the description of the mechanism of inheritance, but it was not specified in a logic–semantic structure. The metaphorical implications associated with the idea of genes as molecules with meaning, questioned the linguistics that seemed too foreign to molecular biology. A reformulation of the concept of information in molecular biology was developed upon the theory of Claude Shannon. The node for the structural coupling between biology, physics and information theory was the identification of an analog structure between the coded messages of Shannon’s theory.

  3. Accident management information needs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hanson, D.J.; Ward, L.W.; Nelson, W.R.; Meyer, O.R. (EG and G Idaho, Inc., Idaho Falls, ID (USA))

    1990-04-01

    The tables contained in this Appendix A describe the information needs for a pressurized water reactor (PWR) with a large, dry containment. To identify these information needs, the branch points in the safety objective trees were examined to decide what information is necessary to (a) determine the status of the safety functions in the plant, i.e., whether the safety functions are being adequately maintained within predetermined limits, (b) identify plant behavior (mechanisms) or precursors to this behavior which indicate that a challenge to plant safety is occurring or is imminent, and (c) select strategies that will prevent or mitigate this plant behavior and monitor the implementation and effectiveness of these strategies. The information needs for the challenges to the safety functions are not examined since the summation of the information needs for all mechanisms associated with a challenge comprise the information needs for the challenge itself.

  4. Newcomer information seeking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moring, Camilla Elisabeth

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: Research on socialization and learning processes among organizational newcomers is offering valuable insight into the role of information seeking in the workplace, and to why, and how newcomers seek information when entering a new organization. Analysis: The aim of the paper...... is to outline and discuss the significance of information seeking in newcomer socialization and learning, and analyse how different approaches influence our understanding of the role of information seeking in the workplace. Results: It is argued, that a development in research on newcomer information seeking...... in organizations newcomers access to participate and negotiate meaning in practice becomes essential. Information seeking hereby plays a significant role in newcomers learning by establishing, developing, and maintaining a relationship to a given organizational practice. Through accessing textual, social...

  5. What constitutes information integrity?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Flowerday

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available This research focused on what constitutes information integrity as this is a problem facing companies today. Moreover, information integrity is a pillar of information security and is required in order to have a sound security management programme. However, it is acknowledged that 100% information integrity is not currently achievable due to various limitations and therefore the auditing concept of reasonable assurance is adopted. This is in line with the concept that 100% information security is not achievable and the notion that adequate security is the goal, using appropriate countermeasures. The main contribution of this article is to illustrate the importance of and provide a macro view of what constitutes information integrity. The findings are in harmony with Samuel Johnson's words (1751: 'Integrity without knowledge is weak and useless, and knowledge without integrity is dangerous and dreadful.'

  6. What constitutes information integrity?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Flowerday

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available This research focused on what constitutes information integrity as this is a problem facing companies today. Moreover, information integrity is a pillar of information security and is required in order to have a sound security management programme. However, it is acknowledged that 100% information integrity is not currently achievable due to various limitations and therefore the auditing concept of reasonable assurance is adopted. This is in line with the concept that 100% information security is not achievable and the notion that adequate security is the goal, using appropriate countermeasures. The main contribution of this article is to illustrate the importance of and provide a macro view of what constitutes information integrity. The findings are in harmony with Samuel Johnson's words (1751: 'Integrity without knowledge is weak and useless, and knowledge without integrity is dangerous and dreadful.'

  7. Information Needs/Relevance

    OpenAIRE

    Wildemuth, Barbara M.

    2009-01-01

    A user's interaction with a DL is often initiated as the result of the user experiencing an information need of some kind. Aspects of that experience and how it might affect the user's interactions with the DL are discussed in this module. In addition, users continuously make decisions about and evaluations of the materials retrieved from a DL, relative to their information needs. Relevance judgments, and their relationship to the user's information needs, are discussed in this module. Draft

  8. Information technology and management

    OpenAIRE

    Afërdita Berisha-Shaqiri

    2015-01-01

    The rapid development of information technology has influenced informatics as an important role in business development and management. Manifestations of computerization in the current economy mostly reflect the application of information systems for planning and strategic different analysis, especially when making long-term decisions. These systems consist of several information systems and management control systems for decision support. The construction of these systems was originally a re...

  9. Information technology and management

    OpenAIRE

    Afërdita Berisha-Shaqiri

    2015-01-01

    The rapid development of information technology has influenced informatics as an important role in business development and management. Manifestations of computerization in the current economy mostly reflect the application of information systems for planning and strategic different analysis, especially when making long-term decisions. These systems consist of several information systems and management control systems for decision support. The construction of these systems was originally a re...

  10. Medical Information Security

    OpenAIRE

    William C. Figg, Ph.D.; Hwee Joo Kam, M.S.

    2011-01-01

    Modern medicine is facing a complex environment, not from medical technology but rather government regulations and information vulnerability. HIPPA is the government’s attempt to protect patient’s information yet this only addresses traditional record handling. The main threat is from the evolving security issues. Many medical offices and facilities have multiple areas of information security concerns. Physical security is often weak, office personnel are not always aware of security needs an...

  11. Information system security insurance

    OpenAIRE

    Mircea COSMA; Alexandru TATU

    2014-01-01

    Through this paper we intend to show that technological developments in recent decades have created a strong society dependence of the means of communication and information technology. This has been increasingly made aware to ordinary people, but also military and political leaders. Increasing global dependence of sophisticated information systems and interconnection of these can produce significant opportunities and bigger information vulnerabilities. Also technological developments in elec...

  12. Information security factors systematization

    OpenAIRE

    Янченко, Вадим Николавевич; Ивченко, Александр Владимирович; Залога, Вильям Александрович; Дынник, Оксана Дмитриевна

    2015-01-01

    In this article the necessity of solving the theoretical and practical task, aimed on development the methodological basis for elaboration and implementation of information security management system, has been considered. Based on research results of scientific works and the requirements in the field of information security management the universal multilevel system of information security factors of organizations (enterprises) in the wood properties form was offered by using quality control ...

  13. Government information transparency

    OpenAIRE

    Esteban, Joan; Albornoz, Facundo; Vanin, Paolo

    2009-01-01

    This paper studies a model of announcements by a privately informed government about the future state of the economic activity in an economy subject to recurrent shocks and with distortions due to income taxation. Although transparent communication would ex ante be desirable, we find that even a benevolent government may ex-post be non-informative, in an attempt to countervail the tax distortion with a 'second best' compensating distortion in information. This result provides a rationale for ...

  14. Formalized Informal Learning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Levinsen, Karin Tweddell; Sørensen, Birgitte Holm

    2013-01-01

    are examined and the relation between network society competences, learners’ informal learning strategies and ICT in formalized school settings over time is studied. The authors find that aspects of ICT like multimodality, intuitive interaction design and instant feedback invites an informal bricoleur approach....... When integrated into certain designs for teaching and learning, this allows for Formalized Informal Learning and support is found for network society competences building....

  15. Fashion Information Database

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Jun; WU Hai-yan; WANG Yun-yi

    2002-01-01

    In the field of fashion industry, it is a bottleneck of how to control and apply the information in the procedure of fashion merchandising. By the aid of digital technology,a perfect and practical fashion information database could be established so that high- quality and efficient,low-cost and characteristic fashion merchandising system could be realized. The basic structure of fashion information database is discussed.

  16. Quantum algorithmic information theory

    OpenAIRE

    Svozil, Karl

    1995-01-01

    The agenda of quantum algorithmic information theory, ordered `top-down,' is the quantum halting amplitude, followed by the quantum algorithmic information content, which in turn requires the theory of quantum computation. The fundamental atoms processed by quantum computation are the quantum bits which are dealt with in quantum information theory. The theory of quantum computation will be based upon a model of universal quantum computer whose elementary unit is a two-port interferometer capa...

  17. ECONOMICS OF INFORMATION SYSTEMS

    Science.gov (United States)

    The paper presents a study of the rational choice-making of an individual from among available information systems , or available components of such...components, of information systems . The available set depends on the choices made by suppliers. Joint choices by demanders and suppliers would...determine which information systems are in fact produced and used under given external conditions. These conditions include the technological knowledge of those concerned.

  18. Management Information Systems Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Research on management information systems is illusive in many respects. Part of the basic research problem in MIS stems from the absence of standard...definitions and the lack of a unified body of theory. Organizations continue to develop large and often very efficient information systems , but...decision making. But the transition from these results to the realization of ’satisfactory’ management information systems remains difficult indeed. The

  19. Geometric theory of information

    CERN Document Server

    2014-01-01

    This book brings together geometric tools and their applications for Information analysis. It collects current and many uses of in the interdisciplinary fields of Information Geometry Manifolds in Advanced Signal, Image & Video Processing, Complex Data Modeling and Analysis, Information Ranking and Retrieval, Coding, Cognitive Systems, Optimal Control, Statistics on Manifolds, Machine Learning, Speech/sound recognition, and natural language treatment which are also substantially relevant for the industry.

  20. Information security fundamentals

    CERN Document Server

    Peltier, Thomas R

    2013-01-01

    Developing an information security program that adheres to the principle of security as a business enabler must be the first step in an enterprise's effort to build an effective security program. Following in the footsteps of its bestselling predecessor, Information Security Fundamentals, Second Edition provides information security professionals with a clear understanding of the fundamentals of security required to address the range of issues they will experience in the field.The book examines the elements of computer security, employee roles and r

  1. Informing South African Students about Information Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mike Hart

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available At the University of Cape Town, females and students disadvantaged under the previous South African apartheid education system are under-represented in Information Systems (I.S. classes. This research shows that these are also the groups most ignorant about I.S. at the school-leaving stage. After being informed about the discipline through a small intervention, a significant increase in enthusiasm for majoring in and being employed in I.S. occurred. This should result in a better educational fit and greater enrolment of these groups in I.S., and reduce some switching to I.S. from other subjects at a later stage. The key influencing sources for university students' study decisions are also examined, and it is evident that a different approach is needed for each group in order to maximize the number of quality I.S. graduates.

  2. We inform you, you inform us

    CERN Multimedia

    Association du personnel

    2008-01-01

    Our September information meetings have ended and we thank the many people who came. This will allow us to start an extremely useful dialogue that we will continue with the survey announced at these meetings, which is now available. We invite all CERN staff members to reply to this questionnaire to enable us to have an accurate picture of your expectations and wishes with respect to the evolution of social and employment policies.

  3. Airports Geographic Information System -

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Transportation — The Airports Geographic Information System maintains the airport and aeronautical data required to meet the demands of the Next Generation National Airspace System....

  4. Quantum information causality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pitalúa-García, Damián

    2013-05-24

    How much information can a transmitted physical system fundamentally communicate? We introduce the principle of quantum information causality, which states the maximum amount of quantum information that a quantum system can communicate as a function of its dimension, independently of any previously shared quantum physical resources. We present a new quantum information task, whose success probability is upper bounded by the new principle, and show that an optimal strategy to perform it combines the quantum teleportation and superdense coding protocols with a task that has classical inputs.

  5. Continuous information flow fluctuations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosinberg, Martin Luc; Horowitz, Jordan M.

    2016-10-01

    Information plays a pivotal role in the thermodynamics of nonequilibrium processes with feedback. However, much remains to be learned about the nature of information fluctuations in small-scale devices and their relation with fluctuations in other thermodynamics quantities, like heat and work. Here we derive a series of fluctuation theorems for information flow and partial entropy production in a Brownian particle model of feedback cooling and extend them to arbitrary driven diffusion processes. We then analyze the long-time behavior of the feedback-cooling model in detail. Our results provide insights into the structure and origin of large deviations of information and thermodynamic quantities in autonomous Maxwell's demons.

  6. Quality of Information

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Leif

    2016-01-01

    Accounting and auditing is closely related to the quality of data. Two important elements supporting the quality of information are internal controls and materiality. Inspired by Simons (1994), these elements can be considered “basic building blocks”. Internal controls are perhaps the most...... important element, as they ensure that information used for management purposes has the required quality (Kinney, 2000). This information can be used as a basis for preparing the external financial reporting (COSO, 2013) and as a prerequisite for establishing information-based management control systems...

  7. Information, conservation and retrieval

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eng, T. [Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Co., Stockholm (Sweden); Norberg, E. [National Swedish Archives, Stockholm (Sweden); Torbacke, J. [Stockholm Univ. (Sweden). Dept. of History; Jensen, M. [Swedish Radiation Protection Inst., Stockholm (Sweden)

    1996-12-01

    The seminar took place on the Swedish ship for transportation of radioactive wastes, M/S Sigyn, which at summer time is used for exhibitions. The seminar treated items related to general information needs in society and questions related to radioactive waste, i.e. how knowledge about a waste repository should be passed on to future generations. Three contributions are contained in the report from the seminar and are indexed separately: `Active preservation - otherwise no achieves`; `The conservation and dissemination of information - A democratic issue`; and, `Conservation and retrieval of information - Elements of a strategy to inform future societies about nuclear waste repositories`.

  8. Sustainability of scholarly information

    CERN Document Server

    Chowdhury, G G

    2015-01-01

    Professor Gobinda Chowdhury BSc Hons, MSc, PhD, FCLIP is Professor in Information Science at iSchool@northumbria, and Head of the Department of Mathematics and Information Sciences at Northumbria University. Before joining Northumbria University he was a Professor and Director of the Centre for Information and Knowledge Management at the University of Technology Sydney, Australia. For over 25 years he has worked as an academic and researcher in information science in different parts of the world including Asia, Africa, Europe and Australia. For the past few years he has been actively involved

  9. Teaching information seeking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Louise Limberg

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. The article argues for a closer association between information seeking research and the practices of teaching information seeking. Findings are presented from a research project on information seeking, didactics and learning (IDOL investigating librarians' and teachers' experiences of teaching information seeking. Method. Thirteen teachers and five librarians, teaching 12-19 year-old students in three schools, participated. Forty-five interviews were conducted over a period of three years. Analysis. The IDOL project adopted a phenomenographic approach with the purpose of describing patterns of variation in experiences. The findings were also analysed by way of relating them to four competing approaches to the mediation of information literacy. Results. A gap was identified between experiences of teaching content that focused on sources and order, and experiences of assessment criteria applied to students' work that focused on the importance of correct facts and the analysis of information. These findings indicate a highly restricted range of teaching contents when compared with the four theoretical approaches to the mediation of information literacy. Conclusion. Teaching information seeking might be enhanced by a wider repertoire of contents reflecting more varied theoretical understanding developed in information seeking research, particularly as regards the importance of content and context related to user perspectives.

  10. Business Information Culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gunilla Widén-Wulff

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available This research project is going to review the existing information cultures in 15 Finnish insurance businesses through a qualitative study. The interview-material consists of 40 in-depth-interviews and they are being analysed through the multiple case study method. The analysis is conducted in 5 stages considering information environment, information as resource, work processes, innovation and business success. The information culture varieties compared to the business success will hopefully be useful to create an understanding for the need of a broad understanding of the modern knowledge management concept in business organisations.

  11. What is Information?

    CERN Document Server

    Adami, Christoph

    2016-01-01

    Information is a precise concept that can be defined mathematically, but its relationship to what we call "knowledge" is not always made clear. Furthermore, the concepts "entropy" and "information", while deeply related, are distinct and must be used with care, something that is not always achieved in the literature. In this elementary introduction, the concepts of entropy and information are laid out one by one, explained intuitively, but defined rigorously. I argue that a proper understanding of information in terms of prediction is key to a number of disciplines beyond engineering, such as physics and biology.

  12. Future of information architecture

    CERN Document Server

    Baofu, Peter

    2008-01-01

    The Future of Information Architecture examines issues surrounding why information is processed, stored and applied in the way that it has, since time immemorial. Contrary to the conventional wisdom held by many scholars in human history, the recurrent debate on the explanation of the most basic categories of information (eg space, time causation, quality, quantity) has been misconstrued, to the effect that there exists some deeper categories and principles behind these categories of information - with enormous implications for our understanding of reality in general. To understand this, the b

  13. Financial information processing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shuo BAI; Shouyang WANG; Lean YU; Aoying ZHOU

    2009-01-01

    @@ The rapid growth in financial data volume has made financial information processing more and more difficult due to the increase in complexity, which has forced businesses and academics alike to turn to sophisticated information processing technologies for better solutions. A typical feature is that high-performance computers and advanced computational techniques play ever-increasingly important roles for business and industries to have competitive advantages. Accordingly, financial information processing has emerged as a new cross-disciplinary field integrating computer science, mathematics, financial economics, intelligent techniques, and computer simulations to make different decisions based on processed financial information.

  14. Brownfields Site Information

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This asset contains all Brownfield facility data. It includes all information necessary to track Brownfields grant recipients' environmental progress at Brownfield...

  15. Questions and information systems

    CERN Document Server

    Lauer, Thomas W; Graesser, Arthur C

    2013-01-01

    The design and functioning of an information system improve to the extent that the system can handle the questions people ask. Surprisingly, however, researchers in the cognitive, computer, and information sciences have not thoroughly examined the multitude of relationships between information systems and questions -- both question asking and answering. The purpose of this book is to explicitly examine these relationships. Chapter contributors believe that questions play a central role in the analysis, design, and use of different kinds of natural or artificial information systems such as huma

  16. Security classification of information

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quist, A.S.

    1989-09-01

    Certain governmental information must be classified for national security reasons. However, the national security benefits from classifying information are usually accompanied by significant costs -- those due to a citizenry not fully informed on governmental activities, the extra costs of operating classified programs and procuring classified materials (e.g., weapons), the losses to our nation when advances made in classified programs cannot be utilized in unclassified programs. The goal of a classification system should be to clearly identify that information which must be protected for national security reasons and to ensure that information not needing such protection is not classified. This document was prepared to help attain that goal. This document is the first of a planned four-volume work that comprehensively discusses the security classification of information. Volume 1 broadly describes the need for classification, the basis for classification, and the history of classification in the United States from colonial times until World War 2. Classification of information since World War 2, under Executive Orders and the Atomic Energy Acts of 1946 and 1954, is discussed in more detail, with particular emphasis on the classification of atomic energy information. Adverse impacts of classification are also described. Subsequent volumes will discuss classification principles, classification management, and the control of certain unclassified scientific and technical information. 340 refs., 6 tabs.

  17. Executive information system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vitullo, M.; Winter, C.; Johnson, D.R.

    1984-07-01

    The Executive Information System (EIS) is a computer-based information handling system. The system has been designed and implemented for Energy Conversion and Utilization Technologies to allow program managers easy access and tracking of certain types of reporting at various levels of management interaction, to simplify the handling of program-related data, and to streamline the preparation of reporting documents and responses to requests for information from the program. The EIS is especially useful in assisting DOE program managers in the routine dissemination of reports and information. The characteristics of each component of the EIS are discussed. A user's guide to the EIS is included in this report.

  18. EDIS Investigation Filing Information

    Data.gov (United States)

    US International Trade Commission — This dataset contains investigation, document and attachment metadata from the USITC's Electronic Document Information System (EDIS), as well as access to attached...

  19. Information security management handbook

    CERN Document Server

    Tipton, Harold F

    2003-01-01

    Since 1993, the Information Security Management Handbook has served not only as an everyday reference for information security practitioners but also as an important document for conducting the intense review necessary to prepare for the Certified Information System Security Professional (CISSP) examination. Now completely revised and updated and in its fifth edition, the handbook maps the ten domains of the Information Security Common Body of Knowledge and provides a complete understanding of all the items in it. This is a ...must have... book, both for preparing for the CISSP exam and as a c

  20. Information literacy through Moodle

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Cabrera Rossi, Gabriela Fernanda

    .... The contribution of the librarian is analyzed, as information manager, evaluating resources and then make them available to the academic community of students, providing actions that contribute...

  1. Health Information Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sirintrapun, S Joseph; Artz, David R

    2015-06-01

    This article provides surgical pathologists an overview of health information systems (HISs): what they are, what they do, and how such systems relate to the practice of surgical pathology. Much of this article is dedicated to the electronic medical record. Information, in how it is captured, transmitted, and conveyed, drives the effectiveness of such electronic medical record functionalities. So critical is information from pathology in integrated clinical care that surgical pathologists are becoming gatekeepers of not only tissue but also information. Better understanding of HISs can empower surgical pathologists to become stakeholders who have an impact on the future direction of quality integrated clinical care.

  2. Credential Application Awaiting Information

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — When a Credential application or required documentation is incomplete, an Awaiting Information letter is issued. The application process cannot continue until all...

  3. Definition of Information

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boris Sunik

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available This definition can be applied to information of every kind, level and complexity. Information is considered as the feature manifesting itself in the relations between certain real world
    entities. The real world has to be seen in terms of objects, actions, relations and properties.. The defintion is used as the basis of the Theory of Meaningful Information [1] that explains the nature and functionality of information and enables the production of relevant definitions regarding language and knowledge, which remain operative also in the case of non-human languages and
    knowledge systems.

  4. Introduction to information science

    CERN Document Server

    Bawden, David

    2012-01-01

    This landmark textbook takes a whole subject approach to Information Science as a discipline. Introduced by leading international scholars and offering a global perspective on the discipline, this is designed to be the standard text for students worldwide. The authors' expert narrative guides you through each of the essential building blocks of information science offering a concise introduction and expertly chosen further reading and resources.Critical topics covered include:foundations: concepts, theories and historical perspectivesorganising and retrieving Information information behaviour,

  5. DILEMA KEBERADAAN SEKTOR INFORMAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hartati Sulistyo Rini

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Sebagai sistem ekonomi alternatif, keberadaan sektor informal mengundang pro dan kontra. Peranannya yang signifikan sebagai katup pengaman ekonomi nasional belum diimbangi dengan proteksi atau perlindungan dari pemerintah. Tujuan penelitian ini adalah membahas peran sektor informal dalam mengatasi masalah sosial ekonomi masyarakat dan dilema yang dialami oleh sektor informal dalam menjalankan perannya tersebut. Hasil penelitian ini menunjukkan terdapat peran sektor informal pada bidang ketenagakerjaan dan penyerapan angka pengangguran. Sektor formal dianggap tidak mampu menyediakan kesempatan kerja untuk seluruh lapisan masyarakat, apalagi mereka yang ada pada posisi marjinal. Pada beberapa kasus-khususnya yang berhubungan dengan sektor informal perkotaan perlakuan dan kebijakan negara menjadi sangat diskriminatif karena seringkali berhadapan dengan kebijakan negara yang bahkan berakhir dengan kekerasan.  Perlindungan terhadap sektor informal salah satunya adalah pada pedagang kaki lima di Surakarta.  Kota ini menjadi contoh representatif dalam pengorganisasian kepentingan  pemerintah  dan pedagang kaki lima. Ini dapat menjadi inspirasi positif bagi penanganan sektor informal di tempat yang lain untuk memperluas lapangan kerja bagi masyarakat dan meningkatkan kesejahteraan sosial. As an alternative economic system, the existence of informal sector invites pros and cons. The significant role of informal sector as a safety valve of the national economy has not been matched by government with the protection or support The objective of this study is to discuss the role of the informal sector in addressing social and economic issues, and the dilemma faced by the informal sector in carrying out this role. The results of this study shows that there is an important role of the informal sector in the field of employment and unemployment absorption. The formal sector is not considered able to provide job opportunities to all levels of society

  6. 10 CFR 851.8 - Informal requests for information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Informal requests for information. 851.8 Section 851.8... for information. (a) Any person may informally request information under this section as to how to... § 851.7. DOE responses to informal requests for information under this section are not binding on DOE...

  7. Advisory and Information Services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dijkgraaf, C.

    1974-01-01

    In 1956 the Foundation Information Centre for School-Building (ICS) was established to give information and advice in the field of school building in the widest sense by study and research, documentation, the development of new prototypes, the organization of exhibitions and meetings, and cooperation with other institutes in the Netherlands and…

  8. Women in Information Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wentling, Rose Mary; Thomas, Steven P.

    2004-01-01

    There is a major concern about the drop of young women entering Computer Science degree programs and a drop in the participation of women in these information technology occupations. In all levels of educational institutions across the nation, girls and women remain under-represented in computer and information science studies and subsequently,…

  9. Trust in online information

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lucassen, T.

    2013-01-01

    The introduction of the Internet has made it very easy to gain information on any topic imaginable. The downside of this development is that it has become much harder to evaluate the credibility of this information, as it is often unclear who the author is. In this dissertation, the way Internet use

  10. Shipping Information Pipeline

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Thomas; Vatrapu, Ravi

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a design science approach to solving persistent problems in the international shipping eco system by creating the missing common information infrastructures. Specifically, this paper reports on an ongoing dialogue between stakeholders in the shipping industry and information s...... impacts on global trade and local economies....

  11. Information or communication

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahms, Mona-Lisa

    2004-01-01

    The paper describes the development in Tanzania, in terms of information and communication technologies and how these developments have influenced people's daily life.......The paper describes the development in Tanzania, in terms of information and communication technologies and how these developments have influenced people's daily life....

  12. Information technology and management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Afërdita Berisha-Shaqiri

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The rapid development of information technology has influenced informatics as an important role in business development and management. Manifestations of computerization in the current economy mostly reflect the application of information systems for planning and strategic different analysis, especially when making long-term decisions. These systems consist of several information systems and management control systems for decision support. The construction of these systems was originally a requirement for the strategic planning of top managers (the highest level of leadership having as a primary goal the easier access to important information, especially those that were classified as critical for success in business. Expert systems for example offered the possibility of linking information technology with other telecommunication channels which makes them possible to identify many problems. In this context, this paper will focus on presenting the great importance of information technology as a powerful tool to manage business problems precisely because information systems provide exceptional business value. Information Technology examines the reasons for the problems and offers solutions to manage and reduce them.

  13. Facilitating networks of information

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E.M. van Mulligen (Erik); M. Diwersy; M.E. Schmidt (Marie); H. Buurman; B. Mons (Barend)

    2000-01-01

    textabstractIn this paper we describe an approach to respond to a request for information with the identification and location of the appropriate person as a source of information for answering the question. The expertise of a person is characterized using a weighted pr

  14. LOFAR Information System

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Begeman, K.; Belikov, A. N.; Boxhoorn, D. R.; Dijkstra, F.; Holties, H.; Meyer-Zhao, Z.; Renting, G. A.; Valentijn, E. A.; Vriend, W. -J.

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, we present a newly designed and implemented scientific information system for the LOFAR Long Term Archive. It is a distributed multi-tier storage and data processing system that allows a number of users to process Petabytes of data. The LOFAR Information System is designed on the base

  15. Science and information theory

    CERN Document Server

    Brillouin, Leon

    2013-01-01

    A classic source for exploring the connections between information theory and physics, this text is geared toward upper-level undergraduates and graduate students. The author, a giant of 20th-century mathematics, applies the principles of information theory to a variety of issues, including Maxwell's demon, thermodynamics, and measurement problems. 1962 edition.

  16. What is quantum information?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lombardi, Olimpia; Holik, Federico; Vanni, Leonardo

    2016-11-01

    In the present article we address the question 'What is quantum information?' from a conceptual viewpoint. In particular, we argue that there seems to be no sufficiently good reasons to accept that quantum information is qualitatively different from classical information. The view that, in the communicational context, there is only one kind of information, physically neutral, which can be encoded by means of classical or quantum states has, in turn, interesting conceptual advantages. First, it dissolves the widely discussed puzzles of teleportation without the need to assume a particular interpretation of information. Second, and from a more general viewpoint, it frees the attempts to reconstruct quantum mechanics on the basis of informational constraints from any risk of circularity; furthermore, it endows them with a strong conceptual appealing and, derivatively, opens the way to the possibility of a non-reductive unification of physics. Finally, in the light of the idea of the physical neutrality of information, the wide field of research about classical models for quantum information acquires a particular conceptual and philosophical interest.

  17. Carbon Monoxide Information Center

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... main content Languages 简体中文 English Bahasa Indonesia 한국어 Español ภาษาไทย Tiếng Việt Text Size: Decrease Font Increase ... Monoxide Information Center Carbon Monoxide Information Center En Español The Invisible Killer Carbon monoxide, also known as ...

  18. Air System Information Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filman, Robert E.

    2004-01-01

    I flew to Washington last week, a trip rich in distributed information management. Buying tickets, at the gate, in flight, landing and at the baggage claim, myriad messages about my reservation, the weather, our flight plans, gates, bags and so forth flew among a variety of travel agency, airline and Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) computers and personnel. By and large, each kind of information ran on a particular application, often specialized to own data formats and communications network. I went to Washington to attend an FAA meeting on System-Wide Information Management (SWIM) for the National Airspace System (NAS) (http://www.nasarchitecture.faa.gov/Tutorials/NAS101.cfm). NAS (and its information infrastructure, SWIM) is an attempt to bring greater regularity, efficiency and uniformity to the collection of stovepipe applications now used to manage air traffic. Current systems hold information about flight plans, flight trajectories, weather, air turbulence, current and forecast weather, radar summaries, hazardous condition warnings, airport and airspace capacity constraints, temporary flight restrictions, and so forth. Information moving among these stovepipe systems is usually mediated by people (for example, air traffic controllers) or single-purpose applications. People, whose intelligence is critical for difficult tasks and unusual circumstances, are not as efficient as computers for tasks that can be automated. Better information sharing can lead to higher system capacity, more efficient utilization and safer operations. Better information sharing through greater automation is possible though not necessarily easy.

  19. Dimensions of Drug Information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharp, Mark E.

    2011-01-01

    The high number, heterogeneity, and inadequate integration of drug information resources constitute barriers to many drug information usage scenarios. In the biomedical domain there is a rich legacy of knowledge representation in ontology-like structures that allows us to connect this problem both to the very mature field of library and…

  20. Assessing Geographic Information Enhancement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Loenen, B.; Zevenbergen, J.

    2010-01-01

    Assessment of geographic information infrastructures (or spatial data infrastructures) is increasingly attracting the attention of researchers in the Geographic information (GI) domain. Especially the assessment of value added GI appears to be complex. By applying the concept of value chain analysis

  1. DOE Information Bridge

    CERN Document Server

    United States. Department of Energy. Office of Scientific and Technical Information

    DOE Information Bridge, a component of EnergyFiles, provides free, convenient, and quick access to full-text DOE research and development reports in physics, chemistry, materials, biology, environmental sciences, energy technologies, engineering, computer and information science, renewable energy, and other topics. This vast collection includes over 43,000 reports that have been received and processed by OSTI since January 1995.

  2. Information Design: A Bibliography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albers, Michael J.; Lisberg, Beth Conney

    2000-01-01

    Presents a 17-item annotated list of essential books on information design chosen by members of the InfoDesign e-mail list. Includes a 113-item unannotated bibliography of additional works, on topics of creativity and critical thinking; visual thinking; graphic design; infographics; information design; instructional design; interface design;…

  3. Mandarin Visual Speech Information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Trevor H.

    2010-01-01

    While the auditory-only aspects of Mandarin speech are heavily-researched and well-known in the field, this dissertation addresses its lesser-known aspects: The visual and audio-visual perception of Mandarin segmental information and lexical-tone information. Chapter II of this dissertation focuses on the audiovisual perception of Mandarin…

  4. Reverse Coherent Information

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Patrón, Raúl; Pirandola, Stefano; Lloyd, Seth; Shapiro, Jeffrey H.

    2009-05-01

    In this Letter we define a family of entanglement distribution protocols assisted by feedback classical communication that gives an operational interpretation to reverse coherent information, i.e., the symmetric counterpart of the well-known coherent information. This leads to the definition of a new entanglement distribution capacity that exceeds the unassisted capacity for some interesting channels.

  5. Medical Information Management System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alterescu, S.; Hipkins, K. R.; Friedman, C. A.

    1979-01-01

    On-line interactive information processing system easily and rapidly handles all aspects of data management related to patient care. General purpose system is flexible enough to be applied to other data management situations found in areas such as occupational safety data, judicial information, or personnel records.

  6. The Information Explosion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuhns, William

    Three facets of the media--events, myths, and sales pitches--constitute the most important lines of force taken by the information bombardment which all of us encounter and are influenced by every day. The focus of this book is on the changes created and hastened by this information explosion of the media bombardment: how we can live with them,…

  7. Constructor theory of information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deutsch, David; Marletto, Chiara

    2015-02-08

    We propose a theory of information expressed solely in terms of which transformations of physical systems are possible and which are impossible-i.e. in constructor-theoretic terms. It includes conjectured, exact laws of physics expressing the regularities that allow information to be physically instantiated. Although these laws are directly about information, independently of the details of particular physical instantiations, information is not regarded as an a priori mathematical or logical concept, but as something whose nature and properties are determined by the laws of physics alone. This theory solves a problem at the foundations of existing information theory, namely that information and distinguishability are each defined in terms of the other. It also explains the relationship between classical and quantum information, and reveals the single, constructor-theoretic property underlying the most distinctive phenomena associated with the latter, including the lack of in-principle distinguishability of some states, the impossibility of cloning, the existence of pairs of variables that cannot simultaneously have sharp values, the fact that measurement processes can be both deterministic and unpredictable, the irreducible perturbation caused by measurement, and locally inaccessible information (as in entangled systems).

  8. Health Care Information Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banks, Jane L.; And Others

    1987-01-01

    The first of eight articles discusses the current state of the sensitive but unclassified information controversy. A series of six articles then explores the use of integrated information systems in the area of health services. Current trends in document management are provided in the last article. (CLB)

  9. Structuring the Information Gap.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edge, Julian

    1984-01-01

    Describes an information gap procedure to teach a new structure which requires students to look for and exchange information in order to complete a task in an English as a second language class. Illustrates the method with a set of materials and suggests ways for teachers to produce similar materials. (SED)

  10. Informative document waste plastics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nagelhout D; Sein AA; Duvoort GL

    1989-01-01

    This "Informative document waste plastics" forms part of a series of "informative documents waste materials". These documents are conducted by RIVM on the indstruction of the Directorate General for the Environment, Waste Materials Directorate, in behalf of the program of acti

  11. Anesthesia information management systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Joe R

    2005-06-01

    Documentation is the last component of anesthesia patient management to be affected by technology. Anesthesia information management systems (AIMS) have been introduced in a limited number of practice sites. The automated systems provide unbiased reporting of most patient information. This results in improved patient care and possible medical legal advantages. AIMS also allow anesthesia departments to monitor their business related activity.

  12. Information in CDS Spreads

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L. Norden (Lars)

    2014-01-01

    textabstractWe investigate how public and private information drives corporate CDS spreads before rating announcements. We find that CDS spreads of firms with higher news intensity move significantly earlier and stronger before rating announcements, which can be explained with public information fro

  13. Information extraction system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemmond, Tracy D; Hanley, William G; Guensche, Joseph Wendell; Perry, Nathan C; Nitao, John J; Kidwell, Paul Brandon; Boakye, Kofi Agyeman; Glaser, Ron E; Prenger, Ryan James

    2014-05-13

    An information extraction system and methods of operating the system are provided. In particular, an information extraction system for performing meta-extraction of named entities of people, organizations, and locations as well as relationships and events from text documents are described herein.

  14. Knowledge Organization = Information Organization?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjørland, Birger

    Are the terms ―information organization‖ (IO), ―organization of information‖ (OI) and ―information architecture‖ (IA) synonyms for knowledge organization (KO)? This study uses bibliometric methods, among others, to determine some relations between these terms and their meanings. Apparently the data...

  15. Sparsity and Information Processing

    OpenAIRE

    Ikeda, Shiro

    2015-01-01

    Recently, many information processing methods utilizing the sparsity of the information source is studied. We have reported some results on this line of research. Here we pick up two results from our own works. One is an image reconstruction method for radio interferometory and the other is a motor command computation method for a two-joint arm.

  16. Carbon Monoxide Information Center

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Information (FOIA) Inspector General No Fear Act Data USA.gov Report an Unsafe Product Contact Us: 800- ... Budget & Performance Open Government Freedom of Information (FOIA) USA.gov CPSC.gov is the U.S. government's official ...

  17. Targeted Information Dissemination

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-03-01

    independent articles such as the blogs (short for web logs) and wikis and topic web portals . Such digital data sources offer information of varying... Biosurveillance Information System (NBIS) • Public Health Informatics Network (PHIN) • Pockets of Excellence – Integration? Solutions ? Figure 16

  18. Marketing Information Literacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seale, Maura

    2013-01-01

    In 2012, more than a decade after the original Association of College and Research Libraries (ACRL) Information Literacy Competency Standards for Higher Education (hereafter the Standards) were institutionalized as the goal of academic library instruction, the Information Literacy Competency Standards Review Task Force convened by ACRL recommended…

  19. Institutionalizing Information Literacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiner, Sharon A.

    2012-01-01

    There is increasing recognition that information literacy is essential for individual and community empowerment, workforce readiness, and global competitiveness. However, there is a history of difficulty in integrating information literacy with the postsecondary educational process. This paper posits that a greater understanding of the…

  20. LOFAR Information System

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Begeman, K.; Belikov, A. N.; Boxhoorn, D. R.; Dijkstra, F.; Holties, H.; Meyer-Zhao, Z.; Renting, G. A.; Valentijn, E. A.; Vriend, W. -J.

    In this paper, we present a newly designed and implemented scientific information system for the LOFAR Long Term Archive. It is a distributed multi-tier storage and data processing system that allows a number of users to process Petabytes of data. The LOFAR Information System is designed on the base

  1. Dimensions of Drug Information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharp, Mark E.

    2011-01-01

    The high number, heterogeneity, and inadequate integration of drug information resources constitute barriers to many drug information usage scenarios. In the biomedical domain there is a rich legacy of knowledge representation in ontology-like structures that allows us to connect this problem both to the very mature field of library and…

  2. Physics as Information Theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D' Ariano, Giacomo Mauro (University of Pavia)

    2010-10-20

    The experience from Quantum Information of the last twenty years has lead theorists to look at Quantum Theory and the whole of Physics from a different angle. A new information-theoretic paradigm is emerging, long time ago prophesied by John Archibald Wheeler with his popular coinage 'It from bit'. Theoretical groups are now addressing the problem of deriving Quantum Theory from informational principles, and similar lines are investigated in new approaches to Quantum Gravity. In my talk I will review some recent advances on these lines. The general idea synthesizing the new paradigm is that there is only Quantum Theory (without quantization rules): the whole Physics--including space-time and relativity--is emergent from quantum-information processing. And, since Quantum Theory itself is made with purely informational principles, the whole Physics must be reformulated in information-theoretical terms. The review is divided into the following parts: (a) The informational axiomatization of Quantum Theory; (b) How space-time and relativistic covariance emerge from the quantum computation; (c) What is the information-theoretical meaning of inertial mass and Planck constant, and how the quantum field emerges; (d) Observational consequences: mass-dependent refraction index of vacuum. I then conclude with some possible future research lines.

  3. Information or communication

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahms, Mona-Lisa

    2004-01-01

    The paper describes the development in Tanzania, in terms of information and communication technologies and how these developments have influenced people's daily life.......The paper describes the development in Tanzania, in terms of information and communication technologies and how these developments have influenced people's daily life....

  4. Mandarin Visual Speech Information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Trevor H.

    2010-01-01

    While the auditory-only aspects of Mandarin speech are heavily-researched and well-known in the field, this dissertation addresses its lesser-known aspects: The visual and audio-visual perception of Mandarin segmental information and lexical-tone information. Chapter II of this dissertation focuses on the audiovisual perception of Mandarin…

  5. The Politics of Information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gell, Marilyn K.

    1979-01-01

    Introduces the political issues to be discussed at the first White House Conference on Library and Information Services which will focus on citizen control of the information flow in view of developing demands and technology. A desired political result of the conference is the creation of a citizens' lobby. (SW)

  6. Shipping Information Pipeline

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Thomas; Vatrapu, Ravi

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a design science approach to solving persistent problems in the international shipping eco system by creating the missing common information infrastructures. Specifically, this paper reports on an ongoing dialogue between stakeholders in the shipping industry and information s...

  7. Information in Health Care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayeda, Tadashi A.

    The report stresses the fact that while there is unity in the continuum of medicine, information in health care is markedly different from information in medical education and research. This difference is described as an anomaly in that it appears to deviate in excess of normal variation from needs common to research and education. In substance,…

  8. Visual informed consent

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lie, Rico; Witteveen, Loes

    2015-01-01

    The notion of visual informed consent (VIC) is developed in the context of capturing on film the clarification of the purpose of data collection, the use of information obtained, and the rights, risks and benefits of participation on the one hand, and the registration of the participant’s underst

  9. Information and Heterogeneous Beliefs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Peter Ove; Qin, Zhenjiang

    2014-01-01

    In an incomplete market with heterogeneous prior beliefs, we show public information can have a substantial impact on the ex ante cost of capital, trading volume, and investor welfare. The Pareto effcient public information system is the system enjoying the maximum ex ante cost of capital and the...

  10. Institutionalizing Information Literacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiner, Sharon A.

    2012-01-01

    There is increasing recognition that information literacy is essential for individual and community empowerment, workforce readiness, and global competitiveness. However, there is a history of difficulty in integrating information literacy with the postsecondary educational process. This paper posits that a greater understanding of the…

  11. Craft Information Sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hujsak, Mary Dodge

    1994-01-01

    Provides a brief history of the craft movement and the American Craft Council. Information available from the American Craft Information Center is described, including bibliographic sources, reference tools, periodicals and indices, exhibition catalogs, craft registry and database, clipping file, education, business, funding, and appraising…

  12. Meaning = Information + Evolution

    CERN Document Server

    Rovelli, Carlo

    2016-01-01

    Notions like meaning, signal, intentionality, are difficult to relate to a physical word. I study a purely physical definition of "meaningful information", from which these notions can be derived. It is inspired by a model recently illustrated by Kolchinsky and Wolpert, and improves on Dretske classic work on the relation between knowledge and information. I discuss what makes a physical process into a "signal".

  13. Heroin. Specialized Information Service.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Do It Now Foundation, Phoenix, AZ.

    The document presents a collection of articles about heroin. Article 1 provides general information on heroin identification, drug dependence, effects of abuse, cost, source of supply, and penalties for illegal heroin use. Article 2 gives statistical information on heroin-related deaths in the District of Columbia between 1971 and 1982. Article 3…

  14. Environmental geographic information system.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peek, Dennis W; Helfrich, Donald Alan; Gorman, Susan

    2010-08-01

    This document describes how the Environmental Geographic Information System (EGIS) was used, along with externally received data, to create maps for the Site-Wide Environmental Impact Statement (SWEIS) Source Document project. Data quality among the various classes of geographic information system (GIS) data is addressed. A complete listing of map layers used is provided.

  15. Information and Equity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lievrouw, Leah A.; Farb, Sharon E.

    2003-01-01

    Reviews a selection of recent studies from various disciplines on information and social equity and on the digital divide in order to outline a basic conceptual framework for considering information equity. Highlights include equity versus equality; vertical and horizontal perspectives; social capital and public goods; and intellectual property.…

  16. International Crisis Information Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-12-01

    essence, the members will have the ability to alter, modify and update the website through the use of Wiki. Wiki ( Hawaiian word for “quick”)131 allows...combatants, women, children, weddings , and funerals. Ranking of 1 (Worst): No sharing of information and operating independently. Information is not

  17. Information security management principles

    CERN Document Server

    Taylor, Andy; Finch, Amanda; Sutton, David; Taylor, Andy

    2013-01-01

    In today's technology-driven environment, there is an ever-increasing demand for information delivery. A compromise has to be struck between security and availability. This book is a pragmatic guide to information assurance for both business professionals and technical experts. This second edition includes the security of cloud-based resources.

  18. Right to Information

    OpenAIRE

    Mendel, Toby

    2014-01-01

    In the last 20 years, there has been a massive growth in the number of national laws giving individuals the right to access information held by public bodies (right to information or RTI laws). The number of countries with such laws has grown from 19 mostly Western democracies i

  19. Science and information theory

    CERN Document Server

    Brillouin, Léon

    1962-01-01

    A classic source for exploring the connections between information theory and physics, this text is geared toward upper-level undergraduates and graduate students. The author, a giant of 20th-century mathematics, applies the principles of information theory to a variety of issues, including Maxwell's demon, thermodynamics, and measurement problems. 1962 edition.

  20. Knowledge Organization = Information Organization?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjørland, Birger

    Are the terms ―information organization‖ (IO), ―organization of information‖ (OI) and ―information architecture‖ (IA) synonyms for knowledge organization (KO)? This study uses bibliometric methods, among others, to determine some relations between these terms and their meanings. Apparently the data...