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Sample records for lynx pardinus electronic

  1. Chronic Vitamin D Intoxication in Captive Iberian Lynx (Lynx pardinus)

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    Muñoz, Luis; Raya, Ana; Lopez, Guillermo; Aguilera-Tejero, Escolástico

    2016-01-01

    To document the biochemical and pathologic features of vitamin D intoxication in lynx and to characterize mineral metabolism in healthy lynx, blood samples were obtained from 40 captive lynx that had been receiving excessive (approximately 30 times the recommended dose) vitamin D3 in the diet, and from 29 healthy free ranging lynx. Tissue samples (kidney, stomach, lung, heart and aorta) were collected from 13 captive lynx that died as a result of renal disease and from 3 controls. Vitamin D intoxication resulted in renal failure in most lynx (n = 28), and widespread extraskeletal calcification was most severe in the kidneys and less prominent in cardiovascular tissues. Blood minerals and calciotropic hormones in healthy lynx were similar to values reported in domestic cats except for calcitriol which was higher in healthy lynx. Changes in mineral metabolism after vitamin D intoxication included hypercalcemia (12.0 ± 0.3 mg/dL), hyperphosphatemia (6.3 ± 0.4 mg/dL), increased plasma calcidiol (381.5 ± 28.2 ng/mL) and decreased plasma parathyroid hormone (1.2 ± 0.7 pg/mL). Hypercalcemia and, particularly, hyperphosphatemia were of lower magnitude that what has been previously reported in the course of vitamin D intoxication in other species. However, extraskeletal calcifications were severe. The data suggest that lynx are sensitive to excessive vitamin D and extreme care should be taken when supplementing this vitamin in captive lynx diets. PMID:27243456

  2. Chronic Vitamin D Intoxication in Captive Iberian Lynx (Lynx pardinus.

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    Ignacio Lopez

    Full Text Available To document the biochemical and pathologic features of vitamin D intoxication in lynx and to characterize mineral metabolism in healthy lynx, blood samples were obtained from 40 captive lynx that had been receiving excessive (approximately 30 times the recommended dose vitamin D3 in the diet, and from 29 healthy free ranging lynx. Tissue samples (kidney, stomach, lung, heart and aorta were collected from 13 captive lynx that died as a result of renal disease and from 3 controls. Vitamin D intoxication resulted in renal failure in most lynx (n = 28, and widespread extraskeletal calcification was most severe in the kidneys and less prominent in cardiovascular tissues. Blood minerals and calciotropic hormones in healthy lynx were similar to values reported in domestic cats except for calcitriol which was higher in healthy lynx. Changes in mineral metabolism after vitamin D intoxication included hypercalcemia (12.0 ± 0.3 mg/dL, hyperphosphatemia (6.3 ± 0.4 mg/dL, increased plasma calcidiol (381.5 ± 28.2 ng/mL and decreased plasma parathyroid hormone (1.2 ± 0.7 pg/mL. Hypercalcemia and, particularly, hyperphosphatemia were of lower magnitude that what has been previously reported in the course of vitamin D intoxication in other species. However, extraskeletal calcifications were severe. The data suggest that lynx are sensitive to excessive vitamin D and extreme care should be taken when supplementing this vitamin in captive lynx diets.

  3. Latest Early Pleistocene remains of Lynx pardinus (Carnivora, Felidae) from the Iberian Peninsula: Taxonomy and evolutionary implications

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    Boscaini, Alberto; Alba, David M.; Beltrán, Juan F.; Moyà-Solà, Salvador; Madurell-Malapeira, Joan

    2016-07-01

    The Iberian lynx (Lynx pardinus) is a critically endangered felid that, during the last fifty years, has been subject to an intensive conservation program in an attempt to save it from extinction. This species is first recorded at ca. 1.7-1.6 Ma (late Villafranchian, late Early Pleistocene) in NE Iberian Peninsula, roughly coinciding with the large faunal turnover that occurred around the middle to late Villafranchian boundary. Here we describe the largest collection of L. pardinus remains available to date from the Iberian late Early Pleistocene (Epivillafranchian), including localities from the Vallparadís Section (Vallès-Penedès Basin, NE Iberian Peninsula) and Cueva Victoria (Cartagena, SE Iberian Peninsula). The morphology and biometry of the studied material attests to the widespread occurrence of L. pardinus in the Mediterranean coast of the Iberian Peninsula since the latest Early Pleistocene, i.e., about 0.5 million years earlier than it was generally accepted (i.e., at the beginning of the Middle Pleistocene). Based on the features observed in the large sample studied in this paper, we conclude that Lynx spelaeus is a junior synonym of L. pardinus and further propose to assign all the Epivillafranchian and younger fossil lynxes from SW Europe to the extant species L. pardinus. Due to the arrival of the Eurasian lynx (Lynx lynx) into Europe at the beginning of the Late Pleistocene, the attribution of specimens younger than MIS 5e to either this species or L. pardinus solely on morphological grounds has proven equivocal. Here we discuss the main diagnostic features of both species of European lynxes and further review their evolutionary history and paleobiogeography throughout the Pleistocene.

  4. Feline leukemia virus and other pathogens as important threats to the survival of the critically endangered Iberian lynx (Lynx pardinus.

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    Marina L Meli

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The Iberian lynx (Lynx pardinus is considered the most endangered felid species in the world. In order to save this species, the Spanish authorities implemented a captive breeding program recruiting lynxes from the wild. In this context, a retrospective survey on prevalence of selected feline pathogens in free-ranging lynxes was initiated. METHODOLOGY/ PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We systematically analyzed the prevalence and importance of seven viral, one protozoan (Cytauxzoon felis, and several bacterial (e.g., hemotropic mycoplasma infections in 77 of approximately 200 remaining free-ranging Iberian lynxes of the Doñana and Sierra Morena areas, in Southern Spain, between 2003 and 2007. With the exception of feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV, evidence of infection by all tested feline pathogens was found in Iberian lynxes. Fourteen lynxes were feline leukemia virus (FeLV provirus-positive; eleven of these were antigenemic (FeLV p27 positive. All 14 animals tested negative for other viral infections. During a six-month period in 2007, six of the provirus-positive antigenemic lynxes died. Infection with FeLV but not with other infectious agents was associated with mortality (p<0.001. Sequencing of the FeLV surface glycoprotein gene revealed a common origin for ten of the eleven samples. The ten sequences were closely related to FeLV-A/61E, originally isolated from cats in the USA. Endogenous FeLV sequences were not detected. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: It was concluded that the FeLV infection most likely originated from domestic cats invading the lynx's habitats. Data available regarding the time frame, co-infections, and outcome of FeLV-infections suggest that, in contrast to the domestic cat, the FeLV strain affecting the lynxes in 2007 is highly virulent to this species. Our data argue strongly for vaccination of lynxes and domestic cats in and around lynx's habitats in order to prevent further spread of the virus as well as reduction the

  5. Feline Leukemia Virus and Other Pathogens as Important Threats to the Survival of the Critically Endangered Iberian Lynx (Lynx pardinus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meli, Marina L.; Cattori, Valentino; Martínez, Fernando; López, Guillermo; Vargas, Astrid; Simón, Miguel A.; Zorrilla, Irene; Muñoz, Alvaro; Palomares, Francisco; López-Bao, Jose V.; Pastor, Josep; Tandon, Ravi; Willi, Barbara; Hofmann-Lehmann, Regina; Lutz, Hans

    2009-01-01

    Background The Iberian lynx (Lynx pardinus) is considered the most endangered felid species in the world. In order to save this species, the Spanish authorities implemented a captive breeding program recruiting lynxes from the wild. In this context, a retrospective survey on prevalence of selected feline pathogens in free-ranging lynxes was initiated. Methodology/ Principal Findings We systematically analyzed the prevalence and importance of seven viral, one protozoan (Cytauxzoon felis), and several bacterial (e.g., hemotropic mycoplasma) infections in 77 of approximately 200 remaining free-ranging Iberian lynxes of the Doñana and Sierra Morena areas, in Southern Spain, between 2003 and 2007. With the exception of feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV), evidence of infection by all tested feline pathogens was found in Iberian lynxes. Fourteen lynxes were feline leukemia virus (FeLV) provirus-positive; eleven of these were antigenemic (FeLV p27 positive). All 14 animals tested negative for other viral infections. During a six-month period in 2007, six of the provirus-positive antigenemic lynxes died. Infection with FeLV but not with other infectious agents was associated with mortality (p<0.001). Sequencing of the FeLV surface glycoprotein gene revealed a common origin for ten of the eleven samples. The ten sequences were closely related to FeLV-A/61E, originally isolated from cats in the USA. Endogenous FeLV sequences were not detected. Conclusions/Significance It was concluded that the FeLV infection most likely originated from domestic cats invading the lynx's habitats. Data available regarding the time frame, co-infections, and outcome of FeLV-infections suggest that, in contrast to the domestic cat, the FeLV strain affecting the lynxes in 2007 is highly virulent to this species. Our data argue strongly for vaccination of lynxes and domestic cats in and around lynx's habitats in order to prevent further spread of the virus as well as reduction the domestic cat

  6. First evidence of non-parental male infanticide in the endangered Iberian Lynx (Lynx pardinus

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    José M. Gil-Sánchez

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Based on both radio-tracking and photo-trapping data, we present in this paper the first evidence of a non-parental male infanticide in the Iberian lynx. This paper is focused on the behaviour of 3 Iberian lynxes [one resident male (RM; one resident female (RF, and one incoming male (IM] of the Doñana population, recorded in the spring of 2007. The first two animals were monitored by radio-tacking and the third one by camera trapping. During the mating season of 2007, RM and RF were the only adult lynxes detected in the area. In February, a new incoming adult male was first spotted within RF’s territory. In March, RM was found dead due to a Feline Leukaemia Virus infection. A few days later RF cubs were found dead, and the evidences collected point out to a case of infanticide committed by IM. More research on this type of behaviour is necessary, since it can represent a relevant threat to population reproductive success and increasing rate. Based on this event, when a replacement of males takes place during the first three months of lactation in the vicinity of a reproductive female home-range, the cubs could suffer a potential infanticide event. Conservation managers should take this into account by increasing cub surveillance or by considering cub removal for captive breeding.

  7. Detection of antibiotic resistant enterococci and Escherichia coli in free range Iberian Lynx (Lynx pardinus).

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    Gonçalves, Alexandre; Igrejas, Gilberto; Radhouani, Hajer; Santos, Tiago; Monteiro, Ricardo; Pacheco, Rui; Alcaide, Eva; Zorrilla, Irene; Serra, Rodrigo; Torres, Carmen; Poeta, Patrícia

    2013-07-01

    Thirty fecal samples from wild specimens of Iberian lynx were collected and analyzed for Enterococcus spp. (27 isolates) and Escherichia coli (18 isolates) recovery. The 45 isolates obtained were tested for antimicrobial resistance, molecular mechanisms of resistance, and presence of virulence genes. Among the enterococci, Enterococcus faecium and Enterococcus hirae were the most prevalent species (11 isolates each), followed by Enterococcus faecalis (5 isolates). High percentages of resistance to tetracycline and erythromycin (33% and 30%, respectively) were detected among enterococcal isolates. The tet(M) and/or tet(L), erm(B), aac(6')-Ie-aph(2″)-Ia, ant(6)-Ia, or aph(3')-IIIa genes were detected among resistant enterococci. Virulence genes were detected in one E. faecalis isolate (cpd, cylB, and cylL) and one E. hirae isolate (cylL). High percentages of resistance were detected in E. coli isolates to tetracycline (33%), streptomycin (28%), nalidixic acid (28%), and sulfamethoxazole-trimethoprim (SXT, 22%). Additionally, the blaTEM, tet(A), aadA, cmlA, and different combinations of sul genes were detected among most ampicillin, tetracycline, streptomycin, chloramphenicol and SXT-resistant isolates, respectively. Two isolates contained a class 1 integron with the gene cassette arrays dfrA1 + aadA1 and dfrA12 + aadA2. The E. coli isolates were ascribed to phylo-groups A (n=5); B1 (n=4); B2 (n=6), and D (n=3), with the virulence gene fimA present in all E. coli isolates. This study found resistance genes in wild specimens of Iberian lynx. Thus, it is important to notice that multiresistant bacteria have reached species as rare and completely non-synanthropic as the Iberian lynx. Furthermore, the susceptibility of this endangered species to bacterial infection may be affected by the presence of these virulence and resistance genes.

  8. Aspectos Sanitarios y Reproductivos del Programa de Conservación Ex situ del Lince Ibérico (Lynx pardinus). Fernando Martínez, 2013

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    El lince ibérico (Lynx pardinus) es la especie de felino en mayor riesgo de extinción según la Unión Internacional para la Conservación de la Naturaleza. En el 2004 se inicia un programa de cría en cautividad para apoyar los esfuerzos de conservación y recuperación de la especie en la naturaleza. El presente estudio sobre la morbilidad, mortalidad y la reproducción de la especie en cautividad se ha realizado con el objetivo de mejorar el manejo de la especie y recomendar líneas de investigaci...

  9. Ancient DNA reveals past existence of Eurasian lynx in Spain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rodríguez-Varela, R.; García, N.; Nores, C.

    2016-01-01

    The known distribution of the Iberian lynx Lynx pardinus within the Iberian Peninsula since the Middle Pleistocene and the lack of reliable records of Eurasian lynx Lynx lynx in this region have led to the assumption that the Iberian lynx was the sole inhabitant of Iberia. In this study, we ident...

  10. The molecular detection of relaxin and its receptor RXFP1 in reproductive tissue of Felis catus and Lynx pardinus during pregnancy.

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    Braun, Beate C; Vargas, Astrid; Jewgenow, Katarina

    2012-03-01

    Relaxin acts as a pregnancy-specific signal in feline species, but specific information about protein structure and binding is essential for the improvement of pregnancy diagnosis in endangered feline species, like the Iberian lynx. To generate a felid-specific relaxin antibody, the DNA and protein sequences of lynx and cat were determined and peptides were chosen for antibody generation. In addition, relaxin and relaxin receptor (RXFP1) mRNA expressions were measured in uteri and ovaries of pregnant domestic cats and lynx placentae. Using real-time PCR and immunohistochemistry, it was established that feline placenta is the main source of relaxin during pregnancy. In other tested tissues, relaxin mRNA expression was weak. The RXFP1 mRNA expression was found mainly in cat uterine tissue and feline placentae. It was assumed that these tissues were main targets for relaxin. In the ovary, relaxin immunostaining was associated with blood vessels, signifying its role in vascularization.

  11. Extreme genomic erosion after recurrent demographic bottlenecks in the highly endangered Iberian lynx

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abascal, Federico; Corvelo, André; Cruz, Fernando;

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Genomic studies of endangered species provide insights into their evolution and demographic history, reveal patterns of genomic erosion that might limit their viability, and offer tools for their effective conservation. The Iberian lynx (Lynx pardinus) is the most endangered felid and...

  12. An Overview of Lynx

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-08-01

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  13. Ontogenia del comportamiento del lince ibérico ("Lynx pardinus") en cautividad

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    Yerga Rufo, Francisco Javier

    2016-01-01

    El lince ibérico es una de las especies de mamífero más amenazada del mundo. Su cría en cautividad es una de las medidas puestas en marcha para la conservación de esta especie. Esta Tesis Doctoral tiene como objetivo describir la ontogenia física y del comportamiento de los cachorros de lince ibérico nacidos en cautividad, y conocer los factores que van a influir en su desarrollo, para mejorar el manejo de la especie en cautividad. Se realizó el seguimiento del comportamiento de los cachorros...

  14. The situation of the lynx (Lynx lynx in Austria

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    Thomas Huber

    1998-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Nine wild lynx were translocated from the Carpathian Mountains to Styria between 1977 and 1979 in order to reintroduce this species into the Austrian Alps. Field projects continued until 1982, when monitoring of the released animals ceased. After five years the lynx had spread as far as 120 km from the site of re-introduction, but observations were few and seldom confirmed. Only in the district of Carinthia, where lynx activity was strongest, did the hunters' association gather data by means of observation report forms. Lynx reports became scarce during the 1980s, and re-introduction seemed to have failed, when in 1989 a series of sheep kills by lynx in Carinthia re-activated the interest of the public in the lynx, and more observations were reported. The Carinthian Hunters' Association formed a lynx group to verify these reports. More intensive training of the menbers of the group since 1992 has revealed that much of the information collected was not valid proof of lynx presence. There is no established lynx population in the Austrian Alps at present. The most regular and reliable observations come from the original region of the releases and from southern Carinthia, where lynx immigrating from Slovenia may sustain the Austrian population.

  15. Risk-taking by Eurasian lynx (Lynx lynx) in a human-dominated landscape : Effects of sex and reproductive status.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bunnefeld, N; Linnell, J.D C; Odden, J; van Duijn, M.A.J.; Andersen, R.A.

    2006-01-01

    This study aimed to test how the sex and reproductive status of Eurasian lynx influenced their use of 'attractive sinks' - habitats with high prey density and high mortality risks. Locations of 24 Eurasian lynx Lynx lynx were obtained by radio-telemetry in a mixed forest and agricultural habitat in

  16. Repetitive sequences in Eurasian lynx (Lynx lynx L.) mitochondrial DNA control region.

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    Sindičić, Magda; Gomerčić, Tomislav; Galov, Ana; Polanc, Primož; Huber, Duro; Slavica, Alen

    2012-06-01

    Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) control region (CR) of numerous species is known to include up to five different repetitive sequences (RS1-RS5) that are found at various locations, involving motifs of different length and extensive length heteroplasmy. Two repetitive sequences (RS2 and RS3) on opposite sides of mtDNA central conserved region have been described in domestic cat (Felis catus) and some other felid species. However, the presence of repetitive sequence RS3 has not been detected in Eurasian lynx (Lynx lynx) yet. We analyzed mtDNA CR of 35 Eurasian lynx (L. lynx L.) samples to characterize repetitive sequences and to compare them with those found in other felid species. We confirmed the presence of 80 base pairs (bp) repetitive sequence (RS2) at the 5' end of the Eurasian lynx mtDNA CR L strand and for the first time we described RS3 repetitive sequence at its 3' end, consisting of an array of tandem repeats five to ten bp long. We found that felid species share similar RS3 repetitive pattern and fundamental repeat motif TACAC.

  17. Molecular identification of Taenia spp. in the Eurasian lynx (Lynx lynx) from Finland.

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    Lavikainen, A; Haukisalmi, V; Deksne, G; Holmala, K; Lejeune, M; Isomursu, M; Jokelainen, P; Näreaho, A; Laakkonen, J; Hoberg, E P; Sukura, A

    2013-04-01

    Cestodes of the genus Taenia are parasites of mammals, with mainly carnivores as definitive and herbivores as intermediate hosts. Various medium-sized cats, Lynx spp., are involved in the life cycles of several species of Taenia. The aim of the present study was to identify Taenia tapeworms in the Eurasian lynx (Lynx lynx) from Finland. In total, 135 tapeworms from 72 lynx were subjected to molecular identification based on sequences of 2 mtDNA regions, the cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 and the NADH dehydrogenase subunit 1 genes. Available morphological characters of the rostellar hooks and strobila were compared. Two species of Taenia were found: T. laticollis (127 samples) and an unknown Taenia sp. (5 samples). The latter could not be identified to species based on mtDNA, and the rostellar hooks were short relative to those described among other Taenia spp. recorded in felids from the Holarctic region. In the phylogenetic analyses of mtDNA sequences, T. laticollis was placed as a sister species of T. macrocystis, and the unknown Taenia sp. was closely related to T. hydatigena and T. regis. Our analyses suggest that these distinct taeniid tapeworms represent a putative new species of Taenia. The only currently recognized definitive host is L. lynx and the intermediate host is unknown.

  18. Gene Sets for Utilization of Primary and Secondary Nutrition Supplies in the Distal Gut of Endangered Iberian Lynx

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    Alcaide, María; Messina, Enzo; Richter, Michael; Bargiela, Rafael; Peplies, Jörg; Huws, Sharon A.; Newbold, Charles J.; Golyshin, Peter N.; Simón, Miguel A.; López, Guillermo; Yakimov, Michail M.; Ferrer, Manuel

    2012-01-01

    Recent studies have indicated the existence of an extensive trans-genomic trans-mural co-metabolism between gut microbes and animal hosts that is diet-, host phylogeny- and provenance-influenced. Here, we analyzed the biodiversity at the level of small subunit rRNA gene sequence and the metabolic composition of 18 Mbp of consensus metagenome sequences and activity characteristics of bacterial intra-cellular extracts, in wild Iberian lynx (Lynx pardinus) fecal samples. Bacterial signatures (14.43% of all of the Firmicutes reads and 6.36% of total reads) related to the uncultured anaerobic commensals Anaeroplasma spp., which are typically found in ovine and bovine rumen, were first identified. The lynx gut was further characterized by an over-representation of ‘presumptive’ aquaporin aqpZ genes and genes encoding ‘active’ lysosomal-like digestive enzymes that are possibly needed to acquire glycerol, sugars and amino acids from glycoproteins, glyco(amino)lipids, glyco(amino)glycans and nucleoside diphosphate sugars. Lynx gut was highly enriched (28% of the total glycosidases) in genes encoding α-amylase and related enzymes, although it exhibited low rate of enzymatic activity indicative of starch degradation. The preponderance of β-xylosidase activity in protein extracts further suggests lynx gut microbes being most active for the metabolism of β-xylose containing plant N-glycans, although β-xylosidases sequences constituted only 1.5% of total glycosidases. These collective and unique bacterial, genetic and enzymatic activity signatures suggest that the wild lynx gut microbiota not only harbors gene sets underpinning sugar uptake from primary animal tissues (with the monotypic dietary profile of the wild lynx consisting of 80–100% wild rabbits) but also for the hydrolysis of prey-derived plant biomass. Although, the present investigation corresponds to a single sample and some of the statements should be considered qualitative, the data most likely

  19. Gene sets for utilization of primary and secondary nutrition supplies in the distal gut of endangered Iberian lynx.

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    María Alcaide

    Full Text Available Recent studies have indicated the existence of an extensive trans-genomic trans-mural co-metabolism between gut microbes and animal hosts that is diet-, host phylogeny- and provenance-influenced. Here, we analyzed the biodiversity at the level of small subunit rRNA gene sequence and the metabolic composition of 18 Mbp of consensus metagenome sequences and activity characteristics of bacterial intra-cellular extracts, in wild Iberian lynx (Lynx pardinus fecal samples. Bacterial signatures (14.43% of all of the Firmicutes reads and 6.36% of total reads related to the uncultured anaerobic commensals Anaeroplasma spp., which are typically found in ovine and bovine rumen, were first identified. The lynx gut was further characterized by an over-representation of 'presumptive' aquaporin aqpZ genes and genes encoding 'active' lysosomal-like digestive enzymes that are possibly needed to acquire glycerol, sugars and amino acids from glycoproteins, glyco(aminolipids, glyco(aminoglycans and nucleoside diphosphate sugars. Lynx gut was highly enriched (28% of the total glycosidases in genes encoding α-amylase and related enzymes, although it exhibited low rate of enzymatic activity indicative of starch degradation. The preponderance of β-xylosidase activity in protein extracts further suggests lynx gut microbes being most active for the metabolism of β-xylose containing plant N-glycans, although β-xylosidases sequences constituted only 1.5% of total glycosidases. These collective and unique bacterial, genetic and enzymatic activity signatures suggest that the wild lynx gut microbiota not only harbors gene sets underpinning sugar uptake from primary animal tissues (with the monotypic dietary profile of the wild lynx consisting of 80-100% wild rabbits but also for the hydrolysis of prey-derived plant biomass. Although, the present investigation corresponds to a single sample and some of the statements should be considered qualitative, the data most likely

  20. Situation and distribution of the Lynx (Lynx lynx L. in Slovenia from 1995-1999

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    Cvetko Stanisa

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In this paper we analyse signs of lynx presence and their distribution to evaluate the status of lynx in Slovenia. From 1995-1999, a total of 499 signs of lynx presence were reported that allowed us to distinguish between 4 different regions: (1 The southern part of the country comprising the area south-east of the Ljubljana-Trst highway (Kocevska, Notranjska where lynx were re-introduced and the lynx number is still the highest. (2 The western part of the country with the Julian Alps, where lynx have started to immigrate in the mid 1980s. (3 The Karavanke and Kamniško-Savinjske Alps in the north of the country, as well as some other isolated areas where only a very low number of lynx signs of presence were collected. (4 The fourth region comprises the north-east of Slovenia where lynx is still absent. Based on the available data, we estimated the number of lynx in southern Slovenia between 30 to 40 individuals, while in the west of the Jesenice-Ljubljana-Trst highway we estimated that around 10 individuals are present. The area of lynx occurrence has not increased during the past five years, on the contrary, the fact that the annual hunting quota has not been reached since 1992 - even though the quotas were set considerably lower than previously - indicates that the number of lynx has decreased. The Slovenian lynx population was always considered the most vital Alpine occurrence, as it has shown rapid expansion into neighbouring Croatia, Italy and Austria. However, during the past years a slight regression in lynx numbers was observed, in contrast to the brown bear and wolf.

  1. Estimating detection probability for Canada lynx Lynx canadensis using snow-track surveys in the northern Rocky Mountains, Montana, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    John R. Squires; Lucretia E. Olson; David L. Turner; Nicholas J. DeCesare; Jay A. Kolbe

    2012-01-01

    We used snow-tracking surveys to determine the probability of detecting Canada lynx Lynx canadensis in known areas of lynx presence in the northern Rocky Mountains, Montana, USA during the winters of 2006 and 2007. We used this information to determine the minimum number of survey replicates necessary to infer the presence and absence of lynx in areas of similar lynx...

  2. Molecular identification of Taenia spp. In the Eurasian Lynx (Lynx lynx) from Finland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cestodes of the genus Taenia are parasites of mammals, with mainly carnivores as definitive and herbivores as intermediate hosts. Various medium-sized cats, Lynx spp., are involved in the life cycles of several species of Taenia. The aim of the present study was to identify Taenia tapeworms in the E...

  3. Large-scale genetic structuring of a widely distributed carnivore--the Eurasian lynx (Lynx lynx.

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    Eli K Rueness

    Full Text Available Over the last decades the phylogeography and genetic structure of a multitude of species inhabiting Europe and North America have been described. The flora and fauna of the vast landmasses of north-eastern Eurasia are still largely unexplored in this respect. The Eurasian lynx is a large felid that is relatively abundant over much of the Russian sub-continent and the adjoining countries. Analyzing 148 museum specimens collected throughout its range over the last 150 years we have described the large-scale genetic structuring in this highly mobile species. We have investigated the spatial genetic patterns using mitochondrial DNA sequences (D-loop and cytochrome b and 11 microsatellite loci, and describe three phylogenetic clades and a clear structuring along an east-west gradient. The most likely scenario is that the contemporary Eurasian lynx populations originated in central Asia and that parts of Europe were inhabited by lynx during the Pleistocene. After the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM range expansions lead to colonization of north-western Siberia and Scandinavia from the Caucasus and north-eastern Siberia from a refugium further east. No evidence of a Berinigan refugium could be detected in our data. We observed restricted gene flow and suggest that future studies of the Eurasian lynx explore to what extent the contemporary population structure may be explained by ecological variables.

  4. Estudio y conservación del lince ibérico ("Lynx pardinus") en España

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    El conocimiento de la distribución y abundancia de las especies, así como sus tasas de supervivencia y causas de mortalidad, juegan un papel importante a la hora de establecer sus requerimientos ecológicos, evaluar el estado de sus poblaciones y predecir la evolución de las mismas. Obtener esta información es particularmente difícil en el caso de los felinos silvestres debido a que suelen ser escasos y tienen hábitos elusivos. Los trabajos que componen esta tesis doctoral se han desarrollado...

  5. Physiologically persistent Corpora lutea in Eurasian lynx (Lynx lynx - longitudinal ultrasound and endocrine examinations intra-vitam.

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    Johanna Painer

    Full Text Available Felids generally follow a poly-estrous reproductive strategy. Eurasian lynx (Lynx lynx display a different pattern of reproductive cyclicity where physiologically persistent corpora lutea (CLs induce a mono-estrous condition which results in highly seasonal reproduction. The present study was based around a sono-morphological and endocrine study of captive Eurasian lynx, and a control-study on free-ranging lynx. We verified that CLs persist after pregnancy and pseudo-pregnancy for at least a two-year period. We could show that lynx are able to enter estrus in the following year, while CLs from the previous years persisted in structure and only temporarily reduced their function for the period of estrus onset or birth, which is unique among felids. The almost constant luteal progesterone secretion (average of 5 ng/ml serum seems to prevent folliculogenesis outside the breeding season and has converted a poly-estrous general felid cycle into a mono-estrous cycle specific for lynx. The hormonal regulation mechanism which causes lynx to have the longest CL lifespan amongst mammals remains unclear. The described non-felid like ovarian physiology appears to be a remarkably non-plastic system. The lynx's reproductive ability to adapt to environmental and anthropogenic changes needs further investigation.

  6. Serologic survey for viral and bacterial infections in western populations of Canada Lynx (Lynx canadensis)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roman Biek; Randall L. Zarnke; Colin Gillin; Margaret Wild; John R. Squires; Mary Poss

    2002-01-01

    A serologic survey for exposure to pathogens in Canada lynx (Lynx canadensis) in western North America was conducted. Samples from 215 lynx from six study areas were tested for antibodies to feline parvovirus (FPV), feline coronavirus, canine distemper virus, feline calicivirus, feline herpesvirus, Yersinia pestis, and Francisella tularensis. A subset of...

  7. On the skull of a Lynx, Lynx lynx (Linnaeus, 1758), found in the Roman castellum at Valkenburg, province of Zuid-Holland, The Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bree, van P.J.H.; Clason, A.T.

    1971-01-01

    The authors report on the almost complete skull of a Lynx, Lynx lynx (Linnaeus, 1758) found during excavation of a Roman castellum at Valkenburg, Province of Zuid-Holland, the Netherlands in 1962. Photographs and measurements of the skull are presented as well as a review of the Lynx remains found i

  8. Polonium-210 and Caesium-137 in lynx (Lynx lynx), wolverine (Gulo gulo) and wolves (Canis lupus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gjelsvik, Runhild; Holm, Elis; Kålås, John Atle; Persson, Bertil; Asbrink, Jessica

    2014-12-01

    Wolves, lynx and wolverines are on the top of the food-chain in northern Scandinavia and Finland. (210)Po and (137)Cs have been analysed in samples of liver, kidney and muscle from 28 wolves from Sweden. In addition blood samples were taken from 27 wolves. In 9 of the wolves, samples of muscle, liver and blood were analysed for (210)Po. Samples of liver and muscle were collected from 16 lynx and 16 wolverines from Norway. The liver samples were analysed for (210)Po and (137)Cs. Only (137)Cs analyses were carried out for the muscle samples. The wolves were collected during the winter 2010 and 2011, while the samples for lynx and wolverines were all from 2011. The activity concentrations of (210)Po in wolves were higher for liver (range 20-523 Bq kg(-1) d.w.) and kidney (range 24-942 Bq kg(-1) d.w.) than muscle (range 1-43 Bq kg(-1) d.w.) and blood (range 2-54 Bq kg(-1) d.w.). Activity ratios, (210)Po/(210)Pb, in wolf samples of muscle, liver and blood were in the ranges 2-77, 9-56 and 2-54. Using a wet weight ratio of 3.8 the maximal absorbed dose from (210)Po to wolf liver was estimated to 3500 μGy per year. Compared to wolf, the ranges of (210)Po in liver samples were lower in lynx (range 22-211 Bq kg(-1) d.w.) and wolverine (range16-160 Bq kg(-1) d.w.). Concentration of (137)Cs in wolf samples of muscle, liver, kidney and blood were in the ranges 70-8410 Bq kg(-1) d.w., 36-4050 Bq kg(-1) d.w., 31-3453 Bq kg(-1) d.w. and 4-959 Bq kg(-1) d.w., respectively. (137)Cs in lynx muscle and liver samples were in the ranges 44-13393 Bq kg(-1) d.w. and 125-10260 Bq kg(-1) d.w. The corresponding values for (137)Cs in wolverine were 22-3405 Bq kg(-1) d.w. for liver and 53-4780 Bq kg(-1) d.w. for muscle. The maximal absorbed dose from (137)Cs to lynx was estimated to 3000 μGy per year.

  9. Suckling behavior in Eurasian lynx (Lynx lynx L.) cubs: characteristics and correlation with competitive interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glukhova, Alla; Naidenko, Sergey

    2014-01-01

    There is substantial evidence in the literature that the offspring of many mammal species prefer a particular pair of nipples. There is also a definite "nipple order" in individual litters in which each young predominantly uses one or two particular nipples. In combination with early competitive interactions, such "constancy" can play an important role in the social development of the young. In this study, we reveal an unequal use of different pairs of mothers' nipples by 42 Eurasian lynx cubs in 16 litters and investigate the relationship of this phenomenon with the early competitive interactions of the cubs and their physical development. For the lynx cubs, the most often used pair of nipples is the middle pair. There is also definite "nipple order" in each litter. We found a negative correlation between nipples use by the offspring and their competitive activity. No influence of "nipple order" on the cubs' growth rate was detected.

  10. Patterns of variation in reproductive parameters in Eurasian lynx (Lynx lynx).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nilsen, Erlend B; Linnell, John D C; Odden, John; Samelius, Gustaf; Andrén, Henrik

    2012-07-01

    Detailed knowledge of the variation in demographic rates is central for our ability to understand the evolution of life history strategies and population dynamics, and to plan for the conservation of endangered species. We studied variation in reproductive output of 61 radio-collared Eurasian lynx females in four Scandinavian study sites spanning a total of 223 lynx-years. Specifically, we examined how the breeding proportion and litter size varied among study areas and age classes (2-year-old vs. >2-year-old females). In general, the breeding proportion varied between age classes and study sites, whereas we did not detect such variation in litter size. The lack of differences in litter sizes among age classes is at odds with most findings in large mammals, and we argue that this is because the level of prenatal investment is relatively low in felids compared to their substantial levels of postnatal care.

  11. Diagnostic Exercise: Gastroenteritis and Pneumonia Due to Mesocestoides spp. and Toxascaris leonina in a Eurasian Lynx (Lynx lynx

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yavuz Selim Sağlam

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Pathological and parasitological findings of a parasitic gastroenteritis due to Mesocestoides spp. and Toxascaris leonina in a two-year-old lynx (Lynx lynx was identified. The lynx was injured due to an accident in the forest in İspir-Erzurum, Turkey. At necropsy, there was erosive and hemorrhagic tissue loss on different regions of the head, especially on the nose. Numerous parasites were found in the stomach and intestine. At histopathological examination, along with necrotic debris and gastric contents in the luminal surface of the stomach, various parasitic forms were identified. Similar parasitic forms were observed in the intestine. Fecal examination revealed Toxascaris leonina eggs. It was concluded that parasitic gastroenteritis and pneumonia due to Mesocestoides spp. and Toxascaris leonina were the causes of death in a wild lynx and this is the first reported from Turkey according to the current literature.

  12. DATA MINING IN CANADIAN LYNX TIME SERIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.Karnaboopathy

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper sums up the applications of Statistical model such as ARIMA family timeseries models in Canadian lynx data time series analysis and introduces the method of datamining combined with Statistical knowledge to analysis Canadian lynx data series.

  13. Evidences for the Lynx recovery in Bulgaria: the Lynx discovered in Western Rhodopes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    NIKOLAI SPASSOV

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available On photographs taken by a camera trap in the region of Yagodina village, Western Rhodopes, (Bulgaria the presence of the Eurasian Lynx Lynx lynx L. has been registered in the summer of 2014. This is the most reliable to date argument for the presence in Rhodope mountains of this critically endangered species in Bulgaria and for its gradual dispersal from the western mountainous border region of Bulgaria to more appropriate country habitats inland.

  14. Re-introduction and present status of the lynx (Lynx Lynx in Switzerland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Urs Breitenmoser

    1998-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract A lynx recovery programme started in Switzerland in 1970. From 1970-76, at least 14 lynx were translocated from the Carpathian Mountains into the Swiss Alps. Another re-introduction took place in the Jura Mountains, but no corridors exist as a connection between these two popula- tions in Switzerland. The development of the populations was not monitored at first. In 1980 systematic research was initiated, which gradually evolved into the Swiss Lynx Project. Not all releases were successful, but the re-introduction in the northern and western Alps founded a population that covered an area of some 4000 km² in 1981. In the western Swiss Alps, lynx moved into Italian and French territory. Towards the eastern Swiss Alps, the expansion was slower and ceased about ten years ago. During the last five years, there even has been a reduction of the area occupied. Today, the population covers an area of about 10000 km² in the Swiss Alps, of which 50% is suitable lynx habitat. Based on size and overlap of average home ranges of radio-tagged lynx, the population was estimated to include some 50 adult residents. At present, the growth rate of the population appears to be too low to allow a further expansion in range. It is uncertain whether recruitment is sufficient to compensate for the high losses among resident adults induced by traffic accidents and illegal killing.

  15. Present status and distribution of the Eurasian Lynx (Lynx lynx in the Italian Alps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paolo Molinari

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract To analyse the status and distribution of lynx in the Italian Alps from 1995 to 1999, all signs of lynx presence found were pooled, evaluated and interpreted with the same method. We distinguished three levels of reliability in accordance with the SCALP guidelines and the possibility to verify the collected data: Quality 1 (Q1 represent the hard facts, e.g. all reports of lynx killed, found dead or photographs and videos of lynx. Quality 2 (Q2 include all records of wild prey remains, livestock killed, tracks and scats confirmed by people who attended special courses, e.g. mainly game and forest wardens. Quality 3 (Q3 are all signs of presence reported by the general public as well as all sightings and vocalisations, e.g. mainly signs that cannot be verified. A total of 261 signs of lynx presence were recorded in the Italian Alps, of which 85 were Q2, the remaining were Q3 as no Q1 data was reported. The Q2 data was confined to four different areas whereas the Q3 data showed a scattered distribution in all the Alps. The dynamics in the Italian Alps during the past pentad was characterised by four main events: (1 the positive trend that had been observed in the north-east of Friuli V.G. (the Tarvisiano up until 1995 decreased, but (2 at the same time an increased number of data was reported from north-east of the Veneto (Province of Belluno. Consequently, in the south-eastern Alps more data were collected over a bigger area than in the previous pentad. (3 The lynx occurrence of unknown origin in the Trentino has gone extinct again. And (4 the suspected presence of lynx in the Val d'Aosta and in the northernmost Piemonte (Val d'Ossola was confirmed by Q2 data. In Italy, lynx still have not established a vital population even though suitable habitat is available from the south-western through to the eastern Alps. With the exception of the new occurrence in the province of Belluno, lynx occur only in areas bordering with

  16. Presence of the Eurasian lynx (Lynx lynx in three contiguous valleys of the Verbania Province (Piemonte, northern Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Di Lorenzo

    2000-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The presence of the Eurasian lynx (Lynx lynx L. 1758 was revealed during an investigation performed from I991 to 1994 in three contiguous valleys (Antigorio valley, Formazza valley and Devero valley of the Verbania province in Piemonte. In this investigation two methods were employed: interviews with the people who saw a lynx and/or found evidence of its presence (prints, faeces, scratchings on trees and meal remains and field research by means of line transects, as reported by Ragni et al. (1993. The research area was of about 250 km². Lynx signs were obtained in 1991, 1992 and 1994 between 600 and 1800 m a.s.1. and during all seasons. The lynx was usually observed at night and at dusk. The research shows that the Eurasian lynx is present, although sporadically, in this area of the western Italian Alps.

  17. Contaminants in fish and wildlife of Lynx Lake, Arizona

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Sediment, water, crayfish, and fish were collected at Lynx Creek and Lynx Lake, Arizona in 2004 and 2005. Granite Basin Lake was used as a reference site. Both sites...

  18. Esophageal hiatal hernia in three exotic felines--Lynx lynx, Puma concolore, Panthera leo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hettlich, Bianca F; Hobson, H Phil; Ducoté, Julie; Fossum, Theresa W; Johnson, James H

    2010-03-01

    Hiatal hernia was diagnosed in three exotic felines-lynx (Lynx lynx), cougar (Puma concolore), and lion (Panthera leo). All cats had a history of anorexia. Thoracic and abdominal radiographs showed evidence of a soft tissue mass within the caudal mediastinum suggestive of a hiatal hernia in all animals. A barium esophagram was performed in one case. All animals underwent thoracic or abdominal surgery for hernia reduction. Surgical procedures included: intercostal thoracotomy with herniorrhaphy and esophagopexy (lynx and cougar), and incisional gastropexy (lion). Concurrent surgical procedures performed were gastrotomy for gastric foreign body removal and jejunostomy tube placement. Clinical signs related to the hiatal hernia disappeared after surgery and recurrence of signs was not reported for the time of follow-up.

  19. Habitat fragmentation and the persistence of lynx populations in Washington state

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gary M Koehler; Benjamin T. Maletzke; Jeff A. Von Kienast; Keith B. Aubry; Robert B. Wielgus; Robert H. Naney

    2008-01-01

    Lynx (Lynx canadensis) occur in the northern counties of Washington state, USA; however, current distribution and status of lynx in Washington are poorly understood. During winters 2002-2004 we snow-tracked lynx for 155 km within a 211-km2 area in northern Washington, to develop a model of lynx-habitat relationships that we...

  20. Iberian lynx conservation in Portugal: dilemmas and solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarmento, P.

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Ateam of biologists and field assistants conducted, between January 2002 and May 2003, a survey on the status of the Iberian lynx in Portugal. The survey was performed on previously identified lynx areas, during studies carried out in the 1970-s and 1990-s Intensive search for lynx scats, for DNA analysis, and camera trapping provided a basis for identifying potential lynx areas. Over 4200 km were covered during a global searching effort of 1975 man-hours. This effort resulted in the collection of 168 potential scats that were submitted to genetic validation with no positive lynx amplifications. Camera trapping was applied in a total effort of 5647 camera days, in three lynx potential areas. No positive detections were achieved. At the same time, a study on wild rabbit distribution reveals that most historical nuclei do not support lynx viable populations. Although we can not confirm extinction, the scenario is highly pessimistic. The Iberian lynx is presently in the verge of extinction. Intensive rabbit regression and massive habitat destruction are identified as the main causes of decline in recent decades. In the Portuguese lynx historical range, we could only identify significant areas suitable for lynx in the South-eastern part of the country, particularly in the Andalusian border, where we lack on recent evidence of lynx presence. Being aware of the considerable difficulties pointed above, the ICN developed a Conservation Action Plan for the Iberian lynx in order to provide a consistent and effective approach to conserve the species in Portuguese territory. This proposal describes guidance that retains future options, provides management consistent, offers necessary flexibility, in order to achieve the maximum goal of conserving the lynx in Portugal. Conservation measures have the goal of provide guiding lines for conservations agents in order to conduct actions that can positively affect lynx and/or to help avoid negative impacts through

  1. Lynx: a database and knowledge extraction engine for integrative medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sulakhe, Dinanath; Balasubramanian, Sandhya; Xie, Bingqing; Feng, Bo; Taylor, Andrew; Wang, Sheng; Berrocal, Eduardo; Dave, Utpal; Xu, Jinbo; Börnigen, Daniela; Gilliam, T Conrad; Maltsev, Natalia

    2014-01-01

    We have developed Lynx (http://lynx.ci.uchicago.edu)--a web-based database and a knowledge extraction engine, supporting annotation and analysis of experimental data and generation of weighted hypotheses on molecular mechanisms contributing to human phenotypes and disorders of interest. Its underlying knowledge base (LynxKB) integrates various classes of information from >35 public databases and private collections, as well as manually curated data from our group and collaborators. Lynx provides advanced search capabilities and a variety of algorithms for enrichment analysis and network-based gene prioritization to assist the user in extracting meaningful knowledge from LynxKB and experimental data, whereas its service-oriented architecture provides public access to LynxKB and its analytical tools via user-friendly web services and interfaces.

  2. The lynx in the Italian South-Eastern Alps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paolo Molinari

    1998-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract From 1986 to May 1995 I collected records of signs of lynx presence in the region of Friuli Venezia Giulia. A series of regularly checked trail transects, explorative excursions, and the collection of second-hand observations led to a total of 150 records. They confirm lynx presence and allow an assessment of the situation. The first lynx are believed to have immigrated to the northern part of the study area from Austria. An increase and the distribution in the signs of presence show a south-westerly expansion. The trend in the Julian Alps and Pre-Alps is also increasing. Some interpretations of the status of this new population are made. The study area is in the far south-eastern Alps. This area is important as a corridor between the Alps and the Balkans, where a reintroduced lynx population exists which would be able to support the Alpine lynx population through dispersing lynx.

  3. Linking climate change to population cycles of hares and lynx.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Chuan; Stenseth, Nils Chr; Krebs, Charles J; Zhang, Zhibin

    2013-11-01

    The classic 10-year population cycle of snowshoe hares (Lepus americanus, Erxleben 1777) and Canada lynx (Lynx canadensis, Kerr 1792) in the boreal forests of North America has drawn much attention from both population and community ecologists worldwide; however, the ecological mechanisms driving the 10-year cyclic dynamic pattern are not fully revealed yet. In this study, by the use of historic fur harvest data, we constructed a series of generalized additive models to study the effects of density dependence, predation, and climate (both global climate indices of North Atlantic Oscillation index (NAO), Southern Oscillation index (SOI) and northern hemispheric temperature (NHT) and local weather data including temperature, rainfall, and snow). We identified several key pathways from global and local climate to lynx with various time lags: rainfall shows a negative, and snow shows a positive effect on lynx; NHT and NAO negatively affect lynx through their positive effect on rainfall and negative effect on snow; SOI positively affects lynx through its negative effect on rainfall. Direct or delayed density dependency effects, the prey effect of hare on lynx and a 2-year delayed negative effect of lynx on hare (defined as asymmetric predation) were found. The simulated population dynamics is well fitted to the observed long-term fluctuations of hare and lynx populations. Through simulation, we find density dependency and asymmetric predation, only producing damped oscillation, are necessary but not sufficient factors in causing the observed 10-year cycles; while extrinsic climate factors are important in producing and modifying the sustained cycles. Two recent population declines of lynx (1940-1955 and after 1980) were likely caused by ongoing climate warming indirectly. Our results provide an alternative explanation to the mechanism of the 10-year cycles, and there is a need for further investigation on links between disappearance of population cycles and global

  4. Assessment of a recombinant F1-V fusion protein vaccine intended to protect Canada lynx (Lynx canadensis) from plague

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolfe, Lisa L.; Shenk, Tanya M.; Powell, Bradford; Rocke, Tonie E.

    2011-01-01

    As part of an ongoing restoration program in Colorado, USA, we evaluated adverse reactions and seroconversion in captive Canada lynx (Lynx canadensis) after vaccination with a recombinant F1-V fusion protein vaccine against Yersinia pestis, the bacterium that causes plague. Ten adult female lynx received the F1-V vaccine; 10 source- and age-matched lynx remained unvaccinated as controls. All of the vaccinated and control lynx remained apparently healthy throughout the confinement period. We observed no evidence of injection site or systemic reactions to the F1-V vaccine. Among vaccinated lynx, differences in log10 reciprocal antibody titers measured in sera collected before and after vaccination (two doses) ranged from 1.2 to 5.2 for anti-F1 antibodies and from 0.6 to 5.2 for anti-V antibodies; titers in unvaccinated lynx did not change appreciably over the course of confinement prior to release, and thus differences in anti-F1 (P=0.003) and anti-V (P=0.0005) titers were greater among vaccinated lynx than among controls. Although our findings suggest that the F1-V fusion protein vaccine evaluated here is likely to stimulate antibody responses that may help protect Canada lynx from plague, we observed no apparent differences in survival between vaccinated and unvaccinated subject animals. Retrospectively, 22 of 50 (44%; 95% confidence interval 29–59%) unvaccinated lynx captured or recaptured in Colorado during 2000–08 had passive hemagglutination antibody titers >1:16, consistent with exposure to Y. pestis; paired pre- and postrelease titers available for eight of these animals showed titer increases similar in magnitude to those seen in response to vaccination, suggesting at least some lynx may naturally acquire immunity to plague in Colorado habitats.

  5. Status and distribution of the lynx in the German Alps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petra Kaczensky

    1998-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The lynx (Lynx lynx had been eradicated in the German Alps by the middle of the 19th century. Since the early 1970s there have been several attempts to initiate the re-introduction of lynx into the German Alps, but none of the projects could be carried out because of the still very controversial attitudes towards the species, and because of competition between institutions. Natural re-colonization of the German Alps by lynx can be expected sooner or later from Switzerland or Austria. Although lynx are already present in some parts of Germany outside the Alps, neither an organized monitoring system nor compensation regulations for losses of livestock exist. For a successful comeback of lynx into Germany, including the German Alps, more efforts than a year-round protection by the federal hunting law is needed. Initiative management actions and intensive public education are necessary to obtain and secure public acceptance of the lynx.

  6. Diet and Predatory Behavior of Lynx in Sweden

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moshøj, Charlotte Margaret

    2002-01-01

    4. Diet and Predatory Behavior of Lynx in Sweden CHARLOTTE MOSHØJ1,2 1University of Copenhagen Department of Population Ecology, Zoological Institute Universitetsparken 15 DK-2100 Copenhagen Denmark cmmoshoj@zi.ku.dk 2Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences Department of Conservation Biology...... (reindeer and roe deer) comprised the greatest part of the diet, while a regional division indicated that while lynxes from northern regions had a narrower diet niche, they were in better condition than lynxes from south of the reindeer husbandry districts. Lynx gender and status also influenced diet......, predation and condition, while temporal variations in prey density and availability affected seasonal predation rates, as well as between year variations and diet composition. Variable prey species and environmental factors, such as snow and the availability of cover, furthermore affected lynx predatory...

  7. Lynx distribution in the French Alps (1995-1999

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philippe Stahl

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract From 1995 to 1999, 69 data were recorded on lynx presence in the French Alps, in an area of 3,636 km². Lynx presence was recorded in the major forested regions of the pré-Alpes (Chablais, Glière/Aravis, Bauges, Chartreuse, Vercors, Diois/Beauchène, in the Chamonix and Maurienne valleys and the Briançon region, but no large continuous area of presence was shown. Lynx have probably been permanently present in certain locations during the past years, but the presence of a large lynx population in the Alps is improbable in the northern French Alps. In the future, we recommend that habitat suitability for lynx in the northern French-Alps should be assessed, together with possibilities of connection between alpine regions and possible bias in the monitoring system.

  8. Selective actions of Lynx proteins on different nicotinic acetylcholine receptors in the locust, Locusta migratoria manilensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xin; Bao, Haibo; Sun, Huahua; Zhang, Yixi; Fang, Jichao; Liu, Qinghong; Liu, Zewen

    2015-08-01

    Nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) are major neurotransmitter receptors and targets of neonicotinoid insecticides in the insect nervous system. The full function of nAChRs is often dependent on associated proteins, such as chaperones, regulators and modulators. Here, three Lynx (Ly-6/neurotoxin) proteins, Loc-lynx1, Loc-lynx2 and Loc-lynx3, were identified in the locust, Locusta migratoria manilensis. Co-expression with Lynx resulted in a dramatic increase in agonist-evoked macroscopic currents on nAChRs Locα1/β2 and Locα2/β2 in Xenopus oocytes, but no changes in agonist sensitivity. Loc-lynx1 and Loc-lynx3 only modulated nAChRs Locα1/β2 while Loc-lynx2 modulated Locα2/β2 specifically. Meanwhile, Loc-lynx1 induced a more significant increase in currents evoked by imidacloprid and epibatidine than Loc-lynx3, and the effects of Loc-lynx1 on imidacloprid and epibatidine were significantly higher than those on acetylcholine. Among three lynx proteins, only Loc-lynx1 significantly increased [(3) H]epibatidine binding on Locα1/β2. The results indicated that Loc-lynx1 had different modulation patterns in nAChRs compared to Loc-lynx2 and Loc-lynx3. Taken together, these findings indicated that three Lynx proteins were nAChR modulators and had selective activities in different nAChRs. Lynx proteins might display their selectivities from three aspects: nAChR subtypes, various agonists and different modulation patterns. Insect Lynx (Ly-6/neurotoxin) proteins act as the allosteric modulators on insect nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs), the important targets of insecticides. We found that insect lynx proteins showed their selectivities from at least three aspects: nAChR subtypes, various agonists and different modulation patterns.

  9. First estimation of Eurasian lynx (Lynx lynx abundance and density using digital cameras and capture–recapture techniques in a German national park

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weingarth, K.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Eurasian lynx are individually identifiable by their unique coat markings, making them ideal candidates for capture–recapture (CMR surveys. We evaluated the use of digital photography to estimate Eurasian lynx population abundance and density within the Bavarian Forest National Park. From November 2008 to January 2009 we placed 24 camera trap sites, each with two cameras facing each other on well–used walking tracks. The units were placed based on a systematic grid of 2.7 km. We captured five independent and three juvenile lynx and calculated abundance estimates using Program Mark. We also compared density estimates based on the MMDM method (Mean Maximum Distance Moved from telemetry data (½MMDMGPS and from camera trapping data (½MMDMCAM. We estimated that in an effectively sampled area of 664 km2 the Eurasian lynx density was 0.9 individuals/100 km2 with ½MMDMCAM. The Eurasian lynx density calculated with ½MMDMGPS was 0.4 individuals/100 km2 in an effectively sampled area of 1,381 km2. Our results suggest that long–term photographic CMR sampling on a large scale may be a useful tool to monitor population trends of Eurasian lynx in accordance with the Fauna–Flora–Habitat Directive of the European Union.

  10. Met stille trom? Nederland en de Europese lynx

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groot Bruinderink, G.W.T.A.; Kuipers, H.; Lammertsma, D.R.; DeSmet, K.; Petrak, M.; Eylert, J.H.

    2006-01-01

    Dit artikel geeft gegevens over nieuwe vestigingen van de Europese lynx in Midden- en West-Europa; op grond van de mogelijkheid tot gebruikmaking van ecologische verbindingszones. Gecombineerd onderzoek vanuit Wageningen, Brussel en Bonn

  11. Enhancement in motor learning through genetic manipulation of the Lynx1 gene.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julie M Miwa

    Full Text Available The cholinergic system is a neuromodulatory neurotransmitter system involved in a variety of brain processes, including learning and memory, attention, and motor processes, among others. The influence of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors of the cholinergic system are moderated by lynx proteins, which are GPI-anchored membrane proteins forming tight associations with nicotinic receptors. Previous studies indicate lynx1 inhibits nicotinic receptor function and limits neuronal plasticity. We sought to investigate the mechanism of action of lynx1 on nicotinic receptor function, through the generation of lynx mouse models, expressing a soluble version of lynx and comparing results to the full length overexpression. Using rotarod as a test for motor learning, we found that expressing a secreted variant of lynx leads to motor learning enhancements whereas overexpression of full-length lynx had no effect. Further, adult lynx1KO mice demonstrated comparable motor learning enhancements as the soluble transgenic lines, whereas previously, aged lynx1KO mice showed performance augmentation only with nicotine treatment. From this we conclude the motor learning is more sensitive to loss of lynx function, and that the GPI anchor plays a role in the normal function of the lynx protein. In addition, our data suggests that the lynx gene plays a modulatory role in the brain during aging, and that a soluble version of lynx has potential as a tool for adjusting cholinergic-dependent plasticity and learning mechanisms in the brain.

  12. Lynx web services for annotations and systems analysis of multi-gene disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sulakhe, Dinanath; Taylor, Andrew; Balasubramanian, Sandhya; Feng, Bo; Xie, Bingqing; Börnigen, Daniela; Dave, Utpal J; Foster, Ian T; Gilliam, T Conrad; Maltsev, Natalia

    2014-07-01

    Lynx is a web-based integrated systems biology platform that supports annotation and analysis of experimental data and generation of weighted hypotheses on molecular mechanisms contributing to human phenotypes and disorders of interest. Lynx has integrated multiple classes of biomedical data (genomic, proteomic, pathways, phenotypic, toxicogenomic, contextual and others) from various public databases as well as manually curated data from our group and collaborators (LynxKB). Lynx provides tools for gene list enrichment analysis using multiple functional annotations and network-based gene prioritization. Lynx provides access to the integrated database and the analytical tools via REST based Web Services (http://lynx.ci.uchicago.edu/webservices.html). This comprises data retrieval services for specific functional annotations, services to search across the complete LynxKB (powered by Lucene), and services to access the analytical tools built within the Lynx platform.

  13. Missing lynx and trophic cascades in food webs: A reply to Ripple et al.

    Science.gov (United States)

    John R. Squires; Nicholas J. DeCesare; Mark Hebblewhite; Joel Berger

    2012-01-01

    Ripple et al. (2011) proposed a hypothesis that the recovery of gray wolves (Canis lupus) may positively affect the viability of threatened Canada lynx (Lynx canadensis) populations in the contiguous United States through indirect species interactions. Ripple et al. (2011) proposed 2 key trophic linkages connecting wolf restoration with lynx recovery. First, recovering...

  14. Selection and drift influence genetic differentiation of insular Canada lynx (Lynx canadensis) on Newfoundland and Cape Breton Island.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prentice, Melanie B; Bowman, Jeff; Khidas, Kamal; Koen, Erin L; Row, Jeffrey R; Murray, Dennis L; Wilson, Paul J

    2017-05-01

    Island populations have long been important for understanding the dynamics and mechanisms of evolution in natural systems. While genetic drift is often strong on islands due to founder events and population bottlenecks, the strength of selection can also be strong enough to counteract the effects of drift. Here, we used several analyses to identify the roles of genetic drift and selection on genetic differentiation and diversity of Canada lynx (Lynx canadensis) across eastern Canada, including the islands of Cape Breton and Newfoundland. Specifically, we assessed whether we could identify a genetic component to the observed morphological differentiation that has been reported across insular and mainland lynx. We used a dinucleotide repeat within the promoter region of a functional gene that has been linked to mammalian body size, insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1). We found high genetic differentiation at neutral molecular markers but convergence of allele frequencies at the IGF-1 locus. Thus, we showed that while genetic drift has influenced the observed genetic structure of lynx at neutral molecular markers, natural selection has also played a role in the observed patterns of genetic diversity at the IGF-1 locus of insular lynx.

  15. Present status and distribution of the Lynx in the Swiss Alps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anja Molinari-Jobin

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract To evaluate the population trend of lynx in the Swiss Alps, we analysed the spatial and numerical development of signs of presence found from 1995 to 1999 and compared them with previous years. Three sources of information on the presence of lynx are available: (1 reports of lynx killed or found dead; (2 records of livestock killed by lynx; (3 records of wild prey remains, tracks, scats, sightings, and vocalisations. We distinguished three levels of reliability: Quality 1 represent the hard facts, e.g. all reports of lynx killed or found dead, photographs of lynx as well as young orphaned lynx caught in the wild and taken into captivity. Quality 2 include all records of livestock killed, wild prey remains, tracks and scats reported by people who have attended special courses, e.g. mainly game wardens. Quality 3 are all wild prey remains and tracks reported by the general public as well as all sightings, scats and vocalisations, e.g. signs that cannot be verified. More than 1600 signs of presence were recorded in the Swiss Alps in this 5-year-period. A high number of quality 1 and 2 records showed that (1 the lynx population in the north-western Swiss Alps increased from 1994 to 1999, that (2 there is a moderate presence of the species in the central and south-western parts and (3 none or hardly any lynx are found in the eastern Alps of Switzerland. Based on a radio-telemetry study and the number of quality 2 data, we were able to estimate the number of lynx in the Swiss Alps at 70 individuals. To counterpart the uneven distribution of lynx in Switzerland, lynx are being translocated from the north-western Alps to the eastern Swiss Alps, as the expansion of the Swiss lynx population is crucial for the conservation of the lynx in the whole Alps.

  16. Present status and distribution of the Lynx in the German Alps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manfred Wölfl

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The period 1995 to 1999 did not yield any confirmed lynx data in the German part of the Alpine Arc. Only from the area of Berchtesgaden, 6 Q3-data exist. Outside of the Alpine arc Germany hosts some areas with lynx evidence. For a better understanding of the real situation in the Alps it would be necessary to have a few skilled persons who could check any lynx signs quickly and/or interview people that suspect lynx presence. Because of possible lynx immigrations, especially from eastern Switzerland, and its central location, it would be important that Germany starts to play a more active role in lynx conservation in the Alps. Conservation strategies and possible actions need to be assessed in the near future.

  17. Broad-scale predictors of canada lynx occurrence in eastern North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoving, C.L.; Harrison, D.J.; Krohn, W.B.; Joseph, R.A.; O'Brien, M.

    2005-01-01

    The Canada lynx (Lynx canadensis) is listed as a threatened species throughout the southern extent of its geographic range in the United States. Most research on lynx has been conducted in the western United States and Canada; little is known about the ecology of lynx in eastern North America. To fill critical knowledge gaps about this species, we modeled and mapped lynx occurrence using habitat and weather data from 7 eastern states and 3 Canadian provinces. Annual snowfall, road density, bobcat (L. rufus) harvest, deciduous forest, and coniferous forest were compared at 1,150 lynx locations and 1,288 random locations. Nineteen a priori models were developed using the information-theoretic approach, and logistic regression models were ranked using Akaike's Information Criterion (AIC) and by our ability to correctly classify reserved data (Kappa). Annual snowfall and deciduous forest predicted lynx presence and absence for a reserved dataset (n = 278) with 94% accuracy. A map of the probability of lynx occurrence throughout the region revealed that 92% of the potential habitat (i.e., >50% probability of occurrence) was concentrated in a relatively contiguous complex encompassing northern Maine, New Brunswick, and the Gaspe?? peninsula of Quebec. Most of the remaining potential habitat (5%) was on northern Cape Breton Island in Nova Scotia. Potential habitat in New Hampshire, Vermont, and New York was small (1,252 km2), fragmented, and isolated (>200 km) from known lynx populations. When federally listed as threatened in the contiguous United States in 2000, inadequate regulations on federal lands were cited as the primary threat to Canada lynx. However, the majority of potential lynx habitat in the eastern United States is on private lands and continuous with potential habitat in Canada. Therefore, lynx conservation in eastern North America will need to develop partnerships across national, state, and provincial boundaries as well as with private landowners.

  18. Lynx: a knowledge base and an analytical workbench for integrative medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sulakhe, Dinanath; Xie, Bingqing; Taylor, Andrew; D'Souza, Mark; Balasubramanian, Sandhya; Hashemifar, Somaye; White, Steven; Dave, Utpal J; Agam, Gady; Xu, Jinbo; Wang, Sheng; Gilliam, T Conrad; Maltsev, Natalia

    2016-01-04

    Lynx (http://lynx.ci.uchicago.edu) is a web-based database and a knowledge extraction engine. It supports annotation and analysis of high-throughput experimental data and generation of weighted hypotheses regarding genes and molecular mechanisms contributing to human phenotypes or conditions of interest. Since the last release, the Lynx knowledge base (LynxKB) has been periodically updated with the latest versions of the existing databases and supplemented with additional information from public databases. These additions have enriched the data annotations provided by Lynx and improved the performance of Lynx analytical tools. Moreover, the Lynx analytical workbench has been supplemented with new tools for reconstruction of co-expression networks and feature-and-network-based prioritization of genetic factors and molecular mechanisms. These developments facilitate the extraction of meaningful knowledge from experimental data and LynxKB. The Service Oriented Architecture provides public access to LynxKB and its analytical tools via user-friendly web services and interfaces.

  19. Performance analysis and kernel size study of the Lynx real-time operating system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yuan-Kwei; Gibson, James S.; Fernquist, Alan R.

    1993-01-01

    This paper analyzes the Lynx real-time operating system (LynxOS), which has been selected as the operating system for the Space Station Freedom Data Management System (DMS). The features of LynxOS are compared to other Unix-based operating system (OS). The tools for measuring the performance of LynxOS, which include a high-speed digital timer/counter board, a device driver program, and an application program, are analyzed. The timings for interrupt response, process creation and deletion, threads, semaphores, shared memory, and signals are measured. The memory size of the DMS Embedded Data Processor (EDP) is limited. Besides, virtual memory is not suitable for real-time applications because page swap timing may not be deterministic. Therefore, the DMS software, including LynxOS, has to fit in the main memory of an EDP. To reduce the LynxOS kernel size, the following steps are taken: analyzing the factors that influence the kernel size; identifying the modules of LynxOS that may not be needed in an EDP; adjusting the system parameters of LynxOS; reconfiguring the device drivers used in the LynxOS; and analyzing the symbol table. The reductions in kernel disk size, kernel memory size and total kernel size reduction from each step mentioned above are listed and analyzed.

  20. Performance analysis and kernel size study of the Lynx real-time operating system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yuan-Kwei; Gibson, James S.; Fernquist, Alan R.

    1993-01-01

    This paper analyzes the Lynx real-time operating system (LynxOS), which has been selected as the operating system for the Space Station Freedom Data Management System (DMS). The features of LynxOS are compared to other Unix-based operating system (OS). The tools for measuring the performance of LynxOS, which include a high-speed digital timer/counter board, a device driver program, and an application program, are analyzed. The timings for interrupt response, process creation and deletion, threads, semaphores, shared memory, and signals are measured. The memory size of the DMS Embedded Data Processor (EDP) is limited. Besides, virtual memory is not suitable for real-time applications because page swap timing may not be deterministic. Therefore, the DMS software, including LynxOS, has to fit in the main memory of an EDP. To reduce the LynxOS kernel size, the following steps are taken: analyzing the factors that influence the kernel size; identifying the modules of LynxOS that may not be needed in an EDP; adjusting the system parameters of LynxOS; reconfiguring the device drivers used in the LynxOS; and analyzing the symbol table. The reductions in kernel disk size, kernel memory size and total kernel size reduction from each step mentioned above are listed and analyzed.

  1. Influence of tourism and traffic on the Eurasian lynx hunting activity and daily movements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Belotti, E.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Human presence influences survival of large carnivores in several ways and even outdoor activities can be a source of disturbance. As ungulate prey provide the Eurasian lynx (Lynx lynx with food for several nights and the pattern of lynx activity is mainly shaped by searching for and consuming large prey, the need to move decreases strongly while the prey is eaten. However, during the day, human activity may drive lynx to move to safe shelters and habitat features such as dense vegetation may increase tolerance. In the Bohemian Forest (Czech Republic, we found 116 prey killed by five GPS–collared lynxes. We tested whether the kill sites were located farther from roads or tourist trails than a set of randomly generated locations and whether presence of roads or tourist trails and habitat structure influenced the distance ‘kill site to daytime resting sites’. At night, with low human activity, lynxes did not avoid roads and even selected the surroundings of tourist trails. The distance ‘kill site to daytime resting sites’ correlated negatively with presence of habitat concealment and distance to tourist trails, suggesting that outdoor activities may have to be considered in lynx management plans.

  2. Large impact of Eurasian lynx predation on roe deer population dynamics.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henrik Andrén

    Full Text Available The effects of predation on ungulate populations depend on several factors. One of the most important factors is the proportion of predation that is additive or compensatory respectively to other mortality in the prey, i.e., the relative effect of top-down and bottom-up processes. We estimated Eurasian lynx (Lynx lynx kill rate on roe deer (Capreolus capreolus using radio-collared lynx. Kill rate was strongly affected by lynx social status. For males it was 4.85 ± 1.30 S.E. roe deer per 30 days, for females with kittens 6.23 ± 0.83 S.E. and for solitary females 2.71 ± 0.47 S.E. We found very weak support for effects of prey density (both for Type I (linear and Type II (non-linear functional responses and of season (winter, summer on lynx kill rate. Additionally, we analysed the growth rate in a roe deer population from 1985 to 2005 in an area, which lynx naturally re-colonized in 1996. The annual roe deer growth rate was lower after lynx re-colonized the study area, but it was also negatively influenced by roe deer density. Before lynx colonized the area roe deer growth rate was λ = 1.079 (± 0.061 S.E., while after lynx re-colonization it was λ = 0.94 (± 0.051 S.E.. Thus, the growth rate in the roe deer population decreased by Δλ = 0.14 (± 0.080 S.E. after lynx re-colonized the study area, which corresponded to the estimated lynx predation rate on roe deer (0.11 ± 0.042 S.E., suggesting that lynx predation was mainly additive to other mortality in roe deer. To conclude, this study suggests that lynx predation together with density dependent factors both influence the roe deer population dynamics. Thus, both top-down and bottom-up processes operated at the same time in this predator-prey system.

  3. Lynx1 and Aβ1-42 bind competitively to multiple nicotinic acetylcholine receptor subtypes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Morten S; Arvaniti, Maria; Jensen, Majbrit M

    2016-01-01

    Lynx1 regulates synaptic plasticity in the brain by regulating nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs). It is not known to which extent Lynx1 can bind to endogenous nAChR subunits in the brain or how this interaction is affected by Alzheimer's disease pathology. We apply affinity purification...... to demonstrate that a water-soluble variant of human Lynx1 (Ws-Lynx1) isolates α3, α4, α5, α6, α7, β2, and β4 nAChR subunits from human and rat cortical extracts, and rat midbrain and olfactory bulb extracts, suggesting that Lynx1 forms complexes with multiple nAChR subtypes in the human and rodent brain....... Incubation with Ws-Lynx1 decreases nicotine-mediated extracellular signal-regulated kinase phosphorylation in PC12 cells and striatal neurons, indicating that binding of Ws-Lynx1 is sufficient to inhibit signaling downstream of nAChRs. The effect of nicotine in PC12 cells is independent of α7 or α4β2 n...

  4. Northwest Boreal Lynx Project: 2016 Summary Report for Tetlin National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — A summary of efforts to live-capture and collar Canada lynx on Tetlin National Wildlife Refuge from 2014-2016 for the purposes of tracking their movements during a...

  5. Canada Lynx Dispersal, Space and Habitat Use Patterns During a Snowshoe Hare Population Cycle products

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Products resulting from the Tetlin NWR project "Canada Lynx Dispersal, Space and Habitat Use Patterns During a Snowshoe Hare Population Cycle" (PRIMR survey...

  6. Evidence for large-scale effects of competition: niche displacement in Canada lynx and bobcat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peers, Michael J L; Thornton, Daniel H; Murray, Dennis L

    2013-12-22

    Determining the patterns, causes and consequences of character displacement is central to our understanding of competition in ecological communities. However, the majority of competition research has occurred over small spatial extents or focused on fine-scale differences in morphology or behaviour. The effects of competition on broad-scale distribution and niche characteristics of species remain poorly understood but critically important. Using range-wide species distribution models, we evaluated whether Canada lynx (Lynx canadensis) or bobcat (Lynx rufus) were displaced in regions of sympatry. Consistent with our prediction, we found that lynx niches were less similar to those of bobcat in areas of sympatry versus allopatry, with a stronger reliance on snow cover driving lynx niche divergence in the sympatric zone. By contrast, bobcat increased niche breadth in zones of sympatry, and bobcat niches were equally similar to those of lynx in zones of sympatry and allopatry. These findings suggest that competitively disadvantaged species avoid competition at large scales by restricting their niche to highly suitable conditions, while superior competitors expand the diversity of environments used. Our results indicate that competition can manifest within climatic niche space across species' ranges, highlighting the importance of biotic interactions occurring at large spatial scales on niche dynamics.

  7. NMR structure and action on nicotinic acetylcholine receptors of water-soluble domain of human LYNX1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyukmanova, Ekaterina N; Shenkarev, Zakhar O; Shulepko, Mikhail A; Mineev, Konstantin S; D'Hoedt, Dieter; Kasheverov, Igor E; Filkin, Sergey Yu; Krivolapova, Alexandra P; Janickova, Helena; Dolezal, Vladimir; Dolgikh, Dmitry A; Arseniev, Alexander S; Bertrand, Daniel; Tsetlin, Victor I; Kirpichnikov, Mikhail P

    2011-03-25

    Discovery of proteins expressed in the central nervous system sharing the three-finger structure with snake α-neurotoxins provoked much interest to their role in brain functions. Prototoxin LYNX1, having homology both to Ly6 proteins and three-finger neurotoxins, is the first identified member of this family membrane-tethered by a GPI anchor, which considerably complicates in vitro studies. We report for the first time the NMR spatial structure for the water-soluble domain of human LYNX1 lacking a GPI anchor (ws-LYNX1) and its concentration-dependent activity on nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs). At 5-30 μM, ws-LYNX1 competed with (125)I-α-bungarotoxin for binding to the acetylcholine-binding proteins (AChBPs) and to Torpedo nAChR. Exposure of Xenopus oocytes expressing α7 nAChRs to 1 μM ws-LYNX1 enhanced the response to acetylcholine, but no effect was detected on α4β2 and α3β2 nAChRs. Increasing ws-LYNX1 concentration to 10 μM caused a modest inhibition of these three nAChR subtypes. A common feature for ws-LYNX1 and LYNX1 is a decrease of nAChR sensitivity to high concentrations of acetylcholine. NMR and functional analysis both demonstrate that ws-LYNX1 is an appropriate model to shed light on the mechanism of LYNX1 action. Computer modeling, based on ws-LYNX1 NMR structure and AChBP x-ray structure, revealed a possible mode of ws-LYNX1 binding.

  8. NMR Structure and Action on Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptors of Water-soluble Domain of Human LYNX1*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyukmanova, Ekaterina N.; Shenkarev, Zakhar O.; Shulepko, Mikhail A.; Mineev, Konstantin S.; D'Hoedt, Dieter; Kasheverov, Igor E.; Filkin, Sergey Yu.; Krivolapova, Alexandra P.; Janickova, Helena; Dolezal, Vladimir; Dolgikh, Dmitry A.; Arseniev, Alexander S.; Bertrand, Daniel; Tsetlin, Victor I.; Kirpichnikov, Mikhail P.

    2011-01-01

    Discovery of proteins expressed in the central nervous system sharing the three-finger structure with snake α-neurotoxins provoked much interest to their role in brain functions. Prototoxin LYNX1, having homology both to Ly6 proteins and three-finger neurotoxins, is the first identified member of this family membrane-tethered by a GPI anchor, which considerably complicates in vitro studies. We report for the first time the NMR spatial structure for the water-soluble domain of human LYNX1 lacking a GPI anchor (ws-LYNX1) and its concentration-dependent activity on nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs). At 5–30 μm, ws-LYNX1 competed with 125I-α-bungarotoxin for binding to the acetylcholine-binding proteins (AChBPs) and to Torpedo nAChR. Exposure of Xenopus oocytes expressing α7 nAChRs to 1 μm ws-LYNX1 enhanced the response to acetylcholine, but no effect was detected on α4β2 and α3β2 nAChRs. Increasing ws-LYNX1 concentration to 10 μm caused a modest inhibition of these three nAChR subtypes. A common feature for ws-LYNX1 and LYNX1 is a decrease of nAChR sensitivity to high concentrations of acetylcholine. NMR and functional analysis both demonstrate that ws-LYNX1 is an appropriate model to shed light on the mechanism of LYNX1 action. Computer modeling, based on ws-LYNX1 NMR structure and AChBP x-ray structure, revealed a possible mode of ws-LYNX1 binding. PMID:21252236

  9. Favourable areas for expansion and reintroduction of Iberian lynx accounting for distribution trends and genetic variation of the wild rabbit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Márcia Barbosa

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Although on a local scale Iberian lynx distribution is determined by the availability of prey rabbits, recent modelling analyses have uncovered broad-scale disagreements between these two species’ distribution trends. These analyses showed also that the lynx had become restricted to only a fraction of the rabbit’s genetic variability, and that this could be jeopardising its survival in the face of environmental hazards and uncertainty. In the present paper, a follow-up was carried out through the building of lynx and rabbit distribution models based on the most recent Spanish mammal atlas. The predictions of environmental favourability (which is an indicator of abundance for lynx and rabbit were positively correlated within the lynx's current distribution area, but they were negatively correlated within the total Spanish area where lynx occurred in the 1980’s. Environmental favourability for rabbits was significantly higher where lynx maintains reproductive populations than where it recently disappeared, indicating that rabbit favourability plays an important role and can be a good predictor of lynx persistence. The lynx and rabbit models were extrapolated to predict favourable areas for both species in Spain as well as in Portugal, on the original scale of the distribution data (10x10 km and on a 100 times finer spatial resolution (1x1 km. The lynx and rabbit models were also combined through fuzzy logic to forecast the potential for lynx occurrence incorporating information on favourable areas for its main prey. Several areas are proposed as favourable for lynx expansion or re-introduction, encompassing both countries and both genetic lineages of the rabbit.

  10. Patterns of Lynx Predation at the Interface between Protected Areas and Multi-Use Landscapes in Central Europe.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisa Belotti

    Full Text Available In Central Europe, protected areas are too small to ensure survival of populations of large carnivores. In the surrounding areas, these species are often persecuted due to competition with game hunters. Therefore, understanding how predation intensity varies spatio-temporally across areas with different levels of protection is fundamental. We investigated the predation patterns of Eurasian lynx (Lynx lynx on roe deer (Capreolus capreolus and red deer (Cervus elaphus in both protected areas and multi-use landscapes of the Bohemian Forest Ecosystem. Based on 359 roe and red deer killed by 10 GPS-collared lynx, we calculated the species-specific annual kill rates and tested for effects of season and lynx age, sex and reproductive status. Because roe and red deer in the study area concentrate in unprotected lowlands during winter, we modeled spatial distribution of kills separately for summer and winter and calculated-the probability of a deer killed by lynx and-the expected number of kills for areas with different levels of protection. Significantly more roe deer (46.05-74.71/year/individual lynx were killed than red deer (1.57-9.63/year/individual lynx, more deer were killed in winter than in summer, and lynx family groups had higher annual kill rates than adult male, single adult female and subadult female lynx. In winter the probability of a deer killed and the expected number of kills were higher outside the most protected part of the study area than inside; in summer, this probability did not differ between areas, and the expected number of kills was slightly larger inside than outside the most protected part of the study area. This indicates that the intensity of lynx predation in the unprotected part of the Bohemian Forest Ecosystem increases in winter, thus mitigation of conflicts in these areas should be included as a priority in the lynx conservation strategy.

  11. 同胞侵犯对猞猁幼仔行为的影响%Effect of sibling aggression on kittens' behavior in Eurasian lynx Lynx lynx

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Anastasiya ANTONEVICH; Sergey NAIDENKO

    2008-01-01

    The changes in play, affiliative and aggressive relations among lynx littermates were studied for 11 kittens from 4 different litters in captivity. Sibling fights were observed in these litters at the age of 36-57 days. The fights resulted in a decrease in the frequency of playful contacts in the litters. This "fight period" coincided with the intense development of playful behavior and dietary changes. The asymmetry of playful contacts and siblings' preferences were much clearer after the fights. These fights led to the establishment of ahierarchical dominance structure in the litters.%研究了非自由生活的4窝11只猞猁幼仔的玩耍行为、亲和及入侵关系的变化.观察到36-57日龄幼仔的同胞打斗行为,这些打斗减少了这些幼仔之间游戏性接触的频次.这个"打斗期"与游戏行为和食性的变化同步发生.打斗后,幼仔游戏性接触的非对称性以及同胞之间的偏爱更加清楚.这些打斗导致了不同窝的幼仔之间等级结构的建立.

  12. Pre-layout AC decoupling analysis with Mentor Graphics HyperLynx

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hnatiuc, Mihaela; Iov, Cǎtǎlin J.

    2015-02-01

    Considerable resources have been used since the humans got interested to discover the world around. Any discovery and science advance was taken tremendously amount of time, money, sometimes lives. All of these define the cost of a discovery, developing process. Getting back to electronics, this field faced in the last 20-30 years, a big boom in terms of technologies and opportunities. Thousands of equipment were developed and placed on the market. The big difference between various competitors is made at the moment by that we call the time to market. A mobile, for instance, has a time to market of around 6 months and the tendency is to have it smaller than that. That means between the concept and the first model sale, no more than 6 months should be passing. That is why new approaches are needed. The one extensively used now is the simulation. We call the simulation virtual prototyping. The virtual prototyping takes into account more than the components only. It takes into account some other project parameters that would affect the final product. Certified tools can handle such analysis. In our paper we present the case of HyperLynx, a concept developed by Mentor Graphics Company, assisting the hardware designer throughout the designing process, from thermal point of view. A test case board was analyzed at the pre-layout stage and the results presented.

  13. Density of wild prey modulates lynx kill rates on free-ranging domestic sheep.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Odden

    Full Text Available Understanding the factors shaping the dynamics of carnivore-livestock conflicts is vital to facilitate large carnivore conservation in multi-use landscapes. We investigated how the density of their main wild prey, roe deer Capreolus capreolus, modulates individual Eurasian lynx Lynx lynx kill rates on free-ranging domestic sheep Ovis aries across a range of sheep and roe deer densities. Lynx kill rates on free-ranging domestic sheep were collected in south-eastern Norway from 1995 to 2011 along a gradient of different livestock and wild prey densities using VHF and GPS telemetry. We used zero-inflated negative binomial (ZINB models including lynx sex, sheep density and an index of roe deer density as explanatory variables to model observed kill rates on sheep, and ranked the models based on their AICc values. The model including the effects of lynx sex and sheep density in the zero-inflation model and the effect of lynx sex and roe deer density in the negative binomial part received most support. Irrespective of sheep density and sex, we found the lowest sheep kill rates in areas with high densities of roe deer. As roe deer density decreased, males killed sheep at higher rates, and this pattern held for both high and low sheep densities. Similarly, females killed sheep at higher rates in areas with high densities of sheep and low densities of roe deer. However, when sheep densities were low females rarely killed sheep irrespective of roe deer density. Our quantification of depredation rates can be the first step towards establishing fairer compensation systems based on more accurate and area specific estimation of losses. This study demonstrates how we can use ecological theory to predict where losses of sheep will be greatest, and can be used to identify areas where mitigation measures are most likely to be needed.

  14. Habitat Loss, Not Fragmentation, Drives Occurrence Patterns of Canada Lynx at the Southern Range Periphery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hornseth, Megan L.; Walpole, Aaron A.; Walton, Lyle R.; Bowman, Jeff; Ray, Justina C.; Fortin, Marie-Josée; Murray, Dennis L.

    2014-01-01

    Peripheral populations often experience more extreme environmental conditions than those in the centre of a species' range. Such extreme conditions include habitat loss, defined as a reduction in the amount of suitable habitat, as well as habitat fragmentation, which involves the breaking apart of habitat independent of habitat loss. The ‘threshold hypothesis’ predicts that organisms will be more affected by habitat fragmentation when the amount of habitat on the landscape is scarce (i.e., less than 30%) than when habitat is abundant, implying that habitat fragmentation may compound habitat loss through changes in patch size and configuration. Alternatively, the ‘flexibility hypothesis’ predicts that individuals may respond to increased habitat disturbance by altering their selection patterns and thereby reducing sensitivity to habitat loss and fragmentation. While the range of Canada lynx (Lynx canadensis) has contracted during recent decades, the relative importance of habitat loss and habitat fragmentation on this phenomenon is poorly understood. We used a habitat suitability model for lynx to identify suitable land cover in Ontario, and contrasted occupancy patterns across landscapes differing in cover, to test the ‘threshold hypothesis’ and ‘flexibility hypothesis’. When suitable land cover was widely available, lynx avoided areas with less than 30% habitat and were unaffected by habitat fragmentation. However, on landscapes with minimal suitable land cover, lynx occurrence was not related to either habitat loss or habitat fragmentation, indicating support for the ‘flexibility hypothesis’. We conclude that lynx are broadly affected by habitat loss, and not specifically by habitat fragmentation, although occurrence patterns are flexible and dependent on landscape condition. We suggest that lynx may alter their habitat selection patterns depending on local conditions, thereby reducing their sensitivity to anthropogenically-driven habitat

  15. Habitat loss, not fragmentation, drives occurrence patterns of Canada lynx at the southern range periphery.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Megan L Hornseth

    Full Text Available Peripheral populations often experience more extreme environmental conditions than those in the centre of a species' range. Such extreme conditions include habitat loss, defined as a reduction in the amount of suitable habitat, as well as habitat fragmentation, which involves the breaking apart of habitat independent of habitat loss. The 'threshold hypothesis' predicts that organisms will be more affected by habitat fragmentation when the amount of habitat on the landscape is scarce (i.e., less than 30% than when habitat is abundant, implying that habitat fragmentation may compound habitat loss through changes in patch size and configuration. Alternatively, the 'flexibility hypothesis' predicts that individuals may respond to increased habitat disturbance by altering their selection patterns and thereby reducing sensitivity to habitat loss and fragmentation. While the range of Canada lynx (Lynx canadensis has contracted during recent decades, the relative importance of habitat loss and habitat fragmentation on this phenomenon is poorly understood. We used a habitat suitability model for lynx to identify suitable land cover in Ontario, and contrasted occupancy patterns across landscapes differing in cover, to test the 'threshold hypothesis' and 'flexibility hypothesis'. When suitable land cover was widely available, lynx avoided areas with less than 30% habitat and were unaffected by habitat fragmentation. However, on landscapes with minimal suitable land cover, lynx occurrence was not related to either habitat loss or habitat fragmentation, indicating support for the 'flexibility hypothesis'. We conclude that lynx are broadly affected by habitat loss, and not specifically by habitat fragmentation, although occurrence patterns are flexible and dependent on landscape condition. We suggest that lynx may alter their habitat selection patterns depending on local conditions, thereby reducing their sensitivity to anthropogenically-driven habitat

  16. Habitat loss, not fragmentation, drives occurrence patterns of Canada lynx at the southern range periphery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hornseth, Megan L; Walpole, Aaron A; Walton, Lyle R; Bowman, Jeff; Ray, Justina C; Fortin, Marie-Josée; Murray, Dennis L

    2014-01-01

    Peripheral populations often experience more extreme environmental conditions than those in the centre of a species' range. Such extreme conditions include habitat loss, defined as a reduction in the amount of suitable habitat, as well as habitat fragmentation, which involves the breaking apart of habitat independent of habitat loss. The 'threshold hypothesis' predicts that organisms will be more affected by habitat fragmentation when the amount of habitat on the landscape is scarce (i.e., less than 30%) than when habitat is abundant, implying that habitat fragmentation may compound habitat loss through changes in patch size and configuration. Alternatively, the 'flexibility hypothesis' predicts that individuals may respond to increased habitat disturbance by altering their selection patterns and thereby reducing sensitivity to habitat loss and fragmentation. While the range of Canada lynx (Lynx canadensis) has contracted during recent decades, the relative importance of habitat loss and habitat fragmentation on this phenomenon is poorly understood. We used a habitat suitability model for lynx to identify suitable land cover in Ontario, and contrasted occupancy patterns across landscapes differing in cover, to test the 'threshold hypothesis' and 'flexibility hypothesis'. When suitable land cover was widely available, lynx avoided areas with less than 30% habitat and were unaffected by habitat fragmentation. However, on landscapes with minimal suitable land cover, lynx occurrence was not related to either habitat loss or habitat fragmentation, indicating support for the 'flexibility hypothesis'. We conclude that lynx are broadly affected by habitat loss, and not specifically by habitat fragmentation, although occurrence patterns are flexible and dependent on landscape condition. We suggest that lynx may alter their habitat selection patterns depending on local conditions, thereby reducing their sensitivity to anthropogenically-driven habitat alteration.

  17. Invertebrates outcompete vertebrate facultative scavengers in simulated lynx kills in the Bavarian Forest National Park, Germany

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ray, R.–R.

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Understanding the role of scavengers in ecosystems is important for species conservation and wildlife management. We used road–killed animals, 15 in summer 2003 (June–August and nine in winter 2003/2004 (from November to January, to test the following hypotheses: (1 vertebrate scavengers such as raven (Corvus corax, red fox (Vulpes vulpes and wild boar (Sus scrofa consume a higher proportion of the carcasses than invertebrates; (2 the consumption rate is higher in winter than in summer due to the scarcity of other food resources; and (3 vertebrate scavengers are effective competitors of Eurasian lynx. We monitored 65 animals belonging to eight different mammal and bird species with camera traps. Surprisingly, Eurasian lynx (Lynx lynx was the most important vertebrate scavenger. However, in both seasons, the consumption of vertebrate scavengers was of minor impact. In summer, the carcasses were completely consumed within 10 days, mostly by invertebrates. In winter, only 5% of the carcasses were consumed within 10 days and 16% within 15 days. We conclude that vertebrates in the Bavarian Forest National Park are not strong competitors for lynx.

  18. Lynx: Automatic Elderly Behavior Prediction in Home Telecare

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez-Guede, Jose Manuel; Moreno-Fernandez-de-Leceta, Aitor; Martinez-Garcia, Alexeiw; Graña, Manuel

    2015-01-01

    This paper introduces Lynx, an intelligent system for personal safety at home environments, oriented to elderly people living independently, which encompasses a decision support machine for automatic home risk prevention, tested in real-life environments to respond to real time situations. The automatic system described in this paper prevents such risks by an advanced analytic methods supported by an expert knowledge system. It is minimally intrusive, using plug-and-play sensors and machine learning algorithms to learn the elder's daily activity taking into account even his health records. If the system detects that something unusual happens (in a wide sense) or if something is wrong relative to the user's health habits or medical recommendations, it sends at real-time alarm to the family, care center, or medical agents, without human intervention. The system feeds on information from sensors deployed in the home and knowledge of subject physical activities, which can be collected by mobile applications and enriched by personalized health information from clinical reports encoded in the system. The system usability and reliability have been tested in real-life conditions, with an accuracy larger than 81%. PMID:26783514

  19. Lynx: Automatic Elderly Behavior Prediction in Home Telecare

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jose Manuel Lopez-Guede

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper introduces Lynx, an intelligent system for personal safety at home environments, oriented to elderly people living independently, which encompasses a decision support machine for automatic home risk prevention, tested in real-life environments to respond to real time situations. The automatic system described in this paper prevents such risks by an advanced analytic methods supported by an expert knowledge system. It is minimally intrusive, using plug-and-play sensors and machine learning algorithms to learn the elder’s daily activity taking into account even his health records. If the system detects that something unusual happens (in a wide sense or if something is wrong relative to the user’s health habits or medical recommendations, it sends at real-time alarm to the family, care center, or medical agents, without human intervention. The system feeds on information from sensors deployed in the home and knowledge of subject physical activities, which can be collected by mobile applications and enriched by personalized health information from clinical reports encoded in the system. The system usability and reliability have been tested in real-life conditions, with an accuracy larger than 81%.

  20. PE-46 The Design of the Lynx X-Ray Microcalorimeter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bandler, Simon; Dipirro, Michael; Eckart, Megan; Sakai, Kazuhiro; Smith, Stephen; Yoon, Wonsik; Bennett, Douglas; Kotsubo, Vincent; Mates, Benjamin; Swetz, Daneil; hide

    2017-01-01

    Lynx is an x-ray telescope, one of four large satellite mission concepts currently being studied by NASA to be the next astrophysics flagship mission after WFIRST. One of Lynx's three instruments is an imaging spectrometer consisting of an x-ray microcalorimeter behind an X-ray optic with an angular resolution of 0.5 arc-seconds and approximately 3 sq m of area at 1 keV. This instrument will provide unparalleled diagnostics of distant extended structures and in particular will allow the detailed study of the role of cosmic feedback in the evolution of the Universe. We discuss the design and read-out of the of the array configuration including a number of sub-array options for increasing the capabilities to maximize the scientific return of the Lynx observatory.

  1. A Near-extinction Event in Lynx: Do Microsatellite Data Tell the Tale?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goran Spong

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available Fluctuations in population size can have a profound impact on effective population size and the maintenance of genetic variation within a population. A number of tests based on microsatellite data have been developed for the detection of bottleneck events in a population's past. In this paper, we search for signs of a bottleneck in microsatellite data on the Scandinavian lynx (Lynx lynx population. This population was hunted to the brink of extinction, with fewer than 100 animals (one estimate was as low as 30 individuals remaining in the late 1920s. Protection allowed recovery of the population, which currently numbers about 2000 adults. Despite this pronounced demographic bottleneck (more than 95% of the population was killed, we could find no conclusive genetic evidence of a bottleneck using four of the recently developed tests for detecting such events.

  2. Recapture of lynx individual B132 in the Trentino province, Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brugnoli A

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available In February 2010, B132 - a male lynx born in 2006 in north-eastern Switzerland - was recaptured in a box trap set above Molveno Lake, in Brenta Massif eastern slopes, and fit with a new GPS/GSM radiocollar by staff members of the Forest and Wildlife Service of the Autonomous Province of Trento. His 2008 dispersal into the Adamello-Brenta Natural Park area in the Trentino province was the furthest one ever documented outside of Scandinavia for a Eurasian lynx. The complete recovery of the lynx in the entire Alpine arc, after 40 years since the first reintroduction, will be a long-term task, and documentation of B132’s dispersal and spatial behaviour is of crucial interest in this respect.

  3. Genes and evolution of two-domain toxins from lynx spider venom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sachkova, Maria Y; Slavokhotova, Anna A; Grishin, Eugene V; Vassilevski, Alexander A

    2014-03-01

    Spiderines are comparatively long polypeptide toxins (∼110 residues) from lynx spiders (genus Oxyopes). They are built of an N-terminal linear cationic domain (∼40 residues) and a C-terminal knottin domain (∼60 residues). The linear domain empowers spiderines with strong cytolytic activity. In the present work we report 16 novel spiderine sequences from Oxyopes takobius and Oxyopes lineatus classified into two subfamilies. Strikingly, negative selection acts on both linear and knottin domains. Genes encoding Oxyopes two-domain toxins were sequenced and found to be intronless. We further discuss a possible scenario of lynx spider modular toxin evolution.

  4. [Bacterial expression of water-soluble domain of Lynx1, endogenic neuromodulator of human nicotinic acetylcholine receptors].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shulepko, M A; Liukmanova, E N; Kasheverov, I E; Dolgikh, D A; Tsetlin, V I; Kirpichnikov, M P

    2011-01-01

    Lynx1 expresses in the central nervous system and plays important role in a regulation of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors. Successful milligram-quantitive expression of ws-Lynx1 was achieved only in the case of its production in the form of cytoplasm inclusion bodies. Different conditions of ws-Lynx1 refolding for yield optimization were performed. The obtained recombinant protein was characterized by means of mass spectrometry and CD spectroscopy. The binding experiments on the nAChRs from Torpedo californica membranes revealed that ws-Lynxl is biologically active and blocks muscle nAChR with IC50-20-30 microM.

  5. Predation may not be the major cause for hare-lynx cycles

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    @@ The classic hare-lynx cycle has been cited as a prime example of how interactions between predators and preys might lead to regular population variation.However, a recent study by CAS zoologists shows that it might not be the case. Their work published in the July issue of the Germany-based Climate Research.

  6. Habitat fragmentation and interspecific competition: Implications for lynx conservation [Chapter 4

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steven W. Buskirk

    2000-01-01

    Habitat fragmentation and interspecific competition are two important forces that potentially affect lynx populations. Fragmentation operates by various mechanisms, including direct habitat loss, vehicle collisions and behavioral disturbance from roads, and changes in landscape features such as edges. Competition takes two forms: Exploitation competition involves...

  7. The re-introduction of the lynx in Slovenia and its present status in Slovenia and Croatia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Urs; Christine Breitenmoser; Breitenmoser-Würsten

    1998-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The lynx disappeared from Slovenia and Croatia at the beginning of the 20th century. In 1973, six lynx from the Slovakian Carpathian Mountains were translocated to Kocevje in southern Slovenia. In this densely forested region where prey animals are plentiful, a core population developed immediately and spread over Slovenia and Croatia. In 1984 the first lynx reached the Julian Alps and crossed over to Italy. The population increased so fast that already in 1978, hunting of lynx was legalised. From 1978 to the present, a total of 229 individuals were hunted, another 48 deaths from other reasons are also known. The intense harvest hindered further expansion of the population, especially the re-colonisation of the Alps. In recent years the hunting season and the hunting quota were reduced, and in Slovenia hunting is now restricted to the core area of the population.

  8. Wild Rabbit management in the Iberian Peninsula: state of the art and future perspectives for iberian lynx conservation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catarina Manuel Andrade de Campos Ferreira

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The Iberian lynx is the most endangered cat in the world. At present, this felid is only found in Mediterranean forests and scrublands of southern Spain, restricted to two populations, Doñana and eastern Sierra Morena. However, these two isolated populations alone are not sufficient to support this emblematic species in the long-term. Natural expansion from these populations is limited which turns Iberian lynx reintroduction programs into the only alternative to save the species from extinction. Therefore, one of the priorities of lynx reintroduction programs is inevitably the spatial expansion of wild rabbit populations, it main prey, by boosting its numbers. In this paper we briefly review historical and recent wild rabbit population trends and provide management guidelines to promote the efficiency of conservation planning in the context of future Iberian lynx reintroductions.

  9. Activity patterns of Eurasian lynx are modulated by light regime and individual traits over a wide latitudinal range.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Heurich

    Full Text Available The activity patterns of most terrestrial animals are regarded as being primarily influenced by light, although other factors, such as sexual cycle and climatic conditions, can modify the underlying patterns. However, most activity studies have been limited to a single study area, which in turn limit the variability of light conditions and other factors. Here we considered a range of variables that might potentially influence the activity of a large carnivore, the Eurasian lynx, in a network of studies conducted with identical methodology in different areas spanning latitudes from 49°7'N in central Europe to 70°00'N in northern Scandinavia. The variables considered both light conditions, ranging from a day with a complete day-night cycle to polar night and polar day, as well as individual traits of the animals. We analysed activity data of 38 individual free-ranging lynx equipped with GPS-collars with acceleration sensors, covering more than 11,000 lynx days. Mixed linear additive models revealed that the lynx activity level was not influenced by the daily daylight duration and the activity pattern was bimodal, even during polar night and polar day. The duration of the active phase of the activity cycle varied with the widening and narrowing of the photoperiod. Activity varied significantly with moonlight. Among adults, males were more active than females, and subadult lynx were more active than adults. In polar regions, the amplitude of the lynx daily activity pattern was low, likely as a result of the polycyclic activity pattern of their main prey, reindeer. At lower latitudes, the basic lynx activity pattern peaked during twilight, corresponding to the crepuscular activity pattern of the main prey, roe deer. Our results indicated that the basic activity of lynx is independent of light conditions, but is modified by both individual traits and the activity pattern of the locally most important prey.

  10. Habitat selection and risk of predation: re-colonization by lynx had limited impact on habitat selection by roe deer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustaf Samelius

    Full Text Available Risk of predation is an evolutionary force that affects behaviors of virtually all animals. In this study, we examined how habitat selection by roe deer was affected by risk of predation by Eurasian lynx - the main predator of roe deer in Scandinavia. Specifically, we compared how habitat selection by roe deer varied (1 before and after lynx re-established in the study area and (2 in relation to habitat-specific risk of predation by lynx. All analyses were conducted at the spatial and temporal scales of home ranges and seasons. We did not find any evidence that roe deer avoided habitats in which the risk of predation by lynx was greatest and information-theoretic model selection showed that re-colonization by lynx had limited impact on habitat selection by roe deer despite lynx predation causing 65% of known mortalities after lynx re-colonized the area. Instead we found that habitat selection decreased when habitat availability increased for 2 of 5 habitat types (a pattern referred to as functional response in habitat selection. Limited impact of re-colonization by lynx on habitat selection by roe deer in this study differs from elk in North America altering both daily and seasonal patterns in habitat selection at the spatial scales of habitat patches and home ranges when wolves were reintroduced to Yellowstone National Park. Our study thus provides further evidence of the complexity by which animals respond to risk of predation and suggest that it may vary between ecosystems and predator-prey constellations.

  11. 基于自动相机技术的欧亚猞猁(Lynx lynx)个体识别和行为研究%Individual identification and behavior study of Eurasian lynx (Lynx lynx) based on camera trap ping technique

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周许伟; 鲍清泉; 宋景良; 夏文军; 孟和达来; 张书理; 杨永昕; 鲍伟东

    2015-01-01

    猫科动物具有夜行性和活动隐蔽的特点,难以在野外通过直接观察的方式调查种群数量。近年来兴起的自动相机技术,为解决这一难题提供了有效的观察记录手段。为明确欧亚猞猁( Lynx lynx)的种群数量及其野外行为特征,于2010—2012年采用自动相机技术对内蒙古赛罕乌拉国家级自然保护区部分区域进行了调查。在可能出现猞猁的兽道和有蹄类动物投食站等地放置自动相机,3年间共布放90台次,累积25704个相机日,拍摄到猞猁照片154张和录像185段。经对比身体斑纹特征和活动空间,确认2012年在该区域至少有5只猞猁个体,其中2011年和2012年分别发现有母兽与幼兽同时活动,表明该区域分布有一个小而相对稳定的猞猁繁殖种群。猞猁的活动节律表现为典型的夜行性,偶尔也会在白天活动。猞猁的行为类型有取食、威胁、标记、试探、玩耍、舔幼和嗅闻等。调查中没有发现猞猁对自动相机的远红外光产生趋避行为,利用自动相机技术可以作为猞猁种群动态监测和行为研究的重要工具。%The elusive activity of wild cats made it difficult to conduct direct field survey and behavioral studies .With the quick devel-opment in technology , camera trapping is becoming an effective non-invasive approach in studying these species .Under the situation of few similar field works domestically , we conducted a camera trapping research on Eurasian lynx ( Lynx lynx) to reveal the population trend and field behavior .Camera traps were set along animal trails , feeding stations and around prey remains for getting more photo-graphs in identifying individual lynx at Saihanwula National Nature Reserve in Inner Mongolia from 2010 to 2012 .The results showed that 154 photos and 185 video segments with lynx were recorded after 90 cameras had been set with the total sampling efforts of 25704 camera-days.Five adult

  12. The subtle role of climate change on population genetic structure in Canada lynx.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Row, Jeffrey R; Wilson, Paul J; Gomez, Celine; Koen, Erin L; Bowman, Jeff; Thornton, Daniel; Murray, Dennis L

    2014-07-01

    Anthropogenically driven climatic change is expected to reshape global patterns of species distribution and abundance. Given recent links between genetic variation and environmental patterns, climate change may similarly impact genetic population structure, but we lack information on the spatial and mechanistic underpinnings of genetic-climate associations. Here, we show that current genetic variability of Canada lynx (Lynx canadensis) is strongly correlated with a winter climate gradient (i.e. increasing snow depth and winter precipitation from west-to-east) across the Pacific-North American (PNO) to North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) climatic systems. This relationship was stronger than isolation by distance and not explained by landscape variables or changes in abundance. Thus, these patterns suggest that individuals restricted dispersal across the climate boundary, likely in the absence of changes in habitat quality. We propose habitat imprinting on snow conditions as one possible explanation for this unusual phenomenon. Coupling historical climate data with future projections, we also found increasingly diverging snow conditions between the two climate systems. Based on genetic simulations using projected climate data (2041-2070), we predicted that this divergence could lead to a threefold increase in genetic differentiation, potentially leading to isolated east-west populations of lynx in North America. Our results imply that subtle genetic structure can be governed by current climate and that substantive genetic differentiation and related ecological divergence may arise from changing climate patterns. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. Relative accuracy of spatial predictive models for lynx Lynx canadensis derived using logistic regression-AIC, multiple criteria evaluation and Bayesian approaches

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hejun KANG; Shelley M.ALEXANDER

    2009-01-01

    We compared probability surfaces derived using one set of environmental variables in three Geographic Information Systems (GIS) -based approaches: logistic regression and Akaike's Information Criterion (AIC),Multiple Criteria Evaluation (MCE),and Bayesian Analysis (specifically Dempster-Shafer theory). We used lynx Lynx canadensis as our focal species,and developed our environment relationship model using track data collected in Banff National Park,Alberta,Canada,during winters from 1997 to 2000. The accuracy of the three spatial models were compared using a contingency table method. We determined the percentage of cases in which both presence and absence points were correctly classified (overall accuracy),the failure to predict a species where it occurred (omission error) and the prediction of presence where there was absence (commission error). Our overall accuracy showed the logistic regression approach was the most accurate (74.51% ). The multiple criteria evaluation was intermediate (39.22%),while the Dempster-Shafer (D-S) theory model was the poorest (29.90%). However,omission and commission error tell us a different story: logistic regression had the lowest commission error,while D-S theory produced the lowest omission error. Our results provide evidence that habitat modellers should evaluate all three error measures when ascribing confidence in their model. We suggest that for our study area at least,the logistic regression model is optimal. However,where sample size is small or the species is very rare,it may also be useful to explore and/or use a more ecologically cautious modelling approach (e.g. Dempster-Shafer) that would over-predict,protect more sites,and thereby minimize the risk of missing critical habitat in conservation plans.

  14. Relative accuracy of spatial predictive models for lynx Lynx canadensis derived using logistic regression-AIC, multiple criteria evaluation and Bayesian approaches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shelley M. ALEXANDER

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available We compared probability surfaces derived using one set of environmental variables in three Geographic Information Systems (GIS-based approaches: logistic regression and Akaike’s Information Criterion (AIC, Multiple Criteria Evaluation (MCE, and Bayesian Analysis (specifically Dempster-Shafer theory. We used lynx Lynx canadensis as our focal species, and developed our environment relationship model using track data collected in Banff National Park, Alberta, Canada, during winters from 1997 to 2000. The accuracy of the three spatial models were compared using a contingency table method. We determined the percentage of cases in which both presence and absence points were correctly classified (overall accuracy, the failure to predict a species where it occurred (omission error and the prediction of presence where there was absence (commission error. Our overall accuracy showed the logistic regression approach was the most accurate (74.51%. The multiple criteria evaluation was intermediate (39.22%, while the Dempster-Shafer (D-S theory model was the poorest (29.90%. However, omission and commission error tell us a different story: logistic regression had the lowest commission error, while D-S theory produced the lowest omission error. Our results provide evidence that habitat modellers should evaluate all three error measures when ascribing confidence in their model. We suggest that for our study area at least, the logistic regression model is optimal. However, where sample size is small or the species is very rare, it may also be useful to explore and/or use a more ecologically cautious modelling approach (e.g. Dempster-Shafer that would over-predict, protect more sites, and thereby minimize the risk of missing critical habitat in conservation plans[Current Zoology 55(1: 28 – 40, 2009].

  15. Water-soluble LYNX1 residues important for interaction with muscle-type and/or neuronal nicotinic receptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyukmanova, Ekaterina N; Shulepko, Mikhail A; Buldakova, Svetlana L; Kasheverov, Igor E; Shenkarev, Zakhar O; Reshetnikov, Roman V; Filkin, Sergey Y; Kudryavtsev, Denis S; Ojomoko, Lucy O; Kryukova, Elena V; Dolgikh, Dmitry A; Kirpichnikov, Mikhail P; Bregestovski, Piotr D; Tsetlin, Victor I

    2013-05-31

    Human LYNX1, belonging to the Ly6/neurotoxin family of three-finger proteins, is membrane-tethered with a glycosylphosphatidylinositol anchor and modulates the activity of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChR). Recent preparation of LYNX1 as an individual protein in the form of water-soluble domain lacking glycosylphosphatidylinositol anchor (ws-LYNX1; Lyukmanova, E. N., Shenkarev, Z. O., Shulepko, M. A., Mineev, K. S., D'Hoedt, D., Kasheverov, I. E., Filkin, S. Y., Krivolapova, A. P., Janickova, H., Dolezal, V., Dolgikh, D. A., Arseniev, A. S., Bertrand, D., Tsetlin, V. I., and Kirpichnikov, M. P. (2011) NMR structure and action on nicotinic acetylcholine receptors of water-soluble domain of human LYNX1. J. Biol. Chem. 286, 10618-10627) revealed the attachment at the agonist-binding site in the acetylcholine-binding protein (AChBP) and muscle nAChR but outside it, in the neuronal nAChRs. Here, we obtained a series of ws-LYNX1 mutants (T35A, P36A, T37A, R38A, K40A, Y54A, Y57A, K59A) and examined by radioligand analysis or patch clamp technique their interaction with the AChBP, Torpedo californica nAChR and chimeric receptor composed of the α7 nAChR extracellular ligand-binding domain and the transmembrane domain of α1 glycine receptor (α7-GlyR). Against AChBP, there was either no change in activity (T35A, T37A), slight decrease (K40A, K59A), and even enhancement for the rest mutants (most pronounced for P36A and R38A). With both receptors, many mutants lost inhibitory activity, but the increased inhibition was observed for P36A at α7-GlyR. Thus, there are subtype-specific and common ws-LYNX1 residues recognizing distinct targets. Because ws-LYNX1 was inactive against glycine receptor, its "non-classical" binding sites on α7 nAChR should be within the extracellular domain. Micromolar affinities and fast washout rates measured for ws-LYNX1 and its mutants are in contrast to nanomolar affinities and irreversibility of binding for α-bungarotoxin and similar

  16. Water-soluble LYNX1 Residues Important for Interaction with Muscle-type and/or Neuronal Nicotinic Receptors*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyukmanova, Ekaterina N.; Shulepko, Mikhail A.; Buldakova, Svetlana L.; Kasheverov, Igor E.; Shenkarev, Zakhar O.; Reshetnikov, Roman V.; Filkin, Sergey Y.; Kudryavtsev, Denis S.; Ojomoko, Lucy O.; Kryukova, Elena V.; Dolgikh, Dmitry A.; Kirpichnikov, Mikhail P.; Bregestovski, Piotr D.; Tsetlin, Victor I.

    2013-01-01

    Human LYNX1, belonging to the Ly6/neurotoxin family of three-finger proteins, is membrane-tethered with a glycosylphosphatidylinositol anchor and modulates the activity of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChR). Recent preparation of LYNX1 as an individual protein in the form of water-soluble domain lacking glycosylphosphatidylinositol anchor (ws-LYNX1; Lyukmanova, E. N., Shenkarev, Z. O., Shulepko, M. A., Mineev, K. S., D'Hoedt, D., Kasheverov, I. E., Filkin, S. Y., Krivolapova, A. P., Janickova, H., Dolezal, V., Dolgikh, D. A., Arseniev, A. S., Bertrand, D., Tsetlin, V. I., and Kirpichnikov, M. P. (2011) NMR structure and action on nicotinic acetylcholine receptors of water-soluble domain of human LYNX1. J. Biol. Chem. 286, 10618–10627) revealed the attachment at the agonist-binding site in the acetylcholine-binding protein (AChBP) and muscle nAChR but outside it, in the neuronal nAChRs. Here, we obtained a series of ws-LYNX1 mutants (T35A, P36A, T37A, R38A, K40A, Y54A, Y57A, K59A) and examined by radioligand analysis or patch clamp technique their interaction with the AChBP, Torpedo californica nAChR and chimeric receptor composed of the α7 nAChR extracellular ligand-binding domain and the transmembrane domain of α1 glycine receptor (α7-GlyR). Against AChBP, there was either no change in activity (T35A, T37A), slight decrease (K40A, K59A), and even enhancement for the rest mutants (most pronounced for P36A and R38A). With both receptors, many mutants lost inhibitory activity, but the increased inhibition was observed for P36A at α7-GlyR. Thus, there are subtype-specific and common ws-LYNX1 residues recognizing distinct targets. Because ws-LYNX1 was inactive against glycine receptor, its “non-classical” binding sites on α7 nAChR should be within the extracellular domain. Micromolar affinities and fast washout rates measured for ws-LYNX1 and its mutants are in contrast to nanomolar affinities and irreversibility of binding for α-bungarotoxin and

  17. Forensic veterinary radiology: ballistic-radiological 3D computertomographic reconstruction of an illegal lynx shooting in Switzerland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thali, Michael J; Kneubuehl, Beat P; Bolliger, Stephan A; Christe, Andreas; Koenigsdorfer, Urs; Ozdoba, Christoph; Spielvogel, Elke; Dirnhofer, Richard

    2007-08-24

    The lynx, which was reintroduced to Switzerland after being exterminated at the beginning of the 20th century, is protected by Swiss law. However, poaching occurs from time to time, which makes criminal investigations necessary. In the presented case, an illegally shot lynx was examined by conventional plane radiography and three-dimensional multislice computertomography (3D MSCT), of which the latter yielded superior results with respect to documentation and reconstruction of the inflicted gunshot wounds. We believe that 3D MSCT, already described in human forensic-pathological cases, is also a suitable and promising new technique for veterinary pathology.

  18. 外观像平板电脑的LynxA3D相机

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2013-01-01

    Kickstarter推出的这款LynxA3D相机,有别于传统的相机,但学习过程就像一部普通相机那样简单。该公司很看重这件产品的易用性,并称其为世上第一部rpoint—and—shootj的3D相机,其外观毫不像一部相机,反而像一部平板电脑。

  19. Lynx multi-mode SAR in support of NATO Unified Vision 2012 trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunkel, R.; Verge, T.; Linnehan, R.; Doerry, A.

    2013-05-01

    In June 2012, General Atomics Aeronautical Systems, Inc. (GA-ASI) Reconnaissance Systems Group participated in the NATO Unified Vision 2012 (UV12) Joint ISR (JISR) Trial at Orland Main Air Station in Brekstad, Norway. GA-ASI supplied a modified King Air 200 as a Predator B/MQ-9 Reaper Remotely Piloted Aircraft (RPA) surrogate outfitted with a Lynx Block 30 Multi-mode Synthetic Aperture Radar/Ground Moving Target Indicator (SAR/GMTI), a FLIR Star SAFIRE 3800HD Electro-optical/Infrared (EO/IR) sensor, and a L-3 Tactical Common Data Link. This airborne platform was combined with GA-ASI's new System for Tactical Archival, Retrieval, and Exploitation (STARE) for full integration into the NATO ISR exploitation community. UV12 was an event sponsored by the NATO Joint Capability Group on Intelligence, Surveillance, and Reconnaissance (ISR) to focus on the interoperability of national ISR assets and improving JISR concept of operations. The Predator B RPA surrogate flew alongside multiple NATO ISR assets in nine missions that showcased the platform's all-weather ISR capabilities focusing on the Lynx SAR/GMTI and Maritime Wide Area Search (MWAS) modes. The inclusion of the STARE technology allowed GA-ASI's radar and Full Motion Video (FMV) data to be seamlessly processed and passed to joint networks where the data was fused with other NATO ISR products, resulting in a full battlefield reconnaissance picture.

  20. Non-invasive monitoring of hormones: a tool to improve reproduction in captive breeding of the Eurasian lynx.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dehnhard, M; Naidenko, S; Frank, A; Braun, B; Göritz, F; Jewgenow, K

    2008-07-01

    The survival of many critical endangered mammal species is often depending on successful captive breeding programmes which include the future option of reintroduction to the wild. Breeding in captivity also demands the application of modern assisted reproductive techniques to ensure maximal biodiversity, but knowledge on reproductive physiology is often limited. Therefore, non-invasive monitoring of urinary and faecal hormones has become an important tool for reproductive management. To exemplify the importance of non-invasive hormone monitoring, we choose the Eurasian lynx as a model for the world's most endangered felid species, the Iberian lynx. We analysed faecal samples of pregnant and pseudo-pregnant female Eurasian lynxes during a 3-year study period. Compared to pre-mating levels faecal progesterone metabolite profiles revealed a tendency towards higher levels in pregnant and pseudo-pregnant females with no difference between both categories. Oestrogen levels raised in both pregnant and pseudo-pregnant females with a tendency to be more elevated and prolonged in pregnant females. Surprisingly both E2 and P4 metabolites were highly correlated (r(2) =0.8131, p hormone sources during and after pregnancy (corpus luteum, placenta). We hypothesize, that placental steroid analysis in combination with other highly sophisticated analytical techniques, like liquid chromatography mass spectrometry or urinary relaxin analysis may led to analytical options to confirm pregnancy and to differentiate this from pseudo-pregnancy in lynx species.

  1. Reconsidering the specialist-generalist paradigm in niche breadth dynamics: resource gradient selection by Canada lynx and bobcat.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael J L Peers

    Full Text Available The long-standing view in ecology is that disparity in overall resource selection is the basis for identifying niche breadth patterns, with species having narrow selection being classified "specialists" and those with broader selection being "generalists". The standard model of niche breadth characterizes generalists and specialists as having comparable levels of overall total resource exploitation, with specialists exploiting resources at a higher level of performance over a narrower range of conditions. This view has gone largely unchallenged. An alternate model predicts total resource use being lower for the specialized species with both peaking at a comparable level of performance over a particular resource gradient. To reconcile the niche breadth paradigm we contrasted both models by developing range-wide species distribution models for Canada lynx, Lynx canadensis, and bobcat, Lynx rufus. Using a suite of environmental factors to define each species' niche, we determined that Canada lynx demonstrated higher total performance over a restricted set of variables, specifically those related to snow and altitude, while bobcat had higher total performance across most variables. Unlike predictions generated by the standard model, bobcat level of exploitation was not compromised by the trade-off with peak performance, and Canada lynx were not restricted to exploiting a narrower range of conditions. Instead, the emergent pattern was that specialist species have a higher total resource utilization and peak performance value within a smaller number of resources or environmental axes than generalists. Our results also indicate that relative differences in niche breadth are strongly dependent on the variable under consideration, implying that the appropriate model describing niche breadth dynamics between specialists and generalists may be more complex than either the traditional heuristic or our modified version. Our results demonstrate a need to re

  2. Scavenging behavior of Lynx rufus on human remains during the winter months of Southeast Texas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rippley, Angela; Larison, Nicole C; Moss, Kathryn E; Kelly, Jeffrey D; Bytheway, Joan A

    2012-05-01

    Animal-scavenging alterations on human remains can be mistaken as human criminal activity. A 32-day study, documenting animal scavenging on a human cadaver, was conducted at the Southeast Texas Applied Forensic Science facility, Sam Houston State University, Huntsville, Texas. A Stealth Cam Rogue IR was positioned near the cadaver to capture scavenging activity. An atypical scavenger, the bobcat, Lynx rufus, was recorded feeding on the cadaver. Scavenging by bobcats on human remains is not a predominant behavior and has minimal documentation. Scavenging behaviors and destruction of body tissues were analyzed. Results show that the bobcat did not feed on areas of the body that it does for other large animal carcasses. Results also show the bobcat feeds similarly during peak and nonpeak hours. Understanding the destruction of human tissue and covering of the body with leaf debris may aid forensic anthropologists and pathologists in differentiating between nefarious human activity and animal scavenging. © 2012 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  3. 除了细节!还是细节!Lynx Studio Hilo

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    展超

    2013-01-01

      CAS(Computer Audio System)是目前两声道音响玩家所关注的焦点之一。在这部分玩家之中,老一辈的玩家会在传统两声道系统的基础上进行升级改造,年轻一族更钟情于DAC配有源音箱。我正是后者!在我个人的角度来看,始终都认为CAS系统的构成应该参考音乐后期制作室中的配置。像专业数字接口卡+外置DAC+独立时钟+前级+有源音箱是我梦想的终极配置,可惜以我目前微薄的收入还实现不了,但专业DAC加前级配有源音箱的简洁配置却能实现。对于从事专业录音的人,他们对Lynx Studio这个美国专业音频品牌相当熟悉。它从成立以来相当专注于数字音频处理产品的制作,我最近就使用了Lynx Studio新推出的Hilo AD/DA转换器。尽管AD部分我基本用不上,但优秀的DA转换设计却让Hilo给我带来了惊喜。

  4. Comparative VME Performance Tests for MEN A20 Intel-L865 and RIO-3 PPC-LynxOS platforms

    CERN Document Server

    Andersen, M; CERN. Geneva. BE Department

    2009-01-01

    This benchmark note presents test results from reading values over VME using different methods and different sizes of data registers, running on two different platforms Intel-L865 and PPC-LynxOS. We find that the PowerPC is a factor 3 faster in accessing an array of contiguous VME memory locations. Block transfer and DMA read accesses are also tested and compared with conventional single access reads.

  5. Long-range gene flow and the effects of climatic and ecological factors on genetic structuring in a large, solitary carnivore: the Eurasian lynx.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirosław Ratkiewicz

    Full Text Available Due to their high mobility, large terrestrial predators are potentially capable of maintaining high connectivity, and therefore low genetic differentiation among populations. However, previous molecular studies have provided contradictory findings in relation to this. To elucidate patterns of genetic structure in large carnivores, we studied the genetic variability of the Eurasian lynx, Lynx lynx throughout north-eastern Europe using microsatellite, mitochondrial DNA control region and Y chromosome-linked markers. Using SAMOVA we found analogous patterns of genetic structure based on both mtDNA and microsatellites, which coincided with a relatively little evidence for male-biased dispersal. No polymorphism for the cytochrome b and ATP6 mtDNA genes and Y chromosome-linked markers were found. Lynx inhabiting a large area encompassing Finland, the Baltic countries and western Russia formed a single genetic unit, while some marginal populations were clearly divergent from others. The existence of a migration corridor was suggested to correspond with distribution of continuous forest cover. The lowest variability (in both markers was found in lynx from Norway and Białowieża Primeval Forest (BPF, which coincided with a recent demographic bottleneck (Norway or high habitat fragmentation (BPF. The Carpathian population, being monomorphic for the control region, showed relatively high microsatellite diversity, suggesting the effect of a past bottleneck (e.g. during Last Glacial Maximum on its present genetic composition. Genetic structuring for the mtDNA control region was best explained by latitude and snow cover depth. Microsatellite structuring correlated with the lynx's main prey, especially the proportion of red deer (Cervus elaphus in its diet. Eurasian lynx are capable of maintaining panmictic populations across eastern Europe unless they are severely limited by habitat continuity or a reduction in numbers. Different correlations of mtDNA and

  6. Gene flow and pathogen transmission among bobcats (Lynx rufus) in a fragmented urban landscape

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Justin S.; Ruell, Emily W.; Boydston, Erin E.; Lyren, Lisa M.; Alonso, Robert S.; Troyer, Jennifer L.; Crooks, Kevin R.; VandeWoude, Sue

    2012-01-01

    Urbanization can result in the fragmentation of once contiguous natural landscapes into a patchy habitat interspersed within a growing urban matrix. Animals living in fragmented landscapes often have reduced movement among habitat patches because of avoidance of intervening human development, which potentially leads to both reduced gene flow and pathogen transmission between patches. Mammalian carnivores with large home ranges, such as bobcats (Lynx rufus), may be particularly sensitive to habitat fragmentation. We performed genetic analyses on bobcats and their directly transmitted viral pathogen, feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV), to investigate the effects of urbanization on bobcat movement. We predicted that urban development, including major freeways, would limit bobcat movement and result in genetically structured host and pathogen populations. We analysed molecular markers from 106 bobcats and 19 FIV isolates from seropositive animals in urban southern California. Our findings indicate that reduced gene flow between two primary habitat patches has resulted in genetically distinct bobcat subpopulations separated by urban development including a major highway. However, the distribution of genetic diversity among FIV isolates determined through phylogenetic analyses indicates that pathogen genotypes are less spatially structured--exhibiting a more even distribution between habitat fragments. We conclude that the types of movement and contact sufficient for disease transmission occur with enough frequency to preclude structuring among the viral population, but that the bobcat population is structured owing to low levels of effective bobcat migration resulting in gene flow. We illustrate the utility in using multiple molecular markers that differentially detect movement and gene flow between subpopulations when assessing connectivity.

  7. The " Daphnia" Lynx Mark I Suborbital Flight Experiment: Hardware Qualification at the Drop Tower Bremen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knie, Miriam; Schoppmann, Kathrin; Eck, Hendrik; Ribeiro, Bernard Wolfschoon; Laforsch, Christian

    2016-06-01

    The Drop Tower Bremen, a ground-based facility enabling research under real microgravity conditions, is an excellent platform for testing new types of experimental hardware to ensure full performance when deployed in costly and rare flight opportunities such as suborbital flights. Here we describe the " Daphnia" experiment which will fly on XCOR Aerospace Lynx Mark I and our experience from the hardware tests with the catapult system at the drop tower. The aim of the " Daphnia" experiment is to obtain data on the biological performance of daphnids and predator-prey interactions in microgravity, which are important for the development of aquatic bioregenerative life support systems (BLSS). The experiment consists of two subunits: The first unit is dedicated to predator-prey interactions, where behavioural analysis should reveal if microgravity interfere with prey ( Daphnia) detection or feeding and therefore may interrupt the trophic cascade. The functioning of such an artificial food web is indispensable for a long-lasting BLSS suitable for long-duration manned space missions or Earth-based explorations to extreme habitats. The second unit is designed to investigate the impact of microgravity on gene expression and the cytoskeleton in Daphnia. Next to data collection, the real microgravity conditions at the drop tower have helped to identify the weak points of the " Daphnia" experimental hardware and lead to further improvement. Hence, the drop tower is ideal for testing new experimental hardware which is indispensable before the implementation in suborbital flights.

  8. Study of Galaxies in the Lynx--Cancer Void. IV. Photometric Properties

    CERN Document Server

    Perepelitsyna, Yu A; Kniazev, A Yu

    2014-01-01

    We present the results of a photometric study of 85 objects from the updated sample of galaxies residing in the nearby Lynx--Cancer void. We perform our photometry on u, g, r, and i-band images of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey. We determine model-independent galaxy parameters such as the integrated magnitudes and colors, effective radii and the corresponding surface brightness values, optical radii and Holmberg radii. We analyze the radial surface brightness profiles to determine the central brightness values and scale lengths of the model discs. We analyze the colors of the outer parts of the galaxies and compare them with model evolutionary tracks computed using the PEGASE2 software package. This allowed us to estimate the time T_SF elapsed since the onset of star formation, which turned out to be on the order of the cosmological time T_0 for the overwhelming majority of the galaxies studied. However, for 13 galaxies of the sample the time T_SF does not exceed T_0/2 ~ 7 Gyr, and for 7 of them T_SF -13.2. We...

  9. Study of the Lynx-Cancer void galaxies-V. The extremely isolated galaxy UGC4722

    CERN Document Server

    Chengalur, J N; Makarov, D I; Perepelitsyna, Y A; Safonova, E S; Karachentsev, I D

    2015-01-01

    We present a detailed study of the extremely isolated Sdm galaxy UGC4722 (M_B = -17.4) located in the nearby Lynx-Cancer void. UGC4722 is a member of the catalogue of isolated galaxies, and has also been identified as one of the most isolated galaxies in the Local Supercluster. Optical images of the galaxy however show that it has a peculiar morphology with an elongated ~ 14 kpc long plume. New observations with the Russian 6-m telescope (BTA) and the Giant Metrewave Radio Telescope (GMRT) of the ionised and neutral gas in UGC4722 reveal the second component responsible for the disturbed morphology of the system. This is a small, almost completely destroyed, very gas-rich dwarf (M_B = -15.2, M_HI/L_B ~4.3). We estimate the oxygen abundance for both galaxies to be 12+log(O/H) ~ 7.5-7.6, which is 2-3 times lower than what is expected from the luminosity-metallicity relation for similar galaxies in denser environments. The ugr colours of the plume derived from Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) images are consisten...

  10. Interacting effects of climate change, landscape conversion, and harvest on carnivore populations at the range margin: marten and lynx in the northern Appalachians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carroll, Carlos

    2007-08-01

    Assessing the effects of climate change on threatened species requires moving beyond simple bioclimatic models to models that incorporate interactions among climatic trends, landscape change, environmental stochasticity, and species life history. Populations of marten (Martes americana) and lynx (Lynx canadensis) in southeastern Canada and the northeastern United States represent peninsular extensions of boreal ranges and illustrate the potential impact of these threats on semi-isolated populations at the range margin. Decreased snowfall may affect marten and lynx through decreased prey vulnerability and decreased competitive advantage over sympatric carnivores. I used a spatially explicit population model to assess potential effects of predicted changes in snowfall by 2055 on regional marten and lynx populations. The models' habitat rankings were derived from previous static models that correlated regional distribution with snowfall and vegetation data. Trapping scenarios were parameterized as a 10% proportional decrease in survival, and logging scenarios were parameterized as a 10% decrease in the extent of older coniferous or mixed forest. Both species showed stronger declines in the simulations due to climate change than to overexploitation or logging. Marten populations declined 40% because of climate change, 16% because of logging, and 30% because of trapping. Lynx populations declined 59% because of climate change, 36% because of trapping, and 20% in scenarios evaluating the effects of population cycles. Climate change interacted with logging in its effects on the marten and with trapping in its effects on the lynx, increasing overall vulnerability. For both species larger lowland populations were vulnerable to climate change, which suggests that contraction may occur in the core of their current regional range as well as among smaller peripheral populations. Despite their greater data requirements compared with bioclimatic models, mesoscale spatial

  11. Prostate stem cell antigen is an endogenous lynx1-like prototoxin that antagonizes alpha7 containing nicotinic receptors and prevents programmed cell death of parasympathetic neurons

    OpenAIRE

    2009-01-01

    Vertebrate alpha-bungarotoxin-like molecules of the Ly-6 superfamily have been implicated as balancers of activity and survival in the adult nervous system. To determine whether a member of this family could be involved in the development of the avian ciliary ganglion, we identified 6 Gallus genes by their homology in structure to mouse lynx1 and lynx2. One of these genes, an ortholog of prostate stem cell antigen (psca), is barely detectable at embryonic day (E) 8, before neuronal cell loss ...

  12. Evolution of puma lentivirus in bobcats (Lynx rufus) and mountain lions (Puma concolor) in North America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Justin S; Bevins, Sarah N; Serieys, Laurel E K; Vickers, Winston; Logan, Ken A; Aldredge, Mat; Boydston, Erin E; Lyren, Lisa M; McBride, Roy; Roelke-Parker, Melody; Pecon-Slattery, Jill; Troyer, Jennifer L; Riley, Seth P; Boyce, Walter M; Crooks, Kevin R; VandeWoude, Sue

    2014-07-01

    Mountain lions (Puma concolor) throughout North and South America are infected with puma lentivirus clade B (PLVB). A second, highly divergent lentiviral clade, PLVA, infects mountain lions in southern California and Florida. Bobcats (Lynx rufus) in these two geographic regions are also infected with PLVA, and to date, this is the only strain of lentivirus identified in bobcats. We sequenced full-length PLV genomes in order to characterize the molecular evolution of PLV in bobcats and mountain lions. Low sequence homology (88% average pairwise identity) and frequent recombination (1 recombination breakpoint per 3 isolates analyzed) were observed in both clades. Viral proteins have markedly different patterns of evolution; sequence homology and negative selection were highest in Gag and Pol and lowest in Vif and Env. A total of 1.7% of sites across the PLV genome evolve under positive selection, indicating that host-imposed selection pressure is an important force shaping PLV evolution. PLVA strains are highly spatially structured, reflecting the population dynamics of their primary host, the bobcat. In contrast, the phylogeography of PLVB reflects the highly mobile mountain lion, with diverse PLVB isolates cocirculating in some areas and genetically related viruses being present in populations separated by thousands of kilometers. We conclude that PLVA and PLVB are two different viral species with distinct feline hosts and evolutionary histories. Importance: An understanding of viral evolution in natural host populations is a fundamental goal of virology, molecular biology, and disease ecology. Here we provide a detailed analysis of puma lentivirus (PLV) evolution in two natural carnivore hosts, the bobcat and mountain lion. Our results illustrate that PLV evolution is a dynamic process that results from high rates of viral mutation/recombination and host-imposed selection pressure.

  13. Helminth species diversity and biology in the bobcat, Lynx rufus (Schreber), from Nebraska.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiekotter, K L

    1985-04-01

    Cestodes of 4 species and nematodes of 9 species were collected from 75 bobcats, Lynx rufus (Schreber), in Nebraska from 1977 to 1979. Of these 75, 11 were trapped from 6 border counties in 3 border states: South Dakota, 7 carcasses/3 counties; Kansas, 3/2; and Wyoming, 1/1. Helminths recovered included: Mesocestoides corti Hoeppli, 1925 (15% prevalence), Taenia rileyi Loewen, 1929 (67%), Taenia pisiformis (Bloch, 1780) Gmelin, 1790 (27%), Taenia macrocystis (Diesing, 1850) Lühe, 1910 (19%), Physaloptera praeputialis von Linstow, 1889 (55%), Physaloptera rara Hall and Wigdor, 1918 (32%), Toxascaris leonina (von Linstow, 1902) Leiper, 1907 (31%), Toxocara cati (Schrank, 1780) (39%), Ancylostoma tubaeforme (Zeder, 1800) von Linstow, 1885 (5%), Pterygodermatites (Multipectines) cahirensis (Jägerskiöld, 1909) Quentin, 1969 (1%), Vogeloides felis (Vogel, 1928) Davtian, 1933 (7%), Cylicospirura felineus (Chandler, 1925) Sandground, 1932 (12%), and Capillaria aerophila (Creplin, 1839) (4%). One bobcat was not infected; 74 had 1 to 7 species (means = 3). Simpson's index for helminth species was moderately low (0.12), indicating a relatively diverse helminth fauna. Mean levels of infection between prominent species pairs and within each species were compared with bobcat sex and age differences using Student's t-test. Mean intensity of Physaloptera praeputialis was significantly (P less than 0.01) greater than that of Toxocara cati; mean intensity of Mesocestoides corti was significantly (P less than 0.01) greater than that of all other prominent species. No significant intensity differences were indicated among bobcat sex and age categories. G-tests computed for prevalence of prominent species with bobcat age indicated no significance.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  14. Study of galaxies in the Lynx-Cancer void. VI. HI-observations with the Nancay Radio Telescope

    CERN Document Server

    Pustilnik, S A

    2016-01-01

    Context. Void population consists mainly of late-type and low surface brightness (LSB) dwarf galaxies whose atomic hydrogen is the main component of their baryonic matter. Therefore, observations of void galaxy HI are mandatory in order to understand their evolution and dynamics. Aims. Our aim was to obtain integrated HI parameters for a fainter part of the nearby Lynx-Cancer void galaxy sample (total of 45 objects) with the Nancay Radio Telescope (NRT) and to conduct the comparative analysis of all the 103 void galaxies with known HI data with a sample of similar galaxies residing in denser environments of the Local Volume. Methods. For HI observations we used the NRT with its sensitive antenna/receiver system FORT and standard processing. The comparison of the void and control samples on the parameter M(HI)/L_B is conducted with the non-parametric method `The 2x2 Contingency Table test'. Results. We obtained new HI data for about 40% of the Lynx-Cancer galaxy sample. Along with data from the literature, we ...

  15. Artificial Feeding and Reproduction of the Lynx(Lynx Lynx)%猞猁的人工饲养和繁殖

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱正强; 王季彤; 严炳坤

    2012-01-01

    We studied a pair of lynx(Lynx lynx)that was raised in Huaian Cherry Blossom Park(North Jiangsu Wildlife Zoo)of Huaian City in Jiangsu Province.We summarized the diets,rearing environment,daily management,common disease prevention and control,reproduction and cub nursery procedures with reference to artificial feeding.Our objective was to develop practical methods for future feeding,management and breeding of captive lynx.%以江苏省淮安市樱花园(苏北野生动物园)内人工饲养的1对猞猁为研究对象,对其在人工饲养条件下的日粮组成、饲养环境、日常管理、常见疫病防治及繁殖育幼情况的初步小结,以期为今后猞猁在人工饲养条件下的饲养、繁殖工作提供一定的实践依据。

  16. Antibody detection and molecular characterization of toxoplasma gondii from bobcats (Lynx rufus), domestic cats (Felis catus), and wildlife from Minnesota, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Little is known of the epidemiology of toxoplasmosis in Minnesota. In this study, we evaluated Toxoplasma gondii infection in 50 wild bobcats (Lynx rufus) and 75 other animals on/near 10 cattle farms. Antibodies to T. gondii were assayed in serum samples or tissue fluids by the modified agglutinatio...

  17. Detection of vancomycin-resistant enterococci from faecal samples of Iberian wolf and Iberian lynx, including Enterococcus faecium strains of CC17 and the new singleton ST573.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonçalves, Alexandre; Igrejas, Gilberto; Radhouani, Hajer; López, María; Guerra, Ana; Petrucci-Fonseca, Francisco; Alcaide, Eva; Zorrilla, Irene; Serra, Rodrigo; Torres, Carmen; Poeta, Patrícia

    2011-12-01

    The aim of this study was to perform the molecular characterization of vancomycin resistant enterococci (VRE) within the faecal flora of Iberian wolf and Iberian lynx. The association with other resistance genes and the detection of virulence genes were also analysed. From 2008 to 2010, 365 faecal samples from Iberian wolf and Iberian lynx were collected and tested for VRE recovery. Mechanisms of resistance to vancomycin and other antibiotics, as well as genes encoding virulence factors were detected through PCR. Multilocus Sequence Typing (MLST) was performed for Enterococcus faecium strains. VRE were recovered in 8 of the 365 analysed samples. The vanA gene was identified in two E. faecium isolates recovered from Iberian wolf faecal samples and the remaining six showed intrinsic resistance (3 vanC1-E. gallinarum and 3 vanC2-E. casseliflavus, from Iberian wolf and Iberian lynx faecal samples, respectively). One vanA-containing isolate showed tetracycline and erythromycin resistance [with erm(B) and tet(L) genes] and the other one also exhibited ampicillin and kanamycin resistance [with erm(B), tet(M) and aph(3')-III genes]. One of the vanA-isolates revealed a new sequence type named ST573 and the other one belonged to the CC17 clonal complex (ST18). The hyl gene was detected in one E. casseliflavus and three E. gallinarum but not among vanA-positive isolates, and the occurrence of cylA and cylL genes was confirmed in two E. casseliflavus isolates. A low prevalence of VRE has been detected in faecal samples of Iberian wolf and Iberian lynx and strains with an acquired mechanism of resistance to vancomycin have not been detected among Iberian lynx.

  18. Quantifying home range habitat requirements for bobcats (Lynx rufus) in Vermont, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donovan, Therese; Freeman, Mark; Abouelezz, Hanem; Royar, K.; Howard, Alan D.; Mickey, R.

    2011-01-01

    We demonstrate how home range and habitat use analysis can inform landscape-scale conservation planning for the bobcat, Lynx rufus, in Vermont USA. From 2005 to 2008, we outfitted fourteen bobcats with GPS collars that collected spatially explicit locations from individuals every 4 h for 3–4 months. Kernel home range techniques were used to estimate home range size and boundaries, and to quantify the utilization distribution (UD), which is a spatially explicit, topographic mapping of how different areas within the home range are used. We then used GIS methods to quantify both biotic (e.g. habitat types, stream density) and abiotic (e.g. slope) resources within each bobcat’s home range. Across bobcats, upper 20th UD percentiles (core areas) had 18% less agriculture, 42% less development, 26% more bobcat habitat (shrub, deciduous, coniferous forest, and wetland cover types), and 33% lower road density than lower UD percentiles (UD valleys). For each bobcat, we used Akaike’s Information Criterion (AIC) to evaluate and compare 24 alternative Resource Utilization Functions (hypotheses) that could explain the topology of the individual’s UD. A model-averaged population-level Resource Utilization Function suggested positive responses to shrub, deciduous, coniferous forest, and wetland cover types within 1 km of a location, and negative responses to roads and mixed forest cover types within 1 km of a location. Applying this model-averaged function to each pixel in the study area revealed habitat suitability for bobcats across the entire study area, with suitability scores ranging between −1.69 and 1.44, where higher values were assumed to represent higher quality habitat. The southern Champlain Valley, which contained ample wetland and shrub habitat, was a concentrated area of highly suitable habitat, while areas at higher elevation areas were less suitable. Female bobcat home ranges, on average, had an average habitat suitability score of near 0, indicating

  19. PROGRESSIVE SYRINGOHYDROMYELIA AND DEGENERATIVE AXONOPATHY IN A BOBCAT (LYNX RUFUS) FOLLOWING SURGICAL CORRECTION OF A CHIARI-LIKE MALFORMATION.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadler, Ryan; Schumacher, Juergen; Ramsay, Edward; McCleery, Brynn; Baine, Katherine; Thomas, William; Nobrega-Lee, Michelle; Henry, George A; Newman, Shelley J

    2016-03-01

    A 3-yr-old male captive bobcat (Lynx rufus) presented with chronic ataxia and right-sided head tilt. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) revealed cerebellar crowding and compression consistent with Chiari-like malformation. The clinical signs did not improve after surgical occipital craniectomy, and 2 mo postoperatively a second MRI showed hydromyelia and continued cerebellar compression. The bobcat was euthanized, and necropsy showed chronic focal cerebellar herniation and chronic multifocal atlanto-occipital joint osteophyte proliferation. Histology confirmed the presence of a thick fibrous membrane along the caudal aspect of the cerebellar vermis, suggestive of postoperative adhesions, and axonal degeneration of the cervical spinal cord, even in sections without a central canal lesion. These lesions appear to have been complications associated with surgical correction of the Chiari-like malformation.

  20. Apoptosis-Related Factors in the Luteal Phase of the Domestic Cat and Their Involvement in the Persistence of Corpora Lutea in Lynx.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga Amelkina

    Full Text Available The corpus luteum (CL is a transient gland formed in the ovary after ovulation and is the major source of progesterone. In the Iberian and Eurasian lynx, CL physiologically persist after parturition and retain their capacity to produce progesterone, thus suppressing the ovarian activity. This unique reproductive characteristic has a big impact on the success of assisted reproduction techniques in the endangered Iberian lynx. The mechanisms behind CL persistence are not yet understood and require extensive studies on potential luteotropic and luteolytic factors in felids. Because the apoptosis system has been shown to be involved in structural regression of CL in many species, we aimed to investigate the capacity of perCL to undergo apoptosis. In addition, we performed initial studies on the apoptosis system in the luteal phase of the domestic cat. No previous research on this system has been made in this species. Our factors of interest included agents of the intrinsic apoptosis pathway, i.e., pro-survival B-cell CLL/lymphoma 2 (BCL2 and pro-apoptotic BCL2-associated X protein (BAX, the executioner caspase-3 (CASP3, as well as of the extrinsic pathway, i.e., pro-apoptotic receptor FAS, and tumor necrosis factor (TNF and its receptors (pro-apoptotic TNFRSF1A and pro-survival TNFRSF1B. We analyzed the relative mRNA levels of these factors, as well as protein localization of CASP3 and TNF during stages of pregnancy and the non-pregnant luteal phase in CL of domestic cats. The same factors were investigated in freshly ovulated CL (frCL and perCL of Iberian and Eurasian lynx, which were histologically analyzed. All factors were present in the CL tissue of both domestic cat and lynx throughout all analyzed stages. The presence of pro-apoptotic factors BAX, CASP3, FAS and TNFRSF1A in perCL of the Eurasian and Iberian lynx might indicate the potential sensitivity of perCL to apoptotic signals. The expression of pro-survival factors BCL2 and TNFRSF1B was

  1. UGC 3672: An unusual merging triplet of gas-rich galaxies in the Lynx-Cancer void

    CERN Document Server

    Chengalur, Jayaram N; Egorova, E S

    2016-01-01

    We present HI 21cm and optical observations of UGC 3672 which is located near the centre of the nearby Lynx-Cancer void. We find that UGC 3672 consists of an approximately linearly aligned triplet of gas rich dwarfs with large scale velocity continuity along the triplet axis. The faintest component of the triplet is extremely gas-rich (MHI/LB ~ 17) and also extremely metal deficient (12+log(O/H) ~ 7.0). The metallicity of this dwarf is close to the 'floor' observed in star forming galaxies. Low resolution HI images show that the galaxy triplet is located inside a common HI envelope, with fairly regular, disk like kinematics. At high angular resolution however, the gas is found to be confined to several filamentary tidal tails and bridges. The linear alignment of the galaxies, along with the velocity continuity that we observe, is consistent with the galaxies lying along a filament. We argue that the location of this highly unusual system in an extremely low density environment is not a coincidence, but is a c...

  2. Forecasts for the Canadian Lynx time series using method that bombine neural networks, wavelet shrinkage and decomposition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Levi Lopes Teixeira

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Time series forecasting is widely used in various areas of human knowledge, especially in the planning and strategic direction of companies. The success of this task depends on the forecasting techniques applied. In this paper, a hybrid approach to project time series is suggested. To validate the methodology, a time series already modeled by other authors was chosen, allowing the comparison of results. The proposed methodology includes the following techniques: wavelet shrinkage, wavelet decomposition at level r, and artificial neural networks (ANN. Firstly, a time series to be forecasted is submitted to the proposed wavelet filtering method, which decomposes it to components of trend and linear residue. Then, both are decomposed via level r wavelet decomposition, generating r + 1 Wavelet Components (WCs for each one; and then each WC is individually modeled by an ANN. Finally, the predictions for all WCs are linearly combined, producing forecasts to the underlying time series. For evaluating purposes, the time series of Canadian Lynx has been used, and all results achieved by the proposed method were better than others in existing literature.

  3. Protein secondary structure of Green Lynx spider dragline silk investigated by solid-state NMR and X-ray diffraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Dian; Shi, Xiangyan; Thompson, Forrest; Weber, Warner S; Mou, Qiushi; Yarger, Jeffery L

    2015-11-01

    In this study, the secondary structure of the major ampullate silk from Peucetia viridans (Green Lynx) spiders is characterized by X-ray diffraction and solid-state NMR spectroscopy. From X-ray diffraction measurement, β-sheet nanocrystallites were observed and found to be highly oriented along the fiber axis, with an orientational order, fc≈0.98. The size of the nanocrystallites was determined to be on average 2.5nm×3.3nm×3.8nm. Besides a prominent nanocrystalline region, a partially oriented amorphous region was also observed with an fa≈0.89. Two-dimensional (13)C-(13)C through-space and through-bond solid-state NMR experiments were employed to elucidate structure details of P. viridans silk proteins. It reveals that β-sheet nanocrystallites constitutes 40.0±1.2% of the protein and are dominated by alanine-rich repetitive motifs. Furthermore, based upon the NMR data, 18±1% of alanine, 60±2% glycine and 54±2% serine are incorporated into helical conformations. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Discovery of an extremely gas-rich dwarf triplet near the center of the Lynx-Cancer void

    CERN Document Server

    Chengalur, Jayaram N

    2012-01-01

    Giant Metrewave Radio Telescope (GMRT) HI observations, done as part of an ongoing study of dwarf galaxies in the Lynx-Cancer void, resulted in the discovery of a triplet of extremely gas rich galaxies located near the centre of the void.The triplet members SDSS J0723+3621, J0723+3622 and J0723+3624 have absolute magnitudes M_B of -14.2, -11.9 and -9.7 and M(HI)/L_B of \\sim 2.9, ~10 and ~25, respectively. The gas mass fractions, as derived from the SDSS photometry and the GMRT data are 0.93, 0.997, 0.997 respectively. The faintest member of this triplet SDSS J0723+3624 is one of the most gas rich galaxies known. We find that all three galaxies deviate significantly from the Tully-Fisher relation, but follow the baryonic Tully-Fisher relation. All three galaxies also have a baryon fraction that is significantly smaller than the cosmic baryon fraction. For the largest galaxy in the triplet, this is in contradiction to numerical simulations. The discovery of this very unique dwarf triplet lends support to the id...

  5. Seroprevalence, isolation and co-infection of multiple Toxoplasma gondii strains in individual bobcats (Lynx rufus) from Mississippi, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verma, Shiv K; Sweeny, Amy R; Lovallo, Matthew J; Calero-Bernal, Rafael; Kwok, Oliver C; Jiang, Tiantian; Su, Chunlei; Grigg, Michael E; Dubey, Jitender P

    2017-04-01

    Toxoplasma gondii causes lifelong chronic infection in both feline definitive hosts and intermediate hosts. Multiple exposures to the parasite are likely to occur in nature due to high environmental contamination. Here, we present data of high seroprevalence and multiple T. gondii strain co-infections in individual bobcats (Lynx rufus). Unfrozen samples (blood, heart, tongue and faeces) were collected from 35 free ranging wild bobcats from Mississippi, USA. Toxoplasma gondii antibodies were detected in serum by the modified agglutination test (1:≥200) in all 35 bobcats. Hearts from all bobcats were bioassayed in mice and viable T. gondii was isolated from 21; these strains were further propagated in cell culture. Additionally, DNA was extracted from digests of tongues and hearts of all 35 bobcats; T. gondii DNA was detected in tissues of all 35 bobcats. Genetic characterisation of DNA from cell culture-derived isolates was performed by multiplex PCR using 10 PCR-RFLP markers. Results showed that ToxoDB genotype #5 predominated (in 18 isolates) with a few other types (#24 in two isolates, and #2 in one isolate). PCR-DNA sequencing at two polymorphic markers, GRA6 and GRA7, detected multiple recombinant strains co-infecting the tissues of bobcats; most possessing Type II alleles at GRA7 versus Type X (HG-12) alleles at GRA6. Our results suggest that individual bobcats have been exposed to more than one parasite strain during their life time. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  6. Presence of Echinococcus oligarthrus (Diesing, 1863) Lühe, 1910 in Lynx rufus texensis Allen, 1895 from San Fernando, Tamaulipas state, in north-east Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salinas-López, N; Jiménez-Guzmán, F; Cruz-Reyes, A

    1996-07-01

    A bobcat was found recently killed on "Highway 101" near the town of San Fernando, Tamaulipas State, Mexico (100 km south of Brownsville, TX, U.S.A.). The cat (Lynx rufus texensis) was parasitized by several species of nematodes and trematodes, but mainly by a cestode, Echinococcus oligarthrus. The diagnostic characteristics of this cestode are described and illustrated. E. oligarthrus has not been reported previously in North America. This is the first time that the strobilar stage has been recovered from a "bobcat". A potential public health problem may be raised by the presence of this cestode in Mexico.

  7. Cylicospirura species (Nematoda: Spirocercidae) and stomach nodules in cougars (Puma concolor) and bobcats (Lynx rufus) in Oregon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferguson, Jayde A; Woodberry, Karen; Gillin, Colin M; Jackson, DeWaine H; Sanders, Justin L; Madigan, Whitney; Bildfell, Robert J; Kent, Michael L

    2011-01-01

    The stomachs and proximal duodena of 160 cougars (Puma concolor) and 17 bobcats (Lynx rufus), obtained throughout Oregon during 7 yr, were examined for Cylicospirura spp. and associated lesions. Prevalence in cougars was 73%, with a range in intensity of 1-562 worms. The mean diameter of nodules was 1.2 cm (SD=0.5), and many extended through the submucosa to the muscularis. About 83% of cougars had nodules; most nodules contained worms, but 14% of the smaller nodules (<0.2 cm) contained porcupine (Erethizon dorsatum) quills. A mean of 12.4 worms/nodule (SD=34.1) was observed, with a maximum of 340 worms/nodule. Prevalence in bobcats was 53%, with an intensity of 1-25 worms. About 65% of bobcats had nodules, which were slightly smaller than those in cougars but appeared to involve similar layers of gastrointestinal tissue. One to 25 Cylicospirura sp. were found in all but two small nodules in bobcats. Cougars killed for livestock damage or safety concerns had a significantly higher median worm intensity than did those that died of other causes. Also, the median worm intensity of older cougars was higher than that of younger lions. There were more males than females killed for livestock damage or safety concerns. The cylicospirurid from cougars was Cylicospirura subaequalis, and that of bobcats was Cylicospirura felineus. These two similar species were separated morphologically by differences in tooth and sex organ morphology. They were also differentiated by DNA sequence analysis of the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 gene (cox1). Worm sequences from cougars differed from those from bobcats by 11%, whereas essentially no difference was found among worms from the same host. Phylogenetic analysis showed that within the order Spirurida, both cylicospirurids were most closely related to Spirocerca lupi, based on this gene sequence.

  8. Serum chemistry, hematologic, and post-mortem findings in free-ranging bobcats (Lynx rufus) with notoedric mange

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serieys, Laurel E.K.; Foley, Janet; Owens, Sean; Woods, Leslie; Boydston, Erin E.; Lyren, Lisa M.; Poppenga, Robert H.; Clifford, Deana L.; Stephenson, Nicole; Rudd, Jaime; Riley, Seth P.D.

    2013-01-01

    Notoedric mange was responsible for a population decline of bobcats (Lynx rufus) in 2 Southern California counties from 2002–2006 and is now reported to affect bobcats in Northern and Southern California. With this study we document clinical laboratory and necropsy findings for bobcats with mange. Bobcats in this study included free-ranging bobcats with mange (n = 34), a control group of free-ranging bobcats without mange (n = 11), and a captive control group of bobcats without mange (n = 19). We used 2 control groups to evaluate potential anomalies due to capture stress or diet. Free-ranging healthy and mange-infected bobcats were trapped or salvaged. Animals were tested by serum biochemistry, complete blood count, urine protein and creatinine, body weight, necropsy, and assessment for anticoagulant rodenticide residues in liver tissue. Bobcats with severe mange were emaciated, dehydrated, and anemic with low serum creatinine, hyperphosphatemia, hypoglycemia, hypernatremia, and hyperchloremia, and sometimes septicemic when compared to control groups. Liver enzymes and leukocyte counts were elevated in free-ranging, recently captured bobcats whether or not they were infested with mange, suggesting capture stress. Bobcats with mange had lower levels of serum cholesterol, albumin, globulin, and total protein due to protein loss likely secondary to severe dermatopathy. Renal insufficiency was unlikely in most cases, as urine protein:creatinine ratios were within normal limits. A primary gastrointestinal loss of protein or blood was possible in a few cases, as evidenced by elevated blood urea nitrogen, anemia, intestinal parasitism, colitis, gastric hemorrhage, and melena. The prevalence of exposure to anticoagulant rodenticides was 100% (n = 15) in bobcats with mange. These findings paint a picture of debilitating, multisystemic disease with infectious and toxic contributing factors that can progress to death in individuals and potential decline in populations.

  9. UGC 3672: an unusual merging triplet of gas-rich galaxies in the Lynx-Cancer void

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chengalur, J. N.; Pustilnik, S. A.; Egorova, E. S.

    2017-02-01

    We present H I 21 cm and optical observations of UGC 3672 which is located near the centre of the nearby Lynx-Cancer void. We find that UGC 3672 consists of an approximately linearly aligned triplet of gas-rich dwarfs with large-scale velocity continuity along the triplet axis. The faintest component of the triplet is extremely gas-rich M_{H I}/L_B ˜ 17) and also extremely metal deficient (12 + log (O/H) ∼ 7.0). The metallicity of this dwarf is close to the 'floor' observed in star-forming galaxies. Low-resolution H I images show that the galaxy triplet is located inside a common H I envelope, with fairly regular, disc-like kinematics. At high angular resolution however, the gas is found to be confined to several filamentary tidal tails and bridges. The linear alignment of the galaxies, along with the velocity continuity that we observe, is consistent with the galaxies lying along a filament. We argue that the location of this highly unusual system in an extremely low-density environment is not a coincidence, but is a consequence of structure formation proceeding more slowly and also probing smaller scales than in regions with average density. Our observations also indicate that wet mergers of galaxies flowing along filaments is a possible pathway for the formation of gas-rich discs. The UGC 3672 system provides an interesting opportunity to study the kind of interactions typical between high-redshift extremely gas-rich unevolved small systems that lie at base of the hierarchical galaxy formation model.

  10. Analysis and Simulation of Volatile Components of LYNX CLICK Fragrance%凌仕契合香精的香气分析及模拟研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周如隽; 朱建才; 顾永波; 牛云蔚; 肖作兵

    2012-01-01

    通过顶空固相微萃取-气相色谱/质谱技术,结合感官分析,对凌仕契合香精的香气组成和香韵结构进行了分析,得出了果香韵、醛香韵、青香韵、木香韵、花香韵和海洋香韵等6种不同香韵,以及34种调配原料.考察了不同香韵组成对香精主体特征香气的影响,最终模拟得到了香气相似度较好的凌仕契合香精.%The odor composition of the LYNX CLICK fragrance was analyzed by means of headspace-solid extraction GC/MS. The results showed that the fragrance includes six odor types such as fruit, aldehyde, green, wood, flower, ocean and consists of 34 kinds of aromatic materials. Meanwhile the relationship of odor types and characteristic odor of the fragrance was researched. And the smell of imitated LYNX CLICK fragrance is very similar to that of sample.

  11. Prostate stem cell antigen is an endogenous lynx1-like prototoxin that antagonizes alpha7-containing nicotinic receptors and prevents programmed cell death of parasympathetic neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hruska, Martin; Keefe, Julie; Wert, David; Tekinay, Ayse Begum; Hulce, Jonathan J; Ibañez-Tallon, Ines; Nishi, Rae

    2009-11-25

    Vertebrate alpha-bungarotoxin-like molecules of the Ly-6 superfamily have been implicated as balancers of activity and survival in the adult nervous system. To determine whether a member of this family could be involved in the development of the avian ciliary ganglion, we identified 6 Gallus genes by their homology in structure to mouse lynx1 and lynx2. One of these genes, an ortholog of prostate stem cell antigen (psca), is barely detectable at embryonic day (E) 8, before neuronal cell loss in the ciliary ganglion, but increases >100-fold as the number of neurons begins to decline between E9 and E14. PSCA is highly expressed in chicken and mouse telencephalon and peripheral ganglia and correlates with expression of alpha7-containing nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (alpha7-nAChRs). Misexpressing PSCA before cell death in the ciliary ganglion blocks alpha7-nAChR activation by nicotine and rescues the choroid subpopulation from dying. Thus, PSCA, a molecule previously identified as a marker of prostate cancer, is a member of the Ly-6 neurotoxin-like family in the nervous system, and is likely to play a role as a modulator of alpha7 signaling-induced cell death during development.

  12. Valuing the chances of survival of two distinct Eurasian lynx populations in Poland - do people want to keep the doors open?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartczak, Anna; Meyerhoff, Jürgen

    2013-11-15

    This study investigates individuals' preferences toward protection programs aimed at increasing the chances of survival of the two distinct Eurasian lynx populations in Poland. Those two groups, the Lowland and the Carpathian population, are exposed to different risks of extinction as they have different numbers, different-sized areas of occupation and different migration possibilities. Using a discrete choice experiment we examine the influence of the initial degree of endangerment on the allocation of respondents' funds. The results show that people prefer to invest in the conservation of the lynx population, which has initially lower chances of survival. The main driver of respondents' choices seems to be loss aversion rather than the urge to invest in an option with an expected higher outcome. This observation can be interpreted as people trying to keep all the options - doors - open by devoting more funds to the more vulnerable population than to the more stable one. Employing a scale-extended latent class model allowed us to detect segments among individuals showing different types of response behavior, including a form of serial non-participation.

  13. 圈养猞猁多雄交配雄性的成功繁殖%Eurasian lynx male reproductive success with multi-male mating in captivity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sergey NAIDENKO; Mariya EROFEEVA; Frank GOERITZ; Katrin NEUBAUER; Joerns FICKEL; Katarina JEWGENOW

    2007-01-01

    The consequences of multi-male mating and male reproductive success in Eurasian lynx Lynx lynx in captivity were investigated. Males were paired at random with females in estrus. Their reproductive success (numbers of kittens sired) did not depend on mating order, number and duration of copulations, genetic relatedness to the females or the behavioral traits of males, but seemed to depend on sperm quality, particularly the percentage of morphologically normal spermatozoa. The reproductively more successful male had a higher percentage of morphologically normal sperm than its competitors and appeared to be more successful in stimulating the ovulation of its female partner. Dual paternities were proved in 20% of all litters. In all these cases the two competing males mated with the female within a 24 hour interval[Acta Zoologica Sinica 53(3):408-416,2007].%研究了笼养猞猁多雄交配的结果以及雄性的成功繁殖. 雄兽与发情雌兽随机配对,其繁殖成功(所产生的后代数量)不取决于与雌兽的交配顺序、交配次数与持续时间、遗传关系或雄兽的行为特征,但似乎取决于精子质量,特别是取决于形态正常精子的百分率. 繁殖成功的雄兽比其竞争对手具有更多的形态正常的精子,似乎更能成功地诱发交配雌兽的排卵.证实了4窝(占总窝数的20%)幼兽的双重父亲身份.在所有情形下,2雄1雌的交配间隔为24 h[动物学报 53(3):408-416,2007].

  14. Aprovechamiento cárnico de lince (Lynx pardina durante el Pleistoceno Superior en el interior de la Península Ibérica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Yravedra Sainz de los Terreros

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Durante el trascurso del Pleistoceno Superior en la Península Ibérica es frecuente que los yacimientos paleolíticos presenten restos de lince. El problema es que casi siempre se refieren a muestras óseas fragmentarias que no permiten ir más allá de la mera identificación taxonómica. En esta ocasión presentamos los restos de Lynx pardina localizados en el yacimiento Magdaleniense de la Peña de Estebanvela (Segovia y, tambien ciertas alteraciones tafonómicas de origen antrópico que parecen indicar un aprovechamiento cárnico de este animal en los momentos finales del Pleistoceno superior.

  15. First evidence of hemoplasma infection in free-ranging Namibian cheetahs (Acinonyx jubatus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krengel, Annika; Meli, Marina L; Cattori, Valentino; Wachter, Bettina; Willi, Barbara; Thalwitzer, Susanne; Melzheimer, Jörg; Hofer, Heribert; Lutz, Hans; Hofmann-Lehmann, Regina

    2013-03-23

    Infections with feline hemotropic mycoplasmas (hemoplasmas) have been documented in domestic cats and free-ranging feline species with high prevalences in Iberian lynxes (Lynx pardinus), Eurasian lynxes (Lynx lynx), European wildcats (Felis silvestris silvestris), African lions (Panthera leo) in Tanzania and domestic cats in South Africa. The prevalence of hemoplasmas has not yet been investigated in free-ranging felids in southern Africa. In this study we screened 73 blood samples from 61 cheetahs in central Namibia for the presence of hemoplasmas using quantitative real-time PCR. One of the cheetahs tested PCR-positive. Phylogenetic analysis based on partial sequencing of the 16S rRNA and RNAse P genes revealed that the isolate belongs to the Mycoplasma haemofelis/haemocanis group. This is the first molecular evidence of a hemoplasma infection in a free-ranging cheetah. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Characterization of the commercially-available fluorescent chloroquine-BODIPY conjugate, LynxTag-CQGREEN, as a marker for chloroquine resistance and uptake in a 96-well plate assay.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheryl C Y Loh

    Full Text Available Chloroquine was a cheap, extremely effective drug against Plasmodium falciparum until resistance arose. One approach to reversing resistance is the inhibition of chloroquine efflux from its site of action, the parasite digestive vacuole. Chloroquine accumulation studies have traditionally relied on radiolabelled chloroquine, which poses several challenges. There is a need for development of a safe and biologically relevant substitute. We report here a commercially-available green fluorescent chloroquine-BODIPY conjugate, LynxTag-CQGREEN, as a proxy for chloroquine accumulation. This compound localized to the digestive vacuole of the parasite as observed under confocal microscopy, and inhibited growth of chloroquine-sensitive strain 3D7 more extensively than in the resistant strains 7G8 and K1. Microplate reader measurements indicated suppression of LynxTag-CQGREEN efflux after pretreatment of parasites with known reversal agents. Microsomes carrying either sensitive- or resistant-type PfCRT were assayed for uptake; resistant-type PfCRT exhibited increased accumulation of LynxTag-CQGREEN, which was suppressed by pretreatment with known chemosensitizers. Eight laboratory strains and twelve clinical isolates were sequenced for PfCRT and Pgh1 haplotypes previously reported to contribute to drug resistance, and pfmdr1 copy number and chloroquine IC50s were determined. These data were compared with LynxTag-CQGREEN uptake/fluorescence by multiple linear regression to identify genetic correlates of uptake. Uptake of the compound correlated with the logIC50 of chloroquine and, more weakly, a mutation in Pgh1, F1226Y.

  17. Current Status and Protection of Felis Lynx Population in the Northeast of China%东北地区猞猁种群现状及其保护

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    田家龙; 李贵臣; 孙红瑜

    2002-01-01

    猞猁(Felis Lynx)属食肉目猫科动物,在我国主要分布在东北、华北、青藏高原等地,近年来由于森林资源的大量开发,严重地破坏了生态平衡,特别是由于无限制地猎取野兔,使其食物链巨减,因此,各地猞猁种群明显下降.我们利用三阶抽样法,查清了东北地区猞猁种群的分布及数量情况.结果表明,东北地区猞猁分布区域只剩下大小兴安岭及长白山部分地区,总栖息面积仅有200 000km2,平均密度为0.013238只/kma,既每75km2有1只,数量不到3000只,种群处于极其濒危状态,应禁止任何理由的猎捕利用,严加保护并采取一切措施,使野生种群尽快恢复.

  18. Early-type galaxies at z = 1.3. I. The Lynx supercluster: cluster and groups at z=1.3. Morphology and color-magnitude relation

    CERN Document Server

    Mei, Simona; Holden, Brad P; Raichoor, Anand; Postman, Marc; Nakata, Fumiaki; Finoguenov, Alexis; Ford, Holland C; Illingworth, Garth D; Kodama, Tadayuki; Rosati, Piero; Tanaka, Masayuki; Huertas-Company, Marc; Rettura, Alessandro; Shankar, Francesco; Carrasco, E Rodrigo; Demarco, Ricardo; Eisenhardt, Peter; Jee, Myungkook J; Koyama, Yusei; White, Richard L

    2012-01-01

    We confirm the detection of 3 groups in the Lynx supercluster, at z~1.3, and give their redshifts and masses. We study the properties of the group galaxies as compared to the central clusters, RXJ0849+4452 and RXJ0848+4453, selecting 89 galaxies in the clusters and 74 galaxies in the groups. We morphologically classify galaxies by visual inspection, noting that our early-type galaxy (ETG) sample would have been contaminated at the 30% -40% level by simple automated classification methods (e.g. based on Sersic index). In luminosity selected samples, both clusters and groups show high fractions of Sa galaxies. The ETG fractions never rise above ~50% in the clusters, which is low compared to the fractions observed in clusters at z~1. However, ETG plus Sa fractions are similar to those observed for ETGs in clusters at z~1. Bulge-dominated galaxies visually classified as Sas might also be ETGs with tidal features or merger remnants. They are mainly red and passive, and span a large range in luminosity. Their star ...

  19. A baseline and watershed assessment in the Lynx Creek, Brenot Creek, and Portage Creek watersheds near Hudson's Hope, BC : summary report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matscha, G.; Sutherland, D. [British Columbia Ministry of Water, Land and Air Protection, Prince George, BC (Canada)

    2005-06-15

    This report summarized a baseline monitoring program for the Lynx Creek, Brenot Creek, and Portage Creek watersheds located near Hudson's Hope, British Columbia (BC). The monitoring program was designed to more accurately determine the effects of potential coalbed gas developments in the region, as well as to assess levels of agricultural and forest harvesting, and the impacts of current land use activities on water quantity and quality. Water quality was sampled at 18 sites during 5 different flow regimes, including summer and fall low flows; ice cover; spring run-off; and high flows after a heavy summer rain event. Sample sites were located up and downstream of both forest and agricultural activities. The water samples were analyzed for 70 contaminants including ions, nutrients, metals, hydrocarbons, and hydrocarbon fractions. Results showed that while many analyzed parameters met current BC water quality guidelines, total organic carbon, manganese, cadmium, E. coli, fecal coliforms, and fecal streptococci often exceeded recommended guidelines. Aluminum and cobalt values exceeded drinking water guidelines. The samples also had a slightly alkaline pH and showed high conductance. A multiple barrier approach was recommended to reduce potential risks of contamination from the watersheds. It was concluded that a more refined bacteria source tracking method is needed to determine whether fecal pollution has emanated from human, livestock or wildlife sources. 1 tab., 9 figs.

  20. Isolation and Genetic Characterization of Toxoplasma gondii from Black Bears (Ursus americanus), Bobcats (Lynx rufus), and Feral Cats (Felis catus) from Pennsylvania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubey, Jitender P; Verma, Shiv K; Calero-Bernal, Rafael; Cassinelli, Ana B; Kwok, Oliver C H; Van Why, Kyle; Su, Chunlei; Humphreys, Jan G

    2015-01-01

    Toxoplasma gondii infects virtually all warm-blooded hosts worldwide. Recently, attention has been focused on the genetic diversity of the parasite to explain its pathogenicity in different hosts. It has been hypothesized that interaction between feral and domestic cycles of T. gondii may increase unusual genotypes in domestic cats and facilitate transmission of potentially more pathogenic genotypes to humans, domestic animals, and wildlife. In the present study, we tested black bear (Ursus americanus), bobcat (Lynx rufus), and feral cat (Felis catus) from the state of Pennsylvania for T. gondii infection. Antibodies to T. gondii were found in 32 (84.2%) of 38 bears, both bobcats, and 2 of 3 feral cats tested by the modified agglutination test (cut off titer 1:25). Hearts from seropositive animals were bioassayed in mice, and viable T. gondii was isolated from 3 of 32 bears, 2 of 2 bobcats, and 2 of 3 feral cats. DNA isolated from culture-derived tachyzoites of these isolates was characterized using multilocus PCR-RFLP markers. Three genotypes were revealed, including ToxoDB PCR-RFLP genotype #1 or #3 (Type II, 1 isolate), #5 (Type 12, 3 isolates), and #216 (3 isolates), adding to the evidence of genetic diversity of T. gondii in wildlife in Pennsylvania. Pathogenicity of 3 T. gondii isolates (all #216, 1 from bear, and 2 from feral cat) was determined in outbred Swiss Webster mice; all three were virulent causing 100% mortality. Results indicated that highly mouse pathogenic strains of T. gondii are circulating in wildlife, and these strains may pose risk to infect human through consuming of game meat. Published 2014. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  1. Electronics and electronic systems

    CERN Document Server

    Olsen, George H

    1987-01-01

    Electronics and Electronic Systems explores the significant developments in the field of electronics and electronic devices. This book is organized into three parts encompassing 11 chapters that discuss the fundamental circuit theory and the principles of analog and digital electronics. This book deals first with the passive components of electronic systems, such as resistors, capacitors, and inductors. These topics are followed by a discussion on the analysis of electronic circuits, which involves three ways, namely, the actual circuit, graphical techniques, and rule of thumb. The remaining p

  2. Description and life-cycle of Taenia lynciscapreoli sp. n. (Cestoda, Cyclophyllidea)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haukisalmi, Voitto; Konyaev, Sergey; Lavikainen, Antti; Isomursu, Marja; Nakao, Minoru

    2016-01-01

    Abstract A new species of tapeworm, Taenia lynciscapreoli sp. n. (Cestoda, Cyclophyllidea), is described from the Eurasian lynx (Lynx lynx), the main definitive host, and the roe deer (Capreolus capreolus and Capreolus pygargus), the main intermediate hosts, from Finland and Russia (Siberia and the Russian Far East). The new species was found once also in the wolf (Canis lupus) and the Eurasian elk/moose (Alces alces), representing accidental definitive and intermediate hosts, respectively. The conspecificity of adult specimens and metacestodes of Taenia lynciscapreoli sp. n. in various host species and regions, and their distinction from related species of Taenia, was confirmed by partial nucleotide sequences of the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 gene. Morphologically, Taenia lynciscapreoli sp. n. can be separated unambiguously from all other species of Taenia by the shape of its large rostellar hooks, particularly the characteristically short, wide and strongly curved blade. If the large rostellar hooks are missing, Taenia lynciscapreoli may be separated from related species by a combination of morphological features of mature proglottids. It is suggested that Taenia lynciscapreoli has been present in published materials concerning the tapeworms of Lynx lynx and Lynx pardinus in Europe, but has been misidentified as Taenia pisiformis (Bloch, 1780). Taenia lynciscapreoli sp. n. has not been found in lynx outside the range of roe deer, suggesting a transmission pathway based on a specific predator–prey relationship. The present study applies a novel, simple approach to compare qualitative interspecific differences in the shape of rostellar hooks. PMID:27199592

  3. Description and life-cycle of Taenia lynciscapreoli sp. n. (Cestoda, Cyclophyllidea).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haukisalmi, Voitto; Konyaev, Sergey; Lavikainen, Antti; Isomursu, Marja; Nakao, Minoru

    2016-01-01

    A new species of tapeworm, Taenia lynciscapreoli sp. n. (Cestoda, Cyclophyllidea), is described from the Eurasian lynx (Lynx lynx), the main definitive host, and the roe deer (Capreolus capreolus and Capreolus pygargus), the main intermediate hosts, from Finland and Russia (Siberia and the Russian Far East). The new species was found once also in the wolf (Canis lupus) and the Eurasian elk/moose (Alces alces), representing accidental definitive and intermediate hosts, respectively. The conspecificity of adult specimens and metacestodes of Taenia lynciscapreoli sp. n. in various host species and regions, and their distinction from related species of Taenia, was confirmed by partial nucleotide sequences of the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 gene. Morphologically, Taenia lynciscapreoli sp. n. can be separated unambiguously from all other species of Taenia by the shape of its large rostellar hooks, particularly the characteristically short, wide and strongly curved blade. If the large rostellar hooks are missing, Taenia lynciscapreoli may be separated from related species by a combination of morphological features of mature proglottids. It is suggested that Taenia lynciscapreoli has been present in published materials concerning the tapeworms of Lynx lynx and Lynx pardinus in Europe, but has been misidentified as Taenia pisiformis (Bloch, 1780). Taenia lynciscapreoli sp. n. has not been found in lynx outside the range of roe deer, suggesting a transmission pathway based on a specific predator-prey relationship. The present study applies a novel, simple approach to compare qualitative interspecific differences in the shape of rostellar hooks.

  4. 猞猁和豹猫肝脏结构的观察比较及AQP -8在肝脏中的表达%On Liver Structure and Expression of AQP - 8 in Felis lynx and Prionailurus bengalensis liver

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王昱

    2015-01-01

    The liver structure of Felis lynx and Prionailurus bengalensis was compared with light microscope and expression of aquaporin - 8(AQP - 8)was measured by immunohistochemistry. The results show that the basic structure of the livers of Felis lynx and Prionailurus bengalensis was similar with the basic structure of most mammalian livers. The outer layer of the liver was a connective tissue capsule. The hepatic lobules were unclear. The hepatic cords,hepatic sinusoids and space of Disse arranged radially around a central vein and formed an ex-tensive spongework. The hepatic cords were comprised one row of hepatocytes. Interlobular artery,interlobular vein and interlobular bile duct in portal area were observed easily. The hepatic lobules of Prionailurus bengalensis were more regular than those of Felis lynx,but the diameter of hepatocytes of Prionailurus bengalensis was smaller than that of Felis lynx. The adjacent hepatocytes in the hepatic cords of Felis lynx were loose,the hepatic sinu-soids were very abundant. The expression of AQP - 8 in Felis lynx liver was stronger than that in Prionailurus ben-galensis liver. These indicate that the liver structure of Felis lynx and Prionailurus bengalensis and expression of AQP - 8 are adaptable to the life habit.%利用生物显微技术对猞猁(Felis lynx)和豹猫(Prionailurus bengalensis)肝脏进行了比较,应用免疫组织化学方法检测了水通道蛋白-8(AQP -8)在肝脏中的表达情况。结果显示,与多数哺乳类相似,猞猁和豹猫的肝脏外被覆一层结缔组织薄膜,肝小叶的界限不清楚,中央静脉周围放射状排列着肝板、肝血窦及狄氏间隙,单层排肝细胞构成肝板,在门管区可清晰观察到小叶间静脉、小叶间动脉和小叶间胆管豹猫肝小叶的肝细胞排列较猞猁的规则,但肝细胞的直径较猞猁的小。猞猁肝细胞间比较松散,肝血窦较豹猫的发达。猞猁肝脏 AQP -8的表达较豹猫的

  5. Hard electronics; Hard electronics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-03-01

    In the fields of power conversion devices and broadcasting/communication amplifiers, high power, high frequency and low losses are desirable. Further, for electronic elements in aerospace/aeronautical/geothermal surveys, etc., heat resistance to 500degC is required. Devices which respond to such hard specifications are called hard electronic devices. However, with Si which is at the core of the present electronics, the specifications cannot fully be fulfilled because of the restrictions arising from physical values. Accordingly, taking up new device materials/structures necessary to construct hard electronics, technologies to develop these to a level of IC were examined and studied. They are a technology to make devices/IC of new semiconductors such as SiC, diamond, etc. which can handle higher temperature, higher power and higher frequency than Si and also is possible of reducing losses, a technology to make devices of hard semiconducter materials such as a vacuum microelectronics technology using ultra-micro/high-luminance electronic emitter using negative electron affinity which diamond, etc. have, a technology to make devices of oxides which have various electric properties, etc. 321 refs., 194 figs., 8 tabs.

  6. Electronic Cigarettes

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... New FDA Regulations Text Size: A A A Electronic Cigarettes Electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) are battery operated products designed ... more about: The latest news and events about electronic cigarettes on this FDA page Electronic cigarette basics ...

  7. The Electron

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomson, George

    1972-01-01

    Electrons are elementary particles of atoms that revolve around and outside the nucleus and have a negative charge. This booklet discusses how electrons relate to electricity, some applications of electrons, electrons as waves, electrons in atoms and solids, the electron microscope, among other things.

  8. Hard electronics; Hard electronics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-03-01

    Hard material technologies were surveyed to establish the hard electronic technology which offers superior characteristics under hard operational or environmental conditions as compared with conventional Si devices. The following technologies were separately surveyed: (1) The device and integration technologies of wide gap hard semiconductors such as SiC, diamond and nitride, (2) The technology of hard semiconductor devices for vacuum micro- electronics technology, and (3) The technology of hard new material devices for oxides. The formation technology of oxide thin films made remarkable progress after discovery of oxide superconductor materials, resulting in development of an atomic layer growth method and mist deposition method. This leading research is expected to solve such issues difficult to be easily realized by current Si technology as high-power, high-frequency and low-loss devices in power electronics, high temperature-proof and radiation-proof devices in ultimate electronics, and high-speed and dense- integrated devices in information electronics. 432 refs., 136 figs., 15 tabs.

  9. Ambient Electronics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sekitani, Tsuyoshi; Someya, Takao

    2012-10-01

    We report the recent research progress and future prospects of flexible and printed electronics, focusing on molecular electronic material-based thin-film transistors, which are expected to usher in a new era of electronics.

  10. Electron cooling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meshkov, I.; Sidorin, A.

    2004-10-01

    The brief review of the most significant and interesting achievements in electron cooling method, which took place during last two years, is presented. The description of the electron cooling facilities-storage rings and traps being in operation or under development-is given. The applications of the electron cooling method are considered. The following modern fields of the method development are discussed: crystalline beam formation, expansion into middle and high energy electron cooling (the Fermilab Recycler Electron Cooler, the BNL cooler-recuperator, cooling with circulating electron beam, the GSI project), electron cooling in traps, antihydrogen generation, electron cooling of positrons (the LEPTA project).

  11. Electron Microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beer, Michael

    1980-01-01

    Reviews technical aspects of structure determination in biological electron microscopy (EM). Discusses low dose EM, low temperature microscopy, electron energy loss spectra, determination of mass or molecular weight, and EM of labeled systems. Cites 34 references. (CS)

  12. Electron Microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beer, Michael

    1980-01-01

    Reviews technical aspects of structure determination in biological electron microscopy (EM). Discusses low dose EM, low temperature microscopy, electron energy loss spectra, determination of mass or molecular weight, and EM of labeled systems. Cites 34 references. (CS)

  13. Understand electronics

    CERN Document Server

    Bishop, Owen

    2013-01-01

    Understand Electronics provides a readable introduction to the exciting world of electronics for the student or enthusiast with little previous knowledge. The subject is treated with the minimum of mathematics and the book is extensively illustrated.This is an essential guide for the newcomer to electronics, and replaces the author's best-selling Beginner's Guide to Electronics.The step-by-step approach makes this book ideal for introductory courses such as the Intermediate GNVQ.

  14. Electronic components

    CERN Document Server

    Colwell, Morris A

    1976-01-01

    Electronic Components provides a basic grounding in the practical aspects of using and selecting electronics components. The book describes the basic requirements needed to start practical work on electronic equipment, resistors and potentiometers, capacitance, and inductors and transformers. The text discusses semiconductor devices such as diodes, thyristors and triacs, transistors and heat sinks, logic and linear integrated circuits (I.C.s) and electromechanical devices. Common abbreviations applied to components are provided. Constructors and electronics engineers will find the book useful

  15. Electronic Prescribing

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Do you prescribe electronically?” For more information about electronic prescribing, call 1-800-MEDICARE (1-800-633- ... TTY users should call 1-877-486-2048 . Electronic eRx Prescribing I went to the pharmacy, and ...

  16. Basic electronics

    CERN Document Server

    Holbrook, Harold D

    1971-01-01

    Basic Electronics is an elementary text designed for basic instruction in electricity and electronics. It gives emphasis on electronic emission and the vacuum tube and shows transistor circuits in parallel with electron tube circuits. This book also demonstrates how the transistor merely replaces the tube, with proper change of circuit constants as required. Many problems are presented at the end of each chapter. This book is comprised of 17 chapters and opens with an overview of electron theory, followed by a discussion on resistance, inductance, and capacitance, along with their effects on t

  17. Electronic Government and Electronic Participation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tambouris, E.; Scholl, H.J.; Janssen, M.F.W.H.A.; Wimmer, M.A.; Tarabanis, K.; Gascó, M.; Klievink, A.J.; Lindgren, I.; Milano, M.; Panagiotopoulos, P.; Pardo, T.A.; Parycek, P.; Sæbø, O.

    2015-01-01

    Electronic government and electronic participation continue to transform the public sector and society worldwide and are constantly being transformed themselves by emerging information and communication technologies. This book presents papers from the 14th International Federation for Information P

  18. Electron Tree

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Appelt, Ane L; Rønde, Heidi S

    2013-01-01

    The photo shows a close-up of a Lichtenberg figure – popularly called an “electron tree” – produced in a cylinder of polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA). Electron trees are created by irradiating a suitable insulating material, in this case PMMA, with an intense high energy electron beam. Upon discharge......, during dielectric breakdown in the material, the electrons generate branching chains of fractures on leaving the PMMA, producing the tree pattern seen. To be able to create electron trees with a clinical linear accelerator, one needs to access the primary electron beam used for photon treatments. We...... appropriated a linac that was being decommissioned in our department and dismantled the head to circumvent the target and ion chambers. This is one of 24 electron trees produced before we had to stop the fun and allow the rest of the accelerator to be disassembled....

  19. Electron Tree

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Appelt, Ane L; Rønde, Heidi S

    2013-01-01

    The photo shows a close-up of a Lichtenberg figure – popularly called an “electron tree” – produced in a cylinder of polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA). Electron trees are created by irradiating a suitable insulating material, in this case PMMA, with an intense high energy electron beam. Upon discharge......, during dielectric breakdown in the material, the electrons generate branching chains of fractures on leaving the PMMA, producing the tree pattern seen. To be able to create electron trees with a clinical linear accelerator, one needs to access the primary electron beam used for photon treatments. We...... appropriated a linac that was being decommissioned in our department and dismantled the head to circumvent the target and ion chambers. This is one of 24 electron trees produced before we had to stop the fun and allow the rest of the accelerator to be disassembled....

  20. Responses of a top and a meso predator and their prey to moon phases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penteriani, Vincenzo; Kuparinen, Anna; del Mar Delgado, Maria; Palomares, Francisco; López-Bao, José Vicente; Fedriani, José María; Calzada, Javier; Moreno, Sacramento; Villafuerte, Rafael; Campioni, Letizia; Lourenço, Rui

    2013-11-01

    We compared movement patterns and rhythms of activity of a top predator, the Iberian lynx Lynx pardinus, a mesopredator, the red fox Vulpes vulpes, and their shared principal prey, the rabbit Oryctolagus cuniculus, in relation to moon phases. Because the three species are mostly nocturnal and crepuscular, we hypothesized that the shared prey would reduce its activity at most risky moon phases (i.e. during the brightest nights), but that fox, an intraguild prey of lynx, would avoid lynx activity peaks at the same time. Rabbits generally moved further from their core areas on darkest nights (i.e. new moon), using direct movements which minimize predation risk. Though rabbits responded to the increased predation risk by reducing their activity during the full moon, this response may require several days, and the moon effect we observed on the rabbits had, therefore, a temporal gap. Lynx activity patterns may be at least partially mirroring rabbit activity: around new moons, when rabbits moved furthest and were more active, lynxes reduced their travelling distances and their movements were concentrated in the core areas of their home ranges, which generally correspond to areas of high density of rabbits. Red foxes were more active during the darkest nights, when both the conditions for rabbit hunting were the best and lynxes moved less. On the one hand, foxes increased their activity when rabbits were further from their core areas and moved with more discrete displacements; on the other hand, fox activity in relation to the moon seemed to reduce dangerous encounters with its intraguild predator.

  1. Electronic Commerce

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Slavko Đerić

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Electronic commerce can be defined in different ways. Any definition helps to understand and explain that concept as better as possible.. Electronic commerce is a set of procedures and technologies that automate the tasks of financial transactions using electronic means. Also, according to some authors, electronic commerce is defined as a new concept, which is being developed and which includes process of buying and selling or exchanging products, services or information via computer networks, including the Internet. Electronic commerce is not limited just to buying and selling, but it also includes all pre-sales and after-sales ongoing activities along the supply chain. Introducing electronic commerce, using the Internet and Web services in business, realizes the way to a completely new type of economy - internet economy.

  2. Micropower electronics

    CERN Document Server

    Keonjian, Edward

    1964-01-01

    Micropower Electronics deals with the operation of modern electronic equipment at micropower levels and the problems associated with micropower electronics. Topics covered include the relations between minimum required power density and frequency response for semiconductor triode amplifiers; physical realization of digital logic circuits; micropower microelectronic subsystems; and metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect devices for micropower logic circuitry. This book is comprised of 10 chapters and begins with an analysis of fundamental relationships and basic requirements pertinent to the ph

  3. Microfluidic electronics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Shi; Wu, Zhigang

    2012-08-21

    Microfluidics, a field that has been well-established for several decades, has seen extensive applications in the areas of biology, chemistry, and medicine. However, it might be very hard to imagine how such soft microfluidic devices would be used in other areas, such as electronics, in which stiff, solid metals, insulators, and semiconductors have previously dominated. Very recently, things have radically changed. Taking advantage of native properties of microfluidics, advances in microfluidics-based electronics have shown great potential in numerous new appealing applications, e.g. bio-inspired devices, body-worn healthcare and medical sensing systems, and ergonomic units, in which conventional rigid, bulky electronics are facing insurmountable obstacles to fulfil the demand on comfortable user experience. Not only would the birth of microfluidic electronics contribute to both the microfluidics and electronics fields, but it may also shape the future of our daily life. Nevertheless, microfluidic electronics are still at a very early stage, and significant efforts in research and development are needed to advance this emerging field. The intention of this article is to review recent research outcomes in the field of microfluidic electronics, and address current technical challenges and issues. The outlook of future development in microfluidic electronic devices and systems, as well as new fabrication techniques, is also discussed. Moreover, the authors would like to inspire both the microfluidics and electronics communities to further exploit this newly-established field.

  4. Paper electronics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tobjörk, Daniel; Österbacka, Ronald

    2011-05-03

    Paper is ubiquitous in everyday life and a truly low-cost substrate. The use of paper substrates could be extended even further, if electronic applications would be applied next to or below the printed graphics. However, applying electronics on paper is challenging. The paper surface is not only very rough compared to plastics, but is also porous. While this is detrimental for most electronic devices manufactured directly onto paper substrates, there are also approaches that are compatible with the rough and absorptive paper surface. In this review, recent advances and possibilities of these approaches are evaluated and the limitations of paper electronics are discussed.

  5. Electron holography

    CERN Document Server

    Tonomura, Akira

    1993-01-01

    Holography was devised for breaking through the resolution limit of electron microscopes The advent of a "coherent" field emission electron beam has enabled the use of Electron Holography in various areas of magnetic domain structures observation, fluxon observation in superconductors, and fundamental experiments in physics which have been inaccessible using other techniques After examining the fundamentals of electron holography and its applications to the afore mentioned fields, a detailed discussion of the Aharonov-Bohm effect and the related experiments is presented Many photographs and illustrations are included to elucidate the text

  6. Polymer electronics

    CERN Document Server

    Hsin-Fei, Meng

    2013-01-01

    Polymer semiconductor is the only semiconductor that can be processed in solution. Electronics made by these flexible materials have many advantages such as large-area solution process, low cost, and high performance. Researchers and companies are increasingly dedicating time and money in polymer electronics. This book focuses on the fundamental materials and device physics of polymer electronics. It describes polymer light-emitting diodes, polymer field-effect transistors, organic vertical transistors, polymer solar cells, and many applications based on polymer electronics. The book also disc

  7. Electronic Photography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Payne, Meredith Lindsay

    1995-01-01

    The main objective was to assist in the production of electronic images in the Electronic Photography Lab (EPL). The EPL is a new facility serving the electronic photographic needs of the Langley community. The purpose of the Electronic Photography lab is to provide Langley with access to digital imaging technology. Although the EPL has been in operation for less than one year, almost 1,000 images have been produced. The decision to establish the lab was made after careful determination of the centers needs for electronic photography. The LaRC community requires electronic photography for the production of electronic printing, Web sites, desktop publications, and its increased enhancement capabilities. In addition to general use, other considerations went into the planning of the EPL. For example, electronic photography is much less of a burden on the environment compared to conventional photography. Also, the possibilities of an on-line database and retrieval system could make locating past work more efficient. Finally, information in an electronic image is quantified, making measurements and calculations easier for the researcher.

  8. Electron Bifurcation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peters, John W.; Miller, Anne-Frances; Jones, Anne K.; King, Paul W.; Adams, Michael W. W.

    2016-04-01

    Electron bifurcation is the recently recognized third mechanism of biological energy conservation. It simultaneously couples exergonic and endergonic oxidation-reduction reactions to circumvent thermodynamic barriers and minimize free energy loss. Little is known about the details of how electron bifurcating enzymes function, but specifics are beginning to emerge for several bifurcating enzymes. To date, those characterized contain a collection of redox cofactors including flavins and iron-sulfur clusters. Here we discuss the current understanding of bifurcating enzymes and the mechanistic features required to reversibly partition multiple electrons from a single redox site into exergonic and endergonic electron transfer paths.

  9. Printed Electronics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crain, John M. (Inventor); Lettow, John S. (Inventor); Aksay, Ilhan A. (Inventor); Korkut, Sibel (Inventor); Chiang, Katherine S. (Inventor); Chen, Chuan-Hua (Inventor); Prud'Homme, Robert K. (Inventor)

    2016-01-01

    Printed electronic device comprising a substrate onto at least one surface of which has been applied a layer of an electrically conductive ink comprising functionalized graphene sheets and at least one binder. A method of preparing printed electronic devices is further disclosed.

  10. Electron optics

    CERN Document Server

    Grivet, Pierre; Bertein, F; Castaing, R; Gauzit, M; Septier, Albert L

    1972-01-01

    Electron Optics, Second English Edition, Part I: Optics is a 10-chapter book that begins by elucidating the fundamental features and basic techniques of electron optics, as well as the distribution of potential and field in electrostatic lenses. This book then explains the field distribution in magnetic lenses; the optical properties of electrostatic and magnetic lenses; and the similarities and differences between glass optics and electron optics. Subsequent chapters focus on lens defects; some electrostatic lenses and triode guns; and magnetic lens models. The strong focusing lenses and pris

  11. Electronic diagrams

    CERN Document Server

    Colwell, Morris A

    1976-01-01

    Electronic Diagrams is a ready reference and general guide to systems and circuit planning and in the preparation of diagrams for both newcomers and the more experienced. This book presents guidelines and logical procedures that the reader can follow and then be equipped to tackle large complex diagrams by recognition of characteristic 'building blocks' or 'black boxes'. The goal is to break down many of the barriers that often seem to deter students and laymen in learning the art of electronics, especially when they take up electronics as a spare time occupation. This text is comprised of nin

  12. Digital electronics

    CERN Document Server

    Morris, John

    2013-01-01

    An essential companion to John C Morris's 'Analogue Electronics', this clear and accessible text is designed for electronics students, teachers and enthusiasts who already have a basic understanding of electronics, and who wish to develop their knowledge of digital techniques and applications. Employing a discovery-based approach, the author covers fundamental theory before going on to develop an appreciation of logic networks, integrated circuit applications and analogue-digital conversion. A section on digital fault finding and useful ic data sheets completes th

  13. Electronic identity

    CERN Document Server

    de Andrade, Norberto Nuno Gomes; Argles, David

    2014-01-01

    With the increasing availability of electronic services, security and a reliable means by which identity is verified is essential.Written by Norberto Andrade the first chapter of this book provides an overview of the main legal and regulatory aspects regarding electronic identity in Europe and assesses the importance of electronic identity for administration (public), business (private) and, above all, citizens. It also highlights the role of eID as a key enabler of the economy.In the second chapter Lisha Chen-Wilson, David Argles, Michele Schiano di Zenise and Gary Wills discuss the user-cent

  14. Stretchable electronics

    CERN Document Server

    Someya, Takao

    2012-01-01

    With its comprehensive coverage this handbook and ready reference brings together some of the most outstanding scientists in the field to lay down the undisputed knowledge on how to make electronics stretchable.As such, it focuses on gathering and evaluating the materials, designs, models and technologies that enable the fabrication of fully elastic electronic devices which can sustain high strain. Furthermore, it provides a review of those specific applications that directly benefit from highly compliant electronics, including transistors, photonic devices and sensors. In addition to stre

  15. Starting electronics

    CERN Document Server

    Brindley, Keith

    2005-01-01

    Starting Electronics is unrivalled as a highly practical introduction for hobbyists, students and technicians. Keith Brindley introduces readers to the functions of the main component types, their uses, and the basic principles of building and designing electronic circuits. Breadboard layouts make this very much a ready-to-run book for the experimenter; and the use of multimeter, but not oscilloscopes, puts this practical exploration of electronics within reach of every home enthusiast's pocket. The third edition has kept the simplicity and clarity of the original. New material

  16. Polymer electronics

    CERN Document Server

    Geoghegan, Mark

    2013-01-01

    Polymer electronics is the science behind many important new developments in technology, such as the flexible electronic display (e-ink) and many new developments in transistor technology. Solar cells, light-emitting diodes, and transistors are all areas where plastic electronics is likely to, or is already having, a serious impact on our daily lives. With polymer transistors and light-emitting diodes now being commercialised, there is a clear need for a pedagogic text thatdiscusses the subject in a clear and concise fashion suitable for senior undergraduate and graduate students. The content

  17. Power Electronics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iov, Florin; Ciobotaru, Mihai; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2008-01-01

    is to change the electrical power production sources from the conventional, fossil (and short term) based energy sources to renewable energy resources. The other is to use high efficient power electronics in power generation, power transmission/distribution and end-user application. This paper discuss the most...... emerging renewable energy sources, wind energy, which by means of power electronics are changing from being a minor energy source to be acting as an important power source in the energy system. Power electronics is the enabling technology and the presentation will cover the development in wind turbine...... technology from kW to MW, discuss which power electronic solutions are most feasible and used today....

  18. Electronic Elections

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schürmann, Carsten

    2009-01-01

    Electronic voting technology is a two edged sword. It comes with many risks but brings also many benefits. Instead of flat out rejecting the technology as uncontrollably dangerous, we advocate in this paper a different technological angle that renders electronic elections trustworthy beyond...... the usual levels of doubt. We exploit the trust that voters currently have into the democratic process and model our techniques around that observation accordingly. In particular, we propose a technique of trace emitting computations to record the individual steps of an electronic voting machine...... for a posteriori validation on an acceptably small trusted computing base. Our technology enables us to prove that an electronic elections preserves the voter’s intent, assuming that the voting machine and the trace verifier are independent....

  19. Electronic plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stavrinidou, Eleni; Gabrielsson, Roger; Gomez, Eliot; Crispin, Xavier; Nilsson, Ove; Simon, Daniel T.; Berggren, Magnus

    2015-01-01

    The roots, stems, leaves, and vascular circuitry of higher plants are responsible for conveying the chemical signals that regulate growth and functions. From a certain perspective, these features are analogous to the contacts, interconnections, devices, and wires of discrete and integrated electronic circuits. Although many attempts have been made to augment plant function with electroactive materials, plants’ “circuitry” has never been directly merged with electronics. We report analog and digital organic electronic circuits and devices manufactured in living plants. The four key components of a circuit have been achieved using the xylem, leaves, veins, and signals of the plant as the template and integral part of the circuit elements and functions. With integrated and distributed electronics in plants, one can envisage a range of applications including precision recording and regulation of physiology, energy harvesting from photosynthesis, and alternatives to genetic modification for plant optimization. PMID:26702448

  20. ELECTRONIC SIGNATURES

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    10332324

    'electronic signature' means data attached to, incorporated in, or logically ... See Cwele v S 2012 4 All SA 497 (SCA); Mohlabeng v Minister of Safety and Security ... ZAKZPHC 51 (2 September 2010); Delta Finance, a Division of Wesbank, ...

  1. Electron Microprobe

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The JEOL JXA-8600 is a conventional hairpin filament thermal emission electron microprobe that is more than 20 years old. It is capable of performing qualitative and...

  2. Electronic commerce

    OpenAIRE

    Veselková, Zdeňka

    2012-01-01

    The thesis deals with a description of electronic commerce from its beginning up to present situation in this area. It explains basic terms connected with electronic commerce and it summarizes the relevant legislation. Moreover it describes e-contracts and rights and duties of both contractual parties. The main view is the view of Internet retailer, which is reflected in the practical part focused on concrete problems of retailers.

  3. Molecular Electronics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jennum, Karsten Stein

    This thesis includes the synthesis and characterisation of organic compounds designed for molecular electronics. The synthesised organic molecules are mainly based on two motifs, the obigo(phenyleneethynylenes) (OPE)s and tetrathiafulvalene (TTF) as shown below. These two scaffolds (OPE and TTF......) are chemically merged together to form cruciform-like structures that are an essential part of the thesis. The cruciform molecules were subjected to molecular conductance measurements to explore their capability towards single-crystal field-effect transistors (Part 1), molecular wires, and single electron......, however, was obtained by a study of a single molecular transistor. The investigated OPE5-TTF compound was captured in a three-terminal experiment, whereby manipulation of the molecule’s electronic spin was possible in different charge states. Thus, we demonstrated how the cruciform molecules could...

  4. Power Electronics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iov, Florin; Ciobotaru, Mihai; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2008-01-01

    energy at the end-user should also be set up. Deregulation of energy has in the past lowered the investment in larger power plants, which means the need for new electrical power sources will be high in the near future. Two major technologies will play important roles to solve the future problems. One...... is to change the electrical power production sources from the conventional, fossil (and short term) based energy sources to renewable energy resources. The other is to use high efficient power electronics in power generation, power transmission/distribution and end-user application. This paper discuss the most...... emerging renewable energy sources, wind energy, which by means of power electronics are changing from being a minor energy source to be acting as an important power source in the energy system. Power electronics is the enabling technology and the presentation will cover the development in wind turbine...

  5. Electron Spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegbahn, Kai

    Wilhelm Conrad Röntgen's discovery of X radiation in 1895 in Wörzburg resulted in an immediate break-through not only in physics but also in Society, the latter mainly because of its sensational radiological applications. Within a short time it furthermore indirectly led to the discovery of radioactivity by Henri Becquerel. The discovery of X radiation opened the gate to modern atomic physics, and radioactivity to nuclear physics. Later on, the discovery of X-ray diffraction by Laue, Friedrich and Knipping in 1912 initiated the field of X-ray spectroscopy with its fundamental contributions to atomic and crystal structures. Secondary electrons were early observed in the scattered radiation when X-rays were hitting a sample. The development of the corresponding electron spectroscopy had to wait a much longer time for its maturity. A survey of electron spectroscopy is presented.

  6. Electronic Commerce

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laird, N. [NRG Information Services Inc., Calgary, AB (Canada)

    1995-11-01

    The concept of electronic commerce in the gas industry was discussed. It was defined as the integration of communication technology, advanced information processing capability and business standards, to improve effectiveness of the business process. Examples of electronic data interchange from the automotive, airline, and banking industry were given. The objective of using this technology in the gas industry was described as the provision of one electronic facility to make seamless contractual and operational arrangements for moving natural gas across participating pipelines. The benefit of seamless integration - one readily available standard system used by several companies - was highlighted. A list of value-added services such as the free movement of bulletins, directories, nominations,and other documents was provided.

  7. Spin electronics

    CERN Document Server

    Buhrman, Robert; Daughton, James; Molnár, Stephan; Roukes, Michael

    2004-01-01

    This report is a comparative review of spin electronics ("spintronics") research and development activities in the United States, Japan, and Western Europe conducted by a panel of leading U.S. experts in the field. It covers materials, fabrication and characterization of magnetic nanostructures, magnetism and spin control in magnetic nanostructures, magneto-optical properties of semiconductors, and magnetoelectronics and devices. The panel's conclusions are based on a literature review and a series of site visits to leading spin electronics research centers in Japan and Western Europe. The panel found that Japan is clearly the world leader in new material synthesis and characterization; it is also a leader in magneto-optical properties of semiconductor devices. Europe is strong in theory pertaining to spin electronics, including injection device structures such as tunneling devices, and band structure predictions of materials properties, and in development of magnetic semiconductors and semiconductor heterost...

  8. Molecular Electronics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jennum, Karsten Stein

    ) are chemically merged together to form cruciform-like structures that are an essential part of the thesis. The cruciform molecules were subjected to molecular conductance measurements to explore their capability towards single-crystal field-effect transistors (Part 1), molecular wires, and single electron......This thesis includes the synthesis and characterisation of organic compounds designed for molecular electronics. The synthesised organic molecules are mainly based on two motifs, the obigo(phenyleneethynylenes) (OPE)s and tetrathiafulvalene (TTF) as shown below. These two scaffolds (OPE and TTF......, however, was obtained by a study of a single molecular transistor. The investigated OPE5-TTF compound was captured in a three-terminal experiment, whereby manipulation of the molecule’s electronic spin was possible in different charge states. Thus, we demonstrated how the cruciform molecules could...

  9. Greening Electronics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pizzol, Massimo; Søes Kokborg, Morten; Thomsen, Marianne

    Based on a literature review with focus on hazardous substances in waste electric and electronic equipment (WEEE) and numbers from a Danish treatment facility a flow analysis for specific substances has been conducted. Further, the accessible knowledge on human and environmental effects due...

  10. Superconducting electronics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rogalla, Horst

    1994-01-01

    During the last decades superconducting electronics has been the most prominent area of research for small scale applications of superconductivity. It has experienced quite a stormy development, from individual low frequency devices to devices with high integration density and pico second switching

  11. Electronic Portfolios.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purves, Alan C.

    1996-01-01

    Outlines three forms of electronic portfolio based on a student's work, a class project about a specific topic, and a class seminar on a broad topic. Discusses logistical problems of management, access, and cross-referencing; technical problems of input, access, and copying; and theoretical issues of the lack of realia, of ownership and copyright,…

  12. Electronic Money.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schilling, Tim

    Thirty years ago a cashless society was predicted for the near future; paper currency and checks would be an antiquated symbol of the past. Consumers would embrace a new alternative for making payments: electronic money. But currency is still used for 87% of payments, mainly for "nickel and dime" purchases. And checks are the payment…

  13. Electronic spectroscopies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weckhuysen, B.M.; Schoonheydt, R.A.

    2000-01-01

    Diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (DRS) in the ultraviolet, visible and near-infrared region is a versatile spectroscopic technique, as both d-d and charge transfer transitions of supported TMI can be probed. One of the advantages of electronic spectroscopy is that the obtained information is

  14. Electronic Homework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Fong-lok; Heyworth, Rex M.

    The Electronic Homework assistant system is composed of two components: the Computer Tutor and the Homework Administrator. The Computer Tutor is an intelligent tutoring system that can provide personal assistance like supplying hints, checking errors, providing remediation and prioritizing problems. The Homework Administrator is a teacher's…

  15. Greening Electronics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pizzol, Massimo; Søes Kokborg, Morten; Thomsen, Marianne

    Based on a literature review with focus on hazardous substances in waste electric and electronic equipment (WEEE) and numbers from a Danish treatment facility a flow analysis for specific substances has been conducted. Further, the accessible knowledge on human and environmental effects due to po...

  16. Electronic Government

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wimmer, Maria A.; Traunmüller, Roland; Grönlund, Åke

    This book constitutes the refereed proceedings of the 4th International Conference on Electronic Government, EGOV 2005, held in Copenhagen, Denmark, in August 2005. The 30 revised papers presented were carefully reviewed and selected from numerous submissions, and assess the state-of-the-art in e...

  17. Electronic detectors for electron microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faruqi, A R; McMullan, G

    2011-08-01

    Electron microscopy (EM) is an important tool for high-resolution structure determination in applications ranging from condensed matter to biology. Electronic detectors are now used in most applications in EM as they offer convenience and immediate feedback that is not possible with film or image plates. The earliest forms of electronic detector used routinely in transmission electron microscopy (TEM) were charge coupled devices (CCDs) and for many applications these remain perfectly adequate. There are however applications, such as the study of radiation-sensitive biological samples, where film is still used and improved detectors would be of great value. The emphasis in this review is therefore on detectors for use in such applications. Two of the most promising candidates for improved detection are: monolithic active pixel sensors (MAPS) and hybrid pixel detectors (of which Medipix2 was chosen for this study). From the studies described in this review, a back-thinned MAPS detector appears well suited to replace film in for the study of radiation-sensitive samples at 300 keV, while Medipix2 is suited to use at lower energies and especially in situations with very low count rates. The performance of a detector depends on the energy of electrons to be recorded, which in turn is dependent on the application it is being used for; results are described for a wide range of electron energies ranging from 40 to 300 keV. The basic properties of detectors are discussed in terms of their modulation transfer function (MTF) and detective quantum efficiency (DQE) as a function of spatial frequency.

  18. Hugoniot Models for Na and LiF from LEOS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Whitley, Heather D. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Wu, Christine J. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2016-10-12

    In this document, we provide the Hugoniot for sodium from two models: LEOS table L110 and Lynx table 110. We also provide the Hugoniot for lithium fluoride from LEOS (L2240) and Lynx (2240). The Hugoniot pressures are supplied for temperatures between 338.0 and 1.16×109 Kelvin and densities between 0.968 and 11.5 g/cc. These LEOS models were developed by the quotidian EOS methodology, which is a widely used and robust method for producing tabular EOS data. Tables list the model data for LEOS 110, Lynx 110, LEOS 2240, and Lynx 2240. The Lynx models follow the same methodology as the LEOS models; however, the Purgatorio average-atom DFT code was used to compute the electron thermal part of the EOS. The models for Lynx are only listed at high compression due to known issues with the Lynx library at lower pressures.

  19. Electronic Aggression

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2007-11-20

    Aggression is no longer limited to the school yard. New forms of electronic media, such as blogs, instant messaging, chat rooms, email, text messaging, and the internet are providing new arenas for youth violence to occur.  Created: 11/20/2007 by National Center for Injury Prevention and Control, Division of Violence Prevention.   Date Released: 11/28/2007.

  20. Interacting Electrons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Richard M.; Reining, Lucia; Ceperley, David M.

    2016-06-01

    Preface; Part I. Interacting Electrons: Beyond the Independent-Particle Picture: 1. The many electron problem: introduction; 2. Signatures of electron correlation; 3. Concepts and models for interacting electrons; Part II. Foundations of Theory for Many-Body Systems: 4. Mean fields and auxiliary systems; 5. Correlation functions; 6. Many-body wavefunctions; 7. Particles and quasi-particles; 8. Functionals in many-particle physics; Part III. Many-Body Green's Function Methods: 9. Many-body perturbation theory: expansion in the interaction; 10. Many-body perturbation theory via functional derivatives; 11. The RPA and the GW approximation for the self-energy; 12. GWA calculations in practice; 13. GWA calculations: illustrative results; 14. RPA and beyond: the Bethe-Salpeter equation; 15. Beyond the GW approximation; 16. Dynamical mean field theory; 17. Beyond the single-site approximation in DMFT; 18. Solvers for embedded systems; 19. Characteristic hamiltonians for solids with d and f states; 20. Examples of calculations for solids with d and f states; 21. Combining Green's functions approaches: an outlook; Part IV. Stochastic Methods: 22. Introduction to stochastic methods; 23. Variational Monte Carlo; 24. Projector quantum Monte Carlo; 25. Path integral Monte Carlo; 26. Concluding remarks; Part V. Appendices: A. Second quantization; B. Pictures; C. Green's functions: general properties; D. Matsubara formulation for Green's functions for T ̸= 0; E. Time-ordering, contours, and non-equilibrium; F. Hedin's equations in a basis; G. Unique solutions in Green's function theory; H. Properties of functionals; I. Auxiliary systems and constrained search; J. Derivation of the Luttinger theorem; K. Gutzwiller and Hubbard approaches; References; Index.

  1. ELECTRON GUN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christofilos, N.C.; Ehlers, K.W.

    1960-04-01

    A pulsed electron gun capable of delivering pulses at voltages of the order of 1 mv and currents of the order of 100 amperes is described. The principal novelty resides in a transformer construction which is disposed in the same vacuum housing as the electron source and accelerating electrode structure of the gun to supply the accelerating potential thereto. The transformer is provided by a plurality of magnetic cores disposed in circumferentially spaced relation and having a plurality of primary windings each inductively coupled to a different one of the cores, and a helical secondary winding which is disposed coaxially of the cores and passes therethrough in circumferential succession. Additional novelty resides in the disposition of the electron source cathode filament input leads interiorly of the transformer secondary winding which is hollow, as well as in the employment of a half-wave filament supply which is synchronously operated with the transformer supply such that the transformer is pulsed during the zero current portions of the half-wave cycle.

  2. PCR screening of tick-borne agents in sensitive conservation areas, Southeast Portugal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos-Silva, Maria Margarida; Melo, Pedro; Santos, Nuno; Antunes, Sandra; Duarte, Luís Raposo; Ferrolho, Joana; Milhano, Natacha; Santos, Patrícia Tavares; Domingos, Ana; Santos, Ana Sofia

    2017-02-01

    The Southeast region of Portugal, particularly the Guadiana valley, is currently the reintroduction territory of Lynx pardinus (Iberian lynx), one of the most endangered felids in the world that is only found in the Iberian Peninsula. Over the last century, populations have declined, placing L. pardinus at extremely high risk of extinction in the wild and relying on reintroduction projects. Among the aspects taken into account in the establishment of new populations is the sanitary status of the selected habitats, especially concerning infectious diseases, including tick-borne pathogens (TBPs). This study presents the results of TBPs survey on ticks collected at sensitive conservation areas of Southeast Portugal. From 2012 to 2014, 231 ticks obtained from vegetation, sympatric domestic and wild animals were submitted for analysis. The presence of Babesia spp., Cytauxzoon spp., Theileria spp., Hepatozoon spp., Anaplasma spp., Ehrlichia spp., Candidatus Neoehrlichia mikurensis, among other Anaplasmataceae, and Coxiella burnetii were investigated by PCR. Six tick species were recorded, Dermacentor marginatus (n = 13/5.6%), Hyalomma lusitanicum (n = 175/75.8%), Ixodes ricinus (n = 4/1.7%), Rhipicephalus bursa (n = 7/3.0%), R. pusillus (n = 21/9.1%) and R. sanguineus sensu lato (n = 11/4.8%). The molecular screening confirmed the presence of two tick-borne pathogens, C. burnetii (N = 34) and Anaplasma platys (N = 1), and one tick-endosymbiont, Candidatus Midichloria mitochondrii (N = 45). The results obtained provide new information on the circulation of ticks and TBPs with potential veterinary importance in Iberian lynx habitat. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Basic electronics

    CERN Document Server

    Tayal, DC

    2010-01-01

    The second edition of this book incorporates the comments and suggestions of my friends and students who have critically studied the first edition. In this edition the changes and additions have been made and subject matter has been rearranged at some places. The purpose of this text is to provide a comprehensive and up-to-date study of the principles of operation of solid state devices, their basic circuits and application of these circuits to various electronic systems, so that it can serve as a standard text not only for universities and colleges but also for technical institutes. This book

  4. Electronic materials

    CERN Document Server

    Kwok, H L

    2010-01-01

    The electronic properties of solids have become of increasing importance in the age of information technology. The study of solids and materials, while having originated from the disciplines of physics and chemistry, has evolved independently over the past few decades. The classical treatment of solid-state physics, which emphasized classifications, theories and fundamental physical principles, is no longer able to bridge the gap between materials advances and applications. In particular, the more recent developments in device physics and technology have not necessarily been driven by new conc

  5. Electronic Router

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crusan, Jason

    2005-01-01

    Electronic Router (E-Router) is an application program for routing documents among the cognizant individuals in a government agency or other organization. E-Router supplants a prior 14 NASA Tech Briefs, May 2005 system in which paper documents were routed physically in packages by use of paper slips, packages could be lost, routing times were unacceptably long, tracking of packages was difficult, and there was a need for much photocopying. E-Router enables a user to create a digital package to be routed. Input accepted by E-Router includes the title of the package, the person(s) to whom the package is to be routed, attached files, and comments to reviewers. Electronic mail is used to notify reviewers of needed actions. The creator of the package can, at any time, see the status of the package in the routing structure. At the end of the routing process, E-Router keeps a record of the package and of approvals and/or concurrences of the reviewers. There are commercial programs that perform the general functions of E-Router, but they are more complicated. E-Router is Web-based, easy to use, and does not require the installation or use of client software.

  6. Practical electronics handbook

    CERN Document Server

    Sinclair, Ian R

    2013-01-01

    Practical Electronics Handbook, Third Edition provides the frequently used and highly applicable principles of electronics and electronic circuits.The book contains relevant information in electronics. The topics discussed in the text include passive and active discrete components; linear and digital I.C.s; microprocessors and microprocessor systems; digital-analogue conversions; computer aids in electronics design; and electronic hardware components.Electronic circuit constructors, service engineers, electronic design engineers, and anyone with an interest in electronics will find the book ve

  7. Caratterizzazione di presunte predazioni di lince (Lynx lynx in Friuli Venezia Giulia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonella Stravisi

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available Dal 1998 al giugno del 2003 sono state registrate in Friuli Venezia Giulia 38 predazioni attribuibili alla lince. Nel presente studio sono stati considerati solamente 23 casi, a carico di capriolo, cervo e capra attribuibili alla lince con un grado di sicurezza Q2 (segni indiretti rilevati da personale qualificato formato attraverso corsi specifici. Il capriolo è la specie più frequentemente predata (78% dei casi considerati e 90% di quelli su specie selvatiche. Il 94% dei caprioli predati sono femmine, da 1 a 4 anni. L?altitudine dei siti di predazione varia tra i 110 (Carso ed i 1320 m s.l.m. (Alpi Giulie in funzione della stagione (media=814, mentre l?altitudine media del totale delle segnalazioni (n=66 è stata di 827 m (min=105 m s.l.m., max=2000 m s.l.m.. Dalla valutazione necroscopica di 20 carcasse (15 caprioli, 2 cervi e 3 capre è risultato che gli animali vengono attaccati con morsi localizzati alla parte facciale della testa (regioni masseterina e temporo-mandibolare e alle regioni laterali e ventrali nella porzione craniale del collo. I morsi appaiono non laceranti, a margini netti e i fori dei canini di diametro 5 mm e distanza 25-30 mm. Per la valutazione del consumo della carcassa sono stati esclusi gli animali che non presentavano alcun consumo o con evidenti segni di alimentazione da parte di necrofagi e quelli ritrovati dopo più di 24 ore dal momento della morte. Il consumo medio è pari a 3.2 kg (n=11; d.s.=1,1 kg, corrispondenti al 15% dell'animale (d.s.=5%. È interessata prevalentemente la muscolatura degli arti posteriori (regione glutea e della coscia, consumata nel 100% dei casi e in media per il 36% (d.s.= 13% delle quote muscolari disponibili. La muscolatura della regione spalla-braccio e quella della parte facciale della testa (mm. massetere e, solo parzialmente, pterigoideo e digastrico sono consumate rispettivamente nel 18% (media consumo 23%, d.s.=11% e nel 27% dei casi (media consumo 43%, d.s.=12%. Per quanto riguarda i visceri, alcuni organi pelvici (apparato genitale femminile e retto sono consumati nel 18% dei casi, gli organi addominali e toracici non sono mai interessati. Raramente (9% dei casi vengono consumati alcuni organi cefalici (es. lingua ed esofago. Nel caso di predazioni attribuibili ad individui subadulti si osserva un frequente consumo di alcuni organi pelvici tra cui in particolare il retto e l?apparato riproduttore femminile. Eventuali feti e annessi fetali presenti non sono mai interessati. Il consumo della muscolatura cefalica e quello dei visceri pelvici sono correlati positivamente (r=0,85, emergono inoltre relazioni negative tra il consumo totale della regione glutea e della coscia e quello delle altre regioni anatomiche. I dati, in particolare quelli riferiti alla modalità e quantità del consumo carneo nelle prime 24 ore, appaiono coerenti con quelli riportati in bibliografia e ottenuti da studi di telemetria: 3,2-3,4 kg per notte (± 1,7 kg in funzione del sesso.

  8. LYNX: A Linked Eulerian and Lagrangian Code. Volume II. LYNX Computer Listing

    Science.gov (United States)

    1975-11-01

    KMI-X0H(J,KM)«OLTH-XiJ*l .KZ) YM»YPlJtKH!»DVI J,KH|- TDH ( j|KM)»CLTM-r ( J*l . X Z > TXX4-TAXCJ*liKZ) TYY1-TYYIJ*l»*L) TXY4-TAY1J*liKZ) IF...VCUCÜT WC X XON XMSS XPLRHX T TDH YPLRUN TVINT | 00101 00103 S 00107 00126 00132 00133 00134 00135 00136 00137 00140 00141...White Sands Missile Range New Mexico 88002 President US Army Infantry Board Fort Benning, GA 31905 1 HQDA (DAMA, LTC Shelton) Washington, DC 20310

  9. Electronic Preprints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanisch, R.

    1999-12-01

    Despite the tremendous advances in electronic publications and the increasing rapidity with which papers are now moving from acceptance into ``print,'' preprints continue to be an important mode of communication within the astronomy community. The Los Alamos e-preprint service, astro-ph, provides for rapid and cost-free (to authors and readers) dissemination of manuscripts. As the use of astro-ph has increased the number of paper preprints in circulation to libraries has decreased, and institutional preprint series appear to be waning. It is unfortunate, however, that astro-ph does not function in collaboration with the refereed publications. For example, there is no systematic tracking of manuscripts from preprint to their final, published form, and as a centralized archive it is difficult to distribute the tracking and maintenance functions. It retains documents that have been superseded or have become obsolete. We are currently developing a distributed preprint and document management system which can support both distributed collections of preprints (e.g., traditional institutional preprint series), can link to the LANL collections, can index other documents in the ``grey'' literature (observatory reports, telescope and instrument user's manuals, calls for proposals, etc.), and can function as a manuscript submission tool for the refereed journals. This system is being developed to work cooperatively with the refereed literature so that, for example, links to preprints are updated to links to the final published papers.

  10. Sustainable Management of Electronics

    Science.gov (United States)

    To provide information on EPAs strategy for electronics stewardship, certified electronics recyclers and the Challenge; as well as where to donate unwanted electronics, how to calculate benefits, and what's going on with electronics mgmt in their states.

  11. EDITORIAL: Synaptic electronics Synaptic electronics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demming, Anna; Gimzewski, James K.; Vuillaume, Dominique

    2013-09-01

    Conventional computers excel in logic and accurate scientific calculations but make hard work of open ended problems that human brains handle easily. Even von Neumann—the mathematician and polymath who first developed the programming architecture that forms the basis of today's computers—was already looking to the brain for future developments before his death in 1957 [1]. Neuromorphic computing uses approaches that better mimic the working of the human brain. Recent developments in nanotechnology are now providing structures with very accommodating properties for neuromorphic approaches. This special issue, with guest editors James K Gimzewski and Dominique Vuillaume, is devoted to research at the serendipitous interface between the two disciplines. 'Synaptic electronics', looks at artificial devices with connections that demonstrate behaviour similar to synapses in the nervous system allowing a new and more powerful approach to computing. Synapses and connecting neurons respond differently to incident signals depending on the history of signals previously experienced, ultimately leading to short term and long term memory behaviour. The basic characteristics of a synapse can be replicated with around ten simple transistors. However with the human brain having around 1011 neurons and 1015 synapses, artificial neurons and synapses from basic transistors are unlikely to accommodate the scalability required. The discovery of nanoscale elements that function as 'memristors' has provided a key tool for the implementation of synaptic connections [2]. Leon Chua first developed the concept of the 'The memristor—the missing circuit element' in 1971 [3]. In this special issue he presents a tutorial describing how memristor research has fed into our understanding of synaptic behaviour and how they can be applied in information processing [4]. He also describes, 'The new principle of local activity, which uncovers a minuscule life-enabling "Goldilocks zone", dubbed the

  12. Electronic Mimosa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Sanjay; Datta, Meera S.; Rana, Vivek; Grover, Shailesh

    1996-04-01

    This paper describes the design of a low-cost, 2D, electromagnetic tracking device for personal computers. This interface makes use of the well-known principle of electromagnetic induction to locate the position of a transmitter in an x-y plane. This device has a ring which is worn by the user on the index finger. The computer monitor is overlaid with a transparent screen equipped with tuned electromagnetic sensors. These sensors pick up the signals transmitted by the transmitter coil on the finger. The receiver circuit extracts the envelope of the received signal and digitizes it. These digitized values of x and y axis signals are read by the computer through the standard parallel port. The system software running on the computer calculates the x and y co-ordinates of the transmitter coil and displays a cursor at that location. The transmitter also has a button which can be used like a mouse button. This keypress information is also transmitted by the electromagnetic means. The device driver for this tracker replaces the standard mouse driver. Hence most applications which use a mouse can also use this tracker. Its name `Mimosa' indicates that the user need not touch the screen (Mimosa Pudica is the Latin name of a plant whose leaves wilt when touched). Presently work is on to achieve uniform sensitivity over the entire screen and reducing transmitter power consumption. In order to demonstrate its working, a small, 3D game was written. The player has to reach a pre-defined location after traversing through a maze. The paper describes the interface electronics, system software, mechanical design and the sample application.

  13. Carbon Nanotube Electron Gun

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Cattien V. (Inventor); Ribaya, Bryan P. (Inventor)

    2013-01-01

    An electron gun, an electron source for an electron gun, an extractor for an electron gun, and a respective method for producing the electron gun, the electron source and the extractor are disclosed. Embodiments provide an electron source utilizing a carbon nanotube (CNT) bonded to a substrate for increased stability, reliability, and durability. An extractor with an aperture in a conductive material is used to extract electrons from the electron source, where the aperture may substantially align with the CNT of the electron source when the extractor and electron source are mated to form the electron gun. The electron source and extractor may have alignment features for aligning the electron source and the extractor, thereby bringing the aperture and CNT into substantial alignment when assembled. The alignment features may provide and maintain this alignment during operation to improve the field emission characteristics and overall system stability of the electron gun.

  14. Nano-Electronics and Bio-Electronics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srivastava, Deepak; Kwak, Dochan (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Viewgraph presentation on Nano-Electronics and Bio-Electronics is discussed. Topics discussed include: NASA Ames nanotechnology program, Potential Carbon Nanotube (CNT) application, CNT synthesis,Computational Nanotechnology, and protein nanotubes.

  15. Electronics for LHC Experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2004-07-01

    This document gathers the abstracts of most presentations made at this workshop on electronics for the large hadron collider (LHC) experiments. The presentations were arranged into 6 sessions: 1) electronics for tracker, 2) trigger electronics, 3) detector control systems, 4) data acquisition, 5) electronics for calorimeters and electronics for muons, and 6) links, power systems, grounding and shielding, testing and quality assurance.

  16. Interface Electronic Circuitry for an Electronic Tongue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keymeulen, Didier; Buehler, Martin

    2007-01-01

    Electronic circuitry has been developed to serve as an interface between an electronic tongue and digital input/output boards in a laptop computer that is used to control the tongue and process its readings. Electronic tongues can be used for a variety of purposes, including evaluating water quality, analyzing biochemicals, analyzing biofilms, and measuring electrical conductivities of soils.

  17. Electron beam focusing system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dikansky, N.; Nagaitsev, S.; Parkhomchuk, V.

    1997-09-01

    The high energy electron cooling requires a very cold electron beam. Thus, the electron beam focusing system is very important for the performance of electron cooling. A system with and without longitudinal magnetic field is presented for discussion. Interaction of electron beam with the vacuum chamber as well as with the background ions and stored antiprotons can cause the coherent electron beam instabilities. Focusing system requirements needed to suppress these instabilities are presented.

  18. Electronics and Information

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    @@ Previously founded as CCPITMachinery and Electronics Sub-council and CCOIC Machinery and Electronics Chamber of Corn-merce in June, 1988, CCPIT Electronics Sub-Council and CCOIC Electronics Chamber of Commerce were established in May, 1993, and then renamed as CCPIT Electronics and Information Industry Sub-council and CCOIC Electronics and Infor-mation Industry Chamber of Commerce (CCPITECC) in September 1999.

  19. Electronic Correlations in Electron Transfer Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bulla, Ralf; Tornow, Sabine; Anders, Frithjof

    Electron transfer processes play a central role in many chemical and biological systems. Already the transfer of a single electron from the donor to the acceptor can be viewed as a complicated many-body problem, due to the coupling of the electron to the infinitely many environmental degrees of freedom, realized by density fluctuations of the solvent or molecular vibrations of the protein matrix. We focus on the quantum mechanical modelling of two-electron transfer processes whose dynamics is governed by the Coulomb interaction between the electrons as well as the environmental degrees of freedoms represented by a bosonic bath. We identify the regime of parameters in which concerted transfer of the two electrons occurs and discuss the influence of the Coulomb repulsion and the coupling strength to the environment on the electron transfer rate. Calculations are performed using the non-perturbative numerical renormalization group approach for both equilibrium and non-equilibrium properties.

  20. Electron Microscopy Center (EMC)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Electron Microscopy Center (EMC) at Argonne National Laboratory develops and maintains unique capabilities for electron beam characterization and applies those...

  1. Investigations on Electronic Materials

    OpenAIRE

    E. Pugnor; T. Kormány

    1982-01-01

    Electronics has been described as a materials oriented technology. In this sense a short review is given concerning: the connection of materials characterization to the design and processing of electronic components; the most important materials characterization methods used for electronic materials; the strategy of organizing a complete material characterization system for selected electronic components.

  2. Electron-attachment processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christophorou, L. G.; McCorkle, D. L.; Christodoulides, A. A.

    Topics covered include: modes of production of negative ions, techniques for the study of electron attachment processes, dissociative electron attachment to ground state molecules, dissociative electron attachment to hot molecules (effects of temperature on dissociative electron attachment), molecular parent negative ions, and negative ions formed by ion pair processes and by collisions of molecules with ground state and Rydberg atoms.

  3. Electronic Health Records

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Loss Surgery? A Week of Healthy Breakfasts Shyness Electronic Health Records KidsHealth > For Teens > Electronic Health Records Print A A A What's in ... t happen overnight, they are coming. Understanding EHRs Electronic health records (EHR) — also called electronic medical records ( ...

  4. Introduction to electronics

    CERN Document Server

    CERN. Geneva

    2005-01-01

    Electronics in HEP experiments: specificities and evolution The Art of Electronics: is there something beyond Ohm's law? Basic building blocks of Analog electronics: quickly understanding a schematic Charge preamps, current preamps and future preamps, shaping and the rest Electronics noise: fundamental and practical Evolution of technology: ASICs, FPGAs...

  5. Introduction to Electronics course

    CERN Document Server

    CERN. Geneva HR-RFA

    2006-01-01

    Electronics in HEP experiments: specificities and evolution The Art of Electronics: is there something beyond Ohm's law? Basic building blocks of Analog electronics: quickly understanding a schematic Charge preamps, current preamps and future preamps, shaping and the rest Electronics noise: fundamental and practical Evolution of technology: ASICs, FPGAs...

  6. Electronic Health Records

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Loss Surgery? A Week of Healthy Breakfasts Shyness Electronic Health Records KidsHealth > For Teens > Electronic Health Records A A A What's in this ... t happen overnight, they are coming. Understanding EHRs Electronic health records (EHR) — also called electronic medical records ( ...

  7. Introduction to Electronic Marketing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dilbeck, Lettie

    These materials for a five-unit course were developed to introduce secondary and postsecondary students to the use of electronic equipment in marketing. The units cover the following topics: electronic marketing as a valid marketing approach; telemarketing; radio electronic media marketing; television electronic media marketing; and cable TV…

  8. Hybrid printed electronics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koetse, M.; Smits, E.; Rubingh, E.; Teunissen, P.; Kusters, R.; Abbel, R.; Brand, J. van den

    2016-01-01

    Although many electronic functionalities can be realized by printed or organic electronics, short-term marketable products often require robust, reproducible, and nondisturbing technologies. In this chapter we show how hybrid electronics, a combination of printed circuitry, thin-film electronics,

  9. Electron transfer reactions

    CERN Document Server

    Cannon, R D

    2013-01-01

    Electron Transfer Reactions deals with the mechanisms of electron transfer reactions between metal ions in solution, as well as the electron exchange between atoms or molecules in either the gaseous or solid state. The book is divided into three parts. Part 1 covers the electron transfer between atoms and molecules in the gas state. Part 2 tackles the reaction paths of oxidation states and binuclear intermediates, as well as the mechanisms of electron transfer. Part 3 discusses the theories and models of the electron transfer process; theories and experiments involving bridged electron transfe

  10. Electronics engineer's reference book

    CERN Document Server

    Mazda, F F

    1989-01-01

    Electronics Engineer's Reference Book, Sixth Edition is a five-part book that begins with a synopsis of mathematical and electrical techniques used in the analysis of electronic systems. Part II covers physical phenomena, such as electricity, light, and radiation, often met with in electronic systems. Part III contains chapters on basic electronic components and materials, the building blocks of any electronic design. Part IV highlights electronic circuit design and instrumentation. The last part shows the application areas of electronics such as radar and computers.

  11. Practical microwave electron devices

    CERN Document Server

    Meurant, Gerard

    2013-01-01

    Practical Microwave Electron Devices provides an understanding of microwave electron devices and their applications. All areas of microwave electron devices are covered. These include microwave solid-state devices, including popular microwave transistors and both passive and active diodes; quantum electron devices; thermionic devices (including relativistic thermionic devices); and ferrimagnetic electron devices. The design of each of these devices is discussed as well as their applications, including oscillation, amplification, switching, modulation, demodulation, and parametric interactions.

  12. Electronics engineer's reference book

    CERN Document Server

    Turner, L W

    1976-01-01

    Electronics Engineer's Reference Book, 4th Edition is a reference book for electronic engineers that reviews the knowledge and techniques in electronics engineering and covers topics ranging from basics to materials and components, devices, circuits, measurements, and applications. This edition is comprised of 27 chapters; the first of which presents general information on electronics engineering, including terminology, mathematical equations, mathematical signs and symbols, and Greek alphabet and symbols. Attention then turns to the history of electronics; electromagnetic and nuclear radiatio

  13. Single electron-ics with carbon nanotubes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Götz, G.T.J.

    2010-01-01

    We experimentally investigate Quantum Dots, formed in Carbon Nanotubes. The first part of this thesis deals with charge sensing on such quantum dots. The charge sensor is a metallic Single-electron-transistor, sensitive to the charge of a single electron on the quantum dot. We use this technique for

  14. Electron-electron interactions in disordered systems

    CERN Document Server

    Efros, AL

    1985-01-01

    ``Electron-Electron Interactions in Disordered Systems'' deals with the interplay of disorder and the Coulomb interaction. Prominent experts give state-of-the-art reviews of the theoretical and experimental work in this field and make it clear that the interplay of the two effects is essential, especially in low-dimensional systems.

  15. VIRTUAL ELECTRONIC COMPONENTS OF THE ELECTRONIC EQUIPMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Lazarevich

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The article is present new idea of the creation, developments and improvements of the electronic equipment of complex systems by means of the virtual electronic components. The idea of the virtual electronic components is a presentation and perception of the creation and developments of the equipment on two forming: real – in the manner of standard marketed block of the intellectual property and image – in the manner of virtual component. The real component in most cases slows the development of the electronic equipment. The imaginary component is the «locomotive» of development of the electronic equipment. The Imaginary component contains the scientific has brushed against developer. The scientific has brushed against developer reveals of itself in the manner of virtual component on the modern level of the design rates of microelectronics.

  16. Electron transporting semiconducting polymers in organic electronics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Xingang; Zhan, Xiaowei

    2011-07-01

    Significant progress has been achieved in the preparation of semiconducting polymers over the past two decades, and successful commercial devices based on them are slowly beginning to enter the market. However, most of the conjugated polymers are hole transporting, or p-type, semiconductors that have seen a dramatic rise in performance over the last decade. Much less attention has been devoted to electron transporting, or n-type, materials that have lagged behind their p-type counterparts. Organic electron transporting materials are essential for the fabrication of organic p-n junctions, organic photovoltaic cells (OPVs), n-channel organic field-effect transistors (OFETs), organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs) and complementary logic circuits. In this critical review we focus upon recent developments in several classes of electron transporting semiconducting polymers used in OLEDs, OFETs and OPVs, and survey and analyze what is currently known concerning electron transporting semiconductor architecture, electronic structure, and device performance relationships (87 references).

  17. Electronics for dummies

    CERN Document Server

    Shamieh

    2015-01-01

    Explore the basic concepts of electronics, build your electronics workbench, and begin creating fun electronics projects right away! Electronics For Dummies, 3rd Edition is your guide to the world of electronics. Spanning circuitry, wiring, robotics, transmitters, amplifiers, and more, this book demystifies electricity basics and beyond. The third edition offers new content revised to reflect the latest advancements in the electronics field, and it offers full color project examples to spark your creativity and inspire you to put your new skills to use! Packed with projects that can be comple

  18. High energy electron cooling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parkhomchuk, V. [Budker Institute of Nuclear Physics, Novosibirsk (Russian Federation)

    1997-09-01

    High energy electron cooling requires a very cold electron beam. The questions of using electron cooling with and without a magnetic field are presented for discussion at this workshop. The electron cooling method was suggested by G. Budker in the middle sixties. The original idea of the electron cooling was published in 1966. The design activities for the NAP-M project was started in November 1971 and the first run using a proton beam occurred in September 1973. The first experiment with both electron and proton beams was started in May 1974. In this experiment good result was achieved very close to theoretical prediction for a usual two component plasma heat exchange.

  19. RHIC electron lenses upgrades

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gu, X. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States). Collider-Accelerator Dept.; Altinbas, Z. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States). Collider-Accelerator Dept.; Bruno, D. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States). Collider-Accelerator Dept.; Binello, S. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States). Collider-Accelerator Dept.; Costanzo, M. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States). Collider-Accelerator Dept.; Drees, A. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States). Collider-Accelerator Dept.; Fischer, W. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States). Collider-Accelerator Dept.; Gassner, D. M. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States). Collider-Accelerator Dept.; Hock, J. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States). Collider-Accelerator Dept.; Hock, K. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States). Collider-Accelerator Dept.; Harvey, M. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States). Collider-Accelerator Dept.; Luo, Y. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States). Collider-Accelerator Dept.; Marusic, A. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States). Collider-Accelerator Dept.; Mi, C. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States). Collider-Accelerator Dept.; Mernick, K. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States). Collider-Accelerator Dept.; Minty, M. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States). Collider-Accelerator Dept.; Michnoff, R. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States). Collider-Accelerator Dept.; Miller, T. A. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States). Collider-Accelerator Dept.; Pikin, A. I. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States). Collider-Accelerator Dept.; Robert-Demolaize, G. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States). Collider-Accelerator Dept.; Samms, T. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States). Collider-Accelerator Dept.; Shrey, T. C. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States). Collider-Accelerator Dept.; Schoefer, V. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States). Collider-Accelerator Dept.; Tan, Y. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States). Collider-Accelerator Dept.; Than, R. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States). Collider-Accelerator Dept.; Thieberger, P. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States). Collider-Accelerator Dept.; White, S. M. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States). Collider-Accelerator Dept.

    2015-05-03

    In the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) 100 GeV polarized proton run in 2015, two electron lenses were used to partially compensate for the head-on beam-beam effect for the first time. Here, we describe the design of the current electron lens, detailing the hardware modifications made after the 2014 commissioning run with heavy ions. A new electron gun with 15-mm diameter cathode is characterized. The electron beam transverse profile was measured using a YAG screen and fitted with a Gaussian distribution. During operation, the overlap of the electron and proton beams was achieved using the electron backscattering detector in conjunction with an automated orbit control program.

  20. Electronic Commerce and Competitive Procurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-06-01

    Explains the application of electronic commerce techniques (electronic data interchange (EDI), electronic mail (E-mail), electronic bulletin boards...purchase procedures of the Federal Acquisition Regulation (FAR). Changes to the FAR to recognize electronic commerce are recommended. Also discussed...are opportunities to use electronic commerce and small business and legal considerations of electronic commerce . This report describes how electronic

  1. Certified Electronics Recyclers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Learn how EPA encourages all electronics recyclers become certified by demonstrating to an accredited, independent third-party auditor and that they meet specific standards to safely recycle and manage electronics.

  2. Chapter 9: Electronics

    OpenAIRE

    Spieler, Helmuth G

    2008-01-01

    Sophisticated front-end electronics are a key part of practically all modern radiation detector systems. This chapter introduces the basic principles and their implementation. Topics include signal acquisition, electronic noise, pulse shaping (analog and digital), and data readout techniques.

  3. Chapter 9: Electronics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grupen, Claus; Shwartz, Boris A.

    2006-12-19

    Sophisticated front-end electronics are a key part of practically all modern radiation detector systems. This chapter introduces the basic principles and their implementation. Topics include signal acquisition, electronic noise, pulse shaping (analog and digital), and data readout techniques.

  4. Presidential Electronic Records Library

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Archives and Records Administration — PERL (Presidential Electronic Records Library) used to ingest and provide internal access to the Presidential electronic Records of the Reagan, Bush, and Clinton...

  5. THE ELECTRONIC SIGNATURE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Voiculescu Madalina Irena

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Article refers to significance and the digital signature in electronic commerce. Internet and electronic commerce open up many new opportunities for the consumer, yet, the security (or perceived lack of security of exchanging personal and financial data

  6. Electronic Submission of Labels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pesticide registrants can provide draft and final labels to EPA electronically for our review as part of the pesticide registration process. The electronic submission of labels by registrants is voluntary but strongly encouraged.

  7. Chapter 9: Electronics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grupen, Claus; Shwartz, Boris A.

    2006-12-19

    Sophisticated front-end electronics are a key part of practically all modern radiation detector systems. This chapter introduces the basic principles and their implementation. Topics include signal acquisition, electronic noise, pulse shaping (analog and digital), and data readout techniques.

  8. Laboratory Handbook Electronics

    CERN Multimedia

    1966-01-01

    Laboratory manual 1966 format A3 with the list of equipment cables, electronic tubes, chassis, diodes transistors etc. One of CERN's first material catalogue for construction components for mechanical and electronic chassis.

  9. Electron shuttles in biotechnology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Kazuya; Manefield, Mike; Lee, Matthew; Kouzuma, Atsushi

    2009-12-01

    Electron-shuttling compounds (electron shuttles [ESs], or redox mediators) are essential components in intracellular electron transfer, while microbes also utilize self-produced and naturally present ESs for extracellular electron transfer. These compounds assist in microbial energy metabolism by facilitating electron transfer between microbes, from electron-donating substances to microbes, and/or from microbes to electron-accepting substances. Artificially supplemented ESs can create new routes of electron flow in the microbial energy metabolism, thereby opening up new possibilities for the application of microbes to biotechnology processes. Typical examples of such processes include halogenated-organics bioremediation, azo-dye decolorization, and microbial fuel cells. Herein we suggest that ESs can be applied widely to create new microbial biotechnology processes.

  10. Electronics materials research

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-01-01

    The electronic materials and is aimed at the establishment of quantitative relationships underlying crystal growth parameters, materials properties, electronic characteristics and device applications. The overall program evolves about the following main thrust areas: (1) crystal growth novel approaches to engineering of semiconductor materials; (2) investigation of materials properties and electronic characteristics on a macro and microscale; (3) surface properties and surface interactions with the bulk and ambients; (4) electronic properties controlling device applications and device performance.

  11. Thermography of electronic devices

    OpenAIRE

    Panfilova S. P.; Vlasov A. I.; Gridnev V. N.; Chervinsky A. S.

    2007-01-01

    The possibility of application of thermography to diagnose the electronic devices is analyzed in the article. Typical faults of electronic devices which can be found by means of thermography are given. Advantages of noncontact thermal inspection in comparison with the contact one are described. Some features of thermography of electronic devices are considered. Thermography apparatus is viewed and some pieces of advice about choosing it for electronic devices diagnosis are given. An example o...

  12. Electronics and computer acronyms

    CERN Document Server

    Brown, Phil

    1988-01-01

    Electronics and Computer Acronyms presents a list of almost 2,500 acronyms related to electronics and computers. The material for this book is drawn from a number of subject areas, including electrical, electronics, computers, telecommunications, fiber optics, microcomputers/microprocessors, audio, video, and information technology. The acronyms also encompass avionics, military, data processing, instrumentation, units, measurement, standards, services, organizations, associations, and companies. This dictionary offers a comprehensive and broad view of electronics and all that is associated wi

  13. Extreme environment electronics

    CERN Document Server

    Cressler, John D

    2012-01-01

    Unfriendly to conventional electronic devices, circuits, and systems, extreme environments represent a serious challenge to designers and mission architects. The first truly comprehensive guide to this specialized field, Extreme Environment Electronics explains the essential aspects of designing and using devices, circuits, and electronic systems intended to operate in extreme environments, including across wide temperature ranges and in radiation-intense scenarios such as space. The Definitive Guide to Extreme Environment Electronics Featuring contributions by some of the world's foremost exp

  14. Mechanical Engineering for Electronics.

    OpenAIRE

    Was, Loïc

    2012-01-01

    Schlumberger drilling tools are exposed to very hard loading conditions (shocks, vibrations, thermal cycling) while performing a job. As these tools are full of electronics, issues can quickly come from electronics failure. Mechanisms of failure occurring in electronics are very complex but can be predicted in some cases. The first part of the thesis describes in which context mechanical engineering applied to electronics is used in Schlumberger. The different kinds of failure which will be i...

  15. Handbook on electronic commerce

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shaw, M. [Illinois Univ., Urbana, IL (United States). Beckman Inst. for Advanced Science and Technology; Blanning, R. [Vanderbilt Univ., Nashville, TN (United States). Owen Graduate School of Management; Strader, T. [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States). Management Information Systems; Whinston, A. [eds.] [Texas Univ., Austin, TX (United States). Dept. of Management Science and Information Systems

    2000-07-01

    The world is undergoing a revolution to a digital economy, with pronounced implications for corporate strategy, marketing, operations, information systems, customer services, global supply-chain management, and product distribution. This handbook examines the aspects of electronic commerce, including electronic storefront, on-line business, consumer interface, business-to-business networking, digital payment, legal issues, information product development, and electronic business models. Indispensable for academics, students and professionals who are interested in Electronic Commerce and Internet Business. (orig.)

  16. Atomicity in Electronic Commerce,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1996-01-01

    tremendous demand for the ability to electronically buy and sell goods over networks. Electronic commerce has inspired a large variety of work... commerce . It then briefly surveys some major types of electronic commerce pointing out flaws in atomicity. We pay special attention to the atomicity...problems of proposals for digital cash. The paper presents two examples of highly atomic electronic commerce systems: NetBill and Cryptographic Postage Indicia.

  17. Syringe-injectable electronics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jia; Fu, Tian-Ming; Cheng, Zengguang; Hong, Guosong; Zhou, Tao; Jin, Lihua; Duvvuri, Madhavi; Jiang, Zhe; Kruskal, Peter; Xie, Chong; Suo, Zhigang; Fang, Ying; Lieber, Charles M

    2015-07-01

    Seamless and minimally invasive three-dimensional interpenetration of electronics within artificial or natural structures could allow for continuous monitoring and manipulation of their properties. Flexible electronics provide a means for conforming electronics to non-planar surfaces, yet targeted delivery of flexible electronics to internal regions remains difficult. Here, we overcome this challenge by demonstrating the syringe injection (and subsequent unfolding) of sub-micrometre-thick, centimetre-scale macroporous mesh electronics through needles with a diameter as small as 100 μm. Our results show that electronic components can be injected into man-made and biological cavities, as well as dense gels and tissue, with >90% device yield. We demonstrate several applications of syringe-injectable electronics as a general approach for interpenetrating flexible electronics with three-dimensional structures, including (1) monitoring internal mechanical strains in polymer cavities, (2) tight integration and low chronic immunoreactivity with several distinct regions of the brain, and (3) in vivo multiplexed neural recording. Moreover, syringe injection enables the delivery of flexible electronics through a rigid shell, the delivery of large-volume flexible electronics that can fill internal cavities, and co-injection of electronics with other materials into host structures, opening up unique applications for flexible electronics.

  18. Technology of Electronic Signatur

    OpenAIRE

    2004-01-01

    An electronic signature uses a hash of message and an asymetrical algorithm of encryption for its generation. During verification of message on receiver side the hash of original message must be identical with the hash of received message. Electronic message is secured autentization of author and integrity of transmission date. By electronic signature it is possible to sign everything what is in digital form.

  19. ELECTRONS IN NONPOLAR LIQUIDS.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    HOLROYD,R.A.

    2002-10-22

    Excess electrons can be introduced into liquids by absorption of high energy radiation, by photoionization, or by photoinjection from metal surfaces. The electron's chemical and physical properties can then be measured, but this requires that the electrons remain free. That is, the liquid must be sufficiently free of electron attaching impurities for these studies. The drift mobility as well as other transport properties of the electron are discussed here as well as electron reactions, free-ion yields and energy levels, Ionization processes typically produce electrons with excess kinetic energy. In liquids during thermalization, where this excess energy is lost to bath molecules, the electrons travel some distance from their geminate positive ions. In general the electrons at this point are still within the coulombic field of their geminate ions and a large fraction of the electrons recombine. However, some electrons escape recombination and the yield that escapes to become free electrons and ions is termed G{sub fi}. Reported values of G{sub fi} for molecular liquids range from 0.05 to 1.1 per 100 eV of energy absorbed. The reasons for this 20-fold range of yields are discussed here.

  20. Syringe injectable electronics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Guosong; Zhou, Tao; Jin, Lihua; Duvvuri, Madhavi; Jiang, Zhe; Kruskal, Peter; Xie, Chong; Suo, Zhigang; Fang, Ying; Lieber, Charles M.

    2015-01-01

    Seamless and minimally-invasive three-dimensional (3D) interpenetration of electronics within artificial or natural structures could allow for continuous monitoring and manipulation of their properties. Flexible electronics provide a means for conforming electronics to non-planar surfaces, yet targeted delivery of flexible electronics to internal regions remains difficult. Here, we overcome this challenge by demonstrating syringe injection and subsequent unfolding of submicrometer-thick, centimeter-scale macroporous mesh electronics through needles with a diameter as small as 100 micrometers. Our results show that electronic components can be injected into man-made and biological cavities, as well as dense gels and tissue, with > 90% device yield. We demonstrate several applications of syringe injectable electronics as a general approach for interpenetrating flexible electronics with 3D structures, including (i) monitoring of internal mechanical strains in polymer cavities, (ii) tight integration and low chronic immunoreactivity with several distinct regions of the brain, and (iii) in vivo multiplexed neural recording. Moreover, syringe injection enables delivery of flexible electronics through a rigid shell, delivery of large volume flexible electronics that can fill internal cavities and co-injection of electronics with other materials into host structures, opening up unique applications for flexible electronics. PMID:26053995

  1. Arduino electronics blueprints

    CERN Document Server

    Wilcher, Don

    2015-01-01

    This book is intended for those who want to learn about electronics and coding by building amazing devices and gadgets with Arduino. If you are an experienced developer who understands the basics of electronics, then you can quickly learn how to build smart devices using Arduino. The only experience needed is a desire to learn about electronics, circuit breadboarding, and coding.

  2. Electron measurement in PHENIX

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akiba, Y. [Univ. of Tokyo, Tanashi (Japan)

    1995-07-15

    Electron Measurement in PHENIX detector at RHIC is discussed. The yield and S/N ratio at vector meson peaks ({phi}, {omega}, {rho}{sup o}, and J/{psi}) are evaluated. The electrons from open charm decay, and its consequence to the di-electron measurements is discussed.

  3. EFFECTIVE ELECTRONIC TUTORIAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrei A. Fedoseev

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The article analyzes effective electronic tutorials creation and application based on the theory of pedagogy. Herewith the issues of necessary electronic tutorial functional, ways of the educational process organization with the use of information and communication technologies and the logistics of electronic educational resources are touched upon. 

  4. Polarized Electron Source Developments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Charles K. Sinclair

    1990-02-23

    Presently, only two methods of producing beams of polarized electrons for injection into linear accelerators are in use. Each of these methods uses optical pumping by circularly polarized light to produce electron polarization. In one case, electron polarization is established in metastable helium atoms, while in the other case, the polarized electrons are produced in the conduction band of appropriate semiconductors. The polarized electrons are liberated from the helium metastable by chemi-ionization, and from the semiconductors by lowering the work function at the surface of the material. Developments with each of these sources since the 1988 Spin Physics Conference are reviewed, and the prospects for further improvements discussed.

  5. Soldering in electronics assembly

    CERN Document Server

    Judd, Mike

    2013-01-01

    Soldering in Electronics Assembly discusses several concerns in soldering of electronic assemblies. The book is comprised of nine chapters that tackle different areas in electronic assembly soldering. Chapter 1 discusses the soldering process itself, while Chapter 2 covers the electronic assemblies. Chapter 3 talks about solders and Chapter 4 deals with flux. The text also tackles the CS and SC soldering process. The cleaning of soldered assemblies, solder quality, and standards and specifications are also discussed. The book will be of great use to professionals who deal with electronic assem

  6. Ultracold Ordered Electron Beam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habs, D.; Kramp, J.; Krause, P.; Matl, K.; Neumann, R.; Schwalm, D.

    1988-01-01

    We have started an experimental program to develop an ultracold electron beam, which can be used together with a standard electron cooling device in the Heidelberg Test Storage Ring TSR. In contrast to the standard-type design using electron beam extraction from a heated cathode, the ultracold beam is produced by photoemission of electrons from a cooled semiconductor crystal irradiated with an intense near-infrared laser light beam. Adiabatic acceleration is expected to provide ordering of the electron beam itself. Besides the cooling of ion beams to extremely low temperatures, with the aim of obtaining crystallization, the ultracold beam will constitute an excellent target for atomic physics experiments.

  7. Ultracold ordered electron beam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Habs, D.; Kramp, J.; Krause, P.; Matl, K.; Neumann, R.; Schwalm, D.

    1988-01-01

    We have started an experimental program to develop an ultracold electron beam, which can be used together with a standard electron cooling device in the Heidelberg Test Storage Ring TSR. In contrast to the standard-type design using electron beam extraction beam extraction from a heated cathode, the ultracold beam is produced by photoemission of electrons from a cooled semiconductor crystal irradiated with an intense near-infrared laser light beam. Adiabatic acceleration is expected to provide ordering of the electron beam itself. Besides the cooling of ion beams to extremely low temperatures, with the aim of obtaining crystallization, the ultracold beam will constitute an excellent target for atomic physics experiments.

  8. Electronic equipment packaging technology

    CERN Document Server

    Ginsberg, Gerald L

    1992-01-01

    The last twenty years have seen major advances in the electronics industry. Perhaps the most significant aspect of these advances has been the significant role that electronic equipment plays in almost all product markets. Even though electronic equipment is used in a broad base of applications, many future applications have yet to be conceived. This versatility of electron­ ics has been brought about primarily by the significant advances that have been made in integrated circuit technology. The electronic product user is rarely aware of the integrated circuits within the equipment. However, the user is often very aware of the size, weight, mod­ ularity, maintainability, aesthetics, and human interface features of the product. In fact, these are aspects of the products that often are instrumental in deter­ mining its success or failure in the marketplace. Optimizing these and other product features is the primary role of Electronic Equipment Packaging Technology. As the electronics industry continues to pr...

  9. Advanced adhesives in electronics

    CERN Document Server

    Bailey, C

    2011-01-01

    Adhesives are widely used in the manufacture of electronic devices to act as passive and active components. Recently there has been considerable interest in the use of conductive adhesives. This book reviews key types of conductive adhesives, processing methods, properties and the way they can be modelled as well as potential applications.$bAdhesives for electronic applications serve important functional and structural purposes in electronic components and packaging, and have developed significantly over the last few decades. Advanced adhesives in electronics reviews recent developments in adhesive joining technology, processing and properties. The book opens with an introduction to adhesive joining technology for electronics. Part one goes on to cover different types of adhesive used in electronic systems, including thermally conductive adhesives, isotropic and anisotropic conductive adhesives and underfill adhesives for flip-chip applications. Part two focuses on the properties and processing of electronic ...

  10. Electron crystallography and aquaporins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schenk, Andreas D; Hite, Richard K; Engel, Andreas; Fujiyoshi, Yoshinori; Walz, Thomas

    2010-01-01

    Electron crystallography of two-dimensional (2D) crystals can provide information on the structure of membrane proteins at near-atomic resolution. Originally developed and used to determine the structure of bacteriorhodopsin (bR), electron crystallography has recently been applied to elucidate the structure of aquaporins (AQPs), a family of membrane proteins that form pores mostly for water but also other solutes. While electron crystallography has made major contributions to our understanding of the structure and function of AQPs, structural studies on AQPs, in turn, have fostered a number of technical developments in electron crystallography. In this contribution, we summarize the insights electron crystallography has provided into the biology of AQPs, and describe technical advancements in electron crystallography that were driven by structural studies on AQP 2D crystals. In addition, we discuss some of the lessons that were learned from electron crystallographic work on AQPs.

  11. Automotive electronics design fundamentals

    CERN Document Server

    Zaman, Najamuz

    2015-01-01

    This book explains the topology behind automotive electronics architectures and examines how they can be profoundly augmented with embedded controllers. These controllers serve as the core building blocks of today’s vehicle electronics. Rather than simply teaching electrical basics, this unique resource focuses on the fundamental concepts of vehicle electronics architecture, and details the wide variety of Electronic Control Modules (ECMs) that enable the increasingly sophisticated "bells & whistles" of modern designs.  A must-have for automotive design engineers, technicians working in automotive electronics repair centers and students taking automotive electronics courses, this guide bridges the gap between academic instruction and industry practice with clear, concise advice on how to design and optimize automotive electronics with embedded controllers.

  12. Medan Electronic Mall Arsitektur Ikonik

    OpenAIRE

    David,, A.

    2014-01-01

    With present the Medan Electronic Mall is intended to meet the needs of electronic goods from electronic of communication, Office Electronics, Household Electronics, Hobbies or electronic game, Medan Electronic Mall also hosts for the people of North Sumatra Province especially for people of Medan City to get particular information will be the development of electronic goods and also enjoy all kinds of things related to electronics such as Game Center, Cyber/Virtual Game, Internet...

  13. Engineered phages for electronics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Yue

    2016-11-15

    Phages are traditionally widely studied in biology and chemistry. In recent years, engineered phages have attracted significant attentions for functionalization or construction of electronic devices, due to their specific binding, catalytic, nucleating or electronic properties. To apply the engineered phages in electronics, these are a number of interesting questions: how to engineer phages for electronics? How are the engineered phages characterized? How to assemble materials with engineered phages? How are the engineered phages micro or nanopatterned? What are the strategies to construct electronics devices with engineered phages? This review will highlight the early attempts to address these questions and explore the fundamental and practical aspects of engineered phages in electronics, including the approaches for selection or expression of specific peptides on phage coat proteins, characterization of engineered phages in electronics, assembly of electronic materials, patterning of engineered phages, and construction of electronic devices. It provides the methodologies and opens up ex-cit-ing op-por-tu-ni-ties for the development of a variety of new electronic materials and devices based on engineered phages for future applications.

  14. Scanning ultrafast electron microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Ding-Shyue; Mohammed, Omar F; Zewail, Ahmed H

    2010-08-24

    Progress has been made in the development of four-dimensional ultrafast electron microscopy, which enables space-time imaging of structural dynamics in the condensed phase. In ultrafast electron microscopy, the electrons are accelerated, typically to 200 keV, and the microscope operates in the transmission mode. Here, we report the development of scanning ultrafast electron microscopy using a field-emission-source configuration. Scanning of pulses is made in the single-electron mode, for which the pulse contains at most one or a few electrons, thus achieving imaging without the space-charge effect between electrons, and still in ten(s) of seconds. For imaging, the secondary electrons from surface structures are detected, as demonstrated here for material surfaces and biological specimens. By recording backscattered electrons, diffraction patterns from single crystals were also obtained. Scanning pulsed-electron microscopy with the acquired spatiotemporal resolutions, and its efficient heat-dissipation feature, is now poised to provide in situ 4D imaging and with environmental capability.

  15. Scanning ultrafast electron microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Ding-Shyue; Mohammed, Omar F.; Zewail, Ahmed H.

    2010-01-01

    Progress has been made in the development of four-dimensional ultrafast electron microscopy, which enables space-time imaging of structural dynamics in the condensed phase. In ultrafast electron microscopy, the electrons are accelerated, typically to 200 keV, and the microscope operates in the transmission mode. Here, we report the development of scanning ultrafast electron microscopy using a field-emission-source configuration. Scanning of pulses is made in the single-electron mode, for which the pulse contains at most one or a few electrons, thus achieving imaging without the space-charge effect between electrons, and still in ten(s) of seconds. For imaging, the secondary electrons from surface structures are detected, as demonstrated here for material surfaces and biological specimens. By recording backscattered electrons, diffraction patterns from single crystals were also obtained. Scanning pulsed-electron microscopy with the acquired spatiotemporal resolutions, and its efficient heat-dissipation feature, is now poised to provide in situ 4D imaging and with environmental capability. PMID:20696933

  16. Metamaterials for Ballistic Electrons

    CERN Document Server

    Dragoman, D; Dragoman, Daniela; Dragoman, Mircea

    2007-01-01

    The paper presents a metamaterial for ballistic electrons, which consists of a quantum barrier formed in a semiconductor with negative effective electron mass. This barrier is the analogue of a metamaterial for electromagnetic waves in media with negative electrical permittivity and magnetic permeability. Besides applications similar to those of optical metamaterials, a nanosized slab of a metamaterial for ballistic electrons, sandwiched between quantum wells of positive effective mass materials, reveals unexpected conduction properties, e.g. single or multiple room temperature negative differential conductance regions at very low voltages and with considerable peak-to-valley ratios, while the traversal time of ballistic electrons can be tuned to larger or smaller values than in the absence of the metamaterial slab. Thus, slow and fast electrons, analogous to slow and fast light, occur in metamaterials for ballistic electrons.

  17. Electrons in Nanostructures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Flindt, Christian

    2007-01-01

    or a few electrons. Such few-electron devices are expected to form the building blocks of future electrical circuits and it is thus necessary to develop a thorough theoretical understanding of the physics of electrons in nanostructures. Re- garding applications there is a particular interest......-based communication. The statistical description of electron transport through nanostructures is based on rate equations, and the primary contribution of the thesis in that respect is the development of a method that allows for the calculation of the distribution of electrons passing through a device. The method......This thesis concerns theoretical aspects of electrons in man-made nanostruc- tures. Advances in nanofabrication technology during recent decades have made it possible to produce electrical devices on the nano-scale, whose func- tionality is determined by the quantum mechanical nature of a single...

  18. Single electron spintronics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dempsey, Kari J; Ciudad, David; Marrows, Christopher H

    2011-08-13

    Single electron electronics is now well developed, and allows the manipulation of electrons one-by-one as they tunnel on and off a nanoscale conducting island. In the past decade or so, there have been concerted efforts in several laboratories to construct single electron devices incorporating ferromagnetic components in order to introduce spin functionality. The use of ferromagnetic electrodes with a non-magnetic island can lead to spin accumulation on the island. On the other hand, making the dot also ferromagnetic introduces new physics such as tunnelling magnetoresistance enhancement in the cotunnelling regime and manifestations of the Kondo effect. Such nanoscale islands are also found to have long spin lifetimes. Conventional spintronics makes use of the average spin-polarization of a large ensemble of electrons: this new approach offers the prospect of accessing the quantum properties of the electron, and is a candidate approach to the construction of solid-state spin-based qubits.

  19. Electron transfer in proteins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Farver, O; Pecht, I

    1991-01-01

    Electron migration between and within proteins is one of the most prevalent forms of biological energy conversion processes. Electron transfer reactions take place between active centers such as transition metal ions or organic cofactors over considerable distances at fast rates and with remarkable...... specificity. The electron transfer is attained through weak electronic interaction between the active sites, so that considerable research efforts are centered on resolving the factors that control the rates of long-distance electron transfer reactions in proteins. These factors include (in addition......-containing proteins. These proteins serve almost exclusively in electron transfer reactions, and as it turns out, their metal coordination sites are endowed with properties uniquely optimized for their function....

  20. Nanocrystals for electronics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panthani, Matthew G; Korgel, Brian A

    2012-01-01

    Semiconductor nanocrystals are promising materials for low-cost large-area electronic device fabrication. They can be synthesized with a wide variety of chemical compositions and size-tunable optical and electronic properties as well as dispersed in solvents for room-temperature deposition using various types of printing processes. This review addresses research progress in large-area electronic device applications using nanocrystal-based electrically active thin films, including thin-film transistors, light-emitting diodes, photovoltaics, and thermoelectrics.

  1. Technology of Electronic Signatur

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaroslav Sadovsky

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available An electronic signature uses a hash of message and an asymetrical algorithm of encryption for its generation. During verification of message on receiver side the hash of original message must be identical with the hash of received message. Electronic message is secured autentization of author and integrity of transmission date. By electronic signature it is possible to sign everything what is in digital form.

  2. Modern electronic materials

    CERN Document Server

    Watkins, John B

    2013-01-01

    Modern Electronic Materials focuses on the development of electronic components. The book first discusses the history of electronic components, including early developments up to 1900, developments up to World War II, post-war developments, and a comparison of present microelectric techniques. The text takes a look at resistive materials. Topics include resistor requirements, basic properties, evaporated film resistors, thick film resistors, and special resistors. The text examines dielectric materials. Considerations include basic properties, evaporated dielectric materials, ceramic dielectri

  3. Field emission electron source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zettl, Alexander Karlwalter; Cohen, Marvin Lou

    2000-01-01

    A novel field emitter material, field emission electron source, and commercially feasible fabrication method is described. The inventive field emission electron source produces reliable electron currents of up to 400 mA/cm.sup.2 at 200 volts. The emitter is robust and the current it produces is not sensitive to variability of vacuum or the distance between the emitter tip and the cathode. The novel emitter has a sharp turn-on near 100 volts.

  4. Introduction to electronics

    CERN Document Server

    Korneff, Theodore

    1966-01-01

    Introduction to Electronics focuses on the study of electronics and electronic devices. Composed of 14 chapters, the book starts with discussions on dc circuits, including resistance, voltmeter, ammeter, galvanometer, internal resistance, and positive and negative currents. This topic is followed by discussions on ac circuits, particularly addressing voltage and current, average power, resistive load, complex plane, and parallel circuits. Discussions also focus on filters and tuned circuits, diodes, and power supplies. Particularly given attention are the processes, diagrams, and analyses

  5. ETHICS AND ELECTRONIC VOTING

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    13 pages; International audience; In the first part, we will define the main properties of a democratic election, providing a typology of electronic devices and give a view on some legal documents pertaining to the matter. In the second part, the ethics of voting will be evaluated: our methodology is detailed, followed by an examination of pure paper-based elections, paperless electronic voting and verifiable electronic voting. The new concept of legally operative transparency is defined and ...

  6. Electronic collection management

    CERN Document Server

    Mcginnis, Suzan D

    2013-01-01

    Build and manage your collection of digital resources with these successful strategies! This comprehensive volume is a practical guide to the art and science of acquiring and organizing electronic resources. The collections discussed here range in size from small college libraries to large research libraries, but all are facing similar problems: shrinking budgets, increasing demands, and rapidly shifting formats. Electronic Collection Management offers new ideas for coping with these issues. Bringing together diverse aspects of collection development, Electronic Collection

  7. Introduction to printed electronics

    CERN Document Server

    Suganuma, Katsuaki

    2014-01-01

    This book describes in detail modern technologies for printed electronics, explaining how nanotechnology and modern printing technology are merging to revolutionize electronics fabrication of thin, lightweight, large, and inexpensive products. Readers will benefit from the explanations of materials, devices and circuits used to design and implement the latest applications of printed electronics, such as thin flexible OLED displays, organic solar cells, OLED lighting, smart wallpaper, sensors, logic, memory and more.

  8. Electronic signal conditioning

    CERN Document Server

    NEWBY, BRUCE

    1994-01-01

    At technician level, brief references to signal conditioning crop up in a fragmented way in various textbooks, but there has been no single textbook, until now!More advanced texts do exist but they are more mathematical and presuppose a higher level of understanding of electronics and statistics. Electronic Signal Conditioning is designed for HNC/D students and City & Guilds Electronics Servicing 2240 Parts 2 & 3. It will also be useful for BTEC National, Advanced GNVQ, A-level electronics and introductory courses at degree level.

  9. Flying Electronic Warfare Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — FUNCTION: Provides NP-3D aircraft host platforms for Effectiveness of Navy Electronic Warfare Systems (ENEWS) Program antiship missile (ASM) seeker simulators used...

  10. Smart Electronic Textiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weng, Wei; Chen, Peining; He, Sisi; Sun, Xuemei; Peng, Huisheng

    2016-05-17

    This Review describes the state-of-the-art of wearable electronics (smart textiles). The unique and promising advantages of smart electronic textiles are highlighted by comparing them with the conventional planar counterparts. The main kinds of smart electronic textiles based on different functionalities, namely the generation, storage, and utilization of electricity, are then discussed with an emphasis on the use of functional materials. The remaining challenges are summarized together with important new directions to provide some useful clues for the future development of smart electronic textiles.

  11. Electronic Wallets in Danger

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-Michel Sahut

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available The erratic development of electronic wallets (EW illustrates thedifficulties of their adoption by the general public and shopkeepersalike. With exceptions, such as Proton in Europe and Octopus in Asia,a lot of electronic wallets are likely to disappear in the next fewyears. Yet the key factors of success are known by banks which oftenchoose to ignore them. However, the strategic change taken by some inorder to bring a fresh start to electronic wallets like Moneo couldreverse the tendency. Nevertheless, it will still be necessary to waitseveral years before seeing electronic wallets really imposethemselves as a credible alternative to payments in cash.

  12. Analytical Electron Microscope

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Titan 80-300 is a transmission electron microscope (TEM) equipped with spectroscopic detectors to allow chemical, elemental, and other analytical measurements to...

  13. Fundamentals of electronics

    CERN Document Server

    Schubert, Thomas F

    2015-01-01

    This book, Electronic Devices and Circuit Application, is the first of four books of a larger work, Fundamentals of Electronics. It is comprised of four chapters describing the basic operation of each of the four fundamental building blocks of modern electronics: operational amplifiers, semiconductor diodes, bipolar junction transistors, and field effect transistors. Attention is focused on the reader obtaining a clear understanding of each of the devices when it is operated in equilibrium. Ideas fundamental to the study of electronic circuits are also developed in the book at a basic level to

  14. High-power electronics

    CERN Document Server

    Kapitsa, Petr Leonidovich

    1966-01-01

    High-Power Electronics, Volume 2 presents the electronic processes in devices of the magnetron type and electromagnetic oscillations in different systems. This book explores the problems of electronic energetics.Organized into 11 chapters, this volume begins with an overview of the motion of electrons in a flat model of the magnetron, taking into account the in-phase wave and the reverse wave. This text then examines the processes of transmission of electromagnetic waves of various polarization and the wave reflection from grids made of periodically distributed infinite metal conductors. Other

  15. Electron correlation in molecules

    CERN Document Server

    Wilson, S

    2007-01-01

    Electron correlation effects are of vital significance to the calculation of potential energy curves and surfaces, the study of molecular excitation processes, and in the theory of electron-molecule scattering. This text describes methods for addressing one of theoretical chemistry's central problems, the study of electron correlation effects in molecules.Although the energy associated with electron correlation is a small fraction of the total energy of an atom or molecule, it is of the same order of magnitude as most energies of chemical interest. If the solution of quantum mechanical equatio

  16. Flying Electronic Warfare Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — FUNCTION: Provides NP-3D aircraft host platforms for Effectiveness of Navy Electronic Warfare Systems (ENEWS) Program antiship missile (ASM) seeker simulators used...

  17. Electronics pocket book

    CERN Document Server

    Parr, E A

    1981-01-01

    Electronics Pocket Book, Fourth Edition is a nonmathematical presentation of the many varied topics covered by electronics. The book tackles electron physics, electronic components (i.e. resistors, capacitors, and conductors), integrated circuits, and the principles of a.c. and d.c. amplifiers. The text also discusses oscillators, digital circuits, digital computers, and optoelectronics (i.e., sensors, emitters, and devices that utilize light). Communications (such as line and radio communications, transmitters, receivers, and digital techniques); the principles and examples of servosystems; a

  18. Flexible Electronics Research Facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Flexible Electronics Research Facility designs, synthesizes, tests, and fabricates materials and devices compatible with flexible substrates for Army information...

  19. Electron Transfer Chain Catalysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    @@ Electron-transfer chain (ETC) catalysis belongs to the family of chain reactions where the electron is the catalyst. The ETC mechanism could be initiated by chemical activation, electrochemistry, or photolysis. If this pathway is applied to the preparation of organometallic complexes, it utilizes the greatly enhanced reactivity of organometallic 17e and 19e radicals. The chemical propagation is followed by the cross electron-transfer while the electron-transfer step is also followed by the chemical propagation, creating a loop in which reactants are facilely transformed into products. Interestingly the overall reaction is without any net redox change.

  20. Electron Transfer Chain Catalysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU; LingKang

    2001-01-01

    Electron-transfer chain (ETC) catalysis belongs to the family of chain reactions where the electron is the catalyst. The ETC mechanism could be initiated by chemical activation, electrochemistry, or photolysis. If this pathway is applied to the preparation of organometallic complexes, it utilizes the greatly enhanced reactivity of organometallic 17e and 19e radicals. The chemical propagation is followed by the cross electron-transfer while the electron-transfer step is also followed by the chemical propagation, creating a loop in which reactants are facilely transformed into products. Interestingly the overall reaction is without any net redox change.  ……

  1. Nanosecond electron microscopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bostanjoglo; Elschner; Mao; Nink; Weingartner

    2000-04-01

    Combining electron optics, fast electronics and pulsed lasers, a transmission and a photoelectron emission microscope were built, which visualize events in thin films and on surfaces with a time resolution of several nanoseconds. The high-speed electron microscopy is capable to track fast laser-induced processes in metals below the ablation threshold, which are difficult to detect by other imaging techniques. The material response to nano- and femtosecond laser pulses was found to be very different. It was dominated by thermo/chemocapillary flow and chemical reactions in the case of nanosecond pulses, and by mechanical deformations and non-thermal electron emission after a femtosecond pulse.

  2. Electron caustic lithography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. M. Kennedy

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available A maskless method of electron beam lithography is described which uses the reflection of an electron beam from an electrostatic mirror to produce caustics in the demagnified image projected onto a resist–coated wafer. By varying the electron optics, e.g. via objective lens defocus, both the morphology and dimensions of the caustic features may be controlled, producing a range of bright and tightly focused projected features. The method is illustrated for line and fold caustics and is complementary to other methods of reflective electron beam lithography.

  3. Electronics circuits and systems

    CERN Document Server

    Bishop, Owen

    2011-01-01

    The material in Electronics - Circuits and Systems is a truly up-to-date textbook, with coverage carefully matched to the electronics units of the 2007 BTEC National Engineering and the latest AS and A Level specifications in Electronics from AQA, OCR and WJEC. The material has been organized with a logical learning progression, making it ideal for a wide range of pre-degree courses in electronics. The approach is student-centred and includes: numerous examples and activities; web research topics; Self Test features, highlighted key facts, formulae and definitions. Ea

  4. Electronics circuits and systems

    CERN Document Server

    Bishop, Owen

    2007-01-01

    The material in Electronics - Circuits and Systems is a truly up-to-date textbook, with coverage carefully matched to the electronics units of the 2007 BTEC National Engineering and the latest AS and A Level specifications in Electronics from AQA, OCR and WJEC. The material has been organized with a logical learning progression, making it ideal for a wide range of pre-degree courses in electronics. The approach is student-centred and includes: numerous examples and activities; web research topics; Self Test features, highlighted key facts, formulae and definitions. Each chapter ends with a set

  5. (Pulsed electron beam precharger)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Finney, W.C. (ed.); Shelton, W.N.

    1990-01-01

    This report discusses the following topics on electron beam guns: Precharger Modification; Installation of Charge vs. Radius Apparatus; High Concentration Aerosol Generation; and Data Acquisition and Analysis System.

  6. Electronic circuits fundamentals & applications

    CERN Document Server

    Tooley, Mike

    2015-01-01

    Electronics explained in one volume, using both theoretical and practical applications.New chapter on Raspberry PiCompanion website contains free electronic tools to aid learning for students and a question bank for lecturersPractical investigations and questions within each chapter help reinforce learning Mike Tooley provides all the information required to get to grips with the fundamentals of electronics, detailing the underpinning knowledge necessary to appreciate the operation of a wide range of electronic circuits, including amplifiers, logic circuits, power supplies and oscillators. The

  7. Electronics Environmental Benefits Calculator

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Electronics Environmental Benefits Calculator (EEBC) was developed to assist organizations in estimating the environmental benefits of greening their purchase,...

  8. Electronic Service Statistics - Quarterly Report

    Data.gov (United States)

    Social Security Administration — This is a quarterly report that compares electronic data vs non-electronic data for electronic services. Report contains six main sections namely, electronic access,...

  9. Optical Electronics. Electronics Module 9. Instructor's Guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franken, Bill

    This module is the ninth of 10 modules in the competency-based electronics series. Introductory materials include a listing of competencies addressed in the module, a parts/equipment list, and a cross reference table of instructional materials. Five instructional units cover: fiber optic cable; optical coupler; lasers and masers; optical displays;…

  10. Notes on Electronic Lexicography

    CERN Document Server

    Parvanov, Yavor

    2011-01-01

    These notes are a continuation of topics covered by V. Selegej in his article "Electronic Dictionaries and Computational lexicography". How can an electronic dictionary have as its object the description of closely related languages? Obviously, such a question allows multiple answers.

  11. Managing electronic records

    CERN Document Server

    McLeod, Julie

    2005-01-01

    For records management courses, this book covers the theory and practice of managing electronic records as business and information assets. It focuses on the strategies, systems and procedures necessary to ensure that electronic records are appropriately created, captured, organized and retained over time to meet business and legal requirements.

  12. STEP electronic system design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Couch, R. H.; Johnson, J. W.

    1984-01-01

    The STEP electronic system design is discussed. The purpose of the design is outlined. The electronic system design is summarized and it is found that: an effective conceptual system design is developed; the design represents a unique set of capabilities; makes efficient use of available orbiter resources; the system capabilities exceed identified potential experiment needs.

  13. Electron tunnel sensor technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waltman, S. B.; Kaiser, W. J.

    1989-01-01

    The recent development of Scanning Tunneling Microscopy technology allows the application of electron tunneling to position detectors for the first time. The vacuum tunnel junction is one of the most sensitive position detection mechanisms available. It is also compact, simple, and requires little power. A prototype accelerometer based on electron tunneling, and other sensor applications of this promising new technology are described.

  14. Electron scattering violates parity

    CERN Multimedia

    2004-01-01

    Parity violation has been observed in collisions between electrons at the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center (SLAC) in the US. The resuls, which are in agreement with the Stanford Model of particle physics, also provide a new measurement of the weak charge of the electron (½ page)

  15. Pulsed Plasma Electron Sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krasik, Yakov

    2008-11-01

    Pulsed (˜10-7 s) electron beams with high current density (>10^2 A/cm^2) are generated in diodes with electric field of E > 10^6 V/cm. The source of electrons in these diodes is explosive emission plasma, which limits pulse duration; in the case E Hadas and Ya. E. Krasik, Europhysics Lett. 82, 55001 (2008).

  16. Electron transfer in peptides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Afzal; Adhikari, Bimalendu; Martic, Sanela; Munir, Azeema; Shahzad, Suniya; Ahmad, Khurshid; Kraatz, Heinz-Bernhard

    2015-02-21

    In this review, we discuss the factors that influence electron transfer in peptides. We summarize experimental results from solution and surface studies and highlight the ongoing debate on the mechanistic aspects of this fundamental reaction. Here, we provide a balanced approach that remains unbiased and does not favor one mechanistic view over another. Support for a putative hopping mechanism in which an electron transfers in a stepwise manner is contrasted with experimental results that support electron tunneling or even some form of ballistic transfer or a pathway transfer for an electron between donor and acceptor sites. In some cases, experimental evidence suggests that a change in the electron transfer mechanism occurs as a result of donor-acceptor separation. However, this common understanding of the switch between tunneling and hopping as a function of chain length is not sufficient for explaining electron transfer in peptides. Apart from chain length, several other factors such as the extent of the secondary structure, backbone conformation, dipole orientation, the presence of special amino acids, hydrogen bonding, and the dynamic properties of a peptide also influence the rate and mode of electron transfer in peptides. Electron transfer plays a key role in physical, chemical and biological systems, so its control is a fundamental task in bioelectrochemical systems, the design of peptide based sensors and molecular junctions. Therefore, this topic is at the heart of a number of biological and technological processes and thus remains of vital interest.

  17. Single particle electron microscopy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boekema, Egbert J.; Folea, Mihaela; Kouril, Roman; Kouřil, Roman

    2009-01-01

    Electron microscopy (EM) in combination with image analysis is a powerful technique to study protein structures at low, medium, and high resolution. Since electron micrographs of biological objects are very noisy, improvement of the signal-to-noise ratio by image processing is an integral part of EM

  18. Electronic Mail Connections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tucker, Susan A.

    1987-01-01

    Provides an overview of new developments in electronic mail, including the interconnection of online networks, some on an international level; and news on system upgrades of specific information services. The growth of the electronic mail industry and possible future trends are discussed and a glossary of technical terms is included. (CLB)

  19. Electronically Controlled Resistor Bank

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Walter L.

    1987-01-01

    Resistance quickly varied in small steps over wide range. Device with no moving parts provides variable electrical resistance. Used with analog or digital circuity to provide electronic selection of large number of resistance values for testing, simulation, control, or other purposes. Nearest electromechanical equivalent of all-electronic device is potentiometer driven by servomotor.

  20. Electronics and Lithuanian Terminology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stasys Zajankauskas

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available It is found that the vacuum triode, transistor, monolithic circuit and microprocessor were the most important inventions of traditional electronics. Thus, the origins of the traditional electronics should be associated with the invention of the vacuum triode, but not with the invention of vacuum diode. It is shown that the science of electronics is not as young as computer science or up-to-date information technologies: electronics, including active electronics, had already celebrated the centenary, and the period of 2004–2008 is the period of numerous already solid jubilees. Thus, the terminology of electronics is not at initial stage of evolution as well – general terms should be already systematized and normalized. However, Lithuanian terms for electronic devices invented before tens of years and terms for old-defined notions associated with these devices are still varying, some are worsened. Especially, the incorrectly motivated terms used for variations of transistors and microcircuits are analyzed in the article. It is motivated which terms are preferable, systematic and exact. The paper is dedicated to the 50th anniversary of monolithic circuit, as well as the 60th anniversary of transistor, the 40th jubilee of microprocessor and centenary of electronics.

  1. Electronically Induced Phase Transformations

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-12-01

    ries (w hen the Slater free-electron exchange is used). A systematic the active researcher. study of relativistic electron densities and isomer...comp:wrees aux mesures actuelles d’effet dHvA d’Arko et Schirber. Le calu; du facteur de forme neutronique en presence d’un champ magnetique est en bon

  2. Green and biodegradable electronics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihai Irimia-Vladu

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available We live in a world where the lifetime of electronics is becoming shorter, now approaching an average of several months. This poses a growing ecological problem. This brief review will present some of the initial steps taken to address the issue of electronic waste with biodegradable organic electronic materials. Many organic materials have been shown to be biodegradable, safe, and nontoxic, including compounds of natural origin. Additionally, the unique features of such organic materials suggest they will be useful in biofunctional electronics; demonstrating functions that would be inaccessible for traditional inorganic compounds. Such materials may lead to fully biodegradable and even biocompatible/biometabolizable electronics for many low-cost applications. This review highlights recent progress in these classes of material, covering substrates and insulators, semiconductors, and finally conductors.

  3. LEIR electron cooler status

    CERN Document Server

    Tranquille, G; Parkhomchuk, V; Prieto, V; Sautier, R

    2006-01-01

    The electron cooler for LEIR is the first of a new generation of coolers being commissioned for fast phase space cooling of ion beams in storage rings. It is a stateof- the-art cooler incorporating all the recent developments in electron cooling technology (adiabatic expansion, electrostatic bend, variable density electron beam) and is designed to deliver up to 600 mA of electron current for the cooling and stacking of Pb54+ ions in the frame of the ions for LHC project. In this paper we present our experience with the commissioning of the new device as well as the first results of ion beam cooling with a high-intensity variable-density electron beam.

  4. Electron Cyclotron Emission Radiometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morales, Cristina

    2009-11-01

    There is much interest in studying plasmas that generate hot electrons. The goal of this project is to develop a wide band electron cyclotron radiometer to measure the non-Maxwellian rapid rises in electron temperature. These rapid increases in temperature will then be correlated to instabilities in the plasma. This project explores a type of noncontact temperature measurement. We will attempt to show the feasibility of electron cyclotron emissions to measure the Maryland Centrifugal Experiment's electron plasma temperature. The radiometer has been designed to have 100dB of gain and a sensitivity of 24mV/dB given by its logarithmic amplifier. If successful, this radiometer will be used as a diagnostic tool in later projects such as the proposed experiment studying magnetic reconnection using solar flux loops.

  5. Practical electronics for inventors

    CERN Document Server

    Scherz, Paul

    2013-01-01

    Spark your creativity and gain the electronics skills required to transform your innovative ideas into functioning gadgets. This hands-on, updated guide outlines electrical principles and provides thorough, easy-to-follow instructions, schematics, and illustrations. Findout how to select components, safely assemble circuits, perform error tests, and build plug-and-play prototypes. Practical Electronics for Inventors, Third Edition, features all-new chapters on sensors, microcontrollers, modular electronics, and the latest software tools. Coverage includes: Resistors, capacitors, inductors, and transformers Diodes, transistors, and integrated circuits Optoelectronics, solar cells, and phototransistors Sensors, GPS modules, and touch screens Op amps, regulators, and power supplies Digital electronics, LCD displays, and logic gates Microcontrollers and prototyping platforms, including Arduino DC motors, RC servos, and stepper motors Microphones, audio amps, and speakers Modular electronics and prototyping.

  6. Simulations of Gaussian electron guns for RHIC electron lens

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pikin, A. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States). Collider-Accelerator Dept.

    2014-02-28

    Simulations of two versions of the electron gun for RHIC electron lens are presented. The electron guns have to generate an electron beam with Gaussian radial profile of the electron beam density. To achieve the Gaussian electron emission profile on the cathode we used a combination of the gun electrodes and shaping of the cathode surface. Dependence of electron gun performance parameters on the geometry of electrodes and the margins for electrodes positioning are presented.

  7. Structural equation modeling for observational studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grace, J.B.

    2008-01-01

    Structural equation modeling (SEM) represents a framework for developing and evaluating complex hypotheses about systems. This method of data analysis differs from conventional univariate and multivariate approaches familiar to most biologists in several ways. First, SEMs are multiequational and capable of representing a wide array of complex hypotheses about how system components interrelate. Second, models are typically developed based on theoretical knowledge and designed to represent competing hypotheses about the processes responsible for data structure. Third, SEM is conceptually based on the analysis of covariance relations. Most commonly, solutions are obtained using maximum-likelihood solution procedures, although a variety of solution procedures are used, including Bayesian estimation. Numerous extensions give SEM a very high degree of flexibility in dealing with nonnormal data, categorical responses, latent variables, hierarchical structure, multigroup comparisons, nonlinearities, and other complicating factors. Structural equation modeling allows researchers to address a variety of questions about systems, such as how different processes work in concert, how the influences of perturbations cascade through systems, and about the relative importance of different influences. I present 2 example applications of SEM, one involving interactions among lynx (Lynx pardinus), mongooses (Herpestes ichneumon), and rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus), and the second involving anuran species richness. Many wildlife ecologists may find SEM useful for understanding how populations function within their environments. Along with the capability of the methodology comes a need for care in the proper application of SEM.

  8. Electronic Collection Management and Electronic Information Services

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-04-01

    TITLE: Electronic Information Management for PfP Nations [La gestion electronique des informations pour les pays du PfP] To order the complete...banking and securities trading. E- commerce has moved into many other areas and it is now possible to purchase a wide variety of goods and services on line...include interactive e- commerce and e-governance services as well as various organizational database management needs (including registrations, membership

  9. Electron Cooling of RHIC

    CERN Document Server

    Ben-Zvi, Ilan; Barton, Donald; Beavis, Dana; Blaskiewicz, Michael; Bluem, Hans; Brennan, Joseph M; Bruhwiler, David L; Burger, Al; Burov, Alexey; Burrill, Andrew; Calaga, Rama; Cameron, Peter; Chang, Xiangyun; Cole, Michael; Connolly, Roger; Delayen, Jean R; Derbenev, Yaroslav S; Eidelman, Yury I; Favale, Anthony; Fedotov, Alexei V; Fischer, Wolfram; Funk, L W; Gassner, David M; Hahn, Harald; Harrison, Michael; Hershcovitch, Ady; Holmes, Douglas; Hseuh Hsiao Chaun; Johnson, Peter; Kayran, Dmitry; Kewisch, Jorg; Kneisel, Peter; Koop, Ivan; Lambiase, Robert; Litvinenko, Vladimir N; MacKay, William W; Mahler, George; Malitsky, Nikolay; McIntyre, Gary; Meng, Wuzheng; Merminga, Lia; Meshkov, Igor; Mirabella, Kerry; Montag, Christoph; Nagaitsev, Sergei; Nehring, Thomas; Nicoletti, Tony; Oerter, Brian; Parkhomchuk, Vasily; Parzen, George; Pate, David; Phillips, Larry; Preble, Joseph P; Rank, Jim; Rao, Triveni; Rathke, John; Roser, Thomas; Russo, Thomas; Scaduto, Joseph; Schultheiss, Tom; Sekutowicz, Jacek; Shatunov, Yuri; Sidorin, Anatoly O; Skrinsky, Aleksander Nikolayevich; Smirnov, Alexander V; Smith, Kevin T; Todd, Alan M M; Trbojevic, Dejan; Troubnikov, Grigory; Wang, Gang; Wei, Jie; Williams, Neville; Wu, Kuo-Chen; Yakimenko, Vitaly; Zaltsman, Alex; Zhao, Yongxiang; ain, Animesh K

    2005-01-01

    We report progress on the R&D program for electron-cooling of the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC). This electron cooler is designed to cool 100 GeV/nucleon at storage energy using 54 MeV electrons. The electron source will be a superconducting RF photocathode gun. The accelerator will be a superconducting energy recovery linac. The frequency of the accelerator is set at 703.75 MHz. The maximum electron bunch frequency is 9.38 MHz, with bunch charge of 20 nC. The R&D program has the following components: The photoinjector and its photocathode, the superconducting linac cavity, start-to-end beam dynamics with magnetized electrons, electron cooling calculations including benchmarking experiments and development of a large superconducting solenoid. The photoinjector and linac cavity are being incorporated into an energy recovery linac aimed at demonstrating ampere class current at about 20 MeV. A Zeroth Order Design Report is in an advanced draft state, and can be found on the web at http://www.ags...

  10. Dissociative Electron Attachment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arreola, Esmeralda; Esmeralda Arreola Collaboration; Leigh Hargreaves Collaboration

    Since the pioneering work of Boudiaffa et al., it has been understood that electrons, even with energies near or below the ionization threshold, are capable of initiating strand-breaks in human DNA. This discovery raised important questions for cancer treatments, since sub-ionizing electrons are known to be the most copiously produced secondary product of radiation therapy. But even to date these factors are largely excluded from dosimetry calculations. This lack of inclusion is, at least in part, certainly due to the dearth of fundamental data describing low-energy electron interactions with nucleotide molecules that form the basis of DNA. Understanding of how such slow electrons are able to damage DNA remains incomplete, but the strongly peaked nature of Boudiaffa et al.'s data gives strong hints at resonantly driven collision processes. DNA damage is therefore most likely driven by ``dissociative electron attachment'' (DEA). DEA is a rather complicated process to model due to the coupling of electronic and nuclear degrees of freedom in the molecule. At the California State University Fullerton, we are currently commissioning a new spectrometer to study dissociation channels, reaction rates and orientation effects in DEA collisions between slow electrons and nucleotide molecules. At the meeting we will present design parameters and commissioning data for this new apparatus.

  11. Electron heat flux instability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saeed, Sundas; Sarfraz, M.; Yoon, P. H.; Lazar, M.; Qureshi, M. N. S.

    2017-02-01

    The heat flux instability is an electromagnetic mode excited by a relative drift between the protons and two-component core-halo electrons. The most prominent application may be in association with the solar wind where drifting electron velocity distributions are observed. The heat flux instability is somewhat analogous to the electrostatic Buneman or ion-acoustic instability driven by the net drift between the protons and bulk electrons, except that the heat flux instability operates in magnetized plasmas and possesses transverse electromagnetic polarization. The heat flux instability is also distinct from the electrostatic counterpart in that it requires two electron species with relative drifts with each other. In the literature, the heat flux instability is often called the 'whistler' heat flux instability, but it is actually polarized in the opposite sense to the whistler wave. This paper elucidates all of these fundamental plasma physical properties associated with the heat flux instability starting from a simple model, and gradually building up more complexity towards a solar wind-like distribution functions. It is found that the essential properties of the instability are already present in the cold counter-streaming electron model, and that the instability is absent if the protons are ignored. These instability characteristics are highly reminiscent of the electron firehose instability driven by excessive parallel temperature anisotropy, propagating in parallel direction with respect to the ambient magnetic field, except that the free energy source for the heat flux instability resides in the effective parallel pressure provided by the counter-streaming electrons.

  12. Aerogels for electronics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hrubesh, L.W.

    1994-10-01

    In addition to their other exceptional properties, aerogels also exhibit unusual dielectric and electronic properties due to their nano-sized structures and high porosities. For example, aerogels have the lowest dielectric constants measured for a solid material (having values approaching 1.0); they have exceptionally high dielectric resistivities and strengths (i.e., ability to insulate very high voltages); they exhibit low dielectric loss at microwave frequencies; and some aerogels are electrically conductive and photoconductive. These properties are being exploited to provide the next generation of materials for energy storage, low power consumption, and ultra-fast electronics. We are working toward adapting these unusual materials for microelectronic applications, particularly, making thin aerogel films for dielectric substrates and for energy storage devices such as supercapacitors. Measurements are presented in this paper for the dielectric and electronic properties of aerogels, including the dielectric constant, loss factor, dielectric and electrical conductivity, volume resistivity, and dielectric strength. We also describe methods to form and characterize thin aerogel films which are being developed for numerous electronic applications. Finally, some of the electronic applications proposed for aerogels are presented. Commercialization of aerogels for electronics must await further feasibility, prototype development, and cost studies, but they are one of the key materials and are sure to have a major impact on future electronics.

  13. Coherent electron cooling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Litvinenko,V.

    2009-05-04

    Cooling intense high-energy hadron beams remains a major challenge in modern accelerator physics. Synchrotron radiation is still too feeble, while the efficiency of two other cooling methods, stochastic and electron, falls rapidly either at high bunch intensities (i.e. stochastic of protons) or at high energies (e-cooling). In this talk a specific scheme of a unique cooling technique, Coherent Electron Cooling, will be discussed. The idea of coherent electron cooling using electron beam instabilities was suggested by Derbenev in the early 1980s, but the scheme presented in this talk, with cooling times under an hour for 7 TeV protons in the LHC, would be possible only with present-day accelerator technology. This talk will discuss the principles and the main limitations of the Coherent Electron Cooling process. The talk will describe the main system components, based on a high-gain free electron laser driven by an energy recovery linac, and will present some numerical examples for ions and protons in RHIC and the LHC and for electron-hadron options for these colliders. BNL plans a demonstration of the idea in the near future.

  14. Detection of Sarcocystis spp. infection in bobcats (Lynx rufus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verma, S. K.; Calero-Bernal, R.; Lovallo, M. J.; Sweeny, A. R.; Grigg, M. E.; Dubey, J. P.

    2015-01-01

    The protozoan Sarcocystis neurona is an important cause of severe clinical disease of horses (called equine protozoal myeloencephalitis, EPM), marine mammals, companion animals, and several species of wildlife animals in the Americas. The Virginia opossum (Didelphis virginiana) is its definitive host in the USA and other animals act as intermediate or aberrant hosts. Samples of tongue and heart from 35 bobcats hunted for fur and food from Mississippi State, USA in February, 2014 were used for the present study. Muscles were examined for Sarcocystis infection by microscopic examination of either unfixed muscle squash preparations or pepsin digests, by histopathology of fixed samples, and by molecular methods. Sarcocystis-like bradyzoites were found in digests of 14 hearts and 10 tongues of 35 bobcats. In histological sections, sarcocysts were found in 26 of 35 bobcats; all appeared relatively thin-walled similar to S. felis sarcocysts under light microscope at 1000x magnification. S. neurona-like sarcocysts having thickened villar tips were seen in unstained muscle squash of tongue of two bobcats and PCR-DNA sequencing identified them definitively as S. neurona-like parasite. DNA extracted from bradyzoites obtained from tongue and heart muscle digests was analyzed by PCR-DNA sequencing at the ITS1 locus. Results indicated the presence of S. neurona-like parasite in 26 of 35 samples. ITS1 sequences identical to S. dayspi were identified in 3 bobcats, 2 of which were also co-infected with S. neurona-like parasite. The high prevalence of sarcocysts in bobcat tissues suggested an efficient sylvatic cycle of Sarcocystis spp. in the remote regions of Mississippi State with the bobcat as a relevant intermediate host. PMID:26138150

  15. 捷豹XJ-S V12 HE Lynx Eventer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2016-01-01

    Lynx创办于60年代末,专门从事旧型捷豹翻新,70年代开始涉足休闲市场,制作了备受赞誉的复制C-Type和D-Type,其后又把焦点放到XJ-S身上,继抢先捷豹九年打造敞篷版本后,更在1982年着手开发Eventer。

  16. Secreted Isoform of Human Lynx1 (SLURP-2)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lyukmanova, E N; Shulepko, M A; Shenkarev, Z O

    2016-01-01

    Human-secreted Ly-6/uPAR-related protein-2 (SLURP-2) regulates the growth and differentiation of epithelial cells. Previously, the auto/paracrine activity of SLURP-2 was considered to be mediated via its interaction with the α3β2 subtype of the nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs). Here, we......-evoked currents at concentrations via...... interactions with α3β2-nAChRs, while it inhibited cell growth via α7-nAChRs. SLURP-2/mAChRs interactions are also probably involved in the control of keratinocyte growth. Computer modeling revealed possible SLURP-2 binding to the 'classical' orthosteric agonist/antagonist binding sites at α7 and α3β2-nAChRs....

  17. Electronic devices and circuits

    CERN Document Server

    Pridham, Gordon John

    1968-01-01

    Electronic Devices and Circuits, Volume 1 deals with the design and applications of electronic devices and circuits such as passive components, diodes, triodes and transistors, rectification and power supplies, amplifying circuits, electronic instruments, and oscillators. These topics are supported with introductory network theory and physics. This volume is comprised of nine chapters and begins by explaining the operation of resistive, inductive, and capacitive elements in direct and alternating current circuits. The theory for some of the expressions quoted in later chapters is presented. Th

  18. Power Electronics for Microgrids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dragicevic, Tomislav; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2016-01-01

    A microgrid (MG) is a stand-alone or grid-connected hybrid renewable system that uses distributed renewable and nonrenewable energy sources and energy storage systems (ESSs) to supply power to local loads. The system is ordinarily based on power electronics, with interface converters allowing...... a continuous supply of power in the presence of variable RES production. This chapter describes some specific features of DC MGs in terms of power architecture, control, and protection. It also reviews several uncommon power electronic interfaces. Regarding control, operation without critical communication...... are explained in this chapter. The chapter concludes with a review of power electronic intensive protection solutions for DC MGs....

  19. Quantum electronics basic theory

    CERN Document Server

    Fain, V M; Sanders, J H

    1969-01-01

    Quantum Electronics, Volume 1: Basic Theory is a condensed and generalized description of the many research and rapid progress done on the subject. It is translated from the Russian language. The volume describes the basic theory of quantum electronics, and shows how the concepts and equations followed in quantum electronics arise from the basic principles of theoretical physics. The book then briefly discusses the interaction of an electromagnetic field with matter. The text also covers the quantum theory of relaxation process when a quantum system approaches an equilibrium state, and explai

  20. Electronic components and systems

    CERN Document Server

    Dennis, W H

    2013-01-01

    Electronic Components and Systems focuses on the principles and processes in the field of electronics and the integrated circuit. Covered in the book are basic aspects and physical fundamentals; different types of materials involved in the field; and passive and active electronic components such as capacitors, inductors, diodes, and transistors. Also covered in the book are topics such as the fabrication of semiconductors and integrated circuits; analog circuitry; digital logic technology; and microprocessors. The monograph is recommended for beginning electrical engineers who would like to kn

  1. Consulting in Electronic Commerce

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florentina Loredana Tache

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Economic development of electronic services provide advice and many agents of existingreferral systems to recommend and provide products, information and customized views of thecommunity through a personalized interaction in real time. Distributed systems of autonomous agentsare becoming increasingly important in electronic comet because the basic decisions of agents adviceon trust and reputation are taken in a similar way human society. If these decisions will be as a realconsumer protection, when new aspects of online consumer legislation will become usefulinformation in advice and consulting of electronic commerce.

  2. Electron Beam Materials Irradiators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cleland, Marshall R.

    2012-06-01

    Radiation processing is a well established method for enhancing the properties of materials and commercial products by treating them with ionizing energy in the form of high-energy electrons, X-rays, and gamma rays. Beneficial effects include polymerizing, cross-linking, grafting and degrading plastics, sterilizing single-use medical devices, disinfecting and disinfesting fresh foods, purifying drinking water, treating wastewater and other toxic waste materials that harm the environment, and many other applications that are still being evaluated. Industrial electron accelerators of several types have been developed and are being used for these applications. More than 1800 electron accelerators are presently installed in facilities worldwide for these purposes.

  3. Field emission electronics

    CERN Document Server

    Egorov, Nikolay

    2017-01-01

    This book is dedicated to field emission electronics, a promising field at the interface between “classic” vacuum electronics and nanotechnology. In addition to theoretical models, it includes detailed descriptions of experimental and research techniques and production technologies for different types of field emitters based on various construction principles. It particularly focuses on research into and production of field cathodes and electron guns using recently developed nanomaterials and carbon nanotubes. Further, it discusses the applications of field emission cathodes in new technologies such as light sources, flat screens, microwave and X-ray devices.

  4. Semiconductor opto-electronics

    CERN Document Server

    Moss, TS; Ellis, B

    1972-01-01

    Semiconductor Opto-Electronics focuses on opto-electronics, covering the basic physical phenomena and device behavior that arise from the interaction between electromagnetic radiation and electrons in a solid. The first nine chapters of this book are devoted to theoretical topics, discussing the interaction of electromagnetic waves with solids, dispersion theory and absorption processes, magneto-optical effects, and non-linear phenomena. Theories of photo-effects and photo-detectors are treated in detail, including the theories of radiation generation and the behavior of semiconductor lasers a

  5. Principles of quantum electronics

    CERN Document Server

    Marcuse, Dietrich

    1980-01-01

    Principles of Quantum Electronics focuses on the concept of quantum electronics as the application of quantum theory to engineering problems. It examines the principles that govern specific quantum electronics devices and presents their theoretical applications to typical problems. Comprised of 10 chapters, this book starts with an overview of the Dirac formulation of quantum mechanics. This text then considers the derivation of the formalism of field quantization and discusses the properties of photons and phonons. Other chapters examine the interaction between the electromagnetic field and c

  6. VLSI electronics microstructure science

    CERN Document Server

    1982-01-01

    VLSI Electronics: Microstructure Science, Volume 4 reviews trends for the future of very large scale integration (VLSI) electronics and the scientific base that supports its development.This book discusses the silicon-on-insulator for VLSI and VHSIC, X-ray lithography, and transient response of electron transport in GaAs using the Monte Carlo method. The technology and manufacturing of high-density magnetic-bubble memories, metallic superlattices, challenge of education for VLSI, and impact of VLSI on medical signal processing are also elaborated. This text likewise covers the impact of VLSI t

  7. Coding for Electronic Mail

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rice, R. F.; Lee, J. J.

    1986-01-01

    Scheme for coding facsimile messages promises to reduce data transmission requirements to one-tenth current level. Coding scheme paves way for true electronic mail in which handwritten, typed, or printed messages or diagrams sent virtually instantaneously - between buildings or between continents. Scheme, called Universal System for Efficient Electronic Mail (USEEM), uses unsupervised character recognition and adaptive noiseless coding of text. Image quality of resulting delivered messages improved over messages transmitted by conventional coding. Coding scheme compatible with direct-entry electronic mail as well as facsimile reproduction. Text transmitted in this scheme automatically translated to word-processor form.

  8. TIS - Beyond Electronic Mail.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-01-01

    AD-AI06 764 AIR FORCE INST OF TECH WRIGHT-PATTERSON AFB OH F/G 17/2 TIS - BEYOND ELECTRONIC MAIL .(U) 1979 D L OLSON, N T FLYNN, M I DARWISH...79-22§1_ 4~~~~~~~ SIXi.m.aihl -- . TYPE OF REPORT & PERIOD covERED TIS -SBeyond Electronic Mail . TlSS~cnA~r 6 PEFRI4 O11G. REPORT NUMBER Duane L.A:o...single-service provisions of so-called " electronic mail ." Approaches to be used in implementing a TIS are considered, and a time-frame scenario is

  9. Electron paramagnetic resonance

    CERN Document Server

    Al'tshuler, S A

    2013-01-01

    Electron Paramagnetic Resonance is a comprehensive text on the field of electron paramagnetic resonance, covering both the theoretical background and the results of experiment. This book is composed of eight chapters that cover theoretical materials and experimental data on ionic crystals, since these are the materials that have been most extensively studied by the methods of paramagnetic resonance. The opening chapters provide an introduction to the basic principles of electron paramagnetic resonance and the methods of its measurement. The next chapters are devoted to the theory of spectra an

  10. Reliable Electronic Equipment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. A. Nayak

    1960-05-01

    Full Text Available The reliability aspect of electronic equipment's is discussed. To obtain optimum results, close cooperation between the components engineer, the design engineer and the production engineer is suggested.

  11. The art of electronics

    CERN Document Server

    Horowitz, Paul

    2015-01-01

    At long last, here is the thoroughly revised and updated third edition of the hugely successful Art of Electronics. It is widely accepted as the best single authoritative book on electronic circuit design. In addition to new or enhanced coverage of many topics, the Third Edition includes: 90 oscilloscope screenshots illustrating the behavior of working circuits; dozens of graphs giving highly useful measured data of the sort that's often buried or omitted in datasheets but which you need when designing circuits; 80 tables (listing some 1650 active components), enabling intelligent choice of circuit components by listing essential characteristics (both specified and measured) of available parts. The new Art of Electronics ​​retains the feeling of informality and easy access that helped make the earlier editions so successful and popular. It is an indispensable reference and the gold standard​​ for anyone, student or researcher, professional or amateur, who works with electronic circuits.

  12. Electronic Universal Vote

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristian USCATU

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available In the days of informational society everything is going online. Most aspects of our lives have online components. Since democracy is a big issue, it could not escape this trend. Governments themselves are moving to the online environment for the purpose of improving their internal efficiency and their availability to the citizens, businesses and other parties interested. Since governments are the result of elections, elections have also been touched by the electronic fever. New electronic voting solutions arise and each one brings new debates with many arguments in their favor and against them. Accessibility and ease of use leads the arguments in favor of electronic voting over the internet, while fear of fraud is the main reason people are avoiding electronics and clinging on classic paper ballots.

  13. Electron gun for SSRF

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    A 100 kV triode-electron-gun has been designed and manufactured for the Linac of Shanghai Synchrotron Radiation Facility (SSRF). In this paper the performance of the gun and some key components are described.

  14. Pulsed plasma electron sourcesa)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krasik, Ya. E.; Yarmolich, D.; Gleizer, J. Z.; Vekselman, V.; Hadas, Y.; Gurovich, V. Tz.; Felsteiner, J.

    2009-05-01

    There is a continuous interest in research of electron sources which can be used for generation of uniform electron beams produced at E ≤105 V/cm and duration ≤10-5 s. In this review, several types of plasma electron sources will be considered, namely, passive (metal ceramic, velvet and carbon fiber with and without CsI coating, and multicapillary and multislot cathodes) and active (ferroelectric and hollow anodes) plasma sources. The operation of passive sources is governed by the formation of flashover plasma whose parameters depend on the amplitude and rise time of the accelerating electric field. In the case of ferroelectric and hollow-anode plasma sources the plasma parameters are controlled by the driving pulse and discharge current, respectively. Using different time- and space-resolved electrical, optical, spectroscopical, Thomson scattering and x-ray diagnostics, the parameters of the plasma and generated electron beam were characterized.

  15. Scanning Auger Electron Microscope

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — A JEOL model 7830F field emission source, scanning Auger microscope. Specifications / Capabilities: Ultra-high vacuum (UHV), electron gun range from 0.1 kV to 25 kV,...

  16. Scanning Auger Electron Microscope

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — A JEOL model 7830F field emission source, scanning Auger microscope.Specifications / Capabilities:Ultra-high vacuum (UHV), electron gun range from 0.1 kV to 25 kV,...

  17. Telecommunications--Electronic Mail.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Luke E.; Zuckerman, B. Michael

    1989-01-01

    This article identifies resources needed in order for physical education, recreation, and dance professionals to use computer-based telecommunications; discusses electronic mail; and explains how telecommunications can enhance communication in the field, both within and across professions. (IAH)

  18. Introduction to electron crystallography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kühlbrandt, Werner

    2013-01-01

    From the earliest work on regular arrays in negative stain, electron crystallography has contributed greatly to our understanding of the structure and function of biological macromolecules. The development of electron cryo-microscopy (cryo-EM) then lead to the first groundbreaking atomic models of the membrane proteins bacteriorhodopsin and light harvesting complex II within lipid bilayers. Key contributions towards cryo-EM and electron crystallography methods included specimen preparation and vitrification, liquid-helium cooling, data collection, and image processing. These methods are now applied almost routinely to both membrane and soluble proteins. Here we outline the advances and the breakthroughs that paved the way towards high-resolution structures by electron crystallography, both in terms of methods development and biological milestones.

  19. Electron and Photon ID

    CERN Document Server

    Hryn'ova, Tetiana; The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    The identification of prompt photons and the rejection of background coming mostly from photons from hadron decays relies on the high granularity of the ATLAS calorimeter. The electron identification used in ATLAS for run 2 is based on a likelihood discrimination to separate isolated electron candidates from candidates originating from photon conversions, hadron misidentification and heavy flavor decays. In addition, isolation variables are used as further handles to separate signal and background. Several methods are used to measure with data the efficiency of the photon identification requirements, to cover a broad energy spectrum. At low energy, photons from radiative Z decays are used. In the medium energy range, similarities between electrons and photon showers are exploited using Z->ee decays. At high energy, inclusive photon samples are used. The measurement of the efficiencies of the electron identification and isolation cuts are performed with the data using tag and probe techniques with large statis...

  20. Electronics Modernization Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Current electronic packaging designs used in our most recent spacecraft are comprised of technologies from the 1980’s and 1990’s. The current approach...

  1. Electronics for guitarists

    CERN Document Server

    Dailey, Denton J

    2014-01-01

    Electronics for Guitarists focuses on analog circuitry, and is written for the guitarist interested in transistor and vacuum tube-based amplifiers. Topics include discrete transistors and diodes, classical filter circuits, and vacuum tube-based amplifiers.

  2. ELECTRONIC BANKING AND ELECTRONIC COMMERCE IN SERBIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivana B. Petrevska

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, we may witness to dramatic and visible changes in our life environment. Business ambient for companies is different every day, and it is very hard to predict a direction of future changes. There is an environment characterized by sharp competition and increasing number of competitors, fast technological improvements and highly sophisticated and informed costumers. Technological process influences the humanity strongly, changing the way that people live, work and spend. Electronic commerce and electronic banking has become incontinent, and makes a great part of today's total transactions. There are an increasing number of companies that perform their business that way and make profit. Social networks are proven to be the least expensive way of information exchange, and they are present in almost every part of the world. The globalization has reached the most distant parts of the Earth. Every resistance to new technologies is dangerous and may lead to bankruptcy. Due to the EU expansion, Internet users are to be expected, and prosperity of the e-commerce business models at the same time. In Serbia, electronic commerce is present, but not as developed as in EU countries. E-commerce, however it might be successful throughout the world, it is somewhat slow in its growth in Serbia. The reasons are numerous, and main obstacles are the lack of trust, still limited usage of banking cards, avoiding of e-payments by older population etc. Also, the recent scandals over the misuse of personal data, and e-crime are discouraging factors for the growth of e-trade and ebanking. The younger generations are ever more ready to use e-commerce, since they are open to new technologies and do not have the defensive attitude towards it. E-commerce and e-banking has growing potential even among older population, if the society prevents them from fear and mistrust.

  3. Cooling of electronic equipment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    A. Kristensen, Anders Schmidt

    2003-01-01

    Cooling of electronic equipment is studied. The design size of electronic equipment decrease causing the thermal density to increase. This affect the cooling which can cause for example failures of critical components due to overheating or thermal induced stresses. Initially a pin fin heat sink...... is considered as extruded profiles are inadequate for compact designs. An optimal pin fin shape and configuration is sought also taking manufacturing costs into consideration. Standard methods for geometrical modeling and thermal analysis are applied....

  4. Electronic states of myricetin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vojta, Danijela; Karlsen, Eva; Spanget-Larsen, Jens

    2017-01-01

    Myricetin (3,3',4',5,5',7'-hexahydroxyflavone) was investigated by linear dichroism spectroscopy on molecular samples partially aligned in stretched poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA). At least five electronic transitions in the range 40000 – 20000 cm–1 were characterized with respect to their wavenumbers......, relative intensities, and transition moment directions. The observed bands were assigned to electronic transitions predicted with TD-B3LYP/6-31+G(d,p)....

  5. Newnes electronics assembly handbook

    CERN Document Server

    Brindley, Keith

    2013-01-01

    Newnes Electronics Assembly Handbook: Techniques, Standards and Quality Assurance focuses on the aspects of electronic assembling. The handbook first looks at the printed circuit board (PCB). Base materials, basic mechanical properties, cleaning of assemblies, design, and PCB manufacturing processes are then explained. The text also discusses surface mounted assemblies and packaging of electromechanical assemblies, as well as the soldering process. Requirements for the soldering process; solderability and protective coatings; cleaning of PCBs; and mass solder/component reflow soldering are des

  6. Electron Beam Ion Sources

    OpenAIRE

    Zschornacka, G.; Schmidt, M.; Thorn, A.

    2014-01-01

    Electron beam ion sources (EBISs) are ion sources that work based on the principle of electron impact ionization, allowing the production of very highly charged ions. The ions produced can be extracted as a DC ion beam as well as ion pulses of different time structures. In comparison to most of the other known ion sources, EBISs feature ion beams with very good beam emittances and a low energy spread. Furthermore, EBISs are excellent sources of photons (X-rays, ultraviolet, extreme ultraviole...

  7. 4D Electron Tomography

    OpenAIRE

    Kwon, Oh-Hoon; Zewail, Ahmed H.

    2010-01-01

    Electron tomography provides three-dimensional (3D) imaging of noncrystalline and crystalline equilibrium structures, as well as elemental volume composition, of materials and biological specimens, including those of viruses and cells. We report the development of 4D electron tomography by integrating the fourth dimension (time resolution) with the 3D spatial resolution obtained from a complete tilt series of 2D projections of an object. The different time frames of tomograms constitute a mov...

  8. Mathematics for electronic technology

    CERN Document Server

    Howson, D P

    1975-01-01

    Mathematics for Electronic Technology is a nine-chapter book that begins with the elucidation of the introductory concepts related to use of mathematics in electronic engineering, including differentiation, integration, partial differentiation, infinite series, vectors, vector algebra, and surface, volume and line integrals. Subsequent chapters explore the determinants, differential equations, matrix analysis, complex variable, topography, graph theory, and numerical analysis used in this field. The use of Fourier method for harmonic analysis and the Laplace transform is also described. The ma

  9. Electron scattering experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heisenberg, J.

    1984-11-01

    Because of the elementary structure of the electron, it is considered a precise probe of the constituent nature of hadronic matter. Use of the electron as a probe of subnucleonic degrees of freedom in nuclei is discussed in this presentation. Experimentally determined charge distributions for a wide variety of nuclei are presented and compared with shell model calculations which include single particle modes, core polarization, corrections due to delta-hole components, and corrections due to inclusion of meson exchange currents. (AIP)

  10. Electronic Portfolios for Scientists

    OpenAIRE

    Dahn, I.; Christmann, A.

    2007-01-01

    Electronic portfolios (ePortfolios) are electronic versions of paper based portfolios. They are increasingly applied in education. Software for building and maintaining ePortfolios is emerging; open specifications for the exchange of ePortfolios exist. They show the potential to serve as a standard tool for documenting achievements in lifelong learning. In this paper we explore the potential of ePortfolios for scientists.

  11. Electrical and electronic principles

    CERN Document Server

    Knight, SA

    1988-01-01

    Electrical and Electronic Principles, 3 focuses on the principles involved in electrical and electronic circuits, including impedance, inductance, capacitance, and resistance.The book first deals with circuit elements and theorems, D.C. transients, and the series circuits of alternating current. Discussions focus on inductance and resistance in series, resistance and capacitance in series, power factor, impedance, circuit magnification, equation of charge, discharge of a capacitor, transfer of power, and decibels and attenuation. The manuscript then examines the parallel circuits of alternatin

  12. The Recycler Electron Cooler

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shemyakin, A. [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States); Prost, L. R. [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States)

    2013-03-19

    The Recycler Electron cooler was the first (and so far, the only) cooler working at a relativistic energy (γ = 9.5). It was successfully developed in 1995-2004 and was in operation at Fermilab in 2005-2011, providing cooling of antiprotons in the Recycler ring. This paper describes the cooler, difficulties in achieving the required electron beam parameters and the ways to overcome them, cooling measurements, and details of operation.

  13. Trust in Consumer Electronics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kursawe, Klaus; Katzenbeisser, Stefan

    While Trusted Computing is getting increasing attention in the PC world, consumer electronics devices have limited benefit from the Trusted Computing solutions currently under development. In this paper we outline the different requirements of consumer electronics devices, when compared to the PC world, and point out the technical consequences for standards like the Trusted Computing Group. In addition, we will touch on economic aspects that may inhibit or support Trusted Computing in this domain.

  14. Electron spectroscopy analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregory, John C.

    1992-01-01

    The Surface Science Laboratories at the University of Alabama in Huntsville (UAH) are equipped with x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS or ESCA) and Auger electron spectroscopy (AES) facilities. These techniques provide information from the uppermost atomic layers of a sample, and are thus truly surface sensitive. XPS provides both elemental and chemical state information without restriction on the type of material that can be analyzed. The sample is placed into an ultra high vacuum (UHV) chamber and irradiated with x-rays which cause the ejection of photoelectrons from the sample surface. Since x-rays do not normally cause charging problems or beam damage, XPS is applicable to a wide range of samples including metals, polymers, catalysts, and fibers. AES uses a beam of high energy electrons as a surface probe. Following electronic rearrangements within excited atoms by this probe, Auger electrons characteristic of each element present are emitted from the sample. The main advantage of electron induced AES is that the electron beam can be focused down to a small diameter and localized analysis can be carried out. On the rastering of this beam synchronously with a video display using established scanning electron microscopy techniques, physical images and chemical distribution maps of the surface can be produced. Thus very small features, such as electronic circuit elements or corrosion pits in metals, can be investigated. Facilities are available on both XPS and AES instruments for depth-profiling of materials, using a beam of argon ions to sputter away consecutive layers of material to reveal sub-surface (and even semi-bulk) analyses.

  15. Newnes electronics toolkit

    CERN Document Server

    Phillips, Geoff

    2013-01-01

    Newnes Electronics Toolkit brings together fundamental facts, concepts, and applications of electronic components and circuits, and presents them in a clear, concise, and unambiguous format, to provide a reference book for engineers. The book contains 10 chapters that discuss the following concepts: resistors, capacitors, inductors, semiconductors, circuit concepts, electromagnetic compatibility, sound, light, heat, and connections. The engineer's job does not end when the circuit diagram is completed; the design for the manufacturing process is just as important if volume production is to be

  16. Electronic states of myricetin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vojta, Danijela; Karlsen, Eva; Spanget-Larsen, Jens

    2016-01-01

    Myricetin (3,3',4',5,5',7'-hexahydroxyflavone) was investigated by linear dichroism spectroscopy on molecular samples partially aligned in stretched poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA). At least five electronic transitions in the range 40000 – 20000 cm–1 were characterized with respect to their wavenumbers......, relative intensities, and transition moment directions. The observed bands were assigned to electronic transitions predicted with TD-B3LYP/6-31+G(d,p)....

  17. Electronics 3 checkbook

    CERN Document Server

    Knight, S A; May, A J C

    2013-01-01

    Electronics 3 Checkbook provides a concise coverage of the theories and definitions of concepts in electronics. The book provides problems and worked examples to supplement fuller textbooks of the same subject. The coverage of the text includes decibel measurement, operational amplifiers, DA and AD converters, controlled rectifiers, triggering devices, optoelectronic devices, fiber optics, and power amplifiers. The text will be of great use to electrical engineering students who wish to enhance their understanding of the basics of mechanical and electrical science.

  18. Electron Transfer Pathways in Cell

    OpenAIRE

    Yan Liu

    2012-01-01

    Analysis of the electron salvation process data indicates that the electron transfer between the electron donor and acceptor is hindered by the electron salvation process. It is proposed that the electron transfer in the cell environment must be assisted by intermediate messenger called the “transport protein”.

  19. Thermionics basic principles of electronics

    CERN Document Server

    Jenkins, J; Ashhurst, W

    2013-01-01

    Basic Principles of Electronics, Volume I : Thermionics serves as a textbook for students in physics. It focuses on thermionic devices. The book covers topics on electron dynamics, electron emission, and the themionic vacuum diode and triode. Power amplifiers, oscillators, and electronic measuring equipment are studied as well. The text will be of great use to physics and electronics students, and inventors.

  20. Netiquette in Electronic Communication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomáš Kozík

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Electronic mail and electronic communications systems are considered significant and effective tools of communication. One of the most widespread electronic communication tools is e - mail communication. In order to avoid misinterpretation of the report on the side of the recipient, it is need to pay attention to the writing of e - mail messages as well as to their content. With the continuous expansion of the use of electronic communication there have gradually developed certain rules of etiquette in electronic communications. The existing rules of the propriety ones are expressed in the term " etiqutte " and are not automatically applied in the new communications environment - media. For electronic communication, the new rules of etiquette have been stabilised into a term NETIQUETTE. The word netiquette was created by combining words NET (net and ETIKETA (a set of rules of social behavior and habits. Netiquette constitutes the rules of the behavior of users on a network. Although the netiquette is merely "an unwritten set of rules", their not using can be understood as a type of disrespect. Analysis of knowledge of domestic and foreign sources as well as results of a survey confirmed the justification of paying attention to the education of individuals in NETIQUETTE, irrespective of the degree of education.

  1. BOK-Printed Electronics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghaffarian, Reza

    2013-01-01

    The use of printed electronics technologies (PETs), 2D or 3D printing approaches either by conventional electronic fabrication or by rapid graphic printing of organic or nonorganic electronic devices on various small or large rigid or flexible substrates, is projected to grow exponentially in commercial industry. This has provided an opportunity to determine whether or not PETs could be applicable for low volume and high-reliability applications. This report presents a summary of literature surveyed and provides a body of knowledge (BOK) gathered on the current status of organic and printed electronics technologies. It reviews three key industry roadmaps- on this subject-OE-A, ITRS, and iNEMI-each with a different name identification for this emerging technology. This followed by a brief review of the status of the industry on standard development for this technology, including IEEE and IPC specifications. The report concludes with key technologies and applications and provides a technology hierarchy similar to those of conventional microelectronics for electronics packaging. Understanding key technology roadmaps, parameters, and applications is important when judicially selecting and narrowing the follow-up of new and emerging applicable technologies for evaluation, as well as the low risk insertion of organic, large area, and printed electronics.

  2. Good Security Practices for Electronic Commerce, Including Electronic Data Interchange

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-12-01

    FROM - TO) xx-xx-2002 to xx-xx-2002 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Good Security Practices for Electronic Commerce , Including Electronic Data Interchange...Report 12/1/1993 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Good Security Practices for Electronic Commerce , Including Electronic Data Interchange 5. FUNDING NUMBERS 6...Maximum 200 Words) Electronic commerce (EC) is the use of documents in electronic form, rather than paper, for carrying out functions of business or

  3. Electron holes in inhomogeneous magnetic field: electron heating and electron hole evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasko, Ivan; Agapitov, Oleksiy; Mozer, Forrest; Artemyev, Anton; Drake, James

    2016-04-01

    Electron holes are electrostatic non-linear structures widely observed in the space plasma, e.g., in reconnecting current sheets, collisionless bow shocks, Earth auroral region and outer radiation belt etc. In the present paper we analyze the process of energy exchange between trapped electrons, untrapped electrons and electron hole propagating in weakly inhomogeneous magnetic field. We show that as electron hole propagates into the region with stronger magnetic field, trapped electrons are heated due to conservation of the first adiabatic invariant. At the same time electron hole may grow or dissipate in dependence on peculiarities of distribution functions of trapped and resonant untrapped electrons. The energy gain of trapped electrons is due to energy losses of resonant electrons and/or decrease of electron hole energy (electrostatic energy and kinetic energy of non-resonant electrons). We stress that taking into account the energy exchange with resonant untrapped electrons increases the heating factor of trapped electrons that is proportional to the magnetic field magnitude in the region up to what electron holes survive. We illustrate the suggested mechanism for H. Schamel's electron holes and show that during propagation along a positive magnetic field gradient their amplitude should grow. Neglect of energy exchange with resonant untrapped electrons would result electron hole dissipation with only modest heating factor of trapped electrons. We argue that the suggested mechanism may be responsible for generation of energetic electrons in the space plasma.

  4. Runaway electrons and ITER

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boozer, Allen H.

    2017-05-01

    The potential for damage, the magnitude of the extrapolation, and the importance of the atypical—incidents that occur once in a thousand shots—make theory and simulation essential for ensuring that relativistic runaway electrons will not prevent ITER from achieving its mission. Most of the theoretical literature on electron runaway assumes magnetic surfaces exist. ITER planning for the avoidance of halo and runaway currents is focused on massive-gas or shattered-pellet injection of impurities. In simulations of experiments, such injections lead to a rapid large-scale magnetic-surface breakup. Surface breakup, which is a magnetic reconnection, can occur on a quasi-ideal Alfvénic time scale when the resistance is sufficiently small. Nevertheless, the removal of the bulk of the poloidal flux, as in halo-current mitigation, is on a resistive time scale. The acceleration of electrons to relativistic energies requires the confinement of some tubes of magnetic flux within the plasma and a resistive time scale. The interpretation of experiments on existing tokamaks and their extrapolation to ITER should carefully distinguish confined versus unconfined magnetic field lines and quasi-ideal versus resistive evolution. The separation of quasi-ideal from resistive evolution is extremely challenging numerically, but is greatly simplified by constraints of Maxwell’s equations, and in particular those associated with magnetic helicity. The physics of electron runaway along confined magnetic field lines is clarified by relations among the poloidal flux change required for an e-fold in the number of electrons, the energy distribution of the relativistic electrons, and the number of relativistic electron strikes that can be expected in a single disruption event.

  5. Beginning analog electronics through projects

    CERN Document Server

    Singmin, Andrew

    2001-01-01

    Analog electronics is the simplest way to start a fun, informative, learning program. Beginning Analog Electronics Through Projects, Second Edition was written with the needs of beginning hobbyists and students in mind. This revision of Andrew Singmin's popular Beginning Electronics Through Projects provides practical exercises, building techniques, and ideas for useful electronics projects. Additionally, it features new material on analog and digital electronics, and new projects for troubleshooting test equipment.Published in the tradition of Beginning Electronics Through Projects an

  6. Cooling system for electronic components

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderl, William James; Colgan, Evan George; Gerken, James Dorance; Marroquin, Christopher Michael; Tian, Shurong

    2016-05-17

    Embodiments of the present invention provide for non interruptive fluid cooling of an electronic enclosure. One or more electronic component packages may be removable from a circuit card having a fluid flow system. When installed, the electronic component packages are coincident to and in a thermal relationship with the fluid flow system. If a particular electronic component package becomes non-functional, it may be removed from the electronic enclosure without affecting either the fluid flow system or other neighboring electronic component packages.

  7. Cooling system for electronic components

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderl, William James; Colgan, Evan George; Gerken, James Dorance; Marroquin, Christopher Michael; Tian, Shurong

    2015-12-15

    Embodiments of the present invention provide for non interruptive fluid cooling of an electronic enclosure. One or more electronic component packages may be removable from a circuit card having a fluid flow system. When installed, the electronic component packages are coincident to and in a thermal relationship with the fluid flow system. If a particular electronic component package becomes non-functional, it may be removed from the electronic enclosure without affecting either the fluid flow system or other neighboring electronic component packages.

  8. Microfluidic stretchable RF electronics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Shi; Wu, Zhigang

    2010-12-07

    Stretchable electronics is a revolutionary technology that will potentially create a world of radically different electronic devices and systems that open up an entirely new spectrum of possibilities. This article proposes a microfluidic based solution for stretchable radio frequency (RF) electronics, using hybrid integration of active circuits assembled on flex foils and liquid alloy passive structures embedded in elastic substrates, e.g. polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS). This concept was employed to implement a 900 MHz stretchable RF radiation sensor, consisting of a large area elastic antenna and a cluster of conventional rigid components for RF power detection. The integrated radiation sensor except the power supply was fully embedded in a thin elastomeric substrate. Good electrical performance of the standalone stretchable antenna as well as the RF power detection sub-module was verified by experiments. The sensor successfully detected the RF radiation over 5 m distance in the system demonstration. Experiments on two-dimensional (2D) stretching up to 15%, folding and twisting of the demonstrated sensor were also carried out. Despite the integrated device was severely deformed, no failure in RF radiation sensing was observed in the tests. This technique illuminates a promising route of realizing stretchable and foldable large area integrated RF electronics that are of great interest to a variety of applications like wearable computing, health monitoring, medical diagnostics, and curvilinear electronics.

  9. Electron microscope phase enhancement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Jian; Glaeser, Robert M.

    2010-06-15

    A microfabricated electron phase shift element is used for modifying the phase characteristics of an electron beam passing though its center aperture, while not affecting the more divergent portion of an incident beam to selectively provide a ninety-degree phase shift to the unscattered beam in the back focal plan of the objective lens, in order to realize Zernike-type, in-focus phase contrast in an electron microscope. One application of the element is to increase the contrast of an electron microscope for viewing weakly scattering samples while in focus. Typical weakly scattering samples include biological samples such as macromolecules, or perhaps cells. Preliminary experimental images demonstrate that these devices do apply a ninety degree phase shift as expected. Electrostatic calculations have been used to determine that fringing fields in the region of the scattered electron beams will cause a negligible phase shift as long as the ratio of electrode length to the transverse feature-size aperture is about 5:1. Calculations are underway to determine the feasibility of aspect smaller aspect ratios of about 3:1 and about 2:1.

  10. Electronic Spectroscopy & Dynamics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mark Maroncelli, Nancy Ryan Gray

    2010-06-08

    The Gordon Research Conference (GRC) on Electronic Spectroscopy and Dynamics was held at Colby College, Waterville, NH from 07/19/2009 thru 07/24/2009. The Conference was well-attended with participants (attendees list attached). The attendees represented the spectrum of endeavor in this field coming from academia, industry, and government laboratories, both U.S. and foreign scientists, senior researchers, young investigators, and students. The GRC on Electronic Spectroscopy & Dynamics showcases some of the most recent experimental and theoretical developments in electronic spectroscopy that probes the structure and dynamics of isolated molecules, molecules embedded in clusters and condensed phases, and bulk materials. Electronic spectroscopy is an important tool in many fields of research, and this GRC brings together experts having diverse backgrounds in physics, chemistry, biophysics, and materials science, making the meeting an excellent opportunity for the interdisciplinary exchange of ideas and techniques. Topics covered in this GRC include high-resolution spectroscopy, biological molecules in the gas phase, electronic structure theory for excited states, multi-chromophore and single-molecule spectroscopies, and excited state dynamics in chemical and biological systems.

  11. Reversibly Bistable Flexible Electronics

    KAUST Repository

    Alfaraj, Nasir

    2015-05-01

    Introducing the notion of transformational silicon electronics has paved the way for integrating various applications with silicon-based, modern, high-performance electronic circuits that are mechanically flexible and optically semitransparent. While maintaining large-scale production and prototyping rapidity, this flexible and translucent scheme demonstrates the potential to transform conventionally stiff electronic devices into thin and foldable ones without compromising long-term performance and reliability. In this work, we report on the fabrication and characterization of reversibly bistable flexible electronic switches that utilize flexible n-channel metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistors. The transistors are fabricated initially on rigid (100) silicon substrates before they are peeled off. They can be used to control flexible batches of light-emitting diodes, demonstrating both the relative ease of scaling at minimum cost and maximum reliability and the feasibility of integration. The peeled-off silicon fabric is about 25 µm thick. The fabricated devices are transferred to a reversibly bistable flexible platform through which, for example, a flexible smartphone can be wrapped around a user’s wrist and can also be set back to its original mechanical position. Buckling and cyclic bending of such host platforms brings a completely new dimension to the development of flexible electronics, especially rollable displays.

  12. Electronic Commerce user manual

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-04-10

    This User Manual supports the Electronic Commerce Standard System. The Electronic Commerce Standard System is being developed for the Department of Defense of the Technology Information Systems Program at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, operated by the University of California for the Department of Energy. The Electronic Commerce Standard System, or EC as it is known, provides the capability for organizations to conduct business electronically instead of through paper transactions. Electronic Commerce and Computer Aided Acquisition and Logistics Support, are two major projects under the DoD`s Corporate Information Management program, whose objective is to make DoD business transactions faster and less costly by using computer networks instead of paper forms and postage. EC runs on computers that use the UNIX operating system and provides a standard set of applications and tools that are bound together by a common command and menu system. These applications and tools may vary according to the requirements of the customer or location and may be customized to meet the specific needs of an organization. Local applications can be integrated into the menu system under the Special Databases & Applications option on the EC main menu. These local applications will be documented in the appendices of this manual. This integration capability provides users with a common environment of standard and customized applications.

  13. Electronic Commerce user manual

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-04-10

    This User Manual supports the Electronic Commerce Standard System. The Electronic Commerce Standard System is being developed for the Department of Defense of the Technology Information Systems Program at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, operated by the University of California for the Department of Energy. The Electronic Commerce Standard System, or EC as it is known, provides the capability for organizations to conduct business electronically instead of through paper transactions. Electronic Commerce and Computer Aided Acquisition and Logistics Support, are two major projects under the DoD's Corporate Information Management program, whose objective is to make DoD business transactions faster and less costly by using computer networks instead of paper forms and postage. EC runs on computers that use the UNIX operating system and provides a standard set of applications and tools that are bound together by a common command and menu system. These applications and tools may vary according to the requirements of the customer or location and may be customized to meet the specific needs of an organization. Local applications can be integrated into the menu system under the Special Databases Applications option on the EC main menu. These local applications will be documented in the appendices of this manual. This integration capability provides users with a common environment of standard and customized applications.

  14. Pulsed electron beam precharger

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Finney, W.C. (ed.); Shelton, W.N.

    1990-01-01

    Electrostatic collection of a high resistivity aerosol using the Electron Beam Precipitator (EBP) collecting section was demonstrated during this reporting period (Quarter Five). Collection efficiency experiments were designed to confirm and extend some of the work performed under the previous contract. The reason for doing this was to attempt to improve upon the collection efficiency of the precipitator alone when testing with a very high resistivity, moderate-to-high concentration dust load. From the collector shakedown runs, a set of suitable operational parameters were determined for the downstream electrostatic collecting sections of the Electron Beam Precipitator wind tunnel. These parameters, along with those for the MINACC electron beam, will generally be held constant while the numerous precharging parameters are varied to produce an optimum particle charge. The electrostatic collector experiments were part of a larger, comprehensive investigation on electron beam precharging of high resistivity aerosol particles performed during the period covered by Quarters Five, Six, and Seven. This body of work used the same experimental apparatus and procedures and the experimental run period lasted nearly continuously for six months. A summary of the Quarter Five work is presented in the following paragraphs. Section II-A of TPR 5 contains a report on the continuing effort which was expended on the modification and upgrade of the pulsed power supply and the monitoring systems prior to the initiation of the electron beam precharging experimental work.

  15. Electron correlation in beryllium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Omiste, Juan J.; Li, Wenliang; Madsen, Lars Bojer

    2017-01-01

    We apply a three-dimensional implementation of the time-dependent restricted-active-space self-consistent-field (TD-RASSCF) method to investigate effects of electron correlation in the ground state of Be as well as in its photoionization dynamics by short XUV pulses, including time delay in photo......We apply a three-dimensional implementation of the time-dependent restricted-active-space self-consistent-field (TD-RASSCF) method to investigate effects of electron correlation in the ground state of Be as well as in its photoionization dynamics by short XUV pulses, including time delay...... schemes, and in this way we identify the orbital spaces that are relevant for an accurate description of the photoelectron spectra. Finally, we investigate the effects of electron correlation on the magnitude of the relative Eisenbud-Wigner-Smith (EWS) time delay in the photoionization process into two...... different ionic channels. One channel, the ground-state channel in the ion, is accessible without electron correlation. The other channel is only accessible when including electron correlation. For theory beyond the mean-field time-dependent Hartree-Fock, the EWS time delay for the photon energy analyzed...

  16. Electronic Submissions of Pesticide Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Applications for pesticide registration can be submitted electronically, including forms, studies, and draft product labeling. Applicants need not submit multiple electronic copies of any pieces of their applications.

  17. Phasor power electronics

    CERN Document Server

    Rim, Chun T

    2016-01-01

    This book presents a comprehensive introduction to the principles of power electronics, focusing on the switched transformer concept and phasor transformation techniques as employed in the analysis and design of power electronic circuits. Phasor transformations, as introduced in this book, make the time-varying nature of a switching converter simple and easy to handle, transforming it into an equivalent time-invariant circuit. The book starts with an introduction to the philosophy and fundamental principles of power electronics. The switched transformer concept, which is applicable to any switching converter, is introduced, and it is shown how DC-DC converters analyses are then so straightforward that very little equational manipulation is needed. Then the phasor transformation techniques are comprehensively explained over three parts. Single phase and multi-phase AC systems are dealt with through the single phase phasor transformation and circuit DQ transformation, respectively. A general unified phasor tran...

  18. Understanding the Electron

    CERN Document Server

    Knuth, Kevin H

    2015-01-01

    Well over a century after the discovery of the electron, we are still faced with serious conceptual issues regarding precisely what an electron is. Since the development of particle physics and the Standard Model, we have accumulated a great deal of knowledge about the relationships among various subatomic particles. However, this knowledge has not significantly aided in our understanding of the fundamental nature of any particular elementary subatomic particle. The fact that many particle properties, such as position, time, speed, energy, momentum, and component of spin, are observer-dependent suggests that these relevant variables do not represent properties per se, but rather the relationship between the observer and the observed. That is, they reflect details about how the electron influences the observer, and vice versa. Here we attempt to understand this by considering a simple model where particles influence one another in a discrete and direct fashion. The resulting framework, referred to as Influence...

  19. On Zitterbewegung of Electron

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Zhi-yong; XIONG Cai-dong; ZHOU Ping

    2005-01-01

    Traditionally, all the discussions on zitterbewegung (zbw) of electron are based on relativistic quantum mechanics. In this article, from the viewpoint of quantum field theory and in terms of the creation and annihilation operators as well as the polarization vectors of spin-1 field, a more detailed description and some new perspectives for zbw are obtained. Especially, it is shown that zbw arises from a to-and-fro vacuum polarization that occurring in the neighborhood of electron; the zbw vectors form a vector triplet with total spin projections 0 and ±1 in the direction of the momentum of electron, respectively; the macroscopic velocity of the vacuum medium vanishes in all inertial systems.

  20. Electronic apex locators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, M P J; Chandler, N P

    2004-07-01

    Prior to root canal treatment at least one undistorted radiograph is required to assess canal morphology. The apical extent of instrumentation and the final root filling have a role in treatment success, and are primarily determined radiographically. Electronic apex locators reduce the number of radiographs required and assist where radiographic methods create difficulty. They may also indicate cases where the apical foramen is some distance from the radiographic apex. Other roles include the detection of root canal perforation. A review of the literature focussed first on the subject of electronic apex location. A second review used the names of apex location devices. From the combined searches, 113 pertinent articles in English were found. This paper reviews the development, action, use and types of electronic apex locators.

  1. Electron Technology: ELTE 2016

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pisarkiewicz, Tadeusz; Kucewicz, Wojciech

    2016-12-01

    In this paper we present a review of research results and technical accomplishments presented by researchers from technical universities, governmental institutes and research companies during the XIIth Scientific Conference Electron Technology, ELTE 2016. This review is based on materials presented at four topical conference sessions: Microelectronics and Nanoelectronics, Photonics, Materials and Technologies, and Microsystems and also on materials presented by invited speakers at two dedicated sessions. Oral sessions were accompanied by the poster sessions. In effect about 50 papers gathered in this volume reflect the topics discussed at the Conference. A short description of technological and measurement possibilities in the laboratories of Academic Centre for Materials and Nanotechnology and also in the Department of Electronics of the Faculty of Computer Science, Electronics and Telecommunications AGH UST are given.

  2. Microelectronics improves power electronics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diehl, R.

    1982-07-01

    The share of electric energy consumed by electric drives - called power current - can be used more efficiently by using power electronic regulating processes. Lower cost for power electronic components and progress in circuit technology are the decisive factors for the widespread use of regulating units. Microelectronics permit a cost-beneficial control of power regulating units, are made them more attractive for the user. Technical and economic attractivity of power electronic regulating processes have increased. These processes are mainly used for adjusting engine speed to the other process engineering parameters like pressure, output or speed. Optimization of power-current consuming processes are expected to achieve an energy saving potential of 15 TWh by the year 1995.

  3. 4D Electron Tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Oh-Hoon; Zewail, Ahmed H.

    2010-06-01

    Electron tomography provides three-dimensional (3D) imaging of noncrystalline and crystalline equilibrium structures, as well as elemental volume composition, of materials and biological specimens, including those of viruses and cells. We report the development of 4D electron tomography by integrating the fourth dimension (time resolution) with the 3D spatial resolution obtained from a complete tilt series of 2D projections of an object. The different time frames of tomograms constitute a movie of the object in motion, thus enabling studies of nonequilibrium structures and transient processes. The method was demonstrated using carbon nanotubes of a bracelet-like ring structure for which 4D tomograms display different modes of motion, such as breathing and wiggling, with resonance frequencies up to 30 megahertz. Applications can now make use of the full space-time range with the nanometer-femtosecond resolution of ultrafast electron tomography.

  4. Electronic network links physicists

    Science.gov (United States)

    Now that AGU is a member of the American Institute of Physics (AIP) (see item on page 150), AGU members may access Pi-NET, the Physics Information Network developed by AIP on behalf of its member societies. The electronic network will be available after March 31, 1986, to members of AIP member and affiliate societies for the cost of a local telephone call.This electronic database service provides listings of job opportunities in physics, calendars of meetings, advance abstracts of more than 40 journals published by AIP and member societies, brief announcements and news items, titles of journal articles from AIP's Searchable Physics Information Notices (SPIN) database, and an electronic catalog and on-line ordering of publications from AIP and member societies. AGU journals will be included in the database shortly.

  5. Laser assisted electron dynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Bray, Alexander William

    2016-01-01

    We apply the convergent close-coupling (CCC) formalism to analyse the processes of laser assisted electron impact ionisation of He, and the attosecond time delay in the photodetachment of the H^{-} ion and the photoionisation of He. Such time dependent atomic collision processes are of considerable interest as experimental measurements on the relevant timescale (attoseconds 10^{-18} s) are now possible utilising ultrafast and intense laser pulses. These processes in particular are furthermore of interest as they are strongly influenced by many-electron correlations. In such cases their theoretical description requires a more comprehensive treatment than that offered by first order perturbation theory. We apply such a treatment through the use of the CCC formalism which involves the complete numeric solution of the integral Lippmann-Schwinger equations pertaining to a particular scattering event. For laser assisted electron impact ionisation of He such a treatment is of a considerably greater accuracy than the...

  6. Relativistic Runaway Electrons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breizman, Boris

    2014-10-01

    This talk covers recent developments in the theory of runaway electrons in a tokamak with an emphasis on highly relativistic electrons produced via the avalanche mechanism. The rapidly growing population of runaway electrons can quickly replace a large part of the initial current carried by the bulk plasma electrons. The magnetic energy associated with this current is typically much greater than the particle kinetic energy. The current of a highly relativistic runaway beam is insensitive to the particle energy, which separates the description of the runaway current evolution from the description of the runaway energy spectrum. A strongly anisotropic distribution of fast electrons is generally prone to high-frequency kinetic instabilities that may cause beneficial enhancement of runaway energy losses. The relevant instabilities are in the frequency range of whistler waves and electron plasma waves. The instability thresholds reported in earlier work have been revised considerably to reflect strong dependence of collisional damping on the wave frequency and the role of plasma non-uniformity, including radial trapping of the excited waves in the plasma. The talk also includes a discussion of enhanced scattering of the runaways as well as the combined effect of enhanced scattering and synchrotron radiation. A noteworthy feature of the avalanche-produced runaway current is a self-sustained regime of marginal criticality: the inductive electric field has to be close to its critical value (representing avalanche threshold) at every location where the runaway current density is finite, and the current density should vanish at any point where the electric field drops below its critical value. This nonlinear Ohm's law enables complete description of the evolving current profile. Work supported by the U.S. Department of Energy Contract No. DEFG02-04ER54742 and by ITER contract ITER-CT-12-4300000273. The views and opinions expressed herein do not necessarily reflect those of

  7. Electron-electron correlations in liquid s-p metals

    CERN Document Server

    Leys, F E

    2003-01-01

    We present calculations for the valence electron-electron structure factor in liquid Mg near freezing, assuming knowledge of the jellium result. On the basis of this, we predict significant corrections to jellium short-range correlations in liquid s-p metals and in particular an increase in the electron-electron contact probability.

  8. Electron kinetics in capacitively coupled plasmas modulated by electron injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ya; Peng, Yanli; Innocenti, Maria Elena; Jiang, Wei; Wang, Hong-yu; Lapenta, Giovanni

    2017-09-01

    The controlling effect of an electron injection on the electron energy distribution function (EEDF) and on the energetic electron flux, in a capacitive radio-frequency argon plasma, is studied using a one-dimensional particle-in-cell/Monte Carlo collisions model. The input power of the electron beam is as small as several tens of Watts with laboratory achievable emission currents and energies. With the electron injection, the electron temperature decreases but with a significant high energy tail. The electron density, electron temperature in the sheath, and electron heating rate increase with the increasing emission energy. This is attributed to the extra heating of the energetic electrons in the EEDF tail. The non-equilibrium EEDF is obtained for strong non-local distributions of the electric field, electron heating rate, excitation, and ionization rate, indicating the discharge has transited from a volume heating (α-mode dominated) into a sheath heating (γ-mode dominated) type. In addition, the electron injection not only modifies the self-bias voltage, but also enhances the electron flux that can reach the electrodes. Moreover, the relative population of energetic electrons significantly increases with the electron injection compared to that without the electron injection, relevant for modifying the gas and surface chemistry reactions.

  9. Advances in quantum electronics

    CERN Document Server

    Goodwin, D W

    1974-01-01

    Advances in Quantum Electronics, Volume 2 deals with the effects of quantum mechanics on the behavior of electrons in matter. This book is divided into three chapters. Chapter 1 reviews the statistical properties of optical fields and spectral processing techniques, including the use of photon correlation techniques to measure scattering effects in a number of different media. The use of optical E.P.R. and excitation spectroscopic techniques and techniques for establishing the location of impurity ions in the chalcogenides are describe in Chapter 2. The last chapter surveys the field of mode l

  10. Recycling of electronic scrap

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Legarth, Jens Brøbech

    This Ph.D. thesis deals with the growingly important field of electronics recycling with special attention to the problem of printed circuit board recycling. A literature survey of contemporary electronics recycling and printed circuit board recycling is presented.Further, an analysis of the role...... in the metals producing industry is presented and tested on two printed circuit board scrap cases. The underlying idea for the method is that complex scrap should be introduced in the matrix of man-made material flows at recipient points where the scrap constitutes the least environmental problem and where...

  11. Advances in electronic materials

    CERN Document Server

    Kasper, Erich; Grimmeiss, Hermann G

    2008-01-01

    This special-topic volume, Advances in Electronic Materials, covers various fields of materials research such as silicon, silicon-germanium hetero-structures, high-k materials, III-V semiconductor alloys and organic materials, as well as nano-structures for spintronics and photovoltaics. It begins with a brief summary of the formative years of microelectronics; now the keystone of information technology. The latter remains one of the most important global technologies, and is an extremely complex subject-area. Although electronic materials are primarily associated with computers, the internet

  12. Electronically configured battery pack

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kemper, D.

    1997-03-01

    Battery packs for portable equipment must sometimes accommodate conflicting requirements to meet application needs. An electronically configurable battery pack was developed to support two highly different operating modes, one requiring very low power consumption at a low voltage and the other requiring high power consumption at a higher voltage. The configurable battery pack optimizes the lifetime and performance of the system by making the best use of all available energy thus enabling the system to meet its goals of operation, volume, and lifetime. This paper describes the cell chemistry chosen, the battery pack electronics, and tradeoffs made during the evolution of its design.

  13. Conventional transmission electron microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winey, Mark; Meehl, Janet B; O'Toole, Eileen T; Giddings, Thomas H

    2014-02-01

    Researchers have used transmission electron microscopy (TEM) to make contributions to cell biology for well over 50 years, and TEM continues to be an important technology in our field. We briefly present for the neophyte the components of a TEM-based study, beginning with sample preparation through imaging of the samples. We point out the limitations of TEM and issues to be considered during experimental design. Advanced electron microscopy techniques are listed as well. Finally, we point potential new users of TEM to resources to help launch their project.

  14. Electronics for technicians

    CERN Document Server

    Crane, P W

    2013-01-01

    Electronics for Technicians covers the basic fundamentals of electronics, including the operation of devices and circuits. The book is meant to help the technician to obtain numerical answers to actual circuit problems. This volume consists of seven chapters, the first of which introduces the reader to the basic rules for circuits containing resistive and reactive elements. Charge and discharge of a capacitor through a resistor is discussed, along with charge and discharge of an inductance through a resistance, application of sinusoidal voltages to simple networks, and series and parallel LCR

  15. Precision electron polarimetry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chudakov, E. [Jefferson Lab 12000 Jefferson Ave, STE 16, Newport News, VA 23606 (United States)

    2013-11-07

    A new generation of precise Parity-Violating experiments will require a sub-percent accuracy of electron beam polarimetry. Compton polarimetry can provide such accuracy at high energies, but at a few hundred MeV the small analyzing power limits the sensitivity. Mo/ller polarimetry provides a high analyzing power independent on the beam energy, but is limited by the properties of the polarized targets commonly used. Options for precision polarimetry at 300 MeV will be discussed, in particular a proposal to use ultra-cold atomic hydrogen traps to provide a 100%-polarized electron target for Mo/ller polarimetry.

  16. Pulsed Electron Holography

    CERN Document Server

    Germann, Matthias; Escher, Conrad; Fink, Hans-Werner

    2013-01-01

    A technique of pulsed low-energy electron holography is introduced that allows for recording highly resolved holograms within reduced exposure times. Therefore, stacks of holograms are accumulated in a pulsed mode with individual acquisition times as short as 50 {\\mu}s. Subsequently, these holograms are aligned and finally superimposed. The resulting holographic record reveals previously latent high-order interference fringes and thereby pushing interference resolution into the sub-nanometer regime. In view of the non-damaging character of low-energy electrons, the method is of particular interest for structural analysis of fragile biomolecules.

  17. Electronics 2 checkbook

    CERN Document Server

    Knight, S A

    2013-01-01

    Electronics 2 Checkbook is an 11-chapter text that presents problems and worked examples to establish and exemplify the theory contained in technical syllabuses, with a particular emphasis on electronics.The introductory chapters review the elementary theory of semiconductors and the p-n junction diode. The subsequent chapters deal with the applications of diode, the characteristics of bipolar transistors, and the mode of operation of small signal amplifiers. These topics are followed by discussions of the function of the field-effect transistor and power supplies. The concluding chapters expl

  18. VLSI electronics microstructure science

    CERN Document Server

    1981-01-01

    VLSI Electronics: Microstructure Science, Volume 3 evaluates trends for the future of very large scale integration (VLSI) electronics and the scientific base that supports its development.This book discusses the impact of VLSI on computer architectures; VLSI design and design aid requirements; and design, fabrication, and performance of CCD imagers. The approaches, potential, and progress of ultra-high-speed GaAs VLSI; computer modeling of MOSFETs; and numerical physics of micron-length and submicron-length semiconductor devices are also elaborated. This text likewise covers the optical linewi

  19. Electronic Word of Behavior

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kunst, Katrine

    It is widely recognized that the transition from Word-of-mouth (WOM) to electronic word-of-mouth (eWOM) allows for a wider and faster spread of information. However, little attention has been given to how digital channels expand the types of information consumers share. In this paper, we argue...... of the concepts do not capture this new kind of consumer-to-consumer information transfer about products and services. Consequently, we suggest an extension of those concepts: Electronic Word of Behavior....

  20. Modern electronic maintenance principles

    CERN Document Server

    Garland, DJ

    2013-01-01

    Modern Electronic Maintenance Principles reviews the principles of maintaining modern, complex electronic equipment, with emphasis on preventive and corrective maintenance. Unfamiliar subjects such as the half-split method of fault location, functional diagrams, and fault finding guides are explained. This book consists of 12 chapters and begins by stressing the need for maintenance principles and discussing the problem of complexity as well as the requirements for a maintenance technician. The next chapter deals with the connection between reliability and maintenance and defines the terms fai

  1. Practical electronics handbook

    CERN Document Server

    Sinclair, Ian R

    1988-01-01

    Practical Electronics Handbook, Second Edition covers information useful in electronics, with focus on mathematical conventions. The handbook discusses the passive (resistors, capacitors, band coding, and inductors) and active discrete (diodes, transistors and negative feedback) components; discrete component circuits; and transferring digital data. Linear I.C.s, which are the single-chip arrangements of amplifier circuits that are intended to be biased and operated in a linear way, and digital I.C.s, which process signals and consist of two significant voltage levels, are also considered. T

  2. Gallium nitride electronics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajan, Siddharth; Jena, Debdeep

    2013-07-01

    In the past two decades, there has been increasing research and industrial activity in the area of gallium nitride (GaN) electronics, stimulated first by the successful demonstration of GaN LEDs. While the promise of wide band gap semiconductors for power electronics was recognized many years before this by one of the contributors to this issue (J Baliga), the success in the area of LEDs acted as a catalyst. It set the field of GaN electronics in motion, and today the technology is improving the performance of several applications including RF cell phone base stations and military radar. GaN could also play a very important role in reducing worldwide energy consumption by enabling high efficiency compact power converters operating at high voltages and lower frequencies. While GaN electronics is a rapidly evolving area with active research worldwide, this special issue provides an opportunity to capture some of the great advances that have been made in the last 15 years. The issue begins with a section on epitaxy and processing, followed by an overview of high-frequency HEMTs, which have been the most commercially successful application of III-nitride electronics to date. This is followed by review and research articles on power-switching transistors, which are currently of great interest to the III-nitride community. A section of this issue is devoted to the reliability of III-nitride devices, an area that is of increasing significance as the research focus has moved from not just high performance but also production-worthiness and long-term usage of these devices. Finally, a group of papers on new and relatively less studied ideas for III-nitride electronics, such as interband tunneling, heterojunction bipolar transistors, and high-temperature electronics is included. These areas point to new areas of research and technological innovation going beyond the state of the art into the future. We hope that the breadth and quality of articles in this issue will make it

  3. Electronics made simple

    CERN Document Server

    Olsen, George H

    1987-01-01

    Electronics: Made Simple covers the fundamental principles, basic devices, characteristics, and application of electronic equipment.This book is divided into 15 chapters and begins with reviews of the properties and behavior of resistors, capacitors, inductors, and semiconductor devices. Considerable chapters deal with how these devices can be assembled into useful fundamental circuits such as amplifiers, oscillators and power supplies. These topics are followed by discussions of the importance of integrated circuits and the use of digital equipment and photocells in control and computing appa

  4. Electronic components and technology

    CERN Document Server

    Sangwine, Stephen

    2007-01-01

    Most introductory textbooks in electronics focus on the theory while leaving the practical aspects to be covered in laboratory courses. However, the sooner such matters are introduced, the better able students will be to include such important concerns as parasitic effects and reliability at the very earliest stages of design. This philosophy has kept Electronic Components and Technology thriving for two decades, and this completely updated third edition continues the approach with a more international outlook.Not only does this textbook introduce the properties, behavior, fabrication, and use

  5. Nanotube electronics and optoelectronics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Phaedon Avouris

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Among the many materials that have been proposed to supplement and, in the long run, possibly succeed Si as a basis for nanoelectronics, carbon nanotubes (CNTs have attracted the most attention. CNTs are quasi-one-dimensional materials with unique properties ideally suited for electronics. We briefly discuss the electrical and optical properties of CNTs and how they can be employed in electronics and optoelectronics. We focus on single CNT transistors, their fabrication, assembly, doping, electrical characteristics, and integration. We also address the possible use of CNTs in optoelectronic devices such as electroluminescent light emitters and photodetectors.

  6. Relativistic electronic dressing

    CERN Document Server

    Attaourti, Y

    2002-01-01

    We study the effects of the relativistic electronic dressing in laser-assisted electron-hydrogen atom elastic collisions. We begin by considering the case when no radiation is present. This is necessary in order to check the consistency of our calculations and we then carry out the calculations using the relativistic Dirac-Volkov states. It turns out that a simple formal analogy links the analytical expressions of the differential cross section without laser and the differential cross section in presence of a laser field.

  7. Diagnostic electron microscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dickersin, G.R.

    1988-01-01

    In this book the author presents a comprehensive reference text on diagnostic electron microscopy. Throughout the book he illustrates how ultrastructural identification can be helpful for the recognition of cell type and the identification of mechanisms of pathogenesis in various diseases. In addition to electron microscopy photographs, there are also numerous light microscopy photographs for comparison. This text presents the classification of neoplasms in the order and arrangement most familiar to the pathologist. Contents: Introduction; Diagram of a Normal Cell; Normal Cell Function; Embryology; Neoplasms; Infectious Agents; Metabolic Diseases; Renal Diseases; Skeletal Muscle and Peripheral Nerve Diseases; Index.

  8. Electronic logic circuits

    CERN Document Server

    Gibson, J

    2013-01-01

    Most branches of organizing utilize digital electronic systems. This book introduces the design of such systems using basic logic elements as the components. The material is presented in a straightforward manner suitable for students of electronic engineering and computer science. The book is also of use to engineers in related disciplines who require a clear introduction to logic circuits. This third edition has been revised to encompass the most recent advances in technology as well as the latest trends in components and notation. It includes a wide coverage of application specific integrate

  9. Precision electron polarimetry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chudakov, Eugene A. [JLAB

    2013-11-01

    A new generation of precise Parity-Violating experiments will require a sub-percent accuracy of electron beam polarimetry. Compton polarimetry can provide such accuracy at high energies, but at a few hundred MeV the small analyzing power limits the sensitivity. M{\\o}ller polarimetry provides a high analyzing power independent on the beam energy, but is limited by the properties of the polarized targets commonly used. Options for precision polarimetry at ~300 MeV will be discussed, in particular a proposal to use ultra-cold atomic hydrogen traps to provide a 100\\%-polarized electron target for M{\\o}ller polarimetry.

  10. Improved electron transport layer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2012-01-01

    The present invention provides: a method of preparing a coating ink for forming a zinc oxide electron transport layer, comprising mixing zinc acetate and a wetting agent in water or methanol; a coating ink comprising zinc acetate and a wetting agent in aqueous solution or methanolic solution...

  11. Using Electronic Portfolios

    Science.gov (United States)

    Page, Deb

    2012-01-01

    The digitized collections of artifacts known as electronic portfolios are creating solutions to a variety of performance improvement needs in ways that are cost-effective and improve both individual and group learning and performance. When social media functionality is embedded in e-portfolios, the tools support collaboration, social learning,…

  12. Quantitative Electron Nanodiffraction.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spence, John [Arizona State Univ., Mesa, AZ (United States)

    2015-01-30

    This Final report summarizes progress under this award for the final reporting period 2002 - 2013 in our development of quantitive electron nanodiffraction to materials problems, especially devoted to atomistic processes in semiconductors and electronic oxides such as the new artificial oxide multilayers, where our microdiffraction is complemented with energy-loss spectroscopy (ELNES) and aberration-corrected STEM imaging (9). The method has also been used to map out the chemical bonds in the important GaN semiconductor (1) used for solid state lighting, and to understand the effects of stacking sequence variations and interfaces in digital oxide superlattices (8). Other projects include the development of a laser-beam Zernike phase plate for cryo-electron microscopy (5) (based on the Kapitza-Dirac effect), work on reconstruction of molecular images using the scattering from many identical molecules lying in random orientations (4), a review article on space-group determination for the International Tables on Crystallography (10), the observation of energy-loss spectra with millivolt energy resolution and sub-nanometer spatial resolution from individual point defects in an alkali halide, a review article for the Centenary of X-ray Diffration (17) and the development of a new method of electron-beam lithography (12). We briefly summarize here the work on GaN, on oxide superlattice ELNES, and on lithography by STEM.

  13. Inventing the Electronic University

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, David W.

    2015-01-01

    Higher education is confronting a fundamental change. The transition from print on paper to digital and electronic technologies is transforming instruction, scholarly communication, and the storage and preservation of knowledge. What is required is not the automation of old systems, but the restructuring of institutions. The drive for autonomy,…

  14. Power Electronics Thermal Management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moreno, Gilberto [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-08-07

    Thermal modeling was conducted to evaluate and develop thermal management strategies for high-temperature wide-bandgap (WBG)-based power electronics systems. WBG device temperatures of 175 degrees C to 250 degrees C were modeled under various under-hood temperature environments. Modeling result were used to identify the most effective capacitor cooling strategies under high device temperature conditions.

  15. Polymer Electronics, Quo Vadis?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chiechi, Ryan C.; Hummelen, Jan C.

    2012-01-01

    At the heart of polymer electronics lies more than three decades of research into conjugated polymers. The future of these materials is intimately tied to the development of organic photovoltaic (OPV) devices that can compete with traditional, inorganic devices in efficiency and cost. In addition to

  16. Polymer Electronics, Quo Vadis?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chiechi, Ryan C.; Hummelen, Jan C.

    2012-01-01

    At the heart of polymer electronics lies more than three decades of research into conjugated polymers. The future of these materials is intimately tied to the development of organic photovoltaic (OPV) devices that can compete with traditional, inorganic devices in efficiency and cost. In addition to

  17. Electronic Inspection of Beef

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anselmo, Victor J.; Gammell, Paul M.; Clark, Jerry

    1987-01-01

    Two proposed methods for grading beef quality based on inspection by electronic equipment: one method uses television camera to generate image of a cut of beef as customer sees it; other uses ultrasonics to inspect live animal or unsliced carcasses. Both methods show promise for automated meat inspection.

  18. The electronic stethoscope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leng, Shuang; Tan, Ru San; Chai, Kevin Tshun Chuan; Wang, Chao; Ghista, Dhanjoo; Zhong, Liang

    2015-07-10

    Most heart diseases are associated with and reflected by the sounds that the heart produces. Heart auscultation, defined as listening to the heart sound, has been a very important method for the early diagnosis of cardiac dysfunction. Traditional auscultation requires substantial clinical experience and good listening skills. The emergence of the electronic stethoscope has paved the way for a new field of computer-aided auscultation. This article provides an in-depth study of (1) the electronic stethoscope technology, and (2) the methodology for diagnosis of cardiac disorders based on computer-aided auscultation. The paper is based on a comprehensive review of (1) literature articles, (2) market (state-of-the-art) products, and (3) smartphone stethoscope apps. It covers in depth every key component of the computer-aided system with electronic stethoscope, from sensor design, front-end circuitry, denoising algorithm, heart sound segmentation, to the final machine learning techniques. Our intent is to provide an informative and illustrative presentation of the electronic stethoscope, which is valuable and beneficial to academics, researchers and engineers in the technical field, as well as to medical professionals to facilitate its use clinically. The paper provides the technological and medical basis for the development and commercialization of a real-time integrated heart sound detection, acquisition and quantification system.

  19. The Art of Electronics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horowitz, Paul; Hill, Winfield

    2015-04-01

    1. Foundations; 2. Bipolar transistors; 3. Field effect transistors; 4. Operational amplifiers; 5. Precision circuits; 6. Filters; 7. Oscillators and timers; 8. Low noise techniques and transimpedance; 9. Power regulation; 10. Digital electronics; 11. Programmable logic devices; 12. Logical interfacing; 13. Digital meets analog; 14. Computers, controllers, and data links; 15. Microcontrollers.

  20. Unconditionally Secure Electronic Voting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otsuka, Akira; Imai, Hideki

    In this chapter, we will show how to achieve unconditional or information-theoretic security in electronic voting with the following property: 1 Even all voters and tallying authorities have unbounded computing power, the distorted integrity of the voting results can be detected and proved incorrect by every honest voter,

  1. Electronic waste recycling techniques

    CERN Document Server

    Bernardes, Andréa

    2015-01-01

    This book presents an overview of the characterization of electronic waste. In addition, processing techniques for the recovery of metals, polymers and ceramics are described. This book serves as a source of information and as an educational technical reference for practicing scientists and engineers, as well as for students.

  2. Using Electronic Portfolios

    Science.gov (United States)

    Page, Deb

    2012-01-01

    The digitized collections of artifacts known as electronic portfolios are creating solutions to a variety of performance improvement needs in ways that are cost-effective and improve both individual and group learning and performance. When social media functionality is embedded in e-portfolios, the tools support collaboration, social learning,…

  3. Electron microscope studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crewe, A.V.; Kapp, O.H.

    1990-08-01

    Our laboratory has made significant progress this year in devising improved electron-optical systems, in studying invertebrate hemoglobins with the STEM, and in achieving a workable sub-angstrom STEM. Our goal in electron optics is to improve resolution by producing spherical and chromatic aberration coefficients with signs opposite those of magnetic lenses. We have progressed toward this goal through calculations that explore the addition of electrodes to electron mirrors to reduce these two geometric aberrations and by devising a beam separation system that won't introduce asymmetrical aberrations. Some promising new designs of magnetic lenses for SEM applications have also been investigated. We have continued our exploration of the quaternary structure of the invertebrate hemoglobins and are now among the top laboratories in this area of expertise. In addition, we have overcome many of our electronic difficulties on the sub-angstrom STEM and have made significant progress toward achieving an operational system. The addition of an IBM RISC-6000 workstation to our lab has significantly increased our image processing capabilities.

  4. The Electronic Student Portfolio.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fasick, Emily; McLaren, Clemence

    1995-01-01

    Describes the use of electronic portfolios in one Hawaiian secondary literature class. Students went through their journals, picked two entries that best represented their growth in reading during the course, and explained why. Next they created a presentation about their growth and enjoyment of literature using multimedia technology. (SM)

  5. Electronic and Microelectronic Capabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-07-01

    22 3.9 Aztec Products Custom Wet-Chemistry Line ........................................... 22 3.10 KotIrnorgen...Cofight Vertical Rotary Etcher............*....................................................... 22 11. Aztec Products Custom Wet-Chemistry Line...state of the art in thick film hybrid fabrication methods, microelectronic fabrication and assembly, PC board fabrication, and electronic board assembly

  6. Electronic Resource Management Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark Ellingsen

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available Computer applications which deal with electronic resource management (ERM are quite a recent development. They have grown out of the need to manage the burgeoning number of electronic resources particularly electronic journals. Typically, in the early years of e-journal acquisition, library staff provided an easy means of accessing these journals by providing an alphabetical list on a web page. Some went as far as categorising the e-journals by subject and then grouping the journals either on a single web page or by using multiple pages. It didn't take long before it was recognised that it would be more efficient to dynamically generate the pages from a database rather than to continually edit the pages manually. Of course, once the descriptive metadata for an electronic journal was held within a database the next logical step was to provide administrative forms whereby that metadata could be manipulated. This in turn led to demands for incorporating more information and more functionality into the developing application.

  7. Selection of Electronic Resources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weathers, Barbara

    1998-01-01

    Discusses the impact of electronic resources on collection development; selection of CD-ROMs, (platform, speed, video and sound, networking capability, installation and maintenance); selection of laser disks; and Internet evaluation (accuracy of content, authority, objectivity, currency, technical characteristics). Lists Web sites for evaluating…

  8. Electron-Cyclotron Waves

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Westerhof, E.

    1994-01-01

    The essential elements of the theory of electron cyclotron waves are reviewed, The two main electro-magnetic modes of propagation are identified and their dispersion and absorption properties are discussed. The importance of the use of the relativistic resonance condition is stressed.

  9. Advanced Electronic Technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-05-15

    Silicon De- D.,I. Silversmith Solid State Technol. 23, 88 vices Formed by Ion Iniplanta- 1. W. Mountain (1980) tion and Laser Annealing S.C. Munroe M...J. Silversmith Photodeposition R. M. Osgood, Jr. 5075 Picosecond Optical Sampling H. A. Haus* Accepted by IEEE J. Quantum S.T. Kirsch Electron. K

  10. Cold electronics: an overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirschman, R. K.

    Low-temperature operation is being applied and contemplated for electronic systems ranging from single-transistor circuits for basic research to VLSI integrated circuits for ultra-fast computers. It is seen as both a means of extracting better performance from present technology and as an important ingredient of the next generation of devices and circuits. This overview is concerned with electronics based on semiconductors; for low temperatures the primary material is Si, although GaAs also has considerable potential, and the primary device is the field-effect transistor in various forms. Reduced temperature operation offers improvements in performance through improvement of materials-related properties such as electronic carrier mobility, thermal conductivity, and electrical conductivity. Substantial improvements in reliability are also expected since degradation mechanisms are thermally activated; however, this could be negated unless problems of thermal expansion mismatch and cycling are overcome. Refrigeration continues to be a central concern; mechanical cycles are still the mainstay and progress is being made in systems applicable to electronics, although further development is needed.

  11. The Electronic Battle Box

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gouin, Denis; Turcotte, Guy; Lebel, Eric; Gilbert, Annie

    2000-08-01

    The Electronic Battle Box is an integrated suite of planning and decision-aid tools specially designed to facilitate Canadian Armed Force Officers during their training and during their tasks of preparing and conducting military operations. It is the result of a collaborative effort between the Defence Research Establishment Valcartier, the Directorate of Army Doctrine (DAD), the Directorate of Land Requirements (DLR), the G4 staff of 1Cdn Div HQ and CGI Information and Management Consultants Inc. Distributed on CD-ROM, the Electronic Battle Box contains efficient and user-friendly tools that significantly reduce the planning time for military operations and ensure staff officers a better focus on significant tasks. Among the tools are an OrBat Browser and an Equipment Browser allowing to view and edit military organizations, a Task Browser providing facilities to prepare plans using Gantt charts, a Logistic Planner allowing to estimate supply requirements applying complex calculations, and Road, Air and Rail Movement Planners. EBB also provides staff officers with a large set of doctrinal documents in an electronic format. This paper provides an overview of the various tools of the Electronic Battle Box.

  12. The electronic neighbourhood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rüdiger, Bjarne; Tournay, Bruno

    2004-01-01

    This paper presents the results of a 3-year research project. The Electronic Neighbourhood (2000-2004). Researchers have developed and tested a digital model of the urban area and other digital tools for supporting the dialogue and cooperation between professionals and citizens in an urban...... regeneration project in Copenhagen....

  13. Electronics and Electromagnetism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nièpce, J.-C.; Givord, D.

    Multilayer ceramic capacitors (MLCC) are the capacitors most commonly used in electronic circuits (television, radio, telephone, automobile, aeronautics, space, etc.). The main advantages are low cost, small size, a good level of chemical inertness, due to the fact that they are made from chemically very stable oxide ceramics, and hence good stability in time.

  14. ELECTRON COOLING FOR RHIC.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    BEN-ZVI,I.

    2001-05-13

    The Accelerator Collider Department (CAD) at Brookhaven National Laboratory is operating the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC), which includes the dual-ring, 3.834 km circumference superconducting collider and the venerable AGS as the last part of the RHIC injection chain. CAD is planning on a luminosity upgrade of the machine under the designation RHIC II. One important component of the RHIC II upgrade is electron cooling of RHIC gold ion beams. For this purpose, BNL and the Budker Institute of Nuclear Physics in Novosibirsk entered into a collaboration aimed initially at the development of the electron cooling conceptual design, resolution of technical issues, and finally extend the collaboration towards the construction and commissioning of the cooler. Many of the results presented in this paper are derived from the Electron Cooling for RHIC Design Report [1], produced by the, BINP team within the framework of this collaboration. BNL is also collaborating with Fermi National Laboratory, Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility and the University of Indiana on various aspects of electron cooling.

  15. Active devices for electronics

    CERN Document Server

    Sowa, Walter A

    1971-01-01

    An introduction to semiconductors ; the p-n junction ; the junction transistor ; electrical characteristics and ratings ; basic transistor amplifiers ; the field-effect transistor ; the unijunction transistor (UJT) ; the silicon controlled rectifier (SCR) ; the DIAC and TRIAC ; light operated devices ; integrated circuits (ICs) ; other solid-state devices of interest ; electron tubes.

  16. Nucleus Driven Electronic Pulsation

    CERN Document Server

    Ludwig, H; Xue, S -S

    2014-01-01

    We derive and solve by the spectral method the equations for a neutral system of ultra-relativistic electrons that are compressed to the radius of the nucleus and subject to a driving force. This driving force can be thought of as originating from a nuclear breathing mode, a possibility we discuss in detail.

  17. Electronically Enhanced Classroom Interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Draper, Stephen; Cargill, Julie; Cutts, Quintin

    A design rationale for introducing electronic equipment (a group response system) for student interaction in lecture theaters is presented, linking the instructional design to theory. The effectiveness of the equipment for learning depends mostly on what pedagogic method is employed. Various alternative types are introduced, including: assessment;…

  18. Adaptive municipal electronic forms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuiper, Pieter; Dijk, van Betsy; Bondarouk, Tanya; Ruël, Huub; Guiderdoni-Jourdain, Karine; Oiry, Ewan

    2009-01-01

    Adaptation of electronic forms (e-forms) seems to be a step forward to reduce the burden for people who fill in forms. Municipalities more and more offer e-forms online that can be used by citizens to request a municipal product or service or by municipal employees to place a request on behalf of a

  19. Forensic Scanning Electron Microscope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keeley, R. H.

    1983-03-01

    The scanning electron microscope equipped with an x-ray spectrometer is a versatile instrument which has many uses in the investigation of crime and preparation of scientific evidence for the courts. Major applications include microscopy and analysis of very small fragments of paint, glass and other materials which may link an individual with a scene of crime, identification of firearms residues and examination of questioned documents. Although simultaneous observation and chemical analysis of the sample is the most important feature of the instrument, other modes of operation such as cathodoluminescence spectrometry, backscattered electron imaging and direct x-ray excitation are also exploited. Marks on two bullets or cartridge cases can be compared directly by sequential scanning with a single beam or electronic linkage of two instruments. Particles of primer residue deposited on the skin and clothing when a gun is fired can be collected on adhesive tape and identified by their morphology and elemental composition. It is also possible to differentiate between the primer residues of different types of ammunition. Bullets may be identified from the small fragments left behind as they pass through the body tissues. In the examination of questioned documents the scanning electron microscope is used to establish the order in which two intersecting ink lines were written and to detect traces of chemical markers added to the security inks on official documents.

  20. Newnes electronics assembly pocket book

    CERN Document Server

    Brindley, Keith

    2013-01-01

    Produced in association with the Engineering Training Authority with contributions from dozens of people in the electronics industry. The material covers common skills in electrical and electronic engineering and concentrates mainly on wiring and assembly. 'Newnes Electronics Assembly Pocket Book' is for electronics technicians, students and apprentices.

  1. Electronic Library: A TERI Experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kar, Debal C.; Deb, Subrata; Kumar, Satish

    2003-01-01

    Discusses the development of Electronic Library at TERI (The Energy and Resources Institute, New Delhi). Highlights include: hardware and software used; the digital library/Virtual Electronic Library; directory of Internet journals; virtual reference resources; electronic collection/Physical Electronic Library; downloaded online full-length…

  2. The electronic structures of solids

    CERN Document Server

    Coles, B R

    2013-01-01

    The Electronic Structures of Solids aims to provide students of solid state physics with the essential concepts they will need in considering properties of solids that depend on their electronic structures and idea of the electronic character of particular materials and groups of materials. The book first discusses the electronic structure of atoms, including hydrogen atom and many-electron atom. The text also underscores bonding between atoms and electrons in metals. Discussions focus on bonding energies and structures in the solid elements, eigenstates of free-electron gas, and electrical co

  3. Basic principles of electronics thermionics

    CERN Document Server

    Jenkins, J

    2013-01-01

    Basic Principles of Electronics, Volume I: Thermionics covers topics related to thermionic devices. The book starts by providing a physical background about electronics, including structure of matter, ionic, chemical and covalent combination, crystalline structure, conductors and insulators, and thermionic emission. The text then discusses electron dynamics; the characteristics and properties of electrons in solids; electron emission; and thermionic emission in a vacuum diode or triode. The development of the vacuum triode; gas-filled valves; and power amplifiers are also considered. The book

  4. Electronic Commerce Removing Regulatory Impediments

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-05-01

    AD-A252 691 ELECTRONIC COMMERCE Removing Regulatory Impediments ~DuiG A% ELECTE I JUL1 8 1992 0 C D Daniel J. Drake John A. Ciucci ... - ""N ST AT KE...Management Institute 6400 Goldsboro Road Bethesda, Maryland 20817-5886 92 LMI Executive Summary ELECTRONIC COMMERCE : REMOVING REGULATORY IMPEDIMENTS... Electronic Commerce techniques, such as electronic mail and electronic data interchange (EDI), enable Government agencies to conduct business without the

  5. Electron scattering for exotic nuclei

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Toshimi Suda

    2014-11-01

    A brand-new electron scattering facility, the SCRIT Electron Scattering Facility, will soon start its operation at RIKEN RI Beam Factory, Japan. This is the world’s first electron scattering facility dedicated to the structure studies of short-lived nuclei. The goal of this facility is to determine the charge density distributions of short-lived exotic nuclei by elastic electron scattering. The first collision between electrons and exotic nuclei will be observed in the year 2014.

  6. PREFACE: Correlated Electrons (Japan)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyake, Kazumasa

    2007-03-01

    This issue of Journal of Physics: Condensed Matter is dedicated to results in the field of strongly correlated electron systems under multiple-environment. The physics of strongly correlated electron systems (SCES) has attracted much attention since the discovery of superconductivity in CeCu_2 Si_2 by Steglich and his co-workers a quater-century ago. Its interest has been intensified by the discovery of high-Tc superconductivity in a series of cuprates with layered perovskite structure which are still under active debate. The present issue of Journal of Physics: Condensed Matter present some aspects of SCES physics on the basis of activities of a late project "Centre-Of-Excellence" supported by MEXT (Ministry of Education, Sports, Science, Culture and Technology of the Japanese Government). This project has been performed by a condensed matter physics group in the faculties of science and engineering science of Osaka University. Although this project also covers correlated phenomena in optics and nano-scale systems, we focus here on the issues of SCES related to superconductivity, mainly unconventional. The present issue covers the discussions on a new mechanism of superconductivity with electronic origin (critical valence fluctuation mechanism), interplay and unification of magnetism and superconductivity in SCES based on a systematic study of NQR under pressure, varieties of Fermi surface of Ce- and U-based SCES probed by the de Haas-van Alphen effect, electronic states probed by a bulk sensitive photoemission spectroscopy with soft X-ray, pressure induced superconductivity of heavy electron materials, pressure dependence of superconducting transition temperature based on a first-principle calculation, and new superconductors under very high-pressure. Some papers offer readers' reviews of the relevant fields and/or include new developments of this intriguing research field of SCES. Altogether, the papers within this issue outline some aspects of electronic states

  7. Electronic health record

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kierkegaard, Patrick

    2011-01-01

    The European Commission wants to boost the digital economy by enabling all Europeans to have access to online medical records anywhere in Europe by 2020. With the newly enacted Directive 2011/24/EU on Patients’ Rights in cross border healthcare due for implementation by 2013, it is inevitable...... that a centralised European health record system will become a reality even before 2020. However, the concept of a centralised supranational central server raises concern about storing electronic medical records in a central location. The privacy threat posed by a supranational network is a key concern. Cross border...... and Interoperable electronic health record systems make confidential data more easily and rapidly accessible to a wider audience and increases the risk that personal data concerning health could be accidentally exposed or easily distributed to unauthorised parties by enabling greater access to a compilation...

  8. Electronic health records

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kierkegaard, Patrick

    2011-01-01

    The European Commission wants to boost the digital economy by enabling all Europeans to have access to online medical records anywhere in Europe by 2020. With the newly enacted Directive 2011/24/EU on patients’ rights in cross-border healthcare due for implementation by 2013, it is inevitable...... that a centralised European health record system will become a reality even before 2020. However, the concept of a centralised supranational central server raises concern about storing electronic medical records in a central location. The privacy threat posed by a supranational network is a key concern. Cross......-border and Interoperable electronic health record systems make confidential data more easily and rapidly accessible to a wider audience and increase the risk that personal data concerning health could be accidentally exposed or easily distributed to unauthorised parties by enabling greater access to a compilation...

  9. Uniform quantized electron gas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Høye, Johan S.; Lomba, Enrique

    2016-10-01

    In this work we study the correlation energy of the quantized electron gas of uniform density at temperature T  =  0. To do so we utilize methods from classical statistical mechanics. The basis for this is the Feynman path integral for the partition function of quantized systems. With this representation the quantum mechanical problem can be interpreted as, and is equivalent to, a classical polymer problem in four dimensions where the fourth dimension is imaginary time. Thus methods, results, and properties obtained in the statistical mechanics of classical fluids can be utilized. From this viewpoint we recover the well known RPA (random phase approximation). Then to improve it we modify the RPA by requiring the corresponding correlation function to be such that electrons with equal spins can not be on the same position. Numerical evaluations are compared with well known results of a standard parameterization of Monte Carlo correlation energies.

  10. Basics of RF electronics

    CERN Document Server

    Gallo, A

    2011-01-01

    RF electronics deals with the generation, acquisition and manipulation of high-frequency signals. In particle accelerators signals of this kind are abundant, especially in the RF and beam diagnostics systems. In modern machines the complexity of the electronics assemblies dedicated to RF manipulation, beam diagnostics, and feedbacks is continuously increasing, following the demands for improvement of accelerator performance. However, these systems, and in particular their front-ends and back-ends, still rely on well-established basic hardware components and techniques, while down-converted and acquired signals are digitally processed exploiting the rapidly growing computational capability offered by the available technology. This lecture reviews the operational principles of the basic building blocks used for the treatment of high-frequency signals. Devices such as mixers, phase and amplitude detectors, modulators, filters, switches, directional couplers, oscillators, amplifiers, attenuators, and others are d...

  11. Electron-molecule collisions

    CERN Document Server

    Takayanagi, Kazuo

    1984-01-01

    Scattering phenomena play an important role in modern physics. Many significant discoveries have been made through collision experiments. Amongst diverse kinds of collision systems, this book sheds light on the collision of an electron with a molecule. The electron-molecule collision provides a basic scattering problem. It is scattering by a nonspherical, multicentered composite particle with its centers having degrees of freedom of motion. The molecule can even disintegrate, Le., dissociate or ionize into fragments, some or all of which may also be molecules. Although it is a difficult problem, the recent theoretical, experimental, and computational progress has been so significant as to warrant publication of a book that specializes in this field. The progress owes partly to technical develop­ ments in measurements and computations. No less important has been the great and continuing stimulus from such fields of application as astrophysics, the physics of the earth's upper atmosphere, laser physics, radiat...

  12. Conversion electron surface imaging

    CERN Document Server

    Irwin, G M; Wehner, A

    1999-01-01

    A method of imaging the Moessbauer absorption over the surface of a sample based on counting conversion electrons emitted from the surface following resonant absorption of gamma radiation is described. This Conversion Electron Surface Imaging (CESI) method is somewhat analogous to Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI), particularly chemical shift imaging, and similar tomographic reconstruction techniques are involved in extracting the image. The theory behind the technique and a prototype device is described, as well as the results of proof-of-principle experiments which demonstrate the function of the device. Eventually this same prototype device will be part of a system to determine the spatial variation of the Moessbauer spectrum over the surface of a sample. Applications include imaging of variations of surface properties of steels and other iron containing alloys, as well as other surfaces over which sup 5 sup 7 Fe has been deposited.

  13. Semiconductor Physical Electronics

    CERN Document Server

    Li, Sheng

    2006-01-01

    Semiconductor Physical Electronics, Second Edition, provides comprehensive coverage of fundamental semiconductor physics that is essential to an understanding of the physical and operational principles of a wide variety of semiconductor electronic and optoelectronic devices. This text presents a unified and balanced treatment of the physics, characterization, and applications of semiconductor materials and devices for physicists and material scientists who need further exposure to semiconductor and photonic devices, and for device engineers who need additional background on the underlying physical principles. This updated and revised second edition reflects advances in semicondutor technologies over the past decade, including many new semiconductor devices that have emerged and entered into the marketplace. It is suitable for graduate students in electrical engineering, materials science, physics, and chemical engineering, and as a general reference for processing and device engineers working in the semicondi...

  14. Keeping electronic records secure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Easton, David

    2013-10-01

    Are electronic engineering maintenance records relating to the hospital estate or a medical device as important as electronic patient records? Computer maintenance management systems (CMMS) are increasingly being used to manage all-round maintenance activities. However, the accuracy of the data held on them, and a level of security that prevents tampering with records, or other unauthorised changes to them to 'cover' poor practice, are both essential, so that, should an individual be injured or killed on hospital grounds, and a law suit follow, the estates team can be confident that it has accurate data to prove it has fulfilled its duty of care. Here David Easton MSc CEng FIHEEM MIET, director of Zener Engineering Services, and chair of IHEEM's Medical Devices Advisory Group, discusses the issues around maintenance databases, and the security and integrity of maintenance data.

  15. Electron beam silicon purification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kravtsov, Anatoly [SIA ' ' KEPP EU' ' , Riga (Latvia); Kravtsov, Alexey [' ' KEPP-service' ' Ltd., Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2014-11-15

    Purification of heavily doped electronic grade silicon by evaporation of N-type impurities with electron beam heating was investigated in process with a batch weight up to 50 kilos. Effective temperature of the melt, an indicative parameter suitable for purification process characterization was calculated and appeared to be stable for different load weight processes. Purified material was successfully approbated in standard CZ processes of three different companies. Each company used its standard process and obtained CZ monocrystals applicable for photovoltaic application. These facts enable process to be successfully scaled up to commercial volumes (150-300 kg) and yield solar grade silicon. (copyright 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  16. Electron Beam Ion Sources

    CERN Document Server

    Zschornacka, G.; Thorn, A.

    2013-12-16

    Electron beam ion sources (EBISs) are ion sources that work based on the principle of electron impact ionization, allowing the production of very highly charged ions. The ions produced can be extracted as a DC ion beam as well as ion pulses of different time structures. In comparison to most of the other known ion sources, EBISs feature ion beams with very good beam emittances and a low energy spread. Furthermore, EBISs are excellent sources of photons (X-rays, ultraviolet, extreme ultraviolet, visible light) from highly charged ions. This chapter gives an overview of EBIS physics, the principle of operation, and the known technical solutions. Using examples, the performance of EBISs as well as their applications in various fields of basic research, technology and medicine are discussed.

  17. Pursuing prosthetic electronic skin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chortos, Alex; Liu, Jia; Bao, Zhenan

    2016-09-01

    Skin plays an important role in mediating our interactions with the world. Recreating the properties of skin using electronic devices could have profound implications for prosthetics and medicine. The pursuit of artificial skin has inspired innovations in materials to imitate skin's unique characteristics, including mechanical durability and stretchability, biodegradability, and the ability to measure a diversity of complex sensations over large areas. New materials and fabrication strategies are being developed to make mechanically compliant and multifunctional skin-like electronics, and improve brain/machine interfaces that enable transmission of the skin's signals into the body. This Review will cover materials and devices designed for mimicking the skin's ability to sense and generate biomimetic signals.

  18. Pulsed electron beam precharger

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Finney, W.C. (ed.); Shelton, W.N.

    1991-01-01

    Electron beam precharging of a high resistivity aerosol was successfully demonstrated during this reporting period (Quarters Five and Six). The initial E-beam particle precharging experiments completed this term were designed to confirm and extend some of the work performed under the previous contract. There are several reasons for doing this: (1) to re-establish a baseline performance criterion for comparison to other runs, (2) to test several recently upgraded or repaired subsystems, and (3) to improve upon the collection efficiency of the electron beam precipitator when testing precharging effectiveness with a very high resistivity, moderate-to-high concentration dust load. In addition, these shakedown runs were used to determine a set of suitable operational parameters for the wind tunnel, the electrostatic collecting sections, and the MINACC E-beam accelerator. These parameters will generally be held constant while the precharging parameters are varied to produce an optimum particle charge.

  19. Power electronics reliability.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaplar, Robert James; Brock, Reinhard C.; Marinella, Matthew; King, Michael Patrick; Stanley, James K.; Smith, Mark A.; Atcitty, Stanley

    2010-10-01

    The project's goals are: (1) use experiments and modeling to investigate and characterize stress-related failure modes of post-silicon power electronic (PE) devices such as silicon carbide (SiC) and gallium nitride (GaN) switches; and (2) seek opportunities for condition monitoring (CM) and prognostics and health management (PHM) to further enhance the reliability of power electronics devices and equipment. CM - detect anomalies and diagnose problems that require maintenance. PHM - track damage growth, predict time to failure, and manage subsequent maintenance and operations in such a way to optimize overall system utility against cost. The benefits of CM/PHM are: (1) operate power conversion systems in ways that will preclude predicted failures; (2) reduce unscheduled downtime and thereby reduce costs; and (3) pioneering reliability in SiC and GaN.

  20. Recycling of electronic scrap

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Legarth, Jens Brøbech

    This Ph.D. thesis deals with the growingly important field of electronics recycling with special attention to the problem of printed circuit board recycling. A literature survey of contemporary electronics recycling and printed circuit board recycling is presented.Further, an analysis of the role...... in the metals producing industry is presented and tested on two printed circuit board scrap cases. The underlying idea for the method is that complex scrap should be introduced in the matrix of man-made material flows at recipient points where the scrap constitutes the least environmental problem and where...... resource recovery is largest. It is clearly shown with the two printed circuit board scrap cases that the currently used copper recycling scenario is environmentally inferior to the tin and lead primary production scenarios. The method is a novelty, since no-one has previously put forward a method...

  1. Electronics Technician 3

    Science.gov (United States)

    1957-01-01

    grade of of a strong, pliable wood strip and securing sandpaper (No. 00) may be used. Sandpapering the canvas with rivets, as shown in figure is also...and use properly personnel. insulated tools; cover the deck with an approved All electronics personnel must become thor- insulating material; and make...not struction, the worker must be insulated from be broken except when absolutely necessary and accidental grounding by the use of approved authorized

  2. Runaway electrons and Bremsstrahlung

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helander, Per

    2016-09-01

    If an electric field is applied to a plasma, it causes ‘runaway’ acceleration of some electrons—a phenomenon that has been known for almost a century. A paper by Embréus et al (2016 New J. Phys. 18 093023) calculates how the emission of Bremsstrahlung affects the upper end of the energy spectrum of these electrons, and finds that it is important to carefully account for finite energy of the emitted photons.

  3. Shipboard electronics thermoacoustic cooler

    OpenAIRE

    Ballister, Stephen C.; McKelvey, Dennis J.

    1995-01-01

    A thermoacoustic refrigerator that was optimized for preservation of biological samples in space, was modified for use as a cooler for the CV-2095 shipboard radar electronics rack. The thermoacoustic cooler was tested in the laboratory and demonstrated at sea aboard USS DEYO (DD-989). In the laboratory, using a calibrated heat load, the data acquisition system was able to account for the total energy balance to within 4%. At the highest operating power aboard ship, 226.6 Watts of acoustic pow...

  4. Electronic healthcare information security

    CERN Document Server

    Dube, Kudakwashe; Shoniregun, Charles A

    2010-01-01

    The ever-increasing healthcare expenditure and pressing demand for improved quality and efficiency of patient care services are driving innovation in healthcare information management. The domain of healthcare has become a challenging testing ground for information security due to the complex nature of healthcare information and individual privacy. ""Electronic Healthcare Information Security"" explores the challenges of e-healthcare information and security policy technologies. It evaluates the effectiveness of security and privacy implementation systems for anonymization methods and techniqu

  5. Electronic Braille Document Reader

    OpenAIRE

    Arif, Shahab; Holmes, Violeta

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents an investigation into developing a portable Braille device which would allow visually impaired individuals to read electronic documents by actuating Braille text on a finger. Braille books tend to be bulky in size due to the minimum size requirements for each Braille cell. E-books can be read in Braille using refreshable Braille displays connected to a computer. However, the refreshable Braille displays are expensive, bulky and are not portable. These factors restrict blin...

  6. Towards Hypermedia Electronic Publishing

    OpenAIRE

    Konstantas, Dimitri; Morin, Jean-Henry

    1995-01-01

    The most important problem that decision makers face in today's ever increasing information flux is how to find efficiently and fast the useful information. Hypermedia Electronic Publishing systems, supporting active information distribution and offering hypertext browsing facilities, provide a promising solution to this problem. Nevertheless several issues, like value added services, retrieval and access mechanism, information marketing as well as financial and security aspects should be res...

  7. Xyce parallel electronic simulator.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keiter, Eric R; Mei, Ting; Russo, Thomas V.; Rankin, Eric Lamont; Schiek, Richard Louis; Thornquist, Heidi K.; Fixel, Deborah A.; Coffey, Todd S; Pawlowski, Roger P; Santarelli, Keith R.

    2010-05-01

    This document is a reference guide to the Xyce Parallel Electronic Simulator, and is a companion document to the Xyce Users Guide. The focus of this document is (to the extent possible) exhaustively list device parameters, solver options, parser options, and other usage details of Xyce. This document is not intended to be a tutorial. Users who are new to circuit simulation are better served by the Xyce Users Guide.

  8. Electrical and electronic principles

    CERN Document Server

    Knight, S A

    1991-01-01

    Electrical and Electronic Principles, 2, Second Edition covers the syllabus requirements of BTEC Unit U86/329, including the principles of control systems and elements of data transmission. The book first tackles series and parallel circuits, electrical networks, and capacitors and capacitance. Discussions focus on flux density, electric force, permittivity, Kirchhoff's laws, superposition theorem, arrangement of resistors, internal resistance, and powers in a circuit. The text then takes a look at capacitors in circuit, magnetism and magnetization, electromagnetic induction, and alternating v

  9. Computational Electronics and Electromagnetics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DeFord, J.F.

    1993-03-01

    The Computational Electronics and Electromagnetics thrust area is a focal point for computer modeling activities in electronics and electromagnetics in the Electronics Engineering Department of Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL). Traditionally, they have focused their efforts in technical areas of importance to existing and developing LLNL programs, and this continues to form the basis for much of their research. A relatively new and increasingly important emphasis for the thrust area is the formation of partnerships with industry and the application of their simulation technology and expertise to the solution of problems faced by industry. The activities of the thrust area fall into three broad categories: (1) the development of theoretical and computational models of electronic and electromagnetic phenomena, (2) the development of useful and robust software tools based on these models, and (3) the application of these tools to programmatic and industrial problems. In FY-92, they worked on projects in all of the areas outlined above. The object of their work on numerical electromagnetic algorithms continues to be the improvement of time-domain algorithms for electromagnetic simulation on unstructured conforming grids. The thrust area is also investigating various technologies for conforming-grid mesh generation to simplify the application of their advanced field solvers to design problems involving complicated geometries. They are developing a major code suite based on the three-dimensional (3-D), conforming-grid, time-domain code DSI3D. They continue to maintain and distribute the 3-D, finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) code TSAR, which is installed at several dozen university, government, and industry sites.

  10. Electronics Industry Study Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-01-01

    which has reduced the use and allure of stock options . Another electronics industry official captured this problem saying, “It’s not that the talent...capital gains tax. China reduces its 17% nominal value-added tax to 3% for domestically manufactured semiconductors. China also taxes stock ... options at par value and has no capital gains tax. New fabs in Singapore receive a ten year tax exemption followed by a five year period of reduced tax

  11. Power Electronics System Communications

    OpenAIRE

    Milosavljevic, Ivana

    1999-01-01

    This work investigates communication issues in high-frequency power converters. A novel control communication network (Power Electronics System Network or PES Net) is proposed for modular, medium and high-power, converters. The network protocol, hardware and software are designed and implemented. The PES Net runs at 125 Mb/s over plastic optical fiber allowing converter switching frequencies in excess of 100 kHz. Communication control is implemented in a fie...

  12. Supernova electron capture rates

    CERN Document Server

    Martínez-Pinedo, G

    1999-01-01

    We have calculated the Gamow-Teller strength distributions for the ground states and low lying states of several nuclei that play an important role in the precollapse evolution of supernova. The calculations reproduce the experimental GT distributions nicely. The GT distribution are used to calculate electron capture rates for typical presupernova conditions. The computed rates are noticeably smaller than the presently adopted rates. The possible implications for the supernova evolution are discussed.

  13. ELECTRONIC COMMERCE PORTAL

    OpenAIRE

    Georgeta Soava

    2011-01-01

    Today companies are faced with the need to exploit technology changing computer environments, in order to improve customer satisfaction and reduce costs. A successful approach to electronic portals is an effective demonstration of the new ways of relating to the client. The objectives that we have considered for the realization of e-commerce portal can be summarized as follows: structured communication, effective collaboration, complet and closed circuit of orders and deliveries, inventory op...

  14. FRAUD IN ELECTRONIC COMMERCE

    OpenAIRE

    Valentin-Stelian Badescu

    2013-01-01

    Electronic commerce is experiencing a great extent, and about the same extent fraud seeks - and sometimes is the place to impressive levels. Moreover, computer fraud and, the actors' they do not seem to suffer from the global economic recession and get as sophisticated as a legitimate business model and one of the most important dimensions of the work of modern organizations is the manipulation of information (collection, processing, storage, distribution, etc.). This component informational ...

  15. The electronic approach VSCF

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hladky, Mark

    The advantages of the high-power electronic approach to variable speed constant frequency (VSCF) systems are examined. It is shown, in particular, how the inherent flexibility of the VSCF approach allows it to be configured for different applications, contributing to the evolution towards the more electric aircraft. The discussion covers criteria for selection, aircraft electric power system architectures, power level, performance, reliability, and maintainability. The future trends of the VSCF converter technology are also briefly discussed.

  16. Electron cryomicroscopy methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unger, V M

    2001-10-01

    Electron cryomicroscopy methods comprise a rapidly expanding field providing insights into the structure and function of biological macromolecules and their supramolecular assemblies. The 3.8 A resolution structure of the membrane protein aquaporin, a view of the herpesvirus capsid at 8.5 A and the 10 A resolution structure of the spliceosomal U1 small nuclear ribonucleoprotein complex are three outstanding examples emphasizing the versatility of this technique.

  17. CERN Electronics Pool presentations

    CERN Multimedia

    2011-01-01

    The CERN Electronics Pool has organised a series of presentations in collaboration with oscilloscope manufacturers. The last one will take place according to the schedule below.   Time will be available at the end of the presentation to discuss your personal needs. The Agilent presentation had to be postponed and will be organised later. -     Lecroy: Thursday, 24 November 2011, in 530-R-030, 14:00 to 16:30.

  18. Implantable electronic medical devices

    CERN Document Server

    Fitzpatrick, Dennis

    2014-01-01

    Implantable Electronic Medical Devices provides a thorough review of the application of implantable devices, illustrating the techniques currently being used together with overviews of the latest commercially available medical devices. This book provides an overview of the design of medical devices and is a reference on existing medical devices. The book groups devices with similar functionality into distinct chapters, looking at the latest design ideas and techniques in each area, including retinal implants, glucose biosensors, cochlear implants, pacemakers, electrical stimulation t

  19. Sculpturing the Electron Wave Function

    CERN Document Server

    Shiloh, Roy; Lilach, Yigal; Arie, Ady

    2014-01-01

    Coherent electrons such as those in electron microscopes, exhibit wave phenomena and may be described by the paraxial wave equation. In analogy to light-waves, governed by the same equation, these electrons share many of the fundamental traits and dynamics of photons. Today, spatial manipulation of electron beams is achieved mainly using electrostatic and magnetic fields. Other demonstrations include simple phase-plates and holographic masks based on binary diffraction gratings. Altering the spatial profile of the beam may be proven useful in many fields incorporating phase microscopy, electron holography, and electron-matter interactions. These methods, however, are fundamentally limited due to energy distribution to undesired diffraction orders as well as by their binary construction. Here we present a new method in electron-optics for arbitrarily shaping of electron beams, by precisely controlling an engineered pattern of thicknesses on a thin-membrane, thereby molding the spatial phase of the electron wav...

  20. The SPEDE electron spectrometer

    CERN Document Server

    O'Neill, George

    This thesis presents SPEDE (SPectrometer for Electron DEtection) and documents its construction, testing and performance during commissioning at Jyvaskyla, Finland, before deployment at the HIE-ISOLDE facility at CERN coupled with the MINIBALL array to perform in-beam electron-gamma spectroscopy using post-accelerated radioactive ion beams. Commissioning experiments took place in two two-day stints during spring 2015, coupled with several JUROGAMII gamma-detectors. This spectrometer will help aid in fully understanding exotic regions of the nuclear chart such as regions with a high degree of octupole deformation, and in those nuclei exhibiting shape coexistence. For the rst time, electron spectroscopy has been performed at the target position from states populated in accelerated nuclei via Coulomb excitation. The FWHM of SPEDE is approximately 7 keV at 320 keV, and Doppler correction was possible to improve Doppler broadened peaks. The results are intended to give the reader a full understanding of the dete...