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Sample records for lynch cove hood

  1. Geochemical and geophysical examination of submarine groundwater discharge and associated nutrient loading estimates into Lynch Cove, Hood Canal, WA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swarzenski, P.W.; Simonds, F.W.; Paulson, A.J.; Kruse, S.; Reich, C.

    2007-01-01

    Geochemical tracer data (i.e., 222Rn and four naturally occurring Ra isotopes), electromagnetic (EM) seepage meter results, and high-resolution, stationary electrical resistivity images were used to examine the bi-directional (i.e., submarine groundwater discharge and recharge) exchange of a coastal aquifer with seawater. Our study site for these experiments was Lynch Cove, the terminus of Hood Canal, WA, where fjord-like conditions dramatically limit water column circulation that can lead to recurring summer-time hypoxic events. In such a system a precise nutrient budget may be particularly sensitive to groundwater-derived nutrient loading. Shore-perpendicular time-series subsurface resistivity profiles show clear, decimeter-scale tidal modulation of the coastal aquifer in response to large, regional hydraulic gradients, hydrologically transmissive glacial terrain, and large (4-5 m) tidal amplitudes. A 5-day 222Rn time-series shows a strong inverse covariance between 222Rn activities (0.5−29 dpm L-1) and water level fluctuations, and provides compelling evidence for tidally modulated exchange of groundwater across the sediment/water interface. Mean Rn-derived submarine groundwater discharge (SGD) rates of 85 ± 84 cm d-1 agree closely in the timing and magnitude with EM seepage meter results that showed discharge during low tide and recharge during high tide events. To evaluate the importance of fresh versus saline SGD, Rn-derived SGD rates (as a proxy of total SGD) were compared to excess 226Ra-derived SGD rates (as a proxy for the saline contribution of SGD). The calculated SGD rates, which include a significant (>80%) component of recycled seawater, are used to estimate associated nutrient (NH4+, Si, PO43-, NO3 + NO2, TDN) loads to Lynch Cove. The dissolved inorganic nitrogen (DIN = NH4 + NO2 + NO3) SGD loading estimate of 5.9 × 104 mol d-1 is 1−2 orders of magnitude larger than similar estimates derived from atmospheric deposition and surface water runoff

  2. Geochemical and geophysical examination of submarine groundwater discharge and associated nutrient loading estimates into Lynch Cove, Hood Canal, WA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swarzenski, Peter W; Simonds, F William; Paulson, Anthony J; Kruse, Sarah; Reich, Chris

    2007-10-15

    Geochemical tracer data (i.e., 222Rn and four naturally occurring Ra isotopes), electromagnetic (EM) seepage meter results, and high-resolution, stationary electrical resistivity images were used to examine the bi-directional (i.e., submarine groundwater discharge and recharge) exchange of a coastal aquifer with seawater. Our study site for these experiments was Lynch Cove, the terminus of Hood Canal, WA, where fjord-like conditions dramatically limit water column circulation that can lead to recurring summer-time hypoxic events. In such a system a precise nutrient budget may be particularly sensitive to groundwater-derived nutrient loading. Shore-perpendicular time-series subsurface resistivity profiles show clear, decimeter-scale tidal modulation of the coastal aquifer in response to large, regional hydraulic gradients, hydrologically transmissive glacial terrain, and large (4-5 m) tidal amplitudes. A 5-day 222Rn time-series shows a strong inverse covariance between 222Rn activities (0.5-29 dpm L(-1)) and water level fluctuations, and provides compelling evidence for tidally modulated exchange of groundwater across the sediment/water interface. Mean Rn-derived submarine groundwater discharge (SGD) rates of 85 +/- 84 cm d(-1) agree closely in the timing and magnitude with EM seepage meter results that showed discharge during low tide and recharge during high tide events. To evaluate the importance of fresh versus saline SGD, Rn-derived SGD rates (as a proxy of total SGD) were compared to excess 226Ra-derived SGD rates (as a proxy for the saline contribution of SGD). The calculated SGD rates, which include a significant (>80%) component of recycled seawater, are used to estimate associated nutrient (NH4+, Si, PO4(3-), NO3 + NO2, TDN) loads to Lynch Cove. The dissolved inorganic nitrogen (DIN = NH4 + NO2 + NO3) SGD loading estimate of 5.9 x 10(4) mol d(-1) is 1-2 orders of magnitude larger than similar estimates derived from atmospheric deposition and surface water

  3. HOODS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Palleja, Albert; Jensen, Lars J

    2015-01-01

    Clustering algorithms are often used to find groups relevant in a specific context; however, they are not informed about this context. We present a simple algorithm, HOODS, which identifies context-specific neighborhoods of entities from a similarity matrix and a list of entities specifying...... the context. We illustrate its applicability by finding disease-specific neighborhoods of functionally associated proteins, kinase-specific neighborhoods of structurally similar inhibitors, and physiological-system-specific neighborhoods of interconnected diseases. HOODS can be used via a simple interface...... at http://hoods.jensenlab.org, from where the source code can also be downloaded....

  4. Lynch Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... colon cancer may include surgery, chemotherapy and radiation therapy. Cancer screening for people with Lynch syndrome If you ... et al. Milestones of Lynch syndrome: 1895-2015. Nature Reviews Cancer. http://www.nature.com/nrc/journal/vaop/ncurrent/ ...

  5. Potential Cascadia Tsunami Deposits From a Tidal Marsh at Hood Canal, Puget Sound, Washington

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrison-Laney, C.

    2015-12-01

    Two candidate Cascadia tsunami deposits are found in tidal marsh sediments near Lynch Cove, at the head of Hood Canal. The deposits are suggestive of tsunami deposits in their tabular form, distribution in the marsh, sediment type, and microfossil content. The deposits are traceable in channel bank exposures, dug pits, and sediment cores on the outer edges of the marsh, and thin landward to an inland extent of at least 200 m. The deposits are made up of mud to fine sand, and are similar in appearance and grain size to the broad adjacent tidal flat. The deposits also contain tidal flat diatoms, and are notably different from the diatoms in the marsh sediments below and above the deposits. Radiocarbon ages of plant fossils show that the younger deposit (Layer A) postdates A.D. 1680, and may therefore represent the A.D. 1700 Cascadia tsunami. The older deposit (Layer B) has a two sigma age of A.D. 1170-1220, which overlaps in time with coseismic subsidence at the mouth of the Columbia River (subsidence of Soil W, A.D. 1000-1190), and with adjusted age estimates for deep-sea turbidites (turbidite T3, A.D. 960-1180). It is unknown whether Cascadia subduction zone tsunamis have left a geological record in Puget Sound. A recent unpublished simulation by the Pacific Marine Environmental Laboratory, NOAA, of a Cascadia tsunami propagating into Puget Sound predicts maximum water levels of over 4 m for some high water "hot spots" at the heads of narrow waterways. The marsh near Lynch Cove is a simulation "hot spot" with predicted water levels over 3 m. Narrow, wave-amplifying waterways, together with an available sediment supply, and predicted high water levels suggest that Cascadia tsunamis could leave behind a geologic record in Puget Sound, given conditions favorable for deposit preservation. Alternatively, one or both of the deposits may represent tsunamis generated by slides or fault displacement in Hood Canal.

  6. David Lynch (Sammelrezension)

    OpenAIRE

    2002-01-01

    Ralfdieter Füller: Fiktion und Antifiktion. Die Filme David Lynchs und der Kulturprozeß im Amerika der 1980er und 90er Jahre.Stefan Höltgen: Spiegelbilder. Strategien der ästhetischen Verdoppelung in den Filmen von David Lynch

  7. Diagnosing Lynch Syndrome

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Gleeson, J

    2016-11-01

    Lynch Syndrome, also known as Hereditary Non-Polyposis Colorectal Cancer (HNPCC), is a hereditary condition that increases an individual’s risk of developing a constellation of cancers. These most commonly arise in the colon, but also involve other solid organs such as the endometrium and ovaries in women, the stomach, brain and the skin. Ireland’s small population offers an opportunity to identify all those with Lynch Syndrome (LS) in the country, which would represent a powerful preventive opportunity to meaningfully impact on the incidence of cancer in Ireland.

  8. Lynch Syndrome revision.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sila Castellón Mortera

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The literature regarding colon`s adenocarcinoma hereditary no poliposico or Lynch Syndrome is reviewed. The clinical characteristics, genetics and histologycal of colon´s adenocarcinoma hereditary, no poliposico are pointed out, so as the updated criteria approved in Amsterdam, for the diagnostic of patients with this Syndrome. The therapeutics is updated.

  9. Updating Older Fume Hoods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saunders, G. Thomas

    1985-01-01

    Provides information on updating older fume hoods. Areas addressed include: (1) adjustment of the hood's back baffle; (2) hood air leakage; (3) light level; (4) hood location in relation to room traffic and room air; and (5) establishing and maintaining hood performance. (JN)

  10. Unusual presentation of Lynch Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Veronica PCC

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Lynch Syndrome/HNPCC is a syndrome of cancer predisposition linked to inherited mutations of genes participating in post-replicative DNA mismatch repair (MMR. The spectrum of cancer associated with Lynch Syndrome includes tumours of the colorectum, endometrium, ovary, upper gastrointestinal tract and the urothelium although other cancers are rarely described. We describe a family of Lynch Syndrome with an hMLH1 mutation, that harbours an unusual tumour spectrum and its diagnostic and management challenges.

  11. Lynch syndrome-associated neoplasms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shia, Jinru; Holck, Susanne; Depetris, Giovanni;

    2013-01-01

    of interacting developments from the disciplines of clinical oncology, pathology, and molecular genetics, with each development serving to guide or enhance the next. The advancement of our understanding about the pathology of Lynch syndrome associated tumors exemplifies such intimate interplay among disciplines....... Today, accumulative knowledge has enabled surgical pathologists to detect tumors that are likely to be associated with Lynch syndrome, and the pathologist is playing an increasingly more important role in the care of these patients. The pathologist's ability is afforded primarily by information gained...... of such information. This article provides an overview of the development of histopathology and immunohistochemistry in Lynch syndrome-associated tumors, particularly in colorectal and endometrial cancers, and outlines the issues and current status of these specific pathologic aspects in not only the major tumors...

  12. Statement on hooding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leth, Peter Mygind

    2011-01-01

    Hooding and other equivalent practices are intentional forms of sensory deprivation which constitute cruel, inhuman and degrading treatment or punishment and should be prohibited in interrogations and detention. When hooding is practiced in conjunction with other acts that may be considered cruel...

  13. Do Surrealismo em David Lynch

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirian Tavares

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available O surrealismo, como a arte do seu tempo, propõe uma nova estética, capaz de extrair o belo do absurdo e de instaurar o desvio para que daí surja, de fato, o real. Através da análise de algumas obras de David Lynch e dos livros Les champs magnétiques de Breton e Philippe Soupault e Poisson soluble, de Breton, irei mostrar a pertinência da designação surrealista para a obra do cineasta norte-americano. Lynch, como os surrealistas, constrói uma operação dialética entre o racional/irracional. Ao mesmo tempo em que opera no campo artístico em direção à irracionalidade absoluta, Lynch não nega a sua inserção na sociedade. Acredito que o realizador, como os surrealistas, tenha conseguido encontrar um equilíbrio entre as duas formas de se estar no mundo, racional/irracional, jogando com suas antíteses. O prazer do jogo surrealista consiste em ir até as profundezas do inconsciente e retornar com matéria suficiente para fazer uma obra de arte.Surrealism, as the art of its time, proposes a new aesthetics, one that is able to extract the beautiful from the absurd and to establish the swerve from the standard, from which, in fact, the real comes through. Through the analysis of some works by David Lynch, of Breton and Soupault's Les champs magnétiques, and of Breton's Poisson soluble, I will attempt to show the relevance of the surrealist designation for the work of the American filmmaker. Lynch, like the surrealists, builds a dialectic operation between the rational and the irrational. While operating in the artistic field towards absolute irrationality, Lynch does not deny its role in society. It is my belief that the director, as the surrealists, has managed to find a balance between the two ways of being in the world: rational and irrational; by playing with their antitheses. The pleasure of the surrealist game is to go to the depths of the unconscious and return with sufficient material to make a work of art out of it.

  14. 36 CFR 13.1122 - Bartlett Cove Public Use Dock.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Bartlett Cove Public Use Dock... Bartlett Cove § 13.1122 Bartlett Cove Public Use Dock. (a) Docking, tying down, or securing aircraft is prohibited except at the designated aircraft float at the Bartlett Cove Public Use Dock. Docking, tying down...

  15. [Founder mutation in Lynch syndrome].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cajal, Andrea R; Piñero, Tamara A; Verzura, Alicia; Santino, Juan Pablo; Solano, Angela R; Kalfayan, Pablo G; Ferro, Alejandra; Vaccaro, Carlos

    2016-01-01

    Lynch syndrome is the most frequent syndrome in hereditary colorectal cancer, a family-specific deleterious mutations in genes encoding DNA reparation proteins: MLH1 (mutL homolog 1), MSH2, MSH6 (mutS homolog 2 y 6, respectively), PMS2 (PMS1 homolog 2, mismatch repair system component) y MUTYH (mutY DNA glycosylase). The c.2252_2253delAA, p.Lys751Serfs*3 mutation in MLH1 gene segregates with a haplotype reported in the northern region of Italy and whose origin was attributed to a founder effect. This mutation co-segregates with typical characteristics of Lynch syndrome, including early age at onset and multiple primary tumors in the same individual, a high frequency of pancreatic cancer, high microsatellite instability and lack of PMS2 expression. This report describes a mutation in an Argentinian patient with endometrioid adenocarcinoma of uterus. Her first-degree relatives had a history of colon cancer diagnosed before 50 years, fulfilling the Amsterdam Criteria I and Lynch syndrome II. The high pathogenicity associated to this mutation makes necessary the study of all members from families with hereditary cancer, allowing pre-symptomatic genetic diagnosis, early assessment and the instauration of preventive treatments.

  16. Hætten af for Robin Hood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oxenbøll, Morten

    2010-01-01

    En historisk gennemgang af Robin Hood myten i anledning af den kommende Hood film med Russell Crowe i hovedrollen.......En historisk gennemgang af Robin Hood myten i anledning af den kommende Hood film med Russell Crowe i hovedrollen....

  17. Modernization and Lynching in the New South

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mattias Smångs

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This article evaluates an emerging body of historical scholarship that challenges prevailing views of the primacy of rural conditions in southern lynching by positing that it was symbiotically associated with the processes of modernization underway in the region in the decades around 1900. Statistical analyses of lynching data that differentiate among events according to communal participation, support, and ceremony in Georgia and Louisiana from 1882 to 1930 and local-level indices of modernization (urbanization, rural depopulation, industrialization, agricultural commercialization, and dissolution of traditional family roles yield results that both support and contradict such a modernization thesis of lynching. The findings imply that the consequences of the social transformation in the South coinciding with the lynching era were not uniform throughout the region with regard to racial conflict and violence and that broad arguments proposing an intrinsic connection between modernization and lynchings therefore are overstated.

  18. Little Red Riding Hood

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡蓉

    2011-01-01

    你一定看过并知道小红帽(Little Red Riding Hood)的故事吧!下面是英语版的小红帽,你看过吗? Once upon a time,people liked a little girl very much.Her red hood(头巾 ) fit her, so people called her Little Red Riding Hood. One day,her mother said, "Take a piece of cake and a bottle ofwine to your grandmother.She is ill and weak.These will do her good.Donot run off the road,or you may fall and break the bottle,and then yourgrandmother will get nothing.OK! Go at once."

  19. MIMIC en Robin Hood

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R.A. de Mooij (Ruud); A.L. Bovenberg (Lans); F. van der Ploeg (Ploeg)

    1994-01-01

    textabstractVerlaging van het belastingtarief in de eerste schijf, gefinancierd met verhoging van het tarief in de andere schijven, is in het MIMIC-model van het Centraal Planbureau goed voor de werkgelegenheid. Onlangs werd .in E5B betwijfeld of het CPB de gevolgen van zo'n 'Robin Hood'- beleid

  20. Hood River Passive House

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hales, D.

    2013-03-01

    The Hood River Passive Project was developed by Root Design Build of Hood River Oregon using the Passive House Planning Package (PHPP) to meet all of the requirements for certification under the European Passive House standards. The Passive House design approach has been gaining momentum among residential designers for custom homes and BEopt modeling indicates that these designs may actually exceed the goal of the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Building America program to reduce home energy use by 30%-50% (compared to 2009 energy codes for new homes). This report documents the short term test results of the Shift House and compares the results of PHPP and BEopt modeling of the project.

  1. MIMIC en Robin Hood

    OpenAIRE

    Mooij, Ruud; Bovenberg, Lans; Ploeg, Ploeg

    1994-01-01

    textabstractVerlaging van het belastingtarief in de eerste schijf, gefinancierd met verhoging van het tarief in de andere schijven, is in het MIMIC-model van het Centraal Planbureau goed voor de werkgelegenheid. Onlangs werd .in E5B betwijfeld of het CPB de gevolgen van zo'n 'Robin Hood'- beleid goed weergeeft. Het is echter de vraag of de niet-kwantificeerbare effecten wel van zo 'n groot belang zijn.

  2. Hood River Production Master Plan.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O' Toole, Patty

    1991-07-01

    The Northwest Power Planning Council's 1987 Columbia River Fish and Wildlife Program authorizes the development of artificial production facilities to raise chinook salmon and steelhead for enhancement in the Hood, Umatilla, Walla Walla, Grande Ronde and Imnaha rivers and elsewhere. On February 26, 1991 the Council agreed to disaggregate Hood River from the Northeast Oregon Hatchery Project, and instead, link the Hood River Master Plan (now the Hood River Production Plan) to the Pelton Ladder Project (Pelton Ladder Master Plan 1991).

  3. Lynch syndrome: still not a familiar picture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hes Frederik J

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Germ line mutations in mismatch repair genes underlie Lynch syndrome and predispose carriers for colorectal carcinoma and malignancies in many other organ systems. Case presentation A large Lynch syndrome family with 15 affected family members and involvement in 7 organs is reported. It illustrates a lack of awareness and knowledge about this hereditary tumor syndrome among doctors as well as patients. None of the described family members underwent presymptomatic screening on the basis of the family history. Conclusion Hereditary features, like young age at diagnosis, multiple tumors in multiple organs and a positive family history, should lead to timely referral of suspected cases for genetic counseling and diagnostics. For Lynch syndrome, these features can be found in the Amsterdam and Bethesda criteria. Subsequently, early identification of mutation carriers might have diminished, at least in part, the high and early morbidity and mortality observed in this family.

  4. The Lynch syndrome: a management dilemma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palumbo, Piergaspare; Amatucci, Chiara; Perotti, Bruno; Dezzi, Claudia; Girolami, Marco; Illuminati, Giulio; Angelici, Alberto M

    2013-05-01

    The case of a familial Lynch syndrome is reported. The criteria for early diagnosis, management and surveillance are briefly reviewed. A germline mutation of genes responsible for mismatch repair is at the basis of the Lynch syndrome. Carriers are predisposed to colorectal cancer and other tumors. Two members of the presently reported family developed colorectal cancer, whereas two others developed other neoplasms. The syndrome was confirmed in members of the same family with appropriate genetic workup. Clinical examination and endoscopy were consequently scheduled once-a-year. Given the high risk of neoplastic disease, such yearly controls can be proposed as the standard follow-up of this condition.

  5. Hood River Passive House

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hales, D.

    2014-01-01

    The Hood River Passive Project was developed by Root Design Build of Hood River Oregon using the Passive House Planning Package (PHPP) to meet all of the requirements for certification under the European Passive House standards. The Passive House design approach has been gaining momentum among residential designers for custom homes and BEopt modeling indicates that these designs may actually exceed the goal of the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Building America program to reduce home energy use by 30%-50% (compared to 2009 energy codes for new homes). This report documents the short term test results of the Shift House and compares the results of PHPP and BEopt modeling of the project. The design includes high R-Value assemblies, extremely tight construction, high performance doors and windows, solar thermal DHW, heat recovery ventilation, moveable external shutters and a high performance ductless mini-split heat pump. Cost analysis indicates that many of the measures implemented in this project did not meet the BA standard for cost neutrality. The ductless mini-split heat pump, lighting and advanced air leakage control were the most cost effective measures. The future challenge will be to value engineer the performance levels indicated here in modeling using production based practices at a significantly lower cost.

  6. Hood River Passive House

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hales, David [BA-PIRC, Spokane, WA (United States)

    2014-01-01

    The Hood River Passive Project was developed by Root Design Build of Hood River Oregon using the Passive House Planning Package (PHPP) to meet all of the requirements for certification under the European Passive House standards. The Passive House design approach has been gaining momentum among residential designers for custom homes and BEopt modeling indicates that these designs may actually exceed the goal of the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Building America program to "reduce home energy use by 30%-50% (compared to 2009 energy codes for new homes). This report documents the short term test results of the Shift House and compares the results of PHPP and BEopt modeling of the project. The design includes high R-Value assemblies, extremely tight construction, high performance doors and windows, solar thermal DHW, heat recovery ventilation, moveable external shutters and a high performance ductless mini-split heat pump. Cost analysis indicates that many of the measures implemented in this project did not meet the BA standard for cost neutrality. The ductless mini-split heat pump, lighting and advanced air leakage control were the most cost effective measures. The future challenge will be to value engineer the performance levels indicated here in modeling using production based practices at a significantly lower cost.

  7. Hood River Passive House

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hales, David [BA-PIRC, Spokane, WA (United States)

    2014-01-01

    The Hood River Passive Project was developed by Root Design Build of Hood River Oregon using the Passive House Planning Package (PHPP) to meet all of the requirements for certification under the European Passive House standards. The Passive House design approach has been gaining momentum among residential designers for custom homes and BEopt modeling indicates that these designs may actually exceed the goal of the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Building America program to "reduce home energy use by 30%-50% (compared to 2009 energy codes for new homes). This report documents the short term test results of the Shift House and compares the results of PHPP and BEopt modeling of the project. The design includes high R-Value assemblies, extremely tight construction, high performance doors and windows, solar thermal DHW, heat recovery ventilation, moveable external shutters and a high performance ductless mini-split heat pump. Cost analysis indicates that many of the measures implemented in this project did not meet the BA standard for cost neutrality. The ductless mini-split heat pump, lighting and advanced air leakage control were the most cost effective measures. The future challenge will be to value engineer the performance levels indicated here in modeling using production based practices at a significantly lower cost.

  8. Role for Genetic Anticipation in Lynch Syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nilbert, Mef; Timshel, Susanne; Bernstein, Inge

    2009-01-01

    PURPOSE: Anticipation (ie, an earlier age at onset in successive generations) is linked to repeat expansion in neurodegenerative syndromes, whereas its role in hereditary cancer is unclear. We assessed anticipation in Lynch syndrome (hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal cancer [HNPCC]), in which DN...

  9. THE SMITHSONS AT ROBIN HOOD

    OpenAIRE

    Furse, John

    1982-01-01

    This thesis The Smithsons at Robin Hood can be seen as a logical continuation of This Was Tomorrow, in that it deals specifically with that tomorrow: the culmination of the Smithsons' thinking, on the problem of mass working-class housing, in the built form of Robin Hood Gardens, Poplar, London E.14., completed in 1972. It is the purpose of this thesis to argue that the Smithsons' intentions were indeed a dream, and that Robin Hood is an ideological fragment of that dream...

  10. Management Observation Facility Fume Hoods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sundsmo, V. A. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2017-05-17

    I reviewed all the hoods used for AS&I work in buildings 253, 254, and 255. All have had the minimum annual surveys conducted and some have had semi-annual reviews. The operating parameter labels are posted consistent to the right or above right (with the only exception the perchloric acid hood in 1734- on the left) which facilitates users knowing where to check for information. All hoods with sash doors (except the SE one in 1734 have a note on the Operating Parameters label to "keep sash doors closed". Again, this was checking consistency. No surveys were missed.

  11. Hood Canal Steelhead - Hood Canal Steelhead Supplementation Experiment

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Hood Canal Steelhead Project is a 17-year before-after-control-impact experiment that tests the effects of supplementation on natural steelhead populations in...

  12. 33 CFR 110.50c - Mumford Cove, Groton, Conn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    .... Beginning at a point on the easterly shore of Mumford Cove at latitude 41°19′36″, longitude 72°01′06... a point on the easterly shore of Mumford Cove at latitude 41°19′15″, longitude 72°00′54″; thence...

  13. Merrill Lynch kavandab äridelegatsiooni visiiti Eestisse

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2000-01-01

    Investeerimispanga Merrill Lynch eestvedamisel kavandatakse mais ärimeeste visiiti Eestisse, ütles Jüri Mõis, kes viibis New Yorgis toimunud Maailmapanga seminaril "Omavalitsused rahvusvahelistel kapitaliturgudel"

  14. Half Moon Cove Tidal Project. Feasibility report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-11-01

    The proposed Half Moon Cove Tidal Power Project would be located in a small cove in the northern part of Cobscook Bay in the vicinity of Eastport, Maine. The project would be the first tidal electric power generating plant in the United States of America. The basin impounded by the barrier when full will approximate 1.2 square miles. The average tidal range at Eastport is 18.2 feet. The maximum spring tidal range will be 26.2 feet and the neap tidal range 12.8 feet. The project will be of the single pool-type single effect in which generation takes place on the ebb tide only. Utilizing an average mean tidal range of 18.2 feet the mode of operation enables generation for approximately ten and one-half (10-1/2) hours per day or slightly in excess of five (5) hours per tide. The installed capacity will be 12 MW utilizing 2 to 6 MW units. An axial flow, or Bulb type of turbine was selected for this study.

  15. Design for a Miniature Portable Fume Hood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, Ronald A.; Wait, Samuel C., Jr.

    1999-01-01

    Describes the design of undergraduate chemical laboratory fume hoods. Proves that folding the sides and top permit the hood and its duct hose to be stored in a standard 18-inch-wide laboratory cabinet. (WRM)

  16. Fort Hood: Home of the Third Corps

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-01-01

    painted with camoflauge I LS- HOWITZER FIRING The white flash of the weapon firing is seen as the weapon is enveloped in smoke MS- SOLDIER JUMPING MS...HELICOPTER FIRING FORT HOOD WAS NAMED FOR GENERAL JOHN BELL HOOD THE FAMOUS CONFEDERATE A painting of Gen Hood, after whom GENERAL JOHN BELL HOOD, the post was...EXT. OF DARNALL HOSPITAL PROVIDED BY DARNALL ARMY 78 VIDEO AUDIO COMMUNITY HOSPITAL, MS- PATIENT GOING THROUGH XRAY ONE OFTHE BEST EQUIPPED AND MOST

  17. Is Robin Hood Alive in Your Classroom?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Royer, Sharon E.

    2002-01-01

    Considers whether the tales of Robin Hood should be presented as fact or fiction. Discusses the appropriateness of the tales for use in literature programs. Presents arguments for Robin Hood as fact and arguments for Robin Hood as fiction. Considers different versions of the tale. (SG)

  18. Mutation spectrum in South American Lynch syndrome families

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dominguez-Valentin, Mev; Nilbert, Mef; Wernhoff, Patrik;

    2013-01-01

    Genetic counselling and testing for Lynch syndrome have recently been introduced in several South American countries, though yet not available in the public health care system.......Genetic counselling and testing for Lynch syndrome have recently been introduced in several South American countries, though yet not available in the public health care system....

  19. Recurrence and Variability of Germline EPCAM Deletions in Lynch Syndrome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuiper, Roland P.; Vissers, Lisenka E. L. M.; Venkatachalam, Ramprasath; Bodmer, Danielle; Hoenselaar, Eveline; Goossens, Monique; Haufe, Aline; Kamping, Eveline; Niessen, Renee C.; Hogervorst, Frans B. L.; Gille, Johan J. P.; Redeker, Bert; Tops, Carli M. J.; van Gijn, Marielle E.; van den Ouweland, Ans M. W.; Rahner, Nils; Steinke, Verena; Kahl, Philip; Holinski-Feder, Elke; Morak, Monika; Kloor, Matthias; Stemmler, Susanne; Betz, Beate; Hutter, Pierre; Bunyan, David J.; Syngal, Sapna; Culver, Julie O.; Graham, Tracy; Chan, Tsun L.; Nagtegaal, Iris D.; van Krieken, J. Han J. M.; Schackert, Hans K.; Hoogerbrugge, Nicoline; van Kessel, Ad Geurts; Ligtenberg, Marjolijn J. L.

    2011-01-01

    Recently, we identified 3' end deletions in the EPCAM gene as a novel cause of Lynch syndrome. These truncating EPCAM deletions cause allele-specific epigenetic silencing of the neighboring DNA mismatch repair gene MSH2 in tissues expressing EPCAM. Here we screened a cohort of unexplained Lynch-like

  20. Management of extracolonic tumours in patients with Lynch syndrome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koornstra, Jan J; Mourits, Marian Je; Sijmons, Rolf H; Leliveld-Kors, Anna; Hollema, Harry; Kleibeuker, Jan H

    2009-01-01

    Hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal cancer, or Lynch syndrome, is responsible for 2-3% of all colorectal cancers. Lynch syndrome is also associated with a high risk of extracolonic cancers, including endometrial, stomach, small bowel, pancreas, biliary tract, ovary, urinary tract, brain, and skin can

  1. Elfin Cove, Alaska Tsunami Forecast Grids for MOST Model

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Elfin Cove, Alaska Forecast Grids provides bathymetric data strictly for tsunami inundation modeling with the Method of Splitting Tsunami (MOST) model. MOST is a...

  2. King Cove, Alaska Tsunami Forecast Grids for MOST Model

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The King Cove, Alaska Forecast Model Grids provides bathymetric data strictly for tsunami inundation modeling with the Method of Splitting Tsunami (MOST) model. MOST...

  3. Role for Genetic Anticipation in Lynch Syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nilbert, Mef; Timshel, Susanne; Bernstein, Inge

    2009-01-01

    parent-child pairs in which age at the first cancer diagnosis was assessed. A paired t-test and a specifically developed bivariate model were used to assess a possible role of anticipation. RESULTS: Both methods revealed anticipation with children developing cancer mean 9.8 years (P ... parents using the paired t-test and 5.5 years (P ... to initiate surveillance programs at young age. It should also stimulate research into the genetic mechanisms that determine age at onset and whether the genetic instability that characterizes Lynch syndrome can be linked to anticipation....

  4. Measurements and Status at the CERES Ocean Validation Experiment (COVE)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fabbri, B. E.; Denn, F. M.; Schuster, G. L.; Arduini, R. F.; Madigan, J. J.; Rutan, D. A.

    2014-12-01

    The Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) is a suite of instruments flying on several earth-observing satellites that provides data products of radiant energy from the top of the atmosphere to the Earth's surface. The CERES Ocean Validation Experiment (COVE) was established in 1999 as an ocean surface validation site for CERES and other satellite instruments. COVE is located at Chesapeake Light Station, approximately 25 kilometers east of Virginia (coordinates: 36.90N, 75.71W). COVE measurements include downwelling and upwelling radiant flux at visible and infrared wavelengths, basic meteorological parameters, aerosol optical depth, black carbon, total column water vapor, cloud heights, and more. COVE is part of several networks including the Baseline Surface Radiation Network (BSRN), Aerosol Robotic Network (AERONET), Micro-Pulse Lidar Network (MPLNET) and Global Positioning System Meteorology (GPS-MET). A table will be displayed that outlines the current instrumentation and measurements being collected at COVE. Select data results will be presented, including CERES satellite derived data versus COVE surface observed measurements. Also, climatologies such as black carbon from an Aethalometer will be disclosed. In October 2012, the Department of Energy (D.O.E.) purchased Chesapeake Light with the goal of producing a base station for vertically defined wind profiles. While this project is still in the planning phase, the D.O.E. has allowed our research to continue in its current state.

  5. Hooded arc ion-source

    CERN Multimedia

    1972-01-01

    The positioning system for the hooded arc ion-source, shown prior to mounting, consists of four excentric shafts to locate the ion-source and central electrodes. It will be placed on the axis of the SC and introduced into the vacuum tank via the air locks visible in the foreground.

  6. Robin Hood Comes of Age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnhouse, Rebecca

    2003-01-01

    Considers how while some Robin Hood books are clearly intended for young readers, others blur the boundaries, sometimes in ways that help break down artificial boundaries dividing fiction for children from that for adults. Explores the legend's long history to help understand why the story lends itself to such a wide variety of retellings.…

  7. "Ameeriklane" Robin Hood / Timo Diener

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Diener, Timo

    2005-01-01

    Mängufilmi "Robin Hood : varaste prints" võtetest. Režissöör Kevin Reynolds, peaosas Kevin Costner, USA 1991. Järg: Teleleht nr. 14, 11. aprill 2005, lk. 38 : ill ja Teleleht nr. 15, 18. aprill 2005, lk. 38 : ill

  8. "Ameeriklane" Robin Hood / Timo Diener

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Diener, Timo

    2005-01-01

    Mängufilmi "Robin Hood : varaste prints" võtetest. Režissöör Kevin Reynolds, peaosas Kevin Costner, USA 1991. Järg: Teleleht nr. 14, 11. aprill 2005, lk. 38 : ill ja Teleleht nr. 15, 18. aprill 2005, lk. 38 : ill

  9. Robin Hood Comes of Age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnhouse, Rebecca

    2003-01-01

    Considers how while some Robin Hood books are clearly intended for young readers, others blur the boundaries, sometimes in ways that help break down artificial boundaries dividing fiction for children from that for adults. Explores the legend's long history to help understand why the story lends itself to such a wide variety of retellings.…

  10. Glioblastomas, astrocytomas and oligodendrogliomas linked to Lynch syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Therkildsen, C; Ladelund, S; Rambech, E

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Brain tumors represent a rare and relatively uncharacterized tumor type in Lynch syndrome. METHODS: The national Danish Hereditary Nonpolyposis Colorectal Cancer Register was utilized to estimate the cumulative life-time risk for brain tumors in Lynch syndrome...... staining suggestive of the IDH1 R132H mutation. CONCLUSION: In Lynch syndrome brain tumors occurred in 14% of the families with significantly higher risks for individuals with MSH2 gene mutations and development of childhood brain tumors in individuals with constitutional MMR defects....

  11. Werkt een Robin Hood beleid?

    OpenAIRE

    Mooij, Ruud; Bovenberg, Lans; Ploeg, Ploeg

    1994-01-01

    textabstractEen verschuiving in de belastingdruk van de lagere arbeidsinkomens naar het middenkader heeft volgens het model MIMIC van het CPBpositieve effecten op de werkgelegenheid. Dit hangt vooral samenn met het loonmatigende effect van hogere marginale tarieven in het model. Echter, MIMIC houdt geen rekening met een aantal ontmoedigende effecten van hogere marginale tarieven. Het totale effect van een 'Robin Hood'-beleid is niet op voorhand duidelijk.

  12. The Identification of Lynch Syndrome in British Columbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carol M Cremin

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To determine the prevalence of Lynch syndrome mutations in a Canadian hereditary cancer clinic population, and to determine the effectiveness of the program’s referral criteria and testing algorithm.

  13. Pupazzi di neve. David Lynch fotografo e l’"Unheimliche"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paolo Sebastiano Lanzi

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available L’opera di David Lynch non si limita al cinema, come ha dimostrato l’esposizione del 2007 alla Fondation Cartier di Parigi, The Air is on Fire. Tuttavia gli studi teorici hanno trascurato ciò che gallerie e musei hanno evidenziato da tempo: il Lynch pittore, fotografo, musicista, artista poliedrico. L’articolo si focalizza su una serie fotografica, Snowmen, ed è tratto da una ricerca di Paolo Sebastiano Lanzi sulla figura di David Lynch fotografo. Alla luce del saggio di Freud sul Perturbante (Das Unheimliche, 1919 si interpretano gli Snowmen come immagini di morte. Si chiariscono alcuni aspetti della poetica dell’artista-regista, come l’inquietudine dell’Inland Empire o di certe idee care al Surrealismo. Lo studio della produzione fotografica di Lynch riempie un vuoto nell’analisi critica sul suo lavoro, che va necessariamente riconsiderato in una prospettiva più ampia.

  14. The functional morphology of hooding in cobras.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Bruce A; Kardong, Kenneth V

    2010-05-01

    Many snakes, particularly cobras, form as part of a defensive display, a hood, an active lateral expansion of their neck skin and underlying musculature and ribs. We identified muscle groups possibly involved in hooding based on their attachments on the specialized ribs of the neck. We then used a combination of morphology, kinematic analysis, morphometrics, electromyography and muscle stimulation to test hypotheses about the functional basis of hooding. We confirmed that hood protraction and erection is an active process that begins cranially and extends caudally, often in stages, through the combined action of several sets of muscles. One set of axial muscles (levator costae and supracostalis lateralis superior) coursing along a line of action to rib displacement are the prime erectors acting to lift the hood. However, a second set of muscles connecting ribs to skin primarily keep the skin taut, rather than to displace the ribs relative to the vertebrae. A third set of muscles coursing between ribs function primarily to transmit forces between adjacent ribs rather than to move ribs. The maintenance of the erect hood requires continued muscle activity. Hood relaxation is due to both active muscle contraction of a fourth set of axial muscles and to passive recoil events in the costovertebral ligaments. The shape of the fully erect hood is reflective of the morphometrics of the underlying ribs, while the duration and kinematics of hood erection and relaxation are related to the behavioral context of the display.

  15. 76 FR 40723 - Dominion Cove Point LNG, LP; Notice of Technical Conference

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-11

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Dominion Cove Point LNG, LP; Notice of Technical Conference On May 27, 2011, pursuant to section 4 of the Natural Gas Act (NGA), Dominion Cove Point LNG, LP (Cove Point) filed...

  16. CEOS Visualization Environment (COVE) Tool for Intercalibration of Satellite Instruments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kessler, Paul D.; Killough, Brian D.; Gowda, Sanjay; Williams, Brian R.; Chander, Gyanesh; Qu, Min

    2013-01-01

    Increasingly, data from multiple instruments are used to gain a more complete understanding of land surface processes at a variety of scales. Intercalibration, comparison, and coordination of satellite instrument coverage areas is a critical effort of space agencies and of international and domestic organizations. The Committee on Earth Observation Satellites Visualization Environment (COVE) is a suite of browser-based applications that leverage Google Earth to display past, present, and future satellite instrument coverage areas and coincident calibration opportunities. This forecasting and ground coverage analysis and visualization capability greatly benefits the remote sensing calibration community in preparation for multisatellite ground calibration campaigns or individual satellite calibration studies. COVE has been developed for use by a broad international community to improve the efficiency and efficacy of such calibration efforts. This paper provides a brief overview of the COVE tool, its validation, accuracies and limitations with emphasis on the applicability of this visualization tool for supporting ground field campaigns and intercalibration of satellite instruments.

  17. 33 CFR 117.1045 - Hood Canal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Hood Canal. 117.1045 Section 117.1045 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Washington § 117.1045 Hood Canal. The draw of the Washington State pontoon highway bridge near...

  18. Our Little Houses: From Folly Cove to Lake Elsinore

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poldberg, Monique

    2011-01-01

    Virginia Lee Burton was one of the first author-artists to fully integrate text with images on the printed page, captivating generations of children. She was the founder of the Folly Cove Designers, which is an artist collective known for block printed textiles and design, an artist and a writer, entwining the visual image and written word into a…

  19. 3D numerical design of tunnel hood

    CERN Document Server

    Uystepruyst, David; Monnoyer, François

    2015-01-01

    This paper relates to the parametric study of tunnel hoods in order to reduce the shape, i.e the temporal gradient, of the pressure wave generated by the entry of a High speed train in tunnel. This is achieved by using an in-house three-dimensional numerical solver which solves the Eulerian equations on a Cartesian and unstructured mesh. The efficiency of the numerical methodology is demonstrated through comparisons with both experimental data and empirical formula. For the tunnel hood design, three parameters, that can influence the wave shape, are considered: the shape, the section and the length of the hood. The numerical results show, (i) that a constant section hood is the most efficient shape when compared to progressive (elliptic or conical) section hoods, (ii) an optimal ratio between hood's section and tunnel section where the temporal gradient of the pressure wave can be reduced by half, (iii) a significant efficiency of the hood's length in the range of 2 to 8 times the length of the train nose. Fi...

  20. Quality of colonoscopy in Lynch syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niv, Yaron; Moeslein, Gabriela; Vasen, Hans F A; Karner-Hanusch, Judith; Lubinsky, Jan; Gasche, Christoph

    2014-12-01

    Lynch syndrome (LS) accounts for 2 - 4 % of all colorectal cancers. Affected family members have a germline mutation in one of the DNA mismatch repair genes MLH1, PMS2, MSH2, or MSH6, and a lifetime risk for development of colorectal cancer of 25 - 75 %. Current guidelines recommend annual to biannual surveillance colonoscopy in mutation carriers. Several factors may predict failure to prevent interval cancer in LS: more lesions in the right colon; more flat ("non polypoid") and lateral growing polyps; small adenomas may already harbor high grade dysplasia or a high percentage of villous component and become advanced adenomas; there is a short duration of the adenoma - carcinoma sequence; synchronous lesions have high prevalence; patients are younger and less tolerant to colonoscopy (need more sedation); and repeated colonoscopies are needed for lifelong surveillance (patient experience is important for compliance). In order to prevent cancer in LS patients, surveillance colonoscopy should be performed in an endoscopic unit experienced with LS, every 1 - 2 years, starting at age 20 - 25 years, or 10 years younger than the age of first diagnosis in the family (whichever is first), and yearly after the age of 40 years. Colonoscopy in LS patients should be a very meticulous and precise procedure (i. e. taking sufficient withdrawal time, documentation of such warranted), with removal of all of the polyps, special attention to the right colon and alertness to flat lesions. Following quality indicators such as successful cleansing of the colon and removal of every polyp will probably improve prevention of interval cancers. At this moment, none of the new endoscopic techniques have shown convincing superiority over conventional high resolution white light colonoscopy.

  1. A Simple, Transparent Fume Hood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fredericks, John

    1998-10-01

    An inexpensive transparent fume hood can be constructed from a clear-plastic two-liter soft drink bottle that is cut just above the base. A length of vacuum tubing is secured to the opening of the bottle using black electrical tape. The tubing is then connected to a water aspirator. Beakers or flasks easily fit inside the bottle, and the bottle may be secured with a clamp and ring stand for added stability. This device has been used to collect the noxious NO2 gas generated from the reaction of copper metal with nitric acid. It also may be used in the collection of other gases. It should not be used to collect gases that are not water-soluble or in experiments that involve open flames.

  2. Modern sedimentation patterns in Potter Cove, King George Island, Antarctica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hass, H. Christian; Kuhn, Gerhard; Wölfl, Anne-Cathrin; Wittenberg, Nina; Betzler, Christian

    2013-04-01

    IMCOAST among a number of other initiatives investigates the modern and the late Holocene environmental development of south King George Island with a strong emphasis on Maxwell Bay and its tributary fjord Potter Cove (maximum water depth: about 200 m). In this part of the project we aim at reconstructing the modern sediment distribution in the inner part of Potter Cove using an acoustic ground discrimination system (RoxAnn) and more than136 ground-truth samples. Over the past 20 years the air temperatures in the immediate working area increased by more than 0.6 K (Schloss et al. 2012) which is less than in other parts of the West Antarctic Peninsula (WAP) but it is still in the range of the recovery of temperatures from the Little Ice Age maximum to the beginning of the 20th century. Potter Cove is a small fjord characterized by a series of moraine ridges produced by a tidewater glacier (Fourcade Glacier). Presumably, the farthest moraine is not much older than about 500 years (LIA maximum), hence the sediment cover is rather thin as evidenced by high resolution seismic data. Since a few years at least the better part of the tidewater glacier retreated onto the island's mainland. It is suggested that such a fundamental change in the fjord's physiography has also changed sedimentation patterns in the area. Potter Cove is characterized by silty-clayey sediments in the deeper inner parts of the cove. Sediments are coarser (fine to coarse sands and boulders) in the shallower areas; they also coarsen from the innermost basin to the mouth of the fjord. Textural structures follow the seabed morphology, i.e. small v-shaped passages through the moraine ridges. The glacier still produces large amounts of turbid melt waters that enter the cove at various places. We presume that very fine-grained sediments fall out from the meltwater plumes and are distributed by mid-depth or even bottom currents, thus suggesting an anti-estuarine circulation pattern. Older sediments that are

  3. Renewable Energy Opportunities at Fort Hood, Texas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Solana, Amy E.; Warwick, William M.; Orrell, Alice C.; Russo, Bryan J.; Parker, Kyle R.; Weimar, Mark R.; Horner, Jacob A.; Manning, Anathea

    2011-11-14

    This report presents the results of Pacific Northwest National Laboratory's (PNNL) follow-on renewable energy (RE) assessment of Fort Hood. Fort Hood receives many solicitations from renewable energy vendors who are interested in doing projects on site. Based on specific requests from Fort Hood staff so they can better understand these proposals, and the results of PNNL's 2008 RE assessment of Fort Hood, the following resources were examined in this assessment: (1) Municipal solid waste (MSW) for waste-to-energy (WTE); (2) Wind; (3) Landfill gas; (4) Solar photovoltaics (PV); and (5) Shale gas. This report also examines the regulatory issues, development options, and environmental impacts for the promising RE resources, and includes a review of the RE market in Texas.

  4. Chickamauga Reservoir 1992 fisheries monitoring cove rotenone results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kerley, B.L.

    1993-06-01

    The Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA) is required by the National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) Permit for Sequoyah Nuclear Plant (SQN) to conduct and report annually a nonradiological operational monitoring program to evaluate potential effects of SQN on Chickamauga Reservoir. This monitoring program was initially designed to identify potential changes in water quality and biological communities in Chickamauga Reservoir resulting from operation of SQU. Chickamauga Reservoir cove rotenone sampling has also been conducted as part of the preoperational monitoring program for Watts Bar Nuclear Plant (WBN) to evaluate the combined effects of operating two nuclear facilities on one reservoir once WBU becomes operational. The purpose of this report is to present results of cove rotenone sampling conducted on Chickamauga Reservoir in 1992.

  5. CEOS visualization environment (COVE) tool for intercalibration of satellite instruments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kessler, P.D.; Killough, B.D.; Gowda, S.; Williams, B.R.; Chander, G.; Qu, Min

    2013-01-01

    Increasingly, data from multiple instruments are used to gain a more complete understanding of land surface processes at a variety of scales. Intercalibration, comparison, and coordination of satellite instrument coverage areas is a critical effort of international and domestic space agencies and organizations. The Committee on Earth Observation Satellites Visualization Environment (COVE) is a suite of browser-based applications that leverage Google Earth to display past, present, and future satellite instrument coverage areas and coincident calibration opportunities. This forecasting and ground coverage analysis and visualization capability greatly benefits the remote sensing calibration community in preparation for multisatellite ground calibration campaigns or individual satellite calibration studies. COVE has been developed for use by a broad international community to improve the efficiency and efficacy of such calibration planning efforts, whether those efforts require past, present, or future predictions. This paper provides a brief overview of the COVE tool, its validation, accuracies, and limitations with emphasis on the applicability of this visualization tool for supporting ground field campaigns and intercalibration of satellite instruments.

  6. Surveillance for urinary tract cancer in Lynch syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bernstein, Inge Thomsen; Myrhøj, Torben

    2013-01-01

    Hereditary non-polyposis colorectal cancer (HNPCC) is an inherited multiorgan cancer syndrome, which when caused by a germline mutation in the mismatch repair (MMR) genes is known as Lynch syndrome (LS). Mutation carriers are at risk for developing cancers primarily in the colon, rectum and endom...

  7. Decrease in mortality in Lynch syndrome families because of surveillance.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jong, A.E. de; Hendriks, Y.M.; Kleibeuker, J.H.; Boer, S.Y. de; Cats, A.; Griffioen, G.; Nagengast, F.M.; Nelis, F.G.; Rookus, M.A.; Vasen, H.F.

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND & AIMS: Lynch syndrome family members have a high risk of developing colorectal (CRC), endometrial (EC), and other cancers. A large-scale surveillance program was introduced in The Netherlands in the late 1980s. The aims of the study were to evaluate the effectiveness of this program by a

  8. Role of new endoscopic techniques in Lynch syndrome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haanstra, Jasmijn F.; Kleibeuker, Jan H.; Koornstra, Jan J.

    2013-01-01

    Lynch syndrome, or hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal cancer (HNPCC), is the most common hereditary condition predisposing for colorectal cancer. International guidelines recommend surveillance of the colorectum by colonoscopy every 1-2 years starting at the age of 20-25 years. This has been shown t

  9. Sense of coherence and self-concept in Lynch syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Helle Vendel; Ladelund, Steen; Carlsson, Christina

    2013-01-01

    Most individuals who learn about hereditary cancer manage well, but identification of subgroups who find this knowledge burdening would allow psychosocial intervention. The objective of the study was to assess sense of coherence (SOC) in individuals with Lynch syndrome with comparison to a genera...... population and correlation to self-concept....

  10. Genetic testing for Lynch syndrome: family communication and motivation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C.H.M. Leenen (Celine); M.D. Heijer (Mariska den); C.A. van der Meer (Conny); E.J. Kuipers (Ernst); M.E. van Leerdam (Monique); A. Wagner (Anja)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractCurrent genetic counselling practice for Lynch syndrome (LS) relies on diagnosed index patients to inform their biological family about LS, referred to as the family-mediated approach. The objective of this study was to evaluate this approach and to identify factors influencing the uptak

  11. Risks of lynch syndrome cancers for msh6 mutation carriers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L. Baglietto (Laura); N.M. Lindor (Noralane); J.G. Dowty (James); D.M. White (Darren); A. Wagner (Anja); E.B. Gómez García (Encarna); A.H.J.T. Vriends (Anette); N.R. Cartwright (Nicola); R.A. Barnetson (Rebecca); S.M. Farrington (Susan); A. Tenesa (Albert); H. Hampel (Heather); D. Buchanan (Daniel); S. Arnold (Sven); J. Young (Joanne); M.D. Walsh (Michael); J. Jass (Jeremy); F.A. Macrae (Finlay); Y. Antill (Yoland); I.M. Winship (Ingrid); G.G. Giles (Graham); J. Goldblatt (Jack); S. Parry (Susan); G. Suthers (Graeme); B. Leggett (Barbara); M. Butz (Malinda); M. Aronson (Melyssa); J.N. Poynter (Jenny); J.A. Baron (John); L. Le Marchand (Loic); R. Haile (Robert); S. Gallinger (Steve); J.L. Hopper (John); J. Potter (John); A. de La Chapelle (Albert); H. Vasen (Hans); M.G. Dunlop (Malcolm); S.N. Thibodeau (Stephen); M.A. Jenkins (Mark)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractBackground: Germline mutations in MSH6 account for 10%-20% of Lynch syndrome colorectal cancers caused by hereditary DNA mismatch repair gene mutations. Because there have been only a few studies of mutation carriers, their cancer risks are uncertain. Methods: We identified 113 families

  12. 76 FR 58488 - Dominion Cove Point LNG, LP; Application for Blanket Authorization to Export Previously Imported...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-21

    ... Dominion Cove Point LNG, LP; Application for Blanket Authorization to Export Previously Imported Liquefied... (Application), filed on August 8, 2011, by Dominion Cove Point LNG, LP (DCP), requesting blanket authorization to export liquefied natural gas (LNG) that previously had been imported into the United States...

  13. Numerical study on wave dynamics and wave-induced bed erosion characteristics in Potter Cove, Antarctica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Chai Heng; Lettmann, Karsten; Wolff, Jörg-Olaf

    2013-12-01

    Wave generation, propagation, and transformation from deep ocean over complex bathymetric terrains to coastal waters around Potter Cove (King George Island, South Shetland Islands, Antarctica) have been simulated for an austral summer month using the Simulating Waves Nearshore (SWAN) wave model. This study aims to examine and understand the wave patterns, energy fluxes, and dissipations in Potter Cove. Bed shear stress due to waves is also calculated to provide a general insight on the bed sediment erosion characteristics in Potter Cove.A nesting approach has been implemented from an oceanic scale to a high-resolution coastal scale around Potter Cove. The results of the simulations were compared with buoy observations obtained from the National Data Buoy Center, the WAVEWATCH III model results, and GlobWave altimeter data. The quality of the modelling results has been assessed using two statistical parameters, namely the Willmott's index of agreement D and the bias index. Under various wave conditions, the significant wave heights at the inner cove were found to be about 40-50 % smaller than the ones near the mouth of Potter Cove. The wave power in Potter Cove is generally low. The spatial distributions of the wave-induced bed shear stress and active energy dissipation were found to be following the pattern of the bathymetry, and waves were identified as a potential major driving force for bed sediment erosion in Potter Cove, especially in shallow water regions. This study also gives some results on global ocean applications of SWAN.

  14. 75 FR 53283 - Yankee Cove Development, LLC; Notice of Declaration of Intention and Soliciting Comments...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-31

    ... United States; (3) would utilize surplus water or water power from a government dam; or (4) if applicable.... d. Applicant: Yankee Cove Development, LLC. e. Name of Project: Yankee Cove Hydro Project. f...://www.ferc.gov using the ``eLibrary'' link. Enter the docket number excluding the last three digits in...

  15. COVE: a visual environment for ocean observatory design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grochow, K.; Stoermer, M.; Kelley, D.; Delaney, J.; Lazowska, E.

    2008-07-01

    Physical, chemical, and biological ocean processes play a crucial role in determining Earth's environment. Unfortunately, our knowledge of these processes is limited because oceanography is carried out today largely the way it was a century ago: as expeditionary science, going to sea in ships and measuring a relatively small number of parameters (e.g., temperature, salinity, and pressure) as time and budget allow. The NSF Ocean Observatories Initiative is a US330 million project that will help transform oceanography from a data-poor to a data-rich science. A cornerstone of this project is the deep water Regional Scale Nodes (RSN) that will be installed off the coasts of Washington and Oregon. The RSN will include 1500 km of fiber optic cable providing power and bandwidth to the seafloor and throughout the water column. Thousands of sensors will be deployed to stream data and imagery to shore, where they will be available in real time for ocean scientists and the public at large. The design of the RSN is a complex undertaking, requiring a combination of many different interactive tools and areas of visualization: geographic visualization to see the available seafloor bathymetry, scientific visualization to examine existing geospatially located datasets, layout tools to place the sensors, and collaborative tools to communicate across the team during the design. COVE, the Common Observatory Visualization Environment, is a visualization environment designed to meet all these needs. COVE has been built by computer scientists working closely with the engineering and scientific teams who will build and use the RSN. This paper discusses the data and activities of cabled observatory design, the design of COVE, and results from its use across the team.

  16. Hydroacoustic habitat mapping in Potter Cove (King George Island, Antarctica)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hass, H. Christian; Wölfl, Anne-Cathrin; Kuhn, Gerhard; Jerosch, Kerstin; Scharf, Frauke; Abele, Doris

    2016-04-01

    Climate change increasingly affects the coastal areas off Antarctica. Strongest environmental response occurs in the transition zones that mediate between the polar and subpolar latitudes. Potter Cove, a minor fjord at the northern tip of the Antarctic Peninsula is significantly affected by rising temperatures and retreating ice sheets. Large amounts of turbid meltwaters affect both, the seafloor and the water column and cause stress for many biota. There is an increasing demand to monitor the ongoing change and to work out means for comparison with similar coastal ecosystems under pressure. Marine habitat maps provide information on the seafloor characteristics that allow to describe and evaluate the status of the recent coastal ecosystem and to predict its future development. We used a RoxAnn acoustic ground discrimination system, a sidescan sonar, grab samples (grain size and TOC) and underwater video footage to gain habitat information. Supervised and unsupervised classification routines (including fuzzy k-means clustering and LDA) were employed to calculate models ranging from two classes (soft bottom habitat, stone habitat) to 7 classes (including classes of rocks with and without macroalgae as well as classes of gravels, sands and silts). Including organic carbon in the database allowed to identify a carbon-depleted class proximal to the glacier front. Potter Cove reveals features that are related to the climate-controlled environmental change: very rough seafloor topography in a small basin close to the fjord head which was cleared by the retreating tidewater glacier through the past two decades. The increasing distance to the glacier down-fjord causes existing habitats to smooth and mature and new habitats to form. This process will change the terrestrial and marine face of Potter Cove until the ongoing climatic change stops or even reverses. It becomes apparent that the final interpretation of the results benefits significantly from the different

  17. Lynch Syndrome Caused by Germline PMS2 Mutations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ten Broeke, Sanne W; Brohet, Richard M; Tops, Carli M

    2015-01-01

    . Standardized incidence ratios (SIRs) were calculated to estimate risks for other Lynch syndrome-associated cancers. RESULTS: The cumulative risk (CR) of CRC for male mutation carriers by age 70 years was 19%. The CR among female carriers was 11% for CRC and 12% for EC. The mean age of CRC development was 52......PURPOSE: The clinical consequences of PMS2 germline mutations are poorly understood compared with other Lynch-associated mismatch repair gene (MMR) mutations. The aim of this European cohort study was to define the cancer risk faced by PMS2 mutation carriers. METHODS: Data were collected from 98...... years, and there was a significant difference in mean age of CRC between the probands (mean, 47 years; range, 26 to 68 years) and other family members with a PMS2 mutation (mean, 58 years; range, 31 to 86 years; P

  18. Ssk or Esw? -- the Bloor-Lynch Debate Revisited

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Kai-Yuan

    2014-03-01

    Philosophical discussions of rule-following in the later Wittgenstein (1953, 1967) are an important source of inspiration for the development of views on the social nature of scientific knowledge. Two major opposing views in this inquiry -- Bloor's sociology of scientific knowledge (SSK) (1983, 1991, 1992, 1997) and Lynch's (1992, 1993) ethnomethodological studies of work (ESW) -- represent two positions derived from two different readings of Wittgenstein's later writings on rule-following. The aim of this paper is two-fold. One is to re-examine the noted Bloor-Lynch debate by considering Kusch's (2004) recent discussion of this debate. Another is to show that a new semantic framework of rule-following ascriptions based on a cognitive approach to the study of generics can be provided such that SSK and ESW are compatible in it (Leslie, 2009; Cheng, 2011).

  19. Surveillance colonoscopy practice in Lynch syndrome in the Netherlands: A nationwide survey

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jan J Koornstra; Hans FA Vasen

    2007-01-01

    Lynch syndrome, or hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal cancer (HNPCC), is the most common genetic disorder predisposing to colorectal cancer. As regular colonoscopic surveillance has been shown to reduce the incidence of colorectal cancer, this strategy is recommended worldwide. Recently, several advances in colonoscopic techniques have improved detection rates of neoplasia in Lynch syndrome. In this nationwide survey, we evaluated current surveillance colonoscopy practices for Lynch syndrome in the Netherlands and the extent to which advanced techniques have been adopted in routine clinical practice.

  20. Fertility and apparent genetic anticipation in Lynch syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stupart, Douglas; Win, Aung Ko; Jenkins, Mark; Winship, Ingrid M; Goldberg, Paul; Ramesar, Rajkumar

    2014-09-01

    Genetic anticipation is the phenomenon in which age of onset of an inherited disorder decreases in successive generations. Inconsistent evidence suggests that this occurs in Lynch syndrome. A possible cause for apparent anticipation is fecundity bias, which occurs if the disease adversely affects fertility. The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of age of diagnosis of colorectal cancer (CRC) on lifetime fertility in Lynch syndrome, and whether this can falsely create the appearance of genetic anticipation. A computer model simulated age of diagnosis of CRC in hypothetical Lynch syndrome carriers and their offspring. The model assumed similar age distribution of CRC across generations (i.e. that there was no true anticipation). Age distribution of CRC diagnosis, and lifetime fertility rates (grouped by age of diagnosis of CRC) were determined from the Australasian Colorectal Cancer Family Registry (ACCFR). Apparent anticipation was calculated by comparing ages of diagnosis of CRC in affected parent-child pairs. A total of 1,088 patients with CRC were identified from the ACCFR. Total lifetime (cohort) fertility was related to age of diagnosis of CRC (correlation coefficient 0.13, P = 0.0001). In the simulation, apparent anticipation was 1.8 ± 0.54 years (P = 0.0044). Observed apparent anticipation in the ACCFR cohort was 4.8 ± 1.73 years (P = 0.0064). There was no difference in apparent anticipation between the simulate d and observed parent-child pairs (P = 0.89). The appearance of genetic anticipation in Lynch syndrome can be falsely created due to changes in fertility.

  1. The mutational spectrum of Lynch syndrome in cyprus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loizidou, Maria A; Neophytou, Ioanna; Papamichael, Demetris; Kountourakis, Panteleimon; Vassiliou, Vassilios; Marcou, Yiola; Kakouri, Eleni; Ioannidis, Georgios; Philippou, Chrystalla; Spanou, Elena; Tanteles, George A; Anastasiadou, Violetta; Hadjisavvas, Andreas; Kyriacou, Kyriacos

    2014-01-01

    Lynch syndrome is the most common form of hereditary colorectal cancer and is caused by germline mutations in the mismatch repair (MMR) genes MLH1, MSH2, MSH6 and PMS2. Mutation carriers have an increased lifetime risk of developing colorectal cancer as well as other extracolonic tumours. The aim of the current study was to evaluate the frequency and distribution of mutations in the MLH1, MSH2 and MSH6 genes within a cohort of Cypriot families that fulfilled the revised Bethesda guidelines. The study cohort included 77 patients who fulfilled at least one of the revised Bethesda guidelines. Mutational analysis revealed the presence of 4 pathogenic mutations, 3 in the MLH1 gene and 1 in the MSH2 gene, in 5 unrelated individuals. It is noted that out of the 4 pathogenic mutations detected, one is novel (c.1610delG in exon 14 of the MLH1) and has been detected for the first time in the Cypriot population. Overall, the pathogenic mutation detection rate in our patient cohort was 7%. This percentage is relatively low but could be explained by the fact that the sole criterion for genetic screening was compliance to the revised Bethesda guidelines. Larger numbers of Lynch syndrome families and screening of the two additional predisposition genes, PMS2 and EPCAM, are needed in order to decipher the full spectrum of mutations associated with Lynch syndrome predisposition in Cyprus.

  2. Current Hypotheses on How Microsatellite Instability Leads to Enhanced Survival of Lynch Syndrome Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristen M. Drescher

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available High levels of microsatellite instability (MSI-high are a cardinal feature of colorectal tumors from patients with Lynch Syndrome. Other key characteristics of Lynch Syndrome are that these patients experience fewer metastases and have enhanced survival when compared to patients diagnosed with microsatellite stable (MSS colorectal cancer. Many of the characteristics associated with Lynch Syndrome including enhanced survival are also observed in patients with sporadic MSI-high colorectal cancer. In this review we will present the current state of knowledge regarding the mechanisms that are utilized by the host to control colorectal cancer in Lynch Syndrome and why these same mechanisms fail in MSS colorectal cancers.

  3. The genetic basis of Lynch syndrome and its implications for clinical practice and risk management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Stephanie A; Leininger, Anna

    2014-01-01

    Lynch syndrome is the most common cause of hereditary colon cancer, and accounts for as much as 3% of all colon and endometrial cancers. The identification and management of individuals with Lynch syndrome have evolved over the past 20 years, yet the syndrome remains vastly underdiagnosed. It is important for clinicians to recognize individuals and families who are at risk in order to be able to manage them appropriately and reduce their morbidity and mortality from this condition. This review will touch on the history of Lynch syndrome, the current knowledge of genotype-phenotype correlations, the cancers associated with Lynch syndrome, and management of individuals who are gene carriers.

  4. Geology of the Cove Fort-Sulphurdale KGRA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moore, J.N.; Samberg, S.M.

    1979-05-01

    The Cove Fort-Sulphurdale Known Geothermal Resource Area (KGRA) is located on the northwestern margin of the Marysvale volcanic field in southwestern Utah. The geology of the KGRA is dominated by lava flows and ash-flow tuffs of late Oligocene to mid-Miocene age that were deposited on faulted sedimentary rocks of Paleozoic to Mesozoic age. The geothermal system of the Cove Fort-Sulphurdale KGRA is structurally controlled by normal faults. High-angle faults control fluid flow within the geothermal reservoir, while the gravitational glide blocks provide an impermeable cap for the geothermal system in the central part of the field. Surficial activity occurring to the north and south of the glide blocks is characterized by the evolution of hydrogen sulfide and deposition of native sulphur. Intense acid alteration of the aluvium, resulting from downward migration of sulphuric acid, has left porous siliceous residues that retain many of the original sedimentary structures. Detailed logs of Union Oil Company drill holes Forminco No. 1, Utah State 42-7, and Utah State 31-33 are included.

  5. Persistence of Change: Fume Hood Campaign Lessons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feder, Elah; Robinson, Jennifer; Wakefield, Sarah

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: Sustainability initiatives typically operate for a limited time period, but it is often unclear whether they have lasting effects. The purpose of this paper is to examine a laboratory fume hood campaign, in order to identify factors that might contribute or detract from long-term change persistence. Design/methodology/approach: The…

  6. The Caring Business: Lynch Community Homes, Willow Grove, Pennsylvania. A Case Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogdan, Robert

    This paper, one of a series of reports describing innovative practices in integrating people with disabilities into community life, describes the Lynch Community Homes in Willow Grove, Pennsylvania. Lynch Homes is a for-profit organization that provides homes and supportive services for approximately 75 people with severe and profound…

  7. Advancing Scholarship and Intellectual Productivity: An Interview with Clifford A. Lynch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawkins, Brian L.

    2006-01-01

    In this second part of a two-part interview with Clifford A. Lynch, Executive Director of the Coalition for Networked Information, Lynch talks to Hawkins about the most provocative and exciting projects that are being developed in the field of networked information worldwide. He also talks on how institutional repositories are being currently…

  8. Containment testing for occupied and unoccupied laboratory chemical hoods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greenley, P.L.; DiBerardinis, L.J.; Lorch, F.A.

    1999-07-01

    Containment of hazards in a laboratory chemical hood is based on the principle that air drawn through the face area of the hood is sufficient to overcome the many challenges at or near the opening. Challenges to overcome include, but are not limited to, air velocities near the hood, movement of the researcher, people walking past the hood, location of equipment inside the hood, size of the sash opening, and the shape and configuration of entrance conditions. To overcome these challenges, a sufficient face velocity must be maintained. Determining that proper face velocity must be maintained. Determining that proper face velocity for a given hood should be resolved by the system designer, facility safety officer, and researcher with these and other issues in mind. This research tests for containment at 100 feet per minute (fpm) face velocity on occupied hoods and tests the same hoods for containment at the reduced velocity of 60 fpm when unoccupied. Three laboratory chemical hoods of different sizes with several ash positions are used. The test results show that under ideal conditions in a test laboratory, an unoccupied hood (without a manikin) at 60 fpm contains as good as, if not better than, an occupied hood (with a manikin) at 100 fpm, as measured by the tracer gas tests specified in ANSI/ASHRAE 110-1995, Method of Testing Performance of Laboratory Fume Hoods (ASHRAE 1995). Further testing is needed to determine if this relationship is the same under conditions of actual use, i.e., cluttered hoods and presence of cross-drafts.

  9. The genetic basis of Lynch syndrome and its implications for clinical practice and risk management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cohen SA

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Stephanie A Cohen,1 Anna Leininger2 1Cancer Genetics Risk Assessment Program, St Vincent Health, Indianapolis, IN, USA; 2Minnesota Oncology, Woodbury, MN, USA Abstract: Lynch syndrome is the most common cause of hereditary colon cancer, and accounts for as much as 3% of all colon and endometrial cancers. The identification and management of individuals with Lynch syndrome have evolved over the past 20 years, yet the syndrome remains vastly underdiagnosed. It is important for clinicians to recognize individuals and families who are at risk in order to be able to manage them appropriately and reduce their morbidity and mortality from this condition. This review will touch on the history of Lynch syndrome, the current knowledge of genotype–phenotype correlations, the cancers associated with Lynch syndrome, and management of individuals who are gene carriers. Keywords: Lynch syndrome, hereditary cancer, hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal cancer, mismatch repair, mismatch repair genes, immunohistochemistry, microsatellite instability

  10. A pilot project: Antioch Delta Cove, Antioch, California

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Minder, M. [Antioch Diversified Development Associates, CA (United States)

    1994-12-31

    The project involves the restoration of the Hickmott cannery site, comprising approximately 15 acres (three five acre parcels) located on the Delta in inter-city Antioch. Hickmott Foods, Inc., operated a fruit and vegetable cannery between 1905 and the early 1970`s, during which time tomato skins, peach and apricot pits, and asparagus butts were discharged on the site. The decaying fruit pits have caused cyanide contamination. Additionally, the site contains some petroleum hydrocarbon contamination as well as gypsum board contamination, apparently from nearby manufacturing operations. The Antioch Delta Cove Pilot shows how interested parties can work together to clean up contaminated sites and use the clean up process to stimulate technology transfer. The Antioch project is a blueprint that can be replicated at other sites across California.

  11. Whittier small boat harbor, Shotgun Cove, Whittier, Alaska, feasibility stage: Planning aid report

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Site A {Mouth of the Cove) is the most environmentally acceptable alternative and should be studied further. The impacts expected to occur at the less...

  12. Renewable Energy Opportunities at Fort Hood, Texas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chvala, William D.; Warwick, William M.; Dixon, Douglas R.; Solana, Amy E.; Weimar, Mark R.; States, Jennifer C.; Reilly, Raymond W.

    2008-06-30

    The document provides an overview of renewable resource potential at Fort Hood based primarily upon analysis of secondary data sources supplemented with limited on-site evaluations. The effort was funded by the U.S. Army Installation Management Command (IMCOM) as follow-on to the 2005 DoD Renewables Assessment. This effort focuses on grid-connected generation of electricity from renewable energy sources and also ground source heat pumps for heating and cooling buildings, as directed by IMCOM.

  13. Novel Implications in Molecular Diagnosis of Lynch Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raffaella Liccardo

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available About 10% of total colorectal cancers are associated with known Mendelian inheritance, as Familial Adenomatous Polyposis (FAP and Lynch syndrome (LS. In these cancer types the clinical manifestations of disease are due to mutations in high-risk alleles, with a penetrance at least of 70%. The LS is associated with germline mutations in the DNA mismatch repair (MMR genes. However, the mutation detection analysis of these genes does not always provide informative results for genetic counseling of LS patients. Very often, the molecular analysis reveals the presence of variants of unknown significance (VUSs whose interpretation is not easy and requires the combination of different analytical strategies to get a proper assessment of their pathogenicity. In some cases, these VUSs may make a more substantial overall contribution to cancer risk than the well-assessed severe Mendelian variants. Moreover, it could also be possible that the simultaneous presence of these genetic variants in several MMR genes that behave as low risk alleles might contribute in a cooperative manner to increase the risk of hereditary cancer. In this paper, through a review of the recent literature, we have speculated a novel inheritance model in the Lynch syndrome; this could pave the way toward new diagnostic perspectives.

  14. “Silencio”: hearing loss in David Lynch's Mulholland Drive

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Allister Mactaggart

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available In a filmmaking career replete with extraordinary images and sounds, David Lynch's Mulholland Drive (2001 stands out for attention as a striking and seemingly inexhaustible resource for analysis. In this article, this film is used to examine the specific ways in which Lynch uses pre-existing pop songs to wrap the spectator within the filmic soundscape. Nowhere is the complexity and uncanniness of pop music made more explicit than in Rebekah Del Rio's stunning performance of “Llorando (Crying” in the Club Silencio scene. The split between the singer's powerful performance and her subsequent collapse with the sound of the voice left hanging in the air marks a pivotal point in the film. This scene, coupled with other examples of feminine jouissance, is contrasted with the deadening roar of the master's voice, which solely demands obedience but is deaf to any reply. At the core of this article is an analysis of the status of the voice (and the gaze as examples of the Lacanian object a and its relationship to Marx's concept of surplus value. Mulholland Drive provides a powerful demonstration of how these concepts can be seen, heard, and felt in relation to film, and how sound can reverberate into the spaces and silences beyond the screen.

  15. Prevalence of Lynch syndrome and Lynch-like syndrome among patients with colorectal cancer in a Japanese hospital-based population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chika, Noriyasu; Eguchi, Hidetaka; Kumamoto, Kensuke; Suzuki, Okihide; Ishibashi, Keiichiro; Tachikawa, Tetsuhiko; Akagi, Kiwamu; Tamaru, Jun-Ichi; Okazaki, Yasushi; Ishida, Hideyuki

    2017-02-09

    We investigated the prevalence of Lynch syndrome and Lynch-like syndrome among Japanese colorectal cancer patients, as there have been no credible data from Japan. Immunohistochemical analyses for mismatch repair proteins (MLH1, MSH2, MSH6 and PMS2) were carried out in surgically resected, formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded specimens obtained from 1,234 newly diagnosed colorectal cancer patients between March 2005 and April 2014. The presence/absence of the BRAF V600E mutation and hypermethylation of the MLH1 promoter was analyzed where necessary. Genetic testing was finally undertaken in patients suspected as having Lynch syndrome. By the universal screening approach with immunohistochemical analysis for mismatch repair proteins followed by analyses for the BRAF V600E mutation and MLH1 promoter methylation status, 11 (0.9%) of the 1,234 patients were identified as candidates for genetic testing. Out of the 11 patients, 9 (0.7%) were finally diagnosed as having Lynch syndrome; the responsible genes included MLH1 (n = 1), MSH2 (n = 4), EPCAM (n = 1) and MSH6 (n = 3). The remaining two patients (0.2%) were regarded as having Lynch-like syndrome, since biallelic somatic deletion of the relevant mismatch repair genes was detected in the absence of germline mismatch repair alterations. None of the cases was identified as having germline MLH1 epimutation. The prevalence of Lynch syndrome among all newly diagnosed cases of colorectal cancer in Japan is in the same range as that recently reported by studies in Western population. The prevalence of Lynch-like syndrome seems to be extremely low.

  16. Design considerations for fume hoods for process plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodfellow, H D; Bender, M

    1980-07-01

    Proper design of fume hoods is a necessary requisite for a clean working environment for many industrial processes. Until recently, the design of these hoods has been rather a trial and error approach and not based on sound engineering design principles. Hatch Associates have developed and applied new techniques to establish hood parameters for different industrail processes. The paper reviews the developed techniques and illustrates practical application of these techniques to the solving of difficult and comples fume hood design and operating performance problems. The scope of the paper covers the following subject areas: definitions and general considerations: evaluation of volume and heat flow rates for emission sources; local capture of process emissions; remote capture of process emissions and case studies of fume hood applications. The purpose of the paper is to detail a coherent approach in the analysis of emission problems which will result in the development of an efficient design of a fume capture hood. An efficient fume hood can provide a safe working place as well as a clean external environment. Although the techniques can be applied to smaller sources, the case studies which will be examined will be for fume hoods in the flow design range of 50 000 CFM to +1 000 000 CFM.

  17. The effect of thermal loading on laboratory fume hood performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, J D; Chessin, S J; Chesnovar, B W; Lillquist, D R

    2000-11-01

    A modified version of the ANSI/ASHRAE 110-1995 Method of Testing Performance of Laboratory Fume Hoods was used to evaluate the relationship between thermal loading in a laboratory fume hood and subsequent tracer gas leakage. Three types of laboratory burners were used, alone and in combination, to thermally challenge the hood. Heat output from burners was measured in BTU/hr, which was based on the fuel heat capacity and flow rate. Hood leakage was measured between 2824 and 69,342 BTU/hr. Sulfur hexafluoride (SF6) was released at 23.5 LPM for each level of thermal loading. Duct temperature was also measured during the heating process. Results indicate a linear relationship for both BTU/hr vs. hood leakage and duct temperature vs. hood leakage. Under these test conditions, each increase of 10,000 BTU/hr resulted in an additional 4 ppm SF6 in the manikin's breathing zone (r2 = 0.68). An additional 3.1 ppm SF6 was measured for every 25 degrees F increase in duct temperature (r2 = 0.60). Both BTU/hr and duct temperature models showed p hood leakage than duct temperature. The results of this study indicate that heat output may compromise fume hood performance. This finding is consistent with those of previous studies.

  18. Hood River Pelton Ladder Studies : Annual Report 1995.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olsen, Erik A.; French, Rod A.; Ritchey, Alan D.

    1996-09-01

    Data collected from this program will provide the baseline information needed to (1) evaluate various management options for implementing the Hood River Production Plan and (2) determine any post-project impacts the Hood River Production Plan has on indigenous populations of resident fish.

  19. Robin Hood as self-organized criticality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaitsev, S. I.

    1992-11-01

    It is shown that a wide class of physical processes named low-temperature creep (or Robin Hood systems) has to demonstrate self-organized criticality. At least “real” and “toy” models (1D and 2D) demonstrate long range (restricted by the model size only) spatial correlation in Monte Carlo simulation. The models can be used for investigation of such phenomena as dislocation glide, movement of flux in superconductors, movement of domain walls in magnetics, grain boundaries in polycrystals, plastic deformation and so on.

  20. Distinct gene expression profiles in ovarian cancer linked to Lynch syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jönsson, Jenny-Maria; Bartuma, Katarina; Dominguez-Valentin, Mev

    2014-01-01

    Ovarian cancer linked to Lynch syndrome represents a rare subset that typically presents at young age as early-stage tumors with an overrepresentation of endometrioid and clear cell histologies. We investigated the molecular profiles of Lynch syndrome-associated and sporadic ovarian cancer...... ovarian cancers. Lynch syndrome-associated and sporadic ovarian cancers differed by 349 significantly deregulated genes, including PTPRH, BIRC3, SHH and TNFRSF6B. The genes involved were predominantly linked to cell growth, proliferation, and cell-to-cell signaling and interaction. When stratified...... for histologic subtype, hierarchical clustering confirmed distinct differences related to heredity in the endometrioid and serous subtypes. Furthermore, separate clustering was achieved in an independent, publically available data set. The distinct genetic signatures in Lynch syndrome-associated and sporadic...

  1. Alternatif Material Hood dan Side Panel Mobil Angkutan Pedesaan Multiguna

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Ihsan

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Mobil merupakan sarana transportasi yang banyak digunakan oleh manusia baik untuk kepentingan pribadi maupun umum. Pada tahun 2013 Teknik Mesin ITS bekerja sama dengan PT. Karya Tugas Anda membuat sebuah prototype mobil pick up multiguna pedesaan. Berat total prototype mobil dan box tersebut adalah 1200 Kg. Sedangkan dengan engine 650 cc dan daya 38,23 - 43,33 HP, berat mobil terlalu berat (rancangan beban total maksimum mobil dan penumpang/ barang adalah 1500 Kg. Untuk itu dilakukan kajian terhadap hood dan side panel mobil tersebut pada body bagian depan maupun box (body bagian belakang. Setelah perancangan tersebut selesai, dilanjutkan dengan merancang sambungan hood dan side panel mobil tersebut. Sambungan menggabungkan antara material pelat dengan komposit dan material komposit dengan komposit. Sambungan dianalisa kekuatannya terhadap gaya-gaya/ beban yang mungkin terjadi saat mobil digunakan. Selanjutnya dilakukan perancangan proses pembuatan hood dan side panel mobil dari bahan komposit. Hasil yang didapatkan dari penelitian ini adalah hood berdimensi 1176 mm x 453 mm dan side panel mobil dengan dimensi 558 mm x 430,5 mm. Bahan kedua komponen adalah komposit tipe E-Glass yang memiliki keuntungan lebih ringan daripada bahan sebelumnya, yaitu mild steel. Ketebalan hood yang dipilih sebesar 2 mm. Ketebalan hood tersebut aman, yaitu mampu menerima tegangan ekuivalen maksimum 7,9769 MPa dan lebih kecil daripada tegangan ijin material komposit yaitu 1020 MPa. Deformasi yang pada hood adalah sebesar 0,0247 mm. Berat dari hood mengalami perubahan, dimana dengan menggunakan bahan mild steel berat hood adalah 7,536 kg. Jika menggunakan bahan komposit berat hood menjadi 2,327 kg, hampir 69,12% lebih ringan dari sebelumnya.

  2. Peninsula Effects on Birds in a Coastal Landscape: Are Coves More Species Rich than Lobes?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sam Riffell

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Peninsula effects - decreasing richness with increasing distance along peninsula lobes - have been identified for many taxa on large peninsulas. Peninsula effects are caused by differences in colonization and extinction predicted by island biogeography or by environmental gradients along the peninsula. We compared species-area regressions for cove patches (i.e., mainland to regressions for lobe patches (i.e., on peninsula tips for wet meadow birds along a highly interdigitated shoreline (northern Lake Huron, USA. We conducted analysis both with and without accounting for variation in habitat and landscape characteristics (i.e., environmental gradients of wet meadows. Species-area regressions for coves did not differ from lobes, nor did these results differ when we accounted for gradients. Similarly, few species were more abundant in coves. Peninsula effects may have been lacking because lobe patches were located ≈ 800 m on average from the mainland, and birds are highly mobile and can easily sample patches over these distances. One important caveat was that wet meadow patches > 5 ha were located in coves, so coves would still be important considerations in conservation plans because of the contribution of large patches to reproductive success, dispersal and population dynamics.

  3. Media lynching in Romanian mass media and politics. Definition and short explanations

    OpenAIRE

    Ion Novăcescu

    2013-01-01

    The Monitoring Report of justice in Romania, published by the European Commission in late January of this year, has sparked an intense controversy in Romanian politics between the president of Romania and the prime minister of the country, which has focused on the mediatic lynching who was practiced against the judges and the anti-corruption prosecutors. This article defines and analyzes the mediatic lynching and its specific features that distinguish it from a press campaign.

  4. Media lynching in Romanian mass media and politics. Definition and short explanations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ion Novăcescu

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The Monitoring Report of justice in Romania, published by the European Commission in late January of this year, has sparked an intense controversy in Romanian politics between the president of Romania and the prime minister of the country, which has focused on the mediatic lynching who was practiced against the judges and the anti-corruption prosecutors. This article defines and analyzes the mediatic lynching and its specific features that distinguish it from a press campaign.

  5. Risk of Cancer in Cases of Suspected Lynch Syndrome Without Germline Mutation

    OpenAIRE

    Rodríguez-Soler, María; Pérez-Carbonell, Lucía; Guarinos, Carla; Zapater, Pedro; Castillejo, Adela; Barberá, Víctor Manuel; Juárez, Miriam; Bessa, Xavier; Xicola, Rosa M; Clofent, Juan; Bujanda, Luis; Balaguer, Francesc; Reñé, Josep-Maria; de Castro, Luisa; Marín-Gabriel, José C.

    2013-01-01

    Background & Aims: Colorectal cancers (CRCs) with microsatellite instability (MSI) and a mismatch repair (MMR) immunohistochemical deficit without hypermethylation of the MLH1 promoter are likely to be caused by Lynch syndrome. Some patients with these cancers have not been found to have pathogenic germline mutations and are considered to have Lynch-like syndrome (LLS). The aim of this study was to determine the risk of cancer in families of patients with LLS. Methods: We studied a population...

  6. Distinct Gene Expression Signatures in Lynch Syndrome and Familial Colorectal Cancer Type X

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Valentin, Mev; Therkildsen, Christina; Veerla, Srinivas;

    2013-01-01

    Heredity is estimated to cause at least 20% of colorectal cancer. The hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal cancer subset is divided into Lynch syndrome and familial colorectal cancer type X (FCCTX) based on presence of mismatch repair (MMR) gene defects.......Heredity is estimated to cause at least 20% of colorectal cancer. The hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal cancer subset is divided into Lynch syndrome and familial colorectal cancer type X (FCCTX) based on presence of mismatch repair (MMR) gene defects....

  7. Papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) in Lynch syndrome: Report of two cases and discussion on Lynch syndrome behaviour and genetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelizzo, M R; Pennelli, G; Zane, M; Galuppini, F; Colletti, P M; Merante Boschin, I; Rubello, D

    2015-08-01

    We present here two cases of papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) in patients affected by Lynch syndrome (LS). The first case is a 47-year-old woman with typical hereditary non-polyposis colorectal cancer (HNPCC) syndrome, reported with endometrial and ovarian carcinoma at age 43, and colon cancer at age 45. The patient underwent total thyroidectomy and central node dissection in 2007, at 47years old, with a histological diagnosis of PTC (T1aN1a). Molecular genetics showed a germ-line mutation of the MLH1 gene, 1858 G>T(E620X), with substitution of glycine with a stop codon at position 620. This mutation has pathogenetic significance and was considered responsible for the various tumours of the HNPCC spectrum. In particular, in the same kindred, spanning 5 generations, there were 5 members with colorectal cancer, 4 with endometrial cancer, 3 with gastric and 2 with breast cancer. The second case is a 34-year-old man with typical HNPCC syndrome with colonic resection for colon cancer at age 21. The patient underwent total thyroidectomy with central and lateral node dissection in 2010, at age 34, with a histological diagnosis of PTC with nodal metastases (pT4N1b). Molecular genetic analysis showed a germ-line mutation of the MSH2 gene (thymine insertion at position 907). This mutation had pathogenetic significance and was considered responsible for HNPCC development. Two similar cases have been reported: a 39-year-old woman, and a 44-year-old woman, affected by HNPCC syndrome, with anaplastic thyroid carcinoma and undifferentiated thyroid carcinoma, respectively. We reviewed the Lynch syndrome literature on the history, genetics and expanding tumour spectrum of this condition. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  8. 76 FR 76698 - Dominion Cove Point LNG, LP; Application To Export Domestic Liquefied Natural Gas to Non-Free...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-08

    ...] [FR Doc No: 2011-31518] DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY [FE Docket No. 11-128-LNG] Dominion Cove Point LNG, LP..., by Dominion Cove Point LNG, LP (DCP), requesting long- term, multi-contract authorization to export up to 7.82 million metric tons per year of domestically produced liquefied natural gas...

  9. 77 FR 59601 - Dominion Cove Point LNG, LP; Notice of Intent To Prepare an Environmental Assessment for the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-28

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Dominion Cove Point LNG, LP; Notice of Intent To Prepare an Environmental... and operation of facilities by Dominion Cove Point LNG, LP (Dominion) in Maryland and Virginia. This... 717b, DOE would authorize the export of natural gas, including liquefied natural gas (LNG),...

  10. 33 CFR 165.502 - Safety and Security Zone; Cove Point Liquefied Natural Gas Terminal, Chesapeake Bay, Maryland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Safety and Security Zone; Cove Point Liquefied Natural Gas Terminal, Chesapeake Bay, Maryland. 165.502 Section 165.502 Navigation and... Areas Fifth Coast Guard District § 165.502 Safety and Security Zone; Cove Point Liquefied Natural...

  11. 33 CFR 334.960 - Pacific Ocean, San Clemente Island, Calif.; naval danger zone off West Cove.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Island, Calif.; naval danger zone off West Cove. 334.960 Section 334.960 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS OF ENGINEERS, DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE DANGER ZONE AND RESTRICTED AREA REGULATIONS § 334.960 Pacific Ocean, San Clemente Island, Calif.; naval danger zone off West Cove. (a)...

  12. 33 CFR 110.48 - Thompson Cove on east side of Pawcatuck River below Westerly, R.I.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Thompson Cove on east side of..., DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY ANCHORAGES ANCHORAGE REGULATIONS Special Anchorage Areas § 110.48 Thompson... channelward end of Thompson Dock at the northern end of Thompson Cove 184° to the shore at the southern end...

  13. Sedimentary regimes at Potter Cove, King George Island, maritime Antarctica - from source to sink

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monien, Donata; Monien, Patrick; Brünjes, Robert M.; Widmer, Tatjana; Schnetger, Bernhard; Brumsack, Hans-Jürgen

    2013-04-01

    Increased particle run-off due to recently retreated ice masses along the Antarctic margins may play an important role in fertilizing the high-nutrient-low-chlorophyll regions of the Southern Ocean. At Potter Cove, King George Island, maritime Antarctica, small melt water streams at the south-eastern shoreline (Potter Peninsula) discharge up to 1,500 mg L-1 (av. 110 mg L-1) of suspended particle matter (SPM) per day into the coastal water body during the summer seasons. Apart from potential light limitation of plankton growth by the suspension load, the particle run-off affects benthic feeders, possibly changes the depositional regime and the preservation of chemical proxies in the outlet zones, and exports trace elements offshore. In Potter Cove's water column, the average particle size is low, and extreme turbidity events are restricted to the upper five to seven meters. High particle loads are often associated with low salinities, most probably induced by increased onshore precipitation. Sediment traps installed in the inner and outer cove at 5 and 20 m water depth suggest mass accumulation rates of 0.83 and 0.58 g cm-2 yr-1, and 0.13 and 0.11 g cm-2 yr-1 (considering 183 days of sedimentation), respectively. 210Pb measurements of short sediment cores reveal recent sediment accumulation rates of approximately 0.1 to 0.6 g cm-2 yr-1. The SPM sampled in the melt water streams and plumes is chemically different to surface sediments deposited in Potter Cove. Chemical characteristics suggest a significant impact of particle sorting: SPM and outer cove sediments are more clayey, whereas inner cove sediments contain more heavy minerals. Generally, sediment deposits in Potter Cove exhibit coarser grain sizes and are mainly derived from Barton Peninsula (northern shoreline), whereas the SPM consists of more fine-grained material originating from Potter Peninsula eluviations. Sequential leaching of the SPM by ascorbic acid showed that approximately 0.5 to 2% of the total

  14. Friction Effects in Pedestrian Headform Impacts with Engine Hoods

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Qi; XIA Yong; ZHOU Qing

    2009-01-01

    In the pedestrian headform impact test mandated by the European pedestrian safety requirements, the contact friction between the headform and the engine hood affects the headform kinematics and head injury criterion (HIC) to some extent. This study shows that the friction effect is more significant with child headform impact than with adult headform impact and the relative angle between the headform impact di-rection and the hood surface greatly affects the headform impact sensitivity to the friction coefficient. The sensitivity of the headform kinematics to the friction coefficient is also analyzed. The results show that ac-curate friction coefficients are needed to improve predictions of pedestrian headform impacts with hoods.

  15. Hood River Production Program : Hood River Fish Habitat Protection, Restoration, and Monitoring Plan.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coccoli, Holly; Lambert, Michael

    2000-02-01

    Effective habitat protection and rehabilitation are essential to the long-term recovery of anadromous fish populations in the Hood River subbasin. This Habitat Protection, Restoration, and Monitoring Plan was prepared to advance the goals of the Hood River Production Program (HRRP) which include restoring self-sustaining runs of spring chinook salmon and winter and summer steelhead. The HRPP is a fish supplementation and monitoring and evaluation program initiated in 1991 and funded by the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) as part of the Northwest Power Planning Council Fish and Wildlife Program. The HRPP is a joint effort of the Confederated Tribes of the Warm Springs Reservation of Oregon (CTWSRO) and Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife (ODFW). Using recent watershed assessment and federal watershed analysis reports, this Plan reviews the historic and current condition of riparian, instream and upland habitats; natural watershed processes; anadromous and resident fish populations; identifies limiting factors, and indicates those subbasin areas that need protection or are likely to respond to restoration. Primary habitat restoration needs were identified as (1) improved fish screening and upstream adult passage at water diversions; (2) improved spawning gravel availability, instream habitat structure and diversity; and (3) improved water quality and riparian conditions. While several early action projects have been initiated in the Hood River subbasin since the mid 1990s, this Plan outlines additional projects and strategies needed to protect existing high quality habitat, correct known fish survival problems, and improve the habitat capacity for natural production to meet HRPP goals.

  16. Bonneville - Hood River Vegetation Management Environmental Assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    N/A

    1998-08-01

    To maintain the reliability of its electrical system, BPA, in cooperation with the U.S. Forest Service, needs to expand the range of vegetation management options used to clear unwanted vegetation on about 20 miles of BPA transmission line right-of-way between Bonneville Dam and Hood River; Oregon, within the Columbia Gorge National Scenic Area (NSA). We propose to continue controlling undesirable vegetation using a program of Integrated Vegetation Management (IVM) which includes manual, biological and chemical treatment methods. BPA has prepared an Environmental Assessment (EA) (DOE/EA-1257) evaluating the proposed project. Based on the analysis in the EA, BPA has determined that the proposed action is not a major Federal action significantly affecting the quality of the human environment, within the meaning of the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) of 1969. Therefore, the preparation of an Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) is not required and BPA is issuing this FONSI.

  17. [Fatal poisoning caused by aconite monk's hood (Aconitum napellus)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feldkamp, A; Köster, B; Weber, H P

    1991-06-01

    Severe intoxications after ingestion of monk's hood are rare in childhood. We report a case of fatal intoxication in a 20 months old child. There is no specific therapy available. A review of the literature is added.

  18. Microwave sterilization of nitrous oxide nasal hoods contaminated with virus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Young, S.K.; Graves, D.C.; Rohrer, M.D.; Bulard, R.A.

    1985-12-01

    Although there exists a desire to eliminate the possibility of cross-infection from microbial contaminated nitrous oxide nasal hoods, effective and practical methods of sterilization in a dental office are unsatisfactory. Microwaves have been used to sterilize certain contaminated dental instruments without damage. In this study nasal hoods contaminated with rhinovirus, parainfluenza virus, adenovirus, and herpes simplex virus were sterilized in a modified microwave oven. Ninety-five percent of the virus activity was destroyed after 1 minute of exposure of the contaminated nasal hoods to microwaves. By the end of 4 minutes, complete inactivation of all four viruses was found. Repeated exposure of the nasal hoods to microwaves resulted in no damage to their texture and flexibility. Microwave sterilization may potentially provide a simple and practical method of sterilizing nitrous oxide anesthesia equipment in a dental or medical practice.

  19. Advancing the discussion about systematic classroom behavioral observation, a product review of Tenny, J. (2010). eCOVE observation software. Pacific City, OR: eCOVE Software, LLC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Froiland, John Mark; Smith, Liana

    2014-05-01

    Applied child psychologists and behavioral consultants often use systematic behavioral observations to inform the psychological assessment and intervention development process for children referred for attention and hyperactivity problems. This article provides a review of the 2010 version of the eCOVE classroom observation software in terms of its utility in tracking the progress of children with attention and hyperactive behaviors and its use in evaluating teacher behaviors that may impede or promote children's attention and positive behavior. The eCOVE shows promise as an efficient tool for psychologists and behavioral consultants who want to evaluate the effects of interventions for children with symptoms of ADHD, ODD, mood disorders and learning disorders; however, some research-based improvements for future models are suggested. The reviewers also share their firsthand experience in using eCOVE to evaluate teacher and student behavior exhibited on a television show about teaching urban high school students and during a movie about an eccentric new kindergarten teacher. Rich examples are provided of using strategic behavioral observations to reveal how to improve the classroom environment so as to facilitate attention, motivation and positive behavior among youth. Broader implications for enhancing the use of systematic behavioral observations in the assessment of children and adolescents with attention disorders and related behavioral problems are discussed. Key issues are examined such as the use of behavioral observations during psychological consultation to prevent the previously found gender bias in referrals for ADHD. Using behavioral observations to enhance differential diagnosis is also discussed.

  20. Genetic testing for Lynch syndrome: family communication and motivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leenen, Celine H M; Heijer, Mariska den; van der Meer, Conny; Kuipers, Ernst J; van Leerdam, Monique E; Wagner, Anja

    2016-01-01

    Current genetic counselling practice for Lynch syndrome (LS) relies on diagnosed index patients to inform their biological family about LS, referred to as the family-mediated approach. The objective of this study was to evaluate this approach and to identify factors influencing the uptake of genetic testing for LS. In 59 mutation carriers, 70 non carriers and 16 non-tested relatives socio-demographic characteristics, family communication regarding LS, experiences and attitudes towards the family-mediated approach and motivations for genetic testing, were assessed. The majority of all respondents (73 %) were satisfied with the family-mediated approach. Nevertheless, 59 % of the respondents experienced informing a family member and 57 % being informed by a family member as burdensome. Non-tested differed from tested respondents, in that they were younger, less closely related to the index patient and a lower proportion had children. The most important reasons for declining genetic testing were (1) anticipating problems with life insurance and mortgage, (2) being content with life as it is, and (3) not experiencing any physical complaints. In conclusion, the majority of respondents consider the current family-mediated information procedure acceptable, although the provision of information on LS by relatives may be burdensome. Special attention should be paid to communication of LS to more distant relatives.

  1. Required response time for variable air volume fume hood controllers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekberg, L E; Melin, J

    2000-03-01

    This paper describes results from tests made with the aim of investigating how quickly the exhaust air flow rate through fume hoods needs to be controlled in order to prevent contaminants from leaking out of the fume hood and putting the safety of the laboratory personnel at risk. The measurements were made on a laboratory fume hood in a chemical laboratory. There were no other fume hoods in the laboratory, and the measurements were made without interference from persons entering or leaving the laboratory or walking about in it. A tracer gas method was used with the concentration of dinitrogen oxide (N(2)O) being recorded by a Foxboro Miran 101 infra-red gas analyser. In parallel with the tracer gas measurements, the air velocity through the face opening was also measured, as was the control signal to the damper controlling the air flow rate. The measurements show an increased outward leakage of tracer gas from the fume hood if the air flow rate is not re-established within 1-2 s after the sash is opened. If the delay exceeds 3 s the safety function is temporarily defeated. The measurements were made under virtually ideal conditions. Under more typical conditions, the fume hood could be exposed to various other external perturbations, which means that the control system should re-establish the correct exhaust flow more quickly than indicated by the measurement results obtained under these almost ideal conditions.

  2. How does genetic risk information for Lynch syndrome translate to risk management behaviours?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steel, Emma; Robbins, Andrew; Jenkins, Mark; Flander, Louisa; Gaff, Clara; Keogh, Louise

    2017-01-01

    There is limited research on why some individuals who have undergone predictive genetic testing for Lynch syndrome do not adhere to screening recommendations. This study aimed to explore qualitatively how Lynch syndrome non-carriers and carriers translate genetic risk information and advice to decisions about risk managment behaviours in the Australian healthcare system. Participants of the Australasian Colorectal Cancer Family Registry who had undergone predictive genetic testing for Lynch syndrome were interviewed on their risk management behaviours. Transcripts were analysed thematically using a comparative coding analysis. Thirty-three people were interviewed. Of the non-carriers (n = 16), 2 reported having apparently unnecessary colonoscopies, and 6 were unsure about what population-based colorectal cancer screening entails. Of the carriers (n = 17), 2 reported they had not had regular colonoscopies, and spoke about their discomfort with the screening process and a lack of faith in the procedure's ability to reduce their risk of developing colorectal cancer. Of the female carriers (n = 9), 2 could not recall being informed about the associated risk of gynaecological cancers. Non-carriers and female carriers of Lynch syndrome could benefit from further clarity and advice about appropriate risk management options. For those carriers who did not adhere to colonoscopy screening, a lack of faith in both genetic test results and screening were evident. It is essential that consistent advice is offered to both carriers and non-carriers of Lynch syndrome.

  3. 79 FR 36094 - Notice of Proposed Supplementary Rules for the Cove Recreation Site, Owyhee County, ID

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-06-25

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Bureau of Land Management Notice of Proposed Supplementary Rules for the Cove Recreation Site, Owyhee... Conservation Area (NCA) in Owyhee County, Idaho. These supplementary rules are compatible and consistent...

  4. 81 FR 43631 - Final Supplementary Rules for the Cove Recreation Site, Owyhee County, Idaho

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-07-05

    ....HT0000 LXSS020D0000 241A 4500076900] Final Supplementary Rules for the Cove Recreation Site, Owyhee... Snake River Birds of Prey National Conservation Area (NCA) in Owyhee County, Idaho. These final...). Originally, public comments were due August 25, 2014. The BLM accepted comments from the Owyhee...

  5. Incorporating Relevance and Rigor in a Game Environment: Barracuda Cove Investment Game

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Susan E.

    2014-01-01

    Achieving student learning outcomes in a "gamelike" environment allows students to connect real-world activities to marketing and business concepts presented in a relevant and authentic manner. The innovative game, Barracuda Cove Investment Game, can be incorporated into any marketing-related course that would require a marketing or…

  6. Computer simulation in the design of local exhaust hoods for shielded metal arc welding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tum Suden, K D; Flynn, M R; Goodman, R

    1990-03-01

    Computer simulations were used to examine competing exhaust hood configurations for shielded metal arc welding. The welder's breathing zone concentration appears to be an inverse linear function of the computer-predicted hood capture efficiency. Hood aspect ratio, hood flow, and the welder's position relative to the hood all have a significant effect on the breathing zone concentration. The height of the hood above the welding surface showed no significant effect in reducing breathing zone concentration. Further examination of breathing zone concentration as a function of capture efficiency is needed before reliable design methods can be developed using this parameter.

  7. Clinicopathological Features of Endometrial Carcino-ma Associated with Lynch Syndrome in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yingmei WANG; Fengxia XUE; Russell R. BROADDUS; Xia TAO; Susu XIE; Yanbin ZHU

    2009-01-01

    Background and objective To study the clinicopathoiogical characteristics of Lynch syn&ome-associated endometrial carcinoma in China.Methods Twenty-seven patients who fulfilled the Amsterdam Criteria Ⅱ were classified as having Lynch syndrome-associated endometrial carcinoma (Group A), and 331 patients without a family history of cancer were classified as having sporadic endometrial carcinoma (Group B).Results There were 81 malignancies in 27 Lynch syndrome-associated endometrial carcinoma families, including colorectal cancer (CRC, 24.7%), endometrial carcinoma (21.0%), liver (12.3%), stomach (9.9%), lung (6.2%), and breast (6.2%) cancers. Mean age at time of diagnosis was 49.7 years in Group A and 56.3 years in Group B (P=0.004). Second primary cancers occurred in 33.3% of patients in Group A and 5.1% in Group B (P<0.0001). "Ihe most common second primary cancers were colorectal cancer (44%) and ovarian cancer (22%). The percentage of obese patients was higher in Group A (P=0.013). There was no difference between the two groups in incidence of diabetes mellitns or hypertension or in histological type and FIGO stage. The 5-year survival rates for Group A and B were 96.2% and 79.6%, respectively. Prognosis for Group A was better than for Group B (P=0.045).Conclusion Some clinicopathologicai features of Lynch syndrome-associated endometrial carcinoma, such as early onset and multiple primary carcinomas, are similar in the Chinese and American/European populations. However, the Chinese population had a unique family cancer distribution that included lung and breast cancers. An increased number of grade 1 endometrioid tumors and a better prognosis imply better biobehavior in Chinese Lynch syndrome-associated endometrial carcinoma. Obesity may be a co-contributing factor for development of Lynch syndrome associated endometrial cancer in China.

  8. Hood River and Pelton Ladder Evaluation Studies : Annual Report 1994.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olsen, Erik A.; French, Rod A.; Ritchey, Alan D.

    1995-09-01

    In 1992, the Northwest Power Planning Council approved the Hood River and Pelton ladder master plans within the framework of the Columbia River Basin Fish and Wildlife Program. The master plans define an approach for implementing a hatchery supplementation program in the Hood River subbasin. The hatchery program as defined in the master plans is called the Hood River Hatchery Production Program (HRPP). The HRPP will be phased in over several years and will be jointly implemented by the Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife (ODFW) and the Confederated Tribes of the Warm Springs (CTWS) Reservation. In December 1991, a monitoring and evaluation program was implemented in the Hood River subbasin to collect life history and production information on stocks of anadromous salmonids returning to the Hood River subbasin. The program was implemented to provide the baseline information needed to: (1) evaluate various management options for implementing the HRPP and (2) determine any post-project impacts the HRPP has on indigenous populations of resident fish. Information collected during the 1992-94 fiscal years will also be used to prepare an environmental impact statement (EIS) evaluating the program`s impact on the human environment. To begin construction on project facilities, it was proposed that the HRPP be implemented in two phases. Phase I would include work that would fall under a {open_quotes}categorical exclusion{close_quotes} from NEPA, and Phase II would include work requiring an EIS prior to implementation. This report summarizes the life history and escapement data collected in the Hood River subbasin and the status work of implemented under Phase I of the HR Life history and escapement data will be used to: (1) test the assumptions on which harvest and escapement goals for the Hood River and Pelton ladder master plans are based and (2) develop biologically based management recommendations for implementing the HRPP.

  9. Anisotropic 2-dimensional Robin Hood model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buldyrev, Sergey; Cwilich, Gabriel; Zypman, Fredy

    2009-03-01

    We have considered the Robin Hood model introduced by Zaitsev[1] to discuss flux creep and depinning of interfaces in a two dimensional system. Although the model has been studied extensively analytically in 1-d [2], its scaling laws have been verified numerically only in that case. Recent work suggest that its properties might be important to understand surface friction[3], where its 2-dimensional properties are important. We show that in the 2-dimensional case scaling laws can be found provided one considers carefully the anisotropy of the model, and different ways of introducing that anisotropy lead to different exponents and scaling laws, in analogy with directed percolation, with which this model is closely related[4]. We show that breaking the rotational symmetry between the x and y axes does not change the scaling properties of the model, but the introduction of a preferential direction of accretion (``robbing'' in the language of the model) leads to new scaling exponents. [1] S.I.Zaitsev, Physica A189, 411 (1992) [2] M. Pacuzki, S. Maslov and P.Bak, Phys Rev. E53, 414 (1996) [3] S. Buldyrev, J. Ferrante and F. Zypman Phys. Rev E64, 066110 (2006) [4] G. Odor, Rev. Mod. Phys. 76, 663 (2004) .

  10. Modern sedimentation in a rapidly warming fjord: Potter Cove, King George Island, Antarctica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hass, H. C.; Kuhn, G.; Wittenberg, N.; Wölfl, A.

    2012-04-01

    The northern Antarctic Peninsula belongs to the fastest warming regions on earth. The winter-warming trend was strong and stable over the past 70 years. As a result, Potter Cove, a small fjord that opens into Maxwell Bay (King George Island, South Shetland Islands), shows significant environmental change. A former tidewater glacier (Fourcade Glacier) has retreated onto land exposing bedrock such as a small island close to the glacier front. It is suggested that the warming trend triggered excessive discharge of sediment-laden meltwaters in the form of turbid surface waters. The hypothesis for this study is that very fine-grained materials are present in Potter Cove and that meltwater plumes that exit Potter Cove can be traced downstream in the form of fans of fine-grained materials. In this study we investigate the modern sedimentation patterns in Potter Cove using hydroacoustics and seafloor samples to compare that with conditions from the past as recorded in sediment cores. Surface grain-size distributions reveal a distinct textural pattern in Potter Cove. Cluster analysis suggests 7 classes of sediment types. Four of them are unimodal, three classes show fine-skewed distributions with tendencies to bimodality. The finer sediment classes are found in the central inner part of the cove. The finest class (mode at 16 µm) forms only a small patch in the shelter of a small island. Sediments from close to the glacier front appear to be slightly depleted in fine-grained materials. From the glacier front to the outer fjord the sediments show influence of current sorting, i.e. the coarser mode becomes more significant and sorting increases. A sediment core from the deeper outer basin of Potter Cove reveals only one of the better-sorted, coarser classes that appears to form on the way from the glacier into the basin. There are 5 long sediment cores located less than 10 km off the mouth of Potter Cove in Maxwell Bay. All of which reveal sediments that belong either to the

  11. Physical and chemical limnology of Ides Cove near Rochester, New York, 1970-1982

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bubeck, R.C.; Staubitz, W.W.; Weidemann, A.D.; Spittal, L.P.

    1995-01-01

    Ides Cove is a small embayment on the western shore of Irondequoit Bay near Rochester, N.Y. In 1982, alum was applied to the cove to seal the bottom sediments and thereby decrease nutrient fluxes in an effort to assess the applicability of this technique to Irondequoit Bay. Published data were used to develop a baseline analysis of the chemical and physical limnology of Ides Cove prior to the alum treatment and to provide a basis for comparison and evaluation of post-treatment data. The baseline analysis also enables evaluation of trends in the nutrient status and mixing patterns in Ides Cove since the decrease of sewage inflows and use of road salt in the Irondequoit Bay and Ides Cove drainage basins during 1970-82. Data from 1970-72 and 1979-82 were used to construct partial and full-year depth profiles of several physical properties and chemical constituents of water in the cove; comparison of these profiles indicates a significant improvement in water quality between 1970 and 1982. The diversion of sewage out of the Irondequoit Creek drainage basin in the late 1970's resulted in an 80-percent decrease in total phosphate concentration and a 50- to 60-percent decrease in nitrogen (nitrate and ammonia) concentration in the cove. Indications of decreased primary productivity are associated with these lowered nutrient concentrations. Summer Secchi-disk transparency increased from 0.6 m (meters) in 1970-72 to 1.2 m in 1980-82; peak epilimnetic dissolved oxygen levels decreased from a range of 22 to 28 mg/L (milligrams per liter) to a range of 16 to 20 mg/L; and peak epilimnetic pH decreased from greater than 9.4 to between 8.8 and 9.0. The decrease in the use of road salt in the Irondequoit basin beginning in 1974 resulted in a decrease in chloride concentration and gradient (difference between the surface and bottom con- centration). The maximum annual chloride concentration in the epilimnion decreased from the 210-to-225-mg/L range in the spring of 1971-72 to the

  12. 2011 Oregon Parks and Recreation Department Lidar: Northeast (Clyde Holliday, Cove Palisades, Lake Owyhee, and White River Falls State Parks)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set provides the lidar elevations for four Oregon State Parks. The four state parks are Clyde Holliday (766 square acres) in Grant County, Cove Palisades...

  13. Hood River Production Program Monitoring and Evaluation : Annual Reports for 1996.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olsen, Erik A.; French, Rod A.; Lambert, Michael B.

    1998-01-01

    The primary goals of the Hood River Production Program is to (1) increase subbasin production of wild summer and winter steelhead and (2) reintroduce spring chinook salmon into the Hood River subbasin.

  14. EVALUATION OF LEAKAGE FROM FUME HOODS USING TRACER GAS, TRACER NANOPARTICLES AND NANOPOWDER HANDLING TEST METHODOLOGIES

    OpenAIRE

    Dunn, Kevin H.; Tsai, Candace Su-Jung; Woskie, Susan R.; Bennett, James S.; Garcia, Alberto; Ellenbecker, Michael J.

    2014-01-01

    The most commonly reported control used to minimize workplace exposures to nanomaterials is the chemical fume hood. Studies have shown, however, that significant releases of nanoparticles can occur when materials are handled inside fume hoods. This study evaluated the performance of a new commercially available nano fume hood using three different test protocols. Tracer gas, tracer nanoparticle, and nanopowder handling protocols were used to evaluate the hood. A static test procedure using tr...

  15. The Experimental MOD III Firefighter’s Aluminized, Crash-Rescue, Fire- Proximity Hood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-07-01

    required, and then proposed for adoption to replace the current standard headwear . The main differences between the standard hood and the experimental hood...the ease of use of all type of breathing apparatus under the hood. The thermal qualities of these hoods are comparable to the standard headwear and...connection, the new style should be compared with the standard. If you have any opinions as to how this headwear can be improved, kindly offer your

  16. Hood River Production Program Review, Final Report 1991-2001.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Underwood, Keith; Chapman, Colin; Ackerman, Nicklaus

    2003-12-01

    This document provides a comprehensive review of Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) funded activities within the Hood River Basin from 1991 to 2001. These activities, known as the Hood River Production Program (HRPP), are intended to mitigate for fish losses related to operation of federal dams in the Columbia River Basin, and to contribute to recovery of endangered and/or threatened salmon and steelhead, as directed by Nation Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration - Fisheries (NOAA Fisheries). The Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) for the HRPP, which authorized BPA to fund salmon and steelhead enhancement activities in the Hood River Basin, was completed in 1996 (BPA 1996). The EIS specified seven years of monitoring and evaluation (1996-2002) after program implementation to determine if program actions needed modification to meet program objectives. The EIS also called for a program review after 2002, that review is reported here.

  17. Airborne nanoparticle exposures while using constant-flow, constant-velocity, and air-curtain-isolated fume hoods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Su-Jung Candace; Huang, Rong Fung; Ellenbecker, Michael J

    2010-01-01

    Tsai et al. (Airborne nanoparticle exposures associated with the manual handling of nanoalumina and nanosilver in fume hoods. J Nanopart Res 2009; 11: 147-61) found that the handling of dry nanoalumina and nanosilver inside laboratory fume hoods can cause a significant release of airborne nanoparticles from the hood. Hood design affects the magnitude of release. With traditionally designed fume hoods, the airflow moves horizontally toward the hood cupboard; the turbulent airflow formed in the worker wake region interacts with the vortex in the constant-flow fume hood and this can cause nanoparticles to be carried out with the circulating airflow. Airborne particle concentrations were measured for three hood designs (constant-flow, constant-velocity, and air-curtain hoods) using manual handling of nanoalumina particles. The hood operator's airborne nanoparticle breathing zone exposure was measured over the size range from 5 nm to 20 mum. Experiments showed that the exposure magnitude for a constant-flow hood had high variability. The results for the constant-velocity hood varied by operating conditions, but were usually very low. The performance of the air-curtain hood, a new design with significantly different airflow pattern from traditional hoods, was consistent under all operating conditions and release was barely detected. Fog tests showed more intense turbulent airflow in traditional hoods and that the downward airflow from the double-layered sash to the suction slot of the air-curtain hood did not cause turbulence seen in other hoods.

  18. Genetic screens to identify pathogenic gene variants in the common cancer predisposition Lynch syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Drost, Mark; Lützen, Anne; van Hees, Sandrine

    2013-01-01

    In many individuals suspected of the common cancer predisposition Lynch syndrome, variants of unclear significance (VUS), rather than an obviously pathogenic mutations, are identified in one of the DNA mismatch repair (MMR) genes. The uncertainty of whether such VUS inactivate MMR, and therefore...... for the translation of personalized genomics into targeted healthcare....

  19. Informing family members of individuals with Lynch syndrome : a guideline for clinical geneticists

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Menko, Fred H.; Aalfs, Cora M.; Henneman, Lidewij; Stol, Yrrah; Wijdenes, Miranda; Otten, Ellen; Ploegmakers, Marleen M. J.; Legemaate, Johan; Smets, Ellen M. A.; de Wert, Guido M. W. R.; Tibben, Aad

    2013-01-01

    The diagnosis of Lynch syndrome can lead to the prevention of colorectal cancer through periodic colonoscopies and removal of premalignant lesions in susceptible individuals. Therefore, predisposed individuals identified by mutation analysis are advised to inform their at-risk relatives about the op

  20. Cancer incidence and survival in Lynch syndrome patients receiving colonoscopic and gynaecological surveillance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Pål; Seppälä, Toni; Bernstein, Inge;

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Estimates of cancer risk and the effects of surveillance in Lynch syndrome have been subject to bias, partly through reliance on retrospective studies. We sought to establish more robust estimates in patients undergoing prospective cancer surveillance. DESIGN: We undertook a multicentr...

  1. The Kids Are (Mostly) Alright: Second-Generation Assimilation--Comments on Haller, Portes and Lynch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alba, Richard; Kasinitz, Philip; Waters, Mary C.

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents the authors' comments on "Dreams Fulfilled, Dreams Shattered: Determinants of Segmented Assimilation in the Second Generation" by William Haller, Alejandro Portes and Scott M. Lynch. The overall well-being and integration of second-generation immigrant youth constitute an important topic for researchers and policy makers, one…

  2. Gene variants of unknown clinical significance in Lynch syndrome. An introduction for clinicians

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sijmons, Rolf H.; Greenblatt, Marc S.; Genuardi, Maurizio

    2013-01-01

    Clinicians referring patients for genetic testing for Lynch syndrome will sooner or later receive results for DNA Mismatch Repair (MMR) genes reporting DNA changes that are unclear from a clinical point of view. These changes are referred to as variants of unknown, or unclear, clinical significance

  3. Prediction of MLH1 and MSH2 mutations in lynch syndrome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. Balmana (Judith); D.H. Stockwell (David); E.W. Steyerberg (Ewout); E.M. Stoffel (Elena); A.M. Deffenbaugh (Amie); J.E. Reid (Julia); B. Ward (Brian); T. Scholl (Thomas); B. Hendrickson (Brant); J. Tazelaar (John); L.A. Burbidge (Lynn); S. Syngal (Sapna)

    2006-01-01

    textabstractContext: Lynch syndrome is caused primarily by mutations in the mismatch repair genes MLH1 and MSH2. Objectives: To analyze MLH1/MSH2 mutation prevalence in a large cohort of patients undergoing genetic testing and to develop a clinical model to predict the likelihood of finding a mutati

  4. Effect of aspirin or resistant starch on colorectal neoplasia in the Lynch syndrome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. Burn (John); D.T. Bishop (David Timothy); J.-P. Mecklin (Jukka-Pekka); F.A. Macrae (Finlay); G. Möslein (Gabriela); S. Olschwang (Sylviane); M.-L. Bisgaard (Marie-Luise); R.S. Ramesar (Rajkumar); D. Eccles (Diana); E.R. Maher (Eamonn); L. Bertario (Lucio); H.J. Jarvinen (Heikki); A. Lindblom (Annika); D.G. Evans (Gareth); J. Lubinski (Jan); P.J. Morrison (Patrick); J.W.C. Ho (Judy); H. Vasen (Hans); L. Side (Lucy); H.J.W. Thomas (Huw ); R.J. Scott (Rodney); M.G. Dunlop (Malcolm); G. Barker (Gail); F. Elliott (Faye); J.R. Jass (Jeremy ); R. Fodde (Riccardo); H. Lynch (Henry); J.C. Mathers (John )

    2008-01-01

    textabstractBACKGROUND: Observational and epidemiologic data indicate that the use of aspirin reduces the risk of colorectal neoplasia; however, the effects of aspirin in the Lynch syndrome (hereditary nonpolyposis colon cancer) are not known. Resistant starch has been associated with an antineoplas

  5. Is surveillance of the small bowel indicated for Lynch syndrome families?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kate, G.L. ten; Kleibeuker, J.H.; Nagengast, F.M.; Craanen, M.; Cats, A.; Menko, F.H.; Vasen, H.F.

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Small bowel cancer (SBC) is one of the tumours associated with Lynch syndrome (LS). To advise on screening for this tumour it is paramount to be informed about the lifetime risk. The aim of this study was to calculate the lifetime risk of SBC in LS and to identify possible risk factors.

  6. Is surveillance of the small bowel indicated for Lynch syndrome families?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    ten Kate, G. L.; Kleibeuker, J. H.; Nagengast, F. M.; Craanen, M.; Cats, A.; Menko, F. H.; Vasen, H. F. A.

    2007-01-01

    Background: Small bowel cancer (SBC) is one of the tumours associated with Lynch syndrome (LS). To advise on screening for this tumour it is paramount to be informed about the lifetime risk. The aim of this study was to calculate the lifetime risk of SBC in LS and to identify possible risk factors.

  7. Dietary patterns and colorectal adenomas in Lynch syndrome: the GEOLynch cohort study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Botma, A.; Vasen, H.F.; Duijnhoven, F.J.B. van; Kleibeuker, J.H.; Nagengast, F.M.; Kampman, E.

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Patients with Lynch syndrome (LS) have a high risk of developing colorectal cancer due to mutations in mismatch repair genes. Because dietary factors, alone and in combination, influence sporadic colorectal carcinogenesis, the association of dietary patterns with colorectal adenomas in L

  8. Dietary Patterns and Colorectal Adenomas in Lynch Syndrome The GEOLynch Cohort Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Botma, Akke; Vasen, Hans F. A.; van Duijnhoven, Franzel J. B.; Kleibeuker, Jan H.; Nagengast, Fokko M.; Kampman, Ellen

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Patients with Lynch syndrome (LS) have a high risk of developing colorectal cancer due to mutations in mismatch repair genes. Because dietary factors, alone and in combination, influence sporadic colorectal carcinogenesis, the association of dietary patterns with colorectal adenomas in L

  9. Smoking increases the risk for colorectal adenomas in patients with Lynch syndrome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Winkels, R.M.; Botma, A.; Duijnhoven, van F.J.B.; Nagengast, F.M.; Kleibeuker, J.H.; Vasen, H.F.A.; Kampman, E.

    2012-01-01

    Background & Aims Individuals with Lynch syndrome have a high risk of developing colorectal carcinomas and adenomas at a young age, due to inherited mutations in mismatch repair genes. We investigated whether modifiable lifestyle factors, such as smoking and alcohol intake, increase this risk.

  10. Smoking Increases the Risk for Colorectal Adenomas in Patients With Lynch Syndrome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Winkels, Renate M.; Botma, Akke; Van Duijnhoven, Franzel J. B.; Nagengast, Fokko M.; Kleibeuker, Jan H.; Vasen, Hans F. A.; Kampman, Ellen

    BACKGROUND & AIMS: Individuals with Lynch syndrome have a high risk of developing colorectal carcinomas and adenomas at a young age, due to inherited mutations in mismatch repair genes. We investigated whether modifiable lifestyle factors, such as smoking and alcohol intake, increase this risk.

  11. A frame-shift mutation of PMS2 is a widespread cause of Lynch syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clendenning, Mark; Senter, Leigha; Hampel, Heather;

    2008-01-01

    on immunohistochemical analysis. RESULTS: We have identified a frequently occurring frame-shift mutation (c.736_741del6ins11) in 12 ostensibly unrelated Lynch syndrome patients (20% of patients we have identified with a deleterious mutation in PMS2, n=61). These individuals all display the rare allele (population...

  12. Lynch, Urry and city marketing: Taking advantage of the city as a built and graphic image

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hospers, G-J.

    2009-01-01

    City marketing is usually addressed from the perspective of marketing theory. This article follows an alternative approach by exploring city marketing from the viewpoint of urban planning and the sociology of tourism. In his classic ‘The Image of the City’ (1960), planner Kevin Lynch found that peop

  13. Smoking increases the risk for colorectal adenomas in patients with Lynch syndrome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Winkels, R.M.; Botma, A.; Duijnhoven, van F.J.B.; Nagengast, F.M.; Kleibeuker, J.H.; Vasen, H.F.A.; Kampman, E.

    2012-01-01

    Background & Aims Individuals with Lynch syndrome have a high risk of developing colorectal carcinomas and adenomas at a young age, due to inherited mutations in mismatch repair genes. We investigated whether modifiable lifestyle factors, such as smoking and alcohol intake, increase this risk. M

  14. Smoking Increases the Risk for Colorectal Adenomas in Patients With Lynch Syndrome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Winkels, Renate M.; Botma, Akke; Van Duijnhoven, Franzel J. B.; Nagengast, Fokko M.; Kleibeuker, Jan H.; Vasen, Hans F. A.; Kampman, Ellen

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND & AIMS: Individuals with Lynch syndrome have a high risk of developing colorectal carcinomas and adenomas at a young age, due to inherited mutations in mismatch repair genes. We investigated whether modifiable lifestyle factors, such as smoking and alcohol intake, increase this risk. METH

  15. Smoking increases the risk for colorectal adenomas in patients with Lynch syndrome.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Winkels, R.M.; Botma, A.; Duijnhoven, F.J.B. van; Nagengast, F.M.; Kleibeuker, J.H.; Vasen, H.F.; Kampman, E.

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND & AIMS: Individuals with Lynch syndrome have a high risk of developing colorectal carcinomas and adenomas at a young age, due to inherited mutations in mismatch repair genes. We investigated whether modifiable lifestyle factors, such as smoking and alcohol intake, increase this risk. METH

  16. Guidelines for the clinical management of Lynch syndrome (hereditary non-polyposis cancer).

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vasen, H.F.; Moslein, G.; Alonso, A.; Bernstein, I.; Bertario, L.; Blanco, I.; Burn, J.; Capella, G.; Engel, C.; Frayling, I.; Friedl, W.; Hes, F.J.; Hodgson, S.; Mecklin, J.P.; Moller, P.; Nagengast, F.M.; Parc, Y.; Renkonen-Sinisalo, L.; Sampson, J.R.; Stormorken, A.; Wijnen, J.

    2007-01-01

    Lynch syndrome (hereditary non-polyposis colorectal cancer) is characterised by the development of colorectal cancer, endometrial cancer and various other cancers, and is caused by a mutation in one of the mismatch repair genes: MLH1, MSH2, MSH6 or PMS2. The discovery of these genes, 15 years ago,

  17. The InSiGHT database : utilizing 100 years of insights into Lynch Syndrome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Plazzer, J. P.; Sijmons, R. H.; Woods, M. O.; Peltomaki, P.; Thompson, B.; Den Dunnen, J. T.; Macrae, F.

    2013-01-01

    This article provides a historical overview of the online database (www.insight-group.org/mutations) maintained by the International Society for Gastrointestinal Hereditary Tumours. The focus is on the mismatch repair genes which are mutated in Lynch Syndrome. APC, MUTYH and other genes are also an

  18. 33 CFR 334.1220 - Hood Canal, Bangor; naval restricted areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Hood Canal, Bangor; naval restricted areas. 334.1220 Section 334.1220 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS OF ENGINEERS, DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE DANGER ZONE AND RESTRICTED AREA REGULATIONS § 334.1220 Hood Canal, Bangor; naval restricted areas. (a) Hood...

  19. 33 CFR 165.1328 - Regulated Navigation Area; U.S. Navy submarines, Hood Canal, WA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    .... Navy submarines, Hood Canal, WA. 165.1328 Section 165.1328 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD... § 165.1328 Regulated Navigation Area; U.S. Navy submarines, Hood Canal, WA. (a) Location. The following... whenever any U.S. Navy submarine is operating in the Hood Canal and is being escorted by the Coast...

  20. HEREDITARY NON-POLYPOSIS COLORECTAL CANCER (LYNCH SYNDROME PADA WANITA UMUR 16 TAHUN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asril Zahari

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available AbstrakKanker kolorektal menduduki peringkat ketiga jenis kanker yang paling sering terjadi di dunia. Sekitar 3% kasus kanker kolorektal merupakan jenis hereditary non polyposis colorectal cancer (HNPCC/Lynch syndrome, yang sering muncul pada usia muda. Dilaporkan satu kasus di rumah sakit Dr. M. Djamil Padang, wanita berumur 16 tahun dengan keluhan nyeri perut kanan bawah. Didapatkan riwayat penyakit serupa pada kakek, bibi pasien dan enam anggota keluarga yang lain. Pada pemeriksaan fisik abdomen teraba massa dengan konsistensi keras dan terfiksir. Pada kolonoskopi dan biopsi ditemukan tumor jenis adenocarcinoma colon moderatly differentiated di fleksura hepatika dan polip di kolon sigmoid. Berdasarkan kriteria Amsterdam pasien didiagnosa Lynch syndrome. Pada Pasien dilakukan subtotal kolektomi, anastomose ileorectal dan kemoterapi ajuvan. Identifikasi genetik sedang dikerjakan untuk melihat adanya kelainan genetik pada pasien. Pasien melakukan skrining berkala untuk mencegah kanker HNPCC jenis yang lain.Kata kunci : Hereditary non polyposis colorectal cancer, Lynch syndrome, Microsatellite instability, skrining.AbstractCarcinoma colorectal is the third most common type of cancer that occurs in the world. About 2% -3% of cases of colorectal cancer is hereditary non-polyposis colorectal cancer (HNPCC/Lynch syndrome, which often appear at a young age. Amsterdam and Bethesda criteria have been used to identify patients with Lynch syndrome.one case was reported at the Dr. M. Djamil Padang hospital, a 16-year-old girl with right lower abdominal pain. Obtained a history of similar disease in grandparents, aunts and six other family members. On physical examination found palpable fixed abdominal mass with hard consistency in the lower right abdomen. At colonoscopy and biopsy found a moderatly differentiated adenocarcinoma colon type at the hepatic flexure and the sigmoid colon polyp. Based on the Amsterdam criteria, patients diagnosed with HNPCC/Lynch

  1. Hydrography of Potter Cove, a Small Fjord-like Inlet on King George Island (South Shetlands)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klöser, Heinz; Ferreyra, Gustavo; Schloss, Irene; Mercuri, Guillermo; Laturnus, Frank; Curtosi, Antonio

    1994-05-01

    The hydrography of Potter Cove (King George Island, South Shetlands) is described in detail for one summer season. Recorded data are wind, air temperature, water temperature, salinity and water colour. From these, information on surface circulation patterns and dynamics of suspended sediments are derived. Possible sources of sediment input are discussed. As a result, a complex interaction between wind forcing, circulation and seasonal melt of high glacier surfaces emerges.

  2. Limited impact on self-concept in individuals with Lynch syndrome; results from a national cohort study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Helle Vendel; Esplen, Mary Jane; Ladelund, Steen;

    2011-01-01

    An increasing number of individuals seek genetic counseling and hereby learn about hereditary cancer in the family. Lynch syndrome is associated with an inherited high risk for colorectal and gynecological cancer, but knowledge about how family members at risk perceive their situation is limited....... We used the national Danish HNPCC register to collect data on self-concept from 413 individuals with Lynch syndrome. The recently developed Lynch syndrome self-concept scale contains 20 items within two subscales related to stigma-vulnerability and bowel symptom-related anxiety. Significantly higher...

  3. Tributyltin in environmental samples from the Former Derecktor Shipyard, Coddington Cove, Newport RI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wade, Terry L.; Sweet, Stephen T.; Quinn, James G.; Cairns, Robert W.; King, John W

    2004-05-01

    Tributyltin (TBT) was detected in all 24 surface sediment (top 2 cm) samples collected from Coddington Cove, Newport, RI. TBT surface sediment concentrations ranged from 32 to 372 ng Sn/g with a mean concentration of 146 ng Sn/g. Analyses of selected core sections detected TBT in at least the top 18 cm at all 7 stations where cores were collected. No consistent TBT concentration trends with depth for these cores suggest mixing is an important process in the sediment column. In one core (station 28), TBT was found in the 76-86 cm section at a concentration of 141 ng Sn/g; thus sediments are a significant sink for TBT. However, sediment mixing processes can enhance releases of bioavailable TBT. Mussels, clams and fish from Coddington Cove contain TBT at concentrations ranging from 9.2 to 977 ng Sn/g. TBT concentrations in lobsters were below the detection limit (<6 ng Sn/g). Based on available screening criteria, TBT concentrations in Coddington Cove sediment is likely to be having an adverse effect on the biota at some locations. - TBT is likely to continue to be bioavailable for many years.

  4. Molecular characterisation of anthropogenic sources of sedimentary organic matter from Potter Cove, King George Island, Antarctica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dauner, Ana Lúcia L; Hernández, Edgardo A; MacCormack, Walter P; Martins, César C

    2015-01-01

    Although relatively recent, human activities in Antarctica, such as growing tourism, fishery activities, and scientific operations, have affected some areas of this continent. These activities eventually release pollutants, such as petroleum and its derivatives and sewage, into this environment. Located on King George Island (25 de Mayo Island), Potter Cove (62°14'S, 58°39'W) is home to the Argentine Carlini research station. To evaluate the anthropogenic impacts surrounding Potter Cove, sediment samples were collected and analysed for sewage and fuel introduction via the determination of organic markers. The highest concentrations were found in the central portion of the fjords, where fine sediments are deposited and the accumulation of organic molecules is favoured. Aliphatic hydrocarbons were mainly derived from biogenic sources, evidenced by the predominance of odd short-chain n-alkanes. Anthropogenic impacts were evidenced primarily by the presence of PAHs, which were predominantly related to petrogenic sources, such as vessel and boat traffic. Sewage marker concentrations were much lower than those found in other Antarctic regions. These results indicate that oil hydrocarbons and sewage inputs to Potter Cove may be considered low or only slightly influential.

  5. The post-perspectival: screens and time in David Lynch's Inland Empire

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne Jerslev

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Taking Anne Friedberg's notion of the post-perspectival as the point of departure for her analysis of David Lynch's digitally shot and edited Inland Empire from 2006, Anne Jerslev argues that the film deconstructs continuous time and coherent space by constructing multiple planes of representation, multiple layerings of screens and, hence, multiple and fractured modes of perception. The article further suggests that the film's enigmatic structure might best be understood with reference to a new media genre like the website with its hyperlink structure. Finally, the article discusses how a sense of ubiquitous surveillance coalesces with the screen logic.Author Biography Anne Jerslev (PhD is Professor of Film and Media Studies at the Department of Media, Cognition and Communication, University of Copenhagen. Anne Jerslev has published and edited books in Danish and English and published dozens of articles in journals and anthologies in Danish, Scandinavian languages, German and English. Her first book was titled David Lynch i vore øjne (David Lynch in our eyes (1991; it was published in German in 1995 under the title David Lynch—mentale Landschaften. After the Lynch book she published books about cult movies, youth and media and media and intimacy. She has edited two volumes in English, Realism and Reality in Film and Media (2002, where she contributed a piece about Lars von Trier's The Idiots, and Performative Realism (co-edited with Rune Gade (2005. Her latest edited volume (co-edited with Christa Lykke Christensen is Hvor går grænsen? Brudflader i den moderne mediekultur [Are there no limits? The crossing of boundaries in contemporary media culture] (Copenhagen 2010. She is currently editing a volume about “Impure Cinema” together with professor Lúcia Nagib from the University of Leeds, which will appear in 2013. Her own contribution to the book is an article about David Lynch's Interview Project.

  6. Influences of Inflow Condition on Non-Axisymmetric Flows in Turbine Exhaust Hoods

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JingLun FU; JianJun LIU

    2008-01-01

    The complex 3D flow in a steam turbine exhaust hood model with different inlet swirl and inlet total pressure ra-dial distributions has been simulated by employing CFX-5 and analyzed in this paper. It's found that the inlet tangential flow angle at hub has a negative effect on the exhaust hood performance, while a negative gradient of inlet total pressure radial distribution has a positive impact on the hood performances. It's also numerically con-firmed that a proper distribution of total pressure at hood inlet can successfully eliminate the negative effects caused by the inappropriate inlet swirl distribution and improve the hood aerodynamic performance.

  7. The Berkeley Hood: Development and commercialization of an innovative high-performance laboratory fume hood. Progress report and research status: 1995-2001

    OpenAIRE

    Bell, Geoffrey; Sartor, Dale; Mills, Evan

    2001-01-01

    Existing approaches for saving energy in hoods are complicated and costly to implement, and do not address the worker safety issues inherent in the traditional fume hood design. Innovation is hampered by various barriers stemming from existing fume hood testing/rating procedures, entrenched rules of thumb, and ambiguous and often contradictory guidance on safe levels of airflow. To address the shortcomings of existing approaches and to promote innovation in the marketplace, Lawrence Ber...

  8. Measurements of Capture Efficiency of Range Hoods in Homes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simone, Angela; Sherman, Max H.; Walker, Iain S.

    2015-01-01

    A major source of pollutants in homes is cooking and as homes get tighter in the pursuit of lower energy use (particularly near zero energy), the concentration of cooking pollutants increases. The best way to remove cooking pollutants is to use a range hood above the cooking surface. Ideally, we...

  9. "Robin Hood" on Ropes in Texas School Aid Tilt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoff, David J.

    2004-01-01

    Texas has had its Robin Hood school financing system in place since 1993, when the legislature adopted the system in response to a state supreme court order to equalize state spending on public schools. Under the arrangement, any district that has taxable property values exceeding $305,000 per student is not allowed to keep all of its property-tax…

  10. Widespread occurrence of polyhalogenated compounds in fat from kitchen hoods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bendig, Paul; Hägele, Florian; Vetter, Walter

    2013-09-01

    Food and contaminated indoor environments are the most relevant sources of human exposure to polyhalogenated chemicals. This study analyzed for the first time fat residues in kitchen hoods for contaminations with polyhalogenated compounds. A wide range of contaminants was detected in all kitchen hoods (n = 15) and most of them could be quantified. Between 0.2 and 18 μg polyhalogenated chemicals/g fat were detected, with chlorinated paraffins being the most relevant contaminant group. Aside from the chlorinated paraffins, each kitchen hood fat sample showed a distinct fingerprint. A wide range of old and current-use brominated flame retardants were also detected in the samples. In addition to these contaminants originating from their use in indoor equipment, residues of organochlorine pesticides and semi-volatile halogenated natural products verified that cooking of food, accompanied with the release of contaminants from the heated food, was another relevant source of contamination. Re-analyses of two samples after 3 months only resulted in small variations in contaminant pattern and concentrations. Therefore, fat from kitchen hoods is proposed as an easily accessible matrix to assess contamination of these hazardous polyhalogenated chemicals.

  11. Comprehensive population-wide analysis of Lynch syndrome in Iceland reveals founder mutations in MSH6 and PMS2

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haraldsdottir, Sigurdis; Rafnar, Thorunn; Frankel, Wendy L

    2017-01-01

    Lynch syndrome, caused by germline mutations in the mismatch repair genes, is associated with increased cancer risk. Here using a large whole-genome sequencing data bank, cancer registry and colorectal tumour bank we determine the prevalence of Lynch syndrome, associated cancer risks...... hypermethylation or mutations in the mismatch repair genes. The population prevalence of Lynch syndrome is 0.442%. We discover a translocation disrupting MLH1 and three mutations in MSH6 and PMS2 that increase endometrial, colorectal, brain and ovarian cancer risk. We find thirteen mismatch repair variants...... and pathogenicity of several variants in the Icelandic population. We use colorectal cancer samples from 1,182 patients diagnosed between 2000-2009. One-hundred and thirty-two (11.2%) tumours are mismatch repair deficient per immunohistochemistry. Twenty-one (1.8%) have Lynch syndrome while 106 (9.0%) have somatic...

  12. Gibraltar Experiment CTD data report, USNS Lynch, 1986-03-26 to 1986-04-19 (NODC Accession 8800167)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Temperature profile, ocean circulation, and chemical data were collected using CTD casts from the USNS LYNCH in the Gulf of Cadiz, Alboran Sea, and Strait of...

  13. Improving flow patterns and spillage characteristics of a box-type commercial kitchen hood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Rong Fung; Chen, Jia-Kun; Han, Meng-Ji; Priyambodo, Yusuf

    2014-01-01

    A conventional box-type commercial kitchen hood and its improved version (termed the "IQV commercial kitchen hood") were studied using the laser-assisted smoke flow visualization technique and tracer-gas (sulfur hexafluoride) detection methods. The laser-assisted smoke flow visualization technique qualitatively revealed the flow field of the hood and the areas apt for leakages of hood containment. The tracer-gas concentration detection method measured the quantitative leakage levels of the hood containment. The oil mists that were generated in the conventional box-type commercial kitchen hood leaked significantly into the environment from the areas near the front edges of ceiling and side walls. Around these areas, the boundary-layer separation occurred, inducing highly unsteady and turbulent recirculating flow, and leading to spillages of hood containment due to inappropriate aerodynamic design at the front edges of the ceiling and side walls. The tracer-gas concentration measurements on the conventional box-type commercial kitchen hood showed that the sulfur hexafluoride concentrations detected at the hood face attained very large values on an order of magnitude about 10(3)-10(4) ppb. By combining the backward-offset narrow suction slot, deflection plates, and quarter-circular arcs at the hood entrance, the IQV commercial kitchen hood presented a flow field containing four backward-inclined cyclone flow structures. The oil mists generated by cooking were coherently confined in these upward-rising cyclone flow structures and finally exhausted through the narrow suction slot. The tracer-gas concentration measurements on the IQV commercial kitchen hood showed that the order of magnitude of the sulfur hexafluoride concentrations detected at the hood face is negligibly small--only about 10(0) ppb across the whole hood face.

  14. Evaluation of factors affecting the containment performance of traditional and nanomaterial fume hoods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunn, Kevin Holden

    This research was conducted to: 1) evaluate different methods for measuring containment effectiveness of a nanomaterial handling enclosure; 2) to evaluate design and operational factors which may impact containment performance for a traditional constant air volume (CAV) and nano fume using computational fluid dynamics (CFD), and; 3) to assess the impact on the operator body and arm motion on nanoparticle containment of the CAV and nano fume hoods. The research approach to address these objectives starts with an evaluation of the containment effectiveness of a new nanomaterial handling enclosure using tracer gas, nanoparticle and nanoparticle handling methodologies in a real-world laboratory setting. The tracer gas and nanoparticle test results were well-correlated showing hood leakage under the same conditions and at the same sample locations. However, the nanoparticle method was more sensitive than the tracer gas test showing leakage in situations not indicated by the tracer gas tests. These experiments also identified substantial leaks near the sides of the hood sides even when the tracer gas concentration in the manikin breathing zone was not elevated. This result was consistent with new research showing that sampling in the manikin breathing zone may not be adequate to describe containment of fume hood devices. The second phase of this project provides an assessment of the internal flow patterns of a nano fume hood and a traditional CAV chemical fume hood. The impacts of design and operational differences between these hoods are investigated using both experimental measurements and numerical simulations with CFD. An investigation of the airflow patterns inside the hoods showed that large scale recirculation zones develop behind the sash for both hoods. However, the design of the side airfoils of the nano hood resulted in a secondary recirculation pattern along the sides of the hood which impacts interior contaminant dispersion and potential for leakage. The

  15. Guidelines on genetic evaluation and management of Lynch syndrome: a consensus statement by the US Multi-Society Task Force on colorectal cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giardiello, Francis M; Allen, John I; Axilbund, Jennifer E; Boland, C Richard; Burke, Carol A; Burt, Randall W; Church, James M; Dominitz, Jason A; Johnson, David A; Kaltenbach, Tonya; Levin, Theodore R; Lieberman, David A; Robertson, Douglas J; Syngal, Sapna; Rex, Douglas K

    2014-08-01

    The Multi-Society Task Force, in collaboration with invited experts, developed guidelines to assist health care providers with the appropriate provision of genetic testing and management of patients at risk for and affected with Lynch syndrome as follows: Figure 1 provides a colorectal cancer risk assessment tool to screen individuals in the office or endoscopy setting; Figure 2 illustrates a strategy for universal screening for Lynch syndrome by tumor testing of patients diagnosed with colorectal cancer; Figures 3-6 provide algorithms for genetic evaluation of affected and at-risk family members of pedigrees with Lynch syndrome; Table 10 provides guidelines for screening at-risk and affected persons with Lynch syndrome; and Table 12 lists the guidelines for the management of patients with Lynch syndrome. A detailed explanation of Lynch syndrome and the methodology utilized to derive these guidelines, as well as an explanation of, and supporting literature for, these guidelines are provided.

  16. Doing Violence, Making Race: Southern Lynching and White Racial Group Formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smångs, Mattias

    2016-03-01

    This article presents a theoretical framework of how intergroup violence may figure into the activation and maintenance of group categories, boundaries, and identities, as well as the mediating role played by organizations in such processes. The framework's analytical advantages are demonstrated in an application to southern lynchings. Findings from event- and community-level analyses suggest that "public" lynchings, carried out by larger mobs with ceremonial violence, but not "private" ones, perpetrated by smaller bands without public or ceremonial violence, fed off and into the racial group boundaries, categories, and identities promoted by the southern Democratic Party at the turn of the 20th century and on which the emerging Jim Crow system rested. Highlighting that racialized inequalities cannot be properly understood apart from collective processes of racial group boundary and identity making, the article offers clues to the mechanisms by which past racial domination influences contemporary race relations.

  17. Effect of aspirin or resistant starch on colorectal neoplasia in the Lynch syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Burn, John; Bishop, D Timothy; Mecklin, Jukka-Pekka

    2008-01-01

    .4%) (relative risk, 1.0; 95% CI, 0.7 to 1.4). Advanced adenomas and colorectal cancers were evenly distributed in the two groups. The prevalence of serious adverse events was low, and the events were evenly distributed. CONCLUSIONS: The use of aspirin, resistant starch, or both for up to 4 years has no effect......BACKGROUND: Observational and epidemiologic data indicate that the use of aspirin reduces the risk of colorectal neoplasia; however, the effects of aspirin in the Lynch syndrome (hereditary nonpolyposis colon cancer) are not known. Resistant starch has been associated with an antineoplastic effect...... on the incidence of colorectal adenoma or carcinoma among carriers of the Lynch syndrome. (Current Controlled Trials number, ISRCTN59521990.)...

  18. [Management and Nursing care for a patient with Lynch syndrome: A case report].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pacheco-Pérez, Luis Arturo; Guevara Valtier, Milton Carlos

    2016-01-01

    Colorectal cancer is one of the leading causes of death from cancer worldwide. Main interventions to reduce the impact are aimed to enhance prevention and early detection. Results of several studies show that tests such as the fecal occult blood test and colonoscopy are effective for early diagnosis. There are hereditary syndromes such as Lynch Syndrome that can lead to certain types of cancers, including bowel neoplasms, therefore early detection needs to be included as part of the treatment. In these cases, family genetic testing is recommended if the bowel cancer is diagnosed before 50 years old. A care plan including the NANDA (North American Nursing Diagnosis Association), NOC (Nursing Outcomes Classification) and NIC (Nursing Interventions Classification) was developed for a patient with suspected Lynch Syndrome. Nurses should be qualified to identify potential cases of cancer associated with this syndrome, and thus, reduce the likelihood that family members develop the disease, through genetic counseling and education of environmental risk factors.

  19. Urinary Tract Cancer in Lynch Syndrome; Increased Risk in Carriers of MSH2 Mutations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Joost, Patrick; Therkildsen, Christina; Dominguez-Valentin, Mev

    2015-01-01

    nonpolyposis colorectal cancer registry was used to identify all 288 Lynch syndrome families in Denmark. Urothelial cancers that developed in mutation carriers and in their first-degree relatives were identified, mismatch-repair status was assessed, clinicopathologic variables were defined, and cumulative......OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the risk of urothelial cancer in the upper urinary tract and the bladder, determine the contribution from the different mismatch-repair genes, and define clinical characteristics of urothelial cancer in Lynch syndrome. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The national hereditary...... lifetime risks were determined. RESULTS: In total, 48 cancers of the ureter, 34 cancers of the renal pelvis, and 54 urinary bladder cancers developed at a mean age of 61 (24-89) years. The tumors were typically of high grade, showed loss of mismatch-repair protein expression in 90% of the tumors...

  20. Improving flow and spillage characteristics of range hoods by using an inclined air-curtain technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Rong Fung; Nian, You-Cyun; Chen, Jia-Kun; Peng, Kuan-Lin

    2011-03-01

    The current study developed a new type of range hood, which was termed an 'inclined air-curtain range hood', in order to improve the flow and performance of the conventionally used wall-mounted range hood. The flow characteristics and oil mist spillages of air-curtain and conventional range hoods under the influences of both a mannequin presence and a simulated walk-by motion were experimentally examined. The study examined flow patterns by using a laser-light-sheet-assisted smoke-flow visualization technique and diagnosed spillages by using the tracer gas concentration test method. A mannequin presented in front of the conventional hood induced turbulent dispersion of oil mists toward the chest and nose of the mannequin owing to the complex interaction among the suction, wake, and wall effect, while the inclined air-curtain hood presented excellent hood performance by isolating the oil mists from the mannequin with an air curtain and therefore could reduce spillages out into the atmosphere and the mannequin's breathing zone. Both flow visualization and the tracer gas test indicated that the air-curtain hood had excellent 'robustness' over the conventional hood in resisting the influence of walk-by motion. The air-curtain technique could drastically improve the flow characteristics and performance of the range hood by consuming less energy.

  1. Lynch syndrome: barriers to and facilitators of screening and disease management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Watkins Kathy E

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Lynch syndrome is a hereditary cancer with confirmed carriers at high risk for colorectal (CRC and extracolonic cancers. The purpose of the current study was to develop a greater understanding of the factors influencing decisions about disease management post-genetic testing. Methods The study used a grounded theory approach to data collection and analysis as part of a multiphase project examining the psychosocial and behavioral impact of predictive DNA testing for Lynch syndrome. Individual and small group interviews were conducted with individuals from 10 families with the MSH2 intron 5 splice site mutation or exon 8 deletion. The data from confirmed carriers (n = 23 were subjected to re-analysis to identify key barriers to and/or facilitators of screening and disease management. Results Thematic analysis identified personal, health care provider and health care system factors as dominant barriers to and/or facilitators of managing Lynch syndrome. Person-centered factors reflect risk perceptions and decision-making, and enduring screening/disease management. The perceived knowledge and clinical management skills of health care providers also influenced participation in recommended protocols. The health care system barriers/facilitators are defined in terms of continuity of care and coordination of services among providers. Conclusions Individuals with Lynch syndrome often encounter multiple barriers to and facilitators of disease management that go beyond the individual to the provider and health care system levels. The current organization and implementation of health care services are inadequate. A coordinated system of local services capable of providing integrated, efficient health care and follow-up, populated by providers with knowledge of hereditary cancer, is necessary to maintain optimal health.

  2. Lynch syndrome: barriers to and facilitators of screening and disease management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watkins, Kathy E; Way, Christine Y; Fiander, Jacqueline J; Meadus, Robert J; Esplen, Mary Jane; Green, Jane S; Ludlow, Valerie C; Etchegary, Holly A; Parfrey, Patrick S

    2011-09-07

    Lynch syndrome is a hereditary cancer with confirmed carriers at high risk for colorectal (CRC) and extracolonic cancers. The purpose of the current study was to develop a greater understanding of the factors influencing decisions about disease management post-genetic testing. The study used a grounded theory approach to data collection and analysis as part of a multiphase project examining the psychosocial and behavioral impact of predictive DNA testing for Lynch syndrome. Individual and small group interviews were conducted with individuals from 10 families with the MSH2 intron 5 splice site mutation or exon 8 deletion. The data from confirmed carriers (n = 23) were subjected to re-analysis to identify key barriers to and/or facilitators of screening and disease management. Thematic analysis identified personal, health care provider and health care system factors as dominant barriers to and/or facilitators of managing Lynch syndrome. Person-centered factors reflect risk perceptions and decision-making, and enduring screening/disease management. The perceived knowledge and clinical management skills of health care providers also influenced participation in recommended protocols. The health care system barriers/facilitators are defined in terms of continuity of care and coordination of services among providers. Individuals with Lynch syndrome often encounter multiple barriers to and facilitators of disease management that go beyond the individual to the provider and health care system levels. The current organization and implementation of health care services are inadequate. A coordinated system of local services capable of providing integrated, efficient health care and follow-up, populated by providers with knowledge of hereditary cancer, is necessary to maintain optimal health.

  3. Serum antibodies against frameshift peptides in microsatellite unstable colorectal cancer patients with Lynch syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reuschenbach, Miriam; Kloor, Matthias; Morak, Monika; Wentzensen, Nicolas; Germann, Anja; Garbe, Yvette; Tariverdian, Mirjam; Findeisen, Peter; Neumaier, Michael; Holinski-Feder, Elke; von Knebel Doeberitz, Magnus

    2010-06-01

    High level microsatellite instability (MSI-H) occurs in about 15% of colorectal cancer (CRCs), either as sporadic cancers or in the context of hereditary non-polyposis cancer or Lynch syndrome. In MSI-H CRC, mismatch repair deficiency leads to insertion/deletion mutations at coding microsatellites and thus to the translation of frameshift peptides (FSPs). FSPs are potent inductors of T cell responses in vitro and in vivo. The present study aims at the identification of FSP-specific humoral immune responses in MSI-H CRC and Lynch syndrome. Sera from patients with history of MSI-H CRC (n = 69), healthy Lynch syndrome mutation carriers (n = 31) and healthy controls (n = 52) were analyzed for antibodies against FSPs using peptide ELISA. Reactivities were measured against FSPs derived from genes frequently mutated in MSI-H CRCs, AIM2, TGFBR2, CASP5, TAF1B, ZNF294, and MARCKS. Antibody reactivity against FSPs was significantly higher in MSI-H CRC patients than in healthy controls (P = 0.036, Mann-Whitney) and highest in patients with shortest interval between tumor resection and serum sampling. Humoral immune responses in patients were most frequently directed against FSPs derived from mutated TAF1B (11.6%, 8/69) and TGFBR2 (10.1%, 7/69). Low level FSP-specific antibodies were also detected in healthy mutation carriers. Our results show that antibody responses against FSPs are detectable in MSI-H CRC patients and healthy Lynch syndrome mutation carriers. Based on the high number of defined FSP antigens, measuring FSP-specific humoral immune responses is a highly promising tool for future diagnostic application in MSI-H cancer patients.

  4. Response of phytoplankton dynamics to 19-year (1991-2009) climate trends in Potter Cove (Antarctica)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schloss, Irene R.; Abele, Doris; Moreau, Sébastien; Demers, Serge; Bers, A. Valeria; González, Oscar; Ferreyra, Gustavo A.

    2012-04-01

    King George Island (KGI, Isla 25 de Mayo) is located within one of the most rapidly warming regions on Earth at the north-western tip of the Antarctic Peninsula. Since 1991 hydrographical characteristics and phytoplankton dynamics were monitored at two stations in Potter Cove, a fjord-like environment on the south-eastern KGI coastline. Seawater temperature and salinity, total suspended particulate matter (TSPM) and chlorophyll- a (Chl- a, a proxy for phytoplankton biomass) concentrations were measured in summer and winter over a 19-year period, together with local air temperature. Mean air temperatures rose by 0.39 and 0.48 °C per decade in summer and winter, respectively. Positive anomalies characterized wind speeds during the decade between the mid '90 and the mid 2000 years, whereas negative anomalies were observed from 2004 onwards. Day of sea ice formation and retreat, based on satellite data, did not change, although total sea ice cover diminished during the studied period. Surface water temperature increased during summer (0.36 °C per decade), whereas no trend was observed in salinity. Summer Chl- a concentrations were around 1 mg m - 3 Chl- a with no clear trend throughout the study period. TSPM increased in surface waters of the inner cove during the spring-summer months. The Southern Annular Mode (SAM) climate signal was apparent in the fluctuating interannual pattern of the hydrographic variables in the outer Potter Cove and bottom waters whereas surface hydrography was strongly governed by the local forcing of glacier melt. The results show that global trends have significant effects on local hydrographical and biological conditions in the coastal marine environments of Western Antarctica.

  5. Lobbyisten bekræfter teorien: en omvendt Robin Hood!

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svendsen, Gert Tinggaard

    1998-01-01

    Lobbyisten gør præcis det, teorien forudsiger han vil gøre: Som en omvendt Robin Hood springer han frem ad busken for at forsvare de få og rige mod de mange og små. I mit tidligere eksempel forsvarer han altså kartellet på 5 forsikringsselskaber mod 1 million forsikringstagere.......Lobbyisten gør præcis det, teorien forudsiger han vil gøre: Som en omvendt Robin Hood springer han frem ad busken for at forsvare de få og rige mod de mange og små. I mit tidligere eksempel forsvarer han altså kartellet på 5 forsikringsselskaber mod 1 million forsikringstagere....

  6. Lobbyisten bekræfter teorien: en omvendt Robin Hood!

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svendsen, Gert Tinggaard

    1998-01-01

    Lobbyisten gør præcis det, teorien forudsiger han vil gøre: Som en omvendt Robin Hood springer han frem ad busken for at forsvare de få og rige mod de mange og små. I mit tidligere eksempel forsvarer han altså kartellet på 5 forsikringsselskaber mod 1 million forsikringstagere.......Lobbyisten gør præcis det, teorien forudsiger han vil gøre: Som en omvendt Robin Hood springer han frem ad busken for at forsvare de få og rige mod de mange og små. I mit tidligere eksempel forsvarer han altså kartellet på 5 forsikringsselskaber mod 1 million forsikringstagere....

  7. NUMERICAL SIMULATION AND EXPERIMENTAL STUDY OF A KIND OF LOCAL EXHAUST VENTILATION HOOD

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    He Suyan; Li Yunfei

    2003-01-01

    A new local exhaust ventilation hood is presented. First, the test system in laboratory room is established. Secondly a mathematical model is developed in terms of the stokes stream function, and the governing equation is solved using finite-difference techniques. The injection flow of the exhaust hood is treated as a boundary condition of the main flow. Experiments results well agree with the solution of theoretical prediction. The model can, therefore, be used to design this kind of Aaberg hood.Thirdly the important parameters affecting the performance of Aaberg exhaust hood are taken into account. In the mean time the connection of these parameters is deduced by multivariate linear regression based on the experimental results. The work is useful whether in designing this kind of local ventilation Aaberg exhaust hood or in predicting the hood's work performance.

  8. Alternative Evaluation for the REDOX (202-S) Plutonium Loadout Hood

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    N. R. Kerr

    1999-09-20

    Located in the 200 Areas is the inactive 202-S Reduction Oxidation (REDOX) Facility, which is managed by the Bechtel Hanford, Inc. Surveillance/Maintenance and Transition project. This facility is contaminated from nuclear material processes related to nuclear material separation from Hanford Site facility operations. This alternative evaluation report describes the alternatives and selection criteria based on the necessary protective requirements to maintain the REDOX Plutonium Loadout Hood in a safe and stable condition awaiting a final waste response action.

  9. A review of published quantitative experimental studies on factors affecting laboratory fume hood performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahn, Kwangseog; Woskie, Susan; DiBerardinis, Louis; Ellenbecker, Michael

    2008-11-01

    This study attempted to identify the important factors that affect the performance of a laboratory fume hood and the relationship between the factors and hood performance under various conditions by analyzing and generalizing the results from other studies that quantitatively investigated fume hood performance. A literature search identified 43 studies that were published from 1966 to 2006. For each of those studies, information on the type of test methods used, the factors investigated, and the findings were recorded and summarized. Among the 43 quantitative experimental studies, 21 comparable studies were selected, and then a meta-analysis of the comparable studies was conducted. The exposure concentration variable from the resulting 617 independent test conditions was dichotomized into acceptable or unacceptable using the control level of 0.1 ppm tracer gas. Regression analysis using Cox proportional hazards models provided hood failure ratios for potential exposure determinants. The variables that were found to be statistically significant were the presence of a mannequin/human subject, the distance between a source and breathing zone, and the height of sash opening. In summary, performance of laboratory fume hoods was affected mainly by the presence of a mannequin/human subject, distance between a source and breathing zone, and height of sash opening. Presence of a mannequin/human subject in front of the hood adversely affects hood performance. Worker exposures to air contaminants can be greatly reduced by increasing the distance between the contaminant source and breathing zone and by reducing the height of sash opening. Many other factors can also affect hood performance. Checking face velocity by itself is unlikely to be sufficient in evaluating hood performance properly. An evaluation of the performance of a laboratory fume hood should be performed with a human subject or a mannequin in front of the hood and should address the effects of the activities

  10. Culturable heterotrophic bacteria from Potter Cove, Antarctica, and their hydrolytic enzymes production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mauro Tropeano

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Affiliations of the dominant culturable bacteria isolated from Potter Cove, South Shetland Islands, Antarctica, were investigated together with their production of cold-active hydrolytic enzymes. A total of 189 aerobic heterotrophic bacterial isolates were obtained at 4°C and sorted into 63 phylotypes based on their amplified ribosomal DNA restriction analysis profiles. The sequencing of the 16S rRNA genes of representatives from each phylotype showed that the isolates belong to the phyla Proteobacteria (classes Alpha- and Gamma-proteobacteria, Bacteroidetes (class Flavobacteria, Actinobacteria (class Actinobacteria and Firmicutes (class Bacilli. The predominant culturable group in the site studied belongs to the class Gammaproteobacteria, with 65 isolates affiliated to the genus Pseudoalteromonas and 58 to Psychrobacter. Among the 189 isolates screened, producers of amylases (9.5%, pectinases (22.8%, cellulases (14.8%, CM-cellulases (25.4%, xylanases (20.1% and proteases (44.4% were detected. More than 25% of the isolates produced at least one extracellular enzyme, with some of them producing up to six of the tested extracellular enzymatic activities. These results suggest that a high culturable bacterial diversity is present in Potter Cove and that this place represents a promising source of biomolecules.

  11. Camas Creek (Meyers Cove) Anadromous Species Habitat Improvement: Annual Report 1989.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hardy, Terry

    1989-12-01

    Historical agricultural practices and natural events contributed to severe degradation of riparian zones and instream fish habitat in the Meyers Cove area of Camas Creek. In 1984, Salmon National Forest personnel began implementing specific management activities in riparian areas and the stream channel to accelerate habitat recovery. In 1987--88, 4.3 miles of fence was constructed establishing a riparian livestock exclosure in the Meyers Cove area of Camas Creek. One end-gap and two water-crossing corridors were constructed in 1989 to complete the fence system. The riparian exclosure has been fertilized with phosphorous-rich fertilizer to promote root growth. A stream crossing ford was stabilized with angular cobble. Streambank stabilization/habitat cover work was completed at three sites and three additional habitat structures were placed. Extensive habitat inventories were completed to identify quality/quantity of habitat available to anadromous fish. The work accomplished was designed to promote natural revegetation of the riparian area to improve rearing habitat cover and streambank stability. Streambank work was limited to extremely unstable sites. Enhancement activities will improve spawning, incubation, and rearing habitat for wild populations of steelhead trout and chinook salmon. Anadromous species population increases resulting from these enhancement activities will provide partial compensation for downstream losses resulting from hydroelectric developments on the Columbia River system. 9 refs., 6 figs., 7 tabs.

  12. Hood River and Pelton Ladder Evaluation Studies and Hood River Fish Habitat Project, 1998 Annual Progress Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lambert, Michael B.; McCanna, Joseph P.; Jennings, Mick

    1999-12-01

    The Hood River subbasin is home to four species of anadromous salmonids: chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha), coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch), steelhead (Oncorhynchus mykiss), and sea run cutthroat trout (Salmo clarki). Indigenous spring chinook salmon were extirpated during the late 1960's. The naturally spawning spring chinook salmon currently present in the subbasin are progeny of Deschutes stock. Historically, the Hood River subbasin hatchery steelhead program utilized out-of-basin stocks for many years. Indigenous stocks of summer and winter steelhead were listed in March 1998 by National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS) under the Endangered Species Act (ESA) as a ''Threatened'' Species along with similar genetically similar steelhead in the Lower Columbia Basin.

  13. Deploying time investigation of automotive active hood lift mechanism with different design parameters of hinge part

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tae-Hoon Lee

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available This article investigates the change in deploying time of an active hood lift mechanism of a passenger vehicle activated by a gunpowder actuator. Especially, in this work, the deploying time is investigated by changing the principal design parameters of the hinge part of the hood mechanism. After briefly introducing the working principle of the active hood lift mechanism operated by the gunpowder actuator, the governing dynamic equations of the active hood lift mechanism are formulated for deploying motion. Subsequently, using the governing equations of motion, the response time for deploying the hood lift mechanism is investigated by changing several geometric locations such as the location of actuator. Then, a comparison is made of the total response time to completely deploy the hood lift mechanism with the existing conventional hood lift mechanism and the proposed active hood lift mechanism. In addition, the workable driving speed of the proposed active hood lift mechanism is compared with the conventional one by changing the powder volume of the actuator.

  14. Effect of internal elements of the steam turbine exhaust hood on losses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tajč Ladislav

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The document deals with the flow in the exhaust hood of a single flow steam turbine. The effect of the shape of the external case of the hood and the position and dimensions of the internal reinforcements on the energy loss coefficient is evaluated. Using this coefficient, it is possible to determine the gained or lost output in the diffuser and the entire exhaust hood at a known flow and efficiency of the last stage. Flow research in the exhaust hood was performed especially using numeric simulations; some variants were verified experimentally in the aerodynamic wind tunnel.

  15. Flow and containment characteristics of an air-curtain fume hood operated at high temperatures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jia-Kun; Huang, Rong Fung; Hsin, Pei-Yi; Hsu, Ching Min; Chen, Chun-Wann

    2012-01-01

    The flow and leakage characteristics of the air-curtain fume hood under high temperature operation (between 100°C and 250°C) were studied. Laser-assisted flow visualization technique was used to reveal the hot plume movements in the cabinet and the critical conditions for the hood-top leakage. The sulfur hexafluoride tracer-gas concentration test method was employed to examine the containment spillages from the sash opening and the hood top. It was found that the primary parameters dominating the behavior of the flow field and hood performance are the sash height and the suction velocity as an air-curtain hood is operated at high temperatures. At large sash height and low suction velocity, the air curtain broke down and accompanied with three-dimensional flow in the cabinet. Since the suction velocity was low and the sash opening was large, the makeup air drawn down from the hood top became insufficient to counter act the rising hot plume. Under this situation, containment leakage from the sash opening and the hood top was observed. At small sash opening and high suction velocity, the air curtain presented robust characteristics and the makeup air flow from the hood top was sufficiently large. Therefore the containment leakages from the sash opening and the hood top were not observed. According to the results of experiments, quantitative operation sash height and suction velocity corresponding to the operation temperatures were suggested.

  16. 77 FR 33446 - Jordan Cove Energy Project, L.P.; Application for Long-Term Authorization to Export Liquefied...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-06

    ... Cove Energy Project, L.P.; Application for Long-Term Authorization to Export Liquefied Natural Gas Produced From Domestic and Canadian Natural Gas Resources to Non-Free Trade Agreement Countries for a 25..., multi-contract authorization to export as liquefied natural gas (LNG) both natural gas...

  17. Seasonal variation of algal growth conditions in sheltered Antarctic bays: the example of Potter Cove (King George Island, South Shetlands)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klöser, H.; Ferreyra, G.; Schloss, I.; Mercuri, G.; Laturnus, F.; Curtosi, A.

    1993-01-01

    Wind, air temperature, surface irradiance, light penetration into the water, salinity and water temperature have been recorded from mid November to mid February in Potter Cove, King George Island. Results are compared with published data on requirements for growth of Antarctic microalgae. The invest

  18. Seasonal variation of algal growth conditions in sheltered Antarctic bays: the example of Potter Cove (King George Island, South Shetlands)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klöser, H.; Ferreyra, G.; Schloss, I.; Mercuri, G.; Laturnus, F.; Curtosi, A.

    1993-01-01

    Wind, air temperature, surface irradiance, light penetration into the water, salinity and water temperature have been recorded from mid November to mid February in Potter Cove, King George Island. Results are compared with published data on requirements for growth of Antarctic microalgae. The

  19. Proposed Auxiliary Boundary Stratigraphic Section and Point (ASSP) for the base of the Ordovician System at Lawson Cove, Utah, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, James F.; Evans, Kevin R.; Ethington, Raymond L.; Freeman, Rebecca; Loch, James D.; Repetski, John E.; Ripperdan, Robert; Taylor, John F.

    2016-01-01

    The Global boundary Stratotype Section and Point (GSSP) for the base of the Ordovician System is at the First Appearance Datum (FAD) of the conodont Iapetognathus fluctivagus at Green Point in Newfoundland, Canada. Strata there are typical graptolitic facies that were deposited near the base of the continental slope.We propose establishing an Auxiliary boundary Stratotype Section and Point (ASSP) at the FAD of I. fluctivagus at the Lawson Cove section in the Ibex area of Millard County, Utah, USA. There, strata consist of typical shelly facies limestones that were deposited on a tropical carbonate platform and contain abundant conodonts, trilobites, brachiopods, and other fossil groups. Cambrian and Ordovician strata in this area are ~5300m thick, with the Lawson Cove section spanning 243m in three overlapping segments. Six other measured and studied sections in the area show stratigraphic relationships similar to those at Lawson Cove. Faunas have been used to divide these strata into 14 conodont and 7 trilobite zonal units. The widespread olenid trilobite Jujuyaspis occurs ~90cm above the proposed boundary at Lawson Cove; this genus is generally regarded as earliest Ordovician. Rhynchonelliform and linguliform brachiopods are common to abundant and are useful for correlation. The FAD of Iapetognathus fluctivagus and occurrences of Jujuyaspis and the Lower Ordovician planktonic graptolite Anisograptus matanensis all occur within a 2.4m interval of strata at a nearby section. Non-biological correlation tools include a detailed sequence stratigraphic classification and a detailed carbon-isotope profile. Especially useful for correlation is a positive 13C excursion peak ~15cm below the proposed boundary horizon. All of these correlation tools form an integrated framework that makes the Lawson Cove section especially useful as an ASSP for global correlation of strata with faunas typical of shallow, warm-water, shelly facies.

  20. Sessile serrated polyps of the colorectum are rare in patients with Lynch syndrome and in familial colorectal cancer families

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, S H; Lykke, E; Folker, M B

    2008-01-01

    Whereas the generally accepted carcinogenesis pathway of the microsatellite instabile high (MSI-H) colorectal carcinoma (CRC) involves the traditional adenoma in patients with Lynch syndrome, a serrate pathway involving serrate adenomas (SA) and sessile serrate polyps (SSP) characterize the spora......Whereas the generally accepted carcinogenesis pathway of the microsatellite instabile high (MSI-H) colorectal carcinoma (CRC) involves the traditional adenoma in patients with Lynch syndrome, a serrate pathway involving serrate adenomas (SA) and sessile serrate polyps (SSP) characterize...... the FCF, were considered examples of probable SSP. None of the 41 cases coded as adenoma possessed a morphology that qualified as SSP. The prevalence of SSP was not increased as compared to the background population and thus, this serrated lesion does not appear to play a tumorigenic role in Lynch...

  1. Subtotal Colectomy for Colon Cancer Reduces the Need for Subsequent Surgery in Lynch Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renkonen-Sinisalo, Laura; Seppälä, Toni T; Järvinen, Heikki J; Mecklin, Jukka-Pekka

    2017-08-01

    The risk of metachronous colorectal cancer is high after surgical resection for first colon cancer in Lynch syndrome. This study aimed to examine whether extended surgery decreases the risk of subsequent colorectal cancer and improves long-term survival. This was a retrospective study. Data were collected from a nationwide registry. Two hundred forty-two Lynch syndrome pathogenic variant carriers who underwent surgery for a first colon cancer from 1984 to 2009 were included. Patients underwent standard segmental colectomy (n = 144) or extended colectomy (n = 98) for colon cancer. Patients were followed a median of 14.6 up to 25 years. Risk of subsequent colorectal cancer in either group, overall and disease-specific survival, and operative mortality were the primary outcomes measured. Subtotal colectomy decreased the risk of subsequent colorectal cancer (HR, 0.20; 95% CI, 0.08-0.52; p = 0.001), compared with segmental resection. Subsequent colorectal cancer decreased in MLH1 carriers. The MSH2 carriers showed no statistical difference, possibly because of their small number. Disease-specific and overall survival within 25 years did not differ between the standard and extended surgeries (82.7% vs 87.2%, p = 0.76 and 47.2% vs 41.4%, p = 0.83). The cumulative risk of subsequent colorectal cancer was 20% in 10 years and 47% within 25 years after standard resection and 4% and 9% after extended surgery. The cumulative risk of metachronous colorectal cancer was 7% within 25 years after subtotal colectomy with ileosigmoidal anastomosis. One patient died of postoperative septicemia within 30 days after segmental colectomy. Data on surgical procedures were primarily collected retrospectively. Lynch syndrome pathogenic variant carriers may undergo subtotal colectomy to manage first colon cancer and avoid repetitive abdominal surgery and to reduce the remaining bowel to facilitate easier endoscopic surveillance. It provides no survival benefit, compared with segmental colon

  2. Geologic controls on cave development in Burnsville Cove, Bath and Highland Counties, Virginia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swezey, Christopher; Haynes, John T.; Lucas, Philip C.; Lambert, Richard A.

    2017-01-01

    Burnsville Cove in Bath and Highland Counties (Virginia, USA) is a karst region in the Valley and Ridge Province of the Appalachian Mountains. The region contains many caves in Silurian to Devonian limestone, and is well suited for examining geologic controls on cave location and cave passage morphology. In Burnsville Cove, many caves are located preferentially near the axes of synclines and anticlines. For example, Butler Cave is an elongate cave where the trunk channel follows the axis of Sinking Creek syncline and most of the side passages follow joints at right angles to the syncline axis. In contrast, the Water Sinks Subway Cave, Owl Cave, and Helictite Cave have abundant maze patterns, and are located near the axis of Chestnut Ridge anticline. The maze patterns may be related to fact that the anticline axis is the site of the greatest amount of flexure, leading to more joints and (or) greater enlargement of joints. Many of the larger caves of Burnsville Cove (e.g., Breathing Cave, Butler Cave–Sinking Creek Cave System, lower parts of the Water Sinks Cave System) are developed in the Silurian Tonoloway Limestone, the stratigraphic unit with the greatest surface exposure in the area. Other caves are developed in the Silurian to Devonian Keyser Limestone of the Helderberg Group (e.g., Owl Cave, upper parts of the Water Sinks Cave System) and in the Devonian Shriver Chert and (or) Licking Creek Limestone of the Helderberg Group (e.g., Helictite Cave). Within the Tonoloway Limestone, the larger caves are developed in the lower member of the Tonoloway Limestone immediately below a bed of silica-cemented sandstone. In contrast, the larger caves in the Keyser Limestone are located preferentially in limestone beds containing stromatoporoid reefs, and some of the larger caves in the Licking Creek Limestone are located in beds of cherty limestone below the Devonian Oriskany Sandstone. Geologic controls on cave passage morphology include joints, bedding planes, and

  3. CHARACTERISTICS OF RANGE HOODS IN CALIFORNIA HOMES DATA COLLECTED FROM A REAL ESTATE WEB SITE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klug, Victoria; Singer, Brett; Bedrosian, Tod; DCruz, Chris

    2011-09-02

    Venting range hoods are important residential ventilation components that remove pollutants generated by cooking activities and natural gas cooking burners. To address the lack of data on range hood installations in California, we conducted a survey by examining photographs of homes for sale or rent listed on a popular real estate web site. The survey was conducted in November 2010 and April–May 2011. Posted photos of the homes were reviewed to determine if a hood was installed, the type of hood, and two installation details that can impact performance, namely the height above the cooktop and the degree to which the hood covers the cooktop burners. We additionally collected information about the homes, including asking price for purchase or rent, type of building (e.g. detached house, townhouse or apartment), building age, floor area, and cooktop fuel type. Listings were first sampled to focus on homes built since 2005, then randomly sampled to include varied prices and locations around the state. Data were obtained for 1002 homes built between 1865 and 2011 (median year built 1989). Homes for sale varied in asking price from $16,000 to $16,500,000 (median $353,000) and homes for rent varied from $500 to $25,000 (median $2125) per month. Approximately 74% of the sample had natural gas cooktops. In this sample, natural gas cooktops were more prevalent in more expensive homes than in less expensive homes. Across the entire sample, 7.4 % appeared to have no hood installed, 33% had a short hood, 13% had a deep hood and 47% had a microwave over the range. The percentage of these hoods that vent to the outdoors could not be determined. Hood type was related to coverage of the cooktop. For deep hoods, 76% appeared to cover most or all of the cooktop burners. For short hoods, 70% covered about three quarters of the cooktop. And for microwaves the vast majority (96%) covered the back burners but not the front burners. Hood type was also correlated with asking price or

  4. Validation of a Self-Concept Scale for Lynch Syndrome in Different Nationalities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Helle Vendel; Domanska, Katarina; Bendahl, Pär-Ola;

    2011-01-01

    syndrome. We compared the performance of this scale in 591 mutation carriers from Denmark, Sweden and Canada. Principal component analysis identified two sets of linked statements-the first related to feeling different, isolated and labeled, and the second to concern and worry about bowel changes....... The scale performed consistently in the three countries. Minor differences were identified, with guilt about passing on a defective gene and feelings of losing one's privacy being more pronounced among Canadians, whereas Danes more often expressed worries about cancer. Validation of the Lynch syndrome self...

  5. Assessing Genetic Variants of Uncertain Significance: The Example of Lynch Syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Lene Juel; Heinen, Christopher D.

    2014-01-01

    variants of uncertain significance (VUS). This leads to anxiety in carriers and noncarrying relatives alike, as well as to an unnecessary burden to preventive healthcare. The establishment of procedures that enable the diagnostic assessment of VUSs in individuals are discussed and hereditary colorectal...... cancer syndrome, Lynch syndrome, is used as an example. This challenge is addressed by illustrating the importance of combining genetic and functional data in future strategies to assess VUS. The proposed strategies combine clinical genetic, analytical, functional and in silico approaches....

  6. The effectiveness of b-lynch sutures in management of atonic postpartum haemorrhage during caesarean section

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nidhi Kalkal

    2016-09-01

    Conclusions: This procedure proves to be a valuable addition for surgical treatment of atonic PPH and great advantage in young patients with restoration of future fertility with the added advantage of lesser time of application, lesser blood loss, lesser blood transfusion, lesser skill required. Thus, B-Lynch suturing can be adopted as a mid-step before resorting to uterine devascularisation or hysterectomy when medical line of management fails. [Int J Reprod Contracept Obstet Gynecol 2016; 5(9.000: 2915-2920

  7. Role of the clinical pathology laboratory in the evaluation of endometrial carcinomas for Lynch syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Djordjevic, Bojana; Broaddus, Russell R

    2014-05-01

    Molecular diagnostic testing of endometrial carcinomas in the pathology laboratory has recently emerged as a key component of the clinical evaluation of Lynch syndrome in many centers. Testing modalities involve immunohistochemical and PCR-based analyses. This article outlines the routine application of these analyses, provides a practical guide for troubleshooting some of the common technical issues related to their performance, and reviews common pitfalls in their interpretation. Discrepancies between tissue testing and genetic testing results are discussed in the context of the current understanding of endometrial cancer biology. The merits of universal versus targeted tissue testing based on clinical patient history and histological tumor appearance are also addressed.

  8. Achieving behaviour change for detection of Lynch syndrome using the Theoretical Domains Framework Implementation (TDFI) approach: a study protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Natalie; Long, Janet C; Debono, Deborah; Williams, Rachel; Salisbury, Elizabeth; O'Neill, Sharron; Eykman, Elizabeth; Braithwaite, Jeffrey; Chin, Melvin

    2016-03-12

    Lynch syndrome is an inherited disorder associated with a range of cancers, and found in 2-5 % of colorectal cancers. Lynch syndrome is diagnosed through a combination of significant family and clinical history and pathology. The definitive diagnostic germline test requires formal patient consent after genetic counselling. If diagnosed early, carriers of Lynch syndrome can undergo increased surveillance for cancers, which in turn can prevent late stage cancers, optimise treatment and decrease mortality for themselves and their relatives. However, over the past decade, international studies have reported that only a small proportion of individuals with suspected Lynch syndrome were referred for genetic consultation and possible genetic testing. The aim of this project is to use behaviour change theory and implementation science approaches to increase the number and speed of healthcare professional referrals of colorectal cancer patients with a high-likelihood risk of Lynch syndrome to appropriate genetic counselling services. The six-step Theoretical Domains Framework Implementation (TDFI) approach will be used at two large, metropolitan hospitals treating colorectal cancer patients. Steps are: 1) form local multidisciplinary teams to map current referral processes; 2) identify target behaviours that may lead to increased referrals using discussion supported by a retrospective audit; 3) identify barriers to those behaviours using the validated Influences on Patient Safety Behaviours Questionnaire and TDFI guided focus groups; 4) co-design interventions to address barriers using focus groups; 5) co-implement interventions; and 6) evaluate intervention impact. Chi square analysis will be used to test the difference in the proportion of high-likelihood risk Lynch syndrome patients being referred for genetic testing before and after intervention implementation. A paired t-test will be used to assess the mean time from the pathology test results to referral for high

  9. Ovarian cancer linked to lynch syndrome typically presents as early-onset, non-serous epithelial tumors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bartuma, Katarina; Bernstein, Inge; Malander, Susanne

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Heredity is a major cause of ovarian cancer and during recent years the contribution from germline mismatch repair (MMR) gene mutations linked to Lynch syndrome has gradually been recognized. METHODS: We characterized clinical features, tumor morphology and mismatch repair defects in all....... The underlying MMR gene mutations in these families affected MSH2 in 49%, MSH6 in 33% and MLH1 in 17%. Immunohistochemical loss of the corresponding MMR protein was demonstrated in 33/36 (92%) tumors analyzed. CONCLUSION: The combined data from our cohorts demonstrate that ovarian cancer associated with Lynch...

  10. Clinical problems of colorectal cancer and endometrial cancer cases with unknown cause of tumor mismatch repair deficiency (suspected Lynch syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Buchanan DD

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Daniel D Buchanan,1,2 Christophe Rosty,1,3,4 Mark Clendenning,1 Amanda B Spurdle,5 Aung Ko Win2 1Oncogenomics Group, Genetic Epidemiology Laboratory, Department of Pathology, The University of Melbourne, Parkville, VIC, Australia; 2Centre for Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Melbourne School of Population and Global Health, The University of Melbourne, Parkville, VIC, Australia; 3Envoi Specialist Pathologists, Herston, QLD, Australia; 4School of Medicine, University of Queensland, Herston, QLD, Australia; 5Molecular Cancer Epidemiology Laboratory, Genetics and Computational Biology Division, QIMR Berghofer Medical Research Institute, Herston, QLD, AustraliaAbstract: Carriers of a germline mutation in one of the DNA mismatch repair (MMR genes have a high risk of developing numerous different cancers, predominantly colorectal cancer and endometrial cancer (known as Lynch syndrome. MMR gene mutation carriers develop tumors with MMR deficiency identified by tumor microsatellite instability or immunohistochemical loss of MMR protein expression. Tumor MMR deficiency is used to identify individuals most likely to carry an MMR gene mutation. However, MMR deficiency can also result from somatic inactivation, most commonly methylation of the MLH1 gene promoter. As tumor MMR testing of all incident colorectal and endometrial cancers (universal screening is becoming increasingly adopted, a growing clinical problem is emerging for individuals who have tumors that show MMR deficiency who are subsequently found not to carry an MMR gene mutation after genetic testing using the current diagnostic approaches (Sanger sequencing and multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification and who also show no evidence of MLH1 methylation. The inability to determine the underlying cause of tumor MMR deficiency in these "Lynch-like" or "suspected Lynch syndrome" cases has significant implications on the clinical management of these individuals and their relatives. When the

  11. 49 CFR 571.113 - Standard No. 113; Hood latch system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Motor Vehicle Safety Standards § 571.113 Standard No. 113; Hood latch system. S1. Purpose and scope.... Application. This standard applies to passenger cars, multipurpose passenger vehicles, trucks, and buses. S3... engine, luggage, storage, or battery compartment. S4. Requirements. S4.1Each hood must be provided with...

  12. The Use of Feedback in Lab Energy Conservation: Fume Hoods at MIT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wesolowski, Daniel; Olivetti, Elsa; Graham, Amanda; Lanou, Steve; Cooper, Peter; Doughty, Jim; Wilk, Rich; Glicksman, Leon

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to report on the results of an Massachusetts Institute of Technology Chemistry Department campaign to reduce energy consumption in chemical fume hoods. Hood use feedback to lab users is a crucial component of this campaign. Design/methodology/approach: Sash position sensor data on variable air volume fume…

  13. Fort Hood Building and Landscape Inventory with WWII and Cold War Context

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-03-01

    interns Rachel Lannan, Vincent Spencer , Timothy Scovic, and Sang Pak provided research support. Martin Stupich took the building photographs on...nard, and Brenda Henderson of the Fort Hood Directorate of Public Works; Dr. Char- lie Moore, Crystal Rohr, and Fred Chavez of the Fort Hood

  14. Impaired autoregulation of renal blood flow in the fawn-hooded rat

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R.P.E. van Dokkum (Richard); M. Alonso-Galicia; A.P. Provoost (Abraham); H.J. Jacob (Howard); R.J. Roman

    1999-01-01

    textabstractThe responses to changes in renal perfusion pressure (RPP) were compared in 12-wk-old fawn-hooded hypertensive (FHH), fawn-hooded low blood pressure (FHL), and August Copenhagen Irish (ACI) rats to determine whether autoregulation of renal blood flow (RBF) i

  15. Flow characteristics of an inclined air-curtain range hood in a draft.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jia-Kun

    2015-01-01

    The inclined air-curtain technology was applied to build an inclined air-curtain range hood. A draft generator was applied to affect the inclined air-curtain range hood in three directions: lateral (θ=0°), oblique (θ=45°), and front (θ=90°). The three suction flow rates provided by the inclined air-curtain range hood were 10.1, 10.9, and 12.6 m(3)/min. The laser-assisted flow visualization technique and the tracer-gas test method were used to investigate the performance of the range hood under the influence of a draft. The results show that the inclined air-curtain range hood has a strong ability to resist the negative effect of a front draft until the draft velocity is greater than 0.5 m/s. The oblique draft affected the containment ability of the inclined air-curtain range hood when the draft velocity was larger than 0.3 m/s. When the lateral draft effect was applied, the capture efficiency of the inclined air-curtain range hood decreased quickly in the draft velocity from 0.2 m/s to 0.3 m/s. However, the capture efficiencies of the inclined air-curtain range hood under the influence of the front draft were higher than those under the influence of the oblique draft from 0.3 m/s to 0.5 m/s.

  16. 75 FR 1706 - Regulated Navigation Area; U.S. Navy Submarines, Hood Canal, WA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-13

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA11 Regulated Navigation Area; U.S. Navy Submarines, Hood... be in effect whenever any U.S. Navy submarine is operating in the Hood Canal and being escorted by the Coast Guard. The RNA is necessary to help ensure the safety and security of the submarines,...

  17. "Always the Outlaw": The Potential for Subversion of the Metanarrative in Retellings of Robin Hood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gates, Geoffrey

    2006-01-01

    This paper examines six recent retellings of Robin Hood and concentrates on the representation of class, religion and gender in the texts. The question is asked: "what values do the texts implicitly or explicitly arm?" The idea that Robin Hood retellings are systematic of a socially and politically conservative ideology is interrogated by…

  18. Carter’s Rewriting of Red Riding Hood

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄文诣

    2014-01-01

    "Little Red Riding Hood" is known worldwide and almost every child in China has heard this story. The Chinese one(Xiao Hongmao) is mainly derived from the Brothers Grimm’s version, while a less known version in China, called "The Company of Wolves", is written by a British female writer, Angela Carter. By putting different revisions of the same materials side by side, Carter makes a talk with herself. In this article, the author will mainly talk about what Carter learns from the previous version and what she wants to tell us from this exotic short story.

  19. Carter’s Rewriting of Red Riding Hood

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄文诣

    2014-01-01

    "Little Red Riding Hood" is known worldwide and almost every child in China has heard this story. The Chinese one (Xiao Hongmao) is mainly derived from the Brothers Grimm’s version, while a less known version in China, called“The Company of Wolves”, is written by a British female writer, Angela Carter. By putting different revisions of the same materials side by side, Carter makes a talk with herself. In this article, the author will mainly talk about what Carter learns from the previous version and what she wants to tell us from this exotic short story.

  20. Robin Hood caught in Wonderland: brain SPECT findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morland, David; Wolff, Valérie; Dietemann, Jean-Louis; Marescaux, Christian; Namer, Izzie Jacques

    2013-12-01

    We present the case of a 53-year-old woman presenting several episodes of body image distortions, ground deformation illusions, and problems assessing distance in the orthostatic position corresponding to the Alice in Wonderland syndrome. No symptoms were reported when sitting or lying down. She had uncontrolled hypertension, hyperglycemia, hypercholesterolemia, and a history of head trauma. Her condition had been diagnosed with left internal carotid artery dissection 2 years earlier. Brain SPECT with 99mTc-ECD performed after i.v. injection of the radiotracer in supine and in standing positions showed hypoperfusion in the healthy contralateral frontoparietal operculum (Robin Hood syndrome), deteriorating when standing up.

  1. Persistence, biodegradation and biological impact of Bunker C residues in Black Duck Cove, Nova Scotia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, K.; Wohlgeschaffen, G. D.; Tremblay, G. H. [Dept. of Fisheries and Oceans of Canada, Inst. Maurice-Lamontagne, Mont Joli, PQ (Canada); Vandermeulen, D. C.; Mossman, K. G. [Dept. of Fisheries and Oceans of Canada, Bedford Inst. of Oceanography, Dartmouth, NS (Canada); Doe, K. G.; Jackman, P. M. [Environment Canada, Environmental Science Center, Moncton, NB (Canada); Prince, R. C.; Garrett, R. M.; Haith, C. E. [Exxon Research and Engineering Company, Annandale, NJ (United States)

    1998-12-31

    In 1970, approximately 2,045 cubic metres of Bunker C oil impacted on 300 km of Nova Scotia`s coastline following the grounding of the tanker `Arrow`. Only 10 per cent of the coastline was subjected to cleanup, the remainder was left to degrade naturally. Samples of sediments were collected in 1993 and 1997 in order to assess the attenuation processes on the reduction of toxicity within sediments and interstitial waters at Black Duck Cove, one of the untreated sites where residual oil was clearly evident. Detailed chemical analyses showed that the Bunker C oil at this site has undergone substantial biodegradation. Over the 20 plus years since the oil spill the toxicity of the residual oil has been significantly reduced and there is substantial evidence of habitat recovery.

  2. Persistence, biodegradation and biological impact of Bunker C residues in Black Duck Cove, Nova Scotia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, K.; Wohlgeschaffen, G. D.; Tremblay, G. H. [Dept. of Fisheries and Oceans of Canada, Inst. Maurice-Lamontagne, Mont Joli, PQ (Canada); Vandermeulen, D. C.; Mossman, K. G. [Dept. of Fisheries and Oceans of Canada, Bedford Inst. of Oceanography, Dartmouth, NS (Canada); Doe, K. G.; Jackman, P. M. [Environment Canada, Environmental Science Center, Moncton, NB (Canada); Prince, R. C.; Garrett, R. M.; Haith, C. E. [Exxon Research and Engineering Company, Annandale, NJ (United States)

    1998-07-01

    In 1970, approximately 2,045 cubic metres of Bunker C oil impacted on 300 km of Nova Scotia's coastline following the grounding of the tanker 'Arrow'. Only 10 per cent of the coastline was subjected to cleanup, the remainder was left to degrade naturally. Samples of sediments were collected in 1993 and 1997 in order to assess the attenuation processes on the reduction of toxicity within sediments and interstitial waters at Black Duck Cove, one of the untreated sites where residual oil was clearly evident. Detailed chemical analyses showed that the Bunker C oil at this site has undergone substantial biodegradation. Over the 20 plus years since the oil spill the toxicity of the residual oil has been significantly reduced and there is substantial evidence of habitat recovery.

  3. Fume hoods, open canopy type--their ability to capture pollutants in various environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bender, M

    1979-02-01

    Using field observations, modelling techniques and theoretical analysis, parameters describing the performance and collection efficiency of large industrial canopy fume hoods are established for, a) steady state collection of fume and b) collection of plumes with fluctuating flowrates. Hopper and pool type hoods are investigated. A baffle plate arrangement for placement within hoods is proposed. It prevents recirculation and spillage of fume. Temporary storage of fume surges within the hood is shown to be possible. At a cost of $6 per m3/hr ($10 per ft3/min) of installed fume control system capacity the arrangement promises to save millions of dollars on large new installations and to significantly improve the collection efficiency of many existing systems. A practical application of the results is proposed for the design of electric arc furnace canopy hoods.

  4. The solution of icicle formation at high-efficiency boilers. No hood or a good hood; Ijspegelvorming HR-ketels opgelost. Geen afvoerkap of een goede

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beltman, A. [Unit Certificatie, Gastec, Apeldoorn (Netherlands); Kop, R.P. [ed.

    1996-11-01

    The forming of icicles at a roof lead-through for a high-efficiency boiler can influence the performance of the boiler. A test method has been developed on the basis of which it appeared that sometimes the hood on the outlet can be left out. However, the best solution to the icicle problem is a better construction of the hood. Two designs are briefly outlined

  5. Airborne nanoparticle exposures associated with the manual handling of nanoalumina and nanosilver in fume hoods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Su-Jung (Candace); Ada, Earl; Isaacs, Jacqueline A.; Ellenbecker, Michael J.

    2009-01-01

    Manual handling of nanoparticles is a fundamental task of most nanomaterial research; such handling may expose workers to ultrafine or nanoparticles. Recent studies confirm that exposures to ultrafine or nanoparticles produce adverse inflammatory responses in rodent lungs and such particles may translocate to other areas of the body, including the brain. An important method for protecting workers handling nanoparticles from exposure to airborne nanoparticles is the laboratory fume hood. Such hoods rely on the proper face velocity for optimum performance. In addition, several other hood design and operating factors can affect worker exposure. Handling experiments were performed to measure airborne particle concentration while handling nanoparticles in three fume hoods located in different buildings under a range of operating conditions. Nanoalumina and nanosilver were selected to perform handling experiments in the fume hoods. Air samples were also collected on polycarbonate membrane filters and particles were characterized by scanning electron microscopy. Handling tasks included transferring particles from beaker to beaker by spatula and by pouring. Measurement locations were the room background, the researcher's breathing zone and upstream and downstream from the handling location. Variable factors studied included hood design, transfer method, face velocity/sash location and material types. Airborne particle concentrations measured at breathing zone locations were analyzed to characterize exposure level. Statistics were used to test the correlation between data. The test results found that the handling of dry powders consisting of nano-sized particles inside laboratory fume hoods can result in a significant release of airborne nanoparticles from the fume hood into the laboratory environment and the researcher's breathing zone. Many variables were found to affect the extent of particle release including hood design, hood operation (sash height, face velocity

  6. Evaluation of Lynch syndrome modifier genes in 748 MMR mutation carriers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houlle, Solene; Charbonnier, Françoise; Houivet, Estelle; Tinat, Julie; Buisine, Marie-Pierre; Caron, Olivier; Benichou, Jacques; Baert-Desurmont, Stéphanie; Frebourg, Thierry

    2011-08-01

    Several studies have reported that, in Lynch syndrome resulting from mutations of the mismatch repair (MMR) genes, a CA repeat ≤17 within the IGF1 promoter, SNPs within the xenobiotic metabolizing enzyme gene CYP1A1 and SNPs on 8q23.3 and 11q23.1 modify colorectal cancer (CRC) risk in MMR mutation carriers. We analysed the impact of these polymorphisms on CRC risk in 748 French MMR mutation carriers derived from 359 families. We also analysed the effect of the Novel 1 SNP (18q21), which has recently been shown to increase CRC risk in the general population. We observed a significant difference in the CRC-free survival time between males and females, between MSH2 and MSH6 mutation carriers and between MLH1 and MSH6, indicating that this series is representative of Lynch syndrome. In contrast, the univariate log-rank test, as well as multivariate Cox model analysis controlling for familial aggregation and mutated MMR gene, year of birth and gender showed that the polymorphic alleles tested were not associated with a significant CRC risk increase, neither on the entire sample nor among males and females. This discrepancy with previous reports might be explained both by the genetic heterogeneity between the different populations analysed and the allelic heterogeneity of the MMR mutations. We conclude that genotyping of these polymorphisms is not useful to evaluate CRC risk in MMR mutation carriers and to optimize their clinical follow-up.

  7. Exclusion mapping of a third HNPCC locus in a large Lynch I kindred

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morasse, J.; Khandjian, E.W.; Rousseau, F. [Hopital St-Francois d`Assise, Quebec (Canada)] [and others

    1994-09-01

    Hereditary Non-Polyposis Colorectal Cancer (HNPCC) accounts for 5-10% of all the cases of colorectal cancers. HNPCC can be classified in two clinical forms: (1) Hereditary Site-Specific Colorectal Cancer (HSSCC or Lynch I) and (2) colon cancer associated with extracolonic cancers (Lynch II). Segregation analyses show an autosomal dominant mode of inheritance. In order to identify the HNPCC gene involved in a large Canadian kindred, we performed linkage analysis using microsatellites spanning 9 candidate regions. For all loci tested, the lod score data obtained were negative. Our results demonstrate that the genes hMSH1 and hMLH1 recently reported in HNPCC are not linked in this family. Five loci frequently altered in colorectal tumor cells, APC, MCC, K-ras, p53 and DCC and the DRA gene whose expression is confined to the colon mucosa cells and deregulated in colonic adenomas, are also unlinked to HNPCC susceptibility in this family. We have also excluded chromosomes 4, 5, 8, 11 and 17 as containing the cancer predisposition gene in this family.

  8. Prevalence of somatic mutl homolog 1 promoter hypermethylation in Lynch syndrome colorectal cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreira, Leticia; Muñoz, Jenifer; Cuatrecasas, Míriam; Quintanilla, Isabel; Leoz, Maria Liz; Carballal, Sabela; Ocaña, Teresa; López-Cerón, María; Pellise, Maria; Castellví-Bel, Sergi; Jover, Rodrigo; Andreu, Montserrat; Carracedo, Angel; Xicola, Rosa Maria; Llor, Xavier; Boland, Clement Richard; Goel, Ajay; Castells, Antoni; Balaguer, Francesc

    2015-05-01

    Colorectal cancers (CRCs) that have microsatellite instability (MSI) and mutL homolog 1 (MLH1) immunoloss are observed in 3 clinical scenarios: Lynch syndrome (LS), sporadic MSI CRC, and Lynch-like syndrome (LLS). v-Raf murine sarcoma viral oncogene homolog B1 (BRAF) mutational analysis is used to differentiate LS from sporadic MSI CRC. The role of MLH1 promoter methylation status for the differential diagnosis of these clinical forms is not well established. The objectives of this study were: 1) to analyze MLH1 promoter methylation in MLH1-deficient CRCs by pyrosequencing, and 2) to assess its role in the differential diagnosis of MLH1-deficient CRCs. In total, 165 CRCs were analyzed, including LS (n = 19), MSI BRAF-mutated CRC (n = 37), MSI BRAF wild-type CRC (n = 60), and a control group of CRCs without MSI (microsatellite stable [MSS] CRC; n = 49). MLH1 promoter methylation status was analyzed by pyrosequencing, and the ability of different strategies to identify LS was assessed. The average ± standard deviation methylation in LS (9% ± 7%) was significantly lower than that in MSI BRAF-mutated CRC (42% ± 17%; P Cancer Society.

  9. The Use of Social Media to Recruit Participants With Rare Conditions: Lynch Syndrome as an Example.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burton-Chase, Allison M; Parker, Wendy M; Hennig, Kelsey; Sisson, Faith; Bruzzone, Linda L

    2017-01-23

    Social media is increasingly being used as a means of recruiting participants, particularly for investigators whose areas of interest involve rare conditions or hard-to-reach populations. However, much of the literature to date has focused on paid advertisement recruitment. We used Lynch syndrome (LS), a rare hereditary cancer syndrome, as a model to demonstrate the successful partnership between researchers and a Web-based patient education and advocacy organization to facilitate participant recruitment. Recruitment was undertaken in partnership with Lynch Syndrome International (LSI), an advocacy organization with a strong social media presence. After LSI published our study information, participants followed up via email or phone call. Following prescreening and consent, interested and eligible participants were then sent a secure survey link. Within 36 hours of a single Facebook post by the site administrators for LSI, over 150 individuals responded via phone or email. Sixty-five individuals were sent the survey link and 57 individuals completed the survey (88% response rate). Of note, these 57 individuals were geographically diverse within the Unites States, representing LS patients from 26 different states. This approach has several advantages, including recruitment through a trusted source outside of a clinical setting, higher response rates, and cost-effectiveness with a small research team in a relatively short amount of time. Overall, social media recruitment with a trusted online partner can be highly effective in hard-to-reach clinical populations, such as patients with LS. However, this approach requires additional effort for eligibility screening.

  10. An {sup 57}Fe Mössbauer study of the ordinary chondrite meteorite Lynch 001

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elewa, Nancy N., E-mail: nancy.elewa@student.unsw.edu.au; Cadogan, J. M. [The University of New South Wales at the Australian Defence Force Academy, School of Physical, Environmental and Mathematical Sciences (Australia)

    2017-11-15

    The Lynch 001 meteorite was found in the Nullarbor Plain region of Western Australia in 1977. This meteorite is classified as an ordinary chondrite of the petrologic group L5/6 that has undergone ‘minor to moderate’ terrestrial weathering. Here, we characterize the Fe-bearing phases in this chondrite using {sup 57}Fe Mössbauer spectroscopy carried out over the temperature range 13 K to room temperature (295 K). The paramagnetic doublets of olivine, pyroxene and a superparamagnetic ferric phase dominate the room temperature Mössbauer spectrum. On the basis of the room temperature quadrupole splitting of the olivine component, we estimate its composition to be Fa {sub 30(5)}. Besides the paramagnetic ferric component, accounting for ∼15 % of the spectral area at room temperature, magnetically ordered ferric phases were also detected. The total relative proportion of the Fe {sup 3+} components allows us to estimate the terrestrial age of Lynch 001 to be 6,500 ± 1,500 yr, consistent with the value of 6,700 ± 1,300 yr determined by {sup 14}C dating.

  11. Gas analyses of fumaroles from Mt. Hood, Oregon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nehring, N.L.; Wollenberg, H.A.; Johnston, D.A.

    1981-01-01

    The eruptive activity of Mt. St. Helens beginning in March 1980, coupled with earthquake activity on Mt. Hood in early July, has generated increased interest in the fumaroles near the summit of Mt. Hood. These fumaroles are associated with Crater Rock, a hornblende dacite plug, extruded 200 to 300 years ago (Crandell, 1980). A major eruption in about 1700 and lesser eruptions in 1805, 1859, and 1865 (Harris, 1976) were centered near Crater Rock. It is likely that future eruptions will occur in this area. Changes in the surficial characteristics of the fumaroles or changes in the composition of the gas emitted by the fumaroles could precede an eruption by a sufficient length of time to help predict the eruption. In 1935, K.N. Phillips and G.R. Collins collected and analyzed the first samples of gases from the fumaroles (Phillips, 1936). F.D. Ayres and A.E. Creswell (1951) collected and analyzed gas samples from orifices they considered to be equivalent to those sampled by Phillips and Collins, and these (or orifices in the same area) were re-sampled in 1977 and 1978. The results of the 1978 sampling are presented.

  12. Fine water spray for fire extinguishing. Phase 2: Turbine hood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aune, P.; Wighus, R.; Drangsholt, G.; Stensaas, J. P.

    1994-12-01

    SINTEF has carried out tests of a Fine Water Spray fire suppression system intended to be used as a replacement for Halon systems in turbine hoods on offshore platforms operated by British Petroleum Norway. The tests were carried out in a 70 cu m full scale model representing a turbine hood of the Ula platform in the North Sea. A mock-up of a gas turbine was installed in the model. The scope of work in Phase 2 was to verify the efficiency of fire suppression in realistic fire scenarios using a Fine Water Spray system, and to find an optimum procedure for water application in a fire situation. Two reports have been made from the experiments in Phase 2, one Main Report, STF25 A94036, and the present Technical Report, STF25 A94037. The discussion and conclusions are given in the Main Report while this Technical Report gives a more thorough presentation of the experimental setup and methods used for calibration and calculation of measured values. In addition, a complete set of curves for each experiment is included.

  13. Thermoregulation: incubators, radiant warmers, artificial skins, and body hoods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LeBlanc, M H

    1991-09-01

    Keeping babies warm whether using incubator or radiant warmers is important in optimizing their chances of survival. Many design changes have occurred in devices for keeping babies warm, while few controlled studies using clinically important end points have been conducted to assess these changes. Radiant warmers produce larger evaporative heat and water losses and slightly higher basal metabolic rate than incubators. The clinical significance of the higher metabolic rate is uncertain. The water losses create an additional problem in managing infants under radiant warmers. The use of hoods made of thin plastic films to raise local humidity and reduce evaporative water loss helps control this problem. In incubators, humidity may be necessary to provide a warm enough environment for the most immature infants. Artificial skins as yet have not supplanted body hoods for this purpose. Both incubators and radiant warmers produce temperature instability when used as skin servocontrolled devices. There are, however, no data currently available to say how much thermal instability can be well tolerated by a baby. Too much thermal instability produces apnea and increased mortality. Air servocontrolling an incubator reduces environmental temperature instability.

  14. A clinical scoring system to identify patients with sebaceous neoplasms at risk for the Muir-Torre variant of Lynch syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Maegan E; Riegert-Johnson, Douglas L; Thomas, Brittany C; Rumilla, Kandelaria M; Thomas, Colleen S; Heckman, Michael G; Purcell, Jennifer U; Hanson, Nancy B; Leppig, Kathleen A; Lim, Justin; Cappel, Mark A

    2014-09-01

    The Muir-Torre syndrome variant of Lynch syndrome is characterized by the presence of sebaceous neoplasms (adenoma, epithelioma/sebaceoma, carcinoma) and Lynch syndrome-associated cancers (colon, endometrial, and others). Several clinical scoring systems have been developed to identify patients with colon cancer at high risk of Lynch syndrome. However, no such system has been described for patients presenting with sebaceous neoplasms. Based on logistic regression analysis, a scoring system was developed for patients with sebaceous neoplasm to identify those with the highest likelihood of having Muir-Torre syndrome. The final version of the scoring system included variables such as age at presentation of initial sebaceous neoplasm, total number of sebaceous neoplasms, personal history of a Lynch-related cancer, and family history of Lynch-related cancers. Patients with a score of 3 or more were more likely to have Muir-Torre syndrome (28 of 29 patients), those with a score of 2 had intermediate likelihood (12 of 20 patients), and no patient with a score of 0 or 1 was diagnosed with Muir-Torre syndrome. The Mayo Muir-Torre syndrome risk scoring system appears to identify whether patients who present with sebaceous neoplasms are in need of further Lynch syndrome evaluation using easily ascertained clinical information. Abnormal mismatch repair gene immunohistochemistry of a sebaceous neoplasm is a poor predictor in regard to diagnosing Lynch syndrome.

  15. Limited impact on self-concept in individuals with Lynch syndrome; results from a national cohort study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Helle Vendel; Esplen, Mary Jane; Ladelund, Steen;

    2011-01-01

    An increasing number of individuals seek genetic counseling and hereby learn about hereditary cancer in the family. Lynch syndrome is associated with an inherited high risk for colorectal and gynecological cancer, but knowledge about how family members at risk perceive their situation is limited...

  16. Analysis of Families with Lynch Syndrome Complicated by Advanced Serrated Neoplasia: The Importance of Pathology Review and Pedigree Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, Michael D; Buchanan, Daniel D; Walters, Rhiannon; Roberts, Aedan; Arnold, Sven; McKeone, Diane; Clendenning, Mark; Ruszkiewicz, Andrew R; Jenkins, Mark A; Hopper, John L; Goldblatt, Jack; George, Jillian; Suthers, Graeme K; Phillips, Kerry; Young, Graeme P; Macrae, Finlay; Drini, Musa; Woods, Michael O; Parry, Susan; Jass, Jeremy R; Young, Joanne P

    2009-01-01

    The identification of Lynch syndrome has been greatly assisted by the advent of tumour immunohistochemistry (IHC) for mismatch repair (MMR) proteins, and by the recognition of the role of acquired somatic BRAF mutation in sporadic MMR-deficient colorectal cancer (CRC). However, somatic BRAF mutation may also be present in the tumours in families with a predisposition to develop serrated polyps in the colorectum. In a subgroup of affected members in these families, CRCs emerge which demonstrate clear evidence of MMR deficiency with absent MLH1 staining and high-level microsatellite instability (MSI). This may result in these families being erroneously classified as Lynch syndrome or, conversely, an individual is considered “sporadic” due to the presence of a somatic BRAF mutation in a tumour. In this report, we describe two Lynch syndrome families who demonstrated several such inconsistencies. In one family, IHC deficiency of both MSH2 and MLH1 was demonstrated in tumours from different affected family members, presenting a confusing diagnostic picture. In the second family, MLH1 loss was observed in the lesions of both MLH1 mutation carriers and those who showed normal MLH1 germline sequence. Both families had Lynch syndrome complicated by an independently segregating serrated neoplasia phenotype, suggesting that in families such as these, tumour and germline studies of several key members, rather than of a single proband, are indicated to clarify the spectrum of risk. PMID:19241144

  17. Body Mass Index Increases Risk of Colorectal Adenomas in Men With Lynch Syndrome : The GEOLynch Cohort Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Botma, Akke; Nagengast, Fokko M.; Braem, Marieke G. M.; Hendriks, Jan C. M.; Kleibeuker, Jan H.; Vasen, Hans F. A.; Kampman, Ellen

    2010-01-01

    Purpose High body mass index (BMI) is an established risk factor for sporadic colorectal cancer. Still, the influence of BMI on hereditary colorectal cancer (eg, Lynch syndrome [LS]), is unknown. The objective of this study was to assess whether BMI is associated with colorectal adenoma occurrence

  18. Chromosome 8q23.3 and 11q23.1 Variants Modify Colorectal Cancer Risk in Lynch Syndrome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wijnen, Juul T.; Brohet, Richard M.; Van Eijk, Ronald; Jagmohan-Changur, Shanty; Middeldorp, Anneke; Tops, Carli M.; Van Puijenbroek, Mario; Ausems, Margreet G. E. M.; Garcia, Encarna Gomez; Hes, Frederik J.; Hoogerbrugge, Nicoline; Menko, Fred H.; Van Os, Theo A. M.; Sijmons, Rolf H.; Verhoef, Senno; Wagner, Anja; Nagengast, Fokko M.; Kleibeuker, Jan H.; Devilee, Peter; Morreau, Hans; Goldgar, David; Tomlinson, Ian P.; Houlston, Richard S.; Van Wezel, Tom; Vasen, Hans F. A.

    2009-01-01

    Background & Aims: Recent genome-wide association studies have identified common low-risk variants for colorectal cancer (CRC). To assess whether these influence CRC risk in the Lynch syndrome, we genotyped these variants in a large series of proven mutation carriers. Methods: We studied 675 individ

  19. Sessile serrated polyps of the colorectum are rare in patients with Lynch syndrome and in familial colorectal cancer families

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, S H; Lykke, E; Folker, M B;

    2008-01-01

    (FCF) is addressed. Polyps coded as hyperplastic polyps (HP) from subjects with Lynch syndrome and FCF enrolled in the HNPCC-register at the Hvidovre University Hospital as well as adenomas from this population were retrieved and reviewed for features of SSP. Ninety-eight polyps coded as HP and 41...

  20. Lynch syndrome-associated extracolonic tumors are rare in two extended families with the same EPCAM deletion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lynch, H.T.; Riegert-Johnson, D.L.; Snyder, C.; Lynch, J.F.; Hagenkord, J.; Boland, C.R.; Rhees, J.; Thibodeau, S.N.; Boardman, L.A.; Davies, J.; Kuiper, R.P.; Hoogerbrugge, N.; Ligtenberg, M.J.L.

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The Lynch syndrome (LS) is an inherited cancer syndrome showing a preponderance of colorectal cancer (CRC) in context with endometrial cancer and several other extracolonic cancers, which is due to pathogenic mutations in the mismatch repair (MMR) genes, MLH1, MSH2, MSH6, and PMS2. Some

  1. Barriers and Motivators for Referral of Patients with Suspected Lynch Syndrome to Cancer Genetic Services: A Qualitative Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yen Y. Tan

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available This article explores the views of general practitioners and specialists on their referral of patients with suspected Lynch syndrome to cancer genetic services. Using a purposive maximum variation sampling strategy, we conducted semi-structured interviews face-to-face with 28 general practitioners and specialists in public or private hospitals and specialist clinics between March and August 2011. General practitioners and specialists were recruited in a major metropolitan area in Australia. Interview transcripts were reviewed by two independent researchers, and thematic analysis was performed using NVivo10 software. The main barriers and motivators identified were: (1 clinician-related (e.g., familiarity with Lynch syndrome and family history knowledge; (2 patient-related (e.g., patients’ interests and personal experience with cancer; and (3 organizational-related (e.g., access to services, guidelines and referral pathway. Referral of patients with suspected Lynch syndrome to cancer genetic services is motivated and hindered by a range of individual, interpersonal and organizational factors. In order to improve the care and quality of life of patients and family with suspected Lynch syndrome, further research is needed to develop supportive tools for clinicians.

  2. Out of Amazonia: the unexpected trans-Andean distribution of Cochranella resplendens (Lynch and Duellman, 1978) (Anura: Centrolenidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molina-Zuluaga, Claudia; Cano, Estefany; Restrepo, Adriana; Rada, Marco; Daza, Juan M

    2017-03-02

    The glassfrog genus Cochranella, with nine recognized species, is distributed in the lowlands and mid elevation of the Neotropical forests, from Nicaragua to Bolivia (Guayasamin et al. 2009; Twomey et al. 2014). Four species are trans-Andean-C. granulosa (Taylor 1949) occurs in the lowlands and mountains, at mid elevation, of Central America, C. litoralis (Ruiz-Carranza & Lynch 1996) and C. mache Guayasamin & Bonaccorso 2004 occur in the Pacific lowlands and the western cloud forests of Colombia and Ecuador, and C. euknemos (Savage & Starrett 1967) occurs both in Central America and South America (northwestern Colombia).-The other five species have cis-Andean distributions in the Amazonian slopes and lowlands, from Colombia to Bolivia: C. nola Harvey 1996, C. guayasamini Twomey, Delia & Castroviejo-Fisher 2014, C. resplendens (Lynch & Duellman 1973), C. erminea Torres-Gastello, Suárez-Segovia & Cisneros-Heredia 2007, and C. phryxa Aguayo-Vedia & Harvey 2006. In Colombia, C. resplendens is known from the foothills of the Amazon versant in Caquetá (Malambo et al. 2013) and Putumayo (Lynch & Duellman 1973; Ruiz-Carranza et al. 1996). The species is also known from Ecuador (Lynch & Duellman 1973) and Peru (Twomey et al. 2014). Here, we report two new records of Cochranella resplendens, extending the species distribution beyond the Amazonian lowlands into the northern Cordillera Central in Colombia.

  3. Rectal Cancer Diagnosed after Cesarean Section in Which High Microsatellite Instability Indicated the Presence of Lynch Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomohiro Okuda

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We report a case of rectal cancer with microsatellite instability (MSI that probably resulted from Lynch syndrome and that was diagnosed after Cesarean section. The patient was a 28-year-old woman (gravid 1, para 1 without a significant medical history. At 35 gestational weeks, vaginal ultrasonography revealed a 5 cm tumor behind the uterine cervix, which was diagnosed as a uterine myoma. The tumor gradually increased in size and blocked the birth canal, resulting in the patient undergoing an emergency Cesarean section. Postoperatively, the tumor was diagnosed as rectal cancer with MSI. After concurrent chemoradiation therapy, a lower anterior resection was performed. The patient’s family history revealed she met the criteria of the revised Bethesda guidelines for testing the colorectal tumor for MSI. Testing revealed that the tumor did indeed show high MSI and, combined with the family history, suggested this could be a case of Lynch syndrome. Our findings emphasize the importance of considering the possibility of Lynch syndrome in pregnant women with colorectal cancer, particularly those with a family history of this condition. We suggest that the presence of Lynch syndrome should also be considered for any young woman with endometrial, ovarian, or colorectal cancer.

  4. Revised guidelines for the clinical management of Lynch syndrome (HNPCC) : Recommendations by a group of European experts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vasen, Hans F. A.; Blanco, Ignacio; Aktan-Collan, Katja; Gopie, Jessica P.; Alonso, Angel; Aretz, Stefan; Bernstein, Inge; Bertario, Lucio; Burn, John; Capella, Gabriel; Colas, Chrystelle; Engel, Christoph; Frayling, Ian M.; Genuardi, Maurizio; Heinimann, Karl; Hes, Frederik J.; Hodgson, Shirley V.; Karagiannis, John A.; Lalloo, Fiona; Lindblom, Annika; Mecklin, Jukka-Pekka; Moller, Pal; Myrhoj, Torben; Nagengast, Fokko M.; Parc, Yann; de Leon, Maurizio Ponz; Renkonen-Sinisalo, Laura; Sampson, Julian R.; Stormorken, Astrid; Sijmons, Rolf H.; Tejpar, Sabine; Thomas, Huw J. W.; Rahner, Nils; Wijnen, Juul T.; Jaervinen, Heikki Juhani; Moeslein, Gabriela; Jarvinen, H.J.; Moslein, G.

    2013-01-01

    Lynch syndrome (LS) is characterised by the development of colorectal cancer, endometrial cancer and various other cancers, and is caused by a mutation in one of the mismatch repair genes: MLH1, MSH2, MSH6 or PMS2. In 2007, a group of European experts (the Mallorca group) published guidelines for th

  5. Effects of boundary-layer separation controllers on a desktop fume hood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Rong Fung; Chen, Jia-Kun; Hsu, Ching Min; Hung, Shuo-Fu

    2016-10-02

    A desktop fume hood installed with an innovative design of flow boundary-layer separation controllers on the leading edges of the side plates, work surface, and corners was developed and characterized for its flow and containment leakage characteristics. The geometric features of the developed desktop fume hood included a rearward offset suction slot, two side plates, two side-plate boundary-layer separation controllers on the leading edges of the side plates, a slanted surface on the leading edge of the work surface, and two small triangular plates on the upper left and right corners of the hood face. The flow characteristics were examined using the laser-assisted smoke flow visualization technique. The containment leakages were measured by the tracer gas (sulphur hexafluoride) detection method on the hood face plane with a mannequin installed in front of the hood. The results of flow visualization showed that the smoke dispersions induced by the boundary-layer separations on the leading edges of the side plates and work surface, as well as the three-dimensional complex flows on the upper-left and -right corners of the hood face, were effectively alleviated by the boundary-layer separation controllers. The results of the tracer gas detection method with a mannequin standing in front of the hood showed that the leakage levels were negligibly small (≤0.003 ppm) at low face velocities (≥0.19 m/s).

  6. Differential expression of CK20, β-catenin, and MUC2/5AC/6 in Lynch syndrome and familial colorectal cancer type X

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haraldsson, Stefan; Klarskov, Louise; Nilbert, Mef

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Hereditary non-polyposis colorectal cancer comprises Lynch syndrome and familial colorectal cancer type X (FCCTX). Differences in genetics, demographics and histopathology have been extensively studied. The purpose of this study is to characterize their immunoprofile of markers other...... than MMR proteins. METHODS: We compared the expression patterns of cytokeratins (CK7 and CK20), mucins (MUC2/5 AC/6), CDX2 and β-catenin in Lynch syndrome and FCCTX. RESULTS: Differences were identified for CK20 and nuclear β-catenin, which were significantly more often expressed in FCCTX than in Lynch...

  7. Evaluation of leakage from fume hoods using tracer gas, tracer nanoparticles and nanopowder handling test methodologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunn, Kevin H; Tsai, Candace Su-Jung; Woskie, Susan R; Bennett, James S; Garcia, Alberto; Ellenbecker, Michael J

    2014-01-01

    The most commonly reported control used to minimize workplace exposures to nanomaterials is the chemical fume hood. Studies have shown, however, that significant releases of nanoparticles can occur when materials are handled inside fume hoods. This study evaluated the performance of a new commercially available nano fume hood using three different test protocols. Tracer gas, tracer nanoparticle, and nanopowder handling protocols were used to evaluate the hood. A static test procedure using tracer gas (sulfur hexafluoride) and nanoparticles as well as an active test using an operator handling nanoalumina were conducted. A commercially available particle generator was used to produce sodium chloride tracer nanoparticles. Containment effectiveness was evaluated by sampling both in the breathing zone (BZ) of a mannequin and operator as well as across the hood opening. These containment tests were conducted across a range of hood face velocities (60, 80, and 100 ft/min) and with the room ventilation system turned off and on. For the tracer gas and tracer nanoparticle tests, leakage was much more prominent on the left side of the hood (closest to the room supply air diffuser) although some leakage was noted on the right side and in the BZ sample locations. During the tracer gas and tracer nanoparticle tests, leakage was primarily noted when the room air conditioner was on for both the low and medium hood exhaust airflows. When the room air conditioner was turned off, the static tracer gas tests showed good containment across most test conditions. The tracer gas and nanoparticle test results were well correlated showing hood leakage under the same conditions and at the same sample locations. The impact of a room air conditioner was demonstrated with containment being adversely impacted during the use of room air ventilation. The tracer nanoparticle approach is a simple method requiring minimal setup and instrumentation. However, the method requires the reduction in

  8. Dynamic effects on containment of air-curtain fume hood operated with heat source.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jia-Kun; Huang, Rong Fung; Hsin, Pei-Yi

    2012-01-01

    This study focused on the leakage characteristics of the air-curtain fume hood that are subject to the influences of sash movement and walk-by motion while a high temperature heat source was operated in the hood. The flow visualization and trace gas test method were used to investigate the performance of the air-curtain fume hood. An electric heater was placed in the hood to simulate the heat source. The temperature of the heat source installed inside the air-curtain fume hood varied between 180°C and 300°C. Trace gas tests following the dynamic test methods of EN-14175 protocol were employed to measure the spillages of sulfur hexafluoride gas that were released in the hood. When subject to the influence of sash movement at a heat source temperature lower than 260°C, the leakage level was high at the suction velocity V(s) 10 m/sec. When subject to the influence of people walk-by, the leakage level was relatively low at the suction velocity larger than 8 m/sec at sash height H = 50 cm. The height of the sash opening was a crucial parameter for the containment of the air-curtain fume hood. At the sash opening lower than about 25 cm, suction velocity less than or equal to 6 m/sec was enough to make the sulfur hexafluoride leakage less than the threshold value, 0.65 ppm, suggested by the BG Chemie. The air-curtain fume hood presented a great performance to resist the effect of drafts even though there was a high temperature heat source working in the hood.

  9. Effect of flow characteristics on ultrafine particle emissions from range hoods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tseng, Li-Ching; Chen, Chih-Chieh

    2013-08-01

    In order to understand the physical mechanisms of the production of nanometer-sized particulate generated from cooking oils, the ventilation of kitchen hoods was studied by determining the particle concentration, particle size distribution, particle dimensions, and hood's flow characteristics under several cooking scenarios. This research varied the temperature of the frying operation on one cooking operation, with three kinds of commercial cooking oils including soybean oil, olive oil, and sunflower oil. The variations of particle concentration and size distributions with the elevated cooking oil temperatures were presented. The particle concentration increases as a function of temperature. For oil temperatures ranging between 180°C and 210°C, a 5°C increase in temperature increased the number concentration of ultrafine particles by 20-50%. The maximum concentration of ultrafine particles was found to be approximately 6 × 10(6) particles per cm(3) at 260°C. Flow visualization techniques and particle distribution measurement were performed for two types of hood designs, a wall-mounted range hood and an island hood, at a suction flow rate of 15 m(3) min(-1). The flow visualization results showed that different configurations of kitchen hoods induce different aerodynamic characteristics. By comparing the results of flow visualizations and nanoparticle measurements, it was found that the areas with large-scale turbulent vortices are more prone to dispersion of ultrafine particle leakage because of the complex interaction between the shear layers and the suction movement that results from turbulent dispersion. We conclude that the evolution of ultrafine particle concentration fluctuations is strongly affected by the location of the hood, which can alter the aerodynamic features. We suggest that there is a correlation between flow characteristics and amount of contaminant leakage. This provides a comprehensive strategy to evaluate the effectiveness of kitchen hoods

  10. Ground-water resources in the Hood Basin, Oregon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grady, Stephen J.

    1983-01-01

    The Hood Basin, an area of 1,035 square miles in north-central Oregon, includes the drainage basins of all tributaries of the Columbia River between Eagle Creek and Fifteenmile Creek. The physical characteristics and climate of the basin are diverse. The Wasco subarea, in the eastern half of the basin, has moderate relief, mostly intermittent streams, and semiarid climate. The Hood subarea, in the western half, has rugged topography, numerous perennial streams, and a humid climate.Water-bearing geologic units that underlie the basin include volcanic, volcaniclastic, and sedimentary rocks of Miocene to Holocene age, and unconsolidated surficial deposits of Pleistocene and Holocene age. The most important water-bearing unit, the Columbia River Basalt Group, underlies almost the entire basin. Total thickness probably exceeds 2,000 feet, but by 1980 only the upper 1,000 feet or less had been developed by wells. Wells in this unit generally yield from 15 to 1,000 gallons per minute and a few yield as much as 3,300 gallons per minute.The most productive aquifer in the Columbia River Basalt Group is The Dalles Ground Water Reservoir, a permeable zone of fractured basalt about 25 to 30 square miles in extent that underlies the city of The Dalles. During the late 1950's and mid-1960's, withdrawals of 15,000 acre-feet per year or more caused water levels in the aquifer to decline sharply. Pumpage had diminished to about 5,000 acre-feet per year in 1979 and water levels have stabilized, indicating that ground water recharge and discharge, including the pumping, are in balance.The other principal geologic units in the basin have more limited areal distribution and less saturated thickness than the Columbia River Basalt Group. Generally, these units are capable of yielding from a few to a hundred gallons per minute to wells.Most of the ground water in the basin is chemically suitable for domestic, irrigation, or other uses. Some ground water has objectionable concentrations of

  11. Decontamination of a technetium contaminated fume hood in a research laboratory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Dou, Thomas J; Bertoia, Julie; Czerwinski, Kenneth R

    2011-08-01

    After 4 y of working with 99Tc in milligram to gram quantities to make many different compounds and provide the resource for the generation of several publications, work in one of the fume hoods used by the University of Nevada, Las Vegas (UNLV), radiochemistry program started to cause an increase in contamination events that were discovered in weekly surveys. It was decided that the hood should be cleaned out when the researchers were away during the winter break in December 2009. The hood, until just before the winter break, held equipment from years of operation.

  12. Lynching Luther

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Backe, Hans-Joachim

    2016-01-01

    police procedurals. The character of DCI John Luther is indicative of the series’ general approach: he is unmistakably constructed from stereotypes of US television, yet not in a straightforward way, as he combines elements of both the impulsive, physical maverick cop and the psychologically adept......, cerebral detective – two character-types traditionally rather juxtaposed as irreconcilable opposites. In this fashion, the overall story arc meshes together elements from Thomas Harris-style serial killer fiction and intuitive detection in the tradition of George Simenon’s Maigret. Similarly...... as the id to his superior Rose Teller’s super-ego and his former partner Ian Reed’s ego, a configuration his subconscious tries to overwrite by juxtaposing those two characters to sociopath Alice Morgan and sophomore detective Justin Ripley. The second season finds Luther at odds with several mother figures...

  13. Hood of the truck statistics for food animal practitioners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slenning, Barrett D

    2006-03-01

    This article offers some tips on working with statistics and develops four relatively simple procedures to deal with most kinds of data with which veterinarians work. The criterion for a procedure to be a "Hood of the Truck Statistics" (HOT Stats) technique is that it must be simple enough to be done with pencil, paper, and a calculator. The goal of HOT Stats is to have the tools available to run quick analyses in only a few minutes so that decisions can be made in a timely fashion. The discipline allows us to move away from the all-too-common guess work about effects and differences we perceive following a change in treatment or management. The techniques allow us to move toward making more defensible, credible, and more quantifiably "risk-aware" real-time recommendations to our clients.

  14. UNCLE NINE x Nomadic Limited Ed.Hooded Jacket

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    九叔联名合作产品已来到第三个回合,先有第一弹九叔与Protest合作的联名表带,然后到早前Protest customize by YAO+Nomadic皮手带,到这次就是Nomadic的衣物产品,选来Nomadic最强之hooded jacket作蓝本,加入他们特别订制的银及黑色logo钮扣,可说是这件jacket的特别改良版,分为银钮九叔版及黑钮普通版,各限量20件.绝对是限量中的诚意作品。

  15. High-resolution NMR spectroscopy under the fume hood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Küster, Simon K; Danieli, Ernesto; Blümich, Bernhard; Casanova, Federico

    2011-08-07

    This work reports the possibility to acquire high-resolution (1)H NMR spectra with a fist-sized NMR magnet directly installed under the fume hood. The small NMR sensor based on permanent magnets was used to monitor the trimerization of propionaldehyde catalyzed by indium trichloride in real time by continuously circulating the reaction mixture through the magnet bore in a closed loop with the help of a peristaltic pump. Thanks to the chemical selectivity of NMR spectroscopy the progress of the reaction can be monitored on-line by determining the concentrations of both reactant and product from the area under their respective lines in the NMR spectra as a function of time. This in situ measurement demonstrates that NMR probes can be used in chemistry laboratories, e.g. for reaction optimization, or installed at specific points of interest along industrial process lines. Therefore, it will open the door for the implementation of feedback control based on spectroscopic NMR data.

  16. Fort Hood solar cogeneration facility conceptual design study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1981-05-01

    A study is done on the application of a tower-focus solar cogeneration facility at the US Fort Hood Army Base in Killeen, Texas. Solar-heated molten salt is to provide the steam for electricity and for room heating, room cooling, and domestic hot water. The proposed solar cogeneration system is expected to save the equivalent of approximately 10,500 barrels of fuel oil per year and to involve low development risks. The site and existing plant are described, including the climate and plant performance. The selection of the site-specific configuration is discussed, including: candidate system configurations; technology assessments, including risk assessments of system development, receiver fluids, and receiver configurations; system sizing; and the results of trade studies leading to the selection of the preferred system configuration. (LEW)

  17. Preparation of Firefighting Hood for Cooling for Phase Change Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shu Hwa Lin

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available There are two types of Phase Change Materials (PCMs which have been developed and adopted in textiles: heat (energy released and cool (energy absorbed. This paper discusses current PCM applications and explores future applications in firefighting gear. Phase change materials are considered latent heat storage units because as they change phase from solid to liquid, liquid to gas and vice versa, energy in the form of heat is absorbed or released. The goal of PCM textiles is to create reusable energy to maintain body temperature, as well as to optimize the performance of protective wear such as hoods. When the wearer’s body temperature increases or decreases, the PCMs applied to the fabric will change state helping to regulate the wearer’s body temperature by providing warmth or cooling. Maintaining a stable body temperature can improve working conditions and comfort.

  18. Preparation of Firefighting Hood for Cooling For Phase Change Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shu Hwa Lin

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available There are two types of Phase Change Materials (PCMs which have been developed and adopted in textiles: heat (energy released and cool (energy absorbed. This paper discusses current PCM applications and explores future applications in firefighting gear. Phase change materials are considered latent heat storage units because as they change phase from solid to liquid, liquid to gas and vice versa, energy in the form of heat is absorbed or released. The goal of PCM textiles is to create reusable energy to maintain body temperature, as well as to optimize the performance of protective wear such as hoods. When the wearer’s body temperature increases or decreases, the PCMs applied to the fabric will change state helping to regulate the wearer’s body temperature by providing warmth or cooling. Maintaining a stable body temperature can improve working conditions and comfort.

  19. Isolation of sindbis virus from a hooded crow in Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eiden, Martin; Ziegler, Ute; Keller, Markus; Müller, Kerstin; Granzow, Harald; Jöst, Hanna; Schmidt-Chanasit, Jonas; Groschup, Martin H

    2014-03-01

    Sindbis virus (SINV) is an arbovirus that causes clinical symptoms, including arthritis, rash, and fever during acute human infections. In Europe, SINV outbreaks are largely restricted to northern Europe. Intrigued by the isolation of SINV from mosquitoes in southwestern Germany in 2009, we initiated a passive arbovirus-monitoring program in birds and analyzed a total of 685 samples. By this approach, we were able to detect a SINV in a Hooded Crow in Germany for the first time. It was possible to isolate SINV virus in cell cultures and even to visualize virus particles by electron microscopy. After the determination of the complete SINV genome sequence, the phylogenetic analysis revealed its close relationship to SINV genotype I sequences previously obtained from mosquitoes in Germany and Scandinavia. This first report on the isolation of viable SINV indicates the potential involvement of crows in an enzootic circulation of SINV in Germany and Central Europe.

  20. System specification for Fort Hood Solar Cogeneration Facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1981-05-01

    The characteristics and design and environmental requirements are specified for a solar cogeneration facility at the Fort Hood Army Base in Killeen, Texas. Characteristics of the system and major elements are described, and applicable standards, codes, laws and regulations are listed. Performance requirements for the total system and for each individual subsystem are presented. Survival requirements are given for various environmental extremes, with consideration given to lightning protection and effects of direct or adjacent lightning strikes. Air quality control standards are briefly mentioned. The facility operates in two principal modes: energy collection and energy utilization. The plant is capable of operating in either mode independently or in both modes simultaneously. The system is also operational in transitional and standby/inactive modes. (LEW)

  1. Numerical simulations of the 2-dimensional Robin-Hood model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cwilich, Gabriel; Fox, Perry; Zypman, Fredy; Buldyrev, Sergey

    2007-03-01

    The Robin Hood, or Zaitsev model [1] has been successfully used to model depinning of interfaces, friction, dislocation motion and flux creep, because it is one of the simplest extremal models for self-organized criticallity Until now, its properties have been well understood theoretically in one dimension and its scaling laws numerically verified. It is important to extend the range of validity of these laws into higher dimensions, to find precise values for the scaling exponents, and to investigate how they depend on the details of the model (like anisotropy). The case of two dimensions is of particular importance when studying surface friction [2]. Here, we numerically evaluate high precision scaling exponents for the avalanche size distribution, the avalanche fractal dimension, and the Levy flight-like distribution of the jumps between extremal active sites. [1] S.I. Zaitsev , Physica A 189, 411 (1992). [2] S. Buldyrev, J. Ferrante and F. Zypman Phys. Rev E (accepted)

  2. Structure of the human MLH1 N-terminus: implications for predisposition to Lynch syndrome

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Hong; Zeng, Hong; Lam, Robert; Tempel, Wolfram [University of Toronto, 101 College Street, Toronto, ON M5G 1L7 (Canada); Kerr, Iain D., E-mail: ikerr@myriad.com [Myriad Genetic Laboratories Inc., 320 Wakara Way, Salt Lake City, UT 84108 (United States); Min, Jinrong, E-mail: ikerr@myriad.com [University of Toronto, 101 College Street, Toronto, ON M5G 1L7 (Canada); University of Toronto, Toronto, ON M5G 1L7 (Canada)

    2015-07-28

    The crystal structure of the human MLH1 N-terminus is reported at 2.30 Å resolution. The overall structure is described along with an analysis of two clinically important mutations. Mismatch repair prevents the accumulation of erroneous insertions/deletions and non-Watson–Crick base pairs in the genome. Pathogenic mutations in the MLH1 gene are associated with a predisposition to Lynch and Turcot’s syndromes. Although genetic testing for these mutations is available, robust classification of variants requires strong clinical and functional support. Here, the first structure of the N-terminus of human MLH1, determined by X-ray crystallography, is described. The structure shares a high degree of similarity with previously determined prokaryotic MLH1 homologs; however, this structure affords a more accurate platform for the classification of MLH1 variants.

  3. Bayesian Modeling for Genetic Anticipation in Presence of Mutational Heterogeneity: A Case Study in Lynch Syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boonstra, Philip S; Mukherjee, Bhramar; Taylor, Jeremy M G;

    2011-01-01

    inferential conclusions. We compare the fit of four-candidate random effects distributions via Bayesian model fit diagnostics. A related statistical issue here is isolating the confounding effect of changes in secular trends, screening, and medical practices that may affect time to disease detection across...... to cause hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal cancer, also called Lynch syndrome (LS). We find evidence for a decrease in AOO between generations in this article. Our model predicts family-level anticipation effects that are potentially useful in genetic counseling clinics for high-risk families....... birth cohorts. Using historic cancer registry data, we borrow from relative survival analysis methods to adjust for changes in age-specific incidence across birth cohorts. Our motivating case study comes from a Danish cancer register of 124 families with mutations in mismatch repair (MMR) genes known...

  4. Predicting the impact of Lynch syndrome-causing missense mutations from structural calculations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Sofie V,; Stein, Amelie; Dinitzen, Alexander B.

    2017-01-01

    Accurate methods to assess the pathogenicity of mutations are needed to fully leverage the possibilities of genome sequencing in diagnosis. Current data-driven and bioinformatics approaches are, however, limited by the large number of new variations found in each newly sequenced genome, and often...... and for diagnosis of Lynch syndrome, and perhaps other hereditary diseases.......Accurate methods to assess the pathogenicity of mutations are needed to fully leverage the possibilities of genome sequencing in diagnosis. Current data-driven and bioinformatics approaches are, however, limited by the large number of new variations found in each newly sequenced genome, and often...... do not provide direct mechanistic insight. Here we demonstrate, for the first time, that saturation mutagenesis, biophysical modeling and co-variation analysis, performed in silico, can predict the abundance, metabolic stability, and function of proteins inside living cells. As a model system, we...

  5. Molecular testing in colorectal cancer: diagnosis of Lynch syndrome and personalized cancer medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Chanjuan; Washington, Kay

    2012-06-01

    Currently, molecular testing in colorectal cancer (CRC) is aimed at detecting Lynch syndrome and predicting response to anti-epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) therapies. However, CRC is a complex disease, with at least 3 molecular pathways of carcinogenesis. The importance of the EGFR signaling pathway in colorectal carcinogenesis is underscored by the availability of anti-EGFR monoclonal antibodies for the treatment of some metastatic CRCs. Potentially, mutations in any of the genes in the EGFR signaling pathway may be associated with prognosis and may predict response to anti-EGFR or other targeted therapies. Although not currently the standard of care, molecular testing of CRCs is expanding to include mutational analysis of the genes in the EGFR pathway, in addition to more widely performed tests for identifying cancers with high microsatellite instability. Multiplex molecular prognostic panels for therapeutic decision making in stage II CRCs also represent expanding use of molecular testing for this common cancer.

  6. Maternal transfer of perfluoroalkyl substances in hooded seals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grønnestad, Randi; Villanger, Gro D; Polder, Anuschka; Kovacs, Kit M; Lydersen, Christian; Jenssen, Bjørn M; Borgå, Katrine

    2017-03-01

    The role of milk in the transfer of perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) to offspring is not well known in wildlife. Eight PFASs were quantified in plasma and milk in mother-pup pairs of hooded seals (Cystophora cristata) during the nursing period, and the role of milk in the transfer process was analyzed. Hooded seal was chosen because of its short lactation period (3-4 d), during which the pup feeds only on milk. Placental or lactation transfer would thus be the only source of PFAS in the pup. Of the 8 PFASs analyzed (Σ8 PFAS), 7 were found in all samples; therefore, milk is a source to PFASs in pups. Perfluorooctane sulfonate was the dominant PFAS in all samples. Mean Σ8 PFAS concentrations were 6.0 ng/g protein (36 ng/g wet wt) in maternal plasma, 0.77 ng/g protein (3.2 ng/g wet wt) in milk, and 12 ng/g protein (66 ng/g wet wt) in pup plasma. Measured concentrations in plasma were within ranges previously reported from other seal species, below known toxicity thresholds for experimental rodents. Individual PFASs differed in transfer efficiency from mother to pup, depending on carbon chain lengths, with the lowest relative transfer for the intermediate-chained PFASs (C9 -C10 ). The results show maternal transfer of PFASs via both milk and the placenta, of which placental transfer is the dominant pathway. Environ Toxicol Chem 2017;36:763-770. © 2016 SETAC.

  7. The Use of Social Media to Recruit Participants With Rare Conditions: Lynch Syndrome as an Example

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Wendy M; Hennig, Kelsey; Sisson, Faith; Bruzzone, Linda L

    2017-01-01

    Background Social media is increasingly being used as a means of recruiting participants, particularly for investigators whose areas of interest involve rare conditions or hard-to-reach populations. However, much of the literature to date has focused on paid advertisement recruitment. Objective We used Lynch syndrome (LS), a rare hereditary cancer syndrome, as a model to demonstrate the successful partnership between researchers and a Web-based patient education and advocacy organization to facilitate participant recruitment. Methods Recruitment was undertaken in partnership with Lynch Syndrome International (LSI), an advocacy organization with a strong social media presence. After LSI published our study information, participants followed up via email or phone call. Following prescreening and consent, interested and eligible participants were then sent a secure survey link. Results Within 36 hours of a single Facebook post by the site administrators for LSI, over 150 individuals responded via phone or email. Sixty-five individuals were sent the survey link and 57 individuals completed the survey (88% response rate). Of note, these 57 individuals were geographically diverse within the Unites States, representing LS patients from 26 different states. Conclusions This approach has several advantages, including recruitment through a trusted source outside of a clinical setting, higher response rates, and cost-effectiveness with a small research team in a relatively short amount of time. Overall, social media recruitment with a trusted online partner can be highly effective in hard-to-reach clinical populations, such as patients with LS. However, this approach requires additional effort for eligibility screening. PMID:28115298

  8. Whole Gene Capture Analysis of 15 CRC Susceptibility Genes in Suspected Lynch Syndrome Patients.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne M L Jansen

    Full Text Available Lynch Syndrome (LS is caused by pathogenic germline variants in one of the mismatch repair (MMR genes. However, up to 60% of MMR-deficient colorectal cancer cases are categorized as suspected Lynch Syndrome (sLS because no pathogenic MMR germline variant can be identified, which leads to difficulties in clinical management. We therefore analyzed the genomic regions of 15 CRC susceptibility genes in leukocyte DNA of 34 unrelated sLS patients and 11 patients with MLH1 hypermethylated tumors with a clear family history.Using targeted next-generation sequencing, we analyzed the entire non-repetitive genomic sequence, including intronic and regulatory sequences, of 15 CRC susceptibility genes. In addition, tumor DNA from 28 sLS patients was analyzed for somatic MMR variants.Of 1979 germline variants found in the leukocyte DNA of 34 sLS patients, one was a pathogenic variant (MLH1 c.1667+1delG. Leukocyte DNA of 11 patients with MLH1 hypermethylated tumors was negative for pathogenic germline variants in the tested CRC susceptibility genes and for germline MLH1 hypermethylation. Somatic DNA analysis of 28 sLS tumors identified eight (29% cases with two pathogenic somatic variants, one with a VUS predicted to pathogenic and LOH, and nine cases (32% with one pathogenic somatic variant (n = 8 or one VUS predicted to be pathogenic (n = 1.This is the first study in sLS patients to include the entire genomic sequence of CRC susceptibility genes. An underlying somatic or germline MMR gene defect was identified in ten of 34 sLS patients (29%. In the remaining sLS patients, the underlying genetic defect explaining the MMRdeficiency in their tumors might be found outside the genomic regions harboring the MMR and other known CRC susceptibility genes.

  9. Germline mutation analysis of MLH1 and MSH2 in Malaysian Lynch syndrome patients

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mohd Nizam Zahary; Gurjeet Kaur; Muhammad Radzi Abu Hassan; Harjinder Singh; Venkatesh R Naik; Ravindran Ankathil

    2012-01-01

    AIM:To investigate the protein expression profile of mismatch repair (MMR) genes in suspected cases of Lynch syndrome and to characterize the associated germline mutations.METHODS:Immunohistochemical analysis of tumor samples was performed to determine the protein expression profile of MMR protein.Germline mutation screening was carried out on peripheral blood samples.The entire exon regions of MLH1 and MSH2 genes were amplified by polymerase chain reaction,screened by denaturing high performance liquid chromatography (dHPLC) and analyzed by DNA sequencing to characterize the germline mutations.RESULTS:Three out of 34 tissue samples (8.8%) and four out of 34 tissue samples (11.8%) showed loss of nuclear staining by immunohistochemistry,indicating the absence of MLH1 and MSH2 protein expression in carcinoma cells,respectively.dHPLC analysis followed by DNA sequencing showed these samples to have germline mutations of MSH2 gene.However,no deleterious mutations were identified in any of the 19 exons or coding regions of MLH1 gene,but we were able to identify MLH1 promoter polymorphism,-93G >A (rs1800734),in 21 out of 34 patients (61.8%).We identified one novel mutation,transversion mutation c.2005G > C,which resulted in a missense mutation (Gly669Arg),a transversion mutation in exon 1,c.142G > T,which resulted in a nonsense mutation (Glu48Stop)and splice-site mutation,c.2006-6T > C,which was adjacent to exon 13 of MSH2 gene.CONCLUSION:Germline mutations were identified in four Malaysian Lynch syndrome patients.Immunohistochemical analysis of tumor tissue proved to be a good pre-screening test before proceeding to germline mutation analysis of DNA MMR genes.

  10. Effects of walk-by and sash movement on contaminant leakage of air curtain-isolated fume hood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Rong Fung; Chen, Hong Da; Hung, Chien-Hsiung

    2007-12-01

    The effects of the walk-by motion and sash movement on the containment leakage of an air curtain-isolated fume hood were evaluated and compared with the results of a corresponding conventional fume hood. The air curtain was generated by a narrow planar jet issued from the double-layered sash and a suction slot-flow arranged on the floor of the hood just behind the doorsill. The conventional fume hood used for comparison had the major dimensions identical to the air-curtain hood. SF tracer-gas concentrations were released and measured following the prEN 14175-3:2003 protocol to examine the contaminant leakage levels. Experimental results showed that operating the air-curtain hood at the suction velocity above about 6 m/s and jet velocity about 1 m/s could provide drastically high containment performance when compared with the corresponding conventional fume hood operated at the face velocity of 0.5 m/s. The total air flow required for the air-curtain hood operated at 6 m/s suction velocity and 1 m/s jet velocity was about 20% less than that exhausted by the conventional fume hood. If the suction velocity of the air-curtain hood was increased above 8 m/s, the containment leakage during dynamic motions could be reduced to ignorable level (about 10(3) ppm).

  11. Stokes问题关于Hood-Taylor三角元的外推

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王晓燕

    2008-01-01

    将stokes问题在等腰直角三角形网格上的Hood-Taylor元的外推,经过变换,利用积分展开式技巧,推广到一般的三角形网格上,对Hood-Taylor元进行误差展开,再对有限元解差值后处理,完成其外推.进一步,利用stokes方程在一般三角形网格上的 Hood-Tay_lor元外推结论,完成了stokes问题在多角形区域上的Hood-Tay_lor元的外推.

  12. The fusion of the imagination and the material universe: Hugh Hood, Flying a red kite (1962

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksander Kustec

    1999-12-01

    Full Text Available In the first weeks of January 1957 Hugh (John Blagdon Hood moved to Hartford, Connecticut, U. S. A, where he became Professor at Saint Joseph College. At the time Hood did not know that he was going to become one of Canada's greatest stylists and contemporary short story writers. Between January 1957 and March 1962, when he was going through a final selection o short stories for his first book, Flying a Red Kite (FRK, Hugh Hood wrote thirty-eight short stories and two novels (God Rest You Merry and Hungry Generations. The numbers show that Hood was an extremely productive writer in that period. From the thirty-eight stories he chose eleven for FRK, fourteen of them were published in subsequent collections, in various journals and short story anthologies, while thirteen of them have not been published yet.

  13. Environmental contaminants in bald eagles nesting in Hood Canal, Washington, 1992-1997

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The number of bald eagle nesting territories along Hood Canal in Washington State have increased from 3 known occupied territories in 1980 to 35 in 2000....

  14. Retrofitting Laboratory Fume Hoods With Face Velocity Monitors at NASA Lewis Research Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Ingrid E.; Bold, Margaret D.; Diamond, David B.; Kall, Phillip M.

    1997-01-01

    Extensive use and reliance on laboratory fume hoods exist at LeRC for the control of chemical hazards (nearly 175 fume hoods). Flow-measuring devices are necessary to continually monitor hood performance. The flow-measuring device should he tied into an energy management control system to detect problems at a central location without relying on the users to convey information of a problem. Compatibility concerns and limitations should always be considered when choosing the most effective flow-measuring device for a particular situation. Good practice on initial hood design and placement will provide a system for which a flow-measuring device may be used to its full potential and effectiveness.

  15. REMOTELY-SENSED GLACIER CHANGE ESTIMATION: A CASE STUDY AT LINDBLAD COVE, ANTARCTIC PENINSULA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. D. Fieber

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This study builds on existing literature of glacier change estimation in polar regions and is a continuation of efforts aimed at unlocking the information encapsulated in archival aerial photography of Antarctic Peninsula glaciers. Historical aerial imagery acquired in 1957 over three marine-terminating glaciers at Lindblad Cove on the West Coast of Trinity Peninsula is processed to extract digital elevation models (DEMs which are subsequently compared to DEMs generated from present day (2014 WorldView-2 satellite stereo-imagery. The new WorldView-2 images offer unprecedented sub-metre resolution of the Antarctic Peninsula and are explored here to facilitate improved registration and higher accuracy analysis of glacier changes. Unlike many studies, which focus on glacier fronts or only restricted regions of glaciers, this paper presents a complete coverage of elevation changes across the glacier surfaces for two of the studied glaciers. The study utilises a robust least squares matching technique to ensure precise registration of the archival and modern DEMs, which is applied due to lack of existing ground control in this remote region. This case study reveals that, while many glaciers in polar regions are reported as experiencing significant mass loss, some glaciers are stable or even demonstrate mass gain. All three glaciers reported here demonstrated overall mean increases in surface elevation, indicative of positive mass balance ranging from 0.6 to 5.8 metre water equivalent between 1957 and 2014.

  16. Remotely-Sensed Glacier Change Estimation: a Case Study at Lindblad Cove, Antarctic Peninsula

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fieber, K. D.; Mills, J. P.; Miller, P. E.; Fox, A. J.

    2016-06-01

    This study builds on existing literature of glacier change estimation in polar regions and is a continuation of efforts aimed at unlocking the information encapsulated in archival aerial photography of Antarctic Peninsula glaciers. Historical aerial imagery acquired in 1957 over three marine-terminating glaciers at Lindblad Cove on the West Coast of Trinity Peninsula is processed to extract digital elevation models (DEMs) which are subsequently compared to DEMs generated from present day (2014) WorldView-2 satellite stereo-imagery. The new WorldView-2 images offer unprecedented sub-metre resolution of the Antarctic Peninsula and are explored here to facilitate improved registration and higher accuracy analysis of glacier changes. Unlike many studies, which focus on glacier fronts or only restricted regions of glaciers, this paper presents a complete coverage of elevation changes across the glacier surfaces for two of the studied glaciers. The study utilises a robust least squares matching technique to ensure precise registration of the archival and modern DEMs, which is applied due to lack of existing ground control in this remote region. This case study reveals that, while many glaciers in polar regions are reported as experiencing significant mass loss, some glaciers are stable or even demonstrate mass gain. All three glaciers reported here demonstrated overall mean increases in surface elevation, indicative of positive mass balance ranging from 0.6 to 5.8 metre water equivalent between 1957 and 2014.

  17. Origins of albino and hooded rats: implications from molecular genetic analysis across modern laboratory rat strains.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takashi Kuramoto

    Full Text Available Albino and hooded (or piebald rats are one of the most frequently used laboratory animals for the past 150 years. Despite this fact, the origin of the albino mutation as well as the genetic basis of the hooded phenotype remained unclear. Recently, the albino mutation has been identified as the Arg299His missense mutation in the Tyrosinase gene and the hooded (H locus has been mapped to the ∼460-kb region in which only the Kit gene exists. Here, we surveyed 172 laboratory rat strains for the albino mutation and the hooded (h mutation that we identified by positional cloning approach to investigate possible genetic roots and relationships of albino and hooded rats. All of 117 existing laboratory albino rats shared the same albino missense mutation, indicating they had only one single ancestor. Genetic fine mapping followed by de novo sequencing of BAC inserts covering the H locus revealed that an endogenous retrovirus (ERV element was inserted into the first intron of the Kit gene where the hooded allele maps. A solitary long terminal repeat (LTR was found at the same position to the ERV insertion in another allele of the H locus, which causes the so called Irish (h(i phenotype. The ERV and the solitary LTR insertions were completely associated with the hooded and Irish coat patterns, respectively, across all colored rat strains examined. Interestingly, all 117 albino rat strains shared the ERV insertion without any exception, which strongly suggests that the albino mutation had originally occurred in hooded rats.

  18. Development and characterization of an inclined air-curtain (IAC) fume hood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Rong Fung; Chen, Jia-Kun; Tang, Kun-Chi

    2015-06-01

    An inclined air-curtain (IAC) fume hood was developed and characterized using the laser-assisted smoke flow visualization technique and tracer-gas (sulphur hexafluoride) concentration detection method. The IAC fume hood features four innovative design elements: (i) an elongated suction slot installed at the hood roof with an offset towards the rear wall, (ii) an elongated up-blowing planar jet issued from the work surface near the hood inlet, (iii) two deflection plates installed at the left and right side walls, and (iv) a boundary-layer separation controller installed at the sash bottom. Baffles employed in conventional hoods were not used. The suction slot and the up-blowing planar jet formed a rearward-inclined push-pull air curtain. The deflection plates worked with the inclined air curtain to induce four rearward-inclined counter-rotating 'tornados.' The fumes generated in the hood were isolated behind the rearward-inclined air curtain, entrained by the low pressure within the vortical flows, moved up spirally, and finally exhausted through the suction slot. The risk of containment leakage due to the large recirculation vortex that usually exists behind the sash of conventional hoods was reduced by the boundary-layer separation controller. The results of the tracer-gas concentration detection method based on the EN-14175 method showed that the flow field created by the geometric configurations of the IAC hood presented characteristics of low leakage and high resistance to dynamic disturbances at low face velocities. The leakage levels measured by the static, sash movement, and walk-by tests were negligible at a face velocity of 0.26 m s(-1).

  19. Field-trip guide to Mount Hood, Oregon, highlighting eruptive history and hazards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, William E.; Gardner, Cynthia A.

    2017-06-22

    This guidebook describes stops of interest for a geological field trip around Mount Hood volcano. It was developed for the 2017 International Association of Volcanology and Chemistry of the Earth’s Interior (IAVCEI) Scientific Assembly in Portland, Oregon. The intent of this guidebook and accompanying contributions is to provide an overview of Mount Hood, including its chief geologic processes, magmatic system, eruptive history, local tectonics, and hazards, by visiting a variety of readily accessible localities. We also describe coeval, largely monogenetic, volcanoes in the region. Accompanying the field-trip guidebook are separately authored contributions that discuss in detail the Mount Hood magmatic system and its products and behavior (Kent and Koleszar, this volume); Mount Hood earthquakes and their relation to regional tectonics and the volcanic system (Thelen and Moran, this volume); and young surface faults cutting the broader Mount Hood area whose extent has come to light after acquisition of regional light detection and ranging coverage (Madin and others, this volume).The trip makes an approximately 175-mile (280-kilometer) clockwise loop around Mount Hood, starting and ending in Portland. The route heads east on Interstate 84 through the Columbia River Gorge National Scenic Area. The guidebook points out only a few conspicuous features of note in the gorge, but many other guides to the gorge are available. The route continues south on the Mount Hood National Scenic Byway on Oregon Route 35 following Hood River, and returns to Portland on U.S. Highway 26 following Sandy River. The route traverses rocks as old as the early Miocene Eagle Creek Formation and overlying Columbia River Basalt Group of middle Miocene age, but chiefly lava flows and clastic products of arc volcanism of late Miocene to Holocene age.

  20. The Experimental Mod 3 Firefighters’ Aluminized Crash-Rescue, Fire- Proximity Hood

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-07-01

    if required, and then proposed for adoption to replace the current standard headwear . The main differences between the standard hood and the... headwear and are suitable for wear under the same conditions as the standard. In this evaluation you are being asked to wear the hood, as needed, during...In this connection, the new style should be compared with the standard. If you have any opinions as to how this headwear can be improved, kindly

  1. A Y-shaped vinyl hood that creates pneumoperitoneum in laparoscopic rectal cancer surgery (Y-hood method.): a new technique for laparoscopic low anterior resection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujii, Shoichi; Ota, Mitsuyoshi; Yamagishi, Shigeru; Kunisaki, Chikara; Osada, Shunichi; Suwa, Hirokazu; Ichikawa, Yasushi; Shimada, Hiroshi

    2010-02-01

    Many studies have focused on laparoscopic techniques for the treatment of colon cancer, but such work is more limited for the treatment of rectal cancer, largely because of concerns for safety issues. This report presents an effective method of anal lavage and excision in laparoscopic low anterior resection. The authors developed clamp forceps for intestinal lavage and a Y-shaped vinyl hood that can be operated under pneumoperitoneum for airproof surgery. These devices enabled secure clamping and cleansing of the area and use of automatic suture instruments for open laparotomy through a minilaparotomy wound. The authors called this technique the Y-Hood method and compared its short-term results from May 2005 to October 2008 (n = 28) with those for double-stapling technique surgical cases between September 2000 and October 2008 in which automatic suture instruments were used more than once (n = 107). A multivariate analysis of risk factors for anastomotic leakage also was performed. No difference in background factors such as patient sex, age, and tumor node metastasis (TNM) staging were detected. Anastomotic leakage was found in 12 cases that used multiple stapling for rectal transection (11.2%) and 2 cases that used the Y-Hood (7.1%). The cost for rectectomy was 92,505 yen for multiple stapling and 53,107 yen for the Y-Hood (p rectal transection was performed and the height of the anastomotic region. The Y-Hood method enables operations to be performed within the interior of the pelvis without reducing the number of ports because the instruments can be accessed using minilaparotomy. Because the use of stapling for rectal transection is minimized, this method is effective in avoiding anastomotic leakage and also cost efficient. The Y-Hood method allows for thorough intestinal lavage and safe laparoscopic low anterior resection.

  2. Computation of the initially unknown boundaries of flow fields generated by local exhaust hoods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anastas, M Y

    1991-09-01

    Local exhaust hoods are important in controlling contaminants in the workplace. To predict hood effectiveness, it is important to have knowledge of the airflow field that it generates. Currently, there are theoretical models adequate for predicting the flow fields of hoods with flanged openings. These models are solutions of Laplace's equation in terms of the velocity potential. Comparison of experimental and theoretical values of air velocities show good agreement. With the exception of the plain slot, no such models are available for plain hoods or other hoods with complex geometries. This paper explores the feasibility of approximating the equal air velocity contours for any local exhaust hood by assuming that these contours are also equipotential contours. A slot configuration, for which an analytical model is available, was used to evaluate the accuracy of the assumption. Starting with a good approximation for the 15% velocity contour, three other boundaries were generated. The procedure used in generating boundaries after the initial one involved solution of Laplace's equation, assuming constant potential along the boundary and adjustment of boundary location on the basis of differences between the calculated value of the normal derivative of the velocity potential at a point on the boundary and the specified value (15%). The next-to-last boundary generated by the procedure exhibited an oscillation in the values of the normal derivative, which was detrimental to the desired solution. Possible causes for this oscillation and possible refinements in the procedure are discussed.

  3. Computation of the initially unknown boundaries of flow fields generated by local exhaust hoods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anastas, M.Y. (National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, Cincinnati OH (United States))

    1991-09-01

    Local exhaust hoods are important in controlling contaminants in the workplace. To predict hood effectiveness, it is important to have knowledge of the airflow field that it generates. Currently, there are theoretical models adequate for predicting the flow fields of hoods with flanged openings. These models are solutions of Laplace's equation in terms of the velocity potential. Comparison of experimental and theoretical values of air velocities show good agreement. With the exception of the plain slot, no such models are available for plain hoods or other hoods with complex geometries. This paper explores the feasibility of approximating the equal air velocity contours for any local exhaust hood by assuming that these contours are also equipotential contours. A slot configuration, for which an analytical model is available, was used to evaluate the accuracy of the assumption. Starting with a good approximation for the 15% velocity contour, three other boundaries were generated. The procedure used in generating boundaries after the initial one involved solution of Laplace's equation, assuming constant potential along the boundary and adjustment of boundary location on the basis of differences between the calculated value of the normal derivative of the velocity potential at a point on the boundary and the specified value (15%). The next-to-last boundary generated by the procedure exhibited an oscillation in the values of the normal derivative, which was detrimental to the desired solution. Possible causes for this oscillation and possible refinements in the procedure are discussed.

  4. Significance of face velocity fluctuation in relation to laboratory fume hood performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tseng, Li-Ching; Huang, Rong Fung; Chen, Chih-Chieh

    2010-01-01

    In order to recognize the problems associated with the transport mechanism of containment during the ventilation process of a laboratory fume hood, a transparent, full scale chemical fume hood is constructed for experimental studies. Distributions of mean velocity and velocity fluctuation in the sash plane are measured using a thermal anemometer. Flow patterns and tracer-gas concentration leakages are respectively diagnosed via the laser-assisted flow visualization method and the EN 14175-3 test protocol. The magnitudes of measured velocity fluctuations exhibit a sharp peak along the perimeter of the sash opening. The results of flow visualization verify that the elevated turbulence fluctuations are induced by the boundary-layer separation when the flow passes over the edges of sash perimeter. The tracer gas experiment shows that the regions where high degree containment leakages detected are located along the perimeter of hood aperture. Eleven commercial hoods which are claimed with fine aerodynamic design are further tested for confirmation of these observations. The results show similar correlations. Conclusions thus are made that large-scale vortex structures occurring around the perimeters of hood aperture due to the boundary-layer separation could induce strong turbulence, and therefore enhance dispersion of the hood containment.

  5. Distribution and characteristics of marine habitats in a subpolar bay based on hydroacoustics and bed shear stress estimates—Potter Cove, King George Island, Antarctica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wölfl, Anne-Cathrin; Lim, Chai Heng; Hass, H. Christian; Lindhorst, Sebastian; Tosonotto, Gabriela; Lettmann, Karsten Alexander; Kuhn, Gerhard; Wolff, Jörg-Olaf; Abele, Doris

    2014-10-01

    Marine habitats worldwide are increasingly pressurized by climate change, especially along the Antarctic Peninsula. Well-studied areas in front of rapidly retreating tidewater glaciers like Potter Cove are representative for similar coastal environments and, therefore, shed light on habitat formation and development on not only a local but also regional scale. The objective of this study was to provide insights into habitat distribution in Potter Cove, King George Island, Antarctica, and to evaluate the associated environmental processes. Furthermore, an assessment concerning the future development of the habitats is provided. To describe the seafloor habitats in Potter Cove, an acoustic seabed discrimination system (RoxAnn) was used in combination with underwater video images and sediment samples. Due to the absence of wave and current measurements in the study area, bed shear stress estimates served to delineate zones prone to sediment erosion. On the basis of the investigations, two habitat classes were identified in Potter Cove, namely soft-sediment and stone habitats that, besides influences from sediment supply and coastal morphology, are controlled by sediment erosion. A future expansion of the stone habitat is predicted if recent environmental change trends continue. Possible implications for the Potter Cove environment, and other coastal ecosystems under similar pressure, include changes in biomass and species composition.

  6. Development and validation of an instrument to measure the impact of genetic testing on self-concept in Lynch syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Esplen, M J; Stuckless, N; Gallinger, S

    2011-01-01

    with two dimensions identified through factor analysis: stigma/vulnerability and bowel symptom-related anxiety. The scale showed excellent reliability (Cronbach's α = 0.93), good convergent validity by a high correlation with impact of event scale (r(102) = 0.55, p self-esteem scale......Esplen MJ, Stuckless N, Gallinger S, Aronson M, Rothenmund H, Semotiuk K, Stokes J, Way C, Green J, Butler K, Petersen HV, Wong J. Development and validation of an instrument to measure the impact of genetic testing on self-concept in Lynch syndrome. A positive genetic test result may impact...... on a person's self-concept and affect quality of life. The purpose of the study was to develop a self-concept scale to measure such impact for individuals carrying mutations for a heritable colorectal cancer Lynch syndrome (LS). Two distinct phases were involved: Phase 1 generated specific colorectal self...

  7. A de novo germline MLH1 mutation in a Lynch syndrome patient with discordant immunohistochemical and molecular biology test results

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fabrice Airaud; Sébastien Küry; Isabelle Valo; Ingrid Maury; Dominique Bonneau; Olivier Ingster; Stéphane Bezieau

    2012-01-01

    We describe a patient with a Homo sapiens mutL homolog 1 (MLH1)-associated Lynch syndrome with previous diagnoses of two distinct primary cancers:a sigmoid colon cancer at the age of 39 years,and a right colon cancer at the age of 50 years.The mutation identified in his blood and buccal cells,c.1771delG,p.Asp591Ilefs*25,appears to be a de novo event,as it was not transmitted by either of his parents.This type of de novo event is rare in MLH1 as only three cases have been reported in the literature so far.Furthermore,the discordant results observed between replication error phenotyping and immunohistochemistry highlight the importance of the systematic use of both pre-screening tests in the molecular diagnosis of Lynch syndrome.

  8. Clackamas/Hood River Habitat Enhancement Program, 1987 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    MacDonald, Ken (Mount Hood National Forest, Hood River Ranger District, Parkdale, OR); Cain, Thomas C. (Mount Hood National Forest, Clackamas River Ranger District, Estacada, OR); Heller, David A. (Mount Hood National Forest, Gresham, OR)

    1988-03-01

    Fisheries habitat improvement work is being done on priority drainages in the Clackamas and Rood River sub-basins under program measure 704(c), Action Item 4.2 of the Northwest Power Planning Council's Columbia River Basin Fish and Wildlife Program. This report describes the work completed in 1987 for Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) project number 84-11, the Clackamas/Hood River Habitat Enhancement Program. The program is composed of six projects: Collawash River Habitat Improvement Project; Collawash River Falls Passage Improvement Project, Oak Grove Fork Habitat Improvement Project; Lake Branch/West Fork Hood River Habitat Improvement Project; Fifteenmile Creek Habitat Improvement Project; and Abundance, Behavior, and Habitat Utilization by Coho Salmon and Steelhead Trout in Fish Creek, Oregon, As Influenced by Habitat Enhancement. This ongoing program was initiated in 1984, although some of the projects were begun with BPA funding support as early as 1983. The projects are complemented by a variety of habitat improvement and management activities funded from a variety of Forest Service sources. This report describes the activities implemented for five of the six projects. A separate annual report on the 1987 habitat improvement and monitoring/evaluation efforts in the Fish Creek drainage has been prepared. Species for management emphasis include spring chinook and coho salmon, and summer and winter steelhead trout. Project work in 1987 primarily focused on increasing the quantity and quality of available rearing habitat, and improving access at passage barriers. The underlying theme of the improvement work has been to increase habitat diversity through the introduction of ''structure''. Structure provided by logs and boulders serves to deflect, pond, or otherwise disrupt flow patterns within a stream channel. This alteration of flow patterns results in formation of an increased number of habitat niches (i.e. pools, glides, alcoves

  9. Mismatch repair-deficient crypt foci in Lynch syndrome--molecular alterations and association with clinical parameters.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Staffa

    Full Text Available Lynch syndrome is caused by germline mutations of DNA mismatch repair (MMR genes, most frequently MLH1 and MSH2. Recently, MMR-deficient crypt foci (MMR-DCF have been identified as a novel lesion which occurs at high frequency in the intestinal mucosa from Lynch syndrome mutation carriers, but very rarely progress to cancer. To shed light on molecular alterations and clinical associations of MMR-DCF, we systematically searched the intestinal mucosa from Lynch syndrome patients for MMR-DCF by immunohistochemistry. The identified lesions were characterised for alterations in microsatellite-bearing genes with proven or suspected role in malignant transformation. We demonstrate that the prevalence of MMR-DCF (mean 0.84 MMR-DCF per 1 cm2 mucosa in the colorectum of Lynch syndrome patients was significantly associated with patients' age, but not with patients' gender. No MMR-DCF were detectable in the mucosa of patients with sporadic MSI-H colorectal cancer (n = 12. Microsatellite instability of at least one tested marker was detected in 89% of the MMR-DCF examined, indicating an immediate onset of microsatellite instability after MMR gene inactivation. Coding microsatellite mutations were most frequent in the genes HT001 (ASTE1 with 33%, followed by AIM2 (17% and BAX (10%. Though MMR deficiency alone appears to be insufficient for malignant transformation, it leads to measurable microsatellite instability even in single MMR-deficient crypts. Our data indicate for the first time that the frequency of MMR-DCF increases with patients' age. Similar patterns of coding microsatellite instability in MMR-DCF and MMR-deficient cancers suggest that certain combinations of coding microsatellite mutations, including mutations of the HT001, AIM2 and BAX gene, may contribute to the progression of MMR-deficient lesions into MMR-deficient cancers.

  10. A Subgeneric Classification of the Genus Uranotaenia Lynch Arribalzaga, with a Historical Review and Notes on Other Categories

    Science.gov (United States)

    1972-01-01

    first applied by Lynch Arribalzaga in 1891. It was derived from the Greek and Latin combinations of urano (heaven) and taenia (band or stripe) in...have been seen in the subgenus Urano taenia d Other secondary characters seen in Pseudoficalbia only are conspicuous setae at or near the apical...o o e ANNULATA SERIES Although a few of these characters are found in other Urano- taenia species, the peculiar larval head seta 1-C in the annulata

  11. Family perspectives in lynch syndrome becoming a family at risk, patterns of communication and influence on relations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bartuma Katarina

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A growing number of individuals are diagnosed with hereditary cancer. Though increased levels of anxiety and depression have been demonstrated around the time of genetic counselling, most individuals handle life at increased risk well. Data have, however, been collected on individual basis, which led us to focus on family perspectives of hereditary cancer. Methods Lynch syndrome represents a major type of hereditary colorectal and gynaecological cancer. We preformed open-ended interviews with 27 informants from 9 Lynch syndrome families. Inductive content analysis revealed three major themes: transition to a risk family, patterns of communication and influence on family relations and individual roles. Results Family members described how learning about Lynch syndrome shifted focus from daily issues to concerns about cancer. Changes in communication related to difficulties in talking to children about heredity and informing new family members and distant relatives about an increased risk of cancer. Influence on relations was exemplified by family members taking on different roles, e.g. females often being responsible for coordinating information about heredity and providing support. Families in which members had experienced cancer at young age typically informed children soon after learning about heredity and at young age, whereas families with experience of cancer at higher age postponed information and thereby also genetic counselling. Conclusions Three major family perspectives are described in Lynch syndrome families; becoming a risk family, patterns of communication and influence on family relations. Since these issues are central, our findings suggests that such family perspectives should be considered during genetic counselling in order to contribute to information spread, help family members cope with the increased risk, and motivate family members at risk to undergo surveillance.

  12. Contribution of Large Genomic Rearrangements in Italian Lynch Syndrome Patients: Characterization of a Novel Alu-Mediated Deletion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesca Duraturo

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Lynch syndrome is associated with germ-line mutations in the DNA mismatch repair (MMR genes, mainly MLH1 and MSH2. Most of the mutations reported in these genes to date are point mutations, small deletions, and insertions. Large genomic rearrangements in the MMR genes predisposing to Lynch syndrome also occur, but the frequency varies depending on the population studied on average from 5 to 20%. The aim of this study was to examine the contribution of large rearrangements in the MLH1 and MSH2 genes in a well-characterised series of 63 unrelated Southern Italian Lynch syndrome patients who were negative for pathogenic point mutations in the MLH1, MSH2, and MSH6 genes. We identified a large novel deletion in the MSH2 gene, including exon 6 in one of the patients analysed (1.6% frequency. This deletion was confirmed and localised by long-range PCR. The breakpoints of this rearrangement were characterised by sequencing. Further analysis of the breakpoints revealed that this rearrangement was a product of Alu-mediated recombination. Our findings identified a novel Alu-mediated rearrangement within MSH2 gene and showed that large deletions or duplications in MLH1 and MSH2 genes are low-frequency mutational events in Southern Italian patients with an inherited predisposition to colon cancer.

  13. Interval colon cancer in a Lynch syndrome patient under annual colonoscopic surveillance: a case for advanced imaging techniques?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oxentenko Amy S

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Lynch syndrome confers increased risk for various malignancies, including colorectal cancer. Colonoscopic surveillance programs have led to reduced incidence of colorectal cancer and reduced mortality from colorectal cancer. Colonoscopy every 1–2 years beginning at age 20–25, or 10 years earlier than the first diagnosis of colorectal cancer in a family, with annual colonoscopy after age 40, is the recommended management for mutation carriers. Screening programs have reduced colon cancer mortality, but interval cancers may occur. Case presentation We describe a 48-year-old woman with Lynch syndrome who was found to have an adenoma with invasive colorectal cancer within one year after a normal colonoscopy. Conclusion Our patient illustrates two current concepts about Lynch syndrome: 1 adenomas are the cancer precursor and 2 such adenomas may be “aggressive,” in the sense that the adenoma progresses more readily and more rapidly to carcinoma in this setting compared to usual colorectal adenomas. Our patient’s resected tumor invaded only into submucosa and all lymph nodes were negative; in that sense, she represents a success for annual colonoscopic surveillance. Still, this case does raise the question of whether advanced imaging techniques are advisable for surveillance colonoscopy in these high-risk patients.

  14. Unsterblicher Robin Hood--Eine literaturdidaktische Betrachtung und Wertung von zwoelf Lektueretexten (Immortal Robin Hood--A Pedagogical Consideration and Evaluation of Twelve Reading Texts).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoegel, Rolf

    1979-01-01

    Examines 12 reading texts about Robin Hood, with regard to their content, suitability for various age levels, and language difficulty. The texts are found to be best suited for grades 5 and 6. An evaluation of each text is included. (IFS/WGA)

  15. Unsterblicher Robin Hood--Eine literaturdidaktische Betrachtung und Wertung von zwoelf Lektueretexten (Immortal Robin Hood--A Pedagogical Consideration and Evaluation of Twelve Reading Texts).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoegel, Rolf

    1979-01-01

    Examines 12 reading texts about Robin Hood, with regard to their content, suitability for various age levels, and language difficulty. The texts are found to be best suited for grades 5 and 6. An evaluation of each text is included. (IFS/WGA)

  16. Fine water spray system: Extinguishing tests in medium and full-scale turbine hood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wighus, R.; Aune, P.; Drangsholt, G.; Stensaas, J. P.

    1994-12-01

    The report is based on the results from two test series, called Phase 1 and Phase 2 of the project 'Halon Replacement by Fine Water Spray Technology - Turbine Hood application'. Detailed results are presented in technical reports from Phase 1 and Phase 2. The tests were carried out in two different scales, one 30 cu m test enclosure formerly used to characterize different water spray nozzles, and a full scale 70 cu m model of a turbine hood. The scope of work in Phase 1 was to identify the extinguishing characteristics of various nozzles developed by BP Sunbury Research Center, UK, and to verify the efficiency of a total fire suppression system developed by Ginge-Kerr Offshore. The fire suppression system uses a twin-fluid nozzles using air and water at pressures about 5 bar. The nozzles produce a water spray with small droplets and high velocity. The scope of work of Phase 2 was to verify the efficiency of the Fine Water Spray nozzles fighting a variety of fire scenarios which may occur in a real turbine hood. A full scale test enclosure containing a mock-up of a turbine heated internally to simulate hot metal surfaces, with insulation mats and piping as in a real turbine hood was constructed in the large test hall of SINTEF NBL. The turbine hood model was built by elements of a Multipurpose Fire Test Rig. Realistic fires with Diesel pool- and spray fires, fires in insulation mats soaked with Diesel oil under different ventilation conditions were ignited in the turbine hood model. Number of Fine Water Spray nozzles, nozzle position and spraying sequences were varied. A base for design of a Fine Water Spray system for a turbine hood is developed, and several unique features of the performance of a Fine Water Spray fire suppression system have been documented.

  17. COVE, MARINA, and the Future of On-Board Processing (OBP) Platforms for CubeSat Science Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pingree, P.; Bekker, D. L.; Bryk, M.; DeLucca, J.; Franklin, B.; Hancock, B.; Klesh, A. T.; Meehan, C.; Meshkaty, N.; Nichols, J.; Peay, C.; Rider, D. M.; Werne, T.; Wu, Y.

    2012-12-01

    The CubeSat On-board processing Validation Experiment (COVE), JPL's first CubeSat payload launched on October 28, 2011, features the Xilinx Virtex-5QV Single event Immune Reconfigurable FPGA (SIRF). The technology demonstration mission was to validate the SIRF device running an on-board processing (OBP) algorithm developed to reduce the data set by 2-orders of magnitude for the Multi-angle SpectroPolarimetric Imager (MSPI), an instrument under development at JPL (PI: D. Diner). COVE has a single data interface to the CubeSat flight computer that is used to transfer a static image taken from the CubeSat camera and store it to local memory where the FPGA then reads it to run the algorithm on it. In the next generation COVE design, called MARINA, developed for the GRIFEX CubeSat project, the OBP board is extended, using rigid-flex PCB technology, to provide an interface to a JPL-developed Read-Out Integrated Circuit (ROIC) hybridized to a detector developed by Raytheon. In this configuration the focal plane array (FPA) data can be streamed directly to the FPGA for data processing or for storage to local memory. The MARINA rigid-flex PCB design is integrated with a commercial camera lens to create a 1U instrument payload for integration with a CubeSat under development by the University of Michigan and planned for launch in 2014. In the GRIFEX technology demonstration, the limited on-board storage capacity is filled by high-rate FPA data in less than a second. The system is also limited by the CubeSat downlink data rate and several ground station passes are required to transmit this limited amount of data. While this system is sufficient to validate the ROIC technology on-orbit, the system cannot be operated in a way to perform continuous science observations due to the on-board storage and data downlink constraints. In order to advance the current platform to support sustained science observations, more on-board storage is needed. Radiation tolerant memory

  18. Syndrome de Lynch: à propos d'un cas et revue de la litterature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouguenouch, Laila; Samri, Imane; Belhassan, Khadija; Sayel, Hanane; Abbassi, Meriame; Bennis, Sanae; Benajah, Dafr Allah; Ibrahimi, Adil; Amarti, Afaf; Ouldim, Karim

    2016-01-01

    Le syndrome de Lynch, ou cancer colorectal héréditaire sans polypose ou HNPCC (hereditary non-polyposis colorectal cancer), est la forme la plus fréquente de cancer colorectal héréditaire. Il conduit à une augmentation de la susceptibilité à développer des cancers, au premier rang le cancer colorectal, le cancer de l'endomètre chez les femmes, et dans une moindre mesure, d'autres cancers (ovaire, intestin grêle, estomac, voies excrétrices urinaires et hépatobiliaires). Ainsi, le risque cumulé de développer un cancer colorectal ou de l'endomètre à l’âge de 80 ans s’élève respectivement à 20 et 40%. Ces cancers sont caractérisés par leur contexte d'atteinte familiale, leur survenue à un âge précoce, ainsi que par le développement de cancers métachrones chez un même individu. Ce syndrome se transmet de manière autosomique dominante. Les gènes dont l'altération est associée à l'existence d'un syndrome HNPCC appartiennent à la famille des gènes de réparation des mésappariements de l'ADN (DNA mismatch repair ou MMR): MSH2, MLH1 et MSH6 sont impliqués, par ordre décroissant de fréquence, dans respectivement 35%, 25% et 2% des cas. Une surveillance coloscopique et gynécologique est proposée aux personnes porteuses d'une mutation constitutionnelle du gène MSH2, MLH1 ou MSH6. Nous rapportons une des premières observations marocaines d'un syndrome de Lynch dont la mutation constitutionnelle du gène MLH1 a été identifiée chez un des membres de la famille atteint d'un cancer du côlon. Suite à la demande d'autres sujets sains de la même famille, un diagnostic presymptomatique a été effectué conduisant à une stratégie de surveillance adaptée. A travers notre observation nous illustrons le rôle de l'oncogénétique dans la prise en charge des patients cancéreux et de leurs familles. PMID:27642480

  19. Fume hood exhaust re-entry into a chemistry building.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamb, B K; Cronn, D R

    1986-02-01

    The rooftop air intakes are in close proximity to the fume hood exhaust vents on the roof of the attached chemistry buildings (Fulmer Hall and Fulmer Annex) at Washington State University. Complaints resulted from the apparent re-entry of hazardous and odorous exhaust vapors and gases returning into the building fresh air supplies. An atmospheric tracer study of the flow patterns and exhaust gas dilution rates determined the suitability of other potential air intake locations. Isopleth maps showed concentration patterns for tests conducted during the different wind regimes (southwest prevailing winds and substantial wintertime southeast periods). As expected, the observed dilution rates were greater than the conservative minimum dilution rates calculated from models. Tracer gas concentrations indicated large areas over which odor thresholds would exceeded for vapors resulting from typical evaporation rates of solvents. Tracer gas concentrations at the building air intakes were about the same as inside building concentrations because little dilution occurred between the intakes and building interiors. Significant infiltration was observed due to negative building pressure relative to outside. The recommendation to move the intakes down the south building walls is being followed since roof-level concentrations are typically a factor of ten or more higher than below-roof levels.

  20. Reversed Robin Hood syndrome in acute ischemic stroke patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexandrov, Andrei V; Sharma, Vijay K; Lao, Annabelle Y; Tsivgoulis, Georgios; Malkoff, Marc D; Alexandrov, Anne W

    2007-11-01

    Recurrent hemodynamic and neurological changes with persisting arterial occlusions may be attributable to cerebral blood flow steal from ischemic to nonaffected brain. Transcranial Doppler monitoring with voluntary breath-holding and serial NIH Stroke Scale (NIHSS) scores were obtained in patients with acute middle cerebral artery or internal carotid artery occlusions. The steal phenomenon was detected as transient, spontaneous, or vasodilatory stimuli-induced velocity reductions in affected arteries at the time of velocity increase in normal vessels. The steal magnitude (%) was calculated as [(MFVm-MFVb)/MFVb]x100, where m=minimum and b=baseline mean flow velocities (MFV) during the 15- to 30-second period of a total 30 second of breath-holding. Six patients had steal phenomenon on transcranial Doppler (53 to 73 years, NIHSS 4 to 15 points). Steal magnitude ranged from -15.0% to -43.2%. All patients also had recurrent neurological worsening (>2 points increase in NIHSS scores) at stable blood pressure. In 3 of 5 patients receiving noninvasive ventilatory correction for snoring/sleep apnea, no further velocity or NIHSS score changes were noted. Our descriptive study suggests possibility to detect and quantify the cerebral steal phenomenon in real-time. If the steal is confirmed as the cause of neurological worsening, reversed Robin Hood syndrome may identify a target group for testing blood pressure augmentation and noninvasive ventilatory correction in stroke patients.

  1. Hood River and Pelton Ladder Monitoring and Evaluation Project and Hood River Fish Habitat Project : Annual Progress Report 1999-2000.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lambert, Michael B.; McCanna, Joseph P.; Jennings, Mick

    2001-02-01

    The Hood River subbasin is home to four species of anadromous salmonids: chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha), coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch), steelhead (Oncorhynchus mykiss), and sea run cutthroat trout (Salmo clarki). Indigenous spring chinook salmon were extirpated during the late 1960's. The naturally spawning spring chinook salmon currently present in the subbasin are progeny of Deschutes stock. Historically, the Hood River subbasin hatchery steelhead program utilized out-of-basin stocks for many years. Indigenous stocks of summer and winter steelhead were listed in March 1998 by National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS) under the Endangered Species Act (ESA) as a ''Threatened'' Species along with similar genetically similar steelhead in the Lower Columbia Basin. This annual report summarizes work for two consecutive contract periods: the fiscal year (FY) 1999 contract period was 1 October, 1998 through 30 September, 1999 and 1 October, 1999 through 30 September, 2000 for FY 2000. Work implemented during FY 1999 and FY 2000 included (1) acclimation of hatchery spring chinook salmon and hatchery summer and winter steelhead smolts, (2) spring chinook salmon spawning ground surveys on the West Fork Hood River (3) genetic analysis of steelhead and cutthroat [contractual service with the ODFW], (4) Hood River water temperature studies, (5) Oak Springs Hatchery (OSH) and Round Butte Hatchery (RBH) coded-wire tagging and clipping evaluation, (6) preparation of the Hood River Watershed Assessment (Coccoli et al., December 1999) and the Fish Habitat Protection, Restoration, and Monitoring Plan (Coccoli et al., February 2000), (7) project implementation of early action habitat protection and restoration projects, (8) Pelton Ladder evaluation studies, (9) management oversight and guidance to BPA and ODFW engineering on HRPP facilities, and (10) preparation of an annual report summarizing project objectives for FY 1999 and FY 2000.

  2. Mineral and geothermal resource potential of the Mount Hood Wilderness, Clackamas and Hood River Counties, Oregon. Summary report and map

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keith, T.E.C.; Causey, J.D.

    1982-01-01

    The potential for near-surface mineral resources in the Mount Hood Wilderness is low. Geochemical data suggest two areas of weak epithermal mineralization in the Zigzag Mountain part of the wilderness: (1) the Lost Creek-Burnt Lake-Cast Creek-Short Creek area on the north side of Zigzag Mountain where vein-type lead-zinc-silver mineralization occurs; and (2) the Lady Creek-Laurel Hill area on the south side of Zigzag Mountain where the upper part of a quartz diorite pluton has associated propylitic alteration resulting in some porphyry-type copper, gold, silver, lead, and zinc mineralization. Geothermal-resource potential for low- to intermediate-temperature (less than 248/sup 0/F, 120/sup 0/C) hot-water systems in the wilderness is moderate to high. Part of the wilderness is classified as a Known Geothermal Resources Area (KGRA) and two parts have been included in geothermal lease areas. Rock and gravel sources are present within the wilderness; however, quantities of similar and more accessible deposits are available outside the wilderness. Deposits outside the wilderness are large enough to supply local demand in the foreseeable future.

  3. Novel Mutations in MLH1 and MSH2 Genes in Mexican Patients with Lynch Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno-Ortiz, Jose Miguel; Ayala-Madrigal, María de la Luz; Corona-Rivera, Jorge Román; Maciel-Gutiérrez, Víctor; Franco-Topete, Ramón Antonio; Armendáriz-Borunda, Juan; Pérez-Carbonell, Lucia; Rhees, Jennifer; Gutiérrez-Angulo, Melva

    2016-01-01

    Background. Lynch Syndrome (LS) is characterized by germline mutations in the DNA mismatch repair (MMR) genes MLH1, MSH2, MSH6, and PMS2. This syndrome is inherited in an autosomal dominant pattern and is characterized by early onset colorectal cancer (CRC) and extracolonic tumors. The aim of this study was to identify mutations in MMR genes in three Mexican patients with LS. Methods. Immunohistochemical analysis was performed as a prescreening method to identify absent protein expression. PCR, Denaturing High Performance Liquid Chromatography (dHPLC), and Sanger sequencing complemented the analysis. Results. Two samples showed the absence of nuclear staining for MLH1 and one sample showed loss of nuclear staining for MSH2. The mutations found in MLH1 gene were c.2103+1G>C in intron 18 and compound heterozygous mutants c.1852_1854delAAG (p.K618del) and c.1852_1853delinsGC (p.K618A) in exon 16. In the MSH2 gene, we identified mutation c.638dupT (p.L213fs) in exon 3. Conclusions. This is the first report of mutations in MMR genes in Mexican patients with LS and these appear to be novel. PMID:27247567

  4. Novel Mutations in MLH1 and MSH2 Genes in Mexican Patients with Lynch Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jose Miguel Moreno-Ortiz

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Lynch Syndrome (LS is characterized by germline mutations in the DNA mismatch repair (MMR genes MLH1, MSH2, MSH6, and PMS2. This syndrome is inherited in an autosomal dominant pattern and is characterized by early onset colorectal cancer (CRC and extracolonic tumors. The aim of this study was to identify mutations in MMR genes in three Mexican patients with LS. Methods. Immunohistochemical analysis was performed as a prescreening method to identify absent protein expression. PCR, Denaturing High Performance Liquid Chromatography (dHPLC, and Sanger sequencing complemented the analysis. Results. Two samples showed the absence of nuclear staining for MLH1 and one sample showed loss of nuclear staining for MSH2. The mutations found in MLH1 gene were c.2103+1G>C in intron 18 and compound heterozygous mutants c.1852_1854delAAG (p.K618del and c.1852_1853delinsGC (p.K618A in exon 16. In the MSH2 gene, we identified mutation c.638dupT (p.L213fs in exon 3. Conclusions. This is the first report of mutations in MMR genes in Mexican patients with LS and these appear to be novel.

  5. Recognition of Lynch Syndrome Amongst Newly Diagnosed Colorectal Cancers at St. Paul’s Hospital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven Pi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Lynch Syndrome (LS is the most common cause of inherited colorectal cancer (CRC. In British Columbia, most centres still use clinical criteria (Amsterdam II, Revised Bethesda, or the BC Cancer Agency’s criteria to determine who should undergo further first-line testing in the form of microsatellite instability or immunohistochemistry staining. Given the limitations with this strategy, LS is thought to be underrecognized. Objective. To investigate whether LS is truly underrecognized when compared to the reported prevalence. Methods. A retrospective chart review of all CRC cases diagnosed at St. Paul’s Hospital from 2010 to 2013 was conducted. Results. 246 patients met inclusion criteria. 76% (83/109 with a family history of malignancy were unable to recall the specific malignancy or age of diagnosis. 18% (43/235 were only asked about a history of gastrointestinal related malignancy and 26% (65/246 met at least one of the three criteria but only 21% (13/63 received further investigation. Only 1.6% (4/246 had LS compared to the reported prevalence of 2–5% of all CRC cases. Conclusion. This data supports our hypothesis that LS is underrecognized. Issues at the patient, physician, and systems level need to be evaluated to determine where the limitations preventing appropriate testing are occurring.

  6. Molecular profile of the Lynch Syndrome in the Republic of Macedonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marija Hiljadnikova-Bajro

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The most frequent type of hereditary colorectal cancer, the one occurring in the setting of the Lynch syndrome (LS is considered a phenotypic manifestation of a germline defect in the mismatch repair mechanism i.e. in the MLH1, MSH2, MSH6 or PMS2 gene. Aiming towards establishment of a standardized protocol involving molecular analyses for diagnosis of this syndrome and developing a unique national register of families with hereditary colorectal cancer syndromes in the Republic of Macedonia, we began a prospective study to reveal the genetic defects among Macedonian patients with colorectal cancer (CRC and identifying families with hereditary CRC. A total of 53 patients fulfilling the revised Bethesda criteria for MSI-genetic testing were compared to 350 patients with sporadic CRC. The results reveal significant differences in age at diagnosis (p=0.03, involvement of microsatellite instability (pG nonsense mutation with a possible founder effect in the Macedonian population, the MLH1 ex.3-12 deletion, as well as the c.244A>G mutation, IVS14- 19A>G and IVS4+65A>C changes in MLH1 without confirmed pathological significance. The observed high frequency (87.5% of the Ile219Val (c.655A>G variant in MLH1 among the LS suspects prompts further analyses to evaluate its involvement in the development of hereditary CRC by itself or as a risk modifying factor among the patients from the Republic of Macedonia.

  7. Estimating successive cancer risks in Lynch Syndrome families using a progressive three-state model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Yun-Hee; Briollais, Laurent; Green, Jane; Parfrey, Patrick; Kopciuk, Karen

    2014-02-20

    Lynch Syndrome (LS) families harbor mutated mismatch repair genes,which predispose them to specific types of cancer. Because individuals within LS families can experience multiple cancers over their lifetime, we developed a progressive three-state model to estimate the disease risk from a healthy (state 0) to a first cancer (state 1) and then to a second cancer (state 2). Ascertainment correction of the likelihood was made to adjust for complex sampling designs with carrier probabilities for family members with missing genotype information estimated using their family's observed genotype and phenotype information in a one-step expectation-maximization algorithm. A sandwich variance estimator was employed to overcome possible model misspecification. The main objective of this paper is to estimate the disease risk (penetrance) for age at a second cancer after someone has experienced a first cancer that is also associated with a mutated gene. Simulation study results indicate that our approach generally provides unbiased risk estimates and low root mean squared errors across different family study designs, proportions of missing genotypes, and risk heterogeneities. An application to 12 large LS families from Newfoundland demonstrates that the risk for a second cancer was substantial and that the age at a first colorectal cancer significantly impacted the age at any LS subsequent cancer. This study provides new insights for developing more effective management of mutation carriers in LS families by providing more accurate multiple cancer risk estimates.

  8. Bayesian modeling for genetic anticipation in presence of mutational heterogeneity: a case study in Lynch syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boonstra, Philip S; Mukherjee, Bhramar; Taylor, Jeremy M G; Nilbert, Mef; Moreno, Victor; Gruber, Stephen B

    2011-12-01

    Genetic anticipation, described by earlier age of onset (AOO) and more aggressive symptoms in successive generations, is a phenomenon noted in certain hereditary diseases. Its extent may vary between families and/or between mutation subtypes known to be associated with the disease phenotype. In this article, we posit a Bayesian approach to infer genetic anticipation under flexible random effects models for censored data that capture the effect of successive generations on AOO. Primary interest lies in the random effects. Misspecifying the distribution of random effects may result in incorrect inferential conclusions. We compare the fit of four-candidate random effects distributions via Bayesian model fit diagnostics. A related statistical issue here is isolating the confounding effect of changes in secular trends, screening, and medical practices that may affect time to disease detection across birth cohorts. Using historic cancer registry data, we borrow from relative survival analysis methods to adjust for changes in age-specific incidence across birth cohorts. Our motivating case study comes from a Danish cancer register of 124 families with mutations in mismatch repair (MMR) genes known to cause hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal cancer, also called Lynch syndrome (LS). We find evidence for a decrease in AOO between generations in this article. Our model predicts family-level anticipation effects that are potentially useful in genetic counseling clinics for high-risk families.

  9. Hood River and Pelton Ladder Evaluation Studies, 2008 Annual Report : October 2007 - September 2008.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reagan, Robert E.; Olsen, Erik A. [Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife

    2009-09-28

    This report summarizes the life history and production data collected in the Hood River subbasin during FY 2008. Included is a summary of jack and adult life history data collected at the Powerdale Dam trap on seventeen complete run years of winter steelhead, spring and fall chinook salmon, and coho salmon, and on fifteen complete run years of summer steelhead. Also included are summaries of (1) the hatchery winter steelhead broodstock collection program; (2) hatchery production releases in the Hood River subbasin; (3) subbasin wild summer and winter steelhead smolt production, (4) numbers of hatchery summer and winter steelhead smolts leaving the subbasin; (5) smolt migration timing past Bonneville Dam, (6) wild and hatchery steelhead smolt-to-adult survival rates; (7) wild summer and winter steelhead egg to smolt survival rates; and (8) streamflow at selected locations in the Hood River subbasin. Data will be used in part to (1) evaluate the HRPP relative to its impact on indigenous populations of resident and anadromous salmonids (see Ardren Draft), (2) evaluate the HRPP's progress towards achieving the biological fish objectives defined in the Hood River Subbasin Plan (Coccoli 2004) and the Revised Master Plan for the Hood River Production Program (HDR|FishPro, ODFW, and CTWSRO 2008), (3) refine spawner escapement objectives to more accurately reflect subbasin carrying capacity, and (4) refine estimates of subbasin smolt production capacity to more accurately reflect current and potential subbasin carrying capacity.

  10. Digital Data for Volcano Hazards of the Mount Hood Region, Oregon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schilling, S.P.; Doelger, S.; Scott, W.E.; Pierson, T.C.; Costa, J.E.; Gardner, C.A.; Vallance, J.W.; Major, J.J.

    2008-01-01

    Snow-clad Mount Hood dominates the Cascade skyline from the Portland metropolitan area to the wheat fields of Wasco and Sherman Counties. The mountain contributes valuable water, scenic, and recreational resources that help sustain the agricultural and tourist segments of the economies of surrounding cities and counties. Mount Hood is also one of the major volcanoes of the Cascade Range, having erupted repeatedly for hundreds of thousands of years, most recently during two episodes in the past 1,500 yr. The last episode ended shortly before the arrival of Lewis and Clark in 1805. When Mount Hood erupts again, it will severely affect areas on its flanks and far downstream in the major river valleys that head on the volcano. Volcanic ash may fall on areas up to several hundred kilometers downwind. The purpose of the volcano hazard report USGS Open-File Report 97-89 (Scott and others, 1997) is to describe the kinds of hazardous geologic events that have happened at Mount Hood in the past and to show which areas will be at risk when such events occur in the future. This data release contains the geographic information system (GIS) data layers used to produce the Mount Hood volcano hazard map in USGS Open-File Report 97-89. Both proximal and distal hazard zones were delineated by scientists at the Cascades Volcano Observatory and depict various volcano hazard areas around the mountain. A second data layer contains points that indicate estimated travel times of lahars.

  11. Inequitable distribution of general practitioners in Australia: estimating need through the Robin Hood Index.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkinson, D; Symon, B

    2000-02-01

    From Census data, to document the distribution of general practitioners in Australia and to estimate the number of general practitioners needed to achieve an equitable distribution accounting for community health need. Data on location of general practitioners, population size and crude mortality by statistical division (SD) were obtained from the Australian Bureau of Statistics. The number of patients per general practitioner by SD was calculated and plotted. Using crude mortality to estimate community health need, a ratio of the number of general practitioners per person: mortality was calculated for all Australia and for each SD (the Robin Hood Index). From this, the number of general practitioners needed to achieve equity was calculated. In all, 26,290 general practitioners were identified in 57 SDs. The mean number of people per general practitioner is 707, ranging from 551 to 1887. Capital city SDs have most favourable ratios. The Robin Hood Index for Australia is 1, and ranges from 0.32 (relatively under-served) to 2.46 (relatively over-served). Twelve SDs (21%) including all capital cities and 65% of all Australians, have a Robin Hood Index > 1. To achieve equity per capita 2489 more general practitioners (10% of the current workforce) are needed. To achieve equity by the Robin Hood Index 3351 (13% of the current workforce) are needed. The distribution of general practitioners in Australia is skewed. Nonmetropolitan areas are relatively underserved. Census data and the Robin Hood Index could provide a simple means of identifying areas of need in Australia.

  12. Analysis-Driven Design Optimization of a SMA-Based Slat-Cove Filler for Aeroacoustic Noise Reduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scholten, William; Hartl, Darren; Turner, Travis

    2013-01-01

    Airframe noise is a significant component of environmental noise in the vicinity of airports. The noise associated with the leading-edge slat of typical transport aircraft is a prominent source of airframe noise. Previous work suggests that a slat-cove filler (SCF) may be an effective noise treatment. Hence, development and optimization of a practical slat-cove-filler structure is a priority. The objectives of this work are to optimize the design of a functioning SCF which incorporates superelastic shape memory alloy (SMA) materials as flexures that permit the deformations involved in the configuration change. The goal of the optimization is to minimize the actuation force needed to retract the slat-SCF assembly while satisfying constraints on the maximum SMA stress and on the SCF deflection under static aerodynamic pressure loads, while also satisfying the condition that the SCF self-deploy during slat extension. A finite element analysis model based on a physical bench-top model is created in Abaqus such that automated iterative analysis of the design could be performed. In order to achieve an optimized design, several design variables associated with the current SCF configuration are considered, such as the thicknesses of SMA flexures and the dimensions of various components, SMA and conventional. Designs of experiment (DOE) are performed to investigate structural response to an aerodynamic pressure load and to slat retraction and deployment. DOE results are then used to inform the optimization process, which determines a design minimizing actuator forces while satisfying the required constraints.

  13. Evidence of macroalgal colonization on newly ice-free areas following glacial retreat in Potter Cove (South Shetland Islands), Antarctica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quartino, María Liliana; Deregibus, Dolores; Campana, Gabriela Laura; Latorre, Gustavo Edgar Juan; Momo, Fernando Roberto

    2013-01-01

    Climate warming has been related to glacial retreat along the Western Antarctic Peninsula. Over the last years, a visible melting of Fourcade Glacier (Potter Cove, South Shetland Islands) has exposed newly ice-free hard bottom areas available for benthic colonization. However, ice melting produces a reduction of light penetration due to an increase of sediment input and higher ice impact. Seventeen years ago, the coastal sites close to the glacier cliffs were devoid of macroalgae. Are the newly ice-free areas suitable for macroalgal colonization? To tackle this question, underwater video transects were performed at six newly ice-free areas with different degree of glacial influence. Macroalgae were found in all sites, even in close proximity to the retreating glacier. We can show that: 1. The complexity of the macroalgal community is positively correlated to the elapsed time from the ice retreat, 2. Algae development depends on the optical conditions and the sediment input in the water column; some species are limited by light availability, 3. Macroalgal colonization is negatively affected by the ice disturbance, 4. The colonization is determined by the size and type of substrate and by the slope of the bottom. As macroalgae are probably one of the main energy sources for the benthos, an expansion of the macroalgal distribution can be expected to affect the matter and energy fluxes in Potter Cove ecosystem.

  14. Evidence of macroalgal colonization on newly ice-free areas following glacial retreat in Potter Cove (South Shetland Islands, Antarctica.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Liliana Quartino

    Full Text Available Climate warming has been related to glacial retreat along the Western Antarctic Peninsula. Over the last years, a visible melting of Fourcade Glacier (Potter Cove, South Shetland Islands has exposed newly ice-free hard bottom areas available for benthic colonization. However, ice melting produces a reduction of light penetration due to an increase of sediment input and higher ice impact. Seventeen years ago, the coastal sites close to the glacier cliffs were devoid of macroalgae. Are the newly ice-free areas suitable for macroalgal colonization? To tackle this question, underwater video transects were performed at six newly ice-free areas with different degree of glacial influence. Macroalgae were found in all sites, even in close proximity to the retreating glacier. We can show that: 1. The complexity of the macroalgal community is positively correlated to the elapsed time from the ice retreat, 2. Algae development depends on the optical conditions and the sediment input in the water column; some species are limited by light availability, 3. Macroalgal colonization is negatively affected by the ice disturbance, 4. The colonization is determined by the size and type of substrate and by the slope of the bottom. As macroalgae are probably one of the main energy sources for the benthos, an expansion of the macroalgal distribution can be expected to affect the matter and energy fluxes in Potter Cove ecosystem.

  15. Determination of the internal exposure hazard from plutonium work in an open front hood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olson, Cheryl Lynn

    Work with hazardous substances, such as radioactive material, can be done safely when engineered controls are used to maintain the worker effective dose below the International Commission on Radiological Protection ICRP 60 recommendation of 0.02 Sv/year and reduce the worker exposure to material to as low as reasonably achievable (ALARA). A primary engineered control used at a Los Alamos National Laboratory facility is the open-front hood. An open-front hood, also known as an open-front box, is a laboratory containment box that is fully enclosed except for a 15-cm opening along the front of the box. This research involved collection of the aerosol escaping an open-front hood while PuO2 sample digestion was simulated. Sodium chloride was used as a surrogate to mimic the behavior of PuO2. The NaCl aerosol was binned as a function of median aerodynamic diameter using a Micro-orifice Uniform Deposit Impactor (MOUDI, MSP Corporation, Shoreview, MN) cascade impactor. Using neutron activation analysis (NAA) to measure the mass of material in each of the nine bins of the MOUDI, the mass median diameter of the escaping aerosol was determined. Using the mass median diameter and the total mass of the particle distribution, dose was calculated using ICRP 60 methodology. Experimental conditions mimicked a stationary worker and a worker moving her hands in and out of the open front hood. Measurements were also done in the hood for comparison. The effect of the hands moving in and out of the box was modeled. Information necessary for Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) modeling is given, such as volumetric flow rates out of the open front hood and into the experimental room, detailed sketches of the experimental set-up, and energy provided by the hot plate and worker. This research is unique as it measures particle size distribution from routine working conditions. Current research uses tracer gases or describes non-routine conditions. It is important to have results that mimic

  16. 33 CFR 334.1190 - Hood Canal and Dabob Bay, Wash.; naval non-explosive torpedo testing area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Hood Canal and Dabob Bay, Wash.; naval non-explosive torpedo testing area. 334.1190 Section 334.1190 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS OF ENGINEERS, DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE DANGER ZONE AND RESTRICTED AREA REGULATIONS § 334.1190 Hood Canal and Dabob...

  17. 75 FR 27497 - Determination That Children's Upper Outerwear in Sizes 2T to 12 With Neck or Hood Drawstrings and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-17

    .... Items of children's upper outerwear with these features have been involved in a number of deaths and serious injuries from entanglement of the drawstrings with items such as playground slides, cribs, and... or hood drawstring became entangled on parts of a crib. Of the 38 nonfatal neck or hood...

  18. 42 CFR 84.198 - Half-mask facepieces, full facepieces, mouthpieces, hoods, and helmets; fit; minimum requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ..., hoods, and helmets; fit; minimum requirements. 84.198 Section 84.198 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE..., full facepieces, mouthpieces, hoods, and helmets; fit; minimum requirements. (a) Half-mask facepieces and full facepieces shall be designed and constructed to fit persons with various facial shapes...

  19. Effects of Inlet Swirl on the Flow in a Steam Turbine Exhaust Hood

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MiroslavStastny; LadislavTajc; 等

    2000-01-01

    The flow in the exhaust hood of a condensing steam turbine depends to a considerable extent on the inlet swirl of the flow which changes in tandem with the volumetric flow of steam through the last stage.This study gives a description of experiments which were carried out on the exhaust hood of a 500MW steam turbine under various conditions,e.g. when there is rated power,when there is an idle run,or when there are various pressures in the condenser,The flow in a model exhaust hood was investigated by means of CFD methods.Computations were performed with the help of the FLUENT5 code which is based on solving the Navier-Stokes equations while taking the RSM and LES models of turbulence into consideration.The results of the computations are in full conformity with the experiments.

  20. Seismic studies at the Mt. Hood Volcano, northern Cascade Range, Oregon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Susan Molly; Weaver, Craig S.; Iyer, Hariharaiyer Mahadeva

    1979-01-01

    A sixteen station telemetered seismic network was established in the Mt. Hood, Oregon area to monitor local seismicity and to study crustal and upper mantle structure. The network was in operation 13 months, and recorded 10 local earthquakes, 25 regional events, and 300 teleseisms. A series of construction blasts were recorded and used to define an average upper crustal velocity of 5.4 km/s in the region. All local earthquakes occurred beneath Mt. Hood at shallow depths and roughly define a zone striking north-northwest beneath the mountain. The largest earthquake was a magnitude 3.4 event which had a strike-slip focal mechanism. The other events had magnitudes (ML) less than 2.0. P-wave travel time residuals from teleseismic events show a 0.5 second decrease in travel time from east to west across the Cascade Range. No travel time anomalies are associated directly with Mt. Hood.

  1. Entrance and Survival of Brucella pinnipedialis Hooded Seal Strain in Human Macrophages and Epithelial Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briquemont, Benjamin; Sørensen, Karen K.; Godfroid, Jacques

    2013-01-01

    Marine mammal Brucella spp. have been isolated from pinnipeds (B. pinnipedialis) and cetaceans (B. ceti) from around the world. Although the zoonotic potential of marine mammal brucellae is largely unknown, reports of human disease exist. There are few studies of the mechanisms of bacterial intracellular invasion and multiplication involving the marine mammal Brucella spp. We examined the infective capacity of two genetically different B. pinnipedialis strains (reference strain; NTCT 12890 and a hooded seal isolate; B17) by measuring the ability of the bacteria to enter and replicate in cultured phagocytes and epithelial cells. Human macrophage-like cells (THP-1), two murine macrophage cell lines (RAW264.7 and J774A.1), and a human malignant epithelial cell line (HeLa S3) were challenged with bacteria in a gentamicin protection assay. Our results show that B. pinnipedialis is internalized, but is then gradually eliminated during the next 72 – 96 hours. Confocal microscopy revealed that intracellular B. pinnipedialis hooded seal strain colocalized with lysosomal compartments at 1.5 and 24 hours after infection. Intracellular presence of B. pinnipedialis hooded seal strain was verified by transmission electron microscopy. By using a cholesterol-scavenging lipid inhibitor, entrance of B. pinnipedialis hooded seal strain in human macrophages was significantly reduced by 65.8 % (± 17.3), suggesting involvement of lipid-rafts in intracellular entry. Murine macrophages invaded by B. pinnipedialis do not release nitric oxide (NO) and intracellular bacterial presence does not induce cell death. In summary, B. pinnipedialis hooded seal strain can enter human and murine macrophages, as well as human epithelial cells. Intracellular entry of B. pinnipedialis hooded seal strain involves, but seems not to be limited to, lipid-rafts in human macrophages. Brucella pinnipedialis does not multiply or survive for prolonged periods intracellulary. PMID:24376851

  2. Orthogonal design on range hood with air curtain and its effects on kitchen environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiaomin; Wang, Xing; Xi, Guang

    2014-01-01

    Conventional range hoods cannot effectively prevent the oil fumes containing cooking-induced harmful material from escaping into the kitchen Air curtains and guide plates have been used in range hoods to reduce the escape of airborne emissions and heat, thereby improving the kitchen environment and the cook's degree of comfort. In this article, numerical simulations are used to study the effects of the jet velocity of an air curtain, the jet angle of the air curtain, the width of the jet slot, the area of the guide plate, and the exhaust rate of the range hood on the perceived temperature, the perceived concentration of oil fumes, the release temperature of oil fumes, and the concentration of escaped oil fumes in a kitchen. The orthogonal experiment results show that the exhaust rate of the range hood is the main factor influencing the fumes concentration and the temperature distribution in the kitchen. For the range hood examined in the present study, the optimum values of the exhaust rate, the jet velocity of the air curtain, the jet angle of the air curtain, the width of the jet slot, and the area of the guide plate are 10.5 m(3)/min, 1.5 m/s, -5°, 4 mm, and 0.22 m(2), respectively, based on the results of the parametric study. In addition, the velocity field, temperature field, and oil fumes concentration field in the kitchen using the proposed range hood with the air curtain and guide plate are analyzed for those parameters. The study's results provide significant information needed for improving the kitchen environment.

  3. Entrance and survival of Brucella pinnipedialis hooded seal strain in human macrophages and epithelial cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anett K Larsen

    Full Text Available Marine mammal Brucella spp. have been isolated from pinnipeds (B. pinnipedialis and cetaceans (B. ceti from around the world. Although the zoonotic potential of marine mammal brucellae is largely unknown, reports of human disease exist. There are few studies of the mechanisms of bacterial intracellular invasion and multiplication involving the marine mammal Brucella spp. We examined the infective capacity of two genetically different B. pinnipedialis strains (reference strain; NTCT 12890 and a hooded seal isolate; B17 by measuring the ability of the bacteria to enter and replicate in cultured phagocytes and epithelial cells. Human macrophage-like cells (THP-1, two murine macrophage cell lines (RAW264.7 and J774A.1, and a human malignant epithelial cell line (HeLa S3 were challenged with bacteria in a gentamicin protection assay. Our results show that B. pinnipedialis is internalized, but is then gradually eliminated during the next 72-96 hours. Confocal microscopy revealed that intracellular B. pinnipedialis hooded seal strain colocalized with lysosomal compartments at 1.5 and 24 hours after infection. Intracellular presence of B. pinnipedialis hooded seal strain was verified by transmission electron microscopy. By using a cholesterol-scavenging lipid inhibitor, entrance of B. pinnipedialis hooded seal strain in human macrophages was significantly reduced by 65.8 % (± 17.3, suggesting involvement of lipid-rafts in intracellular entry. Murine macrophages invaded by B. pinnipedialis do not release nitric oxide (NO and intracellular bacterial presence does not induce cell death. In summary, B. pinnipedialis hooded seal strain can enter human and murine macrophages, as well as human epithelial cells. Intracellular entry of B. pinnipedialis hooded seal strain involves, but seems not to be limited to, lipid-rafts in human macrophages. Brucella pinnipedialis does not multiply or survive for prolonged periods intracellulary.

  4. A comparative study for radiological decontamination of laboratory fume hood materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Elizabeth; Sweet, Lucas; MacFarlan, Paul; McNamara, Bruce; Kerschner, Harrison

    2012-08-01

    The efficacy for radiological decontamination of the laboratory standard fume hood as constructed of stainless steel, compared to that of powder-coated carbon steel is described. While the chemical inertness of powder-coated surfaces is good, faced with everyday abrasion, aggressive inorganic solutions and vapors, and penetrating organics commonly employed in government laboratory fume hoods, radiological decontamination of powder-coated steel surfaces was found to be similar to those made of stainless steel for easily solubilized or digestible radionuclides. Plutonium was difficult to remove from stainless steel and powder-coated surfaces, especially after prolonged contact times.

  5. Sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 inhibition and health benefits: The Robin Hood effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalra, Sanjay; Jain, Arpit; Ved, Jignesh; Unnikrishnan, A. G.

    2016-01-01

    This review discusses two distinct, yet related, mechanisms of sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibition: Calorie restriction mimicry (CRM) and pro-ketogenic effect, which may explain their cardiovascular benefits. We term these adaptive CRM and pro-ketogenic effects of SGLT2 inhibition, the Robin Hood hypothesis. In English history, Robin Hood was a “good person,” who stole from the rich and helped the poor. He supported redistribution of resources as he deemed fit for the common good. In a similar fashion, SGLT2 inhibition provides respite to the overloaded glucose metabolism while utilizing lipid stores for energy production. PMID:27730088

  6. The Influence of Inlet Asymmetry on Steam Turbine Exhaust Hood Flows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burton, Zoe; Hogg, Simon; Ingram, Grant L

    2014-04-01

    It has been widely recognized for some decades that it is essential to accurately represent the strong coupling between the last stage blades (LSB) and the diffuser inlet, in order to correctly capture the flow through the exhaust hoods of steam turbine low pressure cylinders. This applies to any form of simulation of the flow, i.e., numerical or experimental. The exhaust hood flow structure is highly three-dimensional and appropriate coupling will enable the important influence of this asymmetry to be transferred to the rotor. This, however, presents challenges as the calculation size grows rapidly when the full annulus is calculated. The size of the simulation means researchers are constantly searching for methods to reduce the computational effort without compromising solution accuracy. However, this can result in excessive computational demands in numerical simulations. Unsteady full-annulus CFD calculation will remain infeasible for routine design calculations for the foreseeable future. More computationally efficient methods for coupling the unsteady rotor flow to the hood flow are required that bring computational expense within realizable limits while still maintaining sufficient accuracy for meaningful design calculations. Research activity in this area is focused on developing new methods and techniques to improve accuracy and reduce computational expense. A novel approach for coupling the turbine last stage to the exhaust hood employing the nonlinear harmonic (NLH) method is presented in this paper. The generic, IP free, exhaust hood and last stage blade geometries from Burton et al. (2012. "A Generic Low Pressure Exhaust Diffuser for Steam Turbine Research,"Proceedings of the ASME Turbo Expo, Copenhagen, Denmark, Paper No. GT2012-68485) that are representative of modern designs, are used to demonstrate the effectiveness of the method. This is achieved by comparing results obtained with the NLH to those obtained with a more conventional mixing

  7. Sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 inhibition and health benefits: The Robin Hood effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalra, Sanjay; Jain, Arpit; Ved, Jignesh; Unnikrishnan, A G

    2016-01-01

    This review discusses two distinct, yet related, mechanisms of sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibition: Calorie restriction mimicry (CRM) and pro-ketogenic effect, which may explain their cardiovascular benefits. We term these adaptive CRM and pro-ketogenic effects of SGLT2 inhibition, the Robin Hood hypothesis. In English history, Robin Hood was a "good person," who stole from the rich and helped the poor. He supported redistribution of resources as he deemed fit for the common good. In a similar fashion, SGLT2 inhibition provides respite to the overloaded glucose metabolism while utilizing lipid stores for energy production.

  8. Sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 inhibition and health benefits: The Robin Hood effect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanjay Kalra

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This review discusses two distinct, yet related, mechanisms of sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 (SGLT2 inhibition: Calorie restriction mimicry (CRM and pro-ketogenic effect, which may explain their cardiovascular benefits. We term these adaptive CRM and pro-ketogenic effects of SGLT2 inhibition, the Robin Hood hypothesis. In English history, Robin Hood was a "good person," who stole from the rich and helped the poor. He supported redistribution of resources as he deemed fit for the common good. In a similar fashion, SGLT2 inhibition provides respite to the overloaded glucose metabolism while utilizing lipid stores for energy production.

  9. The hooded crow (Corvus cornix) as an environmental bioindicator species of heavy metal contamination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giammarino, Mauro; Quatto, Piero; Squadrone, Stefania; Abete, Maria Cesarina

    2014-10-01

    This study aims to examine the possible presence of lead and cadmium in the liver and kidneys of hooded crows (Corvus cornix). Liver and kidneys of hooded crow carcasses were collected in Province of Cuneo (Piedmont, Italy) in order to detect lead and cadmium content. Significant differences were found in lead and cadmium levels between areas of intensive cultivation versus areas where meadows are prevalent. Moreover, age greatly influenced the burden of heavy metals, while sex did not seem to affect the level of contamination. The source of contamination may be phosphate fertilizers used for intensive cultivation in the study area.

  10. Molecular testing for Lynch syndrome in people with colorectal cancer: systematic reviews and economic evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snowsill, Tristan; Coelho, Helen; Huxley, Nicola; Jones-Hughes, Tracey; Briscoe, Simon; Frayling, Ian M; Hyde, Chris

    2017-09-01

    Inherited mutations in deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) mismatch repair (MMR) genes lead to an increased risk of colorectal cancer (CRC), gynaecological cancers and other cancers, known as Lynch syndrome (LS). Risk-reducing interventions can be offered to individuals with known LS-causing mutations. The mutations can be identified by comprehensive testing of the MMR genes, but this would be prohibitively expensive in the general population. Tumour-based tests - microsatellite instability (MSI) and MMR immunohistochemistry (IHC) - are used in CRC patients to identify individuals at high risk of LS for genetic testing. MLH1 (MutL homologue 1) promoter methylation and BRAF V600E testing can be conducted on tumour material to rule out certain sporadic cancers. To investigate whether testing for LS in CRC patients using MSI or IHC (with or without MLH1 promoter methylation testing and BRAF V600E testing) is clinically effective (in terms of identifying Lynch syndrome and improving outcomes for patients) and represents a cost-effective use of NHS resources. Systematic reviews were conducted of the published literature on diagnostic test accuracy studies of MSI and/or IHC testing for LS, end-to-end studies of screening for LS in CRC patients and economic evaluations of screening for LS in CRC patients. A model-based economic evaluation was conducted to extrapolate long-term outcomes from the results of the diagnostic test accuracy review. The model was extended from a model previously developed by the authors. Ten studies were identified that evaluated the diagnostic test accuracy of MSI and/or IHC testing for identifying LS in CRC patients. For MSI testing, sensitivity ranged from 66.7% to 100.0% and specificity ranged from 61.1% to 92.5%. For IHC, sensitivity ranged from 80.8% to 100.0% and specificity ranged from 80.5% to 91.9%. When tumours showing low levels of MSI were treated as a positive result, the sensitivity of MSI testing increased but specificity fell. No end

  11. Phenotypic Heterogeneity by Germline Mismatch Repair Gene Defect in Lynch Syndrome Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernâni-Eusébio, Jorge; Barbosa, Elisabete

    2016-10-01

    Introdução: A síndrome de Lynch é a forma hereditária mais comum de cancro colo-rectal, sendo também responsável por cancro do endométrio e de outros tipos. Associa-se a mutações germinativas nos genes de mismatch repair do ADN e a instabilidade de microssatélites. As mutações MLH1 e MSH2 têm um fenótipo de síndrome de Lynch ‘clássico’, sendo o MSH2 mais associado a cancro extra-cólico. Mutações do MSH6 e PMS2 têm um fenótipo atípico. A expressão clínica é heterogénea, existindo uma correlação entre o gene mismatch repair mutado e o padrão fenotípico. Material e Métodos: Análise retrospetiva dos dados clínicos de doentes que cumpriam os critérios de Amesterdão ou que tinha mutações nos genes mismatch repair, entre setembro de 2012 e outubro de 2015. Resultados: Identificámos 28 doentes. Dezassete tinham cancro colo-rectal sendo a localização no cólon direito predominante. Cinco tiveram cancro do endométrio (mediana da idade de diagnóstico – 53), sem qualquer mutação no MSH6. Cinco desenvolveram outros cancros. Todos os casos com mutações mismatch repair estudados tinham instabilidade de microssatélites. Discussão: Na maioria dos casos foi encontrada mutação no MSH2 apesar de o MLH1 ser descrito na literatura como o gene mais frequentemente mutado. Interessa dizer que os doentes com cancro colo-rectal não evidenciam uma tendência para ter muito infiltrado inflamatório. Na maioria dos casos foi realizada colectomia parcial apesar da incidência elevada de lesões síncronas e metácronas associadas. Histerectomia e anexectomia profilática foi realizada em doentes em menopausa/perimenopausa. Conclusão: O registo standardizado dos dados dos doentes poderá levar a um melhor acompanhamento e conhecimento desta síndrome. O uso das Guidelines de Bethesda poderá identificar novos casos que escapam aos critérios de Amesterdão. A pesquisa de instabilidade de microssatélites deve ser feita em muito maior n

  12. Educational and Psychosocial Support Needs in Lynch Syndrome: Implementation and Assessment of an Educational Workshop and Support Group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corines, Marina J; Hamilton, Jada G; Glogowski, Emily; Anrig, Chris A; Goldberg, Rachael; Niehaus, Kate; Salo-Mullen, Erin; Harlan, Megan; Sheehan, Margaret R; Trottier, Magan; Ahsraf, Asad; Tran, Christina; Jacobs, Lauren; Rau-Murthy, Rohini; Lincoln, Anne G; Robson, Mark E; Guillem, Jose G; Markowitz, Arnold J; Offit, Kenneth; Stadler, Zsofia K

    2017-04-01

    Few reports of educational and counseling support resources exist for Lynch syndrome (LS), a disorder requiring multi-organ cancer screening and specialized medical care throughout adult life. Here we describe the development and efficacy of two resources designed to address this need, the Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center Clinical Genetics Service annual Lynch Syndrome Educational Workshop (LSEW), and a quarterly Lynch Syndrome Patient Advocacy Network (LSPAN) support group. The LSEW and LSPAN were implemented beginning in 2012. Participant survey data evaluating satisfaction, clarity, and unmet needs for each event were retrospectively analyzed and summarized using descriptive statistics. Annual LSEW attendance ranged from 53 to 75 total participants. LSEW year 1 participants indicated a need for a support group, and preferred in-person meetings at a frequency of every 3-6 months. For LSEW year 2-5 participants, >96 % reported satisfaction with the LSEW, and >82 % expressed interest in secure online support. Common themes for improvement included increased time for question and answer sessions and additional introductory genetics education. Responding LSPAN participants (n = 57 total survey responses in 11 meetings) found the meetings helpful (100 %), information clear (91 %), and presence of a genetic counselor useful (67 %). Desired discussion topics included coping with stress and anxiety, development of a support network, family communication about LS, genetic testing decisions, and bereavement. Following genetic counseling, a need exists for ongoing educational and emotional support in LS. Implementation of resources such as the LSEW and LSPAN is feasible and perceived as helpful by participants.

  13. Is there evidence that we should screen the general population for Lynch syndrome with genetic testing? A systematic review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prince, Anya E R; Cadigan, R Jean; Henderson, Gail E; Evans, James P; Adams, Michael; Coker-Schwimmer, Emmanuel; Penn, Dolly C; Van Riper, Marcia; Corbie-Smith, Giselle; Jonas, Daniel E

    2017-01-01

    Background The emerging dual imperatives of personalized medicine and technologic advances make population screening for preventable conditions resulting from genetic alterations a realistic possibility. Lynch syndrome is a potential screening target due to its prevalence, penetrance, and the availability of well-established, preventive interventions. However, while population screening may lower incidence of preventable conditions, implementation without evidence may lead to unintentional harms. We examined the literature to determine whether evidence exists that screening for Lynch-associated mismatch repair (MMR) gene mutations leads to improved overall survival, cancer-specific survival, or quality of life. Documenting evidence and gaps is critical to implementing genomic approaches in public health and guiding future research. Materials and methods Our 2014–2015 systematic review identified studies comparing screening with no screening in the general population, and controlled studies assessing analytic validity of targeted next-generation sequencing, and benefits or harms of interventions or screening. We conducted meta-analyses for the association between early or more frequent colonoscopies and health outcomes. Results Twelve studies met our eligibility criteria. No adequate evidence directly addressed the main question or the harms of screening in the general population. Meta-analyses found relative reductions of 68% for colorectal cancer incidence (relative risk: 0.32, 95% confidence interval: 0.23–0.43, three cohort studies, 590 participants) and 78% for all-cause mortality (relative risk: 0.22, 95% confidence interval: 0.09–0.56, three cohort studies, 590 participants) for early or more frequent colonoscopies among family members of people with cancer who also had an associated MMR gene mutation. Conclusion Inadequate evidence exists examining harms and benefits of population-based screening for Lynch syndrome. Lack of evidence highlights the need

  14. Management strategies in Lynch syndrome and familial adenomatous polyposis: a national healthcare survey in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamano, Tomoki; Hamanaka, Michiko; Babaya, Akihito; Kimura, Kei; Kobayashi, Masayoshi; Fukumoto, Miki; Tsukamoto, Kiyoshi; Noda, Masafumi; Matsubara, Nagahide; Tomita, Naohiro; Sugihara, Kenichi

    2017-02-01

    Lynch syndrome (LS) and familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP) are major sources of hereditary colorectal cancer (CRC) and are associated with other malignancies. There is some heterogeneity in management strategies in Japan. We undertook a survey of management of hereditary CRC in hospitals that are members of the Japan Society of Colorectal Cancer Research. One hundred and ninety departments responded, of which 127 were from designated cancer care hospitals (DCCHs) according to the Japanese government. There were 25 488 operations for CRC in these departments in 2015. The DCCHs performed better with regard to usage of Japan Society of Colorectal Cancer Research guidelines, referring new CRC patients for LS screening, and having in-house genetic counselors and knowledge of treatment for LS. There were 174 patients diagnosed with LS and 602 undergoing follow-up in 2011-2015, which is fewer than the number expected from CRC operations in 2015. These numbers were not affected by whether the institution was a DCCH. Universal screening for LS was carried out in 8% of the departments. In contrast, 541 patients were diagnosed with FAP and 273 received preventive proctocolectomy/colectomy in 2011-2015. The DCCH departments undertook more surgery than non-DCCH departments, although most of the management, including surgical procedures and use of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, was similar. Management of desmoid tumor in the abdominal cavity differed according to the number of patients treated. In conclusion, there was heterogeneity in management of LS but not FAP. Most patients with LS may be overlooked and universal screening for LS is not common in Japan.

  15. Prevalence of Lynch syndrome in a Middle Eastern population with colorectal cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siraj, Abdul K; Prabhakaran, Sarita; Bavi, Prashant; Bu, Rong; Beg, Shaham; Hazmi, Mohsen Al; Al-Rasheed, Maha; Al-Assiri, Mohammed; Sairafi, Rami; Al-Dayel, Fouad; Al-Sanea, Nasser; Uddin, Shahab; Al-Kuraya, Khawla S

    2015-06-01

    Lynch syndrome (LS; hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal cancer) is a common cause of hereditary colorectal cancer (CRC). CRC is the most common cancer diagnosed among males in Saudi Arabia but to the authors' knowledge there is a lack of data regarding the prevalence of LS in patients with CRC. There currently are no clear guidelines for the selection criteria for these patients to screen for LS. A comprehensive molecular characterization was performed in a cohort of 807 CRC cases by immunohistochemical and microsatellite analysis using polymerase chain reaction. BRAF mutation screening, high CpG island methylator phenotype, and analysis for germline mutations were performed in 425 CRC samples. These were all high microsatellite instability (MSI-H) samples (91 cases), all low MSI samples (143 cases), and selected cases from the microsatellite stable group (191 cases) that met revised Bethesda guidelines. Polymerase chain reaction identified 91 MSI-H cases (11.3%) and sequencing revealed mismatch repair germline mutations in 8 CRC cases only. Of the total of 807 CRC cases, these 8 cases (0.99%) were MSI-H, met the revised Bethesda guidelines, and did not harbor BRAF mutations. The results of the current study confirmed cases of LS in approximately 1.0% of CRC samples and reflects the efficacy of screening among MSI-H cases that lack BRAF mutations. This comprehensive study from Saudi Arabia will help in implementing a universal screening/reflex testing strategy in a clinical setting in Saudi Arabia and in conducting a national screening program that benefits both patients and their relatives. © 2015 American Cancer Society.

  16. Aspirin, Ibuprofen, and the Risk for Colorectal Cancer in Lynch Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ait Ouakrim, Driss; Dashti, Seyedeh Ghazaleh; Chau, Rowena; Buchanan, Daniel D.; Clendenning, Mark; Rosty, Christophe; Winship, Ingrid M.; Young, Joanne P.; Giles, Graham G.; Leggett, Barbara; Macrae, Finlay A.; Ahnen, Dennis J.; Casey, Graham; Gallinger, Steven; Haile, Robert W.; Le Marchand, Loïc; Thibodeau, Stephen N.; Lindor, Noralane M.; Newcomb, Polly A.; Potter, John D.; Baron, John A.; Hopper, John L.; Jenkins, Mark A.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Inheritance of a germline mutation in one of the DNA mismatch repair (MMR) genes MLH1, MSH2, MSH6, and PMS2 causes a high risk of colorectal and other cancers (Lynch Syndrome). Use of aspirin has been shown to be associated with a reduced risk of colorectal cancer for the general population as well as for MMR gene mutation carriers. The aim of this study was to determine whether use of aspirin and ibuprofen in a nontrial setting is associated with the risk of colorectal cancer risk for MMR gene mutation carriers. Methods: We included 1858 participants in the Colon Cancer Family Registry who had been found to have a pathogenic germline mutation in a MMR gene (carriers). We used weighted Cox proportional hazards regression to estimate hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). All statistical tests were two-sided. Results: A total of 714 carriers (38%) were diagnosed with colorectal cancer at a mean age of 42.4 (standard deviation 10.6) years. A reduced risk of colorectal cancer was associated with aspirin use (for 1 month to 4.9 years: HR = 0.49, 95% CI = 0.27 to 0.90, P = .02; for ≥5 years: HR = 0.25, 95% CI = 0.10 to 0.62, P = .003) and ibuprofen use (for 1 month to 4.9 years: HR = 0.38, 95% CI = 0.18 to 0.79, P = .009; for ≥5 years: HR = 0.26, 95% CI = 0.10 to 0.69, P = .007), compared with less than one month of use. Conclusion: Our results provide additional evidence that, for MMR gene mutation carriers, use of aspirin and ibuprofen might be effective in reducing their high risk of colorectal cancer. PMID:26109217

  17. A Systematic Review on the Existing Screening Pathways for Lynch Syndrome Identification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessia Tognetto

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundLynch syndrome (LS is the most common hereditary colon cancer syndrome, accounting for 3–5% of colorectal cancer (CRC cases, and it is associated with the development of other cancers. Early detection of individuals with LS is relevant, since they can take advantage of life-saving intensive care surveillance. The debate regarding the best screening policy, however, is far from being concluded. This prompted us to conduct a systematic review of the existing screening pathways for LS.MethodsWe performed a systematic search of MEDLINE, ISI Web of Science, and SCOPUS online databases for the existing screening pathways for LS. The eligibility criteria for inclusion in this review required that the studies evaluated a structured and permanent screening pathway for the identification of LS carriers. The effectiveness of the pathways was analyzed in terms of LS detection rate.ResultsWe identified five eligible studies. All the LS screening pathways started from CRC cases, of which three followed a universal screening approach. Concerning the laboratory procedures, the pathways used immunohistochemistry and/or microsatellite instability testing. If the responses of the tests indicated a risk for LS, the genetic counseling, performed by a geneticist or a genetic counselor, was mandatory to undergo DNA genetic testing. The overall LS detection rate ranged from 0 to 5.2%.ConclusionThis systematic review reported different existing pathways for the identification of LS patients. Although current clinical guidelines suggest to test all the CRC cases to identify LS cases, the actual implementation of pathways for LS identification has not been realized. Large-scale screening programs for LS have the potential to reduce morbidity and mortality for CRC, but coordinated efforts in educating all key stakeholders and addressing public needs are still required.

  18. Lynch syndrome and exposure to aristolochic acid in upper-tract urothelial carcinoma: its clinical impact?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colin, Pierre; Seisen, Thomas; Mathieu, Romain; Shariat, Sharohkh F.

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of the current review was to describe the clinical risk for Lynch syndrome (LS) after exposure to aristolochic acid (AA) in cases of upper urinary-tract urothelial carcinoma (UTUC). A systematic review of the scientific literature was performed using the Medline database (National Library of Medicine, PubMed) using the following keywords: epidemiology, risk factor, AA, Balkan nephropathy (BNe), LS, hereditary cancer, hereditary non-polyposis colorectal cancer (HNPCC), mismatch repair genes, urothelial carcinomas, upper urinary tract, renal pelvis, ureter, Amsterdam criteria, genetic counselling, mismatch repair genes, genetic instability, microsatellite, and Bethesda guidelines. LS is a specific risk for UTUC, which is the third most frequent cancer (in its tumor spectrum) after colon and uterine lesions. Mutation of the MSH2 gene is the most commonly described cause of UTUC in LS. Diagnosis is based on clinical suspicion and is guided by Bethesda and Amsterdam criteria. It is secondarily confirmed by immunohistochemical analyses of the tumor and a search for gene mutations. The presence of LS in patients with UTUC is a favorable prognosis factor for survival during follow-ups. AA is a specific environmental risk factor for UTUC and tubulo-interstitial nephropathy. It has been involved in the development of nephropathies in link with the Balkan disease and intake of Chinese herbal medicine. More broadly, the use of traditional plant medicines from the genus Aristolochia has created worldwide public-health concerns. UTUCs share common risk factors with other urothelial carcinomas such as tobacco or occupational exposure. However, these tumors have also specific risk factors such as AA exposure and LS that clinicians should be aware of because of their clinical implication in further management and follow-up.

  19. MLH1 promoter hypermethylation in the analytical algorithm of Lynch syndrome: a cost-effectiveness study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gausachs, Mireia; Mur, Pilar; Corral, Julieta; Pineda, Marta; González, Sara; Benito, Llúcia; Menéndez, Mireia; Espinàs, Josep Alfons; Brunet, Joan; Iniesta, María Dolores; Gruber, Stephen B; Lázaro, Conxi; Blanco, Ignacio; Capellá, Gabriel

    2012-01-01

    The analytical algorithm of Lynch syndrome (LS) is increasingly complex. BRAF V600E mutation and MLH1 promoter hypermethylation have been proposed as a screening tool for the identification of LS. The aim of this study was to assess the clinical usefulness and cost-effectiveness of both somatic alterations to improve the yield of the diagnostic algorithm of LS. A total of 122 colorectal tumors from individuals with family history of colorectal cancer that showed microsatellite instability and/or loss of mismatch repair (MMR) protein expression were studied. MMR germline mutations were detected in 57 cases (40 MLH1, 15 MSH2 and 2 MSH6). BRAF V600E mutation was assessed by single-nucleotide primer extension. MLH1 promoter hypermethylation was assessed by methylation-specific multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification in a subset of 71 cases with loss of MLH1 protein. A decision model was developed to estimate the incremental costs of alternative case-finding methods for detecting MLH1 mutation carriers. One-way sensitivity analysis was performed to assess robustness of estimations. Sensitivity of the absence of BRAF mutations for depiction of LS patients was 96% (23/24) and specificity was 28% (13/47). Specificity of MLH1 promoter hypermethylation for depiction of sporadic tumors was 66% (31/47) and sensitivity of 96% (23/24). The cost per additional mutation detected when using hypermethylation analysis was lower when compared with BRAF study and germinal MLH1 mutation study. Somatic hypermethylation of MLH1 is an accurate and cost-effective pre-screening method in the selection of patients that are candidates for MLH1 germline analysis when LS is suspected and MLH1 protein expression is absent. PMID:22274583

  20. Iconografía, música y narración en Wild at Heart, de David Lynch

    OpenAIRE

    García Escrivá, Vicente

    2011-01-01

    El análisis del texto fílmico Corazón Salvaje (Wild at Heart, David Lynch, EEUU, 1990) permite localizar toda una serie de rasgos característicos de la narrativa y la estética cinematográfica posmoderna. Por un lado, el film presenta una notable descomposición narrativa, lo que se traduce en una sucesión de escenas un tanto inconexas, a modo de cuadros intensos pero poco trabados. Asimismo, en la película se produce una suerte de hibridación de géneros, aglutinados por un tono general de paro...

  1. Two cubic phases in kimzeyite garnet from the type locality Magnet Cove, Arkansas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Antao, Sytle M.; Cruickshank, Laura A.

    2016-11-08

    The crystal structure of an optically anisotropic kimzeyite garnet from Magnet Cove, Arkansas, USA, where it was first discovered, was refined with the Rietveld method, cubic space group, Ia\\overline 3 d, and monochromatic [λ = 0.41422 (2) Å] synchrotron high-resolution powder X-ray diffraction (HRPXRD) data. The Rietveld refinement reduced χ2and overallR(F2) values are 1.840 and 0.0647, respectively. The sample, with the general garnet formula[8]X3[6]Y2[4]Z3[4]O12, contains an intergrowth of two cubic phases that occur initially as oscillatory growth zoning, and patchy intergrowths arise later from fluid-enhanced dissolution and re-precipitation. The two compositions obtained with electron-probe microanalyses (EPMA) are Ca3.00(Zr1.31Ti4+0.46Fe3+0.22Mn3+0.01)Σ2[Al0.76Fe3+1.01Si1.23]Σ3O12for phase 1aand Ca2.99(Zr1.48Ti4+0.37Fe3+0.15)Σ2[Al0.87Fe3+0.98Si1.15]Σ3O12for phase 1b. The weight percentage, unit-cell parameter (Å), distances (Å), and site occupancy factors (s.o.f.s) for phase 1aare as follows: 42.6 (2)%,a= 12.46553 (3) Å, average <X—O> = 2.482,Y—O = 2.059 (2),Z—O = 1.761 (2) Å, Ca (Xs.o.f.) = 0.960 (4), Zr (Ys.o.f.) = 0.809 (3), and Fe (Zs.o.f.) = 0.623 (2). The corresponding values for phase 1bare 57.4 (2)%,a= 12.47691 (2) Å, average <

  2. Initial screening of chili and sweet pepper germplasm for resistance to chili thrips, Scirtothrips dorsalis Hood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    A preliminary evaluation for resistance to chili thrips, Scirtothrips dorsalis Hood of 41 and 194 pepper (Capsicum annuum L.) germplasms during 1987 and 1988, espectively, indicated chili accessions may be a promising source of resistance . In contrast, all sweet pepper accessions tested were highly...

  3. Chemical Fume Hoods in Higher Education Science Laboratories: Electrical, Mechanical and Human Controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casey, John M.

    This paper is predicated on the realization that a chemical hood is only one element of laboratory safety which encompasses a variety of other elements starting with the architectural design and layout of laboratories; through the installation, operation and maintenance of integrated electrical and mechanical systems; to the safety-mindedness of…

  4. Renal vascular dysfunction precedes the development of renal damage in the hypertensive Fawn-Hooded rat

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ochodnicky, Peter; Henning, Robert H.; Buikema, Hendrik J.; de Zeeuw, Dick; Provoost, Abraham P.; van Dokkum, Richard P. E.

    2010-01-01

    Ochodnicky P, Henning RH, Buikema HJ, de Zeeuw D, Provoost AP, van Dokkum RP. Renal vascular dysfunction precedes the development of renal damage in the hypertensive Fawn-Hooded rat. Am J Physiol Renal Physiol 298: F625-F633, 2010. First published December 9, 2009; doi:10.1152/ajprenal.00289.2009.-I

  5. Fort Hood Solar Total Energy Project. Volume III. Engineering drawings. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None,

    1979-01-01

    Engineering drawings are presented for the Solar Total Energy System at Fort Hood, Texas. Drawings are given for the solar collector subsystem, power conversion subsystem, instrumentation and control subsystem, thermal storage subsystem, site preparation, thermal storage area piping and equipment layout, heating/cooling and domestic hot water subsystem, STES building and facility, and electrical distribution. (WHK)

  6. Mount Hood volcano: phase zero study. Final report, January 1, 1977--June 30 1977

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hull, D.A.

    1977-08-04

    A base of earth science data was developed for an area centered on Mt. Hood Volcano as the first step in a systematic geothermal resource assessment. A comprehensive technical plan for the assessment was developed and is also described. A preliminary bibliography is included.

  7. Energy Impacts of Effective Range Hood Use for all U.S. Residential Cooking

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Logue, Jennifer M; Singer, Brett

    2014-06-01

    Range hood use during residential cooking is essential to maintaining good indoor air quality. However, widespread use will impact the energy demand of the U.S. housing stock. This paper describes a modeling study to determine site energy, source energy, and consumer costs for comprehensive range hood use. To estimate the energy impacts for all 113 million homes in the U.S., we extrapolated from the simulation of a representative weighted sample of 50,000 virtual homes developed from the 2009 Residential Energy Consumption Survey database. A physics-based simulation model that considered fan energy, energy to condition additional incoming air, and the effect on home heating and cooling due to exhausting the heat from cooking was applied to each home. Hoods performing at a level common to hoods currently in U.S. homes would require 19?33 TWh [69?120 PJ] of site energy, 31?53 TWh [110-190 PJ] of source energy; and would cost consumers $1.2?2.1 billion (U.S.$2010) annually in the U.S. housing stock. The average household would spend less than $15 annually. Reducing required airflow, e.g. with designs that promote better pollutant capture has more energy saving potential, on average, than improving fan efficiency.

  8. Hood River and Pelton Ladder Evaluation Studies, 1998-1999 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olsen, Erik

    2000-09-01

    This report summarizes the life history and production data collected in the Hood River subbasin during FY 1998 and 1999. Included is a summary of jack and adult life history data collected at the Powerdale Dam trap on eight complete run years of winter steelhead, spring and fall chinook salmon, and coho salmon, and on seven complete run years of summer steelhead. Also included are summaries of (1) the hatchery winter steelhead broodstock collection program; (2) hatchery production releases in the Hood River subbasin; (3) the number of outmigrant wild rainbow-steelhead and hatchery summer and winter steelhead smolts; and (4) streamflow at selected locations in the Hood River subbasin. Data will be used in part to (1) evaluate the HRPP with respect to its impact on indigenous populations of resident and anadromous salmonids, (2) refine spawner escapement objectives to more accurately reflect subbasin carrying capacity, and (3) refine estimates of subbasin smolt production capacity to more accurately reflect current and potential subbasin carrying capacity. Baseline information on indigenous populations of resident and anadromous salmonids will continue to be collected for several years prior to full implementation of the Hood River Production Program.

  9. 75 FR 27638 - Regulated Navigation Area; U.S. Navy Submarines, Hood Canal, WA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-18

    ... No. USCG-2009-1058] RIN 1625-AA11 Regulated Navigation Area; U.S. Navy Submarines, Hood Canal, WA... whenever any U.S. Navy submarine is operating in that area and is being escorted by the Coast Guard. The RNA is necessary to help ensure the safety and security of the submarines, their Coast Guard...

  10. Quantification of hood effectiveness and entrained subsurface air in a Seattle Hospital

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dietz, R.N.; Goodrich, R.W.

    1994-05-01

    An underground 3-story wing of a hospital having problems with sewer air odors was tested with perfluorocarbon tracer (PFI) technology to quantify the performance of the mechanical ventilation system and determine the extent of sewer air entrainment and chemical hood effectiveness.

  11. 75 FR 62755 - Mt. Hood National Forest, Oregon; Cooper Spur-Government Camp Land Exchange

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-13

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Forest Service Mt. Hood National Forest, Oregon; Cooper Spur-Government Camp Land Exchange AGENCY: Forest... land. The acquisition of the wetlands at Cooper Spur and the easement on the wetlands at...

  12. Remembering the outlaw in Medieval England: the emergence of the Robin Hood legend.

    OpenAIRE

    Kos, Charles Robert

    2017-01-01

    This thesis explores the origins and development of the legends about Robin Hood between the thirteenth and seventeenth centuries. It argues that they were shaped by memories of political and social events and of particular individuals in the early thirteenth century, subsequently transformed over time.

  13. Evaluation of microplastics in Jurujuba Cove, Niterói, RJ, Brazil, an area of mussels farming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro, Rebeca Oliveira; Silva, Melanie L; Marques, Mônica Regina C; de Araújo, Fábio V

    2016-09-15

    Once non-biodegradable, microplastics remain on the environment absorbing toxic hydrophobic compounds making them a risk to biodiversity when ingested or filtered by organisms and entering in the food chain. To evaluate the potential of the contamination by microplastics in mussels cultivated in Jurujuba Cove, Niterói, RJ, waters of three stations were collected during a rain and dry seasons using a plankton net and later filtered. Microplastics were quantified and characterized morphologically and chemically. The results showed a high concentration of microplastics in both seasons with diversity of colors, types and sizes. Synthetic polymers were present in all samples. The presence of microplastics was probably due to a high and constant load of effluent that this area receives and to the mussel farming activity that use many plastic materials. Areas with high concentrations of microplastics could not be used for mussel cultivation due to the risk of contamination to consumers.

  14. Seasonal variation of algal growth conditions in sheltered Antarctic bays: the example of Potter Cove (King George Island, South Shetlands)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klöser, Heinz; Ferreyra, Gustavo; Schloss, Irene; Mercuri, Guillermo; Laturnus, Frank; Curtosi, Antonio

    1993-10-01

    Wind, air temperature, surface irradiance, light penetration into the water, salinity and water temperature have been recorded from mid November to mid February in Potter Cove, King George Island. Results are compared with published data on requirements for growth of Antarctic microalgae. The investigated season showed two distinct periods: Early summer lasted until end of December with comparatively cold temperatures, unstable water column and deep penetration of light; late summer started in early January and was characterized by reduced salinity due to meltwater discharge and high turbidity due to suspended sediments. Meltwater influence did not sufficiently change salinity to be responsible for the frequently noted paucity of macroalgal communities in sheltered bays. Shading by suspended sediments was equally considered to be of minor importance, as macroalgae have their optimal growth phase from September to December. During this period, light penetration and depth distribution of macroalgae coincide perfectly. From these results, a general review on depth limitation of macroalgae by light conditions is derived.

  15. Effects of acoustic hood on noise, CFC-11, and particulate matter in a recycling system for waste refrigerator cabinet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Jie; Fang, Wenxiong; Yang, Yichen; Xu, Zhenming

    2014-11-01

    The mechanical-physical process was proven to be technologically feasible for waste refrigerator recycling and has been widely used in the typical e-waste recycling factories in China. In this study, effects of the acoustic hood on the reduction of noise level, CFC-11, and heavy metals (Cr, Ni, Cu, Cd, and Pb) in particulate matter (PM) were evaluated. For noise pollution, the noise level inside and outside the acoustic hood was 96.4 and 78.9 dB, respectively. Meanwhile, it had a significant effect on A-weighted sound level with a reduction from 98.3 to 63.6 dB. For CFC-11 exposure, abundant CFC-11 (255 mg/m(3)) was detected in the acoustic hood. However, the mean concentration of CFC-11 at the outline of polyurethane foam collection was obviously diminished to 14 mg/m(3), and no CFC-11 was monitored around the acoustic hood. The concentrations of PM and heavy metals in PM outside the acoustic hood were lower than those inside the acoustic hood due to the physical barriers of the acoustic hood. Based on the risk assessment, only adverse health effect caused by Pb might likely appear. All the results can provide the basic data for pollution control and risk assessment in waste refrigerator recycling system.

  16. Internal Performance of a Fixed-Shroud Nonaxisymmetric Nozzle Equipped with an Aft-Hood Exhaust Deflector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asbury, Scott C.

    1997-01-01

    An investigation was conducted in the model preparation area of the Langley 16-Foot Transonic Tunnel to determine the internal performance of a fixed-shroud nonaxisymmetric nozzle equipped with an aft-hood exhaust deflector. Model geometric parameters investigated included nozzle power setting, aft-hood deflector angle, throat area control with the aft-hood deflector deployed, and yaw vector angle. Results indicate that cruise configurations produced peak performance in the range consistent with previous investigations of nonaxisymmetric convergent-divergent nozzles. The aft-hood deflector produced resultant pitch vector angles that were always less than the geometric aft-hood deflector angle when the nozzle throat was positioned upstream of the deflector exit. Significant losses in resultant thrust ratio occurred when the aft-hood deflector was deployed with an upstream throat location. At each aft-hood deflector angle, repositioning the throat to the deflector exit improved pitch vectoring performance and, in some cases, substantially improved resultant thrust ratio performance. Transferring the throat to the deflector exit allowed the flow to be turned upstream of the throat at subsonic Mach numbers, thereby eliminating losses associated with turning supersonic flow. Internal throat panel deflections were largely unsuccessful in generating yaw vectoring.

  17. Effect ofwater level lfuctuations ontemporal-spatial patterns offoraging activities bythe wintering Hooded Crane (Grus monacha)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Dongmei Zhang; Lizhi Zhou; Yunwei Song

    2015-01-01

    Background: The Yangtze River lfoodplain provides important wintering habitats for Hooded Cranes (Grus monacha) in China. Fluctuations in the water level change foraging habitat and food availability, affecting their temporal-spatial patterns of foraging activities. It is of considerable importance to investigate the effect of these lfuctuations on food availability for wintering Hooded Cranes and their foraging response to these changes. Understanding their behavior patterns is beneifcial in protecting the wintering crane population and restoring their wintering habitats. Methods: A ifeld survey of the winter behavior of cranes was carried out at Shengjin Lake from November in 2013 to April in 2014. Habitat variables, as well as the spatial distribution and behavior patterns of wintering cranes at their foraging sites during ifve stages of water level lfuctuation were collected. Based on this data we analyzed the relation-ship of foraging behavior relative to water level lfuctuations and habitat types. Results: The foraging habitats used by Hooded Cranes varied at the different water level stages. As the water level decreased, the use of meadows and mudlfats increased. When the water dropped to its lowest level, the use by the Hooded Crane in the mudlfats reached a peak. There were statistically signiifcant differences in time budget in the three types of habitats over the ifve stages of the water level. In the mudlfats, the foraging behavior and maintenance behavior varied signiifcantly with the water level, while the alert behavior showed little variation. Analysis of a general-ized linear model showed that the ifve water level stages and three habitat types had a signiifcant effect on forag-ing behavior, while the combined effect of these two variables was signiifcant on the foraging time budget and the length of foraging activity of the Hooded Crane. Conclusions: With the decrease in the water level, the use of mudlfats by Hooded Cranes increased

  18. Using ANN to predict E. coli accumulation in coves based on interaction amongst various physical, chemical and biological factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dwivedi, D.; Mohanty, B. P.; Lesikar, B. J.

    2008-12-01

    The accumulation of Escherichia Coli (E. coli) in canals, coves and streams is the result of a number of interacting processes operating at multiple spatial and temporal scales. Fate and transport of E. coli in surface water systems is governed by different physical, chemical, and biological processes. Various models developed to quantify each of these processes occurring at different scales are not so far pooled into a single predictive model. At present, very little is known about the fate and transport of E. coli in the environment. We hypothesize that E. coli population heterogeneity in canals and coves is affected by physical factors (average stream width and/ depth, secchi depth, flow and flow severity, day since precipitation, aquatic vegetation, solar radiation, dissolved and total suspended solids etc.); chemical factors (basic water quality, nutrients, organic compounds, pH, and toxicity etc.); and biological factors (type of bacterial strain, predation, and antagonism etc.). The specific objectives of this study are to: (1) examine the interactions between E. coli and various coupled physical, chemical and biological factors; (2) examine the interactions between E. coli and toxic organic pollutants and other pathogens (viruses); and (3) evaluate qualitatively the removal efficiency of E. coli. We suggest that artificial neural networks (ANN) may be used to provide a possible solution to this problem. To demonstrate the application of the approach, we develop an ANN representing E. coli accumulation in two polluted sites at Lake Granbury in the upper part of the Brazos River in North Central Texas. The graphical structure of ANN explicitly represents cause- and-effect relationship between system variables. Each of these relationships can then be quantified independently using an approach suitable for the type and scale of information available. Preliminary results revealed that E. coli concentrations in canals show seasonal variations regardless of change

  19. Flow and containment characteristics of a sash-less, variable-height inclined air-curtain fume hood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Rong Fung; Chen, Jia-Kun; Hung, Wei-Lun

    2013-08-01

    To increase containment efficiency and reduce energy consumption, a sash-less, variable-height inclined air-curtain fume hood (sIAC hood) was developed and tested by a laser-assisted flow visualization technique and tracer-gas detection method. This novel design requires neither sash nor baffle. The sIAC hood employed the inclined push-pull air-curtain technique and two deflection plates installed on the side walls of the hood to induce a tetra-vortex flow structure. The results of flow visualization showed that the slot for suction flow, offset from the slot for the up-blowing jet, caused the air curtain to incline towards the rear wall, thus enhancing the robustness of the tetra-vortex flow structure. Such a flow structure could reduce the influence of draught and human walk-by across the hood face. The containment around the central area of the hood was isolated by the inclined push-pull air curtain. The pollutants carried by the reverse flow induced by the flow separation were guided by the deflection plates from the side walls towards the rear, thus contributing to the formation of the tetra-vortex flow structure. The up/down movable ceiling positioned the suction slot close to the device's pollutant emission opening, but left room (less than 50 cm) for unrestricted hand movement. Testing was carried out based on the methodology described in EN14175. The results of a static test showed that small face velocities of 0.25 and 0.16 m s(-1) were enough to obtain nearly null leakage levels for low and tall pollutant sources. The results of a traversing plate test showed that the face velocity, 0.32 m s(-1), would cause negligibly small leakage levels. The sIAC hood could obtain significantly higher containment efficiency than a conventional hood by operating at a face velocity significantly lower than that of conventional hoods.

  20. Optimum Tilt Angle of Flow Guide in Steam Turbine Exhaust Hood Considering the Effect of Last Stage Flow Field

    Science.gov (United States)

    CAO, Lihua; LIN, Aqiang; LI, Yong; XIAO, Bin

    2017-07-01

    Heat transfer and vacuum in condenser are influenced by the aerodynamic performance of steam turbine exhaust hood. The current research on exhaust hood is mainly focused on analyzing flow loss and optimal design of its structure without consideration of the wet steam condensing flow and the exhaust hood coupled with the front and rear parts. To better understand the aerodynamic performance influenced by the tilt angle of flow guide inside a diffuser, taking a 600 MW steam turbine as an example, a numerical simulator CFX is adopted to solve compressible three-dimensional (3D) Reynolds time-averaged N-S equations and standard k- ɛ turbulence model. And the exhaust hood flow field influenced by different tilt angles of flow guide is investigated with consideration of the wet steam condensing flow and the exhaust hood coupled with the last stage blades and the condenser throat. The result shows that the total pressure loss coefficient and the static pressure recovery coefficient of exhaust hood change regularly and monotonously with the gradual increase of tilt angle of flow guide. When the tilt angle of flow guide is within the range of 30° to 40°, the static pressure recovery coefficient is in the range of 15.27% to 17.03% and the total pressure loss coefficient drops to approximately 51%, the aerodynamic performance of exhaust hood is significantly improved. And the effective enthalpy drop in steam turbine increases by 0.228% to 0.274%. It is feasible to obtain a reasonable title angle of flow guide by the method of coupling the last stage and the condenser throat to exhaust hood in combination of the wet steam model, which provides a practical guidance to flow guide transformation and optimal design in exhaust hood.

  1. Optimum Tilt Angle of Flow Guide in Steam Turbine Exhaust Hood Considering the Effect of Last Stage Flow Field

    Science.gov (United States)

    CAO, Lihua; LIN, Aqiang; LI, Yong; XIAO, Bin

    2017-03-01

    Heat transfer and vacuum in condenser are influenced by the aerodynamic performance of steam turbine exhaust hood. The current research on exhaust hood is mainly focused on analyzing flow loss and optimal design of its structure without consideration of the wet steam condensing flow and the exhaust hood coupled with the front and rear parts. To better understand the aerodynamic performance influenced by the tilt angle of flow guide inside a diffuser, taking a 600 MW steam turbine as an example, a numerical simulator CFX is adopted to solve compressible three-dimensional (3D) Reynolds time-averaged N-S equations and standard k-ɛ turbulence model. And the exhaust hood flow field influenced by different tilt angles of flow guide is investigated with consideration of the wet steam condensing flow and the exhaust hood coupled with the last stage blades and the condenser throat. The result shows that the total pressure loss coefficient and the static pressure recovery coefficient of exhaust hood change regularly and monotonously with the gradual increase of tilt angle of flow guide. When the tilt angle of flow guide is within the range of 30° to 40°, the static pressure recovery coefficient is in the range of 15.27% to 17.03% and the total pressure loss coefficient drops to approximately 51%, the aerodynamic performance of exhaust hood is significantly improved. And the effective enthalpy drop in steam turbine increases by 0.228% to 0.274%. It is feasible to obtain a reasonable title angle of flow guide by the method of coupling the last stage and the condenser throat to exhaust hood in combination of the wet steam model, which provides a practical guidance to flow guide transformation and optimal design in exhaust hood.

  2. The role of religious and existential well-being in families with Lynch syndrome: prevention, family communication, and psychosocial adjustment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Bronwyn A; Hadley, Donald W; Koehly, Laura M

    2013-08-01

    This study explored the role of religious (RWB) and existential well-being (EWB) on psychosocial factors, support network characteristics, and screening practices in families with Lynch syndrome, also referred to as hereditary nonpolyposis colon cancer (HNPCC). Participants were individuals with Lynch syndrome associated cancers and their first-degree relatives at risk of inheriting an identified deleterious mutation. Analyses considered both family RWB and EWB norms and individual deviations from that norm. Analyses controlled for age, gender, cancer diagnosis, number of respondents, and network size. Higher family RWB was associated with increased depressive symptoms (p family EWB was related to decreased depression symptoms (p family EWB was associated with fecal occult blood testing (p family communication about genetic counselling and testing (p family-level effects. Individuals with lower EWB than their family had lower perceived risk for colorectal cancer (p communicated disease risk information to less family members (p family also had higher cancer worry (p family network and being aware of family characteristics which may impact individual adjustment to disease risk. Interventions considering family-level factors may provide efficient pathways to improving psychosocial factors, screening practices, communication about disease risk and genetic testing, and cancer prevention.

  3. Investigating annual diving behaviour by hooded seals (Cystophora cristata within the Northwest Atlantic Ocean.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julie M Andersen

    Full Text Available With the exception of relatively brief periods when they reproduce and moult, hooded seals, Cystophora cristata, spend most of the year in the open ocean where they undergo feeding migrations to either recover or prepare for the next fasting period. Valuable insights into habitat use and diving behaviour during these periods have been obtained by attaching Satellite Relay Data Loggers (SRDLs to 51 Northwest (NW Atlantic hooded seals (33 females and 18 males during ice-bound fasting periods (2004-2008. Using General Additive Models (GAMs we describe habitat use in terms of First Passage Time (FPT and analyse how bathymetry, seasonality and FPT influence the hooded seals' diving behaviour described by maximum dive depth, dive duration and surface duration. Adult NW Atlantic hooded seals exhibit a change in diving activity in areas where they spend >20 h by increasing maximum dive depth, dive duration and surface duration, indicating a restricted search behaviour. We found that male and female hooded seals are spatially segregated and that diving behaviour varies between sexes in relation to habitat properties and seasonality. Migration periods are described by increased dive duration for both sexes with a peak in May, October and January. Males demonstrated an increase in dive depth and dive duration towards May (post-breeding/pre-moult and August-October (post-moult/pre-breeding but did not show any pronounced increase in surface duration. Females dived deepest and had the highest surface duration between December and January (post-moult/pre-breeding. Our results suggest that the smaller females may have a greater need to recover from dives than that of the larger males. Horizontal segregation could have evolved as a result of a resource partitioning strategy to avoid sexual competition or that the energy requirements of males and females are different due to different energy expenditure during fasting periods.

  4. Cost-Effectiveness Analysis of Different Genetic Testing Strategies for Lynch Syndrome in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ying-Erh; Kao, Sung-Shuo; Chung, Ren-Hua

    2016-01-01

    Patients with Lynch syndrome (LS) have a significantly increased risk of developing colorectal cancer (CRC) and other cancers. Genetic screening for LS among patients with newly diagnosed CRC aims to identify mutations in the disease-causing genes (i.e., the DNA mismatch repair genes) in the patients, to offer genetic testing for relatives of the patients with the mutations, and then to provide early prevention for the relatives with the mutations. Several genetic tests are available for LS, such as DNA sequencing for MMR genes and tumor testing using microsatellite instability and immunohistochemical analyses. Cost-effectiveness analyses of different genetic testing strategies for LS have been performed in several studies from different countries such as the US and Germany. However, a cost-effectiveness analysis for the testing has not yet been performed in Taiwan. In this study, we evaluated the cost-effectiveness of four genetic testing strategies for LS described in previous studies, while population-specific parameters, such as the mutation rates of the DNA mismatch repair genes and treatment costs for CRC in Taiwan, were used. The incremental cost-effectiveness ratios based on discounted life years gained due to genetic screening were calculated for the strategies relative to no screening and to the previous strategy. Using the World Health Organization standard, which was defined based on Taiwan's Gross Domestic Product per capita, the strategy based on immunohistochemistry as a genetic test followed by BRAF mutation testing was considered to be highly cost-effective relative to no screening. Our probabilistic sensitivity analysis results also suggest that the strategy has a probability of 0.939 of being cost-effective relative to no screening based on the commonly used threshold of $50,000 to determine cost-effectiveness. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first cost-effectiveness analysis for evaluating different genetic testing strategies for LS in

  5. Dietary B vitamin and methionine intake and MTHFR C677T genotype on risk of colorectal tumors in Lynch syndrome : the GEOLynch cohort study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jung, Audrey Y.; van Duijnhoven, Franzel J. B.; Nagengast, Fokko M.; Botma, Akke; Heine-Broring, Renate C.; Kleibeuker, Jan H.; Vasen, Hans F. A.; Harryvan, Jan L.; Winkels, Renate M.; Kampman, Ellen

    Dietary intake of B vitamins and methionine, essential components of DNA synthesis and methylation pathways, may influence colorectal tumor (CRT) development. The impact of B vitamins on colorectal carcinogenesis in individuals with Lynch syndrome (LS) is unknown but is important given their high

  6. Ovarian metastasis from uveal melanoma with MLH1/PMS2 protein loss in a patient with germline MLH1 mutated Lynch syndrome: consequence or coincidence?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lobo, João; Pinto, Carla; Freitas, Micaela; Pinheiro, Manuela; Vizcaino, Rámon; Oliva, Esther; Teixeira, Manuel R; Jerónimo, Carmen; Bartosch, Carla

    2017-03-01

    Currently, uveal melanoma is not considered within the Lynch syndrome tumor spectrum. However, there are studies suggesting a contribution of microsatellite instability in sporadic uveal melanoma tumorigenesis. We report a 45-year-old woman who was referred for genetic counseling due to a family history of Lynch syndrome caused by a MLH1 mutation. She originally underwent enucleation of the right eye secondary to a uveal spindle cell melanoma diagnosed at age 25. The tumor recurred 22 years later presenting as an ovarian metastasis and concurrently a microscopic endometrial endometrioid carcinoma, grade 1/3 was diagnosed. Subsequent studies highlighted that the uveal melanoma showed high microsatellite instability and loss of MLH1 and PMS2 protein expression, with no MLH1 promoter methylation or BRAF mutation. Additionally, a GNAQ mutation was found. We conclude that our patient's uveal melanoma is most likely related to MLH1 germline mutation and thus Lynch syndrome related. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of uveal melanoma showing MLH1/PMS2 protein loss in the context of Lynch syndrome.

  7. Los actos tienen consecuencias. Lógicas del mind-game film en la trilogía de Los Ángeles de David Lynch

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Elsaesser, T.

    2013-01-01

    Actions Do Have Consequences. Logics of the Mind-Game Film in David Lynch’s Los Angeles-Trilogy. David Lynch is a director, along with other auteurs, notably Michael Haneke and Lars von Trier, whose authorial identity and creative authority —and the challenges these encounter in the 21st century— ar

  8. Los actos tienen consecuencias. Lógicas del mind-game film en la trilogía de Los Ángeles de David Lynch

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Elsaesser, T.

    2013-01-01

    Actions Do Have Consequences. Logics of the Mind-Game Film in David Lynch’s Los Angeles-Trilogy. David Lynch is a director, along with other auteurs, notably Michael Haneke and Lars von Trier, whose authorial identity and creative authority —and the challenges these encounter in the 21st century—

  9. Dietary B vitamin and methionine intake and MTHFR C677T genotype on risk of colorectal tumors in Lynch syndrome : the GEOLynch cohort study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jung, Audrey Y.; van Duijnhoven, Franzel J. B.; Nagengast, Fokko M.; Botma, Akke; Heine-Broring, Renate C.; Kleibeuker, Jan H.; Vasen, Hans F. A.; Harryvan, Jan L.; Winkels, Renate M.; Kampman, Ellen

    2014-01-01

    Dietary intake of B vitamins and methionine, essential components of DNA synthesis and methylation pathways, may influence colorectal tumor (CRT) development. The impact of B vitamins on colorectal carcinogenesis in individuals with Lynch syndrome (LS) is unknown but is important given their high li

  10. Hood River and Pelton Ladder Evaluation Studies, Annual Report 2000-2001.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olsen, Erik

    2009-09-01

    The Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) funded the development of two master plans which outline the rationale, and general approach, for implementing a defined group of projects that are an integral part of a comprehensive watershed goal to 'Protect, enhance and restore wild and natural populations of anadromous and resident fish within the Hood River Subbasin'. The Hood River Production Master Plan and the Pelton Ladder Master Plan were completed in 1991 and subsequently approved by the Northwest Power Planning Council in 1992. Action items identified in the two master plans, as well as in a later document entitled 'Hood River/Pelton Ladder Master Agreement' (ODFW and CTWSRO Undated), are designed to achieve two biological fish objectives: (1) to increase production of wild summer and winter steelhead (Oncorhynchus mykiss) to levels commensurate with the subbasins current carrying capacity and (2) re-establishing a self-sustaining population of spring chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha). Numerical fish objectives for subbasin escapement, spawner escapement, and subbasin harvest are defined for each of these species in Coccoli (2000). Several projects are presently funded by the BPA to achieve the Hood River subbasin's numerical fish objectives for summer and winter steelhead and spring chinook salmon. They include BPA project numbers 1998-021-00 (Hood River Fish Habitat), 1998-053-03 (Hood River Production Program - CTWSRO: M&E), 1998-053-07 (Parkdale Fish Facility), 1998-053-08 (Powerdale/Oak Springs O&M), and 1998-053-12 (Hood River Steelhead Genetics Study). Collectively, they are implemented under the umbrella of what has come to be defined as the Hood River Production Program (HRPP). The HRPP is jointly implemented by the Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife (ODFW) and The Confederated Tribes of the Warm Springs Reservation of Oregon (CTWSRO). Strategies for achieving the HRPP's biological fish objectives for the Hood

  11. Relativity of extensor tendon hood anatomy to allogenic tendon hood grafting: an experimental study%伸肌腱腱帽解剖与异体腱帽移植的相关性实验研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱伟; 王澍寰; 张友乐

    2001-01-01

    Objective To observe the anatomy of the extensor tendon hood and investigate its relation to allogenic tendon hood grafting. Methods 24 fingers from 6 fresh adult cadaver hands were used for dissection. The dynamical and static structures of the extensor tendon hood were observed. The sliding range of the extensor tendon at the site of tendon hood was measured. Results The extensor tendon hood was longer on the radial side than on the ulnar side in all fingers. The excursion scope of extensor tendon hoods ranged from 0.9 cm to 1.5 cm, with the longest in the index finger and the shortest in the small finger. Conclusions Allogenic tendon hood grafting can restore the original structure of the extensor tendon hood and avoid impairment of finger extension caused by sliding down of the tendon following autogenous tendon grafting.%目的 探讨伸肌腱腱帽解剖与异体腱帽移植的相关性研究。方法 对6只新鲜尸手24指指伸肌腱腱帽的动力结构和静力结构进行观察,并测定了各指伸肌腱在腱帽处的滑动范围。结果 各指腱帽桡、尺侧的长度均是桡侧长于尺侧,各指伸肌腱腱帽的滑动范围在0.9 ~ 1.5 cm间,示指最大,小指最小。结论 异体腱帽移植可恢复伸肌腱腱帽的原有结构,可避免自体肌腱移植后的肌腱下滑而影响伸指功能的恢复。

  12. Flow and leakage characteristics of a sashless inclined air-curtain (sIAC) fume hood containing tall pollutant-generation tanks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jia-Kun; Huang, Rong Fung; Hung, Wei-Lun

    2013-01-01

    In many fume hood applications, pollutant-generation devices are tall. Human operators of a fume hood must stand close to the front of the hood and lift up their hands to reach the top opening of the tall tank. In this situation, it is inconvenient to access the conventional hood because the sash acts as a barrier. Also, the bluff-body wake in front of the operator's chest causes a problem. By using laser-assisted smoke flow visualization and tracer-gas test methods, the present study examines a sashless inclined air-curtain (sIAC) fume hood for tall pollutant-generation tanks, with a mannequin standing in front of the hood face. The configuration of the sIAC fume hood, which had the important element of a backward-inclined push-pull air curtain, was different from conventional configurations. Depending on suction velocity, the backward-inclined air curtain had three characteristic modes: straight, concave, and attachment. A large recirculation bubble covering the area--from the hood ceiling to the work surface--was formed behind the inclined air curtain in the straight and concave modes. In the attachment mode, the inclined air curtain was attached to the rear wall of the hood, about 50 cm from the hood ceiling, and bifurcated into up and down streams. Releasing the pollutants at an altitude above where the inclined air curtain was attached caused the suction slot to directly draw up the pollutants. Releasing pollutants in the rear recirculation bubble created a risk of pollutants' leaking from the hood face. The tracer-gas (SF6) test results showed that operating the sIAC hood in the attachment mode, with the pollutants being released high above the critical altitude, could guarantee almost no leakage, even though a mannequin was standing in front of the sashless hood face.

  13. Effect of baffles and a louvered bypass on the airflow and the convective patterns of contaminant inside a fume hood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, P; Ingham, D B; Wen, X

    1998-05-01

    Various numerical predictions are given for the containment testing of fume hoods with internal baffles of different size and at different locations and with a louvered bypass. The numerical predictions were compared with experimental data and a fairly good agreement for the air velocity was found, although there was only qualitative agreement for the concentration of the contaminant. It was found that the level of contaminant leakage at the working aperture depended not only on the size of the recirculating airflow behind the fume hood sash but also on the blockage caused by the baffles inside the fume hood near the exhaust duct. Finally, some new suggestions for the design of the fume hood have been proposed. However, before implementing these suggestions it is essential that either experimental testing be performed, or the cost-effective alternative of using numerical predictions for containment testing, to determine accurately the level of contaminant leakage from the working aperture.

  14. Análise de convergência espacial dos repasses da Lei Robin Hood Spatial convergence analysis of tax transfers from the Robin Hood Act

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noé Gonçalves Maranduba Júnior

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Alega-se que a Lei Robin Hood tem permitido uma melhor distribuição dos valores do ICMS devidos aos municípios do estado de Minas Gerais. O objetivo deste artigo é investigar se essa lei, entre os anos de 2001 e 2005, realmente foi eficaz, isto é, se, em termos relativos, municípios pobres receberam mais dessas transferências do que os municípios ricos. Para fazer isso metodologicamente, implementa-se uma análise exploratória de dados espaciais e uma análise de convergência, para verificar se as disparidades nos repasses diminuíram com o passar do tempo. Os resultados mostraram que os efeitos espaciais importaram nas análises e que não houve um efeito redistributivo dos repasses, considerando-se que o coeficiente indicador de convergência não foi significativo.One alleges that the Robin Hood Act has allowed one better distribution of the values of ICMS to municipalities of the state of Minas Gerais. The paper is aimed at verifying if the Robin Hood Act has actually revealed a redistributive effect in tax transfers to municipalities in the state over the period 2001-2005, that is, if, in relative terms, poor municipalities have received more these transfers than rich ones. In doing methodologically so, an exploratory spatial data analysis and a convergence analysis are implemented to verify if the disparities of tax redistribution have diminished over the time. The findings showed that the spatial effects were important in the analysis as well as there was no redistributive effect in the period because the convergence coefficient was not significant.

  15. REDESIGN OF OUTER HOOD PANEL OF ESEMKA R2 CAR TO IMPROVE PEDESTRIAN PROTECTION USING FINITE ELEMENT MODELING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Binyamin Binyamin

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Traffic accidents are terrible scourge that occur in many countries, specially for developing countries where transportation affairs like tangled yarn. Besides functioning as an engine compartment cover, the hood of modern compact SUV can also help to manage the impact energy of a pedestrian’s head in a vehicle-pedestrian impact. This paper presents outer hood design of Esemka R2 that has a potential to improve hood’s ability and also to absorb the impact energy of a pedestrian’s head. The developed method for the design of an outer hood configuration aims to provide a robust design and homogeneous of Head Injury Criterion (HIC for impact position at WAD 1000 and three different thicknesses (1.25 mm, 1.35 mm & 1.50 mm of outer hood panel of Esemka R2 compact SUV, taking into consideration the limited space available for deformation. The non-linear Finite Element Analysis (FEA software (Explicit Dynamics was used in this research to simulate the testing procedurs of head impact for child pedestrian. The results show that the average of comparison dimensional of outer hood panel of Esemka R2 was 4.89 mm. The minimum of deformation space meet the requirement for HIC value which required obtaining robust and homogeneous head impact performance. Outer hood thickness and materials were identified as the factors to influence the stress and HIC value of the hood. By comparing all outer hood panels, aluminium alloy as the best selected material which has the lowest value is 32.78% for the pedestrian protection.

  16. A floating bridge disrupts seaward migration and increases mortality of steelhead smolts in Hood Canal, Washington state.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Megan Moore

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Habitat modifications resulting from human transportation and power-generation infrastructure (e.g., roads, dams, bridges can impede movement and alter natural migration patterns of aquatic animal populations, which may negatively affect survival and population viability. Full or partial barriers are especially problematic for migratory species whose life histories hinge on habitat connectivity. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The Hood Canal Bridge, a floating structure spanning the northern outlet of Hood Canal in Puget Sound, Washington, extends 3.6 meters underwater and forms a partial barrier for steelhead migrating from Hood Canal to the Pacific Ocean. We used acoustic telemetry to monitor migration behavior and mortality of steelhead smolts passing four receiver arrays and several single receivers within the Hood Canal, Puget Sound, and Strait of Juan de Fuca. Twenty-seven mortality events were detected within the vicinity of the Hood Canal Bridge, while only one mortality was recorded on the other 325 receivers deployed throughout the study area. Migrating steelhead smolts were detected at the Hood Canal Bridge array with greater frequency, on more receivers, and for longer durations than smolts migrating past three comparably configured arrays. Longer migration times and paths are likely to result in a higher density of smolts near the bridge in relation to other sites along the migration route, possibly inducing an aggregative predator response to steelhead smolts. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: This study provides strong evidence of substantial migration interference and increased mortality risk associated with the Hood Canal Bridge, and may partially explain low early marine survival rates observed in Hood Canal steelhead populations. Understanding where habitat modifications indirectly increase predation pressures on threatened populations helps inform potential approaches to mitigation.

  17. Hood River and Pelton Ladder Evaluation Studies, Annual Report 2000-2001.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olsen, Erik

    2009-09-01

    The Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) funded the development of two master plans which outline the rationale, and general approach, for implementing a defined group of projects that are an integral part of a comprehensive watershed goal to 'Protect, enhance and restore wild and natural populations of anadromous and resident fish within the Hood River Subbasin'. The Hood River Production Master Plan and the Pelton Ladder Master Plan were completed in 1991 and subsequently approved by the Northwest Power Planning Council in 1992. Action items identified in the two master plans, as well as in a later document entitled 'Hood River/Pelton Ladder Master Agreement' (ODFW and CTWSRO Undated), are designed to achieve two biological fish objectives: (1) to increase production of wild summer and winter steelhead (Oncorhynchus mykiss) to levels commensurate with the subbasins current carrying capacity and (2) re-establishing a self-sustaining population of spring chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha). Numerical fish objectives for subbasin escapement, spawner escapement, and subbasin harvest are defined for each of these species in Coccoli (2000). Several projects are presently funded by the BPA to achieve the Hood River subbasin's numerical fish objectives for summer and winter steelhead and spring chinook salmon. They include BPA project numbers 1998-021-00 (Hood River Fish Habitat), 1998-053-03 (Hood River Production Program - CTWSRO: M&E), 1998-053-07 (Parkdale Fish Facility), 1998-053-08 (Powerdale/Oak Springs O&M), and 1998-053-12 (Hood River Steelhead Genetics Study). Collectively, they are implemented under the umbrella of what has come to be defined as the Hood River Production Program (HRPP). The HRPP is jointly implemented by the Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife (ODFW) and The Confederated Tribes of the Warm Springs Reservation of Oregon (CTWSRO). Strategies for achieving the HRPP's biological fish objectives for the Hood

  18. Development of a SMA-Based Slat-Cove Filler for Reduction of Aeroacoustic Noise Associated With Transport-Class Aircraft Wings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Travis L.; Kidd, Reggie T.; Hartl, Darren J.; Scholten, William D.

    2013-01-01

    Airframe noise is a significant part of the overall noise produced by typical, transport-class aircraft during the approach and landing phases of flight. Leading-edge slat noise is a prominent source of airframe noise. The concept of a slat-cove filler was proposed in previous work as an effective means of mitigating slat noise. Bench-top models were deployed at 75% scale to study the feasibility of producing a functioning slat-cove filler. Initial results from several concepts led to a more-focused effort investigating a deformable structure based upon pseudoelastic SMA materials. The structure stows in the cavity between the slat and main wing during cruise and deploys simultaneously with the slat to guide the aerodynamic flow suitably for low noise. A qualitative parametric study of SMA-enabled, slat-cove filler designs was performed on the bench-top. Computational models were developed and analyses were performed to assess the displacement response under representative aerodynamic load. The bench-top and computational results provide significant insight into design trades and an optimal design.

  19. Application of a tracer gas challenge with a human subject to investigate factors affecting the performance of laboratory fume hoods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altemose, B A; Flynn, M R; Sprankle, J

    1998-05-01

    The results of a "user" tracer gas test were applied to investigate the effects of various parameters on hood containment ability and to evaluate accepted methods to classify hood performance. This user tracer gas test was performed with a human subject standing in front of the hood. Based on the data collected, face velocity, its variability, and cross drafts are important in determining hood leakage. Results indicate that the temporal variability of face velocity may deserve as much consideration as its spatial variability, a parameter more traditionally recognized as being important. The data collected indicate that hoods with horizontally sliding sash doors perform better with the doors positioned to provide a center opening rather than when all of the doors are pushed to one side. The observed smoke patterns suggest that this trend is caused by the location and instability of vortices formed along the perimeter edge when all doors are pushed to one side. The results of manikin tracer gas tests and the user tracer gas test are inconsistent, suggesting that more research is needed to determine how best to evaluate whether a hood protects its users.

  20. Installation of a flow control device in an inclined air-curtain fume hood to control wake-induced exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jia-Kun

    2016-08-01

    An inclined plate for flow control was installed at the lower edge of the sash of an inclined air-curtain fume hood to reduce the effects of the wake around a worker standing in front of the fume hood. Flow inside the fume hood is controlled by the inclined air-curtain and deflection plates, thereby forming a quad-vortex flow structure. Controlling the face velocity of the fume hood resulted in convex, straight, concave, and attachment flow profiles in the inclined air-curtain. We used the flow visualization and conducted a tracer gas test with a mannequin to determine the performance of two sash geometries, namely, the half-cylinder and inclined plate designs. When the half-cylinder design was used, the tracer gas test registered a high leakage concentration at Vf ≦ 57.1 fpm or less. This concentration occurred at the top of the sash opening, which was close to the breathing zone of the mannequin placed in front of the fume hood. When the inclined plate design was used, the containment was good, with concentrations of 0.002-0.004 ppm, at Vf ≦ 63.0 fpm. Results indicate that an inclined plate effectively reduces the leakage concentration induced by recirculation flow structures that form in the wake of a worker standing in front of an inclined air-curtain fume hood.

  1. Hood River Monitoring and Evaluation Project, Annual Report 2002-2003.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vaivoda, Alexis

    2004-02-01

    The Hood River Production Program Monitoring and Evaluation Project is co-managed by the Confederated Tribes of Warm Springs (CTWSRO) and the Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife. The program is divided up to share responsibilities, provide efficiency, and avoid duplication. From October 2002 to September 2003 (FY 03) project strategies were implemented to monitor, protect, and restore anadromous fish and fish habitat in the Hood River subbasin. A description of the progress during FY 03 is reported here. Additionally an independent review of the entire program was completed in 2003. The purpose of the review was to determine if project goals and actions were achieved, look at critical uncertainties for present and future actions, determine cost effectiveness, and choose remedies that would increase program success. There were some immediate changes to the implementation of the project, but the bulk of the recommendations will be realized in coming years.

  2. 大卫·林奇的生平和作品%David Lynch's Biography and Filmmography

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    游飞

    2003-01-01

    @@ 生平 大卫·林奇(David Lynch)是现代美国电影创作的伟大复兴者,一个受到广泛赞誉的编剧兼导演,他还是电视制片人、摄影家、动画专家、作曲家和电脑影像艺术家.运用惊人的平衡感和技巧游走于主流电影和先锋电影的边缘,林奇为电影银幕带来一种怪诞、黑暗和诡异不安的真实感,一种由极端的暴力、怪异的喜剧和奇妙的美丽为特征的噩梦世界.

  3. Archaeological Survey at Fort Hood, Texas. Fiscal Year 1990: The Northeastern Perimeter Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-01-01

    Pseudacris cark/O Cricket frog (Acris crepltans) Bullfrog (Rana catesbeana) Plains leopard frog (Rana bk~rO Rio Grande leopard frog (Rana berkladlero...an important chronological marker for historic sites at Fort Hood. 15. Carnival glass (1905-1935): an Iridescent pressed tableware given away at... carnivals during the early part of the century (Florence 1977). 16. Depression glass (1930-1940): a pressed glass tableware usually occurring In pale pink

  4. 77 FR 26699 - Safety Zone; Coast Guard Exercise, Hood Canal, WA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-07

    ...The Coast Guard is establishing a temporary safety zone around vessels involved in a Coast Guard Ready for Operations exercise in Hood Canal, WA that will take place between May 08, 2012 and May 10, 2012. A safety zone is necessary to ensure the safety of the maritime public during the exercise and will do so by prohibiting any person or vessel from entering or remaining in the safety zone......

  5. 76 FR 70649 - Safety Zone; Department of Defense Exercise, Hood Canal, WA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-15

    ...The Coast Guard is establishing a temporary safety zone around vessels involved in a Department of Defense exercise in Hood Canal, WA that will take place on November 21, 2011. A safety zone is necessary to ensure the safety of the maritime public during the exercise. The zone will do so by prohibiting any person or vessel from entering or remaining in the safety zone unless authorized by the......

  6. Geochemical studies of rocks, water, and gases at Mt. Hood, Oregon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wollenberg, H.A.; Bowen, R.E.; Bowman, H.R.; Strisower, B.

    1979-02-01

    Mr. Hood, a composite andesitic volcano, located near Portland, Oregon, is one of several large eruptive centers which dominate the Cascade Mountains of the western United States. As part of a program of geologic, geophysical and geochemical studies to examine Mt. Hood's geothermal resource potential, samples of warm-and cold-spring water, water from a geothermal test well in Old Maid Flat, fumarolic gases, and rocks were collected and analyzed for major chemical constituents and trace elements. The only warm-spring area on Mt. Hood is Swim Springs, located on the south flank. Orifices at Swim were sampled repeatedly with little overall change noted in water chemistry between summer and winter. Oxygen and hydrogen isotope data and mixing calculations based on analyses of Swim Springs and numerous cold springs, indicate that a large component of the warm water at Swim is from near-surface runoff. Chemical geothermometry suggests that temperatures at depth in the Swim Springs system are within the range 104 to 170/sup 0/C; the temperature of unmixed hot water may exceed 200/sup 0/C. Higher-than-background chloride contents and specific conductances of cold springs on the south flank of the mountain suggest that there is a small component of thermal water in these sources. A geothermal model of Mt. Hood is proposed wherein snow- and glacier-melt water near the summit comes in close promimity to the hot central neck of the mountain, manifested by the summit-crater fumaroles.Iridium was detected in warm and cold spring waters and in a sample of altered andesite.

  7. Recent eruptive history of Mount Hood, Oregon, and potential hazards from future eruptions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crandell, Dwight Raymond

    1980-01-01

    Each of three major eruptive periods at Mount Hood (12,000-15,000(?), 1,500-1,800, and 200-300 years ago) produced dacite domes, pyroclastic flows, and mudflows, but virtually no pumice. Most of the fine lithic ash that mantles the slopes of the volcano and the adjacent mountains fell from ash clouds that accompanied the pyroclastic flows. Widely scattered pumice lapilli that are present at the ground surface on the south, east, and north sides of Mount Hood may have been erupted during the mid-1800's, when the last known activity of the volcano occurred. The geologically recent history of Mount Hood suggests that the most likely eruptive event in the future will be the formation of another dome, probably within the present south-facing crater. The principal hazards that could accompany dome formation include pyroclastic flows and mudflows moving from the upper slopes of the volcano down the floors of valleys. Ash clouds which accompany pyroclastic flows may deposit as much as a meter of fine ash close to their source, and as much as 20 centimeters at a distance of 11 kilometers downwind from the pyroclastic flows. Other hazards that could result from such eruptions include laterally directed explosive blasts that could propel rock fragments outward from the sides of a dome at high speed, and toxic volcanic gases. The scarcity of pumiceous ash erupted during the last 15,000 years suggests that explosive pumice eruptions are not a major hazard at Mount Hood; thus, there seems to be little danger that such an eruption will significantly affect the Portland (Oregon) metropolitan area in the near future.

  8. A Descriptive Study of the Utilization of Behavioral Health Resources in the Fort Hood Catchment Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-07-15

    those with MDC 19, 20 and 21 diagnoses was estimated by using the Automated Staffing Assessment Model ( ASAM ) estimations and provider ratios, TRESA...were made to the ASAM and my prediction model to see where Fort Hood currently stands with the amount of providers to the amount of demand. Figure 12...a reliability check of my proposal model using Child and Adolescence Psychiatric Evaluations Services (CAPES) because ASAM and the TDA were

  9. Temperature profiles from expendable bathythermograph (XBT) casts from the LYNCH in the North Atlantic Ocean in support of the Integrated Global Ocean Services System (IGOSS) project from 26 June 1973 to 14 July 1973 (NODC Accession 7301081)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — XBT data were collected from the LYNCH in support of the Integrated Global Ocean Services System (IGOSS) project. Data were collected US Navy; Naval Oceanographic...

  10. Clackamas/Hood River Habitat Enhancement Project; Implementation Plan, 1988-1992 Technical Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Medel, Ron; Hohler, David B. (Mount Hood National Forest, Clackamas River Ranger District, Estacada, OR); MacDonald, Ken (Mount Hood National Forest, Hood River Ranger District, Parkdale, OR)

    1988-01-01

    An Implementation Plan and Statement of Work is provided for high priority work in the Clackamas. Hood River and Fifteenmile sub-basins. These documents describe fish habitat improvement opportunities that can be implemented by the 1991 deadline established by the Northwest Power Planning Council. The Clackamas/Hood River Enhancement Program is an on-going project initiated in 1984. It is being cooperatively funded by the Bonneville Power Administration and the Wt. Hood National Forest. Species for management emphasis include spring chinook and coho salmon, and summer and winter steelhead trout. Improvement activities are designed to improve access at passage barriers and increase the quality and quantity of available rearing habitat. Project work will result in improved access to about 12.5 miles of high quality habitat, creation of nearly 70,000 square feet of off-channel habitat, and the addition of structure to approximately 32 miles of stream. At completion of the project, annual production capability from these two sub-basins will be increased by 85-100,000 smolts. Details of a monitoring and evaluation effort consistent with measure 200(d)(l) of the Council's Fish and Wildlife Program are also provided.

  11. Capture Efficiency of Cooking-Related Fine and Ultrafine Particles by Residential Exhaust Hoods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lunden, Melissa M.; Delp, William W.

    2014-06-05

    Effective exhaust hoods can mitigate the indoor air quality impacts of pollutant emissions from residential cooking. This study reports capture efficiencies (CE) measured for cooking generated particles for scripted cooking procedures in a 121-m3 chamber with kitchenette. CEs also were measured for burner produced CO2 during cooking and separately for pots and pans containing water. The study used four exhaust hoods previously tested by Delp and Singer (Environ. Sci. Technol., 2012, 46, 6167-6173). For pan-frying a hamburger over medium heat on the back burner, CEs for particles were similar to those for burner produced CO2 and mostly above 80percent. For stir-frying green beans in a wok (high heat, front burner), CEs for burner CO2 during cooking varied by hood and airflow: CEs were 34-38percent for low (51?68 L s-1) and 54?72percent for high (109?138 L s-1) settings. CEs for 0.3?2.0 ?m particles during front burner stir-frying were 3?11percent on low and 16?70percent on high settings. Results indicate that CEs measured for burner CO2 are not predictive of CEs of cooking-generated particles under all conditions, but they may be suitable to identify devices with CEs above 80percent both for burner combustion products and for cooking-related particles.

  12. Correlation between airflow patterns and performance of a laboratory fume hood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tseng, Li-Ching; Huang, Rong Fung; Chen, Chih-Chieh; Chang, C-P

    2006-12-01

    To understand the physical mechanisms of the contaminant dispersion and containment leakage during the ventilation process through a laboratory fume hood, the complicated three-dimensional flow patterns and the real-time tracer gas (SF6) leakage were studied via the laser-assisted flow visualization method and the standard/special gas sampling technique, respectively. Through flow visualization, the large-scale vortex structures and boundary layer separations were found around the side poles and doorsill of the hood. In the near-wake region of the manikin, large recirculation zones and wavy flow structures were also identified. When tracer gas concentration measurements were conducted point-by-point across the sash opening, the areas near the doorsill, the lower parts of the side poles, and the sides of the manikin showed significant contaminant leaks. These areas with high contaminant leaks exactly corresponded to where the flow recirculated or separated. However, when the ANSI/ASHRAE 110-1995 protocol was used to measure the concentration of SF6 at the breathing zone of the manikin, no appreciable leakage was detected. It is suggested that a method based on the aerodynamic features and multipoint leakage detections would reflect a more realistic evaluation of overall performance of laboratory fume hood than a single-point sampling method at the manikin's breathing zone.

  13. A Shock Mitigation of Pedestrian-Vehicle Impact Using Active Hood Lift System: Deploying Time Investigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tae-Hoon Lee

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the deploying time (or response time of an active hood lift system (AHLS of a passenger vehicle activated by gunpowder actuator. In this work, this is accomplished by changing principal design parameters of the latch part mechanism of the hood system. After briefly introducing the working principle of the AHLS operated by the gunpowder actuator, the governing equations of the AHLS are formulated for each different deploying motion. Subsequently, using the governing equations, the response time for deploying the hold lift system is determined by changing several geometric distances such as the distance from the rotational center of the pop-up guide to the point of the latch in the axial and vertical directions. Then, a comparison is made of the total response time to completely deploy the hood lift system with the existing conventional AHLS and proposed AHLS. In addition, the workable driving speed of the proposed AHLS is compared with the conventional one by changing the powder volume of the actuator.

  14. Don Quixote, Machiavelli, and Robin Hood: public health practice, past and present.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mullan, F

    2000-05-01

    Since the mid-19th century, when the first formal health departments were established in the United States, commissioners, directors, and secretaries of public health have functioned as senior members of the staffs of public executives, mayors, governors, and presidents. They have provided important political, managerial, and scientific leadership to agencies of government that have played increasingly important roles in national life, from the sanitary revolution of the 19th century to the prevention of HIV/AIDS and the control of tobacco use today. Although public health officials come from a variety of backgrounds and oversee agencies of varied size and composition, there are philosophical themes that describe and define the commonality of their work. These themes are captured metaphorically by 3 celebrated figures: Don Quixote, Machiavelli, and Robin Hood. By turns, the public health official functions as a determined idealist (Don Quixote), a cunning political strategist (Machiavelli), and an agent who redistributes resources from the wealthier sectors of society to the less well off (Robin Hood.) All 3 personae are important, but, it is argued, Robin Hood is the most endangered.

  15. Geothermal investment analysis with site-specific applications to Roosevelt Hot Springs and Cove Fort-Sulphurdale, Utah

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cassel, T.A.V.; Edelstein, R.H.; Blair, P.D.

    1978-12-01

    The analysis and modeling of investment behavior in the development of hydrothermal electric power facilities are reported. This investment behavior reflects a degree of sensitivity to public policy alternatives concerning taxation and regulation of the resource and its related energy conversion facilities. The objective of the current research is to provide a realistic and theoretically sound means for estimating the impacts of such public policy alternatives. A stochastic simulation model was developed which offers an efficient means for site-specific investment analysis of private sector firms and investors. The results of the first year of work are discussed including the identification, analysis, quantification and modeling of: a decision tree reflecting the sequence of procedures, timing and stochastic elements of hydrothermal resource development projects; investment requirements, expenses and revenues incurred in the exploration, development and utilization of hydrothermal resources for electric power generation; and multiattribute investment decision criteria of the several types of firms in the geothermal industry. An application of the investment model to specific resource sites in the state of Utah is also described. Site specific data for the Known Geothermal Resource Areas of Roosevelt Hot Springs and Cove Fort-Sulphurdale are given together with hypothesized generation capacity growth rates.

  16. Giraut de Borneil, “Ben cove, pus ja bayssa·l ram” (BdT 242.25

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pietro G. Beltrami

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper will offer a revision, with a translation and commentary, of the text of “Ben cove, pus ja baissa·l ram” by Giraut de Borneil, with a new examination of the manuscript tradition after the monographic editions by Adolf Kolsen and Ruth Verity Sharman. In particular the paper will offer a new reading of l. 20, transmitted only by Chansonnier a, while the other manuscripts have a lacuna that seems to have been crudely corrected by Sg. The interpretation of “e leis s’embla, que a miralh” as ‘and she, who holds a mirror, is elusive’ restores an image of the lady filled with pride on seeing her own beauty reflected in a mirror that is also in Raimbaut d’Aurenga and Pons de Capduoill. In the Introduction the text is interpreted as an example of two different aspects of Giraut’s poetry, expressed through two different voices in the text, the author’s ‘self’ and the lover’s ‘self’. The former, who speaks in the first stanza, gives importance to his aiming for excellence; the latter, who speaks in the following stanzas, presents contents and forms belonging to a discourse on love. Finally, the point is made that where the two parts meet, at l. 9 “E per ma guerreira cui am” ‘and for my enemy whom I love’, the text is of great poetic intensity.

  17. Sessile macro-epibiotic community of solitary ascidians, ecosystem engineers in soft substrates of Potter Cove, Antarctica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clara Rimondino

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The muddy bottoms of inner Potter Cove, King George Island (Isla 25 de Mayo, South Shetlands, Antarctica, show a high density and richness of macrobenthic species, particularly ascidians. In other areas, ascidians have been reported to play the role of ecosystem engineers, as they support a significant number of epibionts, increasing benthic diversity. In this study, a total of 21 sessile macro-epibiotic taxa present on the ascidian species Corella antarctica Sluiter, 1905, Cnemidocarpa verrucosa (Lesson, 1830 and Molgula pedunculata Herdman, 1881 were identified, with Bryozoa being the most diverse. There were differences between the three ascidian species in terms of richness, percent cover and diversity of sessile macro-epibionts. The morphological characteristics of the tunic surface, the available area for colonization (and its relation with the age of the basibiont individuals and the pH of the ascidian tunic seem to explain the observed differences. Recent environmental changes in the study area (increase of suspended particulate matter caused by glaciers retreat have been related to observed shifts in the benthic community structure, negatively affecting the abundance and distribution of the studied ascidian species. Considering the diversity of sessile macro-epibionts found on these species, the impact of environmental shifts may be greater than that estimated so far.

  18. Declining metal levels at Foundry Cove (Hudson River, New York): Response to localized dredging of contaminated sediments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mackie, Joshua A. [Moss Landing Marine Laboratories, Invertebrate Zoology, 8272 Moss Landing Road, CA 95039-9647 (United States)], E-mail: jmackie@mlml.calstate.edu; Natali, Susan M.; Levinton, Jeffrey S. [Stony Brook University, Department of Ecology and Evolution, Stony Brook, NY 11794-5245 (United States); Sanudo-Wilhelmy, Sergio A. [Stony Brook University, Department of Ecology and Evolution, Stony Brook, NY 11794-5245 (United States); University of Southern California, Marine and Environmental Biology, Los Angeles, CA 90089-0371 (United States)

    2007-09-15

    This study examines the effectiveness of remediating a well-recognized case of heavy metal pollution at Foundry Cove (FC), Hudson River, New York. This tidal freshwater marsh was polluted with battery-factory wastes (1953-1979) and dredged in 1994-1995. Eight years after remediation, dissolved and particulate metals (Cd, Co, Cu, Pb, Ni, and Ag) were found to be lower than levels in the lower Hudson near New York City. Levels of metals (Co, Ni, Cd) on suspended particles were comparatively high. Concentrations of surface sediment Cd throughout the marsh system remain high, but have decreased both in the dredged and undredged areas: Cd was 2.4-230 mg/kg dw of sediment in 2005 vs. 109-1500 mg/kg in the same area in 1983. The rate of tidal export of Cd from FC has decreased by >300-fold, suggesting that dredging successfully stemmed a major source of Cd to the Hudson River. - Dredging of a hotspot of metal-contaminated sediment is associated with a recognizable local and river-wide decline in cadmium in the Hudson River, New York.

  19. Revised Master Plan for the Hood River Production Program, Technical Report 2008.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife; Confederated Tribes of the Warm Springs Reservation

    2008-04-28

    The Hood River Production Program (HRPP) is a Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) funded program initiated as a mitigation measure for Columbia River hydrosystem effects on anadromous fish. The HRPP began in the early 1990s with the release of spring Chinook and winter steelhead smolts into the basin. Prior to implementation, co-managers, including the Confederated Tribes of the Warm Springs Reservation and the Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife drafted the Hood River Production Master Plan (O'Toole and ODFW 1991a; O'Toole and ODFW 1991b) and the Pelton Ladder Master Plan (Smith and CTWSR 1991). Both documents were completed in 1991 and subsequently approved by the Council in 1992 and authorized through a BPA-led Environmental Impact Statement in 1996. In 2003, a 10-year programmatic review was conducted for BPA-funded programs in the Hood River (Underwood et al. 2003). The primary objective of the HRPP Review (Review) was to determine if program goals were being met, and if modifications to program activities would be necessary in order to meet or revise program goals. In 2003, an agreement was signed between PacifiCorp and resource managers to remove the Powerdale Dam (RM 10) and associated adult trapping facility by 2010. The HRPP program has been dependant on the adult trap to collect broodstock for the hatchery programs; therefore, upon the dam's removal, some sort of replacement for the trap would be needed to continue the HRPP. At the same time the Hood River Subbasin Plan (Coccoli 2004) was being written and prompted the co-managers to considered future direction of the program. This included revising the numerical adult fish objectives based on the assimilated data and output from several models run on the Hood River system. In response to the Review as well as the Subbasin Plan, and intensive monitoring and evaluation of the current program, the HRPP co-managers determined the spring Chinook program was not achieving the HRPP

  20. Geology, alteration, and lithogeochemistry of the Hood volcanogenic massive sulfide (VMS) deposits, Nunavut, Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mills, Hannah K.; Piercey, Stephen J.; Toole, Trish

    2016-04-01

    The Hood volcanogenic massive sulfide (VMS) deposits are hosted by the ~2.68 Ga Amooga Booga volcanic belt (ABVB) in the northwestern Archaen Slave Craton and consist of three deposits (Hood 10, 41, and 41A) and three occurrences (46, 461, and 462). The mineralized zones consist of massive to semi-massive pyrrhotite, pyrite, chalcopyrite, sphalerite, and galena hosted predominantly by felsic volcanic flows within the predominantly mafic ABVB. The mineralized lenses occur at different stratigraphic levels and have textural, alteration, and stratigraphic features consistent with formation via subseafloor replacement. The felsic volcanic rocks in the Hood deposits can be subdivided into groups based on immobile trace element geochemistry. The main felsic types (A and B) are petrographically indistinguishable. Type A has higher high field strength element (HSFE) and rare earth element (REE) contents than type B, suggesting a higher temperature of formation. Type A rocks also have higher Nb/Ta values indicative of a greater mantle input in their genesis compared to type B rocks. Mineralization is more closely associated with type A than type B rocks. The two mafic volcanic rock types previously identified in the ABVB, type I and type II, both occur within the Hood deposits. The type II mafic group is interpreted to be the result of variable crustal contamination of type I magma. The volcanic rocks of the ABVB are interpreted to have formed in a continental margin arc/back-arc setting. The genesis of these magmatic suites involved magmatic underplating and emplacement through pre-existing sialic basement that resulted in crustal melting, mantle-crust mixing, and contamination leading to the aforementioned geochemical features in both mafic and felsic suites. This type of extensional tectonic environment was likely associated with high heat flow and is similar to global VMS environments proximal to extending continental margins (e.g., Sturgeon Lake, Bathurst, and

  1. Controls on long-term low explosivity at andesitic arc volcanoes: Insights from Mount Hood, Oregon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koleszar, Alison M.; Kent, Adam J. R.; Wallace, Paul J.; Scott, William E.

    2012-03-01

    The factors that control the explosivity of silicic volcanoes are critical for hazard assessment, but are often poorly constrained for specific volcanic systems. Mount Hood, Oregon, is a somewhat atypical arc volcano in that it is characterized by a lack of large explosive eruptions over the entire lifetime of the current edifice (~ 500,000 years). Erupted Mount Hood lavas are also compositionally homogeneous, with ~ 95% having SiO2 contents between 58 and 66 wt.%. The last three eruptive periods in particular have produced compositionally homogeneous andesite-dacite lava domes and flows. In this paper we report major element and volatile (H2O, CO2, Cl, S, F) contents of melt inclusions and selected phenocrysts from these three most recent eruptive phases, and use these and other data to consider possible origins for the low explosivity of Mount Hood. Measured volatile concentrations of melt inclusions in plagioclase, pyroxene, and amphibole from pumice indicate that the volatile contents of Mount Hood magmas are comparable to those in more explosive silicic arc volcanoes, including Mount St. Helens, Mount Mazama, and others, suggesting that the lack of explosive activity is unlikely to result solely from low intrinsic volatile concentrations or from substantial degassing prior to magma ascent and eruption. We instead argue that an important control over explosivity is the increased temperature and decreased magma viscosity that results from mafic recharge and magma mixing prior to eruption, similar to a model recently proposed by Ruprecht and Bachmann (2010). Erupted Mount Hood magmas show extensive evidence for mixing between magmas of broadly basaltic and dacitic-rhyolitic compositions, and mineral zoning studies show that mixing occurred immediately prior to eruption. Amphibole chemistry and thermobarometry also reveal the presence of multiple amphibole populations and indicate that the mixed andesites and dacites are at least 100 °C hotter than the high-SiO2

  2. Experimental Challenge of Atlantic Cod (Gadus morhua) with a Brucella pinnipedialis Strain from Hooded Seal (Cystophora cristata)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nymo, Ingebjørg Helena; Seppola, Marit; Al Dahouk, Sascha; Bakkemo, Kathrine Ryvold; Jiménez de Bagüés, María Pilar; Godfroid, Jacques; Larsen, Anett Kristin

    2016-01-01

    Pathology has not been observed in true seals infected with Brucella pinnipedialis. A lack of intracellular survival and multiplication of B. pinnipedialis in hooded seal (Cystophora cristata) macrophages in vitro indicates a lack of chronic infection in hooded seals. Both epidemiology and bacteriological patterns in the hooded seal point to a transient infection of environmental origin, possibly through the food chain. To analyse the potential role of fish in the transmission of B. pinnipedialis, Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua) were injected intraperitoneally with 7.5 x 107 bacteria of a hooded seal field isolate. Samples of blood, liver, spleen, muscle, heart, head kidney, female gonads and feces were collected on days 1, 7, 14 and 28 post infection to assess the bacterial load, and to determine the expression of immune genes and the specific antibody response. Challenged fish showed an extended period of bacteremia through day 14 and viable bacteria were observed in all organs sampled, except muscle, until day 28. Neither gross lesions nor mortality were recorded. Anti-Brucella antibodies were detected from day 14 onwards and the expression of hepcidin, cathelicidin, interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-10, and interferon (IFN)-γ genes were significantly increased in spleen at day 1 and 28. Primary mononuclear cells isolated from head kidneys of Atlantic cod were exposed to B. pinnipedialis reference (NCTC 12890) and hooded seal (17a-1) strain. Both bacterial strains invaded mononuclear cells and survived intracellularly without any major reduction in bacterial counts for at least 48 hours. Our study shows that the B. pinnipedialis strain isolated from hooded seal survives in Atlantic cod, and suggests that Atlantic cod could play a role in the transmission of B. pinnipedialis to hooded seals in the wild. PMID:27415626

  3. The Uterine Sandwich Method for Placenta Previa Accreta in Mullerian Anomaly: Combining the B-Lynch Compression Suture and an Intrauterine Gauze Tampon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mustafa Kaplanoğlu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Mullerian duct anomalies may cause obstetric complications, such as postpartum hemorrhage (PPH and placental adhesion anomalies. Uterine compression suture may be useful for controlling PPH (especially atony. In recent studies, uterine compression sutures have been used in placenta accreta. We report a case of PPH, a placenta accreta accompanying a large septae, treated with B-Lynch suture and intrauterine gauze tampon.

  4. Ambiguity and the Ethics of Reading Race and Lynching in James W. Johnson’s The Autobiography of an Ex-Colored Man (1912

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dexl, Carmen

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available James Weldon Johnson’s novel The Autobiography of an Ex-Colored Man (1912 discusses the causes, conditions, and implications of passing in a segregated society. The essay argues that the novel’s aesthetics of ambiguity conveys and reflects an ambivalence towards the concept of race. Using theories of Geoffrey Galt Harpham and John Guillory, it elaborates an ethics of reading race and lynching in The Autobiography of an Ex-Colored Man.

  5. Thermal loading as a causal factor in exceeding the 0.1 PPM laboratory fume hood control level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chessin, Saul J; Johnston, James D

    2002-07-01

    Tracer gas testing per ANSI/ASHRAE 110-1995 Method of Testing Performance of Laboratory Fume Hoods was used to investigate the role of thermal loading in exceeding laboratory fume hood control levels. Three types of typical laboratory burners (blast, Meeker, and economy) were used to provide a thermal challenge. Heat outputs of between 0 and 61,610 Btu/hr were based on fuel heat capacity (for liquid propane gas) and fuel gas flow rates. Breathing zone concentrations were measured with a MIRAN 1B2 infrared gas analyzer. Also, for each test, the difference between the room and duct temperatures (delta temperature) was measured. Results indicated a linear relationship between heat loads and tracer gas breathing zone concentrations for both Btu/hr and delta temperature. Control levels of 0.1 ppm were exceeded at less than 12,000 Btu/hr. Also, control levels were exceeded at a lower heat load when the tracer gas generation rate was increased. These results indicate that thermal loads in laboratory fume hoods increase the risk of exceeding laboratory fume hood control levels. Some compensatory measures relative to hood configuration and flow rates are recommended for laboratory operations involving heat sources.

  6. Brucella pinnipedialis hooded seal (Cystophora cristata) strain in the mouse model with concurrent exposure to PCB 153.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nymo, Ingebjørg H; das Neves, Carlos G; Tryland, Morten; Bårdsen, Bård-Jørgen; Santos, Renato Lima; Turchetti, Andreia Pereira; Janczak, Andrew M; Djønne, Berit; Lie, Elisabeth; Berg, Vidar; Godfroid, Jacques

    2014-05-01

    Brucellosis, a worldwide zoonosis, is linked to reproductive problems in primary hosts. A high proportion of Brucella-positive hooded seals (Cystophora cristata) have been detected in the declined Northeast Atlantic stock. High concentrations of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) have also been discovered in top predators in the Arctic, including the hooded seal, PCB 153 being most abundant. The aim of this study was to assess the pathogenicity of Brucella pinnipedialis hooded seal strain in the mouse model and to evaluate the outcome of Brucella spp. infection after exposure of mice to PCB 153. BALB/c mice were infected with B. pinnipedialis hooded seal strain or Brucella suis 1330, and half from each group was exposed to PCB 153 through the diet. B. pinnipedialis showed a reduced pathogenicity in the mouse model as compared to B. suis 1330. Exposure to PCB 153 affected neither the immunological parameters, nor the outcome of the infection. Altogether this indicates that it is unlikely that B. pinnipedialis contribute to the decline of hooded seals in the Northeast Atlantic.

  7. Effect of low B-Lynch suture on menstrual cycle recovery and sex hormone levels in patients after cesarean section for placenta previa

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Su-Lan Zhang; Wan-Cheng Feng; Yan Mi

    2016-01-01

    Objective:To explore the effect of low B-Lynch suture on the menstrual cycle recovery and sex hormone levels in patients after cesarean section for placenta previa.Methods:A total of 40 patients who were admitted in our hospital from August, 2013 to August, 2015 for cesarean section due to placenta previa were included in the study and randomized into the observation group and the control group. The patients in the observation group were given low B-lynch suture, while in the control group, yarns were plugged in the uterus. The bleeding during operation and 24 h after operation, the postpartum lochia duration, and menstrual cycle recovery in the two groups were observed. The postpartum FSH, E2, and LH levels in the two groups were determined.Results:The amount of bleeding during operation and 24 h after operation in the observation group was significantly less than that in the control group (P0.05). The comparison of FSH, E2, and LH levels between the two groups was not statistically significant (P>0.05).Conclusions:Low B-Lynch suture can effectively reduce the amount of bleeding after cesarean section for placenta previa, and has no effect on the menstrual recovery and ovarian function with a simple operation and less postoperative complications; therefore, it deserves to be widely recommended in the clinic.

  8. LINCHAMENTO: O CRESCIMENTO DA (INJUSTIÇA COLETIVA DIANTE DA OMISSÃO DO ESTADO / LYNCHING: GROWTH OF PUBLIC (INJUSTICE FRONT THE FAILURE OF THE STATE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Ludmilla do Nascimento Félix

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This article presents the relationship between the increase in the number of lynching in Brazil and the omission of state to comply with its duty to punish and reintegrate of offenders into community. It is explained the origins and causes of the phenomenon and its use as a form of exhibitionism punishment. Additionally, it is showed how the state inaction in combating crime allows the occurrence of private punishment and encourages its practice. It is exposed the relationship between this lethargy and the growth in crime rates which creates a cycle of violence. It is used literature review as a research methodology and it is analyzed fundamental rights and constitutional guarantees and the intolerable disrespect in relation to the case of lynched people. It is indicated that these offenses are the main reason to start an effective combat against the practice of lynching. It is justified why government needs to work together with civil society in pursuing an effective security policies and investments to combat factors that cause violence in Brazil and the mechanisms to avoid these criminal offenses.

  9. Hood River Steelhead Genetics Study; Relative Reproductive Success of Hatchery and Wild Steelhead in the Hood River, Final Report 2002-2003.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blouin, Michael

    2003-05-01

    There is a considerable interest in using hatcheries to speed the recovery of wild populations. The Bonneville Power Administration (BPA), under the authority of the Northwest Power Planning Act, is currently funding several hatchery programs in the Columbia Basin as off-site mitigation for impacts to salmon and steelhead caused by the Columbia River federal hydropower system. One such project is located on the Hood River, an Oregon tributary of the Columbia. These hatchery programs cost the region millions of dollars. However, whether such programs actually improve the status of wild fish remains untested. The goal of this project was to evaluate the effectiveness of the Hood River hatchery program as required by the Northwest Power Planning Council Fish and Wildlife Program, by the Oregon Plan for Coastal Salmonids, by NMFS ESA Section 4(d) rulings, and by the Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife (ODFW) Wild Fish Management Policy (OAR 635-07-525 through 529) and the ODFW Hatchery Fish Gene Resource Management Policy (OAR 635-07-540 through 541). The Hood River supports two populations of steelhead, a summer run and a winter run. They spawn only above the Powerdale Dam, which is a complete barrier to all salmonids. Since 1991 every adult passed above the dam has been measured, cataloged and sampled for scales. Therefore, we have a DNA sample from every adult steelhead that went over the dam to potentially spawn in the Hood River from 1991 to the present. Similar numbers of hatchery and wild fish have been passed above the dam during the last decade. During the 1990's 'old' domesticated hatchery stocks of each run (multiple generations in the hatchery, out-of-basin origin; hereafter H{sub old}) were phased out, and conservation hatchery programs were started for the purpose of supplementing the two wild populations (hereafter 'new' hatchery stocks, H{sub new}). These samples gave us the unprecedented ability to estimate, via

  10. Linchamientos y conflicto político en Los Andes Lynchings and Political conflict in The Andes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos M. Vilas

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available En 2004, los alcaldes de dos municipalidades de la región aimara de los Andes fueron linchados en la aparente culminación de agudos conflictos políticos internos y entre las respectivas comunidades y el Estado central. En este artículo se discuten ambos casos con el fin de ilustrar las transformaciones experimentadas en años recientes en la organización y la dinámica interna de las comunidades andinas, y de la articulación conflictiva de la política local en los procesos e instituciones de más amplio alcance. Precariedad social e incapacidad o renuencia del Estado para responder con eficacia a demandas básicas de determinados grupos de población configuran enmarcamientos socioeconómicos e institucionales de los linchamientos. En contraste con enfoques que enfatizan en factores culturales tradicionales o en un supuesto nacionalismo indígena, en el artículo se destaca la gravitación de fenómenos y procesos político- institucionales recientes en la transformación cultural y política de las comunidades, en el modo en que éstas procesan sus conflictos internos y con el Estado central.In 2004, two municipalitys mayors form the aimara Andes of Peru and Bolivia were subjected to mass lynchings as a result of the apparent culmination of violent political confrontations. This paper deals with these events as dramatic illustrations of the transformations the Andean communities experienced during recent decades in their internal dynamics, as well as in the articulation of local politics to processes and institutions beyond the communal limits. Structural precariousness combined with the state's inability or reluctance to come to terms with social or political demands from relevant segments of the people in the communities set the socioeconomic and institutional stage for lynchings. In contrast with approaches relating these events to an alleged indigenous cultural identity, the analysis points to the impact of the communities' political

  11. Mathematical modeling of thermal stresses in basic oxygen furnace hood tubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samarasekera, I. V.

    1985-06-01

    The stress-strain history of Basic Oxygen Furnace hood tubes during thermal cycling has been computed using heat flow and stress analyses. The steady-state temperature distribution in a transverse section of the tube was computed at a location where gas temperature in the hood could be expected to be a maximum. Calculations were performed for peak gas temperatures in the range 1950 to 2480 °C (3500 to 4500 °F). The stress-strain history of an element of material located at the center of the tube hot face was traced for three consecutive cycles using elasto-plastic finite-element analysis. It has been shown that the state of stress in the element alternates between compression and tension as the tube successively heats and cools. Yielding and plastic flow occurs at the end of each half of a given cycle. It was postulated that owing to repctitive yielding, plastic strain energy accumulates causing failure of the tubes by fatigue in the low cycle region. Using fatigue theory a conservative estimate for tube life was arrived at. In-plant observations support this mechanism of failure, and the number of cycles within which tube cracking was observed compares reasonably with model predictions. Utilizing the heat flow and stress models it was recommended that tube life could be enhanced by changing the tube material to ARMCO 17-4 pH or AISI 405 steel or alternatively reconstructing hoods with AISI 316L tubes of reduced thickness. These recommendations were based on the criterion that low-cycle fatigue failure could be averted if the magnitude of the cyclic strain could be reduced or if macroscopic plastic flow could be prevented.

  12. Relationship of light quantity and anthocyanin production in Pennisetum setaceum Cvs. rubrum and red riding hood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beckwith, Andrea G; Zhang, Yanjun; Seeram, Navindra P; Cameron, Arthur C; Nair, Muraleedharan G

    2004-02-11

    Pennisetum setaceum cvs. Rubrum and Red Riding Hood are purple-pigmented ornamental grasses when grown in high-light environments. In low-light environments, foliage appears light purple or green, and as a result, aesthetic appeal is reduced. The impact of light on anthocyanin pigmentation was compared for P. setaceum Rubrum foliage and flowers and Red Riding Hood foliage grown under different light intensities and light sources. Light environments included UV supplemental light in the greenhouse, high-pressure sodium supplemental light in the greenhouse, cool-white fluorescent light in a growth chamber, and full sun outside. Anthocyanins in two cultivars of P. setaceum were analyzed by HPLC and characterized by (1)H and (13)C NMR spectral experiments. Two anthocyanins, cyanidin 3-glucoside and cyanidin 3-rutinoside, were identified in the leaves and flowers of both cultivars and quantified by HPLC analysis. The major anthocyanin in both cultivars was cyanidin 3-glucoside and had highest concentration (0.199% fresh weight) in Rubrum leaves grown under fluorescent lights in the growth chamber with a photoperiod of 24 h and a daily light integral (DLI) of 13.3 mol m(-)(2) day(-)(1) and in Rubrum and Red Riding Hood leaves and flowers (0.097 and 0.12% fresh weight) from plants grown outside in full sun with a photoperiod ranging from 15 to 13.5 h and DLI of 42 mol m(-)(2) day(-)(1). The minor anthocyanin, cyanidin 3-rutinoside, had the highest quantity in plants grown in low-light-intensity greenhouse environments with a photoperiod ranging from 15 to 13.5 h and DLI of 2.3-7.0 mol m(-)(2) day(-)(1). The functional significance of anthocyanins in P. setaceum Rubrum is discussed.

  13. Optimization of Lens Hood Injection Molding Process%遮光罩注塑成型工艺优化

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陶永亮

    2011-01-01

    Lens hood is manufactured with Bayer copolycarbonate Apec.According to lens hood product features,plastics injection shoot adhesive volume calculation and adjustment is necessary.In order to solve product quality problems,some main points for hood inject%遮光罩采用Bayer公司共聚碳酸酯Apec制造。根据遮光罩产品特点,进行必要注塑成型加工射胶量计算和调整。为了解决产品质量问题,就遮光罩注塑工艺提出一些要点,并对成型工艺进行优化。经生产实践验证,工艺参数设定符合生产需要。

  14. Comparative analysis of the food webs of two intertidal mudflats during two seasons using inverse modelling: Aiguillon Cove and Brouage Mudflat, France

    OpenAIRE

    Degre, Delphine; Leguerrier, D; Du Chatelet, E; Rzeznik, J; Auguet, Jean-christophe; Dupuy, Christine; Marquis, E.; Fichet, Denis; Struski, Caroline; Joyeux, E; Sauriau, Pierre-Guy; NIQUIL Nathalie

    2006-01-01

    Inverse analysis was used to model the food webs of two intertidal mudflat ecosystems: Aiguillon Cove (AC) and Brouage Mudflat (BM) (south-western Atlantic coast, France). The aim of the present study is to describe and compare the functioning of these two ecosystems. The method of inverse analysis has been adapted in order to take into account, in a single calculation, two seasons: spring/summer (mid-March to mid-October) and autumn/winter (the rest of the year). Gathering all available data...

  15. Port of Hood River联合Kapsch推出最新收费系统

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨琴(译)

    2010-01-01

    2010年9月8日,Kapsch公司联合美国道路运营商Port of Hood River在美国一座洲际大桥上建立了由5.9 GHz DSRC WAVE技术支持的电子收费系统。目前该系统的部署在美国还是首例,成为美国收费系统一座巨大的里程碑。

  16. Microbiological and serological monitoring in hooded crow (Corvus corone cornix in the Region Lombardia, Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guido Grilli

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The health status of 276 hooded crows (Corvus corone cornix from various provinces of Lombardy was monitored for three years. Bacteriological examination detected E. coli (76%, Campylobacter jejuni (17%, Salmonella typhimurium (11.6%, Yersinia spp. (6.5%, Clamydophila abortus and C. psittaci (2.6%; from six birds showing severe prostration Pasteurella multocida was isolated. Virological and serological tests were negative for Avian Influenza virus (AIV, West Nile virus (WNV and only three samples were positive for Newcastle disease virus (NDV but only at serology (titre 1:16.

  17. 3D Flow in the Axial—Radial Exhaust Hood of a Steam Turbine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    STASTNYM.,SKODA; KOLARP.,

    1997-01-01

    The computation model of the 3D viscous flow is used for the analysis of the flow conditions in the model of steam turbine exhaust hood,that was in previous time investigated experimentally,The computation method and the obtained results are described.The calculation is concentrated on the finding of the influence of inlet velocity field and on the influence of compressibility of the flow medium.Especially it followed the fluid motion in the outlte vortex and the occurrence of the areas with flow separation.

  18. Solving for Micro- and Macro- Scale Electrostatic Configurations Using the Robin Hood Algorithm

    CERN Document Server

    Formaggio, J A; Corona, T J; Stefancic, H; Abraham, H; Gluck, F

    2011-01-01

    We present a novel technique by which highly-segmented electrostatic configurations can be solved. The Robin Hood method is a matrix-inversion algorithm optimized for solving high density boundary element method (BEM) problems. We illustrate the capabilities of this solver by studying two distinct geometry scales: (a) the electrostatic potential of a large volume beta-detector and (b) the field enhancement present at surface of electrode nano-structures. Geometries with elements numbering in the O(10^5) are easily modeled and solved without loss of accuracy. The technique has recently been expanded so as to include dielectrics and magnetic materials.

  19. CSER 94-013: Classification and access to PFP 232-Z Incinerator Facility and limits on characterization and disassembly activities in 232-Z burning hood

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, E.M.

    1995-01-12

    This CSER justifies the Limited Control Facility designation for the closed Burning Hood in the PFP 232-Z Incinerator Facility. If the Burning Hood is opened to characterize the plutonium distribution and geometric integrity of the internals or for disassembly of the internals, then the more rigorous Fissionable Material Facility classification is required. Two sets of requirements apply for personnel access, criticality firefighting category for water use, and fissile material movement for the two states of the Burning Hood. The parameters used in the criticality analysis are listed to establish the limits under which this CSER is valid. Determination that the Burning Hood fissile material, moderation, or internal arrangements are outside these limits requires reevaluation of these parameter values and activities at the 232-Z Incinerator Facility. When the Burning Hood is open, water entry is to be prevented by two physical barriers for each water source.

  20. Effect of Diving and Diving Hoods on the Bacterial Flora of the External Ear Canal and Skin

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-05-01

    NAVAL MEDICAL RESEARCH INSTITUTE BETHESDA, MARYLAND 82-22 EFFECT OF DIVING AND DIVING HOODS ON THE BACTERIAL FLORA OF THE EXTERNAL EAR CANAL AND SKIN...Subtitle) 5. TYPE OF REPeRT & PERIOD COVERED EFFECT OF DIVING AND DIVING HOODS ON THE BACTERIAL - PROGRESS FLORA OF THE EXTERNAL EAR CANAL AND SKIN MEDICAL...bacterial flora of the external ear canals and posterior auricular skin surface was investigated’in a group of 26 divers after 25 dry-suit dives in harbor

  1. Identification of patients at-risk for Lynch syndrome in a hospital-based colorectal surgery clinic

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Patrícia Koehler-Santos; Mario Antonello Rosito; Patricia Ashton-Prolla; Jo(a)o Carlos Prolla; Patricia Izetti; Jamile Abud; Carlos Eduardo Pitroski; Silvia Liliana Cossio; Suzi Alves Camey; Cláudio Tarta; Daniel C Damin; Paulo Carvalho Contu

    2011-01-01

    AIM: To determine the prevalence of a family history suggestive of Lynch syndrome (LS) among patients with colorectal cancer (CRC) followed in a coloproctology outpatient clinic in Southern Brazil.METHODS: A consecutive sample of patients with CRC were interviewed regarding personal and family histories of cancer. Clinical data and pathology features of the tumor were obtained from chart review.RESULTS: Of the 212 CRC patients recruited, 61 (29%)reported a family history of CRC, 45 (21.2%) were diagnosed under age 50 years and 11 (5.2%) had more than one primary CRC. Family histories consistent with Amsterdam and revised Bethesda criteria for LS were identified in 22 (10.4%) and 100 (47.2%) patients,respectively. Twenty percent of the colorectal tumors had features of the high microsatellite instability phenotype,which was associated with younger age at CRC diagnosis and with Bethesda criteria (P < 0.001). Only 5.3% of the patients above age 50 years had been previously submitted for CRC screening and only 4% of patients with suspected LS were referred for genetic risk assessment.CONCLUSION: A significant proportion of patients with CRC were at high risk for LS. Education and training of health care professionals are essential to ensure proper management.

  2. Bayesian Modeling for Genetic Anticipation in Presence of Mutational Heterogeneity: A Case-Study in Lynch Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boonstra, Philip S.; Mukherjee, Bhramar; Taylor, Jeremy M. G.; Nilbert, Mef; Moreno, Victor M.; Gruber, Stephen B.

    2011-01-01

    Summary Genetic anticipation, described by earlier age of onset (AOO) and more aggressive symptoms in successive generations, is a phenomenon noted in certain hereditary diseases. Its extent may vary between families and/or between mutation sub-types known to be associated with the disease phenotype. In this paper, we posit a Bayesian approach to infer genetic anticipation under flexible random effects models for censored data that capture the effect of successive generations on AOO. Primary interest lies in the random effects. Misspecifying the distribution of random effects may result in incorrect inferential conclusions. We compare the fit of four candidate random effects distributions via Bayesian model fit diagnostics. A related statistical issue here is isolating the confounding effect of changes in secular trends, screening and medical practices that may affect time to disease detection across birth cohorts. Using historic cancer registry data, we borrow from relative survival analysis methods to adjust for changes in age-specific incidence across birth cohorts. Our motivating case-study comes from a Danish cancer register of 124 families with mutations in mismatch repair genes known to cause hereditary non-polyposis colorectal cancer, also called Lynch syndrome. We find evidence for a decrease in AOO between generations in this study. Our model predicts family level anticipation effects which are potentially useful in genetic counseling clinics for high risk families. PMID:21627626

  3. Structural and heat-flow implications of infrared anomalies at Mt. Hood, Oregon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Friedman, J.D.; Frank, D.

    1977-01-01

    Surface thermal features occur in an area of 9700 m/sup 2/ at Mt. Hood, on the basis of an aerial line-scan survey made April 26, 1973. The distribution of the thermal areas below the summit of Mt. Hood, shown on planimetrically corrected maps at 1 : 12,000, suggests structural control by a fracture system and brecciated zone peripheral to a hornblende-dacite plug dome (Crater Rock), and by a concentric fracture system that may have been associated with development of the present crater. The extent and inferred temperature of the thermal areas permits a preliminary estimate of a heat discharge of 10 megawatts, by analogy with similar fumarole and thermal fields of Mt. Baker, Washington. This figure includes a heat loss of 4 megawatts (MW) via conduction, diffusion, evaporation, and radiation to the atmosphere, and a somewhat less certain loss of 6 MW via fumarolic mass transfer of vapor and advective heat loss from runoff and ice melt. The first part of the estimate is based on two-point models for differential radiant exitance and differential flux via conduction, diffusion, evaporation, and radiation from heat balance of the ground surface. Alternate methods for estimating volcanogenic geothermal flux that assume a quasi-steady state heat flow also yield estimates in the 5-11 MW range. Heat loss equivalent to cooling of the dacite plug dome is judged to be insufficient to account for the heat flux at the fumarole fields.

  4. Sound levels inside incubators and oxygen hoods used with nebulizers and humidifiers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beckham, R W; Mishoe, S C

    1982-01-01

    Degree of hearing loss in the infant is related to high-intensity or high-frequency sound (noise). We measured sound levels of 6 models of pneumatic nebulizers and 8 models of humidifiers at various flowrates, FIO2 settings, and water levels, when they were attached to incubators and oxygen hoods; we also evaluated sound levels from 2 models of ultrasonic nebulizers at various output settings. Among the pneumatic nebulizers, the recommended 58-dbA maximum sound level was exceeded by the Aquapak 621, Ohio Deluxe, and Puritan All-Purpose devices. The Bard Parker, Foregger, and Inspiron pneumatic nebulizers' sound levels were 58 dbA or below except during the dry water-level condition. Among the humidifiers, all produced sound levels below the recommended 58-dbA maximum except the Travenol humidifier; the Bennett Cascade, Conchapak, Foregger, and Hudson humidifiers produced mean sound levels in the 43.0- to 43.5-dbA range. Sound levels increased under all conditions when the devices were used with oxygen hoods. The ultrasonic nebulizers produced low sound levels, but the high-frequency ultrasound they also produce may be undesirable for infants; this question requires further investigation.

  5. Computer modeling of fluid flow and combustion in the ISV (In Situ Vitrification) confinement hood

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, R.W.; Paik, S.

    1990-09-01

    Safety and suitability objectives for the application of the In Situ Vitrification (ISV) technology at the INEL require that the physical processes involved in ISVV be modeled to determine their operational behavior. The mathematical models that have been determined to address the modeling needs adequately for the ISV analysis package are detailed elsewhere. The present report is concerned with the models required for simulating the reacting flow that occurs in the ISV confinement hood. An experimental code named COYOTE has been secured that appears adequate to model the combustion in the confinement hood. The COYOTE code is a two-dimensional, transient, compressible, Eulerian, gas dynamics code for modeling reactive flows. It recognizes nonuniform Cartesian and cylindrical geometry and is based on the ICE (Implicit Continuous-fluid Eulerian) family of solution methods. It includes models for chemical reactions based on chemical kinetics as well as equilibrium chemistry. The mathematical models contained in COYOTE, their discrete analogs, the solution procedure, code structure and some test problems are presented in the report. 12 refs., 17 figs., 6 tabs.

  6. Structural and heat-flow implications of infrared anomalies at Mt. Hood, Oregon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedman, Jules D.; Frank, David

    1977-01-01

    Surface thermal features occur in an area of 9700 m2 at Mt. Hood, on the basis of an aerial line-scan survey made April 26, 1973. The distribution of the thermal areas below the summit of Mt. Hood, shown on planimetrically corrected maps at 1:12,000, suggests structural control by a fracture system and brecciated zone peripheral to a hornblende-dacite plug dome (Crater Rock), and by a concentric fracture system that may have been associated with development of the present crater. The extent and inferred temperature of the thermal areas permits a preliminary estimate of a heat discharge of 10 megawatts, by analogy with similar fumarole and thermal fields of Mt. Baker, Washington. This figure includes a heat loss of 4 megawatts (MW) via conduction, diffusion, evaporation, and radiation to the atmosphere, and a somewhat less certain loss of 6MW via fumarolic mass transfer of vapor and advective heat loss from runoff and ice melt. The first part of the estimate is based on two-point models for differential radiant exitance and differential flux via conduction, diffusion, evaporation, and radiation from heat balance of the ground surface. Alternate methods for estimating volcanogenic geothermal flux that assume a quasi-steady state heat flow also yield estimates in the 5-11 MW range. Heat loss equivalent to cooling of the dacite plug dome is judged to be insufficient to account for the heat flux at the fumarole fields.

  7. Blood parasites in hooded crows (Corvus corone cornix) in Northwest Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scaglione, Frine Eleonora; Cannizzo, Francesca Tiziana; Pregel, Paola; Perez Rodriguez, Anton David; Bollo, Enrico

    2016-09-30

    Haemoparasites and their effects on hooded crows (Corvus corone cornix) are poorly studied. The aims are to evaluate the prevalence of Haemoproteus spp./Plasmodium spp. or Leucocytozoon spp., to correlate this with gross and histopathological findings, and to investigate the association among infection and geographical origin, age, gender, parasite distribution and prevalence among organs. Hooded crows (n = 47) were collected within a regional culling programme from 3 districts in the province of Turin (Italy) and subjected to necropsy. Histological and molecular analyses were carried out on some tissues. Leucocytozoon spp. was detected in 46 crows (97.9%) by polymerase chain reaction (PCR), whereas 28 birds (59.6%) were found to be positive for Haemoproteus spp./Plasmodium spp. The distribution of parasites in several organs varied significantly, showing that Leucocytozoon spp. is ubiquitous in organs in contrast with Haemoproteus spp./Plasmodium spp., which have a specific predilection for spleen and lungs. The prevalence of Haemoproteus spp./Plasmodium spp. also differed significantly among the crows captured in the areas of the study. The high prevalence of haemoparasites emphasizes the success of ornithophilic vectors and the susceptibility of this species to infection. Differences in prevalence among the sites are probably due to orographic features of the areas, variations in vector species and density, or to crow population size or structure. In spite of the high infection rate, no gross and histological lesions were found. This finding further suggests an evolutionary adaptation between crows and avian blood parasites.

  8. Computational and Experimental Fluid-Structure Interaction Analysis of a High-Lift Wing with a Slat-Cove Filler for Noise Reduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scholten, William D.; Patterson, Ryan D.; Hartl, Darren J.; Strganac, Thomas W.; Chapelon, Quentin H. C.; Turner, Travis

    2017-01-01

    Airframe noise is a significant component of overall noise produced by transport aircraft during landing and approach (low speed maneuvers). A significant source for this noise is the cove of the leading-edge slat. The slat-cove filler (SCF) has been shown to be effective at mitigating slat noise. The objective of this work is to understand the fluid-structure interaction (FSI) behavior of a superelastic shape memory alloy (SMA) SCF in flow using both computational and physical models of a high-lift wing. Initial understanding of flow around the SCF and wing is obtained using computational fluid dynamics (CFD) analysis at various angles of attack. A framework compatible with an SMA constitutive model (implemented as a user material subroutine) is used to perform FSI analysis for multiple flow and configuration cases. A scaled physical model of the high-lift wing is constructed and tested in the Texas A&M 3 ft-by-4-foot wind tunnel. Initial validation of both CFD and FSI analysis is conducted by comparing lift, drag and pressure distributions with experimental results.

  9. Proposed stratotype for the base of the highest Cambrian stage at the first appearance datum of Cordylodus andresi, Lawson Cove section, Utah, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, J.F.; Ethington, Raymond L.; Evans, K.R.; Holmer, L.E.; Loch, James D.; Popov, L.E.; Repetski, J.E.; Ripperdan, R.L.; Taylor, John F.

    2006-01-01

    We propose a candidate for the Global Standard Stratotype-section and Point (GSSP) for the base of the highest stage of the Furongian Series of the Cambrian System. The section is at Lawson Cove in the Ibex area of Millard County, Utah, USA. The marker horizon is the first appearance datum (FAD) of the conodont Cordylodus andresi Viira et Sergeyeva in Kaljo et al. [Kaljo, D., Borovko, N., Heinsalu, H., Khazanovich, K., Mens, K., Popov, L., Sergeyeva, S., Sobolevskaya, R., Viira, V., 1986. The Cambrian-Ordovician boundary in the Baltic-Ladoga clint area (North Estonia and Leningrad Region, USSR). Eesti NSV Teaduste Akadeemia Toimetised. Geologia 35, 97-108]. At this section and elsewhere this horizon also is the FAD of the trilobite Eurekia apopsis (Winston et Nicholls, 1967). This conodont characterizes the base of the Cordylodus proavus Zone, which has been recognized in many parts of the world. This trilobite characterizes the base of the Eurekia apopsis Zone, which has been recognized in many parts of North America. The proposed boundary is 46.7 m above the base of the Lava Dam Member of the Notch Peak Formation at the Lawson Cove section. Brachiopods, sequence stratigraphy, and carbon-isotope geochemistry are other tools that characterize this horizon and allow it to be recognized in other areas. ?? 2006 Nanjing Institute of Geology and Palaeontology, CAS.

  10. Assessing Fault Slip Behavior and the History of Fluid-Rock Interaction of The Rodeo Cove Thrust, Franciscan Complex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartram, H.; Goodwin, L. B.; Tobin, H. J.

    2016-12-01

    Internal mechanical properties and stress conditions in subduction megathrusts remain poorly understood. We present a study of fault rocks and veins to elucidate controls on fault slip behavior in the Rodeo Cove thrust zone, a fossil plate boundary exposed in two coastal outcrops of the Mesozoic Franciscan accretionary complex: Rodeo Beach (RB) and Black Sand Beach (BSB). Thrusts imbricate mechanically distinct lithologic units including pillow basalt, radiolarian chert, black shale, and greywacke. Locally large vein-to-rock ratios record significant fluid flux and mineral precipitation during deformation. Cross-cutting relations at outcrop- and micro-scale reveal a complex history of fluid-rock interaction followed by brittle shearing. At RB, fault-related deformation is commonly concentrated in altered basalts in which original, isotropic igneous microstructures are preserved but rocks are more commonly foliated. These structures are locally disrupted by foliation-parallel and cross-cutting calcite veins as well as calcite-cemented breccia. Veins are less common at BSB, where they are found in altered basalt and greywacke near black shales. Stable isotope chemistry of calcite records differing fluid sources at these two locations. At RB, δ18O values range from 17.5—22.4‰ SMOW compared to 16.9—21.4‰ SMOW at BSB. These relatively high δ18O values may reflect upward movement of metamorphic fluids along the fault. The RB δ13C values (-2.0—+2.9‰ VPDB) are similar to those of marine carbonates precipitated from seawater and are considerably higher than the BSB values (-16.8—+3.0‰ VPDB), which suggest a possible biogenic source of carbon consistent with fluid interaction with black shale. Optical cathodoluminescence of calcite reveals complex internal structures that will be correlated with quantitative chemical analysis using an electron microprobe. Anastomosing localized brittle shear zones of foliated cataclasite or gouge cut veins at RB and

  11. 抛光机吸尘罩的优化设计%Optimal Design of Polishing Machine's Dust Hood

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    余盛兵; 吴飞涯

    2013-01-01

    根据抛光机的工艺特点及粉尘特性介绍了抛光机吸尘罩的设计原则.然后利用CFD软件对吸尘罩的流场进行数值模拟,根据模拟结果对吸尘罩结构进行优化设计,并对凭经验设计的吸尘罩和按流场流畅设计的吸尘罩进行性能试验,结果表明:保证吸尘罩内流场通畅是提高吸尘罩性能的关键.%According to polishing machine's processing features and dust characteristics,the design principle of polishing machine's suction hood was introduced.Based on the results of CFD numerical simulation,the structure design was optimized.The performance of suction hoods which was designed by experience and flow field's smoothness was test.The results show that the key point of improving suction hood's function is important to ensure flow field's smoothness in the suction hood.

  12. Study the velocity and pressure exerted in front of the filter surface in the kitchen hood system by using ANSYS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asmuin, Norzelawati; Pairan, M. Rasidi; Isa, Norasikin Mat; Sies, Farid

    2017-04-01

    Commercial kitchen hood ventilation system is a device used to capture and filtered the plumes from cooking activities in the kitchen area. Nowadays, it is very popular in the industrial sector such as restaurant and hotel to provide hygiene food. This study focused at the KSA filter part which installed in the kitchen hood system, the purpose of this study is to identify the critical region which indicated by observing the velocity and pressure of plumes exerted at of KSA filter. It is important to know the critical location of the KSA filter in order to install the nozzle which will helps increase the filtration effectiveness. The ANSYS 16.1 (FLUENT) software as a tool used to simulate the kitchen hood systems which consist of KSA filter. The commercial kitchen hood system model has a dimension 700 mm width, 1600 mm length and 555 mm height. The system has two inlets and one outlet. The velocity of the plumes is set to be 0.235m/s and the velocity of the inlet capture jet is set to be 1.078m/s. The KSA filter is placed 45 degree from the y axis. The result shows the plumes has more tendency flowing pass through at the bottom part of KSA filter.

  13. SPECIFIC FEATURES OF TECHNOLOGY OF MANUFACTURING A ZINC-COATED TUB WIRE FOR MUZZLE (BOTTLE’ HOOD WIRE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. B. Zuev

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the main technical specifications of galvanized low carbon wire for muzzles (bottle’hood wire, consistent with the exploitation requirements to the wire in the manufacture and use of muzzles. The main criteria when selecting the steel grade and upon selection of the technological processes are given. 

  14. Use of CFD for static sampling hood design: An example for methane flux assessment on landfill surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucernoni, Federico; Rizzotto, Matteo; Tapparo, Federica; Capelli, Laura; Sironi, Selena; Busini, Valentina

    2016-11-01

    The work focuses on the principles for the design of a specific static hood and on the definition of an optimal sampling procedure for the assessment of landfill gas (LFG) surface emissions. This is carried out by means of computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulations to investigate the fluid dynamics conditions of the hood. The study proves that understanding the fluid dynamic conditions is fundamental in order to understand the sampling results and correctly interpret the measured concentration values by relating them to a suitable LFG emission model, and therefore to estimate emission rates. For this reason, CFD is a useful tool for the design and evaluation of sampling systems, among others, to verify the fundamental hypotheses on which the mass balance for the sampling hood is defined. The procedure here discussed, which is specific for the case of the investigated landfill, can be generalized to be applied also to different scenarios, where hood sampling is involved. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Nocturnal feeding under artificial light conditions by Brown-hooded Gull (Larus maculipennis) in Puerto Madryn harbour (Chubut Province, Argentina)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leopold, M.F.; Philippart, C.J.M.; Yorio, P.

    2010-01-01

    This paper describes nocturnal, marine feeding behaviour in the Brown-hooded Gull (Larus maculipennis) in November 2009. The gulls assembled at night at the end of a long pier, running 800 m offshore into the Golfo Nuevo, at Puerto Madryn, Chubut Province, Argentina. Powerful lights predictably ligh

  16. 42 CFR 84.175 - Half-mask facepieces, full facepieces, hoods, helmets, and mouthpieces; fit; minimum requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ..., helmets, and mouthpieces; fit; minimum requirements. 84.175 Section 84.175 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH....175 Half-mask facepieces, full facepieces, hoods, helmets, and mouthpieces; fit; minimum requirements. (a) Half-mask facepieces and full facepieces shall be designed and constructed to fit persons...

  17. 42 CFR 84.135 - Half-mask facepieces, full facepieces, hoods, and helmets; fit; minimum requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... helmets; fit; minimum requirements. 84.135 Section 84.135 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT... facepieces, hoods, and helmets; fit; minimum requirements. (a) Half-mask facepieces and full facepieces shall be designed and constructed to fit persons with various facial shapes and sizes either: (1)...

  18. 42 CFR 84.1135 - Half-mask facepieces, full facepieces, hoods, helmets, and mouthpieces; fit; minimum requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ..., helmets, and mouthpieces; fit; minimum requirements. 84.1135 Section 84.1135 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH..., full facepieces, hoods, helmets, and mouthpieces; fit; minimum requirements. (a) Half-mask facepieces and full facepieces shall be designed and constructed to fit persons with various facial shapes...

  19. Measurements and predictions of hooded crow (Corvus corone cornix) call propagation over open field habitats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Kenneth Kragh; Larsen, Ole Næsbye; Attenborough, Keith

    2008-01-01

    In a study of hooded crow communication over open fields an excellent correspondence is found between the attenuation spectra predicted by a "turbulence-modified ground effect plus atmospheric absorption" model, and crow call attenuation data. Sound propagation predictions and background noise...

  20. Harvest-related edge effects on prey availability and foraging of hooded warblers in a bottomland hardwood forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    John C. Kilgo

    2005-01-01

    The effects of harvest-created canopy gaps in bottomland hardwood forests on arthropod abundance and, hence, the foraging ecology of birds are poorly understood. I predicted that arthropod abundance would be high near edges of group-selection harvest gaps and lower in the surrounding forest, and that male Hooded Warblers (Wilsonia citrina) foraging...

  1. Effect of water level lfuctuations on temporal-spatial patterns of foraging activities by the wintering Hooded Crane (Grus monacha)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Dongmei Zhang; Lizhi Zhou; Yunwei Song

    2015-01-01

    Background: The Yangtze River lfoodplain provides important wintering habitats for Hooded Cranes (Grus monacha) in China. Fluctuations in the water level change foraging habitat and food availability, affecting their temporal-spatial patterns of foraging activities. It is of considerable importance to investigate the effect of these lfuctuations on food availability for wintering Hooded Cranes and their foraging response to these changes. Understanding their behavior patterns is beneifcial in protecting the wintering crane population and restoring their wintering habitats. Methods: A ifeld survey of the winter behavior of cranes was carried out at Shengjin Lake from November in 2013 to April in 2014. Habitat variables, as well as the spatial distribution and behavior patterns of wintering cranes at their foraging sites during ifve stages of water level lfuctuation were collected. Based on this data we analyzed the relation-ship of foraging behavior relative to water level lfuctuations and habitat types. Results: The foraging habitats used by Hooded Cranes varied at the different water level stages. As the water level decreased, the use of meadows and mudlfats increased. When the water dropped to its lowest level, the use by the Hooded Crane in the mudlfats reached a peak. There were statistically signiifcant differences in time budget in the three types of habitats over the ifve stages of the water level. In the mudlfats, the foraging behavior and maintenance behavior varied signiifcantly with the water level, while the alert behavior showed little variation. Analysis of a general-ized linear model showed that the ifve water level stages and three habitat types had a signiifcant effect on forag- ing behavior, while the combined effect of these two variables was signiifcant on the foraging time budget and the length of foraging activity of the Hooded Crane. Conclusions: With the decrease in the water level, the use of mudlfats by Hooded Cranes increased

  2. Stokes方程组Hood-Taylor元的分裂外推%The Multi-Parameter Extrapolation of the Hood-Taylor Elements for the Stokes Problem

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林甲富; 雷俊丽

    2004-01-01

    考虑拟一致矩形网格上Stokes方程组Hood-Taylor元的多参数渐近误差展开和分裂外推.在每个单元上用Bramble-Hilbert引理确定微分方程精确解与有限元插值之间积分式的主项.由连续性条件相邻两个单元上其主项的某些部分可以相互抵消,经求和后,得到整个求解区域上的主项.对该主项引入辅助问题并利用Stokes问题解的正则性理论给出精确解与有限元插值间的一个误差渐近展开式.有限元解经插值后处理和分裂外推后,与通常的误差估计相比,收敛速度提高了一阶.

  3. Functional testing strategy for coding genetic variants of unclear significance in MLH1 in Lynch syndrome diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinrichsen, Inga; Schäfer, Dieter; Langer, Deborah; Köger, Nicole; Wittmann, Margarethe; Aretz, Stefan; Steinke, Verena; Holzapfel, Stefanie; Trojan, Jörg; König, Rainer; Zeuzem, Stefan; Brieger, Angela; Plotz, Guido

    2015-02-01

    Lynch syndrome is caused by inactivating mutations in the MLH1 gene, but genetic variants of unclear significance frequently preclude diagnosis. Functional testing can reveal variant-conferred defects in gene or protein function. Based on functional defect frequencies and clinical applicability of test systems, we developed a functional testing strategy aimed at efficiently detecting pathogenic defects in coding MLH1 variants. In this strategy, tests of repair activity and expression are prioritized over analyses of subcellular protein localization and messenger RNA (mRNA) formation. This strategy was used for four unclear coding MLH1 variants (p.Asp41His, p.Leu507Phe, p.Gln689Arg, p.Glu605del + p.Val716Met). Expression was analyzed using a transfection system, mismatch repair (MMR) activity by complementation in vitro, mRNA formation by reverse transcriptase-PCR in carrier lymphocyte mRNA, and subcellular localization with dye-labeled fusion constructs. All tests included clinically meaningful controls. The strategy enabled efficient identification of defects in two unclear variants: the p.Asp41His variant showed loss of MMR activity, whereas the compound variant p.Glu605del + p.Val716Met had a defect of expression. This expression defect was significantly stronger than the pathogenic expression reference variant analyzed in parallel, therefore the defect of the compound variant is also pathogenic. Interestingly, the expression defect was caused additively by both of the compound variants, at least one of which is non-pathogenic when occurring by itself. Tests were neutral for p.Leu507Phe and p.Gln689Arg, and the results were consistent with available clinical data. We finally discuss the improved sensitivity and efficiency of the applied strategy and its limitations in analyzing unclear coding MLH1 variants.

  4. Hereditary diffuse gastric cancer and lynch syndromes in a BRCA1/2 negative breast cancer patient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Njoroge, Scolastica W; Burgess, Kelly R; Cobleigh, Melody A; Alnajar, Hussein H; Gattuso, Paolo; Usha, Lydia

    2017-07-12

    Genetic counseling and testing is recommended for women with a personal and/or family history of breast and other cancers (ovarian, pancreatic, male breast and others). Mutations in the BRCA1 and BRCA2 genes (BRCA1/2) are the most common causes of hereditary breast and ovarian cancer. Additional genetic counseling and testing with a multi-gene panel may be considered in breast cancer patients who tested negative for mutations in these two genes. In about 11% of BRCA1/2-negative patients, further genetic testing reveals pathogenic mutations in other high or moderate cancer risk genes. In 0.2% of cases, an individual may carry pathogenic mutations in more than one high penetrance gene (a double heterozygote). Finding one or more pathogenic mutations is important for cancer prevention in patients and/or their families. Here we present a case of a breast cancer patient who did not have a pathogenic mutation in BRCA1/2 and had a family history of breast and stomach cancers. On an additional multi-gene panel testing, she was found to carry pathogenic mutations in the CDH1 and PMS2 genes, which cause Hereditary Diffuse Gastric Cancer and Lynch syndromes, respectively. To our knowledge, this is the first description of such a double heterozygote. Clinical manifestations, genetics, and management of both syndromes are reviewed, including prophylactic surgery and screening for unaffected family members. Management challenges for a mutation carrier with advanced breast cancer are discussed. Our case supports the clinical utility of additional multi-gene panel testing for breast cancer patients who do not have a pathogenic mutation in BRCA1/2 genes.

  5. Psychological distress in newly diagnosed colorectal cancer patients following microsatellite instability testing for Lynch syndrome on the pathologist's initiative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landsbergen, K M; Prins, J B; Brunner, H G; van Duijvendijk, P; Nagengast, F M; van Krieken, J H; Ligtenberg, M; Hoogerbrugge, N

    2012-06-01

    According to the Dutch Guideline on Hereditary Colorectal Cancer published in 2008, patients with recently diagnosed colorectal cancer (CRC) should undergo microsatellite instability (MSI) testing by a pathologist immediately after tumour resection if they are younger than 50 years, or if a second CRC has been diagnosed before the age of 70 years, owing to the high risk of Lynch syndrome (MIPA). The aim of the present MIPAPS study was to investigate general distress and cancer-specific distress following MSI testing. From March 2007 to September 2009, 400 patients who had been tested for MSI after newly diagnosed CRC were recruited from 30 Dutch hospitals. Levels of general distress (SCL-90) and cancer-specific distress (IES) were assessed immediately after MSI result disclosure (T1) and 6 months later (T2). Response rates were 23/77 (30%) in the MSI-positive patients and 58/323 (18%) in the MSI-negative patients. Levels of general distress and cancer-specific distress were moderate. In the MSI-positive group, 27% of the patients had high general distress at T1 versus 18% at T2 (p = 0.5), whereas in the MSI-negative group, these percentage were 14 and 18% (p = 0.6), respectively. At T1 and T2, cancer-specific distress rates in the MSI-positive group and MSI-negative group were 39 versus 27% (p = 0.3) and 38 versus 36% (p = 1.0), respectively. High levels of general distress were correlated with female gender, low social support and high perceived cancer risk. Moderate levels of distress were observed after MSI testing, similar to those found in other patients diagnosed with CRC. Immediately after result disclosure, high cancer-specific distress was observed in 40% of the MSI-positive patients.

  6. Genetic testing for Lynch syndrome in the first year of colorectal cancer: a review of the psychological impact.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landsbergen, Karin M; Prins, Judith B; Brunner, Han G; Kraaimaat, Floris W; Hoogerbrugge, Nicoline

    2009-01-01

    An increasing number of patients with colorectal cancer (CRC) receive genetic counselling within 1 year after diagnosis. Little is known whether specific subgroups are more vulnerable for genetic testing related distress. A literature review was conducted to identify the psychological impact of CRC in the first year, and the additional impact of genetic testing. The electronic databases of PubMed, PsychInfo, Embase and the Cochrane Library were searched to identify all reports published between January 1997 and October 2007 on the psychological impact of (1) CRC-diagnosis up to 1 year after treatment and of (2) genetic testing for Lynch syndrome in patients with CRC. Studies on the psychological impact of genetic testing in newly diagnosed patient with CRC were not available. Either CRC patients diagnosed several years ago were studied and the focus was also often on the psychological impact of genetic testing prior to DNA-test disclosure. They show that limitations in emotional and social functioning can persist up to 1 year after CRC treatment, especially in those with a stoma or diagnosed before age 60. Female patients and male patients diagnosed before age 50 appear to be more vulnerable to genetic test-related distress. It is well known that being treated for CRC has great impact on psychological functioning. Little is known about the psychological impact during the first year after diagnosis and very little is known about the additional psychological effect of genetic testing for hereditary cancer in this period. We found presumptive evidence that specific subgroups of patients with CRC are more vulnerable for genetic-testing-related distress.

  7. Supplement Analysis for the Transmission System Vegetation Management Program FEIS (DOE/EIS-0285/SA-104–Lynch Creek Tap to LaGrande-Cowlitz No. 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martin, Mark A. [Bonneville Power Administration (BPA), Portland, OR (United States)

    2002-08-21

    Vegetation Management for the Lynch Creek to LaGrande-Cowlitz No. 1. BPA proposes to remove unwanted vegetation along the right-of-way, access roads and around tower structures along the subject transmission line corridor. The right-of-way will be treated using selective and non-selective methods that include hand cutting, mowing and herbicide treatments. Approximately 29 miles of access roads and corridor will be treated. Vegetation management is required for unimpeded operation and maintenance of the subject transmission line. See Section 1 of the attached checklist for a complete description of the proposal.

  8. De onde se vê? Duplicação e dissolução do olhar em Alfred Hitchcock e David Lynch

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ulysses Pinheiro

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo compara dois filmes, Janela indiscreta, de Alfred Hitchcock, e Estrada perdida, de David Lynch, com o objetivo de mostrar que eles ilustram duas maneiras distintas de caracterizar o olhar inumano da percepção cinematográfica, tal como ele foi descrito por Gilles Deleuze. Essas duas maneiras distintas não foram discriminadas pelo próprio Deleuze, mas convergem em direção a sua crítica à hermenêutica.

  9. 55,000 yrs of Environmental Change in the Southern Hemisphere: Peat Stratigraphy and Inorganic Geochemistry of Lynch's Crater, NE Queensland, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muller, J.; Kylander, M. E.; Wust, R. A.; Weiss, D. J.

    2005-12-01

    This study presents one of the first applications of geochemical proxies to define changes in vegetation, hydrology and atmospheric dust recorded in a peat deposit in the Southern Hemisphere. The Lynch's Crater archive has captured local, regional and global environmental changes and reveals dynamic ecosystem changes as a result of climate shifts over the past 55,000 yrs BP. The 13 m peat record consists of 1.5 m of ombrotrophic peat underlain by a minerotrophic peat. The ombrotrophic section consists of low inorganic content ("ash") and low pH, as expected in of an ombrotrophic environment. The minerotrophic section contains several layers, up to a few cm thick, where abundant sponge spicules, diatom fragments and detrital quartz are indicative of high algal and protista productivity. These layers are characterised by high (up to 50%) ash, indicating persistent flooding of the peat deposits of Lynch's Crater and signalling periods of change in precipitation in North Queensland, Australia. Geochemical data are used to differentiate between climatic episodes associated with flooding events and internal and external atmospheric dust fluxes. Lead isotopes with lithogenic and chalcophile elements tell us that two distinctive sources are prevalent in the Lynch's Crater record. Most of the inorganic fractions of the deposits have the same geochemical signatures as the rocks and sediments of the crater wall, with low As concentrations, high Al, Ti and Sc concentrations and a more radiogenic Pb isotope signature. Influence from long-range dust is distinguished in the lower sections of the core (~35,000-55,000 cal yrs BP) where increases in As concentrations and less radiogenic Pb isotopes are found. Leading up to the Holocene (~35,000-10,000) the influence of increased dust influx becomes more significant (increasing lithogenics, chalcophiles and ash content) and where possible long-range sources are still active, but diluted by a prevailing dominance of the local sources

  10. Analysis on Intelligence Quotient Evaluation for Intelligent Range Hood%智能吸油烟机的智商评测分析与研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨丕达

    2014-01-01

    本文介绍了智能吸油烟机智商评测的原理和意义、吸油烟机信息化指数和产品智商评测规范,分析了吸油烟机的智商评测实际案例。%This paper introduces the principle and significance of intelligence quotient evaluation for range hood, as well as the specification of informatization index and intelligence quotient evaluation for range hood, and analyzes practical example of evaluation for range hood.

  11. Detection and quality of previously undetermined Floridan aquifer system discharge to the St. Johns River, Jacksonville, to Green Cove Springs, northeastern Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spechler, R.M.

    1996-01-01

    Potentiometric surface maps of the Upper Floridan aquifer show two depressions around the St. Johns River frm the city of Jacksonville south toward Green Cove Springs. These depressions, depending on their locations, are the result of withdrawals from agricultural, industrial, domestic and public-supply wells, diffuse upward leakage, and discharge from springs. Submerged springs that discharge into the St. Johns River between Jacksonville and Green Cove Springs have been thought to exist, but locating and evaluating these springs had not been attempted before this investigation. Thermal infrared imagery, seismic reflection, and numerous interviews with local residents were used to locate springs. An airborne thermal infrared survey was conducted along a section of the St. Johns River in northeastern Florida during February 1992 to detect possible sources of ground-water discharge to the river. An infrared image displayed one thermal anomaly in the St. Johns River which is associated with a previously unknown spring discharge from the Floridan aquifer system. Thermal anomalies also were observed at six locations where municipal facilities discharge treated wastewater to the river. Results of seismic reflection surveys indicate the presence of collapse and other karst features underlying the St. Johns River. These features indicate that the surficial deposits and the Hawthorn Formation that underlie the river probably do not consist of continuous beds. The collapse or deformation of the Hawthorn Formation or the presence of permeable sediment of localized extent could create zones of relatively high vertical leakance. This could provide a more direct hydraulic connection between the Upper Floridan aquifer and the river. Water samples collected from the only submerged spring in the St. Johns River within the Jacksonville-Green Cove Springs reach indicate that the source of the water is the Floridan aquifer system. Chloride and sulfate concentrations were 12 and 340

  12. "Robin Hood" of techno-Turkey or organ trafficking in the state of ethical beings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanal, Aslihan

    2004-09-01

    Dr S. is a famous transplant surgeon in the Middle East. He operates "underground" on wealthy patients in different countries, from Israel to Turkey to Russia. The media refer to him as the "Organ Mafia doctor," and patients diagnosed with renal failure speak of him sardonically as "Robin Hood," acknowledging that he takes organs from the poor to give to the rich. But ethical issues of organ trafficking are not limited to marginal private clinics and "Mafia" doctors. All-living related organ transplants in Turkey involve similar ethical dilemmas: many related or nonrelated organ recipients pay their donors, and demand continues to rise. This paper explores practices in state and university hospitals and the ethical dilemmas doctors encounter to understand where and how judicial, cultural, and social categories of "human rights" and "crime" are constructed in our high-tech world.

  13. Ice Volumes on Cascade Volcanoes: Mount Rainier, Mount Hood, Three Sisters, and Mount Shasta

    Science.gov (United States)

    Driedger, Carolyn L.; Kennard, Paul M.

    1986-01-01

    During the eruptions of Mount St. Helens the occurrence of floods and mudflows made apparent the need for predictive water-hazard analysis of other Cascade volcanoes. A basic requirement for such analysis is information about the volumes and distributions of snow and ice on other volcanoes. A radar unit contained in a backpack was used to make point measurements of ice thickness on major glaciers of Mount Rainier, Wash.; Mount Hood, Oreg.; the Three Sisters, Oreg.; and Mount Shasta, Calif. The measurements were corrected for slope and were used to develop subglacial contour maps from which glacier volumes were measured. These values were used to develop estimation methods for finding volumes of unmeasured glaciers. These methods require a knowledge of glacier slope, altitude, and area and require an estimation of basal shear stress, each estimate derived by using topographic maps updated by aerial photographs. The estimation methods were found to be accurate within ?20 percent on measured glaciers and to be within ?25 percent when applied to unmeasured glaciers on the Cascade volcanoes. The estimation methods may be applicable to other temperate glaciers in similar climatic settings. Areas and volumes of snow and ice are as follows: Mount Rainier, 991 million ft2, 156 billion ft3; Mount Hood, 145 million ft2, 12 billion ft3; Three Sisters, 89 million ft2, 6 billion ft3; and Mount Shasta, 74 million ft2, 5 billion ft3. The distribution of ice and firn patches within 58 glacierized basins on volcanoes is mapped and listed by altitude and by watershed to facilitate water-hazard analysis.

  14. Effects of variation in food resources on foraging habitat use by wintering Hooded Cranes (Grus monacha)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Meng Zheng; Lizhi Zhou; Niannian Zhao; Wenbin Xu

    2015-01-01

    Background:The ideal habitat use of waterbirds can be considered to be fixed, but current habitat use depends on environmental conditions, especially those of food characteristics, considered crucial to their use of habitats. Understanding how waterbirds respond to variation in food availability at degraded wetland sites and change their habitat use patterns over spatial and temporal scales should direct future conservation planning. The objectives of this study were to identify these spatial-temporal foraging habitat use patterns of Hooded Cranes (Grus monacha) and their relationship with food characteristics in the severely degraded wetlands of the Shengjin and Caizi lakes along with the Yangtze River floodplain. Methods:We investigated the changes in food characteristics, relative abundance and density of Hooded Cranes in various habitat types across three winter periods from November 2012 to April 2013. We examined the effect of these winter periods and habitat types on the pattern of use by the cranes and explored the relationship between these patterns and food characteristics using linear regression. Results:The food characteristics and habitat use clearly changed over spatial-temporal scales. In the early and mid-winter periods, the most abundant, accessible and frequented food resources were found in paddy fields, while in the late period the more abundant food were available in meadows, which then replaced the paddy fields. There were fewer effects of winter periods, habitat types and their interactions on habitat use patterns except for the effect of habitat types on the relative abundance, determined as a function of food abundance, but independent of food depth and sediment permeability. Conclusions:In response to the degradation and loss of lake wetlands, the cranes shifted their habitat use patterns by making tradeoffs between food abundance and accessibility over spatial-temporal scales that facilitated their survival in the mosaic of these lake

  15. arena_cove.grd

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NGDC builds and distributes high-resolution, coastal digital elevation models (DEMs) that integrate ocean bathymetry and land topography to support NOAA's mission to...

  16. A putative Lynch syndrome family carrying MSH2 and MSH6 variants of uncertain significance-functional analysis reveals the pathogenic one

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kantelinen, Jukka; Hansen, Thomas V O; Kansikas, Minttu;

    2011-01-01

    Inherited pathogenic mutations in the mismatch repair (MMR) genes, MSH2, MLH1, MSH6, and PMS2 predispose to Lynch syndrome (LS). However, the finding of a variant or variants of uncertain significance (VUS) in affected family members complicates the risk assessment. Here, we describe a putative L...... identified VUS before predictive gene testing and genetic counseling are offered to a family.......Inherited pathogenic mutations in the mismatch repair (MMR) genes, MSH2, MLH1, MSH6, and PMS2 predispose to Lynch syndrome (LS). However, the finding of a variant or variants of uncertain significance (VUS) in affected family members complicates the risk assessment. Here, we describe a putative LS...... family carrying VUS in both MSH2 (c.2768T>A, p.Val923Glu) and MSH6 (c.3563G>A, p.Ser1188Asn). Two colorectal cancer (CRC) patients were studied for mutations and identified as carriers of both variants. In spite of a relatively high mean age of cancer onset (59.5 years) in the family, many CRC patients...

  17. The Experimental Mod II Firefighters’ Aluminized Crash-Rescue Fire-Proximity Hood: An Interim Report of a Limited Service Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-07-01

    types of breathing apparatus under the hood. The thermal qualities of these hoods are comparable to the standard headwear and are suitable for wear...style should be compared to the 4 standard. A-2 31 :HW:pd 523-003-58 If you have any opinions as to how this headwear can be improved, kindly offer your...the best possible protective headwear for use by firefighting personnel. Your cooperation in taking part in this wear test evaluation is greatly

  18. Status quo of development of stretch hood packaging%拉伸套管膜包装的发展现状

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张丁; 耿存

    2012-01-01

    This paper reviewed the working process of stretch hood packaging, property demands and raw material formulae of hood-type stretch film, and application fields, market status and equipment supply of stretch hood packaging. The manufacturers in this industry already developed the packaged technologies for preparing the stretch hood and launched the products with puncture resistance, transparency and high elasticity which were considered as-the main property requirements of the stretch hood The market share of the stretch hood packaging has been expanding in the fields of logistics and packaging due to its excellent tension, outstanding packaging efficiency and favorable cost-saving.%综述了拉伸套管膜包装的工作流程,拉伸套管弹性套膜的性能要求和原料配方,拉伸套管膜包装的应用领域、市场现状和设备供应.抗穿刺性、透明性、高弹性是拉伸套管膜的主要性能要求,目前已开发出成套工艺并投放市场.拉伸套管膜包装因其出色的夹持力、优秀的包装效率和可观的成本控制等在物流包装领域的份额不断扩大.

  19. Changes in Physiologic Parameters and Effects of Hooding in Red-tailed Hawks ( Buteo jamaicensis ) During Manual Restraint.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doss, Grayson A; Mans, Christoph

    2016-06-01

    Manual restraint in birds of prey is required for many veterinary and research procedures. To investigate the effects of handling stress on physiologic parameters in raptorial birds, 8 red-tailed hawks ( Buteo jamaicensis ) were manually restrained over a 15-minute period. Respiratory rate (RR), heart rate (HR), and cloacal temperature were monitored over time and recorded at defined intervals during the experiment. The effect of hooding on physiologic variables was also evaluated in a complete crossover design. Both RR and HR decreased significantly during the 15-minute restraint period (HR, -80 ± 101.4 beats/min [bpm], [P hawks, hooding versus nonhooding amplified the decrease in HR and RR but had no effect on stress-induced hyperthermia.

  20. Effectiveness of catch basins equipped with hoods in retaining gross solids and hydrocarbons in highway runoff, Southeast Expressway, Boston, Massachusetts, 2008-09

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Kirk P.

    2011-01-01

    Stormwater mobilizes litter and other debris along the roadway where it is transported to the highway drainage systems. Initial treatment for stormwater runoff typically is provided by catch basins in highway settings. Modification of catch basins to include hoods that cover the catch-basin outlet is intended to enhance catch-basin performance by retaining floatable debris and various hydrophobic organic compounds that tend to float on the water surface within the sump of the catch basin. The effectiveness of six deep-sump off-line catch basins equipped with hoods in reducing the mass of gross solids greater than 0.25 inches in diameter and concentrations of oil and grease (OG) and total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH) was examined along the Southeast Expressway, in Boston, Massachusetts. Two deep-sump catch basins were equipped with cast-iron hoods. Three were equipped with molded plastic hoods, known as an Eliminator, and a single catch basin was equipped with a fiberglass anti-siphoning hood, known as a Snout. Samples of gross solids greater than 0.25 inches in diameter, excluding gravel and metallic materials, were routinely collected for a 6-month period from a collection structure mounted at the end of each catch-basin outlet pipe. After about 6 months, all floatable, saturated low-density and high-density solids were removed from each catch basin. In addition to the collection of samples of gross solids, samples of sump water from five catch basins and flow-weighted composite samples of stormwater from the outlet of one catch basin were collected and analyzed for concentrations of OG and TPH. A mass balance approach was used to assess the effectiveness of each catch basin equipped with a hood in retaining gross solids. The effectiveness of the deep-sump catch basins fitted with one of three types of hoods in retaining gross solids ranged from 27 to 52 percent. From 45 to 90 percent of the gross solids collected from the catch-basin sumps were composed of

  1. Survey of western Canadian beef producers regarding calf-hood diseases, management practices, and veterinary service usage

    OpenAIRE

    Waldner, Cheryl; Jelinski, Murray D.; McIntyre-Zimmer, Katelyn

    2013-01-01

    Cow-calf producers in western Canada were surveyed in June 2010 regarding calf-hood diseases and veterinary service usage; 310 producers responded. Use of veterinary services, particularly herd-health related services, increased with herd size as did neonatal diarrhea and clostridial vaccine usage. Administration of clostridial vaccines to pregnant dams before calving was associated with a reduction in neonatal diarrhea treatments; however, there was no association between neonatal diarrhea v...

  2. Leak Detection for Potable Water Lines at Fort Hood: Final Report on Project AR-F-313 for FY05

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-06-01

    cables, gas lines, etc., sometimes run close to water pipelines , and it is important to be certain that digging will not cause damage to these...sensors to find leaks in the potable water pipelines of West Fort Hood has been demon- strated to be quite good. Two leaks were discovered during the...the Army consider installing PermaLog permanent leak sensors at other installations where potable water pipelines run in sel- dom traveled areas. The

  3. Impact of the CO2 and H2O clouds of the Martian polar hood on the polar energy balance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forget, Francois; Pollack, James B.

    1993-01-01

    Clouds covering extensive areas above the martian polar caps have regularly been observed during the fall and winter seasons of each hemisphere. These 'polar hoods' are thought to be made of H2O and CO2. In particular, the very cold temperatures observed during the polar night by Viking and Mariner 9 around both poles have been identified as CO2 clouds and several models, including GCM, have indicated that the CO2 can condense in the atmosphere at all polar latitudes. Estimating the impact of the polar hood clouds on the energy balance of the polar regions is necessary to model the CO2 cycle and address puzzling problems like the polar caps assymetry. For example, by altering the thermal radiation emitted to space, CO2 clouds alter the amount of CO2 that condenses during the fall and winter season. The complete set of Viking IRTM data was analyzed to define the spatial and temporal properties of the polar hoods, and how their presence affects the energy radiated by the atmosphere/caps system to space was estimated. The IRTM observations provide good spatial and temporal converage of both polar regions during fall, winter, and spring, when a combination of the first and the second Viking year is used. Only the IRTM brightness temperatures at 11, 15, and 20 microns are reliable at martian polar temperatures. To recover the integrated thermal fluxes from the IRTM data, a simple model of the polar hood, thought to consist of 'warm' H2O clouds lying above colder and opaque CO2 clouds was developed. Such a model is based on the analysis of the IRIS spectra, and is consistent with the IRTM data used.

  4. Ultrasound follow-up of posttraumatic injuries of the sagittal band of the dorsal hood treated by a conservative approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Willekens, Inneke, E-mail: Inneke.willekens@gmail.com [Department of Radiology, Universitair Ziekenhuis Brussel (UZ Brussel), Vrije Universiteit Brussel (VUB), Laarbeeklaan 101, 1090 Brussels (Belgium); Kichouh, Mimoun; Boulet, Cedric; De Maeseneer, Michel [Department of Radiology, Universitair Ziekenhuis Brussel (UZ Brussel), Vrije Universiteit Brussel (VUB), Laarbeeklaan 101, 1090 Brussels (Belgium); Clarys, Jan Pieter [Department of Experimental Anatomy, Vrije Universiteit Brussel (VUB), Laarbeeklaan 103, 1090 Brussels (Belgium); Mey, Johan de [Department of Radiology, Universitair Ziekenhuis Brussel (UZ Brussel), Vrije Universiteit Brussel (VUB), Laarbeeklaan 101, 1090 Brussels (Belgium)

    2015-02-15

    Highlights: • Dorsal Hood. • Extensor Hood. • Ultrasound. • Rupture. - Abstract: Traumatic dislocation of the extensor tendon over the metacarpophalangeal (MCP) joint is a rare problem in patients without rheumatoid disorders. The common extensor tendon is stabilized on the metacarpal head by components of the dorsal hood (DH). A tear in the sagittal bands, allows (sub)luxation of the tendon. To ensure appropriate treatment, the identification of the damaged structures is essential. Ultrasound (US) is a valuable method in the evaluation of DH injuries and in the follow-up for evaluation of healing or lack of healing of the lesions. We report three cases with partial rupture of the sagittal band of the DH: two cases in the index finger and one case in the long finger, which caused pain and swelling and was diagnosed with US. The patients were treated conservatively and the pain resolved after 9 months in case 1, 3 months in case 2 and 6 months in case 3. The follow-up at one year revealed painless full range of motion and no residual subluxation during the dynamic ultrasound.

  5. Construction and Operation of a Ventilated Hood System for Measuring Greenhouse Gas and Volatile Organic Compound Emissions from Cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Place, Sara E; Pan, Yuee; Zhao, Yongjing; Mitloehner, Frank M

    2011-12-08

    Recent interest in greenhouse gas emissions from ruminants, such as cattle, has spawned a need for affordable, precise, and accurate methods for the measurement of gaseous emissions arising from enteric fermentation. A new head hood system for cattle designed to capture and quantify emissions was recently developed at the University of California, Davis. The system consists of two head hoods, two vacuum pumps, and an instrumentation cabinet housing the required data collection equipment. This system has the capability of measuring carbon dioxide, methane, ethanol, methanol, water vapor, nitrous oxide, acetic acid emissions and oxygen consumption in real-time. A unique aspect of the hoods is the front, back, and sides are made of clear polycarbonate sheeting allowing the cattle a full range of vision during gas sampling. Recovery rates for these slightly negative pressure chambers were measured ranging from 97.6 to 99.3 percent. This system can capture high quality data for use in improving emission inventories and evaluating gaseous emission mitigation strategies.

  6. A review of Brucella infection in marine mammals, with special emphasis on Brucella pinnipedialis in the hooded seal (Cystophora cristata)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Brucella spp. were isolated from marine mammals for the first time in 1994. Two novel species were later included in the genus; Brucella ceti and Brucella pinnipedialis, with cetaceans and seals as their preferred hosts, respectively. Brucella spp. have since been isolated from a variety of marine mammals. Pathological changes, including lesions of the reproductive organs and associated abortions, have only been registered in cetaceans. The zoonotic potential differs among the marine mammal Brucella strains. Many techniques, both classical typing and molecular microbiology, have been utilised for characterisation of the marine mammal Brucella spp. and the change from the band-based approaches to the sequence-based approaches has greatly increased our knowledge about these strains. Several clusters have been identified within the B. ceti and B. pinnipedialis species, and multiple studies have shown that the hooded seal isolates differ from other pinniped isolates. We describe how different molecular methods have contributed to species identification and differentiation of B. ceti and B. pinnipedialis, with special emphasis on the hooded seal isolates. We further discuss the potential role of B. pinnipedialis for the declining Northwest Atlantic hooded seal population. PMID:21819589

  7. Harvest-related edge effects on prey availability and foraging of hooded warblers in a bottomland hardwood forest.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    John Kilgo

    2005-04-20

    The effects of harvest-created canopy gaps in bottomland hardwood forests on arthropod abundance and, hence, the foraging ecology of birds are poorly understood. I predicted that arthropod abundance would be high near edges of group-selection harvest gaps and lower in the surrounding forest, and that male Hooded Warblers (Wilsonia citrina) foraging near gaps would find more prey per unit time than those foraging in the surrounding forest. In fact, arthropod abundance was greater >100 m from a gap edge than at 0-30 m or 30-100 m from an edge, due to their abundance on switchcane (Arundinaria gigantea); arthropods did not differ in abundance among distances from gaps on oaks (Quercus spp.) or red maple (Acer rubrum). Similarly, Hooded Warbler foraging attack rates were not higher near gap edges: when foraging for fledglings, attack rate did not differ among distances from gaps, but when foraging for themselves, attack rates actually were lower 0-30 m from gap edges than 30-100 m or >100 m from a gap edge. Foraging attack rate was positively associated with arthropod abundance. Hooded Warblers apparently encountered fewer prey and presumably foraged less efficiently where arthropods were least abundant, i.e., near gaps. That attack rates among birds foraging for fledglings were not affected by distance from gap (and hence arthropod abundance) suggests that prey availability may not be limiting at any location across the forest, despite the depressing effects of gaps on arthropod abundance.

  8. Construction and Operation of a Ventilated Hood System for Measuring Greenhouse Gas and Volatile Organic Compound Emissions from Cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yongjing Zhao

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Recent interest in greenhouse gas emissions from ruminants, such as cattle, has spawned a need for affordable, precise, and accurate methods for the measurement of gaseous emissions arising from enteric fermentation. A new head hood system for cattle designed to capture and quantify emissions was recently developed at the University of California, Davis. The system consists of two head hoods, two vacuum pumps, and an instrumentation cabinet housing the required data collection equipment. This system has the capability of measuring carbon dioxide, methane, ethanol, methanol, water vapor, nitrous oxide, acetic acid emissions and oxygen consumption in real-time. A unique aspect of the hoods is the front, back, and sides are made of clear polycarbonate sheeting allowing the cattle a full range of vision during gas sampling. Recovery rates for these slightly negative pressure chambers were measured ranging from 97.6 to 99.3 percent. This system can capture high quality data for use in improving emission inventories and evaluating gaseous emission mitigation strategies.

  9. 基于仿真分析的抽油烟机优化设计%Optimization Design of Kitchen Hood System Based on Simulation Analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    付炜嘉; 李杰; 王豪杰

    2013-01-01

    The main task of the optimization design of kitchen hood system is to improve the exhaust efficiency of the kitchen hood system. By using the traditional kitchen hood system optimization design and analysis method, the performance of the kitchen hood system was analyzed by experiment, and designer can only analyze finite designed kitchen hood system and the improvement of the exhaust efficiency is limited. In order to analyze designed kitchen hood system in the primary design, combining the optimization design of the kitchen hood system with numerical simulation can advance the efficiency of the optimization design of the kitchen hood system and also the exhaust efficiency of the kitchen hood system. The application of this kitchen hood optimization design and analysis methods, which has great significance and application promotion for the designers, can reduces the costs of the design and shorten the product development cycle.%对抽油烟机进行优化设计,提高抽油烟机的排烟效率,是抽油烟机设计的主要任务.传统的抽油烟机优化设计方法采用加工实物进行实验的方式分析抽油烟机的性能,能分析的对象数目有限,优化后抽油烟提高机排烟效率有限.为了在设计初期对抽油烟机外型设计进行分析评估,结合数值仿真进行优化设计,可以提高抽油烟机的效率,更好地改进抽油烟机的排油烟性能.优化设计分析方法的应用,可以减少设计成本,缩短产品研发周期,具有很好的推广价值.

  10. 改良 B-Lynch 缝合术在剖宫产术中宫缩乏力性出血的应用%Application of improved B-Lynch sutura in hemorrhage caused by uterine inertia during the ce-sarean section

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    白琳

    2014-01-01

    Objective To investigate the application methods and clinical effect of improved B-Lynch sutura on hemorrhage caused by uterine inertia during the cesarean section. Methods A retro-spective analysis was performed on the clinical data of 72 patients with hemorrhage caused by uterine in-ertia during the cesarean section,who were treated by improved B-Lynch sutura in the first people’s hos-pital of Shangqiu from April 2008 to June 2013. Results The hemorrhage dosage during operation of the 72 patients was 600 - 2300 ml,all of the patients were stanched effectively,the effective rate was 100%and there was no hemorrhagic shock occured during the operation,7 cases were taken transfusion for 400 - 800 ml,no one was cut the uterus because of hemorrhage out-of-control. The uterus wounds of the patients healed well and there was no complication of rehaemorrhagia,infection,intrauterine adhesion or endometriosis occur. Follow-up visited for 7 - 14 months after the patients left the hospital,found their lochia was regular,when reviewed the patients by B ultrasound 42 days after the operation showed that, their involution of uterus was good. Conclusions The B-Lynch sutura is easy to handle,dispense with special instrument and high technical requirements,it has the characteristics of rapid,valid and definite when salvaging the patients with massive haemorrhage caused by uterine inertia during the cesarean sec-tion,besides,it is also beneficial to uterus recovery and suitable for primary hospital to use.%目的:探讨改良 B-Lynch 缝扎术治疗剖宫产术中宫缩乏力性产后出血的应用方法及临床效果。方法回顾性分析2008年4月至2013年6月间商丘市第一人民医院采用改良式 B-Lynch 缝合术治疗的72例剖宫产术中宫缩乏力性产后出血患者的临床资料。结果72例患者术中出血600~2300 ml,均有效止血,有效率100%,无术中失血性休克发生,7例患者输血400~800 ml,无因出血无法控制行子宫

  11. 烟草CTD烘丝机出料罩的改造%Improvement of Discharging Hood of CTD Dryer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    戴宇昕

    2013-01-01

    The problems that the stickiness of the side walls of discharging hood and the wet mass and waterlogging tobacco caused by the condensation leaks were widely encountered during the CTD dryer's use. The main reason was that the original discharging hood failed to exhaust the moisture in time and no water diversion structure was designed for the condensate water. To solve the problems, the discharging hood of CTD was improved as follows: two protruding edges were added to separate water and tobacco as well as the sieve flappers were used to divert water according to wall attachment effect; the shape of discharging hood was changed to an outward trumpet shape; additionally, a slanted toward water receiving tank was added and channels were set to exhaust moisture, etc. The results of application after improving showed that: the tobacco stuck to the side walls of discharging hood decreased by 93.4% and the dropping amount of wet mass declined by 98.8%. Moreover, there was no condensate water leakage and moisture spillover.%CTD烘丝机在使用过程中存在出料罩侧壁粘料、结露滴漏并诱发湿团及水渍烟的问题。这主要是由于原出料罩未能及时排出出口的潮气,也未对冷凝水设计导水结构所致。为此对CTD出料罩进行改造:根据附壁效应增设两重导水凸棱进行水料分离,筛网插板进行导水;改变出料罩外形为外扩喇叭状;加装斜向外侧倾斜的接水槽;设置排潮管道排气等。改造后应用效果表明,出料罩侧壁粘壁量、湿团掉落量分别降低了93.4%和98.8%,无冷凝水滴漏及潮气外溢现象,提高了产品工艺质量。

  12. Natural ventilation of a generic cask under a transport hood - CFD and analytical modelling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Powell, D.; Davies, G.; Tso, C.F. [Arup, London (United Kingdom)

    2004-07-01

    In comparison with finite element simulation for structural and thermal behaviour, the use of computational fluid dynamics technique (hereafter CFD) to analyse, predict and design air and heat flow in package design is relatively novel. Arup has been using CFD techniques to investigate fluid and heat flow, and to use it as a tool to design fluid and heat flow across a broad spectrum of industries for over fifteen years. In order demonstrate the power of the technique and its benefits, the airflow and heat flow characteristics around a transport package during transit under a transport hood has been evaluated using the CFD technique. This paper presents the scenario, the model, the analysis technique and the results of this analysis. Comparison with test results is probably the best way to validate a CFD analysis. In the absence of test results, the analysis was verified by comparison with hand calculation solutions. The scenario as it stands is too complex and hand calculation solution cannot describe the scenario sufficiently. However, hand calculation solutions could be derived for simplified version of the scenario against which CFD analysis of the simplified scenario can be compared. The second half of this paper describes the verification out.

  13. On the inconsistencies related to prediction of flow into an enclosing hood obstructed by a worker.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karaismail, Ertan; Celik, Ismail

    2010-06-01

    The recirculating flow structures formed in the wake of a worker standing in front of an enclosing fume hood were numerically investigated. Two- and three-dimensional, unsteady, laminar/turbulent computations were performed for a Reynolds number (Re) range of 1.0 x 10(3)-1.0 x 10(5). The standard k-epsilon, Renormalization group (RNG) k-epsilon, and Shear Stress Transport (SST) k-omega models were used in Unsteady Reynolds Averaged Navier-Stokes (URANS) computations, and the results were compared with each other and also with the previous predictions reported in the literature. Numerical issues regarding the grid convergence and the inadequacies of turbulence models that may come into play at low Reynolds numbers were addressed. On the whole, SST k-omega model was found to be promising for qualitatively accurate prediction of both steady and unsteady recirculatory flow patterns in the wake of the worker. On the other hand, the standard and RNG k-epsilon models failed in prediction of anticipated unsteadiness at low Reynolds numbers. In a more realistic three-dimensional simulation with SST k-omega model, the anticipated unsteady and recirculating flow field in the wake of the worker was captured. Present results seem to qualitatively agree with the deductions made from experimental analyses in the literature while conflicting with some aspects of the previously reported numerical results. The apparent inconsistencies observed between the current results and those published in the literature were elucidated.

  14. The eyes of the deep diving hooded seal (Cystophora cristata enhance sensitivity to ultraviolet light

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chris Hogg

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The mammalian visual range is approximately 400–700 nm, although recent evidence suggests varying ultraviolet (UV extensions in diverse terrestrial species. UV sensitivity may have advantages in the dim, blue light shifted environment experienced by submerged marine mammals. It may also be advantageous when seals are on land as UV is reflected by snow and ice but absorbed by fur, enhancing visual contrast. Here we show that the pelagic hooded seal (Cystophora cristata has a highly UV permissive cornea and lens. Seals like other carnivores have a tapetum lucidum (TL reflecting light back through the retina increasing sensitivity. The TL in this seal is unusual being white and covering almost the entire retina unlike that in other carnivores. Spectral reflectance from its surface selectively increases the relative UV/blue components >10 times than other wavelengths. Retinal architecture is consistent with a high degree of convergence. Enhanced UV from a large TL surface with a high degree of retinal convergence will increase sensitivity at a cost to acuity. UV electrophysiological retina responses were only obtained to dim, rod mediated stimuli, with no evidence of cone input. As physiological measurements of threshold sensitivity are much higher than those for psychophysical detection, these seals are likely to be more UV sensitive than our results imply. Hence, UV reflections from the TL will afford increased sensitivity in dim oceanic environments.

  15. Ultrastructure and distribution of antennal sensilla of the chilli thrips Scirtothrips dorsalis hood (Thysanoptera: Thripidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Wenjing; Zhou, Shihao; Wang, Shijie; Han, Dongyin; Chen, Junyu; Fu, Yueguan

    2017-08-21

    The chilli thrips, Scirtothrips dorsalis Hood, is a serious pest of numerous important vegetable and ornamental crops. Various signals, especially phytochemical cues, determine the behavior of the phytophagous thrips at host selection. The sensory abilities of S. dorsalis are poorly understood although the antennae of adult are known to possess important sensory structures in orther insects. In this study, the morphology, distribution, and ultrastructure of the antennal sensilla of the S. dorsalis were examined by using scanning and transmission electron microscopy. Microscopy observations revealed that adult male and female S. dorsalis possess filiform antennae. Each antenna comprises a scape, a pedicel, and a flagellum composed of six segments without clear sexual dimorphism in the number and distribution of antennal sensilla. The scape and pedicel exhibit Böhm's bristles, sensilla chaetica, and sensilla campaniform. The external structures of these organs reveal their mechanosensory function. In the flagellum, the most represented sensilla are the multiporous sensilla basiconica, which can be divided into three types of single-walled olfactory sensilla; three types of sensilla chaetica with mechanosensory and gustatory functions; sensilla coeloconica, which possess hollow cuticular spoke channels and represent double-walled olfactory sensilla; sensilla capitula and sensilla cavity with thermo-hygrosensory functions; and aporous sensilla trichodea with smooth cuticula and mechanosensory function. The putative function of described sensilla is discussed in ralation to host plant selection behavior of S. dorsalis. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Prevalence and risk factors associated with reversed Robin Hood syndrome in acute ischemic stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexandrov, Andrei V; Nguyen, Huy Thang; Rubiera, Marta; Alexandrov, Anne W; Zhao, Limin; Heliopoulos, Ioannis; Robinson, Alice; Dewolfe, Jennifer; Tsivgoulis, Georgios

    2009-08-01

    Early deterioration can occur after acute stroke for a variety of reasons. We describe a hemodynamic steal and associated neurological deterioration, the reversed Robin Hood syndrome (RRHS). We aimed to investigate the frequency and factors associated with RRHS. Consecutive patients with acute cerebral ischemia underwent serial National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale and bilateral transcranial Doppler monitoring with breathholding. Steal magnitude (%) was calculated from transient mean flow velocity reduction in the affected arteries at the time of velocity increase in normal vessels. Excessive sleepiness and likelihood of sleep apnea were evaluated by the Epworth Sleepiness Scale and Berlin Questionnaire. Among 153 patients (age, 61+/-14 years; 48% women; 21% transient ischemic attack) admitted within 48 hours from symptom onset, 21 (14%) had steal phenomenon (median steal magnitude, 20%; interquartile range, 11%; range, 6% to 45%), and 11 (7%) had RRHS. RRHS was most frequent in patients with proximal arterial occlusions (17% versus 1%; P<0.001). The following factors were independently (P<0.05) associated with RRHS (multivariate logistic regression model): male gender, younger age, persisting arterial occlusions, and excessive sleepiness (P<0.001). A 1-point increase in the Epworth Sleepiness Scale was independently related to an increased likelihood of RRHS of 36% (95% CI, 7% to 73%). RRHS and hemodynamic steal can be found in 7% and 14%, respectively, of consecutive patients with stroke without other known causes for deterioration. Patients with persisting arterial occlusions and excessive sleepiness can be particularly vulnerable to the steal.

  17. Reversed Robin Hood Syndrome in the Light of Nonlinear Model of Cerebral Circulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piechna, A.; Cieslicki, K.

    2017-05-01

    The brain is supplied by the internal carotid and vertebro-basilar systems of vessels interconnected by arterial anastomoses and forming at the base of the brain a structure called the Circle of Willis (CoW). An active intrinsic ability of cerebral vascular bed maintains constant Cerebral Blood Flow (CBF) in a certain range of systemic pressure changes. This ability is called autoregulation and together with the redundant structure of the CoW guarantee maintaining CBF even in partial occlusion of supplying arteries. However, there are some situations when the combination of those two mechanisms causes an opposite effect called the Reversed Robin Hood Syndrome (RRHS). In this work we proposed a model of the CoW with autoregulation mechanism and investigated a RRHS which may occur in the case of Internal Carotid Artery (ICA) stenosis combined with hypercapnia. We showed and analyzed the mechanism of stealing the blood by the contralateral side of the brain. Our results were qualitatively compared with the clinical reports available in the literature.

  18. Truncation of the MSH2 C-terminal 60 amino acids disrupts effective DNA mismatch repair and is causative for Lynch syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wielders, Eva; Delzenne-Goette, Elly; Dekker, Rob; van der Valk, Martin; Te Riele, Hein

    2017-04-01

    Missense variants of DNA mismatch repair (MMR) genes pose a problem in clinical genetics as long as they cannot unambiguously be assigned as the cause of Lynch syndrome (LS). To study such variants of uncertain clinical significance, we have developed a functional assay based on direct measurement of MMR activity in mouse embryonic stem cells expressing mutant protein from the endogenous alleles. We have applied this protocol to a specific truncation mutant of MSH2 that removes 60 C-terminal amino acids and has been found in suspected LS families. We show that the stability of the MSH2/MSH6 heterodimer is severely perturbed, causing attenuated MMR in in vitro assays and cancer predisposition in mice. This mutation can therefore unambiguously be considered as deleterious and causative for LS.

  19. Tumour spectrum of non-polyposis colorectal cancer (Lynch syndrome) on the island of Tenerife and influence of insularity on the clinical manifestations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medina-Arana, V; Barrios, Y; Fernández-Peralta, A; Jiménez, A; Salido, E; González, F; González-Aguilera, J J

    2004-02-01

    Colorectal cancer is a complex disease from a genetic point of view because both genetic and environmental factors interact in its development. Only familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP) follows mendelian genetics, in that mutations of the APC gene lead to development of the tumours. Lynch syndrome is the most frequent form of hereditary colorectal cancer and appears to be associated with other types of extracolonic cancers. The genetic basis has been established as a defect in DNA mismatch repair genes, and there is genetic heterogeneity due to the involvement of several genes in this system. Germinal mutations in these genes predispose to appearance of the syndrome. The aim of this study is to describe the tumoral spectrum of 10 families, comprising a total of 488 individuals, from the island of Tenerife (Canary Islands) and to assess whether the geographical isolation of this population has changed any features of the tumoral spectrum of the syndrome in comparison with studies that cover larger geographical areas with more genetic exchange. From our results we can conclude that the genetic drift and consanguinity in this population with a demographic history of isolation did not significantly alter the tumoral spectrum of the syndrome. Our data confirm that families affected by Lynch syndrome are a high-risk population and should be closely monitored, since their careful supervision has been shown to be useful in preventing cancer. We also emphasize the importance of developing a complete family history that permits these families to be identified together with a mutational screening of DNA mismatch repair genes (mainly MLH1 and MSH2 genes) with the aim of a possible identification of members of a family that should be carefully monitored (the carriers of germline mutations in these genes), whereas the remaining members, originally, are no more at risk than the general population.

  20. Efficiency Assessment of Local Exhaust Ventilation Hoods System for Control of Fe2O3 Dust in the process of Oxide Screen Unit at iron making in steel industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jamshidi Rastani Mahdi

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Background & Objectives : Local exhaust ventilation system (LEV is one of the most common engineering controls methods for the chemical agents in workplaces. This study aimed to determine the efficiency assessment of the LEV system for control of Fe2O3 dust in the process of oxide screen unit at iron making in steel industry . Methods : The LEV system with an extensive network of ducting including 17 hoods was investigated in a cross-sectional study. The First, variations and contradictions of the system and process were compared versus documentation (system plans, then hood Efficiency Assessment accomplished by using of the dust concentration measurement besides of the each hood (source, at two status ON and OFF of LEV system (Repeat three times, by NIOSH 500 method. Results : Result of statistical test between the concentration of pollutants at two status ON/OFF of LEV system, in 7 of 17 hoods, didn’t show significantly different (P <0.05. Enclosed hood at the material falling from the tank to the feeder, with 85% efficiency and 3.3±1.5mg/m3 concentration at ON status was the highest efficiency. Two hoods, one enclosed hood at material falling from the Feeder into the screen and other unenclosed at material falling from conveyor to conveyor (small size at below screen, both with 2% efficiency and the 243.2±73.5 and 3462.4±1339 mg/m3 concentration demonstrated the lowest efficiency at ON status. Also the highest concentration of contaminants was at the unenclosed hood installed in the place of pellets falling from the conveyor into the tank with 5.03g/m3 and efficiency of 7%. Conclusion : The few hoods of the investigated LEV did not have appropriate performance and had different efficiency. Even, some hoods (branches show negative efficiency due to return of contaminant from the hood to workplace area.

  1. 障碍物对排风柜性能影响的实验研究%Experiment Research of Effect of Obstacles on Performance of Fume Hood

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    程勇; 刘东; 李强民

    2011-01-01

    Use experiment method to research the effect of different obstacles and dummy, according to the face velocity distribution of fume hood and fluctuation of velocities of measure points. The results show that small scale obstacle 1 and obstacle 2 located in fume hood have little effects on the performance of fume hood; however, large scale obstacle 3 and standing dummy have added the non-uniformity of face velocity distribution, and the performance of fume hood has obviously became worse. The results have provided some significant suggestions for fume hood operation.%从排风柜面风速分布,测点风速波动等角度出发,采用实验方法研究了柜内不同大小障碍物和站立假人对排风柜性能的影响。实验结果表明:柜内放置面积率较小障碍物1和障碍物2对排风柜性能影响很小;而障碍物3和站立假人使操作口面风速分布明显不均匀,恶化了排风柜的性能;为排风柜的运行管理提供了一定的指导。

  2. An atypical distribution of lactate dehydrogenase isoenzymes in the hooded seal (Cystophora cristata) brain may reflect a biochemical adaptation to diving.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoff, Mariana Leivas Müller; Fabrizius, Andrej; Folkow, Lars P; Burmester, Thorsten

    2016-04-01

    The brains of some diving mammals can withstand periods of severe hypoxia without signs of deleterious effects. This may in part be due to an enhanced cerebral capacity for anaerobic energy production. Here, we have tested this hypothesis by comparing various parameters of the lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) in the brain of the hooded seal (Cystophora cristata) with those in the brains of the ferret (Mustela putorius furo) and mouse (Mus musculus). We found that mRNA and protein expression of lactate dehydrogenase a (LDHA) and lactate dehydrogenase b (LDHB), and also the LDH activity were significantly higher in the ferret brain than in brains of the hooded seal and the mouse (p diving mammals. Moreover, immunofluorescence studies showed more pronounced co-localization of LDHB and glial fibrillary acidic protein in the cortex of the hooded seal. Since LDHB isoenzymes primarily catalyze the conversion of lactate to pyruvate, this finding suggests that the contribution of astrocytes to the brain aerobic metabolism is higher in the hooded seal than in non-diving species. The cerebral tolerance of the hooded seal to hypoxia may therefore partly rely on different LDH isoenzymes distribution.

  3. Natural attenuation of heavy oil on a coarse sediment beach : results from Black Duck Cove, Nova Scotia, Canada over 35 years following the Arrow oil spill

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Owens, E.H. [Polaris Applied Sciences Inc., Bainbridge Island, WA (United States); Prince, R.C. [ExxonMobil Biomedical Sciences Inc., Annandale, NJ (United States); Taylor, R.B. [Natural Resources Canada, Dartmouth, NS (Canada). Geological Survey of Canada

    2008-07-01

    In 1970, the tanker Arrow spilled bunker C oil into Black Duck Cove on the Atlantic coast of Nova Scotia. The coarse sediment beaches provided an accessible natural laboratory for the study of the long-term fate and persistence of stranded oil in a coastal marine environment. Although the site is well known to the oil spill scientific community, it has not been studied systematically and much remains to be learned regarding the physical and chemical processes that have been ongoing. More information is needed pertaining to the character of the oil residues and the reasons for their persistence. This paper summarized the knowledge that has been acquired collectively over the last 35 years. The focus was primarily on coarse sediments, including cobbles and boulders. All tidal zones at the site have both surface and subsurface oil deposits. The sediments whose pore spaces remain filled with oil are examples of stable oil-sediment deposits. Wave action is slowly eroding these asphalt pavements. Intertidal pore-filled sediments are resistant to physical processes, and sequestered subsurface residues coat the cobble-boulder sediments below the zone of sediment redistribution. The subsurface oils will probably remain until the sediment is disturbed by major storms or by landward barrier migration. Although the surface oil is highly biodegraded, the subsurface oil remains similar to that of the spilled material. It was concluded that subsurface residues will likely remain sequestered and unaltered for the foreseeable future. 26 refs., 2 tabs., 6 figs.

  4. Atmospheric bioaerosols originating from Adélie penguins (Pygoscelis adeliae): Ecological observations of airborne bacteria at Hukuro Cove, Langhovde, Antarctica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Fumihisa; Maki, Teruya; Kakikawa, Makiko; Noda, Takuji; Mitamura, Hiromichi; Takahashi, Akinori; Imura, Satoshi; Iwasaka, Yasunobu

    2016-03-01

    The relationship between atmospheric bioaerosols and ecosystems is currently of global importance. Antarctica has an extreme climate, meaning that ecosystem behavior in this region is relatively simple. Direct sampling of atmospheric bioaerosols was performed at an Adélie penguin (Pygoscelis adeliae) colony at Hukuro Cove, Langhovde, Antarctica on 22 January 2013. The aim of the sampling was to reveal the effect of the penguins on the Antarctic ecosystem within the atmospheric bioaerosols. Samples were bio-analyzed using a next-generation sequencing method. Biomass concentrations of Bacilli-class bacteria were 19.4 times higher when sampled leeward of the penguin colony compared with windward sampling. The source of these bacteria was the feces of the penguins. Predicted atmospheric trajectories indicate that the bacteria disperse towards the Southern Ocean. The largest biomass concentration in the windward bacteria was of the Gammaproteobacteria class, which decreased markedly with distance through the penguin colony, being deposited on soil, surface water, and ocean. It is concluded that bioaerosols and ecosystems near the penguin colony strongly influence each other.

  5. Haul-out behavior of harbor seals (Phoca vitulina in Hood Canal, Washington.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josh M London

    Full Text Available The goal of this study was to model haul-out behavior of harbor seals (Phoca vitulina in the Hood Canal region of Washington State with respect to changes in physiological, environmental, and temporal covariates. Previous research has provided a solid understanding of seal haul-out behavior. Here, we expand on that work using a generalized linear mixed model (GLMM with temporal autocorrelation and a large dataset. Our dataset included behavioral haul-out records from archival and VHF radio tag deployments on 25 individual seals representing 61,430 seal hours. A novel application for increased computational efficiency allowed us to examine this large dataset with a GLMM that appropriately accounts for temporal autocorellation. We found significant relationships with the covariates hour of day, day of year, minutes from high tide and year. Additionally, there was a significant effect of the interaction term hour of day : day of year. This interaction term demonstrated that seals are more likely to haul out during nighttime hours in August and September, but then switch to predominantly daylight haul-out patterns in October and November. We attribute this change in behavior to an effect of human disturbance levels. This study also examined a unique ecological event to determine the role of increased killer whale (Orcinus orca predation on haul-out behavior. In 2003 and 2005 these harbor seals were exposed to unprecedented levels of killer whale predation and results show an overall increase in haul-out probability after exposure to killer whales. The outcome of this study will be integral to understanding any changes in population abundance as a result of increased killer whale predation.

  6. Association of reversed Robin Hood syndrome with risk of stroke recurrence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palazzo, P; Balucani, C; Barlinn, K; Tsivgoulis, G; Zhang, Y; Zhao, L; Dewolfe, J; Toaldo, B; Stamboulis, E; Vernieri, F; Rossini, P M; Alexandrov, A V

    2010-11-30

    Reversed Robin Hood syndrome (RRHS) has recently been identified as one of the mechanisms of early neurologic deterioration in acute ischemic stroke (AIS) patients related to arterial blood flow steal from ischemic to nonaffected brain. We sought to investigate the association of RRHS with risk of stroke recurrence in a single-center cohort study. Consecutive patients with AIS or TIA affecting the anterior circulation were prospectively evaluated with serial NIH Stroke Scale assessments and bilateral transcranial Doppler monitoring with breath-holding test. RRHS was defined according to previously validated criteria. A total of 360 patients (51% women, mean age 62 ± 15 years) had an ischemic stroke (81%) or TIA (19%) in the anterior circulation, and 30 (8%) of them had RRHS. During a mean follow-up period of 6 months (range 1-24), a total of 16 (4%) recurrent strokes (15 ischemic and 1 hemorrhagic) were documented. The cumulative recurrence rate was higher in patients with RRHS (19%; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1-37) compared to the rest (15%; 95% CI 0-30; p = 0.022 by log-rank test). All recurrent strokes in patients with RRHS were cerebral infarcts that occurred in the ipsilateral to the index event anterior circulation vascular territory. After adjusting for demographic characteristics, vascular risk factors, and secondary prevention therapies, RRHS was independently associated with a higher stroke recurrence risk (hazard ratio 7.31; 95% CI 2.12-25.22; p = 0.002). Patients with AIS and RRHS appear to have a higher risk of recurrent strokes that are of ischemic origin and occur in the same arterial territory distribution to the index event. Further independent validation of this association is required in a multicenter setting.

  7. How safe are chemical fume hoods for the chemists?%排风柜的实验安全防护效率

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Dominique Laloux

    2013-01-01

    The long term danger of inhaling chemicals in a chemistry laboratory is widely undermined,and the safety of fume hoods, supposed to protect against the inhalation of chemicals is much more complexthan users think. Intends to help chemists understanding what safety level they should expect from a ducted fume hood and from ductless filtering fume hoods recirculating air into the laboratory room.%实验员在实验过程中吸入的化学气体将导致健康危害.排风柜作为实验室基础防护设备,远比想象的复杂.主要帮助实验员了解传统外排式排风柜和无风管自净型排风柜在安全防护方面应达到的标准.

  8. Survey of western Canadian beef producers regarding calf-hood diseases, management practices, and veterinary service usage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waldner, Cheryl; Jelinski, Murray D; McIntyre-Zimmer, Katelyn

    2013-06-01

    Cow-calf producers in western Canada were surveyed in June 2010 regarding calf-hood diseases and veterinary service usage; 310 producers responded. Use of veterinary services, particularly herd-health related services, increased with herd size as did neonatal diarrhea and clostridial vaccine usage. Administration of clostridial vaccines to pregnant dams before calving was associated with a reduction in neonatal diarrhea treatments; however, there was no association between neonatal diarrhea vaccine usage and a reduction in diarrhea treatments. Producers with > 220 breeding females were more likely than those with veterinarian necropsy dead calves, have a veterinarian pregnancy check their bred females, and evaluate their herd bulls for breeding soundness.

  9. The effects of food abundance and disturbance on foraging flock patterns of the wintering Hooded Crane(Grus monacha)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ling Yang; Lizhi Zhou; Yunwei Song

    2015-01-01

    Background:Food abundance and availability affect flock patterns of foraging birds.Cost and risk tradeoffs are especially critical for flocks of wintering waterbirds foraging in lake wetlands.Waterbirds losing suitable habitats face insufficient food supplies and high levels of disturbance,affecting their foraging activities.Our objective was to study the effects of food abundance and disturbances on flock size and the structure of Hooded Crane flocks wintering at Shengjin Lake and,as well,to understand the response of wintering waterbirds to habitat degradation for future management decisions and protection of the population.Methods:We investigated food abundance,disturbances and flock foraging activities of the wintering Hooded Crane in several foraging habitats of Shengjin Lake from November 2013 to April 2014.Flock size and structure were observed by scan sampling.Data on food abundance and disturbances were collected by sampling.Flock size and structure were compared among three wintering stages.The relationship between food resources,disturbances and flock size were illustrated using a generalized linear model.Results:In the early and middle wintering periods,the Hooded Crane used paddy fields as its major foraging habitat,where the number of foraging birds and flocks were the highest.During the late period,the cranes took to meadows as their major foraging habitat.The variation among foraging flock was mainly embodied in the size of the flocks,while the age composition of these flocks did not change perceptibly.Family flocks were notably different from flock groups in size and age composition.The results of a generalized linear model showed that the food abundance had a marked effect on foraging flock size and age composition,while disturbances had a significant effect only on flock size.From our analysis,it appeared that the combined effect of the two variables was significant on the size of the foraging flock,but had less impact on age composition

  10. The effects of food abundance and disturbance on foraging flock patterns of the wintering Hooded Crane (Grus monacha)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ling Yang; Lizhi Zhou; Yunwei Song

    2015-01-01

    Background:Food abundance and availability affect flock patterns of foraging birds. Cost and risk tradeoffs are especially critical for flocks of wintering waterbirds foraging in lake wetlands. Waterbirds losing suitable habitats face insufficient food supplies and high levels of disturbance, affecting their foraging activities. Our objective was to study the effects of food abundance and disturbances on flock size and the structure of Hooded Crane flocks wintering at Shengjin Lake and, as well, to understand the response of wintering waterbirds to habitat degradation for future management decisions and protection of the population. Methods:We investigated food abundance, disturbances and flock foraging activities of the wintering Hooded Crane in several foraging habitats of Shengjin Lake from November 2013 to April 2014. Flock size and structure were observed by scan sampling. Data on food abundance and disturbances were collected by sampling. Flock size and structure were compared among three wintering stages. The relationship between food resources, disturbances and flock size were illustrated using a generalized linear model. Results:In the early and middle wintering periods, the Hooded Crane used paddy fields as its major foraging habitat, where the number of foraging birds and flocks were the highest. During the late period, the cranes took to meadows as their major foraging habitat. The variation among foraging flock was mainly embodied in the size of the flocks, while the age composition of these flocks did not change perceptibly. Family flocks were notably different from flock groups in size and age composition. The results of a generalized linear model showed that the food abundance had a marked effect on foraging flock size and age composition, while disturbances had a significant effect only on flock size. From our analysis, it appeared that the combined effect of the two variables was significant on the size of the foraging flock, but had less impact

  11. Reduced-scale experimental investigation on ventilation performance of a local exhaust hood in an industrial plant

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Huang, Yanqiu; Wang, Yi; Liu, Li

    2015-01-01

    Local ventilation systems are widely used in industrial production processes to capture heat release and/or gaseous/particulate contaminants. The primary objective of this study was to determine important empirical factors on local pollutant capture efficiency and characteristics of thermal......:15 corresponding to a portion of the blast furnace workshop of a steel plant. The dependency of capture efficiency on Archimedes numbers was established. The results showed that confined airflow boundaries, flow rates of the exhaust hoods and source strengths were important empirical factors on pollutant capture...

  12. David Lynch - Dark Splendor. Raum Bilder Klang, hrg. von Werner Spies, Ostfildern 2009; See this Sound. Versprechungen von Bild und Ton, hrg. von Cosima Rainer u.a., Köln 2009

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Mauksch

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Das Max Ernst Museum in Brühl und das Lentos Kunstmuseum in Linz haben jüngst zwei Ausstellungskataloge herausgebracht, denen eine jeweils bemerkenswerte Ausstellung vorausging.Der Regisseur David Lynch wurde vor allem durch seine beeindruckenden Spielfilme wie Lost Highway, Mulholland Drive, Blue Velvet oder durch die Serie Twin Peaks aus den 90er Jahren bekannt. Die Ausstellung David Lynch – Dark Splendor. Raum Bilder Klang enthüllt eine Seite des Kultregisseurs, die vielen Filmliebhabern noch unentdeckt geblieben sein könnte. Brühl zeigt hier erstmals in Deutschland eine Sammlung, die sich nur mit dem bildnerischen Schaffen des Künstlers befasst.

  13. Effect of Calibration Hood on Gas Alarm Calibration Results%标定罩使用对气体报警器检定结果的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张文帅

    2016-01-01

    为指导检定人员在气体报警器检定时对气体标定罩的正确使用,对标准罩、大罩、小罩、不带罩4种情况进行试验,并对气体报警器检定结果的绝对误差、响应时间、重复性等参数进行对比分析。结果表明,在满足绝对误差±5%FS之内、响应时间不大于60 s、重复性不大于2%的技术指标要求时,使用标准罩能够得到更准确、稳定、符合现场模拟真实数值的检定结果。该研究有利于提高气体报警器检定结果的准确性。%In ordor to use gas calibration hood exactly in the verification of gas alarm, the passage experiments were carried out in four different conditions: using standard gas hood,large gas hood,small gas hood and without gas hood, respectively. The key datas of calibration results,such as absolute inaccuracy,response time,repeatability were analyzed and compared. The results showed that when absolute inaccuracy was within±5%FS, response time was not more than 60 s, and repeatability was not more than 2%, more accurate,stable and conforming to the scene simulation real value calibration results could be gottent when using standard gas hood. The study is beneficial to improve the accuracy of gas alarm calibration results.

  14. Reducing employee exposure potential using the ANSI/ASHRAE 110 Method of Testing Performance of Laboratory Fume Hoods as a diagnostic tool.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maupins, K; Hitchings, D T

    1998-02-01

    The primary goal of a laboratory ventilation system is to assure that employee exposure to hazardous chemicals does not exceed acceptable levels. Industrial hygienists at Eli Lilly & Co. were concerned about the adequacy of fume hoods to protect workers in an aging laboratory facility. Wanting to conduct a comprehensive series of tests for a true reading on the containment effectiveness of these hoods, the industrial hygienists went beyond the traditional face velocity tests. Tests prescribed in the ANSI/ASHRAE 110 Method of Testing Performance of Laboratory Fume Hoods (ASHRAE 110) standard including low- and high-volume smoke tests, face velocity tests, and tracer gas containment tests indicated that many of the hoods did not meet industry consensus standards for containment (0.1 ppm), yet met industry recommended face velocity specifications (80-120 ft/min). Based on the results of performance tests and engineering observations of the facility, apparent causes of poor performance were identified, and a mitigation plan was implemented to bring the hoods to the desired containment standards. After completion of the improvements, retesting was conducted to confirm achievement of these standards. Pre- and postmitigation test results, indicating a 99.5% reduction in tracer gas leakage or potential employee exposures, build a strong case for a more complete testing protocol as specified by the ASHRAE 110 test method. The authors recommend that traditional face velocity testing alone be discontinued in favor of the ASHRAE 110 method as a quantitative measure of fume hood performance coupled with the traditional face velocity measurement at periodic intervals to assure continued performance.

  15. Hood River Production Program Monitoring and Evaluation (M&E) - Confederated Tribes of Warm Springs : Annual Report For Fiscal Year, October 2007 – September 2008.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gerstenberger, Ryan [Confederated Tribes of Warm Springs Reservation

    2009-07-27

    This progress report describes work performed by the Confederated Tribes of Warm Springs (CTWSRO) portion of the Hood River Production Program Monitoring and Evaluation Project (HRPP) during the 2008 fiscal year. A total of 64,736 hatchery winter steelhead, 12,108 hatchery summer steelhead, and 68,426 hatchery spring Chinook salmon smolts were acclimated and released in the Hood River basin during the spring. The HRPP exceeded program goals for a release of and 50,000 winter steelhead but fell short of the steelhead release goals of 30,000 summer steelhead and 75,000 spring Chinook in 2008. Passive Integrated Transponders (PIT) tags were implanted in 6,652 hatchery winter steelhead, and 1,196 hatchery summer steelhead, to compare migratory attributes and survival rates of hatchery fish released into the Hood River. Water temperatures were recorded at six locations within the Hood River subbasin to monitor for compliance with Oregon Department of Environmental Quality water quality standards. A preseason spring Chinook salmon adult run forecast was generated, which predicted an abundant return adequate to meet escapement goal and brood stock needs. As a result the tribal and sport fisheries were opened. A tribal creel was conducted from May 22 to July 18 during which an estimated 172 spring Chinook were harvested. One hundred sixteen Spring Chinook salmon redds were observed and 72 carcasses were inspected on 19.4 miles of spawning grounds throughout the Hood River Basin during 2008. Annual salvage operations were completed in two irrigation canals resulting in the liberation of 1,641 fish back to the Hood River.

  16. 汽车发动机盖抗凹性的研究与应用%The Researching and Application of BIW Panel Denting on Vehicle Hood

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张建伟; 柴志; 杨邦安

    2014-01-01

    某车型发动机盖抗凹性不足。本文对抗凹性的原理进行分析,并提出了改进建议,对发动机盖设计有较好的指导建议。%BIW panel denting of the vehicle hood is not meet target.In this paper, by analyzing the matter of BIW panel denting, and giving the melioration suggestion, which is prodound for the hood design.

  17. How the Cobra Got Its Flesh-Eating Venom: Cytotoxicity as a Defensive Innovation and Its Co-Evolution with Hooding, Aposematic Marking, and Spitting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadya Panagides

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The cytotoxicity of the venom of 25 species of Old World elapid snake was tested and compared with the morphological and behavioural adaptations of hooding and spitting. We determined that, contrary to previous assumptions, the venoms of spitting species are not consistently more cytotoxic than those of closely related non-spitting species. While this correlation between spitting and non-spitting was found among African cobras, it was not present among Asian cobras. On the other hand, a consistent positive correlation was observed between cytotoxicity and utilisation of the defensive hooding display that cobras are famous for. Hooding and spitting are widely regarded as defensive adaptations, but it has hitherto been uncertain whether cytotoxicity serves a defensive purpose or is somehow useful in prey subjugation. The results of this study suggest that cytotoxicity evolved primarily as a defensive innovation and that it has co-evolved twice alongside hooding behavior: once in the Hemachatus + Naja and again independently in the king cobras (Ophiophagus. There was a significant increase of cytotoxicity in the Asian Naja linked to the evolution of bold aposematic hood markings, reinforcing the link between hooding and the evolution of defensive cytotoxic venoms. In parallel, lineages with increased cytotoxicity but lacking bold hood patterns evolved aposematic markers in the form of high contrast body banding. The results also indicate that, secondary to the evolution of venom rich in cytotoxins, spitting has evolved three times independently: once within the African Naja, once within the Asian Naja, and once in the Hemachatus genus. The evolution of cytotoxic venom thus appears to facilitate the evolution of defensive spitting behaviour. In contrast, a secondary loss of cytotoxicity and reduction of the hood occurred in the water cobra Naja annulata, which possesses streamlined neurotoxic venom similar to that of other aquatic elapid snakes (e

  18. How the Cobra Got Its Flesh-Eating Venom: Cytotoxicity as a Defensive Innovation and Its Co-Evolution with Hooding, Aposematic Marking, and Spitting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panagides, Nadya; Jackson, Timothy N.W.; Ikonomopoulou, Maria P.; Arbuckle, Kevin; Pretzler, Rudolf; Yang, Daryl C.; Ali, Syed A.; Koludarov, Ivan; Dobson, James; Sanker, Brittany; Asselin, Angelique; Santana, Renan C.; Hendrikx, Iwan; van der Ploeg, Harold; Tai-A-Pin, Jeremie; van den Bergh, Romilly; Kerkkamp, Harald M.I.; Vonk, Freek J.; Naude, Arno; Strydom, Morné A.; Jacobsz, Louis; Dunstan, Nathan; Jaeger, Marc; Hodgson, Wayne C.; Miles, John; Fry, Bryan G.

    2017-01-01

    The cytotoxicity of the venom of 25 species of Old World elapid snake was tested and compared with the morphological and behavioural adaptations of hooding and spitting. We determined that, contrary to previous assumptions, the venoms of spitting species are not consistently more cytotoxic than those of closely related non-spitting species. While this correlation between spitting and non-spitting was found among African cobras, it was not present among Asian cobras. On the other hand, a consistent positive correlation was observed between cytotoxicity and utilisation of the defensive hooding display that cobras are famous for. Hooding and spitting are widely regarded as defensive adaptations, but it has hitherto been uncertain whether cytotoxicity serves a defensive purpose or is somehow useful in prey subjugation. The results of this study suggest that cytotoxicity evolved primarily as a defensive innovation and that it has co-evolved twice alongside hooding behavior: once in the Hemachatus + Naja and again independently in the king cobras (Ophiophagus). There was a significant increase of cytotoxicity in the Asian Naja linked to the evolution of bold aposematic hood markings, reinforcing the link between hooding and the evolution of defensive cytotoxic venoms. In parallel, lineages with increased cytotoxicity but lacking bold hood patterns evolved aposematic markers in the form of high contrast body banding. The results also indicate that, secondary to the evolution of venom rich in cytotoxins, spitting has evolved three times independently: once within the African Naja, once within the Asian Naja, and once in the Hemachatus genus. The evolution of cytotoxic venom thus appears to facilitate the evolution of defensive spitting behaviour. In contrast, a secondary loss of cytotoxicity and reduction of the hood occurred in the water cobra Naja annulata, which possesses streamlined neurotoxic venom similar to that of other aquatic elapid snakes (e.g., hydrophiine sea

  19. Fatal mass ingestion of gastric foreign bodies in juvenile hooded seals (Cystophora cristata stranded in north-western iberian peninsula

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josep M. Alonso-Farré

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The hooded seal (Cystophora cristata is a subarctic and arctic pinniped species with its limit of distribution in southern Europe established west of the British Isles. Nevertheless, since 1970, strandings of juvenile individuals have been reported much further south than this limit. The special clinical and management considerations to take into account with these arctic seals have become a new challenge to veterinary clinicians of southern North-Atlantic stranding networks. We present here three clinical cases involving mass ingestion of foreign bodies, which seems to be a generalized finding in this species. Although the presence of gastroliths are considered to be normal in pinnipeds, the fast and ultimately lethal cases presented here highlights how an excessive presence of gastric foreign bodies could result in a gastrointestinal stasis syndrome, which has to be quickly resolved, medically or surgically. Portable ultrasound and X-ray equipments have demonstrated their value as gastric foreign bodies diagnostic procedures with nervous wildlife patients, such as the juvenile hooded seals. Finally, we conclude that it is extremely important to avoid the use of loose stones or sand over resting areas and to take extreme precautions with small items near the rehabilitation pools when dealing with this seal species.

  20. Income distribution and mortality: cross sectional ecological study of the Robin Hood index in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, B P; Kawachi, I; Prothrow-Stith, D

    1996-04-20

    To determine the effect of income inequality as measured by the Robin Hood index and the Gini coefficient on all cause and cause specific mortality in the United States. Cross sectional ecological study. Households in the United States. Disease specific mortality, income, household size, poverty, and smoking rates for each state. The Robin Hood index was positively correlated with total mortality adjusted for age (r = 0.54; P < 0.05). This association remained after adjustment for poverty (P < 0.007), where each percentage increase in the index was associated with' an increase in the total mortality of 21.68 deaths per 100,000. Effects of the index were also found for infant mortality (P = 0.013); coronary heart disease (P = 0.004); malignant neoplasms (P = 0.023); and homicide (P < 0.001). Strong associations were also found between the index and causes of death amenable to medical intervention. The Gini coefficient showed very little correlation with any of the causes of death. Variations between states in the inequality of income were associated with increased mortality from several causes. The size of the gap between the wealthy and less well off--as distinct from the absolute standard of living enjoyed by the poor--seems to matter in its own right. The findings suggest that policies that deal with the growing inequities in income distribution may have an important impact on the health of the population.