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Sample records for lymphoma cooperative group

  1. Causes of death after therapy for early stage Hodgkin's disease entered on EORTC protocols. EORTC Lymphoma Cooperative Group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henry-Amar, M; Hayat, M; Meerwaldt, J H; Burgers, M; Carde, P; Somers, R; Noordijk, E M; Monconduit, M; Thomas, J; Cosset, J M

    1990-11-01

    The risk of dying from different causes after Hodgkin's disease (HD) therapy has been quantified from a series of 1,449 patients with early stages included in four successive clinical trials conducted by the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer (EORTC) Lymphoma Cooperative Group since 1963. Overall, 240 patients died and the 15-year survival rate was 69% whereas the expected rate was 95%. The standardized mortality ratio (SMR) technique was used to quantify excess deaths as a function of time since first therapy. At each interval, SMR was significantly increased, giving: 0-3 year, 8.86 (p less than 0.001); 4-6 year, 9.25 (p less than 0.001); 7-9 year, 7.08 (p less than 0.001); 10-12 year, 9.53 (p less than 0.001); 13-15 year, 4.37 (p less than 0.01); and 16+ years, 3.80 (p less than 0.05). While the proportion of deaths as a consequence of HD progression, treatment side-effect, and intercurrent disease decreased with time, that of second cancer and cardiac failure peaked during the 10-12 year post-treatment interval. After 15 years of follow-up, the risk of dying from causes other than HD continued to increase. These findings indicate that although probably cured from HD, patients are at higher risk for death than expected, a risk that might be a consequence of therapy.

  2. Persistent improved results after adding vincristine and bleomycin to a cyclophosphamide/hydroxorubicin/Vm-26/prednisone combination (CHVmP) in stage III-IV intermediate- and high-grade non-Hodgkin's lymphoma. The EORTC Lymphoma Cooperative Group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meerwaldt, J H; Carde, P; Somers, R; Thomas, J; Kluin-Nelemans, J C; Bron, D; Noordijk, E M; Cosset, J M; Bijnens, L; Teodorovic, I; Hagenbeek, A

    1997-01-01

    CHOP has been and still is regarded by many as the 'standard' treatment of advanced non-Hodgkin's lymphoma. In 1980 the EORTC Lymphoma Cooperative Group started a study to evaluate the addition of vincristine and bleomycin to its standard four-drug combination chemotherapy, CHVmP (cyclophosphamide, hydroxorubicin, Vm-26, prednisone). Eligible patients were stage III or IV, intermediate- to high-grade non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (Working Formulation E-I). One-hundred-eighty-nine patients were entered, of whom 140 were eligible and evaluable. A previous report showed an improved response rate and failure-free survival (FFS) and overall survival for the combination CHVmP-VB. At ten years, the outcome still favors the addition of vincristine and bleomycin. The FFS was 34% vs. 23% and the overall survival 34% vs 22%. This difference was mainly due to a difference in CR rate (74% vs. 49%), Relapse-free survival for patients reaching a CR was the same in both arms. When the patients were grouped according to the International Prognostic Factor Index, no statistically significant difference could be observed in favor of one treatment within either group. This trial clearly demonstrates the benefit gained by the addition of vincristine and bleomycin to 'standard' chemotherapy for intermediate and high-grade non-Hodgkin's lymphoma.

  3. Clinical analysis of 670 cases in two trials of the European Organization for the Research and Treatment of Cancer Lymphoma Cooperative Group subtyped according to the Revised European-American Classification of Lymphoid Neoplasms: a comparison with the Working Formulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pittaluga, S; Bijnens, L; Teodorovic, I; Hagenbeek, A; Meerwaldt, J H; Somers, R; Thomas, J; Noordijk, E M; De Wolf-Peeters, C

    1996-05-15

    In the Working Formulation (WF), non-Hodgkin's lymphomas (NHL) are grouped according to their clinical behavior. These disorders are listed as entities defined by morphology, phenotype, and cytogenetics in the proposed Revised European-American Classification of Lymphoid Neoplasms (REAL), the clinical relevance of which is still debated. We analyzed 670 NHL cases included in two randomized clinical trials (EORTC 20855 WF-intermediate/high-grade and 20856 WF-low-grade malignancy) with histologic material available for review. Based on hematoxylin-eosin-stained sections, 77% of cases could be subtyped. Immunophenotyping was considered to be mandatory only in diagnosing T-cell lymphoma and anaplastic large-cell lymphoma. Of 522 cases subtyped, 11% were mantle cell lymphoma (MCL), 5% were marginal zone B-cell lymphoma (MZBCL), 46% were follicle center lymphoma, and 32% were diffuse large B-cell lymphoma. Statistical analysis and comparisons between classifications were made only within each trial and treatment group. MCL and MZBCL were characterized by a shorter median survival (3.4 and 4.1 years, respectively) in comparison with low- and intermediate-grade WF groups (> 9.3 and 5.8 years, respectively). In terms of progression-free survival, MCL showed a behavior similar to the low-grade group, with frequent relapses. Follicle center cell lymphomas behaved as low-grade lymphomas as defined by the WF and diffuse large B-cell lymphomas as the WF-intermediate grade group. Because several NHL entities have a clinical behavior of their own, their recognition by the REAL classification offers clinicians additional information that is not obtained when the WF is used.

  4. The Globalization of Cooperative Groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valdivieso, Manuel; Corn, Benjamin W; Dancey, Janet E; Wickerham, D Lawrence; Horvath, L Elise; Perez, Edith A; Urton, Alison; Cronin, Walter M; Field, Erica; Lackey, Evonne; Blanke, Charles D

    2015-10-01

    The National Cancer Institute (NCI)-supported adult cooperative oncology research groups (now officially Network groups) have a longstanding history of participating in international collaborations throughout the world. Most frequently, the US-based cooperative groups work reciprocally with the Canadian national adult cancer clinical trial group, NCIC CTG (previously the National Cancer Institute of Canada Clinical Trials Group). Thus, Canada is the largest contributor to cooperative groups based in the United States, and vice versa. Although international collaborations have many benefits, they are most frequently utilized to enhance patient accrual to large phase III trials originating in the United States or Canada. Within the cooperative group setting, adequate attention has not been given to the study of cancers that are unique to countries outside the United States and Canada, such as those frequently associated with infections in Latin America, Asia, and Africa. Global collaborations are limited by a number of barriers, some of which are unique to the countries involved, while others are related to financial support and to US policies that restrict drug distribution outside the United States. This article serves to detail the cooperative group experience in international research and describe how international collaboration in cancer clinical trials is a promising and important area that requires greater consideration in the future. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Cooperation and between-group competition

    OpenAIRE

    Hausken, Kjell

    2000-01-01

    Introducing competition between groups may induce cooperation to emerge in defection games despite considerable cost of cooperation. If the groups can confine themselves to a cooperative sector, either by providing incentives to raise the cooperation level in one group, or by providing disincentives so that the cooperation level in the other group gets lowered to match that of the first, maximum degrees of cooperation can be obtained. The cooperative sector broadens as the degrees of cooperat...

  6. Rituximab Extended Schedule or Re-Treatment Trial for Low–Tumor Burden Follicular Lymphoma: Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group Protocol E4402

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahl, Brad S.; Hong, Fangxin; Williams, Michael E.; Gascoyne, Randy D.; Wagner, Lynne I.; Krauss, John C.; Habermann, Thomas M.; Swinnen, Lode J.; Schuster, Stephen J.; Peterson, Christopher G.; Sborov, Mark D.; Martin, S. Eric; Weiss, Matthias; Ehmann, W. Christopher; Horning, Sandra J.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose In low–tumor burden follicular lymphoma (FL), maintenance rituximab (MR) has been shown to improve progression-free survival when compared with observation. It is not known whether MR provides superior long-term disease control compared with re-treatment rituximab (RR) administered on an as-needed basis. E4402 (RESORT) was a randomized clinical trial designed to compare MR against RR. Patients and Methods Eligible patients with previously untreated low–tumor burden FL received four doses of rituximab, and responding patients were randomly assigned to either RR or MR. Patients receiving RR were eligible for re-treatment at each disease progression until treatment failure. Patients assigned to MR received a single dose of rituximab every 3 months until treatment failure. The primary end point was time to treatment failure. Secondary end points included time to first cytotoxic therapy, toxicity, and health-related quality of life (HRQOL). Results A total of 289 patients were randomly assigned to RR or MR. With a median follow-up of 4.5 years, the estimated median time to treatment failure was 3.9 years for patients receiving RR and 4.3 years for those receiving MR (P = .54). Three-year freedom from cytotoxic therapy was 84% for those receiving RR and 95% for those receiving MR (P = .03). The median number of rituximab doses was four patients receiving RR and 18 for those receiving MR. There was no difference in HRQOL. Grade 3 to 4 toxicities were infrequent in both arms. Conclusion In low–tumor burden FL, a re-treatment strategy uses less rituximab while providing disease control comparable to that achieved with a maintenance strategy. PMID:25154829

  7. Danish Breast Cancer Cooperative Group

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Peer; Ejlertsen, Bent; Jensen, Maj-Britt

    2016-01-01

    AIM OF DATABASE: Danish Breast Cancer Cooperative Group (DBCG), with an associated database, was introduced as a nationwide multidisciplinary group in 1977 with the ultimate aim to improve the prognosis in breast cancer. Since then, the database has registered women diagnosed with primary invasive...... of adherence to the guidelines in the different departments. CONCLUSION: Utilizing data from the DBCG database, a long array of high-quality DBCG studies of various designs and scope, nationwide or in international collaboration, have contributed to the current updating of the guidelines, and have been...

  8. Between-group competition and human cooperation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puurtinen, Mikael; Mappes, Tapio

    2009-01-22

    A distinctive feature of human behaviour is the widespread occurrence of cooperation among unrelated individuals. Explaining the maintenance of costly within-group cooperation is a challenge because the incentive to free ride on the efforts of other group members is expected to lead to decay of cooperation. However, the costs of cooperation can be diminished or overcome when there is competition at a higher level of organizational hierarchy. Here we show that competition between groups resolves the paradigmatic 'public goods' social dilemma and increases within-group cooperation and overall productivity. Further, group competition intensifies the moral emotions of anger and guilt associated with violations of the cooperative norm. The results suggest an important role for group conflict in the evolution of human cooperation and moral emotions.

  9. Grouping and Achievement in Cooperative Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baer, John

    2003-01-01

    Colleges typically group students homogeneously in classes by means of both admission requirements and course prerequisites, but when professors form cooperative learning groups within classes they generally use heterogeneous grouping. Authors compared heterogeneously and homogeneously grouped cooperative learning groups in six paired classes,…

  10. Danish Breast Cancer Cooperative Group

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christiansen P

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Peer Christiansen,1 Bent Ejlertsen,2,3 Maj-Britt Jensen,3 Henning Mouridsen3 1Department of Surgery P, Breast Surgery Unit, Aarhus University Hospital/Randers Regional Hospital, Aarhus C, 2Department of Oncology, Rigshospitalet, Copenhagen University Hospital, 3DBCG-secretariat, Department 2501, Rigshospitalet, Copenhagen Ø, Denmark Aim of database: Danish Breast Cancer Cooperative Group (DBCG, with an associated database, was introduced as a nationwide multidisciplinary group in 1977 with the ultimate aim to improve the prognosis in breast cancer. Since then, the database has registered women diagnosed with primary invasive nonmetastatic breast cancer. The data reported from the departments to the database included details of the characteristics of the primary tumor, of surgery, radiotherapy, and systemic therapies, and of follow-up reported on specific forms from the departments in question. Descriptive data: From 1977 through 2014, ~110,000 patients are registered in the nationwide, clinical database. The completeness has gradually improved to more than 95%. DBCG has continuously prepared evidence-based guidelines on diagnosis and treatment of breast cancer and conducted quality control studies to ascertain the degree of adherence to the guidelines in the different departments. Conclusion: Utilizing data from the DBCG database, a long array of high-quality DBCG studies of various designs and scope, nationwide or in international collaboration, have contributed to the current updating of the guidelines, and have been an instrumental resource in the improvement of management and prognosis of breast cancer in Denmark. Thus, since the establishment of DBCG, the prognosis in breast cancer has continuously improved with a decrease in 5-year mortality from ~37% to 15%. Keywords: breast cancer, database, guidelines, quality control, research

  11. Spreading of cooperative behaviour across interdependent groups

    CERN Document Server

    Jiang, Luo-Luo

    2013-01-01

    Recent empirical research has shown that links between groups reinforce individuals within groups to adopt cooperative behaviour. Moreover, links between networks may induce cascading failures, competitive percolation, or contribute to efficient transportation. Here we show that there in fact exists an intermediate fraction of links between groups that is optimal for the evolution of cooperation in the prisoner's dilemma game. We consider individual groups with regular, random, and scale-free topology, and study their different combinations to reveal that an intermediate interdependence optimally facilitates the spreading of cooperative behaviour between groups. Excessive between-group links simply unify the two groups and make them act as one, while too rare between-group links preclude a useful information flow between the two groups. Interestingly, we find that between-group links are more likely to connect two cooperators than in-group links, thus supporting the conclusion that they are of paramount impor...

  12. Development of cancer cooperative groups in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukuda, Haruhiko

    2010-09-01

    Investigator-initiated clinical trials are essential for improving the standard of care for cancer patients, because pharmaceutical companies do not conduct trials that evaluate combination chemotherapy using drugs from different companies, surgery, radiotherapy or multimodal treatments. Government-sponsored cooperative groups have played a vital role in developing cancer therapeutics since the 1950s in the USA; however, the establishment of these groups in Japan did not take place until 30 years later. Methodological standards for multicenter cancer clinical trials were established in the 1980s by the National Cancer Institute and cooperative groups. The Japan Clinical Oncology Group, one of the largest cooperative groups in the country, was instituted in 1990. Its data center and operations office, formed during the 1990s, applied the standard methods of US cooperative groups. At present, the Japan Clinical Oncology Group consists of 14 subgroups, a Data Center, an Operations Office, nine standing committees and an Executive Committee represented by the Japan Clinical Oncology Group Chair. Quality control and quality assurance at the Japan Clinical Oncology Group, including regular central monitoring, statistical methods, interim analyses, adverse event reporting and site visit audit, have complied with international standards. Other cooperative groups have also been established in Japan since the 1980s; however, nobody figures out all of them. A project involving the restructuring of US cooperative groups has been ongoing since 2005. Learning from the success of this project will permit further progress of the cancer clinical trials enterprise in Japan.

  13. Gossip and ostracism promote cooperation in groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feinberg, Matthew; Willer, Robb; Schultz, Michael

    2014-03-01

    The widespread existence of cooperation is difficult to explain because individuals face strong incentives to exploit the cooperative tendencies of others. In the research reported here, we examined how the spread of reputational information through gossip promotes cooperation in mixed-motive settings. Results showed that individuals readily communicated reputational information about others, and recipients used this information to selectively interact with cooperative individuals and ostracize those who had behaved selfishly, which enabled group members to contribute to the public good with reduced threat of exploitation. Additionally, ostracized individuals responded to exclusion by subsequently cooperating at levels comparable to those who were not ostracized. These results suggest that the spread of reputational information through gossip can mitigate egoistic behavior by facilitating partner selection, thereby helping to solve the problem of cooperation even in noniterated interactions.

  14. Group Cooperation in Outdoor Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthews, Bruce E.

    1978-01-01

    Utilizing the Beatles' Yellow Submarine fantasy (e.g., the Blue Meanies), this outdoor education program is designed for sixth graders and special education students. Activities developed at the Cortland Resident Outdoor Education Camp include a series of group stress/challenge activities to be accomplished by everyone in the group, as a group.…

  15. Group augmentation and the evolution of cooperation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kingma, Sjouke A.; Santema, Peter; Taborsky, Michael; Komdeur, Jan

    2014-01-01

    The group augmentation (GA) hypothesis states that if helpers in cooperatively breeding animals raise the reproductive success of the group, the benefits of living in a resulting larger group - improved survival or future reproductive success favour the evolution of seemingly altruistic helping beha

  16. Modern Radiation Therapy for Primary Cutaneous Lymphomas: Field and Dose Guidelines From the International Lymphoma Radiation Oncology Group

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Specht, Lena, E-mail: lena.specht@regionh.dk [Departments of Oncology and Hematology, Rigshospitalet, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen (Denmark); Dabaja, Bouthaina [Division of Radiation Oncology, Department of Radiation Oncology, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Illidge, Tim [Institute of Cancer Sciences, University of Manchester, Manchester Academic Health Sciences Centre, The Christie National Health Service Foundation Trust, Manchester (United Kingdom); Wilson, Lynn D. [Department of Therapeutic Radiology, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, Connecticut (United States); Hoppe, Richard T. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Stanford University, Stanford, California (United States)

    2015-05-01

    Primary cutaneous lymphomas are a heterogeneous group of diseases. They often remain localized, and they generally have a more indolent course and a better prognosis than lymphomas in other locations. They are highly radiosensitive, and radiation therapy is an important part of the treatment, either as the sole treatment or as part of a multimodality approach. Radiation therapy of primary cutaneous lymphomas requires the use of special techniques that form the focus of these guidelines. The International Lymphoma Radiation Oncology Group has developed these guidelines after multinational meetings and analysis of available evidence. The guidelines represent an agreed consensus view of the International Lymphoma Radiation Oncology Group steering committee on the use of radiation therapy in primary cutaneous lymphomas in the modern era.

  17. Promotion of cooperation by selective group extinction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Böttcher, Marvin A.; Nagler, Jan

    2016-06-01

    Multilevel selection is an important organizing principle that crucially underlies evolutionary processes from the emergence of cells to eusociality and the economics of nations. Previous studies on multilevel selection assumed that the effective higher-level selection emerges from lower-level reproduction. This leads to selection among groups, although only individuals reproduce. We introduce selective group extinction, where groups die with a probability inversely proportional to their group fitness. When accounting for this the critical benefit-to-cost ratio is substantially lowered. Because in game theory and evolutionary dynamics the degree of cooperation crucially depends on this ratio above which cooperation emerges, previous studies may have substantially underestimated the establishment and maintenance of cooperation.

  18. Small groups and long memories promote cooperation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Alexander J; Plotkin, Joshua B

    2016-06-01

    Complex social behaviors lie at the heart of many of the challenges facing evolutionary biology, sociology, economics, and beyond. For evolutionary biologists the question is often how group behaviors such as collective action, or decision making that accounts for memories of past experience, can emerge and persist in an evolving system. Evolutionary game theory provides a framework for formalizing these questions and admitting them to rigorous study. Here we develop such a framework to study the evolution of sustained collective action in multi-player public-goods games, in which players have arbitrarily long memories of prior rounds of play and can react to their experience in an arbitrary way. We construct a coordinate system for memory-m strategies in iterated n-player games that permits us to characterize all cooperative strategies that resist invasion by any mutant strategy, and stabilize cooperative behavior. We show that, especially when groups are small, longer-memory strategies make cooperation easier to evolve, by increasing the number of ways to stabilize cooperation. We also explore the co-evolution of behavior and memory. We find that even when memory has a cost, longer-memory strategies often evolve, which in turn drives the evolution of cooperation, even when the benefits for cooperation are low.

  19. Grouping of Tasks for Cooperative Product Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takeshi Murayama

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available A lot of members from various disciplines are involved in the development of complex products, and this brings about large-scale, complicated cooperation among them. Such cooperation causes the following problems: • the time consumption for achieving a consensus among them increases; and • the management of product development becomes difficult. In order to develop the products efficiently, this paper proposes a method for dividing the product development activity into several work groups on an appropriate scale, in each of which some of the members can cooperate with each other without the problems mentioned above. In this method, the product development activity is represented by a directed graph, each of which nodes expresses a task and each of which arcs expresses the flow of data/information between the tasks. ISM (Interpretive Structural Modeling identifies strongly connected sub-graphs, in each of which the members should cooperate with each other. However, if a strongly connected sub-graph is large, the problems mentioned above still exist. In this case, we use Bottleneck Method to divide the sub-graph into several smaller sub-graphs, each of which corresponds to a work group. The effectiveness of the method is demonstrated by showing an example of constructing the work groups.

  20. Creativity in a cooperative group setting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, Gerald W.; Penick, John E.

    This study was to determine whether cooperative small groups would stimulate creativity of fith and sixth grade students more than an individualized learning environment. Student aptitudes for creative and academic work were assessed on the Torrance Tests of Creative Thinking (Verbal Form A), analysis of student created electrical circuit diagrams, and a batteries and bulbs prediction test. A measure of student perceptions was also used to indicate any changes in attitudes toward the science activity and learning environment. A posttest control group design was used with 11 I fifth and sixth grade students. Half of the population worked by themselves, while the other half (experimental) worked in a student-structured environment on the same science activity which involved creating as many different types of electrical circuits from a given set of batteries and bulbs as possible. An overall conclusion is that fifth and sixth grade students working within small cooperative groups can be more creative as measured by a figural creativity test with electrical circuits than students working alone. The implication of this study is that small cooperative groups as well as individualized groups should be used in elementary science classes when creativity is one of the instructional objectives.

  1. Central nervous system recurrence of systemic lymphoma in the era of stem cell transplantation--an International Primary Central Nervous System Lymphoma Study Group project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bromberg, Jacoline E; Doorduijn, Jeanette K; Illerhaus, Gerald; Jahnke, Kristoph; Korfel, Agniezka; Fischer, Lars; Fritsch, Kristina; Kuittinen, Outti; Issa, Samar; van Montfort, Cees; van den Bent, Martin J

    2013-05-01

    Autologous stem cell transplantation has greatly improved the prognosis of systemic recurrent non-Hodgkin's lymphoma. However, no prospective data are available concerning the feasibility and efficacy of this strategy for systemic lymphoma relapsing in the central nervous system. We, therefore, we performed an international multicenter retrospective study of patients with a central nervous system recurrence of systemic lymphoma to assess the outcome of these patients in the era of stem cell transplantation. We collected clinical and treatment data on patients with a first central nervous system recurrence of systemic lymphoma treated between 2000 and 2010 in one of five centers in four countries. Patient- and treatment-related factors were analyzed and compared descriptively. Primary outcome measures were overall survival and percentage of patients transplanted. We identified 92 patients, with a median age of 59 years and a median Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group/World Health Organization performance status of 2, of whom 76% had diffuse large B-cell histology. The majority (79%) of these patients were treated with systemic chemotherapy with or without intravenous rituximab. Twenty-seven patients (29%) were transplanted; age and insufficient response to induction chemotherapy were the main reasons for not being transplanted in the remaining 65 patients. The median overall survival was 7 months (95% confidence interval 2.6-11.4), being 8 months (95% confidence interval 3.8-5.2) for patients ≤ 65 years old. The 1-year survival rate was 34.8%; of the 27 transplanted patients 62% survived more than 1 year. The Memorial Sloan Kettering Prognostic Index for primary central nervous system lymphoma was prognostic for both undergoing transplantation and survival. In conclusion, despite the availability of autologous stem cell transplantation for patients with central nervous system progression or relapse of systemic lymphoma, prognosis is still poor. Long-term survival

  2. Group Cooperation without Group Selection: Modest Punishment Can Recruit Much Cooperation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Max M Krasnow

    Full Text Available Humans everywhere cooperate in groups to achieve benefits not attainable by individuals. Individual effort is often not automatically tied to a proportionate share of group benefits. This decoupling allows for free-riding, a strategy that (absent countermeasures outcompetes cooperation. Empirically and formally, punishment potentially solves the evolutionary puzzle of group cooperation. Nevertheless, standard analyses appear to show that punishment alone is insufficient, because second-order free riders (those who cooperate but do not punish can be shown to outcompete punishers. Consequently, many have concluded that other processes, such as cultural or genetic group selection, are required. Here, we present a series of agent-based simulations that show that group cooperation sustained by punishment easily evolves by individual selection when you introduce into standard models more biologically plausible assumptions about the social ecology and psychology of ancestral humans. We relax three unrealistic assumptions of past models. First, past models assume all punishers must punish every act of free riding in their group. We instead allow punishment to be probabilistic, meaning punishers can evolve to only punish some free riders some of the time. This drastically lowers the cost of punishment as group size increases. Second, most models unrealistically do not allow punishment to recruit labor; punishment merely reduces the punished agent's fitness. We instead realistically allow punished free riders to cooperate in the future to avoid punishment. Third, past models usually restrict agents to interact in a single group their entire lives. We instead introduce realistic social ecologies in which agents participate in multiple, partially overlapping groups. Because of this, punitive tendencies are more expressed and therefore more exposed to natural selection. These three moves toward greater model realism reveal that punishment and cooperation

  3. Group Cooperation without Group Selection: Modest Punishment Can Recruit Much Cooperation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krasnow, Max M; Delton, Andrew W; Cosmides, Leda; Tooby, John

    2015-01-01

    Humans everywhere cooperate in groups to achieve benefits not attainable by individuals. Individual effort is often not automatically tied to a proportionate share of group benefits. This decoupling allows for free-riding, a strategy that (absent countermeasures) outcompetes cooperation. Empirically and formally, punishment potentially solves the evolutionary puzzle of group cooperation. Nevertheless, standard analyses appear to show that punishment alone is insufficient, because second-order free riders (those who cooperate but do not punish) can be shown to outcompete punishers. Consequently, many have concluded that other processes, such as cultural or genetic group selection, are required. Here, we present a series of agent-based simulations that show that group cooperation sustained by punishment easily evolves by individual selection when you introduce into standard models more biologically plausible assumptions about the social ecology and psychology of ancestral humans. We relax three unrealistic assumptions of past models. First, past models assume all punishers must punish every act of free riding in their group. We instead allow punishment to be probabilistic, meaning punishers can evolve to only punish some free riders some of the time. This drastically lowers the cost of punishment as group size increases. Second, most models unrealistically do not allow punishment to recruit labor; punishment merely reduces the punished agent's fitness. We instead realistically allow punished free riders to cooperate in the future to avoid punishment. Third, past models usually restrict agents to interact in a single group their entire lives. We instead introduce realistic social ecologies in which agents participate in multiple, partially overlapping groups. Because of this, punitive tendencies are more expressed and therefore more exposed to natural selection. These three moves toward greater model realism reveal that punishment and cooperation easily evolve by

  4. Group cell architecture for cooperative communications

    CERN Document Server

    Tao, Xiaofeng; Xu, Xiaodong

    2014-01-01

    Driven by the increasing demand for capacity and Quality of Service in wireless cellular networks and motivated by the distributed antenna system, the authors proposed a cooperative communication architecture-Group Cell architecture, which was initially brought forward in 2001. Years later, Coordinated Multiple-Point Transmission and Reception (CoMP) for LTE-Advanced was put forward in April 2008, as a tool to improve the coverage of cells having high data rates, the cell-edge throughput and/or to increase system throughput. This book mainly focuses on the Group Cell architecture with multi-cell generalized coordination, Contrast Analysis between Group Cell architecture and CoMP, Capacity Analysis, Slide Handover Strategy, Power Allocation schemes of Group Cell architecture to mitigate the inter-cell interference and maximize system capacity and the trial network implementation and performance evaluations of Group Cell architecture.

  5. Fully Distributed Cooperative Motion of Group Robots

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    This paper is focused on the fully distributed cooperative motion of group robots and proposes a new approach. Each robot has a local sensing ability and a simple action selection strategy. Computational complexity is decreased by the fully distributed architecture and the information insufficiency is solved by the interaction between the robots and the environment. Variable loop and random method are used to deal with the fluctuation and equity selection problem and the rapidity and reasonabiliiy are guaranteed. Some simulations have proved the effectiveness of the proposed approach.

  6. Synergy and group size in microbial cooperation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornforth, Daniel M.; Sumpter, David J. T.; Brown, Sam P.; Brännström, Åke

    2013-01-01

    Microbes produce many molecules that are important for their growth and development, and the consumption of these secretions by nonproducers has recently become an important paradigm in microbial social evolution. Though the production of these public goods molecules has been studied intensely, little is known of how the benefits accrued and costs incurred depend on the quantity of public good molecules produced. We focus here on the relationship between the shape of the benefit curve and cellular density with a model assuming three types of benefit functions: diminishing, accelerating, and sigmoidal (accelerating then diminishing). We classify the latter two as being synergistic and argue that sigmoidal curves are common in microbial systems. Synergistic benefit curves interact with group sizes to give very different expected evolutionary dynamics. In particular, we show that whether or not and to what extent microbes evolve to produce public goods depends strongly on group size. We show that synergy can create an “evolutionary trap” which can stymie the establishment and maintenance of cooperation. By allowing density dependent regulation of production (quorum sensing), we show how this trap may be avoided. We discuss the implications of our results for experimental design. PMID:22854073

  7. Group Cooperative Learning in English Glass

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    范姜

    2012-01-01

    Facing to various examinations, teachers and schools empha- size competition between students in their teaching. So the students have strong sense of competition but lack of the cooperative sense. They will not care about each other; neither helps each other nor works together. Thanks for the promotion of quality education in schools, cooperative learning is advocated to wider teaching areas.

  8. Cooperation, control, and concession in meerkat groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clutton-Brock, T H; Brotherton, P N; Russell, A F; O'Riain, M J; Gaynor, D; Kansky, R; Griffin, A; Manser, M; Sharpe, L; McIlrath, G M; Small, T; Moss, A; Monfort, S

    2001-01-19

    "Limited control" models of reproductive skew in cooperative societies suggest that the frequency of breeding by subordinates is determined by the outcome of power struggles with dominants. In contrast, "optimal skew" models suggest that dominants have full control of subordinate reproduction and allow subordinates to breed only when this serves to retain subordinates' assistance with rearing dominants' own litters. The results of our 7-year field study of cooperative meerkats, Suricata suricatta, support the predictions of limited control models and provide no indication that dominant females grant reproductive concessions to subordinates to retain their assistance with future breeding attempts.

  9. Modern Radiation Therapy for Extranodal Lymphomas: Field and Dose Guidelines From the International Lymphoma Radiation Oncology Group

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yahalom, Joachim, E-mail: yahalomj@mskcc.org [Department of Radiation Oncology, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, New York (United States); Illidge, Tim [Institute of Cancer Sciences, University of Manchester, Manchester Academic Health Sciences Centre, The Christie National Health Service Foundation Trust, Manchester (United Kingdom); Specht, Lena [Department of Oncology and Hematology, Rigshospitalet, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen (Denmark); Hoppe, Richard T. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Stanford University, Palo Alto, California (United States); Li, Ye-Xiong [Department of Radiation Oncology, Cancer Hospital, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences and Peking Union Medical College, Beijing (China); Tsang, Richard [Department of Radiation Oncology, Princess Margaret Hospital, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Wirth, Andrew [Division of Radiation Oncology, Peter MacCallum Cancer Institute, St. Andrews Place, East Melbourne (Australia)

    2015-05-01

    Extranodal lymphomas (ENLs) comprise about a third of all non-Hodgkin lymphomas (NHL). Radiation therapy (RT) is frequently used as either primary therapy (particularly for indolent ENL), consolidation after systemic therapy, salvage treatment, or palliation. The wide range of presentations of ENL, involving any organ in the body and the spectrum of histological sub-types, poses a challenge both for routine clinical care and for the conduct of prospective and retrospective studies. This has led to uncertainty and lack of consistency in RT approaches between centers and clinicians. Thus far there is a lack of guidelines for the use of RT in the management of ENL. This report presents an effort by the International Lymphoma Radiation Oncology Group (ILROG) to harmonize and standardize the principles of treatment of ENL, and to address the technical challenges of simulation, volume definition and treatment planning for the most frequently involved organs. Specifically, detailed recommendations for RT volumes are provided. We have applied the same modern principles of involved site radiation therapy as previously developed and published as guidelines for Hodgkin lymphoma and nodal NHL. We have adopted RT volume definitions based on the International Commission on Radiation Units and Measurements (ICRU), as has been widely adopted by the field of radiation oncology for solid tumors. Organ-specific recommendations take into account histological subtype, anatomy, the treatment intent, and other treatment modalities that may be have been used before RT.

  10. Moderate intra-group bias maximizes cooperation on interdependent populations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Changbing Tang

    Full Text Available Evolutionary game theory on spatial structures has received increasing attention during the past decades. However, the majority of these achievements focuses on single and static population structures, which is not fully consistent with the fact that real structures are composed of many interactive groups. These groups are interdependent on each other and present dynamical features, in which individuals mimic the strategy of neighbors and switch their partnerships continually. It is however unclear how the dynamical and interdependent interactions among groups affect the evolution of collective behaviors. In this work, we employ the prisoner's dilemma game to investigate how the dynamics of structure influences cooperation on interdependent populations, where populations are represented by group structures. It is found that the more robust the links between cooperators (or the more fragile the links between cooperators and defectors, the more prevalent of cooperation. Furthermore, theoretical analysis shows that the intra-group bias can favor cooperation, which is only possible when individuals are likely to attach neighbors within the same group. Yet, interestingly, cooperation can be even inhibited for large intra-group bias, allowing the moderate intra-group bias maximizes the cooperation level.

  11. Simulating social dilemmas: promoting cooperative behavior through imagined group discussion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meleady, Rose; Hopthrow, Tim; Crisp, Richard J

    2013-05-01

    A robust finding in social dilemmas research is that individual group members are more likely to act cooperatively if they are given the chance to discuss the dilemma with one another. The authors investigated whether imagining a group discussion may represent an effective means of increasing cooperative behavior in the absence of the opportunity for direct negotiation among decision makers. Five experiments, utilizing a range of task variants, tested this hypothesis. Participants engaged in a guided simulation of the progressive steps required to reach a cooperative consensus within a group discussion of a social dilemma. Results support the conclusion that imagined group discussion enables conscious processes that parallel those underlying the direct group discussion and is a strategy that can effectively elicit cooperative behavior. The applied potential of imagined group discussion techniques to encourage more socially responsible behavior is discussed. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved

  12. Cooperative Learning and Technology: Using Interactive Group Software.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dockterman, David

    1998-01-01

    Discusses cooperative learning and considers the use of interactive group software. Highlights include students' roles in groups; group accountability and peer pressure; the use of strong narrative; and characteristics to look for when reviewing software for interactive group use, including opportunity and context for group interaction and social…

  13. Explaining Cooperation in Groups: Testing Models of Reciprocity and Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biele, Guido; Rieskamp, Jorg; Czienskowski, Uwe

    2008-01-01

    What are the cognitive processes underlying cooperation in groups? This question is addressed by examining how well a reciprocity model, two learning models, and social value orientation can predict cooperation in two iterated n-person social dilemmas with continuous contributions. In the first of these dilemmas, the public goods game,…

  14. Students' views of cooperative learning and group testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hicks, Jay

    2007-01-01

    Today's radiologic technology students must learn to collaborate and communicate to function as part of the health care team. Innovative educational techniques such as cooperative learning (working collectively in small groups) and group testing (collaborating on tests) can foster these skills. Assess students' familiarity with and opinions about cooperative learning and group testing before and after participation in a semester-long course incorporating these methods. Twenty-eight students enrolled in a baccalaureate-level radiologic technology program in Louisiana were surveyed at the beginning and end of the semester. Results showed that students were more knowledgeable about and more accepting of cooperative learning and group testing after participating in the course. However, some students continued to prefer independent learning. Students are open to new learning methods such as cooperative learning and group testing. These techniques can help them develop the skills they will need to function collaboratively in the workplace.

  15. A mentored cooperative group pilot study: atrophic vaginitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lester, Joanne L; Jarvis, Chandler; Bartholomew, Deborah; Yee, Lisa

    2014-02-01

    To review nursing research initiatives from two cooperative groups and outline a pilot study performed by a junior nurse researcher mentored by cooperative group nurse researchers and institutional physicians. PubMed, Cochrane Library, Scopus, World Wide Web. Nursing research can be initiated and led by nurses in the cooperative group setting. The team approach model of research includes several disciplines to examine multiple facets of the same problem, or of multiple problems that a cancer patient may face. This new model will enable a greater number of nurse researchers to investigate symptom management, survivorship, and quality-of-life issues. Nurse researchers should be included in every cooperative group study to investigate nurse-sensitive outcomes and issues related to symptom management, survivorship, and quality of life. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Impact of treatment in long-term survival patients with follicular lymphoma: A Spanish Lymphoma Oncology Group registry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Provencio, Mariano; Sabín, Pilar; Gomez-Codina, Jose; Calvo, Virginia; Llanos, Marta; Gumá, Josep; Quero, Cristina; Blasco, Ana; Cruz, Miguel Angel; Aguiar, David; García-Arroyo, Francisco; Lavernia, Javier; Martinez, Natividad; Morales, Manuel; Saez-Cusi, Alvaro; Rodriguez, Delvys; de la Cruz, Luis; Sanchez, Jose Javier; Rueda, Antonio

    2017-01-01

    Background Follicular lymphoma is the second most common non-Hodgkin lymphoma in the United States and Europe. However, most of the prospective randomized studies have very little follow-up compared to the long natural history of the disease. The primary aim of this study was to investigate the long-term survival of our series of patients with follicular lymphoma. Patients and methods A total of 1074 patients with newly diagnosed FL were enrolled. Patients diagnosed were prospectively enrolled from 1980 to 2013. Results Median follow-up was 54.9 months and median overall survival is over 20 years in our series. We analyzed the patients who are still alive beyond 10 years from diagnosis in order to fully assess the prognostic factors that condition this group. Out of 166 patients who are still alive after more than 10 years of follow-up, 118 of them (73%) are free of evident clinical disease. Variables significantly associated with survival at 10 years were stage < II (p <0.03), age < 60 years (p <0.0001), low FLIPI (p <0.002), normal β2 microglobulin (p <0.005), no B symptoms upon diagnosis (p <0.02), Performance Status 0–1 (p <0.03) and treatment with anthracyclines and rituximab (p <0.001), or rituximab (p <0.0001). Conclusions A longer follow-up and a large series demonstrated a substantial population of patients with follicular lymphoma free of disease for more than 10 years. PMID:28493986

  17. Between-group competition elicits within-group cooperation in children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majolo, Bonaventura; Maréchal, Laëtitia

    2017-01-01

    Aggressive interactions between groups are frequent in human societies and can bear significant fitness costs and benefits (e.g. death or access to resources). During between-group competitive interactions, more cohesive groups (i.e. groups formed by individuals who cooperate in group defence) should out-perform less cohesive groups, other factors being equal (e.g. group size). The cost/benefit of between-group competition are thought to have driven correlated evolution of traits that favour between-group aggression and within-group cooperation (e.g. parochial altruism). Our aim was to analyse whether the proximate relationship between between-group competition and within-group cooperation is found in 3–10 years old children and the developmental trajectory of such a relationship. We used a large cohort of children (n = 120) and tested whether simulated between-group competition increased within-group cooperation (i.e. how much of a resource children were giving to their group companions) in two experiments. We found greater within-group cooperation when groups of four children were competing with other groups then in the control condition (no between-group competition). Within-group cooperation increased with age. Our study suggests that parochial altruism and in-group/out-group biases emerge early during the course of human development. PMID:28233820

  18. Between-group competition elicits within-group cooperation in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majolo, Bonaventura; Maréchal, Laëtitia

    2017-02-24

    Aggressive interactions between groups are frequent in human societies and can bear significant fitness costs and benefits (e.g. death or access to resources). During between-group competitive interactions, more cohesive groups (i.e. groups formed by individuals who cooperate in group defence) should out-perform less cohesive groups, other factors being equal (e.g. group size). The cost/benefit of between-group competition are thought to have driven correlated evolution of traits that favour between-group aggression and within-group cooperation (e.g. parochial altruism). Our aim was to analyse whether the proximate relationship between between-group competition and within-group cooperation is found in 3-10 years old children and the developmental trajectory of such a relationship. We used a large cohort of children (n = 120) and tested whether simulated between-group competition increased within-group cooperation (i.e. how much of a resource children were giving to their group companions) in two experiments. We found greater within-group cooperation when groups of four children were competing with other groups then in the control condition (no between-group competition). Within-group cooperation increased with age. Our study suggests that parochial altruism and in-group/out-group biases emerge early during the course of human development.

  19. Between-group competition elicits within-group cooperation in children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majolo, Bonaventura; Maréchal, Laëtitia

    2017-02-01

    Aggressive interactions between groups are frequent in human societies and can bear significant fitness costs and benefits (e.g. death or access to resources). During between-group competitive interactions, more cohesive groups (i.e. groups formed by individuals who cooperate in group defence) should out-perform less cohesive groups, other factors being equal (e.g. group size). The cost/benefit of between-group competition are thought to have driven correlated evolution of traits that favour between-group aggression and within-group cooperation (e.g. parochial altruism). Our aim was to analyse whether the proximate relationship between between-group competition and within-group cooperation is found in 3-10 years old children and the developmental trajectory of such a relationship. We used a large cohort of children (n = 120) and tested whether simulated between-group competition increased within-group cooperation (i.e. how much of a resource children were giving to their group companions) in two experiments. We found greater within-group cooperation when groups of four children were competing with other groups then in the control condition (no between-group competition). Within-group cooperation increased with age. Our study suggests that parochial altruism and in-group/out-group biases emerge early during the course of human development.

  20. The inter-group comparison-intra-group cooperation hypothesis: comparisons between groups increase efficiency in public goods provision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Böhm, Robert; Rockenbach, Bettina

    2013-01-01

    Identifying methods to increase cooperation and efficiency in public goods provision is of vital interest for human societies. The methods that have been proposed often incur costs that (more than) destroy the efficiency gains through increased cooperation. It has for example been shown that inter-group conflict increases intra-group cooperation, however at the cost of collective efficiency. We propose a new method that makes use of the positive effects associated with inter-group competition but avoids the detrimental (cost) effects of a structural conflict. We show that the mere comparison to another structurally independent group increases both the level of intra-group cooperation and overall efficiency. The advantage of this new method is that it directly transfers the benefits from increased cooperation into increased efficiency. In repeated public goods provision we experimentally manipulated the participants' level of contribution feedback (intra-group only vs. both intra- and inter-group) as well as the provision environment (smaller groups with higher individual benefits from cooperation vs. larger groups with lower individual benefits from cooperation). Irrespective of the provision environment groups with an inter-group comparison opportunity exhibited a significantly stronger cooperation than groups without this opportunity. Participants conditionally cooperated within their group and additionally acted to advance their group to not fall behind the other group. The individual efforts to advance the own group cushion the downward trend in the above average contributors and thus render contributions on a higher level. We discuss areas of practical application.

  1. Optimal Grouping and Matching for Network-Coded Cooperative Communications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sharma, S; Shi, Y; Hou, Y T; Kompella, S; Midkiff, S F

    2011-11-01

    Network-coded cooperative communications (NC-CC) is a new advance in wireless networking that exploits network coding (NC) to improve the performance of cooperative communications (CC). However, there remains very limited understanding of this new hybrid technology, particularly at the link layer and above. This paper fills in this gap by studying a network optimization problem that requires joint optimization of session grouping, relay node grouping, and matching of session/relay groups. After showing that this problem is NP-hard, we present a polynomial time heuristic algorithm to this problem. Using simulation results, we show that our algorithm is highly competitive and can produce near-optimal results.

  2. Shaanxi Gold Group Signed Strategic Cooperation Agreements With Five Enterprises

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2016-01-01

    Recently,Shaanxi Gold Group Inc.successfully signed strategic cooperation agreements and secondary member agency agreements with 5 related enterprises in Shaanxi including Northwest Nonferrous Metals Research Institute,Baoti Group Co.,Ltd,Hanzhong Zinc Industry Co.,Ltd,Shaanxi Zinc Industry Co.,Ltd,and Shaanxi Feng

  3. Reputation drives cooperative behaviour and network formation in human groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuesta, Jose A; Gracia-Lázaro, Carlos; Ferrer, Alfredo; Moreno, Yamir; Sánchez, Angel

    2015-01-19

    Cooperativeness is a defining feature of human nature. Theoreticians have suggested several mechanisms to explain this ubiquitous phenomenon, including reciprocity, reputation, and punishment, but the problem is still unsolved. Here we show, through experiments conducted with groups of people playing an iterated Prisoner's Dilemma on a dynamic network, that it is reputation what really fosters cooperation. While this mechanism has already been observed in unstructured populations, we find that it acts equally when interactions are given by a network that players can reconfigure dynamically. Furthermore, our observations reveal that memory also drives the network formation process, and cooperators assort more, with longer link lifetimes, the longer the past actions record. Our analysis demonstrates, for the first time, that reputation can be very well quantified as a weighted mean of the fractions of past cooperative acts and the last action performed. This finding has potential applications in collaborative systems and e-commerce.

  4. Cooperation driven by success-driven group formation

    CERN Document Server

    Szolnoki, Attila

    2016-01-01

    In the traditional setup of public goods game all players are involved in every available groups and the mutual benefit is shared among competing cooperator and defector strategies. But in real life situations the group formation of players could be more sophisticated because not all players are attractive enough for others to participate in a joint venture. What if only those players can initiate a group formation and establish a game who are successful enough to the neighbors? To elaborate this idea we employ a modified protocol and demonstrate that a carefully chosen threshold to establish joint venture could efficiently improve the cooperation level even if the synergy factor would suggest a full defector state otherwise. The microscopic mechanism which is responsible for this effect is based on the asymmetric consequences of competing strategies: while the success of a cooperator provides a long-time well-being for the neighborhood, the temporary advantage of defection cannot be maintained if the protoco...

  5. Radiation Therapy Planning for Early-Stage Hodgkin Lymphoma: Experience of the International Lymphoma Radiation Oncology Group

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maraldo, Maja V., E-mail: dra.maraldo@gmail.com [Departments of Clinical Oncology and Hematology, Rigshospitalet, University of Copenhagen (Denmark); Dabaja, Bouthaina S. [Department of Radiation Oncology, MD Anderson Cancer Center, Texas (United States); Filippi, Andrea R. [Department of Oncology, University of Torino School of Medicine, Torino (Italy); Illidge, Tim [Department of Oncology, Christie Hospital, Manchester (United Kingdom); Tsang, Richard [Department of Radiation Oncology, Princess Margaret Cancer Centre, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Ricardi, Umberto [Department of Oncology, University of Torino School of Medicine, Torino (Italy); Petersen, Peter M.; Schut, Deborah A. [Departments of Clinical Oncology and Hematology, Rigshospitalet, University of Copenhagen (Denmark); Garcia, John [Department of Radiation Oncology, MD Anderson Cancer Center, Texas (United States); Headley, Jayne [Department of Oncology, Christie Hospital, Manchester (United Kingdom); Parent, Amy; Guibord, Benoit [Department of Radiation Oncology, Princess Margaret Cancer Centre, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Ragona, Riccardo [Department of Oncology, University of Torino School of Medicine, Torino (Italy); Specht, Lena [Departments of Clinical Oncology and Hematology, Rigshospitalet, University of Copenhagen (Denmark)

    2015-05-01

    Purpose: Early-stage Hodgkin lymphoma (HL) is a rare disease, and the location of lymphoma varies considerably between patients. Here, we evaluate the variability of radiation therapy (RT) plans among 5 International Lymphoma Radiation Oncology Group (ILROG) centers with regard to beam arrangements, planning parameters, and estimated doses to the critical organs at risk (OARs). Methods: Ten patients with stage I-II classic HL with masses of different sizes and locations were selected. On the basis of the clinical information, 5 ILROG centers were asked to create RT plans to a prescribed dose of 30.6 Gy. A postchemotherapy computed tomography scan with precontoured clinical target volume (CTV) and OARs was provided for each patient. The treatment technique and planning methods were chosen according to each center's best practice in 2013. Results: Seven patients had mediastinal disease, 2 had axillary disease, and 1 had disease in the neck only. The median age at diagnosis was 34 years (range, 21-74 years), and 5 patients were male. Of the resulting 50 treatment plans, 15 were planned with volumetric modulated arc therapy (1-4 arcs), 16 with intensity modulated RT (3-9 fields), and 19 with 3-dimensional conformal RT (2-4 fields). The variations in CTV-to-planning target volume margins (5-15 mm), maximum tolerated dose (31.4-40 Gy), and plan conformity (conformity index 0-3.6) were significant. However, estimated doses to OARs were comparable between centers for each patient. Conclusions: RT planning for HL is challenging because of the heterogeneity in size and location of disease and, additionally, to the variation in choice of treatment techniques and field arrangements. Adopting ILROG guidelines and implementing universal dose objectives could further standardize treatment techniques and contribute to lowering the dose to the surrounding OARs.

  6. Radiation therapy planning for early-stage Hodgkin lymphoma: experience of the International Lymphoma Radiation Oncology Group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maraldo, Maja V; Dabaja, Bouthaina S; Filippi, Andrea R; Illidge, Tim; Tsang, Richard; Ricardi, Umberto; Petersen, Peter M; Schut, Deborah A; Garcia, John; Headley, Jayne; Parent, Amy; Guibord, Benoit; Ragona, Riccardo; Specht, Lena

    2015-05-01

    Early-stage Hodgkin lymphoma (HL) is a rare disease, and the location of lymphoma varies considerably between patients. Here, we evaluate the variability of radiation therapy (RT) plans among 5 International Lymphoma Radiation Oncology Group (ILROG) centers with regard to beam arrangements, planning parameters, and estimated doses to the critical organs at risk (OARs). Ten patients with stage I-II classic HL with masses of different sizes and locations were selected. On the basis of the clinical information, 5 ILROG centers were asked to create RT plans to a prescribed dose of 30.6 Gy. A postchemotherapy computed tomography scan with precontoured clinical target volume (CTV) and OARs was provided for each patient. The treatment technique and planning methods were chosen according to each center's best practice in 2013. Seven patients had mediastinal disease, 2 had axillary disease, and 1 had disease in the neck only. The median age at diagnosis was 34 years (range, 21-74 years), and 5 patients were male. Of the resulting 50 treatment plans, 15 were planned with volumetric modulated arc therapy (1-4 arcs), 16 with intensity modulated RT (3-9 fields), and 19 with 3-dimensional conformal RT (2-4 fields). The variations in CTV-to-planning target volume margins (5-15 mm), maximum tolerated dose (31.4-40 Gy), and plan conformity (conformity index 0-3.6) were significant. However, estimated doses to OARs were comparable between centers for each patient. RT planning for HL is challenging because of the heterogeneity in size and location of disease and, additionally, to the variation in choice of treatment techniques and field arrangements. Adopting ILROG guidelines and implementing universal dose objectives could further standardize treatment techniques and contribute to lowering the dose to the surrounding OARs. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Exploring Technology Supported Collaborative and Cooperative Group Formation Mechanisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carapina, Mia; Boticki, Ivica

    2015-01-01

    This paper reflects on the systematic literature review paper (in progress), which analyzes technology enhanced collaborative and cooperative learning in elementary education worldwide from 2004 to 2015, focusing on the exploration of technology mediated group formation. The review paper reports on only a few cases of technology supported methods…

  8. Group size adjustment to ecological demand in a cooperative breeder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zöttl, Markus; Frommen, Joachim G; Taborsky, Michael

    2013-04-07

    Environmental factors can determine which group size will maximize the fitness of group members. This is particularly important in cooperative breeders, where group members often serve different purposes. Experimental studies are yet lacking to check whether ecologically mediated need for help will change the propensity of dominant group members to accept immigrants. Here, we manipulated the perceived risk of predation for dominant breeders of the cooperatively breeding cichlid fish Neolamprologus pulcher to test their response to unrelated and previously unknown immigrants. Potential immigrants were more readily accepted if groups were exposed to fish predators or egg predators than to herbivorous fish or control situations lacking predation risk. Our data are consistent with both risk dilution and helping effects. Egg predators were presented before spawning, which might suggest that the fish adjust acceptance rates also to a potential future threat. Dominant group members of N. pulcher apparently consider both present and future need of help based on ecological demand. This suggests that acceptance of immigrants and, more generally, tolerance of group members on demand could be a widespread response to ecological conditions in cooperatively breeding animals.

  9. Primary leptomeningeal lymphoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Jennie W.; Flanagan, Eoin P.; O'Neill, Brian P.; Siegal, Tali; Omuro, Antonio; DeAngelis, Lisa; Baehring, Joachim; Nishikawa, Ryo; Pinto, Fernando; Chamberlain, Marc; Hoang-Xuan, Khe; Gonzalez-Aguilar, Alberto; Batchelor, Tracy; Blay, Jean-Yves; Korfel, Agnieszka; Betensky, Rebecca A.; Lopes, Maria-Beatriz S.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate clinical presentation, optimal diagnostic evaluation and treatment, and outcome in primary leptomeningeal lymphoma, a rare form of primary CNS lymphoma without parenchymal or systemic involvement. Methods: The International Primary CNS Lymphoma Collaborative Group, a multidisciplinary group of physicians with a particular interest in primary CNS lymphoma, retrospectively identified cases of lymphoma isolated to the leptomeninges as diagnosed by CSF cytology, flow cytometry, or biopsy, without systemic or parenchymal brain/spinal cord lymphoma or immunodeficiency. Results: Forty-eight patients were identified, with median age at diagnosis of 51 years and median Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status of 2. Presenting symptoms were multifocal in 68%. Leptomeningeal enhancement was seen in 74% and CSF profile was abnormal in all cases. CSF cytology detected malignant lymphocytes in 67%. Flow cytometry identified monoclonal population in 80%, as did receptor gene rearrangement studies in 71%. Sixty-two percent had B-cell lymphoma, 19% T-cell, and 19% unclassified. Treatment varied and included fractionated radiotherapy (36%), systemic chemotherapy (78%), and intra-CSF chemotherapy (66%), with 66% receiving ≥2 modalities. Seventy-one percent had a favorable clinical response; ultimately, 44% received salvage treatment. Median overall survival was 24 months, with 11 patients still alive at 50 months follow-up. Conclusion: Primary leptomeningeal lymphoma is a rare form of primary CNS lymphoma. Patients usually present with multifocal symptoms, with evidence of leptomeningeal enhancement and diagnostic CSF analysis. Although treatment is highly variable, patients have a better prognosis than previously reported and a subset may be cured. PMID:24107866

  10. Stability of cooperation under image scoring in group interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nax, Heinrich H; Perc, Matjaž; Szolnoki, Attila; Helbing, Dirk

    2015-07-15

    Image scoring sustains cooperation in the repeated two-player prisoner's dilemma through indirect reciprocity, even though defection is the uniquely dominant selfish behaviour in the one-shot game. Many real-world dilemma situations, however, firstly, take place in groups and, secondly, lack the necessary transparency to inform subjects reliably of others' individual past actions. Instead, there is revelation of information regarding groups, which allows for 'group scoring' but not for image scoring. Here, we study how sensitive the positive results related to image scoring are to information based on group scoring. We combine analytic results and computer simulations to specify the conditions for the emergence of cooperation. We show that under pure group scoring, that is, under the complete absence of image-scoring information, cooperation is unsustainable. Away from this extreme case, however, the necessary degree of image scoring relative to group scoring depends on the population size and is generally very small. We thus conclude that the positive results based on image scoring apply to a much broader range of informational settings that are relevant in the real world than previously assumed.

  11. Modern Radiation Therapy for Hodgkin Lymphoma: Field and Dose Guidelines From the International Lymphoma Radiation Oncology Group (ILROG)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Specht, Lena, E-mail: lena.specht@regionh.dk [Department of Oncology and Hematology, Rigshospitalet, University of Copenhagen (Denmark); Yahalom, Joachim [Department of Radiation Oncology, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, New York (United States); Illidge, Tim [Institute of Cancer Sciences, University of Manchester, Manchester Academic Health Sciences Centre, Christie Hospital NHS Trust, Manchester (United Kingdom); Berthelsen, Anne Kiil [Department of Radiation Oncology and PET Centre, Rigshospitalet, University of Copenhagen (Denmark); Constine, Louis S. [Department of Radiation Oncology and Pediatrics, James P. Wilmot Cancer Center, University of Rochester Medical Center, Rochester, New York (United States); Eich, Hans Theodor [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Münster (Germany); Girinsky, Theodore [Department of Radiation Oncology, Institut Gustave-Roussy, Villejuif (France); Hoppe, Richard T. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Stanford University, Stanford, California (United States); Mauch, Peter [Department of Radiation Oncology, Brigham and Women' s Hospital and Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, Harvard University, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Mikhaeel, N. George [Department of Clinical Oncology and Radiotherapy, Guy' s and St Thomas' NHS Foundation Trust, London (United Kingdom); Ng, Andrea [Department of Radiation Oncology, Brigham and Women' s Hospital and Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, Harvard University, Boston, Massachusetts (United States)

    2014-07-15

    use of ISRT has not yet been validated in a formal study, it is more conservative than INRT, accounting for suboptimal information and appropriately designed for safe local disease control. The goal of modern smaller field radiation therapy is to reduce both treatment volume and treatment dose while maintaining efficacy and minimizing acute and late sequelae. This review is a consensus of the International Lymphoma Radiation Oncology Group (ILROG) Steering Committee regarding the modern approach to RT in the treatment of HL, outlining a new concept of ISRT in which reduced treatment volumes are planned for the effective control of involved sites of HL. Nodal and extranodal non-Hodgkin lymphomas (NHL) are covered separately by ILROG guidelines.

  12. CHALCO and Galuminium Group signed framework agreement for strategic cooperation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2013-01-01

    <正>On July 25,the Aluminum Corporation of China Limited and Galuminium Group Co.,Ltd signed strategic cooperation agreement in Guiyang Aluminum Hotel.LuoJianchuan,President of the Aluminum Corporation of China Limited,introduced CHALCO’s operation,as well as its Guizhou Branch’s aluminum oxide and electrolytic aluminum business operation,mine production,and construction of Maochang Mine.LuoJianchuan said that viewed

  13. Effect of cooperation level of group on punishment for non-cooperators: a functional magnetic resonance imaging study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fumitoshi Kodaka

    Full Text Available Sometimes we punish non-cooperators in our society. Such behavior could be derived from aversive emotion for inequity (inequity aversion to make non-cooperators cooperative. Thus, punishing behavior derived from inequity is believed to be important for maintaining our society. Meanwhile, our daily experiences suggest that the degree of cooperation by the members of society (cooperation level of the group could change the punishing behavior for non-cooperators even if the inequity were equal. Such effect of the cooperation level of the group cannot be explained by simple inequity aversion. Although punishment-related brain regions have been reported in previous functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI study, little is known about such regions affected by the cooperation level of the group. In the present fMRI study, we investigated the effect of the cooperation level of the group on the punishing behavior for non-cooperators and its related brain activations by a paradigm in which the degree of the cooperative state varied from low to high. Punishment-related activations were observed in brain regions such as the anterior insula, dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC, and anterior cingulate cortex (ACC. The quantity of punishment in a high cooperation context was greater than in a low cooperation context, and activation in the right DLPFC and ACC in a high cooperation context showed greater activity than in a low cooperation context. This indicates that the cooperation level of the group, as well as aversive emotion for inequity, is the important factor of punishing behavior.

  14. Cooperation driven by success-driven group formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szolnoki, Attila; Chen, Xiaojie

    2016-10-01

    In the traditional setup of the public goods game all players are involved in every available group and the mutual benefit is shared among competing cooperator and defector strategies. However, in real life situations the group formation of players could be more sophisticated because not all players are attractive enough for others to participate in a joint venture. What if only those players who are successful enough to the neighbors can initiate a group formation and establish a game? To elaborate this idea we employ a modified protocol and demonstrate that a carefully chosen threshold to establish a joint venture could efficiently improve the cooperation level even if the synergy factor would suggest a full defector state otherwise. The microscopic mechanism that is responsible for this effect is based on the asymmetric consequences of competing strategies: while the success of a cooperator provides a long-time well-being for the neighborhood, the temporary advantage of defection cannot be maintained if the protocol is based on the success of leaders.

  15. SOX11 and TP53 add prognostic information to MIPI in a homogenously treated cohort of mantle cell lymphoma--a Nordic Lymphoma Group study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nordström, Lena; Sernbo, Sandra; Eden, Patrik;

    2014-01-01

    Mantle cell lymphoma (MCL) is an aggressive B cell lymphoma, where survival has been remarkably improved by use of protocols including high dose cytarabine, rituximab and autologous stem cell transplantation, such as the Nordic MCL2/3 protocols. In 2008, a MCL international prognostic index (MIPI......) was created to enable stratification of the clinical diverse MCL patients into three risk groups. So far, use of the MIPI in clinical routine has been limited, as it has been shown that it inadequately separates low and intermediate risk group patients. To improve outcome and minimize treatment...

  16. Large group size yields group stability in the cooperatively breeding cichlid Neolamprologus pulcher

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heg, D; Bachar, Z; Taborsky, M

    2005-01-01

    Group size has been shown to positively influence survival of group members in many cooperatively breeding vertebrates, including the Lake Tanganyika cichlid Neolamprologus pulcher, suggesting Allee effects. However, long-term data are scarce to test how these survival differences translate into cha

  17. Helping enhances productivity in campo flicker ( Colaptes campestris) cooperative groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dias, Raphael Igor; Webster, Michael S.; Macedo, Regina H.

    2015-06-01

    Reproductive adults in many bird species are assisted by non-breeding auxiliary helpers at the nest, yet the impact of auxiliaries on reproduction is variable and not always obvious. In this study, we tested Hamilton's rule and evaluated the effect of auxiliaries on productivity in the facultative cooperative breeder campo flicker ( Colaptes campestris campestris). Campo flickers have a variable mating system, with some groups having auxiliaries and others lacking them (i.e., unassisted pairs). Most auxiliaries are closely related to the breeding pair (primary auxiliaries), but some auxiliaries (secondary auxiliaries) are unrelated females that joined established groups. We found no effect of breeder quality (body condition) or territory quality (food availability) on group productivity, but the presence of auxiliaries increased the number of fledglings produced relative to unassisted pairs. Nonetheless, the indirect benefit of helping was small and did not outweigh the costs of delayed breeding and so seemed insufficient to explain the evolution of cooperative breeding in campo flickers. We concluded that some ecological constraints must limit dispersal or independent breeding, making staying in the group a "best-of-a-bad-job" situation for auxiliaries.

  18. Guidelines for diagnosis, prevention and management of central nervous system involvement in diffuse large B-cell lymphoma patients by the Spanish Lymphoma Group (GELTAMO)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peñalver, Francisco-Javier; Sancho, Juan-Manuel; de la Fuente, Adolfo; Olave, María-Teresa; Martín, Alejandro; Panizo, Carlos; Pérez, Elena; Salar, Antonio; Orfao, Alberto

    2017-01-01

    Diffuse large B-cell lymphoma patients have a 5% overall risk of central nervous system events (relapse or progression), which account for high morbidity and frequently fatal outcomes,1 and shortened overall survival of <6 months.2 Early diagnosis of central nervous system events is critical for successful treatment and improved prognosis. Identification of patients at risk of central nervous system disease is critical to accurately identify candidates for central nervous system prophylaxis vs. therapy.3–5 This report by the Spanish Lymphoma Group (GELTAMO) aims to provide useful guidelines and recommendations for the prevention, diagnosis, and treatment of central nervous system diffuse large B-cell lymphoma patients with, or at risk of, leptomeningeal and/or brain parenchyma lymphoma relapse. A panel of lymphoma experts working on behalf of GELTAMO reviewed all data published on these topics available in PubMed up to May 2016. Recommendations were classified according to the Grading of Recommendations Assessment Development and Evaluation (GRADE) approach.6 A practical algorithm based on the proposed recommendations was then developed (Figure 1). Initial discussions among experts were held in May 2014, and final consensus was reached in June 2016. The final manuscript was reviewed by all authors and the Scientific Committee of GELTAMO. PMID:27846613

  19. The achievements of the EORTC Lymphoma Group. European Organisation for Research and Treatment of Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raemaekers, J; Kluin-Nelemans, H; Teodorovic, I; Meerwaldt, C; Noordijk, E; Thomas, J; Glabbeke, M van; Henry-Amar, M; Carde, P

    2002-03-01

    From 1964 onwards, the EORTC Lymphoma Group has conducted seven consecutive randomised phase 3 trials on early stage Hodgkin's lymphoma aiming at increasing efficacy, while decreasing short- and long-term toxicity. Staging laparotomy is definitely abandoned and replaced by identification of prognostic subgroups based on pretreatment clinical characteristics. Event-free and overall survival significantly improved from about 50 and then 70%, in the early years, to over 80 and then 90% more recently. Radiotherapy fields have become more restricted, whereas chemotherapy has become standard. Longitudinal quality-of-life assessment has become an integral part of our studies. In advanced stages, overall outcome has improved as well with 6-year survival rates of over 80%. In aggressive types of NHL, the second generation chemotherapy schedule CHVmP-BV was superior to CHVmP. We could not show any advantage for intensification of upfront treatment with autologous stem cell transplantation.

  20. Conceptual change strategies and cooperative group work in chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basili, Patricia A.; Sanford, Julie P.

    This study conducted at a suburban community college tested a method of conceptual change in which treatment students worked in small cooperative groups on tasks aimed at eliciting their misconceptions so that they could then be discussed in contrast to the scientific conceptions that had been taught in direct instruction. Categorizations of student understanding of the target concepts of the laws of conservation of matter and energy and aspects of the particulate nature of gases, liquids, and solids were ascertained by pre- and posttesting. Audiotapes of student verbal interaction in the small groups provided quantitative and qualitative data concerning student engagement in behaviors suggestive of the conditions posited to be part of the conceptual change process (Posner, Strike, Hewson & Gertzog, 1982). Chi-square analysis of posttests indicated that students in treatment groups had significantly lower (p < 0.05) proportion of misconceptions than control students on four of the five target concepts. Students who exhibited no change in concept state had a higher frequency of verbal behaviors suggestive of impeding conceptual change when compared to students who did change. Three factors emerged from qualitative analysis of group interaction that appeared to influence learning: (a) many students had flawed understanding of concepts that supported the target concepts; (b) student views towards learning science affected their engagement in assigned tasks, (c) good and poor group leaders had a strong influence on group success.

  1. Co-operative groups in their environments : a population-ecological model for co-operative membership and performance

    OpenAIRE

    Lasowski, Ophir

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this work is to develop an alternative evolutionary approach to assessing the performance of co-operative organizations. The focus of investigation is turned to the co-operative organization as a group of members in a market environment containing non-members. Significant unique features of the co-operative organization is illustrated at first. After reviewing historical aspects of evolution theories and their positioning in biology, economic and social sciences, alternative notion...

  2. Sperm quality before treatment in patients with early stage Hodgkin's lymphoma enrolled in EORTC-GELA Lymphoma Group trials

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Kaalj, Marleen A. E.; Heutte, Natacha; van Echten-Arends, Jannie; Raemaekers, John M. M.; Carde, Patrice; Noordijk, Evert M.; Ferme, Christophe; Thomas, Jose; Eghbali, Houchingue; Brice, Pauline; Bonmati, Caroline; Henry-Amar, Michel; Kluin-Nelemans, Hanneke C.

    2009-01-01

    Background Although widely recommended, cryopreservation of sperm is sometimes not performed for patients with Hodgkin's lymphoma because of presumed poor sperm quality related to the disease. We investigated sperm quality and factors determining it in untreated patients with early stage Hodgkin's l

  3. The foundress's dilemma: group selection for cooperation among queens of the harvester ant, Pogonomyrmex californicus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaffer, Zachary; Sasaki, Takao; Haney, Brian; Janssen, Marco; Pratt, Stephen C; Fewell, Jennifer H

    2016-07-28

    The evolution of cooperation is a fundamental problem in biology, especially for non-relatives, where indirect fitness benefits cannot counter within-group inequalities. Multilevel selection models show how cooperation can evolve if it generates a group-level advantage, even when cooperators are disadvantaged within their group. This allows the possibility of group selection, but few examples have been described in nature. Here we show that group selection can explain the evolution of cooperative nest founding in the harvester ant Pogonomyrmex californicus. Through most of this species' range, colonies are founded by single queens, but in some populations nests are instead founded by cooperative groups of unrelated queens. In mixed groups of cooperative and single-founding queens, we found that aggressive individuals had a survival advantage within their nest, but foundress groups with such non-cooperators died out more often than those with only cooperative members. An agent-based model shows that the between-group advantage of the cooperative phenotype drives it to fixation, despite its within-group disadvantage, but only when population density is high enough to make between-group competition intense. Field data show higher nest density in a population where cooperative founding is common, consistent with greater density driving the evolution of cooperative foundation through group selection.

  4. Group Cooperative Learning-Making Learning a Deeper Process

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MAO Jin; LI Hong-mei; WANG Ya-lei; ZHANG Min

    2014-01-01

    The paper is to explore whether or not group cooperative learning in author’s university can make students learning deeply. In 2004, the Chinese Ministry of Education constituted“College English Teaching Syllabus”( College English Teaching Syllabus,2004, showed in appendix), in which it makes it clear that the properties and objectives of College English teaching are:College English teaching is a teaching system which has the content of English language knowledge, English applied skills, learn-ing strategies, intercultural communication. According to the syllabus, lots of Chinese universities will aim to explore new and ef-fective teaching modes, which will stimulate college English teachers to reflect their traditional teaching methods and make the corresponding improvement inevitably.

  5. 76 FR 13663 - Cooper Tools, Currently Known as Apex Tool Group, LLC, Hicksville, OH; Amended Certification...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-14

    ... Employment and Training Administration Cooper Tools, Currently Known as Apex Tool Group, LLC, Hicksville, OH..., applicable to workers of Cooper Tools, Hicksville, Ohio. The workers are engaged in activities related to the... information shows that in July, 2010, Apex Tool Group, LLC. purchased Cooper Tools and is currently known...

  6. Effect of group organization on the performance of cooperative processes

    CERN Document Server

    Reia, Sandro M

    2016-01-01

    Problem-solving competence at group level is influenced by the structure of the social networks and so it may shed light on the organization patterns of gregarious animals. Here we use an agent-based model to investigate whether the ubiquity of hierarchical networks in nature could be explained as the result of a selection pressure favoring problem-solving efficiency. The task of the agents is to find the global maxima of NK fitness landscapes and the agents cooperate by broadcasting messages informing on their fitness to the group. This information is then used to imitate, with a certain probability, the fittest agent in their influence networks. For rugged landscapes, we find that the modular organization of the hierarchical network with its high degree of clustering eases the escape from the local maxima, resulting in a superior performance as compared with the scale-free and the random networks. The optimal performance in a rugged landscape is achieved by letting the main hub to be only slightly more prop...

  7. Rearrangement patterns of the canine TCRγ locus in a distinct group of T cell lymphomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller, Stefan M; Moore, Peter F

    2012-01-15

    The T cell antigen receptor chains are assembled through a rearrangement process that combines variable (V), diversity (D) and joining (J) region genes. Recently, the entire canine T cell receptor γ (TRG) locus was described. It is arranged in 8 cassettes with up to 3 V genes, 2 J genes and 1 C gene each. However, no data is available beyond the level of sequence analysis. The objective of this study was to identify rearranged genes of the canine TRG locus through experimental analysis and to assess gene usage and patterns of rearrangement in a series of canine T cell lymphomas. Rearranged genes were identified through computational analysis of recombination signal sequences (RSSs), a gene's potential to generate a polyclonal smear, and through sequencing of clonal rearrangements in a series of T cell lymphomas. Out of a total of 32 Vγ and Jγ genes, 21 genes were found to rearrange, 8 genes were considered not rearranged and 3 genes were suspected to rearrange but their status could not be determined definitely. Rearrangements of the canine TRG locus were assessed in a group of canine T cell lymphomas as well as 3 neoplastic T cell lines. An average of 4.6 rearrangements per lymphoma was found suggesting that canine T cells routinely rearrange multiple cassettes per allele. The most commonly rearranged Vγ genes belonged to subgroups Vγ2, Vγ3, and Vγ7. Genes in cassettes 2 and 3 preferentially rearranged within their respective cassettes, while Vγ genes in cassette 7 rearranged to a Jγ gene in cassette 8. There was a strong preference for Vγ2 genes to rearrange to a 3' Jγ gene and for Vγ3 and Vγ7 genes to rearrange to a 5' Jγ gene. This rearrangement pattern coincided with the conservation of the spacer sequence between V and J gene subgroups rather than the topologic location of genes. These data show that highly divergent spacer sequences allow for equally efficient recombination and suggest that spacer sequences can mediate compatibility between V

  8. Out-Group Threat Promotes Within-Group Affiliation in a Cooperative Fish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruintjes, Rick; Lynton-Jenkins, Joshua; Jones, Joseph W; Radford, Andrew N

    2016-02-01

    In social species, conflict with outsiders is predicted to affect within-group interactions and thus influence group dynamics and the evolution and maintenance of sociality. Although empirical evidence exists for a relationship between out-group conflict and intragroup behavior in humans, experimental tests in other animals are rare. In a model fish system, we show that simulated out-group intrusions cause postconflict increases in intragroup affiliation but no changes in postconflict intragroup aggression. Postconflict affiliation was greater following intrusions by neighboring compared with nonneighboring individuals; neighbors represent greater threats to the dominance rank and breeding success of residents, and they are visible in the aftermath of the intrusion. By providing strong evidence of a link between out-group conflict and postconflict intragroup behavior and demonstrating that intragroup affiliation is affected by the nature of the out-group intrusion, our study shows the importance of considering postconflict behavior for our understanding of cooperation and social structure.

  9. Real Maths in Cooperative Groups in Secondary Education

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Terwel, J.

    1990-01-01

    This chapter describes author’s first encounters with cooperative learning and his personal viewpoint on education. In this view, education should be inclusive, adaptive and cooperative. This is followed by a rationale for a realistic mathematics curriculum and its main characteristics. The theory o

  10. Proto-cooperation: group hunting sailfish improve hunting success by alternating attacks on grouping prey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herbert-Read, James E; Romanczuk, Pawel; Krause, Stefan; Strömbom, Daniel; Couillaud, Pierre; Domenici, Paolo; Kurvers, Ralf H J M; Marras, Stefano; Steffensen, John F; Wilson, Alexander D M; Krause, Jens

    2016-11-16

    We present evidence of a novel form of group hunting. Individual sailfish (Istiophorus platypterus) alternate attacks with other group members on their schooling prey (Sardinella aurita). While only 24% of attacks result in prey capture, multiple prey are injured in 95% of attacks, resulting in an increase of injured fish in the school with the number of attacks. How quickly prey are captured is positively correlated with the level of injury of the school, suggesting that hunters can benefit from other conspecifics' attacks on the prey. To explore this, we built a mathematical model capturing the dynamics of the hunt. We show that group hunting provides major efficiency gains (prey caught per unit time) for individuals in groups of up to 70 members. We also demonstrate that a free riding strategy, where some individuals wait until the prey are sufficiently injured before attacking, is only beneficial if the cost of attacking is high, and only then when waiting times are short. Our findings provide evidence that cooperative benefits can be realized through the facilitative effects of individuals' hunting actions without spatial coordination of attacks. Such 'proto-cooperation' may be the pre-cursor to more complex group-hunting strategies.

  11. Using Cooperative Small Groups in Introductory Accounting Classes: A Practical Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miglietti, Cynthia

    2002-01-01

    Effective use of cooperative learning groups requires the following: attention to group formation, orientation that sets clear expectations and guidelines, activities to develop teamwork skills, peer evaluation, and other assessments that recognize and measure individual effort on group projects. (SK)

  12. Hodgkin's Lymphoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... behavior. Your type determines your treatment options. Classical Hodgkin's lymphoma Classical Hodgkin's lymphoma is the more common ... Hodgkin's lymphoma Lymphocyte-rich Hodgkin's lymphoma Lymphocyte-predominant Hodgkin's lymphoma This much rarer type of Hodgkin's lymphoma ...

  13. Emergence of spatial structure in cell groups and the evolution of cooperation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carey D Nadell

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available On its own, a single cell cannot exert more than a microscopic influence on its immediate surroundings. However, via strength in numbers and the expression of cooperative phenotypes, such cells can enormously impact their environments. Simple cooperative phenotypes appear to abound in the microbial world, but explaining their evolution is challenging because they are often subject to exploitation by rapidly growing, non-cooperative cell lines. Population spatial structure may be critical for this problem because it influences the extent of interaction between cooperative and non-cooperative individuals. It is difficult for cooperative cells to succeed in competition if they become mixed with non-cooperative cells, which can exploit the public good without themselves paying a cost. However, if cooperative cells are segregated in space and preferentially interact with each other, they may prevail. Here we use a multi-agent computational model to study the origin of spatial structure within growing cell groups. Our simulations reveal that the spatial distribution of genetic lineages within these groups is linked to a small number of physical and biological parameters, including cell growth rate, nutrient availability, and nutrient diffusivity. Realistic changes in these parameters qualitatively alter the emergent structure of cell groups, and thereby determine whether cells with cooperative phenotypes can locally and globally outcompete exploitative cells. We argue that cooperative and exploitative cell lineages will spontaneously segregate in space under a wide range of conditions and, therefore, that cellular cooperation may evolve more readily than naively expected.

  14. The Effects of Cooperative Training and Ability Grouping on Microcomputer Learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baron, Lois J.

    1997-01-01

    Describes a study of fifth and sixth graders that investigated the effects of cooperative training and ability grouping on microcomputer learning. Results on four measures of achievement did not support the use of cooperative learning or ability grouping to enhance achievement in computer-assisted instruction. (Author/LRW)

  15. Chinalco Signed Agreement with Three Gorges Group to Explore Cooperation in Aluminum-Electricity Joint Operation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    <正>On December 9th Chinalco signed a framework agreement for strategic cooperation with China Three Gorges Group Corporation ("Three Gorges Group") in Beijing. Both sides will carry out comprehensive cooperation in the investment and construction of domestic and oversea hydro power energy

  16. The Effects of Cooperative Learning on Junior High School Students during Small Group Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillies, Robyn M.

    2004-01-01

    The study investigated the effects of cooperative learning on junior high school students who worked in structured or unstructured cooperative groups. Two hundred and twenty-three junior high school students participated in the study and worked in three or four-person, mixed gender and achievement groups. The results show that the children in the…

  17. Ingroup favoritism and intergroup cooperation under indirect reciprocity based on group reputation

    CERN Document Server

    Masuda, Naoki

    2012-01-01

    Indirect reciprocity in which players cooperate with unacquainted other players having good reputations is a mechanism for cooperation in relatively large populations subjected to social dilemma situations. When the population has group structure, as is often found in social networks, players in experiments are considered to show behavior that deviates from existing theoretical models of indirect reciprocity. First, players often show ingroup favoritism (i.e., cooperation only within the group) rather than full cooperation (i.e., cooperation within and across groups) even though the latter is Pareto efficient. Second, in general, humans approximate outgroup members' personal characteristics, presumably including the reputation used for indirect reciprocity, by a single value attached to the group. Humans use such a stereotypic approximation, a phenomenon known as outgroup homogeneity in social psychology. I propose a model of indirect reciprocity in populations with group structure to examine the possibility ...

  18. Site-specific expression of Polycomb-group genes encoding the HPC-HPH complex in clinically defined primary nodal and cutaneous large B cells lymphomas

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Raaphorst, F.M.; Vermeer, M.; Fieret, E.; Blokzijl, T.; Dukers, N.H.T.M.; Sewalt, R.G.A.B.; Otte, A.P.; Willemze, R.; Meijer, C.J.L.M.

    2004-01-01

    Polycomb-group (PcG) genes preserve cell identity by gene silencing, and contribute to regulation of lymphopoiesis and malignant transformation. We show that primary nodal large B-cell lymphomas (LBCLs), and secondary cutaneous deposits from such lymphomas, abnormally express the BMI-1, RING1, and

  19. Implementation of contemporary radiation therapy planning concepts for pediatric Hodgkin lymphoma: Guidelines from the International Lymphoma Radiation Oncology Group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodgson, David C; Dieckmann, Karin; Terezakis, Stephanie; Constine, Louis

    2015-01-01

    The optimal management of children with Hodgkin lymphoma (HL) should limit the risk of treatment-related toxicity without compromising disease control. Consequently, increasing effort is being directed to retaining the demonstrated efficacy of radiation therapy (RT) in maximizing the cure of HL while reducing the radiation exposure of normal tissues. Historically, guidelines for RT volume definition used in pediatric HL trials have referenced 2-dimensional imaging and bony landmarks to define classical involved field RT. With recognition of the efficacy of chemotherapy, the data on the adverse late effects of radiation, and the evolution of advanced imaging techniques that reveal the location of both tumor and normal tissues, it is necessary that radiation techniques for children and adolescents be refined. The concepts described by the International Commission on Radiation Units provide a common approach for field definition using 3-dimensional computed tomographic--based RT planning and volumetric image guidance. Here we describe the application of these concepts in the planning of RT for pediatric HL. This will be increasingly important as current and upcoming pediatric HL trials will employ these concepts to deliver RT.

  20. Evolution of public cooperation in a monitored society with implicated punishment and within-group enforcement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xiaojie; Sasaki, Tatsuya; Perc, Matjaž

    2015-11-24

    Monitoring with implicated punishment is common in human societies to avert freeriding on common goods. But is it effective in promoting public cooperation? We show that the introduction of monitoring and implicated punishment is indeed effective, as it transforms the public goods game to a coordination game, thus rendering cooperation viable in infinite and finite well-mixed populations. We also show that the addition of within-group enforcement further promotes the evolution of public cooperation. However, although the group size in this context has nonlinear effects on collective action, an intermediate group size is least conductive to cooperative behaviour. This contradicts recent field observations, where an intermediate group size was declared optimal with the conjecture that group-size effects and within-group enforcement are responsible. Our theoretical research thus clarifies key aspects of monitoring with implicated punishment in human societies, and additionally, it reveals fundamental group-size effects that facilitate prosocial collective action.

  1. Evolution of public cooperation in a monitored society with implicated punishment and within-group enforcement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xiaojie; Sasaki, Tatsuya; Perc, Matjaž

    2015-11-01

    Monitoring with implicated punishment is common in human societies to avert freeriding on common goods. But is it effective in promoting public cooperation? We show that the introduction of monitoring and implicated punishment is indeed effective, as it transforms the public goods game to a coordination game, thus rendering cooperation viable in infinite and finite well-mixed populations. We also show that the addition of within-group enforcement further promotes the evolution of public cooperation. However, although the group size in this context has nonlinear effects on collective action, an intermediate group size is least conductive to cooperative behaviour. This contradicts recent field observations, where an intermediate group size was declared optimal with the conjecture that group-size effects and within-group enforcement are responsible. Our theoretical research thus clarifies key aspects of monitoring with implicated punishment in human societies, and additionally, it reveals fundamental group-size effects that facilitate prosocial collective action.

  2. Using Technology-Enhanced, Cooperative, Group-Project Learning for Student Comprehension and Academic Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tlhoaele, Malefyane; Suhre, Cor; Hofman, Adriaan

    2016-01-01

    Cooperative learning may improve students' motivation, understanding of course concepts, and academic performance. This study therefore enhanced a cooperative, group-project learning technique with technology resources to determine whether doing so improved students' deep learning and performance. A sample of 118 engineering students, randomly…

  3. Cooperative Learning Strategies for Teaching Small Group Communication: Research and Application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDougall, Kay; Gimple, Debbie

    Research has shown that cooperative learning rather than competitive behavior enhances students' achievement, self-esteem, and satisfaction while reducing performance anxiety. Although cooperation within a small group results in greater productivity and member satisfaction, it should be considered only as a means to an end, not an end in itself. A…

  4. Using technology-enhanced, cooperative, group-project learning for student comprehension and academic performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tlhoaele, Malefyane; Suhre, Cor; Hofman, Adriaan

    2016-05-01

    Cooperative learning may improve students' motivation, understanding of course concepts, and academic performance. This study therefore enhanced a cooperative, group-project learning technique with technology resources to determine whether doing so improved students' deep learning and performance. A sample of 118 engineering students, randomly divided into two groups, participated in this study and provided data through questionnaires issued before and after the experiment. The results, obtained through analyses of variance and structural equation modelling, reveal that technology-enhanced, cooperative, group-project learning improves students' comprehension and academic performance.

  5. Conducting Nursing Intervention Research in a Cooperative Group Setting – A Gynecologic Oncology Group (GOG) Experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donovan, Heidi S.; Nolte, Susan; Edwards, Robert P.; Wenzel, Lari

    2014-01-01

    Objectives To provide a history on nursing science within the Gynecology Oncology Group (GOG); to discuss challenges and facilitators of nursing science in the cooperative group (CG) using a current nurse-led protocol (GOG-0259) as an exemplar; and to propose recommendations aimed at advancing nursing science in the CG setting. Data Source GOG reports and protocol databases, online databases of indexed citations, and experiences from the development and implementation of GOG-0259. Conclusions Benefits of CG research include opportunities for inter-disciplinary collaboration and ability to rapidly accrue large national samples. Challenges include limited financial resources to support non-treatment trials, a cumbersome protocol approval process, and lack of experience with nursing/quality of life intervention studies. Formal structures within GOG need to be created to encourage nurse scientists to become active members; promote collaboration between experienced GOG advanced practice nurses and new nurse scientists to identify nursing research priorities; and consider innovative funding structures to support pilot intervention studies. Implications for Nursing Practice Understanding the CG research process is critical for nurse scientists. A multi-disciplinary team of CG leaders can help investigators navigate a complex research environment and can increase awareness of the value of nursing research. PMID:24559780

  6. Ingroup favoritism and intergroup cooperation under indirect reciprocity based on group reputation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masuda, Naoki

    2012-10-21

    Indirect reciprocity in which players cooperate with unacquainted other players having good reputations is a mechanism for cooperation in relatively large populations subjected to social dilemma situations. When the population has group structure, as is often found in social networks, players in experiments are considered to show behavior that deviates from existing theoretical models of indirect reciprocity. First, players often show ingroup favoritism (i.e., cooperation only within the group) rather than full cooperation (i.e., cooperation within and across groups), even though the latter is Pareto efficient. Second, in general, humans approximate outgroup members' personal characteristics, presumably including the reputation used for indirect reciprocity, by a single value attached to the group. Humans use such a stereotypic approximation, a phenomenon known as outgroup homogeneity in social psychology. I propose a model of indirect reciprocity in populations with group structure to examine the possibility of ingroup favoritism and full cooperation. In accordance with outgroup homogeneity, I assume that players approximate outgroup members' personal reputations by a single reputation value attached to the group. I show that ingroup favoritism and full cooperation are stable under different social norms (i.e., rules for assigning reputations) such that they do not coexist in a single model. If players are forced to consistently use the same social norm for assessing different types of interactions (i.e., ingroup versus outgroup interactions), only full cooperation survives. The discovered mechanism is distinct from any form of group selection. The results also suggest potential methods for reducing ingroup bias to shift the equilibrium from ingroup favoritism to full cooperation. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Group-Level Selection Increases Cooperation in the Public Goods Game.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eckel, Catherine C; Fatas, Enrique; Godoy, Sara; Wilson, Rick K

    2016-01-01

    When groups compete for resources, some groups will be more successful than others, forcing out less successful groups. Group-level selection is the most extreme form of group competition, where the weaker group ceases to exist, becoming extinct. We implement group-level selection in a controlled laboratory experiment in order to study its impact on human cooperation. The experiment uses variations on the standard linear public goods game. Group-level selection operates through competition for survival: the least successful, lowest-earning groups become extinct, in the sense that they no longer are able to play the game. Additional control treatments include group comparison without extinction, and extinction of the least successful individuals across groups. We find that group-level extinction produces very high contributions to the provision of the public good, while group comparison alone or individual extinction fail to cause higher contributions. Our results provide stark evidence that group-level selection enhances within-group cooperation.

  8. Inter-group cooperation in humans and other animals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Robinson, Elva; Barker, Jessica Livia

    2017-01-01

    groups in both quantity and type. Where the difference is in type, inequalities can lead to specialization and division of labour between groups, a phenomenon characteristic of human societies, but rarely seen in other animals. The ability to identify members of one’s own group is essential for social...

  9. Grouped to Achieve: Are There Benefits to Assigning Students to Heterogeneous Cooperative Learning Groups Based on Pre-Test Scores?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werth, Arman Karl

    Cooperative learning has been one of the most widely used instructional practices around the world since the early 1980's. Small learning groups have been in existence since the beginning of the human race. These groups have grown in their variance and complexity overtime. Classrooms are getting more diverse every year and instructors need a way to take advantage of this diversity to improve learning. The purpose of this study was to see if heterogeneous cooperative learning groups based on student achievement can be used as a differentiated instructional strategy to increase students' ability to demonstrate knowledge of science concepts and ability to do engineering design. This study includes two different groups made up of two different middle school science classrooms of 25-30 students. These students were given an engineering design problem to solve within cooperative learning groups. One class was put into heterogeneous cooperative learning groups based on student's pre-test scores. The other class was grouped based on random assignment. The study measured the difference between each class's pre-post gains, student's responses to a group interaction form and interview questions addressing their perceptions of the makeup of their groups. The findings of the study were that there was no significant difference between learning gains for the treatment and comparison groups. There was a significant difference between the treatment and comparison groups in student perceptions of their group's ability to stay on task and manage their time efficiently. Both the comparison and treatment groups had a positive perception of the composition of their cooperative learning groups.

  10. Successful Group Work: Using Cooperative Learning and Team-Based Learning in the Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grant-Vallone, E. J.

    2011-01-01

    This research study examined student perceptions of group experiences in the classroom. The author used cooperative learning and team-based learning to focus on three characteristics that are critical for the success of groups: structure of activities, relationships of group members, and accountability of group members. Results indicated that…

  11. The Enforcement of Moral Boundaries Promotes Cooperation and Prosocial Behavior in Groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simpson, Brent; Willer, Robb; Harrell, Ashley

    2017-01-01

    The threat of free-riding makes the marshalling of cooperation from group members a fundamental challenge of social life. Where classical social science theory saw the enforcement of moral boundaries as a critical way by which group members regulate one another’s self-interest and build cooperation, moral judgments have most often been studied as processes internal to individuals. Here we investigate how the interpersonal expression of positive and negative moral judgments encourages cooperation in groups and prosocial behavior between group members. In a laboratory experiment, groups whose members could make moral judgments achieved greater cooperation than groups with no capacity to sanction, levels comparable to those of groups featuring costly material sanctions. In addition, members of moral judgment groups subsequently showed more interpersonal trust, trustworthiness, and generosity than all other groups. These findings extend prior work on peer enforcement, highlighting how the enforcement of moral boundaries offers an efficient solution to cooperation problems and promotes prosocial behavior between group members. PMID:28211503

  12. How Groups Cooperate in a Networked Geometry Learning Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Kevin; White, Tobin

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a small group computing environment in which four students each control a different point in a geometric space, such that as a group they collectively manipulate the vertices of a quadrilateral. Prior research has revealed that students have considerable difficulty in learning about the interrelationships among quadrilaterals…

  13. Cooperative Study Groups: Give Your Students the Home Team Advantage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lerma, Tony

    2007-01-01

    In this article I discuss the factors that led me to implement study groups in the teaching of mathematics. An important influence in this decision began with an experimental study conducted with two College Algebra classes in which students were randomly assigned to treatment groups. While there was no statistical difference between the study…

  14. Effects of cooperative incentives and heterogeneous arrangement on achievement and interaction of cooperative learning groups in a college life science course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Scott B.; Marshall, James E.

    The purpose of this study was to examine the importance of cooperative incentives and heterogeneous grouping as elements of cooperative learning in a college life science course. Cooperative learning may be defined as a classroom learning environment in which students work together in heterogeneous groups toward completion of some task. Cooperative incentive structures provide some type of group reward based on group products or individual learning. In heterogeneous grouping, students are arranged in order to maximize variety within groups. A 2 × 2 design was utilized in this study. The independent variables considered included (a) use of cooperative incentives in learning groups, and (b) use of heterogeneous grouping in cooperative learning groups. Dependent variables for all treatment groups were scores from a multiple-choice instrument developed for an earlier, related study, along with direct observational data on frequency of cooperative interactions. Analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) was used as the data analysis procedure for the achievement portion of the study, and analysis of variance (ANOVA) was used for analysis of the cooperative interaction portion of the study. No significant differences were found between the treatment groups.

  15. The clinical features, management and prognosis of primary and secondary indolent lymphoma of the bone: a retrospective study of the International Extranodal Lymphoma Study Group (IELSG #14 study).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Govi, Silvia; Christie, David; Mappa, Silvia; Marturano, Emerenziana; Bruno-Ventre, Marta; Messina, Carlo; Medina, Elías A Gracia; Porter, David; Radford, John; Heo, Dae Seog; Park, Yeon; Pro, Barbara; Jayamohan, Jayasingham; Pavlakis, Nick; Zucca, Emanuele; Gospodarowicz, Mary; Ferreri, Andrés J M

    2014-08-01

    Indolent lymphomas primarily involving the skeleton (iPBL) represent management and prognosis have not been previously described. Patients with primary and secondary iPBL were selected from an international database of 499 patients with a histopathological diagnosis of non-Hodgkin lymphoma and skeleton involvement, and clinical features, management and prognosis were analyzed. Twenty-six (5%) patients had an iPBL. Ten patients had small lymphocytic lymphoma, 10 had follicular lymphoma and six had lymphoplasmacytic lymphoma. Eleven patients had limited stage and 15 had advanced disease. The overall response rate was 73% (95% confidence interval [CI] = 57-89%). Median follow-up was 58 months, and the 5- and 10-year progression-free survival (PFS) rates were 37 ± 10% and 25 ± 12%, respectively. Nine patients are alive, with 5- and 10-year overall survival (OS) rates of 46 ± 10% and 29 ± 11%, respectively. Patients with small lymphocytic lymphoma showed significantly better outcome than patients with follicular lymphoma. Performance status and stage of disease were independently associated with OS. The prognosis of patients with primary bone lymphoplasmacytic or follicular lymphoma was less favorable.

  16. The B cell antigen receptor and overexpression of MYC can cooperate in the genesis of B cell lymphomas.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yosef Refaeli

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available A variety of circumstantial evidence from humans has implicated the B cell antigen receptor (BCR in the genesis of B cell lymphomas. We generated mouse models designed to test this possibility directly, and we found that both the constitutive and antigen-stimulated state of a clonal BCR affected the rate and outcome of lymphomagenesis initiated by the proto-oncogene MYC. The tumors that arose in the presence of constitutive BCR differed from those initiated by MYC alone and resembled chronic B cell lymphocytic leukemia/lymphoma (B-CLL, whereas those that arose in response to antigen stimulation resembled large B-cell lymphomas, particularly Burkitt lymphoma (BL. We linked the genesis of the BL-like tumors to antigen stimulus in three ways. First, in reconstruction experiments, stimulation of B cells by an autoantigen in the presence of overexpressed MYC gave rise to BL-like tumors that were, in turn, dependent on both MYC and the antigen for survival and proliferation. Second, genetic disruption of the pathway that mediates signaling from the BCR promptly killed cells of the BL-like tumors as well as the tumors resembling B-CLL. And third, growth of the murine BL could be inhibited by any of three distinctive immunosuppressants, in accord with the dependence of the tumors on antigen-induced signaling. Together, our results provide direct evidence that antigenic stimulation can participate in lymphomagenesis, point to a potential role for the constitutive BCR as well, and sustain the view that the constitutive BCR gives rise to signals different from those elicited by antigen. The mouse models described here should be useful in exploring further the pathogenesis of lymphomas, and in preclinical testing of new therapeutics.

  17. Cooperative Groups: Engaging Elementary Students with Pragmatic Language Impairments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stockall, Nancy

    2011-01-01

    In this article, the author suggests that children with language impairments have difficulty working in groups because of deficits in the area of pragmatic language. Pragmatic language skills are identified and suggestions for intervention in the general education classroom are discussed. (Contains 3 tables and 1 figure.)

  18. Encouraging Second Language Use in Cooperative Learning Groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobs, George; Kimura, Harumi

    2013-01-01

    This article begins by discussing whether students of second and foreign languages (hereafter, "second language" will be used to refer to both foreign and second languages) should be encouraged to use their second language (L2) with classmates when doing group activities. Reasons for both L2 and L1 (first language) use are discussed with reference…

  19. Inquiry and groups: student interactions in cooperative inquiry-based science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woods-McConney, Amanda; Wosnitza, Marold; Sturrock, Keryn L.

    2016-03-01

    Science education research has recommended cooperative inquiry based science in the primary science context for more than two decades but after more than 20 years, student achievement in science has not substantially improved. This study, through direct observation and analysis, investigated content-related student interactions in an authentic inquiry based primary science class setting. Thirty-one upper primary students were videotaped working in cooperative inquiry based science activities. Cooperative talk and negotiation of the science content was analysed to identify any high-level group interactions. The data show that while all groups have incidences of high-level content-related group interactions, the frequency and duration of these interactions were limited. No specific pattern of preceding events was identified and no episodes of high-level content-related group interactions were immediately preceded by the teacher's interactions with the groups. This in situ study demonstrated that even without any kind of scaffolding, specific skills in knowing how to implement cooperative inquiry based science, high-level content-related group interactions did occur very briefly. Support for teachers to develop their knowledge and skills in facilitating cooperative inquiry based science learning is warranted to ensure that high-level content-related group interactions and the associated conceptual learning are not left to chance in science classrooms.

  20. Group-size effects on the evolution of cooperation in the spatial public goods game

    CERN Document Server

    Szolnoki, Attila; 10.1103/PhysRevE.84.047102

    2011-01-01

    We study the evolution of cooperation in public goods games on the square lattice, focusing on the effects that are brought about by different sizes of groups where individuals collect their payoffs and search for potential strategy donors. We find that increasing the group size does not necessarily lead to mean-field behavior, as is traditionally observed for games governed by pairwise interactions, but rather that public cooperation may be additionally promoted by means of enhanced spatial reciprocity that sets in for very large groups. Our results highlight that the promotion of cooperation due to spatial interactions is not rooted solely in having restricted connections amongst players, but also in individuals having the opportunity to collect payoffs separately from their direct opponents. Moreover, in large groups the presence of a small number of defectors is bearable, which makes the mixed phase region expand with increasing group size. Having a chance of exploiting distant players, however, offers de...

  1. Group penalty on the evolution of cooperation in spatial public goods games

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Chunyan; Zhang, Jianlei; Xie, Guangming; Wang, Long

    2010-12-01

    We study the evolution of cooperation in spatial public goods games, whereby a coevolutionary rule is introduced that aims to integrate group penalty into the framework of evolutionary games. Existing groups are deleted whenever the collective gains of the focal individuals are less than a deletion threshold value. Meanwhile, newcomers are added after each game iteration to maintain the fixed population size. The networking effect is also studied via four representative interaction networks which are associated with the population structure. We conclude that the cooperation level has a strong dependence on the deletion threshold, and the suitable value range of the deletion threshold which is associated with the maximal cooperation frequency has been found. Simulation results also show that optimum values of the deletion threshold can still warrant the most potent promotion of cooperation, irrespective of which of the four topologies is applied.

  2. 75 FR 66797 - PricewaterhouseCoopers LLP (“PwC”) Internal Firm Services Client Account Administrators Group...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-29

    ... Employment and Training Administration PricewaterhouseCoopers LLP (``PwC'') Internal Firm Services Client... read PricewaterhouseCoopers LLP (``PwC''), Internal Firm Services Client Account Administrators Group... PricewaterhouseCoopers LLP (``PwC''), Internal Firm Services Client Account Administrators Group. The amended...

  3. Investigating the Effects of Group Investigation (GI and Cooperative Integrated Reading and Comprehension (CIRC as the Cooperative Learning Techniques on Learner's Reading Comprehension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Amin Karafkan

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Cooperative learning consists of some techniques for helping students work together more effectively. This study investigated the effects of Group Investigation (GI and Cooperative Integrated Reading and Composition (CIRC as cooperative learning techniques on Iranian EFL learners’ reading comprehension at an intermediate level. The participants of the study were 207 male students who studied at an intermediate level at ILI. The participants were randomly assigned into three equal groups: one control group and two experimental groups. The control group was instructed via conventional technique following an individualistic instructional approach. One experimental group received GI technique. The other experimental group received CIRC technique. The findings showed that there was a meaningful difference between the mean of the reading comprehension score of GI experimental group and CRIC experimental group. CRIC technique is more effective than GI technique in enhancing the reading comprehension test scores of students.Keywords: GI, CIRC, Cooperative Learning Techniques, Reading Comprehension

  4. A strategic conflict avoidance approach based on cooperative coevolutionary with the dynamic grouping strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guan, Xiangmin; Zhang, Xuejun; Wei, Jian; Hwang, Inseok; Zhu, Yanbo; Cai, Kaiquan

    2016-07-01

    Conflict avoidance plays a crucial role in guaranteeing the safety and efficiency of the air traffic management system. Recently, the strategic conflict avoidance (SCA) problem has attracted more and more attention. Taking into consideration the large-scale flight planning in a global view, SCA can be formulated as a large-scale combinatorial optimisation problem with complex constraints and tight couplings between variables, which is difficult to solve. In this paper, an SCA approach based on the cooperative coevolution algorithm combined with a new decomposition strategy is proposed to prevent the premature convergence and improve the search capability. The flights are divided into several groups using the new grouping strategy, referred to as the dynamic grouping strategy, which takes full advantage of the prior knowledge of the problem to better deal with the tight couplings among flights through maximising the chance of putting flights with conflicts in the same group, compared with existing grouping strategies. Then, a tuned genetic algorithm (GA) is applied to different groups simultaneously to resolve conflicts. Finally, the high-quality solutions are obtained through cooperation between different groups based on cooperative coevolution. Simulation results using real flight data from the China air route network and daily flight plans demonstrate that the proposed algorithm can reduce the number of conflicts and the average delay effectively, outperforming existing approaches including GAs, the memetic algorithm, and the cooperative coevolution algorithms with different well-known grouping strategies.

  5. The Role of Structured Cooperative Learning Groups for Enhancing Chinese Primary Students' Reading Comprehension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Law, Yin-Kum

    2014-01-01

    The present study aimed to compare the effectiveness of two types of cooperative learning groups used in reciprocal teaching (RT) classes (i.e. high-structured vs. low-structured groups) for enhancing students' reading comprehension. The participants were 235 Hong Kong Chinese Grade 6 students in nine classes. Reading comprehension tests and…

  6. Using Student Group Leaders to Motivate Students in Cooperative Learning Methods in Crowded Classrooms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Efe, Rifat; Efe, Hulya Aslan

    2011-01-01

    This study examines the effects of employing student group leaders on the motivation of group members during co-operative learning activities in a secondary school classroom in Turkey. The study was carried out in a period of eight weeks in biology classes during which "living things" and "ecology" topics were taught to a class…

  7. Cultural evolution of cooperation : The interplay between forms of social learning and group selection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Molleman, Lucas; Quiñones, Andres; Weissing, Franz J.

    2013-01-01

    The role of cultural group selection in the evolution of human cooperation is hotly debated. It has been argued that group selection is more effective in cultural evolution than in genetic evolution, because some forms of cultural transmission (conformism and/or the tendency to follow a leader) redu

  8. Oxytocin modulates cooperation within and competition between groups: an integrative review and research agenda

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Dreu, C.K.W.

    2012-01-01

    The author reviews evidence that hypothalamic release (or infusion) of the neuropeptide oxytocin modulates the regulation of cooperation and conflict among humans because of three reasons. First, oxytocin enables social categorization of others into in-group versus out-group. Second, oxytocin dampen

  9. Cognitive cooperation : When the going gets tough, think as a group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, David Sloan; Timmel, John J; Miller, Ralph R

    2004-09-01

    Cooperation can evolve in the context of cognitive activities such as perception, attention, memory, and decision making, in addition to physical activities such as hunting, gathering, warfare, and childcare. The social insects are well known to cooperate on both physical and cognitive tasks, but the idea of cognitive cooperation in humans has not received widespread attention or systematic study. The traditional psychological literature often gives the impression that groups are dysfunctional cognitive units, while evolutionary psychologists have so far studied cognition primarily at the individual level. We present two experiments that demonstrate the superiority of thinking in groups, but only for tasks that are sufficiently challenging to exceed the capacity of individuals. One of the experiments is in a brain-storming format, where advantages of real groups over nominal groups have been notoriously difficult to demonstrate. Cognitive cooperation might often operate beneath conscious awareness and take place without the need for overt training, as evolutionary psychologists have stressed for individual-level cognitive adaptations. In general, cognitive cooperation should be a central subject in human evolutionary psychology, as it already is in the study of the social insects.

  10. Oxytocin motivates non-cooperation in intergroup conflict to protect vulnerable in-group members.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carsten K W De Dreu

    Full Text Available Intergroup conflict is often driven by an individual's motivation to protect oneself and fellow group members against the threat of out-group aggression, including the tendency to pre-empt out-group threat through a competitive approach. Here we link such defense-motivated competition to oxytocin, a hypothalamic neuropeptide involved in reproduction and social bonding. An intergroup conflict game was developed to disentangle whether oxytocin motivates competitive approach to protect (i immediate self-interest, (ii vulnerable in-group members, or (iii both. Males self-administered oxytocin or placebo (double-blind placebo-controlled and made decisions with financial consequences to themselves, their fellow in-group members, and a competing out-group. Game payoffs were manipulated between-subjects so that non-cooperation by the out-group had high vs. low impact on personal payoff (personal vulnerability, and high vs. low impact on payoff to fellow in-group members (in-group vulnerability. When personal vulnerability was high, non-cooperation was unaffected by treatment and in-group vulnerability. When personal vulnerability was low, however, in-group vulnerability motivated non-cooperation but only when males received oxytocin. Oxytocin fuels a defense-motivated competitive approach to protect vulnerable group members, even when personal fate is not at stake.

  11. Oxytocin motivates non-cooperation in intergroup conflict to protect vulnerable in-group members.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Dreu, Carsten K W; Shalvi, Shaul; Greer, Lindred L; Van Kleef, Gerben A; Handgraaf, Michel J J

    2012-01-01

    Intergroup conflict is often driven by an individual's motivation to protect oneself and fellow group members against the threat of out-group aggression, including the tendency to pre-empt out-group threat through a competitive approach. Here we link such defense-motivated competition to oxytocin, a hypothalamic neuropeptide involved in reproduction and social bonding. An intergroup conflict game was developed to disentangle whether oxytocin motivates competitive approach to protect (i) immediate self-interest, (ii) vulnerable in-group members, or (iii) both. Males self-administered oxytocin or placebo (double-blind placebo-controlled) and made decisions with financial consequences to themselves, their fellow in-group members, and a competing out-group. Game payoffs were manipulated between-subjects so that non-cooperation by the out-group had high vs. low impact on personal payoff (personal vulnerability), and high vs. low impact on payoff to fellow in-group members (in-group vulnerability). When personal vulnerability was high, non-cooperation was unaffected by treatment and in-group vulnerability. When personal vulnerability was low, however, in-group vulnerability motivated non-cooperation but only when males received oxytocin. Oxytocin fuels a defense-motivated competitive approach to protect vulnerable group members, even when personal fate is not at stake.

  12. Lymphoma cytogenetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dave, Bhavana J; Nelson, Marilu; Sanger, Warren G

    2011-12-01

    Lymphomas are a heterogeneous group of neoplasms with distinct morphologic, immunologic, and cytogenetic characteristics. Overlapping morphologic and immunophenotypic features often makes accurate diagnosis difficult. Cytogenetics helps simplify the diagnostic complexities presented in transforming and progressive lymphoid malignancies. Genetic studies using technical advances such as fluorescence in situ hybridization and the newer approaches of array comparative genomic hybridization and gene expression profiling play a critical and often defining role in the diagnosis, progression, prognosis, and therapeutic stratification. This article reviews characteristic cytogenetic abnormalities in specific subtypes of lymphomas at diagnosis, disease progression, and prognosis.

  13. Oxytocin Conditions Intergroup Relations Through Upregulated In-Group Empathy, Cooperation, Conformity, and Defense.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Dreu, Carsten K W; Kret, Mariska E

    2016-02-01

    Humans live in, rely on, and contribute to groups. Evolution may have biologically prepared them to quickly identify others as belonging to the in-group (vs. not), to decode emotional states, and to empathize with in-group members; to learn and conform to group norms and cultural practices; to extend and reciprocate trust and cooperation; and to aggressively protect the in-group against outside threat. We review evidence that these components of human group psychology rest on and are modulated by the hypothalamic neuropeptide oxytocin. It appears that oxytocin motivates and enables humans to 1) like and empathize with others in their groups, 2) comply with group norms and cultural practices, and 3) extend and reciprocate trust and cooperation, which may give rise to intergroup discrimination and sometimes defensive aggression against threatening (members of) out-groups. We explore the possibility that deficiencies in (components of) group psychology, seen in autistic spectrum disorder, schizophrenia, and borderline personality and social anxiety disorders, may be reduced by oxytocin administration. Avenues for new research are highlighted, and implications for the role of oxytocin in cooperation and competition within and between groups are discussed.

  14. The role of cultural group selection in explaining human cooperation is a hard case to prove.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mace, Ruth; Silva, Antonio S

    2016-01-01

    We believe cultural group selection is an elegant theoretical framework to study the evolution of complex human behaviours, including large-scale cooperation. However, the empirical evidence on key theoretical issues - such as levels of within- and between-group variation and effects of intergroup competition - is so far patchy, with no clear case where all the relevant assumptions and predictions of cultural group selection are met, to the exclusion of other explanations.

  15. The facilitation of groups and networks: capabilities to shape creative cooperation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Lauge Baungaard

    2003-01-01

    The facilitator, defined as a process guide of creative cooperation, is becoming more and more in focus to assist groups,teams and networks to meet these challenges. The author defines and exemplifies different levels of creative coorperation. Core capabilities of facilitation are defined...

  16. Social Interaction Rules in Cooperative Learning Groups for Students at Risk for ADHD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuester, Deitra A.; Zentall, Sydney S.

    2012-01-01

    This study assessed the effects of providing social participation rules on the performance and social behavior of a school-based sample of 10-14-year-old students at risk for attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (n = 34) who worked cooperatively in same-gender triads with typical peers (n = 92). The design was primarily a 2 (population group)…

  17. Informal Cooperative Learning in Small Groups: The Effect of Scaffolding on Participation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lange, Christopher; Costley, Jamie; Han, Seung Lock

    2016-01-01

    This study examines the effect of group work scaffolding on participation. The procedural scaffolding of two cooperative learning techniques, Numbered Heads Together and Think-Pair-Share, are compared based on levels of participation, learning, and satisfaction they elicit. Aspects of participation that are examined include levels of group…

  18. 75 FR 55793 - Cooperative Agreement to Support the Foodborne Disease Burden Epidemiology Reference Group of the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-14

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Cooperative Agreement to Support the Foodborne Disease... to Estimate the Global Burden of Foodborne Diseases--Foodborne Disease Burden Epidemiology Reference... global foodborne disease epidemiology. FERG consists of the following groups: a Core (or Steering)...

  19. Investigating the Impact of Mediated Learning Experiences on Cooperative Peer Communication during Group Initiatives

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Robert; Dinos, Sokratis

    2010-01-01

    This study investigates how structured Mediated Learning Experiences may improve peer-cooperative communication within problem-solving task exercises. Two groups (n = 22) of Year 8 students (mean age 13 +/- 5 months) were randomly selected to participate in this study. The study began with two one-hour sessions of activity-based problem-solving…

  20. Effects of Cooperative Group Work Activities on Pre-School Children's Pattern Recognition Skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarim, Kamuran

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this research is twofold; to investigate the effects of cooperative group-based work activities on children's pattern recognition skills in pre-school and to examine the teachers' opinions about the implementation process. In line with this objective, for the study, 57 children (25 girls and 32 boys) were chosen from two private schools…

  1. Classical pathological variables recorded in the Danish Breast Cancer Cooperative Group's register 1978-2006

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kiaer, Henrik W; Laenkholm, Anne-Vibeke; Nielsen, Bernt B

    2008-01-01

    The Danish Breast Cancer Cooperative Group's register containing data from about 75 000 patients undergoing surgery for primary invasive breast cancer from 1978-2006 has been examined for classical pathological variables. During that period the diagnostic approach of malignant breast tumours...

  2. Effects of gender and role selection in cooperative learning groups on science inquiry achievement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Affhalter, Maria Geralyn

    An action research project using science inquiry labs and cooperative learning groups examined the effects of same-gender and co-educational classrooms on science achievement and teacher-assigned or self-selected group roles on students' role preferences. Fifty-nine seventh grade students from a small rural school district participated in two inquiry labs in co-educational classrooms or in an all-female classroom, as determined by parents at the beginning of the academic year. Students were assigned to the same cooperative groups for the duration of the study. Pretests and posttests were administered for each inquiry-based science lab. Posttest assessments included questions for student reflection on role assignment and role preference. Instruction did not vary and a female science teacher taught all class sections. The same-gender classroom and co-ed classrooms produced similar science achievement scores on posttests. Students' cooperative group roles, whether teacher-assigned or self-selected, produced similar science achievement scores on posttests. Male and female students shared equally in favorable and unfavorable reactions to their group roles during the science inquiry labs. Reflections on the selection of the leader role revealed a need for females in co-ed groups to be "in charge". When reflecting on her favorite role of leader, one female student in a co-ed group stated, "I like to have people actually listen to me".

  3. Lenalidomide-bendamustine-rituximab in untreated mantle cell lymphoma > 65 years, the Nordic Lymphoma Group phase I+II trial NLG-MCL4

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Albertsson-Lindblad, Alexandra; Kolstad, Arne; Laurell, Anna;

    2016-01-01

    For elderly patients with mantle cell lymphoma (MCL), there is no defined standard therapy. In this multicenter open-label phase I/II trial we evaluated the addition of lenalidomide (LEN) to rituximab-bendamustine (R-B) as first-line treatment to elderly MCL patients. Patients >65 years with untr......For elderly patients with mantle cell lymphoma (MCL), there is no defined standard therapy. In this multicenter open-label phase I/II trial we evaluated the addition of lenalidomide (LEN) to rituximab-bendamustine (R-B) as first-line treatment to elderly MCL patients. Patients >65 years...

  4. The impact of size of cooperative group on achievement, social support, and self-esteem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertucci, Andrea; Conte, Stella; Johnson, David W; Johnson, Roger T

    2010-01-01

    The effect of cooperative learning in pairs and groups of 4 and in individualistic learning were compared on achievement, social support, and self-esteem. Sixty-two Italian 7th-grade students with no previous experience with cooperative learning were assigned to conditions on a stratified random basis controlling for ability, gender, and self-esteem. Students participated in 1 instructional unit for 90 min for 6 instructional days during a period of about 6 weeks. The results indicate that cooperative learning in pairs and 4s promoted higher achievement and greater academic support from peers than did individualistic learning. Students working in pairs developed a higher level of social self-esteem than did students learning in the other conditions.

  5. Professional development regarding small cooperative group instruction in middle school mathematics and science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adkins, R. Scott

    This study examined the effectiveness of professional development regarding small cooperative group instruction in middle school mathematics and science classrooms on student achievement, attitudes, and behavior. The researcher utilized three standardized benchmark assessments, Modified Fennema-Sherman Attitudinal Scale, Instructional Attitudinal Scale, and office referral and suspension records to measure effectiveness. Students involved in small cooperative groups demonstrated an increase of academic performance on standardized assessments. The attitudinal surveys measured student perceived attitudes toward specific forms of instruction and toward the mathematics and science classroom in general. On the Modified Fennema-Sherman Attitudinal Scale, the students' perceived understanding of teacher attitudes indicated a significant decrease in classroom teachers' positive attitudes during the treatment group. Additionally, office referral ratings indicated that student behavior improved.

  6. The conundrum of Hodgkin lymphoma nodes: to be or not to be included in the involved node radiation fields. The EORTC-GELA lymphoma group guidelines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Girinsky, Theodore; Specht, Lena; Ghalibafian, Mithra;

    2008-01-01

    PURPOSE: To develop easily applicable guidelines for the determination of initially involved lymph nodes to be included in the radiation fields. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Patients with supra-diaphragmatic Hodgkin lymphoma. All the imaging procedures were carried out with patients in the treatment pos...

  7. "We've Got to Keep Meeting Like This": A Pilot Study Comparing Academic Performance in Shifting-Membership Cooperative Groups versus Stable-Membership Cooperative Groups in an Introductory-Level Lab

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Alicia; Bush, Amy; Sanchagrin, Ken; Holland, Jonathon

    2017-01-01

    This study examined possible ways to increase student engagement in small sections of a large, introductory-level, required university course. Research shows that cooperative group learning boosts achievement through fostering better interpersonal relationships between students. Cooperative group learning is an evidence-based instructional…

  8. "We've Got to Keep Meeting Like This": A Pilot Study Comparing Academic Performance in Shifting-Membership Cooperative Groups versus Stable-Membership Cooperative Groups in an Introductory-Level Lab

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Alicia; Bush, Amy; Sanchagrin, Ken; Holland, Jonathon

    2017-01-01

    This study examined possible ways to increase student engagement in small sections of a large, introductory-level, required university course. Research shows that cooperative group learning boosts achievement through fostering better interpersonal relationships between students. Cooperative group learning is an evidence-based instructional…

  9. Cooperative Networks: Altruism, Group Solidarity, Reciprocity, and Sanctioning in Ugandan Producer Organizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldassarri, Delia

    2015-09-01

    Repeated interaction and social networks are commonly considered viable solutions to collective action problems. This article identifies and systematically measures four general mechanisms--that is, generalized altruism, group solidarity, reciprocity, and the threat of sanctioning--and tests which of them brings about cooperation in the context of Ugandan producer organizations. Using an innovative methodological framework that combines "lab-in-the-field" experiments with survey interviews and complete social networks data, the article goes beyond the assessment of a relationship between social networks and collective outcomes to study the mechanisms that favor cooperative behavior. The article first establishes a positive relationship between position in the network structure and propensity to cooperate in the producer organization and then uses farmers' behavior in dictator and public goods games to test different mechanisms that may account for such a relationship. Results show that cooperation is induced by patterns of reciprocity that emerge through repeated interaction rather than other-regarding preferences like altruism or group solidarity.

  10. Inter-group conflict and cooperation: field experiments before, during and after sectarian riots in Northern Ireland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio S Silva

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The idea that cooperative groups out-compete less cooperative groups has been proposed as a theoretical possibility for the evolution of cooperation through cultural group selection. Previous studies have found an association between increased cooperation and exposure to inter-group violence, but most have not been able to identify the specific target of cooperation and are based on correlational data making it difficult to establish causality. In this study we test the hypothesis that inter-group conflict promotes parochial altruism (i.e. in-group altruism and out-group hostility by using longitudinal data of a real-world measure of cooperation – charity and school donations – sampled before, during and after violent sectarian riots between Catholics and Protestants in Belfast, Northern Ireland. We find that conflict is associated with reductions in all types of cooperation, with reduced donations to a neutral charity, and both in-group and out-group primary schools. After the conflict, both in-group and out-group donations increased again. In this context we find no evidence that inter-group conflict promotes parochial altruism.

  11. Inter-Group Conflict and Cooperation: Field Experiments Before, During and After Sectarian Riots in Northern Ireland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Antonio S; Mace, Ruth

    2015-01-01

    The idea that cooperative groups out-compete less cooperative groups has been proposed as a theoretical possibility for the evolution of cooperation through cultural group selection. Previous studies have found an association between increased cooperation and exposure to inter-group violence, but most have not been able to identify the specific target of cooperation and are based on correlational data making it difficult to establish causality. In this study we test the hypothesis that inter-group conflict promotes parochial altruism (i.e., in-group altruism and out-group hostility) by using longitudinal data of a real-world measure of cooperation-charity and school donations-sampled before, during and after violent sectarian riots between Catholics and Protestants in Belfast, Northern Ireland. We find that conflict is associated with reductions in all types of cooperation, with reduced donations to a neutral charity, and both in-group and out-group primary schools. After the conflict, both in-group and out-group donations increased again. In this context we find no evidence that inter-group conflict promotes parochial altruism.

  12. Cooperative Group Performance in Graduate Research Methodology Courses: The Role of Study Coping and Examination-Taking Coping Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiao, Qun G.; Collins, Kathleen M. T.; Onwuegbuzie, Anthony J.

    2013-01-01

    This study seeks to examine the extent to which cooperative group members' levels of coping strategies (study and examination-taking coping strategies) and the degree that heterogeneity (variability of study coping strategies and examination-taking coping strategies) predict cooperative groups' levels of achievement in research methodology…

  13. Return of individual research results and incidental findings in the clinical trials cooperative group setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferriere, Michael; Van Ness, Brian

    2012-04-01

    The National Cancer Institute (NCI)-funded cooperative group cancer clinical trial system develops experimental therapies and often collects samples from patients for correlative research. The cooperative group bank (CGB) system maintains biobanks with a current policy not to return research results to individuals. An online survey was created, and 10 directors of CGBs completed the surveys asking about understanding and attitudes in changing policies to consider return of incidental findings (IFs) and individual research results (IRRs) of health significance. The potential impact of the 10 consensus recommendations of Wolf et al. presented in this issue are examined. Reidentification of samples is often not problematic; however, changes to the current banking and clinical trial systems would require significant effort to fulfill an obligation of recontact of subjects. Additional resources, as well as a national advisory board would be required to standardize implementation.

  14. Collision Prevention Platform for a Dynamic Group of Asynchronous Cooperative Mobile Robots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rami Yared

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a fail-safe platform on which cooperative mobile robots rely for their motion. The platform consists of a collision prevention protocol for a dynamic group of cooperative mobile robots with asynchronous communications. The collision prevention protocol is timefree, in the sense that it never relies on physical time, which makes it extremely robust for timing uncertainty common in wireless networks. It guarantees that no two robots ever collide, regardless of the respective activities of the robots. The protocol is based on a fully distributed path reservation system. It assumes a mobile ad hoc network formed by the robots themselves, and takes advantage of the inherent locality of the problem in order to reduce communication. The protocol requires neither initial nor complete knowledge of the composition of the group. A performance analysis of the protocol provides insights for a proper dimensioning of system parameters in order to maximize the average effective speed of the robots.

  15. Pediatric lymphomas in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela Gualco

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: This study provides the clinical pathological characteristics of 1301 cases of pediatric/adolescent lymphomas in patients from different geographic regions of Brazil. METHODS: A retrospective analyses of diagnosed pediatric lymphoma cases in a 10-year period was performed. We believe that it represents the largest series of pediatric lymphomas presented from Brazil. RESULTS: Non-Hodgkin lymphomas represented 68% of the cases, including those of precursor (36% and mature (64% cell origin. Mature cell lymphomas comprised 81% of the B-cell phenotype and 19% of the T-cell phenotype. Hodgkin lymphomas represented 32% of all cases, including 87% of the classical type and 13% of nodular lymphocyte predominant type. The geographic distribution showed 38.4% of the cases in the Southeast region, 28.7% in the Northeast, 16.1% in the South, 8.8% in the North, and 8% in the Central-west region. The distribution by age groups was 15-18 years old, 33%; 11-14 years old, 26%; 6-10 years old, 24%; and 6 years old or younger, 17%. Among mature B-cell lymphomas, most of the cases were Burkitt lymphomas (65%, followed by diffuse large B-cell lymphomas (24%. In the mature T-cell group, anaplastic large cell lymphoma, ALK-positive was the most prevalent (57%, followed by peripheral T-cell lymphoma, then not otherwise specified (25%. In the group of classic Hodgkin lymphomas, the main histological subtype was nodular sclerosis (76%. Nodular lymphocyte predominance occurred more frequently than in other series. CONCLUSION: Some of the results found in this study may reflect the heterogeneous socioeconomical status and environmental factors of the Brazilian population in different regions.

  16. A mixture of "cheats" and "co-operators" can enable maximal group benefit.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R Craig MaClean

    Full Text Available Is a group best off if everyone co-operates? Theory often considers this to be so (e.g. the "conspiracy of doves", this understanding underpinning social and economic policy. We observe, however, that after competition between "cheat" and "co-operator" strains of yeast, population fitness is maximized under co-existence. To address whether this might just be a peculiarity of our experimental system or a result with broader applicability, we assemble, benchmark, dissect, and test a systems model. This reveals the conditions necessary to recover the unexpected result. These are 3-fold: (a that resources are used inefficiently when they are abundant, (b that the amount of co-operation needed cannot be accurately assessed, and (c the population is structured, such that co-operators receive more of the resource than the cheats. Relaxing any of the assumptions can lead to population fitness being maximized when cheats are absent, which we experimentally demonstrate. These three conditions will often be relevant, and hence in order to understand the trajectory of social interactions, understanding the dynamics of the efficiency of resource utilization and accuracy of information will be necessary.

  17. Higher World Health Organization grades of follicular lymphoma correlate with better outcome in two Nordic Lymphoma Group trials of rituximab without chemotherapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wahlin, Björn Engelbrekt; Sundström, Christer; Sander, Birgitta

    2014-01-01

    Abstract A common treatment for follicular lymphoma is rituximab monotherapy. To identify patients for whom this regimen is adequate as first-line therapy, we applied the World Health Organization (WHO) classification for grading follicular lymphoma in a prospective central pathology review...... of the biopsies of previously untreated patients in two randomized trials of rituximab without chemotherapy. In the first trial (n₁ = 53), higher WHO grades correlated with longer time to next treatment, independently of clinical prognostic factors (p = 0.030); the finding was replicated in the second trial (n₂...... = 221; p = 0.019). Higher grades were associated with better treatment responses (p = 0.018). Furthermore, also grades externally confirmed by independent local pathologists correlated with time to next treatment (p = 0.048). Flow cytometry in a separate patient series showed that the intensity of CD20...

  18. On cooperative and efficient overlay network evolution based on a group selection pattern.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yufeng; Nakao, Akihiro

    2010-06-01

    In overlay networks, the interplay between network structure and dynamics remains largely unexplored. In this paper, we study dynamic coevolution between individual rational strategies (cooperative or defect) and the overlay network structure, that is, the interaction between peer's local rational behaviors and the emergence of the whole network structure. We propose an evolutionary game theory (EGT)-based overlay topology evolution scheme to drive a given overlay into the small-world structure (high global network efficiency and average clustering coefficient). Our contributions are the following threefold: From the viewpoint of peers' local interactions, we explicitly consider the peer's rational behavior and introduce a link-formation game to characterize the social dilemma of forming links in an overlay network. Furthermore, in the evolutionary link-formation phase, we adopt a simple economic process: Each peer keeps one link to a cooperative neighbor in its neighborhood, which can slightly speed up the convergence of cooperation and increase network efficiency; from the viewpoint of the whole network structure, our simulation results show that the EGT-based scheme can drive an arbitrary overlay network into a fully cooperative and efficient small-world structure. Moreover, we compare our scheme with a search-based economic model of network formation and illustrate that our scheme can achieve the experimental and analytical results in the latter model. In addition, we also graphically illustrate the final overlay network structure; finally, based on the group selection model and evolutionary set theory, we theoretically obtain the approximate threshold of cost and draw the conclusion that the small value of the average degree and the large number of the total peers in an overlay network facilitate the evolution of cooperation.

  19. Sexual quality of life in Hodgkin Lymphoma: a longitudinal analysis by the German Hodgkin Study Group

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behringer, K; Müller, H; Görgen, H; Flechtner, H-H; Brillant, C; Halbsguth, T V; Thielen, I; Eichenauer, D A; Schober, T; Nisters-Backes, H; Fuchs, M; Engert, A; Borchmann, P

    2013-01-01

    Background: Health-related quality of life (HRQoL) comprises different domains of physical, mental, and social well-being. In this analysis, we focus on sexual quality of life in Hodgkin Lymphoma (HL) patients. Methods: Four-thousand one-hundred and sixty patients enroled in the HD10–HD12 trials underwent HRQoL assessment. Instruments included the Quality of Life Questionnaire for survivors (QLQ-S), combining the European Organisation for Research and Treatment of Cancer QLQ-C30, Multidimensional fatigue (FA) inventory (MFI-20) and an additional sexual functioning (SX) scale. We describe SX up to 27 months after therapy and analyse relationship to stage, age, gender, FA, social functioning, and therapy. Statistical methods range from descriptive statistics to a classification of SX courses, and a longitudinal structural equations model with full information maximum likelihood estimation of missing data. In the analysis, a score below 50 was used to describe severe sexual dysfunction. Results: Three-thousand two-hundred and eight patients provided data on SX. Patients in advanced stages reported lower SX than patients in early stages both, before and after the treatment. During follow-up, an improvement of SX compared with baseline was detected, except for those ⩾50 years. Patients in early stages reached normal SX, whereas advanced-stage patients remained below the reference value for healthy controls. Sexual functioning during follow-up was significantly and strongly related to previous SX, other HRQoL measures, age, and stage, and to lesser degree with gender and chemotherapy. Conclusion: Overall, HL patients have a decreased sexual quality of life at baseline, which improves after therapy and normalises in early-stage patients. Importantly, long-term SX is more closely related to patient characteristics and SX at baseline than to the intensity of treatment. PMID:23321510

  20. Recommendations for treatment in folliculotropic mycosis fungoides: report of the Dutch Cutaneous Lymphoma Group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Santen, S; van Doorn, R; Neelis, K J; Daniëls, L A; Horváth, B; Bruijn, M S; Sanders, C J G; van Rossum, M M; de Haas, E R M; Veraart, J C J M; Bekkenk, M W; Vermeer, M H; Willemze, R

    2017-07-01

    Folliculotropic mycosis fungoides (FMF) is an aggressive variant of mycosis fungoides (MF) and generally less responsive to standard skin-directed therapies (SDTs). Recent studies distinguished indolent (early-stage FMF) and more aggressive (advanced-stage FMF) subgroups. The optimal treatment for both subgroups remains to be defined. To evaluate initial treatment results in patients with early- and advanced-stage FMF. A study was undertaken of 203 patients (84 early-stage, 102 advanced-stage, 17 extracutaneous FMF) included in the Dutch Cutaneous Lymphoma Registry between 1985 and 2014. Type and results of initial treatment were retrieved from the Dutch Registry. Main outcomes were complete remission (CR); sustained complete remission; partial remission (PR), > 50% improvement; and overall response (OR; CR + PR). Patients with early-stage FMF were treated with nonaggressive SDTs in 67 of 84 cases resulting, respectively, in CR and OR of 28% and 83% for monotherapy topical steroids, 0% and 83% for ultraviolet B (UVB), and 30% and 88% for psoralen plus ultraviolet A (PUVA). In patients with advanced-stage FMF these SDTs were less effective (combined CR and OR 10% and 52%, respectively). In patients with advanced-stage FMF local radiotherapy (CR 63%; OR 100%), total skin electron beam irradiation (CR 59%; OR 100%) and PUVA combined with local radiotherapy (CR 5%, OR 75%) were most effective. The results of the present study demonstrate that not all patients with FMF should be treated aggressively. Patients with early-stage FMF may benefit very well from standard SDTs also used in early-stage classic MF and have an excellent prognosis. © 2017 British Association of Dermatologists.

  1. Differences in Perceptions between Afro-American and Anglo-American Males and Females in Cooperative Learning Groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piel, John A.; Conwell, Catherine R.

    The effects of cooperative learning on students' perceptions of themselves and their roles in academic settings are explored. A group of 28 students from seven intermediate classrooms in an urban school system were selected to be videotaped while participating in a cooperative problem-solving lesson and were subsequently interviewed. The students…

  2. Performance of Cooperative Learning Groups in a Postgraduate Education Research Methodology Course: The Role of Social Interdependence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onwuegbuzie, Anthony J.; Collins, Kathleen M. T.; Jiao, Qun G.

    2009-01-01

    This study investigated the degree that social interdependence predicted the achievement of 26 cooperative learning groups. Social interdependence was assessed in terms of postgraduate students' individual orientation (that is, cooperative, competitive, and individualistic). Participants were 84 postgraduate students enrolled in an…

  3. Performance of Cooperative Learning Groups in a Postgraduate Education Research Methodology Course: The Role of Social Interdependence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onwuegbuzie, Anthony J.; Collins, Kathleen M. T.; Jiao, Qun G.

    2009-01-01

    This study investigated the degree that social interdependence predicted the achievement of 26 cooperative learning groups. Social interdependence was assessed in terms of postgraduate students' individual orientation (that is, cooperative, competitive, and individualistic). Participants were 84 postgraduate students enrolled in an…

  4. Three "quantum" models of competition and cooperation in interacting biological populations and social groups

    CERN Document Server

    Vol, E D

    2012-01-01

    In present paper we propose the consistent statistical approach which appropriate for a number of models describing both behavior of biological populations and various social groups interacting with each other.The approach proposed based on the ideas of quantum theory of open systems (QTOS) and allows one to account explicitly both discreteness of a system variables and their fluctuations near mean values.Therefore this approach can be applied also for the description of small populations where standard dynamical methods are failed. We study in detail three typical models of interaction between populations and groups: 1) antagonistic struggle between two populations 2) cooperation (or, more precisely, obligatory mutualism) between two species 3) the formation of coalition between two feeble groups in their conflict with third one that is more powerful . The models considered in a sense are mutually complementary and include the most types of interaction between populations and groups. Besides this method can ...

  5. A Consensus-Based Grouping Algorithm for Multi-agent Cooperative Task Allocation with Complex Requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunt, Simon; Meng, Qinggang; Hinde, Chris; Huang, Tingwen

    2014-01-01

    This paper looks at consensus algorithms for agent cooperation with unmanned aerial vehicles. The foundation is the consensus-based bundle algorithm, which is extended to allow multi-agent tasks requiring agents to cooperate in completing individual tasks. Inspiration is taken from the cognitive behaviours of eusocial animals for cooperation and improved assignments. Using the behaviours observed in bees and ants inspires decentralised algorithms for groups of agents to adapt to changing task demand. Further extensions are provided to improve task complexity handling by the agents with added equipment requirements and task dependencies. We address the problems of handling these challenges and improve the efficiency of the algorithm for these requirements, whilst decreasing the communication cost with a new data structure. The proposed algorithm converges to a conflict-free, feasible solution of which previous algorithms are unable to account for. Furthermore, the algorithm takes into account heterogeneous agents, deadlocking and a method to store assignments for a dynamical environment. Simulation results demonstrate reduced data usage and communication time to come to a consensus on multi-agent tasks.

  6. Primary central nervous system lymphomas in 72 immunocompetent patients: pathologic findings and clinical correlations. Groupe Ouest Est d'étude des Leucénies et Autres Maladies du Sang (GOELAMS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camilleri-Broët, S; Martin, A; Moreau, A; Angonin, R; Hénin, D; Gontier, M F; Rousselet, M C; Caulet-Maugendre, S; Cuillière, P; Lefrancq, T; Mokhtari, K; Morcos, M; Broët, P; Kujas, M; Hauw, J J; Desablens, B; Raphaël, M

    1998-11-01

    We reviewed 72 primary central nervous system lymphomas occurring in immunocompetent patients. The cases were reviewed for clinical data, histology, immunophenotype, bcl-2 and p53 expression, and Epstein-Barr virus association. Follow-up was available for 40 patients included in the Groupe Ouest Est d'étude des Leucénies et Autres Maladies du Sang (GOELAMS) lymphomes cérébraux primitifs (LCP 88) trial. Each diagnosis, requiring a consensus among at least 3 pathologists, was performed according to the recent Revised European-American Lymphoma classification and equivalents in the updated Kiel classification. Tumors were predominantly classified as diffuse large B-cell lymphomas. There were 3 T-cell lymphomas and 1 Hodgkin lymphoma. The proteins bcl-2 and p53 were expressed in 35% and 16% of the tested cases, respectively. Epstein-Barr virus was not found by in situ hybridization except in the case classfied as a cerebral localization of Hodgkin disease. No significant association was found between subtypes, bcl-2 or p53 expression, and patient survival. From the standpoint of their biologic characteristics, primary central nervous system lymphomas are very similar to systemic diffuse large B-cell lymphomas. In contrast to AIDS-related primary central nervous system lymphomas, primary central nervous system lymphomas are rarely associated with Epstein-Barr virus and in immunocompetent patients they express bcl-2 at a relatively low rate.

  7. Evolving homogeneous neurocontrollers for a group of heterogeneous robots: coordinated motion, cooperation, and acoustic communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuci, Elio; Ampatzis, Christos; Vicentini, Federico; Dorigo, Marco

    2008-01-01

    This article describes a simulation model in which artificial evolution is used to design homogeneous control structures and adaptive communication protocols for a group of three autonomous simulated robots. The agents are required to cooperate in order to approach a light source while avoiding collisions. The robots are morphologically different: Two of them are equipped with infrared sensors, one with light sensors. Thus, the two morphologically identical robots should take care of obstacle avoidance; the other one should take care of phototaxis. Since all of the agents can emit and perceive sound, the group's coordination of actions is based on acoustic communication. The results of this study are a proof of concept: They show that dynamic artificial neural networks can be successfully synthesized by artificial evolution to design the neural mechanisms required to underpin the behavioral strategies and adaptive communication capabilities demanded by this task. Postevaluation analyses unveil operational aspects of the best evolved behavior. Our results suggest that the building blocks and the evolutionary machinery detailed in the article should be considered in future research work dealing with the design of homogeneous controllers for groups of heterogeneous cooperating and communicating robots.

  8. Checkpoint inhibitors and radiation treatment in Hodgkin's lymphoma. New study concepts of the German Hodgkin Study Group

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baues, C.; Semrau, R.; Marnitz, S. [University of Cologne, Medical Faculty, Department of Radiooncology, Cologne (Germany); University of Cologne, German Hodgkin Study Group (GHSG), Cologne (Germany); Gaipl, U.S. [University Hospital Erlangen, Department of Radiooncology, Erlangen (Germany); Broeckelmann, P.J.; Engert, A. [University of Cologne, German Hodgkin Study Group (GHSG), Cologne (Germany); University of Cologne, Medical Faculty, Department of Internal Medicine I, Cologne (Germany); Rosenbrock, J. [University of Cologne, Medical Faculty, Department of Radiooncology, Cologne (Germany)

    2017-02-15

    Patients with classical Hodgkin's lymphoma (cHL) have a good prognosis even in advanced stages. However, combined chemo- and radiotherapy, as the standard of care, is also associated with treatment-related toxicities such as organ damage, secondary neoplasias, infertility, or fatigue and long-term fatigue. Many patients suffer from this burden although their cHL was cured. Therefore, the efficacy of immune checkpoint inhibitors like anti-PD1/PD-L1 antibodies in the treatment of solid cancers and also in HL offers new options. A remarkable and durable response rate with a favorable toxicity profile was observed in heavily pretreated cHL patients. Planning to perform prospective randomized clinical trials in the content of radio-immune treatment in patients with Hodgkin's lymphoma (HL), we transferred the results of preliminary clinical studies and basic research in clinical relevant study concepts. Based on these promising early phase trial data, the German Hodgkin Study Group (GHSG) will investigate innovative treatment regimens in upcoming phase II trials. The therapeutic efficacy and potential synergies of anti-PD1 antibodies in combination with chemo- or radiotherapy will be investigated in various settings of HL. (orig.) [German] Patienten mit einem klassischen Hodgkin-Lymphom (cHL) haben ueber alle Stadien hinweg eine gute Prognose. Allerdings treten unter der kombinierten Therapie mit Chemotherapie und Bestrahlung therapieabhaengige Toxizitaeten wie z. B. Organschaeden, Sekundaertumoren, Fatigue oder Langzeit-Fatigue auf. Viele Patienten leiden trotz einer Heilung an diesen Symptomen. Daher bietet die nachgewiesene Wirksamkeit der Anti-PD1/PD-L1-Antikoerper bei soliden Tumoren, aber auch beim HL neue Behandlungsoptionen. Bei intensiv vorbehandelten Patienten mit rezidiviertem cHL wurde bei guter Vertraeglichkeit eine hohe Ansprechrate mit z. T. langanhaltenden Remissionen beobachtet. Im Rahmen der Planung prospektiver randomisierter Studien im

  9. THE ROLE OF SUPPORT GROUPS IN THE COOPERATION BETWEEN PARENTS OF PEOPLE WITH INTELLECTUAL DISABILITIES AND PROFESSIONAL STAFF

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Metka NOVAK

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: One of the ways of building and developing a better cooperative relationship between parents of people with severe and profound intellectual disabilities and professional staff is the inclusion of parents in support groups for parents and staff in support groups for staff. Goal: To examine the correlation of the level of cooperative relationship between the parents of people with severe and profound intellectual disabilities and professional staff with the inclusion of parents in support groups for parents and staff in support groups for staff. Methodology: Respondents: parents (296 of people with severe and profound learning disabilities and staff (298 in five centres across Slovenia; Methods: descriptive statistics, test of homogeneity, the rankit method, one-way analysis of variance; Procedures: survey questionnaires for parents and staff. The data was processed using SPSS software for personal computers. Results: The difference between the variances of the groups (parent found is statistically significant (F = 6.16; p = 0.01. Staff included in support groups have a significantly lower level of cooperative relationship with parents (f=10; M = - 0.12 than staff not included in these groups (f = 191; M = 0.04. Conclusion:In contrast to theoretical findings the results indicated less successful cooperation for professional staff included in support groups. The results furthermore did not confirm any differences in the cooperative relationship of parents included in support groups and those who are not. We suggest an in-depth analysis of the workings of support groups.

  10. Non-Hodgkin lymphoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lymphoma - non-Hodgkin; Lymphocytic lymphoma; Histiocytic lymphoma; Lymphoblastic lymphoma; Cancer - non-Hodgkin lymphoma ... National Cancer Institute: PDQ adult non-Hodgkin lymphoma treatment. Bethesda, MD: National Cancer Institute. Updated ... . Accessed ...

  11. T-Cell Lymphomas in South America and Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monica Bellei

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Peripheral T-cell lymphomas are a group of rare neoplasms originating from clonal proliferation of mature post-thymic lymphocytes with different entities having specific biological characteristics and clinical features. As natural killer cells are closely related to T-cells, natural killer-cell lymphomas are also part of the group. The current World Health Organization classification recognizes four categories of T/natural killer-cell lymphomas with respect to their presentation: disseminated (leukemic, nodal, extranodal and cutaneous. Geographic variations in the distribution of these diseases are well documented: nodal subtypes are more frequent in Europe and North America, while extranodal forms, including natural killer-cell lymphomas, occur almost exclusively in Asia and South America. On the whole, T-cell lymphomas are more common in Asia than in western countries, usually affect adults, with a higher tendency in men, and, excluding a few subtypes, usually have an aggressive course and poor prognosis. Apart from anaplastic lymphoma kinase-positive anaplastic large cell lymphoma, that have a good outcome, other nodal and extranodal forms have a 5-year overall survival of about 30%. According to the principal prognostic indexes, the majority of patients are allocated to the unfavorable subset. In the past, the rarity of these diseases prevented progress in the understanding of their biology and improvements in the efficaciousness of therapy. Recently, international projects devoted to these diseases created networks promoting investigations on T-cell lymphomas. These projects are the basis of forthcoming cooperative, large scale trials to detail biologic characteristics of each sub-entity and to possibly individuate targets for new therapies.

  12. Rearing-group size determines social competence and brain structure in a cooperatively breeding cichlid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Stefan; Bessert-Nettelbeck, Mathilde; Kotrschal, Alexander; Taborsky, Barbara

    2015-07-01

    Social animals can greatly benefit from well-developed social skills. Because the frequency and diversity of social interactions often increase with the size of social groups, the benefits of advanced social skills can be expected to increase with group size. Variation in social skills often arises during ontogeny, depending on early social experience. Whether variation of social-group sizes affects development of social skills and related changes in brain structures remains unexplored. We investigated whether, in a cooperatively breeding cichlid, early group size (1) shapes social behavior and social skills and (2) induces lasting plastic changes in gross brain structures and (3) whether the development of social skills is confined to a sensitive ontogenetic period. Rearing-group size and the time juveniles spent in these groups interactively influenced the development of social skills and the relative sizes of four main brain regions. We did not detect a sensitive developmental period for the shaping of social behavior within the 2-month experience phase. Instead, our results suggest continuous plastic behavioral changes over time. We discuss how developmental effects on social behavior and brain architecture may adaptively tune phenotypes to their current or future environments.

  13. [Molecular abnormalities in lymphomas].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delsol, G

    2010-11-01

    Numerous molecular abnormalities have been described in lymphomas. They are of diagnostic and prognostic value and are taken into account for the WHO classification of these tumors. They also shed some light on the underlying molecular mechanisms involved in lymphomas. Overall, four types of molecular abnormalities are involved: mutations, translocations, amplifications and deletions of tumor suppressor genes. Several techniques are available to detect these molecular anomalies: conventional cytogenetic analysis, multicolor FISH, CGH array or gene expression profiling using DNA microarrays. In some lymphomas, genetic abnormalities are responsible for the expression of an abnormal protein (e.g. tyrosine-kinase, transcription factor) detectable by immunohistochemistry. In the present review, molecular abnormalities observed in the most frequent B, T or NK cell lymphomas are discussed. In the broad spectrum of diffuse large B-cell lymphomas microarray analysis shows mostly two subgroups of tumors, one with gene expression signature corresponding to germinal center B-cell-like (GCB: CD10+, BCL6 [B-Cell Lymphoma 6]+, centerine+, MUM1-) and a subgroup expressing an activated B-cell-like signature (ABC: CD10-, BCL6-, centerine-, MUM1+). Among other B-cell lymphomas with well characterized molecular abnormalies are follicular lymphoma (BCL2 deregulation), MALT lymphoma (Mucosa Associated Lymphoid Tissue) [API2-MALT1 (mucosa-associated-lymphoid-tissue-lymphoma-translocation-gene1) fusion protein or deregulation BCL10, MALT1, FOXP1. MALT1 transcription factors], mantle cell lymphoma (cycline D1 [CCND1] overexpression) and Burkitt lymphoma (c-Myc expression). Except for ALK (anaplastic lymphoma kinase)-positive anaplastic large cell lymphoma, well characterized molecular anomalies are rare in lymphomas developed from T or NK cells. Peripheral T cell lymphomas not otherwise specified are a heterogeneous group of tumors with frequent but not recurrent molecular abnormalities

  14. 77 FR 72296 - Public Meeting of the U.S.-Canada Regulatory Cooperation Council (RCC) Motor Vehicles Working Group

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-05

    ... Cooperation Council (RCC) Motor Vehicles Working Group AGENCY: National Highway Traffic Safety Administration... 30 and 31, 2012, the RCC and its bi-national working groups facilitated stakeholder meetings in Washington, DC. This notice announces a public meeting of the RCC Motor Vehicles Working Group. DATES:...

  15. Grooming relationships between breeding females and adult group members in cooperatively breeding moustached tamarins (Saguinus mystax).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Löttker, Petra; Huck, Maren; Zinner, Dietmar P; Heymann, Eckhard W

    2007-10-01

    Grooming is the most common form of affiliative behavior in primates that apart from hygienic and hedonistic benefits offers important social benefits for the performing individuals. This study examined grooming behavior in a cooperatively breeding primate species, characterized by single female breeding per group, polyandrous matings, dizygotic twinning, delayed offspring dispersal, and intensive helping behavior. In this system, breeding females profit from the presence of helpers but also helpers profit from staying in a group and assisting in infant care due to the accumulation of direct and indirect fitness benefits. We examined grooming relationships of breeding females with three classes of partners (breeding males, potentially breeding males, (sub)adult non-breeding offspring) during three reproductive phases (post-partum ovarian inactivity, ovarian activity, pregnancy) in two groups of wild moustached tamarins (Saguinus mystax). We investigated whether grooming can be used to regulate group size by either "pay-for-help" or "pay-to-stay" mechanisms. Grooming of breeding females with breeding males and non-breeding offspring was more intense and more balanced than with potentially breeding males, and most grooming occurred during the breeding females' pregnancies. Grooming was skewed toward more investment by the breeding females with breeding males during the phases of ovarian activity, and with potentially breeding males during pregnancies. Our results suggest that grooming might be a mechanism used by female moustached tamarins to induce mate association with the breeding male, and to induce certain individuals to stay in the group and help with infant care.

  16. Eksperimentasi Model Pembelajaran Cooperative Learning (CL dan Group Investigation (GI ditinjau dari Kecerdasan Majemuk Siswa.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nur Rohman

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The Experimentation of Cooperative Learning (CL and Group Investigation (GI Viewed from Multiple Intelligences. The purpose of this study is to manifest: (1 which learning model of the CL, GI or expository; (2 which multiple intelligences with the linguistic intelligence, logical-mathematials intelligence or spatial inteligence results in a better learning achievement. The research population was all of the students in Grade V of State Primary School first semester of 2013/2014 at Bojonegoro regency. The samples of the research were taken by using the stratified random sampling technique and then chosen three schools namely SD Negeri 1 Dander, SD Negeri 1 Ngulanan, dan SD Negeri 2 Ngumpakdalem. The hypotheses of the research were tested by using the two-way analysis of variance with unequal cells. The result of research were: (1 GI learning and Expository learning have better mathematics achievement than cooperative learning, meanwhile Expository learning have the same mathematics achievement as GI learning, (2 among students with linguistic intelligence, logical mathematical intelligence or visual spatial intelligence have the same mathematics achievement. Keywords: Clustering Technique, Writing Skill, Descriptive Text

  17. Premature ovarian failure and fertility in long-term survivors of Hodgkin's lymphoma: a European Organisation for Research and Treatment of Cancer Lymphoma Group and Groupe d'Etude des Lymphomes de l'Adulte Cohort Study.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kaaij, M.A. van der; Heutte, N.; Meijnders, P.; Abeilard-Lemoisson, E.; Spina, M.; Moser, E.C.; Allgeier, A.; Meulemans, B.; Simons, A.H.; Lugtenburg, P.J.; Aleman, B.M.; Noordijk, E.M.; Ferme, C.; Thomas, J.; Stamatoullas, A.; Fruchart, C.; Brice, P.; Gaillard, I.; Bologna, S.; Ong, F.; Eghbali, H.; Doorduijn, J.K.; Morschhauser, F.; Sebban, C.; Roesink, J.M.; Bouteloup, M.; Hoof, A. van; Raemaekers, J.M.M.; Henry-Amar, M.; Kluin-Nelemans, H.C.

    2012-01-01

    PURPOSE: In this large cohort of Hodgkin's lymphoma survivors with long follow-up, we estimated the impact of treatment regimens on premature ovarian failure (POF) occurrence and motherhood, including safety of nonalkylating chemotherapy and dose-response relationships for alkylating chemotherapy an

  18. Premature Ovarian Failure and Fertility in Long-Term Survivors of Hodgkin's Lymphoma : A European Organisation for Research and Treatment of Cancer Lymphoma Group and Groupe d'Etude des Lymphomes de l'Adulte Cohort Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Kaaij, Marleen A. E.; Heutte, Natacha; Meijnders, Paul; Abeilard-Lemoisson, Edwige; Spina, Michele; Moser, Elizabeth C.; Allgeier, Anouk; Meulemans, Bart; Simons, Arnold H. M.; Lugtenburg, Pieternella J.; Aleman, Berthe M. P.; Noordijk, Evert M.; Ferme, Christophe; Thomas, Jose; Stamatoullas, Aspasia; Fruchart, Christophe; Brice, Pauline; Gaillard, Isabelle; Bologna, Serge; Ong, Francisca; Eghbali, Houchingue; Doorduijn, Jeanette K.; Morschhauser, Franck; Sebban, Catherine; Roesink, Judith M.; Bouteloup, Marie; Van Hoof, Achiel; Raemaekers, John M. M.; Henry-Amar, Michel; Kluin-Nelemans, Hanneke C.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose In this large cohort of Hodgkin's lymphoma survivors with long follow-up, we estimated the impact of treatment regimens on premature ovarian failure (POF) occurrence and motherhood, including safety of nonalkylating chemotherapy and dose-response relationships for alkylating chemotherapy and

  19. Premature ovarian failure and fertility in long-term survivors of Hodgkin's lymphoma: A European Organisation for Research and Treatment of Cancer Lymphoma Group and Groupe d'ÉTude des Lymphomes de l'Adulte Cohort Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.A.E. van der Kaaij (Marleen A.); N. Heutte (Natacha); P. Meijnders (Paul); E. Abeilard-Lemoisson (Edwige); M. Spina (Michele); E.C. Moser (E.); A. Allgeier (Anouk); B. Meulemans (Bart); A.H.M. Simons; P.J. Lugtenburg (Pieternella); B.M.P. Aleman (Berthe); E.M. Noordijk (Evert); C. Fermé (Christophe); J. Thomas (Jose); A. Stamatoullas (Aspasia); C. Fruchart (Christophe); P. Brice (Pauline); I. Gaillard (Isabelle); S. Bologna (Serge); F. Ong (Francisca); H. Eghbali (Houchingue); J.K. Doorduijn (Jeanette); F. Morschhauser; C. Sebban (Catherine); J.M. Roesink (Judith); M. Bouteloup (Marie); A.L. van Hoof (Achiel); J. Raemaekers; M. Henry-Amar (Michel); H.C. Kluin-Nelemans (Hanneke)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractPurpose: In this large cohort of Hodgkin's lymphoma survivors with long follow-up, we estimated the impact of treatment regimens on premature ovarian failure (POF) occurrence and motherhood, including safety of nonalkylating chemotherapy and dose-response relationships for alkylating che

  20. Primary pediatric gastrointestinal lymphoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ranjana Bandyopadhyay

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Primary non-Hodgkin′s lymphoma (NHL of the gastrointestinal (GI tract is the most common extranodal lymphoma in pediatric age group. Yet, the overall incidence is very low. The rarity of the disease as well as variable clinical presentation prevents early detection when the possibility of cure exists. Materials and Methods: We studied six cases of primary GI NHL in pediatric age group with reference to their clinical presentation, anatomic distribution and histopathologic characteristics. Results: All were males except one. Intestinal obstruction was the presenting feature in 50%. Half the cases showed ileocaecal involvement, while large bowel was involved in 16%. Histology showed four cases of diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL, one case of Burkitt lymphoma, and one Burkitt-like lymphoma. Immunohistochemistry for Tdt, CD20, CD3, CD30, bcl2, bcl6 confirmed the morphological diagnosis. Conclusion: Pediatric GI lymphoma commonly involves the ileocaecal region and presents with intestinal obstruction. A higher prevalence of DLBCL is found compared to other series. A high proliferative index is useful in differentiating Burkitt-like lymphoma from DLBCL.

  1. Modern Radiation Therapy for Nodal Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma—Target Definition and Dose Guidelines From the International Lymphoma Radiation Oncology Group

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Illidge, Tim; Specht, Lena; Yahalom, Joachim

    2014-01-01

    Radiation therapy (RT) is the most effective single modality for local control of non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) and is an important component of therapy for many patients. Many of the historic concepts of dose and volume have recently been challenged by the advent of modern imaging and RT planning...... tools. The International Lymphoma Radiation Oncology Group (ILROG) has developed these guidelines after multinational meetings and analysis of available evidence. The guidelines represent an agreed consensus view of the ILROG steering committee on the use of RT in NHL in the modern era. The roles...... of reduced volume and reduced doses are addressed, integrating modern imaging with 3-dimensional planning and advanced techniques of RT delivery. In the modern era, in which combined-modality treatment with systemic therapy is appropriate, the previously applied extended-field and involved-field RT...

  2. Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma and Occupational Exposure to Agricultural Pesticide Chemical Groups and Active Ingredients: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leah Schinasi

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes results from a systematic review and a series of meta-analyses of nearly three decades worth of epidemiologic research on the relationship between non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL and occupational exposure to agricultural pesticide active ingredients and chemical groups. Estimates of associations of NHL with 21 pesticide chemical groups and 80 active ingredients were extracted from 44 papers, all of which reported results from analyses of studies conducted in high-income countries. Random effects meta-analyses showed that phenoxy herbicides, carbamate insecticides, organophosphorus insecticides and the active ingredient lindane, an organochlorine insecticide, were positively associated with NHL. In a handful of papers, associations between pesticides and NHL subtypes were reported; B cell lymphoma was positively associated with phenoxy herbicides and the organophosphorus herbicide glyphosate. Diffuse large B-cell lymphoma was positively associated with phenoxy herbicide exposure. Despite compelling evidence that NHL is associated with certain chemicals, this review indicates the need for investigations of a larger variety of pesticides in more geographic areas, especially in low- and middle-income countries, which, despite producing a large portion of the world’s agriculture, were missing in the literature that were reviewed.

  3. Cooperative dynamics in the penetration of a group of intruders in a granular medium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pacheco-Vázquez, F; Ruiz-Suárez, J C

    2010-11-23

    An object moving in a fluid experiences a drag force that depends on its velocity, shape and the properties of the medium. From this simplest case to the motion of a flock of birds or a school of fish, the drag forces and the hydrodynamic interactions determine the full dynamics of the system. Similar drag forces appear when a single projectile impacts and moves through a granular medium, and this case is well studied in the literature. On the other hand, the case in which a group of intruders impact a granular material has never been considered. Here, we study the simultaneous penetration of several intruders in a very low-density granular medium. We find that the intruders move through it in a collective way, following a cooperative dynamics, whose complexity resembles flocking phenomena in living systems or the movement of reptiles in sand, wherein changes in drag are exploited to efficiently move or propel.

  4. An Examination of the Doubts and Skepticisms of a Group of Librarians Considering a Cooperative Computerized Circulation System, Bergen County, New Jersey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heise, George F.

    This paper examines the barriers to cooperation among a group of librarians and trustees in the Bergen County Cooperative Library System (BCCLS) in New Jersey as the group explored the potential advantages of a cooperative automated circulation system. This network of public libraries shares reciprocal borrowing, direct access to borrowing, and…

  5. Cooperation and Conflict: Faction Problem of Western Medicine Group in Modern China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jo, Jeongeun

    2016-08-01

    After the defeat of the Opium War and the Sino-Japanese War, China's intellectuals realized necessity of modernization (Westernization) to survive in the imperial order of the survival of the fittest. In particular, it was urgent to accept Western medicine and train the doctors who learned Western medicine to change the sick and weary Chinese to be robust. Thus, new occupations of the Western Medicine Group (xiyi, doctors who learned Western medicine) emerged in China. As with the first profession, the new Western Medicine Group tried to define standards of Western medicine and medical profession; however, it was difficult in the absence of the strong central government. In addition, they formed a faction by the country where they studied or the language they learned. The factions included the Britain - America faction(yingmeipai) consisting of the Britain - America studied doctors or graduates from Protestant missions based medical schools, and the Germany - Japan faction(deripai), graduates from medical schools by Japanese or German government and the Chinese government. In 1915, they founded the National Medical Association of China mainly consisting of the Britain - America faction and the National Medical and Pharmaceutical Association of China led by the Germany - Japan faction. Initially, exchanges were active so most of eminent doctors belonged the two associations at the same time. They had a consciousness of a common occupation group as a doctor who had learned Western medicine. Thus, they actively cooperated to keep their profits against Chinese medicine and enjoy their reputation. Their cooperation emitted light particularly in translation of medical terms and unified works. Thanks to cooperation, the two associations selected medical terminologies by properly using the cases of the West and Japan. Additionally, medical schools of the Britain - America faction and the Germany - Japan faction produced various levels of the Western Medicine Group doctors

  6. The role of host traits, season and group size on parasite burdens in a cooperative mammal.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hermien Viljoen

    Full Text Available The distribution of parasites among hosts is often characterised by a high degree of heterogeneity with a small number of hosts harbouring the majority of parasites. Such patterns of aggregation have been linked to variation in host exposure and susceptibility as well as parasite traits and environmental factors. Host exposure and susceptibility may differ with sexes, reproductive effort and group size. Furthermore, environmental factors may affect both the host and parasite directly and contribute to temporal heterogeneities in parasite loads. We investigated the contributions of host and parasite traits as well as season on parasite loads in highveld mole-rats (Cryptomys hottentotus pretoriae. This cooperative breeder exhibits a reproductive division of labour and animals live in colonies of varying sizes that procreate seasonally. Mole-rats were parasitised by lice, mites, cestodes and nematodes with mites (Androlaelaps sp. and cestodes (Mathevotaenia sp. being the dominant ecto- and endoparasites, respectively. Sex and reproductive status contributed little to the observed parasite prevalence and abundances possibly as a result of the shared burrow system. Clear seasonal patterns of parasite prevalence and abundance emerged with peaks in summer for mites and in winter for cestodes. Group size correlated negatively with mite abundance while it had no effect on cestode burdens and group membership affected infestation with both parasites. We propose that the mode of transmission as well as social factors constrain parasite propagation generating parasite patterns deviating from those commonly predicted.

  7. How I treat double-hit lymphoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedberg, Jonathan W

    2017-08-03

    The 2016 revision of the World Health Organization (WHO) classification for lymphoma has included a new category of lymphoma, separate from diffuse large B-cell lymphoma, termed high-grade B-cell lymphoma with translocations involving myc and bcl-2 or bcl-6. These lymphomas, which occur in <10% of cases of diffuse large B-cell lymphoma, have been referred to as double-hit lymphomas (or triple-hit lymphomas if all 3 rearrangements are present). It is important to differentiate these lymphomas from the larger group of double-expressor lymphomas, which have increased expression of MYC and BCL-2 and/or BCL-6 by immunohistochemistry, by using variable cutoff percentages to define positivity. Patients with double-hit lymphomas have a poor prognosis when treated with standard chemoimmunotherapy and have increased risk of central nervous system involvement and progression. Double-hit lymphomas may arise as a consequence of the transformation of the underlying indolent lymphoma. There are no published prospective trials in double-hit lymphoma, however retrospective studies strongly suggest that aggressive induction regimens may confer a superior outcome. In this article, I review my approach to the evaluation and treatment of double-hit lymphoma, with an eye toward future clinical trials incorporating rational targeted agents into the therapeutic armamentarium. © 2017 by The American Society of Hematology.

  8. The Relative Effects of Positive Interdependence and Group Processing on Student Achievement and Attitude in Online Cooperative Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nam, Chang Woo; Zellner, Ronald D.

    2011-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of positive interdependence and group processing on student achievement and attitude in online learning. Students in three university courses received initial instruction about teamwork skills and cooperative learning and were randomly assigned to one of three treatment groups in each course. The "positive…

  9. Advanced stage nodular lymphocyte predominant Hodgkin lymphoma in children and adolescents: clinical characteristics and treatment outcome - a report from the SFCE & CCLG groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shankar, Ananth G; Roques, Gaelle; Kirkwood, Amy A; Lambilliotte, Anne; Freund, Katja; Leblanc, Thierry; Hayward, Janis; Abbou, Samuel; Ramsay, Alan D; Schmitt, Claudine; Gorde-Grosjean, Stephanie; Pacquement, Hélène; Haouy, Stephanie; Boudjemaa, Sabah; Aladjidi, Nathalie; Hall, Georgina W; Landman-Parker, Judith

    2017-04-01

    Advanced stage nodular lymphocyte predominant Hodgkin lymphoma (nLPHL) is extremely rare in children and as a consequence, optimal treatment for this group of patients has not been established. Here we retrospectively evaluated the treatments and treatment outcomes of 41 of our patients from the UK and France with advanced stage nLPHL. Most patients received chemotherapy, some with the addition of the anti CD20 antibody rituximab or radiotherapy. Chemotherapy regimens were diverse and followed either classical Hodgkin lymphoma or B non-Hodgkin lymphoma protocols. All 41 patients achieved a complete remission with first line treatment and 40 patients are alive and well in remission. Eight patients subsequently relapsed and 1 patient died of secondary cancer (9 progression-free survival events). The median time to progression for those who progressed was 21 months (5·9-73·8). The median time since last diagnosis is 87·3 months (8·44-179·20). Thirty-six (90%), 30 (75%) and 27 (68%) patients have been in remission for more than 12, 24 and 36 months, respectively. Overall, the use of rituximab combined with multi-agent chemotherapy as first line treatment seems to be a reasonable therapeutic option. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Cooperative Electronic Attack for Groups of Unmanned Air Vehicles based on Multi-agent Simulation and Evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yee Ming Chen

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the issue of path planning is addressed for unmanned air vehicles (UAVs cooperative joint-forces electronic attack operating in a hostile environment. Specifically, the objective is to plan path to a target location in a way that minimizes exposure to threats while keeping fuel usage at acceptable levels. We consider a scenario where a group of UAVs flies in a close formation and cooperates in their use of jamming resources to prevent being tracked by Surface-to-Air Missile (SAM tracking radars. The main goal of this research effort is develop cooperating UAVs within multi-agent simulation environment. Simulations were generated to test the path planning and control strategies given UAVs/SAM tracking radar network scenarios, and overall UAVs cooperative electronic attack performance in each simulation was analyzed.

  11. Interobserver delineation uncertainty in involved-node radiation therapy (INRT) for early-stage Hodgkin lymphoma: on behalf of the Radiotherapy Committee of the EORTC lymphoma group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aznar, Marianne C; Girinsky, Theodore; Berthelsen, Anne Kiil; Aleman, Berthe; Beijert, Max; Hutchings, Martin; Lievens, Yolande; Meijnders, Paul; Meidahl Petersen, Peter; Schut, Deborah; Maraldo, Maja V; van der Maazen, Richard; Specht, Lena

    2017-04-01

    In early-stage classical Hodgkin lymphoma (HL) the target volume nowadays consists of the volume of the originally involved nodes. Delineation of this volume on a post-chemotherapy CT-scan is challenging. We report on the interobserver variability in target volume definition and its impact on resulting treatment plans. Two representative cases were selected (1: male, stage IB, localization: left axilla; 2: female, stage IIB, localizations: mediastinum and bilateral neck). Eight experienced observers individually defined the clinical target volume (CTV) using involved-node radiotherapy (INRT) as defined by the EORTC-GELA guidelines for the H10 trial. A consensus contour was generated and the standard deviation computed. We investigated the overlap between observer and consensus contour [Sørensen-Dice coefficient (DSC)] and the magnitude of gross deviations between the surfaces of the observer and consensus contour (Hausdorff distance). 3D-conformal (3D-CRT) and intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) plans were calculated for each contour in order to investigate the impact of interobserver variability on each treatment modality. Similar target coverage was enforced for all plans. The median CTV was 120 cm(3) (IQR: 95-173 cm(3)) for Case 1, and 255 cm(3) (IQR: 183-293 cm(3)) for Case 2. DSC values were generally high (>0.7), and Hausdorff distances were about 30 mm. The SDs between all observer contours, providing an estimate of the systematic error associated with delineation uncertainty, ranged from 1.9 to 3.8 mm (median: 3.2 mm). Variations in mean dose resulting from different observer contours were small and were not higher in IMRT plans than in 3D-CRT plans. We observed considerable differences in target volume delineation, but the systematic delineation uncertainty of around 3 mm is comparable to that reported in other tumour sites. This report is a first step towards calculating an evidence-based planning target volume margin for INRT in HL.

  12. Hodgkin Lymphoma (For Teens)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Can I Help Someone Who's Being Bullied? Volunteering Hodgkin Lymphoma KidsHealth > For Teens > Hodgkin Lymphoma Print A ... to check for disease, including lymphoma. What Is Hodgkin Lymphoma? Hodgkin lymphoma is a type of cancer ...

  13. Grades Degrade Group Coordination: Deteriorated Interactions and Performance in a Cooperative Motor Task

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayek, Anne-Sophie; Toma, Claudia; Guidotti, Sofia; Oberlé, Dominique; Butera, Fabrizio

    2017-01-01

    At school, pupils often cooperate on common projects and must coordinate their different individual actions. However, grades are pervasively used even in cooperative situations, which make the pupils' differences in achievement and their relative rank salient and may reduce their inclination to work constructively with others. Thus, we…

  14. Cooperative Group, Risk-Taking and Inclusion of Pupils with Learning Disabilities in Physical Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andre, Amael; Louvet, Benoit; Deneuve, Pascale

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this research was to study the impact of cooperative learning on changes in cooperative behaviours and acceptance amongst pupils with learning disabilities related to risk-taking. One hundred and sixty-eight French first year middle school pupils participated in this study. Thirty-six pupils with learning disabilities were mainstreamed…

  15. Grades Degrade Group Coordination: Deteriorated Interactions and Performance in a Cooperative Motor Task

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayek, Anne-Sophie; Toma, Claudia; Guidotti, Sofia; Oberlé, Dominique; Butera, Fabrizio

    2017-01-01

    At school, pupils often cooperate on common projects and must coordinate their different individual actions. However, grades are pervasively used even in cooperative situations, which make the pupils' differences in achievement and their relative rank salient and may reduce their inclination to work constructively with others. Thus, we…

  16. CCR4 frameshift mutation identifies a distinct group of adult T cell leukaemia/lymphoma with poor prognosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshida, Noriaki; Miyoshi, Hiroaki; Kato, Takeharu; Sakata-Yanagimoto, Mamiko; Niino, Daisuke; Taniguchi, Hiroaki; Moriuchi, Yukiyoshi; Miyahara, Masaharu; Kurita, Daisuke; Sasaki, Yuya; Shimono, Joji; Kawamoto, Keisuke; Utsunomiya, Atae; Imaizumi, Yoshitaka; Seto, Masao; Ohshima, Koichi

    2016-04-01

    Adult T cell leukaemia/lymphoma (ATLL) is an intractable T cell neoplasm caused by human T cell leukaemia virus type 1. Next-generation sequencing-based comprehensive mutation studies have revealed recurrent somatic CCR4 mutations in ATLL, although clinicopathological findings associated with CCR4 mutations remain to be delineated. In the current study, 184 cases of peripheral T cell lymphoma, including 113 cases of ATLL, were subjected to CCR4 mutation analysis. This sequence analysis identified mutations in 27% (30/113) of cases of ATLL and 9% (4/44) of cases of peripheral T cell lymphoma not otherwise specified. Identified mutations included nonsense (NS) and frameshift (FS) mutations. No significant differences in clinicopathological findings were observed between ATLL cases stratified by presence of CCR4 mutation. All ATLL cases with CCR4 mutations exhibited cell-surface CCR4 positivity. Semi-quantitative CCR4 protein analysis of immunohistochemical sections revealed higher CCR4 expression in cases with NS mutations of CCR4 than in cases with wild-type (WT) CCR4. Furthermore, among ATLL cases, FS mutation was significantly associated with a poor prognosis, compared with NS mutation and WT CCR4. These results suggest that CCR4 mutation is an important determinant of the clinical course in ATLL cases, and that NS and FS mutations of CCR4 behave differently with respect to ATLL pathophysiology.

  17. Does Quality of Radiation Therapy Predict Outcomes of Multicenter Cooperative Group Trials? A Literature Review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fairchild, Alysa, E-mail: alysa.fairchild@albertahealthservices.ca [Department of Radiation Oncology, Cross Cancer Institute, Edmonton, Alberta (Canada); Straube, William [Advanced Technology Consortium, Imaged-Guided Therapy QA Center, St. Louis, Missouri (United States); Laurie, Fran [Quality Assurance Review Center, Lincoln, Rhode Island (United States); Followill, David [Radiological Physics Center, University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Centre, Houston, Texas (United States)

    2013-10-01

    Central review of radiation therapy (RT) delivery within multicenter clinical trials was initiated in the early 1970s in the United States. Early quality assurance publications often focused on metrics related to process, logistics, and timing. Our objective was to review the available evidence supporting correlation of RT quality with clinical outcomes within cooperative group trials. A MEDLINE search was performed to identify multicenter studies that described central subjective assessment of RT protocol compliance (quality). Data abstracted included method of central review, definition of deviations, and clinical outcomes. Seventeen multicenter studies (1980-2012) were identified, plus one Patterns of Care Study. Disease sites were hematologic, head and neck, lung, breast, and pancreas. Between 0 and 97% of treatment plans received an overall grade of acceptable. In 7 trials, failure rates were significantly higher after inadequate versus adequate RT. Five of 9 and 2 of 5 trials reported significantly worse overall and progression-free survival after poor-quality RT, respectively. One reported a significant correlation, and 2 reported nonsignificant trends toward increased toxicity with noncompliant RT. Although more data are required, protocol-compliant RT may decrease failure rates and increase overall survival and likely contributes to the ability of collected data to answer the central trial question.

  18. Designed of Cooperative Detection Simulation System of UUV Group%UUV群探测系统仿真设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蒲勇; 袁富宇

    2012-01-01

    研究水下航行器(UUV)群协同探测问题,系统用多传感器协同探测,执行警戒、侦察、监视水下航行等作战任务,要求实时快速和准确探测.针对目前水下情况复杂,UUV导航精度低、水声通信误码率大等状态.为解决算法研制与实际结合不紧密的问题,提高UUV群协同探测系统性能,采用GUI函数接口,设计并实现了UUV群协同探测仿真系统.系统可通过可视化界面,用MATLAB平台对UUV群用于多目标的协同探测算法进行仿真.仿真结果表明,仿真系统能够满足UUV协同仿真测试要求,对于UUV群协同探测系统的研制具有重要的应用价值.%Algorithm of cooperative detection is the key technology for construct cooperative detection system of Underwater Unmanned Vehicle (UUV) group. In response to lower precision problem with navigation and big error of underwater sound communication, based on MATLAB development environment, this paper used GUI function inter face inside, designed and realised UUV group cooperative detection simulation system. The system can use visual interface to simulate and test algorithm of cooperative detection for UUV group. Simulation result shows that this simu lation system can satisfy test requirement of UUV cooperative detection algorithm. It has important application value for development of cooperative detection system for UUV group.

  19. The Effect of Computer-Assisted Cooperative Learning Methods and Group Size on the EFL Learners' Achievement in Communication Skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    AbuSeileek, Ali Farhan

    2012-01-01

    This study explored the effect of cooperative learning small group size and two different instructional modes (positive interdependence vs. individual accountability) on English as a Foreign Language (EFL) undergraduate learners' communication skills (speaking and writing) achievement in computer-based environments. The study also examined the…

  20. Video Modeling of Cooperative Discussion Group Behaviors with Students with Learning Disabilities in a Secondary Content-area Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Brien, Chris; Wood, Charles L.

    2011-01-01

    Peer-mediated instructional strategies such as cooperative learning are commonly used in general education classrooms in secondary schools; however, students with disabilities often lack the group interaction and discussion skills necessary to fully benefit from evidence-based interventions. The present study used a multiple baseline across…

  1. Group Heterogeneity and Cooperation on the Geographical Indication Regulations: The Case of the 'Prosciutto di Parma Consortium'

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dentoni, D.; Menozzi, D.; Capelli, M.G.

    2012-01-01

    This paper explores the impact of individual group members’ heterogeneous characteristics, resources and strategies on their level of cooperation on defining the future regulation of Geographical Indications (GIs). By following a “grounded theory” approach, this study combines qualitative evidence f

  2. The Use of Relationship Marketing in Developing Network and Co-operative links within Tourism Product Marketing Groups (PMG’s

    OpenAIRE

    Gorman, Catherine

    2006-01-01

    Co-operative marketing groups are common in tourism, particularly in the case of destination marketing. Destination tourism marketing groups offer a diverse range of tourism products and experiences which complement each other and are delineated by a specific geographical parameter. Tourism product marketing groups offer similar tourism products or services and through a co-operative approach focus on an identified target markets. Co-operative marketing can make greater impact in terms of...

  3. The coevolution of cooperation and dispersal in social groups and its implications for the emergence of multicellularity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hochberg Michael E

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Recent work on the complexity of life highlights the roles played by evolutionary forces at different levels of individuality. One of the central puzzles in explaining transitions in individuality for entities ranging from complex cells, to multicellular organisms and societies, is how different autonomous units relinquish control over their functions to others in the group. In addition to the necessity of reducing conflict over effecting specialized tasks, differentiating groups must control the exploitation of the commons, or else be out-competed by more fit groups. Results We propose that two forms of conflict – access to resources within groups and representation in germ line – may be resolved in tandem through individual and group-level selective effects. Specifically, we employ an optimization model to show the conditions under which different within-group social behaviors (cooperators producing a public good or cheaters exploiting the public good may be selected to disperse, thereby not affecting the commons and functioning as germ line. We find that partial or complete dispersal specialization of cheaters is a general outcome. The propensity for cheaters to disperse is highest with intermediate benefit:cost ratios of cooperative acts and with high relatedness. An examination of a range of real biological systems tends to support our theory, although additional study is required to provide robust tests. Conclusion We suggest that trait linkage between dispersal and cheating should be operative regardless of whether groups ever achieve higher levels of individuality, because individual selection will always tend to increase exploitation, and stronger group structure will tend to increase overall cooperation through kin selected benefits. Cheater specialization as dispersers offers simultaneous solutions to the evolution of cooperation in social groups and the origin of specialization of germ and soma in

  4. "You Don't Have to Like Me, but You Have to Respect Me": The Impacts of Assertiveness, Cooperativeness, and Group Satisfaction in Collaborative Assignments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambertz-Berndt, Megan M.; Blight, Michael G.

    2016-01-01

    This study investigates cooperativeness, assertiveness, group satisfaction, leader grade, and leadership negotiation in a collaborative assignment conducted in a small group. Researchers manipulated the assignment of team members who reported on measures of group satisfaction and original scales of assertiveness and cooperativeness. Respondents…

  5. Structures and dynamics of transnational cooperation networks: evidence based on Local Action Groups in the Veneto Region, Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Pisani

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper assesses the structures and dynamics of transnational cooperation projects promoted by Local Action Groups (LAGs in different periods (from LEADER II to LEADER Axis using Social Network Analysis (SNA in a specific case study: the Veneto Region in Italy. The classical indexes of SNA have been critically examined, and the paper also presents innovative indexes that can capture the peculiarity of transnational cooperation: disaggregated densities of the network and transnational centrality of the node. These indexes are useful in order to quantify how transnational a network actually is, and to measure the power-information that each actor (LAG can acquire through its transnational contacts. The methodology can become a tool for Managing Authorities to implement new forms of evaluation of transnational cooperation of LAGs.

  6. Venous thromboembolism in Croatia – Croatian Cooperative Group for Hematologic Diseases (CROHEM) study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pulanić, Dražen; Gverić-Krečak, Velka; Nemet-Lojan, Zlatka; Holik, Hrvoje; Coha, Božena; Babok-Flegarić, Renata; Komljenović, Mili; Knežević, Dijana; Petrovečki, Mladen; Zupančić Šalek, Silva; Labar, Boris; Nemet, Damir

    2015-01-01

    Aim To analyze the incidence and characteristics of venous thromboembolism (VTE) in Croatia. Methods The Croatian Cooperative Group for Hematologic Diseases conducted an observational non-interventional study in 2011. Medical records of patients with newly diagnosed VTE hospitalized in general hospitals in 4 Croatian counties (Šibenik-Knin, Koprivnica-Križevci, Brod-Posavina, and Varaždin County) were reviewed. According to 2011 Census, the population of these counties comprises 13.1% of the Croatian population. Results There were 663 patients with VTE; 408 (61.54%) had deep vein thrombosis, 219 (33.03%) had pulmonary embolism, and 36 (5.43%) had both conditions. Median age was 71 years, 290 (43.7%) were men and 373 (56.3%) women. Secondary VTE was found in 57.3% of participants, idiopathic VTE in 42.7%, and recurrent VTE in 11.9%. There were no differences between patients with secondary VTE and patients with idiopathic VTE in disease recurrence and sex. The most frequent causes of secondary VTE were cancer (40.8%), and trauma, surgery, and immobilization (38.2%), while 42.9% patients with secondary VTE had ≥2 causes. There were 8.9% patients ≤45 years; 3.3% with idiopathic or recurrent VTE. Seventy patients (10.6%) died, more of whom had secondary (81.4%) than idiopathic (18.6%) VTE (P thromboprophylaxis during the presence of risk factors for secondary VTE might substantially lower the VTE burden. PMID:26718761

  7. Multinuclear group 4 catalysis: olefin polymerization pathways modified by strong metal-metal cooperative effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McInnis, Jennifer P; Delferro, Massimiliano; Marks, Tobin J

    2014-08-19

    homogeneous and heterogeneous systems, macromolecules with dramatically altered properties, and large-scale industrial processes. It is noteworthy that many metalloenzymes employ multiple active centers operating in close synergistic proximity to achieve high activity and selectivity. Such enzymes were the inspiration for the research discussed in this Account, focused on the properties of multimetallic olefin polymerization catalysts. Here we discuss how modifications in organic ligand architecture, metal···metal proximity, and cocatalyst can dramatically modify polyolefin molecular weight, branch structure, and selectively for olefinic comonomer enchainment. We first discuss bimetallic catalysts with identical group 4 metal centers and then heterobimetallic systems with either group 4 or groups 4 + 6 catalytic centers. We compare and contrast the polymerization properties of the bimetallic catalysts with their monometallic analogues, highlighting marked cooperative enchainment effects and unusual polymeric products possible via the proximate catalytic centers. Such multinuclear olefin polymerization catalysts exhibit the following distinctive features: (1) unprecedented levels of polyolefin branching; (2) enhanced enchainment selectivity for linear and encumbered α-olefin comonomers; (3) enhanced polyolefin tacticity and molecular weight; (4) unusual 1,2-insertion regiochemistry for styrenic monomers; (5) modified chain transfer kinetics, such as M-polymer β-hydride transfer to the metal or incoming monomer; (6) LLDPE synthesis with a single binuclear catalyst and ethylene.

  8. Multimodality imaging of cardiothoracic lymphoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carter, Brett W., E-mail: bcarter2@mdanderson.org [The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Section of Thoracic Imaging, 1515 Holcombe Blvd., Unit 1478, Houston, TX 77030 (United States); Wu, Carol C. [Department of Radiology, Massachusetts General Hospital, 55 Fruit Street, FND-202, Boston, MA 02114 (United States); Khorashadi, Leila [Department of Radiology, Mount Auburn Hospital, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Godoy, Myrna C.B.; Groot, Patricia M. de [The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Section of Thoracic Imaging, 1515 Holcombe Blvd., Unit 1478, Houston, TX 77030 (United States); Abbott, Gerald F. [Department of Radiology, Massachusetts General Hospital, 55 Fruit Street, FND-202, Boston, MA 02114 (United States); Lichtenberger III, John P. [Department of Radiology, David Grant Medical Center, Travis AFB, CA 94535 (United States)

    2014-08-15

    Lymphoma is the most common hematologic malignancy and represents approximately 5.3% of all cancers. The World Health Organization published a revised classification scheme in 2008 that groups lymphomas by cell type and molecular, cytogenetic, and phenotypic characteristics. Most lymphomas affect the thorax at some stage during the course of the disease. Affected structures within the chest may include the lungs, mediastinum, pleura, and chest wall, and lymphomas may originate from these sites as primary malignancies or secondarily involve these structures after arising from other intrathoracic or extrathoracic sources. Pulmonary lymphomas are classified into one of four types: primary pulmonary lymphoma, secondary pulmonary lymphoma, acquired immunodeficiency syndrome-related lymphoma, and post-transplantation lymphoproliferative disorders. Although pulmonary lymphomas may produce a myriad of diverse findings within the lungs, specific individual features or combinations of features can be used, in combination with secondary manifestations of the disease such as involvement of the mediastinum, pleura, and chest wall, to narrow the differential diagnosis. While findings of thoracic lymphoma may be evident on chest radiography, computed tomography has traditionally been the imaging modality used to evaluate the disease and effectively demonstrates the extent of intrathoracic involvement and the presence and extent of extrathoracic spread. However, additional modalities such as magnetic resonance imaging of the thorax and {sup 18}F-FDG PET/CT have emerged in recent years and are complementary to CT in the evaluation of patients with lymphoma. Thoracic MRI is useful in assessing vascular, cardiac, and chest wall involvement, and PET/CT is more accurate in the overall staging of lymphoma than CT and can be used to evaluate treatment response.

  9. Dexamethasone compared to prednisolone for adults with acute lymphoblastic leukemia or lymphoblastic lymphoma: final results of the ALL-4 randomized, phase III trial of the EORTC Leukemia Group

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labar, Boris; Suciu, Stefan; Willemze, Roel; Muus, Petra; Marie, Jean-Pierre; Fillet, Georges; Berneman, Zwi; Jaksic, Branimir; Feremans, Walter; Bron, Dominique; Sinnige, Harm; Mistrik, Martin; Vreugdenhil, Gerard; De Bock, Robrecht; Nemet, Damir; Gilotay, Caroline; Amadori, Sergio; de Witte, Theo

    2010-01-01

    Background Corticosteroids are a standard component of the treatment of acute lymphoblastic leukemia and lymphoblastic lymphoma. Our aim was to determine whether dexamethasone results in a better outcome than prednisolone. Design and Methods Adult patients with acute lymphoblastic leukemia or lymphoblastic lymphoma were randomized to receive, as part of their induction therapy on days 1–8 and 15–22, either dexamethasone 8 mg/m2 or prednisolone 60 mg/m2. Those who reached complete remission were given two courses of consolidation therapy with high-dose cytarabine and mitoxantrone and methotrexate and asparaginase. Subsequently patients younger than 50 years, with a suitable donor, were to undergo allogeneic stem cell transplantation, whereas the others were planned to receive either an autologous stem cell transplant or high-dose maintenance chemotherapy with prophylactic central nervous system irradiation. Randomization was done with a minimization technique. The primary endpoint was event-free survival and the analyses was conducted on an intention-to-treat basis. Results Between August 1995 and October 2003, 325 patients between 15 to 72 years of age were randomized to receive either dexamethasone (163 patients) or prednisolone (162 patients). After induction and the course of first consolidation therapy, 131 (80.4%) patients in the dexamethasone group and 124 (76.5%) in the prednisolone group achieved complete remission. No significant difference was observed between the two treatment groups with regards to 6-year event-free survival rates (±SE) which were 25.9% (3.6%) and 28.7% (3.5%) in the dexamethasone and prednisolone groups, respectively (P=0.82, hazard ratio 0.97; 95% confidence interval, 0.75–1.25). Disease-free survival after complete remission was also similar in the dexamethasone and prednisolone groups, the 6-year rates being 32.3% and 37.5%, respectively (hazard ratio 1.03; 95% confidence interval 0.76–1.40). The 6-year cumulative

  10. Gastric lymphoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sravani Padala

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Gastrointestinal lymphomas represent 5-20% of extra nodal lymphomas and mainly occur in the stomach and small intestine. Clinical findings are not specific, thus often determining a delay in the diagnosis. Imaging features at conventional and cross-sectional imaging must be known by the radiologist since he/she plays a pivotal role in the diagnosis and disease assessment, thus assisting in the choice of the optimal treatment to patients. This review focuses on the wide variety of imaging presentation of esophageal, gastric, and small and large bowel lymphoma presenting their main imaging appearances at conventional and cross-sectional imaging, mainly focusing on computed tomography and magnetic resonance, helping in the choice of the best imaging technique for the disease characterization and assessment and the recognition of potential complications. Gastrointestinal tract is the most common extra nodal site involved by lymphoma. Although lymphoma can involve any part of the gastrointestinal tract .The most frequent sites in order of its occurrence are the stomach followed by small intestine and ileocecal region. Gastrointestinal tract lymphoma is usually secondary to the widespread nodal diseases and primary gastrointestinal tract lymphoma is relatively rare. [Int J Res Med Sci 2016; 4(6.000: 2481-2486

  11. Group-size-dependent punishment of idle subordinates in a cooperative breeder where helpers pay to stay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Stefan; Zöttl, Markus; Groenewoud, Frank; Taborsky, Barbara

    2014-08-22

    In cooperative breeding systems, dominant breeders sometimes tolerate unrelated individuals even if they inflict costs on the dominants. According to the 'pay-to-stay' hypothesis, (i) subordinates can outweigh these costs by providing help and (ii) dominants should be able to enforce help by punishing subordinates that provide insufficient help. This requires that dominants can monitor helping and can recognize group members individually. In a field experiment, we tested whether cooperatively breeding cichlid Neolamprologus pulcher subordinates increase their help after a forced 'idle' period, how other group members respond to a previously idle helper, and how helper behaviour and group responses depend on group size. Previously, idle helpers increased their submissiveness and received more aggression than control helpers, suggesting that punishment occurred to enforce help. Subordinates in small groups increased their help more than those in large groups, despite receiving less aggression. When subordinates were temporarily removed, dominants in small groups were more likely to evict returning subordinates. Our results suggest that only in small groups do helpers face a latent threat of punishment by breeders as predicted by the pay-to-stay hypothesis. In large groups, cognitive constraints may prevent breeders from tracking the behaviour of a large number of helpers.

  12. Modern Radiation Therapy for Nodal Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma—Target Definition and Dose Guidelines From the International Lymphoma Radiation Oncology Group

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Illidge, Tim, E-mail: Tim.Illidge@ics.manchester.ac.uk [Institute of Cancer Sciences, University of Manchester, Manchester Academic Health Sciences Centre, The Christie National Health Service Foundation Trust, Manchester (United Kingdom); Specht, Lena [Department of Oncology and Hematology, Rigshospitalet, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen (Denmark); Yahalom, Joachim [Department of Radiation Oncology, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, New York (United States); Aleman, Berthe [Department of Radiotherapy, The Netherlands Cancer Institute, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Berthelsen, Anne Kiil [Department of Radiation Oncology and PET Centre, Rigshospitalet, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen (Denmark); Constine, Louis [Departments of Radiation Oncology and Pediatrics, James P. Wilmot Cancer Center, University of Rochester Medical Center, Rochester, New York (United States); Dabaja, Bouthaina [Division of Radiation Oncology, Department of Radiation Oncology, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Dharmarajan, Kavita [Department of Radiation Oncology, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, New York (United States); Ng, Andrea [Department of Radiation Oncology, Brigham and Women' s Hospital and Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, Harvard University, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Ricardi, Umberto [Radiation Oncology Unit, Department of Oncology, University of Torino, Torino (Italy); Wirth, Andrew [Division of Radiation Oncology, Peter MacCallum Cancer Institute, St. Andrews Place, East Melbourne (Australia)

    2014-05-01

    Radiation therapy (RT) is the most effective single modality for local control of non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) and is an important component of therapy for many patients. Many of the historic concepts of dose and volume have recently been challenged by the advent of modern imaging and RT planning tools. The International Lymphoma Radiation Oncology Group (ILROG) has developed these guidelines after multinational meetings and analysis of available evidence. The guidelines represent an agreed consensus view of the ILROG steering committee on the use of RT in NHL in the modern era. The roles of reduced volume and reduced doses are addressed, integrating modern imaging with 3-dimensional planning and advanced techniques of RT delivery. In the modern era, in which combined-modality treatment with systemic therapy is appropriate, the previously applied extended-field and involved-field RT techniques that targeted nodal regions have now been replaced by limiting the RT to smaller volumes based solely on detectable nodal involvement at presentation. A new concept, involved-site RT, defines the clinical target volume. For indolent NHL, often treated with RT alone, larger fields should be considered. Newer treatment techniques, including intensity modulated RT, breath holding, image guided RT, and 4-dimensional imaging, should be implemented, and their use is expected to decrease significantly the risk for normal tissue damage while still achieving the primary goal of local tumor control.

  13. Prevalence of hyperlipidemia in a cohort of CAPD patients. Italian Cooperative Peritoneal Dialysis Study Group (ICPDSG).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cocchi, R; Viglino, G; Cancarini, G; Catizone, L; Favazza, A; Tommasi, A; Salomone, M; Segoloni, G P; Torpia, R; Giangrande, A

    1996-01-01

    An association between hyperlipidemia and cardiovascular disease is well described in the literature. We conducted an observational study in order to evaluate the lipid profile, the prevalence of hyperlipidemia and its relationship with age, sex, duration of CAPD, peritoneal glucose load (PGL), serum albumin (ALB), serum glucose (GLU), and BMI in a large cohort of uremics undergoing long-term treatment with CAPD. 457 nondiabetic patients (245 males, 212 females; mean age 63.8 +/- 11.9 years; mean duration of CAPD: 41.8 +/- 26.9 months) treated during 1992 in 25 centers participating in the Italian Cooperative Peritoneal Dialysis Study Group (ICPDSG) were studied. The serum lipid parameters evaluated were triglycerides (TG), total cholesterol (CHO), HDL-cholesterol (HDL). Indications given in the New England Journal of Medicine, SI Unit Conversion Guide, 1992, were adopted for normal ranges. In the whole population the evaluation of lipid parameters showed: TG 227.4 +/- 123.3 mg/dl, CHO 232.8 +/- 56.0 mg/dl, HDL 40.7 +/- 12.0 mg/dl. No differences were found between the two sexes with regard to age, BMI, duration of CAPD, distribution of renal diseases, TG, ALB, and GLU; whereas CHO and HDL were significantly lower in males than in females (CHO: 222.2 +/- 53.5 vs. 245.0 +/- 56.5 mg/dl, p < 0.001; HDL: 39.3 +/- 11.4 vs. 42.6 +/- 12.6 mg/dl, p < 0.05). The prevalence of hypercholesterolemia was significantly lower in males than in females (19.7 vs. 35.4%; p < 0.001). The multiple regression analysis indicated that TG were directly correlated to PGL (p < 0.05), and HDL was inversely correlated with TG (p < 0.001). The coexistence of the two variables (TG and HDL) may increase the risk of cardiovascular events. Further strategies should therefore be developed to select and manage CAPD patients to reduce the incidence of hyperlipidemia.

  14. Increasing Explanatory Behaviour, Problem-Solving, and Reasoning within Classes Using Cooperative Group Work

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillies, Robyn M.; Haynes, Michele

    2011-01-01

    The present study builds on research that indicates that teachers play a key role in promoting those interactional behaviours that challenge children's thinking and scaffold their learning. It does this by seeking to determine whether teachers who implement cooperative learning and receive training in explicit strategic questioning strategies…

  15. Intentions for cooperative conflict resolution in groups : An application of the theory of planned behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dodoiu, Gabriela

    2015-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of this study was twofold: first, to test to what extent a cooperative conflict management style can be related to attitudes, norms and perceived volitional control. Second, because conflict resolution is an activity that unfolds at the team level, the validity of the theoretical

  16. Inquiry and Groups: Student Interactions in Cooperative Inquiry-Based Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woods-McConney, Amanda; Wosnitza, Marold; Sturrock, Keryn L.

    2016-01-01

    Science education research has recommended cooperative inquiry based science in the primary science context for more than two decades but after more than 20 years, student achievement in science has not substantially improved. This study, through direct observation and analysis, investigated content-related student interactions in an authentic…

  17. Inquiry and Groups: Student Interactions in Cooperative Inquiry-Based Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woods-McConney, Amanda; Wosnitza, Marold; Sturrock, Keryn L.

    2016-01-01

    Science education research has recommended cooperative inquiry based science in the primary science context for more than two decades but after more than 20 years, student achievement in science has not substantially improved. This study, through direct observation and analysis, investigated content-related student interactions in an authentic…

  18. Separase loss of function cooperates with the loss of p53 in the initiation and progression of T- and B-cell lymphoma, leukemia and aneuploidy in mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malini Mukherjee

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Cohesin protease Separase plays a key role in faithful segregation of sister chromatids by cleaving the cohesin complex at the metaphase to anaphase transition. Homozygous deletion of ESPL1 gene that encodes Separase protein results in embryonic lethality in mice and Separase overexpression lead to aneuploidy and tumorigenesis. However, the effect of Separase haploinsufficiency has not been thoroughly investigated. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Here we examined the effect of ESPL1 heterozygosity using a hypomorphic mouse model that has reduced germline Separase activity. We report that while ESPL1 mutant (ESPL1 (+/hyp mice have a normal phenotype, in the absence of p53, these mice develop spontaneous T- and B-cell lymphomas, and leukemia with a significantly shortened latency as compared to p53 null mice. The ESPL1 hypomorphic, p53 heterozygous transgenic mice (ESPL1(+/hyp, p53(+/- also show a significantly reduced life span with an altered tumor spectrum of carcinomas and sarcomas compared to p53(+/- mice alone. Furthermore, ESPL1(+/hyp, p53(-/- mice display significantly higher levels of genetic instability and aneuploidy in normal cells, as indicated by the abnormal metaphase counts and SKY analysis of primary splenocytes. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our results indicate that reduced levels of Separase act synergistically with loss of p53 in the initiation and progression of B- and T- cell lymphomas, which is aided by increased chromosomal missegregation and accumulation of genomic instability. ESPL1(+/hyp, p53(-/- mice provide a new animal model for mechanistic study of aggressive lymphoma and also for preclinical evaluation of new agents for its therapy.

  19. Hodgkin lymphoma - children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lymphoma - Hodgkin - children; Hodgkin disease - children; Cancer - Hodgkin lymphoma - children; Childhood Hodgkin lymphoma ... In children, Hodgkin lymphoma is more likely to occur between ages 15 to 19 years. The cause of this type of ...

  20. Hodgkin Lymphoma (For Kids)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Too Tall or Too Short All About Puberty Hodgkin Lymphoma KidsHealth > For Kids > Hodgkin Lymphoma Print A ... of the cool things he's missed. What Is Hodgkin Lymphoma? Lymphoma (say: lim-FOH-mah) is cancer ...

  1. Prognostic relevance of DHAP dose-density in relapsed Hodgkin lymphoma: an analysis of the German Hodgkin-Study Group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasse, Stephanie; Alram, Magdalena; Müller, Horst; Smardová, Lenka; Metzner, Bernd; Doehner, Hartmut; Fischer, Thomas; Niederwieser, Dietger W; Schmitz, Norbert; Schäfer-Eckart, Kerstin; Raemaekers, John M M; Schmalz, Oliver; Tresckow, Bastian V; Engert, Andreas; Borchmann, Peter

    2016-05-01

    Only 50% of patients with relapsed Hodgkin lymphoma (HL) can be cured with intensive induction chemotherapy, followed by high-dose chemotherapy (HDCT) and autologous stem cell transplant (ASCT). Based on the results of the HDR2 trial two courses of DHAP and subsequent HDCT/ASCT are the current standard of care in relapsed HL. In order to assess the prognostic relevance of DHAP dose density, we performed a retrospective multivariate analysis of the HDR2 trial (N=266). In addition to four risk factors (early or multiple relapse, stage IV disease or anemia at relapse, and grade IV hematotoxicity during the first cycle of DHAP) a delayed start of the second cycle of DHAP>day 22 predicted a significantly poorer progression-free survival (PFS, p=0.0356) and overall survival (OS, p=0.0025). In conclusion, our analysis strongly suggests that dose density of DHAP has a relevant impact on the outcome of relapsed HL patients.

  2. Breast lymphoma

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Expression of oestrogen receptor protein as determined by ... lymphomas. While this classification has been fairly widely accepted, a ... minimum a full history and physical examination, chest radiographs ... and hepatic function. A number ...

  3. Hodgkin's Lymphoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... for information in your local library and on the Internet. Start your information search with the National Cancer ... www.mayoclinic.org/diseases-conditions/hodgkins-lymphoma/basics/definition/CON-20030667 . Mayo Clinic Footer Legal Conditions and ...

  4. Primary lymphoma of the brain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brain lymphoma; Cerebral lymphoma; Primary lymphoma of the central nervous system; Lymphoma - brain ... The cause of primary brain lymphoma is not known. People with a weakened immune system are at high risk for primary lymphoma of the brain. ...

  5. T-Cell Lymphoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Getting the Facts T-Cell Lymphoma Overview Lymphoma is the most common blood cancer. The two main forms of lymphoma are Hodgkin lymphoma ... develop into lymphomas: B-lymphocytes (B-cells) and T-lymphocytes (T-cells). T-cell lymphomas account for ...

  6. Molecular Pathogenesis of MALT Lymphoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katharina Troppan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Approximately 8% of all non-Hodgkin lymphomas are extranodal marginal zone B cell lymphoma of mucosa associated lymphoid tissue (MALT, also known as MALT lymphoma, which was first described in 1983 by Isaacson and Wright. MALT lymphomas arise at a wide range of different extranodal sites, with the highest frequency in the stomach, followed by lung, ocular adnexa, and thyroid, and with a low percentage in the small intestine. Interestingly, at least 3 different, apparently site-specific, chromosomal translocations and missense and frameshift mutations, all pathway-related genes affecting the NF-κB signal, have been implicated in the development and progression of MALT lymphoma. However, these genetic abnormalities alone are not sufficient for malignant transformation. There is now increasing evidence suggesting that the oncogenic product of translocation cooperates with immunological stimulation in oncogenesis, that is, the association with chronic bacterial infection or autoaggressive process. This review mainly discusses MALT lymphomas in terms of their genetic aberration and association with chronic infections and summarizes recent advances in their molecular pathogenesis.

  7. Cognitive cooperation groups mediated by computers and internet present significant improvement of cognitive status in older adults with memory complaints: a controlled prospective study

    OpenAIRE

    Rodrigo de Rosso Krug; Anna Quialheiro Abreu da Silva; Ione Jayce Ceola Schneider; Luiz Roberto Ramos; Eleonora d’Orsi; André Junqueira Xavier

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objective To estimate the effect of participating in cognitive cooperation groups, mediated by computers and the internet, on the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) percent variation of outpatients with memory complaints attending two memory clinics. Methods A prospective controlled intervention study carried out from 2006 to 2013 with 293 elders. The intervention group (n = 160) attended a cognitive cooperation group (20 sessions of 1.5 hours each). The control group (n = 133)...

  8. Randomized study of granulocyte colony stimulating factor for childhood B-cell non-Hodgkin lymphoma: a report from the Japanese pediatric leukemia/lymphoma study group B-NHL03 study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsurusawa, Masahito; Watanabe, Tomoyuki; Gosho, Masahiko; Mori, Tetsuya; Mitsui, Tetsuo; Sunami, Shosuke; Kobayashi, Ryoji; Fukano, Reiji; Tanaka, Fumiko; Fujita, Naoto; Inada, Hiroko; Sekimizu, Masahiro; Koh, Katsuyoshi; Kosaka, Yoshiyuki; Komada, Yoshihiro; Saito, Akiko M; Nakazawa, Atsuko; Horibe, Keizo

    2016-07-01

    The objective of this study was to assess the impact of the primary prophylaxis of granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) in the management of childhood B-cell non-Hodgkin lymphoma (B-NHL). Patients with advanced-stage mature B-NHL were randomized to receive prophylactic G-CSF (G-CSF+) or not receive G-CSF (G-CSF-) based on protocols of the B-NHL03 study. The G-CSF group received 5 μg/kg/d Lenograstim from day 2 after each course of six chemotherapy courses. Fifty-eight patients were assessable, 29 G-CSF + and 29 G-CSF-. G-CSF + patients showed a positive impact on the meantime to neutrophil recovery and hospital stay. On the other hand, they had no impact in the incidences of febrile neutropenia, serious infections, stomatitis and total cost. Our study showed that administration of prophylactic G-CSF through all six chemotherapy courses for childhood B-NHL showed no clinical and economic benefits for the management of childhood B-NHL treatment.

  9. Cooperation and the evolutionary ecology of bacterial virulence: the Bacillus cereus group as a novel study system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raymond, Ben; Bonsall, Michael B

    2013-08-01

    How significant is social evolution theory for the maintenance of virulence in natural populations? We assume that secreted, distantly acting virulence factors are highly likely to be cooperative public goods. Using this assumption, we discuss and critically assess the potential importance of social interactions for understanding the evolution, diversity and distribution of virulence in the Bacillus cereus group, a novel study system for microbial social biology. We conclude that dynamic equilibria in Cry toxin production, as well as strong spatial structure and population bottlenecks in hosts are the main ecological factors maintaining the cooperative secretion of virulence factors and argue that collective action has contributed to the evolution of narrow host range. Non-linearities in the benefits associated with public goods, as well as the lack of private secretion systems in the Firmicutes may also explain the prevalence and importance of distantly acting virulence factors in B. cereus and its relatives.

  10. Immunophenotyping of diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) defines multiple sub-groups of germinal centre-like tumours displaying different survival characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, John J; Fordham, Sarah; Overman, Lynne; Dignum, Helen; Wood, Katrina; Proctor, Stephen J; Crosier, Stephen; Angus, Brian; Culpin, Rachel E; Mainou-Fowler, Tryfonia

    2009-11-01

    Diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) forms a heterogeneous collection of aggressive non-Hodgkin's Lymphoma in which three principle classes of neoplasia have been defined according to gene expression and immunophenotyping studies. The present investigation sought to examine the immunophenotype of proposed subgroups and relate these to patient survival. A series of 155 DLBCL treated uniformly with anthracycline therapy in clinical trials, were stratified upon the basis of common biomarker expression with combination immunophenotype being related to patient overall survival. Stratification of tumours with respect to combined expression profiles of the three biological markers (CD10, Bcl-6 and MUM-1) revealed six groups showing significant differences in survival (p=0.014). The greatest difference resided between distinct populations of germinal centre (GC) cell tumours; the first being CD10-, Bcl-6+, MUM-1- and the second CD10+ Bcl-6+ MUM-1+ (p=0.002). The former group displayed median survival time of 143 months, the latter only 11 months. A third population of GC tumours (CD10+ Bcl-6+ and MUM-1-) also displayed a relative short median survival (32 months). Of the three groups presenting a non-GC or activated B cell (NGC/ABC) phenotype, only one (CD10-, Bcl-6+ and MUM-1+) presented short-term median survival (27 months) comparable with poor prognosis GC sub-populations. Within the remaining ABC tumour groups (CD10- Bcl-6- MUM-1- and CD10- Bcl-6- MUM-1+) patients presented intermediate median survival times of 54 and 58 months, respectively. Thus, the GC phenotype did not act as a universal indicator of good clinical prognosis, but rather multiple groups of GC tumours were associated with distinct overall survival profiles. Ultimately, the data allowed definition of a predictive algorithm defining three groups predicting poor, intermediate and good clinical prognosis. The first of these comprised two patient sub-populations with GC-like tumours together with one sub

  11. Arabidopsis RETINOBLASTOMA-RELATED and Polycomb group proteins: cooperation during plant cell differentiation and development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuwabara, Asuka; Gruissem, Wilhelm

    2014-06-01

    RETINOBLASTOMA (RB) is a tumour suppressor gene originally discovered in patients that develop eye tumours. The pRb protein is now well established as a key cell-cycle regulator which suppresses G1-S transition via interaction with E2F-DP complexes. pRb function is also required for a wide range of biological processes, including the regulation of stem-cell maintenance, cell differentiation, permanent cell-cycle exit, DNA repair, and genome stability. Such multifunctionality of pRb is thought to be facilitated through interactions with various binding partners in a context-dependent manner. Although the molecular network in which RB controls various biological processes is not fully understood, it has been found that pRb interacts with transcription factors and chromatin modifiers to either suppress or promote the expression of key genes during the switch from cell proliferation to differentiation. RETINOBLASTOMA-RELATED (RBR) is the plant orthologue of RB and is also known to negatively control the G1-S transition. Similar to its animal counterpart, plant RBR has various roles throughout plant development; however, much of its molecular functions outside of the G1-S transition are still unknown. One of the better-characterized molecular mechanisms is the cooperation of RBR with the Polycomb repressive complex 2 (PRC2) during plant-specific developmental events. This review summarizes the current understanding of this cooperation and focuses on the processes in Arabidopsis in which the RBR-PRC2 cooperation facilitates cell differentiation and developmental transitions. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Experimental Biology. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  12. Employer Cooperation in Group Insurance Coverage for Public-School Personnel, 1964-65.

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Education Association, Washington, DC.

    This study presents data on group insurance coverage for public school personnel during the 1964-65 academic year, collected from 646 school systems of all sizes throughout the United States. Areas covered include (1) group life insurance, (2) group hospitalization insurance, (3) group medical-surgical insurance, (4) group major medical insurance,…

  13. Computational method validation: An OECD (Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development) working group report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Whitesides, G.E.

    1987-01-01

    Representatives from eleven Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development member countries participated in an exercise to validate computer calculations to evaluate the criticality safety for several fissile material transport and handling situations. A procedure evolved from this work which has been shown to demonstrate whether a given computation method produces ''valid'' results. This procedure is expected to provide a basis for acceptance of computational results on an international basis by regulatory authorities through the comparison of methods used by the various countries. This work will also provide the framework for validating computational methods for other applications such as heat transfer and neutron/gamma shielding.

  14. An analysis of educators' views on their effectiveness to use group work as a co-operative learning strategy / Mary M. Seshabela

    OpenAIRE

    Seshabela, Mary M

    2004-01-01

    The study was undertaken to analyse educator's views on their effectiveness in using group work as a co-operative learning strategy. Specifically the study aims to: To determine through literature the nature of group work as a co-operative learning strategy. To find out views of educators in their effectiveness of using group work as a teaching strategy. The investigation involved 208 educators from middle and secondary schools in Themba District. Close and open ended que...

  15. Personality, Parasites, Political Attitudes, and Cooperation: A Model of How Infection Prevalence Influences Openness and Social Group Formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Gordon D A; Fincher, Corey L; Walasek, Lukasz

    2016-01-01

    What is the origin of individual differences in ideology and personality? According to the parasite stress hypothesis, the structure of a society and the values of individuals within it are both influenced by the prevalence of infectious disease within the society's geographical region. High levels of infection threat are associated with more ethnocentric and collectivist social structures and greater adherence to social norms, as well as with socially conservative political ideology and less open but more conscientious personalities. Here we use an agent-based model to explore a specific opportunities-parasites trade-off (OPTO) hypothesis, according to which utility-maximizing agents place themselves at an optimal point on a trade-off between (a) the gains that may be achieved through accessing the resources of geographically or socially distant out-group members through openness to out-group interaction, and (b) the losses arising due to consequently increased risks of exotic infection to which immunity has not been developed. We examine the evolution of cooperation and the formation of social groups within social networks, and we show that the groups that spontaneously form exhibit greater local rather than global cooperative networks when levels of infection are high. It is suggested that the OPTO model offers a first step toward understanding the specific mechanisms through which environmental conditions may influence cognition, ideology, personality, and social organization. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Topics in Cognitive Science published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of Cognitive Science Society.

  16. Oxytocin conditions intergroup relations through upregulated in-group empathy, cooperation, conformity, and defense

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Dreu, C.K.W.; Kret, M.E.

    2016-01-01

    Humans live in, rely on, and contribute to groups. Evolution may have biologically prepared them to quickly identify others as belonging to the in-group (vs. not), to decode emotional states, and to empathize with in-group members; to learn and conform to group norms and cultural practices; to exten

  17. Cooperative Learning Groups and the Evolution of Human Adaptability : (Another Reason) Why Hermits Are Rare in Tonga and Elsewhere.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Adrian Viliami; Hernandez, Daniel

    2017-03-01

    Understanding the prevalence of adaptive culture in part requires understanding the dynamics of learning. Here we explore the adaptive value of social learning in groups and how formal social groups function as effective mediums of information exchange. We discuss the education literature on Cooperative Learning Groups (CLGs), which outlines the potential of group learning for enhancing learning outcomes. Four qualities appear essential for CLGs to enhance learning: (1) extended conversations, (2) regular interactions, (3) gathering of experts, and (4) incentives for sharing knowledge. We analyze these four qualities within the context of a small-scale agricultural society using data we collected in 2010 and 2012. Through an analysis of surveys, interviews, and observations in the Tongan islands, we describe the role CLGs likely plays in facilitating individuals' learning of adaptive information. Our analysis of group affiliation, membership, and topics of conversation suggest that the first three CLG qualities reflect conditions for adaptive learning in groups. We utilize ethnographic anecdotes to suggest the fourth quality is also conducive to adaptive group learning. Using an evolutionary model, we further explore the scope for CLGs outside the Tongan socioecological context. Model analysis shows that environmental volatility and migration rates among human groups mediate the scope for CLGs. We call for wider attention to how group structure facilitates learning in informal settings, which may be key to assessing the contribution of groups to the evolution of complex, adaptive culture.

  18. Controversies on Hodgkin's disease and anaplastic large cell lymphoma. Hematopathology Study Group of the Società Italiana di Anatomia Patologica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pileri, S

    1994-01-01

    Just one year ago the Italian Society of Pathology (S.I.A.P.) created a Study Group which included members of the most active Italian hematopathology teams. Prof. Pasquale Calapso was asked to chair the Group and Prof. Stefano Pileri to take care of secretarial duties. The aim of the Group is to spread hematopathologic knowledge among young pathologists and to promote activities that can contribute to updating Italian pathologists on topics of both speculative and diagnostic interest. The first Workshop of the S.I.A.P. Hematopathology Group was held at the Palazzo dei Congressi in Bologna, November 20, 1993. About 150 pathologists from all over Italy took part in the meeting, which consisted of two sections devoted to: a) discussion of the boundaries between Hodgkin's disease and non-Hodgkin's lymphomas, and b) a case seminar illustrating the impact of immunohistochemistry in the diagnosis of bone-marrow biopsy. The first section included 5 presentations and a Round Table chaired by Prof. Luciano Fiore-Donati. Below, the contributors to this section summarize the content of their presentations, which were aimed at answering specific questions the Organizers had put to them.

  19. Modern radiation therapy for primary cutaneous lymphomas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Specht, Lena; Dabaja, Bouthaina; Illidge, Tim

    2015-01-01

    Primary cutaneous lymphomas are a heterogeneous group of diseases. They often remain localized, and they generally have a more indolent course and a better prognosis than lymphomas in other locations. They are highly radiosensitive, and radiation therapy is an important part of the treatment, eit...... meetings and analysis of available evidence. The guidelines represent an agreed consensus view of the International Lymphoma Radiation Oncology Group steering committee on the use of radiation therapy in primary cutaneous lymphomas in the modern era......., either as the sole treatment or as part of a multimodality approach. Radiation therapy of primary cutaneous lymphomas requires the use of special techniques that form the focus of these guidelines. The International Lymphoma Radiation Oncology Group has developed these guidelines after multinational...

  20. Small Groups: Student Productive Interactions in Learning Cooperative (Case Study of Mathematics Learning at Junior High School in Pakis, Malang

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katarina Tri Utaminingtyas

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to describe the process of student interaction in solving problems through cooperative learning. The subject of this research are 7th grade students of a junior high school in Malang, Indonesia. Data were collected by recording directly when learning takes place especially when pairing or forming small groups. This interaction is built with heterogeneous student skills. The results showed that the interaction that occurs in students provides an understanding of the concept of opportunity. Consequently, the students solved the problem correctly. This interaction is known as productive interaction.

  1. Ningbo Veken united Trade Group:Strengthening Sino-U.S.Apparel Trade Cooperation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liu Yi

    2011-01-01

    Held by Veken Holding Groups,international and domestic trade interactive with manufacturing basis,Ningbo Veken United Trade Group Co.,Ltd (Ningbo V.K.Industry & Trading Co.,Ltd) is a comprehensive industry and trading enterprise with the ownership of many subsidiary companies and factories in the group.

  2. [Soft tissue sarcoma in children and adolescents: experiences of the cooperative Soft Tissue Sarcoma Group Studies (CWS-81 - 96)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brecht, I B; Treuner, J

    2004-10-01

    The very heterogeneous group of paediatric soft tissue sarcomas account for approximately 7 % of all malignant childhood tumours. More than one half of all cases are rhabdomyosarcomas, some of the over 20 entities are very rare. The prognosis and biology of soft tissue sarcomas in children and adolescents vary greatly depending on histological subtype, the age of the patient, the primary site, the tumour size, tumour invasiveness and the extent of disease at diagnosis. Since 1981, 2918 children and adolescents with soft tissue sarcomas were treated prospectively according to the common treatment protocols of the Cooperative Soft Tissue Sarcoma Study Group (CWS-81 - 96). The known prognostic factors were used to develop a more and more detailed risk stratification. The multimodal treatment includes the use of surgery, chemotherapy and radiotherapy and should be planned by a multidisciplinary team. That way, an overall survival of nearly 70 % over all risk groups could be achieved.

  3. R-CHOEP-14 improves overall survival in young high-risk patients with diffuse large B-cell lymphoma compared with R-CHOP-14. A population-based investigation from the Danish Lymphoma Group

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gang, AO; Stroem, C; Pedersen, M;

    2012-01-01

    Background: Optimal treatment of young patients with high-risk diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) remains a matter of debate and requires improvement. The combination chemotherapy with cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine and prednisone (CHOP) with addition of etoposide (CHOEP) has...

  4. Group In-Course Assessment Promotes Cooperative Learning and Increases Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pratten, Margaret K.; Merrick, Deborah; Burr, Steven A.

    2014-01-01

    The authors describe and evaluate a method to motivate medical students to maximize the effectiveness of dissection opportunities by using In-Course-Assessments (ICAs) to encourage teamwork. A student's final mark was derived by combining the group dissection mark, group mark for questions, and their individual question mark. An analysis of the…

  5. Strategic approach to the management of Hodgkin's disease incorporating salvage therapy with high-dose ifosfamide, etoposide and epirubicin: a Northern Region Lymphoma Group study (UK).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Proctor, S J; Jackson, G H; Lennard, A; Angus, B; Wood, K; Lucraft, H L; White, J; Windebank, K; Taylor, P R A

    2003-01-01

    The Northern Region Lymphoma Group is a population-based group covering 3.1 million people in Northern England. From 1991 total data collection for all Hodgkin's disease patients for this population has been in place and it has been possible to demonstrate that the overall survival for Hodgkin's disease for younger patients within this population has moved from 80% pre- 1988 to 87% post- 1988. This improvement has been brought about by the introduction of clinical trials for advanced stage disease and effective salvage regimens. This report describes the outcome of 51 patients treated with the ifosfamide, etoposide and epirubicin (IVE)schedule and includes 28 males and 23 females with a median age of 34 years. Overall 43 of 51 patients responded to treatment (84%) with 31 achieving a complete response, four a good partial response and eight a partial response. Thirty-one proceeded to autologous stem-cell transplantation. In total, with a median follow-up of 24 months (range 6-51), 26 patients remain alive and in continuous remission. Haematological toxicity,in particular neutropenia WHO grade 4, was observed in all cases but improved over the three courses of treatment. Non-haematological toxicity was not a major problem, with no significant cardiac, hepatic, renal or neurotoxicity. We conclude that the high-dose ifosfamide-containing regimens should be prospectively evaluated in the various types of non-responsive and relapsing Hodgkin's disease.

  6. Parentage assignment and extra-group paternity in a cooperative breeder : the Seychelles warbler (Acrocephalus sechellensis)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Richardson, DS; Jury, FL; Blaakmeer, K; Komdeur, J; Burke, T

    2001-01-01

    We describe the development and initial application of a semiautomated parentage testing system in the Seychelles warbler (Acrocephalus sechellensis). This system used fluorescently labelled primers for 14 polymorphic microsatellite loci in two multiplex loading groups to genotype efficiently over 9

  7. Prognostic significance of cholestatic alcoholic hepatitis. VA Cooperative Study Group #119.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nissenbaum, M; Chedid, A; Mendenhall, C; Gartside, P

    1990-07-01

    Tissue cholestasis is a histologic feature in some patients with alcoholic liver disease, but its significance is unknown. We studied prospectively the clinical, laboratory, and histologic findings of 306 chronic male alcoholics in whom liver tissue was available. Tissue cholestasis permitted identification of two groups: group I, absent or mild cholestasis (239 patients), and group II, moderate to severe cholestasis (67 patients). Statistical evaluation was performed by Student's t test and regression analyses. In patients with tissue cholestasis, 97% had elevated serum cholylglycine levels, while only 61% had significant jaundice (serum bilirubin greater than 5 mg/dl). In patients without tissue cholestasis, 66% had elevated serum cholylglycine and 13.5% jaundice. Highly significant statistical correlations (P less than 0.0001) were found between cholestasis and malnutrition, prothrombin time, AST, alkaline phosphatase, bilirubin, Maddrey's discriminant function, serum cholylglycine level, albumin, and histologic severity score. In group I, 54% survived 60 months versus 22% in group II (P less than 0.0001). Highly significant statistical correlations (P less than 0.0001) were noted between serum cholylglycine levels and the parameters enumerated earlier, but not with survival. We conclude that tissue cholestasis is a highly significant prognostic indicator of outcome in alcoholic hepatitis and is more consistently associated with bile salt retention than jaundice.

  8. The conflict of social norms may cause the collapse of cooperation: indirect reciprocity with opposing attitudes towards in-group favoritism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuo, Tadasu; Jusup, Marko; Iwasa, Yoh

    2014-04-01

    Indirect reciprocity is a cooperation maintaining mechanism based on the social evaluation of players. Here, we consider the case of a group in which two social norms with opposing attitudes towards in-group favoritism are mixed. One norm, called Bushido (the way of warriors), regards cooperation with outsiders as betrayal, whereas the second norm, called Shonindo (the way of merchants), regards cooperation with outsiders as desirable. Each member of the group, irrespective of being a Bushido or a Shonindo player, is evaluated in two different ways and assigned two different labels: "ally" or "enemy" according to the Bushido evaluation; "good" or "bad" according to the Shonindo evaluation. These labels change in response to the action taken (cooperation or defection) when acting as a donor, as well as the label attached to the recipient. In addition to Bushido players, who cooperate with an ally and defect from an enemy, and Shonindo players, who cooperate with a good recipient and defect from a bad recipient, the group contains a third kind of players--unconditional defectors. The fractions of the three types of players follow the replicator dynamics. If the probability of interacting with outsiders is small, and if the cost-to-benefit ratio of cooperation is low, we observe several important patterns. Each social norm is able to maintain a high level of cooperation when dominant. Bushido and Shonindo players evaluate each other unfavorably and engage in a severe conflict. In the end, only one norm permeates the whole group driving the other to the extinction. When both social norms are equally effective, a rare occurrence of unconditional defectors may lead to a successful invasion.

  9. Cooperation and competition: nepotistic tolerance and intrasexual aggression in western bluebird winter groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickinson, J.L.; Euaparadorn, M.; Greenwald, K.; Mitra, C.; Shizuka, D.

    2009-01-01

    Two hypothesized benefits of delayed dispersal are access to resources and prolonged brood care (or??parental nepotism). Resource abundance (mistletoe wealth) is a key factor influencing whether sons stay home in western bluebirds, Sialia mexicana, but nepotism is also observed. Western bluebird sons commonly remain in their family groups throughout the winter, whereas daughters usually disperse before winter. Because pairing often takes place in winter groups, with newly formed pairs settling on exclusive all-purpose territories in spring, selection for sexual competition and nepotism co-occur and may simultaneously influence patterns of aggression within groups. We measured aggression at mealworm feeder stations, finding evidence of (1) intrasexual aggression against unrelated group members by experienced breeders of both sexes and (2) nepotism towards sons and daughters by experienced breeder females but not by experienced breeder males. Females showed much higher levels of aggression towards same-sex immigrants than males did. Experienced breeder males did not evict their sons from the natal territory, but they were 12 times more aggressive towards sons than breeder females were towards daughters. They were also equally aggressive towards sons and immigrant males, suggesting that local breeding competition and the benefits of intrasexual dominance counter the benefits of paternal nepotism towards sons. ?? 2009 The Association for the Study of Animal Behaviour.

  10. Comparing Two Cooperative Small Group Formats Used with Physical Therapy and Medical Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Eon, Marcel; Proctor, Peggy; Reeder, Bruce

    2007-01-01

    This study compared "Structured Controversy" (a semi-formal debate like small group activity) with a traditional open discussion format for medical and physical therapy students. We found that those students who had participated in Structured Controversy changed their personal opinion on the topic more than those who were in the Open Discussion…

  11. Using Group Projects as a Strategy to Increase Cooperation among Low- and High-Achieving Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thanh Pham, Thi Hong

    2013-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate the perceptions, interactions and behaviours of different-ability college students when they worked on different types of assessments. Two classes of 145 Vietnamese college students participated in this three-month study. The students were assigned to mixed-ability groups, each of which consisted of five students.…

  12. Student Discussions in Cooperative Learning Groups in a High School Mathematics Classroom: A Descriptive Multiple Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Susan R.

    2010-01-01

    Teachers want and need students to excel in the classroom. Cooperative learning is one method recognized to address this. Numerous researchers have shown that cooperative learning leads to improved skills in teamwork and communication in other fields (Johnson and Johnson, 2007; Slavin, 1995). Cooperative learning used in this study showed that the…

  13. Costa rican international cooperative biodiversity group: using insects and other arthropods in biodiversity prospecting

    OpenAIRE

    Sittenfeld-Appel, Ana; Tamayo-Castillo, Giselle; Nielsen-Muñoz, Vanessa; Jiménez, Allan; Hurtado, Priscilla; Chinchilla-Carmona, Misael; Guerrero-Bermúdez, Olga Marta; Mora, María Auxiliadora; Rojas, Miguel; Blanco, Roger; Alvarado, Eugenio; Gutiérrez Gutiérrez, José María; Janzen, Daniel Hunt

    1999-01-01

    artículo -- Universidad de Costa Rica. Escuela de Química, Universidad de Costa Rica. Facultad de Microbiología. Departmento Parasitología, Universidad de Costa Rica. Instituto Clodomiro Picado, 1999. Este documento es privado debido a limitaciones de derechos de autor. This paper describes the Costa Rican International Collaborative Biodiversity Group (ICBG), which was designed to introduce insects and other arthropods as a source of pharmaceutical compounds, and to generate knowledge and...

  14. [Plasmablastic lymphoma].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Álvarez, Rubén; Sancho, Juan-Manuel; Ribera, Josep-María

    2016-11-04

    Plasmablastic lymphoma (PBL) is a rare and aggressive subtype of non-Hodgkin lymphoma that commonly occurs in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-positive individuals, and affects oral sites. Occasionally, it has been described in HIV-negative patients and involving non-oral sites. Pathologically, PBL is a high-grade B-cell lymphoma that displays the immunophenotype of a terminally differentiated B-lymphocyte with loss of B-cell markers (CD20) and expression of plasma-cell antigens. Epstein-Barr virus infection and MYC rearrangements are frequently observed. Treatment of PBL is challenging because of the lack of established treatment and poor outcomes, with median survival times shorter than one year. In this review, we discuss the clinical and epidemiologic spectrum of PBL as well as its distinct pathological features. Finally, we summarize the currently available approaches for the treatment of patients with PBL. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  15. Response evaluation criteria for solid tumours in dogs (v1.0): a Veterinary Cooperative Oncology Group (VCOG) consensus document.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, S M; Thamm, D H; Vail, D M; London, C A

    2015-09-01

    In veterinary medical oncology, there is currently no standardized protocol for assessing response to therapy in solid tumours. The lack of such a formalized guideline makes it challenging to critically compare outcome measures across various treatment protocols. The Veterinary Cooperative Oncology Group (VCOG) membership consensus document presented here is based on the recommendations of a subcommittee of American College of Veterinary Internal Medicine (ACVIM) board-certified veterinary oncologists. This consensus paper has used the human response evaluation criteria in solid tumours (RECIST v1.1) as a framework to establish standard procedures for response assessment in canine solid tumours that is meant to be easy to use, repeatable and applicable across a variety of clinical trial structures in veterinary oncology. It is hoped that this new canine RECIST (cRECIST v1.0) will be adopted within the veterinary oncology community and thereby facilitate the comparison of current and future treatment protocols used for companion animals with cancer.

  16. Lymphoma of the eyelid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svendsen, Frederik H; Heegaard, Steffen

    2017-01-01

    Lymphoma of the eyelid constitutes 5% of ocular adnexal lymphoma. In previously published cases, 56% of lymphomas of the eyelid are of B-cell origin and 44% are of T-cell origin. The most frequent B-cell lymphomas are extranodal marginal zone lymphoma (27 cases-14%) and diffuse large B-cell lymph......Lymphoma of the eyelid constitutes 5% of ocular adnexal lymphoma. In previously published cases, 56% of lymphomas of the eyelid are of B-cell origin and 44% are of T-cell origin. The most frequent B-cell lymphomas are extranodal marginal zone lymphoma (27 cases-14%) and diffuse large B...... chemotherapy with or without adjuvant treatment is the treatment of choice for high-grade or disseminated lymphomas. The majority of subtypes, especially low-grade subtypes, have a good prognosis with few recurrences or progression. Some subtypes, including mycosis fungoides, have a poorer prognosis...

  17. UPAYA PENINGKATAN AKTIVITAS DAN PRESTASI BELAJAR PENDIDIKAN AGAMA HINDU MELALUI PENERAPAN COOPERATIVE LEARNING TIPE GROUP INVESTIGATION (GI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ida I Dewa Ayu Ketut Putri

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Cooperative learning : group investigation (GI is a learning strategy to determine the student’s development and progress that oriented to class activities and allow students to use a variety of learning resources besides teachers. Thelow learning achievement obtained by students in particular on the subjects of Hinduism is noteworthy. It is caused by several factors, including the intelligence of students, student motivation, interest in learning, study habits, as well as external factors such as student living environment, the infrastructure that supports the learning process inadequate. To see whether the implementation of Cooperative Learning type Group Investigation able to improve student learning outcomes, this study applied the model to the 2nd year student (class F in SMP Negeri 3 Denpasar school year 2011/2012. This study was classifiedas a class action (classroom action reseach which is the subject is the 2nd year student (class F as many as 28 people and the object of research is thestudent’s learning activities. This study used primary data obtained directly from the students by using the technique of testing and observation sheet. The collected data were analyzed descriptively based on the average and standarddeviation that obtained through the results of the evaluation scores at each end of the cycle. The results showed a very significant increase in activity of students from an average score of 2.93 in the first cycle to 4.14 in the second cycle. The average student achievement in the first cycle is 70.64 with classical completeness of 60% increased to 75.54 with classical completeness of 92.9%.

  18. Two CRM protein subfamilies cooperate in the splicing of group IIB introns in chloroplasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asakura, Yukari; Bayraktar, Omer Ali; Barkan, Alice

    2008-11-01

    Chloroplast genomes in angiosperms encode approximately 20 group II introns, approximately half of which are classified as subgroup IIB. The splicing of all but one of the subgroup IIB introns requires a heterodimer containing the peptidyl-tRNA hydrolase homolog CRS2 and one of two closely related proteins, CAF1 or CAF2, that harbor a recently recognized RNA binding domain called the CRM domain. Two CRS2/CAF-dependent introns require, in addition, a CRM domain protein called CFM2 that is only distantly related to CAF1 and CAF2. Here, we show that CFM3, a close relative of CFM2, associates in vivo with those CRS2/CAF-dependent introns that are not CFM2 ligands. Mutant phenotypes in rice and Arabidopsis support a role for CFM3 in the splicing of most of the introns with which it associates. These results show that either CAF1 or CAF2 and either CFM2 or CFM3 simultaneously bind most chloroplast subgroup IIB introns in vivo, and that the CAF and CFM subunits play nonredundant roles in splicing. These results suggest that the expansion of the CRM protein family in plants resulted in two subfamilies that play different roles in group II intron splicing, with further diversification within a subfamily to accommodate multiple intron ligands.

  19. Minimal requirements in prostate cancer irradiation: a consensus document by the AIRO Lombardia Cooperative Group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valdagni, R; Bertoni, F; Bossi, A; Caraffini, B; Corbella, F; Italia, C; Källi, M; Leoni, M; Nava, S; Sarti, E; Vavassori, V; Villa, S

    1999-01-01

    With the aim of establishing clinical and technical criteria to homogenize radiotherapy practice, a working group of AIRO-Lombardia (Associazione Italiana di Radioterapia Oncologica--Gruppo regionale della Lombardia) has tried to define minimal requirements for radical and postoperative irradiation in prostate cancer. The document has been structured in such a way as to be also of interest to the urological and medical oncology communities. The working group, composed of representatives of most of the regional radiotherapy departments in the Lombardy region, had monthly meetings during 1996 and 1997. The document on minimal requirements has been derived from the participants' combined experience and knowledge, from review of the literature, and from a 1995 regional survey on current practice of prostate irradiation. Minimal requirements for radical and postoperative irradiation of prostate cancer have been defined with respect to treatment strategies, pre-treatment diagnostic evaluation and staging, treatment prescription, preparation and execution, and quality assurance procedures. Standards of reference for minimal requirements in prostate cancer irradiation adapted to the regional structures and resources have been defined.

  20. Radiation therapy planning for early-stage Hodgkin lymphoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maraldo, Maja V; Dabaja, Bouthaina S; Filippi, Andrea R

    2015-01-01

    PURPOSE: Early-stage Hodgkin lymphoma (HL) is a rare disease, and the location of lymphoma varies considerably between patients. Here, we evaluate the variability of radiation therapy (RT) plans among 5 International Lymphoma Radiation Oncology Group (ILROG) centers with regard to beam arrangements...

  1. Cooperative enclosing control for multiple moving targets by a group of agents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Y. J.; Li, R.; Teo, K. L.

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, the enclosing control problem of second-order multi-agent systems is considered, where the targets can be either stationary or moving. The objective is to achieve an equidistant circular formation for a group of agents to enclose a team of targets. In order to do so, we first introduce a formal definition explaining certain basic properties of the exploring relation between the agents and the targets. We then construct the estimator of the centre of the targets, which is used to build the control protocol to achieve equidistant circular enclosing. Using a Lyapunov function and Lasalle's Invariance Principle, the convergency of the estimator and control protocol are, respectively, established. We then construct a smooth function to approximate the discontinuous term in the estimator. Finally, the simulations for stationary targets and moving targets are given to verify the validity of the results obtained.

  2. Adolescents with Cancer in Italy: Improving Access to National Cooperative Pediatric Oncology Group (AIEOP) Centers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrari, Andrea; Rondelli, Roberto; Pession, Andrea; Mascarin, Maurizio; Buzzoni, Carlotta; Mosso, Maria Luisa; Maule, Milena; Barisone, Elena; Bertolotti, Marina; Clerici, Carlo Alfredo; Jankovic, Momcilo; Fagioli, Franca; Biondi, Andrea

    2016-06-01

    This analysis compared the numbers of patients treated at Italian pediatric oncology group (Associazione Italiana Ematologia Oncologia Pediatrica [AIEOP]) centers with the numbers of cases predicted according to the population-based registry. It considered 32,431 patients registered in the AIEOP database (1989-2012). The ratio of observed (O) to expected (E) cases was 0.79 for children (0-14 years old) and 0.15 for adolescents (15-19 years old). The proportion of adolescents increased significantly over the years, however, from 0.05 in the earliest period to 0.10, 0.18, and then 0.28 in the latest period of observation, suggesting a greater efficacy of local/national programs dedicated to adolescents.

  3. Usefulness of Random Skin Biopsy as a Diagnostic Tool of Intravascular Lymphoma Presenting With Fever of Unknown Origin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pongpudpunth, Marinya; Rattanakaemakorn, Ploysyne; Fleischer, Alan B

    2015-09-01

    Intravascular B-cell lymphoma (IVBCL) is a rare type of extranodal lymphoma in which the lymphoma proliferates within vascular lumen. One of the most common presenting symptoms is prolonged fever. Although examination of a random skin biopsy from healthy-appearing skin in patients with suspected intravascular lymphoma has been reported to be useful, the sensitivity of this method for diagnosis is still unknown. To evaluate the usefulness of a random skin biopsy in the diagnosis of intravascular lymphoma in the patient presenting with fever of unknown origin. All cases that we performed random skin biopsy were retrospectively reviewed from March 2007 to June 2012 in Ramathibodi Hospital. The incisional biopsy technique was performed in 3 separate locations including 2 specimens from both upper thighs and 1 specimen from the abdomen. Of the 24 cases that were consulted to dermatologist for random skin biopsy, 3 cases (13%) were diagnosed of intravascular lymphoma and all presented with prolong fever, weight loss, and remarkable deterioration in Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group (ECOG) performance status (ECOG score) > 2. Interestingly, 2 cases (8%) were diagnosed with cytophagic histiocytic panniculitis from normal-appearing skin and subsequently investigated, which leads to the diagnosed of T-cell lymphoma. In an elderly patient with fever of unknown origin and/or weight loss with no evident of skin lesion, markedly elevated lactate dehydrogenase, remarkable deterioration in ECOG performance status who suspected IVBCL should be consider to perform incisional random skin biopsy at least 3 specimens from both thighs and abdomen to achieve a high sensitivity. We propose that this technique may serve as an important diagnostic tool to obtain the diagnosis of IVBCL. In summary, 5 of 24 (21%) positive results from random skin biopsy helped diagnoses of lymphoma.

  4. Canine digital tumors: a veterinary cooperative oncology group retrospective study of 64 dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henry, Carolyn J; Brewer, William G; Whitley, Elizabeth M; Tyler, Jeff W; Ogilvie, Gregory K; Norris, Alan; Fox, Leslie E; Morrison, Wallace B; Hammer, Alan; Vail, David M; Berg, John

    2005-01-01

    We compared clinical characteristics and outcomes for dogs with various digital tumors. Medical records and histology specimens of affected dogs from 9 veterinary institutions were reviewed. Risk factors examined included age, weight, sex, tumor site (hindlimb or forelimb), local tumor (T) stage, metastases, tumor type, and treatment modality. The Kaplan-Meier product limit method was used to determine the effect of postulated risk factors on local disease-free interval (LDFI), metastasis-free interval (MFI), and survival time (ST). Outcomes were thought to differ significantly between groups when P dogs were included. Squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) accounted for 33 (51.6%) of the tumors. Three dogs presented with or developed multiple digital SCC. Other diagnoses included malignant melanoma (MM) (n = 10; 15.6%), osteosarcoma (OSA) (n = 4; 6.3%), hemangiopericytoma (n = 3; 4.7%), benign soft tissue tumors (n = 5; 7.8%), and malignant soft tissue tumors (n = 9; 14%). Fourteen dogs with malignancies had black hair coats, including 5 of the 10 dogs with MM. Surgery was the most common treatment and, regardless of the procedure, had a positive impact on survival. None of the patient variables assessed, including age, sex, tumor type, site, and stage, had a significant impact on ST. Both LDFI and MFI were negatively affected by higher T stage, but not by type of malignancy. Although metastasis at diagnosis correlated with a shorter LDFI, it did not have a significant impact on ST. On the basis of these findings, early surgical intervention is advised for the treatment of dogs with digital tumors, regardless of tumor type or the presence of metastatic disease.

  5. Environmental risk factors in endemic pemphigus foliaceus (Fogo selvagem). "The Cooperative Group on Fogo Selvagem Research".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lombardi, C; Borges, P C; Chaul, A; Sampaio, S A; Rivitti, E A; Friedman, H; Martins, C R; Sanches Júnior, J A; Cunha, P R; Hoffmann, R G

    1992-06-01

    Endemic pemphigus foliaceus or Fogo selvagem (FS) is an epidermal organ-specific autoimmune disease mediated by autoantibodies. Individuals at risk are peasants who live and work on farms located in the interior of certain endemic states of Brazil. This case-control study compares a group of 52 FS patients with 52 patients suffering from other dermatoses admitted and followed at the hospital for pemphigus (Hospital do Penfigo) in the city of Goiania, state of Goias. Patients and controls matched 1:1 by age, sex, and occupation were examined by two dermatologists at the time of admission and asked to respond to a prepared questionnaire. This questionnaire concerned current and past (1 and 5 years) exposure to environmental risk factors. The following risk factors were assessed: black fly bites, presence of rodents at home, exposure to cereal dust, exposure to fumes or dust released by tree and shrub removal, and exposure to insecticides. Relative risks were estimated from tabulated data by the odds ratio and tested for significance by the chi-square test. The 95% confidence interval for the odds ratio was also calculated for each of the risk factors. The only risk factor showing an odds ratio significantly different from one was exposure to simuliidae bites (odds ratio 4.7, p less than 0.001). This study reinforces the hypothesis that chronic exposure to black fly antigens may precipitate IgG4 antibody formation in predisposed individuals. These antibodies in turn may cross-react with epidermal antigens and cause acantholysis and the clinical expression of the disease known as FS.

  6. Histopathological features and their prognostic impact in nodular lymphocyte-predominant Hodgkin lymphoma--a matched pair analysis from the German Hodgkin Study Group (GHSG).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartmann, Sylvia; Eichenauer, Dennis A; Plütschow, Annette; Mottok, Anja; Bob, Roshanak; Koch, Karoline; Bernd, Heinz-Wolfram; Cogliatti, Sergio; Hummel, Michael; Feller, Alfred C; Ott, German; Möller, Peter; Rosenwald, Andreas; Stein, Harald; Hansmann, Martin-Leo; Engert, Andreas; Klapper, Wolfram

    2014-10-01

    Nodular lymphocyte-predominant Hodgkin lymphoma (NLPHL) is a rare lymphoma entity. We performed a matched-pair analysis to evaluate the prognostic impact of several histopathological features in this distinct Hodgkin lymphoma subtype. Lymph node samples of NLPHL patients were tested for CD15, IgD, phosphorylated STAT6, ICOS and Epstein-Barr virus status of the malignant lymphocyte-predominant cells as well as epithelioid cell clusters and activated T cells in the microenvironment. None of these features was associated with a particular clinical outcome. However, patients presenting with epithelioid cell clusters showed a non-significant trend towards a lower relapse rate, justifying further evaluation of this marker. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Ongoing trials in low-grade lymphoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Burchardt

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available There are many therapies available for the management of low-grade lymphoma. With follicular lymphoma, for example, combination of chemotherapy and rituximab (immuno-chemo - therapy and consecutive maintenance therapy for 2 years is the current standard of care. To date, the most widely used regimen seems to be rituximab combined with cyclo phosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine, and prednisone (RCHOP. Substitution of liposomal doxorubicin in place of conventional doxorubicin may improve outcomes in this indication, although evidence for its use in low-grade lymphoma is not as relevant as in aggressive lymphoma. Bendamustine, in combination with rituximab, has shown very good efficacy and tolerability in several lymphoma types, particularly follicular lymphoma and other low-grade lymphomas. Other combinations, such as those including bortezomib and lenalidomide, are under investigation in low-grade lymphoma, and the duration of rituximab maintenance therapy following bendamustine−rituximab-containing induction is being researched by the German Study Group for Indolent Lymphoma (StiL.

  8. Testicular lymphoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Michael Boe; d'Amore, F; Christensen, Bjarne Egelund

    1994-01-01

    In a Danish population-based non-Hodgkin's lymphoma registry, 2687 newly diagnosed patients were registered from 1983 to 1992. 39 had testicular involvement (TL) (incidence 0.26/10(5)/year). Median age was 71 years. 24 cases had localised and 15 had disseminated disease. Histologically, all cases...... were diffuse (65% diffuse centroblastic type). Of the 27 tested, 11% were of T- and 89% of B-immunophenotype. In localised cases, where surgery was supplemented by combination chemotherapy (CCT), the relapse rate was 15.4%. The relapse rate for cases with localised disease treated with other regimens...

  9. Prognostic Value of FDG-PET, Based on the Revised Response Criteria, in Patients with Malignant Lymphoma: A Comparison with CT/MRI Evaluations, Based on the International Working Group/ Cotswolds Meeting Criteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kayako Isohashi

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective(s: Post-treatment evaluations by CT/MRI (based on the International Working Group/ Cotswolds meeting guidelines and PET (based on Revised Response Criteria, were examined in terms of progression-free survival (PFS in patients with malignant lymphoma (ML. Methods: 79 patients, undergoing CT/MRI for the examination of suspected lesions and whole-body PET/CT before and after therapy, were included in the study during April 2007-January 2013. The relationship between post-treatment evaluations (CT/MRI and PET and PFS during the follow-up period was examined, using Kaplan-Meier survival analysis. The patients were grouped according to the histological type into Hodgkin’s lymphoma (HL, diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL, and other histological types. The association between post-treatment evaluations (PET or PET combined with CT/ MRI and PFS was examined separately. Moreover, the relationship between disease recurrence and serum soluble interleukin-2 receptor, lactic dehydrogenase, and C-reactive protein levels was evaluated before and after the treatment. Results: Patients with incomplete remission on both CT/MRI and PET had a significantly shorter PFS, compared to patients with complete remission on both CT/MRI and PET and those exhibiting incomplete remission on CT/MRI and complete remission on PET (P

  10. Potential for the development of a marketing option for the specialty local Ban pork of a Thai ethnic smallholder cooperative group in Northwest Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le, Thi Thanh Huyen; Muth, Philipp C; Markemann, André; Schöll, Kerstin; Zárate, Anne Valle

    2016-02-01

    Based on 12 years of research (SFB 564 "The Uplands Program"), a community-based breeding and marketing cooperative group was transferred to an ethnic farmer group. This study analyses the potential for developing a marketing channel for specialty local Ban pork as an alternative to supplying the local markets to ensure long-term sustainability of the communal local pig breeding and production system. Data on pig-keeping were investigated from 378 farmers who wanted to enroll in the cooperative group in 10 villages (near town, intermediate, and remote zones) in Son La province. The data on Ban pig marketing activities of the cooperative group were investigated for all of its 180 members. Information on the market demand for Ban pigs were collected by interviewing 57 traders in Hanoi city and Son La province. The results show a dominance of local Ban in remote areas, and a preference for crossbreds with exotics in closer-to-town areas. Before farmers joined the cooperative group, the commercialization of pigs in remote villages accounted for only 3.0 pigs/farm/year compared to 9.3 pigs/farm/year in the intermediate zone and 11.2 pigs/farm/year near town. Potential markets have been identified for each product category of the cooperative group. Pure Ban pigs with a weight of 10-15 kg were preferred most by customers in Hanoi city. The regular feedback of information on niche markets for different products has increased the awareness of farmers about the competitiveness of the local pig products, and the power of collective action in the market. Selected pure Ban pigs were increasingly sold to food stores in Hanoi with high prices. Farmers received an average of 9000 VND more compared to the local market price for each kg of live weight. The respective added value for the cooperative group amounted to 11,300 VND/kg live weight. The added value from selling specialty Ban pigs regularly to markets, encouraged farmers toward a market in local pig production and

  11. Childhood Hodgkin International Prognostic Score (CHIPS) Predicts event-free survival in Hodgkin Lymphoma: A Report from the Children's Oncology Group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, Cindy L; Chen, Lu; McCarten, Kathleen; Wolden, Suzanne; Constine, Louis S; Hutchison, Robert E; de Alarcon, Pedro A; Keller, Frank G; Kelly, Kara M; Trippet, Tanya A; Voss, Stephan D; Friedman, Debra L

    2017-04-01

    Early response to initial chemotherapy in Hodgkin lymphoma (HL) measured by computed tomography (CT) and/or positron emission tomography (PET) after two to three cycles of chemotherapy may inform therapeutic decisions. Risk stratification at diagnosis could, however, allow earlier and potentially more efficacious treatment modifications. We developed a predictive model for event-free survival (EFS) in pediatric/adolescent HL using clinical data known at diagnosis from 1103 intermediate-risk HL patients treated on Children's Oncology Group protocol AHOD0031 with doxorubicin, bleomycin, vincristine, etoposide, prednisone, cyclophosphamide (ABVE-PC) chemotherapy and radiation. Independent predictors of EFS were identified and used to develop and validate a prognostic score (Childhood Hodgkin International Prognostic Score [CHIPS]). A training cohort was randomly selected to include approximately half of the overall cohort, with the remainder forming the validation cohort. Stage 4 disease, large mediastinal mass, albumin (<3.5), and fever were independent predictors of EFS that were each assigned one point in the CHIPS.  Four-year EFS was 93.1% for patients with CHIPS = 0, 88.5% for patients with CHIPS = 1, 77.6% for patients with CHIPS = 2, and 69.2% for patients with CHIPS = 3. CHIPS was highly predictive of EFS, identifying a subset (with CHIPS 2 or 3) that comprises 27% of intermediate-risk patients who have a 4-year EFS of <80% and who may benefit from early therapeutic augmentation.  Furthermore, CHIPS identified higher risk patients who were not identified by early PET or CT response. CHIPS is a robust and inexpensive approach to predicting risk in patients with intermediate-risk HL that may improve ability to tailor therapy to risk factors known at diagnosis. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Radiotherapy in the treatment of primary central nervous system lymphoma (PCNSL).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, D F

    1999-07-01

    The use of radiotherapy alone to treat primary central nervous system lymphoma (PCNSL) does not produce the high local control and survival rates that it does in limited extranodal non-Hodgkin's lymphoma outside the central nervous system (CNS). Even with doses of whole brain radiation therapy (WBRT) to 40+20 Gy boost, the Radiation Therapy Oncology Group (RTOG) reported a local control rate of 39%. Seventy-nine percent of recurrences were in the 60 Gy region. The median survival was 11.6 months. This response to local radiotherapy is quite different from the response of non-CNS Diffuse Large Cell Lymphoma where doses of 30-40 and >40 Gy have a 75-90% local control rate. Neither systemic lymphoma nor PCNSL have a classic radiotherapy dose response. For PCNSL there appears to be a threshold dose that ranges in the literature between 30 and > 50 Gy with a median of 40 Gy. Therefore, when radiotherapy is combined with chemotherapy that crosses the BBB, WBRT and/or boost doses may be able to be decreased, especially in patients achieving a complete response. Promising data from the Centre Leon Berard suggest that this is possible. When such chemotherapy was combined with intrathecal chemotherapy and 20 Gy WBRT, they obtained a 56% actuarial 5 year survival rate. Confirmation of single institution reports of favorable results such as these are needed. Cooperative group and intergroup trials are needed to define optimal therapy.

  13. How to create more supportive supervision for primary healthcare: lessons from Ngamiland district of Botswana: co-operative inquiry group

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oathokwa Nkomazana

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Supportive supervision is a way to foster performance, productivity, motivation, and retention of health workforce. Nevertheless there is a dearth of evidence of the impact and acceptability of supportive supervision in low- and middle-income countries. This article describes a participatory process of transforming the supervisory practice of district health managers to create a supportive environment for primary healthcare workers. Objective: The objective of the study was to explore how district health managers can change their practice to create a more supportive environment for primary healthcare providers. Design: A facilitated co-operative inquiry group (CIG was formed with Ngamiland health district managers. CIG belongs to the participatory action research paradigm and is characterised by a cyclic process of observation, reflection, planning, and action. The CIG went through three cycles between March 2013 and March 2014. Results: Twelve district health managers participated in the inquiry group. The major insights and learning that emerged from the inquiry process included inadequate supervisory practice, perceptions of healthcare workers’ experiences, change in the managers’ supervision paradigm, recognition of the supervisors’ inadequate supervisory skills, and barriers to supportive supervision. Finally, the group developed a 10-point consensus on what they had learnt regarding supportive supervision. Conclusion: Ngamiland health district managers have come to appreciate the value of supportive supervision and changed their management style to be more supportive of their subordinates. They also developed a consensus on supportive supervision that could be adapted for use nationally. Supportive supervision should be prioritised at all levels of the health system, and it should be adequately resourced.

  14. Stages of Adult Hodgkin Lymphoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Treatment Adult NHL Treatment AIDS-Related Lymphoma Treatment Mycosis Fungoides & Sézary Syndrome Treatment Primary CNS Lymphoma Treatment ... Treatment Adult NHL Treatment AIDS-Related Lymphoma Treatment Mycosis Fungoides & Sézary Syndrome Treatment Primary CNS Lymphoma Treatment ...

  15. Stages of Childhood Hodgkin Lymphoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Treatment Adult NHL Treatment AIDS-Related Lymphoma Treatment Mycosis Fungoides & Sézary Syndrome Treatment Primary CNS Lymphoma Treatment ... Treatment Adult NHL Treatment AIDS-Related Lymphoma Treatment Mycosis Fungoides & Sézary Syndrome Treatment Primary CNS Lymphoma Treatment ...

  16. AN ASSESSMENT OF COOPERATIVE LEARNING EFFECTIVENESS IN TOURISM AND HOSPITALITY TEACHING – A CASE STUDY OF SELECTED STUDENT GROUPS AT STRATHMORE UNIVERSITY IN KENYA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joe Kibuye Wadawi

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Cooperative Learning has been defined as a relationship in a group of students that requires positive interdependence, individual accountability, interpersonal skills, face-to-face promotive interaction, and processing. Several techniques have been used to implement to advance learning amongst groups of tourism and hospitality students. While a number of methods have delivered favourable results in students’ motivation and learning, some have been used with counterproductive results. The purpose of this study therefore was to carry out a practical assessment of a specified cooperative learning technique using selected student groups within the School of Tourism and Hospitality in Strathmore University, Kenya. In this study, identified learning groups were given fundamental rules on how to use the chosen technique and thereafter asked to apply the technique in a specified learning session. Students were then asked to complete a simple questionnaire to make judgement on the learning effectiveness of the technique and their attitude to it regarding group dynamics. This study established that there are aspects typical of cooperative learning that should be encouraged and specific aspects that should be discouraged. The research identified major factors that should be considered to enhance cooperative learning in tourism and hospitality education in Africa

  17. Supervising Model of Independent Enterprise Group (Study of Community Development of PT Badak NGL in Cipta Busana Cooperative

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hermansyah Hermansyah

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This research aims to arrange an empowerment model of enterprise group through the program of Community Development in order to be independent and ready to compete, which is begun from the empirical study of the success of Cipta Busana Cooperative.. This research uses the descriptive analysis by using a case study on one enterprise supervised by PT Badak NGL that is Koperasi Cipta Busana (Kocibu. Kocibu is chosen to be the object of research due to its success to achieve the target to be the independent supervised enterprise in the fourth year. The data analysis method used in this research is the explorative analysis. Based on the research, there are some results such as that Kocibu is one of the supervised Micro, Small and Medium Enterprises of PT Badak NGL that could develop and be independent through several supporting programs. Some of key successes of Kocibu are as follows: a high commitment, a good leader, and intensive supervising programs. Besides, a good marketing system also contributes to the key of success. There are some aspects that naturally contribute to the Kocibu improvement and emerge naturally as follows: the leader figure and the high commitment from the stakeholders. While, the aspects emerged by design are: the supervising and training programs, the evaluation, the determination of rules, and the business targets. Hopefully, after this research has been conducted, the aspects appeared naturaly would be realized so early that the success of the public empowerment program will be able to increase. 

  18. Knowledge extraction algorithm for variances handling of CP using integrated hybrid genetic double multi-group cooperative PSO and DPSO.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Gang; Jiang, Zhibin; Diao, Xiaodi; Yao, Yang

    2012-04-01

    Although the clinical pathway (CP) predefines predictable standardized care process for a particular diagnosis or procedure, many variances may still unavoidably occur. Some key index parameters have strong relationship with variances handling measures of CP. In real world, these problems are highly nonlinear in nature so that it's hard to develop a comprehensive mathematic model. In this paper, a rule extraction approach based on combing hybrid genetic double multi-group cooperative particle swarm optimization algorithm (PSO) and discrete PSO algorithm (named HGDMCPSO/DPSO) is developed to discovery the previously unknown and potentially complicated nonlinear relationship between key parameters and variances handling measures of CP. Then these extracted rules can provide abnormal variances handling warning for medical professionals. Three numerical experiments on Iris of UCI data sets, Wisconsin breast cancer data sets and CP variances data sets of osteosarcoma preoperative chemotherapy are used to validate the proposed method. When compared with the previous researches, the proposed rule extraction algorithm can obtain the high prediction accuracy, less computing time, more stability and easily comprehended by users, thus it is an effective knowledge extraction tool for CP variances handling.

  19. The Application of Group Cooperative Learning in English Reading Teaching%小组合作学习在英语阅读教学中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姜月梅

    2015-01-01

    传统的教学模式已经不适应体校这一特殊学校的英语阅读教学,而小组合作学习模式教学的引入真正实现了以“学生为主体”的教学理念。要想发挥小组合作学习的最大优势,保证阅读教学的有效性,需要科学构建合作学习小组、有效设计小组合作学习任务、有序开展小组合作学习、注重师生角色分工、采用多元化评价方式激发学生学习动力。让学生在合作中学会思考、学会交流、学会互助、学会学习。%The traditional teaching mode is not adaptable for the special sports school in English reading teaching while a teaching mode of group cooperative learning is introduced to implement“the student-centred”teaching idea .In order to take maximum advantage of group cooperative learning and ensure effective reading teaching ,there should be sci-entific design of a cooperative learning group ,effective tasks in group cooperative learning ,and systematical cooperative learning .The roles of teachers and students should be paid attention to and diversified evaluation methods should be used to stimulate students’ learning motivation so that students learn to think ,to communicate ,to help each other and to learn how to study in the cooperation .

  20. Treatment Options for Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Lymphoma Treatment AIDS-Related Lymphoma Treatment Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia Treatment (small lymphocytic lymphoma) Mycosis Fungoides (Including Sézary Syndrome) Treatment (cutaneous T-cell lymphoma) Primary CNS Lymphoma Treatment Non-Hodgkin lymphoma ...

  1. Stages of Adult Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Lymphoma Treatment AIDS-Related Lymphoma Treatment Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia Treatment (small lymphocytic lymphoma) Mycosis Fungoides (Including Sézary Syndrome) Treatment (cutaneous T-cell lymphoma) Primary CNS Lymphoma Treatment Non-Hodgkin lymphoma ...

  2. Peripheral T-Cell Lymphoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Getting the Facts Peripheral T-Cell Lymphoma Overview Lymphoma is the most common blood cancer. The two main forms of lymphoma are Hodgkin lymphoma and ... develop into lymphomas: B-lymphocytes (B-cells) and T-lymphocytes (T-cells). Peripheral T-cell lymphoma (PTCL) ...

  3. Salivary gland carcinoma : Independent prognostic factors for locoregional control, distant metastases, and overall survival: Results of the Dutch Head and Neck Oncology Cooperative Group

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Terhaard, CHJ; Lubsen, H; Van der Tweel, [No Value; Hilgers, FJM; Eijkenboom, WMH; Marres, HAM; Tjho-Heslinga, RE; de Jong, JMA; Roodenburg, JLN

    2004-01-01

    Background. We analyzed the records of patients with malignant salivary gland tumors, as diagnosed in centers of the Dutch Head and Neck Oncology Cooperative Group, in search of independent prognostic factors for locoregional control, distant metastases, and overall survival. Methods. In 565 patient

  4. Integrating Multiple Intelligences and Learning Styles on Solving Problems, Achievement in, and Attitudes towards Math in Six Graders with Learning Disabilities in Cooperative Groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eissa, Mourad Ali; Mostafa, Amaal Ahmed

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated the effect of using differentiated instruction by integrating multiple intelligences and learning styles on solving problems, achievement in, and attitudes towards math in six graders with learning disabilities in cooperative groups. A total of 60 students identified with LD were invited to participate. The sample was…

  5. FDG-PET/CT in lymphoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'souza, Maria M; Jaimini, Abhinav; Bansal, Abhishek; Tripathi, Madhavi; Sharma, Rajnish; Mondal, Anupam; Tripathi, Rajendra Prashad

    2013-01-01

    Lymphomas are a heterogeneous group of diseases that arise from the constituent cells of the immune system or from their precursors. 18F-fludeoxyglucose positron emission tomography/computed tomography (18F-FDG PET/CT) is now the cornerstone of staging procedures in the state-of-the-art management of Hodgkin's disease and aggressive non-Hodgkin's lymphoma. It plays an important role in staging, restaging, prognostication, planning appropriate treatment strategies, monitoring therapy, and detecting recurrence. However, its role in indolent lymphomas is still unclear and calls for further investigational trials. The protean PET/CT manifestations of lymphoma necessitate a familiarity with the spectrum of imaging findings to enable accurate diagnosis. A meticulous evaluation of PET/CT findings, an understanding of its role in the management of lymphomas, and knowledge of its limitations are mandatory for the optimal utilization of this technique. PMID:24604942

  6. Efficacy of rituximab in gastric diffuse large B cell lymphoma patients

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Davide; Leopardo; Giuseppe; Di; Lorenzo; Amalia; De; Renz

    2010-01-01

    AIM:To evaluate retrospectively the efficacy of rituximab plus chemotherapy in gastric diffuse large B cell lymphoma(DLBCL).METHODS:Sixty patients(median age:58 years)with histologically confirmed gastric DLBCL treated at four Italian institutions between 2000 and 2007,were included in this analysis.Patients were selected by stage (Ⅰ-Ⅳ,Lugano staging system),European Cooperative Oncology Group performance status(0-2)and treatment strategies.Treatment strategies were chemotherapy alone(group A,n=30)[schedule...

  7. Toward comprehensive management tailored to prognostic factors of patients with clinical stages I and II in Hodgkin's disease. The EORTC Lymphoma Group controlled clinical trials: 1964-1987.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tubiana, M; Henry-Amar, M; Carde, P; Burgers, J M; Hayat, M; Van der Schueren, E; Noordijk, E M; Tanguy, A; Meerwaldt, J H; Thomas, J

    1989-01-01

    From 1964 to 1987, the EORTC Lymphoma Group conducted four consecutive controlled clinical trials on clinical stages I and II Hodgkin's disease in which 1,579 patients were entered. From the onset the main aim of these trials was to identify the subsets of patients who could be treated safely by regional radiotherapy (RT). Therefore, several prognostic indicators were prospectively registered and progressively used in the trial protocols for the delineation of the favorable and unfavorable subgroups as soon as they were recognized of high predictive value. In the H2 trial (1972 to 1976), the histologic subtype was the only variable taken into account for the therapeutic strategy and the staging laparotomy findings were found to be of prognostic value only in patients with favorable prognostic indicators. In the H5 trial (1977 to 1982), patients were subdivided into two subgroups according to six prognostic indicators. Patients with favorable features were submitted to a staging laparotomy (lap); lap negative patients were randomized between mantle field RT and mantle field plus paraaortic RT. Disease free survival (DFS) and total survival (S) were similar in the two arms. Among patients with unfavorable features, DFS and S were significantly higher in the arm treated by combination of mechlorethamine, vincristine, procarbazine, prednisone (MOPP) chemotherapy (CT) and RT than in the arm treated by total nodal irradiation. Nevertheless, in patients below the age of 40, the overall survival rates were equivalent in the two arms. In the H6 trial, the delineation of the favorable subgroup was based on (a) absence of systemic symptoms and elevated ESR, (b) no more than one or two lymph node areas involved. The aim of the study was to assess the impact on survival of a therapeutic strategy including staging laparotomy. At a 4-year follow-up, no difference in survival was evidenced. In patients with unfavorable prognostic indicators, 3 MOPP-RT-3 MOPP were compared with 3

  8. Water mediated ligand functional group cooperativity: the contribution of a methyl group to binding affinity is enhanced by a COO(-) group through changes in the structure and thermodynamics of the hydration waters of ligand-thermolysin complexes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasief, Nader N; Tan, Hongwei; Kong, Jing; Hangauer, David

    2012-10-11

    Ligand functional groups can modulate the contributions of one another to the ligand-protein binding thermodynamics, producing either positive or negative cooperativity. Data presented for four thermolysin phosphonamidate inhibitors demonstrate that the differential binding free energy and enthalpy caused by replacement of a H with a Me group, which binds in the well-hydrated S2' pocket, are more favorable in presence of a ligand carboxylate. The differential entropy is however less favorable. Dissection of these differential thermodynamic parameters, X-ray crystallography, and density-functional theory calculations suggest that these cooperativities are caused by variations in the thermodynamics of the complex hydration shell changes accompanying the H→Me replacement. Specifically, the COO(-) reduces both the enthalpic penalty and the entropic advantage of displacing water molecules from the S2' pocket and causes a subsequent acquisition of a more enthalpically, less entropically, favorable water network. This study contributes to understanding the important role water plays in ligand-protein binding.

  9. Cognitive cooperation groups mediated by computers and internet present significant improvement of cognitive status in older adults with memory complaints: a controlled prospective study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo de Rosso Krug

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objective To estimate the effect of participating in cognitive cooperation groups, mediated by computers and the internet, on the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE percent variation of outpatients with memory complaints attending two memory clinics. Methods A prospective controlled intervention study carried out from 2006 to 2013 with 293 elders. The intervention group (n = 160 attended a cognitive cooperation group (20 sessions of 1.5 hours each. The control group (n = 133 received routine medical care. Outcome was the percent variation in the MMSE. Control variables included gender, age, marital status, schooling, hypertension, diabetes, dyslipidaemia, hypothyroidism, depression, vascular diseases, polymedication, use of benzodiazepines, exposure to tobacco, sedentary lifestyle, obesity and functional capacity. The final model was obtained by multivariate linear regression. Results The intervention group obtained an independent positive variation of 24.39% (CI 95% = 14.86/33.91 in the MMSE compared to the control group. Conclusion The results suggested that cognitive cooperation groups, mediated by computers and the internet, are associated with cognitive status improvement of older adults in memory clinics.

  10. Cognitive cooperation groups mediated by computers and internet present significant improvement of cognitive status in older adults with memory complaints: a controlled prospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krug, Rodrigo de Rosso; Silva, Anna Quialheiro Abreu da; Schneider, Ione Jayce Ceola; Ramos, Luiz Roberto; d'Orsi, Eleonora; Xavier, André Junqueira

    2017-04-01

    To estimate the effect of participating in cognitive cooperation groups, mediated by computers and the internet, on the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) percent variation of outpatients with memory complaints attending two memory clinics. A prospective controlled intervention study carried out from 2006 to 2013 with 293 elders. The intervention group (n = 160) attended a cognitive cooperation group (20 sessions of 1.5 hours each). The control group (n = 133) received routine medical care. Outcome was the percent variation in the MMSE. Control variables included gender, age, marital status, schooling, hypertension, diabetes, dyslipidaemia, hypothyroidism, depression, vascular diseases, polymedication, use of benzodiazepines, exposure to tobacco, sedentary lifestyle, obesity and functional capacity. The final model was obtained by multivariate linear regression. The intervention group obtained an independent positive variation of 24.39% (CI 95% = 14.86/33.91) in the MMSE compared to the control group. The results suggested that cognitive cooperation groups, mediated by computers and the internet, are associated with cognitive status improvement of older adults in memory clinics.

  11. Can we get some cooperation around here? The mediating role of group norms on the relationship between team personality and individual helping behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez-Mulé, Erik; DeGeest, David S; McCormick, Brian W; Seong, Jee Young; Brown, Kenneth G

    2014-09-01

    Drawing on the group-norms theory of organizational citizenship behaviors and person-environment fit theory, we introduce and test a multilevel model of the effects of additive and dispersion composition models of team members' personality characteristics on group norms and individual helping behaviors. Our model was tested using regression and random coefficients modeling on 102 research and development teams. Results indicated that high mean levels of extraversion are positively related to individual helping behaviors through the mediating effect of cooperative group norms. Further, low variance on agreeableness (supplementary fit) and high variance on extraversion (complementary fit) promote the enactment of individual helping behaviors, but only the effects of extraversion were mediated by cooperative group norms. Implications of these findings for theories of helping behaviors in teams are discussed. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved.

  12. Beyond the guidelines in the treatment of peripheral T-cell lymphoma: new drug development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Andy I; Advani, Ranjana H

    2008-04-01

    Peripheral T-cell lymphomas (PTCLs) are a rare and diverse group of neoplasms with a poor prognosis. Management of these disorders has been largely extrapolated from the treatment of aggressive B-cell lymphomas; however, therapeutic responses to this approach are neither adequate nor durable for most patients with PTCL. Given the rarity of PTCL, much of the literature consists of studies with small sample size and anecdotal case reports. Therefore, no consensus exists on the best therapeutic strategy for either newly diagnosed or relapsed/refractory PTCL. This article reviews promising novel approaches in the treatment of PTCL and its subtypes. Investigation into the pathogenesis of PTCL has also identified new targets for treatment. These emerging therapies include new uses of existing agents and the development of novel agents specifically targeted against T-cell lymphoma. Results using antimetabolites, immunotherapies, and histone deacetylase inhibitors have been particularly encouraging. These novel therapies are being tested as single agents and in combination with conventional lymphoma regimens in the frontline and salvage settings. Because of the rarity and heterogeneity of PTCL, national and international cooperation is needed to conduct the clinical studies required for the development of more effective treatment paradigms. These efforts are ongoing and will hopefully guide new strategies to improve the historically poor outcome of PTCL.

  13. Anaplastic large cell (CD30/Ki-1+) lymphoma in HIV+ patients: clinical and pathological findings in a group of ten patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nosari, A; Cantoni, S; Oreste, P; Schiantarelli, C; Landonio, G; Alexiadis, S; Gargantini, L; Caggese, L; Gambacorta, M; Morra, E

    1996-12-01

    We compared the clinical and pathological features of 10 HIV+ CD30+ anaplastic large cell lymphoma (ALCL) patients with 28 HIV+ CD30- non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL) patients. The incidence of ALCL among 38 HIV+ systemic NHL patients was 26%. Clinical features were similar in all the HIV-related NHL cases, but ALCL patients seemed to differ from HIV+ CD30- systemic NHL only in the greater frequency of lung tumours (40% v 21%) without concomitant mediastinal mass, bone marrow (75% v 18%) and gastroenteric involvement (40% v 25%). Among the HIV+ ALCL patients, histologic subtypes did not differ in frequency from ALCL in the general population. The B phenotype was predominant (50%) as in other HIV-related NHL. EBV genoma, studied in all HIV+ ALCL patients, was present in 3/10 by in situ hybridization (ISH) and in 5/10 cases using PCR. The clinical course of lymphomas was similar in CD30 positive and negative NHL patients. Overall survival also was short in our series, particularly in HIV+ ALCL (84 v 188 d), probably because of profound immunodepression of the ALCL patients. Our findings suggest that severe immunodepression due to HIV infection determines-more than any other factor-the clinical features of HIV+ ALCL, making them very similar to those of other high-grade systemic HIV+ NHL.

  14. International Lymphoma Epidemiology Consortium

    Science.gov (United States)

    The InterLymph Consortium, or formally the International Consortium of Investigators Working on Non-Hodgkin's Lymphoma Epidemiologic Studies, is an open scientific forum for epidemiologic research in non-Hodgkin's lymphoma.

  15. Non-Hodgkin's Lymphoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... These include the lymphatic vessels, tonsils, adenoids, spleen, thymus and bone marrow. Occasionally, non-Hodgkin's lymphoma involves ... understand the possible link between pesticides and the development of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma. Older age. Non-Hodgkin's ...

  16. Low-dose total body irradiation versus combination chemotherapy for lymphomas with follicular growth pattern.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meerwaldt, J H; Carde, P; Burgers, J M; Monconduit, M; Thomas, J; Somers, R; Sizoo, W; Glabbeke, M V; Duez, N; de Wolf-Peeters, C

    1991-10-01

    The treatment of Non-Hodgkin's lymphomas with follicular growth pattern and advanced stage of disease remains controversial. Treatments varying from no initial treatment up to aggressive combination chemotherapy have been advocated. The EORTC Lymphoma Cooperative Group has performed a randomized prospective trial comparing short duration low dose total body irradiation (TBI) vs combination chemotherapy (CHVmP) + consolidation radiotherapy. Ninety-three patients were entered; of 84 evaluable patients, 44 received TBI and 40 CHVmP. Complete remission (CR) rates were 36%--TBI and 55%--CHVmP, but overall response rates were identical, 76 versus 69%. No significant difference in freedom from progression or survival was observed. No unexpected toxicity was seen. Although numbers are small, we cannot conclude that aggressive combination chemo-radiotherapy resulted in a better survival. Our analysis confirms that there is a constant risk of relapse. Other approaches should be explored if survival benefit is the ultimate goal in treatment of this patient population.

  17. Novel Therapies for Aggressive B-Cell Lymphoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenneth A. Foon

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Aggressive B-cell lymphoma (BCL comprises a heterogeneous group of malignancies, including diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL, Burkitt lymphoma, and mantle cell lymphoma (MCL. DLBCL, with its 3 subtypes, is the most common type of lymphoma. Advances in chemoimmunotherapy have substantially improved disease control. However, depending on the subtype, patients with DLBCL still exhibit substantially different survival rates. In MCL, a mature B-cell lymphoma, the addition of rituximab to conventional chemotherapy regimens has increased response rates, but not survival. Burkitt lymphoma, the most aggressive BCL, is characterized by a high proliferative index and requires more intensive chemotherapy regimens than DLBCL. Hence, there is a need for more effective therapies for all three diseases. Increased understanding of the molecular features of aggressive BCL has led to the development of a range of novel therapies, many of which target the tumor in a tailored manner and are summarized in this paper.

  18. Ocular Adnexal Follicular Lymphoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Peter K; Coupland, Sarah E; Finger, Paul T

    2014-01-01

    , and 31 (45%) had stage IIE lymphoma. Patients with disseminated lymphoma had stage IIIE (9 of 19 [47%]) and stage IV (10 of 19 [53%]) disease, whereas patients with a relapse of systemic lymphoma presented with stage IE (8 of 10 [80%]), stage IIE (1 of 10 [10%]), and stage IIIE (1 of 10 [10%]) disease...

  19. Plasmablastic lymphoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Xiao; Duan, Minghui; Hu, Lixing; Zhou, Daobin; Zhang, Wei

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Background: Plasmablastic lymphoma (PBL) is a B-cell malignancy associated with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). PBL could also influence the HIV-negative patients. The study aimed to identify prognostic factors for survival among Chinese PBL patients. Materials and methods: Eligible patients from literature and Peking Union Medical College Hospital (PUMCH) were included in this study. Clinical characteristics and immunophenotypic data were extracted. Kaplan–Meier curve was used to describe the survival status. Cox regression was used for multivariate analysis. Results: A total of 60 Chinese PBL patients were included, including 54 patients from 36 published articles and 6 new patients that have not been reported. The median overall survival was 7 months (95% confidence interval 3.853–10.147 months). An overwhelming majority (79.31%) of the included cases were Ann Arbor stage IV patients. All the Chinese PBL patients were HIV-negative; 46.81% were Epstein-Barr virus-positive. CD38, CD138, or MUM1 was positively expressed in more than 80% of patients; CD20 expression was also found in 22.03% of cases. Kaplan–Meier curve revealed obvious differences in patient survival between patients in primary stages and advanced stages, as well as between patients with kidney involvement and those without kidney involvement. Cox regression analysis indicated that stage and age were 2 prognostic factors for patient survival. Conclusions: Advanced stage might be associated with poor prognosis among PBL HIV-negative patients in Chinese. PMID:28248855

  20. 历史小组合作学习的探索%Explore the group cooperative learning of history

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    康峰

    2014-01-01

    In the high school new curriculum reform, to student's daunted, content to perfect the teaching process, the students can't understand his own intentions, can only lament stupid students, just like the doctor look bad disease will scold the patient not to press a doctor intention illness as absurd. A teacher struggling students finish listen to a class without any notes, the teacher speak more is in vain. Students have been the focus of the research method and the breakthrough point, also is the all-round development of students and the improvement of teachers' personal priorities. Therefore, in this paper, the high school history new curriculum classroom teaching to make some exploration, to try and explore the basis of students' autonomous learning, cooperative learning group.%高中新课程改革的今天,对学生的满堂灌,满足于教学过程完满,对于不能领会自己意图的学生只会哀叹学生愚蠢,就象医生看不好病却要骂病人不按医生意图生病一样荒唐。很老师苦于学生听完一节课却没有任何笔记、老师所讲再多也是白费的现实。学生学法的研究才是教研工作的重点与突破点,也是学生的全面发展和教师个人的提高的重点。因此,本文就高中历史新课程课堂教学作一些探索,在充分的学生自主学习的基础上,进行小组合作学习,进行尝试和探索。

  1. Cooperative Writing Response Groups: Revising Global Aspects of Second-Language Writing in a Constrained Educational Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porto, Melina

    2016-01-01

    This article describes a cooperative writing response initiative designed to develop writing skills in foreign/second-language contexts (hereafter L2). The strategy originated from my desire to cater for my learners' need to become better writers in English within a constrained educational environment in Argentina. In this article I describe this…

  2. Superiority of second over first generation chemotherapy in a randomized trial for stage III-IV intermediate and high-grade non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL): the 1980-1985 EORTC trial. The EORTC Lymphoma Group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carde, P; Meerwaldt, J H; van Glabbeke, M; Somers, R; Monconduit, M; Thomas, J; de Wolf-Peeters, C; de Pauw, B; Tanguy, A; Kluin-Nelemans, J C

    1991-06-01

    A first-generation CHOP-like cyclic combination chemotherapy (CT) regimen using cyclophosphamide 600 mg/m2 IV d1, hydroxorubicin (doxorubicin) 50 mg/m2 IV d1, VM26 60 mg/m2 IV d1, and prednisone 40 mg/m2 PO d1-5 (CHVmP) was compared to a second-generation combination wherein vincristine 1.4 mg/m2 IV and bleomycin 6 mg/m2 IM/IV were added at mid-interval (d15) to the former drugs (CHVmP + VB) in the treatment of intermediate- and high-grade malignant NHL. From April 1980 to January 1986, 141 eligible patients with stage III-IV unfavorable histologies (except T lymphoblastic NHL) entered this EORTC randomized trial. In both arms adjuvant radiotherapy (30 Gy) was given in instances of bulky or residual disease. In all patient subsets the outcome favored the second-generation regimen. The difference was even greater in patients with Diffuse Large Cell Lymphoma (DLCL). At 5 years, overall survival was 53% with CHVmP + VB versus 29% (p = 0.002). The advantage was due to a higher complete remission (CR) rate (80% versus 50%, p = 0.01). Indeed, once CR was achieved the relapse-free survival (RFS) was not significantly influenced (59% versus 49%). No significant additional toxicity could be attributed to vincristine and bleomycin. This study demonstrates a clear benefit for intermediate- and high-risk malignant NHL and particularly DLCL from intercalating non-myelotoxic drugs at mid-cycle intervals, without adverse effects.

  3. EBV AND HIV-RELATED LYMPHOMA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michele Bibas

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available HIV-associated lymphoproliferative disorders represent a heterogeneous group of diseases, arising in the presence of HIV-associated immunodeficiency. The overall prevalence of HIV-associated lymphoma is significantly higher compared to that of the general population and it continues to be relevant even after the wide availability of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART (1. Moreover, they still represent one of the most frequent cause of death in HIV-infected patients. Epstein–Barr virus (EBV, a γ-Herpesviruses, is involved in human lymphomagenesis, particularly in HIV immunocompromised patients. It has been largely implicated in the development of B-cell lymphoproliferative disorders as Burkitt lymphoma (BL, Hodgkin disease (HD, systemic non Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL, primary central nervous system lymphoma (PCNSL, nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NC. Virus-associated lymphomas are becoming of significant concern for the mortality of long-lived HIV immunocompromised patients, and therefore, research of advanced strategies for AIDS-related lymphomas is an important field in cancer chemotherapy. Detailed understanding of the EBV  lifecycle and related cancers at the molecular level is required for novel strategies of molecular-targeted cancer chemotherapy The linkage of HIV-related lymphoma with EBV infection of the tumor clone has several pathogenetic, prognostic and possibly therapeutic implications which are reviewed herein

  4. Malignant lymphoma of the conjunctiva

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirkegaard, Marina M; Coupland, Sarah E; Prause, Jan U;

    2015-01-01

    Conjunctival lymphomas constitute 25% of all ocular adnexal lymphomas. The majority are B-cell non-Hodgkin lymphomas (NHLs) (98%), whereas conjunctival T-cell NHLs are rare (2%). The most frequent subtype of conjunctival B-cell lymphoma is extranodal marginal zone lymphoma (EMZL; 81%), followed b...

  5. Rituximab In Indolent Lymphomas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sousou, Tarek; Friedberg, Jonathan

    2010-01-01

    Indolent Non Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL) comprises a group of incurable, generally slow growing lymphomas highly responsive to initial therapy with a relapsing and progressive course. Rituximab, an anti CD-20 antibody, has had a large impact on treatment of indolent NHL. Its effectiveness as a single agent and in conjunction with known chemotherapy regimens has made it a standard of care in the treatment of NHL. Analysis of data obtained from NHL clinical trials as well as data from the National Cancer Institute indicates that the overall survival of indolent NHL has improved since the discovery of rituximab. Given its effectiveness and tolerability, it is currently being investigated as a maintenance agent with encouraging results. This review summarizes several landmark trials utilizing rituximab as a single agent and in combination with chemotherapy for treatment of NHL. In addition, a review of the studied rituximab maintenance dosing schedules and its impact on NHL will also be presented. Overall, rituximab has changed the landscape for treatment of indolent NHL however additional research is necessary to identify the optimal dosing schedule as well as patients most likely to respond to prolonged rituximab therapy. PMID:20350660

  6. Singing together or apart: The effect of competitive and cooperative singing on social bonding within and between sub-groups of a university Fraternity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearce, Eiluned; Launay, Jacques; van Duijn, Max; Rotkirch, Anna; David-Barrett, Tamas; Dunbar, Robin I M

    2016-11-01

    Singing together seems to facilitate social bonding, but it is unclear whether this is true in all contexts. Here we examine the social bonding outcomes of naturalistic singing behaviour in a European university Fraternity composed of exclusive 'Cliques': recognised sub-groups of 5-20 friends who adopt a special name and identity. Singing occurs frequently in this Fraternity, both 'competitively' (contests between Cliques) and 'cooperatively' (multiple Cliques singing together). Both situations were re-created experimentally in order to explore how competitive and cooperative singing affects feelings of closeness towards others. Participants were assigned to teams of four and were asked to sing together with another team either from the same Clique or from a different Clique. Participants (N = 88) felt significantly closer to teams from different Cliques after singing with them compared to before, regardless of whether they cooperated with (singing loudly together) or competed against (trying to singing louder than) the other team. In contrast, participants reported reduced closeness with other teams from their own Clique after competing with them. These results indicate that group singing can increase closeness to less familiar individuals regardless of whether they share a common motivation, but that singing competitively may reduce closeness within a very tight-knit group.

  7. Gonadal function in males after chemotherapy for early-stage Hodgkin's lymphoma treated in four subsequent trials by the European Organisation for Research and Treatment of Cancer: EORTC Lymphoma Group and the Groupe d'Etude des Lymphomes de l'Adulte.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kaaij, M.A. van der; Heutte, N.; Stang, N. Le; Raemaekers, J.M.M.; Simons, A.H.; Carde, P.; Noordijk, E.M.; Ferme, C.; Thomas, J.; Eghbali, H.; Kluin-Nelemans, H.C.; Henry-Amar, M.

    2007-01-01

    PURPOSE: To analyze fertility in male patients treated with various combinations of radiotherapy and chemotherapy, with or without alkylating agents, or with radiotherapy alone for Hodgkin's lymphoma. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) levels were measured in patients with earl

  8. Possible lower rate of chronic ITP after IVIG for acute childhood ITP an analysis from registry I of the Intercontinental Cooperative ITP Study Group (ICIS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamminga, Rienk; Berchtold, Willi; Bruin, Marrie; Buchanan, George R; Kühne, Thomas

    2009-07-01

    In children, one-third of immune thrombocytopenic purpura (ITP) patients follow a chronic course. The present study investigated whether treatment with intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) at the time of diagnosis of ITP is of prognostic significance, using data from 1984 children entered in Registry I of the Intercontinental Cooperative ITP Study Group. A matched pairs analysis compared children with thrombocytopenia (platelet count or =50 x 10(9)/l at that time point, the former group was less often treated with IVIG than with steroids (P = 0.02). Prospective studies are required to further explore this potential effect of IVIG.

  9. Lymphoma in acquired generalized lipodystrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Rebecca J; Chan, Jean L; Jaffe, Elaine S; Cochran, Elaine; DePaoli, Alex M; Gautier, Jean-Francois; Goujard, Cecile; Vigouroux, Corinne; Gorden, Phillip

    2016-01-01

    Acquired generalized lipodystrophy (AGL) is a rare disease thought to result from autoimmune destruction of adipose tissue. Peripheral T-cell lymphoma (PTCL) has been reported in two AGL patients. We report five additional cases of lymphoma in AGL, and analyze the role of underlying autoimmunity and recombinant human leptin (metreleptin) replacement in lymphoma development. Three patients developed lymphoma during metreleptin treatment (two PTCL and one ALK-positive anaplastic large cell lymphoma), and two developed lymphomas (mycosis fungoides and Burkitt lymphoma) without metreleptin. AGL is associated with high risk for lymphoma, especially PTCL. Autoimmunity likely contributes to this risk. Lymphoma developed with or without metreleptin, suggesting metreleptin does not directly cause lymphoma development; a theoretical role of metreleptin in lymphoma progression remains possible. For most patients with AGL and severe metabolic complications, the proven benefits of metreleptin on metabolic disease will likely outweigh theoretical risks of metreleptin in lymphoma development or progression.

  10. Analyze the group cooperative learning in the classroom%浅析英语课堂上的小组合作学习模式

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邓素兰

    2016-01-01

    The current society, we have always advocated the concept of win-win cooperation, group cooperative learning in class is demanded by current arises at the historic moment. This learning model based on based on raw, discuss, through the group between cooperation, explore, together to achieve learning goals. This not only helps to increase students’ knowledge, but also to promote the cultivation of the students' social ability.%当前社会,我们一直提倡合作共赢的理念,课堂上的小组合作学习模式就是应时下要求应运而生。这种学习模式建立在以生为本的基础上,通过小组之间的共商、共议、合作、探讨,共同实现学习目标。这不仅有助于增加学生的知识,而且对提升学生社会能力的培养也有益处。

  11. Extranodal marginal zone non Hodgkin's lymphoma of the lung: A ten-year experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milošević Violeta

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. Bronchus-associated lymphoid tissue (BALT lymphoma is a rare subtype of low grade marginal zone B cell lymphoma representing 10% of all MALT lymphomas. The purpose of this study was to analyze the outcome of this group of patients comparing prognostic parameters and therapy modalities. Methods. A total of eight patients with BALT lymphoma had diagnosed between January 1998 - April 2008 at the Institute of Hematology, Clinical Center of Serbia, Belgrade, and they were included in this retrospective analysis. Results. Male/female ratio was 2/6, the median age was 64 years (range 37-67 years. Six patients had nonspecific respiratory symptoms and all of them had B symptoms. The patients were seronegative for HIV, HCV and HBsAg. Three patients had Sjogren's syndrome, rheumatoid arthritis and pulmonary tuberculosis, respectively. Seven patients were diagnosed by transbronchial biopsy and an open lung biopsy was done in one patient. Patohistological findings revealed lymphoma of marginal zone B cell lymphoma: CD20+/CD10-/CD5-/CyclinD1- /CD23-/IgM- with Ki-67+<20% of all cells. According to the Ferraro staging system, five patients had localized disease (CS I-IIE and three had stage IVE; bulky tumor mass had 3 patients. All patients had Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group (ECOG performance status (PS 0 or 1. Five patients received monochemotherapy with chlorambucil and 3 were treated with CHOP regimen (cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine and prednisone. A complete response (CR was achieved in 5 patients and a partial response (PR in 3 of them, treated with chlorambucil monotherapy and CHOP regimen. All patients were alive during a median follow-up period of 49 months (range 6- 110 months. Three patients relapsed after monochemotherapy into the other extranodal localization. They were treated with CHOP regimen and remained in stable PR. Conclusion. BALT lymphoma tends to be localised disease at the time of diagnosis, responds well

  12. Discussion on the Group Cooperation in the Efficient Classroom%浅谈高效课堂中的小组合作

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙琴; 刘爱枝

    2014-01-01

    改变学生学习方式是新一轮基础教育课程改革的核心,而合作学习是课改倡导的重要学习方式之一。让学生的行为、认知、情感参与到小组合作中来,使合作学习具有实效。%Changing students’learning style is the core of a new round of basic education curriculum reform, and cooperative learning is one of the important study way that curriculum reform advocates. Let the students’ behavior, cognition, emotion involved in the group work, make the cooperative learning results.

  13. Pediatric lymphoma diagnosis: role of FNAC, biopsy, immunohistochemistry and molecular diagnostics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iyer, Venkateswaran K

    2013-09-01

    Peripheral lymphadenopathy in the pediatric age group is screened using fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC). Cases found to have features suspicious for lymphoma on FNAC need to undergo biopsy with immunohistochemistry for characterization and typing. In pediatric age group, peripheral lymph nodes are common in Hodgkin's lymphoma for which biopsy is needed for subtyping. Distinction of classical Hodgkin's lymphoma of lymphocyte rich type from nodular lymphocyte predominant Hodgkin's lymphoma needs biopsy evaluation and a panel of immunostains. T lymphoblastic lymphomas and Burkitt's lymphoma are the common types of non Hodgkin's lymphoma seen in the pediatric age group. All lymphomas require a biopsy evaluation with immunohistochemistry and analysis of molecular genetic markers for proper characterization and selection of optimal treatment which are discussed in detail in this review.

  14. Novel agents in classical Hodgkin lymphoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borchmann, Sven; von Tresckow, Bastian

    2017-10-01

    Classical Hodgkin lymphoma (cHL) is the most common hematological malignancy in young adults and can be cured in most cases. However, relapsed and refractory Hodgkin lymphoma, certain patient groups, such as elderly patients, and toxicity of first-line treatment still pose significant challenges. Consequently, new treatment options are needed. Recently, many new treatment concepts have been evaluated in clinical trials. Targeted drug-antibody conjugates and immune checkpoint inhibitors have decisively changed treatment approaches. This review aims to give a comprehensive overview of novel agents in Hodgkin lymphoma that have been recently or are currently being evaluated in clinical trials. In addition to dedicated sections on brentuximab vedotin (BV) and immune checkpoint inhibitors, other emerging substances and concepts are discussed. In doing so, this review compares trial results regarding safety and efficacy. A special focus lies on the effect novel agents will have on the different treatment settings faced by clinicians involved in the treatment of Hodgkin lymphoma.

  15. Cooperative coupling of the Li cation and groups to amplify the charge transfer between C60 and corannulene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Gang; Xu, Jing; Chen, Zhi-Yuan; Lei, E.; Liu, Xiang-Shuai; Liu, Chun-Guang

    2017-02-01

    In present work, four complexes have been designed to investigate the effect of Li+ cation and substituent on the geometric structures and a series of electronic properties using density functional theory. The calculated results indicate that the charge decomposition (CDA) analysis and extend charge decomposition analysis (ECDA) of four complexes have the same sequence. The average d values defined the distances between C60 and corannulene display the inverse sequence. Consequently, the cooperative coupling of the Li+ cation and appropriate substituent is predicted to be an effective way to enhance the charge transfer between the C60 and corannulene derivatives.

  16. Lymphomas of large cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staples, W G; Gétaz, E P

    1977-09-03

    Historial aspects of the classification of large-cell lymphomas are described. Immunological characterization of the lymphomas has been made possible by identification of T and B lymphocytes according to their cell membrane surface characteristics. The pathogenesis of lymphomas has been clarified by the germinal (follicular) centre cell concepts of Lennert and Lukes and Collins. The various classifications are presented and compared. Whether these subdivisions will have any relevance in the clinical context remains to be seen.

  17. Lymphoma Microenvironment and Immunotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Mina L; Fedoriw, Yuri

    2016-03-01

    Understanding of the lymphoma tumor microenvironment is poised to expand in the era of next-generation sequencing studies of the tumor cells themselves. Successful therapies of the future will rely on deeper appreciation of the interactions between elements of the microenvironment. Although the phenotypic, cytogenetic, and molecular characterization of tumor cells in lymphomas has progressed faster than most other solid organ tumors, concrete advancements in understanding the lymphoma microenvironment have been fewer. This article explores the composition of the lymphoma tumor microenvironment; its role in immune surveillance, evasion, and drug resistance; and its potential role in the development of targeted therapies. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Bilateral primary breast lymphoma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jung Im Yi; Byung Joo Chae; Ja Seong Bae; Bong Joo Kang; Ahwon Lee; Byung Joo Song; Sang Seol Jung

    2010-01-01

    @@ Primary breast lymphoma (PBL) is rare, accounting for 0.04%-0.50% of breast malignancies and 1.7% of extranodal lymphoma.1,2 The originally described diagnostic criteria for PBL2 remains the standard definition for this disease. These criteria are breast location as the clinical site of presentation, absence of history of previous lymphoma or evidence of widespread disease at diagnosis, close association of lymphoma with breast tissue in pathologic specimens, and involvement of ipsilateral lymph nodes if they develop simultaneously with PBL.

  19. Primary gastrointestinal lymphoma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Prasanna Ghimire; Guang-Yao Wu; Ling Zhu

    2011-01-01

    Gastrointestinal tract is the most common extranodal site involved by lymphoma with the majority being non-Hodgkin type. Although lymphoma can involve any part of the gastrointestinal tract, the most frequent sites in order of its occurrence are the stomach followed by small intestine and ileocecal region. Gastrointestinal tract lymphoma is usually secondary to the widespread nodal diseases and primary gastrointestinal tract lymphoma is relatively rare. Gastrointestinal lymphomas are usually not clinically specific and indistinguishable from other benign and malignant conditions. Diffuse large B-cell lymphoma is the most common pathological type of gastrointestinal lymphoma in essentially all sites of the gastrointestinal tract, although recently the frequency of other forms has also increased in certain regions of the world. Although some radiological features such as bulky lymph nodes and maintenance of fat plane are more suggestive of lymphoma, they are not specific,thus mandating histopathological analysis for its definitive diagnosis. There has been a tremendous leap in the diagnosis, staging and management of gastrointestinal lymphoma in the last two decades attributed to a better insight into its etiology and molecular aspect as well as the knowledge about its critical signaling pathways.

  20. Bilateral Primary Intraocular Lymphoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehrdad Karimi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To report a case of bilateral primary intraocular lymphoma. Case report: A 33-year-old man presented with bilateral blurred vision since two years ago. Examination revealed large keratic precipitates, anterior chamber reaction, posterior subcapsular cataracts, and vitreous infiltration. After a short trial of topical and periocular steroids, diagnostic 25-gauge pars plana vitrectomy was performed and cytologic evaluation of the aspirate confirmed a diagnosis of intraocular lymphoma. The patient was subsequently managed with intravitreal methotrexate in both eyes and responded favorably. Central nervous system workup for lymphoma was negative. Conclusion: Primary intraocular lymphoma should be considered in young adults suffering from chronic recalcitrant panuveitis.

  1. Hodgkin lymphoma: answers take time!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedberg, Jonathan W

    2011-05-19

    In this issue of Blood, Straus and colleagues on behalf of the Cancer and Leukemia Group B (CALGB) present the outcome of a phase 2 trial of doxorubicin, vinblastine,and gemcitabine for patients with early-stage, non-bulky, Hodgkin lymphoma.The complete response rate and progression-free survival were inferior to comparable series, emphasizing the challenges of improving outcome in this highly curable population.

  2. The impact of vocabulary knowledge on reading comprehension ability of Iranian English learners receiving reciprocal teaching and cooperative grouping intervention program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naeemeh Kharaghani

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates the impact of vocabulary knowledge on reading comprehension ability of Iranian English language learners receiving reciprocal teaching and cooperative grouping intervention program. To this aim, 80 students participated in the vocabulary test as the pre-test and they were asked to fill out the questionnaire. Then, they were distributed in four groups. Control groups (A & B received the typical instruction of reading comprehension. On the other hand, experimental groups (A & B received the intervention program. At the end of the course, all the students took part in the vocabulary test as the post-test and they were also asked to fill out the questionnaire provided for them after the post-test. The results were analyzed by the use of a series of independent –sample t-tests and MANOVA. It was found out there was relationship between vocabulary knowledge and the level of motivation in reading comprehension skill of Iranian EFL learner.

  3. B-cell lymphomas with features intermediate between distinct pathologic entities. From pathogenesis to pathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carbone, Antonino; Gloghini, Annunziata; Aiello, Antonella; Testi, Adele; Cabras, Antonello

    2010-05-01

    Published in September 2008, the updated World Health Organization Classification of Tumors of Hematopoietic and Lymphoid Tissues introduces provisional borderline categories for lymphoma cases that demonstrate overlapping clinical, morphological, and/or immunophenotypic features between well-established entities. These overlapping features pose real diagnostic challenges especially in identifying atypical cases of diffuse large B-cell lymphoma, Hodgkin lymphoma, and Burkitt lymphoma. Lymphoma cases showing borderline features between T-cell/histiocyte-rich large B-cell lymphoma and nodular lymphocyte predominant Hodgkin lymphoma are not included within the borderline categories provisionally recognized by the updated classification. Within the borderline categories, there are cases combining features of primary mediastinal large B-cell lymphoma and classical Hodgkin lymphoma. Many of these cases resemble classical Hodgkin lymphoma but have a large number of tumor cells expressing CD20, CD45, and B-cell transcription factors. Alternatively, these cases may resemble primary mediastinal large B-cell lymphoma but contain tumor cells resembling Reed-Sternberg cells and displaying an aberrant phenotype such as CD20(-), CD15(-/+) CD45(+), CD30(+), Pax5(+), OCT2(+/-), and BOB1(+/-). Another new borderline category defining B-cell lymphoma, unclassifiable, with features intermediate between diffuse large B-cell lymphoma and Burkitt lymphoma, represents a biologically heterogeneous group. Cases with morphologic features intermediate and with CD10/BCL6 coexpression should be placed in diffuse large B-cell lymphoma/Burkitt lymphoma category if tumor cells also show strong BCL2 staining and/or a Ki67 proliferation index of less than 90%. When MYC rearrangements are present in these cases, the lymphomas often have atypical features, including concurrent rearrangements of BCL2 and/or BCL6 genes (so-called double/triple-hit lymphomas) and more aggressive behavior. For the

  4. Gredos San Diego Cooperative. Cooperate to undertake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos de la Higuera

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyzes the cooperative experience through Gredos San Diego model, its institutional approaches and its history from the point of view of management, focusing on the variables that enable the success of a collective ownership institution. First, the author makes a brief analysis of the principles that guide the cooperative, its origins and its current situation, including the development of GSD Cooperative Group. It continues exploring the evolution of management, dividing it into four distinct stages, and concludes with a summary with the findings of the previous president of the cooperative.Received: 23.07.2012Accepted: 10.09.2012

  5. On the aetiology of Hodgkin lymphoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hjalgrim, Henrik

    2012-07-01

    adults are consistent with the prevailing hypothesis of aetiological heterogeneity between Hodgkin lymphomas in different age groups. In contrast to Western industrialised countries, absence of a younger adult incidence peak has been a characteristic of Hodgkin lymphoma epidemiology in developing and Asian populations. A survey of Hodgkin lymphoma occurrence in Singapore 1968-2002 revealed increasing incidence rates and the emergence of an incidence peak in younger adults. The appearance of a younger adult incidence peak in conjunction to socio-economic transition towards Western world lifestyle in Singapore is compatible with the suspicion that Hodgkin lymphoma in younger adults is associated with correlates of socioeconomic affluence in childhood, such as delayed exposure to childhood infectious agents. EBV can be demonstrated in the malignant cells in a subset of Hodgkin lymphomas and it has been speculated that the virus' presence and absence may distinguish between aetiologically separate Hodgkin lymphoma entities. This possibility was explored in five investigations characterising the association between infectious mononucleosis and Hodgkin lymphoma. In these studies, infectious mononucleosis was not accompanied by an increased risk of cancer in general, but specifically with an increased risk of Hodgkin lymphoma. The increased risk of Hodgkin lymphoma decreased with time since infectious mononucleosis and because of the typical adolescent age at infectious mononucleosis it was most prominent for Hodgkin lymphoma in younger adults. Supplementing studies provided little support for the notion that the observed association between Hodgkin lymphoma and infectious mononucleosis was explained by confounding or biases. Analyses stratified by Hodgkin lymphoma EBV status indicated that the increased risk after infectious mononucleosis was confined to the subset of Hodgkin lymphomas that harbour the virus in the malignant cells. The genetic analyses pointed to increased and

  6. Delineation of target volumes and organs at risk in adjuvant radiotherapy of early breast cancer: national guidelines and contouring atlas by the Danish Breast Cancer Cooperative Group

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Mette H; Berg, Martin; Pedersen, Anders N;

    2013-01-01

    During the past decade planning of adjuvant radiotherapy (RT) of early breast cancer has changed from two-dimensional (2D) to 3D conformal techniques. In the planning computerised tomography (CT) scan both the targets for RT and the organs at risk (OARs) are visualised, enabling an increased focus...... on target dose coverage and homogeneity with only minimal dose to the OARs. To ensure uniform RT in the national prospective trials of the Danish Breast Cancer Cooperative Group (DBCG), a national consensus for the delineation of clinical target volumes (CTVs) and OARs was required....

  7. 浅谈新课改过程中的小组合作学习%Talking About the Cooperative Learning Groups in the New Curriculum During

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王晓明

    2014-01-01

    新课程教育理念旨在倡导全面和谐发展的教育,小组合作学习是新课程教育教学模式的重要途径。随着课改的不断深入,小组合作学习越来越受到重视。%The new curriculum philosophy of education advocate the concept of harmonious education,cooperative learning is an important approach to the new teaching model.With the deepening of curriculum reform,Group work recived more and more attention.

  8. Singing together or apart: The effect of competitive and cooperative singing on social bonding within and between sub-groups of a university Fraternity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearce, Eiluned; Launay, Jacques; van Duijn, Max; Rotkirch, Anna; David-Barrett, Tamas; Dunbar, Robin I M

    2016-01-01

    Singing together seems to facilitate social bonding, but it is unclear whether this is true in all contexts. Here we examine the social bonding outcomes of naturalistic singing behaviour in a European university Fraternity composed of exclusive ‘Cliques’: recognised sub-groups of 5-20 friends who adopt a special name and identity. Singing occurs frequently in this Fraternity, both ‘competitively’ (contests between Cliques) and ‘cooperatively’ (multiple Cliques singing together). Both situations were re-created experimentally in order to explore how competitive and cooperative singing affects feelings of closeness towards others. Participants were assigned to teams of four and were asked to sing together with another team either from the same Clique or from a different Clique. Participants (N = 88) felt significantly closer to teams from different Cliques after singing with them compared to before, regardless of whether they cooperated with (singing loudly together) or competed against (trying to singing louder than) the other team. In contrast, participants reported reduced closeness with other teams from their own Clique after competing with them. These results indicate that group singing can increase closeness to less familiar individuals regardless of whether they share a common motivation, but that singing competitively may reduce closeness within a very tight-knit group. PMID:27777494

  9. Gammaherpesviruses and canine lymphoma: no evidence for direct involvement in commonly occurring lymphomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waugh, Elspeth M; Gallagher, Alice; McAulay, Karen A; Henriques, Joaquim; Alves, Margarida; Bell, Adam J; Morris, Joanna S; Jarrett, Ruth F

    2015-07-01

    Lymphoma is the most common haematopoietic malignancy in dogs, but little is known about the aetiology of this heterogeneous group of cancers. In humans, the Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) is associated with several lymphoma subtypes. Recently, it was suggested that EBV or an EBV-like virus is circulating in dogs. We therefore investigated whether EBV, or a novel herpesvirus, is associated with canine lymphoma using both serological and molecular techniques. In an assay designed to detect antibodies to EBV viral capsid antigens, 41 % of dogs were positive. Dogs with cancers, including lymphoma, were more frequently positive than controls, but no particular association with B-cell lymphoma was noted. EBV-specific RNA and DNA sequences were not detected in lymphoma tissue by in situ hybridization or PCR, and herpesvirus genomes were not detected using multiple degenerate PCR assays with the ability to detect novel herpesviruses. We therefore found no evidence that herpesviruses are directly involved in common types of canine lymphoma although cannot exclude the presence of an EBV-like virus in the canine population.

  10. Sarcoidosis Occurring After Lymphoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    London, Jonathan; Grados, Aurélie; Fermé, Christophe; Charmillon, Alexandre; Maurier, François; Deau, Bénédicte; Crickx, Etienne; Brice, Pauline; Chapelon-Abric, Catherine; Haioun, Corinne; Burroni, Barbara; Alifano, Marco; Le Jeunne, Claire; Guillevin, Loïc; Costedoat-Chalumeau, Nathalie; Schleinitz, Nicolas; Mouthon, Luc; Terrier, Benjamin

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Sarcoidosis is a granulomatous disease that most frequently affects the lungs with pulmonary infiltrates and/or bilateral hilar and mediastinal lymphadenopathy. An association of sarcoidosis and lymphoproliferative disease has previously been reported as the sarcoidosis-lymphoma syndrome. Although this syndrome is characterized by sarcoidosis preceding lymphoma, very few cases of sarcoidosis following lymphoma have been reported. We describe the clinical, biological, and radiological characteristics and outcome of 39 patients presenting with sarcoidosis following lymphoproliferative disease, including 14 previously unreported cases and 25 additional patients, after performing a literature review. Hodgkin lymphoma and non-Hodgkin lymphoma were equally represented. The median delay between lymphoma and sarcoidosis was 18 months. Only 16 patients (41%) required treatment. Sarcoidosis was of mild intensity or self-healing in most cases, and overall clinical response to sarcoidosis was excellent with complete clinical response in 91% of patients. Sarcoidosis was identified after a follow-up computerized tomography scan (CT-scan) or 18fluorodeoxyglucose-positron emission tomography/computerized tomography (18FDG-PET/CT) evaluation in 18/34 patients (53%). Sarcoidosis is therefore a differential diagnosis to consider when lymphoma relapse is suspected on a CT-scan or 18FDG-PET/CT, emphasizing the necessity to rely on histological confirmation of lymphoma relapse. PMID:25380084

  11. Increased vascularization predicts favorable outcome in follicular lymphoma.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koster, A. de; Krieken, J.H.J.M. van; MacKenzie, M.A.; Schraders, M.; Borm, G.F.; Laak, J.A.W.M. van der; Leenders, W.P.J.; Hebeda, K.M.; Raemaekers, J.M.M.

    2005-01-01

    PURPOSE: In malignant lymphoma, angiogenesis has been associated with adverse outcome or more aggressive clinical behavior. This correlation has been established in groups of patients with a large heterogeneity regarding lymphoma subtypes and treatment regimens. The aim of this study is to investiga

  12. Lenalidomide in combination with R-ESHAP in patients with relapsed or refractory diffuse large B-cell lymphoma: a phase 1b study from GELTAMO group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martín, Alejandro; Redondo, Alba M; Dlouhy, Iván; Salar, Antonio; González-Barca, Eva; Canales, Miguel; Montes-Moreno, Santiago; Ocio, Enrique M; López-Guillermo, Armando; Caballero, Dolores

    2016-04-01

    Diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) patients failing rituximab-containing therapy have a poor outcome with the current salvage regimens. We conducted a phase 1b trial to determine the maximum tolerated dose (MTD) of lenalidomide in combination with R-ESHAP (rituximab, etoposide, cisplatin, cytarabine, methylprednisolone) (LR-ESHAP) in patients with relapsed or refractory DLBCL. Efficacy data were collected as a secondary objective. Subjects received 3 cycles of lenalidomide at escalating doses (5, 10 or 15 mg) given on days 1-14 of every 21-day cycle, in combination with R-ESHAP. Responding patients received BEAM (carmustine, etoposide, cytarabine, melphalan) followed by autologous stem-cell transplantation. Lenalidomide 10 mg/d was identified as the MTD because, in the 15 mg cohort, one patient experienced dose-limiting toxicity (grade 3 angioedema) and two patients had mobilization failure. A total of 19 patients (3, 12 and 4 in the 5, 10 and 15 mg cohorts, respectively) were evaluable. All toxicities occurring during LR-ESHAP cycles resolved appropriately and no grade 4-5 non-haematological toxicities were observed. The complete remission and overall response rates were 47·4% and 78·9%, respectively. With a median follow-up of 24·6 (17·4-38·2) months, the 2-year progression-free survival and overall survival were 44% and 63%, respectively. In conclusion, the LR-ESHAP regimen is feasible and yields encouraging outcomes.

  13. Shortened intensified multi-agent chemotherapy and non-cross resistant maintenance therapy for advanced lymphoblastic lymphoma in children and adolescents: report from the Children's Oncology Group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abromowitch, Minnie; Sposto, Richard; Perkins, Sherrie; Zwick, David; Siegel, Stuart; Finlay, Jonathan; Cairo, Mitchell S

    2008-10-01

    Pediatric lymphoblastic lymphoma (LL) has utilized treatment strategies similar to childhood acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (ALL) with prolonged maintenance chemotherapy. We report the results of a pilot study to estimate the feasibility, toxicity and efficacy of a 12-month aggressive multi-agent chemotherapy regimen in children and adolescents with advanced LL. Between July 1994 and June 1997, 85 eligible children and adolescents with advanced LL (Stage III/IV) were enrolled on this pilot study. Patients achieving a complete response following induction and consolidation received six cycles of maintenance chemotherapy for a total duration of 12 months. Grade III/IV toxicities included: hematological (80%), infections (20%), stomatitis and elevated transaminases, (29%). There were a total of 19 events, 13 relapses, two secondary acute myeloid leukaemia and four toxic deaths (5%). The 5-year event-free survival (EFS) and overall survival (OS) was 78 +/- 4.5% and 85 +/- 3.9%, respectively. Relapsed patients had a 5-year OS of only 33 +/- 14%. Multivariate analysis failed to demonstrate age, gender, lactate dehydrogenase level, presence of marrow and/or central nervous system disease to have independent prognostic value. These results suggest that this experimental approach is safe and results in similar outcomes as more prolonged childhood ALL regimens.

  14. Gem-(R)CHOP versus (R)CHOP: a randomized phase II study of gemcitabine combined with (R)CHOP in untreated aggressive non-Hodgkin's lymphoma--EORTC lymphoma group protocol 20021 (EudraCT number 2004-004635-54)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aurer, I.; Eghbali, H.; Raemaekers, J.M.; Khaled, H.M.; Fortpied, C.; Baila, L.; Maazen, R.W. van der

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Despite recent improvements, many patients with aggressive non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL) ultimately succumb to their disease. Therefore, improvements in front-line chemotherapy of aggressive NHL are needed. Gemcitabine is active in lymphoma. METHODS: We performed a randomized phase II

  15. Gem-(R)CHOP versus (R)CHOP: a randomized phase II study of gemcitabine combined with (R)CHOP in untreated aggressive non-Hodgkin's lymphoma--EORTC lymphoma group protocol 20021 (EudraCT number 2004-004635-54)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aurer, I.; Eghbali, H.; Raemaekers, J.M.; Khaled, H.M.; Fortpied, C.; Baila, L.; Maazen, R.W. van der

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Despite recent improvements, many patients with aggressive non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL) ultimately succumb to their disease. Therefore, improvements in front-line chemotherapy of aggressive NHL are needed. Gemcitabine is active in lymphoma. METHODS: We performed a randomized phase II tri

  16. Biomarkers for lymphoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zangar, Richard C.; Varnum, Susan M.

    2014-09-02

    A biomarker, method, test kit, and diagnostic system for detecting the presence of lymphoma in a person are disclosed. The lymphoma may be Hodgkin's lymphoma or non-Hodgkin's lymphoma. The person may be a high-risk subject. In one embodiment, a plasma sample from a person is obtained. The level of at least one protein listed in Table S3 in the plasma sample is measured. The level of at least one protein in the plasma sample is compared with the level in a normal or healthy subject. The lymphoma is diagnosed based upon the level of the at least one protein in the plasma sample in comparison to the normal or healthy level.

  17. [Secondary orbital lymphoma].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basanta, I; Sevillano, C; Álvarez, M D

    2015-09-01

    A case is presented of an 85 year-old Caucasian female with lymphoma that recurred in the orbit (secondary ocular adnexal lymphoma). The orbital tumour was a diffuse large B-cell lymphoma according to the REAL classification (Revised European-American Lymphoma Classification). Orbital lymphomas are predominantly B-cell proliferations of a variety of histological types, and most are low-grade tumours. Patients are usually middle-aged or elderly, and it is slightly more common in women. A palpable mass, proptosis and blepharoptosis are the most common signs of presentation. Copyright © 2011 Sociedad Española de Oftalmología. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  18. Angioimmunoblastic T-Cell Lymphoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angioimmunoblastic T-Cell Lymphoma Overview Lymphoma is the most common blood cancer. The two main forms of lymphoma are ... develop into lymphomas: B-lymphocytes (B-cells) and T-lymphocytes (T-cells). Cancerous lymphocytes can travel to ...

  19. Prognostic Assessment in Patients with Indolent B-Cell Lymphomas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luca Arcaini

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Follicular lymphoma (FL is an indolent lymphoma with long median survival. Many studies have been performed to build up prognostic scores potentially useful to identify patients with poorer outcome. In 2004, an international consortium coordinated by the International Follicular Lymphoma Prognostic Factor project was established and a new prognostic study was launched (FLIPI2 using progression-free survival (PFS as main endpoint and integrating all the modern parameters prospectively collected. Low-grade non-Hodgkin lymphomas were once considered as a heterogenous group of lymphomas characterized by an indolent clinical course. Each entity is characterized by unique clinicobiologic features. Some studies have been focused on prognostic factors in single lymphoma subtypes, with the development of specific-entity scores based on retrospective series, for instance splenic marginal zone lymphoma (SMZL. A widely accepted prognostic tool for clinical usage for indolent non-follicular B-cell lymphomas is largely awaited. In this paper we summarized the current evidence regarding prognostic assessment of indolent follicular and non-follicular lymphomas.

  20. Cooperative Learning Strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnes, Buckley; O'Farrell, Gail

    1990-01-01

    Presents essential characteristics and types of cooperative learning strategies for use in elementary social studies. Outlines exercises for forming teams and building team spirit. Points out such methods promote group interdependence and student responsibility for learning and teaching others. Highlights two cooperative group strategies, Jigsaw…

  1. CLINCOPATHOLOGIC STUDY OF LYMPHOMA: a relook

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malathi

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Lymphomas are heterogeneous group of malignant lympho-proliferative disorders. Broadly categorized into Non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma [NHLs] and Hodgkin’s lymphoma [HL]. Decades back one of the challenging topics in morphologic pathology was accurate diagnosis and classification of lymphoma. Studies on lymphoma with clinicopathologic correlation were found to be much significant. STUDY OBJECTIVES: This was a retrospective study aimed to describe lymphomas on histo morphology and thus classify NHLs using working formulation for clinical usage (1982 and HL using Rye (1966 classification respectively. To attempt clinicopathologic correlation. METHODS: The study was done in the department of pathology, Mahadevappa Rampure Medical College, Gulbarga during the period 1989-1999. Formalin fixed paraffin wax embedded tissue blocks previously diagnosed as lymphomas in the department were used. Morphologic details by light microscopy on haematoxylin and eosin (H&E stained sections were noted. Clinical history of each case were analysed from hospital records. Clinical and pathologic correlation was done. Special stains Reticulin (Gomori and Periodic acid Schiff’s stain [PAS] was done in relevant cases. RESULTS: Study of total 102 cases of lymphoma it was observed NHLs formed 70 cases with an incidence of 68.3%. HL accounted for 32 cases with incidence of 37.2%. NHLs commonly presented in fifth decade 24.2%, followed by fourth and sixth decade. Sex distribution showed Male: Female ratio as 2.5:1. Majority of cases presented with cervical and axillary lymphadenopathy at 41% and 20% respectively. The most frequent grade was clinically aggressive intermediate grade NHLs seen in 80% of all cases. 20 cases of NHLs were of extranodal in origin. The most common site was gastrointestinal tract (60% and head and neck region with (30%. The major histologic type in both nodal and extranodal NHLs was diffuse small cleaved cell type (DSCC. HL showed sex

  2. Application of group-cooperative learning in English teaching%小组合作学习模式在英语教学中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱娜

    2014-01-01

    The thesis explains the concept of group-cooperative learning mode and analyzes the limitations of tradi-tional teaching methods in language teaching.Combining the specific characteristics of vocational school students and analyzing the specific teaching cases,the thesis also explains that application of the group cooperative learning in the occupation school.English teaching is conducive to enhancing the confidence of students and communication between students and establishing a good relationship between teachers and students.For the existing problems,ef-fective solutions are actively explored.%阐述小组合作学习模式的概念,分析传统的教学方式在语言教学中的局限性,并结合职业学校学生的具体情况,通过具体教学案例的分析,开展小组合作学习具有增强学生的自信心、促进学生之间的相互交流、建立良好的师生关系等优势,并针对运用中存在的不足,积极探索有效的解决策略。

  3. Group selection, kin selection, altruism and cooperation: when inclusive fitness is right and when it can be wrong

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. van Veelen

    2009-01-01

    Group selection theory has a history of controversy. After a period of being in disrepute, models of group selection have regained some ground, but not without a renewed debate over their importance as a theoretical tool. In this paper I offer a simple framework for models of the evolution of altrui

  4. Fairness Psychology and Group Cooperation in Perspective of Social Capital%社会资本视野下的公平心理与群体合作

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周怀峰

    2014-01-01

    追求公平的心理并不必然驱使人们选择自律或利他惩罚行为来维护群体合作。只有具备一定的社会资本条件,不公平才会诱发人们内疚或嫉妒情绪,也只有具备一定的社会资本条件,内疚情绪才可能诱发自律,嫉妒情绪才可能诱发利他惩罚行为。在这种情况下,追求公平的心理才能起到维护群体合作的作用。对于基层社群和工作团队等群体的管理而言,激活人们的公平意识,培育和维护群体社会资本,把人们的内疚和嫉妒心理相应地转化为自律和利他惩罚行为有利于提高群体合作水平。%The psychology to pursue fairness does not necessarily motivate people to take self discipline or altruistic punishment behavior to achieve group cooperation.Only under the condition of certain social cap-ital can guilt or envy be induced by unfairness.Only in this case can guilt cause self discipline and envy bring about altruistic punishment behavior.Thus,only on this condition can the behavior of pursuing fair-ness promote and maintain group cooperation.So,for the management of the group of grassroots communi-ty and the work team,activating the awareness of fairness,nurturing and maintaining group social capital, turning people's guilt and envy into self discipline and altruistic punishment behavior are ways to improve the level of group cooperation.

  5. Update on the Intercontinental Cooperative ITP Study Group (ICIS) and on the Pediatric and Adult Registry on Chronic ITP (PARC ITP).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kühne, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    The Intercontinental Cooperative ITP Study Group (ICIS) was founded in 1997, when the American practice guidelines demonstrated that there is a substantial lack of clinical data. The aim of the group was to promote basic science and clinical research in the field of ITP. Clinical data and more recently DNA is collected to investigate children and adults with ITP. ICIS organizes regular meetings and opened several registries, the most recent being the Pediatric and Adult Registry on Chronic ITP (PARC-ITP), all of which will be briefly discussed. There are many unanswered questions in basic science and clinical research in ITP which need large collaborative studies. The international network of ICIS may be of value in better understanding ITP.

  6. Aggression, grooming and group-level cooperation in white-faced capuchins (Cebus capucinus): insights from social networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crofoot, Margaret C; Rubenstein, Daniel I; Maiya, Arun S; Berger-Wolf, Tanya Y

    2011-08-01

    The form of animal social systems depends on the nature of agonistic and affiliative interactions. Social network theory provides tools for characterizing social structure that go beyond simple dyadic interactions and consider the group as a whole. We show three groups of capuchin monkeys from Barro Colorado Island, Panama, where there are strong connections between key aspects of aggression, grooming, and proximity networks, and, at least among females, those who incur risk to defend their group have particular "social personalities." Although there is no significant correlation for any of the network measures between giving and receiving aggression, suggesting that dominance relationships do not follow a simple hierarchy, strong correlations emerge for many measures between the aggression and grooming networks. At the local, but not global, scale, receiving aggression and giving grooming are strongly linked in all groups. Proximity shows no correlation with aggression at either the local or the global scale, suggesting that individuals neither seek out nor avoid aggressors. Yet, grooming has a global but not local connection to proximity. Extensive groomers who tend to direct their efforts at other extensive groomers also spend time in close proximity to many other individuals. These results indicate the important role that prosociality plays in shaping female social relationships. We also show that females who receive the least aggression, and thus pay low costs for group living, are most likely to participate in group defense. No consistent "social personality" traits characterize the males who invest in group defense.

  7. Primary intracranial soft tissue sarcoma in children and adolescents: a cooperative analysis of the European CWS and HIT study groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benesch, Martin; von Bueren, André O; Dantonello, Tobias; von Hoff, Katja; Pietsch, Torsten; Leuschner, Ivo; Claviez, Alexander; Bierbach, Uta; Kropshofer, Gabriele; Korinthenberg, Rudolf; Graf, Norbert; Suttorp, Meinolf; Kortmann, Rolf Dieter; Friedrich, Carsten; von der Weid, Nicolas; Kaatsch, Peter; Klingebiel, Thomas; Koscielniak, Ewa; Rutkowski, Stefan

    2013-02-01

    Purely intracranial soft tissue sarcomas (ISTS) are very rare among children. A retrospective database analysis of the Cooperative Weichteilsarkom Studiengruppe (CWS) and brain tumor (HIT) registries was conducted to describe treatment and long-term outcome of children and adolescents with ISTS. Nineteen patients from Germany, Austria and Switzerland were reported between 1988 and 2009. Median age at diagnosis was 9.7 years (range, 0.5-17.8). Central pathological review was performed in 17 patients. Eleven patients underwent a total and five a subtotal tumor resection. A biopsy was done in one patient. In two patients no data concerning extent of initial resection was available. Radiotherapy was performed in 15 patients (first-line, n = 11; following progression, n = 4). All but one patient received chemotherapy (first-line, n = 7, following progression, n = 5; first-line and following progression, n = 6). With a median follow-up of 5.8 years (range, 0.6-19.8) ten patients were alive in either first or second complete remission. Seven patients died due to relapse or progression and two were alive with progressive disease. Estimated progression-free and overall survival at 5 years were 47 % (±12 %) and 74 % (±10 %), respectively. About 50 % of patients with ISTS remain relapse-free after 5 years. Multimodality treatment including complete tumor resection and radio-/chemotherapy is required to achieve sustained tumor control in patients with ISTS. Early initiation of postoperative non-surgical treatment seems to be important to prevent recurrence. Due to the intracranial localization local therapy should follow the recommendations used in brain tumors rather than in soft tissue sarcomas, whereas chemotherapy should be guided by histological subtype.

  8. 小组合作学习促进主体能动性--浅论合作式体育教学%Group Cooperative Learning,to Promote the Subject Initiative:Discussion on Cooperation Type Sports Teaching

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邓荣萍

    2014-01-01

    随着教学改革的不断深入,人们越来越意识到学生主体性发展是学生综合素质的实质和核心,采用资料研究法、访问法和行动研究法,在体育教学中探索小组合作学习模式、构建成绩评价方法等,在小组合作学习活动中,学生交互扮演着不同角色,通过彼此相互关心满足了学生心理归属感的需要,更重视相互作用和自我主体价值的体现。%With the deepening of teaching reform,more and more peop le are aware that students’ subjectivity development is the essence and core of students’ comprehensive quality.The teacher adopts the research method, interview method and action research method,at the same time,more attention is paid to exploring the mode of cooperative learning in PE teaching as well as constructing the performance evaluation.In co-operative learning group activities,students interaction plays a different role.The needs of the students’ psychological sense of belonging get satis-fied through the care about each other,thus paying more attention to the embodiment of the interaction and self subject value.

  9. Radiotherapy for Hodgkin lymphoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Specht, Lena [Rigshospitalet Copenhagen Univ. (Denmark). Depts. of Oncology and Haematology; Yahalom, Joachim (eds.) [Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer, New York, NY (United States). Dept. of Radiation Oncology

    2011-07-01

    This book deals in detail with all aspects of the best practice in modern radiotherapy for Hodgkin lymphoma. It provides the background and rationale for the inclusion of radiotherapy in today's combined-modality approach, including special clinical situations such as Hodgkin lymphoma in children, in the pregnant patient, and in the elderly. Radiotherapy planning using state-of-the-art imaging, target definition, planning software, and treatment equipment is expounded in detail. Acute and long-term side effects of radiotherapy are analyzed, and the implications for modern radiotherapy approaches in Hodgkin lymphomas are explained. (orig.)

  10. Dilemmas of partial cooperation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stark, Hans-Ulrich

    2010-08-01

    Related to the often applied cooperation models of social dilemmas, we deal with scenarios in which defection dominates cooperation, but an intermediate fraction of cooperators, that is, "partial cooperation," would maximize the overall performance of a group of individuals. Of course, such a solution comes at the expense of cooperators that do not profit from the overall maximum. However, because there are mechanisms accounting for mutual benefits after repeated interactions or through evolutionary mechanisms, such situations can constitute "dilemmas" of partial cooperation. Among the 12 ordinally distinct, symmetrical 2 x 2 games, three (barely considered) variants are correspondents of such dilemmas. Whereas some previous studies investigated particular instances of such games, we here provide the unifying framework and concisely relate it to the broad literature on cooperation in social dilemmas. Complementing our argumentation, we study the evolution of partial cooperation by deriving the respective conditions under which coexistence of cooperators and defectors, that is, partial cooperation, can be a stable outcome of evolutionary dynamics in these scenarios. Finally, we discuss the relevance of such models for research on the large biodiversity and variation in cooperative efforts both in biological and social systems.

  11. Challenges and Opportunities for International Cooperative Studies in Pediatric Hematopoeitic Cell Transplantation: Priorities of the Westhafen Intercontinental Group

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schultz, Rudolph Kirk R.; Baker, Kevin Scott; Boelens, Jaap J.; Bollard, Catherine M.; Egeler, R. Maarten; Cowan, Mort; Ladenstein, Ruth; Lankester, Arjan; Locatelli, Franco; Lawitschka, Anita; Levine, John E.; Loh, Mignon; Nemecek, Eneida; Niemeyer, Charlotte; Prasad, Vinod K.; Rocha, Vanderson; Shenoy, Shalini; Strahm, Brigitte; Veys, Paul; Wall, Donna; Bader, Peter; Grupp, Stephan A.; Pulsipher, Michael A.; Peters, Christina

    2014-01-01

    More than 20% of allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantations (HCTs) are performed in children and adolescents at a large number of relatively small centers. Unlike adults, at least one-third of HCTs in children are performed for rare, nonmalignant indications. Clinical trials to improve HCT outcomes in children have been limited by small numbers and these pediatric-specific features. The need for a larger number of pediatric HCT centers to participate in trials has led to the involvement of international collaborative groups. Representatives of the Pediatric Blood and Marrow Transplant Consortium, European Group for Blood and Marrow Transplantation’s Pediatric Working Group, International Berlin-Frankfurt-Munster (iBFm) Stem Cell Transplantation Committee, and Children’s Oncology Group’s Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation Discipline Committee met on October 3, 2012, in Frankfurt, Germany to develop a consensus on the highest priorities in pediatric HCT. In addition, it explored the creation of an international consortium to develop studies focused on HCT in children and adolescents. This meeting led to the creation of an international HCT network, dubbed the Westhafen Intercontinental Group, to develop worldwide priorities and strategies to address pediatric HCT issues. This review outlines the priorities of need as identified by this consensus group. PMID:23883618

  12. Treatment Options for Adult Hodgkin Lymphoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Treatment Adult NHL Treatment AIDS-Related Lymphoma Treatment Mycosis Fungoides & Sézary Syndrome Treatment Primary CNS Lymphoma Treatment ... Treatment Adult NHL Treatment AIDS-Related Lymphoma Treatment Mycosis Fungoides & Sézary Syndrome Treatment Primary CNS Lymphoma Treatment ...

  13. General Information about AIDS-Related Lymphoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Treatment Adult NHL Treatment AIDS-Related Lymphoma Treatment Mycosis Fungoides & Sézary Syndrome Treatment Primary CNS Lymphoma Treatment ... Treatment Adult NHL Treatment AIDS-Related Lymphoma Treatment Mycosis Fungoides & Sézary Syndrome Treatment Primary CNS Lymphoma Treatment ...

  14. General Information about Adult Hodgkin Lymphoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Treatment Adult NHL Treatment AIDS-Related Lymphoma Treatment Mycosis Fungoides & Sézary Syndrome Treatment Primary CNS Lymphoma Treatment ... Treatment Adult NHL Treatment AIDS-Related Lymphoma Treatment Mycosis Fungoides & Sézary Syndrome Treatment Primary CNS Lymphoma Treatment ...

  15. Treatment Options for AIDS-Related Lymphoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Treatment Adult NHL Treatment AIDS-Related Lymphoma Treatment Mycosis Fungoides & Sézary Syndrome Treatment Primary CNS Lymphoma Treatment ... Treatment Adult NHL Treatment AIDS-Related Lymphoma Treatment Mycosis Fungoides & Sézary Syndrome Treatment Primary CNS Lymphoma Treatment ...

  16. Treatment Option Overview (Childhood Hodgkin Lymphoma)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Treatment Adult NHL Treatment AIDS-Related Lymphoma Treatment Mycosis Fungoides & Sézary Syndrome Treatment Primary CNS Lymphoma Treatment ... Treatment Adult NHL Treatment AIDS-Related Lymphoma Treatment Mycosis Fungoides & Sézary Syndrome Treatment Primary CNS Lymphoma Treatment ...

  17. Treatment Option Overview (Adult Hodgkin Lymphoma)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Treatment Adult NHL Treatment AIDS-Related Lymphoma Treatment Mycosis Fungoides & Sézary Syndrome Treatment Primary CNS Lymphoma Treatment ... Treatment Adult NHL Treatment AIDS-Related Lymphoma Treatment Mycosis Fungoides & Sézary Syndrome Treatment Primary CNS Lymphoma Treatment ...

  18. Stages of Childhood Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Treatment Adult NHL Treatment AIDS-Related Lymphoma Treatment Mycosis Fungoides & Sézary Syndrome Treatment Primary CNS Lymphoma Treatment ... Treatment Adult NHL Treatment AIDS-Related Lymphoma Treatment Mycosis Fungoides & Sézary Syndrome Treatment Primary CNS Lymphoma Treatment ...

  19. Treatment Options for Hodgkin Lymphoma during Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Treatment Adult NHL Treatment AIDS-Related Lymphoma Treatment Mycosis Fungoides & Sézary Syndrome Treatment Primary CNS Lymphoma Treatment ... Treatment Adult NHL Treatment AIDS-Related Lymphoma Treatment Mycosis Fungoides & Sézary Syndrome Treatment Primary CNS Lymphoma Treatment ...

  20. Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Kids to Be Smart About Social Media Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma KidsHealth > For Parents > Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma Print ... harmful things out of the body. About Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma No n-Hodgkin lymphoma is a disease ...

  1. Staphylococcus epidermidis Antimicrobial δ-Toxin (Phenol-Soluble Modulin-γ) Cooperates with Host Antimicrobial Peptides to Kill Group A Streptococcus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cogen, Anna L.; Yamasaki, Kenshi; Muto, Jun; Sanchez, Katheryn M.; Crotty Alexander, Laura; Tanios, Jackelyn; Lai, Yuping; Kim, Judy E.; Nizet, Victor; Gallo, Richard L.

    2010-01-01

    Antimicrobial peptides play an important role in host defense against pathogens. Recently, phenol-soluble modulins (PSMs) from Staphylococcus epidermidis (S. epidermidis) were shown to interact with lipid membranes, form complexes, and exert antimicrobial activity. Based on the abundance and innocuity of the cutaneous resident S. epidermidis, we hypothesized that their PSMs contribute to host defense. Here we show that S. epidermidis δ-toxin (PSMγ) is normally present in the epidermis and sparsely in the dermis of human skin using immunohistochemistry. Synthetic δ-toxin interacted with neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs) and colocalized with cathelicidin while also inducing NET formation in human neutrophils. In antimicrobial assays against Group A Streptococcus (GAS), δ-toxin cooperated with CRAMP, hBD2, and hBD3. In whole blood, addition of δ-toxin exerted a bacteriostatic effect on GAS, and in NETs, δ-toxin increased their killing capacity against this pathogen. Coimmunoprecipitation and tryptophan spectroscopy demonstrated direct binding of δ-toxin to host antimicrobial peptides LL-37, CRAMP, hBD2, and hBD3. Finally, in a mouse wound model, GAS survival was reduced (along with Mip-2 cytokine levels) when the wounds were pretreated with δ-toxin. Thus, these data suggest that S. epidermidis–derived δ-toxin cooperates with the host-derived antimicrobial peptides in the innate immune system to reduce survival of an important human bacterial pathogen. PMID:20052280

  2. Staphylococcus epidermidis antimicrobial delta-toxin (phenol-soluble modulin-gamma cooperates with host antimicrobial peptides to kill group A Streptococcus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna L Cogen

    Full Text Available Antimicrobial peptides play an important role in host defense against pathogens. Recently, phenol-soluble modulins (PSMs from Staphylococcus epidermidis (S. epidermidis were shown to interact with lipid membranes, form complexes, and exert antimicrobial activity. Based on the abundance and innocuity of the cutaneous resident S. epidermidis, we hypothesized that their PSMs contribute to host defense. Here we show that S. epidermidis delta-toxin (PSMgamma is normally present in the epidermis and sparsely in the dermis of human skin using immunohistochemistry. Synthetic delta-toxin interacted with neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs and colocalized with cathelicidin while also inducing NET formation in human neutrophils. In antimicrobial assays against Group A Streptococcus (GAS, delta-toxin cooperated with CRAMP, hBD2, and hBD3. In whole blood, addition of delta-toxin exerted a bacteriostatic effect on GAS, and in NETs, delta-toxin increased their killing capacity against this pathogen. Coimmunoprecipitation and tryptophan spectroscopy demonstrated direct binding of delta-toxin to host antimicrobial peptides LL-37, CRAMP, hBD2, and hBD3. Finally, in a mouse wound model, GAS survival was reduced (along with Mip-2 cytokine levels when the wounds were pretreated with delta-toxin. Thus, these data suggest that S. epidermidis-derived delta-toxin cooperates with the host-derived antimicrobial peptides in the innate immune system to reduce survival of an important human bacterial pathogen.

  3. Prognostic factors in non-Hodgkin lymphomas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karin Zattar Cecyn

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available CONTEXT: In Hodgkin's disease, each clinical or pathologic stage can be related to the extent of the area involved and predicts the next anatomical region at risk for tumor dissemination. OBJECTIVE: To determine the best prognostic factors that could predict survival in non-Hodgkin lymphoma cases. DESIGN: A retrospective study. LOCATION: Department of Hematology and Transfusion Medicine, Universidade Federal de São Paulo - Escola Paulista de Medicina. PARTICIPANTS: 142 patients with non-Hodgkin lymphoma diagnosed between February 1988 and March 1993. MAIN MEASUREMENTS: Histological subset, Sex, Age, Race, B symptoms, Performance status, Stage, Extranodal disease, Bulk disease, Mediastinal disease, CNS involvement, BM infiltration, Level of DHL, Immunophenotype. RESULTS: In the first study (113 patients, the following variables had a worse influence on survival: yellow race (P<0.1; ECOG II, III e IV (P<0.1 and extranodal disease (P<0.1 for high grade lymphomas; constitutional symptoms (P<0.1, ECOG II, III e IV (P<0.1 and involvement of CNS (P<0.1 for intermediate grade and the subtype lymphoplasmocytoid (P=0.0186 for low grade lymphomas. In the second survey (93 patients, when treatment was included, the variables related to NHL survival were: CNS involvement (P<0.1 for high grade lymphomas, constitutional symptoms (P<0.1, ECOG II, III, IV (P=0.0185 and also CNS involvement (P<0.1 for the intermediate group. There were no variables related to the survival for low-grade lymphomas. CONCLUSIONS: The intermediate grade lymphomas were more compatible with data found in the literature, probably because of the larger number of patients. In this specific case, the treatment did not have an influence on the survival.

  4. Social networks and cooperation in electronic communities : a theoretical-empirical analysis of academic communication and Internet discussion groups

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Matzat, Uwe

    2001-01-01

    The study examines the use of academic e-mailing lists and newsgroups on the Internet by university researchers in the Netherlands and England. Their use is related to three clusters of problems that are analyzed. Firstly, while there are considerable time costs for using Internet Discussion Groups,

  5. Social networks and cooperation in electronic communities : a theoretical-empirical analysis of academic communication and Internet discussion groups

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Matzat, Uwe

    2001-01-01

    The study examines the use of academic e-mailing lists and newsgroups on the Internet by university researchers in the Netherlands and England. Their use is related to three clusters of problems that are analyzed. Firstly, while there are considerable time costs for using Internet Discussion Groups,

  6. Cooperative Learning in Elementary Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slavin, Robert E.

    2015-01-01

    Cooperative learning refers to instructional methods in which students work in small groups to help each other learn. Although cooperative learning methods are used for different age groups, they are particularly popular in elementary (primary) schools. This article discusses methods and theoretical perspectives on cooperative learning for the…

  7. Lymphoma Research Foundation

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the stem cell transplantation process. Read More LYMPHOMA RESEARCH Featured Researcher – David Scott, MBChB, PhD Dr. Scott ... and Advocacy News Action Center Advocacy Tool Kit Research LRF Research Portfolio Disease-Specific Focus Areas Grants ...

  8. Immunotherapy with rituximab in follicular lymphomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saguna, Carmen; Mut, Ileana Delia; Lupu, Anca Roxana; Tevet, Mihaela; Bumbea, Horia; Dragan, Cornel

    2011-04-01

    Non-Hodgkin Lymphomas (NHL) represent a recent and fascinating domain of hemato-oncology, in which remarkable progress has been made. The conventional treatments of indolent lymphomas do not extend the survival rate, nor do they cure. Recent directions are centered on using several new drugs that are capable of overcoming the mechanisms that are resistant to recovery. The initiation of immunotherapy (Rituximab in 1997) seems to have changed the natural evolution of follicular lymphomas (FL). It is possible that resistance to healing in follicular lymphomas may be neutralized with Rituximab by suppressing STAT-1 positive macrophages that are present in the cellular microenvironment.Thereinafter, the re-evaluation of recent models of prognostic and therapeutic paradigmas that were used in FL became compulsory.The purpose of the paper is to compare the evolution of patients with follicular lymphoma and the period of response, according to the treatments. The study group consisted of the 71 patients diagnosed with follicular lymphoma, out of a total of 767 malignant lymphatic proliferations with B cells, for a period of 7 years (2002-2008), at the Hematology Department, Hospital Coltea, Bucharest and Hematology Department, Universitary Hospital, BucharestResults and conclusions: Combining chemotherapy with Rituximab had better results compared to the same chemotherapy, administered alone, both in induction and in case of relapse. The overall response rate in our study group was 74.7%, out of which 42.3% complete remissions. The overall response rate was 84.61% in the Rituximab group, compared to 68.88% in patients without Rituximab.

  9. General Information about Adult Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Lymphoma Treatment AIDS-Related Lymphoma Treatment Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia Treatment (small lymphocytic lymphoma) Mycosis Fungoides (Including Sézary Syndrome) Treatment (cutaneous T-cell lymphoma) Primary CNS Lymphoma Treatment Non-Hodgkin lymphoma ...

  10. Treatment Option Overview (Adult Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Lymphoma Treatment AIDS-Related Lymphoma Treatment Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia Treatment (small lymphocytic lymphoma) Mycosis Fungoides (Including Sézary Syndrome) Treatment (cutaneous T-cell lymphoma) Primary CNS Lymphoma Treatment Non-Hodgkin lymphoma ...

  11. 情境教學中異質小組合作學習之實證研究 Effects of Heterogeneous Groups for Cooperative Learning in Anchored Instruction

    OpenAIRE

    1998-01-01

    無The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of heterogeneous groups for cooperative learning on students' cognitive and affective performance in anchored instruction. Forty-two fifth graders participated in this study. They were divided into gender-heterogeneous combinations: two boys plus one girl vs. two girls and one boy. Four dependent variables were measured, including problem- solving strategies, learning transfer, attitudes toward mathernatics and attitudes toward cooperative...

  12. Increased risk of lymphoma in sicca syndrome

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kassan, S.S.; Thomas, T.L.; Moutsopoulos, H.M.; Hoover, R.; Kimberly, R.P.; Budman, D.R.; Costa, J.; Decker, J.L.; Chused, T.M.

    1978-12-01

    The risk of cancer was ascertained in 136 women with sicca syndrome followed at the National Institutes of Health (NIH). Seven patients developed non-Hodgkin's lymphoma from 6 months to 13 years after their first admission to NIH. This was 43.8 times (P less than 0.01) the incidence expected from the rates of cancer prevailing among women of the same age range in the general population during this time. In addition, three cases of Waldenstroem's macroglobulinemia occurred in this study group. Eight patients developed cancers other than lymphoma, similar to the number expected based on the rates prevailing in the general population. Patients with a history of parotid enlargement, splenomegaly, and lymphadenopathy had an increased risk of lymphoma. These clinical conditions did not appear to be early manifestations of undiagnosed lymphoma but rather seemed to identify a subgroup of patients with sicca syndrome with marked lymphoid reactivity, who had a particularly high risk of subsequently developing lymphoma.

  13. The early evolution of cooperation in humans

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Czárán, T.; Aanen, Duur K.

    2016-01-01

    The evolution of cooperation is difficult to understand, because cheaters — individuals who profit without cooperating themselves — have a benefit in interaction with cooperators. Cooperation among humans is even more difficult to understand, because cooperation occurs in large groups, making cheati

  14. Burkitt’s Lymphoma: Thorax to Pelvis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    Burkitt’s lymphoma is a sub-group of non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma of high-grade with an aggressive clinical course and is composed of diffuse, small and non-cleaved, undifferentiated malignant cells of lymphoid origin. Dennis Burkitt first described this entity in 1956 in equatorial Africa. It is one of the fastest growing cancers in humans with a growth fraction close to 100%. It commonly occurs in children and young adults, with frequent involvement of bone marrow and central nervous system. These are considered to be medical emergencies and require immediate diagnostic and therapeutic intervention. In this report, we present a case of Burkitt’s lymphoma with unusual presentation with the involvement of both thorax and the whole of the abdomen.

  15. Obinutuzumab for the treatment of indolent lymphoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edelmann, Jennifer; Gribben, John G

    2016-08-01

    Obinutuzumab is a humanized, type II anti-CD20 monoclonal antibody designed for strong induction of direct cell death and antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity. The Phase III GADOLIN trial tested the clinical efficacy of obinutuzumab plus bendamustine followed by obinutuzumab monotherapy in rituximab-refractory indolent non-Hodgkin lymphoma versus treatment with bendamustine alone. It demonstrated significantly longer progression-free survival for the obinutuzumab-containing regimen in this difficult to treat patient group. Based on the results of this trial, US FDA approval was most recently granted for obinutuzumab in the treatment of follicular lymphoma that has relapsed after or was refractory to a rituximab-containing regimen. This article summarizes the available data on chemistry, pharmacokinetics, clinical efficacy and safety of obinutuzumab in the treatment of indolent non-Hodgkin lymphoma.

  16. 'Contractual' and 'cooperative' civic engagement: The emergence and roles of 'flood action groups' in England and Wales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geaves, Linda H; Penning-Rowsell, Edmund C

    2015-09-01

    Devolution of responsibilities is transforming how flood risk is managed in many countries. Research assessing the emergence and role of a new element in the governance of flood risk management in England explored the numerous 'flood action groups' that have developed over the last decade. We identified two broad categories of relationship between the public and authorities. The first displays 'contractual' characteristics: a level of protection provided by the authority in exchange for taxes or similar support. The second embodies a 'collaborative' relationship: public knowledge, social and financial resources are equal and complementary to those of authority, and seeking 'collective security'. In general, the former were more successful than the latter, but common lessons were that success in FRM should not be defined purely as the ability to prevent flooding, but as the ability to access a variety of resources across different levels of society at different stages of flood risk management.

  17. Danish Breast Cancer Cooperative Group--DBCG: History, organization, and status of scientific achievements at 30-year anniversary

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blichert-Toft, M.; Christiansen, Peter; Mouridsen, H.T.

    2008-01-01

    , and data secretaries making current analyses of outcome results feasible. DBCG is run by the Executive Committee consisting of expert members appointed by their respective society. From 1978 the DBCG project gained widely accession from participating units, and since then nearly all newly diagnosed breast...... treatment programmes including in situ lesions and primary invasive breast cancer. Probands are subdivided into risk groups based on a given risk pattern and allocated to various treatment programmes accordingly. The scientific initiatives are conducted in the form of register- and cohort analysis...... or randomized trials in national or international protocolized settings. Yearly, about 4 000 new incident cases of primary invasive breast cancer and about 200 in situ lesions enter the national programmes. Further, about 600 women with hereditary disposition of breast cancer are registered and evaluated...

  18. Body mass index and its association with clinical outcomes for advanced non-small-cell lung cancer patients enrolled on Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group clinical trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahlberg, Suzanne E; Schiller, Joan H; Bonomi, Philip B; Sandler, Alan B; Brahmer, Julie R; Ramalingam, Suresh S; Johnson, David H

    2013-09-01

    Obesity increases the risk of death from many adverse health outcomes and has also been linked with cancer outcomes. The impact of obesity on outcomes of advanced non-small-cell lung cancer patients is unclear. The authors evaluated the association of body mass index (BMI) and outcomes in 2585 eligible patients enrolled in three consecutive first-line trials conducted by the Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group. BMI was categorized as underweight (BMI obese (BMI ≥ 30 kg/m). In addition to analyzing overall and progression-free survival, reasons for treatment discontinuation were also assessed by BMI group. Of the patients enrolled, 4.6% were underweight, 44.1% were normal weight, 34.3% of patients were classified as overweight, and 16.9% were obese. Nonproportional hazards existed for obese patients relative to the other three groups of patients, with a change in overall survival hazard occurring at approximately 16 months. In multivariable Cox models, obese patients had superior outcomes earlier on study compared with normal/overweight patients 0.86 (HR=0.86, p=0.04; 95% CI: 0.75-0.99), but later experienced increased hazard (HR=1.54, p< 0.001; 95% CI: 1.22-1.94), indicating a time effect while undergoing treatment. Data from these three trials suggest differential outcomes associated with BMI, and additional studies of the mechanisms underlying this observation, as well as dietary and lifestyle interventions, are warranted to help optimize therapy.

  19. Drugs Approved for Hodgkin Lymphoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Ask about Your Treatment Research Drugs Approved for Hodgkin Lymphoma This page lists cancer drugs approved by ... that are not listed here. Drugs Approved for Hodgkin Lymphoma Adcetris (Brentuximab Vedotin) Ambochlorin (Chlorambucil) Amboclorin (Chlorambucil) ...

  20. Combination of ofatumumab and reduced-dose CHOP for diffuse large B-cell lymphomas in patients aged 80 years or older: an open-label, multicentre, single-arm, phase 2 trial from the LYSA group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peyrade, Frédéric; Bologna, Serge; Delwail, Vincent; Emile, Jean François; Pascal, Laurent; Fermé, Christophe; Schiano, Jean-Marc; Coiffier, Bertrand; Corront, Bernadette; Farhat, Hassan; Fruchart, Christophe; Ghesquieres, Herve; Macro, Margaret; Tilly, Hervé; Choufi, Bachra; Delarue, Richard; Fitoussi, Olivier; Gabarre, Jean; Haioun, Corinne; Jardin, Fabrice

    2017-01-01

    In 2011 we reported a rituximab plus miniCHOP (reduced-dose cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine, and prednisone) combination for patients older than 80 years with diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL). The 2-year overall survival was 59% (95% CI 49-67) with an excess of early toxicity. To improve those results we tested the same chemotherapy protocol in combination with ofatumumab and a pre-phase treatment. For this open-label, multicentre, single-group, phase 2 trial, we recruited patients older than 80 years with untreated histologically-proven CD20-positive DLBCL, Ann Arbor stage I to IV, from 41 academic and hospital centres in France and Belgium. Patients received a pre-phase with oral vincristine (1 mg total dose 1 week before cycle 1 [day -7]) and oral prednisone (60 mg total dose starting 1 week before cycle 1, for 4 days [day -7 to day -4]) before the first cycle of the ofatumumab plus miniCHOP regimen. The regimen consisted of 1000 mg total dose of intravenous ofatumumab, 25 mg/m(2) of intravenous doxorubicin, 400 mg/m(2) of intravenous cyclophosphamide, and 1 mg of intravenous vincristine, on day 1 of each cycle; and 40 mg/m(2) of oral prednisone on days 1-5. Ofatumumab was administered with 1000 mg of paracetamol and 50 mg of diphenhydramine. The primary endpoint was overall survival in the intention-to-treat population. The statistical analysis has been done on an intention-to-treat principle. This study was registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT01195714. Between June 2, 2010, and Nov 4, 2011, we enrolled 120 patients. Age-adjusted International Prognostic Index was 2-3 in 68 (57%) of them. The median follow-up time was 26·8 months (IQR 24·5-30·1). The 2-year overall survival was 64·7% (95% CI 55·3-72·7) and median overall survival was not reached (95% CI 30·2-not reached). 45 patients died during the treatment, of whom 28 (62%) died due to lymphoma. The most common side-effect was haematological toxicity. Among the 120 patients

  1. Prognostic Significance of B-cell Differentiation Genes Encoding Proteins in Diffuse Large B-cell Lymphoma and Follicular Lymphoma Grade 3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borovečki, Ana; Korać, Petra; Nola, Marin; Ivanković, Davor; Jakšić, Branimir; Dominis, Mara

    2008-01-01

    Aim To define prognostic significance of B-cell differentiation genes encoding proteins and BCL2 and BCL6 gene abnormalities in diffuse large B-cell lymphoma and follicular lymphoma grade 3 with >75% follicular growth pattern. Methods In 53 patients with diffuse large B-cell lymphoma and 20 patients with follicular lymphoma grade 3 with >75% follicular growth pattern the following was performed: 1) determination of protein expression of BCL6, CD10, MUM1/IRF4, CD138, and BCL2 by immunohistochemistry; 2) subclassification into germinal center B-cell-like (GCB) and activated B-cell-like (ABC) groups according to the results of protein expression; 3) detection of t(14;18)(q32;q21)/IgH-BCL2 and BCL6 abnormalities by fluorescent in situ hybridization in diffuse large B-cell lymphoma and follicular lymphoma grade 3 with >75% follicular growth pattern as well as in GCB and ABC groups; and 4) assessment of the influence of the analyzed characteristics and clinical prognostic factors on overall survival. Results Isolated BCL6 expression was more frequently found in follicular lymphoma grade 3 with >75% follicular growth pattern than in diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (P = 0.030). There were no differences in BCL2 and BCL6 gene abnormalities between diffuse large B-cell lymphoma and follicular lymphoma grade 3 with >75% follicular growth pattern. Diffuse large B-cell lymphoma and follicular lymphoma grade 3 with >75% follicular growth pattern patients were equally distributed in GCB and ABC groups. t(14;18)(q32;q21) was more frequently recorded in GCB group, and t(14;18)(q32;q21) with BCL2 additional signals or only BCL2 and IgH additional signals in ABC group (P = 0.004). The GCB and ABC groups showed no difference in BCL6 gene abnormalities. There was no overall survival difference between the patients with diffuse large B-cell lymphoma or follicular lymphoma grade 3 with >75% follicular growth pattern, however, GCB group had longer overall survival than ABC group (P

  2. Intravascular large B cell lymphoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo García-Muñoz

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Intravascular large B cell lymphoma (IVBCL is a rare type of extranodal large B cell lymphoma characterized by selective growth of lymphoma cells within the microvasculature. We present an illustrative case of intravascular B cell lymphoma suspected by the presence of a very small monoclonal B cell population identified by immunophenotype and polymerase chain reaction in bone marrow. The diagnosis was confirmed by skin biopsy.

  3. 506U78 in Treating Patients With Recurrent or Refractory Non-Hodgkin's Lymphoma or T-cell Lymphoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-22

    Angioimmunoblastic T-cell Lymphoma; Extranodal Marginal Zone B-cell Lymphoma of Mucosa-associated Lymphoid Tissue; Nodal Marginal Zone B-cell Lymphoma; Recurrent Adult T-cell Leukemia/Lymphoma; Recurrent Grade 1 Follicular Lymphoma; Recurrent Grade 2 Follicular Lymphoma; Recurrent Marginal Zone Lymphoma; Recurrent Small Lymphocytic Lymphoma; Splenic Marginal Zone Lymphoma; Waldenström Macroglobulinemia

  4. Conflictual cooperation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Axel, Erik

    2011-01-01

    , cooperation appeared as the continuous reworking of contradictions in the local arrangement of societal con- ditions. Subjects were distributed and distributed themselves according to social privileges, resources, and dilemmas in cooperation. Here, the subjects’ activities and understandings took form from...

  5. Culture and cooperation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gächter, Simon; Herrmann, Benedikt; Thöni, Christian

    2010-09-12

    Does the cultural background influence the success with which genetically unrelated individuals cooperate in social dilemma situations? In this paper, we provide an answer by analysing the data of Herrmann et al. (2008a), who studied cooperation and punishment in 16 subject pools from six different world cultures (as classified by Inglehart & Baker (2000)). We use analysis of variance to disentangle the importance of cultural background relative to individual heterogeneity and group-level differences in cooperation. We find that culture has a substantial influence on the extent of cooperation, in addition to individual heterogeneity and group-level differences identified by previous research. The significance of this result is that cultural background has a substantial influence on cooperation in otherwise identical environments. This is particularly true in the presence of punishment opportunities.

  6. PRIMARY CUTANEOUS T-CELL LYMPHOMA - CLINICOPATHOLOGICAL FEATURES AND PROGNOSTIC PARAMETERS OF 35 CASES OTHER THAN MYCOSIS-FUNGOIDES AND CD30-POSITIVE LARGE-CELL LYMPHOMA

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    BELJAARDS, RC; MEIJER, CJLM; VANDERPUTTE, CJ; HOLLEMA, H; GEERTS, ML; BEZEMER, PD; WILLEMZE, R

    1994-01-01

    Within the group of primary cutaneous T-cell lymphomas (CTCLs), mycosis fungoides (MF), Sezary's syndrome (SS), and CD30-positive lymphomas have been delineated as clinicopathological entities. Primary CTCLs that do not belong to one of these entities represent a heterogeneous and ill-defined group

  7. Cooperative Learning

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    桑莹莹

    2015-01-01

    This paper is about the cooperative learning as a teaching method in a second language learning class. It mainly talks about the background, foundation, features, definitions, components, goals, advantages and disadvantages of cooperative learning. And as the encounter of the disadvantages in cooperative learning, this paper also proposes some strategies.

  8. Cooperating and Prospering

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAO MINGWEN

    2010-01-01

    @@ Since its establish-ment in 2001, the Shanghai Cooperation Organization (SCO)-a re-gional organization grouping China, Russia, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan and Uzbekistan-has grown at a notable pace.

  9. The Power of Cooperation in International Paleoclimate Science: Examples from the PAGES 2k Network and the Ocean2k Working Group

    Science.gov (United States)

    Addison, J. A.

    2015-12-01

    The Past Global Changes (PAGES) project of IGBP and Future Earth supports research to understand the Earth's past environment to improve future climate predictions and inform strategies for sustainability. Within this framework, the PAGES 2k Network was established to provide a focus on the past 2000 years, a period that encompasses Medieval Climate Anomaly warming, Little Ice Age cooling, and recent anthropogenically-forced climate change. The results of these studies are used for testing earth system models, and for understanding decadal- to centennial-scale variability, which is needed for long-term planning. International coordination and cooperation among the nine regional Working Groups that make up the 2k Network has been critical to the success of PAGES 2k. The collaborative approach is moving toward scientific achievements across the regional groups, including: (i) the development of a community-driven open-access proxy climate database; (ii) integration of multi-resolution proxy records; (iii) development of multivariate climate reconstructions; and (iv) a leap forward in the spatial resolution of paleoclimate reconstructions. The last addition to the 2k Network, the Ocean2k Working Group has further innovated the collaborative approach by: (1) creating an open, receptive environment to discuss ideas exclusively in the virtual space; (2) employing an array of real-time collaborative software tools to enable communication, group document writing, and data analysis; (3) consolidating executive leadership teams to oversee project development and manage grassroots-style volunteer pools; and (4) embracing the value-added role that international and interdisciplinary science can play in advancing paleoclimate hypotheses critical to understanding future change. Ongoing efforts for the PAGES 2k Network are focused on developing new standards for data quality control and archiving. These tasks will provide the foundation for new and continuing "trans-regional" 2k

  10. Safety and Tolerability Study of PCI-32765 in B Cell Lymphoma and Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-10-09

    B-cell Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia; Small Lymphocytic Lymphoma; Diffuse Well-differentiated Lymphocytic Lymphoma; B Cell Lymphoma; Follicular Lymphoma; Mantle Cell Lymphoma; Non-Hodgkin's Lymphoma; Waldenstrom Macroglobulinemia; Burkitt Lymphoma; B-Cell Diffuse Lymphoma

  11. Cooperative Learning: Developments in Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillies, Robyn M.

    2014-01-01

    Cooperative learning is widely recognized as a pedagogical practice that promotes socialization and learning among students from kindergarten through to college level and across different subject areas. Cooperative learning involves students working together to achieve common goals or complete group tasks. Interest in cooperative learning has…

  12. On the Application of Pedagogy of Group Cooperative Learning in the Course of Scientific Thinking Training%浅谈小组合作学习在《科学思维训练》课程的运用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙国红

    2013-01-01

      本文在结合《科学思维训练》课程中运用小组合作学习教学法的实际,阐述了小组合作学习教学法的内涵和模式,以及应用小组合作学习教学法应注意的问题。%By using pedagogy of group cooperative learning in the course of Scientific Thinking Training, this paper expounded its content and mode as well as the problems should pay attention to while using the pedagogy of group cooperative learning.

  13. Danish National Lymphoma Registry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arboe, Bente; Josefsson, Pär; Jørgensen, Judit;

    2016-01-01

    AIM OF DATABASE: The Danish National Lymphoma Registry (LYFO) was established in order to monitor and improve the diagnostic evaluation and the quality of treatment of all lymphoma patients in Denmark. STUDY POPULATION: The LYFO database was established in 1982 as a seminational database including...... all lymphoma patients referred to the departments of hematology. The database became nationwide on January 1, 2000. MAIN VARIABLES: The main variables include both clinical and paraclinical variables as well as details of treatment and treatment evaluation. Up to four forms are completed for each...... patient: a primary registration form, a treatment form, a relapse form, and a follow-up form. Variables are used to calculate six result quality indicators (mortality 30 and 180 days after diagnosis, response to first-line treatment, and survival estimates 1, 3, and 5 years after the time of diagnosis...

  14. Versatile cooperative ligand effects in group 9 transition metal catalysis: Applications in transfer hydrogenation & hydrogen autotransfer reactions, ketene & ketene imine synthesis and hydroformylation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tang, Z.

    2015-01-01

    Cooperative ligand effects of transition metal complexes have a profound impact on the reaction outcome of catalytic reactions, and development of (new) cooperative metal-ligand systems is a hot topic in current catalysis research. Conventional ligands with hydride-accepting/delivering activities ar

  15. Ophthalmic lymphoma: epidemiology and pathogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sjö, Lene Dissing

    2009-02-01

    With a lifetime risk of 1% and 700 new cases per year, Non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) is the seventh most frequent type of cancer in Denmark. The incidence of NHL has increased considerably in Western countries over the last decades; consequently, NHL is an increasing clinical problem. Ophthalmic lymphoma, (lymphoma localized in the ocular region, i.e. eyelid, conjunctiva, lacrimal sac, lacrimal gland, orbit, or intraocularly) is relatively uncommon, accounting for 5%-10% of all extranodal lymphomas. It is, however, the most common orbital malignancy. The purpose of this thesis was to review specimens from all Danish patients with a diagnosis of ophthalmic lymphoma during the period 1980-2005, in order to determine the distribution of lymphoma subtypes, and the incidence- and time trends in incidence for ophthalmic lymphoma. Furthermore, an extended analysis of the most frequent subtype, extranodal marginal zone lymphoma (MALT lymphoma), was done to analyse clinical factors and cytogenetic changes with influence on prognosis. A total of 228 Danish patients with a biopsy-reviewed verified diagnosis of ocular adnexal-, orbital-, or intraocular lymphoma were identified. We found that more than 50% of orbital- and ocular adnexal lymphomas were of the MALT lymphoma subtype, whereas diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) predominated intraocularly (Sjo et al. 2008a). Furthermore, lymphoma arising in the lacrimal sac was surprisingly predominantly DLBCL (Sjo et al. 2006). Incidence rates were highly dependent on patient age. There was an increase in incidence rates for the whole population from 1980 to 2005, corresponding to an annual average increase of 3.4% (Sjo et al. 2008a). MALT lymphoma arising in the ocular region was found in 116 patients (Sjo et al. 2008b). One third of patients had a relapse or progression of disease after initial therapy and relapses were frequently found at extra-ocular sites. Overall survival, however, was not significantly poorer for patients

  16. Lymphoma of the Cervix

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juanita Parnis

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Primary non-Hodgkins lymphoma of the uterine cervix is a very rare diagnosis. A 54-year-old woman presented with a 3-month history of postmenopausal bleeding per vaginum. On examination, a friable, fungating lesion was seen on the cervix. Histology revealed a CD 20 positive high-grade non-Hodgkin’s diffuse large B cell lymphoma from cervical biopsies and endometrial curettage. She was diagnosed as stage IE after workup and subsequently treated with six cycles of R-CHOP chemotherapy followed by radiotherapy of the involved field.

  17. Primary Pancreatic Lymphomas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Wasif Saif

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Extranodal non-Hodgkin’s lymphomas (NHLs represent up to 30-40% of all NHL cases. The gastrointestinal tract is the most commonly involved extranodal site; accounting for about half of such cases [1]. Stomach and the small intestine constitute the most common gastrointestinal sites. Secondary invasion of the pancreas from contiguous, retroperitoneal lymph node disease is the prevalent mode of involvement. Secondary involvement of the pancreas from the duodenum or adjacent peripancreatic lymphadenopathy is well-known. Primary pancreatic lymphoma (PPL is an extremely rare disease [2]. PPL can present as an isolated mass mimicking pancreatic carcinoma. However, unlike carcinomas, PPL are potentially treatable [3].

  18. Central nervous system involvement in mantle cell lymphoma: clinical features, prognostic factors and outcomes from the European Mantle Cell Lymphoma Network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheah, C Y; George, A; Giné, E; Chiappella, A; Kluin-Nelemans, H C; Jurczak, W; Krawczyk, K; Mocikova, H; Klener, P; Salek, D; Walewski, J; Szymczyk, M; Smolej, L; Auer, R L; Ritchie, D S; Arcaini, L; Williams, M E; Dreyling, M; Seymour, J F

    2013-08-01

    Central nervous system (CNS) involvement in mantle cell lymphoma (MCL) is uncommon, and the manifestations and natural history are not well described. We present the data on 57 patients with MCL who developed CNS involvement, from a database of 1396 consecutively treated patients at 14 institutions. The crude incidence of CNS involvement was 4.1%, with 0.9% having CNS involvement at diagnosis. Blastoid histology, B-symptoms, elevated lactate dehydrogenase, Eastern Cooperative Group performance status ≥2 and a high Mantle Cell Lymphoma International Prognostic Index score were enriched in the cohort with CNS involvement, and the presence of ≥1 of these features defined a high-risk subset (an actuarial risk of CNS involvement 15% at 5 years) in a single-institution subset. The median time to CNS relapse was 15.2 months, and the median survival from time of CNS diagnosis was 3.7 months. The white blood cell count at diagnosis features may predict risk. Once manifest outlook is poor; however, some patients who receive intensive therapy survive longer than 12 months.

  19. Globalization and human cooperation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchan, Nancy R; Grimalda, Gianluca; Wilson, Rick; Brewer, Marilynn; Fatas, Enrique; Foddy, Margaret

    2009-03-17

    Globalization magnifies the problems that affect all people and that require large-scale human cooperation, for example, the overharvesting of natural resources and human-induced global warming. However, what does globalization imply for the cooperation needed to address such global social dilemmas? Two competing hypotheses are offered. One hypothesis is that globalization prompts reactionary movements that reinforce parochial distinctions among people. Large-scale cooperation then focuses on favoring one's own ethnic, racial, or language group. The alternative hypothesis suggests that globalization strengthens cosmopolitan attitudes by weakening the relevance of ethnicity, locality, or nationhood as sources of identification. In essence, globalization, the increasing interconnectedness of people worldwide, broadens the group boundaries within which individuals perceive they belong. We test these hypotheses by measuring globalization at both the country and individual levels and analyzing the relationship between globalization and individual cooperation with distal others in multilevel sequential cooperation experiments in which players can contribute to individual, local, and/or global accounts. Our samples were drawn from the general populations of the United States, Italy, Russia, Argentina, South Africa, and Iran. We find that as country and individual levels of globalization increase, so too does individual cooperation at the global level vis-à-vis the local level. In essence, "globalized" individuals draw broader group boundaries than others, eschewing parochial motivations in favor of cosmopolitan ones. Globalization may thus be fundamental in shaping contemporary large-scale cooperation and may be a positive force toward the provision of global public goods.

  20. Early diagnosis of malignant melanoma: Proposal of a working formulation for the management of cutaneous pigmented lesions from the Melanoma Cooperative Group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ascierto, Paolo A; Palmieri, Giuseppe; Botti, Gerardo; Satriano, Rocco A; Stanganelli, Ignazio; Bono, Riccardo; Testori, Alessandro; Bosco, Leonardo; Daponte, Antonio; Caracò, Corrado; Chiofalo, Maria Grazia; Melucci, Maria Teresa; Calignano, Rosario; Tatangelo, Fabiana; Cochran, Alistair J; Castello, Giuseppe

    2003-06-01

    Epiluminescence microscopy (ELM) strongly improves the separation of different types of cutaneous pigmented lesions (CPL) and facilitates the early diagnosis of cutaneous melanoma (CM). ELM alone is not 100% accurate in routine diagnosis, and should not be considered the only criterion in the diagnosis of high-risk skin lesions. We have however, demonstrated close agreement between ELM classification criteria and histology in 2,731 cutaneous lesions. In the past five years, our Melanoma Cooperative Group has evaluated 61,000 skin lesions from 30,000 individuals and identified 478 cutaneous melanomas. Most newly diagnosed patients had very early stage melanoma [299 (62%) were Stage I (203 Stage IA and 96 Stage IB), by the American Joint Committee on Cancer (AJCC) criteria]. We have compared data from the patient histories and clinical evaluations with ELM-based morphological patterns to better characterize skin lesions and minimize interpretative problems. From these comparisons, we propose new guidelines for the management of CPL to provide a standard diagnostic and therapeutic approaches and to foster the early identification of lesions at risk for malignant transformation.

  1. Bleeding manifestations and management of children with persistent and chronic immune thrombocytopenia: data from the Intercontinental Cooperative ITP Study Group (ICIS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neunert, Cindy E; Buchanan, George R; Imbach, Paul; Bolton-Maggs, Paula H B; Bennett, Carolyn M; Neufeld, Ellis; Vesely, Sara K; Adix, Leah; Blanchette, Victor S; Kühne, Thomas

    2013-05-30

    Long-term follow-up of children with immune thrombocytopenia (ITP) indicates that the majority undergo remission and severe thrombocytopenia is infrequent. Details regarding bleeding manifestations, however, remain poorly categorized. We report here long-term data from the Intercontinental Cooperative ITP Study Group Registry II focusing on natural history, bleeding manifestations, and management. Data on 1345 subjects were collected at diagnosis and at 28 days, 6, 12, and 24 months thereafter. Median platelet counts were 214 × 10(9)/L (interquartile range [IQR] 227, range 1-748), 211 × 10(9)/L (IQR 192, range 1-594), and 215 × 10(9)/L (IQR 198, range 1-598) at 6, 12, and 24 months, respectively, and a platelet count <20 × 10(9)/L was uncommon (7%, 7%, and 4%, respectively). Remission occurred in 37% of patients between 28 days and 6 months, 16% between 6 and 12 months, and 24% between 12 and 24 months. There were no reports of intracranial hemorrhage, and the most common site of bleeding was skin. In patients with severe thrombocytopenia we observed a trend toward more drug treatment with increasing number of bleeding sites. Our data support that ITP is a benign condition for most affected children and that major hemorrhage, even with prolonged severe thrombocytopenia, is rare.

  2. A case-based, small-group cooperative learning course in preclinical veterinary science aimed at bridging basic science and clinical literacy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.P. Schoeman

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available In 1999 a dedicated problem-based learning course was introduced into the lecture-based preclinical veterinary curriculum of the University of Pretoria. The Introduction to Clinical Studies Course combines traditional lectures, practical sessions, student self-learning and guided tutorials. The self-directed component of the course utilises case-based, small group cooperative learning as an educational vehicle to link basic science with clinical medicine. The aim of this article is to describe the objectives and structure of the course and to report the results of the assessment of the students' perceptions on some aspects of the course. Students reacted very positively to the ability of the course to equip them with problem-solving skills. Students indicated positive perceptions about the workload of the course. There were, however, significantly lower scores for the clarity of the course objectives. Although the study guide for the course is very comprehensive, the practice regarding the objectives is still uncertain. It is imperative to set clear objectives in non-traditional, student-centred courses. The objectives have to be explained at the outset and reiterated throughout the course. Tutors should also communicate the rationale behind problem based learning as a pedagogical method to the students. Further research is needed to verify the effectiveness of this course in bridging the gap between basic science and clinical literacy in veterinary science. Ongoing feedback and assessment of the management and content are important to refine this model for integrating basic science with clinical literacy.

  3. Social penalty promotes cooperation in a cooperative society.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, Hiromu; Yoshimura, Jin

    2015-08-04

    Why cooperation is well developed in human society is an unsolved question in biological and human sciences. Vast studies in game theory have revealed that in non-cooperative games selfish behavior generally dominates over cooperation and cooperation can be evolved only under very limited conditions. These studies ask the origin of cooperation; whether cooperation can evolve in a group of selfish individuals. In this paper, instead of asking the origin of cooperation, we consider the enhancement of cooperation in a small already cooperative society. We ask whether cooperative behavior is further promoted in a small cooperative society in which social penalty is devised. We analyze hawk-dove game and prisoner's dilemma introducing social penalty. We then expand it for non-cooperative games in general. The results indicate that cooperation is universally favored if penalty is further imposed. We discuss the current result in terms of the moral, laws, rules and regulations in a society, e.g., criminology and traffic violation.

  4. Primary Pulmonary Hodgkin Lymphoma

    OpenAIRE

    Shumaila Tanveer; Ahmed El Damati; Ayman El Baz; Ahmed Alsayyah; Tarek ElSharkawy; Mohamed Regal

    2015-01-01

    Primary pulmonary Hodgkin lymphoma (PPHL) is a rare disease. Herein, we report a case of PPHL with diagnostic concerns encountered during initial evaluation which is of paramount importance to keep the differential diagnosis in cases with high index of sus- picion for this rare entity.

  5. Lymphoma: Immune Evasion Strategies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Upadhyay, Ranjan; Hammerich, Linda; Peng, Paul [Division of Hematology and Medical Oncology, Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, New York, NY 10029 (United States); Brown, Brian [Department of Genetics and Genomic Sciences, Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, New York, NY 10029 (United States); Merad, Miriam [Department of Oncological Sciences, Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, New York, NY 10029 (United States); Brody, Joshua D., E-mail: joshua.brody@mssm.edu [Division of Hematology and Medical Oncology, Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, New York, NY 10029 (United States)

    2015-04-30

    While the cellular origin of lymphoma is often characterized by chromosomal translocations and other genetic aberrations, its growth and development into a malignant neoplasm is highly dependent upon its ability to escape natural host defenses. Neoplastic cells interact with a variety of non-malignant cells in the tumor milieu to create an immunosuppressive microenvironment. The resulting functional impairment and dysregulation of tumor-associated immune cells not only allows for passive growth of the malignancy but may even provide active growth signals upon which the tumor subsequently becomes dependent. In the past decade, the success of immune checkpoint blockade and adoptive cell transfer for relapsed or refractory lymphomas has validated immunotherapy as a possible treatment cornerstone. Here, we review the mechanisms by which lymphomas have been found to evade and even reprogram the immune system, including alterations in surface molecules, recruitment of immunosuppressive subpopulations, and secretion of anti-inflammatory factors. A fundamental understanding of the immune evasion strategies utilized by lymphomas may lead to better prognostic markers and guide the development of targeted interventions that are both safer and more effective than current standards of care.

  6. Lymphatic system and lymphoma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    2009236 Clinical significance in detection of immunoglobulin heavy chain clonal rearrangement in bone marrow of patients with B cell lymphoma.CHEN Zhiyu(陈治宇),et al.Dept Med Oncol,Cancer Hosp,Fudan Univ;Dept Oncel,Shanghai Med Coll,Fudan Univ,Shanghai 200032,Chin J Oncol,2009;3193):183-188.

  7. Lymphatic system and lymphoma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1997-01-01

    970385 The changes of cell immune function in ap-tients with non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma by flow cytome-try analysis. LU Ming(吕鸣), et al. Clin ImmunolCenter, Changzheng Hosp, 2nd Milit Med Univ, Shang-hai, 200003. Shanghai Med J 1997; 20(2): 73-75.

  8. Centrofacial angiocentric lymphoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peral-Cagigal, Beatriz; Galdeano-Arenas, María; Crespo-Pinilla, Juan Ignacio; García-Cantera, José Miguel; Sánchez-Cuéllar, Luis Antonio; Verrier-Hernández, Alberto

    2005-01-01

    The centrofacial angiocentric lymphoma is a rare lymphoid neoplasm, with an often-difficult diagnosis due to the non-specific clinical picture. On many occasions it is necessary to perform various biopsies to reach the correct diagnosis. This lymphoma is an aggressive Non-Hodgkin's (NHL) type, which is normally found in the upper respiratory tract (predominantly in the nasal cavity), and has an ominous prognosis, as the average survival rate is between 12 and 18 months (1). It is predominantly found in subjects of oriental and South American extraction, who are between the ages of 50 and 60 years and with a slight tendency towards males (2:1). This is the case study of a female Ecuadorian patient who was referred to our department with a hemifacial edema, chocolate- like rhinorrhea and nasal respiratory obstruction, which had been treated with antibiotics and anti-inflammatories for a month without success. After performing a number of diagnostic tests, it was found histologically that the patient had an extranodal T-cell lymphoma of the nasal type (also known as T-cell angiocentric lymphoma).

  9. Quality control of involved-field radiotherapy for patients with early stage Hodgkin's lymphoma based on a central prospective review. Comparison of the results between two study generations of the German Hodgkin Study Group

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kriz, J.; Haverkamp, U.; Eich, H.T. [Muenster Univ. (Germany). Dept. of Radiation Oncology; Bangard, C. [Koeln Univ. (Germany). Dept. of Radiology; Bongartz, R.; Baues, C.; Mueller, R.P. [Koeln Univ. (Germany). Dept. of Radiation Oncology; Engert, A. [Koeln Univ. (Germany). Dept. of Medical Oncology

    2012-08-15

    Purpose: Based on experience in trials HD10 and HD11 (1998-2003), the radiotherapy reference center of the German Hodgkin Study Group (GHSG) continued their central prospective radiation oncological review in trials HD13 and HD14. The purpose of this analysis was to identify the impact of this procedure on radiotherapeutic management and to compare findings with former trials. Methods: Between 2003 and 2009, 1,710 patients were enrolled in the HD13 trial (early favorable stages) and 2,039 patients in the HD14 trial (early unfavorable stages). All patients received a total of 30 Gy involved-field (IF) radiotherapy within a combined modality approach. Results: For patients in HD13, there was a correction of disease involvement in 847/1,518 patients (56%), and for patients in HD14 in 1,370/1,905 patients (72%). Most discrepancies were observed in the lower mediastinum (19.2%), infraclavicular (31.7%), upper cervical (12.7%), and supraclavicular (10.8%) lymph nodes. This resulted in a change of disease stage in 241 (7%) patients and a shift into another study protocol in 66 (2%) patients. Due to the incorrect lymph node documentation of the participating study centers, the IF radiotherapy volume had to be enlarged in 1,063/3,423 patients (31%) and reduced in 244/3,423 patients (7.1%). These findings are comparable to the results of the quality control in the trials HD10 and HD11 (2,611 patients reviewed). Conclusion: Central review of the diagnostic imaging and clinical findings of Hodgkin's lymphoma patients shows a considerable number of discrepancies compared with the local evaluation. Thus, meticulous evaluation of all imaging information in close collaboration between the radiation oncologist and diagnostic radiologist is mandatory. (orig.)

  10. The Construction of Group Type Cooperative Learning in High School English Class%小组式合作学习在高中英语课堂的构建

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王亚飞

    2011-01-01

    通过分析小组式合作学习的理论基础以及将其引进高中英语课堂中的现实意义,介绍小组式合作学习在课堂中的多种表现形式,并且从实际的教学情境出发,论述了小组式合作学习在高中英语的听力、口语、阅读、写作教学中的具体应用。%By means of analyse of the group type cooperative learning theoretical basis and the realistic significance of the group type cooperative learning which brought into the high school English class. Introducing the Different fomls of the group type cooperative learning and set out from the actual teaching situation, discussed how the group type cooperative learning applied in listening,spoken English,reading,writing class in high school.

  11. Autologous stem-cell transplantation for Hodgkin's disease: results and prognostic factors in 494 patients from the Grupo Español de Linfomas/Transplante Autólogo de Médula Osea Spanish Cooperative Group

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Sureda, A; Arranz, R; Iriondo, A; Carreras, E; Lahuerta, J J; García-Conde, J; Jarque, I; Caballero, M D; Ferrà, C; López, A; García-Laraña, J; Cabrera, R; Carrera, D; Ruiz-Romero, M D; León, A; Rifón, J; Díaz-Mediavilla, J; Mataix, R; Morey, M; Moraleda, J M; Altés, A; López-Guillermo, A; de la Serna, J; Fernández-Rañada, J M; Sierra, J; Conde, E

    2001-01-01

    ...). Detailed records from the Grupo Español de Linfomas/Transplante Autólogo de Médula Osea Spanish Cooperative Group Database on 494 HD patients who received an ASCT between January 1984 and May 1998 were reviewed...

  12. Primary cutaneous lymphoma of scalp in a child: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Satya Sri

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available CCutaneous lymphomas are a heterogenous group of lymphoproliferative disorders with involvement of skin and form a separate group under Non-Hodgkin's lymphoma. Skin may be involved along with other organs but if the initial manifestation is in the skin, it is referred to as primary cutaneous lymphoma (PCL. One year eight months child brought with a scalp swelling of three months duration. Histopathology revealed a lymphoma and immuno- histochemistry studies were positive for T-cell lymphoma. The case is presented due to the rarity of primary cutaneous lymphoma at the age of one year eight months. [Int J Res Med Sci 2015; 3(7.000: 1810-1812

  13. Four Lymphomas in 1 Patient: A Unique Case of Triple Composite Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma Followed by Classical Hodgkin Lymphoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tennese, Alysa; Skrabek, Pamela J; Nasr, Michel R; Sekiguchi, Debora R; Morales, Carmen; Brown, Theresa C; Weisenburger, Dennis D; Perry, Anamarija M

    2017-05-01

    Composite lymphomas consist of 2 or more distinct lymphomas occurring in a single anatomical site or simultaneously in different sites and can be composed of any combination of B-cell non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL), T-cell NHL, or Hodgkin lymphoma (HL). Cases of composite lymphomas with more than 2 lymphomas are extremely rare, with only 4 reports in the literature. We report the case of a 49-year-old man with a triple composite lymphoma in a single lymph node, consisting of small lymphocytic lymphoma, follicular lymphoma, and mantle cell lymphoma in situ. The patient received multiple courses of chemotherapy and an autologous stem cell transplant, which resulted in complete remission. Then, 6 years after the stem cell transplant, he developed classical HL. This unique case is, to our knowledge, the first report of a patient with triple composite lymphoma consisting of 3 small mature B-cell NHLs, who subsequently developed a fourth lymphoma.

  14. Development of autoimmunity in lymphoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jardin, Fabrice

    2008-03-01

    Development of lymphoproliferative diseases during the course of autoimmune and chronic inflammatory conditions is well established. Conversely, development of clinical or biological signs of autoimmunity at the time of the diagnosis of lymphoma or during its course indicates that lymphoma and autoimmune manifestations may constitute two faces of the same process. The aim of this review is to describe autoimmune manifestations related to non-Hodgkin's lymphoma and Hodgkin's lymphoma, their specificity according to the lymphoma subtype and their physiopathological signification. Lymphoma-related autoimmune manifestations include mainly skin diseases, hematological manifestations, rheumatic diseases and renal lesions. Despite the lack of studies providing a systematic prospective assessment, autoimmune manifestations are observed in all lymphoma subtypes and seem particularly prevalent in marginal-zone lymphoma and T-cell lymphoma. Autoimmune manifestation's physiopathology may implicate production of autoantibodies by CD5-positive autoreactive B cells, a loss of immune tolerance, an alteration of the Fas/Fas-ligand pathway and/or a chronic antigenic stimulation. Monoclonal antibodies (including rituximab, Campath-1H or epratuzumab) constitute the most promising approach to treat lymphoma-related immune disorders.

  15. Entospletinib and Obinutuzumab in Treating Patients With Relapsed Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia, Small Lymphocytic Lymphoma, or Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-07-24

    Anemia; B-Cell Prolymphocytic Leukemia; Fatigue; Fever; Grade 1 Follicular Lymphoma; Grade 2 Follicular Lymphoma; Grade 3a Follicular Lymphoma; Hairy Cell Leukemia; Lymphadenopathy; Lymphocytosis; Lymphoplasmacytic Lymphoma; Mantle Cell Lymphoma; Marginal Zone Lymphoma; Night Sweats; Recurrent Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia; Recurrent Small Lymphocytic Lymphoma; Refractory Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia; Refractory Small Lymphocytic Lymphoma; Richter Syndrome; Splenomegaly; Thrombocytopenia; Weight Loss

  16. MOLECULAR BIOLOGICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF ALK-POSITIVE ANAPLASTIC LARGE CELL LYMPHOMA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. V. Chernyshova

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available ALK-positive anaplastic large cell lymphoma is a heterogeneous group of mature T-cell non-Hodgkin lymphoma, and is characterized by CD30/Ki-1 expression. Recently, value of various prognostic factors is investigated. These include clinical, histological and molecular genetic changes associated with different signaling pathways activation. Some features of the mechanism of action of anaplastic lymphoma kinases and targeted therapies possibilities addressed in this review.

  17. Retrospective analysis of follow-up results in patients with skin lymphomas of low degree malignancy

    OpenAIRE

    Tarasov V.V.

    2011-01-01

    Administration of specific chemotherapy (cytostatics) has great significance in the treatment of skin lymphomas of low degree malignancy. The research goal is to study follow-up results of cytostatic therapy of skin lymphomas. Retrospective observation of survival of patients with T-cell epidermothropic skin lymphomas using special therapy and without its use has been studied. Comparative analysis of survival rate in two groups of patients has been done. 40 patients received cytostatics and 3...

  18. Clinicopathological features of aggressive B-cell lymphomas including B-cell lymphoma, unclassifiable, with features intermediate between diffuse large B-cell and Burkitt lymphomas: a study of 44 patients from Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bürgesser, María Virginia; Gualco, Gabriela; Diller, Ana; Natkunam, Yasodha; Bacchi, Carlos E

    2013-06-01

    Aggressive B-cell lymphomas incorporate a wide spectrum of lymphomas that pose challenges in diagnosis as well as treatment. We evaluated the clinicopathological features of 44 patients with aggressive B-cell lymphomas which were classified into 3 groups based on the World Health Organization 2008 classification as follows: including 30 cases of diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL), 8 cases of Burkitt lymphoma (BL) and 6 cases of B-cell lymphoma, unclassifiable, with features intermediate between Burkitt lymphoma and diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (BCLU). Male predominance was observed in BL and BCLU groups and the mean age varied from 29 years in BL, 61 years in DLBCL and 70 years in BCLU. Patients with BCLU presented at more advanced stages and had a higher international prognostic index. By immunohistochemistry, they shared characteristics of both BL (including more frequent expression of SOX11) and DLBCL. FISH analyses showed three cases with more than one rearrangement: one MYC/BCL2 and two BCL2/BCL6, in addition to which one case with BCL2/IGH translocation and another with MYC rearrangement were also detected. The mean follow-up survival time of BCLU was 6.6 months, which was significantly shorter in comparison to DLBCL (31 months) and BL (30 months), respectively. The importance of recognizing this BCLU group relies on its different clinical course, poor prognosis and shorter survival than DLBCL and BL. An accurate diagnosis is critical for risk stratification and to improve therapeutic approaches and outcomes.

  19. Treatment Options for Childhood Hodgkin Lymphoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Hodgkin lymphoma. Lymphocyte-depleted Hodgkin lymphoma. Epstein-Barr virus infection increases the risk of childhood Hodgkin lymphoma. ... about health care. Reviewers and Updates Editorial Boards write the PDQ cancer information summaries and keep them ...

  20. General Information about Primary CNS Lymphoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Research Primary CNS Lymphoma Treatment (PDQ®)–Patient Version General Information About Primary CNS Lymphoma Go to Health ... start in the eye (called ocular lymphoma). Enlarge Anatomy of the lymph system, showing the lymph vessels ...

  1. Use of Group Cooperative Learning in Kindergarten Large Class Science Teaching%小组合作学习在幼儿园大班科学教学中的运用研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    方敏俐

    2016-01-01

    近年来,随着新《纲要》的颁布,在实施幼儿园新课程过程中,许多幼儿教师已经意识到幼儿合作能力培养的重要性,也知道合作学习是教学活动中重要的组织形式,那么什么是小组合作学习、如何在幼儿园科学教学中运用小组合作学习、小组合作学习的成效如何呢?下面将从这四方面进行阐述。%In recent years, with the promulgation of the new"Outline", the implementation process of the new curriculum in kindergarten, many kindergarten teachers have realized the importance of child care co-Ability, also known cooperative learning is teaching an important organizational form, then what is group cooperative learning, how to use cooperative learning groups in kindergarten science teaching, effectiveness of cooperative learning groups do? Below these four areas will be set forth.

  2. EORTC cutaneous lymphoma task force. European Organisation for Research and Treatment of Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knobler, R; Burg, G; Whittaker, S; Baila, L

    2002-03-01

    The Cutaneous Lymphoma Task Force has represented the European Organisation for Research and Treatment of Cancer (EORTC) over the last two decades and has received worldwide acceptance and the highest respect. The group has been able to bring together the world's experts in this field to try to solve the basic problems associated with primary lymphomas of the skin and to create a productive scientific research basis. The definition and the classification of the disease per se has been a major controversial problem and the development of an EORTC classification for primary cutaneous lymphoma has been one of the main goals of the group. The purpose of this paper is to highlight and to provide a historical perspective regarding the contribution of the EORTC Cutaneous Lymphoma Group to the development of consensus guidelines for securing uniform diagnosis, classification and management of the heterogeneous group of primary cutaneous lymphomas. Some future perspectives and strategies of the group are also presented.

  3. 76 FR 63659 - Notice Pursuant to the National Cooperative Research and Production Act of 1993; Cooperative...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-13

    ... Cooperative Research and Production Act of 1993; Cooperative Research Group on Pre-Ignition Prevention Program Notice is hereby given that, on September 13, 2011, pursuant to Section 6(a) of the National Cooperative...--Cooperative Research Group on Pre-Ignition Prevention Programs (``P3'') has filed written...

  4. 学习型展示:小组合作学习的有效展示%On the Effective Presentation of the Group Cooperation Study

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈文斌

    2012-01-01

    Presentation and communication is an important way to give full play to student-oriented education in class.In view of the problems in the current group cooperation study,such as "distortion","inefficiency" and "disorder" in presentation and communication,the author puts forward the framework of study presentation with the characteristics of interactivity,enlightenment,development,correction,wholeness,efficiency,etc.The study presentation is aimed to establish an effective interactive learning mechanism whose essence is the effectiveness of the presentation.It should be organized and carried out from the aspects of arrangement,control and assessment in order to establish a student-student and teacher-student learning process which will enhance the effectiveness of presentation.%展示交流是课堂教学中发挥学生主体作用的重要方式,针对当前合作学习中的展示交流环节存在"失真""失效""失序"的低效现象,提出"学习型展示"。学习型展示具有互动性、启发性、发展性、矫正性、全员性、效能性的特征,学习型展示是着力构建一种互动学习的有效机制,其实质是展示的有效性,应从展示的酝酿、过程的调控、结果的评价等多个维度进行组织和实施,使展示的过程成为一个生生之间、师生之间互动学习的过程,以提高展示的有效性和实效性。

  5. Delineation of target volumes and organs at risk in adjuvant radiotherapy of early breast cancer: National guidelines and contouring atlas by the Danish Breast Cancer Cooperative Group

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nielsen, Mette H. [Dept. of Oncology, Odense Univ. Hospital, Odense (Denmark)], E-mail: mette.m.nielsen@ouh.regionsyddanmark.dk; Berg, Martin [Dept. of Medical Physics, Hospital of Vejle, Vejle (Denmark); Pedersen, Anders N. [Dept. of Oncology, Rigshospitalet, Copenhagen (Denmark)] [and others

    2013-05-15

    During the past decade planning of adjuvant radiotherapy (RT) of early breast cancer has changed from two-dimensional (2D) to 3D conformal techniques. In the planning computerised tomography (CT) scan both the targets for RT and the organs at risk (OARs) are visualised, enabling an increased focus on target dose coverage and homogeneity with only minimal dose to the OARs. To ensure uniform RT in the national prospective trials of the Danish Breast Cancer Cooperative Group (DBCG), a national consensus for the delineation of clinical target volumes (CTVs) and OARs was required. Material and methods. A CT scan of a breast cancer patient after surgical breast conservation and axillary lymph node (LN) dissection was used for delineation. During multiple dummy-runs seven experienced radiation oncologists contoured all CTVs and OARs of interest in adjuvant breast RT. Two meetings were held in the DBCG Radiotherapy Committee to discuss the contouring and to approve a fi nal consensus. The Dice similarity coefficient (DSC) was used to evaluate the delineation agreement before and after the consensus. Results. The consensus delineations of CTVs and OARs are available online and a table is presented with a contouring description of the individual volumes. The consensus provides recommendations for target delineation in a standard patient both in case of breast conservation or mastectomy. Before the consensus, the average value of the DSC was modest for most volumes, but high for the breast CTV and the heart. After the consensus, the DSC increased for all volumes. Conclusion. The DBCG has provided the fi rst national guidelines and a contouring atlas of CTVs and OARs definition for RT of early breast cancer. The DSC is a useful tool in quantifying the effect of the introduction of guidelines indicating improved inter-delineator agreement. This consensus will be used by the DBCG in our prospective trials.

  6. Serum EBV EA-IgA and VCA-IgA antibodies can be used for risk group stratification and prognostic prediction in extranodal NK/T cell lymphoma: 24-year experience at a single institution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yuhua; Rao, Huilan; Yan, Shumei; Wang, Fang; Wu, Qinian; Feng, Yanfen; Zhang, Yujing

    2017-08-01

    Although extranodal NK/T cell lymphoma (ENKTCL) is consistently associated with Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infection, the manifestation and prognostic value of serum EBV antibodies still remain unknown. One hundred and forty-one patients with ENKTCL were evaluated for serum EBV EA-IgA and VCA-IgA antibodies levels in the past 24 years in our institution. Their correlation with clinicopathological features, plasma EBV DNA load, and patients' outcomes was analyzed. EBV EA-IgA ≥1:10 and VCA-IgA ≥1:160 were found in 18.4 and 16.3% of patients, respectively. They correlated with adverse ENKTCL profile and inferior overall survival (OS) and progression-free survival (PFS). EA-IgA ≥1:10 was an independent prognostic factor on OS (RR = 2.276, p = 0.008) and associated with lower complete response (CR) rate (34.8 vs 70.6%, p = 0.001) and higher relapse rate in CR patients (62.5 vs 34.7%, p = 0.016). In subgroup analysis, both EA-IgA ≥1:10 and VCA-IgA ≥1:160 significantly correlated with inferior OS and PFS in patients with stage I/II, IPI score 0-1, plasma EBV DNA (+), and CR. Patients with plasma EBV DNA (+) and EA-IgA ≥1:10 (or VCA-IgA ≥1:160) had significantly shorter periods of OS and PFS in comparison with other corresponding groups. Elevated serum EBV EA-IgA and VCA-IgA levels were related to adverse ENKTCL profile and correlated with poor treatment response, early relapse, and poor prognosis in patients with ENKTCL. These findings provide convincing evidence for the use of serum EBV EA-IgA and VCA-IgA antibodies for risk group stratification and prognostic prediction in ENKTCL.

  7. Hypothermia & Hodgkin lymphoma in children

    OpenAIRE

    Köse, Doğan; Köksal, Yavuz; Çalışkan, Ümran

    2016-01-01

    Hypothermia associated with Hodgkin lymphoma is defined rarely. This may be caused by a dysfunction that shall occur in hypothalamus, central and peripheral vascular system, skin and muscles. In this study, two Hodgkin lymphoma cases with developed hypothermia are presented. Case 1: An “Hodgkin lymphoma, mixed cellular type” was diagnosed by a biopsy conducted due to lesions found in her spleen on a girl in 7 ages, who applied to the hospital with complaints such as fever, weight loss and nig...

  8. FAU in Treating Patients With Advanced Solid Tumors or Lymphoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-06

    Adult Grade III Lymphomatoid Granulomatosis; Adult Nasal Type Extranodal NK/T-cell Lymphoma; Anaplastic Large Cell Lymphoma; Angioimmunoblastic T-cell Lymphoma; Cutaneous B-cell Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma; Extranodal Marginal Zone B-cell Lymphoma of Mucosa-associated Lymphoid Tissue; Nodal Marginal Zone B-cell Lymphoma; Recurrent Adult Burkitt Lymphoma; Recurrent Adult Diffuse Large Cell Lymphoma; Recurrent Adult Diffuse Mixed Cell Lymphoma; Recurrent Adult Diffuse Small Cleaved Cell Lymphoma; Recurrent Adult Grade III Lymphomatoid Granulomatosis; Recurrent Adult Hodgkin Lymphoma; Recurrent Adult Immunoblastic Large Cell Lymphoma; Recurrent Adult Lymphoblastic Lymphoma; Recurrent Adult T-cell Leukemia/Lymphoma; Recurrent Cutaneous T-cell Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma; Recurrent Grade 1 Follicular Lymphoma; Recurrent Grade 2 Follicular Lymphoma; Recurrent Grade 3 Follicular Lymphoma; Recurrent Mantle Cell Lymphoma; Recurrent Marginal Zone Lymphoma; Recurrent Mycosis Fungoides/Sezary Syndrome; Recurrent Small Lymphocytic Lymphoma; Small Intestine Lymphoma; Splenic Marginal Zone Lymphoma; Stage III Adult Burkitt Lymphoma; Stage III Adult Diffuse Large Cell Lymphoma; Stage III Adult Diffuse Mixed Cell Lymphoma; Stage III Adult Diffuse Small Cleaved Cell Lymphoma; Stage III Adult Hodgkin Lymphoma; Stage III Adult Immunoblastic Large Cell Lymphoma; Stage III Adult Lymphoblastic Lymphoma; Stage III Adult T-cell Leukemia/Lymphoma; Stage III Cutaneous T-cell Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma; Stage III Grade 1 Follicular Lymphoma; Stage III Grade 2 Follicular Lymphoma; Stage III Grade 3 Follicular Lymphoma; Stage III Mantle Cell Lymphoma; Stage III Marginal Zone Lymphoma; Stage III Mycosis Fungoides/Sezary Syndrome; Stage III Small Lymphocytic Lymphoma; Stage IV Adult Burkitt Lymphoma; Stage IV Adult Diffuse Large Cell Lymphoma; Stage IV Adult Diffuse Mixed Cell Lymphoma; Stage IV Adult Diffuse Small Cleaved Cell Lymphoma; Stage IV Adult Hodgkin Lymphoma; Stage IV Adult Immunoblastic Large Cell

  9. Lymphoma-associated dysimmune polyneuropathies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stübgen, Joerg-Patrick

    2015-08-15

    Lymphoma consists of a variety of malignancies of lymphocyte origin. A spectrum of clinical peripheral neuropathy syndromes with different disease mechanisms occurs in about 5% of lymphoma patients. There exists a complex inter-relationship between lymphoproliferative malignancies and autoimmunity. An imbalance in the regulation of the immune system presumably underlies various immune-mediated neuropathies in patients with lymphoma. This article reviews lymphoma and more-or-less well-defined dysimmune neuropathy subgroups that are caused by humoral and/or cell-mediated immune disease mechanisms directed against known or undetermined peripheral nerve antigens.

  10. Network modularity promotes cooperation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcoux, Marianne; Lusseau, David

    2013-05-01

    Cooperation in animals and humans is widely observed even if evolutionary biology theories predict the evolution of selfish individuals. Previous game theory models have shown that cooperation can evolve when the game takes place in a structured population such as a social network because it limits interactions between individuals. Modularity, the natural division of a network into groups, is a key characteristic of all social networks but the influence of this crucial social feature on the evolution of cooperation has never been investigated. Here, we provide novel pieces of evidence that network modularity promotes the evolution of cooperation in 2-person prisoner's dilemma games. By simulating games on social networks of different structures, we show that modularity shapes interactions between individuals favouring the evolution of cooperation. Modularity provides a simple mechanism for the evolution of cooperation without having to invoke complicated mechanisms such as reputation or punishment, or requiring genetic similarity among individuals. Thus, cooperation can evolve over wider social contexts than previously reported.

  11. The Evolving Role of Medical Imaging in Lymphoma Management: The Clinician's Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svoboda, Jakub; Schuster, Stephen J

    2012-01-01

    Hodgkin and non-Hodgkin lymphomas are a heterogeneous group of hematologic neoplasms which arise from malignant lymphocytes. Imaging plays an important role in management of lymphoma patients during diagnosis, staging, and response assessment. Functional imaging may also provide prognostic information and improve the ability to detect extranodal disease. This article provides an overview of the evolving role of various imaging techniques in lymphoma from the clinician's perspective. It serves as an introduction to the other articles in this issue that focus on specific areas of lymphoma imaging.

  12. Pathobiology of Hodgkin Lymphoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pier Paolo Piccaluga

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Despite its well-known histological and clinical features, Hodgkin's lymphoma (HL has recently been the object of intense research activity, leading to a better understanding of its phenotype, molecular characteristics, histogenesis, and possible mechanisms of lymphomagenesis. There is complete consensus on the B-cell derivation of the tumor in most cases, and on the relevance of Epstein-Barr virus infection and defective cytokinesis in at least a proportion of patients. The REAL/WHO classification recognizes a basic distinction between lymphocyte predominance HL (LP-HL and classic HL (cHL, reflecting the differences in clinical presentation and behavior, morphology, phenotype, and molecular features. cHL has been classified into four subtypes: lymphocyte rich, nodular sclerosing, with mixed cellularity, and lymphocyte depleted. The borders between cHL and anaplastic large-cell lymphoma have become sharper, whereas those between LP-HL and T-cell-rich B-cell lymphoma remain ill defined. Treatments adjusted to the pathobiological characteristics of the tumor in at-risk patients have been proposed and are on the way to being applied.

  13. Intravascular lymphoma mimicking vasculitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prayson, Richard A

    2016-12-01

    Intravascular lymphoma is a rare malignancy which is characterized by a proliferation of atypical appearing B cells, generally confined to vascular lumina. A tissue biopsy demonstrating the pathology is required to make a diagnosis. The tumor is often disseminated at the time of diagnosis and prognosis is poor, even with aggressive chemotherapy. Neurologic presentations of this neoplasm can be quite varied. This report documents the presence of intravascular lymphoma diagnosed on a brain biopsy in a 60-year-old man. He initially presented 6months before brain biopsy with chest pain and hypotension, warranting coronary artery bypass graft surgery. Four months later, he presented with signs attributed to a stroke (diaphoresis, slumped over in a chair and left hand weakness). He subsequently developed a sudden onset wide-based gait, left leg numbness, word finding difficulties and worsening confusion. A MRI study showed multiple infarcts in the brain, including cerebellum. Invasive angiogram suggested vasculitis. He was started on a course of treatment for presumed central nervous system vasculitis. He continued to develop signs suggestive of ongoing infarct development and a biopsy from the right parietal was taken. The biopsy showed atypical intravascular CD20 positive staining B cells, consistent with intravascular lymphoma. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Entropy Model for Group Decision Making Based on Bounded Cooperation Mechanism%基于有限合作机制的群决策熵模型研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杜宾

    2011-01-01

    Group decision making problem is considered for a class of bounded cooperation mechanism in this paper. Cooperation relation between any two decision makers is vaguely classified by cooperation function with two thresholds. Power index of decision makers is measured by fuzzy measure. Nonlinear programming entropy model of cooperation group decision making is constructed to aggregate power index of decision maker set and solved by maximum entropy principle. Integrated evaluation values of optional schemes are calculated by the way of Choquet fuzzy integral. All optional schemes are ordered and optimal scheme is chosen. At last, one numerical example is analyzed to verify the validity and rationality of cooperation group decision making model and application of the fuzzy integral method.%研究一类具有合作机制的群决策问题.提出两阈值的合作函数对决策人之间的合作关系进行模糊分类,采用模糊测度方法度量决策人和决策人集的权力指数,建立合作群决策的非线性规划熵模型集结权力指数,并基于极大墒的最优化原理求解该模型.利用Choquet模糊积分计算备选方案的综合评价值,并对备选方案排序选择最优方案.最后通过算例分析并验证合作群决策模型和运用模糊积分方法求解模型的合理性、有效性.

  15. Patterns of Relapse From a Phase 3 Study of Response-Based Therapy for Intermediate-Risk Hodgkin Lymphoma (AHOD0031): A Report From the Children's Oncology Group

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dharmarajan, Kavita V. [Mount Sinai Medical Center, New York, New York (United States); Friedman, Debra L. [Vanderbilt University, Nashville, Tennessee (United States); Schwartz, Cindy L. [MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Chen, Lu [Children' s Oncology Group, Arcadia, California (United States); FitzGerald, T.J. [Quality Assurance Review Center, Lincoln, Rhode Island (United States); McCarten, Kathleen M. [Rhode Island Hospital/Warren Alpert Medical School at Brown University, Providence, Rhode Island (United States); Kessel, Sandy K.; Iandoli, Matt [Quality Assurance Review Center, Lincoln, Rhode Island (United States); Constine, Louis S. [University of Rochester Medical Center, Rochester, New York (United States); Wolden, Suzanne L., E-mail: woldens@mskcc.org [Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, New York (United States)

    2015-05-01

    Purpose: The study was designed to determine whether response-based therapy improves outcomes in intermediate-risk Hodgkin lymphoma. We examined patterns of first relapse in the study. Patients and Methods: From September 2002 to July 2010, 1712 patients <22 years old with stage I-IIA with bulk, I-IIAE, I-IIB, and IIIA-IVA with or without doxorubicin, bleomycin, vincristine, etoposide, prednisone, and cyclophosphamide were enrolled. Patients were categorized as rapid (RER) or slow early responders (SER) after 2 cycles of doxorubicin, bleomycin, vincristine, etoposide, prednisone, and cyclophosphamide (ABVE-PC). The SER patients were randomized to 2 additional ABVE-PC cycles or augmented chemotherapy with 21 Gy involved field radiation therapy (IFRT). RER patients were stipulated to undergo 2 additional ABVE-PC cycles and were then randomized to 21 Gy IFRT or no further treatment if complete response (CR) was achieved. RER without CR patients were non-randomly assigned to 21 Gy IFRT. Relapses were characterized without respect to site (initial, new, or both; and initial bulk or initial nonbulk), and involved field radiation therapy field (in-field, out-of-field, or both). Patients were grouped by treatment assignment (SER; RER/no CR; RER/CR/IFRT; and RER/CR/no IFRT). Summary statistics were reported. Results: At 4-year median follow-up, 244 patients had experienced relapse, 198 of whom were fully evaluable for review. Those who progressed during treatment (n=30) or lacked relapse imaging (n=16) were excluded. The median time to relapse was 12.8 months. Of the 198 evaluable patients, 30% were RER/no CR, 26% were SER, 26% were RER/CR/no IFRT, 16% were RER/CR/IFRT, and 2% remained uncategorized. The 74% and 75% relapses involved initially bulky and nonbulky sites, respectively. First relapses rarely occurred at exclusively new or out-of-field sites. By contrast, relapses usually occurred at nodal sites of initial bulky and nonbulky disease. Conclusion: Although

  16. Danish National Lymphoma Registry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arboe B

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Bente Arboe,1 Pär Josefsson,2 Judit Jørgensen,3 Jacob Haaber,4 Paw Jensen,5 Christian Poulsen,6 Dorthe Rønnov-Jessen,7 Robert S Pedersen,8 Per Pedersen,9 Mikael Frederiksen,10 Michael Pedersen,1 Peter de Nully Brown1 1Department of Hematology, Copenhagen University Hospital, Rigshospitalet, 2Department of Hematology, Copenhagen University Hospital, Herlev Hospital, Copenhagen, 3Department of Hematology, Aarhus University Hospital, Aarhus, 4Department of Hematology, Odense University Hospital, Odense, 5Department of Hematology, Aalborg University Hospital, Aalborg, 6Department of Hematology, Roskilde Hospital, Roskilde, 7Department of Hematology, Vejle Hospital, Vejle, 8Department of Hematology, Holstebro Hospital, Holstebro, 9Department of Hematology, Esbjerg Hospital, Esbjerg, 10Department of Hematology, Haderslev Hospital, Haderslev, Denmark Aim of database: The Danish National Lymphoma Registry (LYFO was established in order to monitor and improve the diagnostic evaluation and the quality of treatment of all lymphoma patients in Denmark. Study population: The LYFO database was established in 1982 as a seminational database including all lymphoma patients referred to the departments of hematology. The database became nationwide on January 1, 2000. Main variables: The main variables include both clinical and paraclinical variables as well as details of treatment and treatment evaluation. Up to four forms are completed for each patient: a primary registration form, a treatment form, a relapse form, and a follow-up form. Variables are used to calculate six result quality indicators (mortality 30 and 180 days after diagnosis, response to first-line treatment, and survival estimates 1, 3, and 5 years after the time of diagnosis, and three process quality indicators (time from diagnosis until the start of treatment, the presence of relevant diagnostic markers, and inclusion rate in clinical protocols. Descriptive data: Approximately 23

  17. Alisertib in Combination With Vorinostat in Treating Patients With Relapsed or Recurrent Hodgkin Lymphoma, B-Cell Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma, or Peripheral T-Cell Lymphoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-07-12

    Adult B Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia; Adult T Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia; Anaplastic Large Cell Lymphoma; Angioimmunoblastic T-Cell Lymphoma; Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia; Cutaneous B-Cell Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma; Extranodal Marginal Zone Lymphoma of Mucosa-Associated Lymphoid Tissue; Hepatosplenic T-Cell Lymphoma; Intraocular Lymphoma; Lymphomatous Involvement of Non-Cutaneous Extranodal Site; Mature T-Cell and NK-Cell Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma; Nodal Marginal Zone Lymphoma; Recurrent Adult Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia; Recurrent Adult Burkitt Lymphoma; Recurrent Adult Diffuse Large Cell Lymphoma; Recurrent Adult Diffuse Mixed Cell Lymphoma; Recurrent Adult Diffuse Small Cleaved Cell Lymphoma; Recurrent Adult Grade III Lymphomatoid Granulomatosis; Recurrent Adult Hodgkin Lymphoma; Recurrent Adult Immunoblastic Lymphoma; Recurrent Adult Lymphoblastic Lymphoma; Recurrent Adult T-Cell Leukemia/Lymphoma; Recurrent Cutaneous T-Cell Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma; Recurrent Grade 1 Follicular Lymphoma; Recurrent Grade 2 Follicular Lymphoma; Recurrent Grade 3 Follicular Lymphoma; Recurrent Mantle Cell Lymphoma; Recurrent Marginal Zone Lymphoma; Recurrent Mycosis Fungoides and Sezary Syndrome; Recurrent Small Lymphocytic Lymphoma; Refractory Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia; Refractory Hairy Cell Leukemia; Small Intestinal Lymphoma; Splenic Marginal Zone Lymphoma; T-Cell Large Granular Lymphocyte Leukemia; Testicular Lymphoma; Waldenstrom Macroglobulinemia

  18. Non-Hodgkin's lymphomas; Lymphomes malins non hodgkiniens

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Drouet, F.; Mahe, M.A. [Service de radiotherapie du centre Rene-Gauducheau, CRLCC Nantes-Atlantique, 44 - Saint-Herblain (France); Cahu, X. [Service d' hematologie clinique CHU de Rennes, hopital Pontchaillou, 35 - Rennes (France); Pointreau, Y. [Service de radiotherapie, centre regional universitaire de cancerologie Henry-S.-Kaplan CHU de Tours, Hpital Bretonneau, 37 - Tours (France); Denis, F. [Centre Jean-Bernard, Service de radiotherapie 72 - Le Mans (France)

    2010-07-01

    With approximately 10000 cases per year in France, non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL) represents the most frequent hematological malignancy, and 5 to 10 % of new cases of cancers. NHLs constitute a heterogeneous group of lympho-proliferative diseases, including entities with very different epidemiological and evolutive characteristics, as well as prognosis and treatments. Several classifications exist, but in practice, we individualize aggressive NHL including Diffuse Large B-Cell Lymphomas (DLBCL) which is the most common lymphoma, and indolent NHL including follicular lymphomas and mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) lymphomas. The role of the radiotherapy in the management of NHLs varies according to the specific sub-type of lymphoma, but it has become increasingly limited over time. Overall it finds indications with curative intent only in situations of localized LMNH: either associated with chemotherapy as part of a combined modality therapy as for the treatment of localized DLBCL, or as exclusive treatment specially in the rare situations of localized follicular lymphomas. Moreover, lymphocytes being extremely radiosensitive cells, radiotherapy retains excellent indications with palliative intent for the management of symptomatic bulky tumor masses, and that whatever the sub-type of NHLs may be. It is important to remember that even today the 'Involved Field' irradiation type remains the gold standard for the treatment of nodal NHLs, even if we witness at present the emergence of new types of irradiation, which aim to reduce the amount of irradiated tissues to try to limit the risks of delayed radio-induced complications. The purpose of this article is to clarify the specific aspects (epidemiological, radio-anatomical and prognostic characteristics) of each NHLs'sub-types (except primary central nervous system lymphomas), as well as the practical modalities of the irradiation (illustrated by a clinical case record) when an indication of

  19. Coordinate suppression of B cell lymphoma by PTEN and SHIP phosphatases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Miletic, Ana V; Anzelon-Mills, Amy N; Mills, David M

    2010-01-01

    results in lethal T cell lymphomas, we find that animals lacking PTEN or SHIP in B cells show no evidence of malignancy. However, concomitant deletion of PTEN and SHIP (bPTEN/SHIP(-/-)) results in spontaneous and lethal mature B cell neoplasms consistent with marginal zone lymphoma or, less frequently......, follicular or centroblastic lymphoma. bPTEN/SHIP(-/-) B cells exhibit enhanced survival and express more MCL1 and less Bim. These cells also express low amounts of p27(kip1) and high amounts of cyclin D3 and thus appear poised to undergo proliferative expansion. Unlike normal B cells, bPTEN/SHIP(-/-) B cells...... proliferate to the prosurvival factor B cell activating factor (BAFF). Interestingly, although BAFF availability may promote lymphoma progression, we demonstrate that BAFF is not required for the expansion of transferred bPTEN/SHIP(-/-) B cells. This study reveals that PTEN and SHIP act cooperatively...

  20. The Application of Group Cooperative Learning in Junior High School English Teaching%小组合作学习在初中英语教学中的运用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵丽昆

    2014-01-01

    《义务教育英语课程标准》倡导学生主动参与合作,使学生真正成为学习的主人,通过合作学习,使他们学会尊重别人,具有团结、合作、协调的精神,能与他人共同学习、工作和生活。作为新课程倡导的三大学习方式之一,小组合作学习在形式上成为有别于传统教学的一个最明显特征。教育学生学会共同生活是当今世界教育的重要课题,面对教育教学改革和新课程的实施,小组合作学习越来越受广大中小学外语教学工作者的重视。%The new English curriculum standard advocates students actively participate in cooperation, make students become the study mas-ter, through the cooperative learning, so that they learn to respect others, have the spirit of unity, cooperation, coordination, can study, work and life together with the others. As one of the three learning method is proposed in the new curriculum, cooperative learning group formally become the most obvious feature is different from the traditional teaching. Education students learn to live together is an important issue in today’s world of education, facing the education teaching reform and the implementation of the new curriculum, foreign language teachers in primary and mid-dle school pay more and more attention to group cooperative learning.

  1. Tyrosine phosphorylation in human lymphomas

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haralambieva, E; Jones, M.; Roncador, GM; Cerroni, L; Lamant, L; Ott, G; Rosenwald, A; Sherman, C; Thorner, P; Kusec, R; Wood, KM; Campo, E; Falini, B; Ramsay, A; Marafioti, T; Stein, H; Kluin, PM; Pulford, K; Mason, DY

    2002-01-01

    In a previous study, we showed that the high level of protein tyrosine phosphorylation present in lymphomas containing an anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) can be demonstrated in routinely processed paraffin tissue sections using immunolabelling techniques. In the present study we investigated

  2. Lymphoma risk in systemic lupus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bernatsky, Sasha; Ramsey-Goldman, Rosalind; Joseph, Lawrence

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To examine disease activity versus treatment as lymphoma risk factors in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). METHODS: We performed case-cohort analyses within a multisite SLE cohort. Cancers were ascertained by regional registry linkages. Adjusted HRs for lymphoma were generated...

  3. Lymphoma of the Urinary Bladder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anthony Kodzo-Grey Venyo

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Lymphoma of the urinary bladder (LUB is rare. Aims. To review the literature on LUB. Methods. Various internet databases were used. Results. LUB can be either primary or secondary. The tumour has female predominance; most cases occur in middle-age women. Secondary LUB occurs in 10% to 25% of leukemias/lymphomas and in advanced-stage systemic lymphoma. Less than 100 cases have been reported. MALT typically affects adults older than 60 years; 75% are female. Diffuse large B-cell lymphoma is also common and may arise from transformation of MALT. LUB presents with haematuria, dysuria, urinary frequency, nocturia, and abdominal or back pain. Macroscopic examination of LUBs show large discrete tumours centred in the dome or lateral walls of the bladder. Positive staining of LUB varies by the subtype of lymphoma; B-cell lymphomas are CD20 positive. MALT lymphoma is positively stained for CD20, CD19, and FMC7 and negatively stained for CD5, CD10, and CD11c. LUB stains negatively with Pan-keratin, vimentin, CK20, and CK7. MALT lymphoma exhibits t(11; 18(q21: 21. Radiotherapy is an effective treatment for the MALT type of LUB with no recurrence. Conclusions. LUB is diagnosed by its characteristic morphology and immunohistochemical characteristics. Radiotherapy is a useful treatment.

  4. 情境教學中異質小組合作學習之實證研究 Effects of Heterogeneous Groups for Cooperative Learning in Anchored Instruction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hsin-yih Shyu

    1998-09-01

    Full Text Available 無The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of heterogeneous groups for cooperative learning on students' cognitive and affective performance in anchored instruction. Forty-two fifth graders participated in this study. They were divided into gender-heterogeneous combinations: two boys plus one girl vs. two girls and one boy. Four dependent variables were measured, including problem- solving strategies, learning transfer, attitudes toward mathernatics and attitudes toward cooperative learning. Results from t-tests indicated there were no significant difference between two heterogeneous groups.   This study was funded under the support of National Science Council (grant number NSC86-2511-S-032-003.

  5. The hard problem of cooperation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kimmo Eriksson

    Full Text Available Based on individual variation in cooperative inclinations, we define the "hard problem of cooperation" as that of achieving high levels of cooperation in a group of non-cooperative types. Can the hard problem be solved by institutions with monitoring and sanctions? In a laboratory experiment we find that the answer is affirmative if the institution is imposed on the group but negative if development of the institution is left to the group to vote on. In the experiment, participants were divided into groups of either cooperative types or non-cooperative types depending on their behavior in a public goods game. In these homogeneous groups they repeatedly played a public goods game regulated by an institution that incorporated several of the key properties identified by Ostrom: operational rules, monitoring, rewards, punishments, and (in one condition change of rules. When change of rules was not possible and punishments were set to be high, groups of both types generally abided by operational rules demanding high contributions to the common good, and thereby achieved high levels of payoffs. Under less severe rules, both types of groups did worse but non-cooperative types did worst. Thus, non-cooperative groups profited the most from being governed by an institution demanding high contributions and employing high punishments. Nevertheless, in a condition where change of rules through voting was made possible, development of the institution in this direction was more often voted down in groups of non-cooperative types. We discuss the relevance of the hard problem and fit our results into a bigger picture of institutional and individual determinants of cooperative behavior.

  6. Up-front autologous stem-cell transplantation in peripheral T-cell lymphoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    d'Amore, Francesco; Relander, Thomas; Lauritzsen, Grete F;

    2012-01-01

    Systemic peripheral T-cell lymphomas (PTCLs) respond poorly to conventional therapy. To evaluate the efficacy of a dose-dense approach consolidated by up-front high-dose chemotherapy (HDT) and autologous stem-cell transplantation (ASCT) in PTCL, the Nordic Lymphoma Group (NLG) conducted a large p...

  7. [Malignant non-Hodgkin's lymphoma].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourrier, P; Grodner, F; Ruf, R; Texier, J; Cottencin, R; Cousteau, C; Deslandre, A; Gounant, C; Szpirglas, H; Laufer, J

    1983-01-01

    Rapid regression of all symptoms was obtained after moderate chemotherapy in two women aged 69 and 77 years respectively with malignant non-Hodgkin's lymphomas. Cervico-facial locations of these tumors are discussed in relation to definition, etiology, geographic factors, genetic markers, and associated immunologic disorders. Diagnosis requires a series of explorations including, obviously as a last resort, exploratory cervicotomy. Other regions may be involved and must be investigated, but lesions not affecting lymph nodes occur in only approximately 2 p. cent of patients with cervico-facial malignant non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (approximately 10 p. cent of all malignant non-Hodgkin's lymphomas). Other localizations include the hard palate, gums, sinuses, and salivary glands. Burkitt's lymphoma represents, on the contrary, 30 p. cent of malignant non-Hodgkin's lymphoma seen in European children. The different therapeutic modalities available are discussed.

  8. PENGARUH PENGGUNAAN MODEL COOPERATIVE LEARNING TIPE GROUP INVESTIGATION (GI TERHADAP HASIL BELAJAR IPS TERPADU KELAS VIII SEMESTER GENAP SMPYPI 1 BANDAR MATARAM LAMPUNG TENGAH T.P 2015/2016

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Desi Fatmawati Maryatun

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Metode cooperative learning tipe group investigation merupakan model pembelajaran kooperatif yang dapat melibatkan peserta didik secara aktif dalam kegiatan pembelajaran mulai dari merencanakan topik-topik yang akan dipelajari, bagaimana melaksanakan investigasinya, hingga melakukan presentasi kelompok dan evaluasi. Tujuan penelitian ini adalah untuk mengetahui adanya pengaruh penggunaan model pembelajaran cooperative learning tipe Group Investigation terhadap hasil belajar IPS Terpadu peserta didik kelas VIII semester genap SMP YPI 1 Bandar Mataram  Lampung Tengah tahun pelajaran 2015/2016. Hipotesis yang penulis ajukan adalah “Ada pengaruh yang positif pada model pembelajaran cooperative learning tipe Group Investigation terhadap hasil belajar IPS Terpadu peserta didik kelas VIII semester genap SMP YPI 1 Bandar Mataram  Lampung Tengah tahun pelajaran 2015/2016. Populasi dalam penelitian ini adalah siswa kelas VIII SMP YPI 1 Bandar Mataram Lampung Tengah Tahun Pelajaran 2015/2016 yaitu berjumlah 48 orang siswa dan diantaranya terdiri dari 2 kelas. Dan yang menjadi sampel dalam penelitian ini adalah kelas VIIIa dan VIIIb. Kelas VIIIa sebagai kelas eksperimen dan kelas VIIIb sebagai kelas control, sampel diambil menggunakan teknik purposive sampling, Eksperimen dilaksanakan pada siswa kelas VIIIa Semester Genap SMP YPI 1 Bandar Mataram Lampung Tengah Tahun Pelajaran 2015/2016 yang berjumlah 24 peserta didik. Data penelitian ini dikumpulkan dengan menggunakan  metode observasi, wawancara, dokumentasi, dan tes. Sedangkan untuk mengetahui tingkat validitas dan reliabilitas penulis menggunakan rumus K-R 20. Kemudian untuk menguji/membuktikan hipotesis digunakan rumus Regresi Linier Sederhana yaitu  Ŷ = a + bx. Nilai Ŷ = 73,33+ 0,5 X yang dilanjutkan dengan rumus thitung > ttabel.pada daftar signifikan 5% yaitu 4 > 1,72  dan pada taraf signifikan 1% yaitu 4 > 2,52. Dengan demikian hipotesisnya diterima karena ada pengaruh yang positif

  9. Iodine I 131 Monoclonal Antibody BC8 Before Autologous Stem Cell Transplant in Treating Patients With Relapsed or Refractory Hodgkin Lymphoma or Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-10

    Recurrent B-Cell Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma; Recurrent Hodgkin Lymphoma; Recurrent T-Cell Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma; Refractory B-Cell Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma; Refractory Hodgkin Lymphoma; Refractory T-Cell Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma

  10. Asymmetry within social groups

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barker, Jessie; Loope, Kevin J.; Reeve, H. Kern

    2016-01-01

    Social animals vary in their ability to compete with group members over shared resources and also vary in their cooperative efforts to produce these resources. Competition among groups can promote within-group cooperation, but many existing models of intergroup cooperation do not explicitly account...

  11. Gastric Lymphoma with Secondary Trigeminal Nerve Lymphoma: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Warissara Rongthong

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Data supporting the role of radiotherapy in secondary trigeminal nerve lymphoma is scarce. Here, I report the case of 64-year-old Thai male diagnosed as gastric diffuse large B cell lymphoma with secondary trigeminal nerve lymphoma. He had previously received one cycle of cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine, and prednisone (CHOP, followed by five cycles of rituximab plus CHOP (R-CHOP with intrathecal methotrexate (MTX and cytarabine (Ara-C. One month after the last cycle of R-CHOP, he developed a headache and numbness on the left side of his face. MRI revealed thickening of the left trigeminal nerve. He received one intrathecal injection of MTX and Ara-C, followed by systemic chemotherapy. After receiving intrathecal chemotherapy, his symptoms disappeared. Clinical response and MRI studies suggested secondary trigeminal nerve lymphoma. Two months later, our patient’s secondary trigeminal nerve lymphoma had progressed. Salvage whole brain irradiation (36 Gy with boost dose (50 Gy along the left trigeminal nerve was given. Unfortunately, our patient developed heart failure and expired during the radiotherapy session. In conclusion and specific to secondary central nervous system lymphoma (SCNSL, radiotherapy may benefit patients who fail to respond to systemic chemotherapy and palliative treatment. The results this report fail to support the role of radiotherapy in secondary trigeminal nerve lymphoma.

  12. Evolution, epigenetics and cooperation

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Patrick Bateson

    2014-04-01

    Explanations for biological evolution in terms of changes in gene frequencies refer to outcomes rather than process. Integrating epigenetic studies with older evolutionary theories has drawn attention to the ways in which evolution occurs. Adaptation at the level of the gene is givingway to adaptation at the level of the organism and higher-order assemblages of organisms. These ideas impact on the theories of how cooperation might have evolved. Two of the theories, i.e. that cooperating individuals are genetically related or that they cooperate for self-interested reasons, have been accepted for a long time. The idea that adaptation takes place at the level of groups is much more controversial. However, bringing together studies of development with those of evolution is taking away much of the heat in the debate about the evolution of group behaviour.

  13. Evolution, epigenetics and cooperation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bateson, Patrick

    2014-04-01

    Explanations for biological evolution in terms of changes in gene frequencies refer to outcomes rather than process. Integrating epigenetic studies with older evolutionary theories has drawn attention to the ways in which evolution occurs. Adaptation at the level of the gene is givingway to adaptation at the level of the organism and higher-order assemblages of organisms. These ideas impact on the theories of how cooperation might have evolved. Two of the theories, i.e. that cooperating individuals are genetically related or that they cooperate for self-interested reasons, have been accepted for a long time. The idea that adaptation takes place at the level of groups is much more controversial. However, bringing together studies of development with those of evolution is taking away much of the heat in the debate about the evolution of group behaviour.

  14. Lymphatic system and lymphoma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1993-01-01

    930583 Analysis of therapeutic efficacy of com- bination chemotherapy and adjuvant radiothera-py in 207 cases of diffuse non—Hodgkin’s lym-phoma.YONG Weiben(勇威本),et al.BeijingCancer Res Instit,Beijing,100000. Chin J Hema-tol 1992;13(12):638—640.Two hundred and seven cases of diffuse non—Hodgkin’s lymphoma(D—NHL)were treatedwith combination chemotherapy(cyclophospha-mide,vincristine,procarbazine,prednisone andpingyingmycin or adriamycin)and adjuvant ra-diotherapy.Complete remission(CR)wasachieved in 94 of 207 patients(45.4%),partial

  15. 浅谈美术教师如何指导小组合作学习%The Fine Arts Teachers How to Guide the Group Cooperative Learning

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    沈丽

    2014-01-01

    小组合作学习是美术课堂教学中经常采用的形式。美术教师在学生合作学习过程中并不是一个旁观者,而是一名积极的组织者、指导者和参与者,其教学的主导地位不可或缺。%Cooperative learning is often used in the classroom teac hing of art form. Not a spectator art teachers of students in the cooperative learning process, but an active organizers, instructors and participants,indispensable to its dominant position of teaching.

  16. FISH analysis of MALT lymphoma-specific translocations and aneuploidy in primary cutaneous marginal zone lymphoma.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schreuder, M.I.; Hoefnagel, J.J.; Jansen, P.A.M.; Krieken, J.H.J.M. van; Willemze, R.; Hebeda, K.M.

    2005-01-01

    Primary cutaneous marginal zone lymphomas (PCMZL) share histological and clinical characteristics with mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) lymphomas suggesting a common pathogenesis. A number of recurrent structural and numerical chromosomal aberrations have been described in MALT lymphoma, but

  17. FISH analysis of MALT lymphoma-specific translocations and aneuploidy in primary cutaneous marginal zone lymphoma.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schreuder, M.I.; Hoefnagel, J.J.; Jansen, P.A.M.; Krieken, J.H.J.M. van; Willemze, R.; Hebeda, K.M.

    2005-01-01

    Primary cutaneous marginal zone lymphomas (PCMZL) share histological and clinical characteristics with mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) lymphomas suggesting a common pathogenesis. A number of recurrent structural and numerical chromosomal aberrations have been described in MALT lymphoma, but

  18. Gene Therapy in Treating Patients With Human Immunodeficiency Virus-Related Lymphoma Receiving Stem Cell Transplant

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-12-15

    HIV Infection; Mature T-Cell and NK-Cell Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma; Plasmablastic Lymphoma; Recurrent Adult Hodgkin Lymphoma; Recurrent Adult Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma; Recurrent Burkitt Lymphoma; Recurrent Follicular Lymphoma; Stage III Follicular Lymphoma; Stage III Mantle Cell Lymphoma; Stage IV Follicular Lymphoma; Stage IV Mantle Cell Lymphoma

  19. Dendritic Cell Therapy, Cryosurgery, and Pembrolizumab in Treating Patients With Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-26

    Aggressive Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma; Indolent Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma; Recurrent Adult Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma; Recurrent Diffuse Large B-Cell Lymphoma; Recurrent Follicular Lymphoma; Recurrent Mantle Cell Lymphoma; Recurrent Marginal Zone Lymphoma; Recurrent Mediastinal (Thymic) Large B-Cell Cell Lymphoma; Recurrent T-Cell Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma; Small Lymphocytic Lymphoma

  20. Retrospective analysis of follow-up results in patients with skin lymphomas of low degree malignancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tarasov V.V.

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Administration of specific chemotherapy (cytostatics has great significance in the treatment of skin lymphomas of low degree malignancy. The research goal is to study follow-up results of cytostatic therapy of skin lymphomas. Retrospective observation of survival of patients with T-cell epidermothropic skin lymphomas using special therapy and without its use has been studied. Comparative analysis of survival rate in two groups of patients has been done. 40 patients received cytostatics and 32 patents were not treated by chemotherapy. The first group of patients showed the reduction of survival level and increase of mortality level from skin lymphomas of low degree malignancy. The research findings proved the influence of cytostatic therapy on the survival of patients with skin lymphomas of low degree malignancy

  1. Morphometric Characterization of Small Cell Lymphocytic Lymphoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chisoi Anca

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The morphometry in histopathology is used to characterize cell populations belonging to different tissues and to identify differences in their parameters with prognostic implications. To achieve morphometric examination were selected 6 of 24 cases identified as small cell lymphocytic lymphoma. For each case analysis was done on five fields, for each field measuring the parameters of 20 cells. The studied parameters were for cytoplasm: cytoplasmic area, maximum and minimum cytoplasmic diameter, cytoplasmic perimeter; for nucleus were measured: nuclear area, minimum and maximum nuclear diameter, nuclear perimeter, nuclear contour index, nuclear ellipticity index, nuclear irregularity index. Also the nucleocytoplasmic ratio was calculated in all studied cases. Small cell lymphocytic lymphoma is characterized in morphometric terms having a small cytoplasmic area (average 29.206 and also a small nuclear area (mean 28.939 having a nucleo-cytoplasmic ratio appearance suggestive for adult lymphocyte. A nuclear contour index small value (3.946, ellipticity index value also small (3.521 and small nuclear irregularity index (3.965. Standard deviations, in any of the studied morphometric categories, is around or below 1 suggesting monomorphic cell appearance. These morphometric and microscopic features characterized mainly by a small population of adult lymphocytes, monomorphic, with rounded hipercromic nuclei, dense chromatin, support the framing into indolent lymphoma group in terms of clinical outcome.

  2. Lymphoma caused by intestinal microbiota.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, Mitsuko L; Schiestl, Robert H

    2014-09-01

    The intestinal microbiota and gut immune system must constantly communicate to maintain a balance between tolerance and activation: on the one hand, our immune system should protect us from pathogenic microbes and on the other hand, most of the millions of microbes in and on our body are innocuous symbionts and some can even be beneficial. Since there is such a close interaction between the immune system and the intestinal microbiota, it is not surprising that some lymphomas such as mucosal-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) lymphoma have been shown to be caused by the presence of certain bacteria. Animal models played an important role in establishing causation and mechanism of bacteria-induced MALT lymphoma. In this review we discuss different ways that animal models have been applied to establish a link between the gut microbiota and lymphoma and how animal models have helped to elucidate mechanisms of microbiota-induced lymphoma. While there are not a plethora of studies demonstrating a connection between microbiota and lymphoma development, we believe that animal models are a system which can be exploited in the future to enhance our understanding of causation and improve prognosis and treatment of lymphoma.

  3. PATHOBIOLOGY OF HODGKIN LYMPHOMA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudio Agostinelli

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Hodgkin’s lymphoma is a lymphoid tumour that represents about 1% of all de novo neoplasms occurring every year worldwide. Its diagnosis is based on the identification of characteristic neoplastic cells within an inflammatory milieu. Molecular studies have shown that most, if not all cases, belong to the same clonal population, which is derived from peripheral B-cells. The relevance of Epstein-Barr virus infection at least in a proportion of patients was also demonstrated. The REAL/WHO classification recognizes a basic distinction between nodular lymphocyte predominance  HL (NLPHL and classic HL (CHL, reflecting the differences in clinical presentation, behavior, morphology, phenotype, molecular features as well as in the composition of their cellular background. CHL has been classified into four subtypes: lymphocyte rich, nodular sclerosing, mixed cellularity and lymphocyte depleted. Despite its well known histological and clinical features, Hodgkin's lymphoma (HL has recently been the object of intense research activity, leading to a better understanding of its phenotype, molecular characteristics and possible mechanisms of lymphomagenesis.

  4. Haemorrhage and intestinal lymphoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Attilia M. Pizzini

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: The prevalence of coeliac disease is around 1% in general population but this is often unrecognised. The classical presentation of adult coeliac disease is characterized by diarrhoea and malabsorption syndrome, but atypical presentations are probably more common and are characterized by iron deficiency anaemia, weight loss, fatigue, infertility, arthralgia, peripheral neuropathy and osteoporosis. Unusual are the coagulation disorders (prevalence 20% and these are due to vitamin K malabsorption (prolonged prothrombin time. Clinical case: A 64-year-old man was admitted to our Department for an extensive spontaneous haematoma of the right leg. He had a history of a small bowel resection for T-cell lymphoma, with a negative follow-up and he didn’t report any personal or familiar history of bleeding. Laboratory tests showed markedly prolonged prothrombin (PT and partial-thromboplastin time (PTT, corrected by mixing studies, and whereas platelet count and liver tests was normal. A single dose (10 mg of intravenous vitamin K normalized the PT. Several days before the patient had been exposed to a superwarfarin pesticide, but diagnostic tests for brodifacoum, bromadiolone or difenacoum were negative. Diagnosis of multiple vitamin K-dependent coagulationfactor deficiencies (II, VII, IX, X due to intestinal malabsorption was made and coeliac disease was detected. Therefore the previous lymphoma diagnosis might be closely related to coeliac disease. Conclusions: A gluten free diet improves quality of life and restores normal nutritional and biochemical status and protects against these complications.

  5. Obinutuzumab in follicular lymphoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez-Calle, N; Figueroa-Mora, R; Villar-Fernandez, S; Marcos-Jubilar, M; Panizo, C

    2016-12-01

    The CD20 marker continues to be exploited as a therapeutic target for non-Hodgkin's lymphoma. Obinutuzumab is part of a new generation of anti-CD20 monoclonal antibodies, which are synthesized using molecular engineering technology, resulting in novel target epitopes and unprecedented optimization of antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity and antibody-dependent cellular phagocytosis. Rituximab is the current gold standard for anti-CD20 therapy, yet despite outstanding results published over the past decade, many patients continue to relapse after anti-CD20 regimens. Obinutuzumab is slowly positioning itself in the treatment of CD20+ B-cell neoplasms. On the basis of favorable results from the phase III GADOLIN trial, obinutuzumab was recently approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration in combination with bendamustine followed by obinutuzumab maintenance, for the treatment of follicular lymphoma (FL) patients who relapsed or are refractory to a rituximab-containing regimen. Additional phase III trials are underway to test obinutuzumab as a first-line anti-CD20 agent in FL with good preliminary results (GALLIUM trial); thus, it is likely that obinutuzumab will soon achieve a first-line indication. It is plausible that obinutuzumab will replace rituximab as the gold standard for chemoimmunotherapy in FL, although some safety concerns still need to be resolved. This review will address the preclinical pharmacology and the main aspects of the clinical development of obinutuzumab for the treatment of FL.

  6. Hodgkin Lymphoma: Diagnosis and Treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ansell, Stephen M

    2015-11-01

    Hodgkin lymphoma is a rare B-cell malignant neoplasm affecting approximately 9000 new patients annually. This disease represents approximately 11% of all lymphomas seen in the United States and comprises 2 discrete disease entities--classical Hodgkin lymphoma and nodular lymphocyte-predominant Hodgkin lymphoma. Within the subcategorization of classical Hodgkin lymphoma are defined subgroups: nodular sclerosis, mixed cellularity, lymphocyte depletion, and lymphocyte-rich Hodgkin lymphoma. Staging of this disease is essential for the choice of optimal therapy. Prognostic models to identify patients at high or low risk for recurrence have been developed, and these models, along with positron emission tomography, are used to provide optimal therapy. The initial treatment for patients with Hodgkin lymphoma is based on the histologic characteristics of the disease, the stage at presentation, and the presence or absence of prognostic factors associated with poor outcome. Patients with early-stage Hodgkin lymphoma commonly receive combined-modality therapies that include abbreviated courses of chemotherapy followed by involved-field radiation treatment. In contrast, patients with advanced-stage Hodgkin lymphoma commonly receive a more prolonged course of combination chemotherapy, with radiation therapy used only in selected cases. For patients with relapse or refractory disease, salvage chemotherapy followed by high-dose treatment and an autologous stem cell transplant is the standard of care. For patients who are ineligible for this therapy or those in whom high-dose therapy and autologous stem cell transplant have failed, treatment with brentuximab vedotin is a standard approach. Additional options include palliative chemotherapy, immune checkpoint inhibitors, nonmyeloablative allogeneic stem cell transplant, or participation in a clinical trial testing novel agents.

  7. Family Sequencing and Cooperation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grundel, S.; Ciftci, B.B.; Borm, P.E.M.; Hamers, H.J.M.

    2012-01-01

    To analyze the allocation problem of the maximal cost savings of the whole group of jobs, we define and analyze a so-called corresponding cooperative family sequencing game which explicitly takes into account the maximal cost savings for any coalition of jobs. Using nonstandard techniques we prove t

  8. Mechanisms for similarity based cooperation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Traulsen, A.

    2008-06-01

    Cooperation based on similarity has been discussed since Richard Dawkins introduced the term “green beard” effect. In these models, individuals cooperate based on an aribtrary signal (or tag) such as the famous green beard. Here, two different models for such tag based cooperation are analysed. As neutral drift is important in both models, a finite population framework is applied. The first model, which we term “cooperative tags” considers a situation in which groups of cooperators are formed by some joint signal. Defectors adopting the signal and exploiting the group can lead to a breakdown of cooperation. In this case, conditions are derived under which the average abundance of the more cooperative strategy exceeds 50%. The second model considers a situation in which individuals start defecting towards others that are not similar to them. This situation is termed “defective tags”. It is shown that in this case, individuals using tags to cooperate exclusively with their own kind dominate over unconditional cooperators.

  9. DNA-methylome analysis in Burkitt and follicular lymphomas identifies differentially methylated regions linked to somatic mutation and transcriptional control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Betts, Matthew J.; Carrillo-de-Santa-Pau, Enrique; Doose, Gero; Gutwein, Jana; Richter, Julia; Hovestadt, Volker; Huang, Bingding; Rico, Daniel; Jühling, Frank; Kolarova, Julia; Lu, Qianhao; Otto, Christian; Wagener, Rabea; Arnolds, Judith; Burkhardt, Birgit; Claviez, Alexander; Drexler, Hans G.; Eberth, Sonja; Eils, Roland; Flicek, Paul; Haas, Siegfried; Humme, Michael; Karsch, Dennis; Kerstens, Hinrik H.D.; Klapper, Wolfram; Kreuz, Markus; Lawerenz, Chris; Lenzek, Dido; Loeffler, Markus; López, Cristina; MacLeod, Roderick A.F.; Martens, Joost H.A.; Kulis, Marta; Martín-Subero, José Ignacio; Möller, Peter; Nage, Inga; Picelli, Simone; Vater, Inga; Rohde, Marius; Rosenstiel, Philip; Rosolowski, Maciej; Russell, Robert B.; Schilhabel, Markus; Schlesner, Matthias; Stadler, Peter F.; Szczepanowski, Monika; Trümper, Lorenz; Stunnenberg, Hendrik G.; Küppers, Ralf; Ammerpohl, Ole; Lichter, Peter; Siebert, Reiner; Hoffmann, Steve; Radlwimmer, Bernhard

    2017-01-01

    In spite of both having features of germinal center B-cells, Burkitt lymphomas and follicular lymphomas are biologically and clinically quite diverse. We here performed whole genome bisulfite, genome and transcriptome sequencing from 13 IG-MYC-translocation positive Burkitt lymphoma, 9 BCL2-translocation positive follicular lymphoma and four normal germinal center B-cell samples. Comparison of Burkitt and follicular lymphoma samples revealed differential methylation of intragenic regions that strongly correlated with expression of associated genes, e.g. genes active in germinal center dark zone and light zone B-cells. Integrative pathway analyses of regions differentially methylated between Burkitt and follicular lymphoma implicated DNA methylation to cooperate with somatic mutation of sphingosine-phosphate signaling, as well as the TCF3/ID3 and SWI/SNF complexes in a large fraction of Burkitt lymphomas. Taken together, our results demonstrate a tight connection between somatic mutation, DNA methylation and transcriptional control in key B-cell pathways deregulated differentially between Burkitt and other germinal center B-cell lymphomas. PMID:26437030

  10. 论高校篮球课堂教学中的分组学习与合作学习%On Group Learning and Cooperative Learning in College Basketball Classroom Teaching

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    董大志

    2015-01-01

    高校体育课程的不断改革,让体育实践行为显得更为重要。在高校教育越加重视人才素质的当下,篮球教育也在提倡在素质性教育中,运用分组学习、合作学习的方法,来提升教育教学实效。同时,高校学生的相对成人化,篮球运动的团体性,也让这种分组合作学习的价值不断被放大。本文将从篮球教学分组学习、合作学习于高校体育教育中的价值入手,探讨在实践中如何设计分组学习、合作学习,最后从合作默契度、评价科学度等方面来甄别关键性影响因素,为高校篮球课堂教学效率的提升形成借鉴性意见。%The continuous reform of college sports course makes sports practice more important. Under the current situation that the quality of talents has been attached to more and more impor-tance in college education, the improvement of basketball educa-tion and teaching effectiveness by using group learning and co-operative learning, is also advocated, in order to realize quali-ty-oriented education. Meanwhile, college students are generally adults and playing basketball needs teamwork, which have inten-sified the value of group and cooperative learning. Starting from the value of group learning and cooperative learning of basketball teaching in college sports education, this paper will explore how to design group learning and cooperative learning in practice, and finally identify the key influencing factors from the degree of tacit cooperation and the level of scientific evaluation, aiming to form a referential suggestion for the improvement of college basketball classroom teaching efficiency.

  11. Guideline on the prevention of secondary central nervous system lymphoma: British Committee for Standards in Haematology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMillan, Andrew; Ardeshna, Kirit M; Cwynarski, Kate; Lyttelton, Matthew; McKay, Pam; Montoto, Silvia

    2013-10-01

    The guideline group was selected to be representative of UK-based medical experts. Ovid MEDLINE, EMBASE and NCBI Pubmed were searched systematically for publications in English from 1980 to 2012 using the MeSH subheading 'lymphoma, CNS', 'lymphoma, central nervous system', 'lymphoma, high grade', 'lymphoma, Burkitt's', 'lymphoma, lymphoblastic' and 'lymphoma, diffuse large B cell' as keywords, as well as all subheadings. The writing group produced the draft guideline, which was subsequently revised by consensus by members of the Haemato-oncology Task Force of the British Committee for Standards in Haematology (BCSH). The guideline was then reviewed by a sounding board of ~50 UK haematologists, the BCSH and the British Society for Haematology (BSH) Committee and comments incorporated where appropriate. The 'GRADE' system was used to quote levels and grades of evidence, details of which can be found in Appendix I. The objective of this guideline is to provide healthcare professionals with clear guidance on the optimal prevention of secondary central nervous system (CNS) lymphoma. The guidance may not be appropriate to patients of all lymphoma sub-types and in all cases individual patient circumstances may dictate an alternative approach. Acronyms are defined at time of first use.

  12. Introduction: cooperative learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José-Manuel Serrano

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The principal objective of this revision is the recognition of cooperative learning as a highly effective strategy for the accomplishment of the general goals in learning. The different investigations assessed validate the potential that a cooperative organization of the classroom could entail for academic achievement, self-esteem, interpersonal attraction or social support. The solidity of the existing research contributes to its external and internal validity and, thus, to conclude that the results are consistent and can be extrapolated to different cultures, ethnic groups or countries.

  13. ENHANCING COOPERATION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    China and Japan can cooperate on a wide scope of issues, such as the organization of the Beijing Olympic Games next year and aid to Africa,said Ide Keiji, Minister of Public Relations, Press, Culture, Education and Sports and Spokesperson of the Embassy

  14. General Information about Childhood Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Treatment Adult NHL Treatment AIDS-Related Lymphoma Treatment Mycosis Fungoides & Sézary Syndrome Treatment Primary CNS Lymphoma Treatment ... Treatment Adult NHL Treatment AIDS-Related Lymphoma Treatment Mycosis Fungoides & Sézary Syndrome Treatment Primary CNS Lymphoma Treatment ...

  15. Management of Early-stage Hodgkin Lymphoma: A Practice Guideline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herst, J; Crump, M; Baldassarre, F G; MacEachern, J; Sussman, J; Hodgson, D; Cheung, M C

    2017-01-01

    In the past, treatment for patients with early-stage Hodgkin lymphoma consisted mainly of radiotherapy. Now, chemotherapy alone and chemoradiotherapy are treatment options. These guidelines aim to provide recommendations on the optimal management of early-stage Hodgkin lymphoma. We conducted a systematic review searching MEDLINE, EMBASE, the Cochrane Library and other literature sources from 2003 to 2015, and applied the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation (GRADE). Two authors independently reviewed and selected studies, and appraised the evidence quality. The document underwent internal and external review by content, methodology experts, a patient representative and clinicians in Ontario. We have issued recommendations for patients with classical Hodgkin lymphoma and with nodular lymphocyte predominant Hodgkin lymphoma; with favourable and unfavourable prognosis; and for the use of positron emission tomography to direct treatment. We have provided our interpretation of the evidence and considerations for implementation. Examples of recommendations are: 'Patients with early-stage classical Hodgkin lymphoma should not be treated with radiotherapy alone'; 'chemotherapy plus radiotherapy or chemotherapy alone are recommended treatment options for patients with early-stage non-bulky Hodgkin lymphoma'; 'The Working Group does not recommend the use of a negative interim positron emission tomography scan alone to identify patients with early-stage Hodgkin lymphoma for whom radiotherapy can be omitted without a reduction in progression-free survival'. Through the use of GRADE, recommendations were geared towards patient important outcomes and their strength reflected the available evidence and its interpretation from the patients' point of view. Copyright © 2016 The Royal College of Radiologists. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Prevalence of Golden retriever in European dogs with lymphoma: preliminary data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marzia Cozzi

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Canine breeds, being genetic clusters, are good models for studies on genetic predisposition. Golden retriever (GR has been described with a high incidence of both lymphoma overall (19% and T zone lymphoma (TZL, 40% with differences in different geographical areas in US. This breed predisposition is confirmed in Japanese but not in European (EU case series although specific studies are still lacking. Aim of the present study is to investigate the prevalence of GR in a huge case series of canine lymphomas from different EU countries and to compare prevalence of different subtypes with studies in extra-EU countries, in order to support a possible different genetic predisposition. Materials and methods. Signalment data on 1734 consecutive cases of canine lymphoma collected from 9 different European countries are retrospectively analysed. When subtypes are available, cases are furtherly separated in three subtype groups: 1 B-cell lymphoma, 2 T-cell lymphoma-high grade, 3 TZL. Odds ratio (OR for different lymphoma subtypes are calculated in comparison with mixed breed population, considered as control. Results. Overall prevalence of GR is 5.19% (range 1.59-7.32% of lymphoma cases and differs from that reported in American and Japanese caseloads. Prevalence slightly varies among EU countries and no subtypes predilection is found if compared with mixed breed. Concerning Italian cohort, GR is not predisposed to develop a lymphoma when normalized for the breed prevalence (OR=1.49, 95% confidence interval=0.87-2.55, p=0.14. Discussion. Prevalence of lymphoma in EU population of GR is much lower than that of US. No predisposition is identified in EU GR for TZL differently from US and Japan. Being genetic of European GR population quite different from American and Japanese ones this suggest a possible different genetic predisposition. Slight differences in GR lymphoma prevalence among European countries likely reflects different breed

  17. Proton therapy for Hodgkin lymphoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rutenberg, Michael S; Flampouri, Stella; Hoppe, Bradford S

    2014-09-01

    Hodgkin lymphoma has gone from an incurable disease to one for which the majority of patients will be cured. Combined chemotherapy and radiotherapy achieves the best disease control rates and results in many long-term survivors. As a result, a majority of long-term Hodgkin lymphoma survivors live to experience severe late treatment-related complications, especially cardiovascular disease and second malignancies. The focus of research and treatment for Hodgkin lymphoma is to maintain the current high rates of disease control while reducing treatment-related morbidity and mortality. Efforts to reduce late treatment complications focus on improvements in both systemic therapies and radiotherapy. Herein we review the basis for the benefits of proton therapy over conventional X-ray therapy. We review outcomes of Hodgkin lymphoma treated with proton therapy, and discuss the ability of protons to reduce radiation dose to organs at risk and the impact on the most significant late complications related to the treatment.

  18. Intracranial manifestations of malignant lymphomas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Galanski, M.; Fahrendorf, G.; Urbanitz, D.; Beckmann, A.; Elger, C.

    1985-06-01

    Approximately 10% of patients with malignant lymphoma will show neurological symptoms at some time during the course of their illness. In non-Hodgkin lymphoma, CNS involvement is more frequent than in Hodgkin's disease. Diffuse histiocytic and poorly differentiated lymphomas, bone marrow involvement, advanced tumor stage and hematogenous spread are particular risk factors. Invasion of the spinal canal is the most common type of CNS involvement. Intracranial lesions, which are comparatively rare, may present as intracerebral metastases, epi- or subdural masses or focal or diffuse leptomeningeal disease. Lymphomatous leptomeningitis usually cannot be demonstrated by CT. On the other hand, dural and cerebral parenchymal lesions are sometimes highly characteristic of lymphoma as a result of their features and location.

  19. Primary intracerebral lymphoma: Case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olcay Eser

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available We describe a case of primary central nervous lymphoma (PCNSL that may be confused with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI findings of high grade glioma. Primary central nervous lymphoma is a rare tumour and it account for 0.3-3% of intracranial tumours. A 61 year’s old woman was admitted to our clinic with a severe headache, vomiting, left hemiparesia and transient loss of consciousness. Primary central nervous lymphoma may show various biological and radiological characteristics. We herein emphasized being confused with MRI findings of PCNSL and high grade glioma. J Clin Exp Invest 2012; 3 (3: 409-411Key words: Primary central nervous lymphoma, high grade glioma, B-cell, diagnosis

  20. Targeted immunotherapy in Hodgkin lymphoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hutchings, Martin

    2015-01-01

    In this issue of Blood, Rothe et al introduce a new principle of targeted Hodgkin lymphoma (HL) immunotherapy in their report from a phase 1 study of the bispecific anti-CD30/CD16A antibody construct AFM13.......In this issue of Blood, Rothe et al introduce a new principle of targeted Hodgkin lymphoma (HL) immunotherapy in their report from a phase 1 study of the bispecific anti-CD30/CD16A antibody construct AFM13....

  1. Five Rules for the Evolution of Cooperation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nowak, Martin A.

    2006-12-01

    Cooperation is needed for evolution to construct new levels of organization. Genomes, cells, multicellular organisms, social insects, and human society are all based on cooperation. Cooperation means that selfish replicators forgo some of their reproductive potential to help one another. But natural selection implies competition and therefore opposes cooperation unless a specific mechanism is at work. Here I discuss five mechanisms for the evolution of cooperation: kin selection, direct reciprocity, indirect reciprocity, network reciprocity, and group selection. For each mechanism, a simple rule is derived that specifies whether natural selection can lead to cooperation.

  2. A Phase II Trial of Panobinostat and Lenalidomide in Patients With Relapsed or Refractory Hodgkin's Lymphoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-24

    Adult Lymphocyte Depletion Hodgkin Lymphoma; Adult Lymphocyte Predominant Hodgkin Lymphoma; Adult Mixed Cellularity Hodgkin Lymphoma; Adult Nodular Lymphocyte Predominant Hodgkin Lymphoma; Adult Nodular Sclerosis Hodgkin Lymphoma; Recurrent Adult Hodgkin Lymphoma

  3. Gemcitabine and Bendamustine in Patients With Relapsed or Refractory Hodgkin's Lymphoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-07-10

    Adult Lymphocyte Depletion Hodgkin Lymphoma; Adult Lymphocyte Predominant Hodgkin Lymphoma; Adult Mixed Cellularity Hodgkin Lymphoma; Adult Nodular Lymphocyte Predominant Hodgkin Lymphoma; Adult Nodular Sclerosis Hodgkin Lymphoma; Recurrent Adult Hodgkin Lymphoma

  4. Anti-CD22 CAR-T Therapy for CD19-refractory or Resistant Lymphoma Patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-08-22

    Recurrent Adult Diffuse Large Cell Lymphoma; Recurrent Follicular Lymphoma; Recurrent Mantle Cell Lymphoma; Stage III/IV Adult Diffuse Large Cell Lymphoma; Stage III/IV Follicular Lymphoma; Stage III/IV Mantle Cell Lymphoma

  5. Relevance of ID3-TCF3-CCND3 pathway mutations in pediatric aggressive B-cell lymphoma treated according to the NHL-BFM protocols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rohde, Marius; Bonn, Bettina R; Zimmermann, Martin; Lange, Jonas; Möricke, Anja; Klapper, Wolfram; Oschlies, Ilske; Szczepanowski, Monika; Nagel, Inga; Schrappe, Martin; Loeffler, Markus; Siebert, Reiner; Reiter, Alfred; Burkhardt, Birgit

    2017-02-16

    Mature B-cell Non-Hodgkin lymphoma is the most common subtype of Non-Hodgkin lymphoma in childhood and adolescence. B-cell Non-Hodgkin lymphoma are further classified into histological subtypes, with Burkitt lymphoma and Diffuse large B-cell lymphoma being the most common subgroups in pediatric patients. Translocations involving the MYC oncogene are known as relevant but not sufficient hit for Burkitt lymphoma pathogenesis. Recently published large-scale next-generation sequencing studies unveiled sets of additional recurrently mutated genes in samples of pediatric and adult B-cell Non-Hodgkin lymphoma patients. ID3, TCF3 and CCND3 are potential drivers of Burkitt-lymphomagenesis. In the present study frequency and clinical relevance of mutations in ID3, TCF3 and CCND3 were analyzed within a well-defined cohort of 84 uniformly diagnosed and treated pediatric B-cell Non-Hodgkin lymphoma patients of the Berlin-Frankfurt-Munster group (NHL-BFM). Mutation frequency was 78% (ID3), 13% (TCF3) and 36% (CCND3) in Burkitt lymphoma (including Burkitt leukemia). ID3 and CCND3 mutations were associated with more advanced stages of the disease in MYC rearrangement positive Burkitt lymphoma. In conclusion ID3-TCF3-CCND3 pathway genes are mutated in more than 88% of MYC-rearranged pediatric B-cell Non-Hodgkin lymphoma and the pathway may represent a highly relevant second hit of Burkitt lymphoma pathogenesis especially in children and adolescents.

  6. Primary lymphoma of the colon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tauro Leo

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Primary lymphoma of the colon is a rare tumor of the gastrointestinal (GI tract and comprises only 0.2-1.2% of all colonic malignancies. The most common variety of colonic lymphoma is non-Hodgkin′s lymphoma (NHL. The GI tract is the most frequently involved site, accounting for 30-40% of all extra nodal lymphomas, approximately 4-20% of which are NHL. The stomach is the most common location of GI lymphomas, followed by the small intestine. Early diagnosis may prevent intestinal perforation; however, the diagnosis is often delayed in most cases. Therapeutic approaches described in two subsets include: Radical tumor resection (hemicolectomy plus multi-agent chemotherapy (polychemotherapy in early stage patients, biopsy plus multidrug chemotherapy in advanced stage patients. Radiotherapy is reserved for specific cases; surgery alone can be considered as an adequate treatment for patients with low-grade NHL disease that does not infiltrate beyond the sub mucosa. Although resection plays an important role in the local control of the disease and in preventing bleeding and/or perforation, it rarely eradicates the lymphoma by itself. Those with limited stage disease may enjoy prolonged survival when treated with aggressive chemotherapy.

  7. Central nervous system lymphoma presenting as trigeminal neuralgia: A diagnostic challenge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ang, Jensen W. J.; Khanna, Arjun; Walcott, Brian P.; Kahle, Kristopher T.; Eskandar, Emad N.

    2015-01-01

    We describe an atypical man with diffuse large B cell lymphoma localized to the sphenoid wing and adjacent cavernous sinus, initially presenting with isolated ipsilateral facial pain mimicking trigeminal neuralgia due to invasion of Meckel’s cave but subsequently progressing to intra-axial extension and having synchronous features of systemic lymphoma. Primary central nervous system lymphoma is uncommon, accounting for approximately 2% of all primary intra-cranial tumors, but its incidence has been steadily increasing in some groups [1]. It usually arises in periventricular cerebral white matter, reports of lymphoma in extra-axial regions are rare [2]. This man highlights the importance of maintaining lymphoma in the differential diagnosis of tumors of the skull base presenting with trigeminal neuralgia-like symptoms. PMID:25865026

  8. [Secondary non-Hodgkin lymphoma of female genital tract].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovachev, S; Nacheva, A; Ganovska, A; Ivanov, A; Gigov, P; Vassilev, N

    2014-01-01

    Non-Hodgkin Lymphomas (NHL) are a separate group of blood diseases, which includes all types of lymphomas, without Hodgkin lymphomas. The incidence of NHL in the female genital system is 0.5% of all the NHL. They develop in the female genital organs primary or affect them secondary. Secondary development of the genital non-Hodgkin's lymphoma we have when the biopsy of a lymph node that precedes the diagnosis of the disease is before the development of a genital tumor or we can find a genital tumor--along with simultaneous involvement of the lymph nodes or extra genital authority. We present a clinical case of 56 years patient with non-Hodgkin's lymphoma with secondary genital involvement. From ultrasonography, computed axial tomography and Tu markers that were maiden we have suspicion for ovarian tumor with mechanical pressure over pyelocalix system due to left hidroureter and left hydronephrosis II degree. That was the only reason for urgent surgical treatment with intraoperative histologic diagnosis of NHL. The postoperative chemotherapy in combination with surgical treatment in our case had a good and long-lasting disease survivor effect. One year after the operation and the chemotherapy in the patient, there is no evidence of relapse.

  9. Research and practice of the order type training pattern based on university-enterprise cooperation group%基于校企合作群的订单培养模式研究与实践

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姜金堂

    2015-01-01

    At the beginning of the 21st century, the order type training pattern was a new University-enterprise cooperation Talent training mode. The order type training pattern is also called“talent customization”, it is clear for employment, aim to the work post of the employment to training ability, improve the personnel training‘s pertinence and practical. This talent training mode can achieving schools, employers and students all win. But because of the operation and management, teaching resources and other aspects of personnel needs to limit, the order type training pattern can’t often achieve the desired effect. In this paper, Starting from the innovation order training mode, in the way of University-enterprise Cooperation Group to expand cooperation areas, in order to solve the“Cooperation difficult”problem.%“订单培养”是21世纪初在职业院校中出现的一种新型的校企合作人才培养形式,订单式培养也叫“人才定制”,是明确就业去向、针对就业岗位的工作能力培训,提高了人才培养的针对性和实用性,实现学校、用人单位与学生的“三赢”。但是,由于受运行管理、教学资源、人才需求等方面的限制,往往“订单培养”无法达到预期效果。文章从创新订单培养模式着手,以校企合作群的方式扩大合作领域,解决“合作难”的问题。

  10. Cooperative Learning and Elementary Social Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guyton, Edith

    1991-01-01

    Argues that cooperative learning is useful in elementary social studies instruction. Identifies positive interdependence, student interaction, individual accountability for mastering material, and appropriate interpersonal and small group skills as essential elements of cooperative learning. Suggests that cooperative learning can help teach social…

  11. Cooperative Learning and Elementary Social Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guyton, Edith

    1991-01-01

    Argues that cooperative learning is useful in elementary social studies instruction. Identifies positive interdependence, student interaction, individual accountability for mastering material, and appropriate interpersonal and small group skills as essential elements of cooperative learning. Suggests that cooperative learning can help teach social…

  12. Cutaneous T-cell lymphomas and their management strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S S Pandey

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Cutaneous T-cell lymphomas (CTCLs comprise a heterogeneous group of lymphoproliferative disorders characterized by the proliferation of skin-homing post-thymic T-cells. It is the second most common extranodal non-Hodgekin′s lymphoma. Many variants of mycosis fungoides and CTCLs are known to date, differing in clinical, histological, and immunophenotypic characteristics. Oral involvement has also been reported rarely in CTCLs. Treatment depends on the disease stage or the type of variant. New insights into the disease and the number of emerging novel therapeutic options have made it an interesting area for dermatologists and medical oncologists.

  13. Neuroendocrine tumor presenting like lymphoma: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vincenzi Bruno

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Neuroendocrine tumors are a rare but diverse group of malignancies that arise in a wide range of organ systems, including the mediastinum. Differential diagnosis includes other masses arising in the middle mediastinum such as lymphoma, pericardial, bronchogenic and enteric cysts, metastatic tumors, xanthogranuloma, systemic granuloma, diaphragmatic hernia, meningocele and paravertebral abscess. Case presentation We present a case of 42-year-old Caucasian man with a neuroendocrine tumor of the middle-posterior mediastinum and liver metastases, which resembled a lymphoma on magnetic resonance imaging. Conclusion The differential diagnosis in patients with mediastinal masses and liver lesions should include neuroendocrine tumor.

  14. Increased body mass index is associated with improved overall survival in extranodal natural killer/T-cell lymphoma, nasal type.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ya-Jun; Yi, Ping-Yong; Li, Ji-Wei; Liu, Xian-Ling; Liu, Xi-Yu; Zhou, Fang; OuYang, Zhou; Sun, Zhong-Yi; Huang, Li-Jun; He, Jun-Qiao; Yao, Yuan; Fan, Zhou; Tang, Tian; Jiang, Wen-Qi

    2017-01-17

    The role of body mass index (BMI) in lymphoma survival outcomes is controversial. The prognostic significance of BMI in extranodal natural killer (NK)/T-cell lymphoma (ENKTL) is unclear. We evaluated the prognostic role of BMI in patients with ENKTL. We retrospectively analyzed 742 patients with newly diagnosed ENKTL. The prognostic value of BMI was compared between patients with low BMIs (KPI) was also evaluated and compared with that of the BMI classification. Patients with low BMIs tended to exhibit higher Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status (ECOG PS) scores (≥ 2) (P = 0.001), more frequent B symptoms (P KPI scores (P = 0.03), and lower rates of complete remission (P 60 years, mass > 5 cm, stage III/IV, elevated LDH levels, albumin levels KPI with respect to distinguishing between intermediate-low- and high-intermediate-risk patients. Higher BMI at the time of diagnosis is associated with improved overall survival in ENKTL. Using the BMI classification may improve the IPI and KPI prognostic models.

  15. Therapy-related acute myeloid leukemia and myelodysplastic syndrome after hematopoietic cell transplantation for lymphoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamasaki, S; Suzuki, R; Hatano, K; Fukushima, K; Iida, H; Morishima, S; Suehiro, Y; Fukuda, T; Uchida, N; Uchiyama, H; Ikeda, H; Yokota, A; Tsukasaki, K; Yamaguchi, H; Kuroda, J; Nakamae, H; Adachi, Y; Matsuoka, K-I; Nakamura, Y; Atsuta, Y; Suzumiya, J

    2017-04-03

    Therapy-related acute myeloid leukemia and myelodysplastic syndrome (t-AML/MDS) represent severe late effects in patients receiving hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) for lymphoma. The choice between high-dose therapy with autologous HCT and allogeneic HCT with reduced-intensity conditioning remains controversial in patients with relapsed lymphoma. We retrospectively analyzed incidence and risk factors for the development of t-AML/MDS in lymphoma patients treated with autologous or allogeneic HCT. A total of 13 810 lymphoma patients who received autologous (n=9963) or allogeneic (n=3847) HCT between 1985 and 2012 were considered. At a median overall survival (OS) of 52 and 46 months in autologous and allogeneic HCT groups, respectively, lymphoma patients receiving autologous HCT (1.38% at 3 years after autologous HCT) had a significant risk for developing t-AML/MDS compared to allogeneic HCT (0.37% at 3 years after allogeneic HCT, Pafter autologous and allogeneic HCT were high-stage risk at HCT (P=0.04) or secondary malignancies (P<0.001) and receiving cord blood stem cell (P=0.03) or involved field radiotherapy (P=0.002), respectively. Strategies that carefully select lymphoma patients for autologous HCT, by excluding lymphoma patients with high-stage risk at HCT, may allow the identification of individual lymphoma patients at particular high risk for t-AML/MDS.Bone Marrow Transplantation advance online publication, 3 April 2017; doi:10.1038/bmt.2017.52.

  16. Primary cutaneous diffuse large B-cell lymphoma of the upper limb: A fascinating entity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manoj Madakshira Gopal

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Primary cutaneous lymphomas are defined as lymphoid neoplasms that present themselves clinically on the skin and do not have extra-cutaneous disease, when the diagnosis is made or even after 6 months of the diagnosis. Primary cutaneous lymphomas of B-cells are less frequent than lymphomas of T-cells. Primary B-cell lymphomas have a better prognosis than secondary B-cell lymphomas. Primary B-cell cutaneous lymphomas are classified into five types according to the World Health Organization and European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer classification. The primary diffuse large B-cell cutaneous lymphoma - leg type corresponds to approximately 5-10% of the B-cell cutaneous lymphomas. It is predominantly seen in elderly people and has a female preponderance. Skin lesions can be single, multiple, and even grouped. A 5-year survival rate ranges from 36 to 100% of the cases. The expression of Bcl-2, presence of multiple lesions, and involvement of both the upper limbs lead to a worse prognosis. Very few cases have been described in the literature.

  17. Proliferation kinetics of the dermal infiltrate in cutaneous malignant lymphomas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sterry, W.; Pullmann, H.; Steigleder, G.K.

    1981-01-01

    To obtain information about the role of local proliferation in the pathogenesis of dermal infiltrate in malignant cutaneous lymphomas, we determined the percentage of /sup 3/H-thymidine-labeled infiltrating cells (/sup 3/H-index). A linear correlation was found between proliferative activity and clinical stage in mycosis fungoides, i.e., the /sup 3/H-index is moderately elevated in stage I and high in stage III. The /sup 3/H-index is within normal range in dermal infiltrate of Sezary syndrome, diffuse lymphocytic lymphoma, as well as in lymphocytoma benigna cutis. In parapsoriasis en plaques two groups can be distinguished: in the small plaque variant (chronic superficial dermatitis) the /sup 3/H-index is low, whereas the large-plaque variant (prereticulotic poikiloderma) shows strong proliferative activity. Thus, determination of proliferative activity seems to give new insights into the pathogenesis of dermal infiltrate in cutaneous lymphomas.

  18. T-cell leukemia 1 expression in nodal Epstein-Barr virus-negative diffuse large B-cell lymphoma and primary mediastinal B-cell lymphoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gualco, Gabriela; Weiss, Lawrence M; Barber, Glen N; Bacchi, Carlos E

    2010-09-01

    The physiologic expression of the product of the proto-oncogene TCL1 (T-cell leukemia 1) is primarily restricted to early embryonic cells. In nonneoplastic B cells, the expression of TCL1 is determined by the differentiation step with silencing at the germinal center stage. TCL1 protein is overexpressed in a wide variety of human diseases. It has been shown that TCL1 is a powerful B-cell oncogene, which has been implicated in the pathogenesis of various types of mature B-cell lymphomas. There is no comparative information in the literature addressing the expression of TCL1 in pediatric and adult nodal diffuse large B-cell lymphoma or primary mediastinal large B-cell lymphoma. We studied 55 cases of adult and pediatric diffuse large B-cell lymphoma and primary mediastinal large B-cell lymphoma to analyze the phenotypic profile of these lymphomas, including TCL1 expression, and its relationship with clinical outcome in different age groups. The cases were analyzed by immunohistochemistry for the expression of TCL1, CD10, BCL-2, BCL-6, and MUM1. We also evaluated c-MYC translocation by fluorescence in situ hybridization. TCL1 was observed in 11 cases, 5 pediatric and 6 adult cases, all but one diffuse large B-cell lymphoma. Pediatric cases showed a significant association between TCL1 expression, high proliferative index, and presence of c-MYC translocation. TCL1 positivity was predominantly found in germinal center phenotype diffuse large B-cell lymphoma. Overall survival was worse in adult TCL1-positive cases than pediatric ones. Primary mediastinal large B-cell lymphomas infrequently expressed TCL1 in both age groups.

  19. Breast cancer in situ. From pre-malignant lesion of uncertain significance to well-defined non-invasive malignant lesion. The Danish Breast Cancer Cooperative Group Register 1977-2007 revisited

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laenkholm, A.V.; Jensen, Maiken Brit; Kroman, N.;

    2008-01-01

    In addition to nationwide standardized pathology forms for operable primary invasive breast cancer, the Danish Breast Cancer cooperative Group (DBCG) in 1982 introduced pathology forms for breast cancer in situ (CIS). The histological reporting form was used primarily for ductal cancer in situ...... the pleomorphic subtype of LCIS was added to histological subtypes. The present work reviews the DBCG guidelines and recommendations concerning CIS adding a brief characterization of the Danish CIS population. It also refers to the introduction of modern molecular pathology and distinction between low...

  20. Risk of second primary cancer among patients with early operable breast cancer registered or randomised in Danish Breast Cancer cooperative Group (DBCG) protocols of the 77, 82 and 89 programmes during 1977-2001

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersson, M.; Jensen, Maiken Brit; Engholm, G.;

    2008-01-01

    Breast cancer survivors have increased risks of developing second primary cancers due to shared etiology, life style factors but also to primary breast cancer treatment. Among 53 418 patients registered by the population based Danish Breast Cancer Cooperative Group (DBCG) during 1977-2001, 31 818...... rates of the Danish population were used for calculation of standardized incidence ratios (SIRs). Time at risk was from diagnosis of breast cancer+1 year until death or through 2002. Risk for all second primary cancers combined was increased, SIR=1.04 (95% confidence interval 0.99-1.08). Sites...

  1. Brentuximab Vedotin and Combination Chemotherapy in Treating Patients With Stage II-IV HIV-Associated Hodgkin Lymphoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-08-14

    AIDS-Related Hodgkin Lymphoma; Classical Hodgkin Lymphoma; HIV Infection; Stage II Hodgkin Lymphoma; Stage IIA Hodgkin Lymphoma; Stage IIB Hodgkin Lymphoma; Stage III Hodgkin Lymphoma; Stage IIIA Hodgkin Lymphoma; Stage IIIB Hodgkin Lymphoma; Stage IV Hodgkin Lymphoma; Stage IVA Hodgkin Lymphoma; Stage IVB Hodgkin Lymphoma

  2. Agatolimod Sodium, Rituximab, and Yttrium Y 90 Ibritumomab Tiuxetan in Treating Patients With Recurrent or Refractory Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-04

    Adult Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma; Extranodal Marginal Zone Lymphoma of Mucosa-Associated Lymphoid Tissue; Nodal Marginal Zone Lymphoma; Recurrent Adult Diffuse Large Cell Lymphoma; Recurrent Grade 1 Follicular Lymphoma; Recurrent Grade 2 Follicular Lymphoma; Recurrent Grade 3 Follicular Lymphoma; Recurrent Mantle Cell Lymphoma; Recurrent Marginal Zone Lymphoma; Recurrent Small Lymphocytic Lymphoma; Splenic Marginal Zone Lymphoma; Waldenstrom Macroglobulinemia

  3. Autologous hematopoietic stem cell transplantation in classical Hodgkin's lymphoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Afonso José Pereira Cortez

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Hodgkin's lymphoma has high rates of cure, but in 15% to 20% of general patients and between 35% and 40% of those in advanced stages, the disease will progress or will relapse after initial treatment. For this group, hematopoietic stem cell transplantation is considered one option of salvage therapy. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate a group of 106 patients with Hodgkin's lymphoma, who suffered relapse or who were refractory to treatment, submitted to autologous hematopoietic stem cell transplantation in a single transplant center. METHODS: A retrospective study was performed with data collected from patient charts. The analysis involved 106 classical Hodgkin's lymphoma patients who were consecutively submitted to high-dose chemotherapy followed by autologous transplants in a single institution from April 1993 to December 2006. RESULTS: The overall survival rates of this population at five and ten years were 86% and 70%, respectively. The disease-free survival was approximately 60% at five years. Four patients died of procedure-related causes but relapse of classical Hodgkin's lymphoma after transplant was the most frequent cause of death. Univariate analysis shows that sensitivity to pre-transplant treatment and hemoglobin < 10 g/dL at diagnosis had an impact on patient survival. Unlike other studies, B-type symptoms did not seem to affect overall survival. Lactic dehydrogenase and serum albumin concentrations analyzed at diagnosis did not influence patient survival either. CONCLUSION: Autologous hematopoietic stem cell transplantation is an effective treatment strategy for early and late relapse in classical Hodgkin's lymphoma for cases that were responsive to pre-transplant chemotherapy. Refractory to treatment is a sign of worse prognosis. Additionally, a hemoglobin concentration below 10 g/dL at diagnosis of Hodgkin's lymphoma has a negative impact on the survival of patients after transplant. As far as we know this relationship has not

  4. Autologous hematopoietic stem cell transplantation in classical Hodgkin's lymphoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cortez, Afonso José Pereira; Dulley, Frederico Luiz; Saboya, Rosaura; Mendrone Júnior, Alfredo; Amigo Filho, Ulisses; Coracin, Fabio Luiz; Buccheri, Valéria; Linardi, Camila da Cruz Gouveia; Ruiz, Milton Artur; Chamone, Dalton de Alencar Fischer

    2011-01-01

    Background Hodgkin's lymphoma has high rates of cure, but in 15% to 20% of general patients and between 35% and 40% of those in advanced stages, the disease will progress or will relapse after initial treatment. For this group, hematopoietic stem cell transplantation is considered one option of salvage therapy. Objectives To evaluate a group of 106 patients with Hodgkin's lymphoma, who suffered relapse or who were refractory to treatment, submitted to autologous hematopoietic stem cell transplantation in a single transplant center. Methods A retrospective study was performed with data collected from patient charts. The analysis involved 106 classical Hodgkin's lymphoma patients who were consecutively submitted to high-dose chemotherapy followed by autologous transplants in a single institution from April 1993 to December 2006. Results The overall survival rates of this population at five and ten years were 86% and 70%, respectively. The disease-free survival was approximately 60% at five years. Four patients died of procedure-related causes but relapse of classical Hodgkin's lymphoma after transplant was the most frequent cause of death. Univariate analysis shows that sensitivity to pre-transplant treatment and hemoglobin < 10 g/dL at diagnosis had an impact on patient survival. Unlike other studies, B-type symptoms did not seem to affect overall survival. Lactic dehydrogenase and serum albumin concentrations analyzed at diagnosis did not influence patient survival either. Conclusion Autologous hematopoietic stem cell transplantation is an effective treatment strategy for early and late relapse in classical Hodgkin's lymphoma for cases that were responsive to pre-transplant chemotherapy. Refractory to treatment is a sign of worse prognosis. Additionally, a hemoglobin concentration below 10 g/dL at diagnosis of Hodgkin's lymphoma has a negative impact on the survival of patients after transplant. As far as we know this relationship has not been previously reported

  5. Diagnosis of 'double hit' diffuse large B-cell lymphoma and B-cell lymphoma, unclassifiable, with features intermediate between DLBCL and Burkitt lymphoma: when and how, FISH versus IHC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swerdlow, Steven H

    2014-12-05

    Identification of large B-cell lymphomas that are "extra-aggressive" and may require therapy other than that used for diffuse large B-cell lymphoma, not otherwise specified (DLBCL, NOS), is of great interest. Large B-cell lymphomas with MYC plus BCL2 and/or BCL6 rearrangements, so-called 'double hit' (DHL) or 'triple hit' (THL) lymphomas, are one such group of cases often recognized using cytogenetic FISH studies. Whether features such as morphologic classification, BCL2 expression, or type of MYC translocation partner may mitigate the very adverse prognosis of DHL/THL is controversial. Classification of the DHL/THL is also controversial, with most either dividing them up between the DLBCL, NOS and B-cell lymphoma, unclassifiable, with features intermediate between DLBCL and Burkitt lymphoma (BCLU) categories or classifying at least the majority as BCLU. The BCLU category itself has many features that overlap those of DHL/THL. Currently, there is growing interest in the use of MYC and other immunohistochemistry either to help screen for DHL/THL or to identify "double-expressor" (DE) large B-cell lymphomas, defined in most studies as having ≥40% MYC+ and ≥50%-70% BCL2+ cells. DE large B-cell lymphomas are generally aggressive, although not as aggressive as DHL/THL, are more common than DHL/THL, and are more likely to have a nongerminal center phenotype. Whether single MYC rearrangements or MYC expression alone is of clinical importance is controversial. The field of the DHL/THL and DE large B-cell lymphomas is becoming more complex, with many issues left to resolve; however, great interest remains in identifying these cases while more is learned about them. © 2014 by The American Society of Hematology. All rights reserved.

  6. [Diagnosis and treatment in patients with B-cell lymphoma unclassified that is intermediate between diffuse large B-cell lymphoma and Burkitt's lymphoma].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baryakh, E A; Misyurina, A E; Kovrigina, A M; Obukhova, T N; Gemdzhyan, E G; Vorobyev, V I; Mangasarova, Ya K; Polyakov, Yu Yu; Magomedova, A U; Klyasova, G A; Misyurin, V A; Yatsyk, G A; Shevelev, A A; Kostina, I E; Vorobyev, A I; Kravchenko, S K

    2015-01-01

    To characterize a group of patients with B-cell lymphoma (BCLU) unclassified that is intermediate between diffuse large B-cell lymphoma and Burkitt's lymphoma, to identify poor prognostic factors, and to evaluate therapeutic efficiency in patients with BCLU. Twenty-five patients with BCLU were examined. Double-hit lymphoma (DHL) was diagnosed in 8 (32%) patients. According to the Ann-Arbor classification of lymphoma, its stages II, III, and IV were diagnosed in 3 (12%), 2 (8%), and 20 (80%) patients, respectively. MYC rearrangement was observed in 11 (48%) out of 23 patients: single-hit lymphoma in 3 patients and DHL in 8 (BCL2+/MYC+ in 6 cases and BCL6+/MYC+ in 2). The expression of с-MYC (cut off ≥40%) was revealed in 17 (74%) out of 23 patients; that of BCL2 (cut off ≥50%) was detected in 14 (58%) out of 24 patients; coexpression of both proteins was seen in 12 (52%) out of 23 patients. The DHL group showed a correlation between the rearrangement of the BCL2+/MYC+ genes and the expression of MYC and BCL2 proteins in 5 out of 6 patients. Taking into account the heterogeneity of the entire patient group, DHL and non-DHL subgroups were considered separately. Both subgroups were comparable by clinical characteristics. BCLU patients younger than 60 years of age received treatment according to the LB-M-04 ± rituximab; those aged 60 or older had CHOP-like regimens ± rituximab. Autologous stem cell transplantation (auto-SCT) was performed in 5 patients belonging to a high-risk group. The 3-year overall survival (OS) was 62% and the 3-year event-free survival (EFS) was 51%. The 3-year OS was lower for the DHL group than that for the non-DHL group (43 and 75%, respectively). In the DHL group, both OS and EFS are significantly lower (the risk of poor outcome, including death, is higher) than those in the non-DHL group. It is conceivable that intensified chemotherapy with auto-SCT increases treatment results in patients with BCLU; however, a larger number of

  7. Memory-enriched CAR-T Cells Immunotherapy for B Cell Lymphoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-04-25

    Recurrent Adult Diffuse Large Cell Lymphoma; Recurrent Follicular Lymphoma; Recurrent Mantle Cell Lymphoma; Stage III Adult Diffuse Large Cell Lymphoma; Stage III Follicular Lymphoma; Stage III Mantle Cell Lymphoma; Stage IV Adult Diffuse Large Cell Lymphoma; Stage IV Follicular Lymphoma; Stage IV Mantle Cell Lymphoma

  8. Everolimus and Lenalidomide in Treating Patients With Relapsed or Refractory Non-Hodgkin or Hodgkin Lymphoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-04-18

    Adult Nasal Type Extranodal NK/T-cell Lymphoma; Anaplastic Large Cell Lymphoma; Angioimmunoblastic T-cell Lymphoma; Extranodal Marginal Zone B-cell Lymphoma of Mucosa-associated Lymphoid Tissue; Hepatosplenic T-cell Lymphoma; Nodal Marginal Zone B-cell Lymphoma; Peripheral T-cell Lymphoma; Post-transplant Lymphoproliferative Disorder; Recurrent Adult Burkitt Lymphoma; Recurrent Adult Diffuse Large Cell Lymphoma; Recurrent Adult Hodgkin Lymphoma; Recurrent Adult T-cell Leukemia/Lymphoma; Recurrent Grade 1 Follicular Lymphoma; Recurrent Grade 2 Follicular Lymphoma; Recurrent Grade 3 Follicular Lymphoma; Recurrent Mantle Cell Lymphoma; Recurrent Mycosis Fungoides/Sezary Syndrome; Splenic Marginal Zone Lymphoma; Waldenstrom Macroglobulinemia

  9. Combination therapy with brentuximab vedotin and cisplatin/cytarabine in a patient with primarily refractory anaplastic lymphoma kinase positive anaplastic large cell lymphoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heidegger, Simon; Beer, Ambros J; Geissinger, Eva; Rosenwald, Andreas; Peschel, Christian; Ringshausen, Ingo; Keller, Ulrich

    2014-01-01

    Anaplastic large cell lymphoma (ALCL) is a common subtype of the heterogeneous group of peripheral T-cell lymphomas, which is characterized by large pleomorphic cells with strong expression of CD30. Translocations involving ALK, the anaplastic lymphoma kinase gene, are associated with a favorable clinical outcome. Such ALK-positive ALCLs are usually responsive to a multidrug chemotherapy with CHOP (cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine, prednisone). However, there is no general consensus on the optimal therapy for relapsed or refractory ALCL. We report the case of a 24-year-old male suffering from ALK-positive ALCL with an uncommon manifestation of only extranodal disease in the gastric cardia region that showed primary refractoriness to standard CHOP chemotherapy. A combination therapy consisting of the anti-CD30 drug conjugate, brentuximab vedotin, and classical lymphoma salvage regimen DHAP (cisplatin, high-dose cytarabine and dexamethasone) was administered. Following two treatment cycles in 21-day intervals, the lymphoma showed considerable regression based on imaging diagnostics and no evidence of vital lymphoma in a subsequent biopsy. We did not observe any increase in toxicity; in particular, polyneuropathy and febrile neutropenia were not observed. In summary, we report that the antibody-drug conjugate brentuximab vedotin and a classical regimen used for aggressive lymphoma, DHAP, could be combined as salvage therapy in a case of refractory ALK-positive ALCL. Phase I/II studies will be required for safety and efficacy analysis.

  10. Group cooperative learning action research in the course of hospice care%《临终关怀》课程中的小组合作学习行动研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林蓓蕾; 史岩; 单岩; 易景娜; 路丽娜

    2016-01-01

    Objective To explore the effect of action research based on group learning in hospice care module for nursing students. Methods 82 students were divided into cooperative learning group (40) and conventional teaching group (42). The cognition and attitude of good death questionnaire was used to evaluate teaching effect before and after teaching of hospice care. After teaching, self-feedback and self-feedback questionnaire were made to evaluate the effect of cooperative learning group. SPSS 17 was used to make comparison of data between groups and within groups, and t test, chi square test or Fisher exact probability 2 were also used . Results There were no difference between two groups of nurses before teaching. The students' cognitive level and attitude in cooperative learning group increased significantly, especially their cognitive level of physiological needs (t=5.398, P=0.001), cognition and attitude of death education in intervention group was higher than control group (t=2.992, P=0.004; t=3.661, P=0.001). Although 95% of the nursing students of the cooperative learning group thought group cooperative studying could improve their interests and cultivated their comprehensive abilities, only 50% could accept this kind of studying methods . Conclusions Action research based on group cooperative studying can improve students' cognitive level and attitude of good death, and it is also good for cultivating their ability of au-tonomous learning, innovation, cooperation, and meanwhile, educational action research is a good way to improve both teaching effect and research ability of teacher staffs, but in practice, students' acceptance of group learning needs to be improved.%目的:应用行动研究方法,探讨小组合作学习在临终关怀课程中的应用效果。方法将82名护生分组,其中合作学习组40人,传统教学组42人。在《临终关怀》教学前后,采用善终期望认知和态度测评量表,评估两组护生认知及态

  11. Composite Lymphoma : EBV-positive Classic Hodgkin Lymphoma and Peripheral T-cell Lymphoma A Case Report

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gualco, Gabriela; Chioato, Lucimara; Van Den Berg, Anke; Weiss, Lawrence M.; Bacchi, Carlos E.

    2009-01-01

    Composite lymphomas are rare and defined as hematopoietic neoplasms with more than I malignant lymphomatous clone showing different phenotypic features. Of all possible combinations between non-Hodgkin lymphomas, B cell or T cell, and Hodgkin lymphoma, the least frequent are the ones combining T-cel

  12. Pathogenesis of splenic marginal zone lymphoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming-Qing Du

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Splenic marginal zone lymphoma (SMZL is a distinct low grade B-cell lymphoma with an immunophenotype similar to that of splenic marginal zone B-cells. Like the normal splenic marginal zone B-cells, SMZLs also show variable features in somatic mutations of their rearranged immunoglobulin genes, with ∼90% of cases harbouring somatic mutations but at remarkably variable degrees, suggesting that SMZL may have multiple cell of origins, deriving from the heterogeneous B-cells of the splenic marginal zone. Notably, ∼30% of SMZLs show biased usage of IGHV1-2*04, with the expressed BCR being potentially polyreactive to autoantigens. Recent exome and targeted sequencing studies have identified a wide spectrum of somatic mutations in SMZL with the recurrent mutations targeting multiple signalling pathways that govern the development of splenic marginal zone B-cells. These recurrent mutations occur in KLF2 (20–42%, NOTCH2 (6.5–25%, NF-κB (CARD11 ∼7%, IKBKB ∼7%, TNFAIP3 7–13%, TRAF3 5%, BIRC3 6.3% and TLR (MYD88 5–13% signalling pathways. Interestingly, the majority of SMZL with KLF2 mutation have both 7q32 deletion and IGHV1-2 rearrangement, and these cases also have additional mutations in NOTCH2, or TNFAIP3, or TRAF3. There is a potential oncogenic cooperation among concurrent genetic changes, for example between the IGHV1-2 expressing BCR and KLF2 mutation in activation of the canonical NF-κB pathway, and between KLF2 and TRAF3 mutations in activation of the non-canonical NF-κB pathway. These novel genetic findings have provided considerable insights into the pathogenesis of SMZL and will stimulate the research in both normal and malignant marginal zone B-cells.

  13. Genetically Engineered Lymphocytes, Cyclophosphamide, and Aldesleukin in Treating Patients With Relapsed or Refractory Mantle Cell Lymphoma or Indolent B-Cell Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-08-04

    B-cell Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia; Extranodal Marginal Zone B-cell Lymphoma of Mucosa-associated Lymphoid Tissue; Nodal Marginal Zone B-cell Lymphoma; Recurrent Grade 1 Follicular Lymphoma; Recurrent Grade 2 Follicular Lymphoma; Recurrent Mantle Cell Lymphoma; Recurrent Marginal Zone Lymphoma; Recurrent Small Lymphocytic Lymphoma; Refractory Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia; Splenic Marginal Zone Lymphoma; Waldenström Macroglobulinemia

  14. Pomalidomide and Dexamethasone in Treating Patients With Relapsed or Refractory Primary Central Nervous System Lymphoma or Newly Diagnosed or Relapsed or Refractory Intraocular Lymphoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-09-12

    B-Cell Lymphoma, Unclassifiable, With Features Intermediate Between Diffuse Large B-Cell Lymphoma and Burkitt Lymphoma; Central Nervous System Lymphoma; Intraocular Lymphoma; Primary Diffuse Large B-Cell Lymphoma of the Central Nervous System; Recurrent Adult Diffuse Large Cell Lymphoma; Retinal Lymphoma

  15. Evidence for a metal-thiolate intermediate in alkyl group transfer from epoxypropane to coenzyme M and cooperative metal ion binding in epoxyalkane:CoM transferase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyd, Jeffrey M; Ensign, Scott A

    2005-10-04

    Epoxyalkane:coenzyme M transferase (EaCoMT) catalyzes the nucleophilic addition of coenzyme M (CoM, 2-mercaptoethanesulfonic acid) to epoxypropane forming 2-hydroxypropyl-CoM. The biochemical properties of EaCoMT suggest that the enzyme belongs to the family of alkyltransferase enzymes for which Zn plays a role in activating an organic thiol substrate for nucleophilic attack on an alkyl-donating substrate. The enzyme has a hexameric (alpha(6)) structure with one zinc atom per subunit. In the present work M(2+) binding and the role of Zn(2+) in EaCoMT have been established through a combination of biochemical, calorimetric, and spectroscopic techniques. A variety of metal ions, including Zn(2+), Co(2+), Cd(2+), and Ni(2+), were capable of activating a Zn-deficient "apo" form of EaCoMT, affording enzymes with various levels of activity. Titration of Co(2+) into apo-EaCoMT resulted in UV-visible spectroscopic changes consistent with the formation of a tetrahedral Co(2+) binding site, with coordination of bound Co(2+) to two thiolate ligands. Quantification of UV-visible spectral changes upon Co(2+) titration into apo-EaCoMT demonstrated that EaCoMT binds Co(2+) cooperatively at six interacting sites. Isothermal titration calorimetric studies of Co(2+) and Zn(2+) binding to EaCoMT also showed cooperativity for metal ion binding among six sites. The addition of CoM to Co(2+)-substituted EaCoMT resulted in UV-visible spectral changes indicative of formation of a new thiol-Co(2+) bond. Co(2+)-substituted EaCoMT exhibited a unique Co(2+) EPR spectrum, and this spectrum was perturbed significantly upon addition of CoM. The presence of a divalent metal ion was required for the release of protons from CoM upon binding to EaCoMT, with Zn(2+), Co(2+), and Cd(2+) each facilitating proton release. The divalent metal ion of EaCoMT is proposed to play a key role in the coordination and deprotonation of CoM, possibly through formation of a metal-thiolate that is activated for attack

  16. Lymphomagenesis in Hodgkin lymphoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuki, Eri; Younes, Anas

    2015-10-01

    Hodgkin lymphoma (HL) accounts for approximately 0.6% of all new cancer cases, 10% of all lymphomas in the USA, leading to an approximate 9000 new cases per year. It is very unique in that the neoplastic Hodgkin and Reed-Sternberg (HRS) cells of classical HL account for only 1% of the tumor tissue in most cases, with various inflammatory cells including B-cells, T-cells, mast cells, macrophages, eosinophils, neutrophils, and plasma cells comprising the tumor microenvironment. Recent research has identified germinal center B-cells to be the cellular origin of HRS cells. Various transcription factor dysregulation in these neoplastic cells that explains for the loss of B-cell phenotype as well as acquisition of survival and anti-apoptotic features of HRS cells has been identified. Aberrant activation of nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB), Janus kinase (JAK)/signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT), and phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) pathways play a central role in HL pathogenesis. Both intrinsic genetic mechanisms as well as extrinsic signals have been identified to account for the constitutive activation of these pathways. The extrinsic factors that regulate the activation of transcription pathways in HRS cells have also been studied in detail. Cytokines and chemokines produced both by the HRS cells as well as cells of the microenvironment of HL work in an autocrine and/or paracrine manner to promote survival of HRS cells as well as providing mechanisms for immune escape from the body's antitumor immunity. The understanding of various mechanisms involved in the lymphomagenesis of HL including the importance of its microenvironment has gained much interest in the use of these microenvironmental features as prognostic markers as well as potential treatment targets. In this article, we will review the pathogenesis of HL starting with the cellular origin of neoplastic cells and the mechanisms supporting its pathogenesis, especially focusing on the

  17. Obinutuzumab, Venetoclax, and Lenalidomide in Treating Patients With Relapsed or Refractory B-cell Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-03-01

    B-Cell Lymphoma, Unclassifiable, With Features Intermediate Between Diffuse Large B-Cell Lymphoma and Burkitt Lymphoma; Grade 1 Follicular Lymphoma; Grade 2 Follicular Lymphoma; Grade 3a Follicular Lymphoma; Recurrent Burkitt Lymphoma; Recurrent Diffuse Large B-Cell Lymphoma; Recurrent Follicular Lymphoma; Recurrent Marginal Zone Lymphoma; Refractory Burkitt Lymphoma; Refractory Diffuse Large B-Cell Lymphoma; Refractory Follicular Lymphoma; Transformed Recurrent Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma

  18. The effect of social group size on feather corticosterone in the co-operatively breeding Smooth-billed Ani (Crotophaga ani): An assay validation and analysis of extreme social living

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, Joshua K.; Muir, Cameron; Hurd, Conner S.; Hing, Jing S.; Quinn, James S.

    2017-01-01

    Living closely with others can provide a myriad of fitness benefits, from shared territory defense to co-operative resource acquisition. Costs of social aggregation are not absent, however, and likely influence optimal and observed groups’ sizes in a social species. Here, we explored optimal group size in a joint-nesting cuckoo species (the Smooth-billed Ani, Crotophaga ani) using endocrine markers of stress physiology (corticosterone, or CORT). Smooth-billed Anis exhibit intense reproductive competition that is exacerbated in atypically large groups. We therefore hypothesized that intra-group competition (measured by social group size) mediates the desirability and physiological cost of social group membership in this species. To test this hypothesis, we captured 47 adult Smooth-billed Anis (31 males, 16 females) during the breeding seasons of 2012-2014 in south-western Puerto Rico, and documented social group sizes. Tail feathers were sampled and used to quantify CORT (pg/mg) in enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs) (n = 50). Our analyses show significant differences in feather-CORT of adults between categorical group sizes, with individuals from atypically large social groups (≥ x + 1SD) having highest mean concentrations (33.319 pg/mg), and individuals from atypically small social groups (≤ x − 1SD) having lowest mean concentrations (8.969 pg/mg). Whether reproductive competition or effort is responsible for elevated CORT in atypically large social groups, however, remains unclear. Our results suggest that living in atypically large groups is physiologically expensive and may represent an evolutionarily unstable strategy. To our knowledge, this is the first study to explore a correlation between stress physiology and group size in a joint-nesting species. PMID:28355280

  19. Combination therapy with brentuximab vedotin and cisplatin/cytarabine in a patient with primarily refractory anaplastic lymphoma kinase positive anaplastic large cell lymphoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heidegger S

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Simon Heidegger,1 Ambros Beer,2 Eva Geissinger,3 Andreas Rosenwald,3 Christian Peschel,1 Ingo Ringshausen,1 Ulrich Keller11III Medical Department, 2Nuclear Medicine Department, Technische Universität München, Munich, Germany; 3Institute of Pathology, University of Würzburg, Würzburg, GermanyAbstract: Anaplastic large cell lymphoma (ALCL is a common subtype of the heterogeneous group of peripheral T-cell lymphomas, which is characterized by large pleomorphic cells with strong expression of CD30. Translocations involving ALK, the anaplastic lymphoma kinase gene, are associated with a favorable clinical outcome. Such ALK-positive ALCLs are usually responsive to a multidrug chemotherapy with CHOP (cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine, prednisone. However, there is no general consensus on the optimal therapy for relapsed or refractory ALCL. We report the case of a 24-year-old male suffering from ALK-positive ALCL with an uncommon manifestation of only extranodal disease in the gastric cardia region that showed primary refractoriness to standard CHOP chemotherapy. A combination therapy consisting of the anti-CD30 drug conjugate, brentuximab vedotin, and classical lymphoma salvage regimen DHAP (cisplatin, high-dose cytarabine and dexamethasone was administered. Following two treatment cycles in 21-day intervals, the lymphoma showed considerable regression based on imaging diagnostics and no evidence of vital lymphoma in a subsequent biopsy. We did not observe any increase in toxicity; in particular, polyneuropathy and febrile neutropenia were not observed. In summary, we report that the antibody-drug conjugate brentuximab vedotin and a classical regimen used for aggressive lymphoma, DHAP, could be combined as salvage therapy in a case of refractory ALK-positive ALCL. Phase I/II studies will be required for safety and efficacy analysis.Keywords: anaplastic large cell lymphoma (ALCL, refractory/relapsed lymphoma, anti-CD30 drug conjugate, DHAP

  20. Follicular lymphoma of the ocular adnexal region

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Peter Kristian; Ralfkiaer, E.; Prause, J.U.

    2015-01-01

    with ocular adnexal follicular lymphoma were identified. Fourteen (58%) of the patients were females. The median age was 63 years (range: 42–96 years). Eleven (46%) of the patients had primary ocular adnexal lymphoma, seven (29%) had an ocular adnexal lesion in conjunction with a concurrent systemic lymphoma...