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Sample records for lymphoid neoplasms exhibited

  1. Colonic lymphoid follicles associated with colonic neoplasms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glick, S.N.; Teplick, S.K.; Ross, W.M.

    1986-01-01

    The authors prospectively evaluated 62 patients over 40 years old in whom lymphoid follicles were demonstrated on double-contrast enema examinations. Eighteen patients (29%) had no current radiographic evidence of, or history of, colonic neoplasms. Forty-four patients (71%) had an associated neoplasm. Fourteen patients had associated colonic carcinoma, and ten patients had a history of a previously resected colon cancer. One patient had previously undergone resection for ''polyps.'' Twenty-two patients had an associated ''polyp.'' There were no clinical or radiographic features that could reliably distinguish the neoplastic from the nonneoplastic groups. However, lymphoid follicles in the left colon or diffusely involving the colon were more likely to be associated with a colonic neoplasm. Lymphoid follicles were almost always identified near a malignant lesion

  2. HCV Virus and Lymphoid Neoplasms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yutaka Tsutsumi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Hepatitis C virus (HCV is one of the viruses known to cause hepatic cancer. HCV is also believed to be involved in malignant lymphoma. In this paper, we investigated characteristics of malignant lymphoma cases that were anti-HCV antibody (HCV-Ab positive. We were able to perform pathological examinations on 13 out of 14 HCV-positive cases. Of these, lymphoid tissues of 10 stained positive for HCV-Ab. There was no significant correlation between the degree of HCV staining and the rate of recurrence or resistance to treatment. However, there did appear to be a consistent decrease in the amount of HCV-RNA between pre- and posttreatment among HCV-Ab-positive cases; that is, treatment-resistant cases that exhibited resistance from the first treatment and recurrent cases more frequently had a higher HCV level at treatment termination compared to the pretreatment level. This suggests that the HCV virus either accelerates oncogenesis by direct interaction with B cells or indirectly affects lymphoma prognosis.

  3. The new WHO nomenclature: lymphoid neoplasms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leclair, Susan J; Rodak, Bernadette F

    2002-01-01

    The development of the WHO classification of lymphoid neoplasms is a remarkable example of cooperation and communication between pathologists and oncologists from around the world. Joint classification committees of the major hematopathology societies will periodically review and update this classification, facilitating further progress in the understanding and treatment of hematologic malignancies.

  4. [The lymph nodes imprint for the diagnosis of lymphoid neoplasms].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peniche-Alvarado, Carolina; Ramos-Peñafiel, Christian Omar; Martínez-Murillo, Carlos; Romero-Guadarrama, Mónica; Olarte-Carrillo, Irma; Rozen-Fuller, Etta; Martínez-Tovar, Adolfo; Collazo-Jaloma, Juan; Mendoza-García, Carlos Alberto

    2013-01-01

    lymphoma is the most frequent lymphoid neoplasm in our country. Its diagnosis is based on histopathological findings. The lymph node imprint has been used for more than 40 years. The aim was to establish the sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value and negative predictive value of lymph node imprint and estimate the inter-observer rate. we did an observational, retrospective, prolective study, based on the lymph node imprint obtained by excisional biopsies over a period of 6 years. the inclusion criteria was met on 199 samples, 27.1 % were considered as reactive (n = 54), 16.1 % Hodgkin lymphoma (n = 32), 40.2 % (n = 80) non-Hodgkin lymphoma and 16.6 % (n = 33) as metastatic carcinoma. Comparing with the final histopathology report, the sensitivity and specificity of lymph node imprint were 88 % (0.81-0.95) and 64 % (0.55-0.73) respectively, the positive predictive value was 67 % (0.59-0.76) and the negative predictive value was 86 % (0.79-0.94). The interobserver kappa index was 0.467. the lymph node imprint remains as a useful tool for the diagnosis of lymphoid neoplasm. The agreement between observers was acceptable.

  5. The 2016 revision of the World Health Organization classification of lymphoid neoplasms | Center for Cancer Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    A revision of the nearly 8-year-old World Health Organization classification of the lymphoid neoplasms and the accompanying monograph is being published. It reflects a consensus among hematopathologists, geneticists, and clinicians regarding both updates to current entities as well as the addition of a limited number of new provisional entities.

  6. Incidence of lymphoid neoplasms by subtype among six Asian ethnic groups in the United States, 1996-2004.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carreon, J Daniel; Morton, Lindsay M; Devesa, Susan S; Clarke, Christina A; Gomez, Scarlett L; Glaser, Sally L; Sakoda, Lori C; Linet, Martha S; Wang, Sophia S

    2008-12-01

    To establish baseline data for lymphoid neoplasm incidence by subtype for six Asian-American ethnic groups. Incident rates were estimated by age and sex for six Asian ethnic groups--Asian Indian/Pakistani, Chinese, Filipino, Japanese, Korean, Vietnamese--in five United States cancer registry areas during 1996-2004. For comparison, rates for non-Hispanic Whites were also estimated. During 1996-2004, Filipinos had the highest (24.0) and Koreans had the lowest incidence (12.7) of total lymphoid neoplasms. By subtype, Vietnamese and Filipinos had the highest incidence for diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) (8.0 and 7.2); Japanese had the highest incidence of follicular lymphoma (2.3). Although a general male predominance of lymphoid neoplasms was observed, this pattern varied by lymphoid neoplasm subtype. Whites generally had higher rates than all Asian ethnic groups for all lymphoid neoplasms and most lymphoma subtypes, although the magnitude of the difference varied by both ethnicity and lymphoma subtype. The observed variations in incidence patterns among Asian ethnic groups in the United States suggest that it may be fruitful to pursue studies that compare Asian populations for postulated environmental and genetic risk factors.

  7. Lymphoid tissue neoplasms in the neck region - epidemiological and clinical analysis over 15 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rzepakowska, Anna; Zwierzyńska, Klaudyna; Osuch-Wójcikiewicz, Ewa; Niemczyk, Kazimierz

    2017-06-30

    Epidemiological and clinical analysis of lymphoid tissue neoplasms in the neck region over a 15-year period. There was performed retrospective analysis of 97 patients, aged 17 to 88 years, mean age of 60.3 years. The analysis included data from subjective study, physical examination, image and histopathological studies Results: Almost all cases were lymphoid neoplasms - 95 patients (98%). B cell lymphoma was the most commonly diagnosed lymphoma - 74 cases (76%), followed by Hodgkin's lymphoma- 19 cases (20%). Only two patients had T-cell lymphoma (2%). There was observed prevalence among women, K: M ratio for the whole group was 51: 46, while male predominance was reported in Hodgkin's lymphoma patients (K: M = 7: 12). Over the 15-year period, there was an increase in the number of lymphoid tumors. The most common location on the neck were lymph nodes - 71 (73.2%). Extranodal localizations (26.8%) were most often associated with salivary glands: parotid and submandibular involvement and with the dominant lymphoma of the marginal zone MALT (14 cases). In 57% of patients the fine needle aspiration biopsy (FNAB) results were false, with positive results only in 32% of patients. Tumors from lymphoid tissue in the neck region are most commonly B-cell lymphomas or Hodgkin,s lymphomas. Non-specific clinical signs and non-specific radiological images, as well as non-diagnostic results o FNAB, make it difficult to effectively differentiate lymphomas with cancer metastasis in neck lymph nodes. Histopathology results of the excised lymph nodes remains a standard for lymphoma diagnosis.

  8. Clinical outcomes of myeloid/lymphoid neoplasms with fibroblast growth factor receptor-1 (FGFR1) rearrangement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umino, Kento; Fujiwara, Shin-Ichiro; Ikeda, Takashi; Toda, Yumiko; Ito, Shoko; Mashima, Kiyomi; Minakata, Daisuke; Nakano, Hirofumi; Yamasaki, Ryoko; Kawasaki, Yasufumi; Sugimoto, Miyuki; Yamamoto, Chihiro; Ashizawa, Masahiro; Hatano, Kaoru; Sato, Kazuya; Oh, Iekuni; Ohmine, Ken; Muroi, Kazuo; Kanda, Yoshinobu

    2018-02-28

    Myeloid/lymphoid neoplasms with fibroblast growth factor receptor-1 (FGFR1) rearrangement are hematopoietic stem cell disorders with a poor prognosis, but no established standard therapy. We experienced a patient with T-lymphoblastic lymphoma (LBL) associated with FGFR1 rearrangement who underwent cord blood transplantation, but died of pulmonary complication. We collected the clinical data of patients with FGFR1 rearrangement from the medical literature and analyzed 45 patients, including our patient. The primary diagnoses were myeloproliferative neoplasm (MPN) or myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS) in 14 and acute leukemia or LBL in 31. In MPN and MDS patients, the cumulative incidence of transformation to blast phase (BP) at 12 months was 46.2%. The 1-year overall survival (OS) from diagnosis in all cases was 43.1%. With regard to the impact of treatment response on survival, the achievement of complete response with a landmark at 2 months after diagnosis of BP was associated with a superior OS (40.0% vs. 26.0% P = 0.011 for 1-year OS from BP). Allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) was performed in 13 patients, and the 1-year OS from allogeneic HSCT was 61.5%. The hazard ratio for mortality was 0.34 (95% CI, 0.08-1.51, P = 0.15) for allogeneic HSCT treated as a time-dependent covariate, which suggests that allogeneic HSCT may confer a clinical benefit. The further accumulation of clinical data is needed to determine the optimal therapeutic approach for these neoplasms.

  9. Primary mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue thyroid lymphoma: a rare thyroid neoplasm of extrathyroid origin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dimitrios Hadjidakis

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Primary thyroid lymphoma is a rare malignancy, representing 2-8% of all thyroid malignancies and 1-2% of all extranodal lymphomas. The majority of cases concern non-Hodgkin`s lymphoma of B cell origin, following by Hodgkin’s disease, T cell lymphomas and rarely marginal zone B-cell mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT lymphomas. MALT lymphomas have been associated with long-standing autoimmune Hashimoto`s thyroiditis. We present the case of a 44-years-old woman with thyroid MALT lymphoma in the background of multinodular goiter of autoimmune origin.

  10. Group 2 Innate Lymphoid Cells Exhibit a Dynamic Phenotype in Allergic Airway Inflammation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Bobby W. S.; Stadhouders, Ralph; de Bruijn, Marjolein J. W.; Lukkes, Melanie; Beerens, Dior M. J. M.; Brem, Maarten D.; KleinJan, Alex; Bergen, Ingrid; Vroman, Heleen; Kool, Mirjam; van IJcken, Wilfred F. J.; Rao, Tata Nageswara; Fehling, Hans Jörg; Hendriks, Rudi W.

    2017-01-01

    Group 2 innate lymphoid cells (ILC2) are implicated in allergic asthma as an early innate source of the type 2 cytokines IL-5 and IL-13. However, their induction in house dust mite (HDM)-mediated airway inflammation additionally requires T cell activation. It is currently unknown whether phenotypic differences exist between ILC2s that are activated in a T cell-dependent or T cell-independent fashion. Here, we compared ILC2s in IL-33- and HDM-driven airway inflammation. Using flow cytometry, we found that surface expression levels of various markers frequently used to identify ILC2s were dependent on their mode of activation, highly variable over time, and differed between tissue compartments, including bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid, lung, draining lymph nodes, and spleen. Whereas in vivo IL-33-activated BAL fluid ILC2s exhibited an almost uniform CD25+CD127+T1/ST2+ICOS+KLRG1+ phenotype, at a comparable time point after HDM exposure BAL fluid ILC2s had a very heterogeneous surface marker phenotype. A major fraction of HDM-activated ILC2s were CD25lowCD127+T1/ST2low ICOSlowKLRG1low, but nevertheless had the capacity to produce large amounts of type 2 cytokines. HDM-activated CD25low ILC2s in BAL fluid and lung rapidly reverted to CD25high ILC2s upon in vivo stimulation with IL-33. Genome-wide transcriptional profiling of BAL ILC2s revealed ~1,600 differentially expressed genes: HDM-stimulated ILC2s specifically expressed genes involved in the regulation of adaptive immunity through B and T cell interactions, whereas IL-33-stimulated ILC2s expressed high levels of proliferation-related and cytokine genes. In both airway inflammation models ILC2s were present in the lung submucosa close to epithelial cells, as identified by confocal microscopy. In chronic HDM-driven airway inflammation ILC2s were also found inside organized cellular infiltrates near T cells. Collectively, our findings show that ILC2s are phenotypically more heterogeneous than previously thought

  11. Group 2 Innate Lymphoid Cells Exhibit a Dynamic Phenotype in Allergic Airway Inflammation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bobby W. S. Li

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Group 2 innate lymphoid cells (ILC2 are implicated in allergic asthma as an early innate source of the type 2 cytokines IL-5 and IL-13. However, their induction in house dust mite (HDM-mediated airway inflammation additionally requires T cell activation. It is currently unknown whether phenotypic differences exist between ILC2s that are activated in a T cell-dependent or T cell-independent fashion. Here, we compared ILC2s in IL-33- and HDM-driven airway inflammation. Using flow cytometry, we found that surface expression levels of various markers frequently used to identify ILC2s were dependent on their mode of activation, highly variable over time, and differed between tissue compartments, including bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL fluid, lung, draining lymph nodes, and spleen. Whereas in vivo IL-33-activated BAL fluid ILC2s exhibited an almost uniform CD25+CD127+T1/ST2+ICOS+KLRG1+ phenotype, at a comparable time point after HDM exposure BAL fluid ILC2s had a very heterogeneous surface marker phenotype. A major fraction of HDM-activated ILC2s were CD25lowCD127+T1/ST2low ICOSlowKLRG1low, but nevertheless had the capacity to produce large amounts of type 2 cytokines. HDM-activated CD25low ILC2s in BAL fluid and lung rapidly reverted to CD25high ILC2s upon in vivo stimulation with IL-33. Genome-wide transcriptional profiling of BAL ILC2s revealed ~1,600 differentially expressed genes: HDM-stimulated ILC2s specifically expressed genes involved in the regulation of adaptive immunity through B and T cell interactions, whereas IL-33-stimulated ILC2s expressed high levels of proliferation-related and cytokine genes. In both airway inflammation models ILC2s were present in the lung submucosa close to epithelial cells, as identified by confocal microscopy. In chronic HDM-driven airway inflammation ILC2s were also found inside organized cellular infiltrates near T cells. Collectively, our findings show that ILC2s are phenotypically more heterogeneous than

  12. Dietary One-Carbon Nutrient Intake and Risk of Lymphoid and Myeloid Neoplasms: Results of the Netherlands Cohort Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heinen, M.M.; Brandt, P.A. van den; Schouten, L.J.; Goldbohm, R.A.; Schouten, H.C.; Verhage, B.A.J.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Previous epidemiologic research suggests a protective role of one-carbon nutrients in carcinogenesis. Folate, however, may play a dual role in neoplasms development: protect early in carcinogenesis and promote carcinogenesis at a later stage. We prospectively examined associations

  13. Group 3 innate lymphoid cells accumulate and exhibit disease-induced activation in the meninges in EAE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatfield, Julianne K; Brown, Melissa A

    2015-10-01

    Innate lymphoid cells are immune cells that reside in tissues that interface with the external environment and contribute to the first line defense against pathogens. However, they also have roles in promoting chronic inflammation. Here we demonstrate that group 3 ILCs, (ILC3s - CD45+Lin-IL-7Rα+RORγt+), are normal residents of the meninges and exhibit disease-induced accumulation and activation in EAE. In addition to production of the pro-inflammatory cytokines IL-17 and GM-CSF, ILC3s constitutively express CD30L and OX40L, molecules required for memory T cell survival. We show that disease-induced trafficking of transferred wild type T cells to the meninges is impaired in ILC3-deficient Rorc-/- mice. Furthermore, lymphoid tissue inducer cells, a c-kit+ ILC3 subset that promotes ectopic lymphoid follicle development, a hallmark of many autoimmune diseases, are reduced in the meninges of EAE-resistant c-kit mutant Kit(W/Wv) mice. We propose that ILC3s sustain neuroinflammation by supporting T cell survival and reactivation in the meninges. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Synoptic tool for reporting of hematological and lymphoid neoplasms based on World Health Organization classification and College of American Pathologists checklist

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Winters Sharon B

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Synoptic reporting, either as part of the pathology report or replacing some free text component incorporates standardized data elements in the form of checklists for pathology reporting. This ensures the pathologists make note of these findings in their reports, thereby improving the quality and uniformity of information in the pathology reports. Methods The purpose of this project is to develop the entire set of elements in the synoptic templates or "worksheets" for hematologic and lymphoid neoplasms using the World Health Organization (WHO Classification and the College of American Pathologists (CAP Cancer Checklists. The CAP checklists' content was supplemented with the most updated classification scheme (WHO classification, specimen details, staging as well as information on various ancillary techniques such as cytochemical studies, immunophenotyping, cytogenetics including Fluorescent In-situ Hybridization (FISH studies and genotyping. We have used a digital synoptic reporting system as part of an existing laboratory information system (LIS, CoPathPlus, from Cerner DHT, Inc. The synoptic elements are presented as discrete data points, so that a data element such as tumor type is assigned from the synoptic value dictionary under the value of tumor type, allowing the user to search for just those cases that have that value point populated. Results These synoptic worksheets are implemented for use in our LIS. The data is stored as discrete data elements appear as an accession summary within the final pathology report. In addition, the synoptic data can be exported to research databases for linking pathological details on banked tissues. Conclusion Synoptic reporting provides a structured method for entering the diagnostic as well as prognostic information for a particular pathology specimen or sample, thereby reducing transcription services and reducing specimen turnaround time. Furthermore, it provides accurate and

  15. Adoptive immunotherapy mediated by ex vivo expanded natural killer T cells against CD1d-expressing lymphoid neoplasms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagnara, Davide; Ibatici, Adalberto; Corselli, Mirko; Sessarego, Nadia; Tenca, Claudya; De Santanna, Amleto; Mazzarello, Andrea; Daga, Antonio; Corvò, Renzo; De Rossi, Giulio; Frassoni, Francesco; Ciccone, Ermanno; Fais, Franco

    2009-07-01

    CD1d is a monomorphic antigen presentation molecule expressed in several hematologic malignancies. Alpha-galactosylceramide (alpha-GalCer) is a glycolipid that can be presented to cytotoxic CD1d-restricted T cells. These reagents represent a potentially powerful tool for cell mediated immunotherapy. We set up an experimental model to evaluate the use of adoptively transferred cytotoxic CD1d-restricted T cells and alpha-GalCer in the treatment of mice engrafted with CD1d(+) lymphoid neoplastic cells. To this end the C1R cell line was transfected with CD1c or CD1d molecules. In addition, upon retroviral infection firefly luciferase was expressed on C1R transfected cell lines allowing the evaluation of tumor growth in xenografted immunodeficient NOD/SCID mice. The C1R-CD1d cell line was highly susceptible to specific CD1d-restricted T cell cytotoxicity in the presence alpha-GalCer in vitro. After adoptive transfer of CD1d-restricted T cells and alpha-GalCer to mice engrafted with both C1R-CD1c and C1R-CD1d, a reduction in tumor growth was observed only in CD1d(+) masses. In addition, CD1d-restricted T-cell treatment plus alpha-GalCer eradicated small C1R-CD1d(+) nodules. Immunohistochemical analysis revealed that infiltrating NKT cells were mainly observed in CD1d nodules. Our results indicate that ex vivo expanded cytotoxic CD1d-restricted T cells and alpha-GalCer may represent a new immunotherapeutic tool for treatment of CD1d(+) hematologic malignancies.

  16. Exhibition

    CERN Document Server

    Staff Association

    2017-01-01

    A Look of Hope Islam Mahmoud Sweity From 19 to 30 June 2017 CERN Meyrin, Main Building Islam Mahmoud Sweity Islam Mahmoud Sweity was born in 1997 at Beit Awwa, Palestine. She is currently following a course to get an Art diploma of Painting at the college of Fine Arts at An-Najah National University under the supervision of Esmat Al As'aad. Her portraits, landscapes and still life paintings are full of life and shining colours. Charged of emotional empathy they catch the attention of the viewer and are reminding us that life is beautiful and worth living in spite of all difficulties we have to go through. She participated in many exhibitions and has exposed her drawings in 2015 at CERN and in France in the framework of the exhibition "The Origin“, and in 2017 in the Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia, Palestina and Jordan. In this exhibition the oil paintings made in the past year will be presented. For more information : staff.association@cern.ch | T&eacu...

  17. Exhibition

    CERN Multimedia

    Staff Association

    2016-01-01

    Encounters Hanne Blitz From February 1st to 12th 2016 CERN Meyrin, Main Building What is our reaction to a first encounter with a tourist attraction? Contemporary Dutch painter Hanne Blitz captures visitors' responses to art and architecture, sweeping vistas and symbolic memorials. Encounters, a series of oil paintings curated specially for this CERN exhibition, depicts tourists visiting cultural highlights around the world. A thought-provoking journey not to be missed, and a tip of the hat to CERN's large Hadron Collider.

  18. Exhibition

    CERN Multimedia

    Staff Association

    2017-01-01

    Sintropie Flavio Pellegrini From 13 to 24 March 2017 CERN Meyrin, Main Building Energia imprigionata - Flavio Pellegrini. The exhibition is composed by eleven wood artworks with the expression of movement as theme. The artworks are the result of harmonics math applied to sculpture. The powerful black colour is dominated by the light source, generating reflexes and modulations. The result is a continuous variation of perspective visions. The works generate, at a first approach, an emotion of mystery and incomprehension, only a deeper contemplation lets one discover entangling and mutative details, evidencing the elegance of the lines and letting the meaning emerge. For more information : staff.association@cern.ch | Tél: 022 766 37 38

  19. Colon neoplasm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kimura F, K.

    1991-01-01

    The main aspects of colon neoplasms are described, including several factors that predispose the disease, the occurrence, the main biomedical radiography and the evaluation after the surgery. (C.G.C.)

  20. Histological and three dimensional organizations of lymphoid tubules in normal lymphoid organ of Penaeus monodon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duangsuwan, Pornsawan; Phoungpetchara, Ittipon; Tinikul, Yotsawan; Poljaroen, Jaruwan; Wanichanon, Chaitip; Sobhon, Prasert

    2008-04-01

    The normal lymphoid organ of Penaeus monodon (which tested negative for WSSV and YHV) was composed of two parts: lymphoid tubules and interstitial spaces, which were permeated with haemal sinuses filled with large numbers of haemocytes. There were three permanent types of cells present in the wall of lymphoid tubules: endothelial, stromal and capsular cells. Haemocytes penetrated the endothelium of the lymphoid tubule's wall to reside among the fixed cells. The outermost layer of the lymphoid tubule was covered by a network of fibers embedded in a PAS-positive extracellular matrix, which corresponded to a basket-like network that covered all the lymphoid tubules as visualized by a scanning electron microscope (SEM). Argyrophilic reticular fibers surrounded haemal sinuses and lymphoid tubules. Together they formed the scaffold that supported the lymphoid tubule. Using vascular cast and SEM, the three dimensional structure of the subgastric artery that supplies each lobe of the lymphoid organ was reconstructed. This artery branched into highly convoluted and blind-ending terminal capillaries, each forming the lumen of a lymphoid tubule around which haemocytes and other cells aggregated to form a cuff-like wall. Stromal cells which form part of the tubular scaffold were immunostained for vimentin. Examination of the whole-mounted lymphoid organ, immunostained for vimentin, by confocal microscopy exhibited the highly branching and convoluted lymphoid tubules matching the pattern of the vascular cast observed in SEM.

  1. Adrenal neoplasms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Low, G.; Dhliwayo, H.; Lomas, D.J.

    2012-01-01

    Adenoma, myelolipoma, phaeochromocytoma, metastases, adrenocortical carcinoma, neuroblastoma, and lymphoma account for the majority of adrenal neoplasms that are encountered in clinical practice. A variety of imaging methods are available for evaluating adrenal lesions including ultrasound, computed tomography (CT), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and nuclear medicine techniques such as meta-iodobenzylguanidine (MIBG) scintigraphy and positron-emission tomography (PET). Lipid-sensitive imaging techniques such as unenhanced CT and chemical shift MRI enable detection and characterization of lipid-rich adenomas based on an unenhanced CT attenuation of ≤10 HU and signal loss on opposed-phase compared to in-phase T1-weighted images, respectively. In indeterminate cases, an adrenal CT washout study may differentiate adenomas (both lipid-rich and lipid-poor) from other adrenal neoplasms based on an absolute percentage washout of >60% and/or a relative percentage washout of >40%. This is based on the principle that adenomas show rapid contrast washout while most other adrenal neoplasms including malignant tumours show slow contrast washout instead. 18 F-2-fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose–PET ( 18 FDG-PET) imaging may differentiate benign from malignant adrenal neoplasms by demonstrating high tracer uptake in malignant neoplasms based on the increased glucose utilization and metabolic activity found in most of these malignancies. In this review, the multi-modality imaging appearances of adrenal neoplasms are discussed and illustrated. Key imaging findings that facilitate lesion characterization and differentiation are emphasized. Awareness of these imaging findings is essential for improving diagnostic confidence and for reducing misinterpretation errors.

  2. Myeloproliferative neoplasms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roaldsnes, Christina; Holst, René; Frederiksen, Henrik

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Polycythemia vera (PV), essential thrombocythemia (ET) and myelofibrosis (MF) are clonal disorders collectively named as myeloproliferative neoplasms (MPN). Published data on epidemiology of MPN after the discovery of the JAK2 mutation and the 2008 WHO classifications are scarce. We...

  3. [Incidence of haematological neoplasms in Castilla y León, Spain].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-García, José Antonio; Vázquez, Lourdes; Ramos, Fernando; Cuevas, Beatriz; Martín, Alejandro; Smucler, Alicia; Guerola, Dulce Nombre; Cantalapiedra, Alberto; Alonso, José María; Fernández, Silvia; Díez, Eva; Rodríguez, María Jesús; Calmuntia, María José; Aguilar, Carlos; Sierra, Magdalena; Gracia, José Antonio; Cebeira, María José; Cantalejo, Rosa

    2015-06-08

    We aimed to assess the incidence of haematological neoplasms (HNs) in Castilla y León (2,5 million inhabitants) and its distribution by age, gender and histological type. The epidemiological profile based on the described variables of the 10,943 HNs diagnosed during a 10-years period was analyzed, compared with other studies. The overall age-adjusted incidence was 29.4 cases/10(5) inhabitants-year, with some geographical differences. The mean age was 67.3 years, with a turning point between the 6th-7th decades of life from which there was a very significant increase of incidence. Two relevant facts where simultaneous with advancing age: decreased lymphoid neoplasms incidence and increased low degree neoplasms incidence. Lymphoid low degree neoplasms accounted for half of the registered processes, showed the greatest preference for male and reached the mode before the rest of neoplasms. Myeloid neoplasms incidence (9.5) was higher than that reported in other European registries, specially compared to southern European countries, opposite to lymphoid neoplasms incidence (20.0). A higher myeloid neoplasms incidence and lower lymphoid one than expected was observed. The turning point of incidence is between the 6th-7th decades of life, with a preference for male that decreases with age. There is an increased incidence of HNs in the area where a higher density of potentially polluting facilities is concentrated. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  4. Innate lymphoid cells in secondary lymphoid organs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bar-Ephraïm, Yotam E; Mebius, Reina E

    2016-05-01

    The family of innate lymphoid cells (ILCs) has attracted attention in recent years as its members are important regulators of immunity, while they can also cause pathology. In both mouse and man, ILCs were initially discovered in developing lymph nodes as lymphoid tissue inducer (LTi) cells. These cells form the prototypic members of the ILC family and play a central role in the formation of secondary lymphoid organs (SLOs). In the absence of LTi cells, lymph nodes (LN) and Peyer's Patches (PP) fail to form in mice, although the splenic white pulp can develop normally. Besides LTi cells, the ILC family encompasses helper-like ILCs with functional distinctions as seen by T-helper cells, as well as cytotoxic natural killer (NK) cells. ILCs are still present in adult SLOs where they have been shown to play a role in lymphoid tissue regeneration. Furthermore, ILCs were implicated to interact with adaptive lymphocytes and influence the adaptive immune response. Here, we review the recent literature on the role of ILCs in secondary lymphoid tissue from the formation of SLOs to mature SLOs in adults, during homeostasis and pathology. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Human innate lymphoid cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hazenberg, Mette D.; Spits, Hergen

    2014-01-01

    Innate lymphoid cells (ILCs) are lymphoid cells that do not express rearranged receptors and have important effector and regulatory functions in innate immunity and tissue remodeling. ILCs are categorized into 3 groups based on their distinct patterns of cytokine production and the requirement of

  6. Suitability of stratagene reference RNA for analysis of lymphoid tissues

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dybkaer, Karen; Zhou, Guimei; Iqbal, Javeed

    2004-01-01

    acceptable gene coverage to serve as a comprehensive standard for gene expression profiling of lymphoid tissues. Our lymphoid standard was prepared from thymus, spleen, tonsil, and cell lines representing immature B cells, plasma cells, and natural killer (NK) cells, thus covering the entire spectrum...... of lymphoid cells and most stromal elements present in specialized lymphoid tissues. The two standards were co-hybridized on oligonucleotide microarrays containing 17,260 genes, and both had fluorescence intensities above background for approximately 85% of the genes. Despite the limited representation...... of lymphoid cells in the Stratagene standard, only 4.2% genes exhibited expression differences greater than 2-fold including only 0.35% with differences greater than 4-fold. Although the lymphoid standard reflected a more comprehensive representation of immune system-associated genes, the Stratagene standard...

  7. Total lymphoid irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sutherland, D.E.; Ferguson, R.M.; Simmons, R.L.; Kim, T.H.; Slavin, S.; Najarian, J.S.

    1983-01-01

    Total lymphoid irradiation by itself can produce sufficient immunosuppression to prolong the survival of a variety of organ allografts in experimental animals. The degree of prolongation is dose-dependent and is limited by the toxicity that occurs with higher doses. Total lymphoid irradiation is more effective before transplantation than after, but when used after transplantation can be combined with pharmacologic immunosuppression to achieve a positive effect. In some animal models, total lymphoid irradiation induces an environment in which fully allogeneic bone marrow will engraft and induce permanent chimerism in the recipients who are then tolerant to organ allografts from the donor strain. If total lymphoid irradiation is ever to have clinical applicability on a large scale, it would seem that it would have to be under circumstances in which tolerance can be induced. However, in some animal models graft-versus-host disease occurs following bone marrow transplantation, and methods to obviate its occurrence probably will be needed if this approach is to be applied clinically. In recent years, patient and graft survival rates in renal allograft recipients treated with conventional immunosuppression have improved considerably, and thus the impetus to utilize total lymphoid irradiation for its immunosuppressive effect alone is less compelling. The future of total lymphoid irradiation probably lies in devising protocols in which maintenance immunosuppression can be eliminated, or nearly eliminated, altogether. Such protocols are effective in rodents. Whether they can be applied to clinical transplantation remains to be seen

  8. Synchronous high-risk melanoma and lymphoid neoplasia.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Cahill, R A

    2012-02-03

    Large population-based studies have shown a significant association between melanoma and lymphoid neoplasia, particularly non-Hodgkin\\'s lymphoma (NHL) and chronic lymphocytic leukaemia (CLL), that is independent of any treatment received for the initial tumour. This study examines the presentation, diagnosis, treatment and progress of three patients who developed advanced melanoma concurrently with a lymphoid neoplasm (one NHL, two CLLs), in order to illustrate their association, discuss common aetiological factors and examine possible therapeutic options. As it is the melanoma rather than the lymphoid neoplasm that represents the bigger threat to overall survival, initial treatment should be targeted towards this cancer. However, because of the interplay between the diseases and the possible side-effects of the various treatments, the choice of adjuvant therapy requires careful consideration. Immunosuppression associated with chemotherapy may permit a more aggressive course for the melanoma, while locoregional radiotherapy is contraindicated following lymph node dissections. As immunotherapy is of benefit in the treatment of melanoma and has also been recently shown to be effective in the management of lymphoid neoplasia, we instituted interferon-alpha as adjuvant therapy for these patients, thereby utilizing a single agent to treat the dual pathologies. The three patients have now been followed-up for 6 months without evidence of disease recurrence or progression.

  9. Human innate lymphoid cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mjösberg, Jenny; Spits, Hergen

    2016-11-01

    Innate lymphoid cells (ILCs) are increasingly acknowledged as important mediators of immune homeostasis and pathology. ILCs act as early orchestrators of immunity, responding to epithelium-derived signals by expressing an array of cytokines and cell-surface receptors, which shape subsequent immune responses. As such, ILCs make up interesting therapeutic targets for several diseases. In patients with allergy and asthma, group 2 innate lymphoid cells produce high amounts of IL-5 and IL-13, thereby contributing to type 2-mediated inflammation. Group 3 innate lymphoid cells are implicated in intestinal homeostasis and psoriasis pathology through abundant IL-22 production, whereas group 1 innate lymphoid cells are accumulated in chronic inflammation of the gut (inflammatory bowel disease) and lung (chronic obstructive pulmonary disease), where they contribute to IFN-γ-mediated inflammation. Although the ontogeny of mouse ILCs is slowly unraveling, the development of human ILCs is far from understood. In addition, the growing complexity of the human ILC family in terms of previously unrecognized functional heterogeneity and plasticity has generated confusion within the field. Here we provide an updated view on the function and plasticity of human ILCs in tissue homeostasis and disease. Copyright © 2016 American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Human innate lymphoid cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mjösberg, Jenny; Spits, Hergen

    2016-01-01

    Innate lymphoid cells (ILCs) are increasingly acknowledged as important mediators of immune homeostasis and pathology. ILCs act as early orchestrators of immunity, responding to epithelium-derived signals by expressing an array of cytokines and cell-surface receptors, which shape subsequent immune

  11. Bioengineering of artificial lymphoid organs

    OpenAIRE

    NOSENKO M.A.; DRUTSKAYA M.S.; MOISENOVICH M.M.; NEDOSPASOV S.A.

    2016-01-01

    This review addresses the issue of bioengineering of artificial lymphoid organs.Progress in this field may help to better understand the nature of the structure-function relations that exist in immune organs. Artifical lymphoid organs may also be advantageous in the therapy or correction of immunodefficiencies, autoimmune diseases, and cancer. The structural organization, development, and function of lymphoid tissue are analyzed with a focus on the role of intercellular contacts and on the cy...

  12. Bioengineering of Artificial Lymphoid Organs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nosenko, M A; Drutskaya, M S; Moisenovich, M M; Nedospasov, S A

    2016-01-01

    This review addresses the issue of bioengineering of artificial lymphoid organs.Progress in this field may help to better understand the nature of the structure-function relations that exist in immune organs. Artifical lymphoid organs may also be advantageous in the therapy or correction of immunodefficiencies, autoimmune diseases, and cancer. The structural organization, development, and function of lymphoid tissue are analyzed with a focus on the role of intercellular contacts and on the cytokine signaling pathways regulating these processes. We describe various polymeric materials, as scaffolds, for artificial tissue engineering. Finally, published studies in which artificial lymphoid organs were generated are reviewed and possible future directions in the field are discussed.

  13. Tertiary lymphoid structures in cancer and beyond.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dieu-Nosjean, Marie-Caroline; Goc, Jérémy; Giraldo, Nicolas A; Sautès-Fridman, Catherine; Fridman, Wolf Herman

    2014-11-01

    Tertiary lymphoid structures (TLS) are ectopic lymphoid formations found in inflamed, infected, or tumoral tissues. They exhibit all the characteristics of structures in the lymph nodes (LN) associated with the generation of an adaptive immune response, including a T cell zone with mature dendritic cells (DC), a germinal center with follicular dendritic cells (FDC) and proliferating B cells, and high endothelial venules (HEV). In this review, we discuss evidence for the roles of TLS in chronic infection, autoimmunity, and cancer, and address the question of whether TLS present beneficial or deleterious effects in these contexts. We examine the relationship between TLS in tumors and patient prognosis, and discuss the potential role of TLS in building and/or maintaining local immune responses and how this understanding may guide therapeutic interventions. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Why Innate Lymphoid Cells?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotas, Maya E; Locksley, Richard M

    2018-06-19

    Innate lymphoid cells (ILCs) are positioned in tissues perinatally, constitutively express receptors responsive to their organ microenvironments, and perform an arsenal of effector functions that overlap those of adaptive CD4 + T cells. Based on knowledge regarding subsets of invariant-like lymphocytes (e.g., natural killer T [NKT] cells, γδ T cells, mucosal-associated invariant T [MAIT] cells, etc.) and fetally derived macrophages, we hypothesize that immune cells established during the perinatal period-including, but not limited to, ILCs-serve intimate roles in tissue that go beyond classical understanding of the immune system in microbial host defense. In this Perspective, we propose mechanisms by which the establishment of ILCs and the tissue lymphoid niche during early development may have consequences much later in life. Although definitive answers require better tools, efforts to achieve deeper understanding of ILC biology across the mammalian lifespan have the potential to lift the veil on the unknown breadth of immune cell functions. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. The Innate Lymphoid Cell Precursor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishizuka, Isabel E; Constantinides, Michael G; Gudjonson, Herman; Bendelac, Albert

    2016-05-20

    The discovery of tissue-resident innate lymphoid cell populations effecting different forms of type 1, 2, and 3 immunity; tissue repair; and immune regulation has transformed our understanding of mucosal immunity and allergy. The emerging complexity of these populations along with compounding issues of redundancy and plasticity raise intriguing questions about their precise lineage relationship. Here we review advances in mapping the emergence of these lineages from early lymphoid precursors. We discuss the identification of a common innate lymphoid cell precursor characterized by transient expression of the transcription factor PLZF, and the lineage relationships of innate lymphoid cells with conventional natural killer cells and lymphoid tissue inducer cells. We also review the rapidly growing understanding of the network of transcription factors that direct the development of these lineages.

  16. The neoplasms imagery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giger, M.; Pilizzari, CH.

    1996-01-01

    New devices of NMR imaging and computed tomography give three-dimensional images of the human body and automatically interpret the anatomical pictures. These new techniques are useful for the detection and the treatment of neoplasms. They are explained into details. (O.M.)

  17. Lymphoid Tissue Grafts in Man

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kay, H. E.M. [Royal Marsden Hospital, Institute of Cancer Research, London (United Kingdom)

    1969-07-15

    Grafts of lymphoid tissue or of lymphoid stem cells may be appropriate in the treatment of some congenital immune deficiency disorders. The reasons for preferring tissues of foetal origin are discussed and the evidence for foetal immunocompetence is briefly summarized. Methods of storing foetal liver cells and cells or fragments of thymus are mentioned, and the organization of the Foetal Tissue Bank of the Royal Marsden Hospital is described. Clinical data from transplantation of lymphoid cells in various immune deficiency disorders are briefly presented. (author)

  18. Inflammatory demyelinating pseudotumor with hemorrhage masquerading high grade cerebral neoplasm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amit Agrawal

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Demyelinating pseudotumors are rare, benign, solitary intracranial space occupying lesions which masquerade cerebral neoplasms. Contrast MRI shows open ring enhancement which is fairly specific for this entity. Advanced MRI techniques like MR spectroscopy and magnetizing transfer techniques can help differentiating these lesions. NAA/Cr ratio is significantly elevated in central regions of demyelinating pseudotumors than in gliomas and other lesions. Presence of abundant foamy macrophages, lymphoid inflammatory infiltrates around blood vessels, sheets of gemistocytic astrocytes with well-developed processes, well defined border of the lesion absence of neovascularity and necrosis should help us diagnose demyelinating pseudotumor fairly confidently on histopathology.

  19. Micronodular thymic neoplasms: case series and literature review with emphasis on the spectrum of differentiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mneimneh, Wadad S; Gökmen-Polar, Yesim; Kesler, Kenneth A; Loehrer, Patrick J; Badve, Sunil

    2015-11-01

    We report nine cases of micronodular thymoma with lymphoid B-cell hyperplasia and one case of micronodular thymic carcinoma with lymphoid hyperplasia from our institution. For a better understanding of these rare tumors, clinical records, and histological features of these cases were reviewed, with detailed review of additional 64 literature cases of micronodular thymic neoplasms. The joint analysis identified 64 cases of micronodular thymoma with lymphoid B-cell hyperplasia and 9 cases of micronodular thymic carcinoma with lymphoid hyperplasia. Both groups revealed slight male predilection, with male:female ratio of 1.3:1 and 5:4, and occurred at >40 years of age, with a mean of 64 (41-83) and 62 (42-78) years, respectively. Myasthenia gravis was noted in 3/64 (5%) and 1/9 (11%) patients, respectively. Other systemic, disimmune, or hematologic disorders were noted in 6/64 (9%) and 1/9 (11%) patients, respectively. Components of conventional thymoma were reported in 11/64 (17%) micronodular thymomas with lymphoid B-cell hyperplasia, with transitional morphology between the two components in most of them. Cellular morphology was predominantly spindle in micronodular thymoma with lymphoid B-cell hyperplasia when specified (30/43), and epithelioid in micronodular thymic carcinoma with lymphoid hyperplasia (6/9), and cytological atypia was more encountered in the latter. Dedifferentiation/transformation from micronodular thymoma with lymphoid B-cell hyperplasia to micronodular thymic carcinoma with lymphoid hyperplasia seems to occur in a small subset of cases. Three cases of micronodular thymomas with lymphoid B-cell hyperplasia were described with co-existent low-grade B-cell lymphomas. Follow-up data were available for 30 micronodular thymomas with lymphoid B-cell hyperplasia and 6 micronodular thymic carcinomas with lymphoid hyperplasia, with a mean of 47 (0.2-180) months and 23 (3-39) months, respectively. Patients were alive without disease, except for five

  20. The 2016 WHO classification and diagnostic criteria for myeloproliferative neoplasms: document summary and in-depth discussion

    OpenAIRE

    Barbui, Tiziano; Thiele, Jürgen; Gisslinger, Heinz; Kvasnicka, Hans Michael; Vannucchi, Alessandro M.; Guglielmelli, Paola; Orazi, Attilio; Tefferi, Ayalew

    2018-01-01

    The new edition of the 2016 World Health Organization (WHO) classification system for tumors of the hematopoietic and lymphoid tissues was published in September 2017. Under the category of myeloproliferative neoplasms (MPNs), the revised document includes seven subcategories: chronic myeloid leukemia, chronic neutrophilic leukemia, polycythemia vera (PV), primary myelofibrosis (PMF), essential thrombocythemia (ET), chronic eosinophilic leukemia-not otherwise specified and MPN, unclassifiable...

  1. Risk factors for neoplasms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brachner, A.; Grosche, B.

    1991-06-01

    A broad survey is given of risk factors for neoplasms. The main carcinogenic substances (including also ionizing radiation and air pollution) are listed, and are correlated with the risk factors for various cancers most frequently explained and discussed in the literature. The study is intended to serve as a basis for a general assessment of the incidence of neoplasms in children, and of cancer mortality in the entire population of Bavaria in the years 1983-1989, or 1979-1988, respectively, with the principal idea of drawing up an environment-related health survey. The study therefore takes into account not only ionizing radiation as a main risk factor, but also other risk factors detectable within the ecologic context, as e.g. industrial installations and their effects, refuse incineration plants or waste dumps, or the social status. (orig./MG) [de

  2. Prions and lymphoid organs

    Science.gov (United States)

    O’Connor, Tracy; Aguzzi, Adriano

    2013-01-01

    Prion colonization of secondary lymphoid organs (SLOs) is a critical step preceding neuroinvasion in prion pathogenesis. Follicular dendritic cells (FDCs), which depend on both tumor necrosis factor receptor 1 (TNFR1) and lymphotoxin β receptor (LTβR) signaling for maintenance, are thought to be the primary sites of prion accumulation in SLOs. However, prion titers in RML-infected TNFR1−/− lymph nodes and rates of neuroinvasion in TNFR1−/− mice remain high despite the absence of mature FDCs. Recently, we discovered that TNFR1-independent prion accumulation in lymph nodes relies on LTβR signaling. Loss of LTβR signaling in TNFR1−/− lymph nodes coincided with the de-differentiation of high endothelial venules (HEVs)—the primary sites of lymphocyte entry into lymph nodes. These findings suggest that HEVs are the sites through which prions initially invade lymph nodes from the bloodstream. Identification of HEVs as entry portals for prions clarifies a number of previous observations concerning peripheral prion pathogenesis. However, a number of questions still remain: What is the mechanism by which prions are taken up by HEVs? Which cells are responsible for delivering prions to lymph nodes? Are HEVs the main entry site for prions into lymph nodes or do alternative routes also exist? These questions and others are considered in this article. PMID:23357827

  3. Total lymphoid irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1980-01-01

    An outline review notes recent work on total lymphoid irradiation (TLI) as a means of preparing patients for grafts and particularly for bone-marrow transplantation. T.L.I. has proved immunosuppressive in rats, mice, dogs, monkeys and baboons; when given before bone-marrow transplantation, engraftment took place without, or with delayed rejection or graft-versus-host disease. Work with mice has indicated that the thymus needs to be included within the irradiation field, since screening of the thymus reduced skin-graft survival from 50 to 18 days, though irradiation of the thymus alone has proved ineffective. A more lasting tolerance has been observed when T.L.I. is followed by an injection of donor bone marrow. 50% of mice treated in this way accepted allogenic skin grafts for more than 100 days, the animals proving to be stable chimeras with 50% of their peripheral blood lymphocytes being of donor origin. Experiments of a similar nature with dogs and baboons were not so successful. (U.K.)

  4. Innate lymphoid cells and the skin

    OpenAIRE

    Salimi, Maryam; Ogg, Graham

    2014-01-01

    Innate lymphoid cells are an emerging family of effector cells that contribute to lymphoid organogenesis, metabolism, tissue remodelling and protection against infections. They maintain homeostatic immunity at barrier surfaces such as lung, skin and gut (Nature 464:1367?1371, 2010, Nat Rev Immunol 13: 145?149, 2013). Several human and mouse studies suggest a role for innate lymphoid cells in inflammatory skin conditions including atopic eczema and psoriasis. Here we review the innate lymphoid...

  5. Florid reactive lymphoid hyperplasia of terminal ileum

    OpenAIRE

    Kanakala, Venkatesh; Birch, Peter; Kasaraneni, Ramesh

    2010-01-01

    Florid lymphoid hyperplasia in the terminal ileum can present to surgeons as an acute abdominal pain. Only few cases were reported in the literature. Our case illustrates that a rare case of florid lymphoid hyperplasia can present to surgeons as acute appendicitis. During the operation the gross appearance may mimic Crohn’s disease. A limited resection is sufficient to clinch the diagnosis of florid lymphoid hyperplasia / Crohn’s disease. In florid lymphoid hyperplasia limited resection may b...

  6. Gestational trophoblastic neoplasms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Demas, B.E.; Hricak, H.; Braga, C.

    1988-01-01

    Twenty-four women with suspected gestational trophoblastic neoplasms were evaluated prospectively to identify imaging algorithms optimal for treatment planning. All underwent chest radiography, chest CT, hepatic and cranial CT or MR imaging, and pelvic MR imaging. Ten also underwent pelvic CT, 13 pelvic US. The most sensitive imaging combination was chest CT, hepatic and cranial CT or MR imaging, and pelvic MR imaging. However, correct assignment to ACOG therapeutic categories was achieved by means of history, physical examination, beta subunit of human chorionic gonadotropin measurements, and chest radiography in 81% of patients. Hepatic and cranial imaging defined the need for radiation therapy. Chest CT was needed only when chest radiographs were negative. Pelvic imaging aided diagnosis but did not assist in treatment planning

  7. Artificial engineering of secondary lymphoid organs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Jonathan K H; Watanabe, Takeshi

    2010-01-01

    Secondary lymphoid organs such as spleen and lymph nodes are highly organized immune structures essential for the initiation of immune responses. They display distinct B cell and T cell compartments associated with specific stromal follicular dendritic cells and fibroblastic reticular cells, respectively. Interweaved through the parenchyma is a conduit system that distributes small antigens and chemokines directly to B and T cell zones. While most structural aspects between lymph nodes and spleen are common, the entry of lymphocytes, antigen-presenting cells, and antigen into lymphoid tissues is regulated differently, reflecting the specialized functions of each organ in filtering either lymph or blood. The overall organization of lymphoid tissue is vital for effective antigen screening and recognition, and is a feature which artificially constructed lymphoid organoids endeavor to replicate. Synthesis of artificial lymphoid tissues is an emerging field that aims to provide therapeutic application for the treatment of severe infection, cancer, and age-related involution of secondary lymphoid tissues. The development of murine artificial lymphoid tissues has benefited greatly from an understanding of organogenesis of lymphoid organs, which has delineated cellular and molecular elements essential for the recruitment and organization of lymphocytes into lymphoid structures. Here, the field of artificial lymphoid tissue engineering is considered including elements of lymphoid structure and development relevant to organoid synthesis. (c) 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Technology Exhibition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    1979-09-15

    Linked to the 25th Anniversary celebrations, an exhibition of some of CERN's technological achievements was opened on 22 June. Set up in a new 600 m{sup 2} Exhibition Hall on the CERN site, the exhibition is divided into eight technology areas — magnets, vacuum, computers and data handling, survey and alignment, radiation protection, beam monitoring and handling, detectors, and workshop techniques.

  9. Skin-associated lymphoid tissues (SALT): origins and functions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Streilein, J.W.

    1983-01-01

    The skin has an unusual set of immunologic requirements. It is confronted by a specialized set of pathogenic organisms and environmental chemicals that represent a distinctive spectrum of antigenic specificities. Skin is subjected to physicochemical stresses such as irradiation with ultraviolet light that alter dramatically its immunologic properties. It is proposed that nature has provided skin with a unique collection of lymphoid cells, reticular cells, and organized lymphoid organs to deal with these special demands. Evidence in favor of the existence of skin-associated lymphoid tissues (SALT) includes (1) the cutaneous microenvironment is capable on its own of accepting, processing, and presenting nominal antigen; (2) strategically located peripheral lymph nodes are able to accept immunogenic signals derived from skin; (3) subsets of T lymphocytes display differential affinity for skin and its associated peripheral nodes; and (4) acquisition of this affinity by T cells is determined at least in part by differentiation signals received in situ from resident cutaneous cells. Responsibility for the establishment and integration of SALT rests with keratinocytes, Langerhans cells, and immunocompetent lymphocytes, each of which contributes uniquely to the synthesis. Together they provide skin with immune surveillance that effectively prejudices against the development of cutaneous neoplasms and persistent infection with intracellular pathogens. In patients who have been under long-term immunosuppressive therapy, the large majority of nonlymphoid malignancies arise within the skin, rather than other types of tissues. These data suggest that immune surveillance, once thought to be an immune defense operative in all somatic tissues, is a specialized immune function dedicated to the skin and mediated by SALT

  10. Immersive Exhibitions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Achiam, Marianne

    2015-01-01

    The immersive exhibition is a specialized exhibition genre in museums, which creates the illusion of time and place by representing key characteristics of a reference world and by integrating the visitor in this three-dimensionally reconstructed world (Mortensen 2010). A successful representation...... of the reference world depends on three criteria: whether the exhibition is staged as a coherent whole with all the displayed objects supporting the representation, whether the visitor is integrated as a component of the exhibition, and whether the content and message of the exhibition become dramatized...

  11. Innate lymphoid cells and asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Sanhong; Kim, Hye Young; Chang, Ya-Jen; DeKruyff, Rosemarie H; Umetsu, Dale T

    2014-04-01

    Asthma is a complex and heterogeneous disease with several phenotypes, including an allergic asthma phenotype characterized by TH2 cytokine production and associated with allergen sensitization and adaptive immunity. Asthma also includes nonallergic asthma phenotypes, such as asthma associated with exposure to air pollution, infection, or obesity, that require innate rather than adaptive immunity. These innate pathways that lead to asthma involve macrophages, neutrophils, natural killer T cells, and innate lymphoid cells, newly described cell types that produce a variety of cytokines, including IL-5 and IL-13. We review the recent data regarding innate lymphoid cells and their role in asthma. Copyright © 2014 American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Innate lymphoid cells in atherosclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engelbertsen, Daniel; Lichtman, Andrew H

    2017-12-05

    The family of innate lymphoid cells (ILCs) consisting of NK cells, lymphoid tissue inducer cells and the 'helper'-like ILC subsets ILC1, ILC2 and ILC3 have been shown to have important roles in protection against microbes, regulation of inflammatory diseases and involved in allergic reactions. ILC1s produce IFN-γ upon stimulation with IL-12 and IL-18, ILC2s produce IL-5 and IL-13 responding to IL-33 and IL-25 while ILC3s produce IL-17 and IL-22 after stimulation with IL-23 or IL-1. Although few studies have directly investigated the role for ILCs in atherosclerosis, several studies have investigated transcription factors and cytokines shared by ILCs and T helper cells. In this review we summarize our current understanding of the role of ILC in atherosclerosis and discuss future directions. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  13. Malignant Lymphatic and Hematopoietic Neoplasms Mortality in Serbia, 1991–2010: A Joinpoint Regression Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ilic, Milena; Ilic, Irena

    2014-01-01

    Background Limited data on mortality from malignant lymphatic and hematopoietic neoplasms have been published for Serbia. Methods The study covered population of Serbia during the 1991–2010 period. Mortality trends were assessed using the joinpoint regression analysis. Results Trend for overall death rates from malignant lymphoid and haematopoietic neoplasms significantly decreased: by −2.16% per year from 1991 through 1998, and then significantly increased by +2.20% per year for the 1998–2010 period. The growth during the entire period was on average +0.8% per year (95% CI 0.3 to 1.3). Mortality was higher among males than among females in all age groups. According to the comparability test, mortality trends from malignant lymphoid and haematopoietic neoplasms in men and women were parallel (final selected model failed to reject parallelism, P = 0.232). Among younger Serbian population (0–44 years old) in both sexes: trends significantly declined in males for the entire period, while in females 15–44 years of age mortality rates significantly declined only from 2003 onwards. Mortality trend significantly increased in elderly in both genders (by +1.7% in males and +1.5% in females in the 60–69 age group, and +3.8% in males and +3.6% in females in the 70+ age group). According to the comparability test, mortality trend for Hodgkin's lymphoma differed significantly from mortality trends for all other types of malignant lymphoid and haematopoietic neoplasms (P<0.05). Conclusion Unfavourable mortality trend in Serbia requires targeted intervention for risk factors control, early diagnosis and modern therapy. PMID:25333862

  14. Myeloproliferative neoplasm stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mead, Adam J; Mullally, Ann

    2017-03-23

    Myeloproliferative neoplasms (MPNs) arise in the hematopoietic stem cell (HSC) compartment as a result of the acquisition of somatic mutations in a single HSC that provides a selective advantage to mutant HSC over normal HSC and promotes myeloid differentiation to engender a myeloproliferative phenotype. This population of somatically mutated HSC, which initiates and sustains MPNs, is termed MPN stem cells. In >95% of cases, mutations that drive the development of an MPN phenotype occur in a mutually exclusive manner in 1 of 3 genes: JAK2 , CALR , or MPL The thrombopoietin receptor, MPL, is the key cytokine receptor in MPN development, and these mutations all activate MPL-JAK-STAT signaling in MPN stem cells. Despite common biological features, MPNs display diverse disease phenotypes as a result of both constitutional and acquired factors that influence MPN stem cells, and likely also as a result of heterogeneity in the HSC in which MPN-initiating mutations arise. As the MPN clone expands, it exerts cell-extrinsic effects on components of the bone marrow niche that can favor the survival and expansion of MPN stem cells over normal HSC, further sustaining and driving malignant hematopoiesis. Although developed as targeted therapies for MPNs, current JAK2 inhibitors do not preferentially target MPN stem cells, and as a result, rarely induce molecular remissions in MPN patients. As the understanding of the molecular mechanisms underlying the clonal dominance of MPN stem cells advances, this will help facilitate the development of therapies that preferentially target MPN stem cells over normal HSC. © 2017 by The American Society of Hematology.

  15. Exhibit Engineering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Marianne Foss

    Science museums define the objectives of their exhibitions in terms of visitor learning outcomes. Yet, exhibit designers lack theoretical and empirical research findings on which to base the creation of such educational environments. Here, this shortcoming is addressed through the development...... of tools and processes to guide the design of educational science exhibits. The guiding paradigm for this development is design-based research, which is characterised by an iterative cycle of design, enactment, and analysis. In the design phase, an educational intervention is planned and carried out based...... on the generation of theoretical ideas for exhibit design is offered in a fourth and parallel research undertaking, namely the application of the notion of cultural border-crossing to a hypothetical case of exhibit design....

  16. Shaping Innate Lymphoid Cell Diversity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiutong Huang

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Innate lymphoid cells (ILCs are a key cell type that are enriched at mucosal surfaces and within tissues. Our understanding of these cells is growing rapidly. Paradoxically, these cells play a role in maintaining tissue integrity but they also function as key drivers of allergy and inflammation. We present here the most recent understanding of how genomics has provided significant insight into how ILCs are generated and the enormous heterogeneity present within the canonical subsets. This has allowed the generation of a detailed blueprint for ILCs to become highly sensitive and adaptive sensors of environmental changes and therefore exquisitely equipped to protect immune surfaces.

  17. Dendritic cell neoplasms: an overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kairouz, Sebastien; Hashash, Jana; Kabbara, Wadih; McHayleh, Wassim; Tabbara, Imad A

    2007-10-01

    Dendritic cell neoplasms are rare tumors that are being recognized with increasing frequency. They were previously classified as lymphomas, sarcomas, or histiocytic neoplasms. The World Health Organization (WHO) classifies dendritic cell neoplasms into five groups: Langerhans' cell histiocytosis, Langerhans' cell sarcoma, Interdigitating dendritic cell sarcoma/tumor, Follicular dendritic cell sarcoma/tumor, and Dendritic cell sarcoma, not specified otherwise (Jaffe, World Health Organization classification of tumors 2001; 273-289). Recently, Pileri et al. provided a comprehensive immunohistochemical classification of histiocytic and dendritic cell tumors (Pileri et al., Histopathology 2002;59:161-167). In this article, a concise overview regarding the pathological, clinical, and therapeutic aspects of follicular dendritic, interdigitating dendritic, and Langerhans' cell tumors is presented.

  18. Innate lymphoid cells in inflammation and immunity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    McKenzie, Andrew N. J.; Spits, Hergen; Eberl, Gerard

    2014-01-01

    Innate lymphoid cells (ILCs) were first described as playing important roles in the development of lymphoid tissues and more recently in the initiation of inflammation at barrier surfaces in response to infection or tissue damage. It has now become apparent that ILCs play more complex roles

  19. Transcriptional control of innate lymphoid cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mjösberg, Jenny; Bernink, Jochem; Peters, Charlotte; Spits, Hergen

    2012-01-01

    Cells that belong to the family of innate lymphoid cells (ILCs) not only form a first line of defense against invading microbes, but also play essential roles in tissue remodeling and immune pathology. Ror?t+ ILCs, producing the cytokines IL-22 and IL-17, include lymphoid tissue inducer (LTi) cells

  20. Lymphoid cells in chicken intestinal epithelium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjerregaard, P

    1975-01-01

    The intraepithelial lymphoid cells of chicken small intestine were studied by light microscopy using 1 mu Epon sections, and by electron microscopy. Three cell types were found: small lymphocytes, large lymphoid cells, and granular cells. These cells correspond to the theliolymphocytes and globule...

  1. [Spontaneous neoplasms in guinea pigs].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khar'kovskaia, N A; Khrustalev, S A; Vasil'eva, N N

    1977-01-01

    The authors present an analysis of the data of foreign literature and the results of their personal studies of spontaneous neoplasms in 40 guinea pigs of national breeding observed during observed during a 5-year period. In 4 of them malignant tumors were diagnosed-lympholeucosis (2 cases), dermoid ovarian cysts and also cancer and adenoma of the adrenal cortex (in one animal). The neoplasms described developed in guinea pigs, aged over 4 years, and they are referred to as mostly common tumors in this species of animals.

  2. Drugs Approved for Myeloproliferative Neoplasms

    Science.gov (United States)

    This page lists cancer drugs approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for myeloproliferative neoplasms. The list includes generic names, brand names, and common drug combinations, which are shown in capital letters. The drug names link to NCI's Cancer Drug Information summaries.

  3. Molecular diagnostics of myeloproliferative neoplasms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Langabeer, S. E.; Andrikovics, H.; Asp, J.

    2015-01-01

    Since the discovery of the JAK2 V617F mutation in the majority of the myeloproliferative neoplasms (MPN) of polycythemia vera, essential thrombocythemia and primary myelofibrosis ten years ago, further MPN-specific mutational events, notably in JAK2 exon 12, MPL exon 10 and CALR exon 9 have been...

  4. Pancreatic neuroendocrine neoplasms; Neuroendokrine Neoplasien des Pankreas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beiderwellen, K.; Lauenstein, T.C. [Universitaetsklinikum Essen, Institut fuer Diagnostische und Interventionelle Radiologie und Neuroradiologie, Essen (Germany); Sabet, A.; Poeppel, T.D. [Universitaetsklinikum Essen, Klinik fuer Nuklearmedizin, Essen (Germany); Lahner, H. [Universitaetsklinikum Essen, Klinik fuer Endokrinologie und Stoffwechselerkrankungen, Essen (Germany)

    2016-04-15

    Pancreatic neuroendocrine neoplasms (NEN) account for 1-2 % of all pancreatic neoplasms and represent a rare differential diagnosis. While some pancreatic NEN are hormonally active and exhibit endocrine activity associated with characteristic symptoms, the majority are hormonally inactive. Imaging techniques such as ultrasound, computed tomography (CT), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and positron emission tomography (PET) or as combined PET/CT play a crucial role in the initial diagnosis, therapy planning and control. Endoscopic ultrasound (EUS) and multiphase CT represent the reference methods for localization of the primary pancreatic tumor. Particularly in the evaluation of small liver lesions MRI is the method of choice. Somatostatin receptor scintigraphy and somatostatin receptor PET/CT are of particular value for whole body staging and special aspects of further therapy planning. (orig.) [German] Neuroendokrine Neoplasien (NEN) des Pankreas stellen mit einem Anteil von 1-2 % aller pankreatischen Tumoren eine seltene Differenzialdiagnose dar. Ein Teil der Tumoren ist hormonell aktiv und faellt klinisch durch charakteristische Symptome auf, wohingegen der ueberwiegende Anteil hormonell inaktiv ist. Bildgebende Verfahren wie Sonographie, Computertomographie (CT), Magnetresonanztomographie (MRT) und nicht zuletzt Positronenemissionstomographie (PET oder kombiniert als PET/CT) spielen eine zentrale Rolle fuer Erstdiagnose, Therapieplanung und -kontrolle. Die Endosonographie und die multiphasische CT stellen die Referenzmethoden zur Lokalisation des Primaertumors dar. Fuer die Differenzierung insbesondere kleiner Leberlaesionen bietet die MRT die hoechste Aussagekraft. Fuer das Ganzkoerperstaging und bestimmte Aspekte der Therapieplanung lassen sich die Somatostatinrezeptorszintigraphie und v. a. die Somatostatinrezeptor-PET/CT heranziehen. (orig.)

  5. Human Exhibitions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andreassen, Rikke

    light on the staging of exhibitions, the daily life of the exhibitees, the wider connections between shows across Europe and the thinking of the time on matters of race, science, gender and sexuality. A window onto contemporary racial understandings, the book presents interviews with the descendants...... of displayed people, connecting the attitudes and science of the past with both our (continued) modern fascination with ‘the exotic’, and contemporary language and popular culture. As such, it will be of interest to scholars of sociology, anthropology and history working in the areas of gender and sexuality...

  6. Innate Lymphoid Cells in Tumor Immunity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Beek, Jasper J P; Martens, Anne W J; Bakdash, Ghaith; de Vries, I Jolanda M

    2016-02-25

    Innate lymphoid cells (ILCs) are a group of immune cells of the lymphoid lineage that do not possess antigen specificity. The group includes natural killer (NK) cells, lymphoid tissue inducer (LTi) cells and the recently identified ILC1s, ILC2s and ILC3s. Although the role of NK cells in the context of cancer has been well established, the involvement of other ILC subsets in cancer progression and resistance is just emerging. Here, we review the literature on the role of the different ILC subsets in tumor immunity and discuss its implications for cancer treatment and monitoring.

  7. Cardiac effects of noncardiac neoplasms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schoen, F.J.; Berger, B.M.; Guerina, N.G.

    1984-01-01

    Clinically significant cardiovascular abnormalities may occur as secondary manifestations of noncardiac neoplasms. The principal cardiac effects of noncardiac tumors include the direct results of metastases to the heart or lungs, the indirect effects of circulating tumor products (causing nonbacterial thrombotic endocarditis, myeloma-associated amyloidosis, pheochromocytoma-associated cardiac hypertrophy and myofibrillar degeneration, and carcinoid heart disease), and the undesired cardiotoxicities of chemotherapy and radiotherapy. 89 references

  8. Innate lymphoid cells and their stromal microenvironments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kellermayer, Zoltán; Vojkovics, Dóra; Balogh, Péter

    2017-09-01

    In addition to the interaction between antigen presenting cells, T and B lymphocytes, recent studies have revealed important roles for a diverse set of auxiliary cells that profoundly influence the induction and regulation of immune responses against pathogens. Of these the stromal cells composed of various non-hematopoietic constituents are crucial for the creation and maintenance of specialized semi-static three-dimensional lymphoid tissue microenvironment, whereas the more recently described innate lymphoid cells are generated by the diversification of committed lymphoid precursor cells independently from clonally rearranged antigen receptor genes. Recent findings have revealed important contributions by innate lymphoid cells in inflammation and protection against pathogens in a tissue-specific manner. Importantly, lymphoid stromal cells also influence the onset of immune responses in tissue-specific fashion, raising the possibility of tissue-specific stromal - innate lymphoid cell collaboration. In this review we summarize the main features and interactions between these two cells types, with particular emphasis on ILC type 3 cells and their microenvironmental partners. Copyright © 2017 European Federation of Immunological Societies. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Long-term followup of rheumatoid arthritis patients treated with total lymphoid irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanay, A.; Field, E.H.; Hoppe, R.T.; Strober, S.

    1987-01-01

    Total lymphoid irradiation was administered to 32 patients with intractable rheumatoid arthritis. Twenty-four patients showed at least a 25% improvement in 3 of 4 disease activity parameters, which persisted during the followup period of up to 48 months. Eight of the 32 patients required adjunctive immunosuppressive drug therapy to maintain improvement. Four patients died after total lymphoid irradiation; the causes of death were acute myocardial infarction (1 patient), pulmonary embolism (1 patient), and rheumatoid lung disease complicated by respiratory infection (2 patients). After therapy, patients exhibited a prolonged reduction in the number and function of circulating T helper cells

  10. Gastrointestinal Surgery of Neuroendocrine Neoplasms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Carsten Palnæs; Olsen, Ingrid Marie Holst; Knigge, Ulrich

    2015-01-01

    Surgery is the only treatment that may cure the patient with gastroenteropancreatic (GEP) neuroendocrine neoplasms (NENs) and should always be considered as the first-line treatment if radical resection can be achieved. Even in cases where radical surgery is not possible, palliative resection may...... be performed to reduce local or hormone-induced symptoms and to improve quality of life. The surgical procedures for GEP-NENs are accordingly described below. In most patients life-long follow-up is required, even following radical surgery, as recurrence may occur several years later....

  11. Prenatal ultrasound findings of fetal neoplasms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Soo Hyun; Cho, Jeong Yeon; Song, Mi Jin; Min, Jee Yeon; Han, Byoung Hee; Lee, Young Ho; Cho, Byung Jae; Kim, Seung Hyup

    2002-01-01

    A variety of neoplasms can develop in each tetal organ. Most fetal neoplasms can be detected by careful prenatal ultrasonographic examination. Some neoplosms show specific ultrasonographic findings suggesting the differential diagnosis, but others do not. Knowledge of the presence of a neoplasm in the fetus may alter the prenatal management of a pregnancy and the mode of delivery, and facilitates immediate postnatal treatment. During the last five years, we experienced 32 cases of fetal neoplasms in a variety of organs. We describe their typical and ultrasonographic findings with correlating postnatal CT, MRI, and pathologic findings

  12. The Spindle Cell Neoplasms of the Oral Cavity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shamim, Thorakkal

    2015-01-01

    Spindle cell neoplasms are defined as neoplasms that consist of spindle-shaped cells in the histopathology. Spindle cell neoplasms can affect the oral cavity. In the oral cavity, the origin of the spindle cell neoplasms may be traced to epithelial, mesenchymal and odontogenic components. This article aims to review the spindle cell neoplasms of the oral cavity with emphasis on histopathology.

  13. Isolation of Human Innate Lymphoid Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krabbendam, Lisette; Nagasawa, Maho; Spits, Hergen; Bal, Suzanne M

    2018-06-29

    Innate lymphoid cells (ILCs) are innate immune cells of lymphoid origin that have important effector and regulatory functions in the first line of defense against pathogens, but also regulate tissue homeostasis, remodeling, and repair. Their function mirrors T helper cells and cytotoxic CD8 + T lymphocytes, but they lack expression of rearranged antigen-specific receptors. Distinct ILC subsets are classified in group 1 ILCs (ILC1s), group 2 ILCs (ILC2s), and group 3 ILCs (ILC3s and lymphoid tissue-inducer cells), based on the expression of transcription factors and the cytokines they produce. As the frequency of ILCs is low, their isolation requires extensive depletion of other cell types. The lack of unique cell surface antigens further complicates the identification of these cells. Here, methods for ILC isolation and characterization from human peripheral blood and different tissues are described. © 2018 by John Wiley & Sons, Inc. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

  14. A broad survey of cathepsin K immunoreactivity in human neoplasms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Gang; Martignoni, Guido; Antonescu, Cristina; Montgomery, Elizabeth; Eberhart, Charles; Netto, George; Taube, Janis; Westra, William; Epstein, Jonathan I; Lotan, Tamara; Maitra, Anirban; Gabrielson, Edward; Torbenson, Michael; Iacobuzio-Donahue, Christine; Demarzo, Angelo; Shih, Ie Ming; Illei, Peter; Wu, T C; Argani, Pedram

    2013-02-01

    Cathepsin K is consistently and diffusely expressed in alveolar soft part sarcoma (ASPS) and a subset of translocation renal cell carcinomas (RCCs). However, cathepsin K expression in human neoplasms has not been systematically analyzed. We constructed tissue microarrays (TMA) from a wide variety of human neoplasms, and performed cathepsin K immunohistochemistry (IHC). Only 2.7% of 1,140 carcinomas from various sites exhibited cathepsin K labeling, thus suggesting that among carcinomas, cathepsin K labeling is highly specific for translocation RCC. In contrast to carcinomas, cathepsin K labeling was relatively common (54.6%) in the 414 mesenchymal lesions studied, including granular cell tumor, melanoma, and histiocytic lesions, but not paraganglioma, all of which are in the morphologic differential diagnosis of ASPS. Cathepsin K IHC can be helpful in distinguishing ASPS and translocation RCC from some but not all of the lesions in their differential diagnosis.

  15. TOX sets the stage for innate lymphoid cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spits, Hergen

    2015-01-01

    Like T cells and B cells, innate lymphoid cells (ILCs) develop from common lymphoid progenitors, but how commitment to the ILC lineage is regulated has remained unclear. The transcriptional regulator TOX is important in this process

  16. Anal channel neoplasm: a neoplasm radio chemo curable

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Torres Lopez, M.; Avondet, I.; Vazquez, J.; Santini Blasco, A.

    1997-01-01

    Presently work is made an exhaustive revision of the anatomy of the region, the history of the treatments and of the current treatments of channel cancer anal. It makes emphasis in the importance of the conservative treatment with radiochemotherapy (RQT). The present is a prospective study,longitudinal and descriptive. Material and method: between January of 1989 and December of 1994 20 patients attended with cancer of anal channel with an illness metastasis. An average age it was of 62.4 years.The sex, 16 men and 4 women. The performance status 0,1 or 2 of the scale of the ECOQ. In the pathological anatomy: 15 patient epidermic neoplasm, 5 patient basal neoplasm. State I: 2 patients, II: 12 patients, III: 6 patients, IV: 0 patients.Treatment: the radiotherapy one carries out with cobalt 60 and it irradiates the primary tumour and the ganglion structures region, pelvic and inguinal. It surrendered to Gy/dia from Monday to Friday up to 50 Gy. The chemotherapy one carries out with mitomicine C 10 mg/ previous day to the radiotherapy and 5-UGH 1 intravenous g/my in infusion the days from 1 to 4 and from 29 to 32 after the radiotherapy.Results: to) control locorregional patient RC-16 (80%) ,RP 2 patients (10%) , without answer or with progression lesional a patient (5%) .b) State vital: living 15 patients, died 5 patients(continuation 12 to 60 months) .e)Tolerance: there were not deaths for the gastrointestinal treatment and haematological with toxicity moderate.To conclude:1) The radiochemotherapy is the treatment of elect.2)A feasible treatment of being carried out in our environment.3)Required of a good relationship predictable interdisciplinary.4)Toxicity and tolerable.5)Results of conservation of the sphincter in 80%(AU) [es

  17. Tertiary Intratumor Lymphoid Tissue in Colo-Rectal Cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Bergomas, Francesca; Grizzi, Fabio; Doni, Andrea; Pesce, Samantha; Laghi, Luigi; Allavena, Paola; Mantovani, Alberto; Marchesi, Federica

    2011-01-01

    Ectopic (or tertiary) lymphoid tissue develops at sites of inflammation or infection in non lymphoid organs and is associated with chronic inflammation. In colon mucosa, small lymphoid aggregates are already present in homeostatic conditions, as part of the gut-associated lymphoid tissue and play an essential role in the immune response to perturbations of the mucosal microenvironment. Despite the recognized role of inflammation in tumor progression, the presence and biological function of ly...

  18. Neurological Findings in Myeloproliferative Neoplasms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Semra Paydas

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Myeloproliferative neoplasms (MPN arise from genetic deficiencies at the level of pluripotent stem cells. Each of these neoplasms is a clonal stem cell disorder with specific phenotypic, genetic and clinical properties. Age is one of the most important factors in the development of symptoms and complications associated with MPNs.High white blood cell counts in chronic myelocytic leukemia also known as leukocytosis may lead to central nervous system findings. Tumors developing outside the bone marrow named as extramedullary myeloid tumors (EMMT could be detected at the initial diagnosis or during the prognosis of the disease, which may cause neurological symptoms due to pressure of leukemic cell mass on various tissues along with spinal cord. Central nervous system involvement and thrombocytopenic hemorrhage may lead to diverse neurological symptoms and findings.Transient ischemic attack and thrombotic stroke are the most common symptoms in polycythemia vera. Besides thrombosis and hemorrage, transformation to acute leukemia can cause neurological symptoms and findings. Transient ischemic attack, thrombotic stroke and specifically hemorrage can give rise to neurological symptoms similar to MPN in essential thrombocytosis.Extramedullary hematopoiesis refers to hematopoietic centers arise in organ/tissues other than bone marrow in myelofibrosis. Extramedullar hematopoietic centers may cause intracranial involvement, spinal cord compression, seizures and hydrocephalia. Though rare, extramedullary hematopoiesis can be detected in cranial/spinal meninges, paraspinal tissue and intracerebral regions. Extramedullary hematopoiesis has been reported in peripheral neurons, choroid plexus, pituitary, orbits, orbital and lacrimal fossa and in sphenoidal sinuses. [Cukurova Med J 2013; 38(2.000: 157-169

  19. Sustained improvement of intractable rheumatoid arthritis after total lymphoid irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Field, E.H.; Strober, S.; Hoppe, R.T.

    1983-01-01

    Total lymphoid irradiation (TLI) was administered to 11 patients who had intractable rheumatoid arthritis that was unresponsive to conventional medical therapy, including aspirin, multiple nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs, gold salts, and D-penicillamine. Total lymphoid irradiation was given as an alternative to cytotoxic drugs such as azathioprine and cyclophosphamide. After radiotherapy, 9 of the 11 patients showed a marked improvement in clinical disease activity as measured by morning stiffness, joint tenderness, joint swelling, and overall functional abilities. The mean improvement of disease activity in all patients ranged from 40-70 percent and has persisted throughout a 13-28 month followup period. This improvement permitted the mean daily steroid dose to be reduced by 54%. Complications included severe fatigue and other constitutional symptoms during radiotherapy, development of Felty's syndrome in 1 patient, and an exacerbation of rheumatoid lung disease in another. After therapy, all patients exhibited a profound T lymphocytopenia, and a reversal in their T suppressor/cytotoxic cell to helper cell ratio. The proliferative responses of peripheral blood mononuclear cells to phytohemagglutinin, concanavalin A, and allogeneic leukocytes (mixed leukocyte reaction) were markedly reduced, as was in vitro immunoglobulin synthesis after stimulation with pokeweed mitogen. Alterations in T cell numbers and function persisted during the entire followup period, except that the mixed leukocyte reaction showed a tendency to return to normal values

  20. Gut-associated Lymphoid Tissue (GALT) Carcinoma or Dome Carcinoma?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubio, Carlos A; Schmidt, Peter T

    2016-10-01

    The vast majority of colorectal carcinomas (CRCs) evolve from mucosa not associated to lymphoid tissues aggregates via the adenoma-carcinoma sequence or via the serrated pathway. Rarely CRCs evolve from gut mucosa associated to lymphoid tissue (GALT). Based on the presence of a circumscribed elevation in the colorectal mucosa, GALT carcinomas are also referred to as dome carcinomas (DC). Descriptions of the surface mucosa covering 21 GALT-CRCs appearing in pathological reports were reviewed. Three of the 21 GALT-CRCs fulfilled the criteria of dome carcinoma. Of the remaining 18 GALT-CRCs, nine were described as polypoid lesions, five as plaque-like lesions, two as sessile elevated lesions or mass, one as ulcerated and one as histological finding. Hence, only 14.3% (n=3) of the 21 GALT-CRCs displayed a dome configuration, whereas the majority, 85.7% (n=18), exhibited structures other than dome shapes at gross or at histologic examination. It becomes apparent that by using "dome" in addressing carcinomas in the colorectal mucosa, many cases of GALT carcinomas might be overlooked. Another drawback of using the "dome" nomenclature is that dome-like outlines may be detected in small metastatic tumors in the submucosa or in small colorectal carcinomas not arising from GALT mucosa. Instead, by using "GALT carcinoma", that is the histologic diagnosis in addressing these neoplasias, all cases of GALT-CRCs will be included. Copyright© 2016 International Institute of Anticancer Research (Dr. John G. Delinassios), All rights reserved.

  1. Tertiary Lymphoid Tissue Forms in Retinas of Mice with Spontaneous Autoimmune Uveitis and Has Consequences on Visual Function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kielczewski, Jennifer L; Horai, Reiko; Jittayasothorn, Yingyos; Chan, Chi-Chao; Caspi, Rachel R

    2016-02-01

    During chronic inflammation, tertiary lymphoid tissue (TLT) can form within an inflamed organ, including the CNS. However, little is known about TLT formation in the neuroretina. In a novel spontaneous autoimmune mouse model of uveitis (R161H), we identified well-organized lymphoid aggregates in the retina and examined them for TLT characteristics. Presence of immune cells, tissue-specific markers, and gene expression patterns typically associated with germinal centers and T follicular helper cells were examined using immunohistochemistry and gene analysis of laser capture microdissected retina. Our data revealed the retinal lymphoid structures contained CD4(+) T cells and B cells in well-defined zonal areas that expressed classic germinal center markers, peanut lectin (agglutinin) and GL-7. Gene expression analysis showed upregulation of T follicular helper cell markers, most notably CXCR5 and its ligand CXCL13, and immunohistochemical analysis confirmed CXCR5 expression, typically associated with CD4(+) T follicular helper cells. Highly organized stromal cell networks, a hallmark of organized lymphoid tissue, were also present. Positive staining for phospho-Zap70 in retina-specific T cells indicated CD4(+) T cells were being activated within these lymphoid structures. CD138(+)/B220(+) plasma cells were detected, suggesting the retinal lymphoid aggregates give rise to functional germinal centers, which produce Abs. Interestingly, eyes with lymphoid aggregates exhibited lower inflammatory scores by fundus examination and a slower initial rate of loss of visual function by electroretinography, compared with eyes without these structures. Our findings suggest that the lymphoid aggregates in the retina of R161H mice represent organized TLT, which impact the course of chronic uveitis.

  2. The biology of human innate lymphoid cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bernink, J.H.J.

    2016-01-01

    In this thesis I performed studies to investigate the contribution of human innate lymphoid cells (ILCs) in maintaining the mucosal homeostasis, initiating and/or propagating inflammatory responses, but also - when not properly regulated - how these cells contribute to immunopathology. First I

  3. Total lymphoid irradiation of intractable rheumatoid arthritis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herbst, M.; Fritz, H.; Sauer, R.

    1986-01-01

    Eleven patients with intractable rheumatoid arthritis were treated with fractionated total lymphoid irradiation, (total dose 20 Gy). Lasting improvement in clinical symptoms was found in four patients during treatment and the remaining patients experienced similar benefit within 2 months of irradiation. There was marked reduction in exacerbations and number of joints involved. Morning stiffness, joint swelling and tenderness decreased. Complications included severe fatigue during treatment and acute bacterial arthritis in multiple joints in one patient. Four patients have since died, one of renal failure, another of cardiogenic shock following surgery 3 and 24 months after total lymphoid irradiation. Both had generalised amyloidosis. The third patient developed joint empyema and died of toxic cardiac failure. The fourth died 3 months after resection of a Kaposi's sarcoma complicated by wound infection which responded to treatment. Immunologically, total lymphoid irradiation resulted in suppression of the absolute lymphocyte count and reduction in T-helper cells, the number of T-suppressor cells remaining unchanged. These data provide evidence of T-cell involvement in the pathogenesis of rheumatoid arthritis. Total lymphoid irradiation can induce sustained improvement in clinical disease activity, but severe, possibly fatal, side-effects cannot be ignored. (author)

  4. Innate lymphoid cells, precursors and plasticity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gronke, Konrad; Kofoed-Nielsen, Michael; Diefenbach, Andreas

    2016-11-01

    Innate lymphoid cells (ILC) have only recently been recognized as a separate entity of the lymphoid lineage. Their subpopulations share common characteristics in terms of early development and major transcriptional circuitry with their related cousins of the T cell world. It is currently hypothesized that ILCs constitute an evolutionary older version of the lymphoid immune system. They are found at all primary entry points for pathogens such as mucosal surfaces of the lung and gastrointestinal system, the skin and the liver, which is the central contact point for pathogens that breach the intestinal barrier and enter the circulation. There, ILC contribute to the first line defense as well as to organ homeostasis. However, ILC are not only involved in classical defense tasks, but also contribute to the organogenesis of lymphoid organs as well as tissue remodeling and even stem cell regeneration. ILC may, therefore, implement different functions according to their emergence in ontogeny, their development and their final tissue location. We will review here their early development from precursors of the fetal liver and the adult bone marrow as well as their late plasticity in adaptation to their environment. Copyright © 2016 European Federation of Immunological Societies. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Radiotherapy of lymphoid diseases of the orbit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Austin-Seymour, M.M.; Donaldson, S.S.; Egbert, P.R.; McDougall, I.R.; Kriss, J.P.

    1985-01-01

    Thirty-two patients with orbital pseudotumor (18), reactive lymphoid hyperplasia (2), atypical lymphoid infiltrate (4) or malignant lymphoma (8) were treated in the Division of Radiation Therapy at Stanford University between January 1973 and May 1983. Of the 20 patients with pseudotumor or reactive lymphoid hyperplasia, 10 had unilateral lesions and 10 had bilateral lesions. Biopsy samples were obtained in 15 patients; in five patients with bilateral disease the diagnosis was made on the basis of computed tomography (CT) and clinical findings. The majority of patients were referred because of disease refractory to treatment with corticosteroids. The patients were given a mean dose of 2360 rad using complex, individualized megavoltage techniques including lens shielding. Radiotherapy was well tolerated with no significant acute or late complications. Fifteen patients had complete resolution of symptoms after treatment; five had continued symptoms. Of the 12 patients with malignant lymphoma or atypical lymphoid infiltrate, four had systemic lymphoma with orbital involvement and eight had orbital involvement only. A mean dose of 3625 rad was delivered to the orbit only. Most of the patients received complex megavoltage treatment using bolus. All patients in this group had a complete response and local control. Two patients developed cataracts. Carefullly planned orbital radiotherapy provides local control without symptomatic sequelae for orbital masses ranging from pseudotumor to malignant lymphoma

  6. Total lymphoid irradiation of intractable rheumatoid arthritis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herbst, M.; Fritz, H.; Sauer, R.

    1986-12-01

    Eleven patients with intractable rheumatoid arthritis were treated with fractionated total lymphoid irradiation, (total dose 20 Gy). Lasting improvement in clinical symptoms was found in four patients during treatment and the remaining patients experienced similar benefit within 2 months of irradiation. There was marked reduction in exacerbations and number of joints involved. Morning stiffness, joint swelling and tenderness decreased. Complications included severe fatigue during treatment and acute bacterial arthritis in multiple joints in one patient. Four patients have since died, one of renal failure, another of cardiogenic shock following surgery 3 and 24 months after total lymphoid irradiation. Both had generalised amyloidosis. The third patient developed joint empyema and died of toxic cardiac failure. The fourth died 3 months after resection of a Kaposi's sarcoma complicated by wound infection which responded to treatment. Immunologically, total lymphoid irradiation resulted in suppression of the absolute lymphocyte count and reduction in T-helper cells, the number of T-suppressor cells remaining unchanged. These data provide evidence of T-cell involvement in the pathogenesis of rheumatoid arthritis. Total lymphoid irradiation can induce sustained improvement in clinical disease activity, but severe, possibly fatal, side-effects cannot be ignored.

  7. Homing of bone marrow lymphoid cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshida, Y.; Osmond, D.G.

    1978-01-01

    DNA labeling, bone marrow fractionation, and radioautography were used to follow the fate of transfused, newly formed marrow lymphocytes in irradiated hosts. After infusing donor Hartley guinea pigs with 3 H-thymidine for 3 to 5 days, high concentrations of labeled small lymphocytes and large lymphoid cells were separated from marrow by sedimentation in sucrose-serum gradients and injected into lethally x-irradiated syngeneic recipients. Most labeled small lymphocytes and large lymphoid cells rapidly left the circulation. They appeared to be mainly in the marrow and spleen, increasing in incidence from 1 to 3 days, but declining in mean grain count. Labeled cells were scattered throughout the recipient marrow; in the spleen they localized initially in the red pulp, and subsequently in peripheral areas of white pulp, often in clusters. Labeled small lymphocytes showed a delayed migration into the mesenteric lymph node, mainly in the superficial cortex and medulla; they also appeared in small numbers in Peyer's patches, but rarely in the thymus or thoracic duct lymph. It is concluded that a rapid selective homing of newly formed marrow lymphoid cells occurs in both the marrow and certain areas of the spleen of irradiated hosts, followed by a continuing proliferation of large lymphoid cells and production of small lymphocytes. The results are discussed with respect to the life history of marrow lymphocytes and the use of adoptive immune assays of marrow cells to characterize B lymphocyte maturation

  8. Conjunctival lymphoma arising from reactive lymphoid hyperplasia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fukuhara Junichi

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Extra nodal marginal zone B-cell lymphoma (EMZL of the conjunctiva typically arises in the marginal zone of mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue. The pathogenesis of conjunctival EMZL remains unknown. We describe an unusual case of EMZL arising from reactive lymphoid hyperplasia (RLH of the conjunctiva. A 35-year-old woman had fleshy salmon-pink conjunctival tumors in both eyes, oculus uterque (OU. Specimens from conjunctival tumors in the right eye, oculus dexter (OD, revealed a collection of small lymphoid cells in the stroma. Immunohistochemically, immunoglobulin (Ig light chain restriction was not detected. In contrast, diffuse atypical lymphoid cell infiltration was noted in the left eye, oculus sinister (OS, and positive for CD20, a marker for B cells OS. The tumors were histologically diagnosed as RLH OD, and EMZL OS. PCR analysis detected IgH gene rearrangement in the joining region (JH region OU. After 11 months, a re-biopsy specimen demonstrated EMZL based on compatible pathological and genetic findings OD, arising from RLH. This case suggests that even if the diagnosis of the conjunctival lymphoproliferative lesions is histologically benign, confirmation of the B-cell clonality by checking IgH gene rearrangement should be useful to predict the incidence of malignancy.

  9. Mapping of NKp46+ cells in healthy human lymphoid and non-lymphoid tissues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena eTomasello

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Understanding Natural Killer (NK cell anatomical distribution is key to dissect the role of these unconventional lymphocytes in physiological and disease conditions. In mouse, NK cells have been detected in various lymphoid and non-lymphoid organs, while in humans the current knowledge of NK cell distribution at steady state is mainly restricted to lymphoid tissues. The translation to humans of findings obtained in mice is facilitated by the identification of NK cell markers conserved between these two species. The Natural Cytotoxicity Receptor (NCR NKp46 is a marker of the NK cell lineage evolutionary conserved in mammals. In mice, NKp46 is also present on rare T cell subsets and on a subset of gut Innate Lymphoid Cells (ILCs expressing the retinoic acid receptor-related orphan receptor t (RORt transcription factor. Here, we documented the distribution and the phenotype of human NKp46+ cells in lymphoid and non-lymphoid tissues isolated from healthy donors. Human NKp46+ cells were found in splenic red pulp, in lymph nodes, in lungs and gut lamina propria, thus mirroring mouse NKp46+ cell distribution. We also identified a novel cell subset of CD56dimNKp46low cells that includes RORt+ILCs with a lineage-CD94-CD117brightCD127bright phenotype. The use of NKp46 thus contributes to establish the basis for analyzing quantitative and qualitative changes of NK cell and ILC subsets in human diseases.

  10. Mapping of NKp46+ Cells in Healthy Human Lymphoid and Non-Lymphoid Tissues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomasello, Elena; Yessaad, Nadia; Gregoire, Emilie; Hudspeth, Kelly; Luci, Carmelo; Mavilio, Domenico; Hardwigsen, Jean; Vivier, Eric

    2012-01-01

    Understanding Natural Killer (NK) cell anatomical distribution is key to dissect the role of these unconventional lymphocytes in physiological and disease conditions. In mouse, NK cells have been detected in various lymphoid and non-lymphoid organs, while in humans the current knowledge of NK cell distribution at steady state is mainly restricted to lymphoid tissues. The translation to humans of findings obtained in mice is facilitated by the identification of NK cell markers conserved between these two species. The Natural Cytotoxicity Receptor (NCR) NKp46 is a marker of the NK cell lineage evolutionary conserved in mammals. In mice, NKp46 is also present on rare T cell subsets and on a subset of gut Innate Lymphoid Cells (ILCs) expressing the retinoic acid receptor-related orphan receptor γt (RORγt) transcription factor. Here, we documented the distribution and the phenotype of human NKp46+ cells in lymphoid and non-lymphoid tissues isolated from healthy donors. Human NKp46+ cells were found in splenic red pulp, in lymph nodes, in lungs, and gut lamina propria, thus mirroring mouse NKp46+ cell distribution. We also identified a novel cell subset of CD56dimNKp46low cells that includes RORγt+ ILCs with a lineage−CD94−CD117brightCD127bright phenotype. The use of NKp46 thus contributes to establish the basis for analyzing quantitative and qualitative changes of NK cell and ILC subsets in human diseases. PMID:23181063

  11. Stroma cell priming in enteric lymphoid organ morphogenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuela eFerreira

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The lymphoid system is equipped with a network of specialized platforms located at strategic sites, which grant strict immune-surveillance and efficient immune responses. The development of these peripheral secondary lymphoid organs occurs mainly in utero, while tertiary lymphoid structures can form in adulthood generally in response to persistent infection and inflammation. Regardless of the lymphoid tissue and intrinsic cellular and molecular differences, it is now well established that the recruitment of fully functional Lymphoid Tissue inducer (LTi cells to presumptive lymphoid organ sites, and their consequent close and reciprocal interaction with resident stroma cells, are central to secondary lymphoid organ formation. In contrast, the nature of events that initially prime resident sessile stroma cells to recruit and retain LTi cells remains poorly understood.

  12. Innate Lymphoid Cell Biology: Lessons Learnt from Natural Killer Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuhao Jiao

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Group 1 innate lymphoid cells (ILC comprise the natural killer (NK cells and ILC1 which reside within peripheral tissues. Several different ILC1 subsets have recently been characterised, however no unique markers to define these subsets have been identified. Whether ILC1 and NK cells are in fact distinct lineages, or alternately exhibit transitional molecular programs, that allow them to adapt to different tissue niches remains an open question. NK cells are the prototypic member of the Group 1 ILC and have been historically assigned the functions of what now appears to be a multi-subset family that are distributed throughout the body. This raises the question of whether each of these populations mediate distinct functions during infection and tumour immunosurveillance. Here, we review the diversity in the Group 1 ILC subsets with regards to their transcriptional regulation, localization, mobility and receptor expression and highlight the challenges in unraveling the individual functions of these different populations of cells.

  13. Brain and spinal cord neoplasms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, R.E.; Bragg, D.G.; Youker, J.E.

    1985-01-01

    Traditional means of detecting CNS neoplasms include plain film studies, isotope brain scans, angiography, pneumoencephalography, and myelography. Computed tomography (CT) scanning has replaced nearly all of these studies in both the initial detection and follow-up of brain tumors. Air studies (pneumoencephalography and ventriculography) have been virtually eliminated, except in certain unusual circumstances when two positions need to be checked, or hydrocephalus followed. The nuclear brain scan has a very limited role at present, being useful primarily for detecting skull or meningeal metastases. Myelography, however, remains a valuable imaging tool for the assessment of tumors of the spinal canal. CT scanning has not only improved our ability to detect smaller brain tumors, but also CT guided stereotactic biopsy techniques provide a safer means of obtaining tissue from these smaller lesions, regardless of location. Surgical techniques, guided by CT sterotactic techniques, show promise as well, but the impact of these therapeutic techniques on survival statistics remains to be defined. CT has revolutionized the approach to the detection and diagnosis of space-occupying lesions in the brain. Tumors can be detected at a smaller site

  14. Molecular diagnostics of myeloproliferative neoplasms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langabeer, Stephen E; Andrikovics, Hajnalka; Asp, Julia; Bellosillo, Beatriz; Carillo, Serge; Haslam, Karl; Kjaer, Lasse; Lippert, Eric; Mansier, Olivier; Oppliger Leibundgut, Elisabeth; Percy, Melanie J; Porret, Naomi; Palmqvist, Lars; Schwarz, Jiri; McMullin, Mary F; Schnittger, Susanne; Pallisgaard, Niels; Hermouet, Sylvie

    2015-10-01

    Since the discovery of the JAK2 V617F mutation in the majority of the myeloproliferative neoplasms (MPN) of polycythemia vera, essential thrombocythemia and primary myelofibrosis ten years ago, further MPN-specific mutational events, notably in JAK2 exon 12, MPL exon 10 and CALR exon 9 have been identified. These discoveries have been rapidly incorporated into evolving molecular diagnostic algorithms. Whilst many of these mutations appear to have prognostic implications, establishing MPN diagnosis is of immediate clinical importance with selection, implementation and the continual evaluation of the appropriate laboratory methodology to achieve this diagnosis similarly vital. The advantages and limitations of these approaches in identifying and quantitating the common MPN-associated mutations are considered herein with particular regard to their clinical utility. The evolution of molecular diagnostic applications and platforms has occurred in parallel with the discovery of MPN-associated mutations, and it therefore appears likely that emerging technologies such as next-generation sequencing and digital PCR will in the future play an increasing role in the molecular diagnosis of MPN. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. RENAL DAMAGE WITH MALIGNANT NEOPLASMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. B. Kolina

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The relationship between renal damage and malignant neoplasms is one of the most actual problems of the medicine of internal diseases. Very often, exactly availability of renal damage determines the forecast of cancer patients. The range of renal pathologies associated with tumors is unusually wide: from the mechanical effect of the tumor or metastases on the kidneys and/or the urinary tract and paraneoplastic manifestations in the form of nephritis or amyloidosis to nephropathies induced with drugs or tumor lysis, etc. Thrombotic complications that develop as a result of exposure to tumor effects, side effects of certain drugs or irradiation also play an important role in the development of the kidney damage. The most frequent variants of renal damage observed in the practice of medical internists (therapists, urologists, surgeons, etc., as well as methods of diagnosis and treatment approaches are described in the article. Timely and successful prevention and treatment of tumor-associated nephropathies give hope for retaining renal functions, therefore, a higher life standard after completion of anti-tumor therapy. Even a shortterm episode of acute renal damage suffered by a cancer patient must be accompanied with relevant examination and treatment. In the caseof transformation of acute renal damage into the chronic kidney disease, such patients need systematic and weighted renoprotective therapy and correct dosing of nephrotoxic drugs.

  16. Hypothetical atopic dermatitis-myeloproliferative neoplasm (AD-MPN syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toshiaki eKawakami

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Atopic dermatitis (AD is a chronic inflammatory skin disease. Myeloproliferative neoplasms (MPNs are hematopoietic malignancies caused by uncontrolled proliferation of hematopoietic stem/progenitor cells. Recent studies have described several mutant mice exhibiting both AD-like skin inflammation and MPN. Common pathways for skin inflammation encompass overexpression of thymic stromal lymphopoietin and reduced signaling of epidermal growth factor receptor in the epidermis, while overproduction of granulocyte-colony stimulating factor by keratinocytes and constitutive activation of Stat5 in hematopoietic stem cells are important for the development of MPN. The murine studies suggest the existence of a similar human disease tentatively termed the AD-MPN syndrome.

  17. Bone morbidity in chronic myeloproliferative neoplasms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Farmer, Sarah; Ocias, Lukas Frans; Vestergaard, Hanne

    2015-01-01

    Patients with the classical Philadelphia chromosome-negative chronic myeloproliferative neoplasms including essential thrombocythemia, polycythemia vera and primary myelofibrosis often suffer from comorbidities, in particular, cardiovascular diseases and thrombotic events. Apparently, there is also...

  18. A case of primary mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma of the vagina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshinaga, Kousuke; Akahira, Jun-Ichi; Niikura, Hitoshi; Ito, Kiyoshi; Moriya, Takuya; Murakami, Takashi; Kameoka, Jun-Ichi; Ichinohasama, Ryo; Okamura, Kunihiro; Yaegashi, Nobuo

    2004-09-01

    We report the first case of primary mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) lymphoma of the vagina, the diagnosis of which is supported by genetic and immunophenotypic studies. A 65-year-old, para 2 woman presented to our hospital in July 1997 with a history of prolonged vaginal discharge. Although cytologic examination suggested possible malignancy, a biopsy of the vaginal wall was diagnosed as chronic inflammation. In June 2000, she underwent gynecologic examination because of anuria. Excisional biopsy revealed subepithelial infiltration of atypical lymphoid cells that stained for CD20, CD79a, and BCL-2; stained weakly for IgM; and did not stain for CD3, CD5, CD7, CD10, CD56, CD23, and IgD, suggesting marginal zone B-cell lineage. Monoclonality was detected by Southern blot analysis, and this patient was finally diagnosed as having primary MALT lymphoma of the vagina. She received 3 cycles of chemotherapy (THP-COP) and concurrent radiation to the whole pelvis. The patient is alive and well 40 months after treatment. Because the vagina is one of the mucosa-associated tissues, MALT lymphoma, though rare, must be included in the differential diagnosis of the vaginal neoplasms.

  19. Ocular adnexal marginal zone lymphoma of mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalogeropoulos, Dimitrios; Papoudou-Bai, Alexandra; Kanavaros, Panagiotis; Kalogeropoulos, Chris

    2018-05-01

    Ocular adnexal lymphomas are a group of heterogeneous neoplasms representing approximately 1-2% of non-Hodgkin lymphomas and 8% of extranodal lymphomas. The incidence of primary ocular adnexal lymphoid tumors has raised over the last decades, and this could be probably attributed to the more sophisticated diagnostic techniques. Due to the wide spectrum of clinical manifestations, ocular tissue biopsy is important in order to set a precise diagnosis based on histological, immunophenotypical and, in some cases, molecular findings. The most common subtype, which may account for up to 80% of primary ocular adnexal lymphomas, is extranodal marginal zone lymphoma (EMZL) of mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue. This lymphoma is usually asymptomatic in the early phase of the disease causing a delay in the final diagnosis and prompt therapy. The pathogenesis of a proportion of these tumors has been linked to chronic inflammatory stimulation from specific infectious factors (e.g., Chlamydia psittaci) or to autoimmunity. The further improvement in diagnostic methods and the further understanding of the pathogenesis of ocular adnexal EMZL may contribute to the establishment of a more successful multidisciplinary therapeutic planning.

  20. Metastatic neoplasms of the central nervous system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fenner, W.R.

    1990-01-01

    Metastatic neoplasms to the central nervous system are often encountered in the practice of surgical neuropathology. It is not uncommon for patients with systemic malignancies to present to medical attention because of symptoms from a brain metastasis and for the tissue samples procured from these lesions to represent the first tissue available to study a malignancy from an unknown primary. In general surgical pathology, the evaluation of a metastatic neoplasm of unknown primary is a very complicated process, requiring knowledge of numerous different tumor types, reagents, and staining patterns. The past few years, however, have seen a remarkable refinement in the immunohistochemical tools at our disposal that now empower neuropathologists to take an active role in defining the relatively limited subset of neoplasms that commonly metastasize to the central nervous system. This information can direct imaging studies to find the primary tumor in a patient with an unknown primary, clarify the likely primary site of origin in patients who have small tumors in multiple sites without an obvious primary lesion, or establish lesions as late metastases of remote malignancies. Furthermore, specific treatments can begin and additional invasive procedures may be prevented if the neuropathologic evaluation of metastatic neoplasms provides information beyond the traditional diagnosis of ''metastatic neoplasm.'' In this review, differential cytokeratins, adjuvant markers, and organ-specific antibodies are described and the immunohistochemical signatures of metastatic neoplasms that are commonly seen by neuropathologists are discussed

  1. STUDIES ON TRANSMISSIBLE LYMPHOID LEUCEMIA OF MICE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furth, J; Strumia, M

    1931-04-30

    Lymphoid leucemia of the mouse is readily transmitted by intravenous inoculations. The majority of the mice inoculated successfully develop leucemic, a smaller number of them, aleucemic lymphadenosis. The data presented favor the view that leucemic and aleucemic lymphadenosis are essentially the same condition. Leucemia produced by transmission is preceded by an aleucemic stage, in which the lymph nodes and the spleen are uniformly enlarged, and the white blood count and the percentage of lymphocytes are within the normal range but immature lymphocytes are numerous in the circulating blood. Young as well as old mice may develop leucemia if leucotic material enters their circulation. Studies of transmissible leucemia favor the view that leucemia of mammals is a neoplastic disease. The basic problem of leucemia would seem to be determination of the factors that bring about a malignant transformation of lymphoid cells.

  2. Tertiary lymphoid organs in Takayasu Arteritis

    OpenAIRE

    Marc eClement; Marc eClement; Adrien eGaly; Patrick eBruneval; Marion eMorvan; Fabien eHyafil; Fabien eHyafil; Khadija eBenali; Nicoletta ePasi; Lydia eDeschamps; Quentin ePellenc; Quentin ePellenc; Thomas ePapo; Antonino eNicoletti; Antonino eNicoletti

    2016-01-01

    Objective: The role of B cells in the pathogenesis of Takayasu arteritis (TA) is controversial. We aimed to study the presence of tertiary lymphoid organs (TLOs) in the aortic wall of TA patients.Methods: Hematoxylin and eosin–stained sections from aorta specimens from patients with TA were screened for TLOs. The presence of B cell aggregates (CD20), follicular dendritic cells (FDCs, CD21), and high endothelial venules (HEVs, PNAd) was investigated by immunohistochemistry. Immune cells from t...

  3. Tertiary Lymphoid Organs in Takayasu Arteritis

    OpenAIRE

    Clement, Marc; Galy, Adrien; Bruneval, Patrick; Morvan, Marion; Hyafil, Fabien; Benali, Khadija; Pasi, Nicoletta; Deschamps, Lydia; Pellenc, Quentin; Papo, Thomas; Nicoletti, Antonino; Sacre, Karim

    2016-01-01

    Objective The role of B cells in the pathogenesis of Takayasu arteritis (TA) is controversial. We aimed to study the presence of tertiary lymphoid organs (TLOs) in the aortic wall of TA patients. Methods Hematoxylin and eosin-stained sections from aorta specimens from patients with TA were screened for TLOs. The presence of B cell aggregates (CD20), follicular dendritic cells (FDCs, CD21), and high endothelial venules (HEVs, PNAd) was investigated by immunohistochemistry. Immune ce...

  4. Clinico-roentgenological characteristic of early stomach neoplasm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Golub, G.D.

    1988-01-01

    Peculiarities of clinic and roentgenosemiotics of early stomach neoplasms in patients were analyzed. Roentgenological picture of early stomach neoplasms depends on anatomic growth shape and size of neoplasms, its localization and on manifestation of inflammatory and functional chages accompanying the neoplasm. Application of complex of gastrological examination including roentgenological diagnostic method, gastrofibroscopy and morphological examination of the tissue permits to diagnose early stomach neoplasm in 95,4 % of patients. 8 refs

  5. Calreticulin Mutations in Myeloproliferative Neoplasms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noa Lavi

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available With the discovery of the JAK2V617F mutation in patients with Philadelphia chromosome-negative (Ph− myeloproliferative neoplasms (MPNs in 2005, major advances have been made in the diagnosis of MPNs, in understanding of their pathogenesis involving the JAK/STAT pathway, and finally in the development of novel therapies targeting this pathway. Nevertheless, it remains unknown which mutations exist in approximately one-third of patients with non-mutated JAK2 or MPL essential thrombocythemia (ET and primary myelofibrosis (PMF. At the end of 2013, two studies identified recurrent mutations in the gene encoding calreticulin (CALR using whole-exome sequencing. These mutations were revealed in the majority of ET and PMF patients with non-mutated JAK2 or MPL but not in polycythemia vera patients. Somatic 52-bp deletions (type 1 mutations and recurrent 5-bp insertions (type 2 mutations in exon 9 of the CALR gene (the last exon encoding the C-terminal amino acids of the protein calreticulin were detected and found always to generate frameshift mutations. All detected mutant calreticulin proteins shared a novel amino acid sequence at the C-terminal. Mutations in CALR are acquired early in the clonal history of the disease, and they cause activation of JAK/STAT signaling. The CALR mutations are the second most frequent mutations in Ph− MPN patients after the JAK2V617F mutation, and their detection has significantly improved the diagnostic approach for ET and PMF. The characteristics of the CALR mutations as well as their diagnostic, clinical, and pathogenesis implications are discussed in this review.

  6. Characteristic of innate lymphoid cells (ILC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mateusz Adamiak

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Innate lymphoid cells (ILC is a newly described family of immune cells that are part of the natural immunity which is important not only during infections caused by microorganisms, but also in the formation of lymphoid tissue, tissue remodeling after damage due to injury and homeostasis tissue stromal cells. Family ILC cells form NK cells (natural killer and lymphoid tissue inducer T cells (LTi, which, although they have different functions, are evolutionarily related. NK cells are producing mainly IFN-γ, whereas LTi cells as NKR+LTi like, IL-17 and/or IL-22, which suggests that the last two cells, can also represent the innate versions of helper T cell - TH17 and TH22. Third population of ILC is formed by cells with characteristics such as NK cells and LTi (ILC22 - which are named NK22 cells, natural cytotoxicity receptor 22 (NCR22 cells or NK receptor-positive (LTi NKR+ LTi cells. Fourth population of ILC cells are ILC17 - producing IL-17, while the fifth is formed by natural helper type 2 T cells (nTH2, nuocyte, innate type 2 helper cells (IH2 and multi-potent progenitor type 2 cells (MPPtype2. Cells of the last population synthesize IL-5 and IL-13. It is assumed that an extraordinary functional diversity of ILC family, resembles T cells, probably because they are under the control of the corresponding transcription factors - as direct regulation factors, such as the family of lymphocytes T.

  7. JAK2 mutation in a patient with CLL with coexistent myeloproliferative neoplasm (MPN).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kodali, Srinivas; Chen, Chi; Rathnasabapathy, Chenthilmurugan; Wang, Jen Chin

    2009-12-01

    JAK2 mutation has not been described in patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL). We found JAK2 mutation in a patient with CLL and coexisting myeloproliferative neoplasm (MPN). In this patient, we demonstrated the presence of the JAK2 mutation in CD34(+) progenitor cells, myeloid lineage cells, megakaryocytes, B lymphocytes but not in T lymphocytes. This case represents the first case report of JAK2 mutation in CLL and may also suggest that, JAK2 mutation most likely represents a secondary event from primary gene mutations involving the primitive stem cells which give rise to MPN and CLL. Furthermore, in this case, we believe that we are the first to demonstrate that JAK2 mutation in myeloid and B lymphoid cells but not T lymphocytes in a case of coexisting CLL and MPN.

  8. Stromal cell regulation of homeostatic and inflammatory lymphoid organogenesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kain, Matthew J W; Owens, Benjamin M J

    2013-01-01

    Summary Secondary lymphoid organs function to increase the efficiency of interactions between rare, antigen-specific lymphocytes and antigen presenting cells, concentrating antigen and lymphocytes in a supportive environment that facilitates the initiation of an adaptive immune response. Homeostatic lymphoid tissue organogenesis proceeds via exquisitely controlled spatiotemporal interactions between haematopoietic lymphoid tissue inducer populations and multiple subsets of non-haematopoietic stromal cells. However, it is becoming clear that in a range of inflammatory contexts, ectopic or tertiary lymphoid tissues can develop inappropriately under pathological stress. Here we summarize the role of stromal cells in the development of homeostatic lymphoid tissue, and assess emerging evidence that suggests a critical role for stromal involvement in the tertiary lymphoid tissue development associated with chronic infections and inflammation. PMID:23621403

  9. Histopathological audit of salivary gland neoplasms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Memon, J.M.; Sheikh, B.

    2014-01-01

    Salivary gland neoplasms are uncommon but important presentation to general surgeons. Objective: To analyze the relative frequency and distribution of Salivary gland neoplasms in our division. Setting: Department of surgery and pathology, Peoples Medical University hospital and GMMMC hospital Sukkur. Study design: Descriptive (case series) Subjects and methods: A total of 40 patients registered for salivary gland tumors from oct 2008 to 0ct 2013 were included in the study. A thorough history, clinical examination, routine haematological and biochemical studies were done in all patients. FNAC was done in all cases. All patients were subjected to surgical intervention on standard rules. Each resected specimen was sent for histopathology. Information about age, gender and tumor location was obtained from clinical record and frequency of different neoplasms was studied from histopathological report. All data was collected on especially designed proforma. Data analysis was done using spss version 17. Results: A total of 40 patients were registered for salivary gland neoplasms. 28 patients (70%) had parotid lesions, 10 patients (25%) had submandibular gland involvement and 2 patients ( 5%) had minor salivary gland tumors. Patients were between 15 - 80 years of age( mean age =34.7 years) 24 patients(60%) were male and 16 (40%) were female,with male to female ratio of 1.5:1.32 . 22 (80%) had benign lesions and 8 patients (20%) had malignant lesions. Pleomorphic adenoma was the most common benign tumor affecting the parotid gland. Adenocarcinoma represented as the most prevelant parotid malignancy. Benign neoplasms occurred in third and fourth decades of life and malignant neoplasms were diagnosed in sixth and seventh decades of life. Conclusion:Salivary gland neoplasms are uncommon but they have occasioned much interest and debate because of broad histological spectrum. The data presented in this study is corroborated with most of the studied literature worldwide. (author)

  10. Bortezomib as a new therapeutic approach for blastic plasmacytoid dendritic cell neoplasm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Philippe, Laure; Ceroi, Adam; Bôle-Richard, Elodie; Jenvrin, Alizée; Biichle, Sabeha; Perrin, Sophie; Limat, Samuel; Bonnefoy, Francis; Deconinck, Eric; Saas, Philippe; Garnache-Ottou, Francine; Angelot-Delettre, Fanny

    2017-11-01

    Blastic plasmacytoid dendritic cell neoplasm is an aggressive hematologic malignancy with a poor prognosis. No consensus regarding optimal treatment modalities is currently available. Targeting the nuclear factor-kappa B pathway is considered a promising approach since blastic plasmacytoid dendritic cell neoplasm has been reported to exhibit constitutive activation of this pathway. Moreover, nuclear factor-kappa B inhibition in blastic plasmacytoid dendritic cell neoplasm cell lines, achieved using either an experimental specific inhibitor JSH23 or the clinical drug bortezomib, interferes in vitro with leukemic cell proliferation and survival. Here we extended these data by showing that primary blastic plasmacytoid dendritic cell neoplasm cells from seven patients were sensitive to bortezomib-induced cell death. We confirmed that bortezomib efficiently inhibits the phosphorylation of the RelA nuclear factor-kappa B subunit in blastic plasmacytoid dendritic cell neoplasm cell lines and primary cells from patients in vitro and in vivo in a mouse model. We then demonstrated that bortezomib can be associated with other drugs used in different chemotherapy regimens to improve its impact on leukemic cell death. Indeed, when primary blastic plasmacytoid dendritic cell neoplasm cells from a patient were grafted into mice, bortezomib treatment significantly increased the animals' survival, and was associated with a significant decrease of circulating leukemic cells and RelA nuclear factor-kappa B subunit expression. Overall, our results provide a rationale for the use of bortezomib in combination with other chemotherapy for the treatment of patients with blastic plasmacytoid dendritic cell neoplasm. Based on our data, a prospective clinical trial combining proteasome inhibitor with classical drugs could be envisaged. Copyright© Ferrata Storti Foundation.

  11. Nutritional survey of neoplasm patients receiving radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Xinli; Zhu Shengtao

    2001-01-01

    Objective: In order to know the nutriture of neoplasm patients receiving radiotherapy and give nutritional guidance properly, the authors make the following survey. Methods: A dietary survey of twenty-four-hour retrospective method was used; The patients' activity was recorded and their twenty-four hours caloric consumption was calculated. Results: Of all the patients, the intake of protein is more than recommended, percentage of calorific proportion is about 15%-19% of gross caloric. A larger portion of patients' caloric intake, especially female patients, is lower than caloric consumption. Among all the patients, the intake of vegetables is not enough; The consumption of milk and milky products is lower; it is common and serious that neoplasm patients receiving radiotherapy have vitamine and mineral's scarcity. Conclusions: Nutriture of neoplasm patients is not optimistic, it is imperative to improve their nutriture

  12. Orbital roof encephalocele mimicking a destructive neoplasm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alsuhaibani, Adel H; Hitchon, Patrick W; Smoker, Wendy R K; Lee, Andrew G; Nerad, Jeffrey A

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this case report is to report an orbital roof encephalocele mimicking a destructive orbital neoplasm. Orbital roof encephalocele is uncommon but can mimic neoplasm. One potential mechanism for the orbital roof destruction is a post-traumatic "growing orbital roof fracture." The growing fracture has been reported mostly in children but can occur in adults. Alternative potential etiologies for the encephalocele are discussed, including Gorham syndrome. Orbital roof encephalocele is uncommon in adults, and the findings can superficially resemble an orbital neoplasm. Radiographic and clinical features that might suggest the correct diagnosis include a prior history of trauma, overlying frontal lobe encephalomalacia without significant mass effect or edema, and an orbital roof defect. The "growing fracture" mechanism may be a potential explanation for the orbital roof destruction in some cases.

  13. Intrathoracic neoplasms in the dog and cat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weller, R.E.

    1991-06-01

    Neoplasms of the thoracic cavity are as diverse as the structures and tissues that comprise the thorax. This paper summarizes the clinical signs, diagnosis and treatment of thoracic neoplasms in the dog and cat. Specific diagnostic techniques are evaluated, as is the utility of imaging techniques for clinical staging. Surgery is recommended as the treatment of choice for intrathoracic neoplasms, with exception for multiple tumor masses, metastasis, or poor patient health. Radiation therapy, chemotherapy, and hyperthermia are discussed individually or in combination with surgery or each other. Prognosis for specific tumors is discussed, as is lymph node involvement as a prognostic indicator. As the use of newer diagnostic procedures become more available in veterinary medicine, it should be possible to offer patients a variety of positive choices that will enhance their survival and quality of life

  14. Radiology of pancreatic neoplasms: An update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de la Santa, Luis Gijón; Retortillo, José Antonio Pérez; Miguel, Ainhoa Camarero; Klein, Lea Marie

    2014-09-15

    Diagnostic imaging is an important tool to evaluate pancreatic neoplasms. We describe the imaging features of pancreatic malignancies and their benign mimics. Accurate detection and staging are essential for ensuring appropriate selection of patients who will benefit from surgery and for preventing unnecessary surgeries in patients with unresectable disease. Ultrasound, multidetector computed tomography with multiplanar reconstruction and magnetic resonance imaging can help to do a correct diagnosis. Radiologists should be aware of the wide variety of anatomic variants and pathologic conditions that may mimic pancreatic neoplasms. The knowledge of the most important characteristic key findings may facilitate the right diagnosis.

  15. The Development of Adult Innate Lymphoid Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Qi; Bhandoola, Avinash

    2016-01-01

    Innate lymphoid cells (ILC) are a specialized family of effector lymphocytes that transcriptionally and functionally mirror effector subsets of T cells, but differ from T cells in that they lack clonally-distributed adaptive antigen receptors. Our understanding of this family of lymphocytes is still in its infancy. In this review, we summarize current understanding and discuss recent insights into the cellular and molecular events that occur during early ILC development in adult mice. We discuss how these events overlap and diverge with the early development of adaptive T cells, and how they may influence the molecular and functional properties of mature ILC. PMID:26871595

  16. Total lymphoid irradiation in rhesus monkeys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vriesendorp, H.M.; Maat, B.; Hogeweg, B.

    Total lymphoid irradiation (TLI) consists of three contiguous fields, a mantle, an inverted Y and a spleen field. TLI induces a state of immunosuppression in patients with Hodgkin disease or in small rodents. Infusion of allogeneic bone marrow cells into mice after TLI led to the development split haemopoietic chimerism and indefinite survival of skin grafts from the bone marrow donor. A protocol for TLI was developed for rhesus monkeys to attempt to verify these interesting observations in a pre-clinical animal model. (Auth.)

  17. Tertiary Intratumor Lymphoid Tissue in Colo-Rectal Cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bergomas, Francesca [Department of Immunology and Inflammation, IRCCS Humanitas Clinical Institute, Via Manzoni 56, 20089 Rozzano, Milan (Italy); Grizzi, Fabio [Laboratory of Molecular Gastroenterology, IRCCS Humanitas Clinical Institute, Via Manzoni 56, 20089 Rozzano, Milan (Italy); Doni, Andrea; Pesce, Samantha [Department of Immunology and Inflammation, IRCCS Humanitas Clinical Institute, Via Manzoni 56, 20089 Rozzano, Milan (Italy); Laghi, Luigi [Laboratory of Molecular Gastroenterology, IRCCS Humanitas Clinical Institute, Via Manzoni 56, 20089 Rozzano, Milan (Italy); Department of Gastroenterology, IRCCS Humanitas Clinical Institute, Via Manzoni 56, 20089 Rozzano, Milan (Italy); Allavena, Paola [Department of Immunology and Inflammation, IRCCS Humanitas Clinical Institute, Via Manzoni 56, 20089 Rozzano, Milan (Italy); Mantovani, Alberto [Department of Immunology and Inflammation, IRCCS Humanitas Clinical Institute, Via Manzoni 56, 20089 Rozzano, Milan (Italy); Department of Translational Medicine, University of Milan, Milan 20089 (Italy); Marchesi, Federica, E-mail: federica.marchesi@humanitasresearch.it [Department of Immunology and Inflammation, IRCCS Humanitas Clinical Institute, Via Manzoni 56, 20089 Rozzano, Milan (Italy)

    2011-12-28

    Ectopic (or tertiary) lymphoid tissue develops at sites of inflammation or infection in non lymphoid organs and is associated with chronic inflammation. In colon mucosa, small lymphoid aggregates are already present in homeostatic conditions, as part of the gut-associated lymphoid tissue and play an essential role in the immune response to perturbations of the mucosal microenvironment. Despite the recognized role of inflammation in tumor progression, the presence and biological function of lymphoid tissue in cancer has been poorly investigated. We identified aggregates of lymphocytes resembling tertiary lymphoid tissue in human colorectal cancer specimens; intratumor accumulations of lymphocytes display a high degree of compartmentalization, with B and T cells, mature dendritic cells and a network of CD21{sup +} follicular dendritic cells (FDC). We analyzed the adaptation of colon lymphoid tissue in a murine model of colitis-associated cancer (AOM/DSS). B cell follicle formation increases in the context of the chronic inflammation associated to intestinal neoplasia, in this model. A network of lymphatic and haematic vessels surrounding B cell follicles is present and includes high endothelial venules (HEV). Future task is to determine whether lymphoid tissue contributes to the persistence of the tumor-associated inflammatory reaction, rather than represent a functional immune compartment, potentially participating to the anti tumor response.

  18. Tertiary Intratumor Lymphoid Tissue in Colo-Rectal Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Federica Marchesi

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Ectopic (or tertiary lymphoid tissue develops at sites of inflammation or infection in non lymphoid organs and is associated with chronic inflammation. In colon mucosa, small lymphoid aggregates are already present in homeostatic conditions, as part of the gut-associated lymphoid tissue and play an essential role in the immune response to perturbations of the mucosal microenvironment. Despite the recognized role of inflammation in tumor progression, the presence and biological function of lymphoid tissue in cancer has been poorly investigated. We identified aggregates of lymphocytes resembling tertiary lymphoid tissue in human colorectal cancer specimens; intratumor accumulations of lymphocytes display a high degree of compartmentalization, with B and T cells, mature dendritic cells and a network of CD21+ follicular dendritic cells (FDC. We analyzed the adaptation of colon lymphoid tissue in a murine model of colitis-associated cancer (AOM/DSS. B cell follicle formation increases in the context of the chronic inflammation associated to intestinal neoplasia, in this model. A network of lymphatic and haematic vessels surrounding B cell follicles is present and includes high endothelial venules (HEV. Future task is to determine whether lymphoid tissue contributes to the persistence of the tumor-associated inflammatory reaction, rather than represent a functional immune compartment, potentially participating to the anti tumor response.

  19. Tertiary Intratumor Lymphoid Tissue in Colo-Rectal Cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bergomas, Francesca; Grizzi, Fabio; Doni, Andrea; Pesce, Samantha; Laghi, Luigi; Allavena, Paola; Mantovani, Alberto; Marchesi, Federica

    2011-01-01

    Ectopic (or tertiary) lymphoid tissue develops at sites of inflammation or infection in non lymphoid organs and is associated with chronic inflammation. In colon mucosa, small lymphoid aggregates are already present in homeostatic conditions, as part of the gut-associated lymphoid tissue and play an essential role in the immune response to perturbations of the mucosal microenvironment. Despite the recognized role of inflammation in tumor progression, the presence and biological function of lymphoid tissue in cancer has been poorly investigated. We identified aggregates of lymphocytes resembling tertiary lymphoid tissue in human colorectal cancer specimens; intratumor accumulations of lymphocytes display a high degree of compartmentalization, with B and T cells, mature dendritic cells and a network of CD21 + follicular dendritic cells (FDC). We analyzed the adaptation of colon lymphoid tissue in a murine model of colitis-associated cancer (AOM/DSS). B cell follicle formation increases in the context of the chronic inflammation associated to intestinal neoplasia, in this model. A network of lymphatic and haematic vessels surrounding B cell follicles is present and includes high endothelial venules (HEV). Future task is to determine whether lymphoid tissue contributes to the persistence of the tumor-associated inflammatory reaction, rather than represent a functional immune compartment, potentially participating to the anti tumor response

  20. Prion pathogenesis and secondary lymphoid organs (SLO)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mabbott, Neil A.

    2012-01-01

    Prion diseases are subacute neurodegenerative diseases that affect humans and a range of domestic and free-ranging animal species. These diseases are characterized by the accumulation of PrPSc, an abnormally folded isoform of the cellular prion protein (PrPC), in affected tissues. The pathology during prion disease appears to occur almost exclusively within the central nervous system. The extensive neurodegeneration which occurs ultimately leads to the death of the host. An intriguing feature of the prion diseases, when compared with other protein-misfolding diseases, is their transmissibility. Following peripheral exposure, some prion diseases accumulate to high levels within lymphoid tissues. The replication of prions within lymphoid tissue has been shown to be important for the efficient spread of disease to the brain. This article describes recent progress in our understanding of the cellular mechanisms that influence the propagation of prions from peripheral sites of exposure (such as the lumen of the intestine) to the brain. A thorough understanding of these events will lead to the identification of important targets for therapeutic intervention, or alternatively, reveal additional processes that influence disease susceptibility to peripherally-acquired prion diseases. PMID:22895090

  1. Radiation treatment of spinal cord neoplasms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smirnov, R.V.

    1982-01-01

    Results of radiation treatment of spinal cord neoplasms are presented. The results of combined (surgical and radiation) treatment of tumors are studied. On the whole it is noted that radiation treatment of initial spinal cord tumours is not practised on a large scale because of low radiostability of spinal cord

  2. Benign neoplasms of the trachea : case reports

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Hak Hee; Mun, Kyung Mi; Kim, Bum Soo; Choi, Kyu Ho; Shinn, Kyung Sub [Kangnam St. Mary' s Hospital Catholic Univ. Medical College, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1997-03-01

    Benign tumors of the trachea are rare, accounting for approximately 10% of all primary tracheal neoplasms. They are frequently misdiagnosed and managed as bronchial asthma or chronic bronchitis. We report a lipoma and a leiomyoma of the trachea with emphasis on the clinical, radiographic and CT findings, and review the literature.

  3. Myeloproliferative neoplasms in five multiple sclerosis patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorsteinsdottir, Sigrun; Bjerrum, Ole Weis

    2013-01-01

    The concurrence of myeloproliferative neoplasms (MPNs) and multiple sclerosis (MS) is unusual. We report five patients from a localized geographic area in Denmark with both MS and MPN; all the patients were diagnosed with MPNs in the years 2007-2012. We describe the patients' history and treatment...

  4. CT features of abdominal plasma cell neoplasms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Monill, J.; Pernas, J.; Montserrat, E.; Perez, C.; Clavero, J.; Martinez-Noguera, A.; Guerrero, R.; Torrubia, S.

    2005-01-01

    The aim of this study was to describe the CT features of abdominal plasma cell neoplasms. We reviewed CT imaging findings in 11 patients (seven men, four women; mean age 62 years) with plasma cell neoplasms and abdominal involvement. Helical CT of the entire abdomen and pelvis was performed following intravenous administration of contrast material. Images were analyzed in consensus by two radiologists. Diagnoses were made from biopsy, surgery and/or clinical follow-up findings. Multiple myeloma was found in seven patients and extramedullary plasmacytoma in four patients. All patients with multiple myeloma had multifocal disease with involvement of perirenal space (4/7), retroperitoneal and pelvic lymph nodes (3/7), peritoneum (3/7), liver (2/7), subcutaneous tissues (2/7) and kidney (1/7). In three of the four patients with extramedullary plasmacytoma, a single site was involved, namely stomach, vagina and retroperitoneum. In the fourth patient, a double site of abdominal involvement was observed with rectal and jejunal masses. Plasma cell neoplasm should be considered in the differential diagnosis of single or multiple enhancing masses in the abdomen or pelvis. Abdominal plasma cell neoplasms were most frequently seen as well-defined enhancing masses (10/11). (orig.)

  5. Solid Pseudopapillary Neoplasm of the Pancreas

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Solid pseudopapillary neoplasm is a rare pancreatic tumour predominantly affecting young women. We present two cases in young female patients. Both tumours were surgically removed as abdominal masses, one from the pancreatic tail and the other posterior to the stomach with an unclear organ of origin. On gross ...

  6. Radiologic features of cystic, endocrine and other pancreatic neoplasms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balci, N. Cem; Semelka, Richard C.

    2001-01-01

    This article presents imaging features of cystic, endocrine and other pancreatic neoplasms. Microcystic adenoma which is composed of small cysts ( 2 cm) are accounted for mucinous cystic neoplasms, its variant along pancreatic duct is ductectatic mucinous cystic neoplasm. Endocrine tumors of pancreas are hypervascular and can be depicted on early dynamic enhanced crosssectional imaging modalities or on angiography when they are <1 cm. Pancreatic metastases and lymphomas are rare neoplasms which should also be included in differential diagnosis for pancreatic masses

  7. Britain exhibition at CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    Bertin; CERN PhotoLab

    1969-01-01

    The United Kingdom inaugurated the Industrial Exhibitions in 1968, and it wasn't till 1971 that other countries staged exhibitions at CERN. This photo was taken in 1969, at the second British exhibition, where 16 companies were present.

  8. Somatic CALR mutations in myeloproliferative neoplasms with nonmutated JAK2

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nangalia, J.; Massie, C.E.; Baxter, E.J.; Nice, F.L.; Gundem, G.; Wedge, D.C.; Avezov, E.; Li, J.; Kollmann, K.; Kent, D.G.; Aziz, A.; Godfrey, A.L.; Hinton, J.; Martincorena, I.; Loo, P. Van; Jones, A.V.; Guglielmelli, P.; Tarpey, P.; Harding, H.P.; Fitzpatrick, J.D.; Goudie, C.T.; Ortmann, C.A.; Loughran, S.J.; Raine, K.; Jones, D.R.; Butler, A.P.; Teague, J.W.; O'Meara, S.; McLaren, S.; Bianchi, M.; Silber, Y.; Dimitropoulou, D.; Bloxham, D.; Mudie, L.; Maddison, M.; Robinson, B.; Keohane, C.; Maclean, C.; Hill, K.; Orchard, K.; Tauro, S.; Du, M.Q.; Greaves, M.; Bowen, D.; Huntly, B.J.; Harrison, C.N.; Cross, N.C.; Ron, D.; Vannucchi, A.M.; Papaemmanuil, E.; Campbell, P.J.; Green, A.R.

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Somatic mutations in the Janus kinase 2 gene (JAK2) occur in many myeloproliferative neoplasms, but the molecular pathogenesis of myeloproliferative neoplasms with nonmutated JAK2 is obscure, and the diagnosis of these neoplasms remains a challenge. METHODS: We performed exome sequencing

  9. [Comparative study of lymphoid follicles in mucosa of pharynx and mucosal associated lymphoid tissues in paranasal sinuses].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhai, Weigang; Yao, Min; Chen, Jue

    2013-08-01

    To study the relationship between the lymphoid follicles in mucous membrane of pharynx and mucosal associated lymphoid tissues (MALT). Ten folliculi obtained from 10 patients of follicular pharyngitis and mucosa taken form 10 patients of paranasal sinusitis were fixed in neutral formalin and embedded in paraffin. Sections were prepared, stained by H. E and by immunohistochemical method staining with S-100,and observe by light microscopy. We observed the morphology of lymphoid follicles in mucous membrane of pharynx with MALT in mucosa of paranasal sinusitis as the contrast. Lymphoid follicles in mucosa of pharynx compared with MALT in the mucosa of paranasal sinuses, there was no mantle zone, no typical germinal center and no mucosal epithelium, immunological staining with S-100 was week. The lymphoid follicles in mucosa of pharynx does not belong to the MALT.

  10. Transformation of an Unclassified Myeloproliferative Neoplasm with a Rare BCR-JAK2 Fusion Transcript Resulting from the Translocation (9;22)(p24;q11)

    OpenAIRE

    A. N. Chamseddine; P. Etancelin; D. Penther; F. Parmentier; C. Kuadjovi; V. Camus; N. Contentin; P. Lenain; C. Bastard; H. Tilly; F. Jardin

    2015-01-01

    BCR-ABL1 negative myeloproliferative neoplasms (MPNs) are known to contain alterations of the tyrosine kinase JAK2 (located on 9p24) that result in constitutive activation of the encoded protein. JAK2 fusions are reported in acute and chronic leukemias of myeloid and lymphoid phenotypes. Here, we report an unclassified case of MPN (MPN-U) showing a t(9;22)(p24;q11), which generates a BCR-JAK2 fusion gene by fusing the BCR at intron 13 to JAK2 at intron 17 on the derivative chromosome 22. Most...

  11. One Patient, Two Uncommon B-Cell Neoplasms: Solitary Plasmacytoma following Complete Remission from Intravascular Large B-Cell Lymphoma Involving Central Nervous System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joycelyn Lee

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Second lymphoid neoplasms are an uncommon but recognized feature of non-Hodgkin’s lymphomas, putatively arising secondary to common genetic or environmental risk factors. Previous limited evaluations of clonal relatedness between successive mature B-cell malignancies have yielded mixed results. We describe the case of a man with intravascular large B-cell lymphoma involving the central nervous system who went into clinical remission following immunochemotherapy and brain radiation, only to relapse 2 years later with a plasmacytoma of bone causing cauda equina syndrome. The plasmacytoma stained strongly for the cell cycle regulator cyclin D1 on immunohistochemistry, while the original intravascular large cell lymphoma was negative, a disparity providing no support for clonal identity between the 2 neoplasms. Continued efforts atcataloging and evaluating unique associations of B-cell malignancies are critical to improving understanding of overarching disease biology in B-cell malignancies.

  12. Innate lymphoid cells contribute to allergic airway disease exacerbation by obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Everaere, Laetitia; Ait-Yahia, Saliha; Molendi-Coste, Olivier; Vorng, Han; Quemener, Sandrine; LeVu, Pauline; Fleury, Sebastien; Bouchaert, Emmanuel; Fan, Ying; Duez, Catherine; de Nadai, Patricia; Staels, Bart; Dombrowicz, David; Tsicopoulos, Anne

    2016-11-01

    Epidemiologic and clinical observations identify obesity as an important risk factor for asthma exacerbation, but the underlying mechanisms remain poorly understood. Type 2 innate lymphoid cells (ILC2s) and type 3 innate lymphoid cells (ILC3s) have been implicated, respectively, in asthma and adipose tissue homeostasis and in obesity-associated airway hyperresponsiveness (AHR). We sought to determine the potential involvement of innate lymphoid cells (ILCs) in allergic airway disease exacerbation caused by high-fat diet (HFD)-induced obesity. Obesity was induced by means of HFD feeding, and allergic airway inflammation was subsequently induced by means of intranasal administration of house dust mite (HDM) extract. AHR, lung and visceral adipose tissue inflammation, humoral response, cytokines, and innate and adaptive lymphoid populations were analyzed in the presence or absence of ILCs. HFD feeding exacerbated allergic airway disease features, including humoral response, airway and tissue eosinophilia, AHR, and T H 2 and T H 17 pulmonary profiles. Notably, nonsensitized obese mice already exhibited increased lung ILC counts and tissue eosinophil infiltration compared with values in lean mice in the absence of AHR. The numbers of total and cytokine-expressing lung ILC2s and ILC3s further increased in HDM-challenged obese mice compared with those in HDM-challenged lean mice, and this was accompanied by high IL-33 and IL-1β levels and decreased ILC markers in visceral adipose tissue. Furthermore, depletion of ILCs with an anti-CD90 antibody, followed by T-cell reconstitution, led to a profound decrease in allergic airway inflammatory features in obese mice, including T H 2 and T H 17 infiltration. These results indicate that HFD-induced obesity might exacerbate allergic airway inflammation through mechanisms involving ILC2s and ILC3s. Copyright © 2016 American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Gorlin-Goltz syndrome and neoplasms: a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopes, Nilza N F; Caran, Eliana M; Lee, Maria Lucia; Silva, Nasjla Saba; Rocha, André Caroli; Macedo, Carla R D

    2010-01-01

    Gorlin syndrome is a rare autosomal dominant disorder exhibiting high penetrance and variable expressivity. It is characterized by facial dysmorphism, skeletal anomalies, multiple basal cell carcinomas, odontogenic keratocysts (OKC), palmar and plantar pits, bifid ribs, vertebral anomalies and a variety of other malformations. Various neoplasms, such as medulloblastomas, meningiomas, ovarian and cardiac fibromas are also found in this syndrome. To describe a twelve-year-old patient with Gorlin-Goltz syndrome, with basal cell carcinomas and promyelocytic leukemia developed after receiving craniospinal radiation for a medulloblastoma. Bifid ribs as well as mandibular and maxillar OKC were also diagnosed Conclusion: The patient with Gorlin-Goltz syndrome should receive close follow-up for early detection of malformations nd malignant neoplasias.

  14. Radiation effects on cultured human lymphoid cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johansson, L.; Nilsson, K.; Carlsson, J.; Larsson, B.; Jakobsson, P.

    1981-01-01

    The cloning efficiency of human normal and malignant lymphoid cells is usually low. Radiation effects in vitro on such cells can therefore not be analysed with conventional cloning. However, this problem can be circumscribed by using the growth extrapolation method. A panel of human leukemia-lymphoma cell-lines representing Epstein-Barr virus carrying lymphoblastoid cells of presumed non-neoplastic derivation and neoplastic T- and B-lymphocytes was used to test the efficiency of this method. The sensitivity to radiation could be determined for all these cell types. The growth extrapolation method gave generally the same result as conventional cloning demonstrated by comparison with one exceptional cell-line with capacity for cloning in agar. The sensitivity varied largely between the different cell types. A common feature was that none of the cell lines had a good capacity to accumulate sublethal radiation injury. (Auth.)

  15. Innate lymphoid cells and the MHC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinette, M L; Colonna, M

    2016-01-01

    Innate lymphoid cells (ILCs) are a new class of immune cells that include natural killer (NK) cells and appear to be the innate counterparts to CD4(+) helper T cells and CD8(+) cytotoxic T cells based on developmental and functional similarities. Like T cells, both NK cells and other ILCs also show connections to the major histocompatibility complex (MHC). In human and mouse, NK cells recognize and respond to classical and nonclassical MHC I molecules as well as structural homologues, whereas mouse ILCs have recently been shown to express MHC II. We describe the history of MHC I recognition by NK cells and discuss emerging roles for MHC II expression by ILC subsets, making comparisons between both mouse and human when possible. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Deciphering the Innate Lymphoid Cell Transcriptional Program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cyril Seillet

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Innate lymphoid cells (ILCs are enriched at mucosal surfaces, where they provide immune surveillance. All ILC subsets develop from a common progenitor that gives rise to pre-committed progenitors for each of the ILC lineages. Currently, the temporal control of gene expression that guides the emergence of these progenitors is poorly understood. We used global transcriptional mapping to analyze gene expression in different ILC progenitors. We identified PD-1 to be specifically expressed in PLZF+ ILCp and revealed that the timing and order of expression of the transcription factors NFIL3, ID2, and TCF-1 was critical. Importantly, induction of ILC lineage commitment required only transient expression of NFIL3 prior to ID2 and TCF-1 expression. These findings highlight the importance of the temporal program that permits commitment of progenitors to the ILC lineage, and they expand our understanding of the core transcriptional program by identifying potential regulators of ILC development.

  17. Clinical epidemiological aspects of chronic lymphoid leukaemia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodriguez Brunet, Marisol; Hernandez Galano, Geldris P; Suarez Beyries, Lidia C; Duverger Magdaleon, Ernesto

    2011-01-01

    A descriptive and retrospective study of 71 patients with chronic lymphoid leukemia, attended at the Hematology Service from 'Dr Juan Bruno Zayas Alfonso' Teaching General Hospital in Santiago de Cuba was carried out from January, 2001 to November, 2006, in order to identify some clinical epidemiological variables on them, to show the therapeutical variables more used, as well as to assess survival, mortality, and the main causes of the clinical entity. Elderly, male sex, and high risk category related to advanced stage were predominant in the series. The therapeutical schedule of chlorambucil and prednisone was the most used, achieving good results in the majority of the case material. The survival of patients, in general, ranged among 1-5 years, whereas deaths occurred due to disease progression, infectious respiratory processes, pro-lymphocytic transformation, second neoplasias, and strokes. (author)

  18. Tertiary lymphoid organs in Takayasu Arteritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marc eClement

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The role of B cells in the pathogenesis of Takayasu arteritis (TA is controversial. We aimed to study the presence of tertiary lymphoid organs (TLOs in the aortic wall of TA patients.Methods: Hematoxylin and eosin–stained sections from aorta specimens from patients with TA were screened for TLOs. The presence of B cell aggregates (CD20, follicular dendritic cells (FDCs, CD21, and high endothelial venules (HEVs, PNAd was investigated by immunohistochemistry. Immune cells from the adventitial layer of one patient were characterized by flow cytometry. Demographic, medical history, laboratory, imaging, treatment and follow up data were extracted from medical records.Results: Aorta specimens from Bentall procedures were available from 7 patients (five female, aged 22 to 57 years with TA. Surgical treatment was performed at TA diagnosis (n=4 or at a median of 108 months [84-156] after TA diagnosis. Disease was active at surgery in four patients according to NIH score. B cell aggregates-TLOs containing HEVs were observed in the adventitia of all but one patient.. Of note, ectopic follicles containing CD21+ FDCs were found in all patients (4/4 with increased aortic FDG uptake before surgery but were absent in all but one patients (2/3 with no FDG uptake. In addition, flow cytometry analysis confirmed the accumulation of memory/germinal center–like B cells in the adventitial layer and showed the presence of antigen-experienced T follicular helper cells.Conclusion: Ectopic lymphoid neogenesis displaying functional features can be found in the aortic wall of a subset of patients with active TA. The function of these local B cell clusters on the pathogenesis of TA remains to be elucidated.

  19. Tertiary Lymphoid Organs in Takayasu Arteritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clement, Marc; Galy, Adrien; Bruneval, Patrick; Morvan, Marion; Hyafil, Fabien; Benali, Khadija; Pasi, Nicoletta; Deschamps, Lydia; Pellenc, Quentin; Papo, Thomas; Nicoletti, Antonino; Sacre, Karim

    2016-01-01

    The role of B cells in the pathogenesis of Takayasu arteritis (TA) is controversial. We aimed to study the presence of tertiary lymphoid organs (TLOs) in the aortic wall of TA patients. Hematoxylin and eosin-stained sections from aorta specimens from patients with TA were screened for TLOs. The presence of B cell aggregates (CD20), follicular dendritic cells (FDCs, CD21), and high endothelial venules (HEVs, PNAd) was investigated by immunohistochemistry. Immune cells from the adventitial layer of one patient were characterized by flow cytometry. Demographic, medical history, laboratory, imaging, treatment, and follow-up data were extracted from medical records. Aorta specimens from Bentall procedures were available from seven patients (5 females, aged 22-57 years) with TA. Surgical treatment was performed at TA diagnosis (n = 4) or at a median of 108 months (84-156) after TA diagnosis. Disease was active at surgery in four patients according to NIH score. B cell aggregates-TLOs containing HEVs were observed in the adventitia of all but one patient. Of note, ectopic follicles containing CD21(+) FDCs were found in all patients (4/4) with increased aortic (18)F-fluoro-deoxyglucose (FDG) uptake before surgery but were absent in all but one patients (2/3) with no FDG uptake. In addition, flow cytometry analysis confirmed the accumulation of memory/germinal center-like B cells in the adventitial layer and showed the presence of antigen-experienced T follicular helper cells. Ectopic lymphoid neogenesis displaying functional features can be found in the aortic wall of a subset of patients with active TA. The function of these local B cell clusters on the pathogenesis of TA remains to be elucidated.

  20. High-resolution CT of lymphoid interstitial pneumonia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vilgrain, V.; Frija, J.; Yana, C.; Couderc, L.J.; David, M.; Clauvel, J.P.; Laval-Jeantet, M.

    1989-01-01

    Three patients with lymphoid interstitial pneumonia (two HIV 1+ patients with chronic lymphadenopathic syndromes and one with a not-characterized autoimmune disease) have been studied with high-resolution computed tomography (HR-CT). This technique reveals septal lines, small reticulonodular opacities, polyhedral micronodular opacities, 'ground-glass' opacities and a dense, subpleural, curved broken line in one patient. The lesions dominate in the bases of the lungs. They are not characteristic for lymphoid interstitial pneumonia. If a patient presents with a chronic lymphadenopathic syndrome, the diagnosis of an opportunistic infection should not be automatically made, since the syndrome can be caused by lymphoid interstitial pneumonia [fr

  1. Type 3 innate lymphoid cell depletion is mediated by TLRs in lymphoid tissues of simian immunodeficiency virus-infected macaques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Huanbin; Wang, Xiaolei; Lackner, Andrew A; Veazey, Ronald S

    2015-12-01

    Innate lymphoid cells (ILCs) type 3, also known as lymphoid tissue inducer cells, plays a major role in both the development and remodeling of organized lymphoid tissues and the maintenance of adaptive immune responses. HIV/simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) infection causes breakdown of intestinal barriers resulting in microbial translocation, leading to systemic immune activation and disease progression. However, the effects of HIV/SIV infection on ILC3 are unknown. Here, we analyzed ILC3 from mucosal and systemic lymphoid tissues in chronically SIV-infected macaques and uninfected controls. ILC3 cells were defined and identified in macaque lymphoid tissues as non-T, non-B (lineage-negative), c-Kit(+)IL-7Rα(+) (CD117(+)CD127(+)) cells. These ILC3 cells highly expressed CD90 (∼ 63%) and aryl hydrocarbon receptor and produced IL-17 (∼ 63%), IL-22 (∼ 36%), and TNF-α (∼ 72%) but did not coexpress CD4 or NK cell markers. The intestinal ILC3 cell loss correlated with the reduction of total CD4(+) T cells and T helper (Th)17 and Th22 cells in the gut during SIV infection (P lymphoid tissues in SIV-infected macaques, further contributing to the HIV-induced impairment of gut-associated lymphoid tissue structure and function, especially in mucosal tissues. © FASEB.

  2. Intrathoracic neoplasms in the dog and cat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weller, R.E.

    1994-03-01

    Very little is known regarding the epidemiology, etiology, and mechanisms of spontaneous intrathoracic neoplasia in companion animals. Much of what we know or suspect about thoracic neoplasia in animals has been extrapolated from experimentally-induced neoplasms. Most studies of thoracic neoplasia have focused on the pathology of primary and metastatic neoplasms of the lung with little attention given to diagnostic and therapeutic considerations. Although the cited incidence rate for primary respiratory tract neoplasia is low, 8.5 cases per 100,000 dogs and 5.5 cases per 100,000 cats, intrathoracic masses often attract attention out of proportion to their actual importance since they are often readily visualized on routine thoracic radiographs.

  3. Primary bone neoplasms in dogs: 90 cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria E. Trost

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available A retrospective study of necropsy and biopsy cases of 90 primary bone tumors (89 malignant and one benign in dogs received over a period of 22 years at the Laboratório de Patologia Veterinária, Universidade Federal de Santa Maria, was performed. Osteosarcoma was the most prevalent bone tumor, accounting for 86.7% of all malignant primary bone neoplasms diagnosed. Most cases occurred in dogs of large and giant breeds with ages between 6 and 10-years-old. The neoplasms involved mainly the appendicular skeleton, and were 3.5 times more prevalent in the forelimbs than in the hindlimbs. Osteoblastic osteosarcoma was the predominant histological subtype. Epidemiological and pathological findings of osteosarcomas are reported and discussed.

  4. Solid and papillary neoplasm of the pancreas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, L J; Hansen, A B; Burcharth, F

    1992-01-01

    In two cases of solid and papillary neoplasm of the pancreas (SPN), positive staining for argyrophil granules, chromogranin-A, neuron-specific enolase, chymotrypsin, alpha 1-antitrypsin, vimentin, cytokeratin, and estrogen receptors was present. Ultrastructurally, neurosecretory as well as zymoge......In two cases of solid and papillary neoplasm of the pancreas (SPN), positive staining for argyrophil granules, chromogranin-A, neuron-specific enolase, chymotrypsin, alpha 1-antitrypsin, vimentin, cytokeratin, and estrogen receptors was present. Ultrastructurally, neurosecretory as well...... as zymogenlike granules were demonstrated. Measurements of mean nuclear volume and volume-corrected mitotic index discriminated between SPN and well-differentiated ductal adenocarcinoma of the pancreas, with notably lower values being seen in SPN. Silver-stained nucleolar organizer region counts showed wide...

  5. The neoplasms of the operated stomach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ositrova, L.I.; Golubovich, I.A.; Mashevskaya, L.S.

    1988-01-01

    It is shown that operation and rexction in case of primary and recurrent neoplasm of operated stomach remains low. However radical operation is the only method permitting to hope for healing of shuch patients. A thorough medical examination is necessary at first 3 years following operation. Surgical treatment is accompanied by preoperational irradiation in such patients. Au 198 in 1.48 GBq is intravenously injected to some patients. 10 refs

  6. Granular cell tumor: An uncommon benign neoplasm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tirthankar Gayen

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Granular cell tumor is a distinctly rare neoplasm of neural sheath origin. It mainly presents as a solitary asymptomatic swelling in the oral cavity, skin, and rarely internal organs in the middle age. Histopathology is characteristic, showing polyhedral cells containing numerous fine eosinophilic granules with indistinct cell margins. We present a case of granular cell tumor on the back of a 48-year-old woman which was painful, mimicking an adnexal tumor.

  7. Neoplasms HIV associated Kaposi sarcoma not

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lombardo, K.; Sosa, A.; Krygier, G.; Muse, I.

    2004-01-01

    Abstract - The incidence of malignancies in virus carriers acquired immunodeficiency (HIV) has increased in conjunction with the disease during the past decade. 40% of all AIDS patients develop cancer during the course of HIV infection. Kaposi's sarcoma (KS), Non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) and cervical cancer have an impact extremely high in HIV infected patients, and they are considered as disease AIDS-defining stage. Many reports suggest that other neoplasms they can have a high impact on the population of HIV carrier, including head and neck carcinoma, rectal cancer - anal, plasma cytomas, and melanoma lung cancer. Methods - We examined the spectrum of cancer in HIV-infected patients, specifically neoplasms except Kaposi sarcoma diagnosed between 1/1998 - 6/2004. Information on age, sex, factors was gathered risk for AIDS, neoplasms and mortality rate. Results: The total number of patients in our study was 21 patients, what 15 were male (71%) and 6 females (29%); the median age was 36 (29-70). Tumors were reported: 11 Non-Hodgkin lymphomas (52%), 2 Hodgkin's lymphoma (6.6%), 1 medullary thyroid cancer (6.6%), 1 melanoma (6.6%), 1 rectal cancer (5%) and three head and neck cancers (14%), 1 cancer 1 lung and breast cancer. Five of the patients were intravenous drug abusers (24%); 4 patients were homosexual, bisexual March 8 straight, on 6 patients know the data. Conclusions - The spectrum of malignancies associated with infection HIV in our study was similar to that described in other populations. ratio between the immune system and the epidemiology of the virus-induced tumors is to importance to identify new therapeutic approaches in the treatment and / or prevention of these neoplasms

  8. Rearrangements of genes for the antigen receptor on T cells as markers of lineage and clonality in human lymphoid neoplasms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waldmann, T A; Davis, M M; Bongiovanni, K F; Korsmeyer, S J

    1985-09-26

    The T alpha and T beta chains of the heterodimeric T-lymphocyte antigen receptor are encoded by separated DNA segments that recombine during T-cell development. We have used rearrangements of the T beta gene as a widely applicable marker of clonality in the T-cell lineage. We show that the T beta genes are used in both the T8 and T4 subpopulations of normal T cells and that Sézary leukemia, adult T-cell leukemia, and the non-B-lineage acute lymphoblastic leukemias are clonal expansions of T cells. Furthermore, circulating T cells from a patient with the T8-cell-predominantly lymphocytosis associated with granulocytopenia are shown to be monoclonal. Finally, the sensitivity and specificity of this tumor-associated marker have been exploited to monitor the therapy of a patient with adult T-cell leukemia. These unique DNA rearrangements provide insights into the cellular origin, clonality, and natural history of T-cell neoplasia.

  9. Vitamin A Controls the Presence of RORγ+ Innate Lymphoid Cells and Lymphoid Tissue in the Small Intestine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goverse, Gera; Labao-Almeida, Carlos; Ferreira, Manuela; Molenaar, Rosalie; Wahlen, Sigrid; Konijn, Tanja; Koning, Jasper; Veiga-Fernandes, Henrique; Mebius, Reina E

    2016-06-15

    Changes in diet and microbiota have determining effects on the function of the mucosal immune system. For example, the active metabolite of vitamin A, retinoic acid (RA), has been described to maintain homeostasis in the intestine by its influence on both lymphocytes and myeloid cells. Additionally, innate lymphoid cells (ILCs), important producers of cytokines necessary for intestinal homeostasis, are also influenced by vitamin A in the small intestines. In this study, we show a reduction of both NCR(-) and NCR(+) ILC3 subsets in the small intestine of mice raised on a vitamin A-deficient diet. Additionally, the percentages of IL-22-producing ILCs were reduced in the absence of dietary vitamin A. Conversely, mice receiving additional RA had a specific increase in the NCR(-) ILC3 subset, which contains the lymphoid tissue inducer cells. The dependence of lymphoid tissue inducer cells on vitamin A was furthermore illustrated by impaired development of enteric lymphoid tissues in vitamin A-deficient mice. These effects were a direct consequence of ILC-intrinsic RA signaling, because retinoic acid-related orphan receptor γt-Cre × RARα-DN mice had reduced numbers of NCR(-) and NCR(+) ILC3 subsets within the small intestine. However, lymphoid tissue inducer cells were not affected in these mice nor was the formation of enteric lymphoid tissue, demonstrating that the onset of RA signaling might take place before retinoic acid-related orphan receptor γt is expressed on lymphoid tissue inducer cells. Taken together, our data show an important role for vitamin A in controlling innate lymphoid cells and, consequently, postnatal formed lymphoid tissues within the small intestines. Copyright © 2016 by The American Association of Immunologists, Inc.

  10. Type 3 innate lymphoid cell depletion is mediated by TLRs in lymphoid tissues of simian immunodeficiency virus–infected macaques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Huanbin; Wang, Xiaolei; Lackner, Andrew A.; Veazey, Ronald S.

    2015-01-01

    Innate lymphoid cells (ILCs) type 3, also known as lymphoid tissue inducer cells, plays a major role in both the development and remodeling of organized lymphoid tissues and the maintenance of adaptive immune responses. HIV/simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) infection causes breakdown of intestinal barriers resulting in microbial translocation, leading to systemic immune activation and disease progression. However, the effects of HIV/SIV infection on ILC3 are unknown. Here, we analyzed ILC3 from mucosal and systemic lymphoid tissues in chronically SIV-infected macaques and uninfected controls. ILC3 cells were defined and identified in macaque lymphoid tissues as non-T, non-B (lineage-negative), c-Kit+IL-7Rα+ (CD117+CD127+) cells. These ILC3 cells highly expressed CD90 (∼63%) and aryl hydrocarbon receptor and produced IL-17 (∼63%), IL-22 (∼36%), and TNF-α (∼72%) but did not coexpress CD4 or NK cell markers. The intestinal ILC3 cell loss correlated with the reduction of total CD4+ T cells and T helper (Th)17 and Th22 cells in the gut during SIV infection (P lymphoid tissues in SIV-infected macaques, further contributing to the HIV-induced impairment of gut-associated lymphoid tissue structure and function, especially in mucosal tissues.—Xu, H., Wang, X., Lackner, A. A., Veazey, R. S. Type 3 innate lymphoid cell depletion is mediated by TLRs in lymphoid tissues of simian immunodeficiency virus–infected macaques. PMID:26283536

  11. Neoplasm carcinoid: Description of a case

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carrillo, Luis; Abarca, Jaysoom; Penaherrera, Vicente; Legarda, Eduardo

    2004-01-01

    We describe a case of small bowel obstruction associated with a carcinoid neoplasm of the ileum in a 78 year old man who was presented with abdominal pain, vomiting, and a mass in right lower quadrant. Carcinoids are neuroendocrine neoplasm originating in multiple locations throughout the body human. About 75% of such neoplasm are located within the gastrointestinal tract and are capable of rpoducing various peptides. Their clinical course is often indolent but can also be aggressive and resistant to therapy. The incidence of these tumours is approximately 2.5 in 100.000 people per year. The former classification system of fore gut, midgut and hind gut tumors is still used in clinical routine. Determination of the histopathology of carcinoid tumors is of utmost importance and involves specific immunohistochemical staining for chromogranin A, synaptophysin, serotonin and gastrin. New localization procedures include somatostatin receptor scintigraphy and positron emission tomography. Surgery remains the cornerstone of treatment and provides the only chance of a cure. Other cytoreductive procedures include radiofrequency ablation, laser treatment and chemo embolization. New therapies, such as ling acting somatostatin analogs, together with further development of tumor targeted treatments, will come into clinical use in the near future. (The author)

  12. MR appearance of skeletal neoplasms following cryotherapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Richardson, M.L. [Dept. of Radiology SB-05, Washington Univ., Seattle, WA (United States); Lough, L.R. [Pitts Radiological Associates, Columbia, SC (United States); Shuman, W.P. [Dept. of Radiology, Medical Center Hospital of Vermont, Burlington, VT (United States); Lazerte, G.D. [Dept. of Pathology RC-72, Washington Univ., Medical Center Hospital of Vermont, Burlington, VT (United States); Conrad, E.U. [Dept. of Orthopedic Surgery RK-10, Washington Univ., Medical Center of Vermont, Burlington, VT (United States)

    1994-02-01

    Cryotherapy is an increasingly popular mode of therapy adjunctive to surgical curettage in the treatment of certain skeletal neoplasms, such as giant cell tumors or chondrosarcomas. The magnetic resonance (MR) findings following cryotherapy have not been previously reported. We reviewed the MR findings in seven patients with skeletal neoplasms following curettage and cryotherapy. In six cases we found a zone of varying thickness extending beyond the surgical margins, corresponding to an area of cryoinjury to medullary bone. This zone displayed low signal intensity on T1-weighted images and high signal intensity on T2-weighted images, consistent with the presence of marrow edema. This zone of edema almost certainly reflects underlying thermal osteonecrosis. This zone may vary in size and intensity over time as the area of cryoinjury evolves or resolves. MR is currently the imaging procedure of choice for follow-up of most musculoskeletal neoplasms. Knowledge of the MR findings following cryotherapy should help prevent confusion during the interpretation of follow-up MR examinations. (orig.)

  13. MR appearance of skeletal neoplasms following cryotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Richardson, M.L.; Lough, L.R.; Shuman, W.P.; Lazerte, G.D.; Conrad, E.U.

    1994-01-01

    Cryotherapy is an increasingly popular mode of therapy adjunctive to surgical curettage in the treatment of certain skeletal neoplasms, such as giant cell tumors or chondrosarcomas. The magnetic resonance (MR) findings following cryotherapy have not been previously reported. We reviewed the MR findings in seven patients with skeletal neoplasms following curettage and cryotherapy. In six cases we found a zone of varying thickness extending beyond the surgical margins, corresponding to an area of cryoinjury to medullary bone. This zone displayed low signal intensity on T1-weighted images and high signal intensity on T2-weighted images, consistent with the presence of marrow edema. This zone of edema almost certainly reflects underlying thermal osteonecrosis. This zone may vary in size and intensity over time as the area of cryoinjury evolves or resolves. MR is currently the imaging procedure of choice for follow-up of most musculoskeletal neoplasms. Knowledge of the MR findings following cryotherapy should help prevent confusion during the interpretation of follow-up MR examinations. (orig.)

  14. Endocrine neoplasms in familial syndromes of hyperparathyroidism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yulong; Simonds, William F

    2016-06-01

    Familial syndromes of hyperparathyroidism, including multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 (MEN1), multiple endocrine neoplasia type 2A (MEN2A), and the hyperparathyroidism-jaw tumor (HPT-JT), comprise 2-5% of primary hyperparathyroidism cases. Familial syndromes of hyperparathyroidism are also associated with a range of endocrine and nonendocrine tumors, including potential malignancies. Complications of the associated neoplasms are the major causes of morbidities and mortalities in these familial syndromes, e.g., parathyroid carcinoma in HPT-JT syndrome; thymic, bronchial, and enteropancreatic neuroendocrine tumors in MEN1; and medullary thyroid cancer and pheochromocytoma in MEN2A. Because of the different underlying mechanisms of neoplasia, these familial tumors may have different characteristics compared with their sporadic counterparts. Large-scale clinical trials are frequently lacking due to the rarity of these diseases. With technological advances and the development of new medications, the natural history, diagnosis, and management of these syndromes are also evolving. In this article, we summarize the recent knowledge on endocrine neoplasms in three familial hyperparathyroidism syndromes, with an emphasis on disease characteristics, molecular pathogenesis, recent developments in biochemical and radiological evaluation, and expert opinions on surgical and medical therapies. Because these familial hyperparathyroidism syndromes are associated with a wide variety of tumors in different organs, this review is focused on those endocrine neoplasms with malignant potential. © 2016 Society for Endocrinology.

  15. Neuropilin-1 Is Expressed on Lymphoid Tissue Residing LTi-like Group 3 Innate Lymphoid Cells and Associated with Ectopic Lymphoid Aggregates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shikhagaie, Medya Mara; Björklund, Åsa K; Mjösberg, Jenny; Erjefält, Jonas S; Cornelissen, Anne S; Ros, Xavier Romero; Bal, Suzanne M; Koning, Jasper J; Mebius, Reina E; Mori, Michiko; Bruchard, Melanie; Blom, Bianca; Spits, Hergen

    2017-02-14

    Here, we characterize a subset of ILC3s that express Neuropilin1 (NRP1) and are present in lymphoid tissues, but not in the peripheral blood or skin. NRP1 + group 3 innate lymphoid cells (ILC3s) display in vitro lymphoid tissue inducer (LTi) activity. In agreement with this, NRP1 + ILC3s are mainly located in proximity to high endothelial venules (HEVs) and express cell surface molecules involved in lymphocyte migration in secondary lymphoid tissues via HEVs. NRP1 was also expressed on mouse fetal LTi cells, indicating that NRP1 is a conserved marker for LTi cells. Human NRP1 + ILC3s are primed cells because they express CD45RO and produce higher amounts of cytokines than NRP1 - cells, which express CD45RA. The NRP1 ligand vascular endothelial growth factor A (VEGF-A) served as a chemotactic factor for NRP1 + ILC3s. NRP1 + ILC3s are present in lung tissues from smokers and patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, suggesting a role in angiogenesis and/or the initiation of ectopic pulmonary lymphoid aggregates. Copyright © 2017 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Digital collections and exhibits

    CERN Document Server

    Denzer, Juan

    2015-01-01

    Today's libraries are taking advantage of cutting-edge technologies such as flat panel displays using touch, sound, and hands-free motions to design amazing exhibits using everything from simple computer hardware to advanced technologies such as the Microsoft Kinect. Libraries of all types are striving to add new interactive experiences for their patrons through exciting digital exhibits, both online and off. Digital Collections and Exhibits takes away the mystery of designing stunning digital exhibits to spotlight library trea

  17. Bioengineering of Artificial Antigen Presenting Cells and Lymphoid Organs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chao; Sun, Wujin; Ye, Yanqi; Bomba, Hunter N; Gu, Zhen

    2017-01-01

    The immune system protects the body against a wide range of infectious diseases and cancer by leveraging the efficiency of immune cells and lymphoid organs. Over the past decade, immune cell/organ therapies based on the manipulation, infusion, and implantation of autologous or allogeneic immune cells/organs into patients have been widely tested and have made great progress in clinical applications. Despite these advances, therapy with natural immune cells or lymphoid organs is relatively expensive and time-consuming. Alternatively, biomimetic materials and strategies have been applied to develop artificial immune cells and lymphoid organs, which have attracted considerable attentions. In this review, we survey the latest studies on engineering biomimetic materials for immunotherapy, focusing on the perspectives of bioengineering artificial antigen presenting cells and lymphoid organs. The opportunities and challenges of this field are also discussed.

  18. Morphology of mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue in odontocetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Fernanda M O; Guimarães, Juliana P; Vergara-Parente, Jociery E; Carvalho, Vitor L; Carolina, Ana; Meirelles, O; Marmontel, Miriam; Oliveira, Bruno S S P; Santos, Silvanise M; Becegato, Estella Z; Evangelista, Janaina S A M; Miglino, Maria Angelica

    2016-09-01

    This study describes the mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) in odontocetes from the Brazilian coast and freshwater systems. Seven species were evaluated and tissue samples were analyzed by light, scanning and transmission electron microscopy, and immunohistochemistry. Laryngeal tonsil was a palpable oval mass located in the larynx, composed of a lymphoepithelial complex. Dense collections of lymphocytes were found in the skin of male fetus and calf. Clusters of lymphoid tissue were found in the uterine cervix of a reproductively active juvenile female and along the pulmonary artery of an adult female. Lymphoid tissues associated with the gastrointestinal tract were characterized by diffusely arranged or organized lymphocytes. The anal tonsil was composed of an aggregate of lymphoid tissue occurring exclusively in the anal canal, being composed of squamous epithelium branches. MALT was present in different tissues and organic systems of cetaceans, providing constant protection against mucosal pathogens present in their environment. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Total lymphoid irradiation for treatment of intractable cardiac allograft rejection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hunt, S.A.; Strober, S.; Hoppe, R.T.; Stinson, E.B.

    1991-01-01

    The ability of postoperative total lymphoid irradiation to reverse otherwise intractable cardiac allograft rejection was examined in a group of 10 patients in whom conventional rejection therapy (including pulsed steroids and monoclonal or polyclonal anti-T-cell antibody therapy) had failed to provide sustained freedom from rejection. Follow-up periods range from 73 to 1119 days since the start of total lymphoid irradiation. No patient died or sustained serious morbidity because of the irradiation. Three patients have had no further rejection (follow-up periods, 105 to 365 days). Two patients died--one in cardiogenic shock during the course of total lymphoid irradiation, the other with recurrent rejection caused by noncompliance with his medical regimen. Total lymphoid irradiation appears to be a safe and a moderately effective immunosuppressive modality for 'salvage' therapy of cardiac allograft rejection unresponsive to conventional therapy

  20. Exhibiting Epistemic Objects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tybjerg, Karin

    2017-01-01

    of exhibiting epistemic objects that utilize their knowledge-generating potential and allow them to continue to stimulate curiosity and generate knowledge in the exhibition. The epistemic potential of the objects can then be made to work together with the function of the exhibition as a knowledge-generating set...

  1. Discrimination? - Exhibition of posters

    OpenAIRE

    Jakimovska, Jana

    2017-01-01

    Participation in the exhibition with the students form the Art Academy. The exhibition consisted of 15 posters tackling the subjects of hate speech and discrimination. The exhibition happened thanks to the invitation of the Faculty of Law at UGD, and it was a part of a larger event of launching books on the aforementioned subjects.

  2. Early lymphoid lesions: conceptual, diagnostic and clinical challenges

    OpenAIRE

    Ganapathi, Karthik A.; Pittaluga, Stefania; Odejide, Oreofe O.; Freedman, Arnold S.; Jaffe, Elaine S.

    2014-01-01

    There are no “benign lymphomas”, a fact due to the nature of lymphoid cells to circulate and home as part of their normal function. Thus, benign clonal expansions of lymphocytes are only rarely recognized when localized. Recent studies have identified a number of lymphoid proliferations that lie at the interface between benign and malignant. Some of these are clonal proliferations that carry many of the molecular hallmarks of their malignant counterparts, such as BCL2/IGH and CCND1/IGH transl...

  3. Superficially located enlarged lymphoid follicles characterise nodular gastritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okamura, Takuma; Sakai, Yasuhiro; Hoshino, Hitomi; Iwaya, Yugo; Tanaka, Eiji; Kobayashi, Motohiro

    2015-01-01

    Nodular gastritis is a form of chronic Helicobacter pylori gastritis affecting the gastric antrum and characterised endoscopically by the presence of small nodular lesions resembling gooseflesh. It is generally accepted that hyperplasia of lymphoid follicles histologically characterises nodular gastritis; however, quantitative analysis in support of this hypothesis has not been reported. Our goal was to determine whether nodular gastritis is characterised by lymphoid follicle hyperplasia.The number, size, and location of lymphoid follicles in nodular gastritis were determined and those properties compared to samples of atrophic gastritis. The percentages of high endothelial venule (HEV)-like vessels were also evaluated.The number of lymphoid follicles was comparable between nodular and atrophic gastritis; however, follicle size in nodular gastritis was significantly greater than that seen in atrophic gastritis. Moreover, lymphoid follicles in nodular gastritis were positioned more superficially than were those in atrophic gastritis. The percentage of MECA-79 HEV-like vessels was greater in areas with gooseflesh-like lesions in nodular versus atrophic gastritis.Superficially located hyperplastic lymphoid follicles characterise nodular gastritis, and these follicles correspond to gooseflesh-like nodular lesions observed endoscopically. These observations suggest that MECA-79 HEV-like vessels could play at least a partial role in the pathogenesis of nodular gastritis.

  4. Lymphoid Aggregates That Resemble Tertiary Lymphoid Organs Define a Specific Pathological Subset in Metal-on-Metal Hip Replacements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barone, Francesca; Hardie, Debbie L.; Matharu, Gulraj S.; Davenport, Alison J.; Martin, Richard A.; Grant, Melissa; Mosselmans, Frederick; Pynsent, Paul; Sumathi, Vaiyapuri P.; Addison, Owen; Revell, Peter A.; Buckley, Christopher D.

    2013-01-01

    Aseptic lymphocyte-dominated vasculitis-associated lesion (ALVAL) has been used to describe the histological lesion associated with metal-on-metal (M-M) bearings. We tested the hypothesis that the lymphoid aggregates, associated with ALVAL lesions resemble tertiary lymphoid organs (TLOs). Histopathological changes were examined in the periprosthetic tissue of 62 M-M hip replacements requiring revision surgery, with particular emphasis on the characteristics and pattern of the lymphocytic infiltrate. Immunofluorescence and immunohistochemistry were used to study the classical features of TLOs in cases where large organized lymphoid follicles were present. Synchrotron X-ray fluorescence (XRF) measurements were undertaken to detect localisation of implant derived ions/particles within the samples. Based on type of lymphocytic infiltrates, three different categories were recognised; diffuse aggregates (51%), T cell aggregates (20%), and organised lymphoid aggregates (29%). Further investigation of tissues with organised lymphoid aggregates showed that these tissues recapitulate many of the features of TLOs with T cells and B cells organised into discrete areas, the presence of follicular dendritic cells, acquisition of high endothelial venule like phenotype by blood vessels, expression of lymphoid chemokines and the presence of plasma cells. Co-localisation of implant-derived metals with lymphoid aggregates was observed. These findings suggest that in addition to the well described general foreign body reaction mediated by macrophages and a T cell mediated type IV hypersensitivity response, an under-recognized immunological reaction to metal wear debris involving B cells and the formation of tertiary lymphoid organs occurs in a distinct subset of patients with M-M implants. PMID:23723985

  5. Immunosuppressive effect of total lymphoid irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bendel, V.; Medizinische Hochschule Hannover

    1981-01-01

    Contrary to the immunosuppression by means of wholebody irradiation which is known for a long while but connected with considerable side effects and risks, the total lymphoid irradiation (TLI) is a new possibility of immunosuppression the tolerance of which by man is known by virtue of long-standing experiences with the treatment of malignant lymphatic system diseases. In connexion with organ transplantations, TLI might possibly soon be important for the radiotherapeutist. In the experimentation on animals, the unspecific immunosuppression induced by TLI causes a prolonged survival time of allogeneic skin and organ grafts in certain mammals. Furthermore, a formation of blood chimeras combined with specific, permanent tolerance of organ grafts from the bone marrow donor can be caused by bone marrow transplantation after TLI. First experiences with man have been made. In the German literature, TLI has not been mentioned yet. In the present study, a summary is given on the Anglo-Saxon literature, and the first own experiments with regard to the problem of irradiation dose and transplantation interval are presented. (orig.) [de

  6. Epigenomic Views of Innate Lymphoid Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sciumè, Giuseppe; Shih, Han-Yu; Mikami, Yohei; O'Shea, John J

    2017-01-01

    The discovery of innate lymphoid cells (ILCs) with selective production of cytokines typically attributed to subsets of T helper cells forces immunologists to reassess the mechanisms by which selective effector functions arise. The parallelism between ILCs and T cells extends beyond these two cell types and comprises other innate-like T lymphocytes. Beyond the recognition of specialized effector functionalities in diverse lymphocytes, features typical of T cells, such as plasticity and memory, are also relevant for innate lymphocytes. Herein, we review what we have learned in terms of the molecular mechanisms underlying these shared functions, focusing on insights provided by next generation sequencing technologies. We review data on the role of lineage-defining- and signal-dependent transcription factors (TFs). ILC regulomes emerge developmentally whereas the much of the open chromatin regions of T cells are generated acutely, in an activation-dependent manner. And yet, these regions of open chromatin in T cells and ILCs have remarkable overlaps, suggesting that though accessibility is acquired by distinct modes, the end result is that convergent signaling pathways may be involved. Although much is left to be learned, substantial progress has been made in understanding how TFs and epigenomic status contribute to ILC biology in terms of differentiation, specification, and plasticity.

  7. Identification of Cytological Features Distinguishing Mucosa-Associated Lymphoid Tissue Lymphoma from Reactive Lymphoid Proliferation Using Thyroid Liquid-Based Cytology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Ayana; Hirokawa, Mitsuyoshi; Ito, Aki; Takada, Nami; Higuchi, Miyoko; Hayashi, Toshitetsu; Kuma, Seiji; Miyauchi, Akira

    2018-01-01

    Objective To identify cytological differences between mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma (MALT-L) and nonneoplastic lymphocytes using thyroid liquid-based cytology (LBC). Study Design We observed LBC and conventional specimens from 35 MALT-L cases, 3 diffuse large B-cell cell lymphoma (DLBCL) cases, and 44 prominent nonneoplastic lymphocytic infiltration cases. Results In MALT-L cases, the incidence of lymphoglandular bodies in the LBC specimens was lower than that in the conventional specimens (p 10% of the lymphoid cells in LBC specimens. Two cases with prominent nonneoplastic lymphocytic infiltration also exhibited these findings. In LBC specimens, swollen naked nuclei with less punctate chromatin patterns and thin nuclear margins were observed in 92.1% of lymphoma and 20.5% of prominent nonneoplastic lymphocytic infiltration. Elongated nuclei were significantly more apparent in thyroid lymphoma than in prominent nonneoplastic lymphocytic infiltration (p < 0.001), with a significantly higher incidence in LBC specimens than in conventional specimens (p < 0.001). Conclusions Lymphoglandular bodies are not reliable markers for lymphoma diagnosis using LBC specimens. Large, swollen naked, and elongated nuclei are useful in distinguishing thyroid lymphoma from nonneoplastic lymphocytes in LBC specimens. PMID:29597203

  8. Identification of Cytological Features Distinguishing Mucosa-Associated Lymphoid Tissue Lymphoma from Reactive Lymphoid Proliferation Using Thyroid Liquid-Based Cytology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Ayana; Hirokawa, Mitsuyoshi; Ito, Aki; Takada, Nami; Higuchi, Miyoko; Hayashi, Toshitetsu; Kuma, Seiji; Miyauchi, Akira

    2018-01-01

    To identify cytological differences between mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma (MALT-L) and nonneoplastic lymphocytes using thyroid liquid-based cytology (LBC). We observed LBC and conventional specimens from 35 MALT-L cases, 3 diffuse large B-cell cell lymphoma (DLBCL) cases, and 44 prominent nonneoplastic lymphocytic infiltration cases. In MALT-L cases, the incidence of lymphoglandular bodies in the LBC specimens was lower than that in the conventional specimens (p 10% of the lymphoid cells in LBC specimens. Two cases with prominent nonneoplastic lymphocytic infiltration also exhibited these findings. In LBC specimens, swollen naked nuclei with less punctate chromatin patterns and thin nuclear margins were observed in 92.1% of lymphoma and 20.5% of prominent nonneoplastic lymphocytic infiltration. Elongated nuclei were significantly more apparent in thyroid lymphoma than in prominent nonneoplastic lymphocytic infiltration (p < 0.001), with a significantly higher incidence in LBC specimens than in conventional specimens (p < 0.001). Lymphoglandular bodies are not reliable markers for lymphoma diagnosis using LBC specimens. Large, swollen naked, and elongated nuclei are useful in distinguishing thyroid lymphoma from nonneoplastic lymphocytes in LBC specimens. © 2018 The Author(s) Published by S. Karger AG, Basell.

  9. Molecular pathology of chondroid neoplasms: part 1, benign lesions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bell, W.C. [University of Alabama at Birmingham, Department of Pathology, Birmingham, AL (United States); University of Alabama at Birmingham, Center for Metabolic Bone Disease, Birmingham, AL (United States); University of Alabama at Birmingham, Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Birmingham, AL (United States); Klein, M.J. [University of Alabama at Birmingham, Center for Metabolic Bone Disease, Birmingham, AL (United States); University of Alabama at Birmingham, Department of Pathology, Birmingham, AL (United States); University of Alabama at Birmingham, Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Birmingham, AL (United States); Pitt, M.J. [University of Alabama at Birmingham, Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Birmingham, AL (United States); University of Alabama at Birmingham, Center for Metabolic Bone Disease, Birmingham, AL (United States); Siegal, G.P. [University of Alabama at Birmingham, Departments of Pathology, Cell Biology, and Surgery, and the Center for Metabolic Bone Disease, Birmingham, AL (United States)

    2006-11-15

    This two-part review presents an overview of the molecular findings associated with both benign and malignant chondroid neoplasms. This first part presents a brief review of methods in molecular pathology along with a review of the cytogenetic and molecular genetic findings in benign chondroid neoplasms. Clinical aspects of the various lesions are briefly discussed, and each tumor is illustrated with representative radiographic and pathologic images. Malignant chondroid neoplasms will be considered in the second part of this review. (orig.)

  10. Molecular pathology of chondroid neoplasms: part 1, benign lesions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bell, W.C.; Klein, M.J.; Pitt, M.J.; Siegal, G.P.

    2006-01-01

    This two-part review presents an overview of the molecular findings associated with both benign and malignant chondroid neoplasms. This first part presents a brief review of methods in molecular pathology along with a review of the cytogenetic and molecular genetic findings in benign chondroid neoplasms. Clinical aspects of the various lesions are briefly discussed, and each tumor is illustrated with representative radiographic and pathologic images. Malignant chondroid neoplasms will be considered in the second part of this review. (orig.)

  11. Metastases in cranean of differential neoplasm tyroids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lopez Chapuis, D.; Garrido Vazquez, P.; Vallverdu Carbajal, M.

    1994-01-01

    Two cases of matastases are presented in cranial calota of differentiated neoplasm of tyroids, one of them without other distance lesions ,in which the cranial tumours was the element that it take was to the diagnose. For the local control the surgical resection of the metastasis is recommended in calota, associated to external radiotherapy , while that the total thyroidectomy allows the detection and treatment of other metastasis with Iodine. In this situation the prediction it is unfavourable, with a half survive of 4,5 year(AU) [es

  12. Treatment of hepatic neoplasm through extrahepatic collaterals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soo, C.S.; Chuang, V.P.; Wallace, S.; Charnsangavej, C.; Carrasco, H.

    1983-04-01

    Twenty-nine patients with hepatic artery occlusion were treated with additional hepatic infusion or embolization through extrahepatic collaterals. Seventeen courses of hepatic infusion were performed in 13 patients through the inferior pancreaticoduodenal artery, left gastric artery, or right gastric artery. Twenty-five hepatic embolization procedures were performed in 16 patients through the right and left phrenic arteries, left and right gastric arteries, pancreaticoduodenal artery, gastroduodenal artery, or omentoepiploic artery. In one patient gastric ulcers developed following left gastric artery infusion. No complication related to the embolization procedure was observed in the embolization group. The extrahepatic collaterals are important alternative routes for continuous transcatheter management of hepatic neoplasms following hepatic artery occlusion.

  13. Treatment of hepatic neoplasm through extrahepatic collaterals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soo, C.S.; Chuang, V.P.; Wallace, S.; Charnsangavej, C.; Carrasco, H.

    1983-01-01

    Twenty-nine patients with hepatic artery occlusion were treated with additional hepatic infusion or embolization through extrahepatic collaterals. Seventeen courses of hepatic infusion were performed in 13 patients through the inferior pancreaticoduodenal artery, left gastric artery, or right gastric artery. Twenty-five hepatic embolization procedures were performed in 16 patients through the right and left phrenic arteries, left and right gastric arteries, pancreaticoduodenal artery, gastroduodenal artery, or omentoepiploic artery. In one patient gastric ulcers developed following left gastric artery infusion. No complication related to the embolization procedure was observed in the embolization group. The extrahepatic collaterals are important alternative routes for continuous transcatheter management of hepatic neoplasms following hepatic artery occlusion

  14. Four types of neoplasms in Asian sea bass (Lates calcarifer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramalingam Vijayakumar

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To describe and observe four types of neoplasms on different parts (external and internal organs of an Asian sea bass (Lates calcarifer. Methods: The sample was collected from local fish landing center (south east coast of India. Histopathology of normal and tumour tissues were analyzed. Results: A total of 83 tumour masses (neoplasm were recorded on the fish skin, also the neoplasms were recorded in internal organs of fish such as liver, stomach and ovary. Conclusions: Aetiology of such neoplasm’s are unknown, further more researches need to confirm the causative agent for this type of neoplasm.

  15. Unusual cystic pancreatic neoplasms -image-pathological correlations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hilendarov, A.; Simova, E.; Petrova, A.; Traikova, N.; Deenichin, G.

    2013-01-01

    The aim is to present the variety of signs and symptoms from the diagnostic imaging methods of atypical neoplasms of the pancreas, presented as a type of cystic lesions. This often leads to unnecessary surgery or inappropriate tracking. In 115 patients (85 men and 30 women) with cystic lesions of the pancreas ultrasonic (US),computer tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) were performed and verified through histological and macroscopic pathology preparations. The ultrasound machines equipped with linear and convex transducers, MDCT and MRI imaging systems were used. In 14 of 115 patients atypical neoplasms of the pancreas were diagnosed: two cases with macroscopic serous cystic neoplasms, two nonmucinous cystic neoplasms, two hemorrhagic mucinous neoplasms, two ductal adenocarcinomas with cystic changes, one islet cell cystic tumor, two lymphoepithetial cysts, one lymphangioma, one solid papillary epithelial neoplasm and one mucinous adenocarcinoma. The authors take into consideration and overlapping of clinical symptoms and laboratory tests. Although much of the imaging features and morphological characteristics of cystic neoplasms of the pancreas are well known, should be known about the atypical unusual images in so-called 'typical' cystic neoplasms, cystic images in solid neoplasms and various atypical tumors with cystic lesions. (authors)

  16. Management of solid-pseudopapillary neoplasms of the pancreas: a comparison with standard pancreatic neoplasms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Castro, S. M. M.; Singhal, D.; Aronson, D. C.; Busch, O. R. C.; van Gulik, T. M.; Obertop, H.; Gouma, D. J.

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Solid-pseudopapillary neoplasms (SPNs) of the pancreas are increasingly diagnosed, but the exact surgical management in terms of extent of the resection is not well defined. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Patients operated on in our hospital between January 1993 and March 2005 formed the study

  17. Two-dimensional analysis of metabolically and cell surface radiolabeled proteins of some human lymphoid and myeloid leukemia cell lines. II. Glycosylated and phosphorylated proteins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chorvath, B; Duraj, J; Sedlak, J; Pleskova, I

    1986-01-01

    Cell surface glycoproteins, radiolabelled by the sodium metaperiodate/tritiated borohydride technique, and cell phosphoproteins, metabolically radiolabelled with /sup 32/P-orthophosphate were analyzed by two-dimensional electrophoretic analysis in some myeloid and lymphoid leukemia cell lines. Some markedly expressed major glycoproteins were predominant in some of the cell lines (such as 95k and 100k glycoproteins with marked charge heterogeneity in non-T, non-B acute lymphoblastic leukemia cell lines NALM 6 and NALM 16), but markedly quantitatively reduced in other examined cell lines, such as lymphoblastoid cell line UHKT 34/2. /sup 32/P-orthophosphate radiolabelled phosphoprotein two-dimensional patterns of the examined lymphoid leukemia cell lines were essentially similar, with some minor differences, in examined lymphoid and myeloid leukemia cell lines, such as marked expression of a series of large phosphoproteins in the molecular weight range 80-100k in lymphoid cell lines and almost complete absence of these phosphoproteins on the examined myeloid leukemia cell lines. Another configuration of acidic phosphoproteins (30-35k) exhibited individual cell line variability and differences between both individual myeloid leukemia cell lines and between the lymphoid and myeloid cell lines examined. (author) 2 figs., 15 refs.

  18. Ageing combines CD4 T cell lymphopenia in secondary lymphoid organs and T cell accumulation in gut associated lymphoid tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinet, Kim Zita; Bloquet, Stéphane; Bourgeois, Christine

    2014-01-01

    CD4 T cell lymphopenia is an important T cell defect associated to ageing. Higher susceptibility to infections, cancer, or autoimmune pathologies described in aged individuals is thought to partly rely on T cell lymphopenia. We hypothesize that such diverse effects may reflect anatomical heterogeneity of age related T cell lymphopenia. Indeed, no data are currently available on the impact of ageing on T cell pool recovered from gut associated lymphoid tissue (GALT), a crucial site of CD4 T cell accumulation. Primary, secondary and tertiary lymphoid organs of C57BL/6 animals were analysed at three intervals of ages: 2 to 6 months (young), 10 to 14 months (middle-aged) and 22 to 26 months (old). We confirmed that ageing preferentially impacted CD4 T cell compartment in secondary lymphoid organs. Importantly, a different picture emerged from gut associated mucosal sites: during ageing, CD4 T cell accumulation was progressively developing in colon and small intestine lamina propria and Peyer's patches. Similar trend was also observed in middle-aged SJL/B6 F1 mice. Interestingly, an inverse correlation was detected between CD4 T cell numbers in secondary lymphoid organs and colonic lamina propria of C57BL/6 mice whereas no increase in proliferation rate of GALT CD4 T cells was detected. In contrast to GALT, no CD4 T cell accumulation was detected in lungs and liver in middle-aged animals. Finally, the concomitant accumulation of CD4 T cell in GALT and depletion in secondary lymphoid organs during ageing was detected both in male and female animals. Our data thus demonstrate that T cell lymphopenia in secondary lymphoid organs currently associated to ageing is not sustained in gut or lung mucosa associated lymphoid tissues or non-lymphoid sites such as the liver. The inverse correlation between CD4 T cell numbers in secondary lymphoid organs and colonic lamina propria and the absence of overt proliferation in GALT suggest that marked CD4 T cell decay in secondary

  19. Exhibition; Image display agency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Normazlin Ismail

    2008-01-01

    This article touches on the role of Malaysian Nuclear Agency as nuclear research institutions to promote, develop and encourage the peaceful uses of nuclear technology in its agricultural, medical, manufacturing, industrial, health and environment for the development of the country running successfully. Maturity of Malaysian Nuclear Agency in dealing with nuclear technology that are very competitive and globalization cannot be denied. On this basis Malaysian Nuclear Agency was given the responsibility to strengthen the nuclear technology in Malaysia. One way is through an exhibition featuring the research, discoveries and new technology products of the nuclear technology. Through this exhibition is to promote the nuclear technology and introduce the image of the agency in the public eye. This article also states a number of exhibits entered by the Malaysian Nuclear Agency and achievements during the last exhibition. Authors hope that the exhibition can be intensified further in the future.

  20. Osseous pseudo-myelomatose compromise, in leukemia chronic lymphoid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martinez Betancur, Octavio; Lopez de Goenaga, Maria Ines

    2000-01-01

    It was described a case of chronic lymphocytic leukemia in a 75 year old man, with pseudomyelomatosis osteolytic lesions in the skull, excluding other potential causes of osteolytic lesions in the clinical context of malignant lymphoproliferative neoplasm. The real frequency of osseous compromise in chronic lymphocytic leukemia is 10%. Lesions are defined as generalized osteoporosis and osteolysis with lacunar aspect, similar to myeloma lesions. Because histopathology in lymphoproliferative neoplasms may be similar, it might be difficult to diagnose chronic lymphocytic leukemia certainly, if the clinical manifestations are not considered. Differential diagnosis with other lymphoproliferative neoplasm is based basically in absolute lymphocytosis greater than 10 X 109/L, with lymphocytes with mature appearance

  1. Peptichemio in pretreated patients with plasmacell neoplasms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paccagnella, A; Salvagno, L; Chiarion-Sileni, V; Bolzonella, S; De Besi, P; Frizzarin, M; Pappagallo, G L; Fosser, V P; Fornasiero, A; Segati, R

    1986-09-01

    Twenty-one patients with alkylator-resistant plasmacell neoplasms were treated with Peptichemio (PTC) at a dose of 40 mg/m2 for 3 days every 3 weeks or, in the case of persistent leukopenia and/or thrombocytopenia, at the single dose of 70 mg/m2 every 2-3 weeks according to haematological recovery. Seventeen patients, 10 with multiple myeloma and seven with extramedullary plasmacytoma (EMP), were fully evaluable. Six of 17 patients (35%) responded: three of seven EMP patients had a complete remission and 3 of 10 multiple myeloma patients had an objective response greater than 50%. The median duration of response was 8.5 months. An EMP patient obtained a complete response lasting for 16 months. The most frequent toxic effect were phlebosclerosis, occurring in all the patients, and myelosuppression, which was severe in only one case. PTC appears to be an active drug in patients with plasmacell neoplasms even if resistant to alkylating agents.

  2. Total lymphoid irradiation for multiple sclerosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Devereux, C.K.; Vidaver, R.; Hafstein, M.P.; Zito, G.; Troiano, R.; Dowling, P.C.; Cook, S.D.

    1988-01-01

    Although chemical immunosuppression has been shown to benefit patients with chronic progressive multiple sclerosis (MS), it appears that chemotherapy has an appreciable oncogenic potential in patients with multiple sclerosis. Accordingly, we developed a modified total lymphoid irradiation (TLI) regimen designed to reduce toxicity and applied it to a randomized double blind trial of TLI or sham irradiation in MS. Standard TLI regimens were modified to reduce dose to 1,980 rad, lowering the superior mantle margin to midway between the thyroid cartilage and angle of the mandible (to avert xerostomia) and the lower margin of the mantle field to the inferior margin of L1 (to reduce gastrointestinal toxicity by dividing abdominal radiation between mantle and inverted Y), limiting spinal cord dose to 1,000 rad by custom-made spine blocks in the mantle and upper 2 cm of inverted Y fields, and also protecting the left kidney even if part of the spleen were shielded. Clinical efficacy was documented by the less frequent functional scale deterioration of 20 TLI treated patients with chronic progressive MS compared to to 20 sham-irradiated progressive MS patients after 12 months (16% versus 55%, p less than 0.03), 18 months (28% versus 63%, p less than 0.03), and 24 months (44% versus 74%, N.S.). Therapeutic benefit during 3 years follow-up was related to the reduction in lymphocyte count 3 months post-irradiation (p less than 0.02). Toxicity was generally mild and transient, with no instance of xerostomia, pericarditis, herpes zoster, or need to terminate treatment in TLI patients. However, menopause was induced in 2 patients and staphylococcal pneumonia in one

  3. Close Encounters of Lymphoid Cells and Bacteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruz-Adalia, Aranzazu; Veiga, Esteban

    2016-01-01

    During infections, the first reaction of the host against microbial pathogens is carried out by innate immune cells, which recognize conserved structures on pathogens, called pathogen-associated molecular patterns. Afterward, some of these innate cells can phagocytose and destroy the pathogens, secreting cytokines that would modulate the immune response to the challenge. This rapid response is normally followed by the adaptive immunity, more specific and essential for a complete pathogen clearance in many cases. Some innate immune cells, usually named antigen-presenting cells, such as macrophages or dendritic cells, are able to process internalized invaders and present their antigens to lymphocytes, triggering the adaptive immune response. Nevertheless, the traditional boundary of separated roles between innate and adaptive immunity has been blurred by several studies, showing that very specialized populations of lymphocytes (cells of the adaptive immunity) behave similarly to cells of the innate immunity. These “innate-like” lymphocytes include γδ T cells, invariant NKT cells, B-1 cells, mucosal-associated invariant T cells, marginal zone B cells, and innate response activator cells, and together with the newly described innate lymphoid cells are able to rapidly respond to bacterial infections. Strikingly, our recent data suggest that conventional CD4+ T cells, the paradigm of cells of the adaptive immunity, also present innate-like behavior, capturing bacteria in a process called transinfection. Transinfected CD4+ T cells digest internalized bacteria like professional phagocytes and secrete large amounts of proinflammatory cytokines, protecting for further bacterial challenges. In the present review, we will focus on the data showing such innate-like behavior of lymphocytes following bacteria encounter. PMID:27774092

  4. Characterization of nasal cavity-associated lymphoid tissue in ducks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Haihong; Yan, Mengfei; Yu, Qinghua; Yang, Qian

    2014-05-01

    The nasal mucosa is involved in immune defense, as it is the first barrier for pathogens entering the body through the respiratory tract. The nasal cavity-associated lymphoid tissue (NALT), which is found in the mucosa of the nasal cavity, is considered to be the main mucosal immune inductive site in the upper respiratory tract. NALT has been found in humans and many mammals, which contributes to local and systemic immune responses after intranasal vaccination. However, there are very few data on NALT in avian species, especially waterfowl. For this study, histological sections of the nasal cavities of Cherry Valley ducks were used to examine the anatomical location and histological characteristics of NALT. The results showed that several lymphoid aggregates are present in the ventral wall of the nasal cavity near the choanal cleft, whereas several more lymphoid aggregates were located on both sides of the nasal septum. In addition, randomly distributed intraepithelial lymphocytes and isolated lymphoid follicles were observed in the regio respiratoria of the nasal cavity. There were also a few lymphoid aggregates located in the lamina propria of the regio vestibularis, which was covered with a stratified squamous epithelium. This study focused on the anatomic and histological characteristics of the nasal cavity of the duck and performed a systemic overview of NALT. This will be beneficial for further understanding of immune mechanisms after nasal vaccination and the development of effective nasal vaccines for waterfowls. Copyright © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasms of the pancreas: reporting clinically relevant features.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Chiaro, Marco; Verbeke, Caroline

    2017-05-01

    Intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasms (IPMNs) of the pancreas can exhibit a wide spectrum of macroscopic and microscopic appearances. This not only causes occasional difficulties for the reporting pathologist in distinguishing these tumours from other lesions, but is also relevant clinically. As evidence accumulates, it becomes clear that multiple macroscopic and histological features of these neoplasms are relevant to the risk for malignant transformation and, consequently, of prime importance for clinical patient management. The need for detailed reporting is therefore increasing. This review discusses the panoply of gross and microscopic features of IPMN as well as the recommendations from recent consensus meetings regarding the pathology reporting on this tumour entity. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Hidradenocarcinoma: A Rare Sweat Gland Neoplasm Presenting as Small Turban Tumor of the Scalp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asati, Dinesh P; Brahmachari, Swagata; Kudligi, Chandramohan; Gupta, Chandramohan

    2015-01-01

    Hidradenocarcinomas are very rare malignant sweat gland tumors that possess an infiltrative and/or low metastatic potential. Here we describe an interesting case of hidradenoma on the fronto-parietal region of the scalp of an elderly female, part of which had developed carcinomatous changes, infiltrating up to the pericranium. She developed intense itching, pain, spontaneous ulceration and rapid increase in the size of the tumor correlating with the expression of malignant behavior of the neoplasm. An initial incision biopsy suggested features of benign poroid hidradenoma, while the histology from the excised tumor exhibited a fairly well circumscribed epithelial neoplasm in dermis consisting of interconnected nodules as well as differentiated ducts, the neoplastic cells showing mild pleomorphism of nuclei, mitotic figures and abundant pale cytoplasm. Clefts, sclerotic stroma and foci of necrosis en mass were also seen. The final diagnosis was a well differentiated and slow growing hidradenocarcinoma. The tumor recurred locally despite total excision.

  7. Hidradenocarcinoma: A rare sweat gland neoplasm presenting as small turban tumor of the scalp

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dinesh P Asati

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Hidradenocarcinomas are very rare malignant sweat gland tumors that possess an infiltrative and/or low metastatic potential. Here we describe an interesting case of hidradenoma on the fronto-parietal region of the scalp of an elderly female, part of which had developed carcinomatous changes, infiltrating up to the pericranium. She developed intense itching, pain, spontaneous ulceration and rapid increase in the size of the tumor correlating with the expression of malignant behavior of the neoplasm. An initial incision biopsy suggested features of benign poroid hidradenoma, while the histology from the excised tumor exhibited a fairly well circumscribed epithelial neoplasm in dermis consisting of interconnected nodules as well as differentiated ducts, the neoplastic cells showing mild pleomorphism of nuclei, mitotic figures and abundant pale cytoplasm. Clefts, sclerotic stroma and foci of necrosis en mass were also seen. The final diagnosis was a well differentiated and slow growing hidradenocarcinoma. The tumor recurred locally despite total excision.

  8. Plasma Cell Neoplasms (Including Multiple Myeloma)—Patient Version

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plasma cell neoplasms occur when abnormal plasma cells form cancerous tumors. When there is only one tumor, the disease is called a plasmacytoma. When there are multiple tumors, it is called multiple myeloma. Start here to find information on plasma cell neoplasms treatment, research, and statistics.

  9. [Closed needle-biopsy in the diagnosis of neoplasms].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sforza, M; Perelli Ercolini, M; Beani, G

    1979-04-01

    The AA. demonstrate with this communication the validity of the needle biopsie for the diagnosis of neoplasms. They had used it for the breast, thyroid, flg and some other superficial tumefactions. In the mass-screening for the feminine neoplasms the clinical examination and the needle biopsy are very good method for a careful diagnosis.

  10. Characteristic radionuclide appearance of certain pediatric central nervous system neoplasms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Conway, J.J.

    1974-01-01

    The results of 5 years experience in the localization of brain neoplasms in children are summarized. The radiopharmaceutical of choice was /sup 99m/Tc-labeled pertechnetate administered in a dosage of 100μ Ci/lb. The appearance of the most common neoplasms of the central nervous system in childhood is characterized. (U.S.)

  11. [Rectal tonsil or lymphoid follicular hyperplasia of the rectum].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trillo Fandiño, L; Arias González, M; Iglesias Castañón, A; Fernández Eire, M P

    2014-01-01

    The rectal tonsil is a reactive proliferation of lymphoid tissue located in the rectum. The morphology of the lymphoid proliferation of the colon is usually polypoid or, less commonly, nodular. Only in exceptional cases does lymphoid proliferation of the colon present as a mass in the rectum (rectal tonsil), although this is the most common presentation in middle-aged patients. It is important to be familiar with the rectal tonsil because in cases of exuberant growth it can be difficult to distinguish it from other types of masses. We present the case of rectal tonsil in a four-year-old girl. We describe the magnetic resonance imaging findings and review the literature. Copyright © 2011 SERAM. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  12. Induction and Analysis of Bronchus-Associated Lymphoid Tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleige, Henrike; Förster, Reinhold

    2017-01-01

    Bronchus-associated lymphoid tissue (BALT) forms spontaneously in the lung after pulmonary infection and has been identified as a highly organized lymphoid structure supporting the efficient priming of T cells in the lung. To explore the mechanisms and instructive signals controlling BALT neogenesis we used both, a single dose of vaccinia virus MVA and repeated inhalations of heat-inactivated Pseudomonas aeruginosa (P. aeruginosa). Intranasal administration of both pathogens induces highly organized BALT but distinct pathways and molecules are used to promote the development of BALT. Here, we describe the induction and phenotype of the distinct types of BALT as well as the immunofluorescence microscopy-based analysis of the induced lymphoid tissue in the lung.

  13. Multiple neoplasms, single primaries, and patient survival

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amer MH

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Magid H Amer Department of Medicine, St Rita's Medical Center, Lima, OH, USA Background: Multiple primary neoplasms in surviving cancer patients are relatively common, with an increasing incidence. Their impact on survival has not been clearly defined. Methods: This was a retrospective review of clinical data for all consecutive patients with histologically confirmed cancer, with emphasis on single versus multiple primary neoplasms. Second primaries discovered at the workup of the index (first primary were termed simultaneous, if discovered within 6 months of the index primary were called synchronous, and if discovered after 6 months were termed metachronous. Results: Between 2005 and 2012, of 1,873 cancer patients, 322 developed second malignancies; these included two primaries (n=284, and three or more primaries (n=38. Forty-seven patients had synchronous primaries and 275 had metachronous primaries. Patients with multiple primaries were predominantly of Caucasian ancestry (91.0%, with a tendency to develop thrombosis (20.2%, had a strong family history of similar cancer (22.3%, and usually presented with earlier stage 0 through stage II disease (78.9%. When compared with 1,551 patients with a single primary, these figures were 8.9%, 15.6%, 18.3%, and 50.9%, respectively (P≤0.001. Five-year survival rates were higher for metachronous cancers (95% than for synchronous primaries (59% and single primaries (59%. The worst survival rate was for simultaneous concomitant multiple primaries, being a median of 1.9 years. The best survival was for patients with three or more primaries (median 10.9 years and was similar to the expected survival for the age-matched and sex-matched general population (P=0.06991. Conclusion: Patients with multiple primaries are usually of Caucasian ancestry, have less aggressive malignancies, present at earlier stages, frequently have a strong family history of similar cancer, and their cancers tend to have indolent

  14. B lymphocyte autoimmunity in rheumatoid synovitis is independent of ectopic lymphoid neogenesis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cantaert, Tineke; Kolln, Johanna; Timmer, Trieneke; van der Pouw Kraan, Tineke C.; Vandooren, Bernard; Thurlings, Rogier M.; Cañete, Juan D.; Catrina, Anca I.; Out, Theo; Verweij, Cor L.; Zhang, Yiping; Tak, Paul P.; Baeten, Dominique

    2008-01-01

    B lymphocyte autoimmunity plays a crucial role in the pathogenesis of rheumatoid arthritis. The local production of autoantibodies and the presence of ectopic lymphoid neogenesis in the rheumatoid synovium suggest that these dedicated microenvironments resembling canonical lymphoid follicles may

  15. Innate Lymphoid Cells in Intestinal Inflammation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geremia, Alessandra; Arancibia-Cárcamo, Carolina V.

    2017-01-01

    Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is a chronic inflammatory disorder of the intestine that encompasses Crohn’s disease (CD) and ulcerative colitis. The cause of IBD is unknown, but the evidence suggests that an aberrant immune response toward the commensal bacterial flora is responsible for disease in genetically susceptible individuals. Results from animal models of colitis and human studies indicate a role for innate lymphoid cells (ILC) in the pathogenesis of chronic intestinal inflammation in IBD. ILC are a population of lymphocytes that are enriched at mucosal sites, where they play a protective role against pathogens including extracellular bacteria, helminthes, and viruses. ILC lack an antigen-specific receptor, but can respond to environmental stress signals contributing to the rapid orchestration of an early immune response. Several subsets of ILC reflecting functional characteristics of T helper subsets have been described. ILC1 express the transcription factor T-bet and are characterized by secretion of IFNγ, ILC2 are GATA3+ and secrete IL5 and IL13 and ILC3 depend on expression of RORγt and secrete IL17 and IL22. However, ILC retain a degree of plasticity depending on exposure to cytokines and environmental factors. IL23 responsive ILC have been implicated in the pathogenesis of colitis in several innate murine models through the production of IL17, IFNγ, and GM-CSF. We have previously identified IL23 responsive ILC in the human intestine and found that they accumulate in the inflamed colon and small bowel of patients with CD. Other studies have confirmed accumulation of ILC in CD with increased frequencies of IFNγ-secreting ILC1 in both the intestinal lamina propria and the epithelium. Moreover, IL23 driven IL22 producing ILC have been shown to drive bacteria-induced colitis-associated cancer in mice. Interestingly, our data show increased ILC accumulation in patients with IBD and primary sclerosing cholangitis, who carry an increased risk of

  16. Innate Lymphoid Cells in Intestinal Inflammation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandra Geremia

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD is a chronic inflammatory disorder of the intestine that encompasses Crohn’s disease (CD and ulcerative colitis. The cause of IBD is unknown, but the evidence suggests that an aberrant immune response toward the commensal bacterial flora is responsible for disease in genetically susceptible individuals. Results from animal models of colitis and human studies indicate a role for innate lymphoid cells (ILC in the pathogenesis of chronic intestinal inflammation in IBD. ILC are a population of lymphocytes that are enriched at mucosal sites, where they play a protective role against pathogens including extracellular bacteria, helminthes, and viruses. ILC lack an antigen-specific receptor, but can respond to environmental stress signals contributing to the rapid orchestration of an early immune response. Several subsets of ILC reflecting functional characteristics of T helper subsets have been described. ILC1 express the transcription factor T-bet and are characterized by secretion of IFNγ, ILC2 are GATA3+ and secrete IL5 and IL13 and ILC3 depend on expression of RORγt and secrete IL17 and IL22. However, ILC retain a degree of plasticity depending on exposure to cytokines and environmental factors. IL23 responsive ILC have been implicated in the pathogenesis of colitis in several innate murine models through the production of IL17, IFNγ, and GM-CSF. We have previously identified IL23 responsive ILC in the human intestine and found that they accumulate in the inflamed colon and small bowel of patients with CD. Other studies have confirmed accumulation of ILC in CD with increased frequencies of IFNγ-secreting ILC1 in both the intestinal lamina propria and the epithelium. Moreover, IL23 driven IL22 producing ILC have been shown to drive bacteria-induced colitis-associated cancer in mice. Interestingly, our data show increased ILC accumulation in patients with IBD and primary sclerosing cholangitis, who carry an

  17. Council Chamber exhibition

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN Bulletin

    2010-01-01

    To complete the revamp of CERN’s Council Chamber, a new exhibition is being installed just in time for the June Council meetings.   Panels will showcase highlights of CERN’s history, using some of the content prepared for the exhibitions marking 50 years of the PS, which were displayed in the main building last November. The previous photo exhibition in the Council Chamber stopped at the 1970s. To avoid the new panels becoming quickly out of date, photos are grouped together around specific infrastructures, rather than following a classic time-line. “We have put the focus on the accelerators – the world-class facilities that CERN has been offering researchers over the years, from the well-known large colliders to the lesser-known smaller facilities,” says Emma Sanders, who worked on the content. The new exhibition will be featured in a future issue of the Bulletin with photos and an interview with Fabienne Marcastel, designer of the exhibit...

  18. EXHIBITION: Accelerated Particles

    CERN Multimedia

    2004-01-01

    An exhibition of plastic arts and two evenings of performances by sound and visual artists as part of CERN's 50th anniversary celebrations. Fifty candles for CERN, an international laboratory renowned for fundamental research, is a cause for celebration. Since March this year, Geneva and neighbouring parts of France have been the venues for a wealth of small and large-scale events, which will continue until November. Given CERN's location in the commune of Meyrin, the ForuMeyrin is hosting exhibitions of plastic arts and performances entitled: Accelerated Particles. Several works will be exhibited and performed in two 'salons'. Salon des matières: An exhibition of plastic arts From Tues 12 October to Wed 3 November 2004 Tuesdays to Fridays: 16:00 to 19:00 Saturdays: 14:00 to 18:00 Exhibition open late on performance nights, entrance free Salon des particules: Musical and visual performances Tues 12 and Mon 25 October from 20:00 to 23:00 Preview evening for both events: Tues 12 October from 18:...

  19. Zosteriform cutaneous leiomyoma: a rare cutaneous neoplasm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bari, A.U.

    2013-01-01

    Cutaneous leiomyomas are firm, round to oval, skin-coloured to brownish papules and nodules that may present as a solitary, few discrete or multiple clustered lesions. Different uncommon patterns of multiple leiomyoma distribution have been noted as bilateral, symmetrical, linear, zosteriform, or dermatomal-like arrangement. One such rare presentation was seen in a 23-year-old patient who presented with zosteriform skin coloured, occasionally painful cutaneous lesions over left shoulder region. Histopathology confirmed the diagnosis of cutaneous leiomyoma. He was symptomatically managed with non-steroidal anti-inflammatory agents and topical capcicum cream. Case is reported here due to rare occurrence of this benign cutaneous neoplasm in an atypical pattern and on uncommon site. (author)

  20. Radioisotope diagnostics of neoplasms in children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mechev, D.S.; Sinyuta, B.T.; Borisyuk, T.B.

    1982-01-01

    On the basis of radioisotope studies of 111 children with neoplasms of locomotor system, retroperitoneal space, maxillofacial region and neck, the limits and possibilities of the method of positive radiodiagnostics with short-life radionuclides sup(99M)Tc pertechnetate and 99 Tc pyrophosphate have been analyzed. It is pointed out that sensitivity of the investigation method with sup(99M)Tc pyrophosphate is higher (91.6%) than that of the method with 99 Tc pertechnetate (84.5%). Specificity of the investigation method with 99 Tc p.ertechnetate is higher (71.5%) than that of the method with sup(99M)Tc pyrophosphate (30%). The method of positive radiodiagnostics is characterized by safety, atraumatism, low radiation burdens and possibility of its realization in ambulatory conditions

  1. Rectal neoplasms. Postoperative follow-up

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Galano Urgelles, Rolando; Rodriguez Fernandez, Zenen; Casaus Prieto, Arbelio

    1997-01-01

    A study of 31 patients operated on for rectal neoplasms between September, 1989 and September, 1995 in SantiAug de Cuba was performed. Patients Webre followed-up during this period for the purpose of the study. There was a frank predominance of males and ages between 45 and 64, of the stage II and the groups BI and BII according to Dukes' classification. Most patients received 5-fluoracil, without tumor relapses. The current survival rate of the series was 76 % at the end of the investigation. It is recommended that all patients operated on for this segment be followed-up after the operation; to continue with cytostatic treatment using 5-fluoracil, and to emphasize the importance of the use of tumor markers during the follow-up, in addition to transrectal ultrasound, as well as to make an early diagnosis through mass screening methods

  2. Surgical and molecular pathology of pancreatic neoplasms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hackeng, Wenzel M; Hruban, Ralph H; Offerhaus, G Johan A; Brosens, Lodewijk A A

    2016-06-07

    Histologic characteristics have proven to be very useful for classifying different types of tumors of the pancreas. As a result, the major tumor types in the pancreas have long been classified based on their microscopic appearance. Recent advances in whole exome sequencing, gene expression profiling, and knowledge of tumorigenic pathways have deepened our understanding of the underlying biology of pancreatic neoplasia. These advances have not only confirmed the traditional histologic classification system, but also opened new doors to early diagnosis and targeted treatment. This review discusses the histopathology, genetic and epigenetic alterations and potential treatment targets of the five major malignant pancreatic tumors - pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma, pancreatic neuroendocrine tumor, solid-pseudopapillary neoplasm, acinar cell carcinoma and pancreatoblastoma.

  3. Prognostic factors in childhood intracranial neoplasms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ampil, F.L.

    1987-01-01

    Thirty-six cases of primary intracranial neoplasm in children (over 1 year but under 13 years of age) seen at the university medical center between 1951 and 1982 were reviewed because of concern as to the results and after-effects of applied therapy. The overall 5-year actuarial survival rate was 17 %. Several factors of possible prognostic relevance, such as patient's age, intracranial location of the tumor, application or nonapplication of therapy, single or multiple modes of therapy, and extent of surgery, were analyzed. Completeness of surgical removal of the tumor proved to be the only statistically significant factor that correlated with survival. There was only one recorded case of severe learning disability and abnormal neuropsychologic development among the 12 living patients. The influence of patient's age (and technical factors) at the time of irradiation in correlation with the child's subsequent posttreatment functional performance, as reported in the literature, is reviewed. (author)

  4. Apparent clusters of childhood lymphoid malignancy in Northern England

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Craft, A.W.; Openshaw, S.; Birch, J.

    1984-01-01

    The authors have reanalysed their previous data on the incidence of childhood malignancy in the North of England by very small geographical areas. Seascale, which ranks first by Poisson probability for all lymphoid malignancies is the village closest to the Sellafield plant. However, it is not unique in the region; nor are wards of apparent excess confined to coastal areas of Cumbria. The highest rate of lymphoid malignancies is in Whittingham, a village in north Northumberland. For other varieties of childhood cancer, there is a similar spread of 'Highly ranked', but different, wards throughout the region. (U.K.)

  5. Interactions between the intestinal microbiota and innate lymphoid cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Vincent L; Kasper, Dennis L

    2014-01-01

    The mammalian intestine must manage to contain 100 trillion intestinal bacteria without inducing inappropriate immune responses to these microorganisms. The effects of the immune system on intestinal microorganisms are numerous and well-characterized, and recent research has determined that the microbiota influences the intestinal immune system as well. In this review, we first discuss the intestinal immune system and its role in containing and maintaining tolerance to commensal organisms. We next introduce a category of immune cells, the innate lymphoid cells, and describe their classification and function in intestinal immunology. Finally, we discuss the effects of the intestinal microbiota on innate lymphoid cells. PMID:24418741

  6. Mature lymphoid malignancies: origin, stem cells, and chronicity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Husby, Simon; Grønbæk, Kirsten

    2017-01-01

    after treatment. Lately, the use of next-generation sequencing techniques has revealed essential information on the clonal evolution of lymphoid malignancies. Also, experimental xenograft transplantation point to the possible existence of an ancestral (stem) cell. Such a malignant lymphoid stem cell...... population could potentially evade current therapies and be the cause of chronicity and death in lymphoma patients; however, the evidence is divergent across disease entities and between studies. In this review we present an overview of genetic studies, case reports, and experimental evidence of the source...

  7. Introduction of transplantation tolerance after total lymphoid irradiation: cellular mechanisms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strober, S.; King, D.P.; Gottlieb, M.; Hoppe, R.T.; Kaplan, H.S.

    1981-01-01

    High-dose fractionated total lymphoid irradiation (TLI) is a safe, routine regimen used to treat patients with lymphoid malignancies. Although few side effects are associated with the regimen, a profound suppression of cell-mediated immunity is observed for several years after therapy, as judged by both in vivo and in vitro assays. A profound immunosuppression has also been observed in mice and rats given TLI. Recently, we have achieved similar results using TLI in nonmatched bone marrow transplantation in outbred dogs. The experimental work in animals and underlying cellular mechanisms are reviewed here

  8. Multiple neoplasms, single primaries, and patient survival

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amer, Magid H

    2014-01-01

    Multiple primary neoplasms in surviving cancer patients are relatively common, with an increasing incidence. Their impact on survival has not been clearly defined. This was a retrospective review of clinical data for all consecutive patients with histologically confirmed cancer, with emphasis on single versus multiple primary neoplasms. Second primaries discovered at the workup of the index (first) primary were termed simultaneous, if discovered within 6 months of the index primary were called synchronous, and if discovered after 6 months were termed metachronous. Between 2005 and 2012, of 1,873 cancer patients, 322 developed second malignancies; these included two primaries (n=284), and three or more primaries (n=38). Forty-seven patients had synchronous primaries and 275 had metachronous primaries. Patients with multiple primaries were predominantly of Caucasian ancestry (91.0%), with a tendency to develop thrombosis (20.2%), had a strong family history of similar cancer (22.3%), and usually presented with earlier stage 0 through stage II disease (78.9%). When compared with 1,551 patients with a single primary, these figures were 8.9%, 15.6%, 18.3%, and 50.9%, respectively (P≤0.001). Five-year survival rates were higher for metachronous cancers (95%) than for synchronous primaries (59%) and single primaries (59%). The worst survival rate was for simultaneous concomitant multiple primaries, being a median of 1.9 years. The best survival was for patients with three or more primaries (median 10.9 years) and was similar to the expected survival for the age-matched and sex-matched general population (P=0.06991). Patients with multiple primaries are usually of Caucasian ancestry, have less aggressive malignancies, present at earlier stages, frequently have a strong family history of similar cancer, and their cancers tend to have indolent clinical behavior with longer survival rates, possibly related to genetic predisposition

  9. Percutaneous thermal ablation of renal neoplasms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tacke, J.; Mahnken, A.H.; Guenther, R.W.

    2005-01-01

    Due to modern examination techniques such as multidetector computed tomography and high-field magnetic resonance imaging, the detection rate of renal neoplasms is continually increasing. Even though tumors exceeding 4 cm in diameter rarely metastasize, all renal lesions that are possible neoplasms should be treated. Traditional treatment techniques include radical nephrectomy or nephron-sparing resection, which are increasingly performed laparoscopically. Modern thermal ablation techniques such as hyperthermal techniques like radiofrequency ablation RFA, laser induced thermal ablation LITT, focused ultrasound FUS and microwave therapy MW, as well as hypothermal techniques (cryotherapy) may be a useful treatment option for patients who are unfit for or refuse surgical resection. Cryotherapy is the oldest and best known thermal ablation technique and can be performed laparoscopically or percutaneously. Since subzero temperatures have no antistyptic effect, additional maneuvers must be performed to control bleeding. Percutaneous cryotherapy of renal tumors is a new and interesting method, but experience with it is still limited. Radiofrequency ablation is the most frequently used method. Modern probe design allows volumes between 2 and 5 cm in diameter to be ablated. Due to hyperthermal tract ablation, the procedure is deemed to be safe and has a low complication rate. Although there are no randomized comparative studies to open resection, the preliminary results for renal RFA are promising and show RFA to be superior to other thermal ablation techniques. Clinical success rates are over 90% for both, cryo- and radiofrequency ablation. Whereas laser induced thermal therapy is established in hepatic ablation, experience is minimal with respect to renal application. For lesions of more than 2 cm in diameter, additional cooling catheters are required. MR thermometry offers temperature control during ablation. Microwave ablation is characterized by small ablation volumes

  10. Functional differences between human NKp44(-) and NKp44(+) RORC+ innate lymphoid cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoorweg, Kerim; Peters, Charlotte P.; Cornelissen, Ferry; Aparicio-Domingo, Patricia; Papazian, Natalie; Kazemier, Geert; Mjösberg, Jenny M.; Spits, Hergen; Cupedo, Tom

    2012-01-01

    Human RORC+ lymphoid tissue inducer cells are part of a rapidly expanding family of innate lymphoid cells (ILC) that participate in innate and adaptive immune responses as well as in lymphoid tissue (re) modeling. The assessment of a potential role for innate lymphocyte-derived cytokines in human

  11. File list: InP.Bld.50.AllAg.Lymphoid_cells [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available InP.Bld.50.AllAg.Lymphoid_cells mm9 Input control Blood Lymphoid cells SRX021894,SR...X971601 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/InP.Bld.50.AllAg.Lymphoid_cells.bed ...

  12. File list: ALL.Bld.20.AllAg.Lymphoid_cells [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ALL.Bld.20.AllAg.Lymphoid_cells mm9 All antigens Blood Lymphoid cells SRX658437,SRX...658389,SRX021894,SRX971603,SRX658419,SRX971601,SRX971602,SRX658405 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/ALL.Bld.20.AllAg.Lymphoid_cells.bed ...

  13. File list: ALL.Bld.05.AllAg.Lymphoid_cells [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ALL.Bld.05.AllAg.Lymphoid_cells mm9 All antigens Blood Lymphoid cells SRX658419,SRX...658405,SRX658389,SRX658437,SRX971601,SRX971603,SRX021894,SRX971602 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/ALL.Bld.05.AllAg.Lymphoid_cells.bed ...

  14. File list: InP.Bld.05.AllAg.Lymphoid_cells [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available InP.Bld.05.AllAg.Lymphoid_cells mm9 Input control Blood Lymphoid cells SRX971601,SR...X021894 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/InP.Bld.05.AllAg.Lymphoid_cells.bed ...

  15. Locations of gut-associated lymphoid tissue in the 3-month-old chicken: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casteleyn, C; Doom, M; Lambrechts, E; Van den Broeck, W; Simoens, P; Cornillie, P

    2010-06-01

    The lymphoid tissue that is associated with the intestinal tract, the so-called gut-associated lymphoid tissue (GALT), is well developed in the chicken. Depending on the location, it is present as aggregations of lymphoid cells, or organized in lymphoid follicles and tonsils. From proximal to distal, the intestinal tract contains a pharyngeal tonsil, diffuse lymphoid tissue and lymphoid follicles in the cervical and thoracic parts of the oesophagus, an oesophageal tonsil, diffuse lymphoid tissue in the proventriculus, a pyloric tonsil, Peyer's patches, Meckel's diverticulum, two caecal tonsils, diffuse lymphoid tissue in the rectum, the bursa of Fabricius, and diffuse lymphoid tissue in the wall of the proctodeum. The lymphoid tissues are frequently covered by a lympho-epithelium that is infiltrated by lymphoid cells. Such an epithelium often contains M or microfold cells, which are specialized in antigen sampling and transport antigens to the underlying lymphoid tissue. A solid knowledge of the avian GALT could contribute to the development of vaccines to be administered orally. Additionally, immune stimulation via pre- and probiotics is based on the presence of a well-developed intestinal immune system.

  16. File list: ALL.Bld.50.AllAg.Lymphoid_cells [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ALL.Bld.50.AllAg.Lymphoid_cells mm9 All antigens Blood Lymphoid cells SRX658389,SRX...021894,SRX658437,SRX971603,SRX971601,SRX971602,SRX658419,SRX658405 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/ALL.Bld.50.AllAg.Lymphoid_cells.bed ...

  17. File list: InP.Bld.20.AllAg.Lymphoid_cells [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available InP.Bld.20.AllAg.Lymphoid_cells mm9 Input control Blood Lymphoid cells SRX021894,SR...X971601 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/InP.Bld.20.AllAg.Lymphoid_cells.bed ...

  18. File list: His.Bld.05.AllAg.Lymphoid_cells [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available His.Bld.05.AllAg.Lymphoid_cells mm9 Histone Blood Lymphoid cells SRX658419,SRX65840...5,SRX658389,SRX658437,SRX971603,SRX971602 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/His.Bld.05.AllAg.Lymphoid_cells.bed ...

  19. EXHIBITION: Accelerated Particles

    CERN Multimedia

    2004-01-01

    http://www.cern.ch/cern50/ An exhibition of plastic arts and two evenings of performances by sound and visual artists as part of CERN's fiftieth anniversary celebrations. The fiftieth anniversary of a world famous organization like CERN, an international laboratory specializing in fundamental research, is a cause for celebration. Since March this year, Geneva and neighbouring parts of France have been the venues for a wealth of small and large-scale events, which will continue until November. Given CERN's location in the commune of Meyrin, the ForuMeyrin is hosting two "salons" consisting of an exhibition of plastic arts and evenings of music and visual arts performances with the collective title of "Accelerated Particles". Several works will be exhibited and performed. Salon des matières: An exhibition of plastic arts Until Wednesday 3 November 2004. Tuesdays to Fridays: 4.00 p.m. to 7.00 p.m. Saturdays: 2.00 p.m. to 6.00 p.m. Doors open late on the evening of the performances. Salon des ...

  20. Cruciferous vegetables and risk of colorectal neoplasms: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tse, Genevieve; Eslick, Guy D

    2014-01-01

    Evidence shows cruciferous vegetables exhibit chemoprotective properties, commonly attributed to their rich source of isothiocyanates. However, epidemiological data examining the association between cruciferous vegetable intake and colorectal neoplasms have been inconclusive. This meta-analysis examines the epidemiological evidence to characterize the association between cruciferous vegetable intake and risk of developing colorectal neoplasms. Thirty-three articles were included in the meta-analysis after a literature search of electronic databases. Subgroup analysis for individual cruciferae types (n = 8 studies) and GST polymorphism (n = 8 studies) were performed. Pooled adjusted odds ratios (ORs) comparing highest and lowest categories of dietary pattern scores were calculated. Results show a statistically significant inverse association between cruciferous vegetable intake and colon cancer [OR = 0.84; 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.72-0.98; P value heterogeneity colorectal (CRC) neoplasms (OR = 0.80; 95% CI: 0.65-0.99; P value heterogeneity = 0.02). Stratification by GST genotype reveals that the GSTT1 null genotype confers a reduction in CRC risk (OR = 0.78; 95% CI: 0.64-0.95; P value heterogeneity = 0.32). This study provides support to the hypothesis that cruciferous vegetable intake protects against cancer of the colon. This study also demonstrates the significance of gene-diet interactions and the importance of assessing individual cruciferous vegetables.

  1. Pediatric adrenocortical neoplasms: can imaging reliably discriminate adenomas from carcinomas?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flynt, Kelsey A.; Dillman, Jonathan R.; Smith, Ethan A.; Strouse, Peter J.; Davenport, Matthew S.; Caoili, Elaine M.; Else, Tobias

    2015-01-01

    There is a paucity of literature describing and comparing the imaging features of adrenocortical adenomas and carcinomas in children and adolescents. To document the CT and MRI features of adrenocortical neoplasms in a pediatric population and to determine whether imaging findings (other than metastatic disease) can distinguish adenomas from carcinomas. We searched institutional medical records to identify pediatric patients with adrenocortical neoplasms. Pre-treatment CT and MRI examinations were reviewed by two radiologists in consensus, and pertinent imaging findings were documented. We also recorded relevant histopathological, demographic, clinical follow-up and survival data. We used the Student's t-test and Wilcoxon rank sum test to compare parametric and nonparametric continuous data, and the Fisher exact test to compare proportions. We used receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analyses to evaluate the diagnostic performances of tumor diameter and volume for discriminating carcinoma from adenoma. A P-value ≤0.05 was considered statistically significant. Among the adrenocortical lesions, 9 were adenomas, 15 were carcinomas, and 1 was of uncertain malignant potential. There were no differences in mean age, gender or sidedness between adenomas and carcinomas. Carcinomas were significantly larger than adenomas based on mean estimated volume (581 ml, range 16-2,101 vs. 54 ml, range 3-197 ml; P-value = 0.003; ROC area under the curve = 0.92) and mean maximum transverse plane diameter (9.9 cm, range 3.0-14.9 vs. 4.4 cm, range 1.9-8.2 cm; P-value = 0.0001; ROC area under the curve = 0.92). Carcinomas also were more heterogeneous than adenomas on post-contrast imaging (13/14 vs. 2/9; odds ratio [OR] = 45.5; P-value = 0.001). Six of 13 carcinomas and 1 of 8 adenomas contained calcification at CT (OR = 6.0; P-value = 0.17). Seven of 15 children with carcinomas exhibited metastatic disease at diagnosis, and three had inferior vena cava invasion. Median

  2. Pediatric adrenocortical neoplasms: can imaging reliably discriminate adenomas from carcinomas?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flynt, Kelsey A.; Dillman, Jonathan R.; Smith, Ethan A.; Strouse, Peter J. [University of Michigan Health System, Section of Pediatric Radiology, C. S. Mott Children' s Hospital, Department of Radiology, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Davenport, Matthew S.; Caoili, Elaine M. [University of Michigan Health System, Division of Abdominal Imaging, Department of Radiology, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Else, Tobias [University of Michigan Health System, Division of Metabolism, Endocrinology and Diabetes, Department of Internal Medicine, Ann Arbor, MI (United States)

    2015-08-15

    There is a paucity of literature describing and comparing the imaging features of adrenocortical adenomas and carcinomas in children and adolescents. To document the CT and MRI features of adrenocortical neoplasms in a pediatric population and to determine whether imaging findings (other than metastatic disease) can distinguish adenomas from carcinomas. We searched institutional medical records to identify pediatric patients with adrenocortical neoplasms. Pre-treatment CT and MRI examinations were reviewed by two radiologists in consensus, and pertinent imaging findings were documented. We also recorded relevant histopathological, demographic, clinical follow-up and survival data. We used the Student's t-test and Wilcoxon rank sum test to compare parametric and nonparametric continuous data, and the Fisher exact test to compare proportions. We used receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analyses to evaluate the diagnostic performances of tumor diameter and volume for discriminating carcinoma from adenoma. A P-value ≤0.05 was considered statistically significant. Among the adrenocortical lesions, 9 were adenomas, 15 were carcinomas, and 1 was of uncertain malignant potential. There were no differences in mean age, gender or sidedness between adenomas and carcinomas. Carcinomas were significantly larger than adenomas based on mean estimated volume (581 ml, range 16-2,101 vs. 54 ml, range 3-197 ml; P-value = 0.003; ROC area under the curve = 0.92) and mean maximum transverse plane diameter (9.9 cm, range 3.0-14.9 vs. 4.4 cm, range 1.9-8.2 cm; P-value = 0.0001; ROC area under the curve = 0.92). Carcinomas also were more heterogeneous than adenomas on post-contrast imaging (13/14 vs. 2/9; odds ratio [OR] = 45.5; P-value = 0.001). Six of 13 carcinomas and 1 of 8 adenomas contained calcification at CT (OR = 6.0; P-value = 0.17). Seven of 15 children with carcinomas exhibited metastatic disease at diagnosis, and three had inferior vena cava invasion. Median

  3. THE EXTENT OF CLONAL STRUCTURE IN DIFFERENT LYMPHOID ORGANS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    HERMANS, MHA; WUBBENA, A; KROESE, FGM; HUNT, SV; COWAN, R; OPSTELTEN, D

    1992-01-01

    To gain insight into the clonal organization of lymphoid organs, we studied the distribution in situ of donor-derived cells in near-physiological chimeras. We introduced RT7b fetal liver cells into nonirradiated congenic RT7a neonatal rats. The chimerism 6-20 wk after injection ranged from 0.3 to

  4. Innate lymphoid cells and parasites: Ancient foes with shared history.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neill, D R; Fallon, P G

    2018-02-01

    This special issue of Parasite Immunology charts the rapid advances made in our understanding of the myriad interactions between innate lymphoid cells and parasites and how these interactions have shaped our evolutionary history. Here, we provide an overview of the issue and highlight key findings from studies in mice and man. © 2017 The Authors. Parasite Immunology Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Developmental acquisition of regulomes underlies innate lymphoid cell functionality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Innate lymphoid cells (ILCs) play key roles in host defense, barrier integrity, and homeostasis, and they mirror adaptive CD4+ T helper (Th) cell subtypes in both usages of effector molecules and ·transcription factors. To better understand ILC subsets and their relationship with Th cells, we measur...

  6. Cytokine Networks between Innate Lymphoid Cells and Myeloid Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mortha, Arthur; Burrows, Kyle

    2018-01-01

    Innate lymphoid cells (ILCs) are an essential component of the innate immune system in vertebrates. They are developmentally rooted in the lymphoid lineage and can diverge into at least three transcriptionally distinct lineages. ILCs seed both lymphoid and non-lymphoid tissues and are locally self-maintained in tissue-resident pools. Tissue-resident ILCs execute important effector functions making them key regulator in tissue homeostasis, repair, remodeling, microbial defense, and anti-tumor immunity. Similar to T lymphocytes, ILCs possess only few sensory elements for the recognition of non-self and thus depend on extrinsic cellular sensory elements residing within the tissue. Myeloid cells, including mononuclear phagocytes (MNPs), are key sentinels of the tissue and are able to translate environmental cues into an effector profile that instructs lymphocyte responses. The adaptation of myeloid cells to the tissue state thus influences the effector program of ILCs and serves as an example of how environmental signals are integrated into the function of ILCs via a tissue-resident immune cell cross talks. This review summarizes our current knowledge on the role of myeloid cells in regulating ILC functions and discusses how feedback communication between ILCs and myeloid cells contribute to stabilize immune homeostasis in order to maintain the healthy state of an organ.

  7. ID’ing Innate and Innate-like Lymphoid Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verykokakis, Mihalis; Zook, Erin C.; Kee, Barbara L.

    2014-01-01

    Summary The immune system can be divided into innate and adaptive components that differ in their rate and mode of cellular activation, with innate immune cells being the first responders to invading pathogens. Recent advances in the identification and characterization of innate lymphoid cells have revealed reiterative developmental programs that result in cells with effector fates that parallel those of adaptive lymphoid cells and are tailored to effectively eliminate a broad spectrum of pathogenic challenges. However, activation of these cells can also be associated with pathologies such as autoimmune disease. One major distinction between innate and adaptive immune system cells is the constitutive expression of ID proteins in the former and inducible expression in the latter. ID proteins function as antagonists of the E protein transcription factors that play critical roles in lymphoid specification as well as B and T-lymphocyte development. In this review, we examine the transcriptional mechanisms controlling the development of innate lymphocytes, including natural killer cells and the recently identified innate lymphoid cells (ILC1, ILC2, and ILC3), and innate-like lymphocytes, including natural killer T cells, with an emphasis on the known requirements for the ID proteins. PMID:25123285

  8. Innate lymphoid cells--a proposal for uniform nomenclature

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spits, Hergen; Artis, David; Colonna, Marco; Diefenbach, Andreas; Di Santo, James P.; Eberl, Gerard; Koyasu, Shigeo; Locksley, Richard M.; McKenzie, Andrew N. J.; Mebius, Reina E.; Powrie, Fiona; Vivier, Eric

    2013-01-01

    Innate lymphoid cells (ILCs) are a family of developmentally related cells that are involved in immunity and in tissue development and remodelling. Recent research has identified several distinct members of this family. Confusingly, many different names have been used to characterize these newly

  9. ID'ing innate and innate-like lymphoid cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verykokakis, Mihalis; Zook, Erin C; Kee, Barbara L

    2014-09-01

    The immune system can be divided into innate and adaptive components that differ in their rate and mode of cellular activation, with innate immune cells being the first responders to invading pathogens. Recent advances in the identification and characterization of innate lymphoid cells have revealed reiterative developmental programs that result in cells with effector fates that parallel those of adaptive lymphoid cells and are tailored to effectively eliminate a broad spectrum of pathogenic challenges. However, activation of these cells can also be associated with pathologies such as autoimmune disease. One major distinction between innate and adaptive immune system cells is the constitutive expression of ID proteins in the former and inducible expression in the latter. ID proteins function as antagonists of the E protein transcription factors that play critical roles in lymphoid specification as well as B- and T-lymphocyte development. In this review, we examine the transcriptional mechanisms controlling the development of innate lymphocytes, including natural killer cells and the recently identified innate lymphoid cells (ILC1, ILC2, and ILC3), and innate-like lymphocytes, including natural killer T cells, with an emphasis on the known requirements for the ID proteins. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Innate lymphoid cells: the new kids on the block.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Withers, David R; Mackley, Emma C; Jones, Nick D

    2015-08-01

    The purpose of this article is to review recent advances in our understanding of innate lymphoid cell function and to speculate on how these cells may become activated and influence the immune response to allogeneic tissues and cells following transplantation. Innate lymphoid cells encompass several novel cell types whose wide-ranging roles in the immune system are only now being uncovered. Through cytokine production, cross-talk with both haematopoietic and nonhaematopoietic populations and antigen presentation to T cells, these cells have been shown to be key regulators in maintaining tissue integrity, as well as initiating and then sustaining immune responses. It is now clear that innate lymphoid cells markedly contribute to immune responses and tissue repair in a number of disease contexts. Although experimental and clinical data on the behaviour of these cells following transplantation are scant, it is highly likely that innate lymphoid cells will perform similar functions in the alloimmune response following transplantation and therefore may be potential therapeutic targets for manipulation to prevent allograft rejection.

  11. 'Managing' the immune system with total lymphoid irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strober, S.

    1981-01-01

    Total lymphoid irradiation (TLI), which in the past was limited to the treatment of malignant disease, is now emerging as a practical technique in the management of unwanted immune reactions in the areas of transplant tolerance and various autoimmune diseases. Current studies are particularly promising for application of TLI in rheumatoid arthritis and lupus nephritis

  12. Innate lymphoid cells in autoimmunity: emerging regulators in rheumatic diseases

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shikhagaie, Medya M.; Germar, Kristine; Bal, Suzanne M.; Ros, Xavier Romero; Spits, Hergen

    2017-01-01

    Innate lymphoid cells (ILCs) are important in the regulation of barrier homeostasis. These cells do not express T cell receptors but share many functional similarities with T helper cells and cytotoxic CD8(+) T lymphocytes. ILCs are divided into three groups, namely group 1 ILCs, group 2 ILCs and

  13. Occurrence of lymphoid cells in the intestine of the Goldfish

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weinberg, Steven

    1975-01-01

    The Goldfish intestine normally contains a large number of lymphocytes, many of them being present in the epithelial layer. After stimulation with antigen, the number of lymphoid cells does not increase, but the proportion of large pyroninophilic cells and plasma cells does. It seems therefore that

  14. Induction of secondary and tertiary lymphoid structures in the skin.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cupedo, T.; Jansen, W.; Kraal, G.; Mebius, R.E.

    2004-01-01

    During embryogenesis a developmental program leading to the formation of lymph nodes and Peyer's patches is initiated. We now show that lymph node-like structures as well as tertiary lymphoid structures can ectopically be induced by intradermal injection of newborn lymph node-derived cells.

  15. International Space Station exhibit

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-01-01

    The International Space Station (ISS) exhibit in StenniSphere at John C. Stennis Space Center in Hancock County, Miss., gives visitors an up-close look at the largest international peacetime project in history. Step inside a module of the ISS and glimpse how astronauts will live and work in space. Currently, 16 countries contribute resources and hardware to the ISS. When complete, the orbiting research facility will be larger than a football field.

  16. Molecular pathology of chondroid neoplasms: part 2, malignant lesions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bell, W.C.; Klein, M.J.; Pitt, M.J.; Siegal, G.P.

    2006-01-01

    This is the second part of a two-part review presenting an overview of the molecular findings associated with both benign and malignant chondroid neoplasms. The first part presented a brief review of modern methods in molecular pathology, along with a review of the cytogenetic and molecular genetic findings in benign chondroid neoplasms. This second part reviews the cytogenetic and molecular genetic findings in malignant chondroid neoplasms. Clinical aspects of the various lesions are briefly discussed, and each tumor is illustrated with representative radiographic and pathologic images. (orig.)

  17. Molecular pathology of chondroid neoplasms: part 2, malignant lesions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bell, W.C. [University of Alabama at Birmingham, Department of Pathology, Birmingham, AL (United States); University of Alabama at Birmingham, Center for Metabolic Bone Disease, Birmingham, AL (United States); Klein, M.J. [University of Alabama at Birmingham, Center for Metabolic Bone Disease, Birmingham, AL (United States); University of Alabama at Birmingham, Department of Pathology, Birmingham, AL (United States); Pitt, M.J. [University of Alabama at Birmingham, Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Birmingham, AL (United States); University of Alabama at Birmingham, Center for Metabolic Bone Disease, Birmingham, AL (United States); Siegal, G.P. [University of Alabama at Birmingham, Departments of Pathology, Cell Biology, and Surgery, Birmingham, AL (United States); University of Alabama at Birmingham, Center for Metabolic Bone Disease, Birmingham, AL (United States)

    2006-12-15

    This is the second part of a two-part review presenting an overview of the molecular findings associated with both benign and malignant chondroid neoplasms. The first part presented a brief review of modern methods in molecular pathology, along with a review of the cytogenetic and molecular genetic findings in benign chondroid neoplasms. This second part reviews the cytogenetic and molecular genetic findings in malignant chondroid neoplasms. Clinical aspects of the various lesions are briefly discussed, and each tumor is illustrated with representative radiographic and pathologic images. (orig.)

  18. Upcycling CERN Exhibitions

    CERN Multimedia

    Katarina Anthony

    2015-01-01

    Summer is coming - and with it, a new Microcosm exhibition showcasing CERN (see here). But while the new exhibit is preparing to enchant visitors, many have been asking about the site's former content. Will it simply be out with the old and in with the new? Not as such!   The plasma ball from Microcosm is now on display at the LHCb site. As Microcosm's new content is moving in, its old content is moving up. From LHCb to IdeaSquare, former Microcosm displays and objects are being installed across the CERN site. "Microcosm featured many elements that were well suited to life outside of the exhibition," says Emma Sanders, Microcosm project leader in the EDU group. "We didn't want this popular content to go to waste, and so set out to find them new homes across CERN." The LHCb experiment has received a number of Microcosm favourites, including the Rutherford experiment, the cosmic ray display and the Thomson experiment. "We&...

  19. Online Exhibits & Concept Maps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douma, M.

    2009-12-01

    Presenting the complexity of geosciences to the public via the Internet poses a number of challenges. For example, utilizing various - and sometimes redundant - Web 2.0 tools can quickly devour limited time. Do you tweet? Do you write press releases? Do you create an exhibit or concept map? The presentation will provide participants with a context for utilizing Web 2.0 tools by briefly highlighting methods of online scientific communication across several dimensions. It will address issues of: * breadth and depth (e.g. from narrow topics to well-rounded views), * presentation methods (e.g. from text to multimedia, from momentary to enduring), * sources and audiences (e.g. for experts or for the public, content developed by producers to that developed by users), * content display (e.g. from linear to non-linear, from instructive to entertaining), * barriers to entry (e.g. from an incumbent advantage to neophyte accessible, from amateur to professional), * cost and reach (e.g. from cheap to expensive), and * impact (e.g. the amount learned, from anonymity to brand awareness). Against this backdrop, the presentation will provide an overview of two methods of online information dissemination, exhibits and concept maps, using the WebExhibits online museum (www.webexhibits.org) and SpicyNodes information visualization tool (www.spicynodes.org) as examples, with tips on how geoscientists can use either to communicate their science. Richly interactive online exhibits can serve to engage a large audience, appeal to visitors with multiple learning styles, prompt exploration and discovery, and present a topic’s breadth and depth. WebExhibits, which was among the first online museums, delivers interactive information, virtual experiments, and hands-on activities to the public. While large, multidisciplinary exhibits on topics like “Color Vision and Art” or “Calendars Through the Ages” require teams of scholars, user interface experts, professional writers and editors

  20. Multiparametric flow cytometry in the diagnosis and characterization of low-grade pulmonary mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaer, F S; Braylan, R C; Zander, D S; Iturraspe, J A; Almasri, N M

    1998-06-01

    Primary mucosa associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) lymphomas are rare neoplasms that seem to have a better prognosis than nodal lymphomas. Morphologic diagnosis of these lesions may be difficult because of features that overlap with those of benign lymphoid infiltrates. In this study, we assessed the contribution of multi-parametric flow cytometry in demonstrating clonality and further characterizing pulmonary MALT lymphomas. Based on a clinical or pathologic suspicion of MALT-lymphoma, 3 transbronchial biopsies, 4 fine needle aspirates, 1 core needle biopsy, and 13 wedge excisions of lung were submitted fresh (unfixed) to our laboratory for evaluation. Among the 13 cases diagnosed as MALT lymphomas, B-cell monoclonality was established by identifying expression of a single immunoglobulin light chain on CD20 or CD19-positive cells in 12 cases. One case lacked expression of both light chains on B-cells. Of 11 lymphoma cases in which CD5 and CD10 surface antigens were assessed, no cases expressed CD10, and 1 case demonstrated weak CD5 expression. Nine of 10 cases studied were diploid and 1 case was hyperdiploid. All of the lymphomas displayed low (< or = 3%) S-phase fractions consistent with low grade processes. In 10 patients with short follow-up, none died of their disease and the majority had no evidence of lymphoma dissemination. In seven of the remaining eight cases, B-cells were polyclonal consistent with reactive processes. In one morphologically reactive case, flow cytometric analysis was unsuccessful because of poor cell viability. The pulmonary MALT lymphomas in this study represent a group of B-cell tumors with distinctive morphologic, immunophenotypic, and cell kinetic characteristics. Multi-parametric flow cytometry is useful for confirming B-cell monoclonality and illustrating an antigenic profile compatible with this diagnosis. Flow cytometry can be particularly helpful when working with small biopsies and cytologic samples with limited diagnostic

  1. The E-Id Protein Axis Specifies Adaptive Lymphoid Cell Identity and Suppresses Thymic Innate Lymphoid Cell Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyazaki, Masaki; Miyazaki, Kazuko; Chen, Kenian; Jin, Yi; Turner, Jacob; Moore, Amanda J; Saito, Rintaro; Yoshida, Kenichi; Ogawa, Seishi; Rodewald, Hans-Reimer; Lin, Yin C; Kawamoto, Hiroshi; Murre, Cornelis

    2017-05-16

    Innate and adaptive lymphoid development is orchestrated by the activities of E proteins and their antagonist Id proteins, but how these factors regulate early T cell progenitor (ETP) and innate lymphoid cell (ILC) development remains unclear. Using multiple genetic strategies, we demonstrated that E proteins E2A and HEB acted in synergy in the thymus to establish T cell identity and to suppress the aberrant development of ILCs, including ILC2s and lymphoid-tissue-inducer-like cells. E2A and HEB orchestrated T cell fate and suppressed the ILC transcription signature by activating the expression of genes associated with Notch receptors, T cell receptor (TCR) assembly, and TCR-mediated signaling. E2A and HEB acted in ETPs to establish and maintain a T-cell-lineage-specific enhancer repertoire, including regulatory elements associated with the Notch1, Rag1, and Rag2 loci. On the basis of these and previous observations, we propose that the E-Id protein axis specifies innate and adaptive lymphoid cell fate. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Correlation of 18F-FDG PET/CT and Endoscopic Findings of Twin Mucosa-Associated Lymphoid Tissue (MALT) Lymphoma of the Stomach: Report of a Case

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bahk, Yong Whee; Choi, Jin Wook

    2008-01-01

    Mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) type lymphoma arises from extranodal marginal zone B-cell. It is etiologically associated with Helicobacter pylori infection and, hence, can be cured by antibiotic treatment. MALT type lymphoma is the most common variety of gastric lymphoma that is rare in the stomach). The published data of clinical studies on the usefulness of 18F-FDG PET in the diagnosis of MALT type lymphoma varied according to authors. Thus, the result of Hoffmann et al. was discouraging whereas a high diagnostic accuracy was reported by Ambrosini et al. The latter group further went to suggest that higher 18F-FDG uptake in gastric MALT type lymphoma would positively relate to the aggressiveness of neoplasm. The clinical studies conducted by other groups on MALT lymphomas of the stomach, lung, orbit and parotid gland and the stomach, lung, parotid gland, skin, orbit, mandible, esophagus and uterus confirmed that 18F-FDG scan is valuable

  3. Eponyms in cardiothoracic radiology: Part I. Neoplasms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammed, Tan-Lucien H; Saettele, Megan R; Saettele, Timothy; Patel, Vikas; Kanne, Jeffrey P

    2014-01-01

    Eponyms serve the purpose of honoring individuals who have made important observations and discoveries. As with other fields of medicine, eponyms are frequently encountered in radiology, particularly in chest radiology. However, inappropriate use of an eponym may lead to potentially dangerous miscommunication. Moreover, an eponym may honor the incorrect person or a person who falls into disrepute. Despite their limitations, eponyms are still widespread in medical literature. Furthermore, in some circumstances, more than one individual may have contributed to the description or discovery of a particular anatomical structure or disease, whereas in others, an eponym may have been incorrectly applied initially and propagated for years in medical literature. Nevertheless, radiologic eponyms are a means of honoring those who have made lasting contributions to the field of radiology, and familiarity with these eponyms is critical for proper reporting and accurate communication. In addition, the acquisition of some historical knowledge about those whose names are associated with various structures or pathologic conditions conveys a sense of humanity in the field of medicine. In this article, the first of a multipart series, the authors discuss a number of chest radiology eponyms as they relate to neoplasms, including relevant clinical and imaging features, as well biographic information of the respective eponym׳s namesake. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Minimally-aggressive gestational trophoblastic neoplasms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole, Laurence A

    2012-04-01

    We have previously defined a new syndrome "Minimally-aggressive gestational trophoblastic neoplasms" in which choriocarcinoma or persistent hydatidiform mole has a minimal growth rate and becomes chemorefractory. Previously we described a new treatment protocol, waiting for hCG rise to >3000 mIU/ml and disease becomes more advanced, then using combination chemotherapy. Initially we found this treatment successful in 8 of 8 cases, here we find this protocol appropriate in a further 16 cases. Initially we used hyperglycosylated hCG, a limited availability test, to identify this syndrome. Here we propose also using hCG doubling rate to detect this syndrome. Minimally aggressive gestational trophoblastic disease can be detected by chemotherapy resistance or low hyperglycosylated hCG, disease by hyperglycosylated hCG and by hCG doubling test. All were recommended to hold off further chemotherapy until hCG >3000mIU/ml. One case died prior to the start of the study, one case withdrew because of a lung nodule and one withdrew refusing the suggested combination chemotherapy. The remaining 16 women were all successfully treated. A total of 8 plus 16 or 24 of 24 women were successfully treated using the proposed protocol, holding back on chemotherapy until hCG >3000mIU/ml. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Mechanisms of mutations in myeloproliferative neoplasms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levine, Ross L

    2009-12-01

    In recent years, a series of studies have provided genetic insight into the pathogenesis of myeloproliferative neoplasms (MPNs). It is now known that JAK2V617F mutations are present in 90% of patients with polycythaemia vera (PV), 60% of patients with essential thrombocytosis (ET) and 50% of patients with myelofibrosis (MF). Despite the high prevalence of JAK2V617F mutations in these three myeloid malignancies, several questions remain. For example, how does one mutation contribute to the pathogenesis of three clinically distinct diseases, and how do some patients develop these diseases in the absence of a JAK2V617F mutation? Single nucleotide polymorphisms at various loci and somatic mutations, such as those in MPLW515L/K, TET2 and in exon 12 of JAK2, may also contribute to the pathogenesis of these MPNs. There are likely additional germline and somatic genetic factors important to the MPN phenotype. Additional studies of large MPN and control cohorts with new techniques will help identify these factors.

  6. INTRACRANIAL NEOPLASMS IN IBADAN, NIGERIA B.J. OLASODE ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    hi-tech

    2000-01-01

    Jan 1, 2000 ... Results: Two hundred and ten intracronial neoplasms comprising 172 ... accounted for the largest group of tumours followed by metastases to the brain. ..... Percentage .... astrocytomas may be attributed to the increasing use.

  7. Adrenocortical oncocytic neoplasm presenting with Cushing's syndrome: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kabayegit Ozlem

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Oncocytic neoplasms occur in several organs and are most commonly found in the thyroid, kidneys and salivary glands. Oncocytic neoplasms of the adrenal cortex are extremely rare and are usually non-functioning. Case presentation We report the case of an adrenocortical oncocytic neoplasm with uncertain malignant potential in a 31-year-old man with Cushing's syndrome. The patient had been operated on following diagnosis of a 7 cm adrenal mass. Following surgery, the Cushing's syndrome resolved. The patient is still alive with no metastases one year after the surgery. Conclusion Adrenocortical oncocytic neoplasms must be considered in the differential diagnosis of both functioning and non-functioning adrenal masses.

  8. Inheritance of the chronic myeloproliferative neoplasms. A systematic review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ranjan, Ajenthen; Penninga, E; Jelsig, Am

    2012-01-01

    This systematic review investigated the inheritance of the classical chronic myeloproliferative neoplasms (MPNs) including polycythemia vera (PV), essential thrombocythemia (ET), primary myelofibrosis (PMF) and chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML). Sixty-one articles were included and provided 135...

  9. Mobile exhibition in Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1960-04-15

    Since January this year, a mobile atomic energy exhibition has been touring the principal cities of Mexico. In organizing this exhibition, the National Nuclear Energy Commission of Mexico was assisted by the International Atomic Energy Agency which has placed its second mobile radioisotope laboratory at the disposal of the Mexican authorities. In many States of the Republic, the visit of the mobile laboratory has given a powerful impetus to atomic training and research. Universities have made use of the laboratory for the training of young scientists in the basic isotope techniques. As a sequel to the work initiated with its aid, some universities are planning to start regular training courses in this field. The laboratory, which is a gift to the Agency from the United States, has been put to its first assignment in Mexico. It will shortly be sent to Argentina for a period of six months for use in training courses. IAEA's first mobile radioisotope unit, also donated by the United States, has been used for training purposes in Austria, the Federal Republic of Germany, Greece and Yugoslavia, and has now been sent to the Far East

  10. Mobile exhibition in Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1960-01-01

    Since January this year, a mobile atomic energy exhibition has been touring the principal cities of Mexico. In organizing this exhibition, the National Nuclear Energy Commission of Mexico was assisted by the International Atomic Energy Agency which has placed its second mobile radioisotope laboratory at the disposal of the Mexican authorities. In many States of the Republic, the visit of the mobile laboratory has given a powerful impetus to atomic training and research. Universities have made use of the laboratory for the training of young scientists in the basic isotope techniques. As a sequel to the work initiated with its aid, some universities are planning to start regular training courses in this field. The laboratory, which is a gift to the Agency from the United States, has been put to its first assignment in Mexico. It will shortly be sent to Argentina for a period of six months for use in training courses. IAEA's first mobile radioisotope unit, also donated by the United States, has been used for training purposes in Austria, the Federal Republic of Germany, Greece and Yugoslavia, and has now been sent to the Far East

  11. Preoperation diagnosis of stomach neoplasm metases in the liver

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fisher, M.E.; Zholnerovich, E.M.; Zelenkevich, A.S.

    1988-01-01

    It is shown that application of ultrasonography and computerized tomography in examining the upper part of abdomen in patients with stomach neoplasm permits to judge on metastases into the liver. Application of invasive methods of examination is indicated only in case of indefinite data of ultrasonography and computerized tomography. It is shown that application of invasive methods isn't advisable in patients with stomach neoplasm to which palliative operations are indicated. 4 refs

  12. Respiratory muscle strength of patients with esophagus and stomach neoplasms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evelyn Aline Boscolo Ruivo

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction: In cancer patients, the reduced food intake causes weight loss and promotes protein-calorie malnutrition. This results in loss of lean body mass, which affects both skeletal muscles and respiratory muscles. Objective: Evaluate and compare the respiratory muscle strength of patients with esophageal and stomach neoplasia during the preoperative period. Methods: This is a cross-sectional study carried out with 24 patients of both genders hospitalized in a teaching hospital. They underwent a physical therapy evaluation composed of anthropometric data and measurement of respiratory muscle strength through manovacuometry. Paired and unpaired t-tests were used to compare the values obtained with the predicted equations. Results: Regarding the disease prevalence, 66.66%(16 of the individuals had stomach neoplasm and 33.33%(8 esophageal neoplasm. Of the patients with esophageal neoplasm, 100% were men with a mean age of 63 ± 9.16 years. Of those with stomach neoplasm, 68.75% were men with a mean age of 69.36 ± 10.92 years. Female patients with stomach neoplasm had significantly higher BMI (p = 0.01 than male patients, and they were classified as overweight. Both neoplasms had significantly lower real values (p ≤ 0.05 than predicted values at the maximal expiratory pressure. Conclusion: Patients with esophageal and stomach neoplasms in the preoperative period present reduction in the expiratory muscle strength. There were no statistically significant differences, when we compared the maximum respiratory pressures between the two types of neoplasms investigated.

  13. Squamous neoplasms arising within tattoos: clinical presentation, histopathology and management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Junqueira, A L; Wanat, K A; Farah, R S

    2017-08-01

    Tattooing, which involves the placement of ink into the skin, is an ancient decorative technique that has remained popular in modern society. Tattoos have long been known to cause cutaneous reactions, which include the emergence of neoplasms such as keratoacanthoma (KA) and squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) in tattooed areas of the skin. We review the clinical presentations, histology and treatment options for squamous neoplasms, primarily KA and SCC, arising in tattoos. © 2017 British Association of Dermatologists.

  14. [Approach to diagnosis and management of myeloproliferative neoplasm variants].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitsumori, Toru; Kirito, Keita

    2015-08-01

    Myeloproliferative neoplasm (MPN) variants are defined as relatively uncommon myeloid neoplasms which do not meet the criteria for either classical MPN or myelodysplastic syndrome. Due to the lack of specific markers, it has been challenging to accurately diagnose these malignant diseases. Recent studies have revealed new genetic abnormalities in MPN variants. These research advances are anticipated to open new approaches to not only achieving accurate diagnosis but also novel therapeutic options for these diseases.

  15. Inferior phrenic artery embolization in the treatment of hepatic neoplasms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duprat, G.; Charnsangavej, C.; Wallace, S.; Carrasco, C.H.

    1988-01-01

    Twenty-nine inferior phrenic artery embolizations were performed in 20 patients with primary or metastatic hepatic neoplasms. All patients had interruption of their hepatic arteries by previous infusion of chemotherapy, hepatic arterial embolization or surgical ligation. In one patient, bilateral pleural effusions developed following embolization of the inferior phrenic artery. No other severe complications occurred. Inferior phrenic artery embolization is a safe procedure and permits the continuation of transcatheter treatment of hepatic neoplasms. (orig.)

  16. Inferior phrenic artery embolization in the treatment of hepatic neoplasms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duprat, G.; Charnsangavej, C.; Wallace, S.; Carrasco, C.H.

    Twenty-nine inferior phrenic artery embolizations were performed in 20 patients with primary or metastatic hepatic neoplasms. All patients had interruption of their hepatic arteries by previous infusion of chemotherapy, hepatic arterial embolization or surgical ligation. In one patient, bilateral pleural effusions developed following embolization of the inferior phrenic artery. No other severe complications occurred. Inferior phrenic artery embolization is a safe procedure and permits the continuation of transcatheter treatment of hepatic neoplasms.

  17. Plurihormonal Cosecretion by a Case of Adrenocortical Oncocytic Neoplasm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. J. Corrales

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Adrenocortical oncocytic neoplasms (oncocytomas are extremely rare; only approximately 159 cases have been described so far. The majority are nonfunctional and benign. We describe an unusual case of a functional oncocytoma secreting an excess of glucocorticoids (cortisol and androgens (androstenedione and DHEAS, a pattern of plurihormonal cosecretion previously not reported in men, presenting with endocrine manifestations of Cushing’s syndrome. The neoplasm was considered to be of uncertain malignant potential (borderline according to the Lin-Weiss-Bisceglia criteria.

  18. Origin of B-Cell Neoplasms in Autoimmune Disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kari Hemminki

    Full Text Available Autoimmune diseases (ADs are associated with a number of B-cell neoplasms but the associations are selective in regard to the type of neoplasm and the conferred risks are variable. So far no mechanistic bases for these differential associations have been demonstrated. We speculate that developmental origin of B-cells might propose a mechanistic rationale for their carcinogenic response to autoimmune stimuli and tested the hypothesis on our previous studies on the risks of B-cell neoplasms after any of 33 ADs. We found that predominantly germinal center (GC-derived B-cells showed multiple associations with ADs: diffuse large B cell lymphoma associated with 15 ADs, follicular lymphoma with 7 ADs and Hodgkin lymphoma with 11 ADs. Notably, these neoplasms shared significant associations with 5 ADs (immune thrombocytopenic purpura, polymyositis/dermatomyositis, rheumatoid arthritis, Sjogren syndrome and systemic lupus erythematosis. By contrast, primarily non-GC neoplasms, acute lymphocytic leukemia, chronic lymphocytic leukemia and myeloma associated with 2 ADs only and mantle cell lymphoma with 1 AD. None of the neoplasms shared associated ADs. These data may suggest that autoimmune stimulation critically interferes with the rapid cell division, somatic hypermutation, class switch recombination and immunological selection of maturing B-cell in the GC and delivers damage contributing to transformation.

  19. CT characteristics of primary retroperitoneal neoplasms in children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu Yufeng; Wang Jichen; Peng Yun; Zeng Jinjin

    2010-01-01

    Primary retroperitoneal neoplasms are uncommon in children. Retroperitoneal neoplasms are either mesodermal, neurogenic, germ cell ectodermal or lymphatic in origin. In general, primary retroperitoneal neoplasms in children have different spectrum and prevalence compared to those in adults. Neuroblastoma, rhabdomyosarcoma, benign teratoma and lymphoma are the common retroperitoneal neoplasms. In this review, the clinical and CT futures of common retroperitoneal neoplasms in children are described. Coarse, amorphous, and mottled calcification are very common in neuroblastoma. Paraganglioma tends to show marked and early enhancement and may present with clinical symptoms associated with the excess catecholamine. Sarcomas are often very large and have heterogeneous appearance. Imaging cannot be reliably used to identify the type of retroperitoneal sarcomas due to overlapped radiographic features. In children, lipoblastoma is the most common lipomatous tumor in the retroperitoneum. The percentage of visible fat in tumor varies depending on the cellular composition of the lesion. The CT characteristics of teratoma are quite variable, which may be cystic, solid, on a combination of both. Typically teratoma appears as a large complex mass containing fluid, fat, fat-fluid level, and calcifications. Lymphoma is often homogeneous on both enhanced and unenhanced CT scans. Necrosis and calcification are rare on CT. In conclusion, making a final histological diagnosis of retroperitoneal tumor base on CT features is not often possible; however, CT can help to develop a differential diagnosis and determine the size and extent of the retroperitoneal neoplasms.

  20. Outcomes following splenectomy in patients with myeloid neoplasms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rialon, Kristy L; Speicher, Paul J; Ceppa, Eugene P; Rendell, Victoria R; Vaslef, Steven N; Beaven, Anne; Tyler, Douglas S; Blazer, Dan G

    2015-03-15

    Myeloid neoplasms are classified into five major categories. These patients may develop splenomegaly and require splenectomy to alleviate mechanical symptoms, to ameliorate transfusion-dependent cytopenias, or to enhance stem cell transplantation. The objective of this study was to determine which clinical variables significantly impacted morbidity, mortality, and survival in patients with myeloid neoplasms undergoing splenectomy, and to determine if operative outcomes have improved over time. The records of all patients with myeloid neoplasms undergoing splenectomy from 1993 to 2010 were retrospectively reviewed. Eighty-nine patients (n = 89) underwent splenectomy for myeloid neoplasms. Over half of patients who had symptoms preoperatively had resolution of their symptoms post-splenectomy. The morbidity rate was 38%, with the most common complications being bleeding (14%) or infection (20%). Thirty-day mortality rate was 18% and median survival after splenectomy was 278 days. Decreased survival was associated with a diagnosis of myelodysplastic syndrome/myeloproliferative neoplasm, anemia, abnormal white blood cell count, and hypoalbuminemia. Patients who underwent stem cell transplantation did not show an increased risk for morbidity or mortality. Patients with myeloid neoplasms have a poor prognosis after splenectomy and the decision to operate is a difficult one, associated with high morbidity and mortality. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Anniversary Exhibition. Nechvolodov.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    - -

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available On the 10th of August, 2005 in Tartu (the second biggest educational and cultural city in Estonia Stanislav Nechvolodov's exhibition was opened to show the 5-year cycle of his work, traditional for the author and his admirers. At the opening ceremony Nechvolodov said that the exhibition was the last one and appointed on his 70th anniversary.The architectural and building society in Irkutsk remembers Stanislav Nechvolodov as an architect working on dwelling and civil buildings in 1960-70s. Below are some extracts from the Estonian press.«Postimees» newspaper, December 1993. The interview «Expressionistic naturalist, conservative Nechvolodov» by journalist Eric Linnumyagi. He asks about all the details and describes the troubles experienced by Nechvolodov during the perestroika period in Estonia, for example: the Tartu University refused to install the sculpture of Socrat, the art school refused to engage him as an instructor, the sculpture of Socrat moved to Vrotzlav, Poland, and Nechvolodov moved to Poland to read lectures there.«Tartu» newspaper, November 2000. Mats Oun, artist, says in the article «Nechvolodov: a man of Renaissance»: «Nechvolodov works in Estonia, his works are placed in many local and foreign museums. Regardless some insignificant faults, he deserves a high estimation, and his manysided open exhibition can be an example for other artists. He is a man of Renaissance».

  2. Ovarian neoplasms in atomic bomb survivors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tokuoka, Shoji

    1986-01-01

    A recent pathological and epidemiological study on females with ovarian neoplasms among the Radiation Effects Research Foundation (RERF) Life Span Study (LSS) Extended Sample ascertained 194 malignant and 106 benign ovarian tumor cases which had occurred during the period 1950 - 80. Of the 194 cases of ovarian cancer, 128 (66 %) were reviewed microscopically and the age-adjusted incidence of ovarian cancer revealed a statistically significant linear increase with increasing exposure dose, both in microscopically reviewed and in all cases. The radiation-related excess of ovarian cancer appeared to be highest in women less than 20 years of age when exposed, with these women having the longest latent period for tumor development, compared to the older age groups. The histological distribution of cancer types among exposed individuals appeared not very different from that seen in the general population. The analysis of 106 autopsy subjects with benign ovarian tumors, of which 89 were reviewed microscopically, depicted a trend of increasing radiation-related tumor excess with increasing exposure dose among exposed cases, though the trend is not statistically significant when observation was limited to microscopically reviewed subjects. The histological distribution of benign tumor types among exposed cases appeared not very different from that seen in the general population. The findings are consistent with a hypothesis that radiation-injured ovaries in association with secondary excess of gonadotrophic hormones are important causative factors in the development of ovarian tumors, which has been suggested by experimental findings concerning the induction of ovarian tumors by ionizing radiation and by a recent analysis of breast carcinogenesis in exposed females of Hiroshima and Nagasaki. (author)

  3. Secondary malignant neoplasms in testicular cancer survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curreri, Stephanie A; Fung, Chunkit; Beard, Clair J

    2015-09-01

    Testicular cancer is the most common cancer among men aged 15 to 40 years, and the incidence of testicular cancer is steadily increasing. Despite successful treatment outcomes and the rate of survival at 5 to 10 years being 95%, survivors can experience late effects of both their cancer and the treatment they received, including secondary malignant neoplasms (SMNs). We discuss the development of non-germ cell SMNs that develop after diagnosis and treatment of testicular cancer and their effect on mortality. Patients diagnosed with testicular cancer frequently choose postoperative surveillance if they are diagnosed with clinical stage I disease. These patients may experience an increased risk for developing SMNs following radiation exposure from diagnostic imaging. Similarly, radiotherapy for testicular cancer is associated with increased risks of developing both solid tumors and leukemia. Studies have reported that patients exposed to higher doses of radiation have an increased risk of developing SMNs when compared with patients who received lower doses of radiation. Patients treated with chemotherapy also experience an increased risk of developing SMNs following testicular cancer, though the risk following chemotherapy and radiation therapy combined is not well described. A large population-based study concluded that the rate ratios for both cancer-specific and all-cause mortality for SMNs among testicular cancer survivors were not significantly different from those of matched first cancers. Although it is known that patients who receive adjuvant chemotherapy or radiotherapy or who undergo routine diagnostic or follow-up imaging for a primary testicular cancer are at an increased risk for developing SMNs, the extent of this risk is largely unknown. It is critically important that research be conducted to determine this risk and its contributing factors as accurately as possible. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. An experimental study of the effect of total lymphoid irradiation on the survival of skin allografts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Charn Il; Han, Man Chung

    1981-01-01

    The study was undertaken to determine the effect of fractionated high-dose total lymphoid irradiation (TLI) on the survival of skin allograft despite major histocompatibility difference. Total lymphoid irradiation is a relatively safe form of radiotherapy, has been used extensively to treat lymphoid malignancies in humans with few side effects. A total of 90 rats, Sprague-Dawley rat as recipient and Wistar rat as donor, were used for the experiment, of which 10 rats were used to determine mixed lymphocyte response (MLR) for antigenic difference and skin allografts was performed in 30 rats given total lymphoid irradiation to assess the immunosuppressive effect of total lymphoid irradiation despite major histocompatibility difference. In addition, the peripheral white blood cell counts and the proportion of lymphocytes was studied in 10 rats given total lymphoid irradiation but no skin graft to determine the effects of bone marrow suppression. The results obtained are summarized as follows. 1. The optimum dose of total lymphoid irradiation was between 1800 rads to 2400 rads. 2. The survival of skin graft on rats given total lymphoid irradiation (23.2 ± 6.0 days) was prolonged about three folds as compared to unirradiated control (8.7 ± 1.3 days). 3. Total lymphoid irradiation resulted in a severe leukopenia with marked lymphopenia, but the count was normal by the end of 3rd week. 4. The study suggests that total lymphoid irradiation is a nonlethal procedure that could be used successfully in animals to transplant allograft across major histocompatibility barriers

  5. An experimental study of the effect of total lymphoid irradiation on the survival of skin allografts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Charn Il; Han, Man Chung [College of Medicine, Seoul National University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1981-06-15

    The study was undertaken to determine the effect of fractionated high-dose total lymphoid irradiation (TLI) on the survival of skin allograft despite major histocompatibility difference. Total lymphoid irradiation is a relatively safe form of radiotherapy, has been used extensively to treat lymphoid malignancies in humans with few side effects. A total of 90 rats, Sprague-Dawley rat as recipient and Wistar rat as donor, were used for the experiment, of which 10 rats were used to determine mixed lymphocyte response (MLR) for antigenic difference and skin allografts was performed in 30 rats given total lymphoid irradiation to assess the immunosuppressive effect of total lymphoid irradiation despite major histocompatibility difference. In addition, the peripheral white blood cell counts and the proportion of lymphocytes was studied in 10 rats given total lymphoid irradiation but no skin graft to determine the effects of bone marrow suppression. The results obtained are summarized as follows. 1. The optimum dose of total lymphoid irradiation was between 1800 rads to 2400 rads. 2. The survival of skin graft on rats given total lymphoid irradiation (23.2 {+-} 6.0 days) was prolonged about three folds as compared to unirradiated control (8.7 {+-} 1.3 days). 3. Total lymphoid irradiation resulted in a severe leukopenia with marked lymphopenia, but the count was normal by the end of 3rd week. 4. The study suggests that total lymphoid irradiation is a nonlethal procedure that could be used successfully in animals to transplant allograft across major histocompatibility barriers.

  6. Functional and phenotypic heterogeneity of group 3 innate lymphoid cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melo-Gonzalez, Felipe; Hepworth, Matthew R

    2017-03-01

    Group 3 innate lymphoid cells (ILC3), defined by expression of the transcription factor retinoid-related orphan receptor γt, play key roles in the regulation of inflammation and immunity in the gastrointestinal tract and associated lymphoid tissues. ILC3 consist largely of two major subsets, NCR + ILC3 and LTi-like ILC3, but also demonstrate significant plasticity and heterogeneity. Recent advances have begun to dissect the relationship between ILC3 subsets and to define distinct functional states within the intestinal tissue microenvironment. In this review we discuss the ever-expanding roles of ILC3 in the context of intestinal homeostasis, infection and inflammation - with a focus on comparing and contrasting the relative contributions of ILC3 subsets. © 2016 The Authors. Immunology published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Clinical outcomes of childhood x-irradiation for lymphoid hyperplasia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pottern, L.M.

    1987-01-01

    A prospective study was conducted to explore the relationship between childhood x-irradiation for lymphoid hyperplasia and the subsequent development of thyroid gland and other head and neck disorders. All individuals under 18 years of age who were x-irradiated for lymphoid hyperplasia during the years 1938-69 at Children's Hospital Medical Center, Boston comprised the exposed population. The comparison group consisted of non-exposed, surgically treated individuals. The study included a health questionnaire and a clinical examination component. A history of thyroid cancer was reported by 11 exposed subjects and no non-exposed subjects. Significantly elevated standardized incidence ratios of thyroid cancer were seen for both exposed males and females, 19.9 and 12.1, respectively. The average thyroid radiation dose was 25.8 rads and the mean latency period was 17.3 years

  8. Total lymphoid irradiation in refractory systemic lupus erythematosus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ben-Chetrit, E.; Gross, D.J.; Braverman, A.; Weshler, Z.; Fuks, Z.; Slavin, S.; Eliakim, M.

    1986-01-01

    In two patients with systemic lupus erythematosus, conventional therapy was considered to have failed because of persistent disease activity and unacceptable side effects. Both were treated with total lymphoid irradiation without clinical benefit, despite adequate immunosuppression as documented by markedly reduced numbers of circulating T lymphocytes and T-lymphocyte-dependent proliferative responses in vitro. The first patient developed herpes zoster, gram-negative septicemia, neurologic symptoms, and deterioration of lupus nephritis. The second patient developed massive bronchopneumonia, necrotic cutaneous lesions, and progressive nephritis and died 2 weeks after completion of radiotherapy. These observations, although limited to two patients, indicate that total lymphoid irradiation in patients with severe systemic lupus erythematosus should be regarded as strictly experimental

  9. Beyond NK cells: the expanding universe of innate lymphoid cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cella, Marina; Miller, Hannah; Song, Christina

    2014-01-01

    For a long time, natural killer (NK) cells were thought to be the only innate immune lymphoid population capable of responding to invading pathogens under the influence of changing environmental cues. In the last few years, an increasing amount of evidence has shown that a number of different innate lymphoid cell (ILC) populations found at mucosal sites rapidly respond to locally produced cytokines in order to establish or maintain homeostasis. These ILC populations closely mirror the phenotype of adaptive T helper subsets in their repertoire of secreted soluble factors. Early in the immune response, ILCs are responsible for setting the stage to mount an adaptive T cell response that is appropriate for the incoming insult. Here, we review the diversity of ILC subsets and discuss similarities and differences between ILCs and NK cells in function and key transcriptional factors required for their development.

  10. Beyond NK cells: the expanding universe of Innate Lymphoid Cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina eCella

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available For a long time NK cells were thought to be the only immune innate lymphoid population capable of responding to invading pathogens under the influence of changing environmental cues. In the last few years, an increasing amount of evidence has shown that a number of different Innate Lymphoid Cells found at mucosal sites rapidly respond to locally produced cytokines in order to establish or maintain homeostasis. ILC populations closely mirror the phenotype of adaptive Thelper subsets in their ability to secrete soluble factors. Early in the immune response, ILCs are responsible for setting the stage to mount an adaptive T cell response appropriate to the incoming insult. Here we review the diversity of ILC subsets and discuss similarities and differences between ILCs and NK cells in function and key transcriptional factors required for their development.

  11. Immunosuppression by fractionated total lymphoid irradiation in collagen arthritis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCune, W.J.; Buckley, J.A.; Belli, J.A.; Trentham, D.E.

    1982-01-01

    Treatments with fractionated total lymphoid irradiation (TLI) and cyclophosphamide were evaluated for rats injected with type II collagen. Preadministration of TLI and repeated injections of cyclophosphamide suppressed the severity of arthritis and lowered antibody titers to collagen significantly. TLI initiated at the onset of collagen arthritis decreased humoral and cellular responses to collagen but did not affect the severity of arthritis. These data demonstrate that both TLi and cyclophosphamide are immunosuppressive in an experimentally inducible autoimmune disease

  12. Total lymphoid irradiation in the Wistar rat: technique and dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoogenhout, J.; Kazem, I.; de Jong, J.

    1983-01-01

    The technical and dosimetric aspects of total lymphoid irradiation (TLI) in the Wistar rat were evaluated as part of a set-up to develop a new model for tumor xenotransplantation. Information obtained from anatomical dissections, radionuclide imaging of the spleen, lymphography and chromolymphography was used to standardize the localization portals cut out in a lead plate. The two portals encompassed the lymphoid tissue above and below the diaphragm. A specially designed masonite phantom was used to measure the dose distribution in the simulated target volumes. Ionization chamber dosimetery, thermoluminescence dosimetry and film densitometry were used for measuring exposure and absorbed dose. Irradiation was performed with 250 kV X rays (HVL 3.1 mm Cu). The dose rate was regulated by adjusting the treatment distance. The dose inhomogeneity measured in the target volumes varied between 80-100%. The side scatter dose to non target tissues under the shielded area between the two portals ranged between 20-30%. The technique and dosimetry of total lymphoid irradiation in Wistar rats are now standardized and validated and pave the way for tumor xenotransplantation experiments

  13. Dysregulation of Innate Lymphoid Cells in Common Variable Immunodeficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maglione, Paul J; Cols, Montserrat; Cunningham-Rundles, Charlotte

    2017-10-05

    Common variable immunodeficiency (CVID) is the most prevalent symptomatic primary immune deficiency. With widespread use of immunoglobulin replacement therapy, non-infectious complications, such as autoimmunity, chronic intestinal inflammation, and lung disease, have replaced infections as the major cause of morbidity and mortality in this immune deficiency. The pathogenic mechanisms that underlie the development of these complications in CVID are not known; however, there have been numerous associated laboratory findings. Among the most intriguing of these associations is elevation of interferon signature genes in CVID patients with inflammatory/autoimmune complications, as a similar gene expression profile is found in systemic lupus erythematosus and other chronic inflammatory diseases. Linked with this heightened interferon signature in CVID is an expansion of circulating IFN-γ-producing innate lymphoid cells. Innate lymphoid cells are key regulators of both protective and pathogenic immune responses that have been extensively studied in recent years. Further exploration of innate lymphoid cell biology in CVID may uncover key mechanisms underlying the development of inflammatory complications in these patients and may inspire much needed novel therapeutic approaches.

  14. Human natural killer cell development in secondary lymphoid tissues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freud, Aharon G.; Yu, Jianhua; Caligiuri, Michael A.

    2014-01-01

    For nearly a decade it has been appreciated that critical steps in human natural killer (NK) cell development likely occur outside of the bone marrow and potentially necessitate distinct microenvironments within extramedullary tissues. The latter include the liver and gravid uterus as well as secondary lymphoid tissues such as tonsils and lymph nodes. For as yet unknown reasons these tissues are naturally enriched with NK cell developmental intermediates (NKDI) that span a maturation continuum starting from an oligopotent CD34+CD45RA+ hematopoietic precursor cell to a cytolytic mature NK cell. Indeed despite the detection of NKDI within the aforementioned tissues, relatively little is known about how, why, and when these tissues may be most suited to support NK cell maturation and how this process fits in with other components of the human immune system. With the discovery of other innate lymphoid subsets whose immunophenotypes overlap with those of NKDI, there is also need to revisit and potentially re-characterize the basic immunophenotypes of the stages of the human NK cell developmental pathway in vivo. In this review, we provide an overview of human NK cell development in secondary lymphoid tissues and discuss the many questions that remain to be answered in this exciting field. PMID:24661538

  15. Treatment of intractable lupus nephritis with total lymphoid irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strober, S.; Field, E.; Hoppe, R.T.; Kotzin, B.L.; Shemesh, O.; Engleman, E.; Ross, J.C.; Myers, B.D.

    1985-01-01

    Ten patients with lupus nephritis and marked proteinuria (3.9 g or more/d) that did not respond adequately to treatment with prednisone alone or prednisone in combination with azathioprine were treated with total lymphoid irradiation in an uncontrolled feasibility study. Within 6 weeks after the start of total lymphoid irradiation, the serum albumin level rose in all patients in association with a reduction in the serum level of anti-DNA antibodies, an increase in the serum complement level, or both. Improvement in these variables persisted in eight patients followed for more than 1 year, with the stabilization or reduction of the serum creatinine level. Urinary leakage of albumin was substantially reduced in all patients. Side effects associated with radiotherapy included transient constitutional complaints in ten patients, transient blood element depressions in three, localized viral and bacterial infections in four, and ovarian failure in one. The results suggest that total lymphoid irradiation may provide an alternative to cytotoxic drugs in the treatment of lupus nephritis

  16. Ageing combines CD4 T cell lymphopenia in secondary lymphoid organs and T cell accumulation in gut associated lymphoid tissue

    OpenAIRE

    Martinet , Kim ,; Bloquet , Stéphane; Bourgeois , Christine

    2014-01-01

    International audience; BackgroundCD4 T cell lymphopenia is an important T cell defect associated to ageing. Higher susceptibility to infections, cancer, or autoimmune pathologies described in aged individuals is thought to partly rely on T cell lymphopenia. We hypothesize that such diverse effects may reflect anatomical heterogeneity of age related T cell lymphopenia. Indeed, no data are currently available on the impact of ageing on T cell pool recovered from gut associated lymphoid tissue ...

  17. Imaging findings of abdominal extraosseous plasma cell neoplasm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Yang Sin; Byun, Jae Ho; Won, Hyung Jin; Kim, Ah Young; Shin, Yong Moon; Kim, Pyo Nyun; Ha, Hyun Kwon; Lee, Moon Gyu; Bae, Kyung Soo

    2006-01-01

    To evaluate the imaging findings of abdominal extraosseous plasma cell neoplasm. From April 2000 to January 2005, eight patients (four men, four women; mean age, 50.6 years) with pathologically proved, extraosseous plasma cell neoplasm involving the abdominal organs were included in this study. The diagnoses were based on consensus agreement between two radiologists who retrospectively reviewed CT, ultrasonography, and enteroclysis findings. We evaluated the findings by focusing on the location, size, margin, and enhancement pattern of the lesion, and lymphadenopathy on each image. There were multiple myeloma in four patients and extramedullary plasmacytoma in the remaining four. Involved abdominal organs were the liver (n = 4), spleen (n 4), lymph node (n = 3), stomach (n = 1), small bowel (n = 1), and colon (n 1). The hepatic involvement of plasma cell neoplasm presented as a homogeneous, well-defined, solitary mass (n = 1), multiple nodules (n = 1), and hepatomegaly (n = 2). Its involvement of the spleen and lymph node appeared as splenomegaly and lymphadenopathy, respectively. Its involvement of the gastrointestinal tract including the stomach, small bowel, and colon, presented as a homogeneous, diffuse wall thickening or mass in the gastrointestinal tract. Abdominal extraosseous plasma cell neoplasm involves occasionally the liver, spleen, and lymph node, and rarely the gastrointestinal tract. When we encounter a well-defined, homogeneous lesion of the abdominal organs in patients diagnosed or suspected as having plasma cell neoplasm, we should consider its involvement of the abdominal organs

  18. The radiological and histopathological differential diagnosis of chordoid neoplasms in skull base

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PAN Bin-cai

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Background Chordoid neoplasms refer to tumors appearing to have histological features of embryonic notochord, which is characterized by cords and lobules of neoplastic cells arranged within myxoid matrix. Because of radiological and histological similarities with myxoid matrix and overlapping immunohistochemical profile, chordoma, chordoid meningioma, chordoid glioma, and rare extraskeletal myxoid chondrosarcoma enter in the radiological and histological differential diagnosis at the site of skull base. However, there is always a great challenge for histopathologists to make an accurate diagnosis when encountering a chordoid neoplasm within or near the central nervous system. The aim of this study is to investigate and summarize the radiological, histological features and immunohistochemical profiles of chordoid neoplasms in skull base, and to find a judicious panel of immunostains to unquestionably help in diagnostically challenging cases. Methods A total of 23 cases of chordoid neoplasms in skull base, including 10 chordomas, 5 chordoid meningiomas, 3 chordoid gliomas and 5 extraskeletal myxoid chondrosarcomas, were collected from the First Affiliated Hospital, Sun Yat-sen University and Guangdong Tongjiang Hospital. MRI examination was performed on the patients before surgical treatment. Microscopical examination and immunohistochemical staining study using vimentin (Vim, pan-cytokeratin (PCK, epithelial membrane antigen (EMA, S?100 protein (S-100, glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP, D2-40, Galectin-3, CD3, CD20, Ki-67 were performed on the samples of cases. The clinicopathological data of the patients was also analyzed retrospectively. Results Most of chordomas were localized in the clivus with heterogeneous hyperintensity on T2WI scanning. The breakage of clivus was observed in most cases. Histologically, the tumor cells of chordoma exhibited bland nuclear features and some contained abundant vacuolated cytoplasm (the so

  19. Mortality from lymphohematopoietic neoplasms and other causes in a cohort of laminated plastic workers exposed to formaldehyde.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pira, Enrico; Romano, Canzio; Verga, Federica; La Vecchia, Carlo

    2014-10-01

    A possible relationship between exposure to formaldehyde and leukemia-particularly myeloid leukemia-as well as of lymphoid neoplasms has been debated and is still controversial. We thus examined the issue using data from a cohort of workers of a laminated plastic factory sited in Piedmont, northern Italy. The study cohort included 2,750 subjects (2,227 men and 523 women) who worked in the factory between 1947 and 2011, for at least 180 days. Follow-up ended in May 2011, for a total of 70,933 person-years of observation. We computed standardized mortality ratios (SMR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) using national and (whenever available) Piedmont Region death rates. Overall, there were 417 deaths versus 493.4 expected ones (SMR = 84.5, 95% CI 76.6-93.0). The SMRs were 79.8 (95% CI 67.5-93.6) for total cancer mortality, 148.5 (95% CI 68.0-282.2) for oral cavity and pharynx (three deaths were registered, but not confirmed, as nasopharyngeal cancer), 48.3 (95% CI 13.1-123.7) for pancreas, 66.1 (95% CI 13.6-193.0) for larynx, and 96.7 (95% CI 72.0-127.2) for lung cancer. The SMR of all lymphohematopoietic malignancies was 68.6 (95% CI 31.4-130.3; nine observed deaths). This tended to increase with duration of exposure and to decrease with period at first exposure, always remaining below 100. There were four deaths from lymphoma (SMR = 74.1, 95% CI 20.1-189.6) and five deaths from leukemia (SMR = 92.4, 95% CI 29.9-215.3). We found no meaningful excess mortality from any lymphohematopoietic nor other neoplasms, except possibly for nasopharyngeal cancer.

  20. Incidence and significance of Multiple Primary Malignant Neoplasms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Eun Kyung; Cho, Moon June; Ha, Sung Whan; Park, Charn Il; Bang, Young Ju; Kim, Noe Kyung

    1986-01-01

    To know the three questions about multiple primary cancers: 1) what are the characteristics of persons having multiple primary cancer? 2) Dose presence of a single primary concern after the susceptibility to multiple primary cancers? 3) Dose the location of one multiple primary cancer influence the site of others?, we analysed 121 cases of multiple primary malignant neoplasms registered in Seoul National University Hospital during 8years from July 1978 to August 1986. Of 121 cases, double primary malignant neoplasms were 119 cases and triple were 2 cases. The incidence of multiple primary malignant neoplasms was 0.7%. The metachronous tumor(> 6 months) was found in 70 cases and the median time between the first and the second was 32 months. The most commonly associated tumors were stomach and primary liver carcinoma. Cervix and Lung cancer, Stomach and Rectal cancer, Stomach and Esophagus cancer were also commonly associated

  1. Small-bowel neoplasms in patients undergoing video capsule endoscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rondonotti, E; Pennazio, M; Toth, E

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND STUDY AIM: Small-bowel tumors account for 1% - 3% of all gastrointestinal neoplasms. Recent studies with video capsule endoscopy (VCE) suggest that the frequency of these tumors may be substantially higher than previously reported. The aim of the study was to evaluate the frequency......, clinical presentation, diagnostic/therapeutic work-up, and endoscopic appearance of small-bowel tumors in a large population of patients undergoing VCE. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Identification by a questionnaire of patients with VCE findings suggesting small-bowel tumors and histological confirmation...... of the neoplasm seen in 29 centers of 10 European Countries. RESULTS: Of 5129 patients undergoing VCE, 124 (2.4%) had small-bowel tumors (112 primary, 12 metastatic). Among these patients, indications for VCE were: obscure gastrointestinal bleeding (108 patients), abdominal pain (9), search for primary neoplasm...

  2. Interdisciplinary Management of Cystic Neoplasms of the Pancreas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linda S. Lee

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Cystic neoplasms of the pancreas are increasingly recognized due to the frequent use of abdominal imaging. It is reported that up to 20% of abdominal cross-sectional scans identify incidental asymptomatic pancreatic cysts. Proper characterization of pancreatic cystic neoplasms is important not only to recognize premalignant lesions that will require surgical resection, but also to allow nonoperative management of many cystic lesions that will not require resection with its inherent morbidity. Though reliable biomarkers are lacking, a wide spectrum of diagnostic modalities are available to evaluate pancreatic cystic neoplasms, including radiologic, endoscopic, laboratory, and pathologic analysis. An interdisciplinary approach to management of these lesions which incorporates recent, specialty-specific advances in the medical literature is herein suggested.

  3. Neoplasms among atomic bomb survivors in Hiroshima City. First report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harada, Tomin; Ishida, Morihiro

    1960-04-01

    The 1957-1958 incidence of neoplasms among the survivors of the Hiroshima A-bomb, varies directly with radiation dose insofar as it may be inferred from distance from the hypocenter at exposure. The incidence of all malignant neoplasms among the survivors who were within 1000 meters is more than 4 times that of the non-exposed population. The incidence of benign neoplasms among the survivors exposed within 1500 meters is also significantly higher than that among the non-exposed. For survivors under 1500 meters significant differences are seen between the numbers of observed cancers of the lung, stomach, uterus and ovary and the expected cases calculated from the age-specific rates of the non-exposed portion of the Hiroshima population. The increased incidence among survivors within 1500 meters is not related to sex or age. 18 references, 2 figures, 14 tables.

  4. Solute carrier transporters: potential targets for digestive system neoplasms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Jing; Zhu, Xiao Yan; Liu, Lu Ming; Meng, Zhi Qiang

    2018-01-01

    Digestive system neoplasms are the leading causes of cancer-related death all over the world. Solute carrier (SLC) superfamily is composed of a series of transporters that are ubiquitously expressed in organs and tissues of digestive systems and mediate specific uptake of small molecule substrates in facilitative manner. Given the important role of SLC proteins in maintaining normal functions of digestive system, dysregulation of these protein in digestive system neoplasms may deliver biological and clinical significance that deserves systemic studies. In this review, we critically summarized the recent advances in understanding the role of SLC proteins in digestive system neoplasms. We highlighted that several SLC subfamilies, including metal ion transporters, transporters of glucose and other sugars, transporters of urea, neurotransmitters and biogenic amines, ammonium and choline, inorganic cation/anion transporters, transporters of nucleotide, amino acid and oligopeptide organic anion transporters, transporters of vitamins and cofactors and mitochondrial carrier, may play important roles in mediating the initiation, progression, metastasis, and chemoresistance of digestive system neoplasms. Proteins in these SLC subfamilies may also have diagnostic and prognostic values to particular cancer types. Differential expression of SLC proteins in tumors of digestive system was analyzed by extracting data from human cancer database, which revealed that the roles of SLC proteins may either be dependent on the substrates they transport or be tissue specific. In addition, small molecule modulators that pharmacologically regulate the functions of SLC proteins were discussed for their possible application in the treatment of digestive system neoplasms. This review highlighted the potential of SLC family proteins as drug target for the treatment of digestive system neoplasms.

  5. Assessing the occupational nature of malignant lung neoplasms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sevc, J.; Klener, V.; Plank, V.

    1989-01-01

    The development of lung carcinoma in uranium miners is discussed. In spite of the decreasing radiation risks in mines, the absolute number of neoplasms has increased since the 1960's; this is due to the increasing number of miners, improved diagnostic methods and the aging of miners who thus enter higher age groups where a higher incidence of neoplasms can be expected. The probabilistic method was shown to be of help in deciding whether individual cases of lung carcinoma should be considered an occupational disease; new possible improvements of the method are suggested. (J.J.). 12 refs

  6. Postoperative meningeal enhancement on MRI in children with brain neoplasms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Min Hee; Han, Bokyung Kim; Yoon, Hye Kyung; Shin, Hyung Jin

    2000-01-01

    The meninges composed of the dura, the arachnoid and the pia are significant sites of blood-brain barrier. Physical disruption of the integrity of the meninges from a variety of causes including surgery results in various patterns of meningeal enhancement on contrast enhanced MR images. It is important to distinguish normal reactive or benign postoperative enhancement from more serious leptomeningeal metastasis or infection, particularly in children with intracranial neoplasms. We present various patterns of meningeal enhancement on MRI in children following surgery for brain neoplasms. (author)

  7. Unicentric Castleman’s Disease Masquerading Pancreatic Neoplasm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saurabh Jain

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Castleman’s disease is a rare nonclonal proliferative disorder of the lymph nodes with an unknown etiology. Common locations of Castleman’s disease are mediastinum, neck, axilla, and abdomen. Castleman’s disease of a peripancreatic location masquerading as pancreatic neoplasm is an even rarer entity. On search of published data, we came across about 17 cases published on peripancreatic Castleman’s disease until now. Here we are reporting a case of retropancreatic Castleman's disease masquerading as retroperitoneal neoplasm in a 46-year-old male patient.

  8. Transcription factor GATA-4 is a marker of anaplasia in adrenocortical neoplasms of the domestic ferret (Mustela putorius furo).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, R A; Kiupel, M; Bielinska, M; Kiiveri, S; Heikinheimo, M; Capen, C C; Wilson, D B

    2004-07-01

    Adrenocortical neoplasms are a common cause of morbidity in neutered ferrets. Recently we showed that gonadectomized DBA/2J mice develop adrenocortical tumors that express transcription factor GATA-4. Therefore, we screened archival specimens of adrenocortical neoplasms from neutered ferrets to determine whether GATA-4 could be used as a tumor marker in this species. Nuclear immunoreactivity for GATA-4 was evident in 19/22 (86%) of ferret adrenocortical carcinomas and was prominent in areas exhibiting myxoid differentiation. Normal adrenocortical cells lacked GATA-4 expression. Two other markers of adrenocortical tumors in gonadectomized mice, inhibin-alpha and luteinizing hormone receptor, were coexpressed with GATA-4 in some of the ferret tumors. No GATA-4 expression was observed in three cases of nodular hyperplasia, but patches of anaplastic cells expressing GATA-4 were evident in 7/14 (50%) of tumors classified as adenomas. We conclude that GATA-4 can function as a marker of anaplasia in ferret adrenocortical tumors.

  9. Bronchus-associated lymphoid tissue in pulmonary hypertension produces pathologic autoantibodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colvin, Kelley L; Cripe, Patrick J; Ivy, D Dunbar; Stenmark, Kurt R; Yeager, Michael E

    2013-11-01

    Autoimmunity has long been associated with pulmonary hypertension. Bronchus-associated lymphoid tissue plays important roles in antigen sampling and self-tolerance during infection and inflammation. We reasoned that activated bronchus-associated lymphoid tissue would be evident in rats with pulmonary hypertension, and that loss of self-tolerance would result in production of pathologic autoantibodies that drive vascular remodeling. We used animal models, histology, and gene expression assays to evaluate the role of bronchus-associated lymphoid tissue in pulmonary hypertension. Bronchus-associated lymphoid tissue was more numerous, larger, and more active in pulmonary hypertension compared with control animals. We found dendritic cells in and around lymphoid tissue, which were composed of CD3(+) T cells over a core of CD45RA(+) B cells. Antirat IgG and plasma from rats with pulmonary hypertension decorated B cells in lymphoid tissue, resistance vessels, and adventitia of large vessels. Lymphoid tissue in diseased rats was vascularized by aquaporin-1(+) high endothelial venules and vascular cell adhesion molecule-positive vessels. Autoantibodies are produced in bronchus-associated lymphoid tissue and, when bound to pulmonary adventitial fibroblasts, change their phenotype to one that may promote inflammation. Passive transfer of autoantibodies into rats caused pulmonary vascular remodeling and pulmonary hypertension. Diminution of lymphoid tissue reversed pulmonary hypertension, whereas immunologic blockade of CCR7 worsened pulmonary hypertension and hastened its onset. Bronchus-associated lymphoid tissue expands in pulmonary hypertension and is autoimmunologically active. Loss of self-tolerance contributes to pulmonary vascular remodeling and pulmonary hypertension. Lymphoid tissue-directed therapies may be beneficial in treating pulmonary hypertension.

  10. Development of venetoclax for therapy of lymphoid malignancies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhu H

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Huayuan Zhu,1,2 Alexandru Almasan1 1Department of Cancer Biology, Lerner Research Institute, Cleveland Clinic, Cleveland, OH, USA; 2Department of Hematology, The First Affiliated Hospital of Nanjing Medical University, Jiangsu Province Hospital, Nanjing, People’s Republic of China Abstract: B-cell lymphoma-2 (BCL-2 family dysfunction and impairment of apoptosis are common in most B-cell lymphoid malignancies. Venetoclax (Venclexta™, formerly ABT-199, GDC-0199 is a highly selective BCL-2 inhibitor, which mimics its BCL-2 homology 3-domain to induce apoptosis. It was approved for treatment of previously treated chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL patients with 17p deletion early in 2016. It has also been in clinical trials for other B-cell lymphoid malignancies. Unlike the other recently approved targeted agents idelalisib and ibrutinib, so far there has been no relapse reported in some patients. Also, unlike the other targeted agents, it is effective against tumor cells that reside in the blood marrow. Despite its promising outcome in CLL, preclinical data have already uncovered mechanistic insights underlying venetoclax resistance, such as upregulation of MCL-1 or BCL-xL expression and protective signaling from the microenvironment. In this review, we describe the role of the BCL-2 family in the pathogenesis of B-cell lymphoid malignancies, the development of venetoclax, and its current clinical outcome in CLL and other B-cell malignancies. We also discuss the resistance mechanisms that develop following venetoclax therapy, potential strategies to overcome them, and how this knowledge can be translated into clinical applications. Keywords: BCL-2, BCL-xL, chronic lymphocytic leukemia, MCL-1, venetoclax

  11. Lymphoid follicles in children with Helicobacter pylori-negative gastritis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broide, Efrat; Richter, Vered; Mendlovic, Sonia; Shalem, Tzippora; Eindor-Abarbanel, Adi; Moss, Steven F; Shirin, Haim

    2017-01-01

    Purpose The prevalence of Helicobacter pylori gastritis has been declining, whereas H. pylori-negative gastritis has become more common. We evaluated chronic gastritis in children with regard to H. pylori status and celiac disease (CD). Patients and methods Demographic, clinical, endoscopic, and histologic features of children who underwent elective esophagogastroduodenoscopy were reviewed retrospectively. Gastric biopsies from the antrum and corpus of the stomach were graded using the Updated Sydney System. H. pylori presence was defined by hematoxylin and eosin, Giemsa, or immunohistochemical staining and urease testing. Results A total of 184 children (61.9% female) met the study criteria with a mean age of 10 years. A total of 122 (66.3%) patients had chronic gastritis; 74 (60.7%) were H. pylori-negative. Children with H. pylori-negative gastritis were younger (p=0.003), were less likely to present with abdominal pain (p=0.02), and were mostly of non-Arabic origin (p=0.011). Nodular gastritis was found to be less prevalent in H. pylori-negative gastritis (6.8%) compared with H. pylori-positive gastritis (35.4%, pgastritis and lymphoid follicles were associated most commonly with H. pylori. Although less typical, lymphoid follicles were demonstrated in 51.3% of H. pylori-negative patients. The presence or absence of CD was not associated with histologic findings in H. pylori-negative gastritis. Conclusion Our findings suggest that lymphoid follicles are a feature of H. pylori-negative gastritis in children independent of their CD status. PMID:28860835

  12. Isolation and characterization of mouse innate lymphoid cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halim, Timotheus Y F; Takei, Fumio

    2014-08-01

    Innate lymphoid cells (ILCs) are rare populations of cytokine-producing lymphocytes and are divided into three groups, namely ILC1, ILC2, and ILC3, based on the cytokines that they produce. They comprise less than 1% of lymphocytes in mucosal tissues and express no unique cell surface markers. Therefore, they can only be identified by combinations of multiple cell surface markers and further characterized by cytokine production in vitro. Thus, multicolor flow cytometry is the only reliable method to purify and characterize ILCs. Here we describe the methods for cell preparation, flow cytometric analysis, and purification of murine ILC2 and ILC3. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

  13. Effect of total lymphoid irradiation in chronic progressive multiple sclerosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cook, S.D.; Devereux, C.; Troiano, R.; Hafstein, M.P.; Zito, G.; Hernandez, E.; Lavenhar, M.; Vidaver, R.; Dowling, P.C.

    1986-01-01

    Total lymphoid irradiation (TLI; 1980 cGy) or sham irradiation was given to 40 patients with chronic progressive multiple sclerosis (MS) in a prospective, randomised, double-blind study. During mean follow-up of 21 months, MS patients treated with TLI has less functional decline than sham-irradiated MS patients (p<0.01). A significant relation was noted between absolute blood lymphocyte counts in the first year after TLI and subsequent course, patients with higher lymphocyte counts generally having a worse prognosis (p<0.01). TLI was well tolerated and associated with only mild short-term, and to date, long-term side-effects. (author)

  14. Plasma Cell Neoplasms (Including Multiple Myeloma)—Health Professional Version

    Science.gov (United States)

    There are several types of plasma cell neoplasms, including monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance (MGUS), isolated plasmacytoma of the bone, extramedullary plasmacytoma, and multiple myeloma. Find evidence-based information on plasma cell neoplasms treatment, research, and statistics.

  15. Exhibition

    CERN Multimedia

    Staff Association

    2014-01-01

    Energie sombre, matière noire J.-J. Dalmais - J. Maréchal Du 11 au 27 novembre 2014, CERN Meyrin, Bâtiment principal A l’image des particules atomiques qui ont tissé des liens pour créer la matière, deux artistes haut bugistes croisent leurs regards et conjuguent leurs expressions singulières pour faire naître une vision commune de l’univers, produit des forces primordiales. Les sculptures de Jean-Jacques Dalmais et les peintures de Jacki Maréchal se rencontrent pour la première fois et se racontent par un enrichissement mutuel la belle histoire de la Vie. Dialogue magique des œuvres en mouvement qui questionnent en écho l’énergie sombre et la matière noire. Cette harmonieuse confluence de jeux de miroir et de résonnance illumine de poésie et de sobriété l’espace expos&...

  16. Exhibition

    CERN Multimedia

    Staff Association

    2017-01-01

    Gaïa Manuella Cany Du 10 au 28 avril 2017 CERN Meyrin, Bâtiment principal Oiseau - Manuella Cany. Tableaux abstraits inspirés de vues satellites ou photos prises du ciel. Certains sont à la frontière du figuratif alors que d'autres permettent de laisser libre cours à son imagination. Aux détails infinis, ces tableaux sont faits pour être vus de loin et de près grâce à une attention toute particulière apportée aux effets de matières et aux couleurs le long de volutes tantôt nuancées tantôt contrastées.   Pour plus d’informations : staff.association@cern.ch | Tél: 022 766 37 38

  17. Exhibition

    CERN Document Server

    Staff Association

    2018-01-01

    En dehors des frontières Maxence Piquet Du 2 au 11 mai 2018 | CERN Meyrin, Bâtiment principal Exposition de peinture d'un artiste autodidacte Maxence Piquet (signature artiste M-P), avec différentes techniques (acrylique, huile, fusain, collage...) et sur différents supports. Un art souvent brut et parfois provoquant, avec des touches expressionnistes et cubistes principale origine de son art. Des œuvres souvent vivent et colorées... Cette exposition est la première en dehors d ses frontières Lorraine et a pour but de faire voyager son art au regard du plus grand nombre . Pour plus d’informations et demandes d’accès : staff.association@cern.ch | Tél: 022 766 37 38

  18. Exhibition

    CERN Multimedia

    Staff Association

    2016-01-01

    The Elementary Particles of Painting Alfonso Fratteggiani Bianchi and Ermanno Imbergamo From September 26 to October 7, 2016 CERN Meyrin, Main Building With intentions similar to those of CERN physicists, the artist Alfonso Fratteggiani Bianchi investigates the color pigment, studying its interaction with light and with the support on which it is deposited. He creates monochrome paintings by spreading the color pigment in the pure state on stones, without using glue or any other type of adhesive. With intentions similar to artists, the physicist Ermanno Imbergamo investigates the use of luminescent wavelength shifters, materials commonly used in Particle Physics, for art. He creates other monochrome artworks, which disclose further aspects of interaction among light, color pigments and support. For more information: staff.association@cern.ch | Tel: 022 767 28 19

  19. Exhibition

    CERN Multimedia

    Staff Association

    2016-01-01

    COLORATION Sandra Duchêne From September 5 to 16, 2016 CERN Meyrin, Main Building La recherche de l’Universel. Après tout ! C’est de l’Amour ! What else to say ? …La couleur, l’ENERGIE de la vie…

  20. Exhibition

    CERN Multimedia

    Staff Association

    2014-01-01

      Parallels vision Astronomical subjects which evoke extrasensory kinetic visions Alberto Di Fabio From 8 to 10 October, CERN Meyrin, Main Building In the framework of Italy@cern, the Staff Association presents Alberto Di Fabio. Di Fabio’s work is inspired by the fundamental laws of the physical world, as well as organic elements and their interrelation. His paintings and works on paper merge the worlds of art and science, depicting natural forms and biological structures in vivid colour and imaginative detail. For all additional information: staff.association@cern.ch | Tel: 022 767 28 19

  1. Exhibition

    CERN Multimedia

    Staff Association

    2017-01-01

    Le Point Isabelle Gailland Du 20 février au 3 mars 2017 CERN Meyrin, Bâtiment principal La Diagonale - Isabelle Gailland. Au départ, un toujours même point minuscule posé au centre de ce que la toile est un espace. Une réplique d'autres points, condensés, alignés, isolés, disséminés construiront dans leur extension, la ligne. Ces lignes, croisées, courbées, déviées, prolongées, seront la structure contenant et séparant la matière des couleurs. La rotation de chaque toile en cours d'exécution va offrir un accès illimité à la non-forme et à la forme. Le point final sera l'ouverture sur différents points de vue de ce que le point et la ligne sont devenus une représentation pour l'œil et l'im...

  2. Exhibition

    CERN Multimedia

    Staff Association

    2018-01-01

    La danse mécanique Daria Grigoryeva Du 22 mai au 1er juin 2018 | CERN Meyrin, Bâtiment principal La danse mécanique est une métaphore large. La mécanique établit les règles et les limites, les frontières dans lesquelles la vie et la créativité peuvent se développer. La musique est « mathématique », une poupée mécanique se tourne toujours dans la même direction, selon les règles prescrites par la nature les fleurs fleurissent au printemps. Même s'ils ne le voulaient pas. La participation à la "danse mécanique" est prédéterminée et inévitable. Il ne reste plus qu'à comprendre comment le faire "magnifiquement". En tout, il y a une signification cachée et un...

  3. Exhibition

    CERN Multimedia

    Staff Association

    2017-01-01

    Still Life Jérémy Bajulaz Du 25 septembre au 6 octobre 2017 CERN Meyrin, Main Building (Aubergine - Jérémy Bajulaz) Né en 1991 en Haute-Savoie, France. Diplômé de l'Ecole Emile Cohl à Lyon, Jérémy Bajulaz intègre en 2014 le programme d'artiste en résidence au Centre Genevois de Gravure Contemporaine. C'est là que son travail prendra corps, autour de la lumière et de ses vibrations aux travers de sujets comme le portrait et la nature morte, dans le souci de l'observation; le regard prenant une place importante dans le processus créatif. Lauréat 2017 du VII Premio AAAC, son travail a été présenté dans de nombreuses expositions collectives, en 2015 au Bâtiment d’Art Contemporain de Genève, en 2016 au 89e Salon de Lyon et du ...

  4. Exhibition

    CERN Multimedia

    Staff Association

    2017-01-01

    Œuvres recentes Fabienne Wyler Du 6 au 17 février 2017 CERN Meyrin, Bâtiment principal L'escalier du diable B - aquarelle, encre de Chine XLV - Fabienne Wyler. En relation avec certains procédés d’écriture contemporaine (par ex. Webern ou certaines musiques conçues par ordinateur), les compositions picturales de Fabienne Wyler s’élaborent à partir de « modules » (groupes de quadrangles) qu’elle reproduit en leur faisant subir toutes sortes de transformations et de déplacements : étirements, renversements, rotations, effet miroir, transpositions, déphasages, superpositions, etc., et ceci à toutes les échelles. Au fil des œuvres sont apparues des séries intitulées, Bifurcations, Intermittences, Attracteurs étranges, Polyrythmies. Ces titres ont un lien &e...

  5. Exhibition

    CERN Multimedia

    Staff Association

    2017-01-01

    Les vibrantes Patrick Robbe-Grillet Du 30 octobre au 10 novembre 2017 CERN Meyrin, Main Building Patrick Robbe-Grillet - Feux d'artifices Qui est Patrick Robbe-Grillet ? Artiste Franco-Suisse, né en 1968 à Genève. En recherche du sentiment de paix, autodidacte, après un séjour en Chine en 2000, puis au Japon en 2002, suivi d’un long questionnement, il trouve sa voie dans la peinture, élément libérateur de sa créativité et expression de sa sensibilité à fleur de peau. « La Chine m’a enseigné les courbes, les nuances. Le Japon, la ligne droite, la rigueur. » Vous avez su rendre visible l'invisible ! - commentaire de Monsieur Fawaz Gruosi Pour plus d’informations et demandes d’accès : staff.association@cern.ch | Tél : 022 766 37 38

  6. Exhibition

    CERN Multimedia

    Staff Association

    2017-01-01

    La couleur des jours oriSio Du 2 au 12 mai 2017 CERN Meyrin, Bâtiment principal oriSio - Motus Suite à un fort intérêt pour la Chine et une curiosité pour un médium très ancien, la laque ! Je réinterprète cet art à travers un style abstrait. Je présente ici des laques sur aluminium, travaillés au plasma et ensuite colorés à l’aide de pigments pour l’essentiel. Mes œuvres je les veux brutes, déchirées, évanescentes, gondolées, voire trouées mais avec une belle approche de profondeur de la couleur.   Pour plus d’informations : staff.association@cern.ch | Tél: 022 766 37 38

  7. Exhibition

    CERN Multimedia

    Staff Association

    2011-01-01

    Jan Hladky, physicien de l'Institut de Physique de l'Académie des Sciences de la République tchèque, et membre de la collaboration Alice, expose ses œuvres au Bâtiment principal du 20 avril au 6 mai. Son exposition est dédiée aux victimes du séisme de Sendai. Des copies de ses œuvres seront mises en vente et les sommes récoltées seront versées au profit des victimes.

  8. Exhibition

    CERN Multimedia

    Staff Association

    2016-01-01

    La mosaïque ou quand détruire permet de construire Lauren Decamps Du 28 novembre au 9 décembre 2016 CERN Meyrin, Bâtiment principal Paysage d'Amsterdam - Lauren Decamps On ne doit jamais rien détruire qu'on ne soit sûr de pouvoir remplacer aussi avantageusement " écrivait Plutarque dans ses Œuvres morales du 1er siècle après JC. L'artiste mosaïste Lauren Decamps adhère à cette idée et tente à sa manière de donner une nouvelle vie à ses matériaux en les taillant puis les réassemblant, créant ainsi des œuvres abstraites et figuratives.

  9. Exhibition

    CERN Multimedia

    Staff Association

    2017-01-01

    Firmament des toiles Joëlle Lalagüe Du 6 au 16 juin 2017 CERN Meyrin, Bâtiment principal Phylaë Voyage - Joëlle Lalagüe. Each picture is an invitation for a cosmic trip. This is a whispering of soul, which comes from origins. A symphony of the world, some notes of love, a harmony for us to fly to infinity. Pour plus d’informations et demandes d'accès : staff.association@cern.ch | Tél: 022 766 37 38

  10. Exhibition

    CERN Multimedia

    Staff Association

    2018-01-01

    Univers Du 9 au 20 avril 2018 | CERN Meyrin, Bâtiment principal Stéphanie Cousin Obsédée par les rêves, les mondes surréalistes et insolites, je m’empare de formes provenant des mes propres travaux photographiques ou d’images que je modifie et mixe. Je fais évoluer mes univers oniriques de femmes-animaux ainsi que mes espaces et natures imaginaires. Avec ma démarche artistique, je cherche à mettre en images nos rêves et nos cauchemars, l’irréel et le surréel, le mystique et les affres de notre inconscient. Je cherche à représenter tout ce qui sommeille au plus profond de nous-même à l’aide de symboles, parfois en utilisant des images de cultures ancestrales. Photographie-collage, je cherche à ajouter quelques notes à la définition de la photographie du 21iè...

  11. Exhibition

    CERN Multimedia

    Staff Association

    2017-01-01

    Harmonie Nathalie Lenoir Du 4 au 15 septembre 2017 CERN Meyrin, Bâtiment principal Peindre est un langage. Le tracé du pinceau sur le lin en est l'expression. A qui appartient un tableau en définitive ? A celui qui l'a peint ? A celui qui le regarde ? A celui qui l'emporte ? La peinture est une émotion partagée... Laissez-vous projeter de l'autre côté de la toile, prenez un moment pour rêver, en harmonie avec les éléments, parce-que la peinture parle à votre âme… Pour plus d’informations et demandes d’accès : staff.association@cern.ch | Tél : 022 766 37 38

  12. Exhibition

    CERN Multimedia

    Staff Association

    2018-01-01

    Cosmos KOLI Du 15 au 26 janvier 2018 CERN Meyrin, Main Building (Nébuleuse d'Orion- KOLI) KOLI, Artiste confirmé, diplômé de l’Académie de Beaux Arts de Tirana, depuis 26 ans en Suisse, où il a participé à maintes expositions collectives et organisé 10 expositions privées avec  beaucoup de succès, s’exprime actuellement dans un bonheur de couleur et de matières qui côtoient des hautes sphères… le cosmos ! Gagnant d’un premier prix lors d’une exposition collective organisée par le consulat Italien, il s’est installé au bord du lac dans le canton de Vaud où il vit depuis maintenant déjà 13 ans. www.kolicreation.com Pour plus d’informations et demandes d’accès : staff.association@cern.ch | T&eacut...

  13. Reconstruction techniques in the treatment of vertebral neoplasms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biagini, R; Boriani, S; Casadei, R; Bandiera, S; De Iure, F; Campanacci, L; Demitri, S; Orsini, U; Di Fiore, M

    1997-01-01

    The authors present a new system for the topographical description of vertebral neoplasms. The general criteria of reconstruction after curettage or vertebral resection are evaluated. The literature is reviewed in terms of the use of prostheses, bone grafts, cement and stabilization systems in the treatment of tumors of the spine. Indications for the different methods are discussed.

  14. Neoplasms radiosensitivity: how to increase the efficiency of radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Calais, G.

    1991-01-01

    The hypoxia in the neoplasms is a radioresistance factor. This article is about the methods able to reduce the hypoxia in tumors: use of hyperbaric oxygen, radiosensitizers (as metronidazole), hyperthermia and modification of oxygen release in the tissues in modifying the blood flow and in reducing the hemoglobin affinity for oxygen [fr

  15. The radiotherapy value in recurrence control mammary neoplasm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Torres Lopez, M.; Santini Blasco, A.

    1996-01-01

    In base on the retrospective analysis of 250 patient carrying of mammals neoplasms recurrence, their general characteristics are determined and the results are emphasized obtained by the radiotherapy, as well as the list that the indicative predict. It culminates in the necessity of indicating the adyuvance postoperative radiotherapy when factors unfavorable presage of recurrence(AU ) [es

  16. Childhood neoplasms presenting at autopsy: A 20-year experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryant, Victoria A; Booth, John; Palm, Liina; Ashworth, Michael; Jacques, Thomas S; Sebire, Neil J

    2017-09-01

    The aims of the review are to establish the number of undiagnosed neoplasms presenting at autopsy in a single centre and to determine the incidence and most common causes of sudden unexpected death due to neoplasia in infancy and childhood (SUDNIC). Retrospective observational study of paediatric autopsies performed on behalf of Her Majesty's Coroner over a 20-year period (1996-2015; n = 2,432). Neoplasms first diagnosed at autopsy were identified from an established database and cases meeting the criteria for sudden unexpected death were further categorised. Thirteen previously undiagnosed neoplasms were identified, including five haematological malignancies, two medulloblastomas, two neuroblastomas, two cardiac tumours and two malignancies of renal origin. Eight cases met the criteria for SUDNIC (0.33% of autopsies), the commonest group of which were haematological malignancies (n = 3). Neoplasms presenting as unexpected death in infancy and childhood and diagnosed at autopsy are rare. The findings suggest that haematological malignancies are the commonest cause of SUDNIC and highlight the importance of specialist autopsy in cases of sudden unexpected death. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. [Diagnostic molecular pathology of lymphatic and myeloid neoplasms].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klapper, W; Kreipe, H

    2015-03-01

    Molecular pathology has been an integral part of the diagnostics of tumors of the hematopoietic system substantially longer than for solid neoplasms. In contrast to solid tumors, the primary objective of molecular pathology in hematopoietic neoplasms is not the prediction of drug efficacy but the diagnosis itself by excluding reactive proliferation and by using molecular features for tumor classification. In the case of malignant lymphomas, the most commonly applied molecular tests are those for gene rearrangements for immunoglobulin heavy chains and T-cell receptors. However, this article puts the focus on new and diagnostically relevant assays in hematopathology. Among these are mutations of MYD88 codon 265 in lymphoplasmacytic lymphomas, B-raf V600E in hairy cell leukemia and Stat3 exon 21 in indolent T-cell lymphomas. In myeloproliferative neoplasms, MPL W515, calreticulin exon 9 and the BCR-ABL and JAK2 V617F junctions are the most frequently analyzed differentiation series. In myelodysplastic and myeloproliferative neoplasms, SRSF2, SETBP1 and CSF3R mutations provide important differential diagnostic information. Genes mutated in myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS) are particularly diverse but their analysis significantly improves the differential diagnostics between reactive conditions and MDS. The most frequent changes in MDS include mutations of TET2 and various genes encoding splicing factors.

  18. Cystic lesion of pancreas - Intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajiv Baijal

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasm (IPMN of the pancreas is an intraductal mucin-producing epithelial neoplasm that arises from the main and/or branched pancreatic duct. It usually presents as cystic lesion of pancreas. There are well known differential diagnosis of cystic pancreatic lesion. Pancreatic cystic neoplasms are detected at an increasing frequency due to an increased use of abdominal imaging. The diagnosis and treatment of intraductal papillary mucinous tumors (IPMN of the pancreas has evolved over the past decade. IPMN represents a spectrum of disease, ranging from benign to malignant lesions, making the early detection and characterization of these lesions important. Definitive management is surgical resection for appropriate candidates, as benign lesions harbor malignant potential. IPMN has a prognosis, which is different from adenocarcinoma of the pancreas. We report a case of a 58-year-old male with intraductal papillary neoplasm involving main duct and side branches presenting to us with clinical symptoms of chronic pancreatitis with obstructive jaundice and cholangitis treated surgically.

  19. Second Malignant Neoplasms After Treatment of Childhood Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmiegelow, K.; Levinsen, Mette Frandsen; Attarbaschi, Andishe

    2013-01-01

    PURPOSE: Second malignant neoplasms (SMNs) after diagnosis of childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) are rare events. PATIENTS AND METHODS: We analyzed data on risk factors and outcomes of 642 children with SMNs occurring after treatment for ALL from 18 collaborative study groups between 19...

  20. Childhood Renal Neoplasms in Lagos Nigera- A 28 Year Review ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Childhood Renal Neoplasms in Lagos Nigera- A 28 Year Review. ... Most of the patients presented with abdominal mass with a unilaterally enlarged kidney, abdominal pain, haematuria and weight loss. All of them had nephrectomy as initial treatment followed by radiotherapy and chemotherapy. Nigerian Quarterly Journal ...

  1. A Survey Of Cutaneous Neoplasms Among Horses Used For ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A Survey Of Cutaneous Neoplasms Among Horses Used For Cultural Festivals In Borno State, Nigeria. ... Histologically, the papillomas were deeply subdivided into epithelial lobules with the outer and inner aspects of the epithelium running approximately parallel to each other. Irregular sub-dermal masses or cords of ...

  2. Myelodysplastic/ Myeloproliferative Neoplasms Treatment (PDQ®)—Health Professional Version

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myelodysplastic/myeloproliferative neoplasms (MDS/MPN) are treated with chemotherapy or other drugs, stem cell transplant, supportive care, and targeted therapy. They include chronic myelomonocytic leukemia (CMML), juvenile myelomonocytic leukemia (JMML), and atypical chronic myeloid leukemia (aCML). Learn about the clinical features and treatment options for these leukemias.

  3. Immunohistochemical detection of prion protein in lymphoid tissues of sheep with natural scrapie

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Keulen, van L.J.M.; Schreuder, B.E.C.; Meloen, R.H.; Mooij-Harkes, G.; Vromans, M.E.W.; Langeveld, J.P.M.

    1996-01-01

    The scrapie-associated form of the prion protein (PrP(Sc)) accumulates in the brain and lymphoid tissues of sheep with scrapie. In order to assess whether detecting PrP(Sc) in lymphoid tissue could he used as a diagnostic test for scrapie, we studied the localization and distribution of PrP(Sc) in

  4. [Histopathological Study of the Relationship between Lymphoid Follicles and Different Endoscopic Types of Nodular Gastritis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagata, Takuo; Ishitake, Hisahito; Shimamoto, Fumio; Tamura, Tadamasa; Matsumura, Kazunori; Sumii, Masaharu; Nakai, Shirou

    2014-11-01

    Nodular gastritis is characterized histologically by hyperplasia and enlargement of lymphoid follicles in the lamina propria. With the objective of elucidating the relationship between different endoscopic types of nodular gastritis and lymphoid follicles, distributions of lymphoid follicles in the lamina propria were investigated in young gastric cancer patients with nodular gastritis. For the study, whole-mucosal step sectioning of each resected stomach was performed, the densities of lymphoid follicles of all specimens were measured microscopically, and the horizontal and depth distributions were calculated. For assessment in the horizontal direction, density distribution diagrams of lymphoid follicles were created. For assessment in the depth direction, the different endoscopic types of nodular gastritis were compared in the five different analysis sites. In the assessment of the horizontal distribution, no characteristic distribution tendencies were observed in either the granular type group or the scattered type group; however, it was found that areas with relatively high densities of lymphoid follicles generally coincided with the areas where nodular gastritis was observed endoscopically. These results suggested that hyperplasia and aggregation of lymphoid follicles in the lamina propria are involved at the sites where nodular gastritis is observed endoscopically. In the assessment of the depth distribution, lymphoid follicles tended to be more unevenly distributed in the upper lamina propria in the granular type group than in the scattered type at the three different analysis sites where nodular gastritis was observed endoscopically. These results suggested the possibility of a granular type characteristic.

  5. The expanding family of innate lymphoid cells: regulators and effectors of immunity and tissue remodeling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spits, Hergen; Di Santo, James P.

    2011-01-01

    Research has identified what can be considered a family of innate lymphoid cells (ILCs) that includes not only natural killer (NK) cells and lymphoid tissue-inducer (LTi) cells but also cells that produce interleukin 5 (IL-5), IL-13, IL-17 and/or IL-22. These ILC subsets are developmentally related,

  6. Innate Lymphoid Cells: Emerging Insights in Development, Lineage Relationships, and Function

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spits, Hergen; Cupedo, Tom

    2012-01-01

    Innate lymphoid cells (ILCs) are immune cells that lack a specific antigen receptor yet can produce an array of effector cytokines that in variety match that of T helper cell subsets. ILCs function in lymphoid organogenesis, tissue remodeling, antimicrobial immunity, and inflammation, particularly

  7. Exhibition at the AAA library

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2013-01-01

    Sonnesgade 11 The exhibition at the AAA library presents selected work produced by students prior to the exhibition of installations in project and praxis constructing an archive at Sonnesgade 11. The exhibition at Sonnesgade 11 was the culmination of collaboration with SLETH architects and studio...

  8. Age-specific incidence of all neoplasms after colorectal cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levi, Fabio; Randimbison, Lalao; Blanc-Moya, Rafael; La Vecchia, Carlo

    2014-10-01

    Patients diagnosed with a specific neoplasm tend to have a subsequent excess risk of the same neoplasm. The age incidence of a second neoplasm at the same site is approximately constant with age, and consequently the relative risk is greater at younger age. It is unclear whether such a line of reasoning can be extended from a specific neoplasm to the incidence of all neoplasms in subjects diagnosed with a defined neoplasm. We considered the age-specific incidence of all non-hormone-related epithelial neoplasms after a first primary colorectal cancer (n = 9542) in the Vaud Cancer Registry data set. In subjects with a previous colorectal cancer, the incidence rate of all other epithelial non-hormone-related cancers was stable around 800 per 100,000 between age 30 and 60 years, and rose only about twofold to reach 1685 at age 70 to 79 years and 1826 per 100,000 at age 80 years or older. After excluding synchronous cancers, the rise was only about 1.5-fold, that is, from about 700 to 1000. In the general population, the incidence rate of all epithelial non-hormone-related cancers was 29 per 100,000 at age 30 to 39 years, and rose 30-fold to 883 per 100,000 at age 70 to 79 years. Excluding colorectal cancers, the rise of all non-hormone-related cancers was from 360 per 100,000 at age 40 to 49 years to 940 at age 70 to 79 years after colorectal cancer, and from 90 to 636 per 100,000 in the general population (i.e., 2.6- vs. 7.1-fold). The rise of incidence with age of all epithelial non-hormone-related second cancers after colorectal cancer is much smaller than in the general population. This can possibly be related to the occurrence of a single mutational event in a population of susceptible individuals, although alternative models are plausible within the complexity of the process of carcinogenesis. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Determination of the Fate and Function of Innate Lymphoid Cells Following Adoptive Transfer of Innate Lymphoid Cell Precursors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Sullivan, Timothy E; Sun, Joseph C

    2018-01-01

    Innate lymphoid cells are a heterogeneous family of tissue-resident and circulating lymphocytes that play an important role in host immunity. Recent studies have profiled the developmental pathways of mature ILCs and have identified ILC progenitors in the bone marrow through the use of transcription factor reporter mice. Here we describe methodology to identify and isolate bone marrow CHILP and ILC2 progenitor (ILC2P) cells based on cell surface marker expression for adoptive transfer into lymphopenic mice to track the fate of developing ILCs.

  10. Innate Lymphoid Cells in HIV/SIV Infections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Spandan V. Shah

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Over the past several years, new populations of innate lymphocytes have been described in mice and primates that are critical for mucosal homeostasis, microbial regulation, and immune defense. Generally conserved from mice to humans, innate lymphoid cells (ILC have been divided primarily into three subpopulations based on phenotypic and functional repertoires: ILC1 bear similarities to natural killer cells; ILC2 have overlapping functions with TH2 cells; and ILC3 that share many functions with TH17/TH22 cells. ILC are specifically enriched at mucosal surfaces and are possibly one of the earliest responders during viral infections besides being involved in the homeostasis of gut-associated lymphoid tissue and maintenance of gut epithelial barrier integrity. Burgeoning evidence also suggests that there is an early and sustained abrogation of ILC function and numbers during HIV and pathogenic SIV infections, most notably ILC3 in the gastrointestinal tract, which leads to disruption of the mucosal barrier and dysregulation of the local immune system. A better understanding of the direct or indirect mechanisms of loss and dysfunction will be critical to immunotherapeutics aimed at restoring these cells. Herein, we review the current literature on ILC with a particular emphasis on ILC3 and their role(s in mucosal immunology and the significance of disrupting the ILC niche during HIV and SIV infections.

  11. Innate lymphoid cells in tissue homeostasis and diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ignacio, Aline; Breda, Cristiane Naffah Souza; Camara, Niels Olsen Saraiva

    2017-08-18

    Innate lymphoid cells (ILCs) are the most recently discovered family of innate immune cells. They are a part of the innate immune system, but develop from the lymphoid lineage. They lack pattern-recognition receptors and rearranged receptors, and therefore cannot directly mediate antigen specific responses. The progenitors specifically associated with the ILCs lineage have been uncovered, enabling the distinction between ILCs and natural killer cells. Based on the requirement of specific transcription factors and their patterns of cytokine production, ILCs are categorized into three subsets (ILC1, ILC2 and ILC3). First observed in mucosal surfaces, these cell populations interact with hematopoietic and non-hematopoietic cells throughout the body during homeostasis and diseases, promoting immunity, commensal microbiota tolerance, tissue repair and inflammation. Over the last 8 years, ILCs came into the spotlight as an essential cell type able to integrate diverse host immune responses. Recently, it became known that ILC subsets play a key role in immune responses at barrier surfaces, interacting with the microbiota, nutrients and metabolites. Since the liver receives the venous blood directly from the intestinal vein, the intestine and liver are essential to maintain tolerance and can rapidly respond to infections or tissue damage. Therefore, in this review, we discuss recent findings regarding ILC functions in homeostasis and disease, with a focus on the intestine and liver.

  12. Human innate lymphoid cells (ILCs) in filarial infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonne-Année, S; Nutman, T B

    2018-02-01

    Filarial infections are characteristically chronic and can cause debilitating diseases governed by parasite-induced innate and adaptive immune responses. Filarial parasites traverse or establish niches in the skin (migrating infective larvae), in nonmucosal tissues (adult parasite niche) and in the blood or skin (circulating microfilariae) where they intersect with the host immune response. While several studies have demonstrated that filarial parasites and their antigens can modulate myeloid cells (monocyte, macrophage and dendritic cell subsets), T- and B-lymphocytes and skin resident cell populations, the role of innate lymphoid cells during filarial infections has only recently emerged. Despite the identification and characterization of innate lymphoid cells (ILCs) in murine helminth infections, little is actually known about the role of human ILCs during parasitic infections. The focus of this review will be to highlight the composition of ILCs in the skin, lymphatics and blood; where the host-parasite interaction is well-defined and to examine the role of ILCs during filarial infections. Published 2017. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  13. Innate lymphoid cells in normal and disease: An introductory overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moretta, Lorenzo; Locatelli, Franco

    2016-11-01

    Innate lymphoid cells (ILC) represent a novel group of lymphocytes that, different from T and B-lymphocytes lack recombinant activating genes (RAG-1 or RAG-2) and thus do not express rearranged antigen-specific receptors. Members of this family, i.e. NK cells, have been known since long time, while the other ILCs have been discovered only in recent years, possibly because of their predominant localization in tissues, primarily in mucosal tissues, skin and mucosa-associated lymphoid organs. ILC have been grouped in three major subsets on the basis of their phenotypic and functional features as well as of their dependency on given transcription factors (TF). Briefly, ILC-1 are dependent on T-bet TF and produce interferon (IFN)-γ. Group 2 ILC (ILC2) express GATA-3 TF and produce IL-5, IL-4 and IL-13 (Type 2) cytokines while group 3 ILC (ILC3) express RORγt TF and produce IL-17 and IL-22. ILC provide early defenses against pathogens and intervene in the repair of damaged tissues. ILC activation is mediated by cytokines (specifically acting on different ILC groups) and/or by activating receptors that are, at least in part, the same that had been previously identified in NK cells [1]. Copyright © 2016 European Federation of Immunological Societies. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. The Yin and Yang of Innate Lymphoid Cells in Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrega, Paolo; Campana, Stefania; Bonaccorsi, Irene; Ferlazzo, Guido

    2016-11-01

    The recent appreciation of novel subsets of innate lymphoid cells (ILCs) as important regulators of tissue homeostasis, inflammation and repair, raise questions regarding the presence and role of these cells in cancer tissues. In addition to natural killer and fetal lymphoid tissue inducer (LTi) cells, the ILC family comprises non-cytolytic, cytokine-producing cells that are classified into ILC1, ILC2 and ILC3 based on phenotypic and functional characteristics. Differently from natural killer cells, which are the prototypical members of ILC1 and whose role in tumors is better established, the involvement of other ILC subsets in cancer progression or resistance is still fuzzy and in several instances controversial, since current studies indicate both context-dependent beneficial or pathogenic effects. Here, we review the current knowledge regarding the involvement of these novel ILC subsets in the context of tumor immunology, highlighting how ILC subsets might behave either as friends or foes. Copyright © 2016 European Federation of Immunological Societies. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Emerging concepts and future challenges in innate lymphoid cell biology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Artis, David

    2016-01-01

    Innate lymphoid cells (ILCs) are innate immune cells that are ubiquitously distributed in lymphoid and nonlymphoid tissues and enriched at mucosal and barrier surfaces. Three major ILC subsets are recognized in mice and humans. Each of these subsets interacts with innate and adaptive immune cells and integrates cues from the epithelium, the microbiota, and pathogens to regulate inflammation, immunity, tissue repair, and metabolic homeostasis. Although intense study has elucidated many aspects of ILC development, phenotype, and function, numerous challenges remain in the field of ILC biology. In particular, recent work has highlighted key new questions regarding how these cells communicate with their environment and other cell types during health and disease. This review summarizes new findings in this rapidly developing field that showcase the critical role ILCs play in directing immune responses through their ability to interact with a variety of hematopoietic and nonhematopoietic cells. In addition, we define remaining challenges and emerging questions facing the field. Finally, this review discusses the potential application of basic studies of ILC biology to the development of new treatments for human patients with inflammatory and infectious diseases in which ILCs play a role. PMID:27811053

  16. Innate Lymphoid Cells in HIV/SIV Infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Spandan V; Manickam, Cordelia; Ram, Daniel R; Reeves, R Keith

    2017-01-01

    Over the past several years, new populations of innate lymphocytes have been described in mice and primates that are critical for mucosal homeostasis, microbial regulation, and immune defense. Generally conserved from mice to humans, innate lymphoid cells (ILC) have been divided primarily into three subpopulations based on phenotypic and functional repertoires: ILC1 bear similarities to natural killer cells; ILC2 have overlapping functions with TH2 cells; and ILC3 that share many functions with TH17/TH22 cells. ILC are specifically enriched at mucosal surfaces and are possibly one of the earliest responders during viral infections besides being involved in the homeostasis of gut-associated lymphoid tissue and maintenance of gut epithelial barrier integrity. Burgeoning evidence also suggests that there is an early and sustained abrogation of ILC function and numbers during HIV and pathogenic SIV infections, most notably ILC3 in the gastrointestinal tract, which leads to disruption of the mucosal barrier and dysregulation of the local immune system. A better understanding of the direct or indirect mechanisms of loss and dysfunction will be critical to immunotherapeutics aimed at restoring these cells. Herein, we review the current literature on ILC with a particular emphasis on ILC3 and their role(s) in mucosal immunology and the significance of disrupting the ILC niche during HIV and SIV infections.

  17. Trafficking of α-L-fucosidase in lymphoid cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DiCioccio, R.A.; Brown, K.S.

    1987-01-01

    The quantity of α-L-fucosidase in human serum is determined by heredity. The mechanism controlling levels of the enzyme in serum is unknown. To investigate this, lymphoid cell lines derived from individuals with either low, intermediate or high α-L-fucosidase in serum were established. Steady state levels of extracellular α-L-fucosidase protein and activity overlapped among the cell lines. Thus, in vivo serum phenotypes of α-L-fucosidase are not adequately expressed in this system. α-L-Fucosidase was also metabolically labelled with 35 S-methionine, immunoprecipitated, and examined by SDS-PAGE. Cells pulse-labelled from 0.25-2 h had a major intracellular form of enzyme (Mr = 58,000). Cells pulsed for 1.5 h and chased for 21 h with unlabeled methionine had an intracellular form of Mr = 60,000 and an extracellular form of Mr = 62,000. Cells treated with chloroquine had only the 58,000-form both intra- and extra-cellularly. Moreover, chloroquine did not effect the quantitative distribution of α-L-fucosidase between cells and medium. In fibroblasts, chloroquine enhanced the secretion of newly made lysosomal enzymes and blocked the processing of intercellular enzyme forms from a higher to a lower molecular mass. Thus, there are trafficking differences between α-L-fucosidase in lymphoid cells and lysosomal enzymes in fibroblasts. This suggests that alternative targeting mechanisms for lysosomal enzymes exist in these cells

  18. Treatment of intractable rheumatoid arthritis with total lymphoid irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kotzin, B.L.; Strober, S.; Engleman, E.G.; Calin, A.; Hoppe, R.T.; Kansas, G.S.; Terrell, C.P.; Kaplan, H.S.

    1981-01-01

    Eleven patients with intractable rheumatoid arthritis were treated with total lymphoid irradiation (total dose, 2000 rad) in an uncontrolled feasibility study, as an alternative to long-term therapy with cytotoxic drugs such as cyclophosphamide and azathioprine. During a follow-up period of five to 18 months after total lymphoid irradiation, there was a profound and sustained suppression of the absolute lymphocyte count and in vitro lymphocyte function, as well as an increase in the ratio of Leu-2 (suppressor/cytotoxic) to Leu-3 (helper) T cells in the blood. Persistent circulating suppressor cells of the mixed leukocyte response and of pokeweed mitogen-induced immunoglobulin secretion developed in most patients. In nine of the 11 patients, these changes in immune status were associated with relief of joint tenderness and swelling and with improvement in function scores. Maximum improvement occurred approximately six months after irradiation and continued for the remainder of the observation period. Few severe or chronic side effects were associated with the radiotherapy

  19. Postirradiation recovery of lymphoid cells in the rat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farnsworth, A.; Wotherspoon, J.S.; Dorsch, S.E.

    1988-01-01

    Whole-body irradiation has been extensively used to remove immune responsiveness in rodent recipients in adoptive allograft assays. This study was undertaken to determine the relative radioresistance and the tempo of regeneration, following whole-body irradiation, of cells involved in the allograft response. Six distinct cell populations have been identified in the lymphoid tissues of rats subjected to sublethal whole-body irradiation. The relative representation of these subpopulations was significantly different from that in nonirradiated controls. NK cells, macrophages, and plasma cells, which are present in very low numbers in cell suspensions prepared from normal lymphoid tissues, made up a significant proportion of the residual/regenerating population in the tissues of rats recovering from whole-body irradiation. More significantly perhaps, the mature T cell populations showed a significant increase in the T cytotoxic/suppressor to T helper cell ratio. These observations support the suggestion that a number of the cell types within the mixed cell population observed in the rejecting indicator grafts of irradiated recipients in adoptive allograft assays are host derived. The finding that the T cytotoxic/suppressor population is apparently more radioresistant than the T helper population supports a conclusion that graft rejection in irradiated recipients, restored with pure populations of T helper cells, may not be directly mediated by the injected cells but may be the result of collaboration between these and host-derived cytotoxic cell populations

  20. File list: His.Neu.50.AllAg.Nerve_Sheath_Neoplasms [Chip-atlas[Archive

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  3. High Endothelial Venules and Other Blood Vessels: Critical Regulators of Lymphoid Organ Development and Function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ager, Ann

    2017-01-01

    The blood vasculature regulates both the development and function of secondary lymphoid organs by providing a portal for entry of hemopoietic cells. During the development of lymphoid organs in the embryo, blood vessels deliver lymphoid tissue inducer cells that initiate and sustain the development of lymphoid tissues. In adults, the blood vessels are structurally distinct from those in other organs due to the requirement for high levels of lymphocyte recruitment under non-inflammatory conditions. In lymph nodes (LNs) and Peyer’s patches, high endothelial venules (HEVs) especially adapted for lymphocyte trafficking form a spatially organized network of blood vessels, which controls both the type of lymphocyte and the site of entry into lymphoid tissues. Uniquely, HEVs express vascular addressins that regulate lymphocyte entry into lymphoid organs and are, therefore, critical to the function of lymphoid organs. Recent studies have demonstrated important roles for CD11c+ dendritic cells in the induction, as well as the maintenance, of vascular addressin expression and, therefore, the function of HEVs. Tertiary lymphoid organs (TLOs) are HEV containing LN-like structures that develop inside organized tissues undergoing chronic immune-mediated inflammation. In autoimmune lesions, the development of TLOs is thought to exacerbate disease. In cancerous tissues, the development of HEVs and TLOs is associated with improved patient outcomes in several cancers. Therefore, it is important to understand what drives the development of HEVs and TLOs and how these structures contribute to pathology. In several human diseases and experimental animal models of chronic inflammation, there are some similarities between the development and function of HEVs within LN and TLOs. This review will summarize current knowledge of how hemopoietic cells with lymphoid tissue-inducing, HEV-inducing, and HEV-maintaining properties are recruited from the bloodstream to induce the development and

  4. Effect of peripheral lymphoid cells on the incidence of lethal graft versus host disease following allogeneic mouse bone marrow transplantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Almaraz, R.; Ballinger, W.; Sachs, D.H.; Rosenberg, S.A.

    1983-01-01

    Experiments were performed to study the role of circulating lymphoid cells in the incidence of lethal graft versus host disease (GVHD) in radiation-induced fully allogeneic mouse chimeras. The incidence of GVHD was reduced significantly in BALB/c leads to C57BL/6 radiation chimeras if bone marrow donors were exsanguinated immediately prior to marrow harvest. Chimeras resulting from the injection of bone marrow from bled donors exhibited only donor cells in spleen, bone marrow and peripheral blood and normal levels of Thy 1+ and Ia+ cells were found in each of these lymphoid compartments. The addition of as few as 3 X 10(4) peripheral mononuclear cells to the marrow from exsanguinated donors uniformly led to lethal GVHD. 51 Cr-labeled cell traffic studies revealed that prior exsanguination of marrow donors led to about a 70% reduction in the number of circulating mononuclear cells contaminating the bone marrow at the time of marrow harvest. This decrease in contaminating peripheral cells was calculated to be in the appropriate range to account for the decreased GVHD seen when marrow from exsanguinated donors was used. It thus appears that peripheral cells contaminating marrow can be an important factor in causing lethal GVHD in allogeneic radiation chimeras

  5. The World of Virtual Exhibitions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irena Eiselt

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available EXTENDED ABSTRACTSpecial collections of the National and University Library (NUK hide a lot of items of precious value. The Slovenian cultural heritage is stored on paper or on other media as a part of the library’s Manuscripts, Incunabula and Rare Books Collection, Old Prints Collection, Maps and Pictorial Collection, Music Collection, Ephemera Collection, Serials Collection, and Slovenian Diaspora Publications Collection. Only a small part of the treasures is temporary revealed to the public on special exhibitions. The idea of virtual exhibitions of library treasures was born in 2005. The library aimed to exhibit precious items of special collections of high historical or artistic value. In 2008 the first two virtual exhibitions were created in-house offering access to the rich collections of old postcards of Ljubljana at the beginning of 20th century kept in the Maps and Pictorial Collection of NUK. They were soon followed by other virtual exhibitions. At the beginning they were organised in the same way as physical exhibitions, afterwards different programs were used for creation of special effects (for ex. 3D wall. About two years ago it was decided that the creation of virtual exhibitions will be simplified. Files of digitised and borndigital library materials in jpg format are imported to MS PowerPoint 2010. Each jpg file is now formatted by adding a frame, a description … to the slides which are saved as jpg files. The last step is the import of jpg files into Cooliris application used for NUK web exhibitions. In the paper the virtual exhibition design and creation, the technical point of view and criteria for the selection of exhibition content are explained following the example of the virtual exhibitions the Old Postcards of Ljubljana, Photo Ateliers in Slovenia, a collection of photographs Four Seasons by Fran Krašovec and photos of Post-Earthquake Ljubljana in 1895.

  6. Prolonged heart xenograft survival using combined total lymphoid irradiation and cyclosporine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knechtle, S.J.; Halperin, E.C.; Saad, T.; Bollinger, R.R.

    1986-01-01

    Total lymphoid irradiation and cyclosporine have profound immunosuppressive properties and permit successful heart allotransplantation. Cyclosporine used alone has not permitted consistently successful transplantation between species in all cases. Total lymphoid irradiation has not been applied to xenotransplantation. The efficacy of total lymphoid irradiation alone and in combination with cyclosporine was examined using an animal model of heart xenotransplantation. Heterotopic heart transplants were performed using inbred Syrian hamsters as donors and Lewis rats as recipients. Total lymphoid irradiation was administered preoperatively over 3 weeks for a total dose of 15 gray. Cyclosporine was started on the day of surgery and was given as a daily intramuscular injection of 2.5, 5, or 10 mg/kg/day until rejection was complete. Neither total lymphoid irradiation nor cyclosporine alone markedly prolonged graft survival. However, combined total lymphoid irradiation and cyclosporine, 5 or 10 mg/kg/day, dramatically prolonged graft survival to greater than 100 days in most recipients. There were no treatment-related deaths. In conclusion, combined total lymphoid irradiation and cyclosporine permit successful long-term survival of heart xenotransplants in this hamster-to-rat model

  7. Central Cemento-Ossifying Fibroma: Primary Odontogenic or Osseous Neoplasm?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woo, Sook-Bin

    2015-12-01

    Currently, central cemento-ossifying fibroma is classified by the World Health Organization as a primary bone-forming tumor of the jaws. However, histopathologically, it is often indistinguishable from cemento-osseous dysplasias in that it forms osteoid and cementicles (cementum droplets) in varying proportions. It is believed that pluripotent cells within the periodontal membrane can be stimulated to produce either osteoid or woven bone and cementicles when stimulated. If this is true, cemento-ossifying fibroma would be better classified as a primary odontogenic neoplasm arising from the periodontal ligament. Cemento-ossifying fibromas also do not occur in the long bones. The present report compares several entities that fall within the diagnostic realm of benign fibro-osseous lesions and reviews the evidence for reclassifying central cemento-ossifying fibroma as a primary odontogenic neoplasm. Copyright © 2015 American Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Lesions and Neoplasms of the Penis: A Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heller, Debra S

    2016-01-01

    In addition to practitioners who care for male patients, with the increased use of high-resolution anoscopy, practitioners who care for women are seeing more men in their practices as well. Some diseases affecting the penis can impact on their sexual partners. Many of the lesions and neoplasms of the penis occur on the vulva as well. In addition, there are common and rare lesions unique to the penis. A review of the scope of penile lesions and neoplasms that may present in a primary care setting is presented to assist in developing a differential diagnosis if such a patient is encountered, as well as for practitioners who care for their sexual partners. A familiarity will assist with recognition, as well as when consultation is needed.

  9. Myeloid Neoplasms in the Guise of Nutritional Deficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parthasarathy, Veda

    2012-01-01

    The classic BCR-ABL-negative myeloproliferative neoplasms (MPNs) which include polycythemia vera (PV), essential thrombocythemia (ET), and primary myelofibrosis (PMF) are among the most frequent hematologic neoplasms. Because of their relatively smooth clinical course, it is likely that many of these MPNs actually go undetected. Considering the high prevalence of iron, folic-acid, and vitamin B12 deficiencies in developing countries, their coexistence with MPN can be expected frequently. In such situations where both disorders coexist, MPN is often overlooked. This causes considerable diagnostic delay. In this paper, two cases of PMF and one case of PV where the diagnosis of MPN was delayed for about 3 years are discussed. Presence of concomitant vitamin B12, folate, and iron deficiencies perhaps camouflaged the underlying MPN. Bearing in mind the possibility of MPN, even in the setting of apparent nutritional deficiency and performing a bone marrow evaluation, is the crucial step in unveiling the hidden MPN. PMID:23227377

  10. Intraductal papillary neoplasm of the bile duct: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peeters, Karen; Delvaux, Peter; Huysentruyt, Frederik

    2017-08-01

    Intraductal papillary neoplasm of the bile duct (IPNB) is a rare variant of bile duct tumors, characterized by papillary growth within the bile duct lumen and is regarded as a biliary counterpart of intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasm (IPMN) of the pancreas. IPNBs are mainly found in patients from Far Eastern areas, where hepatolithiasis and clonorchiasis are endemic. The Western experience, however, remains limited. In this article, we report a 56-year-old man, referred to our hospital because of deranged liver function tests. Further imaging modalities showed a cystic lesion of 9 cm diameter, arising from the left hepatic duct. Inlying was a heterogeneous, lobulated mass. The patient underwent a left hemihepatectomy and adjuvant chemotherapy. Despite recent advanced technologies, diagnosis of IPNB is still challenging, especially in western countries due to its rarity. Early identification and resection of lesions, even in asymptomatic or minimally symptomatic patients, are however important prognostic factors.

  11. Food habits in atomic bomb survivors suffering from malignant neoplasms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morimoto, Kazue; Inoue, Hisako; Uchino, Chito

    1984-01-01

    Food habits were surveyed in patients admitted to 13 hospitals in Nagasaki prefecture and other prefectures to compare the incidence of malignant neoplasms according to the food intake between atomic bomb exposed group and non-exposed group. The incidence of malignant neoplasms was significantly higher in male patients having the low intake of milk and salted fish than in those having the high intake of them in atomic bomb exposed group, while it was significantly higher in male patients having the low intake of potatoes and milk and in female patients having the low intake of boiled fish paste than in those having the high intake of them in non-exposed group. (Namekawa, K.)

  12. Blastic plasmacytoid dendritic cell neoplasm: report of two pediatric cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dharmani, Preeti Ashok; Mittal, Neha Manish; Subramanian, P G; Galani, Komal; Badrinath, Yajamanam; Amare, Pratibha; Gujral, Sumeet

    2015-01-01

    Blastic plasmacytoid dendritic cell neoplasm (BPDCN) is a rare subtype of acute leukemia that typically follows a highly aggressive clinical course in adults, whereas experience in children with this disease is very limited. We report cases of two children in whom bone marrow showed infiltration by large atypical monocytoid 'blast-like' cells which on immunophenotyping expressed CD4, CD56, HLA-DR and CD33 while were negative for CD34 other T-cell, B-cell and myeloid markers. The differential diagnoses considered were AML, T/NK-cell leukemia and acute undifferentiated leukemia. Additional markers CD303/BDCA-2 and CD123 which are recently validated plasmacytoid dendritic cell markers were done which helped us clinch the diagnosis of this rare neoplasm. An accurate diagnosis of BPDCN is essential in order to provide prompt treatment. Due to its rarity and only recent recognition as a distinct clinicopathological entity, no standardized therapeutic approach has been established for BPDCN.

  13. Immunosuppression and tolerance after total lymphoid irradiation (TLI)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strober, S.; Gottlieb, M.; Slavin, S.; King, D.P.; Hoppe, R.T.; Fuks, Z.; Bieber, C.P.; Kaplan, H.S.

    1980-01-01

    The immunosuppressive effects of total lymphoid irradiation (TLI) in humans and in several species of inbred and outbred laboratory animals have been investigated. A unique property of TLI, the prevention of the graft vs. host disease, was used to induce transplantation tolerance in order to study the mechanism of altered immunity when the celluar basis of the TLI-induced immunosuppression was examined by means of the mixed lymphocyte response (MLR), no suppression of the MLR was observed when spleen cells from unirradiated or whole body-irradiated donors were used instead of donors given TLI. These results indicated that TLI induces a population of cells in the spleen that can nonspecifically suppress the MLR

  14. Innate lymphoid cells in autoimmunity and chronic inflammatory diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Tingting; Turner, Jan-Eric

    2018-03-22

    Abnormal activation of the innate immune system is a common feature of autoimmune and chronic inflammatory diseases. Since their identification as a separate family of leukocytes, innate lymphoid cells (ILCs) have emerged as important effector cells of the innate immune system. Alterations in ILC function and subtype distribution have been observed in a variety of immune-mediated diseases in humans and evidence from experimental models suggests a subtype specific role of ILCs in the pathophysiology of autoimmune inflammation. In this review, we discuss recent advances in the understanding of ILC biology in autoimmune and chronic inflammatory disorders, including multiple sclerosis, inflammatory bowel diseases, psoriasis, and rheumatic diseases, with a special focus on the potential of ILCs as therapeutic targets for the development of novel treatment strategies in humans.

  15. Role of Type 2 Innate Lymphoid Cells in Allergic Diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cosmi, Lorenzo; Liotta, Francesco; Maggi, Laura; Annunziato, Francesco

    2017-09-11

    The adaptive immune response orchestrated by type 2 T helper (Th2) lymphocytes, strictly cooperates with the innate response of group 2 innate lymphoid cells (ILC2), in the protection from helminths infection, as well as in the pathogenesis of allergic disease. The aim of this review is to explore the pathogenic role of ILC2 in different type 2-mediated disorders. Recent studies have shown that epithelial cell-derived cytokines and their responding cells, ILC2, play a pathogenic role in bronchial asthma, chronic rhinosinusitis, and atopic dermatitis. The growing evidences of the contribution of ILC2 in the induction and maintenance of allergic inflammation in such disease suggest the possibility to target them in therapy. Biological therapies blocking ILC2 activation or neutralizing their effector cytokines are currently under evaluation to be used in patients with type 2-dominated diseases.

  16. Innate Lymphoid Cells: A Promising New Regulator in Fibrotic Diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yi; Tang, Jun; Tian, Zhiqiang; van Velkinburgh, Jennifer C; Song, Jianxun; Wu, Yuzhang; Ni, Bing

    2016-09-02

    Fibrosis is a consequence of chronic inflammation and the persistent accumulation of extracellular matrix, for which the cycle of tissue injury and repair becomes a predominant feature. Both the innate and adaptive immune systems play key roles in the progress of fibrosis. The recently identified subsets of innate lymphoid cells (ILCs), which are mainly localize to epithelial surfaces, have been characterized as regulators of chronic inflammation and tissue remodeling, representing a functional bridge between the innate and adaptive immunity. Moreover, recent research has implicated ILCs as potential contributing factors to several kinds of fibrosis diseases, such as hepatic fibrosis and pulmonary fibrosis. Here, we will summarize and discuss the key roles of ILCs and their related factors in fibrotic diseases and their potential for translation to the clinic.

  17. Innate Lymphoid Cells: a new paradigm in immunology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eberl, Gérard; Colonna, Marco; Di Santo, James P.; McKenzie, Andrew N.J.

    2016-01-01

    Summary Innate lymphoid cells (ILCs) are a growing family of immune cells that mirror the phenotypes and functions of T cells. However, in contrast to T cells, ILCs do not express acquired antigen receptors or undergo clonal selection and expansion when stimulated. Instead, ILCs react promptly to signals from infected or injured tissues and produce an array of secreted proteins termed cytokines that direct the developing immune response into one that is adapted to the original insult. The complex crosstalk between microenvironment, ILCs and adaptive immunity remains to be fully deciphered. Only by understanding these complex regulatory networks can the power of ILCs be controlled or unleashed to regulate or enhance immune responses in disease prevention and therapy. PMID:25999512

  18. Migration and Tissue Tropism of Innate Lymphoid Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Chang H.; Hashimoto-Hill, Seika; Kim, Myunghoo

    2016-01-01

    Innate lymphoid cell (ILCs) subsets differentially populate various barrier and non-barrier tissues, where they play important roles in tissue homeostasis and tissue-specific responses to pathogen attack. Recent findings have provided insight into the molecular mechanisms that guide ILC migration into peripheral tissues, revealing common features among different ILC subsets as well as important distinctions. Recent studies have also highlighted the impact of tissue-specific cues on ILC migration, and the importance of the local immunological milieu. We review these findings here and discuss how the migratory patterns and tissue tropism of different ILC subsets relate to the development and differentiation of these cells, and to ILC-mediated tissue-specific regulation of innate and adaptive immune responses. In this context we outline open questions and important areas of future research. PMID:26708278

  19. Development and function of secondary and tertiary lymphoid organs in the small intestine and the colon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuela Buettner

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The immune system of the gut has evolved a number of specific lymphoid structures that contribute to homeostasis in the face of microbial colonization and food-derived antigenic challenge. These lymphoid organs encompass Peyer’s patches (PP in the small intestine and their colonic counterparts that develop in a programmed fashion before birth. In addition, the gut harbors a network of lymphoid tissues that is commonly designated as solitary intestinal lymphoid tissues (SILT. In contrast to PP, SILT develop strictly after birth and consist of a dynamic continuum of structures ranging from small cryptopatches (CP to large, mature isolated lymphoid follicles (ILF. Although the development of PP and SILT follow similar principles, such as an early clustering of lymphoid tissue inducer (LTi cells and the requirement for lymphotoxin beta (LTβ receptor-mediated signaling, the formation of CP and their further maturation into ILF is associated with additional intrinsic and environmental signals. Moreover, recent data also indicate that specific differences exist in the regulation of ILF formation between the small intestine and the colon. Importantly, intestinal inflammation in both mice and humans is associated with a strong expansion of the lymphoid network in the gut. Recent experiments in mice suggest that these structures, although they resemble large, mature ILF in appearance, may represent de novo-induced tertiary lymphoid organs (TLO. While so far it is not clear whether intestinal TLO contribute to the exacerbation of inflammatory pathology, it has been shown that ILF provide the critical microenvironment necessary for the induction of an effective host response upon infection with enteric bacterial pathogens. Regarding the importance of ILF for intestinal immunity, interfering with the development and maturation of these lymphoid tissues may offer novel means for manipulating the immune response during intestinal infection or inflammation.

  20. Development and Function of Secondary and Tertiary Lymphoid Organs in the Small Intestine and the Colon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buettner, Manuela; Lochner, Matthias

    2016-01-01

    The immune system of the gut has evolved a number of specific lymphoid structures that contribute to homeostasis in the face of microbial colonization and food-derived antigenic challenge. These lymphoid organs encompass Peyer’s patches (PP) in the small intestine and their colonic counterparts that develop in a programed fashion before birth. In addition, the gut harbors a network of lymphoid tissues that is commonly designated as solitary intestinal lymphoid tissues (SILT). In contrast to PP, SILT develop strictly after birth and consist of a dynamic continuum of structures ranging from small cryptopatches (CP) to large, mature isolated lymphoid follicles (ILF). Although the development of PP and SILT follow similar principles, such as an early clustering of lymphoid tissue inducer (LTi) cells and the requirement for lymphotoxin beta (LTβ) receptor-mediated signaling, the formation of CP and their further maturation into ILF is associated with additional intrinsic and environmental signals. Moreover, recent data also indicate that specific differences exist in the regulation of ILF formation between the small intestine and the colon. Importantly, intestinal inflammation in both mice and humans is associated with a strong expansion of the lymphoid network in the gut. Recent experiments in mice suggest that these structures, although they resemble large, mature ILF in appearance, may represent de novo-induced tertiary lymphoid organs (TLO). While, so far, it is not clear whether intestinal TLO contribute to the exacerbation of inflammatory pathology, it has been shown that ILF provide the critical microenvironment necessary for the induction of an effective host response upon infection with enteric bacterial pathogens. Regarding the importance of ILF for intestinal immunity, interfering with the development and maturation of these lymphoid tissues may offer novel means for manipulating the immune response during intestinal infection or inflammation. PMID

  1. Development and Function of Secondary and Tertiary Lymphoid Organs in the Small Intestine and the Colon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buettner, Manuela; Lochner, Matthias

    2016-01-01

    The immune system of the gut has evolved a number of specific lymphoid structures that contribute to homeostasis in the face of microbial colonization and food-derived antigenic challenge. These lymphoid organs encompass Peyer's patches (PP) in the small intestine and their colonic counterparts that develop in a programed fashion before birth. In addition, the gut harbors a network of lymphoid tissues that is commonly designated as solitary intestinal lymphoid tissues (SILT). In contrast to PP, SILT develop strictly after birth and consist of a dynamic continuum of structures ranging from small cryptopatches (CP) to large, mature isolated lymphoid follicles (ILF). Although the development of PP and SILT follow similar principles, such as an early clustering of lymphoid tissue inducer (LTi) cells and the requirement for lymphotoxin beta (LTβ) receptor-mediated signaling, the formation of CP and their further maturation into ILF is associated with additional intrinsic and environmental signals. Moreover, recent data also indicate that specific differences exist in the regulation of ILF formation between the small intestine and the colon. Importantly, intestinal inflammation in both mice and humans is associated with a strong expansion of the lymphoid network in the gut. Recent experiments in mice suggest that these structures, although they resemble large, mature ILF in appearance, may represent de novo-induced tertiary lymphoid organs (TLO). While, so far, it is not clear whether intestinal TLO contribute to the exacerbation of inflammatory pathology, it has been shown that ILF provide the critical microenvironment necessary for the induction of an effective host response upon infection with enteric bacterial pathogens. Regarding the importance of ILF for intestinal immunity, interfering with the development and maturation of these lymphoid tissues may offer novel means for manipulating the immune response during intestinal infection or inflammation.

  2. Blastic plasmacytoid dendritic cell neoplasm with absolute monocytosis at presentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaworski JM

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Joseph M Jaworski,1,2 Vanlila K Swami,1 Rebecca C Heintzelman,1 Carrie A Cusack,3 Christina L Chung,3 Jeremy Peck,3 Matthew Fanelli,3 Micheal Styler,4 Sanaa Rizk,4 J Steve Hou1 1Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, Hahnemann University Hospital/Drexel University College of Medicine, Philadelphia, PA, USA; 2Department of Pathology, Mercy Fitzgerald Hospital, Darby, PA, USA; 3Department of Dermatology, Hahnemann University Hospital/Drexel University College of Medicine, Philadelphia, PA, USA; 4Department of Hematology/Oncology, Hahnemann University Hospital/Drexel University College of Medicine, Philadelphia, PA, USA Abstract: Blastic plasmacytoid dendritic cell neoplasm is an uncommon malignancy derived from precursors of plasmacytoid dendritic cells. Nearly all patients present initially with cutaneous manifestations, with many having extracutaneous disease additionally. While response to chemotherapy initially is effective, relapse occurs in most, with a leukemic phase ultimately developing. The prognosis is dismal. While most of the clinical and pathologic features are well described, the association and possible prognostic significance between peripheral blood absolute monocytosis (>1.0 K/µL and blastic plasmacytoid dendritic cell neoplasm have not been reported. We report a case of a 68-year-old man who presented with a rash for 4–5 months. On physical examination, there were multiple, dull-pink, indurated plaques on the trunk and extremities. Complete blood count revealed thrombocytopenia, absolute monocytosis of 1.7 K/µL, and a negative flow cytometry study. Biopsy of an abdominal lesion revealed typical features of blastic plasmacytoid dendritic cell neoplasm. Patients having both hematologic and nonhematologic malignancies have an increased incidence of absolute monocytosis. Recent studies examining Hodgkin and non-Hodgkin lymphoma patients have suggested that this is a negative prognostic factor. The association between

  3. Rectum neoplasms treatment advanced with radio and chemotherapy before - surgery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luongo Cespedes, A.; Aguiar Vitacca, S.

    1993-01-01

    In Uruguay the colorectal neoplasms has a can rate of mobility. The surgery has 13-26% local recurrence. The irradiation before surgery has demonstrated to improve the resect and the local control.The objective of this protocol it is to decrease the percentage of local relapse , using radiotherapy(RT) before surgery and concomitant chemotherapy that potencies the effect of the RT, improvement this way the therapeutic quotient (AU) [es

  4. Advances in the diagnosis and treatment of gastric neuroendocrine neoplasms

    OpenAIRE

    Tan, Huangying

    2016-01-01

    Gastric neuroendocrine neoplasms (g-NENs) are a group of heterogeneous tumors arising from the endocrine cells of stomach. Most g-NENs progresses slowly and have a long disease course; however, some other g-NENs grow rapidly, similar to the progression of gastric adenocarcinoma. g-NENs have complex and diverse clinical manifestations and their prognosis and treatment strategies depend highly on clinical subtype, pathological grade, tumour stage, and other factors. Due to their low prevalence,...

  5. Role of lymphotoxin and homeostatic chemokines in the development and function of local lymphoid tissues in the respiratory tract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rangel-Moreno, Javier; Carragher, Damian; Randall, Troy D

    2007-01-01

    Secondary lymphoid organs are strategically placed to recruit locally activated antigen presenting cells (APCs) as well as naïve, recirculating T and B cells. The structure of secondary lymphoid organs - separated B and T zones, populations of specialized stromal cells, high endothelial venules and lymphatic vessles - has also evolved to maximize encounters between APCs and lymphocytes and to facilitate the expansion and differentiation of antigen-stimulated T and B cells. Many of the general mechanisms that govern the development and organization of secondary lymphoid organs have been identified over the last decade. However, the specific cellular and molecular interactions involved in the development and organization of each secondary lymphoid organ are slightly different and probably reflect the cell types available at that time and location. Here we review the mechanisms involved in the development, organization and function of local lymphoid tissues in the respiratory tract, including Nasal Associated Lymphoid Tissue (NALT) and inducible Bronchus Associated Lymphoid Tissue (iBALT).

  6. Correlation of {sup 18}F-FDG PET/CT and Endoscopic Findings of Twin Mucosa-Associated Lymphoid Tissue (MALT) Lymphoma of the Stomach: Report of a Case

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bahk, Yong Whee; Choi, Jin Wook [SungAe Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2008-02-15

    Mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) type lymphoma arises from extranodal marginal zone B-cell. It is etiologically associated with Helicobacter pylori infection and, hence, can be cured by antibiotic treatment. MALT type lymphoma is the most common variety of gastric lymphoma that is rare in the stomach). The published data of clinical studies on the usefulness of 18F-FDG PET in the diagnosis of MALT type lymphoma varied according to authors. Thus, the result of Hoffmann et al. was discouraging whereas a high diagnostic accuracy was reported by Ambrosini et al. The latter group further went to suggest that higher 18F-FDG uptake in gastric MALT type lymphoma would positively relate to the aggressiveness of neoplasm. The clinical studies conducted by other groups on MALT lymphomas of the stomach, lung, orbit and parotid gland and the stomach, lung, parotid gland, skin, orbit, mandible, esophagus and uterus confirmed that 18F-FDG scan is valuable.

  7. Technology insight: endoscopic submucosal dissection of gastrointestinal neoplasms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, Hironori

    2007-09-01

    Gastrointestinal neoplasms can be cured by local resection as long as the lesions are in the early stage and have not metastasized. Endoscopic resection is a minimally invasive treatment for early-stage gastrointestinal neoplasms, and endoscopic submucosal dissection (ESD) is one type of endoscopic resection that has been developed in the past 10 years. For ESD to be a reliable, curative treatment for gastrointestinal neoplasms, it is necessary for the endoscopist to detect the lesion early, make a precise pretreatment diagnosis, ensure that the patient has the correct indication for endoscopic resection, and have the skill to perform ESD. For early lesion detection, endoscopists should pay attention to subtle changes in the surface structure, the color of the mucosa and the visibility of underlying submucosal vessels. Chromoendoscopy and magnifying endoscopy are useful for determining the margin of the lesions for pretreatment diagnosis, and endoscopic ultrasonography and magnifying endoscopy are useful for determining the depth of invasion. For ESD to be successful, local injection of sodium hyaluronate helps maintain mucosal elevation during dissection. Selecting the appropriate knife, using transparent hoods wisely, employing a good strategy that uses gravity, and having good control of bleeding are all needed to make ESD reliable.

  8. Appendiceal pathology at the time of oophorectomy for ovarian neoplasms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timofeev, Julia; Galgano, Mary T; Stoler, Mark H; Lachance, Jason A; Modesitt, Susan C; Jazaeri, Amir A

    2010-12-01

    To investigate the prevalence of appendiceal pathology in women undergoing surgery for a suspected ovarian neoplasm and the predictive value of intraoperative findings to determine the need for appendectomy at the time of surgery. Retrospective analysis of patients who underwent oophorectomy and appendectomy during the same surgical procedures at the University of Virginia Health System from 1992 to 2007. Observations were stratified based on the nature (benign, borderline, or malignant) and histology (serous compared with mucinous) of the ovarian neoplasm, frozen compared with final pathological diagnosis, and the gross appearance of the appendix. Among the 191 patients identified, frozen section was consistent with seven mucinous and 35 serous carcinomas, 16 serous and 33 mucinous borderline tumors, 71 mucinous and serous cystadenomas, and 29 cases of suspected metastatic tumor from a gastrointestinal primary. The highest rates of coexisting appendiceal pathology were associated with serous ovarian cancers (94.4% of grossly abnormal and 35.3% of normal appendices) and ovarian tumors suspected to be of primary gastrointestinal origin (83.3% grossly abnormal and 60.0% normal appendices harbored coexisting mucinous neoplasms). Linear regression analysis revealed that appearance of the appendix and frozen section diagnosis of the ovarian pathology were statistically significant predictors of coexisting appendiceal pathology, but the latter was more important. The prevalence of coexisting, clinically significant appendiceal pathology is low with a frozen section diagnosis of serous or mucinous cystadenoma. Appendectomy is recommended when frozen section diagnosis is mucinous or serous ovarian carcinoma, borderline tumor or metastatic carcinoma of suspected gastrointestinal origin.

  9. Low-grade appendiceal mucinous neoplasm mimicking an adnexal mass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cristian, Daniel Alin; Grama, Florin Andrei; Becheanu, Gabriel; Pop, Anamaria; Popa, Ileana; Şurlin, Valeriu; Stănilescu, Sorin; Bratu, Ana Magdalena; Burcoş, Traean

    2015-01-01

    We present a rare case of malignant epithelial neoplasm of the appendix, an uncommon disorder encountered in clinical practice, which poses a variety of diagnostic and therapeutic challenges. We report a particular case in which the appendix was abnormally located in the pelvis, mimicking an adnexal mass. Therefore, it was difficult to make the preoperative diagnosis on clinical examination, imaging studies and laboratory tests and we discovered the lesion during the diagnostic laparoscopy. No lymphadenopathy or mucinous ascites were found. The case was completely handled via the laparoscopic approach keeping the appendix intact during the operation. The frozen section, the detailed histopathology overview as well as multiple immunostaining with a complex panel of markers report diagnosed a low-grade appendiceal mucinous neoplasm (LAMN) with no invasion of the wall. No adjuvant therapy was considered needed. At a one-year follow-up oncological assessment, the patient was free of disease. In women with cystic mass in the right iliac fossa an appendiceal mucocele should be considered in the differential diagnosis. Laparoscopic appendectomy can represent an adequate operation for the appendiceal mucinous neoplasm if the histological report is clear and surgical precautionary measures are taken.

  10. Tryptophan autofluorescence imaging of neoplasms of the human colon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banerjee, Bhaskar; Renkoski, Timothy; Graves, Logan R.; Rial, Nathaniel S.; Tsikitis, Vassiliki Liana; Nfonsom, Valentine; Pugh, Judith; Tiwari, Piyush; Gavini, Hemanth; Utzinger, Urs

    2012-01-01

    Detection of flat neoplasia is a major challenge in colorectal cancer screening, as missed lesions can lead to the development of an unexpected `incident' cancer prior to the subsequent endoscopy. The use of a tryptophan-related autofluorescence has been reported to be increased in murine intestinal dysplasia. The emission spectra of cells isolated from human adenocarcinoma and normal mucosa of the colon were studied and showed markedly greater emission intensity from cancerous cells compared to cells obtained from the surrounding normal mucosa. A proto-type multispectral imaging system optimized for ultraviolet macroscopic imaging of tissue was used to obtain autofluorescence images of surgical specimens of colonic neoplasms and normal mucosa after resection. Fluorescence images did not display the expected greater emission from the tumor as compared to the normal mucosa, most probably due to increased optical absorption and scattering in the tumors. Increased fluorescence intensity in neoplasms was observed however, once fluorescence images were corrected using reflectance images. Tryptophan fluorescence alone may be useful in differentiating normal and cancerous cells, while in tissues its autofluorescence image divided by green reflectance may be useful in displaying neoplasms.

  11. Clinical parameters predictive of malignancy of thyroid follicular neoplasms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davis, N.L.; Gordon, M.; Germann, E.; Robins, R.E.; McGregor, G.I.

    1991-01-01

    Needle aspiration biopsy is commonly employed in the evaluation of thyroid nodules. Unfortunately, the cytologic finding of a 'follicular neoplasm' does not distinguish between a thyroid adenoma and a follicular cancer. The purpose of this study was to identify clinical parameters that characterize patients with an increased risk of having a thyroid follicular cancer who preoperatively have a 'follicular neoplasm' identified by needle aspiration biopsy. A total of 395 patients initially treated at Vancouver General Hospital and the British Columbia Cancer Agency between the years of 1965 and 1985 were identified and their data were entered into a computer database. Patients with thyroid adenomas were compared to patients with follicular cancer using the chi-square test and Student's t-test. Statistically significant parameters that distinguished patients at risk of having a thyroid cancer (p less than 0.05) included age greater than 50 years, nodule size greater than 3 cm, and a history of neck irradiation. Sex, family history of goiter or neoplasm, alcohol and tobacco use, and use of exogenous estrogen were not significant parameters. Patients can be identified preoperatively to be at an increased risk of having a follicular cancer and accordingly appropriate surgical resection can be planned

  12. Early Bronchus-Associated Lymphoid Tissue Lymphoma Diagnosed with Immunoglobulin Heavy Chain Molecular Testing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pen Li

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available When extranodal marginal zone B-cell lymphoma of mucosa associated lymphoid tissue (MALT, a low grade B-cell lymphoma, arises in the lung it is referred to as bronchus-associated lymphoid tissue (BALT lymphoma. We describe a patient with a history of Sjögren’s syndrome and rheumatoid arthritis with dyspnea and imaging consistent with lymphoid interstitial pneumonia (LIP. However, while histology and immunohistochemistry lacked definitive features of a lymphoma, immunoglobulin heavy chain (IgH polymerase chain reaction testing demonstrated B-cell monoclonality, consistent with an early BALT lymphoma.

  13. The effect of ionizing radiation on lipid metabolism in lymphoid cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kolomiytseva, I.K.; Novoselova, E.G.; Kulagina, T.P.; Kuzin, A.M.

    1987-01-01

    Lipid metabolism was studied in lymphoid tissues of rats after whole body irradiation with doses producing damage of different degrees to lymphoid cells (4-10 Gy). The content of free cholesterol, cholesterol esters, and total phospholipids was determined in peripheral blood lymphocytes and thymocytes 1-2 h after exposure. Simultaneously, the rate of in vitro incorporation of 2 14 C-acetate into total lipids, phospholipids, and cholesterol of lymphoid cells was estimated. It was shown that exposure of rats to ionizing radiation caused activation of lipogenesis. Cholesterol synthesis was activated after a dose of 4 Gy and decreased with increasing dose. (author)

  14. Long-term survival of skin allografts in mice treated with fractionated total lymphoid irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Slavin, S.; Strober, S.; Fuks, Z.; Kaplan, H.S.

    1976-01-01

    Treatment of recipient Balb/c mice with fractionated, high-dose total lymphoid irradiation, a procedure commonly used in the therapy of human malignant lymphomas, resulted in fivefold prolongation of the survival of C57BL/Ka skin allografts despite major histocompatibility differences between the strains (H-2/sup d/ and H-2/sup b/, respectively). Infusion of 10 7 (C57BL/Ka x Balb/c)F 1 bone marrow cells after total lymphoid irradiation further prolonged C57BL/Ka skin graft survival to more than 120 days. Total lymphoid irradiation may eventually prove useful in clinical organ transplantation

  15. Oxysterol Sensing through the Receptor GPR183 Promotes the Lymphoid-Tissue-Inducing Function of Innate Lymphoid Cells and Colonic Inflammation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emgård, Johanna; Kammoun, Hana; García-Cassani, Bethania; Chesné, Julie; Parigi, Sara M; Jacob, Jean-Marie; Cheng, Hung-Wei; Evren, Elza; Das, Srustidhar; Czarnewski, Paulo; Sleiers, Natalie; Melo-Gonzalez, Felipe; Kvedaraite, Egle; Svensson, Mattias; Scandella, Elke; Hepworth, Matthew R; Huber, Samuel; Ludewig, Burkhard; Peduto, Lucie; Villablanca, Eduardo J; Veiga-Fernandes, Henrique; Pereira, João P; Flavell, Richard A; Willinger, Tim

    2018-01-16

    Group 3 innate lymphoid cells (ILC3s) sense environmental signals and are critical for tissue integrity in the intestine. Yet, which signals are sensed and what receptors control ILC3 function remain poorly understood. Here, we show that ILC3s with a lymphoid-tissue-inducer (LTi) phenotype expressed G-protein-coupled receptor 183 (GPR183) and migrated to its oxysterol ligand 7α,25-hydroxycholesterol (7α,25-OHC). In mice lacking Gpr183 or 7α,25-OHC, ILC3s failed to localize to cryptopatches (CPs) and isolated lymphoid follicles (ILFs). Gpr183 deficiency in ILC3s caused a defect in CP and ILF formation in the colon, but not in the small intestine. Localized oxysterol production by fibroblastic stromal cells provided an essential signal for colonic lymphoid tissue development, and inflammation-induced increased oxysterol production caused colitis through GPR183-mediated cell recruitment. Our findings show that GPR183 promotes lymphoid organ development and indicate that oxysterol-GPR183-dependent positioning within tissues controls ILC3 activity and intestinal homeostasis. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Environmental exposure to cooking oil fumes and cervical intraepithelial neoplasm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, M.-T.; Lee, L.-H.; Ho, C.-K.; Wu, S.-C.; Lin, L.-Y.; Cheng, B.-H.; Liu, C.-L.; Yang, C.-Y.; Tsai, H.-T.; Wu, T.-N.

    2004-01-01

    The fumes from cooking oil, similar to cigarette smoke, contain numerous carcinogens such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, aromatic amines, nitro-polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, etc. In this study, we examined the association between exposure to cooking oil fumes and the risk of cervical intraepithelial neoplasm. The study population in this nested case-control study consisted of women above the age of 19 years living in Chia-Yi County, located in the southwestern Taiwan, who had received pap smear screening between October, 1999, and December, 2000 (n=32,466). The potential cases were women having lesions greater than cervical intraepithelium neoplasm II (≥CIN2) reconfirmed by cervical biopsy (n=116). The potential controls (case: control=1:2) were age-matched (±2 years) and residence-matched women who had normal pap smears within 6 months of the cases. In total, 100 cases and 197 controls were completely interviewed by public health nurses about cooking methods, ventilation, and other potential risk factors. Women who cooked at home in a kitchen (n=269) without the presence of a fume extractor at least once a week between the ages of 20 and 40 had a 2.29 times higher risk [95% confidence interval (CI)=1.08-4.87] of developing cervical intraepithelial neoplasm than those who did not cook once a week in such a kitchen during the same age span, after adjusting for other potential confounders. This finding was further strengthened by the finding that women who did not use the fume extractors had a 2.47 times higher risk (95% CI=1.15-5.32) of developing cervical intraepithelial neoplasm than women who cooked in kitchens with fume extractors that were always switched on while cooking. We also found a joint protective effect of fume extractor use among women older than 40 years (n=202) if they used the extractors during both age spans of their lives, ages 20-40 and >40 years. Comparing our findings on women more than 40 years old who used fume extractors during

  17. Tumor taxonomy for the developmental lineage classification of neoplasms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berman, Jules J

    2004-01-01

    The new 'Developmental lineage classification of neoplasms' was described in a prior publication. The classification is simple (the entire hierarchy is described with just 39 classifiers), comprehensive (providing a place for every tumor of man), and consistent with recent attempts to characterize tumors by cytogenetic and molecular features. A taxonomy is a list of the instances that populate a classification. The taxonomy of neoplasia attempts to list every known term for every known tumor of man. The taxonomy provides each concept with a unique code and groups synonymous terms under the same concept. A Perl script validated successive drafts of the taxonomy ensuring that: 1) each term occurs only once in the taxonomy; 2) each term occurs in only one tumor class; 3) each concept code occurs in one and only one hierarchical position in the classification; and 4) the file containing the classification and taxonomy is a well-formed XML (eXtensible Markup Language) document. The taxonomy currently contains 122,632 different terms encompassing 5,376 neoplasm concepts. Each concept has, on average, 23 synonyms. The taxonomy populates 'The developmental lineage classification of neoplasms,' and is available as an XML file, currently 9+ Megabytes in length. A representation of the classification/taxonomy listing each term followed by its code, followed by its full ancestry, is available as a flat-file, 19+ Megabytes in length. The taxonomy is the largest nomenclature of neoplasms, with more than twice the number of neoplasm names found in other medical nomenclatures, including the 2004 version of the Unified Medical Language System, the Systematized Nomenclature of Medicine Clinical Terminology, the National Cancer Institute's Thesaurus, and the International Classification of Diseases Oncolology version. This manuscript describes a comprehensive taxonomy of neoplasia that collects synonymous terms under a unique code number and assigns each

  18. Mixed Lichenoid and Follicular T- and B-Cell Lymphoid Reaction to Red Tattoos With Monoclonal T Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaaroura, Hiba; Bergman, Reuven

    2017-09-28

    Pseudolymphomatous reactions have been described to occur in tattoos. Most cases have exhibited T-cell predominance and polyclonal T-cell receptor gene rearrangements. One case with monoclonal IgH gene rearrangements progressed into B-cell lymphoma. Lichenoid infiltrates are commonly described but lymphoid follicles much less frequently. We report a case with mixed lichenoid and follicular T- and B-cell reaction to red tattoos. The histopathology and the immunohistochemical studies were constant with a mixed T- and B-cell pseudolymphoma, the IgH gene rearrangement study was polyclonal, but the T-cell receptor gene rearrangement study was monoclonal. The patient who responded to intralesional corticosteroid injections remains under close scrutiny.

  19. Photowalk Exhibition opens at Microcosm

    CERN Document Server

    Katarina Anthony

    2011-01-01

    The winning photographs from the 2010 Global Particle Physics Photowalk competition will go on display at Microcosm from 11 February to 2 April. The exhibition is part of a global photography event taking place over three continents, with Photowalk exhibitions opening simultaneously at Fermilab in the US, KEK in Japan and here at CERN.   DESY wire chamber - First place people's choice; second place global jury competition. Photographer: Hans-Peter Hildebrandt  If you were one of the 1,300 photography lovers who voted in last year’s Photowalk competition, this exhibition is your chance to see the winning entries in print. The exhibition will take place in the downstairs gallery of Microcosm, overlooking the garden. 15 photographs will be on display, with each of the laboratories that participated in Photowalk represented by their 3 winning entries. Among them will be the “people’s choice” sunburst photo of a particle detector at DESY (Photo 1), and...

  20. Globe exhibit wins international acclaim

    CERN Multimedia

    Katarina Anthony

    2011-01-01

    The Globe’s “Universe of Particles” exhibition has recently received four prestigious awards for its avant-garde design. This external praise is great encouragement for the CERN exhibitions currently on the drawing board.   The Universe of Particles exhibition has won 4 awards for its avant-garde design. Back in 2008, the design company Atelier Brückner was presented with a challenge: to design the layout of a new permanent exhibition for CERN, one that would epitomize both the Organization and its research. The brief was concise but complex: the exhibit had to be symbolic of the Organization, use modern technology, engage and immerse visitors, and, preferably, use touch-screen technology. With the help of IArt, an interactive technology firm, and based on the content provided by CERN’s Education Group, Atelier Brückner developed the “Universe of Particles” exhibit as it is today. Its principal concept centred on the s...

  1. Greenhouse Earth: A Traveling Exhibition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Booth, W.H.; Caesar, S.

    1992-09-01

    The Franklin Institute Science Museum provided an exhibit entitled the Greenhouse Earth: A Traveling Exhibition. This 3500 square-foot exhibit on global climate change was developed in collaboration with the Association of Science-Technology Centers. The exhibit opened at The Franklin Institute on February 14, 1992, welcoming 291,000 visitors over its three-month stay. During its three-year tour, Greenhouse Earth will travel to ten US cities, reaching two million visitors. Greenhouse Earth aims to deepen public understanding of the scientific issues of global warming and the conservation measures that can be taken to slow its effects. The exhibit features hands-on exhibitry, interactive computer programs and videos, a theater production, a ''demonstration cart,'' guided tours, and lectures. supplemental educational programs at the Institute included a teachers preview, a symposium on climate change, and a ''satellite field trip.'' The development of Greenhouse Earth included front-end and formative evaluation procedures. Evaluation includes interviews with visitors, prototypes, and summative surveys for participating museums. During its stay in Philadelphia, Greenhouse Earth was covered by the local and national press, with reviews in print and broadcast media. Greenhouse Earth is the first large-scale museum exhibit to address global climate change

  2. The interbranchial lymphoid tissue of Atlantic Salmon (Salmo salar L) extends as a diffuse mucosal lymphoid tissue throughout the trailing edge of the gill filament

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalum, Alf S; Austbø, Lars; Bjørgen, Håvard

    2015-01-01

    in all gill segments investigated. Numerous major histocompatibility complex class II(+) -cells were distributed uniformly throughout the filament epithelial tissue. Few Ig(+) -cells were detected. Overall, the morphological features and comparable immune gene expression of the previously described ILT......The teleost gill forms an extensive, semipermeable barrier that must tolerate intimate contact with the surrounding environment and be able to protect the body from external pathogens. The recent discovery of the interbranchial lymphoid tissue (ILT) has initiated an anatomical and functional...... investigation of the lymphoid tissue of the salmonid gill. In this article, sectioning of gill arches in all three primary planes revealed an elongation of the ILT outward along the trailing edge of the primary filament to the very distal end, a finding not previously described. This newly found lymphoid tissue...

  3. Lymphotoxin organizes contributions to host defense and metabolic illness from innate lymphoid cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Upadhyay, Vaibhav; Fu, Yang-Xin

    2014-04-01

    The lymphotoxin (LT)-pathway is a unique constituent branch of the Tumor Necrosis Superfamily (TNFSF). Use of LT is a critical mechanism by which fetal innate lymphoid cells regulate lymphoid organogenesis. Within recent years, adult innate lymphoid cells have been discovered to utilize this same pathway to regulate IL-22 and IL-23 production for host defense. Notably, genetic studies have linked polymorphisms in the genes encoding LTα to several phenotypes contributing to metabolic syndrome. The role of the LT-pathway may lay the foundation for a bridge between host immune response, microbiota, and metabolic syndrome. The contribution of the LT-pathway to innate lymphoid cell function and metabolic syndrome will be visited in this review. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Characterization of lymphoid cells in the blood of healthy adults: sequential immunological, cytochemical and cytokinetic studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirt, A.; Wagner, H.P.

    1980-01-01

    With a new method, sequential immunological, cytochemical and cytokinetic studies were done on lymphoid cells in the peripheral blood of 12 healthy adults. Every single lymphoid cell could therefore be characterized by the following markers: surface immunoglobulins (sIg); rosetting with sheep red blood cells (E); unspecific acid alpha-naphthyl acetate esterase (ANAE); and 3HdT incorporation. Significantly more E+sIg-ANAE-cells (51% and 22% of all lymphoid cells, respectively). Of all ANAE+ cells 90% were E+, but 64% of all ANAE- cells were also E+. In all individuals a subpopulation of E+sIg+ cells was found. The esterase pattern of these cells was similar to that of E-sIg+ cells. The overall labeling index of the lymphoid cells examined was less than or equal to 0.2%

  5. Primary Pulmonary Mucosa-Associated Lymphoid Tissue Lymphoma with a Nodular Opacity: Report of a Case.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshino, Naoyuki; Hirata, Tomomi; Takeuchi, Chie; Usuda, Jitsuo; Hosone, Masaru

    2017-01-01

    Herein, we describe our experience in treating a case of primary pulmonary mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma detected as a nodular opacity. A 79-year-old man was referred to our hospital. Computed tomography showed a nodular opacity measuring 20 mm in diameter with regular margins in segment 5 of the right middle lobe of the lung. Although the bronchoscopic brush cytology result was class III, the patient was tentatively diagnosed with suspected mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma. A thoracoscopic right middle lobectomy was performed. The pathological findings showed nodular proliferation of small to medium-sized, mature-appearing atypical lymphoid cells, lymphoepithelial lesions, and vague follicles suggesting follicular colonization in some areas. The patient was diagnosed with low-grade small B-cell lymphoma and mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma. He has remained well to date, 23 months after surgery, without evidence of recurrence.

  6. Spectrum of lymphoid hyperplasia: colonic manifestations of sarcoidosis, infectious mononucleosis, and Crohn's disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ell, S.R.; Frank, P.H.

    1981-10-15

    The radiographic pattern of nodular lymphoid hyperplasia, perhaps better called the lymphoid follicular pattern, has variously been described as an indication of disease and as a normal variant in the adult, with current opinion favoring the latter. We report 3 cases wherein this pattern resulted from definite pathologic processes: sarcoidosis, infectious mononucleosis, and Crohn's disease. Although usually of no pathological significance, the benign follicular pattern may reflect a variety of diseases.

  7. Colonization and effector functions of innate lymphoid cells in mucosal tissues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Myunghoo; Kim, Chang H.

    2016-01-01

    Innate lymphoid cells (ILCs) protect mucosal barrier tissues to fight infection and maintain tissue integrity. ILCs and their progenitors are developmentally programmed to migrate, differentiate and populate various mucosal tissues and associated lymphoid tissues. Functionally mature ILC subsets respond to diverse pathogens such as bacteria, viruses, fungi and parasites in subset-specific manners. In this review, we will discuss how ILCs populate mucosal tissues and regulate immune responses to distinct pathogens to protect the host and maintain tissue integrity. PMID:27365193

  8. Characterization of membranous (M) cells in normal feline conjunctiva-associated lymphoid tissue (CALT).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giuliano, Elizabeth A; Finn, Kevin

    2011-09-01

    To characterize conjunctival lymphoid nodules obtained from the nictitans of healthy cats to determine if the follicle-associated epithelium (FAE) of conjunctiva-associated lymphoid tissue (CALT) in this species contains membranous (M)-cells analogous to those described in other regions of mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT). Lymphoid follicles from nictitan bulbar surfaces of 10 healthy cats (20 eyes total) were examined. Nictitans from five cats were harvested immediately post-mortem and a minimum of 12 lymphoid nodules from each third eyelid were isolated using a Zeiss operating microscope. At least three lymphoid follicles from each eye were examined using light microscopy (LM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) using standard fixation and embedding protocols. Nictitan-lymphoid follicles from another five healthy cats were processed for immunohistochemistry to characterize the distribution of T- and B-lymphocytes present beneath the FAE. The FAE overlying CALT from 10 healthy cats demonstrated morphology characteristic of M-cells including attenuated apical cell surface with blunted microvilli and microfolds, invaginated basolateral membrane forming a cytoplasmic pocket, and diminished distance between the apical and pocket membrane. Immunohistochemistry of lymphoid tissue subtending the FAE demonstrated B-cell dependent regions in the germinal centers surrounded by T-cell dependent interfollicular zones. Healthy feline CALT contains morphologic features analogous to those described in other regions of MALT. Documentation of feline conjunctival M-cells is of clinical relevance in the study of primary infectious, allergic, and autoimmune ocular diseases, as well as a potential means of vaccination or drug delivery. © 2011 American College of Veterinary Ophthalmologists.

  9. Multiple neoplasms among cervical cancer patients in the material of the lower Silesian cancer registry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izmajłowicz, Barbara; Kornafel, Jan; Błaszczyk, Jerzy

    2014-01-01

    According to the definition by the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC), primary multiple neoplasms are two or more neoplasms of different histopathological build in one organ, or two or more tumors occurring in one patient, regardless of the time of their occurrence (synchronic - up to 6 months, metachronous - after 6 months), coming from an organ or a tissue and not being an infiltration from another neoplasm, a relapse or a metastasis. It was the aim of the study to analyze the frequency of the occurrence of multiple neoplasms among patients suffering from uterine cervix cancer, with a special interest in coexistent neoplasms, the time of their occurrence and total 5-year survivals. The data from the Lower Silesian Cancer Registry concerning the years 1984-2009 formed the material of the present study. 5.3% of all cervix neoplasms occurred as multiple cancers. Cervix neoplasms were 13.4% of multiple neoplasms. On average, cervical cancer occurred as a subsequent cancer in 6 patients yearly (60.7% of the occurrences of cervical cancer were in the period of 5 years following treatment for the first neoplasm). 5-year survival in patients suffering from primarily multiple cervix neoplasms constituted 57% and was convergent with the results for all patients suffering from cervical cancer. Cervical cancer as the first neoplasm occurred in 287 patients, on average in 11 patients annually. In the period of the first 5 years after the treatment of cervical cancer, there were 42.8% occurrences of other cancers. Cervical neoplasms most frequently coexisted with cancers of the breast, lung and large intestine. The frequency of the occurrence of multiple neoplasm among cervical cancer patients is increasing. Most frequently they coexist with other tobacco-related neoplasms, those related to HPV infections and with secondary post-radiation neoplasms. These facts should be taken into consideration during post-treatment observation and when directing diagnostic

  10. Metabolic and physiologic studies of nonimmune lymphoid cells cytotoxic for fibroblastic cells in vitro

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mayhew, E.; Bennett, M.

    1974-01-01

    An in vitro reaction between mouse lymphoid cells and target fibroblastic cells in wells of microtest plates, which appears to simulate the in vivo rejection of hemopoietic allografts, has been analyzed for metabolic and physiologic requirements. Protein synthesis was required for only the first few hours of culture. Inhibition of RNA synthesis and alteration of cell surface charge with various agents were without obvious effects. Metabolic slowing at 4 0 C or deviation of the pH of the culture medium suppressed the reaction. Thymus cells, which are not cytotoxic in this system, significantly but not completely inhibited the cytotoxicity of lymph node cells. Antiserum directed against target cells specifically protected them from the cytotoxic lymphoid cells in the absence of complement. Precursors of cytotoxic lymphoid cells were radiosensitive, unlike the cytotoxic cells themselves. BALB/c anti-C57BL/6 spleen cell serum and 89 Sr both are able to prevent rejection of marrow allografts in vivo. Lymphoid cells incubated with this antiserum plus complement lost much of their cytotoxicity but were still effective at high ratios of aggressor to target cells. Lymphoid cells of mice treated with 89 Sr were effectively cytotoxic but lost practically all of their cytotoxicity after incubation with the antiserum plus complement. Thus, it appears that this reaction detects two different cytotoxic lymphoid cells, either of which can function in vitro. Both cell types may need to cooperate in vivo during marrow allograft rejections

  11. A Stromal Cell Niche for Human and Mouse Type 3 Innate Lymphoid Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoorweg, Kerim; Narang, Priyanka; Li, Zhi; Thuery, Anne; Papazian, Natalie; Withers, David R; Coles, Mark C; Cupedo, Tom

    2015-11-01

    Adaptive immunity critically depends on the functional compartmentalization of secondary lymphoid organs. Mesenchymal stromal cells create and maintain specialized niches that support survival, activation, and expansion of T and B cells, and integrated analysis of lymphocytes and their niche has been instrumental in understanding adaptive immunity. Lymphoid organs are also home to type 3 innate lymphoid cells (ILC3), innate effector cells essential for barrier immunity. However, a specialized stromal niche for ILC3 has not been identified. A novel lineage-tracing approach now identifies a subset of murine fetal lymphoid tissue organizer cells that gives rise exclusively to adult marginal reticular cells. Moreover, both cell types are conserved from mice to humans and colocalize with ILC3 in secondary lymphoid tissues throughout life. In sum, we provide evidence that fetal stromal organizers give rise to adult marginal reticular cells and form a dedicated stromal niche for innate ILC3 in adaptive lymphoid organs. Copyright © 2015 by The American Association of Immunologists, Inc.

  12. Maternal retinoids control type 3 innate lymphoid cells and set the offspring immunity

    Science.gov (United States)

    van de Pavert, Serge A.; Ferreira, Manuela; Domingues, Rita G.; Ribeiro, Hélder; Molenaar, Rosalie; Moreira-Santos, Lara; Almeida, Francisca F.; Ibiza, Sales; Barbosa, Inês; Goverse, Gera; Labão-Almeida, Carlos; Godinho-Silva, Cristina; Konijn, Tanja; Schooneman, Dennis; O'Toole, Tom; Mizee, Mark R.; Habani, Yasmin; Haak, Esther; Santori, Fabio R.; Littman, Dan R.; Schulte-Merker, Stefan; Dzierzak, Elaine; Simas, J. Pedro; Mebius, Reina E.; Veiga-Fernandes, Henrique

    2014-04-01

    The impact of nutritional status during fetal life on the overall health of adults has been recognized; however, dietary effects on the developing immune system are largely unknown. Development of secondary lymphoid organs occurs during embryogenesis and is considered to be developmentally programmed. Secondary lymphoid organ formation depends on a subset of type 3 innate lymphoid cells (ILC3) named lymphoid tissue inducer (LTi) cells. Here we show that mouse fetal ILC3s are controlled by cell-autonomous retinoic acid (RA) signalling in utero, which pre-sets the immune fitness in adulthood. We found that embryonic lymphoid organs contain ILC progenitors that differentiate locally into mature LTi cells. Local LTi cell differentiation was controlled by maternal retinoid intake and fetal RA signalling acting in a haematopoietic cell-autonomous manner. RA controlled LTi cell maturation upstream of the transcription factor RORγt. Accordingly, enforced expression of Rorgt restored maturation of LTi cells with impaired RA signalling, whereas RA receptors directly regulated the Rorgt locus. Finally, we established that maternal levels of dietary retinoids control the size of secondary lymphoid organs and the efficiency of immune responses in the adult offspring. Our results reveal a molecular link between maternal nutrients and the formation of immune structures required for resistance to infection in the offspring.

  13. Flt3 Ligand Regulates the Development of Innate Lymphoid Cells in Fetal and Adult Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baerenwaldt, Anne; von Burg, Nicole; Kreuzaler, Matthias; Sitte, Selina; Horvath, Edit; Peter, Annick; Voehringer, David; Rolink, Antonius G; Finke, Daniela

    2016-03-15

    Flt3 ligand (Flt3L) promotes survival of lymphoid progenitors in the bone marrow and differentiation of dendritic cells (DCs), but its role in regulating innate lymphoid cells (ILCs) during fetal and adult life is not understood. By using Flt3L knockout and transgenic mice, we demonstrate that Flt3L controls ILC numbers by regulating the pool of α4β7(-) and α4β7(+) lymphoid tissue inducer cell progenitors in the fetal liver and common lymphoid progenitors in the bone marrow. Deletion of flt3l severely reduced the number of fetal liver progenitors and lymphoid tissue inducer cells in the neonatal intestine, resulting in impaired development of Peyer's patches. In the adult intestine, NK cells and group 2 and 3 ILCs were severely reduced. This effect occurred independently of DCs as ILC numbers were normal in mice in which DCs were constitutively deleted. Finally, we could show that administration of Flt3L increased the number of NKp46(-) group 3 ILCs in wild-type and even in Il7(-/-) mice, which generally have reduced numbers of ILCs. Taken together, Flt3L significantly contributes to ILC and Peyer's patches development by targeting lymphoid progenitor cells during fetal and adult life. Copyright © 2016 by The American Association of Immunologists, Inc.

  14. The Role of TOX in the Development of Innate Lymphoid Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seehus, Corey R; Kaye, Jonathan

    2015-01-01

    TOX, an evolutionarily conserved member of the HMG-box family of proteins, is essential for the development of various cells of both the innate and adaptive immune system. TOX is required for the development of CD4(+) T lineage cells in the thymus, including natural killer T and T regulatory cells, as well as development of natural killer cells and fetal lymphoid tissue inducer cells, the latter required for lymph node organogenesis. Recently, we have identified a broader role for TOX in the innate immune system, demonstrating that this nuclear protein is required for generation of bone marrow progenitors that have potential to give rise to all innate lymphoid cells. Innate lymphoid cells, classified according to transcription factor expression and cytokine secretion profiles, derive from common lymphoid progenitors in the bone marrow and require Notch signals for their development. We discuss here the role of TOX in specifying CLP toward an innate lymphoid cell fate and hypothesize a possible role for TOX in regulating Notch gene targets during innate lymphoid cell development.

  15. Functional Differences between Human NKp44(-) and NKp44(+) RORC(+) Innate Lymphoid Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoorweg, Kerim; Peters, Charlotte P; Cornelissen, Ferry; Aparicio-Domingo, Patricia; Papazian, Natalie; Kazemier, Geert; Mjösberg, Jenny M; Spits, Hergen; Cupedo, Tom

    2012-01-01

    Human RORC(+) lymphoid tissue inducer cells are part of a rapidly expanding family of innate lymphoid cells (ILC) that participate in innate and adaptive immune responses as well as in lymphoid tissue (re) modeling. The assessment of a potential role for innate lymphocyte-derived cytokines in human homeostasis and disease is hampered by a poor characterization of RORC(+) innate cell subsets and a lack of knowledge on the distribution of these cells in adults. Here we show that functionally distinct subsets of human RORC(+) innate lymphoid cells are enriched for secretion of IL-17a or IL-22. Both subsets have an activated phenotype and can be distinguished based on the presence or absence of the natural cytotoxicity receptor NKp44. NKp44(+) IL-22 producing cells are present in tonsils while NKp44(-) IL-17a producing cells are present in fetal developing lymph nodes. Development of human intestinal NKp44(+) ILC is a programmed event that is independent of bacterial colonization and these cells colonize the fetal intestine during the first trimester. In the adult intestine, NKp44(+) ILC are the main ILC subset producing IL-22. NKp44(-) ILC remain present throughout adulthood in peripheral non-inflamed lymph nodes as resting, non-cytokine producing cells. However, upon stimulation lymph node ILC can swiftly initiate cytokine transcription suggesting that secondary human lymphoid organs may function as a reservoir for innate lymphoid cells capable of participating in inflammatory responses.

  16. The Role of TOX in the Development of Innate Lymphoid Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Corey R. Seehus

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available TOX, an evolutionarily conserved member of the HMG-box family of proteins, is essential for the development of various cells of both the innate and adaptive immune system. TOX is required for the development of CD4+ T lineage cells in the thymus, including natural killer T and T regulatory cells, as well as development of natural killer cells and fetal lymphoid tissue inducer cells, the latter required for lymph node organogenesis. Recently, we have identified a broader role for TOX in the innate immune system, demonstrating that this nuclear protein is required for generation of bone marrow progenitors that have potential to give rise to all innate lymphoid cells. Innate lymphoid cells, classified according to transcription factor expression and cytokine secretion profiles, derive from common lymphoid progenitors in the bone marrow and require Notch signals for their development. We discuss here the role of TOX in specifying CLP toward an innate lymphoid cell fate and hypothesize a possible role for TOX in regulating Notch gene targets during innate lymphoid cell development.

  17. Immunophenotype of cells within cervine rectoanal mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue and mesenteric lymph nodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dagleish, M P; Finlayson, J; Steele, P J; Pang, Y; Hamilton, S; Eaton, S L; Sales, J; González, L; Chianini, F

    2012-05-01

    Rectoanal mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (RAMALT) is a part of the lymphoid system that can be sampled easily in live animals, especially ruminants. RAMALT biopsy is useful for the diagnosis of transmissible spongiform encephalopathies, including scrapie in sheep and goats and chronic wasting disease (CWD) in cervids. Diagnosis is reliant on detection of abnormal prion protein (PrP(d)), which is associated with lymphoid follicles. For enzyme linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs) detecting PrP(d) it is necessary to ensure that lymphoid follicles are present in biopsy samples to avoid false-negative results. Monoclonal antibodies known to recognize specific immune cell subsets present in lymphoid tissues of sheep were tested for cross-reactivity with cervine RAMALT and mesenteric lymph nodes (MLNs) preserved in zinc salts fixative. The distribution of cells expressing CD3, CD4, CD79, CD21 and class II molecules of the major histocompatibility complex was determined in these tissues. Cells of each immunophenotype had similar distributions in RAMALT and MLNs and these distributions were similar to those reported previously for sheep and cattle. The identification and validation of cervine lymphoid follicle cell markers (CD79 and CD21) may allow reduction in false-negative results during diagnosis of CWD by ELISA. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Tertiary Lymphoid Structures in Cancer: Drivers of Antitumor Immunity, Immunosuppression, or Bystander Sentinels in Disease?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colbeck, Emily Jayne; Ager, Ann; Gallimore, Awen; Jones, Gareth Wyn

    2017-01-01

    Secondary lymphoid organs are integral to initiation and execution of adaptive immune responses. These organs provide a setting for interactions between antigen-specific lymphocytes and antigen-presenting cells recruited from local infected or inflamed tissues. Secondary lymphoid organs develop as a part of a genetically preprogrammed process during embryogenesis. However, organogenesis of secondary lymphoid tissues can also be recapitulated in adulthood during de novo lymphoid neogenesis of tertiary lymphoid structures (TLSs). These ectopic lymphoid-like structures form in the inflamed tissues afflicted by various pathological conditions, including cancer, autoimmunity, infection, or allograft rejection. Studies are beginning to shed light on the function of such structures in different disease settings, raising important questions regarding their contribution to progression or resolution of disease. Data show an association between the tumor-associated TLSs and a favorable prognosis in various types of human cancer, attracting the speculation that TLSs support effective local antitumor immune responses. However, definitive evidence for the role for TLSs in fostering immune responses in vivo are lacking, with current data remaining largely correlative by nature. In fact, some more recent studies have even demonstrated an immunosuppressive, tumor-promoting role for cancer-associated TLSs. In this review, we will discuss what is known about the development of cancer-associated TLSs and the current understanding of their potential role in the antitumor immune response. PMID:29312327

  19. Exhibition - Mathematics, A Beautiful Elsewhere

    CERN Multimedia

    2011-01-01

    From 21 October 2011 to 18 March 2012, the Fondation Cartier pour l’art contemporain will present the exhibition Mathematics: A Beautiful Elsewhere, an exhibition developed in association with the Institut des Hautes Études Scientifiques (IHÉS) and under the patronage of UNESCO. For this unprecedented event, the foundation invited mathematicians to work with artists with whom it has previously worked to create an exhibition that allows visitors to see, hear, do, interpret and think about mathematics. By bringing mathematics into its premises, the Fondation Cartier is itself undergoing the “sudden change of scenery” described by mathematician Alexandre Grothendieck. More information is available here. Fondation Cartier pour l’art contemporain 261, boulevard Raspail 75014 Paris http://fondation.cartier.com Private Visit For professors, researchers and all the staff of Mathematics departments...

  20. The myeloproliferative neoplasms, unclassifiable: clinical and pathological considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gianelli, Umberto; Cattaneo, Daniele; Bossi, Anna; Cortinovis, Ivan; Boiocchi, Leonardo; Liu, Yen-Chun; Augello, Claudia; Bonometti, Arturo; Fiori, Stefano; Orofino, Nicola; Guidotti, Francesca; Orazi, Attilio; Iurlo, Alessandra

    2017-02-01

    In this study, we investigate in detail the morphological, clinical and molecular features of 71 consecutive patients with a diagnosis of myeloproliferative neoplasms, unclassifiable. We performed a meticulous morphological analysis and found that most of the cases displayed a hypercellular bone marrow (70%) with normal erythropoiesis without left-shifting (59%), increased granulopoiesis with left-shifting (73%) and increased megakaryocytes with loose clustering (96%). Megakaryocytes displayed frequent giant forms with hyperlobulated or bulbous nuclei and/or other maturation defects. Interestingly, more than half of the cases displayed severe bone marrow fibrosis (59%). Median values of hemoglobin level and white blood cells count were all within the normal range; in contrast, median platelets count and lactate dehydrogenase were increased. Little less than half of the patients (44%) showed splenomegaly. JAK2V617F mutation was detected in 72% of all patients. Among the JAK2-negative cases, MPLW515L mutation was found in 17% and CALR mutations in 67% of the investigated cases, respectively. Finally, by multiple correspondence analysis of the morphological profiles, we found that all but four of the cases could be grouped in three morphological clusters with some features similar to those of the classic BCR-ABL1-negative myeloproliferative neoplasms. Analysis of the clinical parameters in these three clusters revealed discrepancies with the morphological profile in about 55% of the patients. In conclusion, we found that the category of myeloproliferative neoplasm, unclassifiable is heterogeneous but identification of different subgroups is possible and should be recommended for a better management of these patients.

  1. Neoplasms in young dogs after irradiation during development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benjamin, S.A.; Williams, J.S.; Angleton, G.M.; Saunders, W.J.; Miller, G.K.; Lee, A.C.

    1985-01-01

    To study the lifetime effects of irradiation during development, 1680 beagle dogs were given single, whole body exposures to 60Co gamma radiation at one of 6 pre- or postnatal ages. Four groups of 120 dogs each (480 or 29%) received 0.16 or 0.83 Gy at early prenatal times, 8 or 28 days postcoitus (dpc). Four groups of 120 dogs each (29%) received 0.16 or 0.83 Gy in the perinatal period at 55 dpc or 2 days postpartum (dpp). Groups of 120 and 240 dogs (21%) received 0.83 Gy at later postnatal times, 70 or 365 dpp, respectively. A group of 360 dogs (21%) were sham-irradiated. The youngest dogs are now 12 years old. Through 4 years of age, 20 dogs had neoplasms diagnosed. Five malignancies and one benign tumor were seen in the first two years, including the only fatal malignancies which occurred in 4 perinatally irradiated dogs. Up to two years of age, the other non-fatal malignancy and benign tumor were found in dogs irradiated at 365 dpp and 55 dpc. The remaining 14 neoplasms, 12 benign and 2 non-fatal malignant, were diagnosed between two and four years of age. Respective numbers of these benign and non-fatal malignant tumors found in control, perinatally irradiated, and all other irradiated dogs were 2 and 0; 5 and 1; and 5 and 1. Eight of the benign lesions were minute papillomas of the eyelids which were more frequent in the perinatally irradiated dogs. Overall, 71% (5 of 7) of the malignancies seen in the first four years of life occurred in the 29% of the dogs irradiated in the perinatal period. Sixty-seven percent (8 of 12) of all neoplasms, excluding eyelid papillomas, also occurred in perinatally irradiated dogs. These data suggest an increased risk for neoplasia after perinatal irradiation

  2. Distinct molecular features of different macroscopic subtypes of colorectal neoplasms.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenichi Konda

    Full Text Available Colorectal adenoma develops into cancer with the accumulation of genetic and epigenetic changes. We studied the underlying molecular and clinicopathological features to better understand the heterogeneity of colorectal neoplasms (CRNs.We evaluated both genetic (mutations of KRAS, BRAF, TP53, and PIK3CA, and microsatellite instability [MSI] and epigenetic (methylation status of nine genes or sequences, including the CpG island methylator phenotype [CIMP] markers alterations in 158 CRNs including 56 polypoid neoplasms (PNs, 25 granular type laterally spreading tumors (LST-Gs, 48 non-granular type LSTs (LST-NGs, 19 depressed neoplasms (DNs and 10 small flat-elevated neoplasms (S-FNs on the basis of macroscopic appearance.S-FNs showed few molecular changes except SFRP1 methylation. Significant differences in the frequency of KRAS mutations were observed among subtypes (68% for LST-Gs, 36% for PNs, 16% for DNs and 6% for LST-NGs (P<0.001. By contrast, the frequency of TP53 mutation was higher in DNs than PNs or LST-Gs (32% vs. 5% or 0%, respectively (P<0.007. We also observed significant differences in the frequency of CIMP between LST-Gs and LST-NGs or PNs (32% vs. 6% or 5%, respectively (P<0.005. Moreover, the methylation level of LINE-1 was significantly lower in DNs or LST-Gs than in PNs (58.3% or 60.5% vs. 63.2%, P<0.05. PIK3CA mutations were detected only in LSTs. Finally, multivariate analyses showed that macroscopic morphologies were significantly associated with an increased risk of molecular changes (PN or LST-G for KRAS mutation, odds ratio [OR] 9.11; LST-NG or DN for TP53 mutation, OR 5.30; LST-G for PIK3CA mutation, OR 26.53; LST-G or DN for LINE-1 hypomethylation, OR 3.41.We demonstrated that CRNs could be classified into five macroscopic subtypes according to clinicopathological and molecular differences, suggesting that different mechanisms are involved in the pathogenesis of colorectal tumorigenesis.

  3. Metanephric stromal tumor: A novel pediatric renal neoplasm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajalakshmi V

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Metanephric stromal tumor of kidney is a novel pediatric benign stromal specific renal neoplasm. A few cases have been reported in adults also. This tumor is usually centered in the renal medulla with a characteristic microscopic appearance which differentiates this lesion from congenital mesoblastic nephroma and clear cell sarcoma of the kidney. In most cases complete excision alone is curative. The differentiation of metanephric stromal tumor from clear cell sarcoma of the kidney will spare the child from the ill effects of adjuvant chemotherapy. In this communication we describe the gross and microscopic features of metanephric stromal tumor in a one-month-old child with good prognosis.

  4. Rupture of a Solid Pseudopapillary Neoplasm of the pancreas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara Rampersad

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available An acute presentation of a spontaneously ruptured Solid-Pseudopapillary Neoplasm (SPN in an 8 year old female is discussed with a review of the world literature. Our literature search revealed 15 other cases of ruptured SPN and with this case the total is now 16. Notably, 12 patients were 16 years of age or less at presentation as in our case. Although rupture of a SPN is rarely reported it appears to be more probable in the pediatric patient. Additionally, larger tumor size and trauma may be contributing factors.

  5. Cervical intraepitheial neoplasm with ichthyosis uteri- A case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karishma Malla Vaidya

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available A rare condition in which the entire surface of the endometrium is replaced by stratified squamous epithelium is called Ichthyosis uteri. Originally described as an endometrial response to iatrogenically-introduced caustic substances, similar changes have since been described in association with a variety of inflammatory conditions of the endometrium.Here we report a case of intraepithelial neoplasm III, with ichthyosis uteri. A 75-years-old female with hypetension, underwent total abdominal hysterectomy with bilateral salphingo-ophorectomy for watery discharge per vaginal since four months.

  6. Uterine Rupture Due to Invasive Metastatic Gestational Trophoblastic Neoplasm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruner, David I.; Pritchard, Amy M.; Clarke, Jonathan

    2013-01-01

    While complete molar pregnancies are rare, they are wrought with a host of potential complications to include invasive gestational trophoblastic neoplasia. Persistent gestational trophoblastic disease following molar pregnancy is a potentially fatal complication that must be recognized early and treated aggressively for both immediate and long-term recovery. We present the case of a 21-year-old woman with abdominal pain and presyncope 1 month after a molar pregnancy with a subsequent uterine rupture due to invasive gestational trophoblastic neoplasm. We will discuss the complications of molar pregnancies including the risks and management of invasive, metastatic gestational trophoblastic neoplasia. PMID:24106538

  7. Solute carrier transporters: potential targets for digestive system neoplasms

    OpenAIRE

    Xie, Jing; Zhu, Xiao Yan; Liu, Lu Ming; Meng, Zhi Qiang

    2018-01-01

    Jing Xie,1,2 Xiao Yan Zhu,1,2 Lu Ming Liu,1,2 Zhi Qiang Meng1,2 1Department of Integrative Oncology, Fudan University Shanghai Cancer Center, 2Department of Oncology, Shanghai Medical College, Fudan University, Shanghai 200032, People’s Republic of China Abstract: Digestive system neoplasms are the leading causes of cancer-related death all over the world. Solute carrier (SLC) superfamily is composed of a series of transporters that are ubiquitously expressed in organs and tissues o...

  8. Learning from Exhibitions: Chuck Close.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Mark M.

    1998-01-01

    Discusses the artwork of Chuck Close, who is well known for his over-sized portraits of fellow artists and anonymous sitters, and the exhibition of his work that premiered at New York's Museum of Modern Art before traveling to other cities in the United States. (CMK)

  9. Treatment of experimental myasthenia gravis with total lymphoid irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    de Silva, S.; Blum, J.E.; McIntosh, K.R.; Order, S.; Drachman, D.B.

    1988-01-01

    Total lymphoid irradiation (TLI) has been reported to be effective in the immunosuppressive treatment of certain human and experimental autoimmune disorders. We have investigated the effects of TLI in Lewis rats with experimental autoimmune myasthenia gravis (EAMG) produced by immunization with purified torpedo acetylcholine receptor (AChR). The radiation is given in 17 divided fractions of 200 rad each, and nonlymphoid tissues are protected by lead shielding. This technique suppresses the immune system, while minimizing side effects, and permits the repopulation of the immune system by the patient's own bone marrow cells. Our results show that TLI treatment completely prevented the primary antibody response to immunization with torpedo AChR, it rapidly abolished the ongoing antibody response in established EAMG, and it suppressed the secondary (anamnestic) response to a boost of AChR. No EAMG animals died during TLI treatment, compared with six control animals that died of EAMG. TLI produces powerful and prompt immunosuppression and may eventually prove useful in the treatment of refractory human myasthenia gravis

  10. Clinical drawbacks of total lymphoid irradiation: the cons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Myers, L.W.; Ellison, G.W.; Fahey, J.L.; Tesler, A.; Gottlieb, M.S.

    1988-01-01

    Success has been reported with use of total lymphoid irradiation (TLI) in organ transplant recipients and in patients with rheumatoid arthritis and other autoimmune diseases. In a well-conducted randomized double blind clinical trial, Cook et al have found that TLI was superior to sham irradiation of patients with multiple sclerosis (MS). However, it is clear from looking at this data that not all patients responded to TLI and that with time disease activity returned. Our own experience with TLI in two MS patients was very disappointing. Despite its apparent benefit in some conditions, considerable drawbacks are associated with TLI. These include high financial cost, unpleasant treatment-related side effects, and the possibility that more serious morbidity as well as mortality may be treatment-related. Furthermore, the optimum therapeutic regimen for TLI has not yet been established. Issues related to cumulative dose, dose per fraction, frequency of fractions, field of irradiation, and interaction with other therapies still need clarification. For these reasons we do not recommend TLI as a treatment for MS

  11. Role of innate lymphoid cells in obesity and metabolic disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saetang, Jirakrit; Sangkhathat, Surasak

    2018-01-01

    The immune system has previously been demonstrated to be associated with the pathophysiological development of metabolic abnormalities. However, the mechanisms linking immunity to metabolic disease remain to be fully elucidated. It has previously been suggested that innate lymphoid cells (ILCs) may be involved in the progression of numerous types of metabolic diseases as these cells act as suppressors and promoters for obesity and associated conditions, and are particularly involved in adipose tissue inflammation, which is a major feature of metabolic imbalance. Group 2 ILCs (ILC2s) have been revealed as anti-obese immune regulators by secreting anti-inflammatory cytokines and promoting the polarization of M2 macrophages, whereas group 1 ILCs (ILC1s), including natural killer cells, may promote adipose tissue inflammation via production of interferon-γ, which in turn polarizes macrophages toward the M1 type. The majority of studies to date have demonstrated the pathological association between ILCs and obesity in the context of adipose tissue inflammation, whereas the roles of ILCs in other organs which participate in obesity development have not been fully characterized. Therefore, identifying the roles of all types of ILCs as central components mediating obesity-associated inflammation, is of primary concern, and may lead to the discovery of novel preventative and therapeutic interventions. PMID:29138853

  12. Regulation of Innate Lymphoid Cells by Aryl Hydrocarbon Receptor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Shiyang; Bostick, John W.; Zhou, Liang

    2018-01-01

    With striking similarity to their adaptive T helper cell counterparts, innate lymphoid cells (ILCs) represent an emerging family of cell types that express signature transcription factors, including T-bet+ Eomes+ natural killer cells, T-bet+ Eomes− group 1 ILCs, GATA3+ group 2 ILCs, RORγt+ group 3 ILCs, and newly identified Id3+ regulatory ILC. ILCs are abundantly present in barrier tissues of the host (e.g., the lung, gut, and skin) at the interface of host–environment interactions. Active research has been conducted to elucidate molecular mechanisms underlying the development and function of ILCs. The aryl hydrocarbon receptor (Ahr) is a ligand-dependent transcription factor, best known to mediate the effects of xenobiotic environmental toxins and endogenous microbial and dietary metabolites. Here, we review recent progresses regarding Ahr function in ILCs. We focus on the Ahr-mediated cross talk between ILCs and other immune/non-immune cells in host tissues especially in the gut. We discuss the molecular mechanisms of the action of Ahr expression and activity in regulation of ILCs in immunity and inflammation, and the interaction between Ahr and other pathways/transcription factors in ILC development and function with their implication in disease. PMID:29354125

  13. Regulation of Innate Lymphoid Cells by Aryl Hydrocarbon Receptor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shiyang Li

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available With striking similarity to their adaptive T helper cell counterparts, innate lymphoid cells (ILCs represent an emerging family of cell types that express signature transcription factors, including T-bet+ Eomes+ natural killer cells, T-bet+ Eomes− group 1 ILCs, GATA3+ group 2 ILCs, RORγt+ group 3 ILCs, and newly identified Id3+ regulatory ILC. ILCs are abundantly present in barrier tissues of the host (e.g., the lung, gut, and skin at the interface of host–environment interactions. Active research has been conducted to elucidate molecular mechanisms underlying the development and function of ILCs. The aryl hydrocarbon receptor (Ahr is a ligand-dependent transcription factor, best known to mediate the effects of xenobiotic environmental toxins and endogenous microbial and dietary metabolites. Here, we review recent progresses regarding Ahr function in ILCs. We focus on the Ahr-mediated cross talk between ILCs and other immune/non-immune cells in host tissues especially in the gut. We discuss the molecular mechanisms of the action of Ahr expression and activity in regulation of ILCs in immunity and inflammation, and the interaction between Ahr and other pathways/transcription factors in ILC development and function with their implication in disease.

  14. Innate lymphoid cells at the interface between obesity and asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Everaere, Laetitia; Ait Yahia, Saliha; Bouté, Mélodie; Audousset, Camille; Chenivesse, Cécile; Tsicopoulos, Anne

    2018-01-01

    Obesity and asthma prevalence has dramatically and concomitantly increased over the last 25 years, and many epidemiological studies have highlighted obesity as an important risk factor for asthma. Although many studies have been performed, the underlying mechanisms remain poorly understood. Innate mechanisms have been involved in both diseases, in particular through the recently described innate lymphoid cells (ILCs). ILCs are subdivided into three groups that are defined by their cytokine production and by their master transcription factor expression, in sharp correlation with their T helper counterparts. However, unlike T helper cells, ILCs do not express antigen-specific receptors, but respond to damage-induced signals. ILCs have been found in target tissues of both diseases, and data have implicated these cells in the pathogenesis of both diseases. In particular group 2 ILCs (ILC2) are activated in both the adipose and lung tissues under the effect of interleukin-33 and interleukin-25 expression. However, counter-intuitively to the well-known association between obesity and asthma, ILC2 are beneficial for obesity but deleterious for asthma. This review will examine the roles of ILCs in each disease and recent data highlighting ILCs as a putative link between obesity and asthma. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Kidney allograft survival in dogs treated with total lymphoid irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Howard, R.J.; Sutherland, D.E.R.; Lum, C.T.; Lewis, W.I.; Kim, T.H.; Slavin, S.; Najarian, J.S.

    1981-01-01

    Total lymphoid irradiation (TLI) is immunosuppressive and, in rodents, can induce a state where transplantation of allogenic bone marrow results in chimerism and permanent acceptance of organ allografts from the donor strain. Twelve splenectomized dogs were treated with TLI (150 rads per fraction, total dose 1950 to 3000 rads) before bilateral nephrectomy and renal allotransplantation. Eight dogs received bone marrow from the kidney donor. In 13 untreated control dogs renal allografts functioned for a mean +- (SE) of 4.7 +- 0.3 days. In the four TLI treated dogs who did not receive bone marrow the renal allografts functioned for 15 to 76 days (two dogs died with functioning grafts). In the eight TLI treated dogs who received donor bone marrow, two died immediately after transplantation, two rejected at 3 and 13 days, one died at 13 days with a functioning graft, and two have had the grafts function for longer than 500 days. Chimerism was not detected in the one dog tested. The response of peripheral blood lymphocytes to stimulation with phytohemaglutinin and in mixed lymphocyte culture was suppressed for at least one month after TLI. The results confirm the immunosuppressive effect of TLI. The absence of kidney rejection in two recipients of donor bone marrow show the potential of this approach to induce long-term immunologic unresponsiveness as to an organ allograft, but the outcome is unpredictable and further experiments are needed to define the optimal conditions for administration of TLI and bone marrow to the recipients

  16. Treatment of experimental myasthenia gravis with total lymphoid irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    de Silva, S.; Blum, J.E.; McIntosh, K.R.; Order, S.; Drachman, D.B.

    1988-07-01

    Total lymphoid irradiation (TLI) has been reported to be effective in the immunosuppressive treatment of certain human and experimental autoimmune disorders. We have investigated the effects of TLI in Lewis rats with experimental autoimmune myasthenia gravis (EAMG) produced by immunization with purified torpedo acetylcholine receptor (AChR). The radiation is given in 17 divided fractions of 200 rad each, and nonlymphoid tissues are protected by lead shielding. This technique suppresses the immune system, while minimizing side effects, and permits the repopulation of the immune system by the patient's own bone marrow cells. Our results show that TLI treatment completely prevented the primary antibody response to immunization with torpedo AChR, it rapidly abolished the ongoing antibody response in established EAMG, and it suppressed the secondary (anamnestic) response to a boost of AChR. No EAMG animals died during TLI treatment, compared with six control animals that died of EAMG. TLI produces powerful and prompt immunosuppression and may eventually prove useful in the treatment of refractory human myasthenia gravis.

  17. CT appearances of mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) lymphoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kessar, P.; Norton, A.; Rohatiner, A.Z.S.; Lister, T.A.; Reznek, R.H.

    1999-01-01

    Mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) lymphoma is a low-grade lymphoma that differs from high-grade non-Hodgkin lymphoma both clinically and histologically. The CT appearances of MALT lymphoma are described. Of 40 patients referred with biopsy-proven MALT lymphoma, only seven had not had gastrectomy or chemotherapy prior to CT examination. The CT scans of these seven cases were analysed for the degree and extent of gastric wall thickening, enlargement of abdominal and extra-abdominal lymph nodes, and presence of extranodal disease. In all patients the stomach was distended with oral contrast medium and scans performed at narrow collimation, after intravenous administration of 20 mg hyoscine butylbromide. In six patients focal thickening of the gastric wall was 1 cm or less. One patient had thickening of over 4 cm. There was no enlargement of abdominal or extra-abdominal lymph nodes or extension to adjacent organs. Thus on CT, at presentation, MALT lymphoma results in minimal gastric wall thickening, unlike high-grade non-Hodgkin lymphoma, which typically causes bulky gastric disease, nodal enlargement and extension into adjacent organs. CT is therefore of limited value in monitoring response to treatment. With disease greater than minimal thickening, transformation to a higher grade should be considered. (orig.)

  18. Gut-associated Lymphoid Tissue (GALT) Carcinoma in Ulcerative Colitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubio, Carlos A; DE Petris, Giovanni; Puppa, Giacomo

    2018-02-01

    In ulcerative colitis (UC), the majority of colorectal carcinomas (CRC) arise in the vast colorectal mucosal domain built with mucus-producing goblet cells and columnar cells. Conversely, CRC in UC rarely evolve in the tiny, spotty gut-associated lymphoid tissue (GALT) mucosal domain. Here we review the four reported cases of colonic carcinoma developing in GALT mucosa in UC, searching for possible precursor lesions connected with the evolution of these tumours. The clinical history, age, gender, endoscopic descriptions, and the pathology (localization, gross and histological descriptions of the luminal surface) of the four UC-GALT carcinomas reported in the literature were reviewed. The luminal surface in three out of the four carcinomas revealed conventional (tubular/villous) adenomas or high-grade dysplasia. All four UC-GALT-carcinomas were detected at an early stage (T1N0). GALT carcinomas do occur, albeit infrequently, in patients with UC. The finding that three out of the four GALT carcinomas on record were covered by conventional adenomas or by high-grade dysplasia strongly suggests that non-invasive conventional neoplasias might often precede GALT carcinomas in UC. Copyright© 2018, International Institute of Anticancer Research (Dr. George J. Delinasios), All rights reserved.

  19. CT findings of pulmonary mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Weidong; Guan Yubao; Li Chuanxing; Wu Peihong

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To study the CT findings of pulmonary mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) lymphoma. Methods: The CT examinations of 12 patients with pathologically proven pulmonary MALT lymphoma were reviewed retrospectively. Evaluated imaging findings included number, distribution, shape, attenuation and other associated findings of each lesion were evaluated. Results: Thirty-two pulmonary lesions, including consolidations, masses, nodules and lesions with ground glass attenuation, were identified in 12 patients. Multiple lesions were founded in 10 of 12 patients and solitary lesion in 2 patients. Multiple lesions found in one lung in 2 patients, and multiple lesions found in both lungs in 8 patients. Ten cases demonstrated 21 consolidation lesions with air bronchogram, and one of the ten cases demonstrated two lesions with airway dilatation. Three cases demonstrated 5 masses or nodular lesions, 3 of these 5 lesions showed air bronchogram. Two cases demonstrated 6 ground glass attenuation lesions. One case showed mediastinal and hilar lymphadenopathy. Conclusion: Pulmonary MALT lymphoma usually appears as multiple bilateral consolidations, masses, nodules with air bronchogram or lesions with ground- glass attenuation at CT imaging. The imaging findings described above and with an indolent clinical course may suggest the diagnosis of pulmonary MALT lymphoma. (authors)

  20. Innate lymphoid cells and their role in immune response regulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bibiana Patricia Ruiz-Sánchez

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Innate lymphoid cells (ILCs are lymphocytes lacking antigen recognition receptors and become activated in response to cytokines and through microbe-associated molecular pattern (MAMP receptors. ILCs are found mainly in mucosal tissues and participate in the immune response against infections and in chronic inflammatory conditions. ILCs are divided in ILC-1, ILC-2 and ILC-3, and these cells have analogue functions to those of immune adaptive response lymphocytes Th1, Th2 and Th17. ILC-1 express T-bet, produce IFNγ, protect against infections with intracellular microorganisms and are related to inflammatory bowel disease immunopathology. ILC-2 express GATA3, produce IL-4, IL-5, IL-13 and amphiregulin, protect against parasitic infections and related to allergy and obesity immunopathology. ILC-3 express ROR(γt, produce IL-17 and IL-22, protect against fungal infections and contribute to tolerance to intestinal microbiota and intestinal repair. They are related to inflammatory bowel disease and psoriasis immunopathology. In general terms, ILCs maintain homeostasis and coadjuvate in the protection against infections.

  1. EVALUATION OF CYTOKINE GENE POLYMORPHISM IN B CELL LYMPHOID MALIGNANCIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. L. Nazarova

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Previous studies with some solid tumors has shown that polymorphisms of certain cytokine genes may be used as predictors of clinical outcome in the patients. It seemed important to evaluate potential correlations between production of certain pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines and co-receptor molecules, and promoter polymorphism of the cytokine genes involved into regulation of cell proliferation, differentiation, apoptosis, lipid metabolism and blood clotting in the patients with hematological malignancies. The article contains our results concerning associations between of IL-1β, -2, -4, -10, -17, TNFα, and allelic polymorphisms of their genes in 62 patients with B cell lymphoid malignancies in an ethnically homogenous group (self-identified as Russians. We have shown that the GА and AA genotypes of the G-308A polymorphism in TNFα gene are significantly associated with increased production of this cytokine, being more common in aggressive non-Hodgkin lymphomas, more rare in multiple myeloma and in indolent non-Hodgkin lymphomas.

  2. Tertiary Lymphoid Organs in Central Nervous System Autoimmunity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meike Mitsdoerffer

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Multiple sclerosis (MS is an autoimmune disease characterized by chronic inflammation in the central nervous system (CNS, which results in permanent neuronal damage and substantial disability in patients. Autoreactive T cells are important drivers of the disease, however, the efficacy of B cell depleting therapies uncovered an essential role for B cells in disease pathogenesis. They can contribute to inflammatory processes via presentation of autoantigen, secretion of pro-inflammatory cytokines and production of pathogenic antibodies. Recently, B cell aggregates reminiscent of tertiary lymphoid organs (TLOs were discovered in the meninges of MS patients, leading to the hypothesis that differentiation and maturation of autopathogenic B and T cells may partly occur inside the CNS. Since these structures were associated with a more severe disease course, it is extremely important to gain insight into the mechanism of induction, their precise function and clinical significance. Mechanistic studies in patiens are limited. However, a few studies in the MS animal model experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE recapitulate TLO formation in the CNS and provide new insight into CNS TLO features, formation and function. This review summarizes what we know so far about CNS TLOs in MS and what we have learned about them from EAE models. It also highlights the areas that are in need of further experimental work, as we are just beginning to understand and evaluate the phenomenon of CNS TLOs.

  3. Pediatric liver neoplasms: a radiologic-pathologic correlation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Helmberger, T.K.; Reiser, M.F.; Ros, P.R.; Mergo, P.J.; Tomczak, R.

    1999-01-01

    Only 1-2 % of all pediatric tumors occur in the liver. Two thirds of these tumors are malignant and almost all of the tumors cause clinical symptoms due to their mass effects. Besides the poor prognosis in most of the malignant tumors, for further treatment the origin and nature of the neoplasm has to be known. Due to the mostly unimpeded growth into the peritoneal cavity, the origin of the tumors is primarily often unclear and can non-invasively only be determined by advanced imaging techniques. The display of the macro- and microhistological key features of primary pediatric liver neoplasms, including hepatoblastoma (HB), infantile hemangioendothelioma (IHE), mesenchymal hamartoma (MH), undifferentiated (embryonal) sarcoma (UES), and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), together with their imaging representation by ultrasound, computed tomography, and magnetic resonance imaging, may deepen the understanding of the underlying pathology and its imaging appearance. Furthermore, in many cases sufficient information may be provided not only to differentiate benign from malignant tumors, but also to guide for adequate treatment. (orig.)

  4. Immunoglobulin therapy in hematologic neoplasms and after hematopoietic cell transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ueda, Masumi; Berger, Melvin; Gale, Robert Peter; Lazarus, Hillard M

    2018-03-01

    Immunoglobulins are used to prevent or reduce infection risk in primary immune deficiencies and in settings which exploit its anti-inflammatory and immune-modulatory effects. Rigorous proof of immunoglobulin efficacy in persons with lympho-proliferative neoplasms, plasma cell myeloma, and persons receiving hematopoietic cell transplants is lacking despite many clinical trials. Further, there are few consensus guidelines or algorithms for use in these conditions. Rapid development of new therapies targeting B-cell signaling and survival pathways and increased use of chimeric antigen receptor T-cell (CAR-T) therapy will likely result in more acquired deficiencies of humoral immunity and infections in persons with cancer. We review immunoglobulin formulations and discuss efficacy and potential adverse effects in the context of preventing infections and in graft-versus-host disease. We suggest an algorithm for evaluating acquired deficiencies of humoral immunity in persons with hematologic neoplasms and recommend appropriate use of immunoglobulin therapy. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  5. Endoscopic approach for a laryngeal neoplasm in a dog

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Paulo Maia Teixeira

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Laryngeal and tracheal tumors are rare in pets; some piece of information on their disease behavior, therapy and evolution are limited. Neoplasms in this area are a diagnostic challenge. In many cases, they can be biopsied and excised using endoscopic instruments, but there is no report of this in canines. The goal of this study is to report a successful case of a laryngeal neoplasm removal through endoscopy. A head and neck radiogram revealed a mass in the laryngeal lumen protruding into the trachea. The patient then underwent an endoscopy to confirm the radiographic diagnosis and to surgically remove the tumor. The histopathological diagnosis was poorly differentiated carcinoma. The most appropriate treatment for laryngeal tumors is the resection of the submucosa or a partial laryngectomy however, partial and total laryngectomies are associated with many postoperative complications. In contrast, the endoscopic approach allows for highly magnified visualization of the lesion in situ, which facilitates the surgical removal of the mass through videosurgery. With little manipulation of the affected area, the chances of postoperative complications are reduced, leading to a more rapid recovery.

  6. Classifying the evolutionary and ecological features of neoplasms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maley, Carlo C.; Aktipis, Athena; Graham, Trevor A.; Sottoriva, Andrea; Boddy, Amy M.; Janiszewska, Michalina; Silva, Ariosto S.; Gerlinger, Marco; Yuan, Yinyin; Pienta, Kenneth J.; Anderson, Karen S.; Gatenby, Robert; Swanton, Charles; Posada, David; Wu, Chung-I; Schiffman, Joshua D.; Hwang, E. Shelley; Polyak, Kornelia; Anderson, Alexander R. A.; Brown, Joel S.; Greaves, Mel; Shibata, Darryl

    2018-01-01

    Neoplasms change over time through a process of cell-level evolution, driven by genetic and epigenetic alterations. However, the ecology of the microenvironment of a neoplastic cell determines which changes provide adaptive benefits. There is widespread recognition of the importance of these evolutionary and ecological processes in cancer, but to date, no system has been proposed for drawing clinically relevant distinctions between how different tumours are evolving. On the basis of a consensus conference of experts in the fields of cancer evolution and cancer ecology, we propose a framework for classifying tumours that is based on four relevant components. These are the diversity of neoplastic cells (intratumoural heterogeneity) and changes over time in that diversity, which make up an evolutionary index (Evo-index), as well as the hazards to neoplastic cell survival and the resources available to neoplastic cells, which make up an ecological index (Eco-index). We review evidence demonstrating the importance of each of these factors and describe multiple methods that can be used to measure them. Development of this classification system holds promise for enabling clinicians to personalize optimal interventions based on the evolvability of the patient’s tumour. The Evo- and Eco-indices provide a common lexicon for communicating about how neoplasms change in response to interventions, with potential implications for clinical trials, personalized medicine and basic cancer research. PMID:28912577

  7. Dermal Squamomelanocytic Tumor: Neoplasm of Uncertain Biological Potential

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirsad Dorić

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available We report a case of exceedingly rare cutaneous neoplasm with histological features of malignancy and uncertain biological potential. The nodular, darkly pigmented facial tumor with central exulceration, size 12x10x7 mm, of the skin 61-year-old man preauricular left was completely exised.Histologically tumor consists of atypical squamous cells, which express signs of moderate to significant pleomorphism, mitotically active, with foci forming of parakeratotic horn cysts (“pearls”. Characteristically tumor also consists of large number of atypical melanocytes with multifocal pattern, inserted between atypical squamous cells, and which contain large amount of dark brown pigment melanin. Immunohistochemically, squamous cells stain positively with keratin (CK116, melanocytes were stained with S -100 protein, HMB 45, and vimentin, but failed to stain with CK 116.To our knowledge this is the sixth reported case in world literature. The follow-up time of four years no evidence of recurrence or metastasis, similar all reported cases, but it is too short period in estimation to guarantee a benign course. However, it appears that this group of neoplasm may have different prognosis from pure squamous carcinoma or malignant melanoma.

  8. Frequency of heterozygous TET2 deletions in myeloproliferative neoplasms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph Tripodi

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Joseph Tripodi1, Ronald Hoffman1, Vesna Najfeld2, Rona Weinberg31The Myeloproliferative Disorders Program, Tisch Cancer Institute, Department of Medicine and 2Department of Medicine and Pathology, Mount Sinai School of Medicine, 3The Myeloproliferative Disorders Program, Cellular Therapy Laboratory, The New York Blood Center, New York, NY, USAAbstract: The Philadelphia chromosome (Ph-negative myeloproliferative neoplasms (MPNs, including polycythemia vera, essential thrombocythemia, and primary myelofibrosis, are a group of clonal hematopoietic stem cell disorders with overlapping clinical and cytogenetic features and a variable tendency to evolve into acute leukemia. These diseases not only share overlapping chromosomal abnormalities but also a number of acquired somatic mutations. Recently, mutations in a putative tumor suppressor gene, ten-eleven translocation 2 (TET2 on chromosome 4q24 have been identified in 12% of patients with MPN. Additionally 4q24 chromosomal rearrangements in MPN, including TET2 deletions, have also been observed using conventional cytogenetics. The goal of this study was to investigate the frequency of genomic TET2 rearrangements in MPN using fluorescence in situ hybridization as a more sensitive method for screening and identifying genomic deletions. Among 146 MPN patients, we identified two patients (1.4% who showed a common 4q24 deletion, including TET2. Our observations also indicated that the frequency of TET2 deletion is increased in patients with an abnormal karyotype (5%.Keywords: TET2, myeloproliferative neoplasms, fluorescence in situ hybridization, cytogenetics

  9. Molecular pathology of intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasms of the pancreas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paini, Marina; Crippa, Stefano; Partelli, Stefano; Scopelliti, Filippo; Tamburrino, Domenico; Baldoni, Andrea; Falconi, Massimo

    2014-08-07

    Since the first description of intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasms (IPMNs) of the pancreas in the eighties, their identification has dramatically increased in the last decades, hand to hand with the improvements in diagnostic imaging and sampling techniques for the study of pancreatic diseases. However, the heterogeneity of IPMNs and their malignant potential make difficult the management of these lesions. The objective of this review is to identify the molecular characteristics of IPMNs in order to recognize potential markers for the discrimination of more aggressive IPMNs requiring surgical resection from benign IPMNs that could be observed. We briefly summarize recent research findings on the genetics and epigenetics of intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasms, identifying some genes, molecular mechanisms and cellular signaling pathways correlated to the pathogenesis of IPMNs and their progression to malignancy. The knowledge of molecular biology of IPMNs has impressively developed over the last few years. A great amount of genes functioning as oncogenes or tumor suppressor genes have been identified, in pancreatic juice or in blood or in the samples from the pancreatic resections, but further researches are required to use these informations for clinical intent, in order to better define the natural history of these diseases and to improve their management.

  10. Malignant neurogenic neoplasms of the head and neck

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuczkowski, J.; Starzynska, A.

    1996-01-01

    The authors present 17 cases of malignant neurogenic neoplasms of the head and neck observed in the Department of Otolaryngology in the years 1948-1993. The latest opinions on etiopathology, diagnosis and treatment of these tumors were described. Age and sex of patients, localization of tumor, symptoms histopathology and treatment were analyzed. Progressions of the disease were estimated retrospectively. It has been proved that these tumors develop quickly, give pain and paresthesia. Their diagnosis is very difficult because of their submucosal growth and difficult histopathological interpretation. A characteristic feature of these neurogenic tumors is the ability to give distant metastases. This feature differentiates them from squamous neoplasms, which give mainly nodal metastases. All the patients were subjected to surgery combined with conventional or high voltage radiotherapy. The positive effect of combined chemotherapy in cases of esthesioneuroblastoma is worthy of note. The prognosis in these tumors is often unfavorable. In the group under discussion 13 patients died because of recurrences, two patients are considered to be cured and the remaining 2 patients have had no recurrence for 2 and 3 years. (author)

  11. Mobile Technologies in Museum Exhibitions

    OpenAIRE

    Sandra Medić; Nataša Pavlović

    2014-01-01

    In order to be up–to–date and give visitors a memorable and unique experience, museums are including usage of digital technologies in their exhibitions. Even though museums in Serbia are very important part of tourism offer, they still have traditional settings that are poorly interpreted. The majority of them have a scientific and historical review which is unattractive for various target groups of visitors and for museums it’s important to continually try out new ways in interpretation of t...

  12. A New Exhibition in Microcosm

    CERN Document Server

    2000-01-01

    Sebastien Pelletier explains states of matter to an enthusiastic group of youngsters during the opening of a new exhibition in Microcosm last week. The Fun with Physics workshop will be offered to all 13-14 year olds in school groups visiting CERN this year. The new Microcosm contents have been developed in collaboration with the local teaching community, and cover particles and the forces that act between them.

  13. Lymphocyte trafficking and HIV infection of human lymphoid tissue in a rotating wall vessel bioreactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Margolis, L. B.; Fitzgerald, W.; Glushakova, S.; Hatfill, S.; Amichay, N.; Baibakov, B.; Zimmerberg, J.

    1997-01-01

    The pathogenesis of HIV infection involves a complex interplay between both the infected and noninfected cells of human lymphoid tissue, the release of free viral particles, the de novo infection of cells, and the recirculatory trafficking of peripheral blood lymphocytes. To develop an in vitro model for studying these various aspects of HIV pathogenesis we have utilized blocks of surgically excised human tonsils and a rotating wall vessel (RWV) cell culture system. Here we show that (1) fragments of the surgically excised human lymphoid tissue remain viable and retain their gross cytoarchitecture for at least 3 weeks when cultured in the RWV system; (2) such lymphoid tissue gradually shows a loss of both T and B cells to the surrounding growth medium; however, this cellular migration is reversible as demonstrated by repopulation of the tissue by labeled cells from the growth medium; (3) this cellular migration may be partially or completely inhibited by embedding the blocks of lymphoid tissue in either a collagen or agarose gel matrix; these embedded tissue blocks retain most of the basic elements of a normal lymphoid cytoarchitecture; and (4) both embedded and nonembedded RWV-cultured blocks of human lymphoid tissue are capable of productive infection by HIV-1 of at least three various strains of different tropism and phenotype, as shown by an increase in both p24 antigen levels and free virus in the culture medium, and by the demonstration of HIV-1 RNA-positive cells inside the tissue identified by in situ hybridization. It is therefore reasonable to suggest that gel-embedded and nonembedded blocks of human lymphoid tissue, cocultured with a suspension of tonsillar lymphocytes in an RWV culture system, constitute a useful model for simulating normal lymphocyte recirculatory traffic and provide a new tool for testing the various aspects of HIV pathogenesis.

  14. "Big Science" exhibition at Balexert

    CERN Multimedia

    2008-01-01

    CERN is going out to meet those members of the general public who were unable to attend the recent Open Day. The Laboratory will be taking its "Big Science" exhibition from the Globe of Science and Innovation to the Balexert shopping centre from 19 to 31 May 2008. The exhibition, which shows the LHC and its experiments through the eyes of a photographer, features around thirty spectacular photographs measuring 4.5 metres high and 2.5 metres wide. Welcomed and guided around the exhibition by CERN volunteers, shoppers at Balexert will also have the opportunity to discover LHC components on display and watch films. "Fun with Physics" workshops will be held at certain times of the day. Main hall of the Balexert shopping centre, ground floor, from 9.00 a.m. to 7.00 p.m. Monday to Friday and from 10 a.m. to 6 p.m. on the two Saturdays. Call for volunteers All members of the CERN personnel are invited to enrol as volunteers to help welcom...

  15. Mobile Technologies in Museum Exhibitions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Medić

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available In order to be up–to–date and give visitors a memorable and unique experience, museums are including usage of digital technologies in their exhibitions. Even though museums in Serbia are very important part of tourism offer, they still have traditional settings that are poorly interpreted. The majority of them have a scientific and historical review which is unattractive for various target groups of visitors and for museums it’s important to continually try out new ways in interpretation of their settings. Because technology continues to rapidly change the way we communicate, cultural institutions should adapt to new ways of communication with their visitors. This paper examines mobile technologies that can be used in museums to give visitors a different experience and transfer the knowledge innovatively. In that way it will be presented the modern concept of presentation of museum exhibitions, focusing on usage of mobile devices through mobile applications and QR codes. The paper provides the broad understanding of usage mobile technologies in museum exhibitions with its advantages and limitations. The research results can help the museums management to improve interpretation and communication with visitors and enrich the visitor experience.

  16. Factors associated with collagen deposition in lymphoid tissue in long-term treated HIV-infected patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diaz, Alba; Alós, Llúcia; León, Agathe; Mozos, Anna; Caballero, Miguel; Martinez, Antonio; Plana, Montserrat; Gallart, Teresa; Gil, Cristina; Leal, Manuel; Gatell, Jose M; García, Felipe

    2010-08-24

    The factors associated with fibrosis in lymphoid tissue in long-term treated HIV-infected patients and their correlation with immune reconstitution were assessed. Tonsillar biopsies were performed in seven antiretroviral-naive patients and 29 successfully treated patients (median time on treatment, 61 months). Twenty patients received protease inhibitors-sparing regimens and nine protease inhibitor-containing regimens. Five tonsillar resections of HIV-negative individuals were used as controls. Lymphoid tissue architecture, collagen deposition (fibrosis) and the mean interfollicular CD4(+) cell count per mum were assessed. Naive and long-term treated HIV-infected patients had a higher proportion of fibrosis than did HIV-uninfected persons (P lymphoid tissue (P = 0.03) and smaller increase in peripheral CD4(+) T cells (r = -0.40, P = 0.05). The factors independently associated with fibrosis in lymphoid tissue were age (P lymphoid tissue viral load when compared with patients with undetectable lymphoid tissue viral load (median 5 vs. 12%, respectively, P = 0.017) and patients receiving a protease inhibitor-sparing vs. a protease inhibitor-containing regimen (median 8 vs. 2.5%, respectively, P = 0.04). Fibrosis in lymphoid tissue was associated with a poor reconstitution of CD4(+) T cells and long-term antiretroviral therapy did not reverse this abnormality. HIV infection, older age, a detectable level of lymphoid tissue viral load in treated patients and protease inhibitor-sparing regimens seem to favour fibrosis in lymphoid tissue.

  17. Tissue-specific Differences in Immune Cell Subsets Located in the Naso-oropharyngeal-associated Lymphoid Tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bankvall, M; Jontell, M; Wold, A; Östman, S

    2018-01-01

    Defining the immune cells within the naso-oropharyngeal-associated lymphoid tissues would promote the development of efficient orally and nasally delivered immunotherapies. The aim was to compare murine antigen-presenting cells (APCs) and T cell subsets in the nose-associated lymphoid tissues (NALT), cervical lymph nodes (CLN), mesenteric lymph nodes (MLN) and peripheral lymph nodes (PLN) using flow cytometry and in vitro proliferation assays. Overall, the NALT contained a higher proportion of APCs and a lower proportion of T cells compared to the CLN, MLN and PLN. The APCs of the NALT more often belonged to the CD11c + CD11b + and the CD11c neg CD11b + subsets as compared to the other sites. Both of these APC populations showed little sign of activation, that is low expression of the markers CD40, CD86 and IAd. Instead, the APCs of the NALT more often co-expressed CX3CR1 and CD206, markers associated with a tolerogenic function. No increase in the proportion of regulatory T cells was observed in the NALT. Instead, the T cells frequently exhibited a memory/effector phenotype, expressing the homing markers α4β7, CCR4 and CCR9, but rarely the naïve phenotype cell surface marker CD45RB. In contrast, the T cells at the other sites were mostly of the naïve phenotype. In addition, cells from the NALT did not proliferate upon in vitro stimulation with Con A, whereas the cells from the other sites did. Taken together, these results suggest that the NALT is primarily an effector site rather than one for activation and differentiation, despite it being regarded as a site of induction. © 2017 The Foundation for the Scandinavian Journal of Immunology.

  18. Co-localization of lymphoid aggregates and lymphatic networks in nose- (NALT) and lacrimal duct-associated lymphoid tissue (LDALT) of mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lohrberg, Melanie; Pabst, Reinhard; Wilting, Jörg

    2018-01-25

    The lymphatic vascular pattern in the head of mice has rarely been studied, due to problems of sectioning and immunostaining of complex bony structures. Therefore, the association of head lymphoid tissues with the lymphatics has remained unknown although the mouse is the most often used species in immunology. Here, we studied the association of nasal and nasolacrimal duct lymphatics with lymphoid aggregates in 14-day-old and 2-month-old mice. We performed paraffin sectioning of whole, decalcified heads, and immunostaining with the lymphatic endothelial cell-specific antibodies Lyve-1 and Podoplanin. Most parts of the nasal mucous membrane do not contain any lymphatics. Only the region of the inferior turbinates contains lymphatic networks, which are connected to those of the palatine. Nose-associated lymphoid tissue (NALT) is restricted to the basal parts of the nose, which contain lymphatics. NALT is continued occipitally and can be found at both sides along the sphenoidal sinus, again in close association with lymphatic networks. Nasal lymphatics are connected to those of the ocular region via a lymphatic network along the nasolacrimal duct (NLD). By this means, lacrimal duct-associated lymphoid tissue (LDALT) has a dense supply with lymphatics. NALT and LDALT play a key role in the immune system of the mouse head, where they function as primary recognition sites for antigens. Using the dense lymphatic networks along the NLD described in this study, these antigens reach lymphatics near the palatine and are further drained to lymph nodes of the head and neck region. NALT and LDALT develop in immediate vicinity of lymphatic vessels. Therefore, we suggest a causative connection of lymphatic vessels and the development of lymphoid tissues.

  19. Gastric mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphomas and Helicobacter pylori infection: A Colombian perspective

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sally Yepes; Maria Mercedes Torres; Carlos Saavedra; Rafael Andrade

    2012-01-01

    AIM:To assess the significance of chromosome translocation t(11;18)(q21;q21),B-cell lymphoma 10 (BCL-10)protein and Helicobacter pylori (H.pylori) infection in gastric mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) lymphoma in Colombia.METHODS:Fifty cases of gastric MALT lymphoma and their respective post-treatment follow-up biopsies were examined to assess the presence of the translocation t(11;18)(q21;q21) as identified by fluorescence in situ hybridization; to detect protein expression patterns of BCL10 using immunohistochemistry; and for evaluation of tumor histology to determine the correlation of these factors and resistance to H.pylori eradication.RESULTS:Infection with H.pylori was confirmed in all cases of gastric MALT lymphoma in association with chronic gastritis.Bacterial eradication led to tumor regression in 66% of cases.The translocation t(11;18)(q21;q21) was not present in any of these cases,nor was there evidence of tumor transformation to diffuse large B-cell lymphoma.Thirty-four percent of the patients showed resistance to tumor regression,and within this group,7 cases,representing 14% of all those analyzed,were considered to be t(11;18)(q21;q21)-positive gastric MALT lymphomas.Protein expression of BCL10 in the nucleus was associated with the presence of translocation and treatment resistance.Cases that were considered unresponsive to therapy were histologically characterized by the presence of homogeneous tumor cells and a lack of plasmacytic differentiation.Responder cases exhibited higher cellular heterogeneity and a greater frequency of plasma cells.CONCLUSION:Both t(11;18)(q21;q21)-positive MALT lymphoma cases and those with nuclear BCL10 expression are considered resistant to H,pylori eradication.It is suggested that chronic antigenic stimulation is not a dominant event in resistant cases.

  20. Hypercytotoxicity and rapid loss of NKp44+ innate lymphoid cells during acute SIV infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haiying Li

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available HIV/SIV infections break down the integrity of the gastrointestinal mucosa and lead to chronic immune activation and associated disease progression. Innate lymphoid cells (ILCs, distinguishable by high expression of NKp44 and RORγt, play key roles in mucosal defense and homeostasis, but are depleted from gastrointestinal (GI tract large bowel during chronic SIV infection. However, less is known about the kinetics of ILC loss, or if it occurs systemically. In acute SIV infection, we found a massive, up to 8-fold, loss of NKp44+ILCs in all mucosae as early as day 6 post-infection, which was sustained through chronic disease. Interestingly, no loss of ILCs was observed in mucosa-draining lymph nodes. In contrast, classical NK cells were not depleted either from gut or draining lymph nodes. Both ILCs and NK cells exhibited significantly increased levels of apoptosis as measured by increased Annexin-V expression, but while classical NK cells also showed increased proliferation, ILCs did not. Interestingly, ILCs, which are normally noncytolytic, dramatically upregulated cytotoxic functions in acute and chronic infection and acquired a polyfunctional phenotype secreting IFN-γ, MIP1-β, and TNF-α, but decreased production of the prototypical cytokine, IL-17. Classical NK cells had less dramatic functional change, but upregulated perforin expression and increased cytotoxic potential. Finally, we show that numerical and functional loss of ILCs was due to increased apoptosis and ROR γt suppression induced by inflammatory cytokines in the gut milieu. Herein we demonstrate the first evidence for acute, systemic, and permanent loss of mucosal ILCs during SIV infection associated with reduction of IL-17. The massive reduction of ILCs involves apoptosis without compensatory de novo development/proliferation, but the full mechanism of depletion and the impact of functional change so early in infection remain unclear.

  1. Strain-specific helper T cell profile in the gut-associated lymphoid tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanisavljević, Suzana; Đedović, Neda; Vujičić, Milica; Saksida, Tamara; Jevtić, Bojan; Milovanović, Boško; Momčilović, Miljana; Miljković, Đorđe; Stojanović, Ivana

    2017-10-01

    C57BL/6, BALB/c and NOD mice are among the most frequently used strains in autoimmunity research. NOD mice spontaneously develop type 1 diabetes (T1D) and they are prone to induction of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE). Both diseases can be routinely induced in C57BL/6 mice, but not in BALB/c mice. Also, C57BL/6 mice are generally considered T helper (Th)1-biased and BALB/c Th2-biased mice. Having in mind increasingly appreciated role of gut associated lymphoid tissue (GALT) cells in autoimmunity, especially in relation to gut Th17 and regulatory T (Treg) cells, our aim was to determine if there are differences in proportion of CD4 + T cell populations in mesenteric lymph nodes and Peyer's patches of these mouse strains. Lower proportion of Treg was observed in NOD PP, Th2 cells dominated in BALB/c mice in mesenteric lymph nodes (MLN) and Peyer's patches (PP), while Th1 cells prevailed in C57BL/6 MLN. Intradermal immunization of mice with complete Freund's adjuvant resulted in significant difference in Th cell distribution in GALT of NOD mice. Differences were less pronounced in C57BL/6 mice, while GALT of BALB/c mice was almost unresponsive to the immunization. The observed strain- and tissue-dependent changes in Treg proportion after the immunization was probably a consequence of different CCR2 or CCR6-related migration patterns and/or in situ Treg proliferation. In conclusion, NOD, a highly autoimmunity-prone mouse strain, exhibits more profound GALT-related immune response upon immunization compared to the strains that are less prone to autoimmunity. Copyright © 2017 European Federation of Immunological Societies. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Group 1 innate lymphoid cells in Toxoplasma gondii infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunay, I R; Diefenbach, A

    2018-02-01

    Innate lymphoid cells (ILCs) are a group of lymphocytes that carry out important functions in immunity to infections and in organ homeostasis at epithelial barrier surfaces. ILCs are innate immune cells that provide an early source of cytokines to initiate immune responses against pathogens. Cytotoxic ILCs (i.e. conventional (c)NK cells) and several subsets of helper-like ILCs are the major branches of the ILC family. Conventional NK cells and group 1 ILCs share several characteristics such as surface receptors and the ability to produce IFN-γ upon activation, but they differ in their developmental paths and in their dependence on specific transcription factors. Infection of mice with the intracellular parasite Toxoplasma gondii is followed by a strong Th1-mediated immune response. Previous studies indicate that NK1.1 + cells contribute to the production of IFN-γ and TNF and cytotoxicity during acute T. gondii infection. Upon oral infection, the parasite infects intestinal enterocytes, and within the lamina propria, innate immune responses lead to initial parasite control although the infection disseminates widely and persists long-term in immune privileged sites despite adaptive immunity. Upon parasite entry into the small intestine, during the acute stage, ILC1 produce high levels of IFN-γ and TNF protecting barrier surfaces, thus essentially contributing to early parasite control. We will discuss here the role of innate lymphocytes during T. gondii infection in the context of the only recently appreciated diversity of ILC subsets. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Scrapie-specific pathology of sheep lymphoid tissues.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gillian McGovern

    Full Text Available Transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSEs or prion diseases often result in accumulation of disease-associated PrP (PrP(d in the lymphoreticular system (LRS, specifically in association with follicular dendritic cells (FDCs and tingible body macrophages (TBMs of secondary follicles. We studied the effects of sheep scrapie on lymphoid tissue in tonsils and lymph nodes by light and electron microscopy. FDCs of sheep were grouped according to morphology as immature, mature or regressing. Scrapie was associated with FDC dendrite hypertrophy and electron dense deposit or vesicles. PrP(d was located using immunogold labelling at the plasmalemma of FDC dendrites and, infrequently, mature B cells. Abnormal electron dense deposits surrounding FDC dendrites were identified as immunoglobulins suggesting that excess immune complexes are retained and are indicative of an FDC dysfunction. Within scrapie-affected lymph nodes, macrophages outside the follicle and a proportion of germinal centre TBMs accumulated PrP(d within endosomes and lysosomes. In addition, TBMs showed PrP(d in association with the cell membrane, non-coated pits and vesicles, and also with discrete, large and random endoplasmic reticulum networks, which co-localised with ubiquitin. These observations suggest that PrP(d is internalised via the caveolin-mediated pathway, and causes an abnormal disease-related alteration in endoplasmic reticulum structure. In contrast to current dogma, this study shows that sheep scrapie is associated with cytopathology of germinal centres, which we attribute to abnormal antigen complex trapping by FDCs and abnormal endocytic events in TBMs. The nature of the sub-cellular changes in FDCs and TBMs differs from those of scrapie infected neurones and glial cells suggesting that different PrP(d/cell membrane interactions occur in different cell types.

  4. Contemporary Developments in Cinema Exhibition

    OpenAIRE

    Hanson, Stuart

    2014-01-01

    he work offered for this PhD by Published Works charts the history of cinema exhibition in Britain from the late 1950s to the present. At the start of this period, cinemagoing as a form of public entertainment entered a long period of decline that was only arrested with the development and growth of multiplex cinemas in the 1980s and 1990s. Despite these changes, the feature film itself remained a culturally and commercially valuable artefact, though increasingly this meant the Hollywood fil...

  5. Photodynamic therapy of early stage oral cavity and oropharynx neoplasms: an outcome analysis of 170 patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Karakullukcu, Baris; van Oudenaarde, Kim; Copper, Marcel P.; Klop, W. M. C.; van Veen, Robert; Wildeman, Maarten; Bing Tan, I.

    2011-01-01

    The indications of photodynamic therapy (PDT) of oral cavity and oropharynx neoplasms are not well defined. The main reason is that the success rates are not well established. The current paper analyzes our institutional experience of early stage oral cavity and oropharynx neoplasms (Tis-T2) to

  6. Helicobacter pylori-related chronic gastritis as a risk factor for colonic neoplasms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inoue, Izumi; Kato, Jun; Tamai, Hideyuki; Iguchi, Mikitaka; Maekita, Takao; Yoshimura, Noriko; Ichinose, Masao

    2014-02-14

    To summarize the current views and insights on associations between Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori)-related chronic gastritis and colorectal neoplasm, we reviewed recent studies to clarify whether H. pylori infection/H. pylori-related chronic gastritis is associated with an elevated risk of colorectal neoplasm. Recent studies based on large databases with careful control for confounding variables have clearly demonstrated an increased risk of colorectal neoplasm associated with H. pylori infection. The correlation between H. pylori-related chronic atrophic gastritis (CAG) and colorectal neoplasm has only been examined in a limited number of studies. A recent large study using a national histopathological database, and our study based on the stage of H. pylori-related chronic gastritis as determined by serum levels of H. pylori antibody titer and pepsinogen, indicated that H. pylori-related CAG confers an increased risk of colorectal neoplasm, and more extensive atrophic gastritis will probably be associated with even higher risk of neoplasm. In addition, our study suggested that the activity of H. pylori-related chronic gastritis is correlated with colorectal neoplasm risk. H. pylori-related chronic gastritis could be involved in an increased risk of colorectal neoplasm that appears to be enhanced by the progression of gastric atrophy and the presence of active inflammation.

  7. Plasma Cell Neoplasms (Including Multiple Myeloma) Treatment (PDQ®)—Patient Version

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plasma cell neoplasms occur when abnormal plasma cells or myeloma cells form tumors in the bones or soft tissues of the body. Multiple myeloma, plasmacytoma, lymphoplasmacytic lymphoma, and monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance (MGUS) are different types of plasma cell neoplasms. Find out about risk factors, symptoms, diagnostic tests, prognosis, and treatment for these diseases.

  8. Interferon-alpha in the treatment of Philadelphia-negative chronic myeloproliferative neoplasms. Status and perspectives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hasselbalch, Hans Carl; Larsen, Thomas Stauffer; Riley, Caroline Hasselbalch

    2011-01-01

    The Philadelphia-negative chronic myeloproliferative neoplasms encompass essential thrombocythemia (ET), polycythemia vera (PV) and primary myelofibrosis (PMF). A major break-through in the understanding of the pathogenesis of these neoplasms occurred in 2005 by the discovery of the JAK2 V617F...

  9. Progressive alterations in multipotent hematopoietic progenitors underlie lymphoid cell loss in aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Kira; Borikar, Sneha; Bell, Rebecca; Kuffler, Lauren; Philip, Vivek; Trowbridge, Jennifer J

    2016-10-17

    Declining immune function with age is associated with reduced lymphoid output of hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs). Currently, there is poor understanding of changes with age in the heterogeneous multipotent progenitor (MPP) cell compartment, which is long lived and responsible for dynamically regulating output of mature hematopoietic cells. In this study, we observe an early and progressive loss of lymphoid-primed MPP cells (LMPP/MPP4) with aging, concomitant with expansion of HSCs. Transcriptome and in vitro functional analyses at the single-cell level reveal a concurrent increase in cycling of aging LMPP/MPP4 with loss of lymphoid priming and differentiation potential. Impaired lymphoid differentiation potential of aged LMPP/MPP4 is not rescued by transplantation into a young bone marrow microenvironment, demonstrating cell-autonomous changes in the MPP compartment with aging. These results pinpoint an age and cellular compartment to focus further interrogation of the drivers of lymphoid cell loss with aging. © 2016 Young et al.

  10. Group 3 innate lymphoid cells (ILC3s): Origin, differentiation, and plasticity in humans and mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montaldo, Elisa; Juelke, Kerstin; Romagnani, Chiara

    2015-08-01

    Since their discovery, innate lymphoid cells (ILCs) have been the subject of intense research. As their name implies, ILCs are innate cells of lymphoid origin, and can be grouped into subsets based on their cytotoxic activity, cytokine profile, and the transcriptional requirements during ILC differentiation. The main ILC groups are "killer" ILCs, comprising NK cells, and "helper-like" ILCs (including ILC1s, ILC2s, and ILC3s). This review examines the origin, differentiation stages, and plasticity of murine and human ILC3s. ILC3s express the retinoic acid receptor (RAR) related orphan receptor RORγt and the signature cytokines IL-22 and IL-17. Fetal ILC3s or lymphoid tissue inducer cells are required for lymphoid organogenesis, while postnatally developing ILC3s are important for the generation of intestinal cryptopatches and isolated lymphoid follicles as well as for the defence against pathogens and epithelial homeostasis. Here, we discuss the transcription factors and exogenous signals (including cytokines, nutrients and cell-to-cell interaction) that drive ILC3 lineage commitment and acquisition of their distinctive effector program. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  11. Homeostatic migration and distribution of innate immune cells in primary and secondary lymphoid organs with ageing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikolich-Žugich, J; Davies, J S

    2017-03-01

    Ageing of the innate and adaptive immune system, collectively termed immune senescence, is a complex process. One method to understand the components of ageing involves dissociating the effects of ageing on the cells of the immune system, on the microenvironment in lymphoid organs and tissues where immune cells reside and on the circulating factors that interact with both immune cells and their microenvironment. Heterochronic parabiosis, a surgical union of two organisms of disparate ages, is ideal for this type of study, as it has the power to dissociate the age of the cell and the age of the microenvironment into which the cell resides or is migrating. So far, however, it has been used sparingly to study immune ageing. Here we review the limited literature on homeostatic innate immune cell trafficking in ageing in the absence of chronic inflammation. We also review our own recent data on trafficking of innate immune subsets between primary and secondary lymphoid organs in heterochronic parabiosis. We found no systemic bias in retention or acceptance of neutrophils, macrophages, dendritic cells or natural killer cells with ageing in primary and secondary lymphoid organs. We conclude that these four innate immune cell types migrate to and populate lymphoid organs (peripheral lymph nodes, spleen and bone marrow), regardless of their own age and of the age of lymphoid organs. © 2017 British Society for Immunology.

  12. Nasal associated lymphoid tissue of the Syrian golden hamster expresses high levels of PrPC.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melissa D Clouse

    Full Text Available The key event in the pathogenesis of the transmissible spongiform encephalopathies is a template-dependent misfolding event where an infectious isoform of the prion protein (PrPSc comes into contact with native prion protein (PrPC and changes its conformation to PrPSc. In many extraneurally inoculated models of prion disease this PrPC misfolding event occurs in lymphoid tissues prior to neuroinvasion. The primary objective of this study was to compare levels of total PrPC in hamster lymphoid tissues involved in the early pathogenesis of prion disease. Lymphoid tissues were collected from golden Syrian hamsters and Western blot analysis was performed to quantify PrPC levels. PrPC immunohistochemistry (IHC of paraffin embedded tissue sections was performed to identify PrPC distribution in tissues of the lymphoreticular system. Nasal associated lymphoid tissue contained the highest amount of total PrPC followed by Peyer's patches, mesenteric and submandibular lymph nodes, and spleen. The relative levels of PrPC expression in IHC processed tissue correlated strongly with the Western blot data, with high levels of PrPC corresponding with a higher percentage of PrPC positive B cell follicles. High levels of PrPC in lymphoid tissues closely associated with the nasal cavity could contribute to the relative increased efficiency of the nasal route of entry of prions, compared to other routes of infection.

  13. The enigma of the lower gut-associated lymphoid tissue (GALT).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler, John E; Sinkora, Marek

    2013-08-01

    Artiodactyls possess GALT that appears in fetal life and is located at the extreme end of the ileum. These IPP contain mostly B cells and involute early in postnatal life. Rabbits have a similarly located lymphoid organ, called the sacculus rotundus. Studies in sheep and rabbits have led to the concept that the lower hindgut GALT represents primary lymphoid tissue for B cells and is necessary for normal B cell development, analogous to the bursa of Fabricius. This review traces the history of the observations and theories that have led to the existing concept concerning the role of lower GALT. We then review recent data from piglets with resected IPP that challenges the concept that the IPP is primary B cell lymphoid tissue and that artiodactyls and rabbits are members of the GALT group in the same context as gallinaceous birds. Eliminating the IPP as the primary lymphoid tissue for B cells leads to the hypothesis that the IPP acts as first-responder mucosal lymphoid tissue.

  14. Nasal associated lymphoid tissue of the Syrian golden hamster expresses high levels of PrPC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clouse, Melissa D; Shikiya, Ronald A; Bartz, Jason C; Kincaid, Anthony E

    2015-01-01

    The key event in the pathogenesis of the transmissible spongiform encephalopathies is a template-dependent misfolding event where an infectious isoform of the prion protein (PrPSc) comes into contact with native prion protein (PrPC) and changes its conformation to PrPSc. In many extraneurally inoculated models of prion disease this PrPC misfolding event occurs in lymphoid tissues prior to neuroinvasion. The primary objective of this study was to compare levels of total PrPC in hamster lymphoid tissues involved in the early pathogenesis of prion disease. Lymphoid tissues were collected from golden Syrian hamsters and Western blot analysis was performed to quantify PrPC levels. PrPC immunohistochemistry (IHC) of paraffin embedded tissue sections was performed to identify PrPC distribution in tissues of the lymphoreticular system. Nasal associated lymphoid tissue contained the highest amount of total PrPC followed by Peyer's patches, mesenteric and submandibular lymph nodes, and spleen. The relative levels of PrPC expression in IHC processed tissue correlated strongly with the Western blot data, with high levels of PrPC corresponding with a higher percentage of PrPC positive B cell follicles. High levels of PrPC in lymphoid tissues closely associated with the nasal cavity could contribute to the relative increased efficiency of the nasal route of entry of prions, compared to other routes of infection.

  15. The Conjunctiva-Associated Lymphoid Tissue in Chronic Ocular Surface Diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mastropasqua, Rodolfo; Agnifili, Luca; Fasanella, Vincenzo; Nubile, Mario; Gnama, Agbeanda A; Falconio, Gennaro; Perri, Paolo; Di Staso, Silvio; Mariotti, Cesare

    2017-08-01

    Ocular surface diseases (OSDs) represent a widely investigated field of research given their growing incidence and the negative impact on quality of life. During OSDs, cytokines generated by damaged epithelia trigger and deregulate the lymphoid cells composing the eye-associated lymphoid tissues, inducing an immune-mediated chronic inflammation that amplifies and propagates the disease during time. The conjunctiva-associated lymphoid tissue (CALT), given its particular position that permits immune cells covering the cornea, might play a crucial role in the development of OSDs. Despite the recognized inflammatory role of mucosa-associated lymphoid tissues in other stations taking contact with the external environment (gut or bronchus), CALT did not gain the deserved consideration. In the last years, the diffusion of the in vivo confocal microscopy (IVCM) stimulated the interest to CALT, especially in dry eye, ocular allergy, and glaucoma. Though the initial stimuli were different, IVCM documented similar changes, represented by increased lymphoid cells within the diffuse layer, follicles and interfollicular spaces. These findings, which need to be validated by immunohistology, support the CALT stimulation during OSDs. However, while an involvement of the CALT in OSDs is hypothesizable, the exact role of this structure in their pathogenesis remains unclear and warrants further investigations.

  16. Targeting angiogenesis-dependent calcified neoplasms using combined polymer therapeutics.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ehud Segal

    Full Text Available There is an immense clinical need for novel therapeutics for the treatment of angiogenesis-dependent calcified neoplasms such as osteosarcomas and bone metastases. We developed a new therapeutic strategy to target bone metastases and calcified neoplasms using combined polymer-bound angiogenesis inhibitors. Using an advanced "living polymerization" technique, the reversible addition-fragmentation chain transfer (RAFT, we conjugated the aminobisphosphonate alendronate (ALN, and the potent anti-angiogenic agent TNP-470 with N-(2-hydroxypropylmethacrylamide (HPMA copolymer through a Glycine-Glycine-Proline-Norleucine linker, cleaved by cathepsin K, a cysteine protease overexpressed at resorption sites in bone tissues. In this approach, dual targeting is achieved. Passive accumulation is possible due to the increase in molecular weight following polymer conjugation of the drugs, thus extravasating from the tumor leaky vessels and not from normal healthy vessels. Active targeting to the calcified tissues is achieved by ALN's affinity to bone mineral.The anti-angiogenic and antitumor potency of HPMA copolymer-ALN-TNP-470 conjugate was evaluated both in vitro and in vivo. We show that free and conjugated ALN-TNP-470 have synergistic anti-angiogenic and antitumor activity by inhibiting proliferation, migration and capillary-like tube formation of endothelial and human osteosarcoma cells in vitro. Evaluation of anti-angiogenic, antitumor activity and body distribution of HPMA copolymer-ALN-TNP-470 conjugate was performed on severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID male mice inoculated with mCherry-labeled MG-63-Ras human osteosarcoma and by modified Miles permeability assay. Our targeted bi-specific conjugate reduced VEGF-induced vascular hyperpermeability by 92% and remarkably inhibited osteosarcoma growth in mice by 96%.This is the first report to describe a new concept of a narrowly-dispersed combined polymer therapeutic designed to target both tumor and

  17. Collaborative virtual environments art exhibition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolinsky, Margaret; Anstey, Josephine; Pape, Dave E.; Aguilera, Julieta C.; Kostis, Helen-Nicole; Tsoupikova, Daria

    2005-03-01

    This panel presentation will exhibit artwork developed in CAVEs and discuss how art methodologies enhance the science of VR through collaboration, interaction and aesthetics. Artists and scientists work alongside one another to expand scientific research and artistic expression and are motivated by exhibiting collaborative virtual environments. Looking towards the arts, such as painting and sculpture, computer graphics captures a visual tradition. Virtual reality expands this tradition to not only what we face, but to what surrounds us and even what responds to our body and its gestures. Art making that once was isolated to the static frame and an optimal point of view is now out and about, in fully immersive mode within CAVEs. Art knowledge is a guide to how the aesthetics of 2D and 3D worlds affect, transform, and influence the social, intellectual and physical condition of the human body through attention to psychology, spiritual thinking, education, and cognition. The psychological interacts with the physical in the virtual in such a way that each facilitates, enhances and extends the other, culminating in a "go together" world. Attention to sharing art experience across high-speed networks introduces a dimension of liveliness and aliveness when we "become virtual" in real time with others.

  18. Human T-cell leukemia virus types I and II exhibit different DNase I protection patterns

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Altman, R.; Harrich, D.; Garcia, J.A.; Gaynor, R.B.

    1988-01-01

    Human T-cell leukemia virus types I (HTLV-I) and II (HTLV-II) are human retroviruses which normally infect T-lymphoid cells. HTLV-I infection is associated with adult T-cell leukemia-lymphoma, and HTLV-II is associated with an indolent form of hairy-cell leukemia. To identify potential transcriptional regulatory elements of these two related human retroviruses, the authors performed DNase I footprinting of both the HTLV-I and HTLV-II long terminal repeats (LTRs) by using extracts prepared from uninfected T cells, HTLV-I and HTLV-II transformed T cells, and HeLa cells. Five regions of the HTLV-I LTR and three regions of the HTLV-II LTR showed protection by DNase I footprinting. All three of the 21-base-pair repeats previously shown to be important in HTLV transcriptional regulation were protected in the HTLV-I LTR, whereas only one of these repeats was protected in the HTLV-II LTR. Several regions exhibited altered protection in extracts prepared from lymphoid cells as compared with HeLa cells, but there were minimal differences in the protection patterns between HTLV-infected and uninfected lymphoid extracts. A number of HTLV-I and HTLV-II LTR fragments which contained regions showing protection in DNase I footprinting were able to function as inducible enhancer elements in transient CAT gene expression assays in the presence of the HTLV-II tat protein. The alterations in the pattern of the cellular proteins which bind to the HTLV-I and HTLV-II LTRs may in part be responsible for differences in the transcriptional regulation of these two related viruses

  19. CT differentiation of mucin-producing cystic neoplasms of the liver from solitary bile duct cysts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyoung Jung; Yu, Eun Sil; Byun, Jae Ho; Hong, Seung-Mo; Kim, Kyoung Won; Lee, Jong Seok; Kim, So Yeon

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify the CT features required for differentiating mucin-producing cystic neoplasms of the liver (mucinous cystic neoplasms and cyst-forming intraductal papillary neoplasms of the bile duct) from solitary bile duct cysts. CT images of pathologically confirmed mucinous cystic neoplasms (n = 15), cyst-forming intraductal papillary neoplasms of the bile duct (n = 16), and solitary bile duct cysts (n = 31) were reviewed. Analysis of the CT findings included shape, presence of septa, location of septa (peripheral vs central), thickness of septa (thin vs thick), mosaic pattern, mural nodules, intracystic debris, calcification, upstream bile duct dilatation, downstream bile duct dilatation, and communication between a cystic lesion and the bile duct. The maximum size of a cystic lesion and the maximum size of the largest mural nodule were measured. The presence of septa, central septa, mural nodules, upstream bile duct dilatation, and downstream bile duct dilatation were found to be significant CT findings for differentiating mucinous cystic neoplasms and cyst-forming intraductal papillary neoplasms of the bile duct from solitary bile duct cysts (p bile duct were 87% (27 of 31) and 87% (27 of 31), respectively. When two of these five criteria were used in combination, the sensitivity and specificity for diagnosing mucinous cystic neoplasms and cyst-forming intraductal papillary neoplasms of the bile duct were 87% (27 of 31) and 87% (27 of 31), respectively [corrected]. With the use of specific CT criteria, mucin-producing cystic neoplasms of the liver can be differentiated from solitary bile duct cysts with a high degree of accuracy.

  20. Clinical Significance of Colonoscopy in Patients with Upper Gastrointestinal Polyps and Neoplasms: A Meta-Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Zhen-Jie; Lin, Yuan; Xiao, Jun; Wu, Liu-Cheng; Liu, Jun-Gang

    2014-01-01

    Background Some authors have studied the relationship between the presence of polyps, adenomas and cancers of upper gastrointestinal tract (stomach and duodenum) and risk of colorectal polyps and neoplasms; however, the results are controversial, which may be due to study sample size, populations, design, clinical features, and so on. No meta-analysis, which can be generalized to a larger population and could provide a quantitative pooled risk estimate of the relationship, of this issue existed so far. Methods We performed a meta-analysis to evaluate risk of colorectal polyps or neoplasms in patients with polyps, adenomas or cancers in upper gastrointestinal tract comparing with controls. A search was conducted through PubMed, EMBASE, reference lists of potentially relevant papers, and practice guidelines up to 27 November 2013 without languages restriction. Odd ratios (ORs) were pooled using random-effects models. Results The search yielded 3 prospective and 21 retrospective case-control studies (n = 37152 participants). The principal findings included: (1) OR for colorectal polyps was 1.15 (95% CI, 1.04–1.26) in the gastric polyps group comparing with control groups; (2) Patients with gastric polyps and neoplasms have higher risk (OR, 1.31 [95% CI, 1.06–1.62], and 1.72 [95% CI, 1.42–2.09], respectively) of colorectal neoplasms comparing with their controls; and (3) Positive association was found between the presence of colorectal neoplasms and sporadic duodenal neoplasms (OR, 2.59; 95% CI, 1.64–4.11). Conclusions Findings from present meta-analysis of 24 case-control studies suggest that the prevalence of colorectal polyps was higher in patients with gastric polyps than in those without gastric polyps, and the risk of colorectal neoplasms increases significantly in patients with gastric polyps, neoplasms, and duodenal neoplasms. Therefore, screening colonoscopy should be considered for patients with upper gastrointestinal polyps and neoplasms. PMID

  1. Thyroid neoplasms after radiation therapy for adolescent acne vulgaris

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paloyan, E.; Lawrence, A.M.

    1978-01-01

    There is a potential hazard of thyroid cancer after exposure to external irradiation for the treatment of adolescent acne vulgaris. We noted a 60% incidence of thyroid carcinoma among 20 patients with such a history, who were operated on for thyroid nodules during a five-year period. Eighty-three percent of the patients with carcinoma had either a follicular or a mixed papillary-follicular carcinoma; 17% had a papillary carcinoma; 33% had regional node metastases; none had evidence of distant metastases. The interval between radiation exposure and thyroidectomy ranged from nine to 41 years. This association of thyroid neoplasms and a prior history of radiation for acne vulgaris may be coincidental and therefore remains to be proved by retrospective surveys of large numbers of treated patients with appropriate controls

  2. [Evidence on chronic myeloproliferative neoplasms from landmark clinical trials].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamaguchi, Hiroki

    2015-08-01

    Mutations in the JAK2 gene are thought to underlie the development of chronic myeloproliferative neoplasms (cMPN). Indeed, ≥95% of polycythemia vera patients, and half or more of essential thrombocythemia and primary myelofibrosis (PMF) patients, harbor the JAK2V617F mutation. Besides the JAK2V617F mutation, the JAK2 exon 12 deletion, the MPLW515L/K, and CALR mutation have been discovered and shown to be involved in the pathogenesis of these diseases. Based on these advancements in the study of cMPN, the JAK2 inhibitor was developed as a new therapy for PMF. Moreover, recent advancements in our ability to diagnose cMPN have paralleled the development of large clinical trials for patients with cMPN. This article provides explanatory information from these large clinical trials that is useful for the actual clinical practice of caring for patients with cMPN in Japan.

  3. Autopsy findings of malignant neoplasms treated with radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okazaki, Atsushi; Ito, Jun; Tatezawa, Takashi; Nishimura, Toshinobu; Niibe, Hideo.

    1984-01-01

    Autopsy findings in 26 cases of malignant neoplasms treated with radiation were analysed and following results were obtained. 1. Causes of death except for neoplastic extension were 58% (15/26) and infection was the single predominant cause of death (73% : 11/15) with 50% (4/8) in lung cancer. 2. Distant metastases were found in 73% (19/26). In 7 cases, no obvious metastasis was found before and after autopsy. On the other hand, the patients with metastases over 2 organs before autopsy revealed metastases in 82% (9/11) to the other organs at autopsy. 3. Radiation therapy was effective and the primary tumor disappeared completely in 71% (10/14) with curative irradiation. In metastatic lesions, tumor cells were almost disappeared with dosage over 40 Gy. (author)

  4. CT diagnosis of hyperdense intracranial neoplasms. Review of the literature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishikura, Reiichi; Ando, Kumiko; Tominaga, Satoru; Nakao, Norio; Ikeda, Jouta; Takemura, Yuriko; Morikawa, Tsutomu

    1999-01-01

    In contrast to typical astrocytic tumors that show hypodense areas on computed tomographic images, some intracranial tumors show hyperdense areas on CT images. The major reasons for hyperdensity on CT images are hypercellular lesions, intratumoral calcification, and intratumoral hemorrhage. Malignant lymphomas, germinomas, and medulloblastomas show homogenous hyperdensity on CT images because of their hypercellularity. Tumorous lesions such as subependymal giant cell astrocytomas, oligodendrogliomas, ependymomas, central neurocytomas, craniopharyngiomas, and meningiomas often present with hyperdense calcified lesions on CT images. Intratumoral hemorrhage also causes hyperdensity on CT images, and is often associated with metastatic brain tumors, glioblastomas, pituitary adenomas, and rarely with any of the other intracranial tumors. Although magnetic resonance imaging is now the major diagnostic tool for diseases of the central nervous system, the first imaging studies for patients with neurologic symptoms are still CT scans. Hyperdense areas on CT images are a clue to making an accurate diagnosis of intracranial neoplasms. (author)

  5. Uterine Rupture Due to Invasive Metastatic Gestational Trophoblastic Neoplasm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David I Bruner

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available While complete molar pregnancies are rare, they are wrought with a host of potential complications to include invasive gestational trophoblastic neoplasia. Persistent gestational trophoblastic disease following molar pregnancy is a potentially fatal complication that must be recognized early and treated aggressively for both immediate and long-term recovery. We present the case of a 21-year-old woman with abdominal pain and presyncope 1 month after a molar pregnancy with a subsequent uterine rupture due to invasive gestational trophoblastic neoplasm. We will discuss the complications of molar pregnancies including the risks and management of invasive, metastatic gestational trophoblastic neoplasia. [West J Emerg Med. 2013;14(5:444–447.

  6. THE THERAPEUTIC USE OF RADIOACTIVE GOLD SEEDS IN NEOPLASMS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lachance, Paul; Vallee, A. F.

    1963-06-15

    A method and the apparatus for the treatment of neoplasms with Au/sup 198/ seeds are described. The introducer or gun is loaded with a magazine or cartridge containing 15 radioactive gold grains and then irradiated. The grains are cylinders made of gold encased in Pt with measurements of: length, 2.1 mm; diameter, 0.4 mm; weight, 25 mgm; platinum casing, 0.2 mm. The seeds are ready for use 7 to 10 days after irradiation or when gamma activity is around 3 to 4.5 mC per seed. A permanent implant gives to the tumor an approximate dose of 6000- 7000 r in 4 to 5 days. The effectiveness and advantages of the method are also discussed. (P.C.H.)

  7. Multiple primary malignant neoplasms in breast cancer patients in Israel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schenker, J.G.; Levinsky, R.; Ohel, G.

    1984-01-01

    The data of an epidemiologic study of multiple primary malignant neoplasms in breast cancer patients in Israel are presented. During the 18-year period of the study 12,302 cases of breast carcinoma were diagnosed, and, of these, 984 patients (8%) had multiple primary malignant tumors. Forty-seven of these patients developed two multiple primary cancers. A significantly higher than expected incidence of second primary cancers occurred at the following five sites: the opposite breast, salivary glands, uterine corpus, ovary, and thyroid. Cancers of the stomach and gallbladder were fewer than expected. Treatment of the breast cancer by irradiation was associated with an increased risk of subsequent cancers of lung and hematopoietic system. The prognosis was mainly influenced by the site and malignancy of the second primary cancer. The incidence of multiple primary malignancies justifies a high level of alertness to this possibility in the follow-up of breast cancer patients

  8. Non-driver mutations in myeloproliferative neoplasm-associated myelofibrosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bing Li

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract We studied non-driver mutations in 62 subjects with myeloproliferative neoplasm (MPN-associated myelofibrosis upon diagnosis, including 45 subjects with primary myelofibrosis (PMF and 17 with post-polycythemia vera or post-essential thrombocythemia myelofibrosis (post-PV/ET MF. Fifty-eight subjects had ≥1 non-driver mutation upon diagnosis. Mutations in mRNA splicing genes, especially in U2AF1, were significantly more frequent in PMF than in post-PV/ET MF (33 vs. 6%; P = 0.015. There were also striking differences in clonal architecture. These data indicate different genomic spectrums between PMF and post-PV/ET MF.

  9. Localization of gonadotropin binding sites in human ovarian neoplasms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakano, R.; Kitayama, S.; Yamoto, M.; Shima, K.; Ooshima, A.

    1989-01-01

    The binding of human luteinizing hormone and human follicle-stimulating hormone to ovarian tumor biopsy specimens from 29 patients was analyzed. The binding sites for human luteinizing hormone were demonstrated in one tumor of epithelial origin (mucinous cystadenoma) and in one of sex cord-stromal origin (theca cell tumor). The binding sites for human follicle-stimulating hormone were found in three tumors of epithelial origin (serous cystadenoma and mucinous cystadenoma) and in two of sex cord-stromal origin (theca cell tumor and theca-granulosa cell tumor). The surface-binding autoradiographic study revealed that the binding sites for gonadotropins were localized in the stromal tissue. The results suggest that gonadotropic hormones may play a role in the growth and differentiation of a certain type of human ovarian neoplasms

  10. Expression of transforming growth factor alpha and epidermal growth factor receptor in rat lung neoplasms induced by plutonium-239

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stegelmeier, B.L.; Gillett, N.A.; Hahn, F.F.; Kelly, G.; Rebar, A.H.

    1994-01-01

    Ninety-two rat lung proliferative lesions and neoplasms induced by inhaled 239 PuO 2 were evaluated for aberrant expression of transforming growth factor alpha (TGF-α) and epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR). Expression of TGF-α protein, measured by immunohistochemistry, was higher in 94% of the squamous cell carcinomas and 87% of the foci of alveolar epithelial squamous metaplasia than that exhibited by the normal-appearing, adjacent lung parenchyma. In contrast, only 20% of adenocarcinomas and foci of epithelial hyperplasia expressed elevated levels of TGF-α. Many neoplasms expressing TGF-α also expressed excessive levels of EGFR mRNA. Southern and DNA slot blot analyses showed that the elevated EGFR expression was not due to amplification of the EGFR gene. These data suggest that increased amounts of TGF-α were early alterations in the progression of plutonium-induced squamous cell carcinoma, and these increases may occur in parallel with overexpression of the receptor for this growth factor. Together, these alterations create a potential autocrine loop for sustaining clonal expansion of cells initiated by high-LET radiation. 44 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab

  11. Percutaneous thermal ablation of renal neoplasms; Perkutane Thermoablation von Nierentumoren

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tacke, J. [Inst. fuer Diagnostische und Interventionelle Radiologie/Neuroradiologie, Klinikum Passau (Germany); Mahnken, A.H.; Guenther, R.W. [Klinik fuer Radiologische Diagnostik, Universitaetsklinikum Aachen (Germany)

    2005-12-15

    Due to modern examination techniques such as multidetector computed tomography and high-field magnetic resonance imaging, the detection rate of renal neoplasms is continually increasing. Even though tumors exceeding 4 cm in diameter rarely metastasize, all renal lesions that are possible neoplasms should be treated. Traditional treatment techniques include radical nephrectomy or nephron-sparing resection, which are increasingly performed laparoscopically. Modern thermal ablation techniques such as hyperthermal techniques like radiofrequency ablation RFA, laser induced thermal ablation LITT, focused ultrasound FUS and microwave therapy MW, as well as hypothermal techniques (cryotherapy) may be a useful treatment option for patients who are unfit for or refuse surgical resection. Cryotherapy is the oldest and best known thermal ablation technique and can be performed laparoscopically or percutaneously. Since subzero temperatures have no antistyptic effect, additional maneuvers must be performed to control bleeding. Percutaneous cryotherapy of renal tumors is a new and interesting method, but experience with it is still limited. Radiofrequency ablation is the most frequently used method. Modern probe design allows volumes between 2 and 5 cm in diameter to be ablated. Due to hyperthermal tract ablation, the procedure is deemed to be safe and has a low complication rate. Although there are no randomized comparative studies to open resection, the preliminary results for renal RFA are promising and show RFA to be superior to other thermal ablation techniques. Clinical success rates are over 90% for both, cryo- and radiofrequency ablation. Whereas laser induced thermal therapy is established in hepatic ablation, experience is minimal with respect to renal application. For lesions of more than 2 cm in diameter, additional cooling catheters are required. MR thermometry offers temperature control during ablation. Microwave ablation is characterized by small ablation volumes

  12. Blastic plasmacytoid dendritic cell neoplasm (BPDCN): the cutaneous sanctuary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pileri, A; Delfino, C; Grandi, V; Agostinelli, C; Pileri, S A; Pimpinelli, N

    2012-12-01

    Blastic plasmacytoid dendritic cell neoplasm (BPDNC) is a rare tumour, which stems from plasmacytoid dendritic cells. Although the aetiology is still unclear, in the last few years various reports suggested a potential role of chromosomal aberrations in the oncogenesis. The disease is currently enclosed among "acute myeloid leukemia (AML) and related precursor neoplasms" in the last WHO classification. BPDCN has an aggressive course, however, it has been suggested that an exclusive cutaneous involvement at presentation is related to a better clinical outcome. We review the literature about BPDCN, and we present a series of 11 cases, all characterised by disease limited to the skin at presentation. Furthermore, we examined all cases of the last 10 years stored in the database of the multidisciplinary study group on cutaneous lymphomas of the University of Florence. Basing on the clinical features, patient were classified into two groups: with a single-lesion or multiple eruptive-lesions presentation. The former were treated with radiotherapy (limited field, electron beam therapy). The latter were treated with different therapeutic options, depending on age and co-morbidities. All patients with a single lesion achieved complete response. Five of 6 patients with eruptive lesions achieved a clinical response (2 complete and 3 partial response). Notably, the progression free survival was higher in the single-lesion than in the eruptive-lesion group (23 vs. 9 months). However all patients relapsed and 8 of 11 died. Although the small number of selected patients, we could speculate that the concept of "cutaneous sanctuary" is particularly true in patients with a single lesion-presentation. In these patients, especially if >70 year-old aged, radiotherapy should be encouraged as the treatment of choice.

  13. Enrico Fermi exhibition at CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    A touring exhibition celebrating the centenary of Enrico Fermi's birth in 1901 will be on display at CERN (Main Building, Mezzanine) from 12-27 September. You are cordially invited to the opening celebration on Thursday 12 September at 16:00 (Main Building, Council Chamber), which will include speechs from: Luciano Maiani Welcome and Introduction Arnaldo Stefanini Celebrating Fermi's Centenary in Documents and Pictures Antonino Zichichi The New 'Centro Enrico Fermi' at Via Panisperna Ugo Amaldi Fermi at Via Panisperna and the birth of Nuclear Medicine Jack Steinberger Fermi in Chicago Valentin Telegdi A Close-up of Fermi and the screening of a documentary video about Fermi: Scienziati a Pisa: Enrico Fermi (Scientists at Pisa: Enrico Fermi) created by Francesco Andreotti for La Limonaia from early film, photographs and sound recordings (In Italian, with English subtitles - c. 30 mins). This will be followed by an aperitif on the Mezz...

  14. Clinical and immunologic effects of fractionated total lymphoid irradiation in refractory rheumatoid arthritis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trentham, D.E.; Belli, J.A.; Anderson, R.J.; Buckley, J.A.; Goetzl, E.J.; David, J.R.; Austen, K.F.

    1981-01-01

    Ten patients with refractory rheumatoid arthritis were given 3000 rad of fractionated total lymphoid irradiation in an uncontrolled therapeutic trial. Total lymphoid irradiation was associated with objective evidence of considerable clinical improvement in eight patients and with reduced blood lymphocyte counts in all 10. On completion of irradiation, there was an abrogation of lymphocyte reactivity in vitro in the patients with clinical responses, but abnormal antibody activities characteristic of rheumatoid arthritis and normal components of humoral immunity were not suppressed. Partial recrudescence of arthritis occurred shortly after a year after the completion of irradiation and was paralleled by a restitution of lymphocyte concentrations and responsiveness to mitogens to levels similar to those observed before irradiation. These data provide further evidence of T-cell involvement in the pathogenesis of rheumatoid arthritis and demonstrate that total lymphoid irradiation can induce temporary relief, but they do not ascertain whether the natural history of this disease was altered

  15. Clinical and immunologic effects of fractionated total lymphoid irradiation in refractory rheumatoid arthritis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trentham, D.E.; Belli, J.A.; Anderson, R.J.; Buckley, J.A.; Goetzl, E.J.; David, J.R.; Austen, K.F.

    1981-01-01

    Ten patients with refractory rheumatoid arthritis were given 3000 rad of fractionated total lymphoid irradiation in an uncontrolled therapeutic trial. Total lymphoid irradiation was associated with objective evidence of considerable clinical improvement in eight patients and with reduced blood lymphocyte counts in all 10. On completion of irradiation, there was an abrogation of lymphocyte reactivity in vitro in the patients with clinical responses, but abnormal antibody activities characteristic of rheumatoid arthritis and normal components of humoral immunity were not suppressed. Partial recrudescence of arthritis occurred shortly before a year after the completion of irradiation and was paralleled by a restitution of lymphocyte concentrations and responsiveness to mitogens to levels similar to those observed before irradiation. These data provide further evidence of T-cell involvement in the pathogenesis of rheumatoid arthritis and demonstrate that total lymphoid irradiation can induce temporary relief, but they do not ascertain whether the natural history of this disease was altered

  16. Pathological and therapeutic roles of innate lymphoid cells in diverse diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jisu; Kim, Geon; Min, Hyeyoung

    2017-11-01

    Innate lymphoid cells (ILCs) are a recently defined type of innate-immunity cells that belong to the lymphoid lineage and have lymphoid morphology but do not express an antigen-specific B cell or T-cell receptor. ILCs regulate immune functions prior to the formation of adaptive immunity and exert effector functions through a cytokine release. ILCs have been classified into three groups according to the transcription factors that regulate their development and function and the effector cytokines they produce. Of note, ILCs resemble T helper (Th) cells, such as Th1, Th2, and Th17 cells, and show a similar dependence on transcription factors and distinct cytokine production. Despite their short history in immunology, ILCs have received much attention, and numerous studies have revealed biological functions of ILCs including host defense against pathogens, inflammation, tissue repair, and metabolic homeostasis. Here, we describe recent findings about the roles of ILCs in the pathogenesis of various diseases and potential therapeutic targets.

  17. Immunological tumor destruction in a murine melanoma model by targeted LTalpha independent of secondary lymphoid tissue

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schrama, D.; Voigt, H.; Eggert, A.O.

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: We previously demonstrated that targeting lymphotoxin alpha (LTalpha) to the tumor evokes its immunological destruction in a syngeneic B16 melanoma model. Since treatment was associated with the induction of peritumoral tertiary lymphoid tissue, we speculated that the induced immune...... response was initiated at the tumor site. METHODS AND RESULTS: In order to directly test this notion, we analyzed the efficacy of tumor targeted LTalpha in LTalpha knock-out (LTalpha(-/-)) mice which lack peripheral lymph nodes. To this end, we demonstrate that tumor-targeted LTalpha mediates the induction...... of specific T-cell responses even in the absence of secondary lymphoid organs. In addition, this effect is accompanied by the initiation of tertiary lymphoid tissue at the tumor site in which B and T lymphocytes are compartmentalized in defined areas and which harbor expanded numbers of tumor specific T cells...

  18. Twin Rectal Tonsils Mimicking Carcinoid or Mucosa-Associated Lymphoid Tissue Lymphoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takehara, Masanori; Muguruma, Naoki; Kitamura, Shinji; Kimura, Tetsuo; Okamoto, Koichi; Miyamoto, Hiroshi; Bando, Yoshimi; Takayama, Tetsuji

    2017-09-01

    The rectal tonsil is a rare polypoid lesion exclusively found in the rectum and is considered a reactive proliferation of the lymphoid tissue. Although this lesion is benign, we recommend that it should be differentiated from carcinoid or polypoid type of mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphomas, based on gross findings. In this case report, we describe a case of rectal lesions with a unique appearance in a 41-year-old man. Colonoscopy revealed two 5-mm-sized nodules located opposite from each other on the left and right sides of the lower rectum. Endoscopic mucosal resection was conducted. Histopathologically, both lesions were mainly located in the submucosa and consisted of prominent lymphoid follicles with germinal centers of various sizes. No immunoreactivity of Bcl-2 was seen in the germinal centers. Immunohistochemical staining for kappa and lambda light chains revealed a polyclonal pattern. Therefore, these lesions were diagnosed as rectal tonsils.

  19. Activation of vestibule-associated lymphoid tissue in localized provoked vulvodynia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tommola, Päivi; Bützow, Ralf; Unkila-Kallio, Leila; Paavonen, Jorma; Meri, Seppo

    2015-04-01

    Localized provoked vulvodynia (LPV) may have inflammatory etiology. We wanted to find out whether the cell-mediated immune system becomes activated in the vestibular mucosa in LPV. This was a controlled cross-sectional study. Vestibular mucosal specimens were obtained from 27 patients with severe LPV and 15 controls. Detailed clinical history of the patients was obtained. For immunohistochemistry, antibodies against CD3 (T cells), CD20 (B cells), IgA (mucosal plasma cells), CD163 (dendritic cells [DCs]), CD68 (macrophages), and CD117 (mast cells) were employed. Mann-Whitney U test and χ(2) test were used for statistical analyses. More B lymphocytes and mature mucosal IgA-plasma cells were found in patients than in controls (P associated lymphoid tissue analogous to mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue. Vestibule-associated lymphoid tissue may emerge as a response to local infection or inflammation in LPV. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Gut-associated lymphoid tissue, T cell trafficking, and chronic intestinal inflammation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koboziev, Iurii; Karlsson, Fridrik; Grisham, Matthew B

    2010-10-01

    The etiologies of the inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD; Crohn's disease, ulcerative colitis) have not been fully elucidated. However, there is very good evidence implicating T cell and T cell trafficking to the gut and its associated lymphoid tissue as important components in disease pathogenesis. The objective of this review is to provide an overview of the mechanisms involved in naive and effector T cell trafficking to the gut-associated lymphoid tissue (GALT; Peyer's patches, isolated lymphoid follicles), mesenteric lymph nodes and intestine in response to commensal enteric antigens under physiological conditions as well as during the induction of chronic gut inflammation. In addition, recent data suggests that the GALT may not be required for enteric antigen-driven intestinal inflammation in certain mouse models of IBD. These new data suggest a possible paradigm shift in our understanding of how and where naive T cells become activated to yield disease-producing effector cells. © 2010 New York Academy of Sciences.