WorldWideScience

Sample records for lynnhaven roads danger

  1. 33 CFR 334.370 - Chesapeake Bay, Lynnhaven Roads; danger zones, U.S. Naval Amphibious Base.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...; danger zones, U.S. Naval Amphibious Base. 334.370 Section 334.370 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS OF ENGINEERS, DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE DANGER ZONE AND RESTRICTED AREA REGULATIONS § 334.370 Chesapeake Bay, Lynnhaven Roads; danger zones, U.S. Naval Amphibious Base....

  2. Transport of dangerous goods through road tunnels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, N O; Lacroix, Didier; Amundsen, F.H.;

    1999-01-01

    A paper which describes the work of an OECD research group. The group has suggested a grouping of dangerous materials, a quantitative risk assessment model and a decision support model which should allow tunnel operators to determine if a given material should be allowed throug a given tunnel...

  3. CHINA'S NAVIGATION SATELLITES SERVE ROAD TRANSPORTATION OF DANGEROUS GOODS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LiuJie

    2004-01-01

    State Administration of Work Safety held a technological appraisal conference on Application System for the Monitoring and Management of the Road Transportation of Dangerous Goods on August 8, 2004. During two months' operation, the system has been widely praised and the navigation satellite application market has a bright future.

  4. Critical infrastructures risk and vulnerability assessment in transportation of dangerous goods transportation by road and rail

    CERN Document Server

    Vamanu, Bogdan I; Katina, Polinpapilinho F

    2016-01-01

    This book addresses a key issue in today’s society: the safer transport of dangerous goods, taking into account people, the environment and economics. In particular, it offers a potential approach to identifying the issues, developing the models, providing the methods and recommending the tools to address the risks and vulnerabilities involved. We believe this can only be achieved by assessing those risks in a comprehensive, quantifiable and integrated manner. Examining both rail and road transportation, the book is divided into three sections, covering: the mature and accepted (by both academia and practitioners) methodology of risk assessment; the vulnerability assessment – a novel approach proposed as a vital complement to risk; guidance and support to build the tools that make methods and equations to yield: the Decision Support Systems. Throughout the book, the authors do not endeavor to provide THE solution. Instead, the book offers insightful food for thought for students, researchers, practitioner...

  5. Chimpanzees facing a dangerous situation: A high-traffic asphalted road in the Sebitoli area of Kibale National Park, Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cibot, Marie; Bortolamiol, Sarah; Seguya, Andrew; Krief, Sabrina

    2015-08-01

    Despite the spread of road infrastructures throughout Africa to support regional development, industry, and tourism, few studies have examined how wild animals adapt their behavior and ecology in road-forest ecotones. Indeed, while numerous studies have demonstrated chimpanzee adaptability in anthropogenic landscapes, none have examined the effects of asphalted highways on wild chimpanzee behaviors. In a 29-month survey, we assessed the dangers posed by an asphalted road crossing the Sebitoli area of Kibale National Park (Uganda). We analyzed 122 individual chimpanzee crossings. Although the asphalted road represents a substantial threat to crossing animals (89 motorized vehicles per hour use this road and individuals of six different primate species were killed in 1 year), chimpanzees took into account this risk. More than 90% of the individuals looked right and left before and while crossing. Chimpanzees crossed in small subgroups (average 2.7 subgroups of 2.1 individuals per crossing event). Whole parties crossed more rapidly when chimpanzees were more numerous in the crossing groups. The individuals most vulnerable to the dangers of road crossing (females with dependents, immature, and severely injured individuals) crossed less frequently compared with non-vulnerable individuals (lone and healthy adolescents and adults). Moreover, healthy adult males, who were the most frequent crossing individuals, led progressions more frequently when crossing the road than when climbing or descending feeding trees. Almost 20% of the individuals that crossed paid attention to conspecifics by checking on them or waiting for them while crossing. These observations are relevant for our understanding of adaptive behavior among chimpanzees in human-impacted habitats. Further investigations are needed to better evaluate the effects of busy roads on adolescent female dispersal and on their use of territories. Mitigation measures (e.g., bridges, underpasses, reduced speed limits

  6. Assessment model for the transport of dangerous goods through road tunnels

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nelisse, R.M.L.; Vrouwenvelder, A.C.W.M.

    2012-01-01

    In many cases decisions have to be made with respect to the safety level that has to be maintained in tunnels. In this paper the central question is how one can decide between (a) a tunnel with limited allowance for dangerous goods and a deviation route for the prohibited goods or (b) a tunnel

  7. Roads

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — This dataset shows the roads within and near Delaware Water Gap NRA taken from 1:4800 scale mapping that was done for the original land acquisition period (1967)...

  8. Study on Legislation of Road Transport of Dangerous Goods and Management Recommendations%道路危险品运输规定的学习及其管理建议

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梁加铎

    2011-01-01

    Road transport of dangerous goods from the basic nature of the start, through the promulgation of this year 〈on the revision of 〈road transport of dangerous goods regulations〉 decision 〉 learning to state standards and regulations for the foundation and basis from the strict check the punishment program to implement and improve the skills of employees in road transport of dangerous goods training, outreach education, improve to the transport of dangerous goods accident prevention and emergency response capabilities, digital management, information sharing of data, the proposed measures to ensure the safety of road transport of dangerous goods.%文章从道路危险品运输的基本性质入手,通过对今年新颁布实施的《关于修订〈道路危险货物运输管理规定〉的决定》的学习,以国家标准和法律法规为基础和依据,从严格落实检查惩处方案、提高道路危险品运输从业人员技能培训,普及宣传教育、完善危险品运输事故的防范和应急处置能力、数字化管理,共享信息数据等方面提出时策,保证道路危险品安全运输。

  9. Road works and road safety.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    2008-01-01

    Roadworks can cause dangerous situations for both road users and road workers. In the period 2000-2009, 2% of all registered fatal crashes in the Netherlands took place at roadworks. In addition, roadworks seem to increase the crash rate. Lorries are relatively often involved in crashes at roadworks

  10. Road works and road safety.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    2008-01-01

    Roadworks can cause dangerous situations for both road users and road workers. In the period 2000-2009, 2% of all registered fatal crashes in the Netherlands took place at roadworks. In addition, roadworks seem to increase the crash rate. Lorries are relatively often involved in crashes at

  11. Contesting danger

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heathershaw, John; Megoran, Nick

    2011-01-01

    and subsequent considerations of the region in terms of the war on terror. It considers several examples of this discourse of danger including the popular US TV drama about presidential politics, The West Wing, the policy texts of ‘Washingtonian security analysis’ and accounts of danger, insecurity and urban...

  12. Contesting danger

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heathershaw, John; Megoran, Nick

    2011-01-01

    and subsequent considerations of the region in terms of the war on terror. It considers several examples of this discourse of danger including the popular US TV drama about presidential politics, The West Wing, the policy texts of ‘Washingtonian security analysis’ and accounts of danger, insecurity and urban...... violence in the Ferghana Valley. It is argued that popular policy and academic texts are relatively consistent across the three dimensions of endangerment. This argument is demonstrated through a discussion of how policy-making and practice is informed by this discourse of danger and of how the discourse...... of danger is contested within the region. The example of urban violence in Osh, Kyrgyzstan and Jalalabad, Afghanistan in 2010 demonstrates how opportunities to mitigate conflict may have been lost due to the distortions of this discourse of danger. It concludes by raising the challenge to policy...

  13. Analysis and treatment technology of road and building on dangerous bank slope%河岸危坡公路及建筑物分析与处理技术

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘学军; 蒋文凯

    2013-01-01

    The stability of river or reservoir bank slope with roads and buildings is analyzed by geotechnical engi⁃neering software. To ensure the safety of roads and buildings on dangerous bank slope, the proposed slope treatment technology include constructing temporary cofferdam in dry season, anti-sliding piles, crown beam support, earth-retaining wall, ground cutoff and drainage system, foundation seepage control and reinforcement technique. The sliding and settlement resistance technology under complicated conditions is inherited and innovated.%  采用岩土工程软件对处于河流或水库岸坡的公路和建筑物边坡进行了稳定性分析。提出利用枯水季节建造临时围堰,采用抗滑桩及冠梁支挡、挡土墙护坡等支护技术;另外,设置地面截水排水系统,采用地基防渗与加固技术,保证河岸危坡公路及建筑物的安全,继承与创新了复杂条件下抗滑与抗沉陷技术。

  14. Promoting Road Safety for Preadolescent Boys with Mild Intellectual Disabilities: The Effect of Cognitive Style and the Role of Attention in the Identification of Safe and Dangerous Road-Crossing Sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anastasia, Alevriadou

    2010-01-01

    An important pedestrian skill that young people with intellectual disabilities (ID) (mental retardation) find difficult is the ability to find a safe place to cross the road. Safe pedestrian behaviour relies on cognitive skills, including the ability to focus attention on the traffic environment and ignore irrelevant stimuli. Individuals with ID…

  15. [Dangerous aquaria].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satora, Leszek; Morawska, Jowanka; Szkolnicka, Beata; Mitrus, Małgorzata; Targosz, Dorota; Gwiazdowski, Andrzej

    2005-01-01

    World trends for a home breeding of exotic freshwater and marine fishes did not miss Poland. There are almost all species of aquarium fishes available in Polish pet shops, but there is not enough information about threat given to customers. In some fish, there are masses of one-cell glands, mainly serous, in the proximity of the spines. In others, those one-cell glands may be grouped in larger aggregates of cells called venom glands, that may form organs resembling multicellular glands of terrestrial animals. They are usually located around the spines or hard rays of the fins. Even if covered with a connective tissue sheath, the aggregates of the venom cells do not have any common outlet; they are not, therefore, proper multicellular glands. The venom glands of the catfish are covered with a thin sheath and they release their contents when the fin ray is pressed. Spines are derived from fin rays. When the spine penetrates the body of its prey, it presses its base against the cells, squashes them and squeezes the venomous contents into the wound. Catfish, lionfish and stonefish have the venom glands producing secretion which could be dangerous. The eels and morays blood is also dangerous, as well as slime of reduced squamae. Poison information centers noted several cases of fishes' stings in Poland.

  16. Looming Danger

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WangXuewen

    2003-01-01

    Is all well with the roaring Chinese economy now that severe acute respiratory syndrome has almost vanished? For beginners,SARS is still a looming danger, as Chinese leaders and medical professionals relentlessly try tobring across to a wider, more relaxed post-SARS public. Meanwhile, economistsand analysts struggle to make sense of various news, facts and figures from the frontlines of trade and industry. Early on, while acknowledging that SARS had some negative impact on the development of some industries and regions,President and Party General Secretary Hu Jintao acted as true leader. He saidthat the people and country would triumph over “these temporary difficulties”and would finally win the war against this nasty disease.

  17. Dangerous Goods Transport Problems in the European Union and Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel Nowacki

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The paper refers to threat assessment of dangerous goods (DG in transportation of the European Union and the Republic of Poland. Dangerous goods in the European Union are carried by inland waterways, rail and road. In Poland 87.5% of DG have been carried by road and 12.5% by rail in 2014. DG can cause an accident and lead to fires, explosions and chemical poisoning or burning with considerable harm to people and the environment. There is not monitoring system in Poland to control in real time road transportation of dangerous goods. Proposition of National System of Monitoring Dangerous Goods in Poland was presented. Realization of mentioned kind of system may significantly contribute to improving safety of people and environment.

  18. Danger signals in stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gelderblom, Mathias; Sobey, Christopher G; Kleinschnitz, Christoph; Magnus, Tim

    2015-11-01

    Danger molecules are the first signals released from dying tissue after stroke. These danger signals bind to receptors on immune cells that will result in their activation and the release of inflammatory and neurotoxic mediators, resulting in amplification of the immune response and subsequent enlargement of the damaged brain volume. The release of danger signals is a central event that leads to a multitude of signals and cascades in the affected and neighbouring tissue, therefore providing a potential target for therapy.

  19. Bacterial danger sensing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LeRoux, Michele; Peterson, S Brook; Mougous, Joseph D

    2015-11-20

    Here we propose that bacteria detect and respond to threats posed by other bacteria via an innate immune-like process that we term danger sensing. We find support for this contention by reexamining existing literature from the perspective that intermicrobial antagonism, not opportunistic pathogenesis, is the major evolutionary force shaping the defensive behaviors of most bacteria. We conclude that many bacteria possess danger sensing pathways composed of a danger signal receptor and corresponding signal transduction mechanism that regulate pathways important for survival in the presence of the perceived competitor.

  20. Colored Contact Lens Dangers

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Patient Stories Español Eye Health / News Halloween Hazard: The Hidden Dangers of Buying Decorative Contact Lenses Without ... been properly fitted by an eye care professional, the lenses stuck to my eye like a suction ...

  1. Colored Contact Lens Dangers

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Prevention News Ask an Ophthalmologist Patient Stories Español Eye Health / News Halloween Hazard: The Hidden Dangers of Buying Decorative Contact Lenses Without a Prescription Sep. 26, 2013 It started ...

  2. Second Hand Smoke: Danger

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... What's this? Submit Button Past Emails Second Hand Smoke: Danger! Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Make ... the United States are still exposed to secondhand smoke, even though cigarette smoking rates are dropping and ...

  3. Colored Contact Lens Dangers

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Hidden Dangers of Buying Decorative Contact Lenses Without a Prescription Leer en Español: Peligros asociados con los ... contacto de color Sep. 26, 2013 It started as an impulsive buy from a souvenir shop, but ...

  4. Colored Contact Lens Dangers

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Patient Stories Español Eye Health / News Halloween Hazard: The Hidden Dangers of Buying Decorative Contact Lenses Without ... been properly fitted by an eye care professional, the lenses stuck to my eye like a suction ...

  5. Semantic Gaps Are Dangerous

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ejstrup, Michael; le Fevre Jakobsen, Bjarne

    2014-01-01

    . That seems not to be possible. We have to use words, metaphors and comparisons containing adverse connotations, and this situation creates ways of using unpolite language and tend to create dangerous relations where specialy language creates problems that could be avoided if we had better language tools...... at hand. But we have not these tools of communication, and we are in a situation today where media and specially digital and social media, supported by new possibilities of migration, create dangerous situations....

  6. Informações sobre acidentes com transporte rodoviário de produtos perigosos no Estado de São Paulo: os desafios para a Vigilância em Saúde Ambiental Informations about road transport of dangerous substances in the State of São Paulo: challenges for environmental health surveillance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adelaide Cassia Nardocci

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available O estudo dos acidentes com produtos perigosos é uma das áreas de atuação da vigilância em saúde ambiental. Os riscos envolvidos no transporte rodoviário de produtos perigosos são grandes e estão diretamente relacionados às propriedades das substâncias envolvidas, à qualidade da malha viária, à presença de áreas densamente povoadas no entorno, à presença de pedestres na via, entre outros, e suas conseqüências podem ser muito severas. Um dos requisitos básicos para a vigilância em saúde ambiental é a existência de sistemas de informação adequados. Este artigo tem por objetivo analisar os dados de acidentes com transporte de produtos perigosos no Estado de São Paulo, registrados pela Cetesb, pela Polícia Rodoviária e pelo Corpo de Bombeiros do Estado de São Paulo. Também foram analisados e comparados entre si o conteúdo dos respectivos relatórios de registros das ocorrências: RAA, RATPP e RACB. Foram analisados o número de acidentes, o número de óbitos e feridos e a razão de óbito por acidente no período de 1996 a 2003. Os resultados indicaram uma diferença significativa nos números e também na representatividade e facilidade de acesso aos dados. Foi possível verificar também que os conceitos de tipo, causa e conseqüência utilizados pelas instituições são bastante distintos. Por essas razões, a realização de estudos empíricos, a partir de dados históricos de acidentes, é inviabilizada. Vale ressaltar que a estruturação de bancos de dados de registros de acidentes com produtos perigosos deve ser iniciada com a discussão e a uniformização dos seus conceitos fundamentais.The study of accidents with dangerous products is one of the areas of environmental health surveillance. The risks involved in the road transport of dangerous products are large and they depend on the properties of the involved substances, of the quality of the road network, of the presence of areas densely populated, of

  7. Miscellaneous Roads

    Data.gov (United States)

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — This data set contains roadway centerlines for miscellanous roads, a catch-all category for all road types not present in the other DNR derived products. These road...

  8. Semantic Gaps Are Dangerous

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ejstrup, Michael; le Fevre Jakobsen, Bjarne

    Semantic gaps are dangerous Language adapts to the environment where it serves as a tool to communication. Language is a social agreement, and we all have to stick to both grammaticalized and non-grammaticalized rules in order to pass information about the world around us. As such language develops...... unpolite language and tend to create dangerous relations where specialy language creates problems and trouble that could be avoided if we had better language tools at hand. But we have not these tools of communication, and we are in a situation today where media and specially digital and social media......, supported by new possibilities of migration, create dangerous situations. How can we avoid these accidental gaps in language and specially the gaps in semantic and metaphoric tools. Do we have to keep silent and stop discusing certain isues, or do we have other ways to get acces to sufficient language tools...

  9. Strabo's roads

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bekker-Nielsen, Tønnes

    2017-01-01

    in the Geography, and the world-view, of Strabo. Strabo did not take much interest in roads as artefacts or monuments, in the technology of road construction, or in the mythological and historical background of individual roads. He is primarily interested in roads from a functional point of view. For the general...

  10. Colored Contact Lens Dangers

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Tips & Prevention News Ask an Ophthalmologist Patient Stories Español Eye Health / News Halloween Hazard: The Hidden Dangers ... entire eye had to be rem… Leer en Español: Peligros asociados con los lentes de contacto de ...

  11. A Danger to Ourselves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbieri, Richard

    2013-01-01

    In this article Richard Barbieri asserts that the biggest danger to our own safety and well-being, and that of our children, comes not from adult predators, environmental hazards, or the class bully, but from traits common to us all. The enemy is us, and not least because we too often jump to such strategies as clobbering. Writers from such varied…

  12. Colored Contact Lens Dangers

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Tips & Prevention News Ask an Ophthalmologist Patient Stories Español Eye Health / News Halloween Hazard: The Hidden Dangers ... Decorative Contact Lenses Without a Prescription Leer en Español: Peligros asociados con los lentes de contacto de ...

  13. Dangerous Raw Oysters

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2013-08-05

    Dr. Duc Vugia, chief of the Infectious Diseases Branch at the California Department of Public Health, discusses the dangers of eating raw oysters.  Created: 8/5/2013 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID).   Date Released: 8/7/2013.

  14. Colored Contact Lens Dangers

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Tips & Prevention News Ask an Ophthalmologist Patient Stories Español Eye Health / News Halloween Hazard: The Hidden Dangers ... for 35 years, according the m… Leer en Español: Peligros asociados con los lentes de contacto de ...

  15. ROAD SAFETY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    Every year a lot of people are killed or injured in road accidents.How can we make the roads safer?Remember the following traffic rules. When you ride a bike,keep to the right side of the road.Don't cross the road or turn left at a red traffic light.Give a hand signal if you want to turn or stop. Before crossing the road,stop and look both ways,right and left.If the road is

  16. Trauma is Danger

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    to treatment . Further, identifying which patients are most likely to develop severe SIRS after injury may allow for early intervention. Our current...significant danger signal to the immune system. Cell Stress Chaperones 2003, 8:272-286. 35. Martinon F, Petrilli V, Mayor A, Tardivel A, Tschopp J: Gout ...understanding of gout . Arthritis Res Ther 2008, 10:221. 37. Hawkins PN, Lachmann HJ, Aganna E, McDermott MF: Spectrum of clinical features in Muckle-Wells

  17. La mesure du danger

    CERN Document Server

    Manceron, Vanessa; Revet, Sandrine

    2014-01-01

    La mesure du danger permet d’explorer des dangers de nature aussi diverse que la délinquance, la pollution, l’écueil maritime, la maladie ou l’attaque sorcellaire, l’extinction d’espèces animales ou végétales, voire de la Planète tout entière. Au croisement de la sociologie, de l’anthropologie et de l’histoire, les différents articles analysent les pratiques concrètes de mesure pour tenter de comprendre ce qui se produit au cours de l’opération d’évaluation du danger sans préjuger de la nature de celui-ci. L’anthropologie a contribué à la réflexion sur l’infortune en s’intéressant aux temporalités de l’après : maladies, catastrophes, pandémies, etc. et en cherchant à rendre compte de l’expérience des victimes, de leur vie ordinaire bouleversée, de la recomposition du quotidien. Elle s’intéresse aussi aux autres types de mesures, les savoirs incorporés, qui reposent sur l’odorat, la vue ou le toucher et ceux qui ressortent d’une épistémologie « non ...

  18. Road density

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Road density is generally highly correlated with amount of developed land cover. High road densities usually indicate high levels of ecological disturbance. More...

  19. Road Safety

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    Every day we all use roads. We walk on them. We walk eitheralong the pavement (人行道)or across the road. If we are careless, wecan cause accidents.Accidents often happen when people arecrossing the road. Here is some advice.

  20. Dangers of peace journalism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilhelm Kempf

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The sense of mission shared by some peace journalists is a dangerous attitude. All journalists can do to give peace a chance is to serve as mediators, helping conflict parties overcome the competitive misperceptions and societal beliefs that fuel conflict. If peace journalists try to promote and impose their own solutions, however, frustration is inevitable and will finally result in the search for an evildoer who can be made responsible. Thus by involving themselves in conflicts, journalists can become unintentional agents of conflict escalation.

  1. Is moral bioenhancement dangerous?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drake, Nicholas

    2016-01-01

    In a recent response to Persson and Savulescu's Unfit for the Future, Nicholas Agar argues that moral bioenhancement is dangerous. His grounds for this are that normal moral judgement should be privileged because it involves a balance of moral subcapacities; moral bioenhancement, Agar argues, involves the enhancement of only particular moral subcapacities, and thus upsets the balance inherent in normal moral judgement. Mistaken moral judgements, he says, are likely to result. I argue that Agar's argument fails for two reasons. First, having strength in a particular moral subcapacity does not necessarily entail a worsening of moral judgement; it can involve strength in a particular aspect of morality. Second, normal moral judgement is not sufficiently likely to be correct to be the standard by which moral judgements are measured. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  2. Dangers and Pleasures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Järvinen, Margaretha Maria; Østergaard, Jeanette

    2011-01-01

    This is a study of young people’s conceptions of illegal drug use as dangerous and/or pleasurable and an analysis of the relationship between attitudes to drugs, drinking, friends’ reported drug use and own experience with drug use and drinking. The article applies a mixed methods approach using...... both survey data and focus group interviews. The main statistical method is Multiple Correspondence Analysis (MCA), which constructs a social space of young people’s attitudes to drugs and drug experiences relationally. We identify four interrelated positions on illegal drug use among 17 to 19-year......-old Danes: the anti-drug position, usually held by youths who do not use illegal drugs and do not have drug-using friends; the ambivalent position, occupied by non-users who report that they have drug-using friends; the transitory position, held by cannabis users, some of whom express positive attitudes...

  3. A dangerous mixture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Piva

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available A 59-year old woman was admitted for fatigue and arm paresthesias with Trousseau sign. Her medical history included thyroidectomy and hypercholesterolemia recently treated with simvastatin. Laboratory tests showed severe hypokalemia and hypocalcemia, severe increase in muscle enzymes, metabolic alkalosis; low plasma renin activity, increased thyroid-stimulating hormone, normal free thyroxine, increased parathyroid hormone, decreased vitamin D3; alterations in electrolyte urinary excretion, cortisol and aldosterone were excluded. Hypothesizing a statin-related myopathy, simvastatin was suspended; the patient reported use of laxatives containing licorice. Electrolytes normalized with intravenous supplementation. Among many biochemical alterations, none stands out as a major cause for muscular and electrolyte disorders. All co-factors are inter-connected, starting with statin-induced myopathy, worsened by hypothyroidism, secondary hyperaldosteronism and vitamin D deficiency, leading to hypocalcemia and hypokalemia, perpetrating muscular and electrolyte disorders. The importance of considering clinical conditions as a whole emerges with multiple co-factors involved. Another issue concerns herbal products and their potential dangerous effects.

  4. Road icing forecasting and detecting system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Hongke; Zheng, Jinnan; Li, Peiqi; Wang, Qiucai

    2017-05-01

    Regard for the facts that the low accuracy and low real-time of the artificial observation to determine the road icing condition, and it is difficult to forecast icing situation, according to the main factors influencing the road-icing, and the electrical characteristics reflected by the pavement ice layer, this paper presents an innovative system, that is, ice-forecasting of the highway's dangerous section. The system bases on road surface water salinity measurements and pavement temperature measurement to calculate the freezing point of water and temperature change trend, and then predicts the occurrence time of road icing; using capacitance measurements to verdict the road surface is frozen or not; This paper expounds the method of using single chip microcomputer as the core of the control system and described the business process of the system.

  5. Major Roads

    Data.gov (United States)

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — This data set contains roadway centerlines for major roads (interstates and trunk highways) found on the USGS 1:24,000 mapping series. These roadways are current...

  6. GPS Roads

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — This data set contains a 1:100,000 scale vector digital representation of all interstate highways, all US highways, most of the state highways, and some county roads...

  7. Distributed road assessment system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beer, N. Reginald; Paglieroni, David W

    2014-03-25

    A system that detects damage on or below the surface of a paved structure or pavement is provided. A distributed road assessment system includes road assessment pods and a road assessment server. Each road assessment pod includes a ground-penetrating radar antenna array and a detection system that detects road damage from the return signals as the vehicle on which the pod is mounted travels down a road. Each road assessment pod transmits to the road assessment server occurrence information describing each occurrence of road damage that is newly detected on a current scan of a road. The road assessment server maintains a road damage database of occurrence information describing the previously detected occurrences of road damage. After the road assessment server receives occurrence information for newly detected occurrences of road damage for a portion of a road, the road assessment server determines which newly detected occurrences correspond to which previously detected occurrences of road damage.

  8. Louisiana ESI: ROADS (Road Lines)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains the state maintained primary and secondary road network of Louisiana. Vector lines in the data set represent Interstates, U.S. Highways, and...

  9. Default-all is dangerous!

    CERN Document Server

    Gatterbauer, Wolfgang; Suciu, Dan

    2011-01-01

    We show that the default-all propagation scheme for database annotations is dangerous. Dangerous here means that it can propagate annotations to the query output which are semantically irrelevant to the query the user asked. This is the result of considering all relationally equivalent queries and returning the union of their where-provenance in an attempt to define a propagation scheme that is insensitive to query rewriting. We propose an alternative query-rewrite-insensitive (QRI) where-provenance called minimum propagation. It is analogous to the minimum witness basis for why-provenance, straight-forward to evaluate, and returns all relevant and only relevant annotations.

  10. Road works

    CERN Multimedia

    GS Department

    2010-01-01

    From Monday 11 October until Friday 29 October 2010, the flow of traffic will be disrupted by road works at the roundabout in front of Restaurant No. 2; The number of spaces available in the car park in front of Rest. No. 2 will be reduced. Thank you for your understanding during this period. GS/SEM Group

  11. Safety; interactions of the various factors of the vehicles, infrastructure, driver, environment system. Contribution to XVII World Road Congress, Sydney, Australia, 8-15 October 1983, question III: Inter-urban roads and motorways, p. 352-354, Permanent International Association of Road Congresses, Paris, 1983.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wegman, F.C.M.

    1983-01-01

    In the Netherlands there are plans to set up a data bank which will contain data for pursuing a national road safety policy. This will enable the nation- wide developments in the sphere of road safety and dangers to road users to be monitored (monitoring function) and to pinpoint specific subjects

  12. The dangers of sports journalism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sparre, Kirsten

    2017-01-01

    According to The Committee to Protect Journalists, 2 per cent of all journalists killed since 1992 worked on the sports beat. However, at present there is little understanding of the specific dangers faced by sports journalists. This chapter presents findings from exploratory research on 78 repor...

  13. The dangers of sports journalism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sparre, Kirsten

    2017-01-01

    According to The Committee to Protect Journalists, 2 per cent of all journalists killed since 1992 worked on the sports beat. However, at present there is little understanding of the specific dangers faced by sports journalists. This chapter presents findings from exploratory research on 78 repor...

  14. MODELING OF THE VULNERABILITY RELATED TO THE DYNAMIC ROAD TRAFFIC

    OpenAIRE

    2008-01-01

    International audience; The utilization of the road network by vehicles with different behaviors can generate a danger under normal and especially under evacuation situations. In Le Havre agglomeration (CODAH), there are 33 establishments classified SEVESO with high threshold. The modeling and assessment of the danger is useful when it intersects with the exposed stakes. The most important factor is people. In the literature, vulnerability maps are constructed to help decision makers assess t...

  15. Danger of Antibiotic Overuse (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Be Smart About Social Media The Danger of Antibiotic Overuse KidsHealth > For Parents > The Danger of Antibiotic ... by not reaching for the prescription pad. How Antibiotics Work Antibiotics, first used in the 1940s, are ...

  16. Dangerous Dogs, Constructivism and Normativity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Allan Dreyer

    2010-01-01

    This article argues that although there is no necessary link between constructivism and particular sets of norms, constructivism opens up a space for normativity and can be articulated through particular normative or political programs. I show how Laclau’s deconstructive constructivism can be art...... be articulated within the framework of an ethos of democratization. The article takes its empirical point of departure in debates over dangerous dogs....

  17. 29 CFR 1903.13 - Imminent danger.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 5 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Imminent danger. 1903.13 Section 1903.13 Labor Regulations... INSPECTIONS, CITATIONS AND PROPOSED PENALTIES § 1903.13 Imminent danger. Whenever and as soon as a Compliance... immediately or before the imminence of such danger can be eliminated through the enforcement...

  18. 30 CFR 56.12021 - Danger signs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Danger signs. 56.12021 Section 56.12021 Mineral... HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-SURFACE METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Electricity § 56.12021 Danger signs. Suitable danger signs shall be posted at all major electrical installations....

  19. 30 CFR 57.12021 - Danger signs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Danger signs. 57.12021 Section 57.12021 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND... Underground § 57.12021 Danger signs. Suitable danger signs shall be posted at all major...

  20. Seasonal fire danger forecasts for the USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    J. Roads; F. Fujioka; S. Chen; R. Burgan

    2005-01-01

    The Scripps Experimental Climate Prediction Center has been making experimental, near-real-time, weekly to seasonal fire danger forecasts for the past 5 years. US fire danger forecasts and validations are based on standard indices from the National Fire Danger Rating System (DFDRS), which include the ignition component (IC), energy release component (ER), burning...

  1. IMPROVEMENT OF ROAD TRAFFIC QUALITY IN ACCIDENT CLUSTERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. V. Kapsky

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Road traffic with its share from 2/3 to 3/4 of the total volume of transport service represents rather large and complicated social and production system with several subsystems that include roads, transport facilities, road traffic organization, law enforcement, personnel training, road traffic service and others. Road traffic quality can be quantitatively evaluated in accordance with values of losses pertaining to social and economic cost of discretionary (unenforced expenses for road traffic process. Road traffic contains accident, ecological, economic and social risks. Accidence is considered as the most important risk for participants involved in road traffic because it directly concerns their life, health and welfare. So accident response has rather high social significance and it is considered as a matter of national importance. In this connection role of road traffic organization has become very important and it is directed on improvement of its quality including security in the accident clusters.Methodological principles for improvement of road traffic quality have been developed in the paper. These principles presuppose the following: maximization of danger while selecting investigation object; minimization of total losses while evaluating quality and selecting solutions on improvement in road traffic safety; balanced accountability of accidental and ecological losses while selecting solutions on higher road traffic safety in ambiguous situations; minimization of total cost pertaining to object operation while selecting measures on improvement of road traffic safety; obligatory operative control evaluation of accidence on the basis of method for conflict situations while introducing measures of road traffic safety. Such approaches will contribute to higher quality of the decisions taken in the field of road traffic organization.

  2. VT Road Centerline

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — (Link to Metadata)(User Guide)The Vermont Road Centerline data layer (TransRoad_RDS) contains all town and state highways, as well as many private roads. The...

  3. TransRoad_RDS

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — The Road Centerline data layer (TransRoad_RDS) contains all town and state highways, as well as many private roads. The centerlines were originally developed under...

  4. Armenia - Rural Road Rehabilitation

    Data.gov (United States)

    Millennium Challenge Corporation — The key research questions guiding our design of the RRRP evaluation are: • Did rehabilitating roads affect the quality of roads? • Did rehabilitating roads improve...

  5. Road Users' Risky Behavior: Analysis Focusing on Aggressiveness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alica Kalašová

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available With transport and traffic developing permanently, we can meet more and more aggressive drivers on roads. We can see various kinds of aggressiveness and aggressive behavior that can lead to dangerous situations which can threaten one's health or even life. The problem of aggressive driving on the roads is becoming more current. Speeding, inappropriate gestures, and nonobservance of safe distance, are only a fraction of the aggressive behavior of many drivers that need to be solved in the road traffic. At present, the problem of aggressive driver behavior in Slovakia is not resolved yet.

  6. Evaluation of the Consequences of a Cistern Truck Accident While Transporting Dangerous Substances through a Tunnel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malecha, Ziemowit M; Poliski, Jarosaw; Chorowski, Maciej

    2017-03-23

    The transportation of dangerous substances by truck carriers harbors important safety issues in both road and mine tunnels. Even though traffic conditions in road and mine tunnels are different, the potential geometric and hydrodynamic similarities can lead to similar effects from the uncontrolled leakage of the dangerous material. This work was motivated by the design study of the LAGUNA-LBNO (Large Apparatus studying Grand Unification and Neutrino Astrophysics and Long Baseline Neutrino Oscillations) project. The considered neutrino detector requires a huge amount of liquid argon, which must be transported down the tunnel. The present work focuses on the estimation of the most credible incident and the resulting consequences in the case of a truck accident in the tunnel. The approach and tools used in the present work are generic and can be adapted to other similar situations. © 2017 Society for Risk Analysis.

  7. The danger theory: 20 years later.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pradeu, Thomas; Cooper, Edwin L

    2012-01-01

    The self-non-self theory has dominated immunology since the 1950s. In the 1990s, Matzinger and her colleagues suggested a new, competing theory, called the "danger theory." This theory has provoked mixed acclaim: enthusiasm and criticism. Here we assess the danger theory vis-à-vis recent experimental data on innate immunity, transplantation, cancers and tolerance to foreign entities, and try to elucidate more clearly whether danger is well defined.

  8. Meteoroids are Dangerous to Spacecraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moorhead, Althea V.

    2017-01-01

    Meteoroids put dents in Shuttle windows much like bouncing gravel puts dents in your car's windshield. However, meteoroids move at such high speeds that they can partly vaporize the surfaces they strike! A dust particle (smaller than a meteoroid) hit the STEREO spacecraft and produced this fountain of smaller particles. When a meteoroid breaks up, its "shrapnel" can also be dangerous. Even when meteoroids don't damage a spacecraft, they can cause problems. Here, a small meteoroid bumped a camera on the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO), causing wiggles in this scan of the lunar surface. Meteoroids and pieces of space junk create rough edges on the outside of the Space Station that can damage space suits. The astronauts' gloves had to be thickened to help prevent them from ripping.

  9. The road safety audit and road safety inspection.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    2007-01-01

    A road safety audit (RSA) and a road safety inspection (RSI) are used to test the safety level of the road infrastructure. The RSA tests the design of new roads or the reconstruction of existing roads, whereas the RSI is used for testing existing roads. An RSA, therefore, aims to 'improve' the road

  10. The road safety audit and road safety inspection.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    2007-01-01

    A road safety audit (RSA) and a road safety inspection (RSI) are used to test the safety level of the road infrastructure. The RSA tests the design of new roads or the reconstruction of existing roads, whereas the RSI is used for testing existing roads. An RSA, therefore, aims to 'improve' the road

  11. Impact of Climate Change on Fire Danger across the Western United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abatzoglou, J. T.; Kolden, C.; Brown, T. J.

    2009-12-01

    Over the past three decades, the size and number of number of large wildfires have dramatically increased across the western United States. Large wildfires across much of the West preferentially occur during periods of extreme fire danger associated with critically low fuel moistures and limited relative humidity recovery. Anecdotal and analytical evidence suggests that fire danger and fire behavior have been unprecedented in recent years, therein contributing to the significant increase in wildland fire acres burned in recent years. Although fire danger, as a juxtaposition of climate and meteorological conditions, represents only a single determinant of wildfires, mounting evidence suggests that observed changes in climate have played a contributing role in increasing wildfire’s prevalence across the West and its subsequent effects on ecosystems and human infrastructure, Here, the impact of projected climate change on fire danger is examined across the western U.S. Projected changes in fire danger are assessed through a multimodel approach that uses downscaled daily meteorological fields. For a middle of the road climate change scenario results suggests an advance in the onset of fire season and an increase in the frequency of extreme fire danger conditions, with strong intermodel confidence across much of the desert southwest and intermountain western U.S. In addition, the alignment of climate change with low-frequency climate variability is projected to increase the likelihood of seasons that incur prolonged widespread fire danger. Such chronic and west-wide synchronous heightened wildfire potential is likely to tax fire suppression resources and reduce their efficacy, therein resulting in increased large catastrophic wildfires. Given the high degree of confidence regarding projected changes in fire danger and the increasing potential for anthropogenic ignitions, proactive efforts to mitigate the negative impacts of large wildfires are needed by land

  12. The Dangers of Educated Girls and Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    John, Vaughn M.

    2016-01-01

    Why do educated girls and women constitute a danger in some societies and for this face extreme danger in their educational endeavours? This article argues that historical and contemporary educational discrimination of girls and women is the hallmark of a violently patriarchal society, and this stubborn injustice is exacerbated under conditions of…

  13. Community Violent Crime Rates and School Danger.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowen, Gary L.; Van Dorn, Richard A.

    2002-01-01

    This study investigated the association between community violent crime rates and middle school students' (N=857) perceptions of school danger. Findings indicate that community crime rates are associated with male middle school students' reports of school danger but not female students' reports. Discusses community- and school-based prevention…

  14. [Dangerous sharks in tropical seas].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maslin, J; Menard, G; Drouin, C; Pollet, L

    2000-01-01

    Sightseeing travel in tropical zones is a growing industry. The risks incurred by travelers depend on the destination, duration of stay, individual behavior, and type of leisure activity. Water sports expose visitors to encounters with dangerous marine animals. Shark attacks are rare but always serious occurrences. Divers should handle any shark, regardless of size, with due precaution. Prevention of shark attack depends on avoiding encounters by not attracting the attention of the shark and knowing the proper attitude to adopt in case an encounter should occur. Active and passive protection can be used, but each method has advantages and disadvantages depending on the situation. Rescue operations are difficult due to the gravity of injuries and their occurrence in a marine environment. This along with the nature of the aggressor explain that many attacks are immediately fatal. Wounds are often deep with involvement of bone, blood vessels, and nerves. A possible source of complication in survivors is infection, which can involve uncommon microorganisms associated with bacteria in sharks mouth or marine environment.

  15. An effective road management system using web-based GIS software

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohd Ramli Nik Yusoff, Nik; Zulhaidi Mohd Shafri, Helmi; Muniandy, Ratnasamy

    2014-06-01

    Recently, there is a rapid development of road transportation network. This situation arises due to the number of vehicle on the road that keeps increasing year by year. Thus, this will increase the possibility of dangerous situations to the road users if roads are not being maintained appropriately. Therefore, in order to keep the road in safe condition, the road management activity should be improved. A complete system for road management has been applied in the developed countries for the past decades. However, the usage of application programming interface (API) from GIS software has limitation to make modification in terms of interactivity of the system. Open source software was proposed as a way to assist in reducing the development cost of developing road monitoring system. In this paper, open source software was proposed as a way to assist in reducing the development cost in developing road management system. OpenLayers framework was used as map rendering platform. The system can be used by administrator of road network to update the road information. At the same time, it can be used by the road user as well to view the information regarding road-related incidents.

  16. Arrive alive: road safety in Kenya and South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamont, Mark; Lee, Rebekah

    2015-04-01

    This article is among the first historical considerations of road safety in Africa. It argues that race and class, as colonial dualisms, analytically frame two defining moments in the development of African automobility and its infrastructure-"Africanization" in the first decade of Kenya's political independence from Britain, 1963-75, and democratization in postapartheid South Africa. We argue that recent road safety interventions in both countries exemplify an "epidemiological turn" influenced by public health constructions of the HIV/AIDS epidemic. African states' framing of road safety in behaviorist terms has obscured larger debates around redressing the historical legacies of racialized access to roads and the technopolitics of African automobility. Civic involvement in road safety initiatives has tended to be limited, although the specter of road carnage has entered into the public imagination, largely through the death of high profile Africans. However, some African road users continue to pursue alternative, and often culturally embedded, strategies to mitigate the dangers posed by life "on the road."

  17. Roads (Johnson City)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — This is a vector line file showing the location of existing NPS roads including access roads for which the park has an easement at Lyndon B. Johnson National...

  18. Roads Near Streams

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Roads are a source of auto related pollutants (e.g. gasoline, oil and other engine fluids). When roads are near streams, rain can wash these pollutants directly into...

  19. Future Roads Near Streams

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Roads are a source of auto related pollutants (e.g. gasoline, oil and other engine fluids). When roads are near streams, rain can wash these pollutants directly into...

  20. VT Road Centerline

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — (Link to Metadata)(User Guide)(Symbology layer files: aotclass_only.lyr aotclass_surfacetyp.lyr)The Vermont Road Centerline data layer (TransRoad_RDS) contains all...

  1. Future Road Density

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Road density is generally highly correlated with amount of developed land cover. High road densities usually indicate high levels of ecological disturbance. More...

  2. Rural road maintenance management

    OpenAIRE

    Johannessen, B.

    1999-01-01

    This manual summarizes relevant Cambodian government policies regarding rural road maintenance. Chapter 2 defines the various components of road maintenance and describes an effective strategy and organization which addresses the maintenance requirements of rural roads in Cambodia. Chapter 3 is a brief description of the planning, implementation and reporting cycle required in an effective road maintenance management system. Chapter 4 summarizes the contracts management procedures, and finall...

  3. Dendritic Cells as Danger-Recognizing Biosensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seokmann Hong

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Dendritic cells (DCs are antigen presenting cells that are characterized by a potent capacity to initiate immune responses. DCs comprise several subsets with distinct phenotypes. After sensing any danger(s to the host via their innate immune receptors such as Toll-like receptors, DCs become mature and subsequently present antigens to CD4+ T cells. Since DCs possess the intrinsic capacity to polarize CD4+ helper cells, it is critical to understand the immunological roles of DCs for clinical applications. Here, we review the different DC subsets, their danger-sensing receptors and immunological functions. Furthermore, the cytokine reporter mouse model for studying DC activation is introduced.

  4. FEATURES ROAD SAFETY AUDIT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Abramova

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Development of the road network, increasing motorization of the population significantly increase the risk of accidents. Experts in the field of traffic are developing methods to reduce the probability of accidents. The ways of solving the problems of road safety audit at various stages of the «life» of roads are considered.

  5. Overload road damage model

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Roux, MP

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Not only do overloaded vehicles pose an increased safety risk on the road (reduced stability and braking efficiency etc.), but they also accelerate the rate of deterioration of the road network and increase road maintenance costs, which in turn...

  6. Microbe- and danger-induced inflammation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broggi, Achille; Granucci, Francesca

    2015-02-01

    The ability of the immune system to give rise to an effective response against pathogens while maintaining tolerance towards self-tissues has always been an object of keen interest for immunologist. Over the years, different theories have been proposed to explain if and how the immune system is able to discriminate between self and non-self, including the Infectious Non-self theory from Charles Janeway and Polly Matzinger's Danger theory. Nowadays we know Janeway's theory is largely true, however the immune system does respond to injured, stressed and necrotic cells releasing danger signals (DAMPs) with a potent inflammatory response. To avoid unwanted prolonged autoimmune reactions, though, danger-induced inflammation should be tightly regulated. In the present review we discuss how prototypic DAMPs are able to induce inflammation and the peculiarity of danger-induced inflammation, as opposed to a complete immune response to fight pathogen invasions.

  7. (Neuro)predictions, Dangerousness, and Retributivism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Thomas Søbirk

    2014-01-01

    Through the criminal justice system so-called dangerous offenders are, besides the offence that they are being convicted of and sentenced to, also punished for acts that they have not done but that they are believe to be likely to commit in the future. The aim of this paper is to critically discuss...... whether some adherents of retributivism give a plausible rationale for punishing offenders more harshly if they, all else being equal, by means of predictions are believed to be more dangerous than other offenders. While consequentialism has no problem, at least in principle, with this use of predictions...... to be dangerous in the future more harshly than non-dangerous offenders. After having reconstructed their arguments in detail, it will be argued that both Duff's and Morse's attempts to give a retributivistic justification have several shortcomings....

  8. Inherent Dangers in Orogenital Sex During Pregnancy

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    dangerous, causing even the death of the women. We carried out a search of ... KEY WORDS: Air embolism, cunnilingus, orogenital sex, pregnancy ... contained multiple case report. ... The average age of women was 20.2 years, and only one.

  9. Opioids and Alcohol a Dangerous Cocktail

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... taken opioids previously. Oxycodone, an ingredient in the brand-name drugs OxyContin and Percocet, is widely prescribed ... in the journal Anesthesiology . "We hope to increase awareness regarding the dangers of prescription opioids, the increased ...

  10. Xylitol and Your Dog: Danger, Paws Off

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Devices Radiation-Emitting Products Vaccines, Blood & Biologics Animal & Veterinary Cosmetics Tobacco ... Foods Containing Xylitol Why is Xylitol Dangerous to Dogs, but Not People? Symptoms to Look For in Your Dog What Can ...

  11. Dangerous effects of methane gas in atmosphere

    OpenAIRE

    Mohajan, Haradhan

    2011-01-01

    This paper discusses the effects of methane gas which causes sever global warming in the atmosphere. Global warming becomes main issue in economics in the 21st century. Because global climate change becomes more dangerous and every nation realized that this is due to greenhouse gas emissions. Methane is dangerous greenhouse gas, since it is 21 times more global warming potential than carbon dioxide. All the nations talk about the reduction of only carbon dioxide and no nation stress on methan...

  12. Is red the colour of danger? Testing an implicit red-danger association.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pravossoudovitch, Karyn; Cury, Francois; Young, Steve G; Elliot, Andrew J

    2014-01-01

    Research using participant's self-reports has documented a link between red and danger. In this research, we used two different variants of a Stroop word evaluation task to test for the possibility of an implicit red-danger association using carefully controlled colour stimuli (equated on lightness and chroma). Experiment 1, using words as stimuli, yielded strong evidence of a link between red and danger, and weaker evidence of a green-safety association. Experiment 2, using symbols as stimuli, again yielded strong evidence of a link between red and danger; no green effects were observed. The findings were discussed in terms of the power and promise of red in signal communication.

  13. The road user behaviour of school students in Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nabipour, Amir Reza; Nakhaee, Nouzar; Khanjani, Narges; Zirak Moradlou, Hossein; Sullman, Mark J M

    2015-02-01

    The present study developed a Persian version of the Adolescent Road User Behaviour Questionnaire (ARBQ) and investigated the psychometric properties of the scale in a sample of school students in the province of Tehran (Iran). In total 1111 adolescents completed the Persian version of the ARBQ. Exploratory factor analysis, using the shortened 21-item version of the scale revealed the presence of three reliable factors which were also supported using confirmatory factor analysis. According to this research, engagement in dangerous playing in the road was significantly higher among males, residents of large urban areas, students from private schools, students in the south of Tehran, those who reported relatives or friends had been killed in a road crash and those with a personal history of road accidents. Moreover, older adolescents, those who reported relatives or friends having been killed in a road crash and those with a traffic accident history reported higher involvement in unsafe crossing behaviour. Females, older adolescents, residents of small urban areas, students from schools in small urban areas and those with an accident history also reported less frequent engagement in planned protective behaviours. This study confirms that the ARBQ is a useful framework for investigating adolescents' on-road behaviours in Iran. This research also showed that adolescents put themselves at risk by engaging in hazardous behaviours. As is the case in most countries, this study revealed the need for interventions, such as education and enforcement to improve the on-road safety culture amongst Iranian adolescents.

  14. Segmentation and classification of road markings using MLS data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soilán, Mario; Riveiro, Belén; Martínez-Sánchez, Joaquín; Arias, Pedro

    2017-01-01

    Traffic signs are one of the most important safety elements in a road network. Particularly, road markings provide information about the limits and direction of each road lane, or warn the drivers about potential danger. The optimal condition of road markings contributes to a better road safety. Mobile Laser Scanning technology can be used for infrastructure inspection and specifically for traffic sign detection and inventory. This paper presents a methodology for the detection and semantic characterization of the most common road markings, namely pedestrian crossings and arrows. The 3D point cloud data acquired by a LYNX Mobile Mapper system is filtered in order to isolate reflective points in the road, and each single element is hierarchically classified using Neural Networks. State of the art results are obtained for the extraction and classification of the markings, with F-scores of 94% and 96% respectively. Finally, data from classified markings are exported to a GIS layer and maintenance criteria based on the aforementioned data are proposed.

  15. Road Transport Entrepreneurs and Road Transportation Revolution ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Toshiba

    An International Multidisciplinary Journal, Ethiopia. Vol. 7 (4), Serial No. ... Nnewi Igbo emerged as pioneer road transport entrepreneurs and charted this novel ..... the cardinal motives for venturing into the transport industry. (Maduewesi ...

  16. A combined road weather forecast system to prevent road ice formation in the Adige Valley (Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Napoli, Claudia; Piazza, Andrea; Antonacci, Gianluca; Todeschini, Ilaria; Apolloni, Roberto; Pretto, Ilaria

    2016-04-01

    Road ice is a dangerous meteorological hazard to a nation's transportation system and economy. By reducing the pavement friction with vehicle tyres, ice formation on pavements increases accident risk and delays travelling times thus posing a serious threat to road users' safety and the running of economic activities. Keeping roads clear and open is therefore essential, especially in mountainous areas where ice is likely to form during the winter period. Winter road maintenance helps to restore road efficiency and security, and its benefits are up to 8 times the costs sustained for anti-icing strategies [1]. However, the optimization of maintenance costs and the reduction of the environmental damage from over-salting demand further improvements. These can be achieved by reliable road weather forecasts, and in particular by the prediction of road surface temperatures (RSTs). RST is one of the most important parameters in determining road surface conditions. It is well known from literature that ice forms on pavements in high-humidity conditions when RSTs are below 0°C. We have therefore implemented an automatic forecast system to predict critical RSTs on a test route along the Adige Valley complex terrain, in the Italian Alps. The system considers two physical models, each computing heat and energy fluxes between the road and the atmosphere. One is Reuter's radiative cooling model, which predicts RSTs at sunrise as a function of surface temperatures at sunset and the time passed since then [2]. One is METRo (Model of the Environment and Temperature of Roads), a road weather forecast software which also considers heat conduction through road material [3]. We have applied the forecast system to a network of road weather stations (road weather information system, RWIS) installed on the test route [4]. Road and atmospheric observations from RWIS have been used as initial conditions for both METRo and Reuter's model. In METRo observations have also been coupled to

  17. Automatic Road Centerline Extraction from Imagery Using Road GPS Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chuqing Cao

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Road centerline extraction from imagery constitutes a key element in numerous geospatial applications, which has been addressed through a variety of approaches. However, most of the existing methods are not capable of dealing with challenges such as different road shapes, complex scenes, and variable resolutions. This paper presents a novel method for road centerline extraction from imagery in a fully automatic approach that addresses the aforementioned challenges by exploiting road GPS data. The proposed method combines road color feature with road GPS data to detect road centerline seed points. After global alignment of road GPS data, a novel road centerline extraction algorithm is developed to extract each individual road centerline in local regions. Through road connection, road centerline network is generated as the final output. Extensive experiments demonstrate that our proposed method can rapidly and accurately extract road centerline from remotely sensed imagery.

  18. Eyes on the Road (A Cup of Health with CDC)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2013-03-14

    One of the first lessons new drivers learn is to keep their eyes on the road. Unfortunately, cell phones and other electronic devices are causing many drivers to lose their focus, and sometimes their lives. In this podcast, Rebecca Naumann discusses the dangers of distracted driving.  Created: 3/14/2013 by MMWR.   Date Released: 3/14/2013.

  19. Bicycle facilities on road segments and intersections of distributor roads.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    2008-01-01

    A sustainably safe road environment requires bicycle facilities that separate motorized traffic from relatively vulnerable road users like cyclists. Research indicates that on distributor roads the road sections with adjoining or separate bicycle tracks are safer than the road sections without any b

  20. Bicycle facilities on road segments and intersections of distributor roads.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    2008-01-01

    A sustainably safe road environment requires bicycle facilities that separate motorized traffic from relatively vulnerable road users like cyclists. Research indicates that on distributor roads the road sections with adjoining or separate bicycle tracks are safer than the road sections without any b

  1. Radiation danger of exclusion zone objects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kholosha, V.I.; Proskura, N.I.; Ivanov, Yu.A.; Kazakov, S.V.; Arkhipov, A.N. [Ministry of Ukraine of Emergencies and Affairs of Population Protection from the Consequences of Chornobyl Catastrophe (Ukraine)

    2001-03-01

    The analysis of radiation danger of the Exclusion Zone objects was made. Here, the Zone is defined as the territory from which the population has been evacuated in 1986 owing to the Chernobyl accident and possible outflow of the contaminated substances out of the borders is potentially dangerous to the Ukraine. In the present work were analyzed such problems as sources of radiation danger in the Zone, ways of radionuclide migration out of the borders of the Zone in normal and emergency situations, the non-radiation (ecological) danger factors of the Zone objects, doses (individual and collective) from various sources and on separate ways of their formation, and the characteristics of radiation danger of the Zone objects. The conclusions are: (1) Radionuclide flows both from technologic and natural sources exceed those from Shelter objects, (2) Under emergency conditions, radionuclide flows and doze loading remain comparable with those from emergency sources, (3) To solve some management tasks in radiation situation, the basic works on the Shelter objects should be oriented to decrease probability of emergency occurrence and to reduce radiation influence (prevention wash-outs during high waters, fire-prevention measures in forests and strengthening of the control behind non-authorized use of objects in the Zone). (S. Ohno)

  2. DANGERS AND SAFETY MEASURES IN A MOUNTAIN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jovica Petković

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Mountaineering and everything that is connected with it is a sport with con¬tro¬lled risk. Mountaineers, alpinists, climbers, cavers and all the others who visit and sojourn in mountains are faced with many risks and dangers, which are caused by na¬ture and also by their own mistakes. The dangers in the mountains, like dangers in any other environment, are mainly predictable, so it is best to deal with them with good esti¬mation, knowledge and skill. One has to be aware of his surroundings – the moun¬tain, to respect it and to know what is dangerous and how much it is dangerous at any moment. The organization of the mountaineering expeditions and leadership per¬haps re¬present the highest level of security control. To develop skills for organizing and lead¬ing a group means to ensure the safety of the entire group – to work pre¬ven¬ti¬ve¬ly at the level of the entire group, not only at the level of an individual. The success of the enti¬re group as well as safety depends on the organization and leadership.

  3. 33 CFR 334.1340 - Pacific Ocean, Hawaii; danger zones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Pacific Ocean, Hawaii; danger... ARMY, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE DANGER ZONE AND RESTRICTED AREA REGULATIONS § 334.1340 Pacific Ocean, Hawaii; danger zones. (a) Danger zones—(1) Aerial bombing and strafing target surrounding Kaula...

  4. 33 CFR 62.29 - Isolated danger marks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Isolated danger marks. 62.29... NAVIGATION UNITED STATES AIDS TO NAVIGATION SYSTEM The U.S. Aids to Navigation System § 62.29 Isolated danger marks. Isolated danger marks indicate an isolated danger which may be passed on all sides. As...

  5. 33 CFR 334.5 - Disestablishment of a danger zone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Disestablishment of a danger zone..., DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE DANGER ZONE AND RESTRICTED AREA REGULATIONS § 334.5 Disestablishment of a danger zone. (a) Upon receipt of a request from any agency for the disestablishment of a danger zone, the...

  6. The danger signal S100B integrates pathogen- and danger-sensing pathways to restrain inflammation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorci, Guglielmo; Giovannini, Gloria; Riuzzi, Francesca; Bonifazi, Pierluigi; Zelante, Teresa; Zagarella, Silvia; Bistoni, Francesco; Donato, Rosario; Romani, Luigina

    2011-03-01

    Humans inhale hundreds of Aspergillus conidia without adverse consequences. Powerful protective mechanisms may ensure prompt control of the pathogen and inflammation. Here we reveal a previously unknown mechanism by which the danger molecule S100B integrates pathogen- and danger-sensing pathways to restrain inflammation. Upon forming complexes with TLR2 ligands, S100B inhibited TLR2 via RAGE, through a paracrine epithelial cells/neutrophil circuit that restrained pathogen-induced inflammation. However, upon binding to nucleic acids, S100B activated intracellular TLRs eventually resolve danger-induced inflammation via transcriptional inhibition of S100B. Thus, the spatiotemporal regulation of TLRs and RAGE by S100B provides evidence for an evolving braking circuit in infection whereby an endogenous danger protects against pathogen-induced inflammation and a pathogen-sensing mechanism resolves danger-induced inflammation.

  7. The danger signal S100B integrates pathogen- and danger-sensing pathways to restrain inflammation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guglielmo Sorci

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Humans inhale hundreds of Aspergillus conidia without adverse consequences. Powerful protective mechanisms may ensure prompt control of the pathogen and inflammation. Here we reveal a previously unknown mechanism by which the danger molecule S100B integrates pathogen- and danger-sensing pathways to restrain inflammation. Upon forming complexes with TLR2 ligands, S100B inhibited TLR2 via RAGE, through a paracrine epithelial cells/neutrophil circuit that restrained pathogen-induced inflammation. However, upon binding to nucleic acids, S100B activated intracellular TLRs eventually resolve danger-induced inflammation via transcriptional inhibition of S100B. Thus, the spatiotemporal regulation of TLRs and RAGE by S100B provides evidence for an evolving braking circuit in infection whereby an endogenous danger protects against pathogen-induced inflammation and a pathogen-sensing mechanism resolves danger-induced inflammation.

  8. The danger model: questioning an unconvincing theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Józefowski, Szczepan

    2016-02-01

    Janeway's pattern recognition theory holds that the immune system detects infection through a limited number of the so-called pattern recognition receptors (PRRs). These receptors bind specific chemical compounds expressed by entire groups of related pathogens, but not by host cells (pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs). In contrast, Matzinger's danger hypothesis postulates that products released from stressed or damaged cells have a more important role in the activation of immune system than the recognition of nonself. These products, named by analogy to PAMPs as danger-associated molecular patterns (DAMPs), are proposed to act through the same receptors (PRRs) as PAMPs and, consequently, to stimulate largely similar responses. Herein, I review direct and indirect evidence that contradict the widely accepted danger theory, and suggest that it may be false.

  9. Roads In and Surrounding Cedar Breaks National Monument, Utah (roads)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — This coverage contains those transportation routes from the Dixie's d2_travel_rte coverage that were calculated road = 'Road'. The Dixie National Forest Road...

  10. Dangerous arachnids-Fake news or reality?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hauke, Tobias J; Herzig, Volker

    2017-09-01

    The public perception of spiders and scorpions is skewed towards the potential harm they can inflict in humans, despite recent scientific evidence that arachnid venom components might be useful as bioinsecticides or even human therapeutics. Nevertheless, arachnids are becoming more popular as pets in Europe, America and Asia, raising the question for regulatory agencies in these regions as to whether they need to take measurements to protect their citizens. In order to decide upon the necessary regulatory steps, they first need to determine which arachnids are actually dangerous to humans. This review therefore provides an overview of the current literature on verified bites and stings from spiders and scorpions with the aim of assessing their potential danger for human health. As a guideline, we also provide a list of those arachnid genera that we consider as potentially dangerous, which includes 10 spider and 11 scorpion genera. The arachnid genera classified as dangerous comprise less than a quarter of all extant scorpion species and only 0.5% of all spiders species, with the actual number most likely being much lower than that, as not all species in those genera might turn out to pose an actual threat for humans. In conclusion, we found that only a small percentage of scorpions and a minute percentage of all spiders can be considered as potentially dangerous to humans. While in some countries of origin the high incidence of envenomations by dangerous arachnids can result in a serious problem to the health system, we assessed the risk that the same species pose when kept as pets under controlled maintenance conditions as significantly lower. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Trajectory of a road vehicle during road maintenance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stachová Darina

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Consider a vehicle moving on a road whose usage over time creates an uneven surface on the road. Road unevenness that we encounter on surface communications often arises as a consequence of dynamical effects of moving vehicles, of weather changes, and due to road construction works. This article concerns with mathematical modeling of the trajectory of a road vehicle moving on such a surface during the course of road maintenance.

  12. Cartographies of danger mapping hazards in America

    CERN Document Server

    Monmonier, Mark

    1997-01-01

    No place is perfectly safe, but some places are more dangerous than others. Whether we live on a floodplain or in ""Tornado Alley,"" near a nuclear facility or in a neighborhood poorly lit at night, we all co-exist uneasily with natural and man-made hazards. As Mark Monmonier shows in this entertaining and immensely informative book, maps can tell us a lot about where we can anticipate certain hazards, but they can also be dangerously misleading. California, for example, takes earthquakes seriously, with a comprehensive program of seismic mapping, whereas Washington has been comparatively lax

  13. The effect of stress and personality on dangerous driving behavior among Chinese drivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ge, Yan; Qu, Weina; Jiang, Caihong; Du, Feng; Sun, Xianghong; Zhang, Kan

    2014-12-01

    The relationship between stress and road safety has been studied for many years, but the effect of global stress and its joint effect with personality on driving behavior have received little attention in previous studies. This study aimed to elucidate the impact of global stress and various personality traits on driving behavior. 242 drivers completed the Perceived Stress Scale-10 (PSS-10), the Dula Dangerous Driving Index (DDDI), and several personality trait scales related to anger, sensation seeking, and altruism. The results showed that perceived stress and sensation seeking were significantly correlated with the four subcategories of dangerous driving behavior, namely, negative cognitive/emotional driving (NCED), aggressive driving (AD), risky driving (RD), and drunk driving (DD). Moreover, anger was positively correlated with negative cognitive/emotional driving, aggressive driving, and risky driving, and altruism was negatively correlated with aggressive driving and drunk driving. Hierarchical multiple regressions were applied to analyze the mediating effect of personality traits, and the results showed that anger mediated the relationship between stress and dangerous driving behavior and that this mediating role was especially strong for negative cognitive/emotional driving and aggressive driving. Collectively, the results showed that stress is an important factor that can affect people's driving behavior but that personality traits mediate the effect of stress on driving behavior. The findings from this study regarding the relationship among stress, anger, and dangerous driving behavior could be applied in the development of intervention programs for stress and anger management in order to improve drivers' ability to manage emotional thoughts and adjust their behavior on the road.

  14. Application of Ultrasonic Sensors in Road Surface Condition Distinction Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakashima, Shota; Aramaki, Shingo; Kitazono, Yuhki; Mu, Shenglin; Tanaka, Kanya; Serikawa, Seiichi

    2016-01-01

    The number of accidents involving elderly individuals has been increasing with the increase of the aging population, posing increasingly serious challenges. Most accidents are caused by reduced judgment and physical abilities, which lead to severe consequences. Therefore, studies on support systems for elderly and visually impaired people to improve the safety and quality of daily life are attracting considerable attention. In this study, a road surface condition distinction method using reflection intensities obtained by an ultrasonic sensor was proposed. The proposed method was applied to movement support systems for elderly and visually impaired individuals to detect dangerous road surfaces and give an alarm. The method did not perform well in previous studies of puddle detection, because the alert provided by the method did not enable users to avoid puddles. This study extended the method proposed by previous studies with respect to puddle detection ability. The findings indicate the effectiveness of the proposed method by considering four road surface conditions. The proposed method could detect puddle conditions. The effectiveness of the proposed method was verified in all four conditions, since users could differentiate between road surface conditions and classify the conditions as either safe or dangerous. PMID:27754326

  15. Application of Ultrasonic Sensors in Road Surface Condition Distinction Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shota Nakashima

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The number of accidents involving elderly individuals has been increasing with the increase of the aging population, posing increasingly serious challenges. Most accidents are caused by reduced judgment and physical abilities, which lead to severe consequences. Therefore, studies on support systems for elderly and visually impaired people to improve the safety and quality of daily life are attracting considerable attention. In this study, a road surface condition distinction method using reflection intensities obtained by an ultrasonic sensor was proposed. The proposed method was applied to movement support systems for elderly and visually impaired individuals to detect dangerous road surfaces and give an alarm. The method did not perform well in previous studies of puddle detection, because the alert provided by the method did not enable users to avoid puddles. This study extended the method proposed by previous studies with respect to puddle detection ability. The findings indicate the effectiveness of the proposed method by considering four road surface conditions. The proposed method could detect puddle conditions. The effectiveness of the proposed method was verified in all four conditions, since users could differentiate between road surface conditions and classify the conditions as either safe or dangerous.

  16. Roads to Safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hauer, Ezra

    1991-01-01

    Contends that the level of safety built into roads is largely unpremeditated and that roads and highways are not as safe as they might be. Discusses practices, standards, and deficiencies in highway and traffic safety related to geometric design and traffic engineering. Recommends increased transportation engineering professionalism and public…

  17. Vehicular road influence areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huertas, María E.; Huertas, José I.; Valencia, Alexander

    2017-02-01

    Vehicle operation over paved and unpaved roads is an emission source that significantly contributes to air pollution. Emissions are derived from vehicle exhaust pipes and re-suspension of particulate matter generated by wind erosion and tire to road surface interactions. Environmental authorities require a methodology to evaluate road impact areas, which enable managers to initiate counter-measures, particularly under circumstances where historic meteorological and/or air quality data is unavailable. The present study describes an analytical and experimental work developed to establish a simplified methodology to estimate the area influenced by vehicular roads. AERMOD was chosen to model pollutant dispersion generated by two roads of common attributes (straight road over flat terrain) under the effects of several arbitrary chosen weather conditions. The resulting pollutant concentration vs. Distance curves collapsed into a single curve when concentration and distance were expressed as dimensionless numbers and this curve can be described by a beta distribution function. This result implied that average concentration at a given distance was proportional to emission intensity and that it showed minor sensitivity to meteorological conditions. Therefore, road influence was defined by the area adjacent to the road limited by distance at which the beta distribution function equaled the limiting value specified by the national air quality standard for the pollutant under consideration.

  18. Road crash costs.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    2010-01-01

    Road crashes result in all kinds of social costs, such as medical costs, production loss, human losses, property damage, settlement costs and costs due to congestion. Studies into road crash costs and their trends are carried out quite regularly. In 2009, the costs amounted to € 12.5 billion, or 2.2

  19. Keep away from danger: Dangerous objects in dynamic and static situations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filomena eAnelli

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Behavioral and neuroscience studies have shown that objects observation evokes specific affordances (i.e., action possibilities and motor responses. Recent findings provide evidence that even dangerous objects can modulate the motor system evoking aversive affordances. This sounds intriguing since so far the majority of behavioral, brain imaging, and transcranial magnetic stimulation studies with painful and dangerous stimuli strictly concerned the domain of pain, excepted for evidence suggesting sensitivity to objects’ affordances when neutral objects are located in participants’ peripersonal space. This study investigates whether the observation of a neutral or dangerous object in a static or dynamic situation differently influences motor responses, and the time-course of the dangerous objects’ processing. In three experiments we manipulated: object dangerousness (neutral vs. dangerous; object category (artifact vs. natural; manual response typology (press vs. release a key; object presentation (Experiment 1: dynamic, Experiments 2 and 3: static; object movement direction (Experiment 1: away vs. toward the participant or size (Experiments 2 and 3: big vs. normal vs. small. The task required participants to decide whether the object was an artifact or a natural object, by pressing or releasing one key. Results showed a facilitation for neutral over dangerous objects in the static situation, probably due to an affordance effect. Instead, in the dynamic condition responses were modulated by the object movement direction, with a dynamic affordance effect of neutral objects and an escape-avoidance effect of dangerous objects (neutral objects were processed faster when they moved toward-approached the participant, whereas dangerous objects were processed faster when they moved away from the participant. Moreover, static stimuli influenced the manual response typology. These data indicate the emergence of dynamic affordance and escaping

  20. Securing the dangerous UN convoys in Mali

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haugegaard, Rikke; Albrecht, Peter; Ravnkilde, Signe Cold

    2017-01-01

    It has proven particularly challenging for the UN stabilization mission in Mali (MINUSMA) to transport fuel, food and water to military camps in Sector North on the frontline of the mission. Convoy escorts drain the UN mission of resources and is one of its most dangerous tasks, mainly carried ou...

  1. Augustine on the Dangers of Friendship

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nawar, Tamer

    2015-01-01

    The philosophers of antiquity had much to say about the place of friendship in the good life and its role in helping us live virtuously. Augustine is unusual in giving substantial attention to the dangers of friendship and its potential to serve as an obstacle (rather than an aid) to virtue. Despite

  2. Transhumanism: projections of opportunities, risks and dangers

    OpenAIRE

    Kindras, Natasha

    2013-01-01

    The experience of recent decades reveals a special changeability of various aspects of human existence. The nomadic movement in space «trans» is especially typical. Modern philosophical thought for these processes uses the term «transhumanism». The paper considers scientifically oriented outlook of transhumanism, analyzes the opportunities, risks and dangers of biotechnological transformation of human into posthuman.

  3. Honeybee communication: a signal for danger.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srinivasan, Mandyam V

    2010-04-27

    Scout honeybees recruit other bees to visit a newly discovered food source through the famous 'waggle dance'. Now a new study reports that other nest mates can induce the dancer to stop advertising, if they have experienced danger at that location.

  4. knowledge about obstetric danger signs among preg

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    about knowledge level of pregnant women on obstetric danger signs. The objective of this ... deficiencies in awareness should be addressed through maternal and child health services by designing an appro- ..... demographic, cultural, and health interventions as well as ... Baby Package: Implementing Safe Motherhood.

  5. The dangers of non-empirical confirmation

    CERN Document Server

    Rovelli, Carlo

    2016-01-01

    In the book "String Theory and the Scientific Method", Richard Dawid describes a few of the many non-empirical arguments that motivate theoretical physicists' confidence in a theory, taking string theory as case study. I argue that excessive reliance on non-empirical evidence compromises the reliability of science, and that precisely the case of string theory well illustrates this danger.

  6. (Neuro)predictions, Dangerousness, and Retributivism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Thomas Søbirk

    2014-01-01

    Through the criminal justice system so-called dangerous offenders are, besides the offence that they are being convicted of and sentenced to, also punished for acts that they have not done but that they are believe to be likely to commit in the future. The aim of this paper is to critically discu...

  7. Inroads into Equestrian Safety: Rider-Reported Factors Contributing to Horse-Related Accidents and Near Misses on Australian Roads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Kirrilly; Matthews, Chelsea

    2015-07-22

    Horse riding and horse-related interactions are inherently dangerous. When they occur on public roads, the risk profile of equestrian activities is complicated by interactions with other road users. Research has identified speed, proximity, visibility, conspicuity and mutual misunderstanding as factors contributing to accidents and near misses. However, little is known about their significance or incidence in Australia. To explore road safety issues amongst Australian equestrians, we conducted an online survey. More than half of all riders (52%) reported having experienced at least one accident or near miss in the 12 months prior to the survey. Whilst our findings confirm the factors identified overseas, we also identified issues around rider misunderstanding of road rules and driver misunderstanding of rider hand signals. Of particular concern, we also found reports of potentially dangerous rider-directed road rage. We identify several areas for potential safety intervention including (1) identifying equestrians as vulnerable road users and horses as sentient decision-making vehicles (2) harmonising laws regarding passing horses, (3) mandating personal protective equipment, (4) improving road signage, (5) comprehensive data collection, (6) developing mutual understanding amongst road-users, (7) safer road design and alternative riding spaces; and (8) increasing investment in horse-related safety initiatives.

  8. Inroads into Equestrian Safety: Rider-Reported Factors Contributing to Horse-Related Accidents and Near Misses on Australian Roads

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kirrilly Thompson

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Horse riding and horse-related interactions are inherently dangerous. When they occur on public roads, the risk profile of equestrian activities is complicated by interactions with other road users. Research has identified speed, proximity, visibility, conspicuity and mutual misunderstanding as factors contributing to accidents and near misses. However, little is known about their significance or incidence in Australia. To explore road safety issues amongst Australian equestrians, we conducted an online survey. More than half of all riders (52% reported having experienced at least one accident or near miss in the 12 months prior to the survey. Whilst our findings confirm the factors identified overseas, we also identified issues around rider misunderstanding of road rules and driver misunderstanding of rider hand signals. Of particular concern, we also found reports of potentially dangerous rider-directed road rage. We identify several areas for potential safety intervention including (1 identifying equestrians as vulnerable road users and horses as sentient decision-making vehicles (2 harmonising laws regarding passing horses, (3 mandating personal protective equipment, (4 improving road signage, (5 comprehensive data collection, (6 developing mutual understanding amongst road-users, (7 safer road design and alternative riding spaces; and (8 increasing investment in horse-related safety initiatives.

  9. Antisideslip and Antirollover Safety Speed Controller Design for Vehicle on Curved Road

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guo Lie

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available When the drivers cannot be aware of the existing of forthcoming curved roads and fail to regulate their safety speeds accordingly, sideslip or rollover may occur with high probability. The antisideslip and antirollover control of vehicle on curved road in automatic highway systems is studied. The safety speed warning system is set before entering the curved road firstly. The speed adhesion control is adopted to shorten the braking distance while decelerating and to guarantee the safety speed. The velocity controller when decelerating on the straight path and the posture controller when driving on curved road are designed, respectively, utilizing integral backstepping technology. Simulation results demonstrate that this control system is characterized by quick and precise tracking and global stability. Consequently, it is able to avoid the dangerous operating conditions, such as sideslip and rollover, and guarantee the safety and directional stability when driving on curved road.

  10. Wildland road removal: research needs

    Science.gov (United States)

    T. Adam Switalski; John A. Bissonette; Tom H. Deluca; Charles H. Luce; Mary Ann Madej

    2003-01-01

    Wildland road removal is a common practice across the U.S. and in some parts of Canada. The main types of road removal include ripping, stream crossing restoration, and full recontour. Road removal creates a short-term disturbance that may temporarily increase sediment loss. However, research and long-term monitoring have shown that road removal both reduces erosion...

  11. A danger-theory-based immune network optimization algorithm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ruirui; Li, Tao; Xiao, Xin; Shi, Yuanquan

    2013-01-01

    Existing artificial immune optimization algorithms reflect a number of shortcomings, such as premature convergence and poor local search ability. This paper proposes a danger-theory-based immune network optimization algorithm, named dt-aiNet. The danger theory emphasizes that danger signals generated from changes of environments will guide different levels of immune responses, and the areas around danger signals are called danger zones. By defining the danger zone to calculate danger signals for each antibody, the algorithm adjusts antibodies' concentrations through its own danger signals and then triggers immune responses of self-regulation. So the population diversity can be maintained. Experimental results show that the algorithm has more advantages in the solution quality and diversity of the population. Compared with influential optimization algorithms, CLONALG, opt-aiNet, and dopt-aiNet, the algorithm has smaller error values and higher success rates and can find solutions to meet the accuracies within the specified function evaluation times.

  12. A New Roadway Danger: Drivers Chasing 'Pokemon Go'

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... gov/news/fullstory_161005.html A New Roadway Danger: Drivers Chasing 'Pokemon Go' At least 14 crashes ... it remains imperative for people to understand the dangers of driving with that level of distraction. "This ...

  13. Road rage and collision involvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mann, Robert E; Zhao, Jinhui; Stoduto, Gina; Adlaf, Edward M; Smart, Reginald G; Donovan, John E

    2007-01-01

    To assess the contribution of road rage victimization and perpetration to collision involvement. The relationship between self-reported collision involvement and road rage victimization and perpetration was examined, based on telephone interviews with a representative sample of 4897 Ontario adult drivers interviewed between 2002 and 2004. Perpetrators and victims of both any road rage and serious road rage had a significantly higher risk of collision involvement than did those without road rage experience. This study provides epidemiological evidence that both victims and perpetrators of road rage experience increased collision risk. More detailed studies of the contribution of road rage to traffic crashes are needed.

  14. Township Administered Roads

    Data.gov (United States)

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — This data set contains roadway centerlines for township administered roads found on the USGS 1:24,000 mapping series. In some areas, these roadways are current...

  15. Burkina Faso - Roads

    Data.gov (United States)

    Millennium Challenge Corporation — Impaq worked with the data collection firms NSCE-MCG-AC3E [the Group] to conduct traffic, household, and business surveys as part of the Roads Project evaluation....

  16. Taos County Roads

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — Vector line shapefile under the stewardship of the Taos County Planning Department depicting roads in Taos County, New Mexico. Originally under the Emergency...

  17. State Forest Roads

    Data.gov (United States)

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — ArcView shape file of roads administered by the Commissioner of Natural Resources to provide access to lands administered by the Division of Forestry. Most, but not...

  18. Road Works Ahead

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Gertrude Majyambere

    2011-01-01

    @@ CHINA will invest about $532 million in Rwanda this year, mainly targeting critical economic engines such as building roads and vocational schools, said Shu Zhan, Chinese Ambassador to Rwanda, in early February.

  19. Kilburn High Road Revisited

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Capineri

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Drawing on John Agnew’s (1987 theoretical framework for the analysis of place (location, locale and sense of place and on Doreen Massey’s (1991 interpretation of Kilburn High Road (London, the contribution develops an analysis of the notion of place in the case study of Kilburn High Road by comparing the semantics emerging from Doreen Massey’s interpretation of Kilburn High Road in the late Nineties with those from a selection of noisy and unstructured volunteered geographic information collected from Flickr photos and Tweets harvested in 2014–2015. The comparison shows how sense of place is dynamic and changing over time and explores Kilburn High Road through the categories of location, locale and sense of place derived from the qualitative analysis of VGI content and annotations. The contribution shows how VGI can contribute to discovering the unique relationship between people and place which takes the form given by Doreen Massey to Kilburn High Road and then moves on to the many forms given by people experiencing Kilburn High Road through a photo, a Tweet or a simple narrative. Finally, the paper suggests that the analysis of VGI content can contribute to detect the relevant features of street life, from infrastructure to citizens’ perceptions, which should be taken into account for a more human-centered approach in planning or service management.

  20. Port Moresby road traffic accident survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lourie, J; Sinha, S

    1983-01-01

    Road Traffic Accidents (RTA's) are an important cause of morbidity and mortality in Papua New Guinea today. A survey of casualties from RTA's attending Port Moresby General Hospital over a seven-month period from November 1982 to June 1983 showed that of 209 patients seen, one-third were in cars and one-quarter were in utilities. The most dangerous positions in vehicles were (1) in the open back of a utility or truck, and (2) in the front seat (driver or passenger) of a car or utility. Only 13% of injured front-seat occupants of cars or utilities were wearing a seat-belt; in one-third of vehicles no seat belts were fitted. A plea is made for the strengthening of legislation to ensure the safety of passengers travelling in the open back of trucks or utilities, and for the introduction of legislation for fitting and wearing of seat-belts by front-seat occupants.

  1. 30 CFR 77.511 - Danger signs at electrical installations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Danger signs at electrical installations. 77... UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Electrical Equipment-General § 77.511 Danger signs at electrical installations. Suitable danger signs shall be posted at all major electrical installations....

  2. NCEP-ECPC monthly to seasonal US fire danger forecasts

    Science.gov (United States)

    J. Roads; P. Tripp; H. Juang; J. Wang; F. Fujioka; S. Chen

    2010-01-01

    Five National Fire Danger Rating System indices (including the Ignition Component, Energy Release Component, Burning Index, Spread Component, and the Keetch–Byram Drought Index) and the Fosberg Fire Weather Index are used to characterise US fire danger. These fire danger indices and input meteorological variables, including temperature, relative humidity, precipitation...

  3. Affective and Emotional Performances of Danger on Tours

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buda, Dorina; van Hoven, Bettina

    2014-01-01

    In this paper we discuss how danger is affectively and emotionally experienced and performed in different tourism contexts. We draw on Brian Massumi’s work on affect as intensity to show how danger is experienced and outlived to tell the story. The exact origin of danger is not the most important, t

  4. Relationship Between Psychological Characteristics Mental Health, Aggression and Driving Habits in Dangerous Drivers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Mohammadpoor

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Today, all kinds of people need vehicles for performing their daily activities. The need for use of these vehicles for transportation frequently leads to a high rate of road accidents and it seems that certain people do not have enough ability to use these vehicles. Dangerous behaviors lead to financial and life risking irreparable damages. Methods: The aim of the study was to examine the relationship between psychological characteristics (mental health, aggression, type A characteristic and driving habits. The researchers chose 110 injured men drivers and asked them to complete the Manchester Driving Behavior, Type A Characteristic, Ahvaz Aggressive and Mental Health questionnaires. The data was analyzed by Pearson's Correlation and Regression Analysis. Results: The findings showed that there is a significant relation between psychological characteristics (mental health, aggression, type A characteristic and driving habits. The regression analysis also foresees the aggressive and mental health of testers’ dangerous driving behavior. Meanwhile, Type A characteristic is not able to foresee driving behaviors. Conclusion: Risky driving is a phenomenon that leads to many irreparable damages for the society and individual. Present study suggests that in order to reduce dangers and probable damages, procurement of driving license procedures should be prolonged and drivers should be regularly assessed psychologically (personal or public. Risky drivers or the attackers who need education or consultation should attend education-consultation programs.

  5. Building Safety Road Maps Based on Difference of Judgment of Road Users by their Smartphone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viet Chau Dang

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Recently, there has been a growing demand and interest in developing methods for analyzing smartphone logs to extract traffic safety information. Because the log is high time resolution and closely related to user activities but fragmentary and myopic, it is difficult for currently available collision probability based quantitative risk assessment methods to create traffic safety maps automatically from the driving log which require all of concrete information about a collision for example, size of vehicle, speed of pedestrian. This paper proposes a computable risk measurement method for building traffic safety maps with the logs of different users' driving, which does not discuss collision probability. The proposal is designed to compute differences in the recognition of the road environment among road users mathematically. Drivers differ in their recognition, judgment, and handling of a given situation. Suppose that a difference in recognition among users in the same situation is a signal of danger. This signal is easy to calculate by Poisson process. Each user's recognition of road environment and the safety map integrated from the collection of the recognition are generated fully automated. A real-world experiment was carried out, and the results show that the assumption and the proposed method succeeded in generating an accurate and effective traffic safety map.

  6. Road traffic safety in conjunction with in-vehicle ITS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darja TOPOLŠEK

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Interest in Intelligent Transportation Systems comes from the problems caused by traffic congestion, road accidents and air pollution. Traffic congestion continues to grow worldwide as a result of increased motorization, population growth, changes in population density and urbanization. Interest in ITS can also be attributed to reducing road accidents and increasing traffic safety. The most common causes for road accidents are excessive speed, inattentive driving and ignorance of the right-of-way rules. To eliminate these causes, experience, knowledge of traffic regulations and a new car are not enough – vehicle safety systems have to take part as well. Therefore, the European Union issued a directive on the installation of intelligent systems, whose functions are active support during driving, warning the driver in dangerous situations and alerting passengers of the car in case of irregularities in motor function or actions carried out by the driver that may cause danger, such as swerving while falling asleep. These systems help drivers to avoid accidents, and in the event of a collision, an emergency call is automatically made. Furthermore, they can be used to regulate traffic patterns or to reduce engine performance, which would reduce pollution. With these benefits in mind, the EU has indicated to the automotive industry that installation of these new Intelligent Transportation Systems should be mandatory in their new vehicles.

  7. « I respect other road users. Do you? »

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    This is the first slogan in a road safety campaign aimed at making CERN's roads safer and more pleasant to drive on.   Getting nudged off your bike while riding along minding your own business, having to walk around a car parked on the pavement, or having an endless wait at a pedestrian crossing because drivers can't be bothered to stop... all this is highly unpleasant, and can even be dangerous. The fact that it happens all too often at your own workplace, CERN, only makes matters worse. Discourteous driving is on the rise at CERN. It tarnishes the friendly atmosphere of our Laboratory and compromises the safety of us all. It's even more regrettable when you think that we're all colleagues together. With so many pedestrians and cyclists using the roads across the CERN site, anyone who drives at 80 km/h in a 50 km/h limit is placing his own colleagues in danger. Every day, more than 15 000 vehicle journeys are made on the Meyrin site alone. Each and every one of these drivers, or in other words, e...

  8. Assessing the Danger: Validation of Taiwan Intimate Partner Violence Danger Assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Pei-ling

    2015-09-01

    The Taiwan Intimate Partner Violence Danger Assessment (TIPVDA) is an IPV risk assessment instrument developed to assist front-line professionals with assessing victim's likelihood of experiencing lethal danger, and is also used to identify intervention strategies. The validation of TIPVDA with an independent sample of 543 female IPV victims in a program was examined in this study. The analysis results revealed the discriminant power of the TIPVDA. In addition, the area under the curve for the receiver operating characteristic curve analysis was strongly supportive of predictive effects of the TIPVDA. And the findings suggest that the TIPVDA had stronger predictive power for high dangerousness. Implications for future research and utilization of the TIPVDA are discussed.

  9. Comparisons and Assessment of Forest Fire Danger Systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tian Xiao-rui; Douglas J Mcrae; Den Boychuk; Jin Ji-zhong; Gao Cheng-da; Shu Li-fu; Wang Ming-yu

    2005-01-01

    The paper gives a brief description about the current main forest fire danger rating systems in the world, which include forest fire danger rating system used in Canada, USA, Australia, and other countries. It shows the composition, structure and development of the main fire danger rating systems. The limitations of those systems are also discussed. Through a comparison of the three main forest fire danger rating systems the paper describes their differences on development, fuel complex descriptions, inputs and outputs, and their applications and finds that the technologies of the Canadian forest fire danger rating system can be adopted for China to develop a national forest fire danger rating system. Two steps are needed to develop our own national forest fire danger rating system. Firstly, we apply the CFFDRS directly. Then some studies should be done to calibrate the FDRS to local weather and fuel characteristics.

  10. Road safety alerting system with radar and GPS cooperation in a VANET environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santamaria, Amilcare Francesco; Sottile, Cesare; De Rango, Floriano; Voznak, Miroslav

    2014-05-01

    New applications in wireless environments are increasing and keeping even more interests from the developer companies and researchers. In particular, in these last few years the government and institutional organization for road safety spent a lot of resources and money to promote Vehicular Ad-Hoc Network (VANET) technology, also car manufactures are giving a lot of contributions on this field as well. In our paper, we propose an innovative system to increase road safety, matching the requests of the market allowing a cooperation between on-board devices. The vehicles are equipped with On Board Unit (OBU) and On Board Radar Unit (OBRU), which can spread alerting messages around the network regarding warning and dangerous situations exploiting IEEE802.llp standard. Vehicles move along roads observing the environment, traffic and road conditions, and vehicles parameters as well. These information can be elaborated and shared between neighbors, Road Side Unit (RSU)s and, of course, with Internet, allowing inter-system communications exploiting an Road Traffic Manager (RTM). Radar systems task it the detection of the environment in order to increase the knowledge of current conditions of the roads, for example it is important to identify obstacles, road accidents, dangerous situations and so on. Once detected exploiting onboard devices, such as Global Position System (GPS) receiver it is possible to know the exact location of the caught event and after a data elaboration the information is spread along the network. Once the drivers are advised, they can make some precautionary actions such as reduction of traveling speed or modification of current road path. In this work the routing algorithms, which have the main goal to rapidly disseminate information, are also been investigated.

  11. The acquisition of dangerous biological materials :

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aceto, Donato Gonzalo; Astuto-Gribble, Lisa M.; Gaudioso, Jennifer M.

    2007-11-01

    Numerous terrorist organizations have openly expressed interest in producing and deploying biological weapons. However, a limiting factor for many terrorists has been the acquisition of dangerous biological agents, as evidenced by the very few successful instances of biological weapons use compared to the number of documented hoaxes. Biological agents vary greatly in their ability to cause loss of life and economic damage. Some agents, if released properly, can kill many people and cause an extensive number of secondary infections; other agents will sicken only a small number of people for a short period of time. Consequently, several biological agents can potentially be used to perpetrate a bioterrorism attack but few are likely capable of causing a high consequence event. It is crucial, from a US national security perspective, to more deeply understand the likelihood that terrorist organizations can acquire the range of these agents. Few studies have attempted to comprehensively compile the technical information directly relevant to the acquisition of dangerous bacteria, viruses and toxins. In this report, technical fact sheets were assembled for 46 potentially dangerous biological agents. Much of the information was taken from various research sources which could ultimately and significantly expedite and improve bioterrorism threat assessments. By systematically examining a number of specific agent characteristics included in these fact sheets, it may be possible to detect, target, and implement measures to thwart future terrorist acquisition attempts. In addition, the information in these fact sheets may be used as a tool to help laboratories gain a rudimentary understanding of how attractive a method laboratory theft is relative to other potential acquisition modes.

  12. Dangerous situations in a synchronized flow model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Rui; Wu, Qing-Song

    2007-04-01

    This paper studies the dangerous situation (DS) in a synchronized flow model. The DS on the two branches of the fundamental diagram are investigated, respectively. It is shown that different relationship between DS probability and the density exists in the synchronized flow and in the jams. Moreover, we prove that there is no DS caused by non-stopped car although the model itself is a non-exclusion process. We classify the DS into four sub-types and study the probability of these four sub-types. The simulation result is consistent with the real traffic.

  13. Russian vaccines against especially dangerous bacterial pathogens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feodorova, Valentina A; Sayapina, Lidiya V; Corbel, Michael J; Motin, Vladimir L

    2014-01-01

    In response to the epidemiological situation, live attenuated or killed vaccines against anthrax, brucellosis, cholera, glanders, plague and tularemia were developed and used for immunization of at-risk populations in the Former Soviet Union. Certain of these vaccines have been updated and currently they are used on a selective basis, mainly for high risk occupations, in the Russian Federation. Except for anthrax and cholera these vaccines currently are the only licensed products available for protection against the most dangerous bacterial pathogens. Development of improved formulations and new products is ongoing. PMID:26038506

  14. A dangerous movie? Hollywood does psychoanalysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrell, Donald R; Silverman, Martin A

    2014-12-01

    After the appearance of David Cronenberg's film A Dangerous Method in 2011, dealing with the relationships of Sigmund Freud, C. G. Jung and Sabina Spielrein, Dr. Donald Ferrell published: A Dangerous Method, A Film Directed by David Cronenberg: An Extended Review (Ferrell 2012) in the Journal of Religion and Health. Upon its publication, Dr. Ferrell's article was nominated for a Gradiva Award by the National Association for the Advancement of Psychoanalysis. On November 1, 2013, the Association for the Psychoanalysis of Culture and Society held its annual conference at Rutgers University, New Brunswick, NJ. Dr. Billie Pivnick, a member at large of the Board of Directors of the APCS and also on the Editorial Board of the Journal of Religion and Health, persuaded the 2013 Conference Program Committee that Cronenberg's film would make an interesting subject for discussion for conference participants. To that end, Dr. Pivnick invited Dr. Ferrell, C. G. Jung Institute of New York, Dr. Steven Reisner, Coalition for an Ethical Psychology, and Dr. Martin Silverman, Training and Supervising Analyst and Supervising Child Analyst at the Institute for Psychoanalytic Education, NYU College of Medicine, Training and Supervising Analyst at the Center for Psychotherapy and Psychoanalysis of New Jersey, and Associate Editor of The Psychoanalytic Quarterly to serve as panel members to discuss: A Dangerous Movie? Hollywood does Psychoanalysis. Presentations on Cronenberg's film and the early history of psychoanalysis were given by Drs. Ferrell and Reisner, followed by a response to their presentations by Dr. Silverman. Dr. Pivnick chaired the session. The articles presented here were given originally at the APCS conference by Dr. Ferrell and Dr. Silverman. Dr. Reisner declined the invitation to submit his presentation for publication. Dr. Silverman's remarks were based not only on the presentation given by Dr. Ferrell at the session on A Dangerous Movie?, but also on his close and

  15. Oil pollution dangers on the German coast

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vauk, G.

    1984-03-01

    Helgoland waters in the German Bight are a vital wintering area for seabirds. As long as the discharge of waste oil and oily water is not completely avoided, large amounts of oil will continuously get into the sea. Therefore, the danger to the marine life, especially seabirds, increases. Helgoland presents the possibility of determining the extent and the effect of the oil pollution of the North Sea, since it is placed in the point of intersection of important steamship routes and also oil slicks drifted by the north-west winds along the German Bight. Seabirds are indicators for the quantity, the type and the temporal distribution of oil.

  16. [Mental disorders and dangerous acting out].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouchard, Jean-Pierre

    2015-01-01

    The major mental disorders which are most likely to lead to dangerous acting out are adult psychoses (schizophrenia and paranoia) and severe mood disorders (major depressive episodes and mania). Good knowledge of the symptomatology of these pathologies and their identification can help to anticipate and prevent much of the violence which people with these disorders may inflict on others or themselves. After mental assessment, those who commit wrongful and criminal acts may be ruled to be criminally irresponsible. They are then handed over to the relevant health care authorities for treatment for their mental disorders.

  17. Modeling human-caused forest fire ignition for assessing forest fire danger in Austria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arndt N

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Forest fires have not been considered as a significant threat for mountain forests of the European Alpine Space so far. Climate change and its effects on nature, ecology, forest stand structure and composition, global changes according to demands of society and general trends in the provision of ecosystem services are potentially going to have a significant effect on fire ignition in the future. This makes the prediction of forest fire ignition essential for forest managers in order to establish an effective fire prevention system and to allocate fire fighting resources effectively, especially in alpine landscapes. This paper presents a modelling approach for predicting human-caused forest fire ignition by a range of socio-economic factors associated with an increasing forest fire danger in Austria. The relationship between touristic activities, infrastructure, agriculture and forestry and the spatial occurrence of forest fires have been studied over a 17-year period between 1993 and 2009 by means of logistic regression. 59 independent socio-economic variables have been analysed with different models and validated with heterogeneous subsets of forest fire records. The variables included in the final model indicate that railroad, forest road and hiking trail density together with agricultural and forestry developments may contribute significantly to fire danger. The final model explains 60.5% of the causes of the fire events in the validation set and allows a solid prediction. Maps showing the fire danger classification allow identifying the most vulnerable forest areas in Austria and are used to predict the fire danger classes on municipality level.

  18. Roads at Pipe Spring National Monument, Arizona 2006 (roads)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — This is an Arc/Info coverage consisting of 30 arcs representing the roads in Pipe Spring National Monument, Arizona. Twenty-five of the road arcs were collected by a...

  19. Silk Road policy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nishikawa, Y. [Mitsui Mineral Development Engineering Co., Tokyo (Japan)

    1999-04-01

    Landlocked Asia is blessed with rich mineral and energy resources and has great potential to supply these resources to Europe and eastern Asia. With globalisation of markets progressing rapidly, central Asia is now in the spotlight for its economic activity, as a route for international trade and as the heartland of the `Modern Silk Road` of the 21st century. The article discusses the mineral resources of central Asia, covering Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan, Turkmenistan, Kyrghystan, Xingjiang, and Mongolia. Energy resources of the region, coal, oil and natural gas, are mentioned. International organizations and industrial companies like Japan are supporting the transformation of these vast largely unexplored areas to market economies. Construction of the New Silk Road has begun, under the UNDP, and improvement of the Silk Road railway is also underway, with Japanese funding. 3 figs.

  20. [The dangers of blue light: True story!].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renard, G; Leid, J

    2016-05-01

    The dangers of the blue light are the object of numerous publications, for both the scientific community and the general public. The new prolific development of light sources emitting potentially toxic blue light (415-455nm) ranges from LED (Light Emitting Diodes) lamps for interior lighting to television screens, computers, digital tablets and smartphones using OLED (Organic Light Emitting Diode) or AMOLED (Active-Matrix Organic Light Emitting Diode) technology. First we will review some technical terms and the main characteristics of light perceived by the human eye. Then we will discuss scientific proof of the toxicity of blue light to the eye, which may cause cataract or macular degeneration. Analysis of the light spectra of several light sources, from natural light to LED lamps, will allow us to specify even better the dangers related to each light source. LED lamps, whether used as components for interior lighting or screens, are of concern if they are used for extended viewing times and at short distance. While we can protect ourselves from natural blue light by wearing colored glasses which filter out, on both front and back surfaces, the toxic wavelengths, it is more difficult to protect oneself from LED lamps in internal lighting, the use of which should be restricted to "white warmth" lamps (2700K). As far as OLED or AMOLED screens are concerned, the only effective protection consists of using them occasionally and only for a short period of time. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  1. Boys Live Dangerously in the Womb

    Science.gov (United States)

    ERIKSSON, JOHAN G.; KAJANTIE, EERO; OSMOND, CLIVE; THORNBURG, KENT; BARKER, DAVID J.P.

    2012-01-01

    The growth of every human fetus is constrained by the limited capacity of the mother and placenta to deliver nutrients to it. At birth, boys tend to be longer than girls at any placental weight. Boy’s placentas may therefore be more efficient than girls, but may have less reserve capacity. In the womb boys grow faster than girls and are therefore at greater risk of becoming undernourished. Fetal undernutrition leads to small size at birth and cardiovascular disorders, including hypertension, in later life. We studied 2003 men and women aged around 62 years who were born in Helsinki, Finland, of whom 644 had hypertension: we examined their body and placental size at birth. In both sexes, hypertension was associated with low birth weight. In men, hypertension was also associated with a long minor diameter of the placental surface. The dangerous growth strategy of boys may be compounded by the costs of compensatory placental enlargement in late gestation. In women, hypertension was associated with a small placental area, which may reduce nutrient delivery to the fetus. In men, hypertension was linked to the mothers’ socioeconomic status, an indicator of their diets: in women it was linked to the mothers’ heights, an indicator of their protein metabolism. Boys’ greater dependence on their mothers’ diets may enable them to capitalize on an improving food supply, but it makes them vulnerable to food shortages. The ultimate manifestation of their dangerous strategies may be that men have higher blood pressures and shorter lives than women. PMID:19844898

  2. [Dangerous comics--only a fantasy?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammon, C P

    1992-01-01

    Both superhero comics and fairy tales are equally popular with children: they create fantasy worlds full of violence and dangers which the hero must overcome. The question is raised whether the criticism of prevailing violence and a lack of realism can be rejected not only when considering fairy tales but also in the case of comics. The comparison of the two genres leads to the following results: Comics with their regressive pull and their independent superhuman heroes represent the archaic world of narcissism unconscious, unwilling to develop and conservative. Violence serves to maintain the original state or regain a harmonious "paradise". However, the rich world of symbols is also the creative source of our existence to which we keep returning--whether in dreams or in other fields of imagination. As works of literature, fairy tales seem to be more progressive and concerned with solutions. In the main, they support the development of the self. Violence is used to overthrow the old order and usher in the new. The aggression results in overcoming the unconscious. The image of the fairy tale hero corresponds to the child's view of the world. He does not seek narcissistic solitude and greatness but the companionship of prince or princess. A progressive and optimistic view of the future as well as a more conservative and retrospective tendency are part of human nature. For children, however, problems of development take precedence. Thus superhero comics are only dangerous for severely disturbed children, but fairy tales are certainly more beneficial.

  3. eRoads

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Connolly, David

    in the energy demand and carbon dioxide emissions, since they also enable heavy-duty transport to be electrified such as trucks and buses. It is unlikely that these forms of transport will be electrified without electric roads, due to the relatively high cost of on-board battery storage....... battery capacity required for electric vehicles if they are not installed. The electric road and battery electric vehicle scenarios are more efficient and produce less carbon dioxide emissions than their corresponding oil scenarios for two key reasons: 1) the vehicles are more efficient and 2) electric...

  4. Road crash costs.

    OpenAIRE

    2010-01-01

    Road crashes result in all kinds of social costs, such as medical costs, production loss, human losses, property damage, settlement costs and costs due to congestion. Studies into road crash costs and their trends are carried out quite regularly. In 2009, the costs amounted to € 12.5 billion, or 2.2% of the Gross Domestic Product (GDP). Insight into these costs is used for policy preparation and evaluation, and makes it possible to compare them with costs in other areas. Another important app...

  5. Road safety issues for bus transport management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cafiso, Salvatore; Di Graziano, Alessandro; Pappalardo, Giuseppina

    2013-11-01

    Because of the low percentage of crashes involving buses and the assumption that public transport improves road safety by reducing vehicular traffic, public interest in bus safety is not as great as that in the safety of other types of vehicles. It is possible that less attention is paid to the significance of crashes involving buses because the safety level of bus systems is considered to be adequate. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the knowledge and perceptions of bus managers with respect to safety issues and the potential effectiveness of various technologies in achieving higher safety standards. Bus managers were asked to give their opinions on safety issues related to drivers (training, skills, performance evaluation and behaviour), vehicles (maintenance and advanced devices) and roads (road and traffic safety issues) in response to a research survey. Kendall's algorithm was used to evaluate the level of concordance. The results showed that the majority of the proposed items were considered to have great potential for improving bus safety. The data indicated that in the experience of the participants, passenger unloading and pedestrians crossing near bus stops are the most dangerous actions with respect to vulnerable users. The final results of the investigation showed that start inhibition, automatic door opening, and the materials and internal architecture of buses were considered the items most strongly related to bus passenger safety. Brake assistance and vehicle monitoring systems were also considered to be very effective. With the exception of driver assistance systems for passenger and pedestrian safety, the perceptions of the importance of other driver assistance systems for vehicle monitoring and bus safety were not unanimous among the bus company managers who participated in this survey. The study results showed that the introduction of new technologies is perceived as an important factor in improving bus safety, but a better understanding

  6. Road safety performance indicators for the interurban road network.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yannis, G. Weijermars, W.A.M. Gitelman, V. Vis, M. Chazirisa, A. Papadimitriou, E. & Lima Azevedo, C.

    2013-01-01

    Various road safety performance indicators (SPIs) have been proposed for different road safety research areas, mainly as regards driver behaviour (e.g. seat belt use, alcohol, drugs, etc.) and vehicles (e.g. passive safety); however, no SPIs for the road network and design have been developed. The o

  7. Road safety performance indicators for the interurban road network.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yannis, G. Weijermars, W.A.M. Gitelman, V. Vis, M. Chazirisa, A. Papadimitriou, E. & Lima Azevedo, C.

    2013-01-01

    Various road safety performance indicators (SPIs) have been proposed for different road safety research areas, mainly as regards driver behaviour (e.g. seat belt use, alcohol, drugs, etc.) and vehicles (e.g. passive safety); however, no SPIs for the road network and design have been developed. The o

  8. Valencia County E-911 Roads

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — This data set contains a vector digital representation of all accessible roads in the county including interstate highways, State highways, county roads and some...

  9. Kansas Road Centerline Fle (KRCF)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Kansas Data Access and Support Center — This version of the Kansas Road Centerline File (0801) represents the first effort to create a statewide roads layer from best available data sources. KGS integrated...

  10. Sierra County E-911 Roads

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — This data set contains a vector digital representation of all accessible roads including interstate highways, State highways, county roads and some city streets in...

  11. VT E911 Road Centerlines

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — (Link to Metadata) EmergencyE911_RDS was originally derived from RDSnn (now called TransRoad_RDS). "Zero-length ranges" in the ROADS layer pertain to grand-fathered...

  12. Grant County E-911 Roads

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — This data set contains a vector digital representation of all accessible roads in the county including interstate highways, State highways, county roads and city...

  13. Supervising road safety in Peru

    OpenAIRE

    Sagástegui, Freddy; Abogado, Adjuntía para el Medio Ambiente, Servicios Públicos y Pueblos Indígenas, Defensoría del Pueblo. Lima, Perú.

    2010-01-01

    In this article some problems in road safety are described, which have been detected by the Ombudsman of Peru, as part of its role of public administration supervisor, amongst these problems we mention: lack of and inadequate elaboration of the statistics on road traffic accidents, the inconsistency of the National Council for Road Security and the lack of responsibility of the local and regional governments reflected by the lack of application of the National Plan of Road Safety. facing ...

  14. Road construction in underground mines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benke, L.; Benkovics, I.

    1985-01-01

    The need and reasons of road construction for rubber-tyre vehicles in various mine sections are examined. A detailed analysis is given of the direct and indirect influences of underground haulage ways and transport roads on the parameters of mine performance. The various mine road construction technologies are overviewed. Experiences are presented with road construction in the Mecsek Ore Mines Company, Plant 3, Hungary. The cost factors of four construction technologies are compared.

  15. Analysis of Road Safety and Localization of Risky Areas of Accident with an Emphasis on the Role of Climate Indices: A Case Study of Ardebil –Namin Road

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moharam Yousefi

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Road accidents are considered as important causes of death and severe damages to lives and properties of people; the heavy social, cultural and economic effects of which greatly threatens the human societies.Studies and surveys carried out in different countries show that about 1 to 3 percent of GDP are being wasted in road accidents which is very significant figure. The occurrence of the weather phenomena is among the most important factors that affect the safety and sustainability of transportation system. Namin-Ardebil road, in Ardebil province, is one of the most crowded entrance road to the city of Ardabil which, so far, has not been considered from various environmental aspects, especially the role of climatic elements in occurrence of road accidents. In this study, meteorological data of four synoptic stations (Ardebil, Ardebil airport, Namin, and Sarein, over a 10-year-statistical period (2003-2012, is used. Enjoying IDW interpolation method In ArcGIS environment, integrated surfaces of climate parameters in the region were prepared. Then, considering the frequency of accidents, the surfaces are categorized in four levels; low-risk, medium risk, high risk and very high risk. Accordingly, it is found that, with regard to frequency and risk of accidents, Ardebil airport region, is the most dangerous area in Ardabil – Namin road and the next dangerous road is around Namin area.

  16. Auctioning Concessions for Private Roads

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ubbels, Barry; Verhoef, Erik

    2004-01-01

    Private toll roads are now seriously considered as an alternative to public (free-access) road infrastructure. Nevertheless, complete private provision without governmental control is only rarely considered. A main consideration against private roads would be that operators would be primarily intere

  17. Run-off-road crashes.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    2014-01-01

    In the Netherlands, one-third of all fatalities and one-sixth of all seriously injured are the consequence of run-off-road crashes. The outcome of run-off-road crashes is relatively severe, one fatality in five seriously injured, which is twice the average in the Netherlands. Serious run-off-road cr

  18. The Road Home

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Shaughnessy, Molly

    2016-01-01

    "Children have the potential to create a world we cannot imagine. This is our hope." In choosing Montessori, O'Shaughnessy says that we are choosing the road less traveled. We are choosing education as an aid to life. We are choosing an approach that respects the innate and unique potential of each child and that calls upon us to serve…

  19. Road-rail vehicle

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Evers, J.J.M.

    2002-01-01

    A transport vehicle equipped with a number of first wheel sets, having wheels provided with tires, to which steering means and driving means, if any, are coupled to enable the transport vehicle to be moved over a road surface. The transport vehicle further comprises at least one second wheel set, ha

  20. EARTH ROADS ARE EASY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David O. Whitten

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available The earliest European immigrants in America traveled on waterways and on pathways worn into the earth by animals and Native Americans. Once their communities began to thrive, settlers widened paths and cleared new roads and streets then began experimenting with inexpensive surfacing to reduce dust in dry weather and mud in wet. “Earth Roads Are Easy” investigates materials and techniques used to maintain primitive thoroughfares with a minimum of effort and expense. The options range from the mundane—clay, sand, gravel, calcium chloride, oil, and tar—to the extraordinary—water glass, adobe clay, beet juice, and carpeting.There is no more dfficult problem confronting highway engineers than that of properly constructing and maintaining an earth road. The work may be less spectacular than the construction and maintenance of hard-surfaced roads, but there is greater latitude in location, methods of construction and choice of materials, consequently there is more scope for the exercise of sound judgment on the part of the engineer.1

  1. The great West Road

    CERN Multimedia

    1975-01-01

    From right to centre the 'Nationale 84' relying Meyrin to Saint-Genis. The fence limits Lab I on that side. From bottom the road leading to the double inclined tunnel linking Lab I and Lab II. On the foreground the ISR building (left) and the West Hall (centre).

  2. Mayan Forest Road Projects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Conde, Dalia Amor

    2008-01-01

    Road-building projects in the Mayan Biosphere Reserve to connect Mexico and Guatemala were subjected to a cost-benefit evaluation. Up to an estimated 311,000 hectares of jaguar habitat were found to be at risk of deforestation due to these projects. Some of the projects were shown to have negativ...

  3. Metabolic features of the cell danger response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naviaux, Robert K

    2014-05-01

    The cell danger response (CDR) is the evolutionarily conserved metabolic response that protects cells and hosts from harm. It is triggered by encounters with chemical, physical, or biological threats that exceed the cellular capacity for homeostasis. The resulting metabolic mismatch between available resources and functional capacity produces a cascade of changes in cellular electron flow, oxygen consumption, redox, membrane fluidity, lipid dynamics, bioenergetics, carbon and sulfur resource allocation, protein folding and aggregation, vitamin availability, metal homeostasis, indole, pterin, 1-carbon and polyamine metabolism, and polymer formation. The first wave of danger signals consists of the release of metabolic intermediates like ATP and ADP, Krebs cycle intermediates, oxygen, and reactive oxygen species (ROS), and is sustained by purinergic signaling. After the danger has been eliminated or neutralized, a choreographed sequence of anti-inflammatory and regenerative pathways is activated to reverse the CDR and to heal. When the CDR persists abnormally, whole body metabolism and the gut microbiome are disturbed, the collective performance of multiple organ systems is impaired, behavior is changed, and chronic disease results. Metabolic memory of past stress encounters is stored in the form of altered mitochondrial and cellular macromolecule content, resulting in an increase in functional reserve capacity through a process known as mitocellular hormesis. The systemic form of the CDR, and its magnified form, the purinergic life-threat response (PLTR), are under direct control by ancient pathways in the brain that are ultimately coordinated by centers in the brainstem. Chemosensory integration of whole body metabolism occurs in the brainstem and is a prerequisite for normal brain, motor, vestibular, sensory, social, and speech development. An understanding of the CDR permits us to reframe old concepts of pathogenesis for a broad array of chronic, developmental

  4. Road and Street Centerlines, Roads, road surfaces, Published in 2009, Central College.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — , was produced all or in part from Not Provided information as of 2009. It is described as 'Roads, road surfaces'. Data by this publisher are often provided in UTM...

  5. Modelling avalanche danger and understanding snow depth variability

    OpenAIRE

    2010-01-01

    This thesis addresses the causes of avalanche danger at a regional scale. Modelled snow stratigraphy variables were linked to [1] forecasted avalanche danger and [2] observed snowpack stability. Spatial variability of snowpack parameters in a region is an additional important factor that influences the avalanche danger. Snow depth and its change during individual snow fall periods are snowpack parameters which can be measured at a high spatial resolution. Hence, the spatial distribution of sn...

  6. The danger of misunderstanding ‘culture’

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keller, E.

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Most conservationists working in Madagascar recognise thatif conservation goals are to be achieved, conservation bodieshave to work together with, rather than against, local people.One important aspect of this is taking local ‘culture’ into account.However, what is understood by ‘culture’ in such contexts tendsto be extremely partial as ‘culture’ is almost always limited totaboos (fady. The article discusses the danger of such a narrowview suggesting that ‘culture’ is infinitely more complex andsubtle than its immediately apparent surface. I argue that if conservationists’ commitment to take ‘culture’ seriously is genuine, it must also apply to those cultural phenomena that are in conflict with conservation programmes. This applies in particular to rural Malagasy people’s desire to have many descendants; a desire which is linked to their fundamental understanding of what represents a meaningful life.

  7. Prions: the danger of biochemical weapons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric Almeida Xavier

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The knowledge of biotechnology increases the risk of using biochemical weapons for mass destruction. Prions are unprecedented infectious pathogens that cause a group of fatal neurodegenerative diseases by a novel mechanism. They are transmissible particles that are devoid of nucleic acid. Due to their singular characteristics, Prions emerge as potential danger since they can be used in the development of such weapons. Prions cause fatal infectious diseases, and to date there is no therapeutic or prophylactic approach against these diseases. Furthermore, Prions are resistant to food-preparation treatments such as high heat and can find their way from the digestive system into the nervous system; recombinant Prions are infectious either bound to soil particles or in aerosols. Therefore, lethal Prions can be developed by malicious researchers who could use it to attack political enemies since such weapons cause diseases that could be above suspicion.

  8. Ethics consultation: a dangerous, antidemocratic charlatanry?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lilje, Christian

    1993-01-01

    Giles Scofield's argument indicates ethics consultants may need to better clarify what in fact they are and what they are not doing, claiming, and striving for. But we must not step back too far. We must neither engage in putting in envious professional claims for exclusive rights in the area of difficult and momentous decisions in healthcare nor get stuck in discussing normative ethics at the level of metaphysics, ontology, and dogmatics (as has happened in Germany for decades). We must not do so especially in view of the achievements of ethics consultation and the growing demand for it by all parties involved, conceded even by sceptics. Ethics consultation, according to Scofield, appears to be dangerous....Let us look more closely at the logic of the argument by discussing the presumed "antidemocratic" nature. The "new tyranny" of thoughts, and the "proper" role of bioethics consultation. Some considerations about the possibility of ethics expertise shall be left for the end.

  9. Hanford facility dangerous waste permit application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1991-09-18

    This document, Set 2, the Hanford Facility Dangerous Waste Part B Permit Application, consists of 15 chapters that address the content of the Part B checklists prepared by the Washington State Department of Ecology (Ecology 1987) and the US Environmental Protection Agency (40 CFR 270), with additional information requirements mandated by the Hazardous and Solid Waste Amendments of 1984 and revisions of WAC 173-303. For ease of reference, the Washington State Department of Ecology checklist section numbers, in brackets, follow the chapter headings and subheadings. This permit application contains umbrella- type'' documentation with overall application to the Hanford Facility. This documentation is broad in nature and applies to all TSD units that have final status under the Hanford Facility Permit.

  10. The identification of dangerously coking coals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barriocanal, C.; Patrick, J.W.; Walker, P.A. [Loughborough Univ. of Technology, Leicestershire (United Kingdom)] [and others

    1995-12-31

    When coals are carbonised in slot-type ovens, layers of plastic coal are formed parallel to the oven walls and move progressively inwards eventually meeting at the oven centre. It is within these plastic layers that the principal processes which result in particulate coal being converted into porous, fused coke take place. For some coals, usually having volatile matter contents between 17 and 25wt% (dry, ash-free basis), these processes are accompanied by the generation of measurable gas pressures within the plastic layers which attain maximum levels when the two layers meet at the oven centre. These pressures are transmitted through the coke to the oven walls, causing damage if sufficiently high. Other coals, similar in chemical analysis and swelling properties, can be carbonised with impunity. The technical aspects of the coking pressure phenomenon are well known. However, the fundamental processes involved in the generation of internal gas pressures are not fully understood. Thus, before being used in blends for commercial coke production, potentially dangerous coals are tested by carbonising upwards of 180kg charges in moveable-wall ovens and measuring directly the pressures exerted on the walls. Clearly, it would be helpful if dangerously coking coals could be identified from laboratory tests. Preliminary findings of a laboratory study designed to gain further insight into coking pressure development are presented in this paper. Internal gas pressures have been ascribed to volatiles trapped within either the plastic envelope or the plastic layer implying an overlap of the temperature ranges of volatile release and fluidity. An attempts to assess this view using, initially, thermogravimetric analysis and Gieseler plastometry and, later, a coking bomb are described, the results being related to internal gas pressures measured in a 1.5kg double-wall oven.

  11. Radiological Weapons: How Great Is The Danger?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moore, G M

    2003-06-01

    One of the underlying purposes of this paper is to provoke thinking about the interplay between the regulation of radioactive materials and the risk of their use in an radiological weapon (RW). Also considered in this paper are the types of RWs that a terrorist might use, the nature of the threat and danger posed by the various types of RWs, the essential elements that must be considered in responding to the terrorist use of an RW, and what steps may need to be taken a priori to minimize the consequences of the inevitable use of an RW. Because radiological dispersal devices (RDDs) have been the focus of so much recent concern and because RDDs are arguably the most likely of RWs to be used by a terrorist group, a major focus of this paper will be on RDDs. Radiological weapons are going to be used by some individual or group, if not this year then next year, or at some time in the foreseeable future. A policy of focusing resources solely on prevention of their use would leave any government open to significant economic disruption when the inevitable use occurs. Preplanning can limit the injuries, property damage, and economic losses that might result from the use of an RW. Moreover, a combination of efforts to prevent and to minimize the impact of RWs may significantly discourage potential users. The dangers from RWs can be dealt with while society continues to enjoy the benefits of nuclear technology that were promised under Atoms for Peace. However, some restructuring of our use of radioactive materials is necessary to ensure that the current and future uses of radioactive materials outweigh the potential disruption caused by misuse of the materials in RWs.

  12. Energy for road passenger transport and sustainable development: assessing policies and goals interactions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meza, Maria Josefina Figueroa; Ribeiro, Suzana Kahn

    2013-01-01

    Development that is sustainable requires an operational, efficient and safe transportation system fueled by clean, low-carbon, secure and affordable energy. The energy used in road passenger transport enables social and economic development and is the target of interventions to fight pressing urban...... environmental problems, energy security concerns and dangerous climate change. This review explores a systematic approach to describe interactions documented in the literature, between policies targeting energy use in road passenger transport to reduce petroleum consumption and greenhouse gas emissions...... measures and goals as exemplified in this approach can help inform practical transport energy policy that better match an agenda for sustainable development....

  13. Verification of road databases using multiple road models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziems, Marcel; Rottensteiner, Franz; Heipke, Christian

    2017-08-01

    In this paper a new approach for automatic road database verification based on remote sensing images is presented. In contrast to existing methods, the applicability of the new approach is not restricted to specific road types, context areas or geographic regions. This is achieved by combining several state-of-the-art road detection and road verification approaches that work well under different circumstances. Each one serves as an independent module representing a unique road model and a specific processing strategy. All modules provide independent solutions for the verification problem of each road object stored in the database in form of two probability distributions, the first one for the state of a database object (correct or incorrect), and a second one for the state of the underlying road model (applicable or not applicable). In accordance with the Dempster-Shafer Theory, both distributions are mapped to a new state space comprising the classes correct, incorrect and unknown. Statistical reasoning is applied to obtain the optimal state of a road object. A comparison with state-of-the-art road detection approaches using benchmark datasets shows that in general the proposed approach provides results with larger completeness. Additional experiments reveal that based on the proposed method a highly reliable semi-automatic approach for road data base verification can be designed.

  14. Is road safety management linked to road safety performance?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papadimitriou, Eleonora; Yannis, George

    2013-10-01

    This research aims to explore the relationship between road safety management and road safety performance at country level. For that purpose, an appropriate theoretical framework is selected, namely the 'SUNflower' pyramid, which describes road safety management systems in terms of a five-level hierarchy: (i) structure and culture, (ii) programmes and measures, (iii) 'intermediate' outcomes'--safety performance indicators (SPIs), (iv) final outcomes--fatalities and injuries, and (v) social costs. For each layer of the pyramid, a composite indicator is implemented, on the basis of data for 30 European countries. Especially as regards road safety management indicators, these are estimated on the basis of Categorical Principal Component Analysis upon the responses of a dedicated road safety management questionnaire, jointly created and dispatched by the ETSC/PIN group and the 'DaCoTA' research project. Then, quasi-Poisson models and Beta regression models are developed for linking road safety management indicators and other indicators (i.e. background characteristics, SPIs) with road safety performance. In this context, different indicators of road safety performance are explored: mortality and fatality rates, percentage reduction in fatalities over a given period, a composite indicator of road safety final outcomes, and a composite indicator of 'intermediate' outcomes (SPIs). The results of the analyses suggest that road safety management can be described on the basis of three composite indicators: "vision and strategy", "budget, evaluation and reporting", and "measurement of road user attitudes and behaviours". Moreover, no direct statistical relationship could be established between road safety management indicators and final outcomes. However, a statistical relationship was found between road safety management and 'intermediate' outcomes, which were in turn found to affect 'final' outcomes, confirming the SUNflower approach on the consecutive effect of each layer.

  15. Competitiveness in Road Transport

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borgström, Benedikte; Gammelgaard, Britta; Bruun, Poul

    Road transport is an important sector, connecting time and space of production and consumption. Its market conditions has changed. The EU single market implementation has increased price pressure due to supply of low cost road freight transport from counties with lower cost structures. Changes....... In this paper we will explore that knowledge gap and analyze what value proposition(s) and capabilities can transform potential cost disadvantages of acting in a market that includes both high- and low-cost-country actors? And in conceptual terminology, how are capabilities deployed and developed to construct...... take into account logistics service supplier strategic management. We also contribute with better understanding of value creation in order to escape commoditization and differentiate services through relationships (customers and/or other hauliers). Practical implications concern hauliers’ strategy...

  16. The road coloring problem

    CERN Document Server

    Trahtman, A N

    2007-01-01

    The synchronizing word of deterministic automaton is a word in the alphabet of colors (considered as letters) of its edges that maps the automaton to a single state. A coloring of edges of a directed graph is synchronizing if the coloring turns the graph into deterministic finite automaton possessing a synchronizing word. The road coloring problem is a problem of synchronizing coloring of directed finite strongly connected graph with constant outdegree of all its vertices if the greatest common divisor of lengths of all its cycles is one. The problem was posed by Adler, Goodwyn and Weiss over 30 years ago and evoked a noticeable interest among the specialists in theory of graphs, deterministic automata and symbolic dynamics. The problem is described even in "Vikipedia" - the popular Internet Encyclopedia. The positive solution of the road coloring problem is presented.

  17. Road Traffic Noise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beckenbauer, Thomas

    Road traffic is the most interfering noise source in developed countries. According to a publication of the European Union (EU) at the end of the twentieth century [1], about 40% of the population in 15 EU member states is exposed to road traffic noise at mean levels exceeding 55 dB(A). Nearly 80 million people, 20% of the population, are exposed to levels exceeding 65 dB(A) during daytime and more than 30% of the population is exposed to levels exceeding 55 dB(A) during night time. Such high noise levels cause health risks and social disorders (aggressiveness, protest, and helplessness), interference of communication and disturbance of sleep; the long- and short-term consequences cause adverse cardiovascular effects, detrimental hormonal responses (stress hormones), and possible disturbance of the human metabolism (nutrition) and the immune system. Even performance at work and school could be impaired.

  18. Environmentally friendly road construction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.I. Essawy

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Environmental pollution is a major problem in developing countries like Egypt. Reuse of waste polymers is considered an attractive solution for environmental white pollution and reducing of the costs of road pavement and maintenance. This research aims to prepare environmentally friendly hot mix asphalt (HMA for paving using some industrial wastes as polypropylene and polyester fibers. The solid materials in the mix include normal and highly porous aggregates. 5% and 10% of waste polymers by weight of the asphalt were used to prepare special binders. The samples were tested for their physical properties, chemical properties, aging, scanning electron microscopy (SEM and thermo-gravimetric analysis (TGA. The results revealed that the prepared HMA using 5% of waste polymer had high performance as compared to the ordinary one and the waste polymer could be used in road construction.

  19. Competitiveness in Road Transport

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borgström, Benedikte; Gammelgaard, Britta; Bruun, Poul

    take into account logistics service supplier strategic management. We also contribute with better understanding of value creation in order to escape commoditization and differentiate services through relationships (customers and/or other hauliers). Practical implications concern hauliers’ strategy...... a competitive value proposition? We will illustrate the strategy-as-practice with two projects, and discuss implications in terms of capabilities needed to create an effective value proposition and hence competitiveness. The theoretical contribution is in theorizing haulier strategic development in which we...... in the market also encourage strategic development of some road hauliers into providers of unique services. Such road haulier strategic development contributes to efficiency and effectiveness in basically all business sectors of EU. Little research is available of such strategic and operational management...

  20. Tweets on the road

    CERN Document Server

    Lenormand, Maxime; Colet, Pere; Ramasco, José J

    2014-01-01

    The pervasiveness of mobile devices, which is increasing daily, is generating a vast amount of geo-located data allowing us to gain further insights into human behaviors. In particular, this new technology enables users to communicate through mobile social media applications, such as Twitter, anytime and anywhere. Thus, geo-located tweets offer the possibility to carry out in-depth studies on human mobility. In this paper, we study the use of Twitter in transportation by identifying tweets posted from roads and rails in Europe between September 2012 and November 2013. We compute the percentage of highway and railway segments covered by tweets in 39 countries. The coverages are very different from country to country and their variability can be partially explained by differences in Twitter penetration rates. Still, some of these differences might be related to cultural factors regarding mobility habits and interacting socially online. Analyzing particular road sectors, our results show a positive correlation b...

  1. August: Road Movies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    Eldorado France, 2008 85' Road movie Directed by: Bouly Lanners Cast: Bouly Lanners, Fabrice Adde Philippe Nahon Yvan is an auto salesman who makes a good living dealing in American luxury cars. One evening, Yvan comes home to discover a burglar has made his way into his home, and a quick search reveals the criminal, Elie is hiding under his bed, and when the thief finally emerges he turns out to be a junkie who is feeling the first stages of withdrawal.

  2. Snow Roads and Runways

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-11-01

    CONSTRUCT ROADS FOR MARCHING COLUMNS ALL ARMS (1) Pass over the trace twice with (1) Two passes with the harrow the harrow. and roller. (2) After harrowing...should be accomplished by successive passes with beams or slabs to the towing bars. A method forballasting D-7 orD-8 tractortracks. Normally twoto five... waffle -type snow surface (Fig. 85)and is notas suitable for snow pavement surface has been previously compacted snow compaction as other types of rollers

  3. 水库除险加固的安全隐患研究%Study of the Safety and Hidden Dangers of Reservoir’s Danger Control and Reinforcement Project

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴旭新

    2012-01-01

      文章以4座病险水库为例,探讨了小型水库除险加固中存在的安全隐患,通过对防洪、抗震、结构、渗流、金属结构、运行管理等方面进行分析后发现,水库除险加固存在安全隐患,主要原因是大部分水库不满足规范要求,存在严重的结构、渗流安全隐患;闸门锈蚀、启闭设备破坏;防汛抢险道路雨天通行困难;无降雨观测设施;大坝的运行管理工作差。%  Taking four risky reservoirs as examples, the paper expounds the hidden dangers of small-sized reservoirs’ danger control and reinforcement projects. By analyzing the flood control, anti-seismic, structure, transfusion, metal structure and operation management, reservoir’s danger control and reinforcement projects have hidden dangers. The causes are that most reservoirs cannot satisfy the standards and have hidden dangers in structure and transfusion; gates are rust, hoisting devices damaged;the roads for flood control and relief are difficult to be passed in rainy days;there is no rainfall observation facilities and the operation management of dams are bad.

  4. Recognition of Damaged Arrow-Road Markings by Visible Light Camera Sensor Based on Convolutional Neural Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Husan Vokhidov

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Automobile driver information as displayed on marked road signs indicates the state of the road, traffic conditions, proximity to schools, etc. These signs are important to insure the safety of the driver and pedestrians. They are also important input to the automated advanced driver assistance system (ADAS, installed in many automobiles. Over time, the arrow-road markings may be eroded or otherwise damaged by automobile contact, making it difficult for the driver to correctly identify the marking. Failure to properly identify an arrow-road marker creates a dangerous situation that may result in traffic accidents or pedestrian injury. Very little research exists that studies the problem of automated identification of damaged arrow-road marking painted on the road. In this study, we propose a method that uses a convolutional neural network (CNN to recognize six types of arrow-road markings, possibly damaged, by visible light camera sensor. Experimental results with six databases of Road marking dataset, KITTI dataset, Málaga dataset 2009, Málaga urban dataset, Naver street view dataset, and Road/Lane detection evaluation 2013 dataset, show that our method outperforms conventional methods.

  5. Recognition of Damaged Arrow-Road Markings by Visible Light Camera Sensor Based on Convolutional Neural Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vokhidov, Husan; Hong, Hyung Gil; Kang, Jin Kyu; Hoang, Toan Minh; Park, Kang Ryoung

    2016-01-01

    Automobile driver information as displayed on marked road signs indicates the state of the road, traffic conditions, proximity to schools, etc. These signs are important to insure the safety of the driver and pedestrians. They are also important input to the automated advanced driver assistance system (ADAS), installed in many automobiles. Over time, the arrow-road markings may be eroded or otherwise damaged by automobile contact, making it difficult for the driver to correctly identify the marking. Failure to properly identify an arrow-road marker creates a dangerous situation that may result in traffic accidents or pedestrian injury. Very little research exists that studies the problem of automated identification of damaged arrow-road marking painted on the road. In this study, we propose a method that uses a convolutional neural network (CNN) to recognize six types of arrow-road markings, possibly damaged, by visible light camera sensor. Experimental results with six databases of Road marking dataset, KITTI dataset, Málaga dataset 2009, Málaga urban dataset, Naver street view dataset, and Road/Lane detection evaluation 2013 dataset, show that our method outperforms conventional methods. PMID:27999301

  6. Assessing Road Traffic Expression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fábio Silva

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Road traffic is a problem which is increasing in cities with large population. Unrelated to this fact the number of portable and wearable devices has also been increasing throughout the population of most countries. With this advent, the capacity to monitor and register data about people habits and locations as well as more complex data such as intensity and strength of movements has created an opportunity to contribute to the general wealth and comfort within these environments. Ambient Intelligence and Intelligent Decision Making processes can benefit from the knowledge gathered by these devices to improve decisions on everyday tasks such as deciding navigation routes by car, bicycle or other means of transportation and avoiding route perils. The concept of computational sustainability may also be applied to this problem. Current applications in this area demonstrate the usefulness of real time system that inform the user of certain conditions in the surrounding area. On the other hand, the approach presented in this work aims to describe models and approaches to automatically identify current states of traffic inside cities and use methods from computer science to improve overall comfort and the sustainability of road traffic both with the user and the environment in mind. Such objective is delivered by analyzing real time contributions from those mobile ubiquitous devices to identifying problematic situations and areas under a defined criteria that have significant influence towards a sustainable use of the road transport infrastructure.

  7. Artificial intelligence techniques for monitoring dangerous infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamma, Evelina; Mello, Paola; Nanetti, Anna; Riguzzi, Fabrizio; Storari, Sergio; Valastro, Gianfranco

    2006-01-01

    The monitoring and detection of nosocomial infections is a very important problem arising in hospitals. A hospital-acquired or nosocomial infection is a disease that develops after admission into the hospital and it is the consequence of a treatment, not necessarily a surgical one, performed by the medical staff. Nosocomial infections are dangerous because they are caused by bacteria which have dangerous (critical) resistance to antibiotics. This problem is very serious all over the world. In Italy, almost 5-8% of the patients admitted into hospitals develop this kind of infection. In order to reduce this figure, policies for controlling infections should be adopted by medical practitioners. In order to support them in this complex task, we have developed a system, called MERCURIO, capable of managing different aspects of the problem. The objectives of this system are the validation of microbiological data and the creation of a real time epidemiological information system. The system is useful for laboratory physicians, because it supports them in the execution of the microbiological analyses; for clinicians, because it supports them in the definition of the prophylaxis, of the most suitable antibi-otic therapy and in monitoring patients' infections; and for epidemiologists, because it allows them to identify outbreaks and to study infection dynamics. In order to achieve these objectives, we have adopted expert system and data mining techniques. We have also integrated a statistical module that monitors the diffusion of nosocomial infections over time in the hospital, and that strictly interacts with the knowledge based module. Data mining techniques have been used for improving the system knowledge base. The knowledge discovery process is not antithetic, but complementary to the one based on manual knowledge elicitation. In order to verify the reliability of the tasks performed by MERCURIO and the usefulness of the knowledge discovery approach, we performed a test

  8. 43 CFR 15.11 - Explosives and dangerous weapons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Explosives and dangerous weapons. 15.11... § 15.11 Explosives and dangerous weapons. No person shall carry, use or possess within the Preserve... other kind of weapon potentially harmful to the reef structure. The use of such weapons from beyond the...

  9. 48 CFR 245.7310-4 - Dangerous property.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Dangerous property. 245..., DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE CONTRACT MANAGEMENT GOVERNMENT PROPERTY Sale of Surplus Contractor Inventory 245.7310-4 Dangerous property. The following warning shall be included when it cannot be certified that the property...

  10. Road traffic injuries in Mozambique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romão, Francelina; Nizamo, Hanifa; Mapasse, Domingos; Rafico, Momede Mussá; José, João; Mataruca, Simão; Efron, M Lúcia; Omondi, Lucas O; Leifert, Thelma; Bicho, Joaquim M L Marungo

    2003-01-01

    Road traffic injuries affect the economy, health and quality of life of the people of Mozambique. Current road safety programmes are inadequate and inefficient given the magnitude of the problem. Data reported on road traffic crashes in the period 1990 to 2000 from the National Institute for Road Safety, the traffic police and the Central Hospital of Maputo were reviewed. The burden of road traffic injuries in Mozambique is rising, with at least three people killed daily. The age group most affected is 25-38 (39.35%), followed by 16-24 (20.79%). The main causes of crashes include reckless driving, drunken driving, roads with potholes, inadequate signs, lack of protection for pedestrians, and inadequate traffic law enforcement. However, the data are not adequate to reveal the true magnitude of the problem. Data collected by different sources are incomplete and not coordinated with other sources and databases. In urban areas, however, better response to crashes, treatment of the injured, reporting and data collection is attributable to a greater concentration of police and medical facilities. Road traffic safety programmes in Mozambique are inadequate and inefficient, starting with the data collection system. Improvement of injury surveillance systems is needed to help make road traffic safety a national development agenda priority and for developing and implementing road safety policies. For road safety programmes to be effective, government must facilitate stakeholders' involvement, and the clear definition of government activities, civil society activities and public-private partnerships need to be established.

  11. Optimal Road Capacity Building : Road Planning by Marginal Cost Pricing

    OpenAIRE

    NEMOTO, Toshinori; Misui, Yuki; Kajiwara, Akira

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to propose a new road planning and financing scheme based on short-term social marginal cost pricing that facilitates the establishment of optimal road standards in the long term. We conducted a simulation analysis based on the proposed planning scheme and observed that the simulation calculated the optimal road capacity in the future, and thus proved that the new planning scheme is feasible.

  12. Dangerousness and risk assessment: the state of the art.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauer, Arie; Rosca, Paula; Khawalled, Razak; Gruzniewski, Adrian; Grinshpoon, Alex

    2003-01-01

    Risk or dangerousness is an issue which burdens the minds of all mental health and law enforcement professionals. Researchers have attempted to define its extent and constituent elements and to predict and assess it. Risk assessment is a complex task, influenced by the interaction of many variables, such as previous pattern of violence, biological, sociological and psychological factors, divided into facilitating and inhibiting factors. In our paper we discuss the theoretical concepts linked with dangerousness prediction and assessment, and then review the "first" and "second" generations of literature on dangerousness and risk assessment, including the actuarial instruments. We then present the current trends in the field, concentrating on the correlation between dangerousness and mental disorders, dangerousness analysis and risk management, a wider concept including prevention, treatment and communication of risk. Although great progress has been made in this field, there are still many unresolved issues, among them the development of valid instruments for the assessment of risk.

  13. Who is a dangerous driver? Socio-demographic and personal determinants of risky traffic behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksandra Peplińska

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Background The aim of this study was to search for comprehensive socio-demographic and personal (personality and temperamental determinants of risky on-the-road behavior. Based on the results of previous studies, we assumed that the main predictors of dangerous traffic behavior include: internal locus of control, sensation seeking, risk seeking and risk acceptance, as well as high self-esteem, a low level of reactivity combined with a high level of endurance and activity (which together determine a strong need for stimulation and a preference for hedonistic values; and among socio-demographic variables – age, gender, education and duration of having a driving license. Participants and procedure The study included a group of 380 participants, aged between 19 and 61 years (Me = 24. In order to verify the hypothesis, a battery of research tools measuring personality and temperamental variables was adopted, namely: the Formal Characteristics of Behavior – Temperament Questionnaire, Rotter I-E Scale, Risk Acceptance Scale, Stimulating-Instrumental Risk Inventory, Scheler Value Scale, Zuckerman Sensation Seeking Scale and Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale. Results The dangerous driver syndrome was found to be promoted by high levels of experience and sensation seeking, low levels of tolerance to boredom and monotony, high need for stimulating risk and high risk acceptance, high self-esteem, a preference for hedonistic values coupled with aversion towards moral values, as well as low sensory sensitivity, and was especially visible among older men with short driving experience. Conclusions It can be concluded that both socio-demographic and psychological variables, such as temperament and personality, are significant predictors of dangerous traffic behavior.

  14. The generic danger and the idiosyncratic support

    Science.gov (United States)

    Temme, Arnaud; Nijp, Jelmer; van der Meij, Marijn; Samia, Jalal; Masselink, Rens

    2016-04-01

    This contribution argues two main points. First, that generic landscapes used in some modelling studies sometimes have properties or cause simulation results that are unrealistic. Such initially flat or straight-sloped landscapes, sometimes with minor random perturbations, e.g. form the backdrop for ecological simulations of vegetation growth and competition that predict catastrophic shifts. Exploratory results for semi-arid systems suggest that the results based on these generic landscapes are end-members from a distribution of results, rather than an unbiased, typical outcome. Apparently, the desire to avoid idiosyncrasy has unintended consequences. Second, we argue and illustrate that in fact new insights often come from close inspection of idiosyncratic case studies. Our examples from landslide systems, connectivity and soil formation show how a central role for the case study - either in empirical work or to provide model targets - has advanced our understanding. Both points contribute to the conclusion that it is dangerous to forget about annoying, small-scale, idiosyncratic and, indeed, perhaps bad-ass case studies in Earth Sciences.

  15. How Can We Avert Dangerous Climate Change?

    CERN Document Server

    Hansen, J

    2007-01-01

    Recent analyses indicate that the amount of atmospheric CO2 required to cause dangerous climate change is at most 450 ppm, and likely less than that. Reductions of non-CO2 climate forcings can provide only moderate, albeit important, adjustments to the CO2 limit. Realization of how close the planet is to "tipping points" with unacceptable consequences, especially ice sheet disintegration with sea level rise out of humanity's control, has a bright side. It implies an imperative: we must find a way to keep the CO2 amount so low that it will also avert other detrimental effects that had begun to seem inevitable, e.g., ocean acidification, loss of most alpine glaciers and thus the water supply for millions of people, and shifting of climatic zones with consequent extermination of species. Here I outline from a scientific perspective actions needed to achieve low limits on CO2 and global warming. These changes are technically feasible and have ancillary benefits. Achievement of needed changes requires overcoming t...

  16. Euthanasia--definition, dangers and alternatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saunders, C

    1994-03-01

    There is as yet (1992) no law specifically allowing euthanasia, the active intervention to end a patient's life. The discussion has so far been restricted to such action as taking place at a patient's request, but evidence from the Netherlands appears to show that the move to involuntary euthanasia is a real danger. Palliative medicine offers appropriate treatment for relief and support where limits are set on interventions that would no longer be in a patient's best interests. It is possible to relieve distress by using the increasing knowledge in this field. It is important to distinguish this from euthanasia and the term "passive euthanasia" is confusing and unfortunate. Those with extensive experience in the treatment of advanced cancer have much to share with practitioners in other specialties, not least in the possible achievements of both patient and family at the end of life. Society has the responsibility for including them in its concern to the end of life and for supporting those who find it difficult to believe in any meaning in their existence.

  17. Steam vaporizers: A danger for paediatric burns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lonie, Sarah; Baker, Paul; Teixeira, Rodrigo

    2016-12-01

    Steam vaporizers are used to humidify air in dry environments. They are marketed to moisten children's airway secretions and thus to help relieve symptoms associated with upper respiratory tract infections. Unfortunately the steam emitted from the unit can also pose a significant risk of burns to children. Our study aimed to ascertain patterns of injury and treatment outcomes from steam burns resulting from these devices. Potential preventative measures are discussed. Children who had sustained vaporizer scald burns were identified at the outpatient burns clinic over a 10-month period (November 2014-August 2015). Medical records were reviewed retrospectively and data collected on pattern of injury, management and outcomes. Ten children were treated for vaporizer steam burns over the study period. The mean age was 1.6 years and 8 (80%) patients were male. Operative intervention was undergone in 5 (50%) cases; four acutely and one as a secondary reconstructive procedure. Hand burns accounted for 8 (80%) of cases. Steam vaporizers can cause significant burns in the paediatric population. Toddlers were most at risk, frequently sustaining hand burns that underwent skin grafting. Greater public awareness of the danger is indicated and measures to prevent such injuries should be addressed by appropriate authorities. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd and ISBI. All rights reserved.

  18. Can Asteroid Airbursts Cause Dangerous Tsunami?.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boslough, Mark B. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2015-10-01

    I have performed a series of high-resolution hydrocode simulations to generate “source functions” for tsunami simulations as part of a proof-of-principle effort to determine whether or not the downward momentum from an asteroid airburst can couple energy into a dangerous tsunami in deep water. My new CTH simulations show enhanced momentum multiplication relative to a nuclear explosion of the same yield. Extensive sensitivity and convergence analyses demonstrate that results are robust and repeatable for simulations with sufficiently high resolution using adaptive mesh refinement. I have provided surface overpressure and wind velocity fields to tsunami modelers to use as time-dependent boundary conditions and to test the hypothesis that this mechanism can enhance the strength of the resulting shallow-water wave. The enhanced momentum result suggests that coupling from an over-water plume-forming airburst could be a more efficient tsunami source mechanism than a collapsing impact cavity or direct air blast alone, but not necessarily due to the originally-proposed mechanism. This result has significant implications for asteroid impact risk assessment and airburst-generated tsunami will be the focus of a NASA-sponsored workshop at the Ames Research Center next summer, with follow-on funding expected.

  19. Gender stereotypes among road users

    OpenAIRE

    Dontsov, Alexander; Kabalevskaya, Alexandra

    2013-01-01

    This article analyzes the mechanism of stereotyping as exemplified by gender stereotypes of road users. Gender stereotypes are not only viewed as an a priori image of a percept, but also examined ‘in action’ at the very moment of their actualization with road users. In the paper we have identified the content of road users’ gender stereotypes; analyzed the behaviour of male and female drivers, pinpointing a number of gender-specific behavioural features; demonstrated that male and female driv...

  20. 24 CFR 1710.110 - Roads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... (4) Who is responsible for road maintenance? If the roads are to be maintained by a public authority... for maintaining the roads and that, if maintenance is not performed, the roads may soon deteriorate... 24 Housing and Urban Development 5 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Roads. 1710.110 Section...

  1. Aberrant Behaviors and Road Accidents among Iranian Truck Drivers, 2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amir Houshang Mehrparvar

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available structural dimensions of which as well as technologic failures such as road quality, and tech-nical faults of automobiles, need to be assessed in detail. Iran has the first order in the world for deadly road accidents. This study was designed to assess the association between aberrant behaviors of truck drivers and the incidence of road accidents in Yazd, center of Iran, in 2010.Methods: This cross-sectional descriptive-analytic study was conducted on 300 truck drivers in Yazd. We used 3 questionnaires, including one for demographic data, Driver Behavior Questionnaire (DBQ, and one for drivers' self-evaluation of the of their driving.Results: Five types of the behavior had the highest frequency: Misjudge speed of oncoming vehicle when overtaking.; Deliberately disregard the speed limits late at night or very early in the morning.; Ignore 'give way' signs, and narrowly avoid colliding with traffic having right of way.; Stuck behind a slow-moving vehicle on a two-lane highway, you are driven by frustration to try to overtake in risky circumstances.; Drive with only 'half-an-eye' on the road while looking at a map, changing a cassette or radio channel, etc. The more the driver's driv-ing was influenced by emotional and mental states the more deliberate violations and slips.Conclusion: Among truck drivers, safety has not developed sufficiently, and because of the dangers of road accidents both for the drivers and other people and its economic losses, the importance of the presenting some solutions is completely obvious.

  2. Road traffic noise and stroke

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Mette; Hvidberg, Martin; Andersen, Zorana J

    2011-01-01

    Epidemiological studies suggest that long-term exposure to road traffic noise increases the risk of cardiovascular disorders. The aim of this study was to investigate the relation between exposure to road traffic noise and risk for stroke, which has not been studied before.......Epidemiological studies suggest that long-term exposure to road traffic noise increases the risk of cardiovascular disorders. The aim of this study was to investigate the relation between exposure to road traffic noise and risk for stroke, which has not been studied before....

  3. Dangerous Spaces, Dangerous Liaisons: Performance Arts on and of the U.S./Mexico Border

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kirsten F. Nigro

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available This essay will consider the performative arts on the border, ranging from script-based plays to performance pieces in urban spaces and public installation pieces. These will be analyzed according to their focus on 1 the plight of the illegal immigrant; 2 the violence that has become a daily factor in the lives of border citizens; and 3 the symbolic efforts to make a sacred space out of one as seemingly unsacred as the border; and if not a sacred space, one that is more transparent and hopefully, less dangerous and threatening.

  4. [Dangerous states and mental health disorders: perceptions and reality].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tassone-Monchicourt, C; Daumerie, N; Caria, A; Benradia, I; Roelandt, J-L

    2010-01-01

    Image of Madness was always strongly linked with the notion of "dangerousness", provoking fear and social exclusion, despite the evolution of psychiatric practices and organisation, and the emphasis on user's rights respect. Mediatization and politicization of this issue through news item combining crime and mental illness, reinforce and spread out this perception. This paper presents a review of the litterature on social perceptions associating "dangerousness", "Insanity" and "mental illness", available data about the link between "dangerous states" and "psychiatric disorders", as well as the notion of "dangerousness" and the assessment of "dangerous state" of people suffering or not from psychiatric disorders. MAPPING OF SOCIAL REPRESENTATIONS: The French Survey "Mental Health in General Population: Images and Realities (MHGP)" was carried out between 1999 and 2003, on a representative sample of 36.000 individuals over 18 years old. It aims at describing the social representations of the population about "insanity/insane" and "mental illness/mentally ill". The results show that about 75% of the people interviewed link "insanity" or "mental illness" with "criminal or violent acts". Young people and those with a high level of education more frequently categorize violent and dangerous behaviours in the field of Mental illness rather than in that of madness. CORRELATION BETWEEN DANGEROUS STATE AND PSYCHIATRIC DISORDERS: in the scientific literature, all experts reject the hypothesis of a direct link between violence and mental disorder. Besides, 2 tendencies appear in their conclusions: on one hand, some studies establish a significative link between violence and severe mental illness, compared with the general population. On the other hand, results show that 87 to 97% of des aggressors are not mentally ills. Therefore, the absence of scientific consensus feeds the confusion and reinforce the link of causality between psychiatric disorders and violence. OFFICIAL

  5. Reinforcing a Dangerous Rock Mass Using the Flexible Network Method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yang Wendong; Xie Quanmin; Xia Yuanyou; Li Xinping

    2005-01-01

    Because the main failure type of a dangerous rock mass is collapse, the treatment of such a mass should focus on controlling collapse failure. When treating dangerous rock masses, disturbing the mass (e.g. by blasting) needs to be avoided, as this new damage could cause collapse. So the self-bearing capacity of the mountain mass must be used to treat the dangerous rock mass. This article is based on a practical example of the control of a dangerous rock mass at Banyan Mountain, Huangshi, Hubei Province. On the basis of an analysis of damage mechanism and the stability of the dangerous rock mass, a flexible network reinforcement method was designed to prevent the collapse of the rock mass. The deformations of section Ⅱw of the dangerous rock mass before and after the flexible network reinforcement were calculated using the two-dimensional finite element method. The results show that the maximum deformation reduced by 55 % after the application of the flexible network reinforcement, from 45.99 to 20.75 mm, which demonstrates that the flexible network method is effective, and can provide some scientific basis for the treatment of dangerous rock masses.

  6. Road Works Ahead

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Gertrude; Majyambere

    2011-01-01

    China to invest $532 million in Rwanda in 2011 CHINA will invest about $532 million in Rwanda this year,mainly targeting critical economic engines such as building roads and vocational schools,said Shu Zhan,Chinese Ambassador to Rwanda,in early February. "We need to have adequate field surveys,wide consultation and detailed ’homework,’ in order to come up with tailor-made solutions that meet local needs," Shu said in an interview with ChinAfrica.

  7. RoadTrip Charcoal

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Apple iPod系列产品最让人遗憾的地方,就是缺少对于调频收音机的支持。所以我们只好通过各种配件为它增加功能。这款RoadTrip“巧克力”,不仅能让iPod增加收音机的功能,还可以通过调频把iPod中的音乐发出出来。

  8. Road traffic injuries

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Zheng-guo 王正国

    2003-01-01

    @@ The appearance of cars has raised materialistic civilization and living standard to an unprecedented level. Today, it is hard to imagine how we human beings can live without cars.Yet, motor vehicles can cause a great number of deaths and injuries as well as considerable economic losses, which have constituted the global burden. Understanding of the occurrence and development of road traffic injuries will contribute to the prevention and control of crash and to the implementation of "everybody has the right to enjoy health" proposed by WHO.

  9. Road Traffic Injuries

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Zheng-guo

    2005-01-01

    @@ As everybody knows that automobiles have been greatly changing our life. However, everything has two sides, motor vehicles have also caused a huge number of people's deaths, injuries and property damage. Traffic crashes are perhaps the number one public health problem in developed countries [1]. In the United States, pre-retirement years of life lost in traffic crashes are more than that of the two combined leading diseases: cancer and heart disease [1]. Today road traffic crash (RTC) ranks 11th in leading cause of death and accounts for 2.1% of all deaths globally.

  10. Traffic danger detection by visual attention model of sparse sampling

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    夏利民; 刘涛; 谭论正

    2015-01-01

    A method to detect traffic dangers based on visual attention model of sparse sampling was proposed. The hemispherical sparse sampling model was used to decrease the amount of calculation which increases the detection speed. Bayesian probability model and Gaussian kernel function were applied to calculate the saliency of traffic videos. The method of multiscale saliency was used and the final saliency was the average of all scales, which increased the detection rates extraordinarily. The detection results of several typical traffic dangers show that the proposed method has higher detection rates and speed, which meets the requirement of real-time detection of traffic dangers.

  11. Improving road safety: Experiences from the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hagenzieker, M.P.

    2012-01-01

    Dr. Hagenzieker's research and education activities focus on the road safety effects of the transport system, with particular interest in road user behaviour aspects. Her PhD-research was on the effects of rewards on road user behaviour.

  12. In–Service Road Safety Audits

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    A. Mendoza–Díaz; E. Abarca–Pérez; A.G. Centeno–Saad

    2009-01-01

    A road safety audit is a formal analysis that seeks to guarantee that an existing or future road fulfills optimal safety criteria, conducted by a team of experts who se members are independent of the road project...

  13. Regional cerebral glucose metabolism differentiates danger- and non-danger-based traumas in post-traumatic stress disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramage, Amy E; Litz, Brett T; Resick, Patricia A; Woolsey, Mary D; Dondanville, Katherine A; Young-McCaughan, Stacey; Borah, Adam M; Borah, Elisa V; Peterson, Alan L; Fox, Peter T

    2016-02-01

    Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is presumably the result of life threats and conditioned fear. However, the neurobiology of fear fails to explain the impact of traumas that do not entail threats. Neuronal function, assessed as glucose metabolism with (18)fluoro-deoxyglucose positron emission tomography, was contrasted in active duty, treatment-seeking US Army Soldiers with PTSD endorsing either danger- (n = 19) or non-danger-based (n = 26) traumas, and was compared with soldiers without PTSD (Combat Controls, n = 26) and Civilian Controls (n = 24). Prior meta-analyses of regions associated with fear or trauma script imagery in PTSD were used to compare glucose metabolism across groups. Danger-based traumas were associated with higher metabolism in the right amygdala than the control groups, while non-danger-based traumas associated with heightened precuneus metabolism relative to the danger group. In the danger group, PTSD severity was associated with higher metabolism in precuneus and dorsal anterior cingulate and lower metabolism in left amygdala (R(2 )= 0.61). In the non-danger group, PTSD symptom severity was associated with higher precuneus metabolism and lower right amygdala metabolism (R(2 )= 0.64). These findings suggest a biological basis to consider subtyping PTSD according to the nature of the traumatic context.

  14. 78 FR 59413 - International Civil Aviation Organization's (ICAO) Dangerous Goods Panel; Notice of Public Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-26

    ... Federal Aviation Administration International Civil Aviation Organization's (ICAO) Dangerous Goods Panel... meeting. SUMMARY: In preparation for the International Civil Aviation Organization's (ICAO) Dangerous... Organization's Dangerous Goods Panel's (ICAO DGP's) 24th Panel Meeting. The agenda for the Working Group is...

  15. 77 FR 53250 - International Civil Aviation Organization's (ICAO) Dangerous Goods Panel; Notice of Public Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-31

    ... Federal Aviation Administration International Civil Aviation Organization's (ICAO) Dangerous Goods Panel... meeting. SUMMARY: In preparation for the International Civil Aviation Organization's (ICAO) Dangerous... International Civil Aviation Organization's Dangerous Goods Panel's (ICAO DGP's) Working Group of the Whole...

  16. 78 FR 16756 - International Civil Aviation Organization's (ICAO) Dangerous Goods Panel; Notice of Public Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-18

    ... Federal Aviation Administration International Civil Aviation Organization's (ICAO) Dangerous Goods Panel... meeting. SUMMARY: In preparation for the International Civil Aviation Organization's (ICAO) Dangerous... prepares for the International Civil Aviation Organization's Dangerous Goods Panel's (ICAO DGP's)...

  17. Space weather and dangerous phenomena on the Earth: principles of great geomagnetic storms forcasting by online cosmic ray data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. I. Dorman

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available According to NOAA space weather scales, geomagnetic storms of scales G5 (3-h index of geomagnetic activity Kp=9, G4 (Kp=8 and G3 (Kp=7 are dangerous for satellites, aircrafts, and even for technology on the ground (influence on power systems, on spacecraft operations, on HF radio-communications and others. We show on the basis of statistical data, that these geomagnetic storms, mostly accompanied by cosmic ray (CR Forbush-decreases, are also dangerous for people's health on spacecraft and on the ground (increasing the rate of myocardial infarctions, brain strokes and car accident road traumas. To prevent these serious damages it is very important to forecast dangerous geomagnetic storms. Here we consider the principles of using CR measurements for this aim: to forecast at least 10-15h before the sudden commencement of great geomagnetic storms accompanied by Forbush-decreases, by using neutron monitor muon telescope worldwide network online hourly data. We show that for this forecast one may use the following features of CR intensity variations connected with geomagnetic storms accompanied by Forbush-decreases: 1 CR pre-increase, 2 CR pre-decrease, 3 CR fluctuations, 4 change in the 3-D CR anisotropy.

  18. MODEL CAR TRAFFIC ON SECTIONS OF ROADS WITH LIMITED VISIBILITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. V. Skrypnikov

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Summary. Existing theoretical calculations speeds in areas of horizontal and vertical curves designed for the needs of construction and calculation of cars and can not be used for valuation. When calculating the value of the coefficient of friction velocity determined at full wheel lock that does not correspond to the actual conditions of braking stability conditions of the car within its lane. The article proposes to calculate the permissible vehicle speed for the sites of horizontal and vertical curves on forest roads from the requirement car stop within the zone of visibility without buckling considering assumptions: during braking movement remains manageable, the driver keeps the car in the outside lane; magnitude of the angular velocity of the steering wheel is small; fully utilized inhibitory properties least loaded wheel; cornering power coefficient of resistance of tires depends little on the change of loads on the bus; low rolling resistance. Studied are normal reactions to the vehicle wheels when braking, namely found that if the friction coefficient on the road for less than the calculated optimal braking, the restriction on the braking occurs danger of losing control of the car skidding due to the front wheels. If the coefficient of friction on the road more than the calculated optimal braking, the braking force limitation occurs for blocking the rear axle. When comparing full stopping distance with the existing area of visibility is determined permissible speed.

  19. All Road Density (18km)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Density (km / km^2) of all roads in the western United States. Dataset was developed to generalize the 2000 US Census TIGER/Line Roads layer to a density within 18km...

  20. Road safety in developing countries.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schreuder, D.A.

    1991-01-01

    This paper presents a classification of countries (developing and developed alike), divided into two main categories: an economical and historical entry. When road safety problems are placed into the economical context, it then appears that, among other things: (1) The road safety problem in the ind

  1. Penetrating eye injuries in road traffic accidents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, B C; Morgan, L H

    1988-03-01

    A review of all penetrating eye injuries treated by the Manchester Eye Hospital over four years (1 February 1982-31 January 1986) was undertaken. One hundred and ninety-six penetrating eye injuries were seen, of which 16 (8.2%) were due to road traffic accidents. Eight patients (nine eyes) were seen in the 12 months prior to the introduction of the seat-belt legislation on 1 February 1983. None of these patients was wearing a seat-belt whereas two of the eight patients (10 eyes) seen after the seat-belt legislation were. Both these patients suffered severe visual loss due to intraocular glass from shattered windscreens. Three patients had bilateral penetrating eye injuries, one before and two after the seat-belt legislation. Two of the nine eyes involved prior to the legislation and three of the 10 eyes after the legislation had an eventual visual acuity of 6/12 or better. In the majority of patients, failure to wear seat-belts or defective use is to blame. Flying glass from shattered toughened windscreens is a preventable danger. Nine of the 16 patients were first seen in the general accident and emergency department and, of these, seven did not have visual acuities recorded prior to referral to an ophthalmologist. The importance of measurement of the visual acuity and detection of an afferent pupillary defect is stressed based on these findings.

  2. Top of the Most Dangerous Food Parasites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.A. Zaslavskaya

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available According to the rating of the risk of infection by food parasites, which was published the World Health Organization (WHO and the Food Agriculture Organisation in 2014, cryptosporidiosis is on the 5th place. It is a parasitic protozoan disease, belongs to the genus Cryptosporidium type Apicomplexa. About 20 species of Cryptosporidium are revealed and known now. The incubation period of cryptosporidiosis lasts from 4 to 14 days. The main and most typical clinical manifestation of the disease — a profuse watery diarrhea, as well as clinically possible cryptosporidiosis of the biliary tract and broncho-pulmonary (respiratory cryptosporidiosis. Cryptosporidiosis diagnosis is based on laboratory studies of faeces (in vivo and pathological material (posthumously, taking into account epizootic, clinical and postmortem data. Causal treatment is not developed. But it is possible to control the diarrhea caused by this infection. Specific preventive management of cryptosporidiosis is not developed. Personal hygiene measures are necessary. The 6th most dangerous food parasitosis is Entamoeba histolytica. This intestinal protozoa disease is characterized by ulcerative lesions of the colon, chronic protracted course with the risk of the formation of abscesses in the liver and various organs. The causative agent of ame­biasis — Entamoeba histolytica — belongs to the genus Entamoeba, family Entamoebidae, the simplest type — Protozoa. According to the recommendations of the WHO Expert Committee (1970, there are three clinical forms of amebiasis: intestinal, extra-intestinal and skin. Diagnostic microscopy of the native smears of fresh feces in saline solution and smears stained with Lugol’s solution is carried out. In the presence of clinical signs of intestinal amebiasis and negative results of parasitological studies, serological tests are used based on the detection of specific antibodies against Entamoeba. There are several groups of drugs for

  3. A Video Camera Road Sign System of the Early Warning from Collision with the Wild Animals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matuska Slavomir

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a camera road sign system of the early warning, which can help to avoid from vehicle collision with the wild animals. The system consists of camera modules placed down the particularly chosen route and the intelligent road signs. The camera module consists of the camera device and the computing unit. The video stream is captured from video camera using computing unit. Then the algorithms of object detection are deployed. Afterwards, the machine learning algorithms will be used to classify the moving objects. If the moving object is classified as animal and this animal can be dangerous for safety of the vehicle, warning will be displayed on the intelligent road sings.

  4. Study of Mobile GIS Application on the Field of GPR in the Road Disease Detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Q.; Yang, F.

    2013-12-01

    With the reflection principle of pulsed electromagnetic waves, ground penetrating radar (GPR) is available to measure depth of the pavement layer, reflecting different hidden danger underground. Currently, GPR has been widely used in road engineering with the constantly improved ability of detection and diagnosis to road diseases. The sum of road disease data of a region, a city, and even a wider range will be a very informative database, so we need a more convenient way to achieve data query intuitively. As mobile internet develops continuously, application of mobile terminal device plays a more important role in information platform. Mobile GIS, with smartphone as its terminal, is supported by the mobile Internet, GPS or base station as its positioning method. In this article, based on Android Platform and using C/S pattern, the LBS application of road diseases information which integrates Baidu Map API and database technology was discussed. After testing, it can display and query the real-time and historical road diseases data, the classification of data on a phone intuitively and easily. Because of the location technique and high portability of smart phone, the spot investigations of road diseases become easier. Though, the system needs further improvement, especially with the improving of the mobile phone performance, the system can also add the function of analysis to the disease data, thus forming a set of service system with more applicable.

  5. Application of IC Card License for Road Transportation in Commercial Vehicles Supervision and Service

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Weiwei

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available IC card electronic license for road transport includes the IC card commercial vehicle’s certificate and IC card practitioner’s qualification certificate. In China, the IC card electronic license for road transport is the electronic ID card which must be carried by each commercial vehicles and practitioners. This paper briefly introduces the basic situation, data format and security keys architecture of IC card electronic license for road transportation of China. In order to strengthen the supervision and service of commercial vehicles, this paper puts forward the overall application framework of IC card electronic license for road transport. The application examples of IC card license in the supervision of passenger station, dangerous goods transport management, governance overload and logistics park and port area management are discussed. The practical application results show that the application of IC card electronic license for road transport is an important technical means to improve the supervision ability and service quality of the road transportation industry.

  6. Gender Stereotypes among Road Users

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kabalevskaya, Alexandra I.

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available This article analyzes the mechanism of stereotyping as exemplified by gender stereotypes of road users. Gender stereotypes are not only viewed as an a priori image of a percept, but also examined ‘in action’ — at the very moment of their actualization with road users. In the paper we have identified the content of road users’ gender stereotypes; analyzed the behaviour of male and female drivers, pinpointing a number of gender-specific behavioural features; demonstrated that male and female driving differ from each other in terms of speed, intensity and roughness; and identified the conditions and mechanisms underlying the actualization of gender stereotypes. Based on video and audio materials, we have found that drivers’ gender-specific behavioural features are perceivable to road users: such features trigger the actualization of gender stereotypes as attributive schemes, which determine the interaction between road users, while also laying the foundation for gender stereotypes.

  7. The Climate Policy Narrative for a Dangerously Warming World

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanford, Todd [Union of Concerned Scientists; Frumhoff, Peter [Union of Concerned Scientists; Luers, Amy [Skoll Global Threats Fund; Gulledge, Jay [ORNL

    2014-01-01

    It is time to acknowledge that global average temperatures will likely rise above the 2 C policy target and consider how that deeply troubling prospect should affect priorities for communicating and managing the risks of a dangerously warming climate.

  8. Too Few Women, Docs Understand Dangers of Heart Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... html Too Few Women, Docs Understand Dangers of Heart Disease It kills more than all cancers combined, but ... 22, 2017 THURSDAY, June 22, 2017 (HealthDay News) -- Heart disease is the leading killer of U.S. women, but ...

  9. Drinking Peroxide as 'Natural' Cure Leads to Dangerous Blood Clots

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_163513.html Drinking Peroxide as 'Natural' Cure Leads to Dangerous Blood Clots ... 9, 2017 (HealthDay News) -- Ingesting high-concentration hydrogen peroxide as a "natural cure" or cleansing agent may ...

  10. How Older People Can Head Off Dangerous Drug Interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_161150.html How Older People Can Head Off Dangerous Drug Interactions Taking multiple ... serious drug interactions are a daily threat to older people who take multiple medications and supplements, according to ...

  11. FDA to Weigh Dangers of Exploding E-Cigarettes

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_162849.html FDA to Weigh Dangers of Exploding E-Cigarettes Agency ... The Associated Press reported last month that the FDA had identified 66 instances of e-cigarette explosions ...

  12. male knowledge of danger signs of obstetric complications

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    and cultural status in society. In addition to ... Keywords: Danger Signs in Pregnancy, Obstetric Complications, Male Knowledge ... documentation of this would be useful in designing ... Package for the Social Sciences version 16 with analysis.

  13. Danger Signals Activating the Immune Response after Trauma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefanie Hirsiger

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Sterile injury can cause a systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS that resembles the host response during sepsis. The inflammatory response following trauma comprises various systems of the human body which are cross-linked with each other within a highly complex network of inflammation. Endogenous danger signals (danger-associated molecular patterns; DAMPs; alarmins as well as exogenous pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs play a crucial role in the initiation of the immune response. With popularization of the “danger theory,” numerous DAMPs and PAMPs and their corresponding pathogen-recognition receptors have been identified. In this paper, we highlight the role of the DAMPs high-mobility group box protein 1 (HMGB1, interleukin-1α (IL-1α, and interleukin-33 (IL-33 as unique dual-function mediators as well as mitochondrial danger signals released upon cellular trauma and necrosis.

  14. A critical investigation of dangerous goods procedures in logistics operations.

    OpenAIRE

    Wojtczuk, Kamil

    2012-01-01

    University of Nottingham “A critical investigation of dangerous goods procedures in logistics operations.” Kamil Wojtczuk MSc Logistics and Supply Chain Management   “A critical investigation of dangerous goods procedures in logistics operations.” by Kamil Wojtczuk 2011   Summary of dissertation This dissertation comprises five chapters and three appendixes. The dissertation starts with an introduction where all research objectives are placed. In the first...

  15. Thermal instability and runaway criteria: the dangers of disregarding dynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Ball, Rowena

    2012-01-01

    Two exemplary exothermic processes, synthesis of nitroglycerine in a continuous stirred tank reactor (CSTR) and synthesis of the explosive RDX in a CSTR, are used to demonstrate the dangers of ignoring the system dynamics when defining criteria for thermal criticality or runaway. Stability analyses are necessary to prescribe such criteria, and for these systems prove the presence of dangerous oscillatory thermal instability which cannot be detected using the steady state thermal balances.

  16. iRide: A Cooperative Sensor and IP Multimedia Subsystem Based Architecture and Application for ITS Road Safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elkotob, Muslim; Osipov, Evgeny

    In this paper we present iRide (intelligent ride), an IP Multimedia Subsystem (IMS) application for warning drivers about hazardous situations on the road. iRide takes real-time information about road conditions and traffic situations from a wireless sensor network installed directly in the road surface. Upon logging to the iRide system, users start to receive periodic updates about the situation on the road along their route ahead. iRide is able to predict hazardous situations like slippery surface or dangerous distance to the nearest car and help drivers avoid accidents. We describe the service and the supporting network architecture of iRide. We discuss the major challenges associated with designing an IMS application for ITS, an intelligent transport system. Having a prototype implementation working on a small scale, we take it to the next step to perform system dimensioning and then verify the feasibility of having such a system using OPNET simulations.

  17. Road safety performance indicators for the interurban road network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yannis, George; Weijermars, Wendy; Gitelman, Victoria; Vis, Martijn; Chaziris, Antonis; Papadimitriou, Eleonora; Azevedo, Carlos Lima

    2013-11-01

    Various road safety performance indicators (SPIs) have been proposed for different road safety research areas, mainly as regards driver behaviour (e.g. seat belt use, alcohol, drugs, etc.) and vehicles (e.g. passive safety); however, no SPIs for the road network and design have been developed. The objective of this research is the development of an SPI for the road network, to be used as a benchmark for cross-region comparisons. The developed SPI essentially makes a comparison of the existing road network to the theoretically required one, defined as one which meets some minimum requirements with respect to road safety. This paper presents a theoretical concept for the determination of this SPI as well as a translation of this theory into a practical method. Also, the method is applied in a number of pilot countries namely the Netherlands, Portugal, Greece and Israel. The results show that the SPI could be efficiently calculated in all countries, despite some differences in the data sources. In general, the calculated overall SPI scores were realistic and ranged from 81 to 94%, with the exception of Greece where the SPI was relatively lower (67%). However, the SPI should be considered as a first attempt to determine the safety level of the road network. The proposed method has some limitations and could be further improved. The paper presents directions for further research to further develop the SPI.

  18. The semantic distinction between "risk" and "danger": a linguistic analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boholm, Max

    2012-02-01

    The analysis combines frame semantic and corpus linguistic approaches in analyzing the role of agency and decision making in the semantics of the words "risk" and "danger" (both nominal and verbal uses). In frame semantics, the meanings of "risk" and of related words, such as "danger," are analyzed against the background of a specific cognitive-semantic structure (a frame) comprising frame elements such as Protagonist, Bad Outcome, Decision, Possession, and Source. Empirical data derive from the British National Corpus (100 million words). Results indicate both similarities and differences in use. First, both "risk" and "danger" are commonly used to represent situations having potential negative consequences as the result of agency. Second, "risk" and "danger," especially their verbal uses (to risk, to endanger), differ in agent-victim structure, i.e., "risk" is used to express that a person affected by an action is also the agent of the action, while "endanger" is used to express that the one affected is not the agent. Third, "risk," but not "danger," tends to be used to represent rational and goal-directed action. The results therefore to some extent confirm the analysis of "risk" and "danger" suggested by German sociologist Niklas Luhmann. As a point of discussion, the present findings arguably have implications for risk communication.

  19. Social learning spreads knowledge about dangerous humans among American crows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornell, Heather N; Marzluff, John M; Pecoraro, Shannon

    2012-02-07

    Individuals face evolutionary trade-offs between the acquisition of costly but accurate information gained firsthand and the use of inexpensive but possibly less reliable social information. American crows (Corvus brachyrhynchos) use both sources of information to learn the facial features of a dangerous person. We exposed wild crows to a novel 'dangerous face' by wearing a unique mask as we trapped, banded and released 7-15 birds at five study sites near Seattle, WA, USA. An immediate scolding response to the dangerous mask after trapping by previously captured crows demonstrates individual learning, while an immediate response by crows that were not captured probably represents conditioning to the trapping scene by the mob of birds that assembled during the capture. Later recognition of dangerous masks by lone crows that were never captured is consistent with horizontal social learning. Independent scolding by young crows, whose parents had conditioned them to scold the dangerous mask, demonstrates vertical social learning. Crows that directly experienced trapping later discriminated among dangerous and neutral masks more precisely than did crows that learned through social means. Learning enabled scolding to double in frequency and spread at least 1.2 km from the place of origin over a 5 year period at one site.

  20. Classification of dangers for personnel in underground mine operations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ryncarz, T.

    1983-01-01

    As noted by the author, in Polish literature on mining, the dangers for personnel in underground operations are classified into natural and others; this separation is very approximate. It does not promote strict scientific analysis of the production dangers in mines. The concept ''danger in underground mining operations'' posed by the author is based on physical process of human interaction with the environment, where this process can have a harmful influence on the human body. A classification is proposed of dangers in underground mining operations depending on the three groups of factors: factors of the environment (lithosphere, atmosphere, technosphere); factors of the type of process (mechanical, thermal, substantial and other processes); factors determined by the nature of occurrence of the process (slow flow, sharp flow). A ''matrix of dangers'' is presented based on the indicated approach to the classification. Use of the matrix makes it possible to evaluate on a strictly scientific basis the factors of production danger in underground conditions and to develop effective measures to guarantee safety of personnel in the mines.

  1. Ancient origin of the new developmental superfamily DANGER.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikolas Nikolaidis

    Full Text Available Developmental proteins play a pivotal role in the origin of animal complexity and diversity. We report here the identification of a highly divergent developmental protein superfamily (DANGER, which originated before the emergence of animals (approximately 850 million years ago and experienced major expansion-contraction events during metazoan evolution. Sequence analysis demonstrates that DANGER proteins diverged via multiple mechanisms, including amino acid substitution, intron gain and/or loss, and recombination. Divergence for DANGER proteins is substantially greater than for the prototypic member of the superfamily (Mab-21 family and other developmental protein families (e.g., WNT proteins. DANGER proteins are widely expressed and display species-dependent tissue expression patterns, with many members having roles in development. DANGER1A, which regulates the inositol trisphosphate receptor, promotes the differentiation and outgrowth of neuronal processes. Regulation of development may be a universal function of DANGER family members. This family provides a model system to investigate how rapid protein divergence contributes to morphological complexity.

  2. Silk Roads or Steppe Roads? The Silk Roads in World History.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christian, David

    2000-01-01

    Explores the prehistory of the Silk Roads, reexamines their structure and history in the classical era, and explores shifts in their geography in the last one thousand years. Explains that a revised understanding of the Silk Roads demonstrates how the Afro-Eurasian land mass has been linked by networks of exchange since the Bronze Age. (CMK)

  3. Road safety in practice

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    On the 23 and 25 September come and test your driving skills and your reflexes on the two days of road safety in practice! To conclude the poster and article campaign on this topic which started last year, CERN now comes to the practical part with demonstrations, like a spectacular overturning test, information stands, where you can meet safety personnel from France, Switzerland and CERN, and discussions & debates. Come to ... ... the Meyrin site on 23 September: - From 8:30 hrs, stands and demonstrations on the parking site Cèdres, behind the Restaurant no. 1. - From 9:30 hrs, discussions and debates in the main auditorium. ... the Prévessin site on 25 September: - From 8:30 hrs, stands and demonstrations on the parking site of the building 866. - From 14:00 hrs, discussions and debates in the AB auditorium, building 864.

  4. Weather and road capacity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Thomas Christian

    2014-01-01

    The paper presents estimations of the effect of bad weather on the observed speed on a Danish highway section; Køge Bugt Motorvejen. The paper concludes that weather, primarily precipitation and snow, has a clear negative effect on speed when the road is not in hypercongestion mode. Furthermore......, the capacity of the highway seems to be reduced in bad weather and there are indications that travel time variability is also increased, at least in free-flow conditions. Heavy precipitation reduces speed and capacity by around 5-8%, whereas snow primarily reduces capacity. Other weather variables......-parametrically against traffic density and in step 2 the residuals from step 1 are regressed linearly against the weather variables. The choice of a non-parametric method is made to avoid constricting ties from a parametric specification and because the focus here is not on the relationship between traffic flow...

  5. Road Traffic Accidents - The Number One Killer in Libya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdulmajid Ahmed Ali

    2007-01-01

    and a seatbelt. I had to apologize profusely to the young traffic policeman and explain that I was wearing sunglasses because I was driving facing the sun! The reason for wearing the seatbelt was a habit from living abroad for many years and I was not a "show off" as he put it! This incidence made me wonder how much the traffic police knew about the law?• In Libya the way we behave in the street, the way we drive and our attitude towards pedestrians is not taught in schools at an early age. As a matter of fact, many drivers think it is "cool" to scare pedestrians.• Most of the accidents in Libya occur at school times but unfortunately no measures are taken by the traffic police to help young children to cross roads safely.• Most of the road traffic accidents happen at the same areas but these are never identified as "black spots" to warn drivers of the possible dangers.• Although Zebra Crossings exist in some parts of Libya, they actually do not serve the purpose. We just need to count how many pedestrians (especially foreign visitors have been knocked down at Zebra Crossings.• There is a need for new road signs, clear road markings (lanes, and new traffic lights to replace old and often non-functioning ones.• One study demonstrated that speeding was responsible for about 70% of accidents [4]. There are no speed cameras or road humps to slow down speeding cars, therefore residents who have lost children to road traffic accidents resort to building their own version of street humps made from old pipes, thick ropes or cement.• Most of the main roads are full of holes and in desperate need of maintenance.• Car seats for children are not compulsory.• When accidents happen in Libya, what number do we dial? Do emergency services exist?• It is a known fact that most of the deaths and permanent disabilities in road traffic accidents are caused by people trying to help due to the lack of Advanced Trauma and Life Support (ATLS trained personnel [5,6].• It

  6. Danger-associated molecular patterns and danger signals in idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellson, Christian D; Dunmore, Rebecca; Hogaboam, Cory M; Sleeman, Matthew A; Murray, Lynne A

    2014-08-01

    The chronic debilitating lung disease, idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF), is characterized by a progressive decline in lung function, with a median mortality rate of 2-3 years after diagnosis. IPF is a disease of unknown cause and progression, and multiple pathways have been demonstrated to be activated in the lungs of these patients. A recent genome-wide association study of more than 1,000 patients with IPF identified genes linked to host defense, cell-cell adhesion, and DNA repair being altered due to fibrosis (Fingerlin, et al. Nat Genet 2013;45:613-620). Further emerging data suggest that the respiratory system may not be a truly sterile environment, and it exhibits an altered microbiome during fibrotic disease (Molyneaux and Maher. Eur Respir Rev 2013;22:376-381). These altered host defense mechanisms might explain the increased susceptibility of patients with IPF to microbial- and viral-induced exacerbations. Moreover, chronic epithelial injury and apoptosis are key features in IPF, which might be mediated, in part, by both pathogen-associated (PA) and danger-associated molecular patterns (MPs). Emerging data indicate that both PAMPs and danger-associated MPs contribute to apoptosis, but not necessarily in a manner that allows for the removal of dying cells, without further exacerbating inflammation. In contrast, both types of MPs drive cellular necrosis, leading to an exacerbation of lung injury and/or infection as the debris promotes a proinflammatory response. Thus, this Review focuses on the impact of MPs resulting from infection-driven apoptosis and necrosis during chronic fibrotic lung disease.

  7. 危险品槽车交通事故案例分析%Dangerous Goods Tank Car Accident Treatment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙乐然

    2014-01-01

    In recent years,with the increasing of dangerous goods tank,complex changes and weather,road conditions, dangerous goods tank accidents continue to occur.Such accidents can easily lead to dangerous chemicals leakage,explosion,fire, pollution and other hazards,the event will cause serious consequences.In this paper,by means of case study,hope that through real-life lessons caused by enterprises attach great importance to the transport of dangerous goods,strengthen enterprise management,and improve the emergency mechanism system,check erroneous ideas at the outset,the risk to a minimum,to reduce the direct and secondary loss.%近年来,随着危险品槽车的不断增多,加上天气、路况等情况的复杂变化,危险品槽车的事故不断发生。此类事故极易引发危险化学品的泄漏、爆炸、火灾、污染等灾害,一旦发生将会造成严重后果。文中以案例分析的方式,希望通过活生生的教训引起危险品运输企业的高度重视,加强企业管控,并完善危机应急机制体系,防微杜渐,使风险降到最低,以减小直接和次生损失。

  8. Road and Street Centerlines - Five Year Road Program (Arcs)

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC Local Govt | GIS Inventory — Volusia County Adopted 5-year road improvement program. An additional 5-years of planning information is also included; this information is not officially Adopted....

  9. Safety on our roads

    CERN Multimedia

    2014-01-01

    It’s almost the end of August, and many of us are returning to CERN after a well-earned rest.   For those with children, it’s time to prepare them for school – and those of us who drive often see signs to remind us that the schools are re-opening and that we should take care. Of course, we should all take care while driving at any time, and this is just as true at CERN as anywhere else. You may already have noticed that new “traffic-calming” measures have been set up near Restaurant 2, to encourage drivers to slow down to safe speeds. I wish we did not need to do this, but it has been necessary as there have been many reports of unpleasant and dangerous, even life-threatening, behaviour by drivers.  I’d like to take this opportunity to remind us all to drive with consideration and respect for everyone who uses the CERN site and shares the same thoroughfares – pedestrians, cyclists and motorists alike. The CERN Co...

  10. The sounds of safety: Stress and danger in music perception

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas eSchäfer

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available As with any sensory input, music might be expected to incorporate the processing of information about the safety of the environment. Little research has been done on how such processing has evolved and how different kinds of sounds may affect the experience of certain environments. In this article, we investigate if music, as a form of auditory information, can trigger the experience of safety. We hypothesized that (1 there should be an optimal, subjectively preferred degree of information density of musical sounds, at which safety-related information can be processed optimally; (2 any deviation from the optimum, that is, both higher and lower levels of information density, should elicit experiences of higher stress and danger; and (3 in general, sonic scenarios with music should reduce experiences of stress and danger more than other scenarios. In Experiment 1, the information density of short music-like rhythmic stimuli was manipulated via their tempo. In an initial session, listeners adjusted the tempo of the stimuli to what they deemed an appropriate tempo. In an ensuing session, the same listeners judged their experienced stress and danger in response to the same stimuli, as well as stimuli exhibiting tempo variants. Results are consistent with the existence of an optimum information density for a given rhythm; the preferred tempo decreased for increasingly complex rhythms. The hypothesis that any deviation from the optimum would lead to experiences of higher stress and danger was only partly fit by the data. In Experiment 2, listeners should indicate their experience of stress and danger in response to different sonic scenarios: music, natural sounds, and silence. As expected, the music scenarios were associated with lowest stress and danger whereas both natural sounds and silence resulted in higher stress and danger. Overall, the results largely fit the hypothesis that music seemingly carries safety-related information about the

  11. The sounds of safety: stress and danger in music perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schäfer, Thomas; Huron, David; Shanahan, Daniel; Sedlmeier, Peter

    2015-01-01

    As with any sensory input, music might be expected to incorporate the processing of information about the safety of the environment. Little research has been done on how such processing has evolved and how different kinds of sounds may affect the experience of certain environments. In this article, we investigate if music, as a form of auditory information, can trigger the experience of safety. We hypothesized that (1) there should be an optimal, subjectively preferred degree of information density of musical sounds, at which safety-related information can be processed optimally; (2) any deviation from the optimum, that is, both higher and lower levels of information density, should elicit experiences of higher stress and danger; and (3) in general, sonic scenarios with music should reduce experiences of stress and danger more than other scenarios. In Experiment 1, the information density of short music-like rhythmic stimuli was manipulated via their tempo. In an initial session, listeners adjusted the tempo of the stimuli to what they deemed an appropriate tempo. In an ensuing session, the same listeners judged their experienced stress and danger in response to the same stimuli, as well as stimuli exhibiting tempo variants. Results are consistent with the existence of an optimum information density for a given rhythm; the preferred tempo decreased for increasingly complex rhythms. The hypothesis that any deviation from the optimum would lead to experiences of higher stress and danger was only partly fit by the data. In Experiment 2, listeners should indicate their experience of stress and danger in response to different sonic scenarios: music, natural sounds, and silence. As expected, the music scenarios were associated with lowest stress and danger whereas both natural sounds and silence resulted in higher stress and danger. Overall, the results largely fit the hypothesis that music seemingly carries safety-related information about the environment.

  12. Road Network Selection Based on Road Hierarchical Structure Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    HE Haiwei

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available A new road network selection method based on hierarchical structure is studied. Firstly, road network is built as strokes which are then classified into hierarchical collections according to the criteria of betweenness centrality value (BC value. Secondly, the hierarchical structure of the strokes is enhanced using structural characteristic identification technique. Thirdly, the importance calculation model was established according to the relationships among the hierarchical structure of the strokes. Finally, the importance values of strokes are got supported with the model's hierarchical calculation, and with which the road network is selected. Tests are done to verify the advantage of this method by comparing it with other common stroke-oriented methods using three kinds of typical road network data. Comparision of the results show that this method had few need to semantic data, and could eliminate the negative influence of edge strokes caused by the criteria of BC value well. So, it is better to maintain the global hierarchical structure of road network, and suitable to meet with the selection of various kinds of road network at the same time.

  13. Road Safety: The Vital but Neglected Subject.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hollins, Patsy

    1989-01-01

    Teacher training students (N=153) in England were surveyed about road safety education. Attitudes of students about their preparation for teaching road safety, ways of integrating road safety into the primary and secondary curriculum, and obstacles to teaching road safety in schools are discussed. (IAH)

  14. 3D Scene Priors for Road Detection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alvarez, J.M.; Gevers, T.; Lopez, A.M.

    2010-01-01

    Vision-based road detection is important in different areas of computer vision such as autonomous driving, car collision warning and pedestrian crossing detection. However, current vision-based road detection methods are usually based on low-level features and they assume structured roads, road

  15. 3D Scene Priors for Road Detection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.M. Alvarez; T. Gevers; A.M. Lopez

    2010-01-01

    Vision-based road detection is important in different areas of computer vision such as autonomous driving, car collision warning and pedestrian crossing detection. However, current vision-based road detection methods are usually based on low-level features and they assume structured roads, road homo

  16. The Rauischholzhausen agenda for road ecology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roedenbeck, I.A.; Fahrig, L.; Findlay, C.S.; Houlahan, J.E.; Jaeger, J.A.G.; Klar, N.; Kramer-Schadt, S.; Grift, van der E.A.

    2007-01-01

    Despite the documented negative effects of roads on wildlife, ecological research on road effects has had comparatively little influence on road planning decisions. We argue that road research would have a larger impact if researchers carefully considered the relevance of the research questions addr

  17. 3D Scene Priors for Road Detection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alvarez, J.M.; Gevers, T.; Lopez, A.M.

    2010-01-01

    Vision-based road detection is important in different areas of computer vision such as autonomous driving, car collision warning and pedestrian crossing detection. However, current vision-based road detection methods are usually based on low-level features and they assume structured roads, road homo

  18. Measuring (un)safety of roads.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    2009-01-01

    Measuring the safety level of a road is difficult. First of all you have to know how many crashes have occurred on a road. Various units of measurement are used for this: the absolute number of crashes per road, the number of crashes per road length, and the number of crashes per distance travelled.

  19. Measuring (un)safety of roads.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    2009-01-01

    Measuring the safety level of a road is difficult. First of all you have to know how many crashes have occurred on a road. Various units of measurement are used for this: the absolute number of crashes per road, the number of crashes per road length, and the number of crashes per distance travelled.

  20. The contribution of on-road studies of road user behaviour to improving road safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenné, Michael G

    2013-09-01

    For over 40 years transport safety researchers have been using methods of vehicle instrumentation to gain greater insights into the factors that contribute to road user crash risk and the associated crash factors. In the previous decade in particular the widespread availability of lower cost and more advanced methods of vehicle instrumentation and recording technologies are supporting the increasing number of on-road research studies worldwide. The design of these studies ranges from multi-method studies using instrumented test vehicles and defined driving routes, to field operational tests, through to much larger and more naturalistic studies. It is timely to assess the utility of these methods for studying the influences of driver characteristics and states, the design and operation of the road system, and the influences of in-vehicle technologies on behaviour and safety for various road user groups. This special issue considers the extent to which on-road studies using vehicle instrumentation have been used to advance knowledge across these areas of road safety research. The papers included in this issue illustrate how research using instrumented test vehicles continues to generate new knowledge, and how the larger scale United States and European naturalistic and field operational test studies are providing a wealth of data about road user behaviour in real traffic. This is balanced with a number of studies that present methodological developments in data collection and analysis methods that, while promising, need further validation. The use of on-road methods to accurately describe the behaviours occurring in everyday real-world conditions, to quantify risks for safety critical events, and an improved understanding of the factors that contribute to risk, clearly has huge potential to promote further road trauma reductions.

  1. How effective is road mitigation at reducing road-kill? A meta-analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rytwinski, Trina; Soanes, Kylie; Jaeger, Jochen A.G.; Fahrig, Lenore; Findlay, C.S.; Houlahan, Jeff; Ree, van der Rodney; Grift, van der Edgar A.

    2016-01-01

    Road traffic kills hundreds of millions of animals every year, posing a critical threat to the
    populations of many species. To address this problem there are more than forty types of
    road mitigation measures available that aim to reduce wildlife mortality on roads (road-kill).
    For road

  2. Impact of an adequate road environment on the safety of non-motorised road users

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Ribbens, H

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available ) among these vulnerable road users (VRUs) have always been high and in 2004, they constituted about 41% i.e. 5 309 of the 12 727 road fatalities on South African roads. Non-motorised road users (NMRUs) comprise a variety of road users, mostly pedestrians...

  3. How effective is road mitigation at reducing road-kill? A meta-analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rytwinski, Trina; Soanes, Kylie; Jaeger, Jochen A.G.; Fahrig, Lenore; Findlay, C.S.; Houlahan, Jeff; Ree, van der Rodney; Grift, van der Edgar A.

    2016-01-01

    Road traffic kills hundreds of millions of animals every year, posing a critical threat to the
    populations of many species. To address this problem there are more than forty types of
    road mitigation measures available that aim to reduce wildlife mortality on roads (road-kill).
    For road p

  4. The Dilemma of Mountain Roads

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mountain roads and trails are proliferating throughout developing Southeast Asia with severe but largely unrecognized long-term consequences related to effects of landslides and surface erosion on communities and downstream resources.

  5. Modeling road-cycling performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olds, T S; Norton, K I; Lowe, E L; Olive, S; Reay, F; Ly, S

    1995-04-01

    This paper presents a complete set of equations for a "first principles" mathematical model of road-cycling performance, including corrections for the effect of winds, tire pressure and wheel radius, altitude, relative humidity, rotational kinetic energy, drafting, and changed drag. The relevant physiological, biophysical, and environmental variables were measured in 41 experienced cyclists completing a 26-km road time trial. The correlation between actual and predicted times was 0.89 (P road-cycling performance are maximal O2 consumption, fractional utilization of maximal O2 consumption, mechanical efficiency, and projected frontal area. The model is then applied to some practical problems in road cycling: the effect of drafting, the advantage of using smaller front wheels, the effects of added mass, the importance of rotational kinetic energy, the effect of changes in drag due to changes in bicycle configuration, the normalization of performances under different conditions, and the limits of human performance.

  6. DOT Basemap Roads - All Types

    Data.gov (United States)

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — This data set contains roadway centerlines for roads found on the USGS 1:24,000 mapping series. Those roadways that are Interstate, Trunk Highway, or CSAH (county...

  7. Curry County E-911 Roads

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — Line attributes denoting all street centerlines in Curry County. Dataset includes all centerlines for all county maintained roads, all state and federal highways,and...

  8. Traffic crash liability determination: Danger and Dodge model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Sikui; Huang, Helai

    2016-10-01

    By proposing a systematic set of rules for traffic crash liability determination, this paper attempts to prove the feasibility and practicability of legal liability in handling traffic crashes. Two sequential elements are identified for crash occurrence, i.e., the occurrence of a dangerous situation and failure in dodging the dangerous situation. A Danger and Dodge model is subsequently established for liability determination in a traffic crash. By investigating the basic mechanism of a crash occurrence, the specific contents of causalties and the effect of the parties' acts in traffic crashes are specified. Based on the theories of social adequancy, the principle of reliance and the duty of care, the study further proposes to use the "peril" of a dangerous situation and the "possibility" of dodging the dangerous situation to appraise the effect of the parties' acts upon a crash occurrence, with the rule of the "pattern deciding effect". The proposed approach would be very helpful to the concreteness of the determination of liability in a traffic crash. Two case studies are presented for demonstration.

  9. Market-oriented management method of coalmine accident hidden dangers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Zhao-xia; LI Xing-dong; LU Ying; REN Da-wei

    2007-01-01

    By analyzing the problems which exist currently in the accident hidden dangers management of the coal mine, this paper proposed a new kind of management method-"simulating the market", in which an operation pattern of simulating the market to transact hidden troubles was constructed. This method introduces "Market Mechanism"into safe management, and adopts measurable value to describe the hidden dangers such as" human behavior, technique, environment, equipments etc.". It regards the hidden dangers as "the goods produced by labor" which are found out by the safety managers and the security inspectors, then sells as "commodity". By the process of disposing, counterchecking, re-selling, and redisposing. It forms a set of market-oriented closed-form management pattern of coalmine accident hidden dangers. This kind of management method changes the past traditional methods in which the wageworkers treat safety management passively, but to encourage and restrict them to participate in the check-up and improvement of the hidden dangers.

  10. Differing types of cellular phone conversations and dangerous driving.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dula, Chris S; Martin, Benjamin A; Fox, Russell T; Leonard, Robin L

    2011-01-01

    This study sought to investigate the relationship between cell phone conversation type and dangerous driving behaviors. It was hypothesized that more emotional phone conversations engaged in while driving would produce greater frequencies of dangerous driving behaviors in a simulated environment than more mundane conversation or no phone conversation at all. Participants were semi-randomly assigned to one of three conditions: (1) no call, (2) mundane call, and, (3) emotional call. While driving in a simulated environment, participants in the experimental groups received a phone call from a research confederate who either engaged them in innocuous conversation (mundane call) or arguing the opposite position of a deeply held belief of the participant (emotional call). Participants in the no call and mundane call groups differed significantly only on percent time spent speeding and center line crossings, though the mundane call group consistently engaged in more of all dangerous driving behaviors than did the no call participants. Participants in the emotional call group engaged in significantly more dangerous driving behaviors than participants in both the no call and mundane call groups, with the exception of traffic light infractions, where there were no significant group differences. Though there is need for replication, the authors concluded that whereas talking on a cell phone while driving is risky to begin with, having emotionally intense conversations is considerably more dangerous.

  11. Urban Sprawl and Wildfire Danger along the Wildland-Urban Interface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nghiem, S. V.; Kafatos, M.; Myoung, B.

    2015-12-01

    Urban sprawl has created an extensive wildland-urban interface (WUI) where urban areas encroach well into the wilderness that is highly susceptible to wildfire danger. To monitor urbanization along WUI, an innovative approach based on the Dense Sampling Method with the Rosette Transform (DSM-RT) enables the use of satellite scatterometer data to obtain observations without gaps in time and in space at 1-km posting in the decade of the 2000s. To explain how the satellite signature processed with DSM-RT represents physical urban infrastructures, the case of the mega city of Los Angeles is presented with the DSM-RT satellite image overlaid on three-dimensional buildings and road network from the commercial and industrial core of the city to the residential suburb extended into the wild land. Then the rate of urban development in the 2000s in terms of physical urban infrastructure change, rather than the arbitrary boundary defined by administrative or legislative measures, for 14 cities along the San Gabriel Mountains in California are evaluated to rank the degree of urbanization along the local WUI, which may increase the probability of fire ignitions and fire impacts. Moreover, the Enhanced Vegetation Index (EVI) from the MODIS Aqua satellite is used to estimate live fuel moisture (LFM) conditions around the WUI to evaluate fire danger levels, which are consistent to the specific definition currently used by fire agencies in making real-life decisions for fire preparedness pro-actively before the fire occurrence. As an example, a map of EVI-derived LFM for the Colby Fire in 2014 showing a complex spatial pattern of LFM reduction along an extensive WUI illustrates satellite advantage in monitoring LFM over the vast wild land in Southern California. Since the method is based on global satellite data, it is applicable to regions prone to wildfires across the world.

  12. Road Weather and Connected Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pisano, P.; Boyce, B. C.

    2015-12-01

    On average, there are over 5.8 M vehicle crashes each year of which 23% are weather-related. Weather-related crashes are defined as those crashes that occur in adverse weather or on slick pavement. The vast majority of weather-related crashes happen on wet pavement (74%) and during rainfall (46%). Connected vehicle technologies hold the promise to transform road-weather management by providing improved road weather data in real time with greater temporal and geographic accuracy. This will dramatically expand the amount of data that can be used to assess, forecast, and address the impacts that weather has on roads, vehicles, and travelers. The use of vehicle-based measurements of the road and surrounding atmosphere with other, more traditional weather data sources, and create road and atmospheric hazard products for a variety of users. The broad availability of road weather data from mobile sources will vastly improve the ability to detect and forecast weather and road conditions, and will provide the capability to manage road-weather response on specific roadway links. The RWMP is currently demonstrating how weather, road conditions, and related vehicle data can be used for decision making through an innovative Integrated Mobile Observations project. FHWA is partnering with 3 DOTs (MN, MI, & NV) to pilot these applications. One is a mobile alerts application called the Motorists Advisories and Warnings (MAW) and a maintenance decision support application. These applications blend traditional weather information (e.g., radar, surface stations) with mobile vehicle data (e.g., temperature, brake status, wiper status) to determine current weather conditions. These weather conditions, and other road-travel-relevant information, are provided to users via web and phone applications. The MAW provides nowcasts and short-term forecasts out to 24 hours while the EMDSS application can provide forecasts up to 72 hours in advance. The three DOTs have placed readers and external

  13. 33 CFR 334.350 - Chesapeake Bay off Fort Monroe, Va.; firing range danger zone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ..., Va.; firing range danger zone. 334.350 Section 334.350 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS OF ENGINEERS, DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE DANGER ZONE AND RESTRICTED AREA REGULATIONS § 334.350 Chesapeake Bay off Fort Monroe, Va.; firing range danger zone. (a) The danger zone. All of...

  14. 33 CFR 334.1360 - Pacific Ocean at Barber's Point, Island of Oahu, Hawaii; danger zone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ..., Island of Oahu, Hawaii; danger zone. 334.1360 Section 334.1360 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS OF ENGINEERS, DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE DANGER ZONE AND RESTRICTED AREA REGULATIONS § 334.1360 Pacific Ocean at Barber's Point, Island of Oahu, Hawaii; danger zone. (a) The danger zone....

  15. 33 CFR 334.1350 - Pacific Ocean, Island of Oahu, Hawaii; danger zone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ..., Hawaii; danger zone. 334.1350 Section 334.1350 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS OF ENGINEERS, DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE DANGER ZONE AND RESTRICTED AREA REGULATIONS § 334.1350 Pacific Ocean, Island of Oahu, Hawaii; danger zone. (a) The danger zone. Beginning at point of origin at...

  16. 33 CFR 334.1370 - Pacific Ocean at Keahi Point, Island of Oahu, Hawaii; danger zone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ..., Island of Oahu, Hawaii; danger zone. 334.1370 Section 334.1370 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS OF ENGINEERS, DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE DANGER ZONE AND RESTRICTED AREA REGULATIONS § 334.1370 Pacific Ocean at Keahi Point, Island of Oahu, Hawaii; danger zone. (a) The danger zone. The...

  17. 10 CFR 1048.4 - Unauthorized introduction of weapons or dangerous materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Unauthorized introduction of weapons or dangerous... PETROLEUM RESERVE FACILITIES AND OTHER PROPERTY § 1048.4 Unauthorized introduction of weapons or dangerous... facility or real property subject to this part, of a dangerous weapon, explosive or other dangerous...

  18. 46 CFR 154.1015 - Lighting in gas-dangerous space.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Lighting in gas-dangerous space. 154.1015 Section 154... Equipment Electrical § 154.1015 Lighting in gas-dangerous space. (a) Each gas-dangerous space that has... protective device for any lighting circuit that is in a gas-dangerous space must open each conductor of...

  19. LOGISTICS FLOWS IN THE ROAD SECTOR

    OpenAIRE

    Tsarenkova, I. M.

    2007-01-01

    Logistical torrents in the system of road economy is consider and distinctive sings which evoke peculiarity his activity and specific quality, be formed. During execution of works on object reveal optimum direction of move road-structure technology, which transformaintion to transport logistical road-structure torrents. Elements of information torrents on micro level, which reflection demand to the condition car road and scheme of forming financial torrents in road complex are work out; offer...

  20. 2013 CERN Road Race

    CERN Multimedia

    Klaus Hanke

    2013-01-01

    The 2013 annual CERN Road Race will be held on Wednesday 18 September at 6.15 p.m.   The 5.5 km race takes place over 3 laps of a 1.8 km circuit in the West Area of the Meyrin site, and is open to everyone working at CERN and their families. There are runners of all speeds, with times ranging from under 17 to over 34 minutes, and the race is run on a handicap basis, by staggering the starting times so that (in theory) all runners finish together. Children (< 15 years) have their own race over 1 lap of 1.8 km. As usual, there will be a “best family” challenge (judged on best parent and best child). Trophies are awarded in the usual men’s, women’s and veterans’ categories, and there is a challenge for the best age/performance. Every adult will receive a souvenir prize, financed by a registration fee of 10 CHF. Children enter free (each child will receive a medal). More information, and the online entry form, can be found here.

  1. 2013 CERN Road Race

    CERN Document Server

    Klaus Hanke

    2013-01-01

    The 2013 edition of the annual CERN Road Race will be held on Wednesday 18 September at 18.15.   The 5.5 km race takes place over 3 laps of a 1.8 km circuit in the West Area of the Meyrin site, and is open to everyone working at CERN and their families. There are runners of all speeds, with times ranging from under 17 to over 34 minutes, and the race is run on a handicap basis, by staggering the starting times so that (in theory) all runners finish together. Children (< 15 years) have their own race over 1 lap of 1.8 km. As usual, there will be a “best family” challenge (judged on best parent + best child). Trophies are awarded in the usual men’s, women’s and veterans’ categories, and there is a challenge for the best age/performance. Every adult will receive a souvenir prize, financed by a registration fee of 10 CHF. Children enter free (each child will receive a medal). More information, and the online entry form, can be found at: htt...

  2. Tourist Assessment of Croatian Roads

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joso Vurdelja

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available As environmentally clean industry and as the most significantworld industry regarding the number of employees and theimpact on the social and economic development of a countTy,tourism represents an extremely important social and economicbranch for Croatia.As a functional unit of the mutually interweaving socialand economic relations, tourism is a complex phenomenonwhose development depends on a number of compatible factorsout of which the transport infrastructure is considered to bethe most obvious and almost the most significant one, i.e. thefirst among the equal. This is primarily true for road traffic infrastructure,since road trai!Sportation of tourists by passengercars, buses and motorcycles accounts for more than 90 percentof the overall tourist journeys in Croatia.The topic of this paper is precisely, among other things, thetourist assessment of the Croatian road network by means ofthe so-called econometric model regarding the contribution ofa certain road route to the overall tourist traffic.Practical implementation of the elaborated problematicshould result in the improvement of road infrastructure eitherby constructing new motonvays and/or roads, or by reconstructionand/or modernisation of the existing traffic routes.

  3. Road rage victimization among adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smart, Reginald G; Stoduto, Gina; Adlaf, Edward M; Mann, Robert E; Sharpley, Justin M

    2007-09-01

    Although much has been learned about road rage among adults, data on road rage experiences among adolescents has not been available previously. We examine the prevalence and demographic correlates of road rage victimization based on a population survey of Ontario students. Based on the 2005 Ontario Student Drug Use Survey, a self-administered survey of Ontario students in grades 7-12 (n = 7726), the contribution of demographic factors (gender, region, driver's license status, grade, overall marks) to three road rage victimization measures was examined with logistic regression analysis. Just over half of students (53.2%) had been victims of shouts, curses and rude gestures in the past year, 8.9% were threatened with damage to their vehicle or personal injury and 6.2% experienced an attempt or actual damage to their vehicle or personal injury. Logistic regression analyses revealed that being a victim of shouting was significantly related to region, driver's license status, and grade. Victimization by threats was significantly related to gender, driver's license, grade, and marks. Being a victim of attempts or actual vehicle damage or injury was significantly related to region, driver's license, and marks. This study provides the first indication of prevalence of road rage victimization among adolescents. Road rage victimization in its milder form is common, involving just over half of Ontario students in grades 7-12. About 1 in 10 students were threatened with vehicle damage or personal injury, and about 1 in 20 were victims of attempts or actual damage or injury.

  4. Fusion Based Safety Application for Pedestrian Detection with Danger Estimation

    OpenAIRE

    García, Fernando; Escalera, Arturo de la; Armingol, José M.; García, Jesús; Llinas, James

    2011-01-01

    Proceedings of: 14th International Conference on Information Fusion (FUSION 2011). Chicago, Illinois, USA 5-8 July 2011. Road safety applications require the most reliable data. In recent years data fusion is becoming one of the main technologies for Advance Driver Assistant Systems (ADAS) to overcome the limitations of isolated use of the available sensors and to fulfil demanding safety requirements. In this paper a real application of data fusion for road safety for pedestrian detection ...

  5. The return of the dangerous man. Reflections on the idea of dangerousness and its uses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martine Kaluszynski

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available In France, the re-emergence of the notion of dangerousness in the process of law making has rendered it necessary to elaborate on the objectives of political actors. (Act on the Retention of Safety and the Declaration of Criminal Irresponsibility Due to Mental Disorder, 25 February 2008., Act of August 10, 2007 Strengthening the Fight Against Recidivism in Adults and Minors  The aim of this article is to analyse the social construction of this notion through the criminological discourse prevalent at the end of the XIXth century. The Third Republic was preoccupied with the question of recidivism, fearing degeneration and a declining birth rate, and was seduced by another notion emerging at this time: eugenism. Contemporary law making has reactivated a historical heritage based on extreme measures that have derived from these concepts. Based on a socio-historical approach, this article attempts to understand the mechanisms of governance in a republican society, as well as the influence of these mechanisms in the production of legal, political, moral and societal norms.

  6. Threats and Dangers in Activity of the Tourism Sector Enterprises

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Markina Iryna А.

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the article is to investigate the threats and dangers that affect not only the management system of the tourism sector enterprises, but their safety as well. By analyzing, systematizing and summarizing the scientific works of many scientists, the essence of the concepts of “danger” and “threat” has been considered, and the classification of dangers and threats faced by tourism enterprises in an unstable environment has been carried out. As a result of the research there have been identified the main threats and dangers peculiar for subjects of tourist activity that occur in the process of operation of tourism enterprises and deficiencies in the management of material, information, human, financial and other resources of tourism enterprises. The main prospect for further research in this area is to identify the potential directions for minimizing the risks and threats that ensure not only the appropriate level of the tourism enterprise competitiveness, but its development as well.

  7. Warning against the dangers of wildfires in the Czech Republic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mozny, M.; Bares, D.; Virag, M.; Stalmacher, J.

    2009-04-01

    Many fire risk models have been developed for various temporal and spatial scales and application purposes. The integrated warning service in the Czech Republic is used for wildfire risk assessment model of FDI (Fire Danger Index). The FDI model is being developed in the Doksany observatory based on evaluation of weather conditions. FDI model describes danger of wildfire for vegetation covered countryside. There are five levels of danger: 1 - very low risk, 2 - low risk, 3 - moderate risk, 4 - high risk, 5 - very high risk. Simply say higher index value, reflects to higher risk of wildfire. As input data, the model uses measured values from the Czech Hydrometeorological Institute stations network as well as ALADIN's model predicted conditions. The modelling process computes upper soil profile moisture, surface moistening and the spreading speed of fire. Early warning system for wildfires prevention in the Czech Republic is used since 2006.

  8. EMPLOYING SENSOR NETWORK TO GUIDE FIREFIGHTERS IN DANGEROUS AREA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koohi, Hamidreza; Nadernejad, Ehsan; Fathi, Mahmoud

    2010-01-01

    itself against possible changes. The protocol developed, will integrate the artificial potential field of the sensors with the information of the intended place of moving firefighter so that it guides the firefighter step by step through the sensor network by choosing the safest path in dangerous zones......In this paper, we intend to focus on the sensor network applications in firefighting. A distributed algorithm is developed for the sensor network to guide firefighters through a burning area. The sensor network models the danger of the area under coverage as obstacles, and has the property to adapt....... This protocol is simulated by Visual-Sense and the simulation results are available. Keyword: Firefighter, Sensor Network, Potential Field, Area’s Danger, Navigation...

  9. Assessing Danger Degree of Soil Erosion in Rikaze Prefecture, Tibet

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Xuehua; ZHOU Jianzhong; ZHOU Hongyi

    2007-01-01

    Ten indicators were selected in the present paper concerns current status of soil erosion and its driving forces. Synthesized evaluation model on danger degree of soil erosion (DDSE) was built and estimation on DDSE in Rikaze was carried out by analytical hierarchy process (AHP). This evaluation model selected indicators scientifically and reasonably, which are easy to be caught, and played well in application. Results showed that a light erosion danger degree exists in Nanmulin, Xietongmen and Angren; Dingri, Sajia, Saga, Zhongba; Nielamu, Gangba, Kangma and Rikaze County share a moderate danger degree, while other counties own severe erosion, especially Dingjie and Lazi County. Ecological environment in Rikaze is frangible. Therefore, eco-restoration and corresponding countermeasures are urgently needed in this region to guarantee a regional eco-environment healthy.

  10. Recognition Stage for a Speed Supervisor Based on Road Sign Detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrasco, Juan-Pablo; de la Escalera, Arturo; Armingol, José María

    2012-01-01

    Traffic accidents are still one of the main health problems in the World. A number of measures have been applied in order to reduce the number of injuries and fatalities in roads, i.e., implementation of Advanced Driver Assistance Systems (ADAS) based on image processing. In this paper, a real time speed supervisor based on road sign recognition that can work both in urban and non-urban environments is presented. The system is able to recognize 135 road signs, belonging to the danger, yield, prohibition obligation and indication types, and sends warning messages to the driver upon the combination of two pieces of information: the current speed of the car and the road sign symbol. The core of this paper is the comparison between the two main methods which have been traditionally used for detection and recognition of road signs: template matching (TM) and neural networks (NN). The advantages and disadvantages of the two approaches will be shown and commented. Additionally we will show how the use of well-known algorithms to avoid illumination issues reduces the amount of images needed to train a neural network.

  11. Recognition Stage for a Speed Supervisor Based on Road Sign Detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José María Armingol

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Traffic accidents are still one of the main health problems in the World. A number of measures have been applied in order to reduce the number of injuries and fatalities in roads, i.e., implementation of Advanced Driver Assistance Systems (ADAS based on image processing. In this paper, a real time speed supervisor based on road sign recognition that can work both in urban and non-urban environments is presented. The system is able to recognize 135 road signs, belonging to the danger, yield, prohibition obligation and indication types, and sends warning messages to the driver upon the combination of two pieces of information: the current speed of the car and the road sign symbol. The core of this paper is the comparison between the two main methods which have been traditionally used for detection and recognition of road signs: template matching (TM and neural networks (NN. The advantages and disadvantages of the two approaches will be shown and commented. Additionally we will show how the use of well-known algorithms to avoid illumination issues reduces the amount of images needed to train a neural network.

  12. The potential predictability of fire danger provided by ECMWF forecast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Giuseppe, Francesca

    2017-04-01

    The European Forest Fire Information System (EFFIS), is currently being developed in the framework of the Copernicus Emergency Management Services to monitor and forecast fire danger in Europe. The system provides timely information to civil protection authorities in 38 nations across Europe and mostly concentrates on flagging regions which might be at high danger of spontaneous ignition due to persistent drought. The daily predictions of fire danger conditions are based on the US Forest Service National Fire Danger Rating System (NFDRS), the Canadian forest service Fire Weather Index Rating System (FWI) and the Australian McArthur (MARK-5) rating systems. Weather forcings are provided in real time by the European Centre for Medium range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF) forecasting system. The global system's potential predictability is assessed using re-analysis fields as weather forcings. The Global Fire Emissions Database (GFED4) provides 11 years of observed burned areas from satellite measurements and is used as a validation dataset. The fire indices implemented are good predictors to highlight dangerous conditions. High values are correlated with observed fire and low values correspond to non observed events. A more quantitative skill evaluation was performed using the Extremal Dependency Index which is a skill score specifically designed for rare events. It revealed that the three indices were more skilful on a global scale than the random forecast to detect large fires. The performance peaks in the boreal forests, in the Mediterranean, the Amazon rain-forests and southeast Asia. The skill-scores were then aggregated at country level to reveal which nations could potentiallty benefit from the system information in aid of decision making and fire control support. Overall we found that fire danger modelling based on weather forecasts, can provide reasonable predictability over large parts of the global landmass.

  13. Vanuatu - HDM-4 Analysis of the Efate Ring Road and the Santo East Coast Road

    Data.gov (United States)

    Millennium Challenge Corporation — The Millennium Challenge Corporation (MCC) provided funds for the upgrade of two roads in Vanuatu. These were the Efate Ring Road and the Santo East Coast Road. Both...

  14. 2012 drug packaging review: many dangerous, reportable flaws.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-01

    Drug packaging plays an important role in protecting and providing information to patients. The packaging examined by Prescrire in 2012, on the whole, still fails to perform all of these functions effectively. Two issues are especially worrisome. First, packaging too often poses a danger to children. In addition, too many patient leaflets provide incomplete information about adverse effects, thus failing to properly protect the most vulnerable patients. Yet, the method Prescrire used to analyse drug packaging shows that it is not difficult to detect and anticipate risks. It is up to healthcare professionals to take advantage of the method, to protect patients from, and report, dangerous packaging.

  15. [Responsibilities of enterprises introducing new dangerous chemical substances and preparations].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cieśla, Jacek; Majka, Jerzy

    2004-01-01

    The paper reviews the responsibilities of producers, importers and distributors set in a new Act of January 2001 on chemical substances and preparations (Off. J. 2001, No. 11, item 84, with subsequent amendments). This Act together with executive provisions is aimed at harmonizing Polish legislation with EU requirements. The Act sets conditions, restriction and bans of production placing on the market and use of chemical substances and preparations in order to protect human health and environment against their harmful effects. The Act together with a number of executive provisions render those who introduce dangerous chemicals and chemical preparations, including distributors responsible for: classification and labelling of dangerous chemical substances and preparations; possessing, making available and up-dating safety data sheets; supplying packages containing certain dangerous substances with child-proof fastenings; notifying the Inspector for Chemical Substances and Preparations about placing a dangerous preparation on the market; notifying the Inspector about a new substance and conducting required studies; being properly qualified to handle dangerous substances. The Act strictly defines the term "placing a substance or a preparation on the market"--it means making a substance or a preparation available to third parties on the territory of The Republic of Poland, territories of the Member States of the European Union or the territory of Iceland, Liechtenstein and Norway, unless the Act provides otherwise; it also means introduction of a substance or a preparation from outside of the territory referred to above on the customs territory of The Republic of Poland, or that of the member states of the European Union and other states listed above. In addition, some of the responsibilities defined by the provisions of the law on chemical substances and preparations are also applicable to handling of biocidals, which are classified as dangerous substances. The Act

  16. Road safety and road traffic accidents in Saudi Arabia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansuri, Farah A.; Al-Zalabani, Abdulmohsen H.; Zalat, Marwa M.; Qabshawi, Reem I.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: To identify the changing trends and crucial preventive approaches to road traffic accidents (RTAs) adopted in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA) over the last 2.5 decades, and to analyze aspects previously overlooked. Methods: This systematic review was based on evidence of RTAs in KSA. All articles published during the last 25 years on road traffic accident in KSA were analyzed. This study was carried out from December 2013 to May 2014 in the Department of Family and Community Medicine, Taibah University, Al-Madinah Al-Munawwarah, KSA. Results: Road traffic accidents accounted for 83.4% of all trauma admissions in 1984-1989, and no such overall trend was studied thereafter. The most frequently injured body regions as reported in the latest studies were head and neck, followed by upper and lower extremities, which was found to be opposite to that of the studies reported earlier. Hospital data showed an 8% non-significant increase in road accident mortalities in contrast to police records of a 27% significant reduction during the years 2005-2010. Excessive speeding was the most common cause reported in all recent and past studies. Conclusion: Disparity was common in the type of reporting of RTAs, outcome measures, and possible causes over a period of 2.5 decade. All research exclusively looked into the drivers’ faults. A sentinel surveillance of road crashes should be kept in place in the secondary and tertiary care hospitals for all regions of KSA. PMID:25828277

  17. CURRENT STATUS, TRENDS AND CONTRADICTIONS IN ORGANIZATION OF THE WORK OF THE STATE INSPECTION FOR ROAD TRAFFIC SAFETY OF TERRITORIAL SUBDIVISIONS OF THE MINISTRY OF INTERIOR OF RUSSIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadezhda A. ERMOLAEVA

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The article is focused on the current state, trends and contradictions in organization of the work of the Russian traffic police subdivisions of the Ministry of Interior, following the requirements of the President regarding education of law-abiding citizens. After the road accident that had occurred in Khabarovsk region on August 5, 2015, when 68 people were injured, 15 people died, Vladimir Putin conducted a session of the Government of the Russian Federation. At the session, the President assigned the task to develop additional measures of safety on the roads. The complex plan, proposed by I. Shuvalov and aimed at reducing deaths on the roads, includes some different aspects: interaction with information agencies for publishing the data on dangerous sections of roads; strengthening of requirements to organizations engaged in transporting citizens; the use of helicopters to provide medical aid for victims of traffic accidents. The First Deputy Chairman of the Government of the Russian Federation paid special attention to education of road users, introduction of norms of driver’s behavior, emergence of the term «dangerous driving» and strengthening of the responsibility for driving while intoxicated. For many years, the educational function has been assigned to police officers, namely to the traffic police. However, in some regions of the Russian Federation there is a reduction of police regular staff officers, including the State Inspection for road traffic safety of territorial subdivisions of the Ministry of Interior of the Russian Federation. 

  18. Detection of Hazardous Cavities Below a Road Using Combined Geophysical Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Giorgi, L.; Leucci, G.

    2014-07-01

    Assessment of the risk arising from near-surface natural hazard is a crucial step in safeguarding the security of the roads in karst areas. It helps authorities and other related parties to apply suitable procedures for ground treatment, mitigate potential natural hazards and minimize human and economic losses. Karstic terrains in the Salento Peninsula (Apulia region—South Italy) is a major challenge to engineering constructions and roads due to extensive occurrence of cavities and/or sinkholes that cause ground subsidence and both roads and building collapse. Cavities are air/sediment-filled underground voids, commonly developed in calcarenite sedimentary rocks by the infiltration of rainwater into the ground, opening up, over a long period of time, holes and tunnels. Mitigation of natural hazards can best be achieved through careful geoscientific studies. Traditionally, engineers use destructive probing techniques for the detection of cavities across regular grids or random distances. Such probing is insufficient on its own to provide confidence that cavities will not be encountered. Frequency of probing and depth of investigation may become more expensive. Besides, probing is intrusive, non-continuous, slow, expensive and cannot provide a complete lateral picture of the subsurface geology. Near-surface cavities usually can be easily detected by surface geophysical methods. Traditional and recently developed measuring techniques in seismic, geoelectrics and georadar are suitable for economical investigation of hazardous, potentially collapsing cavities. The presented research focused on an integrated geophysical survey that was carried out in a near-coast road located at Porto Cesareo, a small village a few kilometers south west of Lecce (south Italy). The roads in this area are intensively affected by dangerous surface cracks that cause structural instability. The survey aimed to image the shallow subsurface structures, including karstic features, and evaluate

  19. Encapsulating Urban Traffic Rhythms into Road Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Junjie; Wei, Dong; He, Kun; Gong, Hang; Wang, Pu

    2014-02-01

    Using road GIS (geographical information systems) data and travel demand data for two U.S. urban areas, the dynamical driver sources of each road segment were located. A method to target road clusters closely related to urban traffic congestion was then developed to improve road network efficiency. The targeted road clusters show different spatial distributions at different times of a day, indicating that our method can encapsulate dynamical travel demand information into the road networks. As a proof of concept, when we lowered the speed limit or increased the capacity of road segments in the targeted road clusters, we found that both the number of congested roads and extra travel time were effectively reduced. In addition, the proposed modeling framework provided new insights on the optimization of transport efficiency in any infrastructure network with a specific supply and demand distribution.

  20. Neuroscience in forensic psychiatry: From responsibility to dangerousness. Ethical and legal implications of using neuroscience for dangerousness assessments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gkotsi, Georgia Martha; Gasser, Jacques

    2016-01-01

    Neuroscientific evidence is increasingly being used in criminal trials as part of psychiatric testimony. Up to now, "neurolaw" literature remained focused on the use of neuroscience for assessments of criminal responsibility. However, in the field of forensic psychiatry, responsibility assessments are progressively being weakened, whereas dangerousness and risk assessment gain increasing importance. In this paper, we argue that the introduction of neuroscientific data by forensic experts in criminal trials will be mostly be used in the future as a means to evaluate or as an indication of an offender's dangerousness, rather than their responsibility. Judges confronted with the pressure to ensure public security may tend to interpret neuroscientific knowledge and data as an objective and reliable way of evaluating one's risk of reoffending. First, we aim to show how the current socio-legal context has reshaped the task of the forensic psychiatrist, with dangerousness assessments prevailing. In the second part, we examine from a critical point of view the promise of neuroscience to serve a better criminal justice system by offering new tools for risk assessment. Then we aim to explain why neuroscientific evidence is likely to be used as evidence of dangerousness of the defendants. On a theoretical level, the current tendency in criminal policies to focus on prognostics of dangerousness seems to be "justified" by a utilitarian approach to punishment, supposedly revealed by new neuroscientific discoveries that challenge the notions of free will and responsibility. Although often promoted as progressive and humane, we believe that this approach could lead to an instrumentalization of neuroscience in the interest of public safety and give rise to interventions which could entail ethical caveats and run counter to the interests of the offenders. The last part of this paper deals with some of these issues-the danger of stigmatization for brain damaged offenders because of

  1. Overview of the Silk Road in the Han Dynasty Qinghai Road%汉代丝路青海道述略

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李健胜

    2015-01-01

    Early Han Dynasty ,Qiang Hu minority living in the Qinghai road along ,and the road is dangerous .Emperor Wu of Han once wanted to take advantage of “Shu body poison Road”to communicate with the Daxia country .Since the mid -Han ,With the forces of the Central Plains into the Hehuang area , the local Qiang was forced to use the Qinghai road migration south and west ,Or in combination with Hun to fight han army .Han Dynasty through administrative establishment and mita immigration ,gradually mas‐tered the active power of management ,development of Qinghai Road .%汉前期,青海道沿线为羌胡所居,道路凶险,汉武帝曾想借道“蜀身毒道”与大夏国交通。汉中期以来,随着中原王朝势力进入河湟,当地羌族被迫利用青海道或南迁西徙,或与匈奴联合反击汉军。汉王朝通过行政建置、屯田移民,逐步掌握了经营、开发青海道的主动权。

  2. Road Nail: Experimental Solar Powered Intelligent Road Marking System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samardžija, Dragan; Teslić, Nikola; Todorović, Branislav M.; Kovač, Erne; Isailović, Đorđe; Miladinović, Bojan

    2012-03-01

    Driving in low visibility conditions (night time, fog or heavy precipitation) is particularly challenging task with an increased probability of traffic accidents and possible injuries. Road Nail is a solar powered intelligent road marking system of wirelessly networked signaling devices that improve driver safety in low visibility conditions along hazardous roadways. Nails or signaling devices are autonomous nodes with capability to accumulate energy, exchange wireless messages, detect approaching vehicles and emit signalization light. We have built an experimental test-bed that consists of 20 nodes and a cellular gateway. Implementation details of the above system, including extensive measurements and performance evaluations in realistic field deployments are presented. A novel distributed network topology discovery scheme is proposed which integrates both sensor and wireless communication aspects, where nodes act autonomously. Finally, integration of the Road Nail system with the cellular network and the Internet is described.

  3. Dangerous Events, Risk Communications and Evolutionary Governance Theory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Duineveld, M.

    2016-01-01

    This presentation conceptualizes and categorizes the various relationships between dangerous events, the emergence of risk communications and the effects on governance (the taking of collectively binding decisions in a community by a diversity of actors, inside and outside government) from Evolution

  4. Mental Health and Teens: Watch for Danger Signs

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Stages Listen Español Text Size Email Print Share Mental Health and Teens: Watch for Danger Signs Page Content ... be strong indicators of serious mental health issues. Mental Health “Red Flags” Parents Should Be Alert For: Excessive ...

  5. Cancer immunogenicity, danger signals, and DAMPs: what, when, and how?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garg, Abhishek D; Dudek, Aleksandra M; Agostinis, Patrizia

    2013-01-01

    Cancer immunosurvelliance usually leads to formation of cancer cells that have been "immunoedited" to resist anti-tumor immunity. One of the consequences of immunoediting that is, reduced immunogenicity, is an important roadblock in revival of stable and long-lasting anti-tumor immune responses. Research done during the last decade has shown that emission by the dying cancer cells of immunomodulatory factors or damage-associated molecular patterns (DAMPs), which can act as danger signals, is a critical event in accentuating the immunogenicity of cancer cells, in response to a subset of anticancer treatments. Recent evidence has defined that an apoptotic cell death subroutine and its underlying biochemistry, which has been termed as "immunogenic cell death (ICD)" or "immunogenic apoptosis," is required for the efficient emission of DAMPs and inciting anti-tumor immunity. Here, we review the basic concepts of ICD, like cancer immunogenicity, danger signals, and DAMPs. Moreover, we discuss the emerging molecular links between endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress, induction of a viral response-like gene expression, danger signals, and anti-tumor immunity. We envisage that along with ER stress-based trafficking of DAMPs (which is a "short-range communicator" of danger), the accompanying induction of a viral response-like gene expression and the secretion of anti-tumorigenic cytokines may become a crucial signature of ICD induction by anticancer therapy.

  6. Innate danger signals in acute injury: From bench to bedside.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fontaine, Mathieu; Lepape, Alain; Piriou, Vincent; Venet, Fabienne; Friggeri, Arnaud

    2016-08-01

    The description of the systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS) as a reaction to numerous insults marked a turning point in the understanding of acute critical states, which are intensive care basic cases. This concept highlighted the final inflammatory response features whichever the injury mechanism is: infectious, or non-infectious such as extensive burns, traumas, major surgery or acute pancreatitis. In these cases of severe non-infectious insult, many endogenous mediators are released. Like infectious agents components, they can activate the immune system (via common signaling pathways) and initiate an inflammatory response. They are danger signals or alarmins. These molecules generally play an intracellular physiological role and acquire new functions when released in extracellular space. Many progresses brought new information on these molecules and on their function in infectious and non-infectious inflammation. These danger signals can be used as biomarkers and provide new pathophysiological and therapeutic approaches, particularly for immune dysfunctions occurring after an acute injury. We present herein the danger model, the main danger signals and the clinical consequences.

  7. Teens Share Sexually Explicit Messages: Simple Rebellion or Dangerous Behavior?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curriculum Review, 2009

    2009-01-01

    An increasingly popular form of communication among teenagers is "sexting," sending nude photos via text messaging, reported The Orange County Register (3/20/09). This "flirtation" technique has sparked quite a bit of debate: is this simply a form of rebellion or is it dangerous behavior that could have adverse penalties? Although many teens say…

  8. Stop-loss order, unequal means, and more dangerous distributions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kaas, R.; van Heerwaarden, A.E.

    1992-01-01

    Using a sequence of transformations of subsequent cumulative distribution functions, the connections between the following three relations between risks are established: stop-loss order, stop-loss order with equal means, and being more dangerous. By a related technique, stop-loss order is verified b

  9. Asbestos: A Lingering Danger. AIO Red Paper #20.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malcolm, Stuart

    Its unique qualities makes asbestos extremely useful in industry, yet it is termed one of the most dangerous and insidious substances in the work place. Composed of mostly fibers, asbestos is readily freed into the atmosphere during handling, constituting a real health risk. There are two ways asbestos can enter the human body: by inhalation or…

  10. Detecting danger labels with RAM-based neural networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, T.M.; Christensen, S.S.; Andersen, A.W.

    1996-01-01

    An image processing system for the automatic location of danger labels on the back of containers is presented. The system uses RAM-based neural networks to locate and classify labels after a pre-processing step involving specially designed non-linear edge filters and RGB-to-HSV conversion. Results...

  11. Danger-signaler og inflammasomer ved autoinflammatoriske og autoimmune sygdomme

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bendtzen, Klaus

    2011-01-01

    Cytoplasmic inflammasomes are formed through activation of pattern recognition receptors (PRR) of the innate immune system. Endogenous and exogenous danger signals, e.g. DNA- and RNA-fragments, urate- and cholesterol crystals, silica and asbestos, ß-amyloid, UV-light and skin irritants, may induce...

  12. Asbestos: A Lingering Danger. AIO Red Paper #20.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malcolm, Stuart

    Its unique qualities makes asbestos extremely useful in industry, yet it is termed one of the most dangerous and insidious substances in the work place. Composed of mostly fibers, asbestos is readily freed into the atmosphere during handling, constituting a real health risk. There are two ways asbestos can enter the human body: by inhalation or…

  13. Effect of directional speech warnings on road hazard detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serrano, Jesús; Di Stasi, Leandro L; Megías, Alberto; Catena, Andrés

    2011-12-01

    In the last 2 decades, cognitive science and the transportation psychology field have dedicated a lot of effort to designing advanced driver support systems. Verbal warning systems are increasingly being implemented in modern automobiles in an effort to increase road safety. The study presented here investigated the impact of directional speech alert messages on the participants' speed to judge whether or not naturalistic road scenes depicted a situation of impending danger. Thirty-eight volunteers performed a computer-based key-press reaction time task. Findings indicated that semantic content of verbal warning signals can be used for increasing driving safety and improving hazard detection. Furthermore, the classical result regarding signal accuracy is confirmed: directional informative speech messages lead to faster hazard detection compared to drivers who received a high rate of false alarms. Notwithstanding some study limitations (lack of driver experience and low ecological validity), this evidence could provide important information for the specification of future Human-Machine-interaction (HMI) design guidelines.

  14. Wastewater Treatment Model in Washing Stations for Vehicles Transporting Dangerous Goods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Muha

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available Car washing is a task performed by every passenger carowner more or less frequently, mainly to achieve a finer appearanceof the vehicle rather than for the need for cleanness.In the transport business, the owner's concern is to presentclean and orderly vehicles on the road as a relevant external elementof order, implying good corporate image to customers. Onthe other hand, in dangerous goods transportation there areother reasons requiring special technology of washing, applicableto the transport means used, depending on the change oftype of goods in carriage, the preliminary preparation of a vehicleto load the cargo, or to undergo maintenance.Water applied in the technology of washing collects the residueof goods carried in the vehicle and is polluted to such an extentthat it cannot be discharged into sewers - nor directly into awatercourse - without previous treatment.The paper presents a solution model and a sequence oftechnological procedures involved in an efficient treatment ofthe polluted wastewater in tank wash stations, in which mostlyvehicles carrying ADR goods are washed.

  15. Road characteristics and bicycle accidents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyberg, P; Björnstig, U; Bygren, L O

    1996-12-01

    In Umeå, Sweden, defects in the physical road surface contributed to nearly half of the single bicycle accidents. The total social cost of these injuries to people amount to at least SEK 20 million (SEK 60,000 or about USD 8,500 per accident), which corresponds to the estimated loss of "eight life equivalents a year". Improved winter maintenance seems to have the greatest injury prevention potential and would probably reduce the number of injuries considerably, whereas improved road quality and modification of kerbs would reduce the most severe injuries. A local traffic safety program should try to prevent road accidents instead of handling the consequences of them. In accordance with Parliament decisions on traffic we would like to see increased investment in measures favoring bicycle traffic, where cycling is seen as a solution, not as a problem.

  16. PHOTOGRAMMETRIC TECHNIQUES FOR ROAD SURFACE ANALYSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. A. Knyaz

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The quality and condition of a road surface is of great importance for convenience and safety of driving. So the investigations of the behaviour of road materials in laboratory conditions and monitoring of existing roads are widely fulfilled for controlling a geometric parameters and detecting defects in the road surface. Photogrammetry as accurate non-contact measuring method provides powerful means for solving different tasks in road surface reconstruction and analysis. The range of dimensions concerned in road surface analysis can have great variation from tenths of millimetre to hundreds meters and more. So a set of techniques is needed to meet all requirements of road parameters estimation. Two photogrammetric techniques for road surface analysis are presented: for accurate measuring of road pavement and for road surface reconstruction based on imagery obtained from unmanned aerial vehicle. The first technique uses photogrammetric system based on structured light for fast and accurate surface 3D reconstruction and it allows analysing the characteristics of road texture and monitoring the pavement behaviour. The second technique provides dense 3D model road suitable for road macro parameters estimation.

  17. A global strategy for road building.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laurance, William F; Clements, Gopalasamy Reuben; Sloan, Sean; O'Connell, Christine S; Mueller, Nathan D; Goosem, Miriam; Venter, Oscar; Edwards, David P; Phalan, Ben; Balmford, Andrew; Van Der Ree, Rodney; Arrea, Irene Burgues

    2014-09-11

    The number and extent of roads will expand dramatically this century. Globally, at least 25 million kilometres of new roads are anticipated by 2050; a 60% increase in the total length of roads over that in 2010. Nine-tenths of all road construction is expected to occur in developing nations, including many regions that sustain exceptional biodiversity and vital ecosystem services. Roads penetrating into wilderness or frontier areas are a major proximate driver of habitat loss and fragmentation, wildfires, overhunting and other environmental degradation, often with irreversible impacts on ecosystems. Unfortunately, much road proliferation is chaotic or poorly planned, and the rate of expansion is so great that it often overwhelms the capacity of environmental planners and managers. Here we present a global scheme for prioritizing road building. This large-scale zoning plan seeks to limit the environmental costs of road expansion while maximizing its benefits for human development, by helping to increase agricultural production, which is an urgent priority given that global food demand could double by mid-century. Our analysis identifies areas with high environmental values where future road building should be avoided if possible, areas where strategic road improvements could promote agricultural development with relatively modest environmental costs, and 'conflict areas' where road building could have sizeable benefits for agriculture but with serious environmental damage. Our plan provides a template for proactively zoning and prioritizing roads during the most explosive era of road expansion in human history.

  18. Photogrammetric Techniques for Road Surface Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knyaz, V. A.; Chibunichev, A. G.

    2016-06-01

    The quality and condition of a road surface is of great importance for convenience and safety of driving. So the investigations of the behaviour of road materials in laboratory conditions and monitoring of existing roads are widely fulfilled for controlling a geometric parameters and detecting defects in the road surface. Photogrammetry as accurate non-contact measuring method provides powerful means for solving different tasks in road surface reconstruction and analysis. The range of dimensions concerned in road surface analysis can have great variation from tenths of millimetre to hundreds meters and more. So a set of techniques is needed to meet all requirements of road parameters estimation. Two photogrammetric techniques for road surface analysis are presented: for accurate measuring of road pavement and for road surface reconstruction based on imagery obtained from unmanned aerial vehicle. The first technique uses photogrammetric system based on structured light for fast and accurate surface 3D reconstruction and it allows analysing the characteristics of road texture and monitoring the pavement behaviour. The second technique provides dense 3D model road suitable for road macro parameters estimation.

  19. An analysis of Malaysia road traffic death distribution by road environment

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    YUSRIA DARMA; MOHAMED REHAN KARIM; SULAIMAN ABDULLAH

    2017-09-01

    Various initiatives, strategies and programmes have been taken by the Government of Malaysia to resolve issues pertaining to road traffic deaths. Nevertheless, the implementation of the programmes outlined in Malaysian Road Safety Plan 2006 needs to be enhanced in order to achieve the set targets. In this regard, it is imperative for all parties concerning road safety to determine the factors that significantly contribute to road traffic deaths. According to the Ministry of Works, Malaysia, the blackspot treatment programme (which is centred on the elimination of road hazards by engineering approaches) is successful in reducing the number of injuries due to road traffic accidents up to a certain extent. This study is focussed on analysing road traffic deaths caused by various road environment elements recorded by the police from 2000 to 2011 in order to determine their distribution, proportion and relationship with fatal accidents. The Chi-square test and Marascuilo procedure with 5% level of significance are used in this study. Based on locality, the number of road traffic deaths in rural area (66%) is significantly higher compared with that in urban areas (34%). Based on road category, the number of road traffic deaths is the highest for federal roads, whereas the highest rate of fatalities per kilometre is recorded for expressways. Based on road segment, the number of road traffic deaths is the highest for straight road segments, followed by bends. In addition, the number of road traffic deaths is the highest for Y/T junctions,followed by cross junctions. The lowest number of road traffic deaths is recorded for interchanges and roundabouts. The results show that only 11.25% of the total road traffic deaths are related to road defects. The highest proportion of deaths due to road defects (48.6%) is associated with lack of street lighting provision,whereas road shoulder edge drop-off and potholes contribute 15.4% and 11.2% of road traffic deaths,respectively.

  20. Carbon Nanomaterials for Road Construction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zaporotskova Irina Vladimirovna

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The requirement of developing and modernizing the roads in Russia and in the Volgograd region in particular, is based on need of expanding the directions of scientific research on road and transport complexes. They have to be aimed at the development of the theory of transport streams, traffic safety increase, and, first of all, at the application of original methods of road development and modernization, introduction of modern technologies and road-building materials.On the basis of the analysis of the plans for transportation sphere development in the Volgograd region assuming the need to apply the new technologies allowing to create qualitative paving, the authors propose the technology of creating a heavy-duty paving with the use of carbon nanomaterial. The knowledge on strengthening the characteristics of carbon nanotubes is a unique material for nanotechnology development which allowed to assume the analysis of general information about asphalt concrete. The analysis showed that carbon nanotubes can be used for improvement of operational characteristics of asphalt concrete, and it is possible to carry out additives of nanotubes in hot as well as in cold bitumen. The article contains the basic principles of creation of the new road material received by means of bitumen reinforcing by carbon nanotubes. The structures received by the offered technique binding on the basis of the bitumens modified by carbon nanomaterial can be used for coverings and bases on highways of all categories in all road and climatic zones of Russia. The technical result consists in increasing the durability and elasticity of the received asphalt covering, and also the increase of water resistance, heat resistance and frost resistance, the expansion of temperature range of its laying in the field of negative temperatures.

  1. Protocols for toll road systems

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    A problem in a tolling system like AutoPASS is the number of unidentified passages due to unreadable license plates. As a consequence money is lost for the toll road companies. A scheme is proposed that uses anonymous statistics to aid in the process of allocating resources for manual controls. Due to legal requirements for anonymity of data produced at toll plazas, a model that simulates the traffic frequencies on Norwegian roads is developed and implemented in Java. Using the toll plazas th...

  2. The effect of conformity tendency on pedestrians' road-crossing intentions in China: an application of the theory of planned behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Ronggang; Horrey, William J; Yu, Ruifeng

    2009-05-01

    This paper presents a survey investigating the effects of age, gender and conformity tendency on Chinese pedestrians' intention to cross the road in potentially dangerous situations. A sample of 426 respondents completed a demographic questionnaire, a scale measuring their tendency towards social conformity, and a questionnaire based on the theory of planned behavior (TPB). This questionnaire measured people's intentions to cross the road in two different road crossing situations, their attitude towards the behavior, subjective norms, perceived behavioral control, anticipated affect, moral norms, and perceived risk. The two scenarios depicted (i) a situation where the crossing was consistent with other pedestrians' behavior (Conformity scenario) and (ii) a situation where the road crossing was inconsistent with other pedestrians (Non-Conformity scenario). Pedestrians reported greater likelihood in crossing the road when other pedestrians were crossing the road. People who showed greater tendencies towards social conformity also had stronger road crossing intentions than low conformity people for both scenarios. The predictive model explained 36% and 48% of the variance in the Non-Conformity and Conformity scenarios, respectively. Attitude, subjective norm, perceived behavioral control, and perceived risk emerged as the common predictors for both situations. The results have a number of theoretical and practical implications. In particular, interventions should focus on perceptions of risk that inform road users that crossing with other pedestrians against the signal is also unsafe and prohibited, and may lead to negative outcomes.

  3. “危险物品型”危险驾驶罪的准抽象危险犯定位%Orientation on Quasi Abstract Dangerous Criminal of the Dangerous Articles Type Crime of Dangerous Driving

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈文昊

    2016-01-01

    《刑法修正案(九)》新设“危险物品型”危险驾驶罪,系准抽象危险犯。抽象危险犯与具体危险犯不能仅凭语词做形式判断,应当参照德日刑法理论,根据危险的程度,从实质上区分抽象危险犯与具体危险犯,而准抽象危险犯是介于两者中间的形态。“危险物品型”危险驾驶罪不能理解为具体危险犯,否则会违反罪刑均衡的原则。将“危险物品型”危险驾驶罪视为准抽象危险犯,是风险社会提前规制危险行为的必然要求。危险驾驶罪的解释应当考察可罚性,运用目的解释,将其认定为准抽象危险犯。%A new "dangerous articles type"dangerous driving crime is set up in the Criminal Law Amendment (9), namely quasi abstract dangerous criminal .Abstract dangerous crime and concrete dangerous crime cannot be judged only by words , but by the reference of theory of criminal law in Germany and Japan , and according to de-gree of danger , they can be judged essentially .While the quasi abstract dangerous crime is just a form in the mid-dle of these two crimes .The "dangerous articles type"dangerous driving crime cannot be simply understood as concrete dangerous crime;otherwise it will violate the principle of balance between crime and punishment .Regard-ing the "dangerous articles type"dangerous driving crime as quasi abstract dangerous crime is an inevitable re-quirement for the risk society to regulate the dangerous behavior in advance .The interpretation of the dangerous driving crime shall be subject to the investigation of the penalty , and by the use of teleological interpretation , the dangerous driving crime can be identified as quasi abstract dangerous crime .

  4. Students’ driving behaviour as a risk factor of road accidents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zografakis-Sfakianakis M

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available IntroductionRoad accidents are considered to be a public health problem since they have been massively adverse consequences in demography. Since there is a human loss, especially of young people, the problem should be investigated extensively. The driving behaviour (either alone or in combination with other factors is the most important cause of road accidents for 80-90%.Purpose Investigating students’ driving behaviour (culture of a technological educational institute and how positively or negatively they take actions, preventing themselves of accidents.Material and Method400 questionnaires were supplemented. The questionnaire was consisted of 18 closed type questions, created by the research group using bibliographical sources. The data were analyzed using the x2 test, in all cases, statistical significant was considered the two-tailed P<0,05.Results A 21,7% of students has driven the previous 7 days having consumed alcohol while 57% has been passengers. Men’s alcohol consumption has showed increased infringement (93,3% in relation to women (6,7%. (x2=53,983; p <0,001. In other crucial provisions of road traffic regulation, violation was found which exceeds 50% (speeding, wrong lane driving, etc.. The highest percentage, without a safety belt or a helmet -never or and rarely - are male drivers (x2=12,074; P=0,017.It was found that a particularly large percentage of students (61% were involved in a traffic accident. From those, who have been involved in a traffic accident, as drivers (97 students, as guilty pleaded 26,8%, while non-guilty 73,2%. Statistically males were a high majority (x2=23,425; p <0,001. The traffic accident occurred during their student years in percentage of 47,5%. 18,8% of students have been transferred to hospital as a casualty of a traffic accident. ConclusionIt is confirmed once again that the concepts of 'dangerous driving behaviour" and "young" are compatible. Male students have increased risk behaviour, mainly

  5. Assessment of commuters' daily exposure to flash flooding over the roads of the Gard region, France

    Science.gov (United States)

    Debionne, Samuel; Ruin, Isabelle; Shabou, Saif; Lutoff, Céline; Creutin, Jean-Dominique

    2016-10-01

    dangerous intersections and (ii) not all commuters are equally exposed. Evidently commuters who have longer routes are more exposed, but residents of rural municipalities as well as professionals with highly qualified jobs are also more exposed. Finally, these exposure assessment methods applied to the Gard area allows locating road sections where commuters' exposure to flood is high. It also sets the first step toward the implementation of a modeling platform able to combine the estimation of daily travel patterns exposure and behavioral response of motorists to road flooding, a critical input for emergency services and services in charge of the management of road networks in flash flood prone areas.

  6. De Baca County E-911 Roads

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — This data set contains a vector digital representation of all accessible roads including interstate highways, State highways, county roads and city streets in DeBaca...

  7. DNR State Forest Roads - WHEELS Database

    Data.gov (United States)

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — Roads administered by the Commissioner of Natural Resources to provide access to lands administered by the Division of Forestry. These roads are generally open to...

  8. Road safety audits: The way forward

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Labuschagne, FJJ

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available formally implemented in South Africa. This paper assesses recent international developments pertaining to road safety auditing and reports on a review of the experience by road safety practitioners in South Africa. It concludes with recommendations...

  9. Honduras - Transportation and Farm to Market Roads

    Data.gov (United States)

    Millennium Challenge Corporation — The evaluation of the Transport Project and Farm to Market Roads Activity aimed to answer whether or not improved conditions throughout the road network: • Lowered...

  10. The angular nature of road networks

    CERN Document Server

    Molinero, Carlos; Arcaute, Elsa

    2015-01-01

    Road networks are characterised by several structural and geometric properties. Their topological structure determines partially its hierarchical arrangement, but since these are networks that are spatially situated and, therefore, spatially constrained, to fully understand the role that each road plays in the system it is fundamental to characterize the influence that geometrical properties have over the network's behaviour. In this work, we percolate the UK's road network using the relative angle between street segments as the occupation probability. We argue that road networks undergo a non-equilibrium first-order phase transition at the moment the main roads start to interconnect forming the spanning percolation cluster. The percolation process uncovers the hierarchical structure of the roads in the network, and as such, its classification. Furthermore, this technique serves to extract the set of most important roads of the network and to create a hierarchical index for each road in the system.

  11. Ranking EU progress on road safety : 10th road safety Performance Index (PIN) report.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Adminaite, D. Jost, G. Stipdonk, H. & Ward, H.

    2016-01-01

    In 2010, the European Union renewed its commitment to improve road safety by setting a target of reducing road deaths by 50% by 2020, compared to 2010 levels. This target followed an earlier target set in 2001 to halve road deaths by 2010. 2015 was the second consecutive poor year for road safety; 2

  12. Tire-road noise: an experimental study of tire and road design parameters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bekke, Dirk; Wijnant, Ysbrand; Weegerink, Thijs; Boer, de Andre

    2013-01-01

    It is widely known that road traffic noise has negative influences on human health. Hence, as tire-road noise is considered to be the most dominant cause of road traffic noise above 30-50 km/h, a lot of research is performed by the two involving industries: road authorities/manufacturers and tire ma

  13. Tire-road noise: an experimental study of tire and road design parameters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bekke, Dirk; Wijnant, Ysbrand H.; Weegerink, Thijs; de Boer, Andries

    2013-01-01

    It is widely known that road traffic noise has negative influences on human health. Hence, as tire-road noise is considered to be the most dominant cause of road traffic noise above 30-50 km/h, a lot of research is performed by the two involving industries: road authorities/manufacturers and tire

  14. Trismus: An unusual presentation following road accident

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thakur Jagdeep

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Trismus due to trauma usually follows road accidents leading to massive faciomaxillary injury. In the literature there is no report of a foreign body causing trismus following a road accident, this rare case is an exception. We present a case of isolated presentation of trismus following a road accident. This case report stresses on the thorough evaluation of patients presenting with trismus following a road accident.

  15. Reflection properties of road surfaces. Contribution to OECD Scientific Expert Group AC4 on Road Surface Characteristics.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schreuder, D.A.

    1983-01-01

    Photometric characteristics of road surfaces are dealt with. Representation of reflection properties in public lighting; quality criteria of road lighting installations; classification of road surfaces; the relation between reflection characteristics and other properties of road pavements in public

  16. Reflection properties of road surfaces. Contribution to OECD Scientific Expert Group AC4 on Road Surface Characteristics.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schreuder, D.A.

    1983-01-01

    Photometric characteristics of road surfaces are dealt with. Representation of reflection properties in public lighting; quality criteria of road lighting installations; classification of road surfaces; the relation between reflection characteristics and other properties of road pavements in public

  17. Value of monitoring in road network management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zouch, M.; Courage, W.; Napoles-Morales, O.

    2014-01-01

    We present a framework for road network management to assist road authorities in maintenance budget estimations and long-term maintenance strategies definition. Information about road conditions is obtained from monitoring. Available data are used to estimate and update prediction of degradation evo

  18. Optimal Redesign of the Dutch Road Network

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Snelder, M.; Wagelmans, A.P.M.; Schrijver, J.M.; Van Zuylen, H.J.; Immers, L.H.

    2007-01-01

    The Dutch national road network has been developed over several decades. In the past, roads were constructed according to the then current spatial and transportation planning philosophies. Because the existing road network is a result of a long process of successive developments, the question can be

  19. Analysis of traffic safety at road works.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weijermars, W. & Spittje, H.

    2010-01-01

    Road works create a risk, both to road workers and drivers. SWOV conducted research into 58 severe crashes to gain more insight into the causes of crashes at work zones. Finally, 50 work-zones were visited to obtain more insight into (1) the extent to which the Dutch guidelines for safe road works a

  20. Psychological aspects of road user behaviour

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rothengatter, J.A.

    1997-01-01

    The behaviour of road users is an important factor in accident causation. Traffic psychology, defined as ''the study of the behaviour of road users and the psychological processes underlying that behaviour'', attempts to identify the determinants of road user behaviour with the aim of developing eff

  1. Road geometry classification by adaptive shape models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.M. Álvarez; T. Gevers; F. Diego; A.M. López

    2012-01-01

    Vision-based road detection is important for different applications in transportation, such as autonomous driving, vehicle collision warning, and pedestrian crossing detection. Common approaches to road detection are based on low-level road appearance (e.g., color or texture) and neglect of the scen

  2. Psychological aspects of road user behaviour

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rothengatter, J.A.

    The behaviour of road users is an important factor in accident causation. Traffic psychology, defined as ''the study of the behaviour of road users and the psychological processes underlying that behaviour'', attempts to identify the determinants of road user behaviour with the aim of developing

  3. Numerical simulation of tyre/road noise

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schutte, Jan Henk

    2011-01-01

    In modern society, traffic noise has become an important issue for mental health. A significant contributor to this noise pollution is exterior tyre/road noise, which is caused by the interaction between tyre and road surface and. In order to reduce tyre/road noise at the source, accurate numerical

  4. Headway times and road safety.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    2007-01-01

    In road traffic, the advice is to maintain a minimum distance of two seconds to the vehicle in front. This headway time is based on the reaction time of drivers under various circumstances. A headway time of two seconds is sufficient for the majority of drivers to prevent a rear-end collision with

  5. Basics of a Good Road:

    OpenAIRE

    Bonte, Dudley

    2014-01-01

    This Asphalt 101 presentation will focus on the following topics: foundation preparation basics for a good road (subgrades, subgrade treatments, aggregate base; overlay preparation; and mixture thickness standards); what properties are critical to testing standards, quality, and inspection (materials, placement and compaction, use of INDOT specifications/certifications, APAI Local Government Specification Guide); and pavement preservation with 4.75 mm thin overlay.

  6. Distributed modeling for road authorities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Luiten, G.T.; Bõhms, H.M.; Nederveen, S. van; Bektas, E.

    2013-01-01

    A great challenge for road authorities is to improve the effectiveness and efficiency of their core processes by improving data exchange and sharing using new technologies such as building information modeling (BIM). BIM has already been successfully implemented in other sectors, such as architectur

  7. Traffic Accidents on Slippery Roads

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fonnesbech, J. K.; Bolet, Lars

    2014-01-01

    Police registrations from 65 accidents on slippery roads in normally Danish winters have been studied. The study showed: • 1 accident per 100 km when using brine spread with nozzles • 2 accidents per 100 km when using pre wetted salt • 3 accidents per 100 km when using kombi spreaders The results...

  8. Pollution-free road lighting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schreuder, Duco A.

    They relate to reducing road accidents and some forms of crime but also enhance the social safety of residents and pedestrians and the amenity for residents. Road traffic in developing countries is much more hazardous than in industrialized countries. Accident rates in 'low' income countries may be as much as 35 times higher than in 'high' income countries. Thus, it might be much more cost-effective to light roads in the developing world than in the industrialized world. Fighting light pollution is more pressing in developing countries as most of the major high-class astronomical observatories are there. Astronomical observations are disturbed by light from outdoor lighting installations, part of which is scattered in the atmosphere to form 'sky glow'. The International Lighting Commission CIE has published a Technical Report giving general guidance for lighting designers and policy makers on the reduction of the sky glow. Lighting improves visibility, essential for almost all human activity. However, light that hits the road contributes to visibility only if it is reflected. In poorly designed lighting equipment much of the lumen output of the lamps is sent directly upwards. This can be avoided by properly defined light fittings. The light output of fittings is determined by their optical quality and by the installation maintenance factor. Open fittings are to be preferred. If mounted horizontally, they make street lighting with the least light pollution.

  9. Distributed modeling for road authorities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Luiten, G.T.; Bõhms, H.M.; Nederveen, S. van; Bektas, E.

    2013-01-01

    A great challenge for road authorities is to improve the effectiveness and efficiency of their core processes by improving data exchange and sharing using new technologies such as building information modeling (BIM). BIM has already been successfully implemented in other sectors, such as architectur

  10. Road freight and the environment

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Makamo, N

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Freight transportation is one of the major contributors to economic development in a country. During a recent study, it was found that little information is available in terms of the cost of crashes to the environment. Environmental impacts of road...

  11. IN SPHERE OF ROAD BUILDING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shakhov Oleg Fedorovich

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available At present, it is necessary to use concession bases of development of national transport systems more widely considering the importance of road building, and also that fact that interests of the state and managing subjects - participants of investment building activity have differently directed vectors.

  12. Empirical observations of the spawning migration of European eels: The long and dangerous road to the Sargasso Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Righton, David; Westerberg, Håkan; Feunteun, Eric; Økland, Finn; Gargan, Patrick; Amilhat, Elsa; Metcalfe, Julian; Lobon-Cervia, Javier; Sjöberg, Niklas; Simon, Janek; Acou, Anthony; Vedor, Marisa; Walker, Alan; Trancart, Thomas; Brämick, Uwe; Aarestrup, Kim

    2016-10-01

    The spawning migration of the European eel (Anguilla anguilla L.) to the Sargasso Sea is one of the greatest animal migrations. However, the duration and route of the migration remain uncertain. Using fishery data from 20 rivers across Europe, we show that most eels begin their oceanic migration between August and December. We used electronic tagging techniques to map the oceanic migration from eels released from four regions in Europe. Of 707 eels tagged, we received 206 data sets. Many migrations ended soon after release because of predation events, but we were able to reconstruct in detail the migration routes of >80 eels. The route extended from western mainland Europe to the Azores region, more than 5000 km toward the Sargasso Sea. All eels exhibited diel vertical migrations, moving from deeper water during the day into shallower water at night. The range of migration speeds was 3 to 47 km day(-1). Using data from larval surveys in the Sargasso Sea, we show that spawning likely begins in December and peaks in February. Synthesizing these results, we show that the timing of autumn escapement and the rate of migration are inconsistent with the century-long held assumption that eels spawn as a single reproductive cohort in the springtime following their escapement. Instead, we suggest that European eels adopt a mixed migratory strategy, with some individuals able to achieve a rapid migration, whereas others arrive only in time for the following spawning season. Our results have consequences for eel management.

  13. Empirical observations of the spawning migration of European eels: The long and dangerous road to the Sargasso Sea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Righton, David; Westerberg, H.; Feunteun, E.;

    2016-01-01

    Fresh data on the timing and speed of the oceanic spawning migration of European eels suggest a new paradigm for spawning ecology.......Fresh data on the timing and speed of the oceanic spawning migration of European eels suggest a new paradigm for spawning ecology....

  14. Hanford facility dangerous waste permit application, general information portion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hays, C.B.

    1998-05-19

    The Hanford Facility Dangerous Waste Permit Application is considered to be a single application organized into a General Information Portion (document number DOE/RL-91-28) and a Unit-Specific Portion. Both the General Information and Unit-Specific portions of the Hanford Facility Dangerous Waste Permit Application address the content of the Part B permit application guidance prepared by the Washington State Department of Ecology (Ecology 1996) and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (40 Code of Federal Regulations 270), with additional information needed by the Hazardous and Solid Waste Amendments and revisions of Washington Administrative Code 173-303. Documentation contained in the General Information Portion is broader in nature and could be used by multiple treatment, storage, and/or disposal units (e.g., the glossary provided in this report).

  15. Substitution of dangerous substances and Materials to improve the Working Environment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Thomas

    2000-01-01

    Substitution of dangerous substances and Materials as a method to improve the Working Environment - 25 years of Danish experience......Substitution of dangerous substances and Materials as a method to improve the Working Environment - 25 years of Danish experience...

  16. A Protection plan of wildlife in a danger of extinction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Sang Don; Park, Yong Ha; Suh, Jung Soo [Korea Environment Institute, Seoul (Korea)

    1998-12-01

    This report collected data on the present situation of mammals, birds, amphibians, reptiles, fishes, insects, invertebrates, and 43 kinds of plants, which is in a danger of extinction, and their habitat, by the article 2 of 1998 Natural Environmental Conservation Act, as a part of 'Establishment of Biological diversity strategy'. This will utilize as a basic data for protection management to establish the recovery plan for each species. 358 refs., 43 figs., 3 tabs.

  17. Geothermal heat. Potential, danger, efficiency; Erdwaerme. Potential, Gefahr, Nutzen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reichel, Wolfgang [Ingenieurbuero Timmer Reichel GmbH, Haan (Germany)

    2010-07-01

    The author of the contribution under consideration reports on the potential, danger and utilization of geothermal heat. Geothermal heat promises the solution of numerous energy problems. From the use of near-surface layers which substantially are affected by enviromental impacts such as solar radiation up to the depth use of the heat flow from the interior of the earth, there exist very different energy sources which are to be considered separately for each application.

  18. Hanford facility dangerous waste permit application, PUREX storage tunnels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haas, C. R.

    1997-09-08

    The Hanford Facility Dangerous Waste Permit Application is considered to be a single application organized into a General Information Portion (document number DOE/RL-91-28) and a Unit-Specific Portion. The scope of the Unit-Specific Portion is limited to Part B permit application documentation submitted for individual, `operating` treatment, storage, and/or disposal units, such as the PUREX Storage Tunnels (this document, DOE/RL-90-24).

  19. Dangerous snakes, deadly snakes and medically important snakes

    OpenAIRE

    Silva, Anjana

    2013-01-01

    This correspondence argues that the dangerousness of a venomous snake species is not solely determined by the venom characteristics or the lethality of the snake, and recognizes that medical importance comprises a key variable as well. The medical importance of a snake is determined by several factors – including frequency of medical attention after a bite, local or systemic envenomation provoked by the bite, fatal bites, long term consequences, availability of antivenom therapy as well as th...

  20. FEATURES FOR TRANSPORT AND AIR MECHANICAL SYSTEMS OF DANGEROUS GOODS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eugen Dumitru BUSA

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Transport of dangerous goods are regulated activities, they take place under the direction and control of the authorities and specialized bodies in an institutional framework determined by national and international law. Of economic, transport infrastructure is the crucial element without which both production and trade would become meaningless, it is an essential element of a civilization, is also a necessary accessory of other economic activities.

  1. Road Safety Barriers, the Need and Influence on Road Traffic Accidents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butāns, Ž.; Gross, K. A.; Gridnevs, A.; Karzubova, E.

    2015-11-01

    Constantly increasing intensity of road traffic and the allowed speed limits seem to impose stronger requirements on road infrastructure and use of road safety systems. One of the ways to improve road safety is the use of road restraint systems. Road safety barriers allow not only reducing the number of road traffic accidents, but also lowering the severity of accidents. The paper provides information on the technical requirements of road safety barriers. Various types of road safety barriers and their selection criteria for different types of road sections are discussed. The article views an example of a road traffic accident, which is also modelled by PC-Crash computer program. The given example reflects a road accident mechanism in case of a car-to-barrier collision, and provides information about the typical damage to the car and the barrier. The paper describes an impact of the road safety barrier type and its presence on the road traffic accident mechanism. Implementation and maintenance costs of different barrier types are viewed. The article presents a discussion on the necessity to use road safety barriers, as well as their optimal choice.

  2. Spatial Analysis Methods of Road Traffic Collisions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Loo, Becky P. Y.; Anderson, Tessa Kate

    Spatial Analysis Methods of Road Traffic Collisions centers on the geographical nature of road crashes, and uses spatial methods to provide a greater understanding of the patterns and processes that cause them. Written by internationally known experts in the field of transport geography, the book...... outlines the key issues in identifying hazardous road locations (HRLs), considers current approaches used for reducing and preventing road traffic collisions, and outlines a strategy for improved road safety. The book covers spatial accuracy, validation, and other statistical issues, as well as link...

  3. Using CART to segment road images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, Bob; Lienhart, Rainer

    2006-01-01

    The 2005 DARPA Grand Challenge is a 132 mile race through the desert with autonomous robotic vehicles. Lasers mounted on the car roof provide a map of the road up to 20 meters ahead of the car but the car needs to see further in order to go fast enough to win the race. Computer vision can extend that map of the road ahead but desert road is notoriously similar to the surrounding desert. The CART algorithm (Classification and Regression Trees) provided a machine learning boost to find road while at the same time measuring when that road could not be distinguished from surrounding desert.

  4. THE ECONOMIC EVALUATION OF FOREST ROAD BUILDING

    OpenAIRE

    Muška, Aina; Bičevskis, Matīss

    2010-01-01

    Forest road density in Latvia is insufficient, although the Joint Stock Company ‘‘Latvijas valsts meži” (“Latvian State Forestry”) performs active forest road building. The hypothesis of the research is that the resources invested in a forest road building pay off during its use. The goal of the research is to study the economic benefit from forest road building. The authors’ research showed that the total costs of forest road building and use could result in Ls 246,779 over 40 years or Ls 6,...

  5. 75 FR 65278 - Pamlico Sound and Adjacent Waters, NC; Danger Zones for Marine Corps Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-22

    ... of Engineers, Department of the Army 33 CFR Part 334 Pamlico Sound and Adjacent Waters, NC; Danger... its regulations to establish one new danger zone in Pamlico Sound near Marine Corps Air Station Cherry Point, North Carolina. Establishment of this danger zone will enable the Marine Corps to control...

  6. 76 FR 30023 - Pamlico Sound and Adjacent Waters, NC; Danger Zones for Marine Corps Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-24

    ... of Engineers, Department of the Army 33 CFR Part 334 Pamlico Sound and Adjacent Waters, NC; Danger.... SUMMARY: The U.S. Army Corps of Engineers is amending its regulations to establish a new danger zone. This danger zone will enable the Marine Corps to control access and movement of persons, vessels and...

  7. 33 CFR 334.70 - Buzzards Bay, and adjacent waters, Mass.; danger zones for naval operations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ..., Mass.; danger zones for naval operations. 334.70 Section 334.70 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS OF ENGINEERS, DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE DANGER ZONE AND RESTRICTED AREA REGULATIONS § 334.70 Buzzards Bay, and adjacent waters, Mass.; danger zones for naval operations. (a)...

  8. 75 FR 69032 - Naval Surface Warfare Center, Potomac River, Dahlgren, VA; Danger Zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-10

    ..., Dahlgren, VA; Danger Zone AGENCY: United States Army Corps of Engineers, Department of Defense. ACTION... amend an existing permanent danger zone in the waters of the Upper Machodoc Creek and the Potomac River... River Test Range. Many of the tests are hazardous operations presenting a danger to persons or...

  9. 33 CFR 334.130 - Atlantic Ocean off Wallops Island and Chincoteague Inlet, Va.; danger zone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... and Chincoteague Inlet, Va.; danger zone. 334.130 Section 334.130 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS OF ENGINEERS, DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE DANGER ZONE AND RESTRICTED AREA REGULATIONS § 334.130 Atlantic Ocean off Wallops Island and Chincoteague Inlet, Va.; danger zone. (a) The...

  10. 32 CFR 644.531 - Warning to public of danger in handling explosive missiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Warning to public of danger in handling explosive... Contamination from Proposed Excess Land and Improvements § 644.531 Warning to public of danger in handling... of contaminants remaining on the land and the inherent danger of handling explosives or...

  11. 33 CFR 334.1140 - Pacific Ocean at San Miguel Island, Calif.; naval danger zone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Island, Calif.; naval danger zone. 334.1140 Section 334.1140 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS OF ENGINEERS, DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE DANGER ZONE AND RESTRICTED AREA REGULATIONS § 334.1140 Pacific Ocean at San Miguel Island, Calif.; naval danger zone. (a) The area. The waters around...

  12. 10 CFR 860.4 - Unauthorized introduction of weapons or dangerous materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Unauthorized introduction of weapons or dangerous... § 860.4 Unauthorized introduction of weapons or dangerous materials. Unauthorized carrying, transporting, or otherwise introducing or causing to be introduced any dangerous weapon, explosive, or other...

  13. 10 CFR 160.4 - Unauthorized introduction of weapons or dangerous materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Unauthorized introduction of weapons or dangerous... PROPERTY § 160.4 Unauthorized introduction of weapons or dangerous materials. Unauthorized carrying, transporting, or otherwise introducing or causing to be introduced any dangerous weapon, explosive, or other...

  14. FIRES: Fire Information Retrieval and Evaluation System - A program for fire danger rating analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patricia L. Andrews; Larry S. Bradshaw

    1997-01-01

    A computer program, FIRES: Fire Information Retrieval and Evaluation System, provides methods for evaluating the performance of fire danger rating indexes. The relationship between fire danger indexes and historical fire occurrence and size is examined through logistic regression and percentiles. Historical seasonal trends of fire danger and fire occurrence can be...

  15. 9 CFR 105.3 - Notices re: worthless, contaminated, dangerous, or harmful biological products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ..., dangerous, or harmful biological products. 105.3 Section 105.3 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT... Notices re: worthless, contaminated, dangerous, or harmful biological products. (a) If at any time it...-Serum-Toxin Act, of any biological product by any person holding a license or permit may be dangerous...

  16. 76 FR 46351 - International Civil Aviation Organization's (ICAO) Dangerous Goods Panel; Notice of Public Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-02

    ... Federal Aviation Administration International Civil Aviation Organization's (ICAO) Dangerous Goods Panel... Organization's (ICAO) Dangerous Goods Panel (DGP) to be held October 11-21, 2011, in Montreal, Quebec, Canada... Aviation Organization's Dangerous Goods Panel (ICAO DGP) Meeting. Proposals that are approved by the...

  17. DMPD: Macrophage activation by endogenous danger signals. [Dynamic Macrophage Pathway CSML Database

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 18161744 Macrophage activation by endogenous danger signals. Zhang X, Mosser DM. J ...Pathol. 2008 Jan;214(2):161-78. (.png) (.svg) (.html) (.csml) Show Macrophage activation by endogenous dange...r signals. PubmedID 18161744 Title Macrophage activation by endogenous danger signals. Authors Zhang X, Moss

  18. Road user behaviour changes following a self-explaining roads intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackie, Hamish W; Charlton, Samuel G; Baas, Peter H; Villasenor, Pablo C

    2013-01-01

    The self-explaining roads (SER) approach uses road designs that evoke correct expectations and driving behaviours from road users to create a safe and user-friendly road network. Following the implementation of an SER process and retrofitting of local and collector roads in a suburb within Auckland City, lower speeds on local roads and less variation in speed on both local and collector roads were achieved, along with a closer match between actual and perceived safe speeds. Preliminary analyses of crash data shows that the project has resulted in a 30% reduction crash numbers and an 86% reduction in crash costs per annum, since the road changes were completed. In order to further understand the outcomes from this project, a study was carried out to measure the effects of the SER intervention on the activity and behaviour of all road users. Video was collected over nine separate days, at nine different locations, both before and after SER construction. Road user behaviour categories were developed for all potential road users at different location types and then used to code the video data. Following SER construction, on local roads there was a relatively higher proportion of pedestrians, less uniformity in vehicle lane keeping and less indicating by motorists along with less through traffic, reflecting a more informal/low speed local road environment. Pedestrians were less constrained on local roads following SER construction, possibly reflecting a perceptually safer and more user-friendly environment. These behaviours were not generally evident on collector roads, a trend also shown by the previous study of speed changes. Given that one of the objectives of SER is to match road user behaviour with functionally different road categories, the road user behaviour differences demonstrated on different road types within the SER trial area provides further reinforcement of a successful SER trial.

  19. Application of snow models to snow removal operations on the Going-to-the-Sun Road, Glacier National Park

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fagre, Daniel B.; Klasner, Frederick L.

    2000-01-01

    Snow removal, and the attendant avalanche risk for road crews, is a major issue on mountain highways worldwide. The Going-to-the-Sun Road is the only road that crosses Glacier National Park, Montana. This 80-km highway ascends over 1200m along the wall of a glaciated basin and crosses the continental divide. The annual opening of the road is critical to the regional economy and there is public pressure to open the road as early as possible. Despite the 67-year history of snow removal activities, few stat on snow conditions at upper elevations were available to guide annual planning for the raod opening. We examined statistical relationships between the opening date and nearby SNOTEL data on snow water equivalence (WE) for 30 years. Early spring SWE (first Monday in April) accounted for only 33% of the variance in road opening dates. Because avalanche spotters, used to warn heavy equipment operators of danger, are ineffective during spring storms or low-visibility conditions, we incorporated the percentage of days with precipitation during plowing as a proxy for visibility. This improved the model's predictive power to 69%/ A mountain snow simulator (MTSNOW) was used to calculate the depth and density of snow at various points along the road and field data were collected for comparison. MTSNOW underestimated the observed snow conditions, in part because it does not yet account for wind redistribution of snow. The severe topography of the upper reaches of the road are subjected to extensive wind redistribution of snow as evidence by the formation of "The Big Drift" on the lee side of Logan Pass.

  20. FUNCTIONAL CLASSIFICATION OF RURAL ROADS IN SERBIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihailo Maletin

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available In order to revise the existing classification of rural roads in Serbia, which is rather old and defined on administrative criteria, the research developed a proposal for functional classification and categorization of primary rural roads. This resulted in four classes of rural roads based on their basic function and, with the introduction of five spatial accessibility levels, road classes are subdivided in eight road types. Based on the Serbia State Spatial Plan data, centers of gravitation together with border crossings are classified in four categories and desire lines of major transport function levels are defined. Based on this information and traffic count data the proposal of new primary rural road network in Serbia reduces the total length of the existing one with approximately the same overall accessibility level. Proposed categorization of rural roads as primary, regional and local ones is founded on functional classification and coincides with reorganization of governmental structure in Serbia.

  1. The safe road transport system approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vollpracht Hans-Joachim

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available More than 1,24 million people die each year on the worlds roads and between 20 to 50 million suffer from nonfatal injuries. The UN Road Safety Collaboration Meetings under the leadership of WHO developed the Programme for the Decade of Actions for road safety taking nations into the responsibility of improving their accident figures by the five pillars of a national Road Safety Policy, safer Roads, safer Vehicles, safer Road Users and Post Crash Care. It is this Safe System Approach that takes into consideration the land use, infrastructure and transport planning, road user’s abilities and limitations and the close cooperation of all governmental and none governmental stakeholders involved.

  2. White noise excitation of road vehicle structures

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Werner Schiehlen

    2006-08-01

    Heave and pitch motions of road vehicle structures affect the comfort and the safety of passengers. Excitation of these vertical vibrations is due to road surface roughness. Road vehicle structures are modelled as mechanical systems characterized by their inertia, damping and stiffness, and represented as state equations. This paper deals with the influence of random road profiles on the vertical dynamics of road vehicles characterized by stochastic processes. Switching from road profile displacement to road profile velocity results in white noise excitation facilitating mathematical analysis. Some fundamentals of power spectral density analysis and covariance analysis are reviewed. A quarter car model is used to show the advantages of the covariance analysis resulting immediately in standard variations characterizing the vehicle’s performance.

  3. Understanding Road Usage Patterns in Urban Areas

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Pu; Bayen, Alexandre M; Schechtner, Katja; González, Marta C; 10.1038/srep01001

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, we combine the most complete record of daily mobility, based on large-scale mobile phone data, with detailed Geographic Information System (GIS) data, uncovering previously hidden patterns in urban road usage. We find that the major usage of each road segment can be traced to its own - surprisingly few - driver sources. Based on this finding we propose a network of road usage by defining a bipartite network framework, demonstrating that in contrast to traditional approaches, which define road importance solely by topological measures, the role of a road segment depends on both: its betweeness and its degree in the road usage network. Moreover, our ability to pinpoint the few driver sources contributing to the major traffic flow allows us to create a strategy that achieves a significant reduction of the travel time across the entire road system, compared to a benchmark approach.

  4. Measuring Road Network Vulnerability with Sensitivity Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jun-qiang, Leng; Long-hai, Yang; Liu, Wei-yi; Zhao, Lin

    2017-01-01

    This paper focuses on the development of a method for road network vulnerability analysis, from the perspective of capacity degradation, which seeks to identify the critical infrastructures in the road network and the operational performance of the whole traffic system. This research involves defining the traffic utility index and modeling vulnerability of road segment, route, OD (Origin Destination) pair and road network. Meanwhile, sensitivity analysis method is utilized to calculate the change of traffic utility index due to capacity degradation. This method, compared to traditional traffic assignment, can improve calculation efficiency and make the application of vulnerability analysis to large actual road network possible. Finally, all the above models and calculation method is applied to actual road network evaluation to verify its efficiency and utility. This approach can be used as a decision-supporting tool for evaluating the performance of road network and identifying critical infrastructures in transportation planning and management, especially in the resource allocation for mitigation and recovery. PMID:28125706

  5. Does Pedestrian Danger Mediate the Relationship between Local Walkability and Active Travel to Work?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandy J Slater

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Environmental and policy factors play an important role in influencing people’s lifestyles, physical activity (PA, and risks for developing obesity. Research suggests that more walkable communities are needed to sustain lifelong PA behavior, but there is a need to determine what local built environment features facilitate making being active the easy choice.Purpose: This county-level study examined the association between local walkability (walkability and traffic calming scales, pedestrian danger, and the percent of adults who used active transport to work. Methods: Built environment and PA outcome measures were constructed for the 496 most populous counties representing 74 percent of the U.S. population. GIS-based walkability scales were constructed and include a census of roads located within the counties using 2011 Navteq data. The pedestrian danger index (PDI includes data collected from the Fatality Analysis Reporting System 2009-2011, and measures the likelihood of a pedestrian being hit and killed by a vehicle. Four continuous outcome measures were constructed using 2009-2013 American Community Survey county-level 5-year estimates. The measures represent the percentage of workers living in a county who worked away from home and: 1 walked to work; 2 biked to work; 3 took public transit; and 4 used any form of active transport. Linear regression and mediation analyses were conducted to examine the association between walkability, PDI and active transport. Models accounted for clustering within state with robust standard errors, and controlled for median household income, families with children in poverty, race, ethnicity, urbanicity and region.Results: The walkability scale was significantly negatively associated with the PDI (β=-0.06, 95% CI=-0.111, -0.002. In all models, the PDI was significantly negatively associated with all active travel-related outcomes at the p<0.01 level. The walkability scale was positively

  6. Effect of Road Lighting on the Quality of Dual Carriageway Road Service

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ben-Edigbe Johnnie

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The study is exciting because it introduced a new quality of road service assessment approach. The study explored the effect of road lighting on the quality of dual carriageway road service. Based on the hypothesis that road lighting has no significant effect on the level of road service, an impact study was carried out in Skudai town, Malaysia. Twenty four hours continuous traffic volume, vehicle types and speeds data were collected during daylight, road lighting and dry weather conditions for two directional flows. Results show that travel speeds speed during daylight and road lighting periods did not differ significantly. The study concluded road lighting does not affect the quality of road service significantly.

  7. High-Luminance Road Surfaces,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-12-01

    condition was changed with the decreased use of snow chains and increasing use of studded tires. The studded tires wear down the road surface in a...region, white anorthosite of a uniform and unweathered type is usable as an additive to asphalt con- crete and wear surfacing for asphalt gravel...CLASSIFICATION Of THIS PAGE(W/em Daateoo 20. Abstract (cont’d) resistance to weathering, and the degree of luminosity. Quartzites have the best wear

  8. Appropriate roads for rural access

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Paige-Green, P

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available plastic deformation. Deficiencies in any of these properties result in poor riding quality and high maintenance requirements as well as an increased loss of material from the road. It is thus essential that the best available material is used... of the specification illustrated in Figure 1 is the ability to identify potential problems associated with materials not meeting the specifications. This allows the implementer to make judgments regarding the consequences of using material outside...

  9. Methanol - alternative fuel road traffic

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muendler, H.

    1980-09-01

    This brochure names the fuel properties that are required for road traffic, discusses the replacement of petrol by methanol, discusses the possibilities of manufacturing methanol, draws up a timetable and an organigram for a (M-15) large scale test and compares costs of petrol, methanol, synthesis process petrol and hydrogenation process petrol. Furthermore, the technical requirements of vehicles as well as test results of exhaust gas emissions are also discussed.

  10. Mobility management and road safety.

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    Mobility management stands for organizing 'smart travel' and focuses on reducing the amount of car mobility (particularly during peak hours) by stimulating travellers to refrain from travelling (telecommuting), to travel at a different time of day (avoiding peak hours) or to choose a different means of transport. Mobility management should result in, for instance, improved accessibility and less environmental impact; road safety is hardly mentioned as an objective. Mobility management can inc...

  11. Revival of the Silk Road

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    China's Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region, bordering eight countries and providing a corridor to the Central Asian region, was once famous for the Silk Road. But now this region is often reported by Western media as having the problems of "political separatism, economic exclusion and religious fundamentalism." Professor David Gosset with the Shanghai-based China Europe International Business School analyzed Xinjiang's development, which he framed as "Xinjiang's experience." According to him, Xinjiang has ...

  12. Road safety: take it seriously

    CERN Multimedia

    Antonella Del Rosso

    2015-01-01

    Around 50 road accidents happen every year at CERN. Cyclists, drivers and pedestrians must pay attention to their behaviour at all times to ensure that this doesn’t become an even more serious problem. Even if the Laboratory’s sites are not exactly downtown Shanghai, all road users need to make a little effort. So let’s do it!   Life at CERN: let’s stick to accumulating scientific data rather than road accidents! (Cartoon by Cian O'Luanaigh) Despite a dedicated Safety Code in force since 1990, “traffic-calming” measures put in place last year, several reminders in the Bulletin and frequent safety campaigns, the number of accidents, particularly those involving cyclists, has remained high since 2008. Luckily, no-one has been seriously injured but it is more and more frequent to experience near misses or actual accidents, whether in a car or on a bike. Incivilities, excessive speeding (also for bikes!) and answering ...

  13. Seismic risk assessment for road in Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toyfur, Mona Foralisa; Pribadi, Krishna S.

    2016-05-01

    Road networks in Indonesia consist of 446,000 km of national, provincial and local roads as well as toll highways. Indonesia is one of countries that exposed to various natural hazards, such as earthquakes, floods, landslides, etc. Within the Indonesian archipelago, several global tectonic plates interact, such as the Indo-Australian, Pacific, Eurasian, resulting in a complex geological setting, characterized by the existence of seismically active faults and subduction zones and a chain of more than one hundred active volcanoes. Roads in Indonesia are vital infrastructure needed for people and goods movement, thus supporting community life and economic activities, including promoting regional economic development. Road damages and losses due to earthquakes have not been studied widely, whereas road disruption caused enormous economic damage. The aim of this research is to develop a method to analyse risk caused by seismic hazard to roads. The seismic risk level of road segment is defined using an earthquake risk index, adopting the method of Earthquake Disaster Risk Index model developed by Davidson (1997). Using this method, road segments' risk level can be defined and compared, and road risk map can be developed as a tool for prioritizing risk mitigation programs for road networks in Indonesia.

  14. Effects of road networks on bird populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kociolek, A V; Clevenger, A P; St Clair, C C; Proppe, D S

    2011-04-01

    One potential contributor to the worldwide decline of bird populations is the increasing prevalence of roads, which have several negative effects on birds and other vertebrates. We synthesized the results of studies and reviews that explore the effects of roads on birds with an emphasis on paved roads. The well-known direct effects of roads on birds include habitat loss and fragmentation, vehicle-caused mortality, pollution, and poisoning. Nevertheless, indirect effects may exert a greater influence on bird populations. These effects include noise, artificial light, barriers to movement, and edges associated with roads. Moreover, indirect and direct effects may act synergistically to cause decreases in population density and species richness. Of the many effects of roads, it appears that road mortality and traffic noise may have the most substantial effects on birds relative to other effects and taxonomic groups. Potential measures for mitigating the detrimental effects of roads include noise-reduction strategies and changes to roadway lighting and vegetation and traffic flow. Road networks and traffic volumes are projected to increase in many countries around the world. Increasing habitat loss and fragmentation and predicted species distribution shifts due to climate change are likely to compound the overall effects of roads on birds.

  15. Examining spring wet slab and glide avalanche occurrence along the Going-to-the-Sun Road corridor, Glacier National Park, Montana, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peitzsch, Erich H.; Hendrikx, Jordy; Fagre, Daniel B.; Reardon, Blase

    2012-01-01

    Wet slab and glide snow avalanches are dangerous and yet can be particularly difficult to predict. Wet slab and glide avalanches are presumably triggered by free water moving through the snowpack and the subsequent interaction with layer or ground interfaces, and typically occur in the spring during warming and subsequent melt periods. In Glacier National Park (GNP), Montana, both types of avalanches can occur in the same year and affect the spring opening operations of the Going-to-the-Sun Road (GTSR).

  16. Energy-Efficient Systems Eliminate Icing Danger for UAVs

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Ames Research Center engineer Leonard Haslim invented an anti-icing t echnology called an electroexpulsive separation system, which uses m echanical force to shatter potentially dangerous ice buildup on an ai rcraft surface. Temecula, California-based Ice Management Systems (no w known as IMS-ESS) licensed the technology from Ames and has discov ered a niche market for the lightweight, energy-efficient technology: unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs). IMS-ESS systems now prevent damagi ng ice accumulation on military UAVs, allowing the vehicles to carry out crucial missions year round.

  17. USGS Fire Science: Fire Danger Monitoring and Forecasting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eidenshink, Jeff

    2007-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) has advanced the use of moderate-resolution satellite data in a decision support system for assessing national fire potential. Weekly updated digital images of the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI), based on data acquired at 1-kilometer (km) resolution (about 0.6 mi), have been used for the past 19 years as a means to assess live vegetation conditions for the purpose of rating fire danger. These images, produced and monitored through the growing season, portray the approximate time of greenup and senescence, as well as the relative amount and condition of growing plants.

  18. Evaluating fire danger in Brazilian biomes: present and future patterns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Patrícia; Bastos, Ana; DaCamara, Carlos; Libonati, Renata

    2017-04-01

    Climate change is expected to have a significant impact on fire occurrence and activity, particularly in Brazil, a region known to be fire-prone [1]. The Brazilian savanna, commonly referred to as cerrado, is a fire-adapted biome covering more than 20% of the country's total area. It presents the highest numbers of fire events, making it particularly susceptible to changes in climate. It is thus essential to understand the present fire regimes in Brazilian biomes, in order to better evaluate future patterns. The CPTEC/INPE, the Brazilian Center for Weather Forecasting and Climate Research at the Brazilian National Institute of Space Research developed a fire danger index based on the occurrence of hundreds of thousands of fire events in the main Brazilian biomes [2]: the Meteorological Fire Danger Index (MFDI). This index indicates the predisposition of vegetation to be burned on a given day, for given climate conditions preceding that day. It relies on daily values of air temperature, relative humidity, accumulated precipitation and vegetation cover. In this study we aim to access the capability of the MFDI to accurately replicate present fire conditions for different biomes, with a special focus on cerrado. To this end, we assess the link between the MFDI as calculated by three different reanalysis (ERA-Interim, NCEP/DOE Reanalysis 2 and MERRA-2) and the observed burned area. We further calculate the validated MFDI using a regional climate model, the RCA4 as forced by EC-Earth from CORDEX, to understand the ability of the model to characterize present fire danger. Finally, the need to calibrate the model to better characterize future fire danger was also evaluated. This work was developed within the framework of the Brazilian Fire-Land-Atmosphere System (BrFLAS) Project financed by the Portuguese and Brazilian science foundations, FCT and FAPESP (project references FAPESP/1389/2014 and 2014/20042-2). [1] KRAWCHUK, M.A.; MORITZ, M.A.; PARISIEN, M.A.; VAN DORN, J

  19. Dangerous snakes, deadly snakes and medically important snakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    This correspondence argues that the dangerousness of a venomous snake species is not solely determined by the venom characteristics or the lethality of the snake, and recognizes that medical importance comprises a key variable as well. The medical importance of a snake is determined by several factors – including frequency of medical attention after a bite, local or systemic envenomation provoked by the bite, fatal bites, long term consequences, availability of antivenom therapy as well as the size of the population at risk – that may vary from one region to another. PMID:24099013

  20. Self/not self, innate immunity, danger, cancer potential

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Edwin L.

    2010-03-01

    Self/not self is an important hypothesis that has guided research in immunology. It is closely connected to adaptive immunity (restricted to vertebrates) and innate immunity (found in vertebrates and invertebrates). Self/not self is now being challenged and investigators are turning to the danger hypothesis to guide and open new areas of research. Emerging information suggests that genes involved in development of cancer are present in Drosophila and C. elegans. Short life span may not preclude the presence of genes that are related to the development of cancer.

  1. Technological Dangers and the Potential of Human-Robot Interaction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2016-01-01

    watching a soccer game in which our child is one of the players. The question of which team we should cheer for never occurs to the parent. By changing the vantage point to a radical phenomenological perspective, informed by Eastern as well as Western thought, this chapter tests the basis for this type...... technological dangers and opportunities. Finally, aiming for the very limits of the theory, I discuss the contours of a praxis facilitating being-with-robots beyond conceptualization. Basically, this mode of being, pertaining to non-technological HRI, bypasses Heidegger’s warnings, and potentially facilitates...

  2. Invasive Brown Treesnake movements at road edges indicate road-crossing avoidance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siers, Shane R; Savidge, Julie S; Reed, Robert N.

    2014-01-01

    Roads have significant impacts on the dispersal of wildlife. Although this poses a threat to the abundance and diversity of desirable flora and fauna, it also affords some opportunity for enhancing control of invasive species. Roads are the most common terrain features that may affect the rate of landscape-scale movements of invasive Brown Treesnakes (Boiga irregularis) throughout Guam. We radio tracked 45 free-ranging Brown Treesnakes in close proximity to two roads in Guam and recorded instances where daily relocations of snakes spanned roads. Then we reconstructed observed movement histories with randomized turning angles, which served as a useful null hypothesis for assessing the effect of roads or road edge habitat on Brown Treesnake movement patterns. Random walk simulations demonstrated that Brown Treesnakes crossed these roads at a rate far lower than would be expected if snake movement was random with respect to roads and road edge habitat. We discuss two alternative hypotheses for these results: 1) habitat gaps posed by roads physically or behaviorally restrict snake movement; or 2) road edges provide preferred foraging habitat from which snakes are reluctant to depart. Because roads often form the boundaries of jurisdictional and management units, the effects of roads on the movement of invasive Brown Treesnakes will influence the prospects for success of future landscape-level suppression efforts.

  3. Dynamics of vehicle-road coupled system

    CERN Document Server

    Yang, Shaopu; Li, Shaohua

    2015-01-01

    Vehicle dynamics and road dynamics are usually considered to be two largely independent subjects. In vehicle dynamics, road surface roughness is generally regarded as random excitation of the vehicle, while in road dynamics, the vehicle is generally regarded as a moving load acting on the pavement. This book suggests a new research concept to integrate the vehicle and the road system with the help of a tire model, and establishes a cross-subject research framework dubbed vehicle-pavement coupled system dynamics. In this context, the dynamics of the vehicle, road and the vehicle-road coupled system are investigated by means of theoretical analysis, numerical simulations and field tests. This book will be a valuable resource for university professors, graduate students and engineers majoring in automotive design, mechanical engineering, highway engineering and other related areas. Shaopu Yang is a professor and deputy president of Shijiazhuang Tiedao University, China; Liqun Chen is a professor at Shanghai Univ...

  4. Salt on roads and the environment (VB)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hessberg, Philipp von; Jørgensen, Michael Søgaard

    2000-01-01

    This report descripes the extent of use of salt on roads in Denmark and the environmental consequences of this. Alternative strategies for reducing the risk of greasy roads and different ways of alleviating the vegetation are also discussed.The different consequences for the environment that this......This report descripes the extent of use of salt on roads in Denmark and the environmental consequences of this. Alternative strategies for reducing the risk of greasy roads and different ways of alleviating the vegetation are also discussed.The different consequences for the environment...... that this report discusses are:- The ground water.- Lakes and streams.- Plants and trees along roads.The consequences for the economy through usage of salt on roads has not been carried out....

  5. Salt on roads and the environment (VB)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hessberg, Philipp von; Jørgensen, Michael Søgaard

    2000-01-01

    This report descripes the extent of use of salt on roads in Denmark and the environmental consequences of this. Alternative strategies for reducing the risk of greasy roads and different ways of alleviating the vegetation are also discussed.The different consequences for the environment that this......This report descripes the extent of use of salt on roads in Denmark and the environmental consequences of this. Alternative strategies for reducing the risk of greasy roads and different ways of alleviating the vegetation are also discussed.The different consequences for the environment...... that this report discusses are:- The ground water.- Lakes and streams.- Plants and trees along roads.The consequences for the economy through usage of salt on roads has not been carried out....

  6. Solid road environment and its hazards

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Budzyński Marcin

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Accidents that involve vehicles departing the road tend to have very high severity, as they often result in the vehicle hitting a permanent obstacle (which can be a tree, a pole, facility pillar, front wall of a culvert or a barrier. In recent years, this type of accident caused approx. 19% of all road deaths in Poland. A particularly high risk can be observed on roads located in northern and western voivodships, with many avenues of trees along the roadside. The paper will present the major road user hazards and their locations, based on the example of detailed analyses conducted for the area of the Warminsko-Mazurskie voivodship in Poland. In the paper, the authors will also present measures that can be applied to improve the safety of road users by improving roads managed by local governments in Warminsko-Mazurskie.

  7. Assessment of Slope Instability and Risk Analysis of Road Cut Slopes in Lashotor Pass, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Hossein Taherynia

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Assessment of the stability of natural and artificial rock slopes is an important topic in the rock mechanics sciences. One of the most widely used methods for this purpose is the classification of the slope rock mass. In the recent decades, several rock slope classification systems are presented by many researchers. Each one of these rock mass classification systems uses different parameters and rating systems. These differences are due to the diversity of affecting parameters and the degree of influence on the rock slope stability. Another important point in rock slope stability is appraisal hazard and risk analysis. In the risk analysis, the degree of danger of rock slope instability is determined. The Lashotor pass is located in the Shiraz-Isfahan highway in Iran. Field surveys indicate that there are high potentialities of instability in the road cut slopes of the Lashotor pass. In the current paper, the stability of the rock slopes in the Lashotor pass is studied comprehensively with different classification methods. For risk analyses, we estimated dangerous area by use of the RocFall software. Furthermore, the dangers of falling rocks for the vehicles passing the Lashotor pass are estimated according to rockfall hazard rating system.

  8. The road plan model: Information model for planning road building activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azinhal, Rafaela K.; Moura-Pires, Fernando

    1994-01-01

    The general building contractor is presented with an information model as an approach for deriving a high-level work plan of construction activities applied to road building. Road construction activities are represented in a Road Plan Model (RPM), which is modeled in the ISO standard STEP/EXPRESS and adopts various concepts from the GARM notation. The integration with the preceding road design stage and the succeeding phase of resource scheduling is discussed within the framework of a Road Construction Model. Construction knowledge is applied to the road design and the terrain model of the surrounding road infrastructure for the instantiation of the RPM. Issues regarding the implementation of a road planner application supporting the RPM are discussed.

  9. Road Lane Detection by Discriminating Dashed and Solid Road Lanes Using a Visible Light Camera Sensor

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hoang, Toan Minh; Hong, Hyung Gil; Vokhidov, Husan; Park, Kang Ryoung

    2016-01-01

    With the increasing need for road lane detection used in lane departure warning systems and autonomous vehicles, many studies have been conducted to turn road lane detection into a virtual assistant...

  10. The Use of Theatre Tours in Road Safety Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powney, Janet; And Others

    The Scottish Road Safety Campaign and the Road Safety Council of Wales have made a large investment in theater tours as a method of providing road safety education. This study aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of a road safety message delivered by a theater group, Road Safety Officers (RSOs), or, teachers for pupils in upper secondary classes.…

  11. Value creation of road infrastructure networks: a structural equation approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hartmann, A.; Ling, F.Y.Y.

    2016-01-01

    Although road agencies need to provide road infrastructure that is beneficial for road users, little is known about how the activities of the agencies influence the value creation of road infrastructure. From a service-dominant logic perspective, the importance of road maintenance and traffic manage

  12. Road Network Generalization Based on Float CAR Tracking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Cheng; Li, Wenjing; Jia, Hongguo

    2016-06-01

    Road generalization is not only helpful to simplify complicated road networks but can also satisfy the needs of reasonable display of roads under varying scales, thus offering basis for updating and grading urban roads. This paper proposes a selection method for road network generalization by integrating road-associated vehicle trajectory dynamic properties and road features and calculating the importance of urban roads. First of all, the location and motion information of floating vehicles are associated to relevant roads to generate the dynamic properties of roads. Then, the dynamic and static properties of roads are analyzed, and the cluster analysis is conducted to the trajectory points at road intersections to obtain the importance of some road intersections there are vehicles passing by. Afterwards, the weights of roads are calculated using the dominance rough set, the roads are ranked by weight and the practical significance of ranking results is analyzed. Finally, the selection rules for the basic framework of road network are determined to meet with different requirements and guarantee both connectivity and completeness of road networks. The results show that the relative importance of roads is made clear by taking advantage of the rough set and the generalized road network highlights the distribution and connection of urban main roads.

  13. IP telephony based danger alert communication system and its implementation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rezac, Filip; Safarik, Jakub; Voznak, Miroslav; Tomala, Karel; Partila, Pavol

    2013-05-01

    This article discusses a danger alert system created as a part of the research project at Department of Telecommunications of Technical University of Ostrava. The aim of the system is to distribute pre-recorded voice messages in order to alert the called party in danger. This article describes individual technologies, which the application uses for its operation as well as issues relating to hardware requirements and transfer line bandwidth load. The article also describes new algorithms, which had to be developed in order to ensure the reliability of the system. Our intent is focused on disaster management, the message, which should be delivered within specified time span, is typed in the application and text-to-speech module ensures its transformation to a speech format, after that a particular scenario or warned area is selected and a target group is automatically unloaded. For this purpose, we have defined XML format for delivery of phone numbers which are located in the target area and these numbers are obtained from mobile BTS's (Base transmission stations). The benefit of such communication compared to others, is the fact, that it uses a phone call and, therefore, it is possible to get feedback who accepted the message and to improve efficiency of alert system. Finally, the list of unanswered calls is exported and these users can be informed via SMS.

  14. Danger, diversity and priming in innate antiviral immunity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, Susan E; Mossman, Karen L

    2014-10-01

    The prototypic response to viral infection involves the recognition of pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) by pattern recognition receptors (PRRs), leading to the activation of transcription factors such as IRF3 and NFkB and production of type 1 IFN. While this response can lead to the induction of hundreds of IFN-stimulated genes (ISGs) and recruitment and activation of immune cells, such a comprehensive response is likely inappropriate for routine low level virus exposure. Moreover, viruses have evolved a plethora of immune evasion strategies to subvert antiviral signalling. There is emerging evidence that cells have developed very sensitive methods of detecting not only specific viral PAMPS, but also more general danger or stress signals associated with viral entry and replication. Such stress-induced cellular responses likely serve to prime cells to respond to further PAMP stimulation or allow for a rapid and localized intracellular response independent of IFN production and its potential immune sequelae. This review discusses diversity in innate antiviral players and pathways, the role of "danger" sensing, and how alternative pathways, such as the IFN-independent pathway, may serve to prime cells for further pathogen attack.

  15. Intravascular foreign bodies: danger of unretrieved fragmented medical devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tateishi, Minori; Tomizawa, Yasuko

    2009-01-01

    A warning on the danger of unretrieved device fragments and recommendations to mitigate the danger were issued by the Food and Drug Administration in January 2008. The causes of intravascular foreign bodies are classified into three main categories: improper manipulation and usage, device defects, and others, such as patient and anatomical factors. Device failure after long-term use is rarely predicted at the time of approval, since device abnormality is rarely experienced in animal studies and clinical trials conducted during development of the device. Stent fracture due to metal fatigue is one example. Complex complications could occur from simultaneous use of two or more devices with diverse characteristics. The success rate of percutaneous retrieval of intravascular foreign bodies has improved with the advances in commercially available devices. However, the procedure is not always successful and sometimes surgical removal becomes necessary. Appropriate device selection and acquisition of experience in using the device are important. When an intravascular foreign body cannot be retrieved, the risk of complication could be high. Magnetic resonance imaging examination sometimes causes adverse events, including burns due to the heat generated by metal movement. Such information should be correctly recorded. Furthermore, it is necessary to provide patients with adequate information about the characteristics of implanted devices and unretrieved fragments. We reviewed the literature on unretrieved medical device fragments and include articles that describe the Japanese experience.

  16. Hanford Facility dangerous waste permit application, general information. Revision 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-05-01

    The current Hanford Facility Dangerous Waste Permit Application is considered to be a single application organized into a General Information Portion (this document, number DOE/RL-91-28) and a treatment, storage, and/or disposal Unit-Specific Portion, which includes documentation for individual TSD units (e.g., document numbers DOE/RL-89-03 and DOE/RL-90-01). Both portions consist of a Part A division and a Part B division. The Part B division consists of 15 chapters that address the content of the Part B checklists prepared by the Washington State Department of Ecology (Ecology 1987) and the US Environmental Protection Agency (40 Code of Federal Regulations 270), with additional information requirements mandated by the Hazardous and Solid Waste Amendments of 1984 and revisions of Washington Administrative Code 173-303. For ease of reference, the Washington State Department of Ecology checklist section numbers, in brackets, follow the chapter headings and subheadings. Documentation contained in the General Information Portion (i.e., this document, number DOE/RL-91-28) is broader in nature and applies to all treatment, storage, and/or disposal units for which final status is sought. Because of its broad nature, the Part A division of the General Information Portion references the Hanford Facility Dangerous Waste Part A Permit Application (document number DOE/RL-88-21), a compilation of all Part A documentation for the Hanford Facility.

  17. HANFORD FACILITY ANNUAL DANGEROUS WASTE REPORT CY2005

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    SKOLRUD, J.O.

    2006-02-15

    The Hanford Facility Annual Dangerous Waste Report (ADWR) is prepared to meet the requirements of Washington Administrative Code Sections 173-303-220, Generator Reporting, and 173-303-390, Facility Reporting. In addition, the ADWR is required to meet Hanford Facility RCR4 Permit Condition I.E.22, Annual Reporting. The ADWR provides summary information on dangerous waste generation and management activities for the Calendar Year for the Hanford Facility EPA ID number assigned to the Department of Energy for RCRA regulated waste, as well as Washington State only designated waste and radioactive mixed waste. An electronic database is utilized to collect and compile the large array of data needed for preparation of this report. Information includes details of waste generated on the Hanford Facility, waste generated offsite and sent to Hanford for management, and other waste management activities conducted at Hanford, including treatment, storage, and disposal. Report details consist of waste descriptions and weights, waste codes and designations, and waste handling codes, In addition, for waste shipped to Hanford for treatment and/or disposal, information on manifest numbers, the waste transporter, the waste receiving facility, and the original waste generators are included. In addition to paper copies, the report is also transmitted electronically to a web site maintained by the Washington State Department of Ecology.

  18. Hanford facility dangerous waste permit application, general information portion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Price, S.M., Westinghouse Hanford

    1996-07-29

    The `Hanford Facility Dangerous Waste Permit Application` is considered to be a single application organized into a General Information Portion (this document, DOE/RL-91-28) and a Unit- Specific Portion. The scope of the General Information Portion includes information that could be used to discuss operating units, units undergoing closure, or units being dispositioned through other options. Documentation included in the General Information Portion is broader in nature and could be used by multiple treatment, storage, and/or disposal units. A checklist indicating where information is contained in the General Information Portion, in relation to the Washington State Department of Ecology guidance documentation, is located in the Contents Section. The intent of the General Information Portion is: (1) to provide an overview of the Hanford Facility; and (2) to assist in streamlining efforts associated with treatment, storage, and/or disposal unit-specific Part B permit application, preclosure work plan, closure work plan, closure plan, closure/postclosure plan, or postclosure permit application documentation development, and the `Hanford Facility Resource Conservation and Recovery Act Permit` modification process. Revision 2 of the General Information Portion of the `Hanford Facility Dangerous Waste Permit Application` contains information current as of May 1, 1996. This document is a complete submittal and supersedes Revision 1.

  19. "Ego-dystonic" delusions as a predictor of dangerous behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joseph, Zislin; Victor, Kuperman; Rimona, Durst

    2011-06-01

    This paper aims to report a possible warning sign for dangerous behavior in delusional psychotic patients. We demonstrate an association between aggressive or auto-aggressive ideation and "ego-dystonic" grandiose delusions, where the patient believes to possess unique qualities but finds them unbearable. The study is based on the sample of seven interviews with five psychotic in-patients at the Kfar Shaul Mental Health Center, Jerusalem, Israel. All patients experienced an acute psychotic episode, and committed acts of aggression or suicidality. The research method is narrative analysis of semi-structured interviews. Patients report ideas of grandiose self-identification with deities, Biblical figures or celebrities, yet report their reluctance to be in these high positions due to feelings of unworthiness, withdrawal, and social isolation. Resulting frustration arguably leads to aggressive and suicidal ideation or actions. Contrary to the established view, grandiose delusions are not free of association with (auto-)aggression. The patient's ego-dystonic attitude towards his/her delusional identity may serve as the warning sign for dangerous behavior and, as such, should be searched for and recognized by the mental health professionals.

  20. Stroke: a Hidden Danger of Margin Trading in Stock Markets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Shu-Hui; Wang, Chien-Ho; Liu, Tsai-Ching; Chen, Chin-Shyan

    2015-10-01

    Using 10-year population data from 2000 through 2009 in Taiwan, this is the first paper to analyze the relationship between margin trading in stock markets and stroke hospitalizations. The results show that 3 and 6 days after an increase of margin trading in the Taiwan stock markets are associated with greater stoke hospitalizations. In general, a 1 % increase in total margin trading positions is associated with an increment of 2.5 in the total number of stroke hospitalizations, where the mean number of hospital admissions is 233 cases a day. We further examine the effects of margin trading by gender and age groups and find that the effects of margin trading are significant for males and those who are 45-74 years old only. In summary, buying stocks with money you do not have is quite risky, especially if the prices of those stocks fall past a certain level or if there is a sudden and severe drop in the stock market. There is also a hidden danger to one's health from margin trading. A person should be cautious before conducting margin trading, because while it can be quite profitable, danger always lurks just around the corner.

  1. Identification of Maximum Road Friction Coefficient and Optimal Slip Ratio Based on Road Type Recognition

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GUAN Hsin; WANG Bo; LU Pingping; XU Liang

    2014-01-01

    The identification of maximum road friction coefficient and optimal slip ratio is crucial to vehicle dynamics and control. However, it is always not easy to identify the maximum road friction coefficient with high robustness and good adaptability to various vehicle operating conditions. The existing investigations on robust identification of maximum road friction coefficient are unsatisfactory. In this paper, an identification approach based on road type recognition is proposed for the robust identification of maximum road friction coefficient and optimal slip ratio. The instantaneous road friction coefficient is estimated through the recursive least square with a forgetting factor method based on the single wheel model, and the estimated road friction coefficient and slip ratio are grouped in a set of samples in a small time interval before the current time, which are updated with time progressing. The current road type is recognized by comparing the samples of the estimated road friction coefficient with the standard road friction coefficient of each typical road, and the minimum statistical error is used as the recognition principle to improve identification robustness. Once the road type is recognized, the maximum road friction coefficient and optimal slip ratio are determined. The numerical simulation tests are conducted on two typical road friction conditions(single-friction and joint-friction) by using CarSim software. The test results show that there is little identification error between the identified maximum road friction coefficient and the pre-set value in CarSim. The proposed identification method has good robustness performance to external disturbances and good adaptability to various vehicle operating conditions and road variations, and the identification results can be used for the adjustment of vehicle active safety control strategies.

  2. Contracting the Road to Development: Early Impacts of a Rural Roads Program

    OpenAIRE

    Martin Valdivia

    2010-01-01

    We study here the early impacts of the Peruvian Rural Roads Program (RRP), characterized by a decentralized mechanism that contracts private local firms for the rehabilitation and maintenance of rural roads with local supervision by community leaders setting incentives that favour prevention activities and a sustainable and timely maintenance of rural roads. The analysis is based on a quasi-experimental approach through which control roads are defined prior to the intervention and based on ke...

  3. Automatic Construction of Hierarchical Road Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Weiping

    2016-06-01

    This paper describes an automated method of constructing a hierarchical road network given a single dataset, without the presence of thematic attributes. The method is based on a pattern graph which maintains nodes and paths as junctions and through-traffic roads. The hierarchy is formed incrementally in a top-down fashion for highways, ramps, and major roads directly connected to ramps; and bottom-up for the rest of major and minor roads. Through reasoning and analysis, ramps are identified as unique characteristics for recognizing and assembling high speed roads. The method makes distinctions on the types of ramps by articulating their connection patterns with highways. Major and minor roads will be identified by both quantitative and qualitative analysis of spatial properties and by discovering neighbourhood patterns revealed in the data. The result of the method would enrich data description and support comprehensive queries on sorted exit or entry points on highways and their related roads. The enrichment on road network data is important to a high successful rate of feature matching for road networks and to geospatial data integration.

  4. THE GREAT SILK ROAD AND TURKISH WORLD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mustafa ÖZDEMİR

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The expression of the great Silk Road first came from the famouse Chinese traveler Çjan Syan before the BC and is now known as Kervan Road. Later, this expression gained a new meaning between Asia, the Mediterranean and the European countries.An estimated of 20 000 km of total length of the Great Silk Road passed the Turkish peoples settled lands. The Silk Road that was considered as the Jugularvein major trade route that was connecting China and Byzantium was in Turks hands.

  5. The Effects of Vibrations Experienced during Road vs. Off-road Cycling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macdermid, P W; Fink, P W; Stannard, S R

    2015-10-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to compare the effects of vibrations experienced during off-road and road cycling. It was hypothesised that additional damping will be expressed through a greater work demand and increased physiological markers when travelling at the same speed over an identical terrain profile. Participants ascended a tar-sealed road climb and a single-track off-road climb at a predetermined speed. Time, speed, power, cadence, heart rate and V̇ O2 were sampled and logged every second while tri-axial accelerometers recorded accelerations (128 Hz) to quantify vibrations experienced. Statistical analysis indicated accelerations to be greater during the off-road condition (proad riding are associated with the increased vibrations and rolling resistance experienced. This led to increases in the work done (road: 280±69 vs. off-road: 312±74 W, p=0.0003) and, consequentially, a significant increase in the physiological markers V̇ O2 (road: 48.5±7.5 off-road 51.4±7.3 ml·kg(-1)·min(-1), p=0.0033) and heart rate (road: 161±10 off-road 170±10 bpm, p=0.0001) during the off-road condition. Such physiological differences and their causes are important to understand in order to provide suitable training recommendations or technological interventions for improving competitive performance or recreational enjoyment.

  6. RoADS: a road pavement monitoring system for anomaly detection using smart phones

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Seraj, Fatjon; Zwaag, van der Berend Jan; Dilo, Arta; Luarasi, Tamara; Havinga, Paul; Atzmueller, Martin; Chin, Alvin; Janssen, Frederik; Schweizer, Immanuel; Trattner, Christoph

    2016-01-01

    Monitoring the road pavement is a challenging task. Authorities spend time and finances to monitor the state and quality of the road pavement. This paper investigate road surface monitoring with smartphones equipped with GPS and inertial sensors: accelerometer and gyroscope. In this study we descri

  7. RoADS: a road pavement monitoring system for anomaly detection using smart phones

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Seraj, Fatjon; Zwaag, van der Berend Jan; Dilo, Arta; Luarasi, Tamara; Havinga, Paul

    2014-01-01

    Monitoring the road pavement is a challenging task. Authorities spend time and finances to monitor the state and quality of the road pavement. This paper investigate road surface monitoring with smartphones equipped with GPS and inertial sensors: accelerometer and gyroscope. In this study we describ

  8. The relationship between traffic volume and road safety on the secondary road network : a literature review.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Duivenvoorden, K.

    2010-01-01

    On motorways, congestion is a well-known traffic problem. On the secondary road network, the same problem arises when traffic volume increases and the driven speed decreases. At certain times of day, roads get congested and the number of interactions between road users increases. In general, higher

  9. Visibility of road markings on wet road surfaces : a literature study.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schreuder, D.A.

    1981-01-01

    The English version of B 14153 is presented. Road markings, notably lane markers, are often only poorly visible when the road is wet. This is particularly a problem at night on unlit roads. A study is made of whether a solution for this problem can be found on the basis of the known, published li

  10. Forest opening with a secondary road network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danilović Milorad

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the results of an analysis of the position and density of a secondary road network in the group-selection management system. The research was conducted in the economic unit Prosara in the north west of the Republic of Srpska. The network of skid roads in the analyzed sections was recorded using the GPS devices Garmin GPS 60 and Garmin Map 62st, and the analysis software package used was ESRI ArcInfo 10.1. Adhering to the general guidelines, the slope of skid roads was analyzed within six predefined intervals: 0-12 %, 12-16 %, 16-20 %, 20-30 %, 30-40 % and over 40%. Relative openness with a secondary road network was determined for a maximum distance between the skid roads of 130m and it ranged from 82.62 % to 96.37 %. Such openness was classified as very good and excellent. Together with all factors related to stand and terrain characteristics, it appears that in all the compartments, the density of the secondary network of skid roads is adequate for the application of a skidder with a winch, without extending above the maximum length of the winch rope. Out of the total length of analyzed skid roads, 24% is within an appropriate slope interval for a planned conversion to truck roads, whereas 37 % is the maximum slope from the ecological point of view. The average terrain slope for the whole analyzed area is 26.4%. Such moderately sloping terrain is suitable for the construction of skid roads with low investment and small environmental impact. Due to their specific configuration, the main skid roads were designed along the ridge, while the secondary and tertiary skid roads most often separated from them at the maximum slope, forming an irregular fish bone shape.

  11. Scaling roads and wildlife: The Cinderella principle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bissonette, J.A.

    2002-01-01

    It is clear that a reduction in both direct and indirect effects of roads and road networks must be the goal of management agencies. However, increased permeability of roaded landscapes can only be achieved by up-front planning and subsequent mitigative actions. The key is to understand that roads must be made permeable to the movement of animals. More profoundly, ecosystem services, i.e., clean water, clean air, uncontaminated soil, natural landscapes, recreation opportunities, abundant wildlife, and life sustaining ecological processes must not be seriously impacted. In other words, quality of life as measured by ecosystem services should be a major component of the planning process when roads are constructed or improved. Mitigative structures exist to increase permeability of roads. Wildlife overpasses and underpasses, often referred to as ecoducts or green bridges, with associated structures to enable larger animals to exit the road right of way, e.g., earthen escape ramps (BISSONETTE and HAMMER, 2001), various culvert designs for smaller animals including badger pipes and amphibian and reptile tunnels, and fish ladders are but a small sampling of the structures already in place around the world. What is needed is attention to the big picture. Landscapes need to be reconnected and made more permeable. Responsible agencies and organizations need to be aggressive about promoting mitigations and a conservation ethic into road planning. Only with a broad based effort between a concerned public, a database to work from, and a willingness of responsible agencies, will the now very large virtual footprint of roads and road networks be reduced to more closely approximate the physical footprint. By embracing the Cinderella Principle of making the virtual shoe fit more closely the actual physical footprint of roads, we will be able to achieve a closer connection with ecological harmony with its resultant effect of abundant wildlife.

  12. Heme as a danger molecule in pathogen recognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wegiel, Barbara; Hauser, Carl J; Otterbein, Leo E

    2015-12-01

    Appropriate control of redox mechanisms are critical for and effective innate immune response, which employs multiple cell types, receptors and molecules that recognize danger signals when they reach the host. Recognition of pathogen-associated pattern molecules (PAMPs) is a fundamental host survival mechanism for efficient elimination of invading pathogens and resolution of the infection and inflammation. In addition to PAMPs, eukaryotic cells contain a plethora of intracellular molecules that are normally secured within the confines of the plasma membrane, but if liberated and encountered in the extracellular milieu can provoke rapid cell activation. These are known as Alarmins or Danger-Associated Molecular Patterns (DAMPs) and can be released actively by cells or passively as a result of sterile cellular injury after trauma, ischemia, or toxin-induced cell rupture. Both PAMPs and DAMPs are recognized by a series of cognate receptors that increase the generation of free radicals and activate specific signaling pathways that result in regulation of a variety of stress response, redox sensitive genes. Multiple mediators released, as cells die include, but are not limited to ATP, hydrogen peroxide, heme, formyl peptides, DNA or mitochondria provide the second signal to amplify immune responses. In this review, we will focus on how sterile and infective stimuli activate the stress response gene heme oxygenase-1 (Hmox1, HO-1), a master gene critical to an appropriate host response that is now recognized as one with enormous therapeutic potential. HO-1 gene expression is regulated in large part by redox-sensitive proteins including but not limited to nrf2. Both PAMPs and DAMPs increase the activation of nrf2 and HO-1. Heme is a powerful pro-oxidant and as such should be qualified as a DAMP. With its degradation by HO-1a molecule of carbon monoxide (CO) is generated that in turn serves as a bioactive signaling molecule. PAMPs such as bacterial endotoxin activate HO-1

  13. Road Crashes in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia: Empirical Findings ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Generally, among other risk factors we assessed including road conditions and ... right of way to other vehicles were the leading risk factors for road crashes in the city. Key Words: Road Crash; Fatalities; Serious Injuries; Minor Injuries; Safety ...

  14. All roads lead to Meyrin

    CERN Multimedia

    Communication locale

    2011-01-01

    Tous les chemins mènent à Meyrin - All roads lead to Meyrin From 29 September to 16 October, 2011, come to the Salle Antoine Verchère in Meyrin for Tous les chemins mènent à Meyrin. The celebration will include an exposition as well as a theatrical performance about Meyrin, the first satellite city in Switzerland. With the help of the memories and testimonies from the people of Meyrin, Tous les chemins mènent à Meyrin is putting the collective memories of the commune on display. It is an occasion for everyone, whether you're from near or far, to find out how all the roads lead to Meyrin.  Salle Antoine-Verchère Route de Meyrin 294 – 1217 Meyrin Tram 18 – Stop: Meyrin Village Thursdays / Fridays / Saturdays at 8pm Sundays at 5pm Regular ticket: CHF 15.- Concession ticket (students, chômeurs, AVS, AI): CHF 12.- Children up to 16: CHF 10.- Family ticket: CHF 35.-

  15. Road Scene Segmentation from a Single Image

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.M. Alvarez; T. Gevers; Y. LeCun; A.M. Lopez

    2012-01-01

    Road scene segmentation is important in computer vision for different applications such as autonomous driving and pedestrian detection. Recovering the 3D structure of road scenes provides relevant contextual information to improve their understanding. In this paper, we use a convolutional neural net

  16. Drawing Road Networks with Mental Maps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Shih-Syun; Lin, Chao-Hung; Hu, Yan-Jhang; Lee, Tong-Yee

    2014-09-01

    Tourist and destination maps are thematic maps designed to represent specific themes in maps. The road network topologies in these maps are generally more important than the geometric accuracy of roads. A road network warping method is proposed to facilitate map generation and improve theme representation in maps. The basic idea is deforming a road network to meet a user-specified mental map while an optimization process is performed to propagate distortions originating from road network warping. To generate a map, the proposed method includes algorithms for estimating road significance and for deforming a road network according to various geometric and aesthetic constraints. The proposed method can produce an iconic mark of a theme from a road network and meet a user-specified mental map. Therefore, the resulting map can serve as a tourist or destination map that not only provides visual aids for route planning and navigation tasks, but also visually emphasizes the presentation of a theme in a map for the purpose of advertising. In the experiments, the demonstrations of map generations show that our method enables map generation systems to generate deformed tourist and destination maps efficiently.

  17. Road safety: Knowledge, research and policy.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koornstra, M.J.

    1986-01-01

    The Dutch Institute for Road Safety Research SWOV is one of the very few institutes that is dedicated solely to the safety aspect of road traffic. In the nearly 25 years of its existence SWOV has contributed relatively much to the theoretical notions and methods of analysis. An overview is given of

  18. Road traffic emission monitoring on motorways

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dittrich, M.G.; Beek, P.J.G. van

    2006-01-01

    Road traffic noise is one of the major environmental noise sources that is known to cause health problems. Despite existing noise reception items, the continuing growth of traffic causes higher levels than the lims allow. Consequently, excessive costs are incurred for noise barriers along roads and

  19. Off-Road and the Fragile Desert

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stebbins, Robert C.

    1974-01-01

    Part one of a two-part article sets forth the dimensions and the political-cultural aspects of the use of off-road vehicles in desert areas. Presents arguments for and against off-road vehicle use on national-resource land as exemplified in the California Desert. (Editor/JR)

  20. Ruts and waves in the road surface.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tromp, J.P.M.

    1989-01-01

    The characteristics of a road and a road surface should not unexpectedly change, if the traffic process is to be kept safe and under control. Knowledge on accidents, in which ruts and waves played a part does not seem to exist. Knowledge on driver behaviour due to the occurrence of waves or ruts is

  1. International comparability of road safety data.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    2007-01-01

    Many countries compare the level of their road safety with other countries as an impulse for developing road safety policy. This, however, is by no means easy. The absolute numbers of crashes or casualties can not simply be compared, but must be related to the number of inhabitants of a country or t

  2. Road traffic noise and incident myocardial infarction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Mette; Andersen, Zorana Jovanovic; Nordsborg, Rikke B;

    2012-01-01

    Both road traffic noise and ambient air pollution have been associated with risk for ischemic heart disease, but only few inconsistent studies include both exposures.......Both road traffic noise and ambient air pollution have been associated with risk for ischemic heart disease, but only few inconsistent studies include both exposures....

  3. Learning Road Safety Skills in the Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Freddy Jackson; Gillard, Duncan

    2009-01-01

    This case study demonstrates the effectiveness of a classroom based learning programme in the acquisition of road safety skills. The participant, a child with severe learning disabilities, was taught road safety behaviours in the classroom with the aid of photograph cards. When he had mastered these skills in the classroom, he returned to the…

  4. Road Crash – Analysis and Alleviation Measures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Nirmala

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Now-a – days there has been a quantum jump in number of vehicles; the road length has been barely doubled. The fatalities and injuries due to road accidents have increased three folds. Fatalities due to road accidents are very much higher in India as compared to all other developed countries. The road accidents constitute the highest percentage, around 22 percent. For minimizing the rate of accidents where the resources are limited, attention has to be given to cost effective mitigation methods. Proper accident analysis is necessary to know the real reasons causing accidents. The location chosen for the study was East coast Road (ECR from Thiruvanmiyur to Pannaiyur covering a length of 11.4 km road. After the thorough study of accident statistics, two accident locations were selected to perform road inventory survey, Traffic Volume survey and spot speed survey for further work. The speed frequency curves were drawn to analyse the variation of speeds of vehicles which causes accidents. From the observations, road safety measures were recommended to reduce the rate of accidents.

  5. Serious road injuries in the Netherlands.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    2013-01-01

    This fact sheet discusses the development of the number of serious road injuries (SRI) in the Netherlands during the period 1993-2015. After an initial decrease from the 1990s onward, the number of serious road injuries has been increasing since 2006. In 2015, an estimated 21,300 people were

  6. Intelligent Speed Adaptation (ISA) and Road Safety.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oei, H.L. & Polak, P.H.

    2002-01-01

    An ISA system consists of GPS to determine the car's position, a CD-ROM in the car containing information of a road network including the prevailing speed limit of each road section, and feedback to the driver, Experiments in Sweden are testing several options, from warning the driver, to resisting

  7. IMPROVEMENT WORKS OF THE SCHRODINGER ROAD

    CERN Multimedia

    Groupe ST-TFM; GSM 164478; ST-TFM Group; Tel. 72296; GSM 164478

    2000-01-01

    Division ST will proceed, as from Monday September 4, with improvement works of the SCHRÖDINGER road with the aim of facilitating the passing conditions of vehicles (see plan). These works will last for two weeks during which traffic will be forbidden on this section of road. Thanking you in advance for your comprehension.

  8. ROAD REPAIR WORKS ON THE MEYRIN SITE

    CERN Multimedia

    ST-TFM Group

    2001-01-01

    ST Division will proceed, as from Monday 23 July, in repairing some parts of roads on the Meyrin site (see drawing). This work will last for one week depending on the weather conditions and will cause some traffic hold ups during this period. Please follow the indications on the temporary road signs. Thanking you in advance for your comprehension.

  9. Serious road injuries in The Netherlands dissected.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weijermars, W.A.M. Bos, N.M. & Stipdonk, H.L.

    2015-01-01

    This paper discusses the characteristics and injury patterns of serious road injuries (MAIS2+ inpatients) in the Netherlands. Methods: In the Netherlands, the actual number of serious injuries is estimated by linking police data to hospital data. The distribution of serious road injuries over 1)

  10. Intelligent Speed Adaptation (ISA) and Road Safety.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oei, H.L. & Polak, P.H.

    2002-01-01

    An ISA system consists of GPS to determine the car's position, a CD-ROM in the car containing information of a road network including the prevailing speed limit of each road section, and feedback to the driver, Experiments in Sweden are testing several options, from warning the driver, to resisting

  11. Public lighting : the effectiveness for road transport.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schreuder, D. A.

    1984-01-01

    When daylight is absent, the acquisition of normal visual information is not possible. Road traffic of the nature we are accustomed to today is not possible either: some sort of artificial light is indispensable. This artificial light is, therefore, a road traffic requirement: without artificial

  12. Road Scene Segmentation from a Single Image

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alvarez, J.M.; Gevers, T.; LeCun, Y.; Lopez, A.M.

    2012-01-01

    Road scene segmentation is important in computer vision for different applications such as autonomous driving and pedestrian detection. Recovering the 3D structure of road scenes provides relevant contextual information to improve their understanding. In this paper, we use a convolutional neural

  13. Safety performance indicators for the road network.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weijermars, W. Gitelman, V. Papadimitriou, E. Lima De & Azevedo, C.

    2010-01-01

    Within the 6th FP European project SafetyNet, a team has worked on the development of Safety Performance Indicators (SPIs) on seven road safety related areas. These SPIs reflect the operational conditions of the road traffic system that influence the system's safety performance. SPIs were developed

  14. Calculating Traffic based on Road Sensor Data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bisseling, Rob; Gao, Fengnan; Hafkenscheid, Patrick; Idema, Reijer; Jetka, Tomasz; Guerra Ones, Valia; Sikora, Monika

    2014-01-01

    Road sensors gather a lot of statistical data about traffic. In this paper, we discuss how a measure for the amount of traffic on the roads can be derived from this data, such that the measure is independent of the number and placement of sensors, and the calculations can be performed quickly for la

  15. Quantification of Gravel Rural Road Sediment Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silliman, B. A.; Myers Toman, E.

    2014-12-01

    Unbound rural roads are thought to be one of the largest anthropogenic sources of sediment reaching stream channels in small watersheds. This sediment deposition can reduce water quality in the streams negatively impacting aquatic habitat as well as impacting municipal drinking water sources. These roads are thought to see an increase in construction and use in southeast Ohio due to the expansion of shale gas development in the region. This study set out to quantify the amount of sediment these rural roads are able to produce. A controlled rain event of 12.7 millimeters of rain over a half hour period was used to drive sediment production over a 0.03 kilometer section of gravel rural road. These 8 segments varied in many characteristics and produced from 2.0 to 8.4 kilograms of sediment per 0.03 kilometers of road with the average production over the 8 segments being 5.5 kilograms of sediment. Sediment production was not strongly correlated with road segment slope but traffic was found to increase sediment production from 1.1 to 3.9 times as much sediment after traffic use. These results will help inform watershed scale sediment budgeting, and inform best management practices for road maintenance and construction. This study also adds to the understanding of the impacts of rural road use and construction associated with the changing land use from agricultural to natural gas extraction.

  16. Area Wide Road User Charging in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kildebogaard, Jan

    1999-01-01

    The paper presents the concept of a distance based road user charging scheme and the research programme FORTRIN at DTU is introduced.......The paper presents the concept of a distance based road user charging scheme and the research programme FORTRIN at DTU is introduced....

  17. 30 CFR 780.37 - Road systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Road systems. 780.37 Section 780.37 Mineral... MINING AND RECLAMATION OPERATIONS PERMITS AND COAL EXPLORATION SYSTEMS UNDER REGULATORY PROGRAMS SURFACE MINING PERMIT APPLICATIONS-MINIMUM REQUIREMENTS FOR RECLAMATION AND OPERATION PLAN § 780.37 Road systems...

  18. Reduction of soil erosion on forest roads

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edward R. Burroughs; John G. King

    1989-01-01

    Presents the expected reduction in surface erosion from selected treatments applied to forest road traveledways, cutslopes, fillslopes, and ditches. Estimated erosion reduction is expressed as functions of ground cover, slope gradient, and soil properties whenever possible. A procedure is provided to select rock riprap size for protection of the road ditch.

  19. Autonomous manoeuvring systems for collision avoidance on single carriageway roads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiménez, Felipe; Naranjo, José Eugenio; Gómez, Oscar

    2012-11-29

    The accurate perception of the surroundings of a vehicle has been the subject of study of numerous automotive researchers for many years. Although several projects in this area have been successfully completed, very few prototypes have actually been industrialized and installed in mass produced cars. This indicates that these research efforts must continue in order to improve the present systems. Moreover, the trend to include communication systems in vehicles extends the potential of these perception systems transmitting their information via wireless to other vehicles that may be affected by the surveyed environment. In this paper we present a forward collision warning system based on a laser scanner that is able to detect several potential danger situations. Decision algorithms try to determine the most convenient manoeuvre when evaluating the obstacles' positions and speeds, road geometry, etc. Once detected, the presented system can act on the actuators of the ego-vehicle as well as transmit this information to other vehicles circulating in the same area using vehicle-to-vehicle communications. The system has been tested for overtaking manoeuvres under different scenarios and the correct actions have been performed.

  20. Autonomous Manoeuvring Systems for Collision Avoidance on Single Carriageway Roads

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Óscar Gómez

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The accurate perception of the surroundings of a vehicle has been the subject of study of numerous automotive researchers for many years. Although several projects in this area have been successfully completed, very few prototypes have actually been industrialized and installed in mass produced cars. This indicates that these research efforts must continue in order to improve the present systems. Moreover, the trend to include communication systems in vehicles extends the potential of these perception systems transmitting their information via wireless to other vehicles that may be affected by the surveyed environment. In this paper we present a forward collision warning system based on a laser scanner that is able to detect several potential danger situations. Decision algorithms try to determine the most convenient manoeuvre when evaluating the obstacles’ positions and speeds, road geometry, etc. Once detected, the presented system can act on the actuators of the ego-vehicle as well as transmit this information to other vehicles circulating in the same area using vehicle-to-vehicle communications. The system has been tested for overtaking manoeuvres under different scenarios and the correct actions have been performed.

  1. Nutritional rehabilitation of anorexia nervosa. Goals and dangers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golden, Neville H; Meyer, Wendy

    2004-01-01

    Nutritional rehabilitation of adolescents with anorexia nervosa is both a science and an art. The goals are to promote metabolic recovery; restore a healthy body weight; reverse the medical complications of the disorder and to improve eating behaviors and psychological functioning. Most, but not all of the medical complications are reversible with nutritional rehabilitation. Refeeding patients with anorexia nervosa results in deposition of lean body mass initially, followed by restoration of adipose tissue as treatment goal weight is approached. The major danger of nutritional rehabilitation is the refeeding syndrome, characterized by fluid and electrolyte, cardiac, hematological and neurological complications, the most serious of which is sudden unexpected death. The refeeding syndrome is most likely to occur in those who are severely malnourished. In such patients, this complication can be avoided by slow refeeding with careful monitoring of body weight, heart rate and rhythm and serum electrolytes, especially serum phosphorus. This paper reviews our clinical experience.

  2. Insidious dangers of benevolent sexism: consequences for women's performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dardenne, Benoit; Dumont, Muriel; Bollier, Thierry

    2007-11-01

    Four experiments found benevolent sexism to be worse than hostile sexism for women's cognitive performance. Experiments 1-2 showed effects of paternalist benevolent sexism and ruled out explanations of perceived sexism, context pleasantness, and performance motivation. Experiment 3 showed effects of both paternalist and complementary gender differentiation components of benevolent sexism. Benevolent sexism per se (rather than the provision of unsolicited help involved in paternalism) worsened performance. Experiment 4 showed that impaired performance due to benevolent sexism was fully mediated by the mental intrusions women experienced about their sense of competence. Additionally, Experiment 4 showed that gender identification protected against hostile but not benevolent sexism. Despite the apparently positive and inoffensive tone of benevolent sexism, our research emphasizes its insidious dangers.

  3. A Cable-tunnel Inspecting Robot for Dangerous Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fu Zhuang

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a kind of mobile robot used for inspecting the cable tunnel online in the dangerous environment. Usually, the calble tunnel is full of poisonous gases after fire, such as CO,CH4, CO2 and so on. Then, the mobile robot is able to tell us whether the tunnel environment is safe or not. In this paper the architecture of the robot is designed at first to meet the motion requirement in the tunnel. These characteristics distinguish the mobile robot from others like compact structure,small size,little weight and easily being carried. Next, the moving mechanism and its kinematics are described. And thus, the operating procedure and experiments are introuduced to validate its reliablity.

  4. The advisory list for selvclassification of dangerous substances

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Niemelä, Jay Russell; Wedebye, Eva Bay; Nikolov, Nikolai Georgiev

    All chemical substances marketed in the EU must be classified and labelled according to the regulation on classification and labelling of dangerous substances (7). Substances with harmonised classifications adopted in the EU are to be found on the List of harmonised classification and labelling...... this issue, the Danish Environmental Protection Agency published the Advisory Self-classification List /5/. This report describes the updating of this list. The Advisory Self-Classification list is created by the use of (Q)SARs ((Quantitative) Structure-Activity Relationships) to predict the effects...... of chemicals. The updated Advisory Self-Classification list contains the results of a systematic assessment of 49,292 discrete organic EINECS substances in relation to the following endpoints for which new and/or improved (Q)SAR model predictions were available: o Mutagenicity o Carcinogenicity o Reproductive...

  5. The advisory list for selvclassification of dangerous substances

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Niemelä, Jay Russell; Wedebye, Eva Bay; Nikolov, Nikolai Georgiev

    All chemical substances marketed in the EU must be classified and labelled according to the regulation on classification and labelling of dangerous substances (7). Substances with harmonised classifications adopted in the EU are to be found on the List of harmonised classification and labelling...... of hazardous substances (Annex VI of 1272/2008/EU). This list covers around 7000 substances which have been classified for their hazardous properties. However, this also means that about 93,000 of the 100,204 existing substances in the EU (EINECS list), are not formally classified. With these substances...... Skin sensitisation The updated advisory list is available as an Excel file for download from DK-EPA's website and as an online searchable database. This includes the 23,922 chemicals with new advisory classifications resulting from this project, making in all, a total of 30,179 chemicals with advisory...

  6. Bougie insertion: A common practice with underestimated dangers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theodorou, D.; Doulami, G.; Larentzakis, A.; Almpanopoulos, K.; Stamou, K.; Zografos, G.; Menenakos, E.

    2011-01-01

    Introduction Esophageal perforation after bariatric operations is rare. We report two cases of esophageal perforation after bariatric operations indicating the dangers of a common practice – like insertion of esophageal tubes – and we describe our management of that complication. Presentation of case A 56 year old woman who underwent laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy and a 41 year old woman who underwent laparoscopic adjustable gastric banding respectively. In both operations a bougie has been used and led to esophageal perforation. Discussion The insertion of bougie and especially of inflated bougie is a common practice. It is an invasive procedure that in most cases is performed by the anesthesiologist team. Conclusion Bougie insertion is an invasive procedure with risks and should always be attempted under direct supervision of surgical team or should be inserted by a surgeon. PMID:22288051

  7. A cable-tunnel inspecting robot for dangerous environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fu Zhuang

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a kind of mobile robot used for inspecting the cable tunnel online in the dangerous environment. Usually, the calble tunnel is full of poisonous gases after fire, such as CO, CH4, CO2 and so on. Then, the mobile robot is able to tell us whether the tunnel environment is safe or not. In this paper the architecture of the robot is designed at first to meet the motion requirement in the tunnel. These characteristics distinguish the mobile robot from others like compact structure, small size, little weight and easily being carried. Next, the moving mechanism and its kinematics are described. And thus, the operating procedure and experiments are introuduced to validate its reliablity.

  8. Sources, Dangers and Treatments of Oily Soil Pollutants in Iraq

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghazi M. Mutter

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Oil pollution presents significant risks to living organism and human health because it can alter the ecosystem in rivers, seas, oceans, and pollutes air and soil. Oil, for example, can even reduce the efficiency of drinking water plants. Iraq suffers a lot from oil pollution as a result of wars that not only damage the oil infrastructures but also cause loss of thousand hectare of agriculture lands. In addition, oil pollution become primary factor that contribute to the electricity, fuel shortage and traffic jam problems. Oil pollution can be easily found in many parts of Iraq, even in main streets, houses and gardens due to the residents mismanagement and misuse of oily products. Therefore, the aim of this paper is to focus in detail about the sources and dangers of oil pollution on the environment and soil, as well as to provide some suggestions and measurements that can help in limiting the impact of oil pollution in Iraq.

  9. Swallowed magnets and batteries: a dangerous but not unexpected attraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teague, Warwick Jonathan; Vaughan, Elizabeth Mary; McHoney, Merrill; McCabe, Amanda Jayne

    2013-04-10

    An 18-month-old boy was witnessed swallowing a cluster of five magnetic toy balls. He was coincidentally noted on plain x-rays to have also recently swallowed a watch battery and a small screw. Initial outpatient management with serial review and x-rays was unsuccessful, and delayed inpatient surgical care by 9 days. Although the child never manifested features of systemic or gastrointestinal upset, emergency laparotomy confirmed a resultant jejunocolic fistula. This case demonstrates how clinical assessment of children who have swallowed magnets separately from each other can be falsely reassuring, and highlights the potential dangers of outpatient management. We recommend children who have swallowed separately >1 magnetic objects (or >1 objects capable of magnetic attraction) be managed as inpatients with active observation and timely foreign body removal.

  10. Fossil turbulence and fossil turbulence waves can be dangerous

    CERN Document Server

    Gibson, Carl H

    2012-01-01

    Turbulence is defined as an eddy-like state of fluid motion where the inertial-vortex forces of the eddies are larger than any other forces that tend to damp the eddies out. By this definition, turbulence always cascades from small scales where vorticity is created to larger scales where turbulence fossilizes. Fossil turbulence is any perturbation in a hydrophysical field produced by turbulence that persists after the fluid is no longer turbulent at the scale of the perturbation. Fossil turbulence patterns and fossil turbulence waves preserve and propagate energy and information about previous turbulence. Ignorance of fossil turbulence properties can be dangerous. Examples include the Osama bin Laden helicopter crash and the Air France 447 Airbus crash, both unfairly blamed on the pilots. Observations support the proposed definitions, and suggest even direct numerical simulations of turbulence require caution.

  11. CLP Regulation and the transport of dangerous goods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio Benassai

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Regulations concerning different modes of transport of dangerous goods are well harmonized at global level: they were then looked at as a model for developing Globally Harmonized System of Classification and Labelling of Chemicals (GHS, (on which CLP Regulations is based. Transport regulations do not cover some hazard classes, such as germ cell mutagenicity, carcinogenicity, reproductive toxicity, having been evaluated that such hazards are not relevant in transport because in general, in case of accident, no repeated and prolonged exposure takes place. Other differences with CLP Regulation are related to the use of "building block approach". Transport labels, which were used as a basis for GHS, can be used, instead of CLP pictograms, on packages during transport.

  12. Wildlife friendly roads: the impacts of roads on wildlife in urban areas and potential remedies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riley, Seth P D; Brown, Justin L.; Sikich, Jeff A.; Schoonmaker, Catherine M.; Boydston, Erin E.

    2014-01-01

    Roads are one of the most important factors affecting the ability of wildlife to live and move within an urban area. Roads physically replace wildlife habitat and often reduce habitat quality nearby, fragment the remaining habitat, and cause increased mortality through vehicle collisions. Much ecological research on roads has focused on whether animals are successfully crossing roads, or if the road is a barrier to wildlife movement, gene flow, or functional connectivity. Roads can alter survival and reproduction for wildlife, even among species such as birds that cross roads easily. Here we examine the suite of potential impacts of roads on wildlife, but we focus particularly on urban settings. We report on studies, both in the literature and from our own experience, that have addressed wildlife and roads in urban landscapes. Although road ecology is a growing field of study, relatively little of this research, and relatively few mitigation projects, have been done in urban landscapes. We also draw from the available science on road impacts in rural areas when urban case studies have not fully addressed key topics.

  13. Challenges of raising road maintenance funds in developing countries: An analysis of road tolling in Zimbabwe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. C. Mbara

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available The condition of Zimbabwe's roads has been declining due to insufficient maintenance and rehabilitation. Year on year, budget allocations have compared unfavourably with funding considered adequate to maintain highway networks and conduct modest construction work. Road infrastructure shortcomings have manifested themselves in the form of high vehicle operating costs and rampant potholes, leading to a decline in road safety and a deterioration of service levels for those who use roads to deliver goods or connect to international markets. In order to try and stop this vicious cycle of decline, the Government of Zimbabwe, on 8 August 2009, introduced a new policy of road-user charges, which involved the setting-up of 22 toll gates on the trunk road network. The overall objective was to raise revenue in order to close the funding gap, blamed for declining road quality. Although alternative methods of financing road maintenance have been debated for years, a generally accepted understanding is that road users should pay costs for road provisioning. This paper assesses the implementation of a road tolling system in Zimbabwe and describes matters relating to, inter alia, implementation strategy, initial performance outcomes and sustainability.

  14. Hanford facility dangerous waste permit application, PUREX storage tunnels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Price, S.M.

    1997-09-08

    The Hanford Facility Dangerous Waste Permit Application is considered to be a single application organized into a General Information Portion (document number DOE/RL-91-28) and a Unit-Specific Portion. The scope of the Unit-Specific Portion is limited to Part B permit application documentation submitted for individual, operating treatment, storage, and/or disposal units, such as the PUREX Storage Tunnels (this document, DOE/RL-90-24). Both the General Information and Unit-Specific portions of the Hanford Facility Dangerous Waste Permit Application address the content of the Part B permit application guidance prepared by the Washington State Department of Ecology (Ecology 1996) and the US Environmental Protection Agency (40 Code of Federal Regulations 270), with additional information needs defined by the Hazardous and Solid Waste Amendments and revisions of Washington Administrative Code 173-303. For ease of reference, the Washington State Department of Ecology alpha-numeric section identifiers from the permit application guidance documentation (Ecology 1996) follow, in brackets, the chapter headings and subheadings. A checklist indicating where information is contained in the PUREX Storage Tunnels permit application documentation, in relation to the Washington State Department of Ecology guidance, is located in the Contents Section. Documentation contained in the General Information Portion is broader in nature and could be used by multiple treatment, storage, and/or disposal units (e.g., the glossary provided in the General Information Portion). Wherever appropriate, the PUREX Storage Tunnels permit application documentation makes cross-reference to the General Information Portion, rather than duplicating text. Information provided in this PUREX Storage Tunnels permit application documentation is current as of April 1997.

  15. Road Accidents and Road Fatalities in Denmark from 1968 to 2004

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Orozova-Bekkevold, Ivanka; Hels, Tove; Bernhoft, Inger Marie

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to describe the road accidents and road fatalities in Denmark in the period 1968-2004. Only accidents registered by the police were used. Crude and gender & age specific fatality rates (counts per 1,000,000 inhabitants) were estimated for all road users and for bicy......The purpose of this article is to describe the road accidents and road fatalities in Denmark in the period 1968-2004. Only accidents registered by the police were used. Crude and gender & age specific fatality rates (counts per 1,000,000 inhabitants) were estimated for all road users...... and for bicyclists. The accident and fatality rates have decreased by around 70% from 1968 to 2004, while the motorisation rate has increased by approximately 90%. The sharpest decrease in the fatality rate was observed among the youngest (below 18 years old) and the older (above 64) road users. Gender related...

  16. Unofficial Road Building in the Brazilian Amazon: Dilemmas and Models for Road Governance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perz, Stephen G.; Overdevest, Christine; Caldas, Marcellus M.; Walker, Robert T.; Arima, Eugenio Y.

    2007-01-01

    Unofficial roads form dense networks in landscapes, generating a litany of negative ecological outcomes, but unofficial roads in frontier areas are also instrumental in local livelihoods and community development. This trade-off poses dilemmas for the governance of unofficial roads. Unofficial road building in frontier areas of the Brazilian Amazon illustrates the challenges of 'road governance.' Both state-based and community based governance models exhibit important liabilities for governing unofficial roads. Whereas state-based governance has experienced difficulties in adapting to specific local contexts and interacting effectively with local interest groups, community-based governance has a mixed record owing to social inequalities and conflicts among local interest groups. A state-community hybrid model may offer more effective governance of unofficial road building by combining the oversight capacity of the state with locally grounded community management via participatory decision-making.

  17. Roads Belong In the Urban Landscape

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clemmensen, Thomas Juel

    2012-01-01

    In spite of being an essential part of the system of automobility and as such playing an important role in the development of urban landscapes, road networks seldom attracts much attention among architects involved in the planning and design of urban landscapes. One reason is probably found...... to infrastructure and claim that ‘roads belong in the urban landscape’, a claim that echoes John Brinkerhoff Jacksons essay Roads Belong in The Landscape (1994). Furthermore, it will be argued that road networks can be considered an important framework for creating new ‘green infrastructures’ that can qualify urban...... landscapes in terms of improving their overall porosity and connectivity. In order to strengthen this argument, the paper will (re)visit tree different ‘sites’ in relation to modern road networks, which holds a potential in relation to the development of green infrastructures in fragmented urban landscapes...

  18. Road lighting fundamentals, technology and application

    CERN Document Server

    van Bommel, Wout

    2015-01-01

    This book outlines the underlying principles on which modern road lighting is based, and provides the reader with knowledge of how these principles should be applied in practice. It offers a completely fresh approach to the subject, reflecting how the technology of road lighting has progressed to keep up with the changes in lamp technology, especially in solid state light sources, and the increasing awareness of energy use and environmental issues. The book is divided into three parts. Part One describes lighting of open roads, with chapters discussing visual performance and comfort (including the effects of mesopic vision and age), and international standards and recommendations for road lighting. Lighting equipment is introduced; specifically lamps and luminaires in terms of their practical properties and features, but also the road surface and its characteristics. A chapter on Lighting Design makes the link between theory and practice, providing the reader with the knowledge needed for effective lighting d...

  19. Injury profiles of road traffic deaths.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santamariña-Rubio, Elena; Pérez, Katherine; Ricart, Isabel; Arroyo, Amparo; Castellà, Josep; Borrell, Carme

    2007-01-01

    The objective is to describe injuries of road traffic deaths in Barcelona and identify injury profiles by road user type, through a cross-sectional study including road traffic deaths for the period 1997-2004. The data source was the Institut de Medicina Legal de Catalunya. Diagnoses were coded using the International Classification of Diseases, 9th revision, Clinical Modification, and classified using the Barell Matrix. Of the 719 deaths studied, 45% were pedestrians, 32% two wheel motor vehicle users, and 23% car occupants. The injury profile of the road traffic deaths in Barcelona is internal injuries and fractures to the torso and to the head/neck. This profile is repeated in all the road user groups, although pedestrians present higher frequencies of fractures and contusions to extremities and contusions to the head/neck, and fewer internal torso injuries than car occupants or two wheel motor vehicle users.

  20. BRICS: opportunities to improve road safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyder, Adnan A; Vecino-Ortiz, Andres I

    2014-06-01

    Brazil, the Russian Federation, India, China and South Africa--the countries known as BRICS--are currently undergoing a deep epidemiological transition that is mainly driven by rapid economic growth and technological change. The changes being observed in the distribution of the burden of diseases and injuries--such as recent increases in the incidence of road traffic injuries--are matters of concern. BRICS may need stronger institutional capacity to address such changes in a timely way. In this paper, we present data on road traffic injuries in BRICS and illustrate the enormous challenge that these countries currently face in reducing the incidence of such injuries. There is an urgent need to improve road safety indicators in every country constituting BRICS. It is imperative for BRICS to invest in system-wide road safety interventions and reduce the mortality and morbidity from road traffic injuries.