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Sample records for lymphoid compartments factors

  1. Radiation-induced mouse chimeras: a cellular analysis of the major lymphoid compartments, factors affecting lethal graft versus host disease and host-tumor interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Almaraz, R.

    1981-01-01

    The major lymphoid compartments of allogeneic bone marrow chimeras were evaluated for the extent of cell chimerism and distribution of Thy 1 and la bearing cells. These chimeras contained lymphoid cell primarily of donor origin. The bone marrow compartment was a mixture of host and donor origin cells. The distribution of Thy 1 and la bearing cells was similar as in normal mice. The effect of adult thymectomy alone or followed by whole-body irradiation and bone marrow reconstitution on the distribution of the Thy 1 positive cells was also investigated. Thymectomy with or without WBI and bone marrow reconstitution significantly lowered the number of Thy 1 bearing cells in the blood and spleen. The number of la bearing cells did not appear to be affected by thymectomy. The role of circulating lymphoid cells in the incidence of lethal graft versus host disease (GVHD) in radiation induced fully allogeneic mouse chimeras was studied. Mice reconstituted with allogeneic bone marrow from bled donors had a statistically lower incidence of GVHD than those reconstituted with bone marrow from unbled donors. Addition of mature peripheral lymphocytes from blood to the reconstituting bone marrow cells from bled donors reduplicated the high incidence of lethal GVHD. It was demonstrated that the bone marrow of mice not exsanguinated prior to harvesting of bone marrow contained significant numbers of peripheral contaminating cells in the harvested bone marrow. The role of suppressor cell elimination in resisting tumor growth was investigated using radiation induced mouse chimeras. Local effects of irradiation alone at the site of tumor inoculation could account for this lack of growth

  2. Independent bottlenecks characterize colonization of systemic compartments and gut lymphoid tissue by salmonella.

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    Lim, Chee Han; Voedisch, Sabrina; Wahl, Benjamin; Rouf, Syed Fazle; Geffers, Robert; Rhen, Mikael; Pabst, Oliver

    2014-07-01

    Vaccination represents an important instrument to control typhoid fever in humans and protects mice from lethal infection with mouse pathogenic serovars of Salmonella species. Mixed infections with tagged Salmonella can be used in combination with probabilistic models to describe the dynamics of the infection process. Here we used mixed oral infections with tagged Salmonella strains to identify bottlenecks in the infection process in naïve and vaccinated mice. We established a next generation sequencing based method to characterize the composition of tagged Salmonella strains which offers a fast and reliable method to characterise the composition of genome-tagged Salmonella strains. We show that initial colonization of Salmonella was distinguished by a non-Darwinian selection of few bacteria setting up the infection independently in gut associated lymphoid tissue and systemic compartments. Colonization of Peyer's patches fuels the sustained spread of bacteria into mesenteric lymph nodes via dendritic cells. In contrast, infection of liver and spleen originated from an independent pool of bacteria. Vaccination only moderately reduced invasion of Peyer's patches but potently uncoupled bacterial populations present in different systemic compartments. Our data indicate that vaccination differentially skews the capacity of Salmonella to colonize systemic and gut immune compartments and provide a framework for the further dissection of infection dynamics.

  3. Independent bottlenecks characterize colonization of systemic compartments and gut lymphoid tissue by salmonella.

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    Chee Han Lim

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Vaccination represents an important instrument to control typhoid fever in humans and protects mice from lethal infection with mouse pathogenic serovars of Salmonella species. Mixed infections with tagged Salmonella can be used in combination with probabilistic models to describe the dynamics of the infection process. Here we used mixed oral infections with tagged Salmonella strains to identify bottlenecks in the infection process in naïve and vaccinated mice. We established a next generation sequencing based method to characterize the composition of tagged Salmonella strains which offers a fast and reliable method to characterise the composition of genome-tagged Salmonella strains. We show that initial colonization of Salmonella was distinguished by a non-Darwinian selection of few bacteria setting up the infection independently in gut associated lymphoid tissue and systemic compartments. Colonization of Peyer's patches fuels the sustained spread of bacteria into mesenteric lymph nodes via dendritic cells. In contrast, infection of liver and spleen originated from an independent pool of bacteria. Vaccination only moderately reduced invasion of Peyer's patches but potently uncoupled bacterial populations present in different systemic compartments. Our data indicate that vaccination differentially skews the capacity of Salmonella to colonize systemic and gut immune compartments and provide a framework for the further dissection of infection dynamics.

  4. COMPARTMENTS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Binder, Janos X; Pletscher-Frankild, Sune; Tsafou, Kalliopi

    2014-01-01

    of the localization of a protein, it is thus necessary to consult multiple databases and prediction tools. To address this, we present the COMPARTMENTS resource, which integrates all sources listed above as well as the results of automatic text mining. The resource is automatically kept up to date with source...

  5. Reconstitution of the myeloid and lymphoid compartments after the transplantation of autologous and genetically modified CD34+ bone marrow cells, following gamma irradiation in cynomolgus macaques

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    Auregan Gwenaelle

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Prolonged, altered hematopoietic reconstitution is commonly observed in patients undergoing myeloablative conditioning and bone marrow and/or mobilized peripheral blood-derived stem cell transplantation. We studied the reconstitution of myeloid and lymphoid compartments after the transplantation of autologous CD34+ bone marrow cells following gamma irradiation in cynomolgus macaques. Results The bone marrow cells were first transduced ex vivo with a lentiviral vector encoding eGFP, with a mean efficiency of 72% ± 4%. The vector used was derived from the simian immunodeficiency lentivirus SIVmac251, VSV-g pseudotyped and encoded eGFP under the control of the phosphoglycerate kinase promoter. After myeloid differentiation, GFP was detected in colony-forming cells (37% ± 10%. A previous study showed that transduction rates did not differ significantly between colony-forming cells and immature cells capable of initiating long-term cultures, indicating that progenitor cells and highly immature hematopoietic cells were transduced with similar efficiency. Blood cells producingeGFP were detected as early as three days after transplantation, and eGFP-producing granulocyte and mononuclear cells persisted for more than one year in the periphery. Conclusion The transplantation of CD34+ bone marrow cells had beneficial effects for the ex vivo proliferation and differentiation of hematopoietic progenitors, favoring reconstitution of the T- and B-lymphocyte, thrombocyte and red blood cell compartments.

  6. Compartment-specific distribution of human intestinal innate lymphoid cells is altered in HIV patients under effective therapy.

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    Benjamin Krämer

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Innate lymphocyte cells (ILCs, a novel family of innate immune cells are considered to function as key orchestrators of immune defences at mucosal surfaces and to be crucial for maintaining an intact intestinal barrier. Accordingly, first data suggest depletion of ILCs to be involved in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-associated damage of the intestinal mucosa and subsequent microbial translocation. However, although ILCs are preferentially localized at mucosal surfaces, only little is known regarding distribution and function of ILCs in the human gastrointestinal tract. Here, we show that in HIV(- individuals composition and functional capacity of intestinal ILCs is compartment-specific with group 1 ILCs representing the major fraction in the upper gastrointestinal (GI tract, whereas ILC3 are the predominant population in ileum and colon, respectively. In addition, we present first data indicating that local cytokine concentrations, especially that of IL-7, might modulate composition of gut ILCs. Distribution of intestinal ILCs was significantly altered in HIV patients, who displayed decreased frequency of total ILCs in ileum and colon owing to reduced numbers of both CD127(+ILC1 and ILC3. Of note, frequency of colonic ILC3 was inversely correlated with serum levels of I-FABP and sCD14, surrogate markers for loss of gut barrier integrity and microbial translocation, respectively. Both expression of the IL-7 receptor CD127 on ILCs as well as mucosal IL-7 mRNA levels were decreased in HIV(+ patients, especially in those parts of the GI tract with reduced ILC frequencies, suggesting that impaired IL-7 responses of ILCs might contribute to incomplete reconstitution of ILCs under effective anti-retroviral therapy. This is the first report comparing distribution and function of ILCs along the intestinal mucosa of the entire human gastrointestinal tract in HIV(+ and HIV(- individuals.

  7. Factors associated with collagen deposition in lymphoid tissue in long-term treated HIV-infected patients.

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    Diaz, Alba; Alós, Llúcia; León, Agathe; Mozos, Anna; Caballero, Miguel; Martinez, Antonio; Plana, Montserrat; Gallart, Teresa; Gil, Cristina; Leal, Manuel; Gatell, Jose M; García, Felipe

    2010-08-24

    The factors associated with fibrosis in lymphoid tissue in long-term treated HIV-infected patients and their correlation with immune reconstitution were assessed. Tonsillar biopsies were performed in seven antiretroviral-naive patients and 29 successfully treated patients (median time on treatment, 61 months). Twenty patients received protease inhibitors-sparing regimens and nine protease inhibitor-containing regimens. Five tonsillar resections of HIV-negative individuals were used as controls. Lymphoid tissue architecture, collagen deposition (fibrosis) and the mean interfollicular CD4(+) cell count per mum were assessed. Naive and long-term treated HIV-infected patients had a higher proportion of fibrosis than did HIV-uninfected persons (P lymphoid tissue (P = 0.03) and smaller increase in peripheral CD4(+) T cells (r = -0.40, P = 0.05). The factors independently associated with fibrosis in lymphoid tissue were age (P lymphoid tissue viral load when compared with patients with undetectable lymphoid tissue viral load (median 5 vs. 12%, respectively, P = 0.017) and patients receiving a protease inhibitor-sparing vs. a protease inhibitor-containing regimen (median 8 vs. 2.5%, respectively, P = 0.04). Fibrosis in lymphoid tissue was associated with a poor reconstitution of CD4(+) T cells and long-term antiretroviral therapy did not reverse this abnormality. HIV infection, older age, a detectable level of lymphoid tissue viral load in treated patients and protease inhibitor-sparing regimens seem to favour fibrosis in lymphoid tissue.

  8. Transcription Factor Networks Directing the Development, Function, and Evolution of Innate Lymphoid Effectors

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    Kang, Joonsoo; Malhotra, Nidhi

    2015-01-01

    Mammalian lymphoid immunity is mediated by fast and slow responders to pathogens. Fast innate lymphocytes are active within hours after infections in mucosal tissues. Slow adaptive lymphocytes are conventional T and B cells with clonal antigen receptors that function days after pathogen exposure. A transcription factor (TF) regulatory network guiding early T cell development is at the core of effector function diversification in all innate lymphocytes, and the kinetics of immune responses is set by developmental programming. Operational units within the innate lymphoid system are not classified by the types of pathogen-sensing machineries but rather by discrete effector functions programmed by regulatory TF networks. Based on the evolutionary history of TFs of the regulatory networks, fast effectors likely arose earlier in the evolution of animals to fortify body barriers, and in mammals they often develop in fetal ontogeny prior to the establishment of fully competent adaptive immunity. PMID:25650177

  9. Lymphoid irradiation in intractable rheumatoid arthritis: effects on the production of immunoglobulins and rheumatoid factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hanly, J.G.; Bresnihan, B.; Hassan, J.; Whelan, A.; Feighery, C.; Moriarty, M.

    1985-01-01

    Changes in the production of immunoglobulins and rheumatoid factors (RF's) were studied in 20 patients with intractable rheumatoid arthritis (RA) following total doses of 750 rad or 2,000 rad lymphoid irradiation. Over a 12 month follow up period there was no consistent change in absolute serum or synovial fluid levels, or in synovial membrane production of either total IgG, IgA or IgM, or the corresponding RF fractions. The in-vitro production of immunoglobulins and IgM RF by peripheral blood mononuclear cells was also unaltered, except for one patient who had a dramatic rise in IgM RF production. Over the same period there was a significant overall reduction in disease activity following both doses of radiotherapy. It is concluded that the clinical response which occurs following lymphoid irradiation is not due to a reduction in RF production. Furthermore, the production of RF's appears to be unaffected by the changes in T cell immunity which occur following lymphoid irradiation. (author)

  10. Central Role of Core Binding Factor β2 in Mucosa-Associated Lymphoid Tissue Organogenesis in Mouse.

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    Nagatake, Takahiro; Fukuyama, Satoshi; Sato, Shintaro; Okura, Hideaki; Tachibana, Masashi; Taniuchi, Ichiro; Ito, Kosei; Shimojou, Michiko; Matsumoto, Naomi; Suzuki, Hidehiko; Kunisawa, Jun; Kiyono, Hiroshi

    2015-01-01

    Mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) is a group of secondary and organized lymphoid tissue that develops at different mucosal surfaces. Peyer's patches (PPs), nasopharynx-associated lymphoid tissue (NALT), and tear duct-associated lymphoid tissue (TALT) are representative MALT in the small intestine, nasal cavity, and lacrimal sac, respectively. A recent study has shown that transcriptional regulators of core binding factor (Cbf) β2 and promotor-1-transcribed Runt-related transcription factor 1 (P1-Runx1) are required for the differentiation of CD3-CD4+CD45+ lymphoid tissue inducer (LTi) cells, which initiate and trigger the developmental program of PPs, but the involvement of this pathway in NALT and TALT development remains to be elucidated. Here we report that Cbfβ2 plays an essential role in NALT and TALT development by regulating LTi cell trafficking to the NALT and TALT anlagens. Cbfβ2 was expressed in LTi cells in all three types of MALT examined. Indeed, similar to the previous finding for PPs, we found that Cbfβ2-/- mice lacked NALT and TALT lymphoid structures. However, in contrast to PPs, NALT and TALT developed normally in the absence of P1-Runx1 or other Runx family members such as Runx2 and Runx3. LTi cells for NALT and TALT differentiated normally but did not accumulate in the respective lymphoid tissue anlagens in Cbfβ2-/- mice. These findings demonstrate that Cbfβ2 is a central regulator of the MALT developmental program, but the dependency of Runx proteins on the lymphoid tissue development would differ among PPs, NALT, and TALT.

  11. Zinc finger protein 521 antagonizes early B-cell factor 1 and modulates the B-lymphoid differentiation of primary hematopoietic progenitors.

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    Mega, Tiziana; Lupia, Michela; Amodio, Nicola; Horton, Sarah J; Mesuraca, Maria; Pelaggi, Daniela; Agosti, Valter; Grieco, Michele; Chiarella, Emanuela; Spina, Raffaella; Moore, Malcolm A S; Schuringa, Jan Jacob; Bond, Heather M; Morrone, Giovanni

    2011-07-01

    Zinc finger protein 521 (EHZF/ZNF521) is a multi-functional transcription co-factor containing 30 zinc fingers and an amino-terminal motif that binds to the nucleosome remodelling and histone deacetylase (NuRD) complex. ZNF521 is believed to be a relevant player in the regulation of the homeostasis of the hematopoietic stem/progenitor cell compartment, however the underlying molecular mechanisms are still largely unknown. Here, we show that this protein plays an important role in the control of B-cell development by inhibiting the activity of early B-cell factor-1 (EBF1), a master factor in B-lineage specification. In particular, our data demonstrate that: (1) ZNF521 binds to EBF1 via its carboxyl-terminal portion and this interaction is required for EBF1 inhibition; (2) NuRD complex recruitment by ZNF521 is not essential for the inhibition of transactivation of EBF1-dependent promoters; (3) ZNF521 represses EBF1 target genes in a human B-lymphoid molecular context; and (4) RNAi-mediated silencing of ZNF521/Zfp521 in primary human and murine hematopoietic progenitors strongly enhances the generation of B-lymphocytes in vitro. Taken together, our data indicate that ZNF521 can antagonize B-cell development and lend support to the notion that it may contribute to conserve the multipotency of primitive lympho-myeloid progenitors by preventing or delaying their EBF1-driven commitment toward the B-cell lineage.

  12. Clinical outcomes of myeloid/lymphoid neoplasms with fibroblast growth factor receptor-1 (FGFR1) rearrangement.

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    Umino, Kento; Fujiwara, Shin-Ichiro; Ikeda, Takashi; Toda, Yumiko; Ito, Shoko; Mashima, Kiyomi; Minakata, Daisuke; Nakano, Hirofumi; Yamasaki, Ryoko; Kawasaki, Yasufumi; Sugimoto, Miyuki; Yamamoto, Chihiro; Ashizawa, Masahiro; Hatano, Kaoru; Sato, Kazuya; Oh, Iekuni; Ohmine, Ken; Muroi, Kazuo; Kanda, Yoshinobu

    2018-02-28

    Myeloid/lymphoid neoplasms with fibroblast growth factor receptor-1 (FGFR1) rearrangement are hematopoietic stem cell disorders with a poor prognosis, but no established standard therapy. We experienced a patient with T-lymphoblastic lymphoma (LBL) associated with FGFR1 rearrangement who underwent cord blood transplantation, but died of pulmonary complication. We collected the clinical data of patients with FGFR1 rearrangement from the medical literature and analyzed 45 patients, including our patient. The primary diagnoses were myeloproliferative neoplasm (MPN) or myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS) in 14 and acute leukemia or LBL in 31. In MPN and MDS patients, the cumulative incidence of transformation to blast phase (BP) at 12 months was 46.2%. The 1-year overall survival (OS) from diagnosis in all cases was 43.1%. With regard to the impact of treatment response on survival, the achievement of complete response with a landmark at 2 months after diagnosis of BP was associated with a superior OS (40.0% vs. 26.0% P = 0.011 for 1-year OS from BP). Allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) was performed in 13 patients, and the 1-year OS from allogeneic HSCT was 61.5%. The hazard ratio for mortality was 0.34 (95% CI, 0.08-1.51, P = 0.15) for allogeneic HSCT treated as a time-dependent covariate, which suggests that allogeneic HSCT may confer a clinical benefit. The further accumulation of clinical data is needed to determine the optimal therapeutic approach for these neoplasms.

  13. Artificial engineering of secondary lymphoid organs.

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    Tan, Jonathan K H; Watanabe, Takeshi

    2010-01-01

    Secondary lymphoid organs such as spleen and lymph nodes are highly organized immune structures essential for the initiation of immune responses. They display distinct B cell and T cell compartments associated with specific stromal follicular dendritic cells and fibroblastic reticular cells, respectively. Interweaved through the parenchyma is a conduit system that distributes small antigens and chemokines directly to B and T cell zones. While most structural aspects between lymph nodes and spleen are common, the entry of lymphocytes, antigen-presenting cells, and antigen into lymphoid tissues is regulated differently, reflecting the specialized functions of each organ in filtering either lymph or blood. The overall organization of lymphoid tissue is vital for effective antigen screening and recognition, and is a feature which artificially constructed lymphoid organoids endeavor to replicate. Synthesis of artificial lymphoid tissues is an emerging field that aims to provide therapeutic application for the treatment of severe infection, cancer, and age-related involution of secondary lymphoid tissues. The development of murine artificial lymphoid tissues has benefited greatly from an understanding of organogenesis of lymphoid organs, which has delineated cellular and molecular elements essential for the recruitment and organization of lymphocytes into lymphoid structures. Here, the field of artificial lymphoid tissue engineering is considered including elements of lymphoid structure and development relevant to organoid synthesis. (c) 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Circulating blocking factors of lymphoid-cell cytotoxicity in x-ray-induced rat small-bowel adenocarcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stevens, R.H.; Brooks, G.P.; Osborne, J.W.

    1979-01-01

    Circulating blocking factors capable of abrogating cell-mediated immune responses measured by in vitro lymphoid-cell cytotoxicity were identified in the sera of Holtzman outbred rats 6 to 9 months after a single exposure of only the temporarily exteriorized, hypoxic ileum and jejunum to 1700 to 2000 R of X radiation. Such factors were found to exist in the serum of every animal exposed to the ionizing radiation regardless of whether a visibly identifiable small-bowel adenocarcinoma existed or subsequently would develop. Protection of cultured x-ray-induced rat small-bowel cancer cells from destruction by tumor-sensitized lymphoid cells as measured by the release of lactoperoxidase-catalyzed radioiodinated membrane proteins from the tumor target cells was conferred by the action of the blocking factors at both effector and target cell levels. The results of this study demonstrate that exposure of only the rat small intestine to ionizing radiation leads to elaboration of circulating factors identifiable several months postirradiation which will block cell-mediated immune responses directed against cancer cells developing in the exposed tissue

  15. The Innate Lymphoid Cell Precursor.

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    Ishizuka, Isabel E; Constantinides, Michael G; Gudjonson, Herman; Bendelac, Albert

    2016-05-20

    The discovery of tissue-resident innate lymphoid cell populations effecting different forms of type 1, 2, and 3 immunity; tissue repair; and immune regulation has transformed our understanding of mucosal immunity and allergy. The emerging complexity of these populations along with compounding issues of redundancy and plasticity raise intriguing questions about their precise lineage relationship. Here we review advances in mapping the emergence of these lineages from early lymphoid precursors. We discuss the identification of a common innate lymphoid cell precursor characterized by transient expression of the transcription factor PLZF, and the lineage relationships of innate lymphoid cells with conventional natural killer cells and lymphoid tissue inducer cells. We also review the rapidly growing understanding of the network of transcription factors that direct the development of these lineages.

  16. The Transcription Factor AHR Prevents the Differentiation of a Stage 3 Innate Lymphoid Cell Subset to Natural Killer Cells

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    Tiffany Hughes

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Accumulating evidence indicates that human natural killer (NK cells develop in secondary lymphoid tissue (SLT through a so-called “stage 3” developmental intermediate minimally characterized by a CD34−CD117+CD94− immunophenotype that lacks mature NK cell function. This stage 3 population is heterogeneous, potentially composed of functionally distinct innate lymphoid cell (ILC types that include interleukin-1 receptor (IL-1R1-positive, IL-22-producing ILC3s. Whether human ILC3s are developmentally related to NK cells is a subject of ongoing investigation. Here, we show that antagonism of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR or silencing of AHR gene expression promotes the differentiation of tonsillar IL-22-producing IL-1R1hi human ILC3s to CD56brightCD94+ interferon (IFN-γ-producing cytolytic mature NK cells expressing eomesodermin (EOMES and T-Box Protein 21 (TBX21 or TBET. Hence, we demonstrate the lineage plasticity of human ILCs by identifying AHR as a transcription factor that prevents IL-1R1hi ILC3s from differentiating into NK cells.

  17. n-Butyl benzyl phthalate promotes breast cancer progression by inducing expression of lymphoid enhancer factor 1.

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    Tsung-Hua Hsieh

    Full Text Available Environmental hormones play important roles in regulating the expression of genes involved in cell proliferation, drug resistance, and breast cancer risk; however, their precise role in human breast cancer cells during cancer progression remains unclear. To elucidate the effect of the most widely used industrial phthalate, n-butyl benzyl phthalate (BBP, on cancer progression, we evaluated the results of BBP treatment using a whole human genome cDNA microarray and MetaCore software and selected candidate genes whose expression was changed by more than ten-fold by BBP compared with controls to analyze the signaling pathways in human breast cancer initiating cells (R2d. A total of 473 genes were upregulated, and 468 were downregulated. Most of these genes are involved in proliferation, epithelial-mesenchymal transition, and angiogenesis signaling. BBP induced the viability, invasion and migration, and tube formation in vitro, and Matrigel plug angiogenesis in vivo of R2d and MCF-7. Furthermore, the viability and invasion and migration of these cell lines following BBP treatment was reduced by transfection with a small interfering RNA targeting the mRNA for lymphoid enhancer-binding factor 1; notably, the altered expression of this gene consistently differentiated tumors expressing genes involved in proliferation, epithelial-mesenchymal transition, and angiogenesis. These findings contribute to our understanding of the molecular impact of the environmental hormone BBP and suggest possible strategies for preventing and treating human breast cancer.

  18. Patellofemoral compartment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, T.; Quinn, S.F.; Erickson, S.J.; Cox, I.

    1990-01-01

    This paper evaluates the normal and abnormal patellofemoral compartment with axial MR imaging. Anatomic cryotome sections of the patellofemoral compartment were correlated with the corresponding MR images for identification of ligamentous structures and cartilaginous surfaces. Two hundred fifty-four patients who underwent both arthroscopy and axial MR imaging of the patellofemoral compartment underwent axial MR examinations, which included gradient-echo (TR 23, TE 14, flip angle 30 degrees), T1- weighted (TR 400, TE 20), and proton and T2-weighted (2,500/20/80) sequences. The results from the cryotome-MR correlation show that axial MR images of the patellofemoral compartment accurately depict the major ligamentous and cartilaginous components. The MR arthroscopic correlation showed that all pulse sequences were unreliable in depicting the more superficial changes of chondromalacia and the evaluation on synovial plica

  19. Compartment syndromes

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    Mubarak, S. J.; Pedowitz, R. A.; Hargens, A. R.

    1989-01-01

    The compartment syndrome is defined as a condition in which high pressure within a closed fascial space (muscle compartment) reduces capillary blood perfusion below the level necessary for tissue viability'. This condition occurs in acute and chronic (exertional) forms, and may be secondary to a variety of causes. The end-result of an extended period of elevated intramuscular pressure may be the development of irreversible tissue injury and Volkmann's contracture. The goal of treatment of the compartment syndrome is the reduction of intracompartmental pressure thus facilitating reperfusion of ischaemic tissue and this goal may be achieved by decompressive fasciotomy. Controversy exists regarding the critical pressure-time thresholds for surgical decompression and the optimal diagnostic methods of measuring intracompartmental pressures. This paper will update and review some current knowledge regarding the pathophysiology, aetiology, diagnosis, and treatment of the acute compartment syndrome.

  20. Abdominal Compartment Syndrome

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    Pınar Zeyneloğlu

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Intraabdominal hypertension and Abdominal compartment syndrome are causes of morbidity and mortality in critical care patients. Timely diagnosis and treatment may improve organ functions. Intra-abdominal pressure monitoring is vital during evaluation of the patients and in the management algorithms. The incidence, definition and risk factors, clinical presentation, diagnosis and management of intraabdominal hypertension and Abdominal compartment syndrome were reviewed here.

  1. Clinical outcome and prognostic factors of primary gastric mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma: a retrospective analysis of 77 cases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Shulian; Song Yongwen; Jin Jing; Wang Weihu; Liu Yueping; Liu Xinfan; Yu Zihao; Li Yexiong; Xue Liyan; Lv Ning

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To analyze the clinical results and prognostic factors of patients with early-stage primary gastric mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) lymphoma. Methods: Seventy-seven patients with primary gastric MALT lymphoma treated from 1985 to 2006 were retrospectively analyzed. All patients were pathologically confirmed as MALT lymphoma in stage I, II and II E (by modified Blackedge staging system). Thirty-seven patients had stage I disease, 23 stage II and 17 stage II E . Sixty patients underwent surgical resection and 17 received non-surgical treatment. Survival rates were calculated by the Kaplan-Meier analysis with the Logrank test. Results: With a median follow up of 57 months for the surviving patients (ranging from 1 to 198 months for all patients), the 5-year overall survival rate, disease-free survival rate, loco-regional control rate and distant metastasis free survival rate were 74%, 70%, 76% and 87%, respectively. In univariate analysis, clinical stage was significantly associated with overall survival. Patients with stage I or II disease had a better overall survival than those with stage II E (P=0.01). Tumor size and surgical resection were significantly associated with disease-free survival. Patients with primary tumor 8 cm or less in diameter had better disease-free survival than those with primary tumor more than 8 cm in diameter (P =0.03). Patients who underwent complete resection had better disease-free survival than those who underwent incomplete resection or no surgery (P=0.02). Clinical stage, tumor size and surgical resection were significantly associated with loco-regional control. Patients with stage I or II disease had better loco-regional control than those with stage II E (P=0.03). Patients with primary tumor 8 cm or less in diameter had better loco-regional control than those with primary tumor more than 8 cm in diameter (P=0.01). Patients who underwent complete resection had better loco-regional control than those who underwent

  2. Tertiary Intratumor Lymphoid Tissue in Colo-Rectal Cancer

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    Bergomas, Francesca [Department of Immunology and Inflammation, IRCCS Humanitas Clinical Institute, Via Manzoni 56, 20089 Rozzano, Milan (Italy); Grizzi, Fabio [Laboratory of Molecular Gastroenterology, IRCCS Humanitas Clinical Institute, Via Manzoni 56, 20089 Rozzano, Milan (Italy); Doni, Andrea; Pesce, Samantha [Department of Immunology and Inflammation, IRCCS Humanitas Clinical Institute, Via Manzoni 56, 20089 Rozzano, Milan (Italy); Laghi, Luigi [Laboratory of Molecular Gastroenterology, IRCCS Humanitas Clinical Institute, Via Manzoni 56, 20089 Rozzano, Milan (Italy); Department of Gastroenterology, IRCCS Humanitas Clinical Institute, Via Manzoni 56, 20089 Rozzano, Milan (Italy); Allavena, Paola [Department of Immunology and Inflammation, IRCCS Humanitas Clinical Institute, Via Manzoni 56, 20089 Rozzano, Milan (Italy); Mantovani, Alberto [Department of Immunology and Inflammation, IRCCS Humanitas Clinical Institute, Via Manzoni 56, 20089 Rozzano, Milan (Italy); Department of Translational Medicine, University of Milan, Milan 20089 (Italy); Marchesi, Federica, E-mail: federica.marchesi@humanitasresearch.it [Department of Immunology and Inflammation, IRCCS Humanitas Clinical Institute, Via Manzoni 56, 20089 Rozzano, Milan (Italy)

    2011-12-28

    Ectopic (or tertiary) lymphoid tissue develops at sites of inflammation or infection in non lymphoid organs and is associated with chronic inflammation. In colon mucosa, small lymphoid aggregates are already present in homeostatic conditions, as part of the gut-associated lymphoid tissue and play an essential role in the immune response to perturbations of the mucosal microenvironment. Despite the recognized role of inflammation in tumor progression, the presence and biological function of lymphoid tissue in cancer has been poorly investigated. We identified aggregates of lymphocytes resembling tertiary lymphoid tissue in human colorectal cancer specimens; intratumor accumulations of lymphocytes display a high degree of compartmentalization, with B and T cells, mature dendritic cells and a network of CD21{sup +} follicular dendritic cells (FDC). We analyzed the adaptation of colon lymphoid tissue in a murine model of colitis-associated cancer (AOM/DSS). B cell follicle formation increases in the context of the chronic inflammation associated to intestinal neoplasia, in this model. A network of lymphatic and haematic vessels surrounding B cell follicles is present and includes high endothelial venules (HEV). Future task is to determine whether lymphoid tissue contributes to the persistence of the tumor-associated inflammatory reaction, rather than represent a functional immune compartment, potentially participating to the anti tumor response.

  3. Tertiary Intratumor Lymphoid Tissue in Colo-Rectal Cancer

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    Federica Marchesi

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Ectopic (or tertiary lymphoid tissue develops at sites of inflammation or infection in non lymphoid organs and is associated with chronic inflammation. In colon mucosa, small lymphoid aggregates are already present in homeostatic conditions, as part of the gut-associated lymphoid tissue and play an essential role in the immune response to perturbations of the mucosal microenvironment. Despite the recognized role of inflammation in tumor progression, the presence and biological function of lymphoid tissue in cancer has been poorly investigated. We identified aggregates of lymphocytes resembling tertiary lymphoid tissue in human colorectal cancer specimens; intratumor accumulations of lymphocytes display a high degree of compartmentalization, with B and T cells, mature dendritic cells and a network of CD21+ follicular dendritic cells (FDC. We analyzed the adaptation of colon lymphoid tissue in a murine model of colitis-associated cancer (AOM/DSS. B cell follicle formation increases in the context of the chronic inflammation associated to intestinal neoplasia, in this model. A network of lymphatic and haematic vessels surrounding B cell follicles is present and includes high endothelial venules (HEV. Future task is to determine whether lymphoid tissue contributes to the persistence of the tumor-associated inflammatory reaction, rather than represent a functional immune compartment, potentially participating to the anti tumor response.

  4. Tertiary Intratumor Lymphoid Tissue in Colo-Rectal Cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bergomas, Francesca; Grizzi, Fabio; Doni, Andrea; Pesce, Samantha; Laghi, Luigi; Allavena, Paola; Mantovani, Alberto; Marchesi, Federica

    2011-01-01

    Ectopic (or tertiary) lymphoid tissue develops at sites of inflammation or infection in non lymphoid organs and is associated with chronic inflammation. In colon mucosa, small lymphoid aggregates are already present in homeostatic conditions, as part of the gut-associated lymphoid tissue and play an essential role in the immune response to perturbations of the mucosal microenvironment. Despite the recognized role of inflammation in tumor progression, the presence and biological function of lymphoid tissue in cancer has been poorly investigated. We identified aggregates of lymphocytes resembling tertiary lymphoid tissue in human colorectal cancer specimens; intratumor accumulations of lymphocytes display a high degree of compartmentalization, with B and T cells, mature dendritic cells and a network of CD21 + follicular dendritic cells (FDC). We analyzed the adaptation of colon lymphoid tissue in a murine model of colitis-associated cancer (AOM/DSS). B cell follicle formation increases in the context of the chronic inflammation associated to intestinal neoplasia, in this model. A network of lymphatic and haematic vessels surrounding B cell follicles is present and includes high endothelial venules (HEV). Future task is to determine whether lymphoid tissue contributes to the persistence of the tumor-associated inflammatory reaction, rather than represent a functional immune compartment, potentially participating to the anti tumor response

  5. Formation of Nuclear Splicing Factor Compartments Is Independent of Lamins A/C

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Večeřová, Jaromíra; Koberna, Karel; Malínský, Jan; Soutoglou, E.; Sullivan, T.; Stewart, C. L.; Raška, Ivan; Misteli, T.

    2004-01-01

    Roč. 15, č. 11 (2004), s. 4904-4910 ISSN 1059-1524 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA5039103; GA ČR GA304/02/0342 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z5039906 Keywords : lamins A/C Subject RIV: EA - Cell Biology Impact factor: 7.517, year: 2004

  6. Innate lymphoid cells in secondary lymphoid organs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bar-Ephraïm, Yotam E; Mebius, Reina E

    2016-05-01

    The family of innate lymphoid cells (ILCs) has attracted attention in recent years as its members are important regulators of immunity, while they can also cause pathology. In both mouse and man, ILCs were initially discovered in developing lymph nodes as lymphoid tissue inducer (LTi) cells. These cells form the prototypic members of the ILC family and play a central role in the formation of secondary lymphoid organs (SLOs). In the absence of LTi cells, lymph nodes (LN) and Peyer's Patches (PP) fail to form in mice, although the splenic white pulp can develop normally. Besides LTi cells, the ILC family encompasses helper-like ILCs with functional distinctions as seen by T-helper cells, as well as cytotoxic natural killer (NK) cells. ILCs are still present in adult SLOs where they have been shown to play a role in lymphoid tissue regeneration. Furthermore, ILCs were implicated to interact with adaptive lymphocytes and influence the adaptive immune response. Here, we review the recent literature on the role of ILCs in secondary lymphoid tissue from the formation of SLOs to mature SLOs in adults, during homeostasis and pathology. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Human innate lymphoid cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hazenberg, Mette D.; Spits, Hergen

    2014-01-01

    Innate lymphoid cells (ILCs) are lymphoid cells that do not express rearranged receptors and have important effector and regulatory functions in innate immunity and tissue remodeling. ILCs are categorized into 3 groups based on their distinct patterns of cytokine production and the requirement of

  8. Study of biological compartments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rocha, A.F.G. da

    1976-01-01

    The several types of biological compartments are studied such as monocompartmental system, one-compartment balanced system irreversible fluxes, two closed compartment system, three compartment systems, catenary systems and mammilary systems [pt

  9. Innate lymphoid cells in atherosclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engelbertsen, Daniel; Lichtman, Andrew H

    2017-12-05

    The family of innate lymphoid cells (ILCs) consisting of NK cells, lymphoid tissue inducer cells and the 'helper'-like ILC subsets ILC1, ILC2 and ILC3 have been shown to have important roles in protection against microbes, regulation of inflammatory diseases and involved in allergic reactions. ILC1s produce IFN-γ upon stimulation with IL-12 and IL-18, ILC2s produce IL-5 and IL-13 responding to IL-33 and IL-25 while ILC3s produce IL-17 and IL-22 after stimulation with IL-23 or IL-1. Although few studies have directly investigated the role for ILCs in atherosclerosis, several studies have investigated transcription factors and cytokines shared by ILCs and T helper cells. In this review we summarize our current understanding of the role of ILC in atherosclerosis and discuss future directions. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  10. Total lymphoid irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sutherland, D.E.; Ferguson, R.M.; Simmons, R.L.; Kim, T.H.; Slavin, S.; Najarian, J.S.

    1983-01-01

    Total lymphoid irradiation by itself can produce sufficient immunosuppression to prolong the survival of a variety of organ allografts in experimental animals. The degree of prolongation is dose-dependent and is limited by the toxicity that occurs with higher doses. Total lymphoid irradiation is more effective before transplantation than after, but when used after transplantation can be combined with pharmacologic immunosuppression to achieve a positive effect. In some animal models, total lymphoid irradiation induces an environment in which fully allogeneic bone marrow will engraft and induce permanent chimerism in the recipients who are then tolerant to organ allografts from the donor strain. If total lymphoid irradiation is ever to have clinical applicability on a large scale, it would seem that it would have to be under circumstances in which tolerance can be induced. However, in some animal models graft-versus-host disease occurs following bone marrow transplantation, and methods to obviate its occurrence probably will be needed if this approach is to be applied clinically. In recent years, patient and graft survival rates in renal allograft recipients treated with conventional immunosuppression have improved considerably, and thus the impetus to utilize total lymphoid irradiation for its immunosuppressive effect alone is less compelling. The future of total lymphoid irradiation probably lies in devising protocols in which maintenance immunosuppression can be eliminated, or nearly eliminated, altogether. Such protocols are effective in rodents. Whether they can be applied to clinical transplantation remains to be seen

  11. Dynamic balance between master transcription factors determines the fates and functions of CD4 T cell and innate lymphoid cell subsets

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-01

    CD4 T cells, including T regulatory cells (Treg cells) and effector T helper cells (Th cells), and recently identified innate lymphoid cells (ILCs) play important roles in host defense and inflammation. Both CD4 T cells and ILCs can be classified into distinct lineages based on their functions and the expression of lineage-specific genes, including those encoding effector cytokines, cell surface markers, and key transcription factors. It was first recognized that each lineage expresses a specific master transcription factor and the expression of these factors is mutually exclusive because of cross-regulation among these factors. However, recent studies indicate that the master regulators are often coexpressed. Furthermore, the expression of master regulators can be dynamic and quantitative. In this review, we will first discuss similarities and differences between the development and functions of CD4 T cell and ILC subsets and then summarize recent literature on quantitative, dynamic, and cell type–specific balance between the master transcription factors in determining heterogeneity and plasticity of these subsets. PMID:28630089

  12. Prions and lymphoid organs

    Science.gov (United States)

    O’Connor, Tracy; Aguzzi, Adriano

    2013-01-01

    Prion colonization of secondary lymphoid organs (SLOs) is a critical step preceding neuroinvasion in prion pathogenesis. Follicular dendritic cells (FDCs), which depend on both tumor necrosis factor receptor 1 (TNFR1) and lymphotoxin β receptor (LTβR) signaling for maintenance, are thought to be the primary sites of prion accumulation in SLOs. However, prion titers in RML-infected TNFR1−/− lymph nodes and rates of neuroinvasion in TNFR1−/− mice remain high despite the absence of mature FDCs. Recently, we discovered that TNFR1-independent prion accumulation in lymph nodes relies on LTβR signaling. Loss of LTβR signaling in TNFR1−/− lymph nodes coincided with the de-differentiation of high endothelial venules (HEVs)—the primary sites of lymphocyte entry into lymph nodes. These findings suggest that HEVs are the sites through which prions initially invade lymph nodes from the bloodstream. Identification of HEVs as entry portals for prions clarifies a number of previous observations concerning peripheral prion pathogenesis. However, a number of questions still remain: What is the mechanism by which prions are taken up by HEVs? Which cells are responsible for delivering prions to lymph nodes? Are HEVs the main entry site for prions into lymph nodes or do alternative routes also exist? These questions and others are considered in this article. PMID:23357827

  13. Rac1 augments Wnt signaling by stimulating β-catenin–lymphoid enhancer factor-1 complex assembly independent of β-catenin nuclear import

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamieson, Cara; Lui, Christina; Brocardo, Mariana G.; Martino-Echarri, Estefania; Henderson, Beric R.

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT β-Catenin transduces the Wnt signaling pathway and its nuclear accumulation leads to gene transactivation and cancer. Rac1 GTPase is known to stimulate β-catenin-dependent transcription of Wnt target genes and we confirmed this activity. Here we tested the recent hypothesis that Rac1 augments Wnt signaling by enhancing β-catenin nuclear import; however, we found that silencing/inhibition or up-regulation of Rac1 had no influence on nuclear accumulation of β-catenin. To better define the role of Rac1, we employed proximity ligation assays (PLA) and discovered that a significant pool of Rac1–β-catenin protein complexes redistribute from the plasma membrane to the nucleus upon Wnt or Rac1 activation. More importantly, active Rac1 was shown to stimulate the formation of nuclear β-catenin–lymphoid enhancer factor 1 (LEF-1) complexes. This regulation required Rac1-dependent phosphorylation of β-catenin at specific serines, which when mutated (S191A and S605A) reduced β-catenin binding to LEF-1 by up to 50%, as revealed by PLA and immunoprecipitation experiments. We propose that Rac1-mediated phosphorylation of β-catenin stimulates Wnt-dependent gene transactivation by enhancing β-catenin–LEF-1 complex assembly, providing new insight into the mechanism of cross-talk between Rac1 and canonical Wnt/β-catenin signaling. PMID:26403202

  14. Human innate lymphoid cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mjösberg, Jenny; Spits, Hergen

    2016-11-01

    Innate lymphoid cells (ILCs) are increasingly acknowledged as important mediators of immune homeostasis and pathology. ILCs act as early orchestrators of immunity, responding to epithelium-derived signals by expressing an array of cytokines and cell-surface receptors, which shape subsequent immune responses. As such, ILCs make up interesting therapeutic targets for several diseases. In patients with allergy and asthma, group 2 innate lymphoid cells produce high amounts of IL-5 and IL-13, thereby contributing to type 2-mediated inflammation. Group 3 innate lymphoid cells are implicated in intestinal homeostasis and psoriasis pathology through abundant IL-22 production, whereas group 1 innate lymphoid cells are accumulated in chronic inflammation of the gut (inflammatory bowel disease) and lung (chronic obstructive pulmonary disease), where they contribute to IFN-γ-mediated inflammation. Although the ontogeny of mouse ILCs is slowly unraveling, the development of human ILCs is far from understood. In addition, the growing complexity of the human ILC family in terms of previously unrecognized functional heterogeneity and plasticity has generated confusion within the field. Here we provide an updated view on the function and plasticity of human ILCs in tissue homeostasis and disease. Copyright © 2016 American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Human innate lymphoid cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mjösberg, Jenny; Spits, Hergen

    2016-01-01

    Innate lymphoid cells (ILCs) are increasingly acknowledged as important mediators of immune homeostasis and pathology. ILCs act as early orchestrators of immunity, responding to epithelium-derived signals by expressing an array of cytokines and cell-surface receptors, which shape subsequent immune

  16. Mapping of NKp46+ cells in healthy human lymphoid and non-lymphoid tissues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena eTomasello

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Understanding Natural Killer (NK cell anatomical distribution is key to dissect the role of these unconventional lymphocytes in physiological and disease conditions. In mouse, NK cells have been detected in various lymphoid and non-lymphoid organs, while in humans the current knowledge of NK cell distribution at steady state is mainly restricted to lymphoid tissues. The translation to humans of findings obtained in mice is facilitated by the identification of NK cell markers conserved between these two species. The Natural Cytotoxicity Receptor (NCR NKp46 is a marker of the NK cell lineage evolutionary conserved in mammals. In mice, NKp46 is also present on rare T cell subsets and on a subset of gut Innate Lymphoid Cells (ILCs expressing the retinoic acid receptor-related orphan receptor t (RORt transcription factor. Here, we documented the distribution and the phenotype of human NKp46+ cells in lymphoid and non-lymphoid tissues isolated from healthy donors. Human NKp46+ cells were found in splenic red pulp, in lymph nodes, in lungs and gut lamina propria, thus mirroring mouse NKp46+ cell distribution. We also identified a novel cell subset of CD56dimNKp46low cells that includes RORt+ILCs with a lineage-CD94-CD117brightCD127bright phenotype. The use of NKp46 thus contributes to establish the basis for analyzing quantitative and qualitative changes of NK cell and ILC subsets in human diseases.

  17. Mapping of NKp46+ Cells in Healthy Human Lymphoid and Non-Lymphoid Tissues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomasello, Elena; Yessaad, Nadia; Gregoire, Emilie; Hudspeth, Kelly; Luci, Carmelo; Mavilio, Domenico; Hardwigsen, Jean; Vivier, Eric

    2012-01-01

    Understanding Natural Killer (NK) cell anatomical distribution is key to dissect the role of these unconventional lymphocytes in physiological and disease conditions. In mouse, NK cells have been detected in various lymphoid and non-lymphoid organs, while in humans the current knowledge of NK cell distribution at steady state is mainly restricted to lymphoid tissues. The translation to humans of findings obtained in mice is facilitated by the identification of NK cell markers conserved between these two species. The Natural Cytotoxicity Receptor (NCR) NKp46 is a marker of the NK cell lineage evolutionary conserved in mammals. In mice, NKp46 is also present on rare T cell subsets and on a subset of gut Innate Lymphoid Cells (ILCs) expressing the retinoic acid receptor-related orphan receptor γt (RORγt) transcription factor. Here, we documented the distribution and the phenotype of human NKp46+ cells in lymphoid and non-lymphoid tissues isolated from healthy donors. Human NKp46+ cells were found in splenic red pulp, in lymph nodes, in lungs, and gut lamina propria, thus mirroring mouse NKp46+ cell distribution. We also identified a novel cell subset of CD56dimNKp46low cells that includes RORγt+ ILCs with a lineage−CD94−CD117brightCD127bright phenotype. The use of NKp46 thus contributes to establish the basis for analyzing quantitative and qualitative changes of NK cell and ILC subsets in human diseases. PMID:23181063

  18. Isolation of Human Innate Lymphoid Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krabbendam, Lisette; Nagasawa, Maho; Spits, Hergen; Bal, Suzanne M

    2018-06-29

    Innate lymphoid cells (ILCs) are innate immune cells of lymphoid origin that have important effector and regulatory functions in the first line of defense against pathogens, but also regulate tissue homeostasis, remodeling, and repair. Their function mirrors T helper cells and cytotoxic CD8 + T lymphocytes, but they lack expression of rearranged antigen-specific receptors. Distinct ILC subsets are classified in group 1 ILCs (ILC1s), group 2 ILCs (ILC2s), and group 3 ILCs (ILC3s and lymphoid tissue-inducer cells), based on the expression of transcription factors and the cytokines they produce. As the frequency of ILCs is low, their isolation requires extensive depletion of other cell types. The lack of unique cell surface antigens further complicates the identification of these cells. Here, methods for ILC isolation and characterization from human peripheral blood and different tissues are described. © 2018 by John Wiley & Sons, Inc. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

  19. Bioengineering of artificial lymphoid organs

    OpenAIRE

    NOSENKO M.A.; DRUTSKAYA M.S.; MOISENOVICH M.M.; NEDOSPASOV S.A.

    2016-01-01

    This review addresses the issue of bioengineering of artificial lymphoid organs.Progress in this field may help to better understand the nature of the structure-function relations that exist in immune organs. Artifical lymphoid organs may also be advantageous in the therapy or correction of immunodefficiencies, autoimmune diseases, and cancer. The structural organization, development, and function of lymphoid tissue are analyzed with a focus on the role of intercellular contacts and on the cy...

  20. Bioengineering of Artificial Lymphoid Organs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nosenko, M A; Drutskaya, M S; Moisenovich, M M; Nedospasov, S A

    2016-01-01

    This review addresses the issue of bioengineering of artificial lymphoid organs.Progress in this field may help to better understand the nature of the structure-function relations that exist in immune organs. Artifical lymphoid organs may also be advantageous in the therapy or correction of immunodefficiencies, autoimmune diseases, and cancer. The structural organization, development, and function of lymphoid tissue are analyzed with a focus on the role of intercellular contacts and on the cytokine signaling pathways regulating these processes. We describe various polymeric materials, as scaffolds, for artificial tissue engineering. Finally, published studies in which artificial lymphoid organs were generated are reviewed and possible future directions in the field are discussed.

  1. Ageing combines CD4 T cell lymphopenia in secondary lymphoid organs and T cell accumulation in gut associated lymphoid tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinet, Kim Zita; Bloquet, Stéphane; Bourgeois, Christine

    2014-01-01

    CD4 T cell lymphopenia is an important T cell defect associated to ageing. Higher susceptibility to infections, cancer, or autoimmune pathologies described in aged individuals is thought to partly rely on T cell lymphopenia. We hypothesize that such diverse effects may reflect anatomical heterogeneity of age related T cell lymphopenia. Indeed, no data are currently available on the impact of ageing on T cell pool recovered from gut associated lymphoid tissue (GALT), a crucial site of CD4 T cell accumulation. Primary, secondary and tertiary lymphoid organs of C57BL/6 animals were analysed at three intervals of ages: 2 to 6 months (young), 10 to 14 months (middle-aged) and 22 to 26 months (old). We confirmed that ageing preferentially impacted CD4 T cell compartment in secondary lymphoid organs. Importantly, a different picture emerged from gut associated mucosal sites: during ageing, CD4 T cell accumulation was progressively developing in colon and small intestine lamina propria and Peyer's patches. Similar trend was also observed in middle-aged SJL/B6 F1 mice. Interestingly, an inverse correlation was detected between CD4 T cell numbers in secondary lymphoid organs and colonic lamina propria of C57BL/6 mice whereas no increase in proliferation rate of GALT CD4 T cells was detected. In contrast to GALT, no CD4 T cell accumulation was detected in lungs and liver in middle-aged animals. Finally, the concomitant accumulation of CD4 T cell in GALT and depletion in secondary lymphoid organs during ageing was detected both in male and female animals. Our data thus demonstrate that T cell lymphopenia in secondary lymphoid organs currently associated to ageing is not sustained in gut or lung mucosa associated lymphoid tissues or non-lymphoid sites such as the liver. The inverse correlation between CD4 T cell numbers in secondary lymphoid organs and colonic lamina propria and the absence of overt proliferation in GALT suggest that marked CD4 T cell decay in secondary

  2. Why Innate Lymphoid Cells?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotas, Maya E; Locksley, Richard M

    2018-06-19

    Innate lymphoid cells (ILCs) are positioned in tissues perinatally, constitutively express receptors responsive to their organ microenvironments, and perform an arsenal of effector functions that overlap those of adaptive CD4 + T cells. Based on knowledge regarding subsets of invariant-like lymphocytes (e.g., natural killer T [NKT] cells, γδ T cells, mucosal-associated invariant T [MAIT] cells, etc.) and fetally derived macrophages, we hypothesize that immune cells established during the perinatal period-including, but not limited to, ILCs-serve intimate roles in tissue that go beyond classical understanding of the immune system in microbial host defense. In this Perspective, we propose mechanisms by which the establishment of ILCs and the tissue lymphoid niche during early development may have consequences much later in life. Although definitive answers require better tools, efforts to achieve deeper understanding of ILC biology across the mammalian lifespan have the potential to lift the veil on the unknown breadth of immune cell functions. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Progressive alterations in multipotent hematopoietic progenitors underlie lymphoid cell loss in aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Kira; Borikar, Sneha; Bell, Rebecca; Kuffler, Lauren; Philip, Vivek; Trowbridge, Jennifer J

    2016-10-17

    Declining immune function with age is associated with reduced lymphoid output of hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs). Currently, there is poor understanding of changes with age in the heterogeneous multipotent progenitor (MPP) cell compartment, which is long lived and responsible for dynamically regulating output of mature hematopoietic cells. In this study, we observe an early and progressive loss of lymphoid-primed MPP cells (LMPP/MPP4) with aging, concomitant with expansion of HSCs. Transcriptome and in vitro functional analyses at the single-cell level reveal a concurrent increase in cycling of aging LMPP/MPP4 with loss of lymphoid priming and differentiation potential. Impaired lymphoid differentiation potential of aged LMPP/MPP4 is not rescued by transplantation into a young bone marrow microenvironment, demonstrating cell-autonomous changes in the MPP compartment with aging. These results pinpoint an age and cellular compartment to focus further interrogation of the drivers of lymphoid cell loss with aging. © 2016 Young et al.

  4. ACUTE COMPARTMENT SYNDROME

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    muscle destruction, muscle fibrosis, contractures and permanent disability and at worst case scenario of amputation (3,4). As reported by Frink et al (3) on their study on acute compartment syndrome it can occur even when there is no fracture. Also general surgeons have reported acute compartment syndrome.

  5. Lymphoid Tissue Grafts in Man

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kay, H. E.M. [Royal Marsden Hospital, Institute of Cancer Research, London (United Kingdom)

    1969-07-15

    Grafts of lymphoid tissue or of lymphoid stem cells may be appropriate in the treatment of some congenital immune deficiency disorders. The reasons for preferring tissues of foetal origin are discussed and the evidence for foetal immunocompetence is briefly summarized. Methods of storing foetal liver cells and cells or fragments of thymus are mentioned, and the organization of the Foetal Tissue Bank of the Royal Marsden Hospital is described. Clinical data from transplantation of lymphoid cells in various immune deficiency disorders are briefly presented. (author)

  6. STUDIES ON TRANSMISSIBLE LYMPHOID LEUCEMIA OF MICE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furth, J; Strumia, M

    1931-04-30

    Lymphoid leucemia of the mouse is readily transmitted by intravenous inoculations. The majority of the mice inoculated successfully develop leucemic, a smaller number of them, aleucemic lymphadenosis. The data presented favor the view that leucemic and aleucemic lymphadenosis are essentially the same condition. Leucemia produced by transmission is preceded by an aleucemic stage, in which the lymph nodes and the spleen are uniformly enlarged, and the white blood count and the percentage of lymphocytes are within the normal range but immature lymphocytes are numerous in the circulating blood. Young as well as old mice may develop leucemia if leucotic material enters their circulation. Studies of transmissible leucemia favor the view that leucemia of mammals is a neoplastic disease. The basic problem of leucemia would seem to be determination of the factors that bring about a malignant transformation of lymphoid cells.

  7. Characteristic of innate lymphoid cells (ILC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mateusz Adamiak

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Innate lymphoid cells (ILC is a newly described family of immune cells that are part of the natural immunity which is important not only during infections caused by microorganisms, but also in the formation of lymphoid tissue, tissue remodeling after damage due to injury and homeostasis tissue stromal cells. Family ILC cells form NK cells (natural killer and lymphoid tissue inducer T cells (LTi, which, although they have different functions, are evolutionarily related. NK cells are producing mainly IFN-γ, whereas LTi cells as NKR+LTi like, IL-17 and/or IL-22, which suggests that the last two cells, can also represent the innate versions of helper T cell - TH17 and TH22. Third population of ILC is formed by cells with characteristics such as NK cells and LTi (ILC22 - which are named NK22 cells, natural cytotoxicity receptor 22 (NCR22 cells or NK receptor-positive (LTi NKR+ LTi cells. Fourth population of ILC cells are ILC17 - producing IL-17, while the fifth is formed by natural helper type 2 T cells (nTH2, nuocyte, innate type 2 helper cells (IH2 and multi-potent progenitor type 2 cells (MPPtype2. Cells of the last population synthesize IL-5 and IL-13. It is assumed that an extraordinary functional diversity of ILC family, resembles T cells, probably because they are under the control of the corresponding transcription factors - as direct regulation factors, such as the family of lymphocytes T.

  8. Clinicopathological Risk Factors and Biochemical Predictors of Safe Discharge after Total Thyroidectomy and Central Compartment Node Dissection for Thyroid Cancer: A Prospective Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-mi Lee

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available To determine the clinicopathological risk factors and reliable biochemical predictors of the development of hypocalcemic symptoms after total thyroidectomy on the basis of serum calcium and intact parathyroid hormone (PTH levels measured 1 hour after surgery, a prospective study was performed on 817 patients who underwent a total thyroidectomy with central compartment node dissection (CCND due to well-differentiated thyroid cancer. We evaluated the correlations between hypocalcemic symptom development and clinicopathological factors. And the predictability for hypocalcemic symptom development of intact PTH cut-offs (<10 pg/mL and <20 pg/mL, resp. according to serum calcium level subgroup was analyzed. Female gender (P<0.001 was the only independent risk factor for hypocalcemic symptom development in multivariate regression analysis. The negative predictive value (NPV of intact PTH, signifying nondevelopment of hypocalcemic symptoms, was higher than the positive predictive value (PPV which signified development of hypocalcemic symptoms. In addition, when we applied the different adoption of the intact PTH cut-off according to serum calcium level, we could obtain more increased NPVs. A female gender and the application of more specific cut-offs for intact PTH according to the serum calcium levels measured 1 hour after surgery may help the patients to be more safely discharged.

  9. IL-17 producing innate lymphoid cells 3 (ILC3) but not Th17 cells might be the potential danger factor for preeclampsia and other pregnancy associated diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnie, Prince A; Lin, Xin; Liu, Yueqin; Xu, Huaxi; Su, Zhaoliang

    2015-01-01

    In pregnancy, the immunologic system plays an important role that ensures normal pregnancy development and can as well promote the development of complications. Pregnancy success appears to rely on a discrete balance between the Th cytokines, which are involved in fetal growth and development. Preeclampsia and gestational diabetes are known complications associated with pregnancy. However, the source of the increased IL-17 cytokine in preeclampsia and other pregnancy associated diseases still remains unclear amidst numerous inconsistencies. The recent identification of innate lymphoid cells (ILC) has raised more doubts about the sources of most of the Th associated cytokines. We investigated the source of peripheral IL-17 levels in preeclamptic, gestational diabetics and chronic diabetics compared to healthy pregnancy subjects. To evaluate the source of the increased IL-17 cytokine among preeclampsia, chronic diabetic and gestational diabetic patients we investigated the proportion of Th17 cell populations in peripheral blood mononuclear cells using flow cytometry as well as analyzing levels of IFN-γ, IL-17, IL-1β and HMGB1. This study found that the Th17 cell populations in peripheral blood of preeclamptic, gestational nor chronic diabetes during pregnancy did not correlate with the increased IL-17. We report that the increased IL-17 levels observed in patients with preeclampsia, gestational diabetes and chronic diabetes are associated with innate lymphoid cells 3 (ILC3) and may pose threats to the fetus if disregulated.

  10. A two-compartment mechanochemical model of the roles of transforming growth factor and tissue tension in dermal wound healing

    KAUST Repository

    Murphy, Kelly E.; Hall, Cameron L.; McCue, Scott W.; Sean McElwain, D.L.

    2011-01-01

    The repair of dermal tissue is a complex process of interconnected phenomena, where cellular, chemical and mechanical aspects all play a role, both in an autocrine and in a paracrine fashion. Recent experimental results have shown that transforming growth factor -β (TGF β) and tissue mechanics play roles in regulating cell proliferation, differentiation and the production of extracellular materials. We have developed a 1D mathematical model that considers the interaction between the cellular, chemical and mechanical phenomena, allowing the combination of TGF β and tissue stress to inform the activation of fibroblasts to myofibroblasts. Additionally, our model incorporates the observed feature of residual stress by considering the changing zero-stress state in the formulation for effective strain. Using this model, we predict that the continued presence of TGF β in dermal wounds will produce contractures due to the persistence of myofibroblasts; in contrast, early elimination of TGF β significantly reduces the myofibroblast numbers resulting in an increase in wound size. Similar results were obtained by varying the rate at which fibroblasts differentiate to myofibroblasts and by changing the myofibroblast apoptotic rate. Taken together, the implication is that elevated levels of myofibroblasts is the key factor behind wounds healing with excessive contraction, suggesting that clinical strategies which aim to reduce the myofibroblast density may reduce the appearance of contractures. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd.

  11. A two-compartment mechanochemical model of the roles of transforming growth factor and tissue tension in dermal wound healing

    KAUST Repository

    Murphy, Kelly E.

    2011-03-01

    The repair of dermal tissue is a complex process of interconnected phenomena, where cellular, chemical and mechanical aspects all play a role, both in an autocrine and in a paracrine fashion. Recent experimental results have shown that transforming growth factor -β (TGF β) and tissue mechanics play roles in regulating cell proliferation, differentiation and the production of extracellular materials. We have developed a 1D mathematical model that considers the interaction between the cellular, chemical and mechanical phenomena, allowing the combination of TGF β and tissue stress to inform the activation of fibroblasts to myofibroblasts. Additionally, our model incorporates the observed feature of residual stress by considering the changing zero-stress state in the formulation for effective strain. Using this model, we predict that the continued presence of TGF β in dermal wounds will produce contractures due to the persistence of myofibroblasts; in contrast, early elimination of TGF β significantly reduces the myofibroblast numbers resulting in an increase in wound size. Similar results were obtained by varying the rate at which fibroblasts differentiate to myofibroblasts and by changing the myofibroblast apoptotic rate. Taken together, the implication is that elevated levels of myofibroblasts is the key factor behind wounds healing with excessive contraction, suggesting that clinical strategies which aim to reduce the myofibroblast density may reduce the appearance of contractures. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd.

  12. Neuropilin-1 Is Expressed on Lymphoid Tissue Residing LTi-like Group 3 Innate Lymphoid Cells and Associated with Ectopic Lymphoid Aggregates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shikhagaie, Medya Mara; Björklund, Åsa K; Mjösberg, Jenny; Erjefält, Jonas S; Cornelissen, Anne S; Ros, Xavier Romero; Bal, Suzanne M; Koning, Jasper J; Mebius, Reina E; Mori, Michiko; Bruchard, Melanie; Blom, Bianca; Spits, Hergen

    2017-02-14

    Here, we characterize a subset of ILC3s that express Neuropilin1 (NRP1) and are present in lymphoid tissues, but not in the peripheral blood or skin. NRP1 + group 3 innate lymphoid cells (ILC3s) display in vitro lymphoid tissue inducer (LTi) activity. In agreement with this, NRP1 + ILC3s are mainly located in proximity to high endothelial venules (HEVs) and express cell surface molecules involved in lymphocyte migration in secondary lymphoid tissues via HEVs. NRP1 was also expressed on mouse fetal LTi cells, indicating that NRP1 is a conserved marker for LTi cells. Human NRP1 + ILC3s are primed cells because they express CD45RO and produce higher amounts of cytokines than NRP1 - cells, which express CD45RA. The NRP1 ligand vascular endothelial growth factor A (VEGF-A) served as a chemotactic factor for NRP1 + ILC3s. NRP1 + ILC3s are present in lung tissues from smokers and patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, suggesting a role in angiogenesis and/or the initiation of ectopic pulmonary lymphoid aggregates. Copyright © 2017 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Total lymphoid irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1980-01-01

    An outline review notes recent work on total lymphoid irradiation (TLI) as a means of preparing patients for grafts and particularly for bone-marrow transplantation. T.L.I. has proved immunosuppressive in rats, mice, dogs, monkeys and baboons; when given before bone-marrow transplantation, engraftment took place without, or with delayed rejection or graft-versus-host disease. Work with mice has indicated that the thymus needs to be included within the irradiation field, since screening of the thymus reduced skin-graft survival from 50 to 18 days, though irradiation of the thymus alone has proved ineffective. A more lasting tolerance has been observed when T.L.I. is followed by an injection of donor bone marrow. 50% of mice treated in this way accepted allogenic skin grafts for more than 100 days, the animals proving to be stable chimeras with 50% of their peripheral blood lymphocytes being of donor origin. Experiments of a similar nature with dogs and baboons were not so successful. (U.K.)

  14. Identification of rep-associated factors in herpes simplex virus type 1-induced adeno-associated virus type 2 replication compartments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicolas, Armel; Alazard-Dany, Nathalie; Biollay, Coline; Arata, Loredana; Jolinon, Nelly; Kuhn, Lauriane; Ferro, Myriam; Weller, Sandra K; Epstein, Alberto L; Salvetti, Anna; Greco, Anna

    2010-09-01

    Adeno-associated virus (AAV) is a human parvovirus that replicates only in cells coinfected with a helper virus, such as adenovirus or herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1). We previously showed that nine HSV-1 factors are able to support AAV rep gene expression and genome replication. To elucidate the strategy of AAV replication in the presence of HSV-1, we undertook a proteomic analysis of cellular and HSV-1 factors associated with Rep proteins and thus potentially recruited within AAV replication compartments (AAV RCs). This study resulted in the identification of approximately 60 cellular proteins, among which factors involved in DNA and RNA metabolism represented the largest functional categories. Validation analyses indicated that the cellular DNA replication enzymes RPA, RFC, and PCNA were recruited within HSV-1-induced AAV RCs. Polymerase delta was not identified but subsequently was shown to colocalize with Rep within AAV RCs even in the presence of the HSV-1 polymerase complex. In addition, we found that AAV replication is associated with the recruitment of components of the Mre11/Rad50/Nbs1 complex, Ku70 and -86, and the mismatch repair proteins MSH2, -3, and -6. Finally, several HSV-1 factors were also found to be associated with Rep, including UL12. We demonstrated for the first time that this protein plays a role during AAV replication by enhancing the resolution of AAV replicative forms and AAV particle production. Altogether, these analyses provide the basis to understand how AAV adapts its replication strategy to the nuclear environment induced by the helper virus.

  15. Escherichia coli Contamination across Multiple Environmental Compartments (Soil, Hands, Drinking Water, and Handwashing Water) in Urban Harare: Correlations and Risk Factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navab-Daneshmand, Tala; Friedrich, Max N D; Gächter, Marja; Montealegre, Maria Camila; Mlambo, Linn S; Nhiwatiwa, Tamuka; Mosler, Hans-Joachim; Julian, Timothy R

    2018-03-01

    Escherichia coli pathotypes (i.e., enteropathogenic and enterotoxigenic) have been identified among the pathogens most responsible for moderate-to-severe diarrhea in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). Pathogenic E. coli are transmitted from infected human or animal feces to new susceptible hosts via environmental reservoirs such as hands, water, and soil. Commensal E. coli , which includes nonpathogenic E. coli strains, are widely used as fecal bacteria indicator, with their presence associated with increased likelihood of enteric pathogens and/or diarrheal disease. In this study, we investigated E. coli contamination in environmental reservoirs within households ( N = 142) in high-population density communities of Harare, Zimbabwe. We further assessed the interconnectedness of the environmental compartments by investigating associations between, and household-level risk factors for, E. coli contamination. From the data we collected, the source and risk factors for E. coli contamination are not readily apparent. One notable exception is the presence of running tap water on the household plot, which is associated with significantly less E. coli contamination of drinking water, handwashing water, and hands after handwashing. In addition, E. coli levels on hands after washing are significantly associated with handwashing water contamination, hand contamination before washing, and diarrhea incidence. Finally, we observed that animal ownership increases E. coli contamination in soil, and E. coli in soil are correlated with contamination on hands before washing. This study highlights the complexity of E. coli contamination in household environments within LMICs. More, larger, studies are needed to better identify sources and exposure pathways of E. coli -and enteric pathogens generally-to identify effective interventions.

  16. Multi-compartment microscopic diffusion imaging

    OpenAIRE

    Kaden, Enrico; Kelm, Nathaniel D.; Carson, Robert P.; Does, Mark D.; Alexander, Daniel C.

    2016-01-01

    This paper introduces a multi-compartment model for microscopic diffusion anisotropy imaging. The aim is to estimate microscopic features specific to the intra- and extra-neurite compartments in nervous tissue unconfounded by the effects of fibre crossings and orientation dispersion, which are ubiquitous in the brain. The proposed MRI method is based on the Spherical Mean Technique (SMT), which factors out the neurite orientation distribution and thus provides direct estimates of the microsco...

  17. Innate lymphoid cells and the skin

    OpenAIRE

    Salimi, Maryam; Ogg, Graham

    2014-01-01

    Innate lymphoid cells are an emerging family of effector cells that contribute to lymphoid organogenesis, metabolism, tissue remodelling and protection against infections. They maintain homeostatic immunity at barrier surfaces such as lung, skin and gut (Nature 464:1367?1371, 2010, Nat Rev Immunol 13: 145?149, 2013). Several human and mouse studies suggest a role for innate lymphoid cells in inflammatory skin conditions including atopic eczema and psoriasis. Here we review the innate lymphoid...

  18. Florid reactive lymphoid hyperplasia of terminal ileum

    OpenAIRE

    Kanakala, Venkatesh; Birch, Peter; Kasaraneni, Ramesh

    2010-01-01

    Florid lymphoid hyperplasia in the terminal ileum can present to surgeons as an acute abdominal pain. Only few cases were reported in the literature. Our case illustrates that a rare case of florid lymphoid hyperplasia can present to surgeons as acute appendicitis. During the operation the gross appearance may mimic Crohn’s disease. A limited resection is sufficient to clinch the diagnosis of florid lymphoid hyperplasia / Crohn’s disease. In florid lymphoid hyperplasia limited resection may b...

  19. Effect of peripheral lymphoid cells on the incidence of lethal graft versus host disease following allogeneic mouse bone marrow transplantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Almaraz, R.; Ballinger, W.; Sachs, D.H.; Rosenberg, S.A.

    1983-01-01

    Experiments were performed to study the role of circulating lymphoid cells in the incidence of lethal graft versus host disease (GVHD) in radiation-induced fully allogeneic mouse chimeras. The incidence of GVHD was reduced significantly in BALB/c leads to C57BL/6 radiation chimeras if bone marrow donors were exsanguinated immediately prior to marrow harvest. Chimeras resulting from the injection of bone marrow from bled donors exhibited only donor cells in spleen, bone marrow and peripheral blood and normal levels of Thy 1+ and Ia+ cells were found in each of these lymphoid compartments. The addition of as few as 3 X 10(4) peripheral mononuclear cells to the marrow from exsanguinated donors uniformly led to lethal GVHD. 51 Cr-labeled cell traffic studies revealed that prior exsanguination of marrow donors led to about a 70% reduction in the number of circulating mononuclear cells contaminating the bone marrow at the time of marrow harvest. This decrease in contaminating peripheral cells was calculated to be in the appropriate range to account for the decreased GVHD seen when marrow from exsanguinated donors was used. It thus appears that peripheral cells contaminating marrow can be an important factor in causing lethal GVHD in allogeneic radiation chimeras

  20. Developmental acquisition of regulomes underlies innate lymphoid cell functionality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Innate lymphoid cells (ILCs) play key roles in host defense, barrier integrity, and homeostasis, and they mirror adaptive CD4+ T helper (Th) cell subtypes in both usages of effector molecules and ·transcription factors. To better understand ILC subsets and their relationship with Th cells, we measur...

  1. Differential protective effects of immune lymphoid cells against transplanted line Ib leukemia and immune polioencephalomyelitis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duffey, P.S.; Lukasewycz, O.A.; Olson, D.S.; Murphy, W.H.

    1978-01-01

    The capacity of immune cells obtained from the major lymphoid compartments to protect C58 mice from transplanted line Ib leukemia, and from an age-dependent autoimmune CNS disease (immune polioencephalomyelitis = IPE) elicited by immunizing old C58 mice with inactivated Ib cells was quantified. Cells used for comparative adoptive protection tests were harvested from the major lymphoid compartments 14 to 15 days after young C58 mice were immunized with inactivated Ib cell preparations. Regression curves were plotted from survival data and the log 10 PD 50 values were determined. Immune spleen (ISC) and peritoneal cells (IPEC) were significantly more protective against transplanted Ib cells than immune lymph node (ILNC), thymic (ITC), and marrow cells (IMC). In contrast, IPEC and IMC were not protective against IPE and ITC were only marginally protective. ILNC afforded significant protection to transplantable leukemia but were only marginally protective to IPE. When ISC were treated with anti-thy 1.2 serum and complement, protection against transplanted leukemia and IPE was reduced > 99%. When donors of immune lymphoid cells were treated with 12.5 mg of cortisone acetate daily for 2 days before lymphoid cells were harvested, protection against transplanted Ib cells by ISC was reduced by approximately 90% whereas protection against IPE was totally eliminated. Considered together, these results indicate that the protective mechanisms to transplantable leukemia and IPE differ significantly in the same indicator mouse strain

  2. Innate lymphoid cells and asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Sanhong; Kim, Hye Young; Chang, Ya-Jen; DeKruyff, Rosemarie H; Umetsu, Dale T

    2014-04-01

    Asthma is a complex and heterogeneous disease with several phenotypes, including an allergic asthma phenotype characterized by TH2 cytokine production and associated with allergen sensitization and adaptive immunity. Asthma also includes nonallergic asthma phenotypes, such as asthma associated with exposure to air pollution, infection, or obesity, that require innate rather than adaptive immunity. These innate pathways that lead to asthma involve macrophages, neutrophils, natural killer T cells, and innate lymphoid cells, newly described cell types that produce a variety of cytokines, including IL-5 and IL-13. We review the recent data regarding innate lymphoid cells and their role in asthma. Copyright © 2014 American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Compartment syndrome without pain!

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    O'Sullivan, M J

    2012-02-03

    We report the case of a young male patient who underwent intra-medullary nailing for a closed, displaced mid-shaft fracture of tibia and fibula. He was commenced on patient controlled analgesia post-operatively. A diagnosis of compartment syndrome in the patient\\'s leg was delayed because he did not exhibit a pain response. This ultimately resulted in a below-knee amputation of the patient\\'s leg. We caution against the use of patient controlled analgesia in any traumatised limb distal to the hip or the shoulder.

  4. Modeling of compartment fire

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sathiah, P.; Siccama, A.; Visser, D.; Komen, E.

    2011-01-01

    Fire accident in a containment is a serious threat to nuclear reactors. Fire can cause substantial loss to life and property. The risk posed by fire can also exceed the risk from internal events within a nuclear reactor. Numerous research efforts have been performed to understand and analyze the phenomenon of fire in nuclear reactor and its consequences. Modeling of fire is an important subject in the field of fire safety engineering. Two approaches which are commonly used in fire modeling are zonal modeling and field modeling. The objective of this work is to compare zonal and field modeling approach against a pool fired experiment performed in a well-confined compartment. Numerical simulations were performed against experiments, which were conducted within PRISME program under the framework of OECD. In these experiments, effects of ventilation flow rate on heat release rate in a confined and mechanically ventilated compartment is investigated. Time dependent changes in gas temperature and oxygen mass fraction were measured. The trends obtained by numerical simulation performed using zonal model and field model compares well with experiments. Further validation is needed before this code can be used for fire safety analyses. (author)

  5. Histological and three dimensional organizations of lymphoid tubules in normal lymphoid organ of Penaeus monodon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duangsuwan, Pornsawan; Phoungpetchara, Ittipon; Tinikul, Yotsawan; Poljaroen, Jaruwan; Wanichanon, Chaitip; Sobhon, Prasert

    2008-04-01

    The normal lymphoid organ of Penaeus monodon (which tested negative for WSSV and YHV) was composed of two parts: lymphoid tubules and interstitial spaces, which were permeated with haemal sinuses filled with large numbers of haemocytes. There were three permanent types of cells present in the wall of lymphoid tubules: endothelial, stromal and capsular cells. Haemocytes penetrated the endothelium of the lymphoid tubule's wall to reside among the fixed cells. The outermost layer of the lymphoid tubule was covered by a network of fibers embedded in a PAS-positive extracellular matrix, which corresponded to a basket-like network that covered all the lymphoid tubules as visualized by a scanning electron microscope (SEM). Argyrophilic reticular fibers surrounded haemal sinuses and lymphoid tubules. Together they formed the scaffold that supported the lymphoid tubule. Using vascular cast and SEM, the three dimensional structure of the subgastric artery that supplies each lobe of the lymphoid organ was reconstructed. This artery branched into highly convoluted and blind-ending terminal capillaries, each forming the lumen of a lymphoid tubule around which haemocytes and other cells aggregated to form a cuff-like wall. Stromal cells which form part of the tubular scaffold were immunostained for vimentin. Examination of the whole-mounted lymphoid organ, immunostained for vimentin, by confocal microscopy exhibited the highly branching and convoluted lymphoid tubules matching the pattern of the vascular cast observed in SEM.

  6. ID’ing Innate and Innate-like Lymphoid Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verykokakis, Mihalis; Zook, Erin C.; Kee, Barbara L.

    2014-01-01

    Summary The immune system can be divided into innate and adaptive components that differ in their rate and mode of cellular activation, with innate immune cells being the first responders to invading pathogens. Recent advances in the identification and characterization of innate lymphoid cells have revealed reiterative developmental programs that result in cells with effector fates that parallel those of adaptive lymphoid cells and are tailored to effectively eliminate a broad spectrum of pathogenic challenges. However, activation of these cells can also be associated with pathologies such as autoimmune disease. One major distinction between innate and adaptive immune system cells is the constitutive expression of ID proteins in the former and inducible expression in the latter. ID proteins function as antagonists of the E protein transcription factors that play critical roles in lymphoid specification as well as B and T-lymphocyte development. In this review, we examine the transcriptional mechanisms controlling the development of innate lymphocytes, including natural killer cells and the recently identified innate lymphoid cells (ILC1, ILC2, and ILC3), and innate-like lymphocytes, including natural killer T cells, with an emphasis on the known requirements for the ID proteins. PMID:25123285

  7. ID'ing innate and innate-like lymphoid cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verykokakis, Mihalis; Zook, Erin C; Kee, Barbara L

    2014-09-01

    The immune system can be divided into innate and adaptive components that differ in their rate and mode of cellular activation, with innate immune cells being the first responders to invading pathogens. Recent advances in the identification and characterization of innate lymphoid cells have revealed reiterative developmental programs that result in cells with effector fates that parallel those of adaptive lymphoid cells and are tailored to effectively eliminate a broad spectrum of pathogenic challenges. However, activation of these cells can also be associated with pathologies such as autoimmune disease. One major distinction between innate and adaptive immune system cells is the constitutive expression of ID proteins in the former and inducible expression in the latter. ID proteins function as antagonists of the E protein transcription factors that play critical roles in lymphoid specification as well as B- and T-lymphocyte development. In this review, we examine the transcriptional mechanisms controlling the development of innate lymphocytes, including natural killer cells and the recently identified innate lymphoid cells (ILC1, ILC2, and ILC3), and innate-like lymphocytes, including natural killer T cells, with an emphasis on the known requirements for the ID proteins. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Synchronous high-risk melanoma and lymphoid neoplasia.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Cahill, R A

    2012-02-03

    Large population-based studies have shown a significant association between melanoma and lymphoid neoplasia, particularly non-Hodgkin\\'s lymphoma (NHL) and chronic lymphocytic leukaemia (CLL), that is independent of any treatment received for the initial tumour. This study examines the presentation, diagnosis, treatment and progress of three patients who developed advanced melanoma concurrently with a lymphoid neoplasm (one NHL, two CLLs), in order to illustrate their association, discuss common aetiological factors and examine possible therapeutic options. As it is the melanoma rather than the lymphoid neoplasm that represents the bigger threat to overall survival, initial treatment should be targeted towards this cancer. However, because of the interplay between the diseases and the possible side-effects of the various treatments, the choice of adjuvant therapy requires careful consideration. Immunosuppression associated with chemotherapy may permit a more aggressive course for the melanoma, while locoregional radiotherapy is contraindicated following lymph node dissections. As immunotherapy is of benefit in the treatment of melanoma and has also been recently shown to be effective in the management of lymphoid neoplasia, we instituted interferon-alpha as adjuvant therapy for these patients, thereby utilizing a single agent to treat the dual pathologies. The three patients have now been followed-up for 6 months without evidence of disease recurrence or progression.

  9. Kidney compartment model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gullberg, G.T.

    1976-09-01

    A multiparameter kidney compartment model which quantitates the amount of iodohippurate concentration as a function of time in the blood, tissue, kidneys and bladder is developed from a system of differential equations which represent first order kinetics. The kinetic data are obtained using a gamma camera and an HP5407 computer system which allows one to delineate areas of interest for the blood and tissue, kidneys, and bladder thus separating the data into four data sets. The estimated tubular transit times have a high ratio of the signal to the variance whereas the estimates of the amount of iodohippurate in the blood, tissue and kidneys have a low ratio of the signal to the variance. Application of this model to patient data requires better statistics than available with conventional 131 I-hippurate doses; thus a true test of the efficacy awaits availability of 123 I-hippurate

  10. Low CXCL13 expression, splenic lymphoid tissue atrophy and germinal center disruption in severe canine visceral leishmaniasis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joselli S Silva

    Full Text Available Visceral leishmaniasis is associated with atrophy and histological disorganization of splenic compartments. In this paper, we compared organized and disorganized splenic lymphoid tissue from dogs naturally infected with Leishmania infantum assessing the size of the white pulp compartments, the distribution of T, B and S100+ dendritic cells, using immunohistochemistry and morphometry and the expression of CCR7 and the cytokines, CXCL13, lymphotoxin (LT-α, LT-β, CCL19, CCL21, TNF-α, IL-10, IFN-γ and TGF-β, using by real time RT-PCR. The lymphoid follicles and marginal zones were smaller (3.2 and 1.9 times, respectively; Mann-Whitney, P<0.02 in animals with disorganized splenic tissue in comparison to those with organized splenic lymphoid tissue. In spleens with disorganized lymphoid tissue, the numbers of T cells and S100+ dendritic cells were decreased in the follicles, and the numbers of B cells were reduced in both the follicles and marginal zones. CXCL13 mRNA expression was lower in animals with disorganized lymphoid tissue (0.5±0.4 compared to those with organized lymphoid tissue (2.7±2.9, both relative to 18S expression, P = 0.01. These changes in the spleen were associated with higher frequency of severe disease (7/12 in the animals with disorganized than in animals with organized (2/13, Chi-square, P = 0.01 splenic lymphoid tissue. The data presented herein suggest that natural infection with Leishmania infantum is associated with the impairment of follicular dendritic cells, CXCL13 expression, B cell migration and germinal center formation and associates these changes with severe clinical forms of visceral leishmaniasis. Furthermore the fact that this work uses dogs naturally infected with Leishmania infantum emphasizes the relevance of the data presented herein for the knowledge on the canine and human visceral leishmaniasis.

  11. Deciphering the Innate Lymphoid Cell Transcriptional Program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cyril Seillet

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Innate lymphoid cells (ILCs are enriched at mucosal surfaces, where they provide immune surveillance. All ILC subsets develop from a common progenitor that gives rise to pre-committed progenitors for each of the ILC lineages. Currently, the temporal control of gene expression that guides the emergence of these progenitors is poorly understood. We used global transcriptional mapping to analyze gene expression in different ILC progenitors. We identified PD-1 to be specifically expressed in PLZF+ ILCp and revealed that the timing and order of expression of the transcription factors NFIL3, ID2, and TCF-1 was critical. Importantly, induction of ILC lineage commitment required only transient expression of NFIL3 prior to ID2 and TCF-1 expression. These findings highlight the importance of the temporal program that permits commitment of progenitors to the ILC lineage, and they expand our understanding of the core transcriptional program by identifying potential regulators of ILC development.

  12. Shaping Innate Lymphoid Cell Diversity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiutong Huang

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Innate lymphoid cells (ILCs are a key cell type that are enriched at mucosal surfaces and within tissues. Our understanding of these cells is growing rapidly. Paradoxically, these cells play a role in maintaining tissue integrity but they also function as key drivers of allergy and inflammation. We present here the most recent understanding of how genomics has provided significant insight into how ILCs are generated and the enormous heterogeneity present within the canonical subsets. This has allowed the generation of a detailed blueprint for ILCs to become highly sensitive and adaptive sensors of environmental changes and therefore exquisitely equipped to protect immune surfaces.

  13. The E-Id Protein Axis Specifies Adaptive Lymphoid Cell Identity and Suppresses Thymic Innate Lymphoid Cell Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyazaki, Masaki; Miyazaki, Kazuko; Chen, Kenian; Jin, Yi; Turner, Jacob; Moore, Amanda J; Saito, Rintaro; Yoshida, Kenichi; Ogawa, Seishi; Rodewald, Hans-Reimer; Lin, Yin C; Kawamoto, Hiroshi; Murre, Cornelis

    2017-05-16

    Innate and adaptive lymphoid development is orchestrated by the activities of E proteins and their antagonist Id proteins, but how these factors regulate early T cell progenitor (ETP) and innate lymphoid cell (ILC) development remains unclear. Using multiple genetic strategies, we demonstrated that E proteins E2A and HEB acted in synergy in the thymus to establish T cell identity and to suppress the aberrant development of ILCs, including ILC2s and lymphoid-tissue-inducer-like cells. E2A and HEB orchestrated T cell fate and suppressed the ILC transcription signature by activating the expression of genes associated with Notch receptors, T cell receptor (TCR) assembly, and TCR-mediated signaling. E2A and HEB acted in ETPs to establish and maintain a T-cell-lineage-specific enhancer repertoire, including regulatory elements associated with the Notch1, Rag1, and Rag2 loci. On the basis of these and previous observations, we propose that the E-Id protein axis specifies innate and adaptive lymphoid cell fate. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Characterization of NCR1+ cells residing in lymphoid tissues in the gut of lambs indicates that the majority are NK cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olsen, Line; Boysen, Preben; Åkesson, Caroline Piercey; Gunnes, Gjermund; Connelley, Timothy; Storset, Anne K; Espenes, Arild

    2013-11-13

    Natural killer (NK) cells are important for immune protection of the gut mucosa. Previous studies have shown that under pathologic conditions NK cells, T cells and dendritic cells are found co-localised in secondary lymphoid organs where their interaction coordinates immune responses. However, in the gut-associated lymphoid tissues (GALTs), there are few detailed reports on the distribution of NK cells. Sheep harbour several types of organised lymphoid tissues in the gut that have different functions. The ileal Peyer's patch (IPP) functions as a primary lymphoid tissue for B cell generation, while the jejunal Peyer's patches (JPPs) and colon patches (CPs) are considered secondary lymphoid tissues. In the present study, we analysed tissues from healthy lambs by flow cytometry and in situ multicolour immunofluorescence, using recently described NCR1 antibodies to identify ovine NK cells. Most NCR1+ cells isolated from all tissues were negative for the pan T cell marker CD3, and thus comply with the general definition of NK cells. The majority of NCR1+ cells in blood as well as secondary lymphoid organs expressed CD16, but in the GALT around half of the NCR1+ cells were negative for CD16. A semi-quantitative morphometric study on tissue sections was used to compare the density of NK cells in four compartments of the IPPs, JPP and CPs. NCR1+ cells were found in all gut segments. Statistical analysis revealed significant differences between compartments of the primary lymphoid organ IPP and the secondary lymphoid organs of the JPPs and CP. NK cells co-localised and made close contact with T cells, dendritic cells and other NK cells, but did not show signs of proliferation. We conclude that NK cells are present in all investigated segments of the sheep gut, but that presence of other innate lymphoid cells expressing NCR1 cannot be excluded.

  15. Innate lymphoid cells in inflammation and immunity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    McKenzie, Andrew N. J.; Spits, Hergen; Eberl, Gerard

    2014-01-01

    Innate lymphoid cells (ILCs) were first described as playing important roles in the development of lymphoid tissues and more recently in the initiation of inflammation at barrier surfaces in response to infection or tissue damage. It has now become apparent that ILCs play more complex roles

  16. Transcriptional control of innate lymphoid cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mjösberg, Jenny; Bernink, Jochem; Peters, Charlotte; Spits, Hergen

    2012-01-01

    Cells that belong to the family of innate lymphoid cells (ILCs) not only form a first line of defense against invading microbes, but also play essential roles in tissue remodeling and immune pathology. Ror?t+ ILCs, producing the cytokines IL-22 and IL-17, include lymphoid tissue inducer (LTi) cells

  17. Lymphoid cells in chicken intestinal epithelium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjerregaard, P

    1975-01-01

    The intraepithelial lymphoid cells of chicken small intestine were studied by light microscopy using 1 mu Epon sections, and by electron microscopy. Three cell types were found: small lymphocytes, large lymphoid cells, and granular cells. These cells correspond to the theliolymphocytes and globule...

  18. Herpes simplex virus replication compartments can form by coalescence of smaller compartments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taylor, Travis J; McNamee, Elizabeth E.; Day, Cheryl; Knipe, David M.

    2003-01-01

    Herpes simplex virus (HSV) uses intranuclear compartmentalization to concentrate the viral and cellular factors required for the progression of the viral life cycle. Processes as varied as viral DNA replication, late gene expression, and capsid assembly take place within discrete structures within the nucleus called replication compartments. Replication compartments are hypothesized to mature from a few distinct structures, called prereplicative sites, that form adjacent to cellular nuclear matrix-associated ND10 sites. During productive infection, the HSV single-stranded DNA-binding protein ICP8 localizes to replication compartments. To further the understanding of replication compartment maturation, we have constructed and characterized a recombinant HSV-1 strain that expresses an ICP8 molecule with green fluorescent protein (GFP) fused to its C terminus. In transfected Vero cells that were infected with HSV, the ICP8-GFP protein localized to prereplicative sites in the presence of the viral DNA synthesis inhibitor phosphonoacetic acid (PAA) or to replication compartments in the absence of PAA. A recombinant HSV-1 strain expressing the ICP8-GFP virus replicated in Vero cells, but the yield was increased by 150-fold in an ICP8-complementing cell line. Using the ICP8-GFP protein as a marker for replication compartments, we show here that these structures start as punctate structures early in infection and grow into large, globular structures that eventually fill the nucleus. Large replication compartments were formed by small structures that either moved through the nucleus to merge with adjacent compartments or remained relatively stationary within the nucleus and grew by accretion and fused with neighboring structures

  19. Zinc finger protein 521 antagonizes early B-cell factor 1 and modulates the B-lymphoid differentiation of primary hematopoietic progenitors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mega, Tiziana; Lupia, Michela; Amodio, Nicola; Horton, Sarah J.; Mesuraca, Maria; Pelaggi, Daniela; Agosti, Valter; Grieco, Michele; Chiarella, Emanuela; Spina, Raffaella; Moore, Malcolm A. S.; Schuringa, Jan Jacob; Bond, Heather M.; Morrone, Giovanni

    2011-01-01

    Zinc finger protein 521 (EHZF/ZNF521) is a multi-functional transcription co-factor containing 30 zinc fingers and an N-terminal motif that binds to the nucleosome remodelling and histone deacetylase (NuRD) complex. ZNF521 is believed to be a relevant player in the regulation of the homeostasis of

  20. Beyond NK cells: the expanding universe of innate lymphoid cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cella, Marina; Miller, Hannah; Song, Christina

    2014-01-01

    For a long time, natural killer (NK) cells were thought to be the only innate immune lymphoid population capable of responding to invading pathogens under the influence of changing environmental cues. In the last few years, an increasing amount of evidence has shown that a number of different innate lymphoid cell (ILC) populations found at mucosal sites rapidly respond to locally produced cytokines in order to establish or maintain homeostasis. These ILC populations closely mirror the phenotype of adaptive T helper subsets in their repertoire of secreted soluble factors. Early in the immune response, ILCs are responsible for setting the stage to mount an adaptive T cell response that is appropriate for the incoming insult. Here, we review the diversity of ILC subsets and discuss similarities and differences between ILCs and NK cells in function and key transcriptional factors required for their development.

  1. Beyond NK cells: the expanding universe of Innate Lymphoid Cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina eCella

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available For a long time NK cells were thought to be the only immune innate lymphoid population capable of responding to invading pathogens under the influence of changing environmental cues. In the last few years, an increasing amount of evidence has shown that a number of different Innate Lymphoid Cells found at mucosal sites rapidly respond to locally produced cytokines in order to establish or maintain homeostasis. ILC populations closely mirror the phenotype of adaptive Thelper subsets in their ability to secrete soluble factors. Early in the immune response, ILCs are responsible for setting the stage to mount an adaptive T cell response appropriate to the incoming insult. Here we review the diversity of ILC subsets and discuss similarities and differences between ILCs and NK cells in function and key transcriptional factors required for their development.

  2. Multi-compartment Fire Modeling for Switchgear Room using CFAST

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han, Kiyoon; Kang, Dae Il; Lim, Ho Gon

    2015-01-01

    In this study, multi-compartment fire modeling for fire propagation scenario from SWGR A to SWGR B is performed using CFAST. New fire PSA method (NUREG/CR-6850) requires that the severity factor is to be calculated by fire modeling. If fire modeling is not performed, the severity factor should be estimated as one conservatively. Also, the possibility of the damages of components and cables located at adjacent compartments should be considered. Detailed fire modeling of multi-compartment fires refers to the evaluation of fire-generated conditions in one compartment that spread to adjacent ones. In general, the severity factor for multi-compartment fire scenario is smaller than that of single compartment scenario. Preliminary quantification of Hanul Unit 3 fire PSA was performed without fire modeling. As a result of quantification, multi-compartment scenario, fire propagation scenario from switchgear room (SWGR) A to SWGR B, is one of significant contributor to the CDF. In this study, fire modeling of multi-compartment was performed by Consolidated Fire Growth and Smoke Transport (CFAST) to identify the possibility of fire propagation. As a result of fire simulation, it is identified that fire propagation has little influences

  3. Multi-compartment Fire Modeling for Switchgear Room using CFAST

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Han, Kiyoon; Kang, Dae Il; Lim, Ho Gon [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-10-15

    In this study, multi-compartment fire modeling for fire propagation scenario from SWGR A to SWGR B is performed using CFAST. New fire PSA method (NUREG/CR-6850) requires that the severity factor is to be calculated by fire modeling. If fire modeling is not performed, the severity factor should be estimated as one conservatively. Also, the possibility of the damages of components and cables located at adjacent compartments should be considered. Detailed fire modeling of multi-compartment fires refers to the evaluation of fire-generated conditions in one compartment that spread to adjacent ones. In general, the severity factor for multi-compartment fire scenario is smaller than that of single compartment scenario. Preliminary quantification of Hanul Unit 3 fire PSA was performed without fire modeling. As a result of quantification, multi-compartment scenario, fire propagation scenario from switchgear room (SWGR) A to SWGR B, is one of significant contributor to the CDF. In this study, fire modeling of multi-compartment was performed by Consolidated Fire Growth and Smoke Transport (CFAST) to identify the possibility of fire propagation. As a result of fire simulation, it is identified that fire propagation has little influences.

  4. Homeobox protein MSX-1 inhibits expression of bone morphogenetic protein 2, bone morphogenetic protein 4, and lymphoid enhancer-binding factor 1 via Wnt/β-catenin signaling to prevent differentiation of dental mesenchymal cells during the late bell stage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Xiao-Yu; Wu, Xiao-Shan; Wang, Jin-Song; Zhang, Chun-Mei; Wang, Song-Lin

    2018-02-01

    Homeobox protein MSX-1 (hereafter referred to as MSX-1) is essential for early tooth-germ development. Tooth-germ development is arrested at bud stage in Msx1 knockout mice, which prompted us to study the functions of MSX-1 beyond this stage. Here, we investigated the roles of MSX-1 during late bell stage. Mesenchymal cells of the mandibular first molar were isolated from mice at embryonic day (E)17.5 and cultured in vitro. We determined the expression levels of β-catenin, bone morphogenetic protein 2 (Bmp2), Bmp4, and lymphoid enhancer-binding factor 1 (Lef1) after knockdown or overexpression of Msx1. Our findings suggest that knockdown of Msx1 promoted expression of Bmp2, Bmp4, and Lef1, resulting in elevated differentiation of odontoblasts, which was rescued by blocking the expression of these genes. In contrast, overexpression of Msx1 decreased the expression of Bmp2, Bmp4, and Lef1, leading to a reduction in odontoblast differentiation. The regulation of Bmp2, Bmp4, and Lef1 by Msx1 was mediated by the Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway. Additionally, knockdown of Msx1 impaired cell proliferation and slowed S-phase progression, while overexpression of Msx1 also impaired cell proliferation and prolonged G1-phase progression. We therefore conclude that MSX-1 maintains cell proliferation by regulating transition of cells from G1-phase to S-phase and prevents odontoblast differentiation by inhibiting expression of Bmp2, Bmp4, and Lef1 at the late bell stage via the Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway. © 2017 Eur J Oral Sci.

  5. The effect of peripheral lymphoid cells on the incidence of lethal graft versus host disease following allogeneic mouse bone marrow transplantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Almaraz, R.; Ballinger, W.; Sachs, D.H.; Rosenberg, S.A.

    1983-01-01

    Experiments were performed to study the role of circulating lymphoid cells in the incidence of lethal graft versus host disease (GVHD) in radiation-induced fully allogeneic mouse chimeras. The incidence of GVHD was reduced significantly in BALB/c leads to C57BL/6 radiation chimeras if bone marrow donors were exsanguinated immediately prior to marrow harvest. Chimeras resulting from the injection of bone marrow from bled donors exhibited only donor cells in spleen, bone marrow and peripheral blood and normal levels of Thy 1+ and Ia+ cells were found in each of these lymphoid compartments. The addition of as few as 3 X 10(4) peripheral mononuclear cells to the marrow from exsanguinated donors uniformly led to lethal GVHD. 51 Cr-labeled cell traffic studies revealed that prior exsanguination of marrow donors led to about a 70% reduction in the number of circulating mononuclear cells contaminating the bone marrow at the time of marrow harvest. This decrease in contaminating peripheral cells was calculated to be in the appropriate range to account for the decreased GVHD seen when marrow from exsanguinated donors was used. It thus appears that peripheral cells contaminating marrow can be an important factor in causing lethal GVHD in allogeneic radiation chimeras. These results raise the possibility that the fulminant GVHD seen in human marrow transplantation is in part due to the major contamination of bone marrow with peripheral blood that results from the techniques currently used for human bone marrow harvest

  6. Season, Transport Duration and Trailer Compartment Effects on Blood Stress Indicators in Pigs: Relationship to Environmental, Behavioral and Other Physiological Factors, and Pork Quality Traits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberta Sommavilla

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to assess the effects of the season, travel duration and trailer compartment location on blood creatine-kinase (CK, lactate and cortisol concentrations in 384 pigs and assess their relationships with trailer temperature, heart rate and gastrointestinal tract temperature (GTT, behavior, carcass damage scores and meat quality. Blood CK was greater in pigs transported in summer (p = 0.02, after 18 h transportation (p < 0.001 and in pigs located in C4, C5 and C10 (p = 0.002. In winter, the concentration of blood lactate was higher (p = 0.04 in pigs transported for 6 h in C5. Pigs located in C10 showed higher (p = 0.01 concentration of cortisol than those transported for 18h in C4 in summer. The highest correlations were between blood cortisol and GTT (r = 0.53; p < 0.001, and between blood CK and GTT (r = 0.41; p < 0.001, truck temperature (r = 0.42; p < 0.001, and pHu in the longissimus muscle (r = 0.41; p < 0.001. In conclusion, although increased blood cortisol and CK levels appear to indicate a physical stress condition in transported pigs, the weak to moderate correlations with environmental and other animal welfare indicators suggest that blood stress parameters can only be used as a complementary measurement in the assessment of the pigs’ response to transport stress.

  7. Innate Lymphoid Cells in Tumor Immunity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Beek, Jasper J P; Martens, Anne W J; Bakdash, Ghaith; de Vries, I Jolanda M

    2016-02-25

    Innate lymphoid cells (ILCs) are a group of immune cells of the lymphoid lineage that do not possess antigen specificity. The group includes natural killer (NK) cells, lymphoid tissue inducer (LTi) cells and the recently identified ILC1s, ILC2s and ILC3s. Although the role of NK cells in the context of cancer has been well established, the involvement of other ILC subsets in cancer progression and resistance is just emerging. Here, we review the literature on the role of the different ILC subsets in tumor immunity and discuss its implications for cancer treatment and monitoring.

  8. Functional and phenotypic heterogeneity of group 3 innate lymphoid cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melo-Gonzalez, Felipe; Hepworth, Matthew R

    2017-03-01

    Group 3 innate lymphoid cells (ILC3), defined by expression of the transcription factor retinoid-related orphan receptor γt, play key roles in the regulation of inflammation and immunity in the gastrointestinal tract and associated lymphoid tissues. ILC3 consist largely of two major subsets, NCR + ILC3 and LTi-like ILC3, but also demonstrate significant plasticity and heterogeneity. Recent advances have begun to dissect the relationship between ILC3 subsets and to define distinct functional states within the intestinal tissue microenvironment. In this review we discuss the ever-expanding roles of ILC3 in the context of intestinal homeostasis, infection and inflammation - with a focus on comparing and contrasting the relative contributions of ILC3 subsets. © 2016 The Authors. Immunology published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Differential protective effects of immune lymphoid cells against transplanted line Ib leukemia and immune polioencephalomyelitis. [X radiation, mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duffey, P.S.; Lukasewycz, O.A.; Olson, D.S.; Murphy, W.H.

    1978-12-01

    The capacity of immune cells obtained from the major lymphoid compartments to protect C58 mice from transplanted line Ib leukemia, and from an age-dependent autoimmune CNS disease (immune polioencephalomyelitis = IPE) elicited by immunizing old C58 mice with inactivated Ib cells was quantified. Cells used for comparative adoptive protection tests were harvested from the major lymphoid compartments 14 to 15 days after young C58 mice were immunized with inactivated Ib cell preparations. Regression curves were plotted from survival data and the log/sub 10/PD/sub 50/ values were determined. Immune spleen (ISC) and peritoneal cells (IPEC) were significantly more protective against transplanted Ib cells than immune lymph node (ILNC), thymic (ITC), and marrow cells (IMC). In contrast, IPEC and IMC were not protective against IPE and ITC were only marginally protective. ILNC afforded significant protection to transplantable leukemia but were only marginally protective to IPE. When ISC were treated with anti-thy 1.2 serum and complement, protection against transplanted leukemia and IPE was reduced > 99%. When donors of immune lymphoid cells were treated with 12.5 mg of cortisone acetate daily for 2 days before lymphoid cells were harvested, protection against transplanted Ib cells by ISC was reduced by approximately 90% whereas protection against IPE was totally eliminated. Considered together, these results indicate that the protective mechanisms to transplantable leukemia and IPE differ significantly in the same indicator mouse strain.

  10. Generation of Immunoglobulin diversity in human gut-associated lymphoid tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spencer, Jo; Barone, Francesca; Dunn-Walters, Deborah

    2009-06-01

    The organised gut associated lymphoid tissue (GALT) exists adjacent to an extensive and diverse luminal flora. The follicle associated epithelium and associated dendritic cells and lymphocytes form a tightly fortified gateway between the flora and the host that permits connectivity between them and chronic activation of the lymphoid compartment. As a consequence, plasma cell precursors are generated continuously, and in abundance, in GALT by clonal proliferation. Clonal proliferation alone on this scale would reduce the spectrum of B cell specificity. To compensate, GALT also houses molecular machinery that diversifies the receptor repertoire by somatic hypermutation, class switch recombination and receptor revision. These three processes of enhancing the diversity of mature B cells ensure that although clonally related plasma cells may secrete immunoglobulin side by side in the mucosa they rarely have identical antigen binding sites.

  11. Double-compartment wrist arthrography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quinn, S.F.; Pittman, C.; Belsole, R.; Greene, T.L.; Rayhack, J.; Clark, R.A.; King, P.S.

    1987-01-01

    Seventy patients with clinical wrist problems were studied with double-compartment wrist arthrography. Midcarpal and radiocarpal compartment arthrograms were obtained in all patients. Digital subtraction technique was used to subtract out contrast from the first compartmental injection. Digital technique also allowed a dynamic record of each injection, which helped determine sites of intercompartmental communication. Postarthrography exercises recorded on videotape were performed after each injection. There were 34 normal studies. Abnormalities in the other 36 patients included: scapholunate communication (n = 9), lunatotriquetral communication (n = 6), communication with tendon sheaths (n = 4), communication with distal radioulnar compartment (n = 14), abnormal synovium process (n = 9), and communication through the radial or ulnar collateral ligament (n = 3). Double-compartment wrist arthrography may provide additional information for complex problems of the wrist

  12. Perfluoroalkyl acid distribution in various plant compartments ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crop uptake of perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) from biosolids-amended soil has been identified as a potential pathway for PFAA entry into the terrestrial food chain. This study compared the uptake of PFAAs in greenhouse-grown radish (Raphanus sativus), celery (Apium graveolens var.dulce), tomato (Lycopersicon lycopersicum), and sugar snap pea (Pisum sativum var. macrocarpon) from an industrially impacted biosolids-amended soil, a municipal biosolids­ amended soil, and a control soil. Individual concentrations of PFAAs, on a dry weight basis, in mature, edible portions of crops grown in soil amended with PFAA industrially impacted biosolids were highest for perfluorooctanoate (PFOA; 67 ng/g) in radish root, perfluorobutanoate (PFBA;232 ng/g) in celery shoot, and PFBA (150 ng/g) in pea fruit. Comparatively, PFAA concentrations in edible compartments of crops grown in the municipal biosolids-amended soil and in the control soil were less than 25 ng/g. Bioaccumulation factors (BAFs) were calculated for the root, shoot, and fruit compartments (as applicable) of all crops grown in the industrially impacted soil. BAFs were highest for PFBA in the shoots of all crops, as well as in the fruit compartment of pea. Root­ soil concentration factors (RCFs) for tomato and pea were independent of PFAA chain length, while radish and celery RCFs showed a slight decrease with increasing chain length. Shoot-soil concentration factors (SCFs) for all crops showed a decrease with incre

  13. Maternal retinoids control type 3 innate lymphoid cells and set the offspring immunity

    Science.gov (United States)

    van de Pavert, Serge A.; Ferreira, Manuela; Domingues, Rita G.; Ribeiro, Hélder; Molenaar, Rosalie; Moreira-Santos, Lara; Almeida, Francisca F.; Ibiza, Sales; Barbosa, Inês; Goverse, Gera; Labão-Almeida, Carlos; Godinho-Silva, Cristina; Konijn, Tanja; Schooneman, Dennis; O'Toole, Tom; Mizee, Mark R.; Habani, Yasmin; Haak, Esther; Santori, Fabio R.; Littman, Dan R.; Schulte-Merker, Stefan; Dzierzak, Elaine; Simas, J. Pedro; Mebius, Reina E.; Veiga-Fernandes, Henrique

    2014-04-01

    The impact of nutritional status during fetal life on the overall health of adults has been recognized; however, dietary effects on the developing immune system are largely unknown. Development of secondary lymphoid organs occurs during embryogenesis and is considered to be developmentally programmed. Secondary lymphoid organ formation depends on a subset of type 3 innate lymphoid cells (ILC3) named lymphoid tissue inducer (LTi) cells. Here we show that mouse fetal ILC3s are controlled by cell-autonomous retinoic acid (RA) signalling in utero, which pre-sets the immune fitness in adulthood. We found that embryonic lymphoid organs contain ILC progenitors that differentiate locally into mature LTi cells. Local LTi cell differentiation was controlled by maternal retinoid intake and fetal RA signalling acting in a haematopoietic cell-autonomous manner. RA controlled LTi cell maturation upstream of the transcription factor RORγt. Accordingly, enforced expression of Rorgt restored maturation of LTi cells with impaired RA signalling, whereas RA receptors directly regulated the Rorgt locus. Finally, we established that maternal levels of dietary retinoids control the size of secondary lymphoid organs and the efficiency of immune responses in the adult offspring. Our results reveal a molecular link between maternal nutrients and the formation of immune structures required for resistance to infection in the offspring.

  14. The Role of TOX in the Development of Innate Lymphoid Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seehus, Corey R; Kaye, Jonathan

    2015-01-01

    TOX, an evolutionarily conserved member of the HMG-box family of proteins, is essential for the development of various cells of both the innate and adaptive immune system. TOX is required for the development of CD4(+) T lineage cells in the thymus, including natural killer T and T regulatory cells, as well as development of natural killer cells and fetal lymphoid tissue inducer cells, the latter required for lymph node organogenesis. Recently, we have identified a broader role for TOX in the innate immune system, demonstrating that this nuclear protein is required for generation of bone marrow progenitors that have potential to give rise to all innate lymphoid cells. Innate lymphoid cells, classified according to transcription factor expression and cytokine secretion profiles, derive from common lymphoid progenitors in the bone marrow and require Notch signals for their development. We discuss here the role of TOX in specifying CLP toward an innate lymphoid cell fate and hypothesize a possible role for TOX in regulating Notch gene targets during innate lymphoid cell development.

  15. The Role of TOX in the Development of Innate Lymphoid Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Corey R. Seehus

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available TOX, an evolutionarily conserved member of the HMG-box family of proteins, is essential for the development of various cells of both the innate and adaptive immune system. TOX is required for the development of CD4+ T lineage cells in the thymus, including natural killer T and T regulatory cells, as well as development of natural killer cells and fetal lymphoid tissue inducer cells, the latter required for lymph node organogenesis. Recently, we have identified a broader role for TOX in the innate immune system, demonstrating that this nuclear protein is required for generation of bone marrow progenitors that have potential to give rise to all innate lymphoid cells. Innate lymphoid cells, classified according to transcription factor expression and cytokine secretion profiles, derive from common lymphoid progenitors in the bone marrow and require Notch signals for their development. We discuss here the role of TOX in specifying CLP toward an innate lymphoid cell fate and hypothesize a possible role for TOX in regulating Notch gene targets during innate lymphoid cell development.

  16. Innate lymphoid cells and their stromal microenvironments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kellermayer, Zoltán; Vojkovics, Dóra; Balogh, Péter

    2017-09-01

    In addition to the interaction between antigen presenting cells, T and B lymphocytes, recent studies have revealed important roles for a diverse set of auxiliary cells that profoundly influence the induction and regulation of immune responses against pathogens. Of these the stromal cells composed of various non-hematopoietic constituents are crucial for the creation and maintenance of specialized semi-static three-dimensional lymphoid tissue microenvironment, whereas the more recently described innate lymphoid cells are generated by the diversification of committed lymphoid precursor cells independently from clonally rearranged antigen receptor genes. Recent findings have revealed important contributions by innate lymphoid cells in inflammation and protection against pathogens in a tissue-specific manner. Importantly, lymphoid stromal cells also influence the onset of immune responses in tissue-specific fashion, raising the possibility of tissue-specific stromal - innate lymphoid cell collaboration. In this review we summarize the main features and interactions between these two cells types, with particular emphasis on ILC type 3 cells and their microenvironmental partners. Copyright © 2017 European Federation of Immunological Societies. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Dual-Compartment Inflatable Suitlock

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, Kriss J.; Guirgis, Peggy L.; Boyle, Robert M.

    2013-01-01

    There is a need for an improvement over current NASA Extravehicular Activity (EVA) technology. The technology must allow the capacity for quicker, more efficient egress/ingress, allow for shirtsleeve suit maintenance, be compact in transport, and be applicable to environments ranging from planetary surface (partial-g) to orbital or deep space zero-g environments. The technology must also be resistant to dust and other foreign contaminants that may be present on or around a planetary surface. The technology should be portable, and be capable of docking with a variety of habitats, ports, stations, vehicles, and other pressurized modules. The Dual-Compartment Inflatable Suitlock (DCIS) consists of three hard inline bulkheads, separating two cylindrical membrane-walled compartments. The Inner Bulkhead can be fitted with a variety of hatch types, docking flanges, and mating hardware, such as the Common Berthing Mechanism (CBM), for the purpose of mating with vehicles, habitats, and other pressurized modules. The Inner Bulkhead and Center Bulkhead function as the end walls of the Inner Compartment, which during operations, would stay pressurized, either matching the pressure of the habitat or acting as a lower-pressure transitional volume. The Inner Compartment contains donning/doffing fixtures and inner suit-port hatches. The Center Bulkhead has two integrated suit-ports along with a maintenance hatch. The Center Bulkhead and Outer Bulkhead function as the end walls of the Outer Compartment, which stays at vacuum during normal operations. This allows the crewmember to quickly don a suit, and egress the suitlock without waiting for the Outer Compartment to depressurize. The Outer Compartment can be pressurized infrequently for both nominal and off-nominal suit maintenance tasks, allowing shirtsleeve inspections and maintenance/repair of the environmental suits. The Outer Bulkhead has a pressure-assisted hatch door that stays open and stowed during EVA operations, but can

  18. HCV Virus and Lymphoid Neoplasms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yutaka Tsutsumi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Hepatitis C virus (HCV is one of the viruses known to cause hepatic cancer. HCV is also believed to be involved in malignant lymphoma. In this paper, we investigated characteristics of malignant lymphoma cases that were anti-HCV antibody (HCV-Ab positive. We were able to perform pathological examinations on 13 out of 14 HCV-positive cases. Of these, lymphoid tissues of 10 stained positive for HCV-Ab. There was no significant correlation between the degree of HCV staining and the rate of recurrence or resistance to treatment. However, there did appear to be a consistent decrease in the amount of HCV-RNA between pre- and posttreatment among HCV-Ab-positive cases; that is, treatment-resistant cases that exhibited resistance from the first treatment and recurrent cases more frequently had a higher HCV level at treatment termination compared to the pretreatment level. This suggests that the HCV virus either accelerates oncogenesis by direct interaction with B cells or indirectly affects lymphoma prognosis.

  19. Epigenomic Views of Innate Lymphoid Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sciumè, Giuseppe; Shih, Han-Yu; Mikami, Yohei; O'Shea, John J

    2017-01-01

    The discovery of innate lymphoid cells (ILCs) with selective production of cytokines typically attributed to subsets of T helper cells forces immunologists to reassess the mechanisms by which selective effector functions arise. The parallelism between ILCs and T cells extends beyond these two cell types and comprises other innate-like T lymphocytes. Beyond the recognition of specialized effector functionalities in diverse lymphocytes, features typical of T cells, such as plasticity and memory, are also relevant for innate lymphocytes. Herein, we review what we have learned in terms of the molecular mechanisms underlying these shared functions, focusing on insights provided by next generation sequencing technologies. We review data on the role of lineage-defining- and signal-dependent transcription factors (TFs). ILC regulomes emerge developmentally whereas the much of the open chromatin regions of T cells are generated acutely, in an activation-dependent manner. And yet, these regions of open chromatin in T cells and ILCs have remarkable overlaps, suggesting that though accessibility is acquired by distinct modes, the end result is that convergent signaling pathways may be involved. Although much is left to be learned, substantial progress has been made in understanding how TFs and epigenomic status contribute to ILC biology in terms of differentiation, specification, and plasticity.

  20. Transference factor of radiocaesium for the different compartments of a mediterranean forest and the relation between the radiocaesium and the organic matter content in soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rauret, G.; Sanchez-Reyes, A.F.; Febrian, I.; Llaurado, M.; Tejada, J.

    1988-01-01

    The new amount of radiocesium coming from Chernobyl may allow to study the soil-plant transfer factor for this element. The radiocesium distribution as well as the soil-plant transfer factor were studied for two zones located at the north east of Spain: the first one is a forest zone near the Catalan coast (Cabrils) and the second one is a mountainous zone 20 km far from the mediterranean Sea (Montseny). From the samples collected at Cabrils and at the Montseny zone, it is suggested to take the 134 Cs as a new indicator for the contamination originated after the Chernobyl accident. It seems reasonable to calculate the soil-plant transfer factor for this radioisotope instead of for 137 Cs, because of the 137 Cs double origin: the sixties fallout and the Chernobyl accident. The soil-plant 134 Cs transfer factor (T.F.) was calculated for different samples from the same sampling point and with similar organic matter content. The results for the Cabrils and Montseny zones are presented. It is observed that for aromatic plants the T.F. is about 0.6 while for green plants the T.F. is less than the above values. For moss, lichen and trumpery, the values obtained are in the range between 4 and 18, while for braken and mushrooms the T. F. values are less than 1

  1. Lower limb compartment syndrome following laparoscopic colorectal surgery: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, M M; Jayne, D

    2011-05-01

      In spite of recent advances in technology and technique, laparoscopic colorectal surgery is associated with increased operating times when compared with open surgery. This increases the risk of acute lower limb compartment syndrome. The aim of this review was to gain a better understanding of postoperative lower limb compartment syndrome following laparoscopic colorectal surgery and to suggest strategies to avoid its occurrence. A MEDLINE search was performed using the keywords 'compartment syndrome', 'laparoscopic surgery' and 'Lloyd-Davies position' between 1970 and 2008. All relevant articles were retrieved and reviewed. A total of 54 articles were retrieved. Of the 30 articles in English, five were reviews, six were original articles and 19 were case reports, of which only one was following laparoscopic colorectal surgery. The remaining 24 were non-English articles. Of these, two were reviews and 22 were case reports, of which only one was following laparoscopic colorectal surgery. The incidence of acute compartment syndrome following laparoscopic colorectal surgery is unknown. The following are believed to be risk factors for acute lower limb compartment syndrome: the Lloyd-Davies operating position with exaggerated Trendelenburg tilt, prolonged operative times and improper patient positioning. Simple strategies are suggested to reduce its occurrence. Simple preventative measures have been identified which may help to reduce the incidence of acute lower limb compartment syndrome. However, if suspected, timely surgical intervention with four-compartment fasciotomy remains the standard of care. © 2011 The Authors. Colorectal Disease © 2011 The Association of Coloproctology of Great Britain and Ireland.

  2. A two-compartment mechanochemical model of the roles of transforming growth factor β and tissue tension in dermal wound healing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Kelly E; Hall, Cameron L; McCue, Scott W; Sean McElwain, D L

    2011-03-07

    The repair of dermal tissue is a complex process of interconnected phenomena, where cellular, chemical and mechanical aspects all play a role, both in an autocrine and in a paracrine fashion. Recent experimental results have shown that transforming growth factor -β (TGFβ) and tissue mechanics play roles in regulating cell proliferation, differentiation and the production of extracellular materials. We have developed a 1D mathematical model that considers the interaction between the cellular, chemical and mechanical phenomena, allowing the combination of TGFβ and tissue stress to inform the activation of fibroblasts to myofibroblasts. Additionally, our model incorporates the observed feature of residual stress by considering the changing zero-stress state in the formulation for effective strain. Using this model, we predict that the continued presence of TGFβ in dermal wounds will produce contractures due to the persistence of myofibroblasts; in contrast, early elimination of TGFβ significantly reduces the myofibroblast numbers resulting in an increase in wound size. Similar results were obtained by varying the rate at which fibroblasts differentiate to myofibroblasts and by changing the myofibroblast apoptotic rate. Taken together, the implication is that elevated levels of myofibroblasts is the key factor behind wounds healing with excessive contraction, suggesting that clinical strategies which aim to reduce the myofibroblast density may reduce the appearance of contractures. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Colonic lymphoid follicles associated with colonic neoplasms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glick, S.N.; Teplick, S.K.; Ross, W.M.

    1986-01-01

    The authors prospectively evaluated 62 patients over 40 years old in whom lymphoid follicles were demonstrated on double-contrast enema examinations. Eighteen patients (29%) had no current radiographic evidence of, or history of, colonic neoplasms. Forty-four patients (71%) had an associated neoplasm. Fourteen patients had associated colonic carcinoma, and ten patients had a history of a previously resected colon cancer. One patient had previously undergone resection for ''polyps.'' Twenty-two patients had an associated ''polyp.'' There were no clinical or radiographic features that could reliably distinguish the neoplastic from the nonneoplastic groups. However, lymphoid follicles in the left colon or diffusely involving the colon were more likely to be associated with a colonic neoplasm. Lymphoid follicles were almost always identified near a malignant lesion

  4. TOX sets the stage for innate lymphoid cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spits, Hergen

    2015-01-01

    Like T cells and B cells, innate lymphoid cells (ILCs) develop from common lymphoid progenitors, but how commitment to the ILC lineage is regulated has remained unclear. The transcriptional regulator TOX is important in this process

  5. Pathological and therapeutic roles of innate lymphoid cells in diverse diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jisu; Kim, Geon; Min, Hyeyoung

    2017-11-01

    Innate lymphoid cells (ILCs) are a recently defined type of innate-immunity cells that belong to the lymphoid lineage and have lymphoid morphology but do not express an antigen-specific B cell or T-cell receptor. ILCs regulate immune functions prior to the formation of adaptive immunity and exert effector functions through a cytokine release. ILCs have been classified into three groups according to the transcription factors that regulate their development and function and the effector cytokines they produce. Of note, ILCs resemble T helper (Th) cells, such as Th1, Th2, and Th17 cells, and show a similar dependence on transcription factors and distinct cytokine production. Despite their short history in immunology, ILCs have received much attention, and numerous studies have revealed biological functions of ILCs including host defense against pathogens, inflammation, tissue repair, and metabolic homeostasis. Here, we describe recent findings about the roles of ILCs in the pathogenesis of various diseases and potential therapeutic targets.

  6. Tertiary Intratumor Lymphoid Tissue in Colo-Rectal Cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Bergomas, Francesca; Grizzi, Fabio; Doni, Andrea; Pesce, Samantha; Laghi, Luigi; Allavena, Paola; Mantovani, Alberto; Marchesi, Federica

    2011-01-01

    Ectopic (or tertiary) lymphoid tissue develops at sites of inflammation or infection in non lymphoid organs and is associated with chronic inflammation. In colon mucosa, small lymphoid aggregates are already present in homeostatic conditions, as part of the gut-associated lymphoid tissue and play an essential role in the immune response to perturbations of the mucosal microenvironment. Despite the recognized role of inflammation in tumor progression, the presence and biological function of ly...

  7. Understanding Immune Cells in Tertiary Lymphoid Organ Development: It Is All Starting to Come Together

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Gareth W.; Hill, David G.; Jones, Simon A.

    2016-01-01

    Tertiary lymphoid organs (TLOs) are frequently observed in tissues affected by non-resolving inflammation as a result of infection, autoimmunity, cancer, and allograft rejection. These highly ordered structures resemble the cellular composition of lymphoid follicles typically associated with the spleen and lymph node compartments. Although TLOs within tissues show varying degrees of organization, they frequently display evidence of segregated T and B cell zones, follicular dendritic cell networks, a supporting stromal reticulum, and high endothelial venules. In this respect, they mimic the activities of germinal centers and contribute to the local control of adaptive immune responses. Studies in various disease settings have described how these structures contribute to either beneficial or deleterious outcomes. While the development and architectural organization of TLOs within inflamed tissues requires homeostatic chemokines, lymphoid and inflammatory cytokines, and adhesion molecules, our understanding of the cells responsible for triggering these events is still evolving. Over the past 10–15 years, novel immune cell subsets have been discovered that have more recently been implicated in the control of TLO development and function. In this review, we will discuss the contribution of these cell types and consider the potential to develop new therapeutic strategies that target TLOs. PMID:27752256

  8. Imaging lymphoid tissues in nonhuman primates to understand SIV pathogenesis and persistence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deleage, Claire; Turkbey, Baris; Estes, Jacob D

    2016-08-01

    CD4+ T cells are the primary HIV-1 target cell, with the vast majority of these cells residing within lymphoid tissue compartments throughout the body. Predictably, HIV-1 infection, replication, localization, reservoir establishment and persistence, as well as associated host immune and inflammatory responses and disease pathology principally take place within the tissues of the immune system. By virture of the fact that the virus-host struggle is played out within lymphoid and additional tissues compartments in HIV-1 infected individuals it is critical to understand HIV-1 infection and disease within these relevant tissue sites; however, there are obvious limitations to studying these dynamic processes in humans. Nonhuman primate (NHP) research has provided a vital bridge between basic and preclinical research and clinical studies, with experimental SIV infection of NHP models offering unique opportunities to understand key processes of HIV-1 infection and disease that are either not practically feasible or ethical in HIV-1 infected humans. In this review we will discuss current approaches to studying the tissue based immunopathogenesis of AIDS virus infection in NHPs, including both analyses of tissues obtained at biopsy or necropsy and complementary non-invasive imaging approaches that may have practical utility in monitoring HIV-1 disease in the clinical setting. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Determination of the Fate and Function of Innate Lymphoid Cells Following Adoptive Transfer of Innate Lymphoid Cell Precursors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Sullivan, Timothy E; Sun, Joseph C

    2018-01-01

    Innate lymphoid cells are a heterogeneous family of tissue-resident and circulating lymphocytes that play an important role in host immunity. Recent studies have profiled the developmental pathways of mature ILCs and have identified ILC progenitors in the bone marrow through the use of transcription factor reporter mice. Here we describe methodology to identify and isolate bone marrow CHILP and ILC2 progenitor (ILC2P) cells based on cell surface marker expression for adoptive transfer into lymphopenic mice to track the fate of developing ILCs.

  10. Group 3 innate lymphoid cells (ILC3s): Origin, differentiation, and plasticity in humans and mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montaldo, Elisa; Juelke, Kerstin; Romagnani, Chiara

    2015-08-01

    Since their discovery, innate lymphoid cells (ILCs) have been the subject of intense research. As their name implies, ILCs are innate cells of lymphoid origin, and can be grouped into subsets based on their cytotoxic activity, cytokine profile, and the transcriptional requirements during ILC differentiation. The main ILC groups are "killer" ILCs, comprising NK cells, and "helper-like" ILCs (including ILC1s, ILC2s, and ILC3s). This review examines the origin, differentiation stages, and plasticity of murine and human ILC3s. ILC3s express the retinoic acid receptor (RAR) related orphan receptor RORγt and the signature cytokines IL-22 and IL-17. Fetal ILC3s or lymphoid tissue inducer cells are required for lymphoid organogenesis, while postnatally developing ILC3s are important for the generation of intestinal cryptopatches and isolated lymphoid follicles as well as for the defence against pathogens and epithelial homeostasis. Here, we discuss the transcription factors and exogenous signals (including cytokines, nutrients and cell-to-cell interaction) that drive ILC3 lineage commitment and acquisition of their distinctive effector program. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  11. Homeostatic migration and distribution of innate immune cells in primary and secondary lymphoid organs with ageing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikolich-Žugich, J; Davies, J S

    2017-03-01

    Ageing of the innate and adaptive immune system, collectively termed immune senescence, is a complex process. One method to understand the components of ageing involves dissociating the effects of ageing on the cells of the immune system, on the microenvironment in lymphoid organs and tissues where immune cells reside and on the circulating factors that interact with both immune cells and their microenvironment. Heterochronic parabiosis, a surgical union of two organisms of disparate ages, is ideal for this type of study, as it has the power to dissociate the age of the cell and the age of the microenvironment into which the cell resides or is migrating. So far, however, it has been used sparingly to study immune ageing. Here we review the limited literature on homeostatic innate immune cell trafficking in ageing in the absence of chronic inflammation. We also review our own recent data on trafficking of innate immune subsets between primary and secondary lymphoid organs in heterochronic parabiosis. We found no systemic bias in retention or acceptance of neutrophils, macrophages, dendritic cells or natural killer cells with ageing in primary and secondary lymphoid organs. We conclude that these four innate immune cell types migrate to and populate lymphoid organs (peripheral lymph nodes, spleen and bone marrow), regardless of their own age and of the age of lymphoid organs. © 2017 British Society for Immunology.

  12. The biology of human innate lymphoid cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bernink, J.H.J.

    2016-01-01

    In this thesis I performed studies to investigate the contribution of human innate lymphoid cells (ILCs) in maintaining the mucosal homeostasis, initiating and/or propagating inflammatory responses, but also - when not properly regulated - how these cells contribute to immunopathology. First I

  13. Total lymphoid irradiation of intractable rheumatoid arthritis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herbst, M.; Fritz, H.; Sauer, R.

    1986-01-01

    Eleven patients with intractable rheumatoid arthritis were treated with fractionated total lymphoid irradiation, (total dose 20 Gy). Lasting improvement in clinical symptoms was found in four patients during treatment and the remaining patients experienced similar benefit within 2 months of irradiation. There was marked reduction in exacerbations and number of joints involved. Morning stiffness, joint swelling and tenderness decreased. Complications included severe fatigue during treatment and acute bacterial arthritis in multiple joints in one patient. Four patients have since died, one of renal failure, another of cardiogenic shock following surgery 3 and 24 months after total lymphoid irradiation. Both had generalised amyloidosis. The third patient developed joint empyema and died of toxic cardiac failure. The fourth died 3 months after resection of a Kaposi's sarcoma complicated by wound infection which responded to treatment. Immunologically, total lymphoid irradiation resulted in suppression of the absolute lymphocyte count and reduction in T-helper cells, the number of T-suppressor cells remaining unchanged. These data provide evidence of T-cell involvement in the pathogenesis of rheumatoid arthritis. Total lymphoid irradiation can induce sustained improvement in clinical disease activity, but severe, possibly fatal, side-effects cannot be ignored. (author)

  14. Innate lymphoid cells, precursors and plasticity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gronke, Konrad; Kofoed-Nielsen, Michael; Diefenbach, Andreas

    2016-11-01

    Innate lymphoid cells (ILC) have only recently been recognized as a separate entity of the lymphoid lineage. Their subpopulations share common characteristics in terms of early development and major transcriptional circuitry with their related cousins of the T cell world. It is currently hypothesized that ILCs constitute an evolutionary older version of the lymphoid immune system. They are found at all primary entry points for pathogens such as mucosal surfaces of the lung and gastrointestinal system, the skin and the liver, which is the central contact point for pathogens that breach the intestinal barrier and enter the circulation. There, ILC contribute to the first line defense as well as to organ homeostasis. However, ILC are not only involved in classical defense tasks, but also contribute to the organogenesis of lymphoid organs as well as tissue remodeling and even stem cell regeneration. ILC may, therefore, implement different functions according to their emergence in ontogeny, their development and their final tissue location. We will review here their early development from precursors of the fetal liver and the adult bone marrow as well as their late plasticity in adaptation to their environment. Copyright © 2016 European Federation of Immunological Societies. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Radiotherapy of lymphoid diseases of the orbit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Austin-Seymour, M.M.; Donaldson, S.S.; Egbert, P.R.; McDougall, I.R.; Kriss, J.P.

    1985-01-01

    Thirty-two patients with orbital pseudotumor (18), reactive lymphoid hyperplasia (2), atypical lymphoid infiltrate (4) or malignant lymphoma (8) were treated in the Division of Radiation Therapy at Stanford University between January 1973 and May 1983. Of the 20 patients with pseudotumor or reactive lymphoid hyperplasia, 10 had unilateral lesions and 10 had bilateral lesions. Biopsy samples were obtained in 15 patients; in five patients with bilateral disease the diagnosis was made on the basis of computed tomography (CT) and clinical findings. The majority of patients were referred because of disease refractory to treatment with corticosteroids. The patients were given a mean dose of 2360 rad using complex, individualized megavoltage techniques including lens shielding. Radiotherapy was well tolerated with no significant acute or late complications. Fifteen patients had complete resolution of symptoms after treatment; five had continued symptoms. Of the 12 patients with malignant lymphoma or atypical lymphoid infiltrate, four had systemic lymphoma with orbital involvement and eight had orbital involvement only. A mean dose of 3625 rad was delivered to the orbit only. Most of the patients received complex megavoltage treatment using bolus. All patients in this group had a complete response and local control. Two patients developed cataracts. Carefullly planned orbital radiotherapy provides local control without symptomatic sequelae for orbital masses ranging from pseudotumor to malignant lymphoma

  16. Total lymphoid irradiation of intractable rheumatoid arthritis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herbst, M.; Fritz, H.; Sauer, R.

    1986-12-01

    Eleven patients with intractable rheumatoid arthritis were treated with fractionated total lymphoid irradiation, (total dose 20 Gy). Lasting improvement in clinical symptoms was found in four patients during treatment and the remaining patients experienced similar benefit within 2 months of irradiation. There was marked reduction in exacerbations and number of joints involved. Morning stiffness, joint swelling and tenderness decreased. Complications included severe fatigue during treatment and acute bacterial arthritis in multiple joints in one patient. Four patients have since died, one of renal failure, another of cardiogenic shock following surgery 3 and 24 months after total lymphoid irradiation. Both had generalised amyloidosis. The third patient developed joint empyema and died of toxic cardiac failure. The fourth died 3 months after resection of a Kaposi's sarcoma complicated by wound infection which responded to treatment. Immunologically, total lymphoid irradiation resulted in suppression of the absolute lymphocyte count and reduction in T-helper cells, the number of T-suppressor cells remaining unchanged. These data provide evidence of T-cell involvement in the pathogenesis of rheumatoid arthritis. Total lymphoid irradiation can induce sustained improvement in clinical disease activity, but severe, possibly fatal, side-effects cannot be ignored.

  17. Homing of bone marrow lymphoid cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshida, Y.; Osmond, D.G.

    1978-01-01

    DNA labeling, bone marrow fractionation, and radioautography were used to follow the fate of transfused, newly formed marrow lymphocytes in irradiated hosts. After infusing donor Hartley guinea pigs with 3 H-thymidine for 3 to 5 days, high concentrations of labeled small lymphocytes and large lymphoid cells were separated from marrow by sedimentation in sucrose-serum gradients and injected into lethally x-irradiated syngeneic recipients. Most labeled small lymphocytes and large lymphoid cells rapidly left the circulation. They appeared to be mainly in the marrow and spleen, increasing in incidence from 1 to 3 days, but declining in mean grain count. Labeled cells were scattered throughout the recipient marrow; in the spleen they localized initially in the red pulp, and subsequently in peripheral areas of white pulp, often in clusters. Labeled small lymphocytes showed a delayed migration into the mesenteric lymph node, mainly in the superficial cortex and medulla; they also appeared in small numbers in Peyer's patches, but rarely in the thymus or thoracic duct lymph. It is concluded that a rapid selective homing of newly formed marrow lymphoid cells occurs in both the marrow and certain areas of the spleen of irradiated hosts, followed by a continuing proliferation of large lymphoid cells and production of small lymphocytes. The results are discussed with respect to the life history of marrow lymphocytes and the use of adoptive immune assays of marrow cells to characterize B lymphocyte maturation

  18. The new WHO nomenclature: lymphoid neoplasms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leclair, Susan J; Rodak, Bernadette F

    2002-01-01

    The development of the WHO classification of lymphoid neoplasms is a remarkable example of cooperation and communication between pathologists and oncologists from around the world. Joint classification committees of the major hematopathology societies will periodically review and update this classification, facilitating further progress in the understanding and treatment of hematologic malignancies.

  19. Conjunctival lymphoma arising from reactive lymphoid hyperplasia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fukuhara Junichi

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Extra nodal marginal zone B-cell lymphoma (EMZL of the conjunctiva typically arises in the marginal zone of mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue. The pathogenesis of conjunctival EMZL remains unknown. We describe an unusual case of EMZL arising from reactive lymphoid hyperplasia (RLH of the conjunctiva. A 35-year-old woman had fleshy salmon-pink conjunctival tumors in both eyes, oculus uterque (OU. Specimens from conjunctival tumors in the right eye, oculus dexter (OD, revealed a collection of small lymphoid cells in the stroma. Immunohistochemically, immunoglobulin (Ig light chain restriction was not detected. In contrast, diffuse atypical lymphoid cell infiltration was noted in the left eye, oculus sinister (OS, and positive for CD20, a marker for B cells OS. The tumors were histologically diagnosed as RLH OD, and EMZL OS. PCR analysis detected IgH gene rearrangement in the joining region (JH region OU. After 11 months, a re-biopsy specimen demonstrated EMZL based on compatible pathological and genetic findings OD, arising from RLH. This case suggests that even if the diagnosis of the conjunctival lymphoproliferative lesions is histologically benign, confirmation of the B-cell clonality by checking IgH gene rearrangement should be useful to predict the incidence of malignancy.

  20. Imaging of iliopsoas compartment disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rocher, L.; Saint Maurice, J.P.; Le Quen, O.; Bazille, A.; Miquel, A.; Frouge, C.; Blery, M.

    1997-01-01

    Infection, neoplastic involvement, and hemorrhage, are the most frequent pathologies that involve the ilio-psoas compartment. The extension from contiguous pathological structures and particularly digestive and urological organs, are often the origin of abscess formation or malignant tumours. The radiological findings including ultrasonography, CT, and magnetic resonance imaging, show a low specificity, which improves if the clinical history is known. The final diagnosis is confirmed by puncture or biopsy. (author)

  1. Numerical treatment of compartment models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Einarsson, B.

    1984-11-01

    This report describes and interactive program RADIO (Radioactive Decay Information Online) for studying the radioactive decay process, with applications to many ecological problems, but not necessarily involving radioactive processes. Starting with the compartment coefficients and initial values of the various compartments the problem is solved as a system of linear ordinary differential equations. The method of solution is the direct use of matrix exponentials or the backward differences method. A program INVERS is also available for the solution of the inverse problem, that is parameter estimation in a system of linear ordinary differential equations when the solution is available pointwise. The output can be printed on a line printer either from a result file or from the plot file, which of course also can be used to produce graphic output. The plot file is processed by the plotting program VISION or by the auxiliary printing program RADAR. Another file can be used for a later restart from the point of time where the previous computation was aborted or from an arbitrary point of time if the relevant starting information is available. This is useful in order to avoid the manual input of a compartment matrix if it is similar to one used before. When the program RADIO is run the user answers to the question asked by the program. The programs are written in Fortran 77 for the Digital Equipment VAX 11 with graphical presentation on a Tektronix 4010, and are available from the author. (Author)

  2. Retinoic acid differentially regulates the migration of innate lymphoid cell subsets to the gut

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Myung H.; Taparowsky, Elizabeth J.; Kim, Chang H.

    2015-01-01

    Distinct groups of innate lymphoid cells (ILCs) such as ILC1, ILC2 and ILC3 populate the intestine, but how these ILCs develop tissue tropism for this organ is unclear. We report that prior to migration to the intestine ILCs first undergo a `switch' in their expression of homing receptors from lymphoid to gut homing receptors. This process is regulated by mucosal dendritic cells and the gut-specific tissue factor retinoic acid (RA). This change in homing receptors is required for long-term po...

  3. Stroma cell priming in enteric lymphoid organ morphogenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuela eFerreira

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The lymphoid system is equipped with a network of specialized platforms located at strategic sites, which grant strict immune-surveillance and efficient immune responses. The development of these peripheral secondary lymphoid organs occurs mainly in utero, while tertiary lymphoid structures can form in adulthood generally in response to persistent infection and inflammation. Regardless of the lymphoid tissue and intrinsic cellular and molecular differences, it is now well established that the recruitment of fully functional Lymphoid Tissue inducer (LTi cells to presumptive lymphoid organ sites, and their consequent close and reciprocal interaction with resident stroma cells, are central to secondary lymphoid organ formation. In contrast, the nature of events that initially prime resident sessile stroma cells to recruit and retain LTi cells remains poorly understood.

  4. Forearm Compartment Syndrome Caused by Reperfusion Injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ufuk Sayar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Compartment syndrome is commonly seen following lower extremity ischemia. However, upper extremities’ compartment syndrome, especially after any vascular surgical procedures, is infrequent. Herein we report a case of an acute forearm compartment syndrome that was developed after delayed brachial artery embolectomy.

  5. Acute compartment syndrome after medial gastrocnemius tear.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sit, Yan Kit; Lui, Tun Hing

    2015-02-01

    Acute compartment syndrome after medial gastrocnemius tear is very rare. It can involve the superficial posterior compartment alone or progress to involve all the 4 compartments of the lower legs. Those patients with high pain tolerance and minor trauma can lead to delayed presentation. Immediate fasciotomy is the treatment of choice. Therapeutic Level IV, Case Study. © 2014 The Author(s).

  6. 14 CFR 25.787 - Stowage compartments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Design and Construction Personnel and Cargo Accommodations § 25.787 Stowage compartments. (a) Each compartment for the stowage of cargo, baggage, carry-on articles, and... to compartments located below, or forward, of all occupants in the airplane. If the airplane has a...

  7. Enteral Feeding in Abdominal Compartment Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ye. V Grigoryev

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to substantiate the choice of a gastrointestinal tract (GIT function support regimen as a mode for correction of the abdominal compartment syndrome (ACS. Subjects and methods. Forty-three patients with different causes of inadequate GIT function of various origin and ACS (disseminated peritonitis (45%, pancreatitis (24%, and severe concomitant injury (31% were examined. Group 1 (control received complete parenteral nutritional feeding (n=23; APACHE II scores, 21±4; calculated probability of fatal outcome, 33.5%. In Group II (study, complete parenteral feeding in the first 24 hours after stabilization was supplemented with GIT function support with Pepsisorb (Nutricia in doses of 500, 1000, and 1500 ml on days 1, 2, and 3, respectively (n=20; APACHE II scores, 20±6; calculated probability of fatal outcome, 37.1%. During early enteral nutritional support, the SOFA score was significantly less than that in Group 1 on days 2—3; the oxygenation index significantly increased on day 3; the value of intra-abdominal hypertension decreased to the control values. The positive effect of the GIT function support regimen on regression of the multiple organ dysfunction syndrome (MODS was confirmed by the lowered levels of biological markers (von Willebrand factor (WF and endothelin-1 as markers of endothelial damage of MODS. Correlation analysis showed a direct correlation between the markers of endothelial damage and the SOFA scores (r=0.34; p=0.05 for WF and r=0.49;p=0.03 for endothelin. Conclusion. The GIT function support regimen via early enteral alimentation with Peptisorb, which was initiated in the first 24 hours after admission, is able to level off the manifestations of the early stages of the abdominal compartment syndrome, with the acceptable values of oxygen balance and water-electrolyte and osmotic homeostasis being achieved. Key words: abdominal compartment syndrome, nutritional support, biological markers, oxygenation index

  8. Th1- and Th2-like subsets of innate lymphoid cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bernink, Jochem; Mjösberg, Jenny; Spits, Hergen

    2013-01-01

    Innate lymphoid cells (ILCs) constitute a family of effectors in innate immunity and regulators of tissue remodeling that have a cytokine and transcription factor expression pattern that parallels that of the T-helper (Th) cell family. Here, we discuss how ILCs can be categorized and summarize the

  9. Innate Lymphoid Cells in Intestinal Inflammation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geremia, Alessandra; Arancibia-Cárcamo, Carolina V.

    2017-01-01

    Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is a chronic inflammatory disorder of the intestine that encompasses Crohn’s disease (CD) and ulcerative colitis. The cause of IBD is unknown, but the evidence suggests that an aberrant immune response toward the commensal bacterial flora is responsible for disease in genetically susceptible individuals. Results from animal models of colitis and human studies indicate a role for innate lymphoid cells (ILC) in the pathogenesis of chronic intestinal inflammation in IBD. ILC are a population of lymphocytes that are enriched at mucosal sites, where they play a protective role against pathogens including extracellular bacteria, helminthes, and viruses. ILC lack an antigen-specific receptor, but can respond to environmental stress signals contributing to the rapid orchestration of an early immune response. Several subsets of ILC reflecting functional characteristics of T helper subsets have been described. ILC1 express the transcription factor T-bet and are characterized by secretion of IFNγ, ILC2 are GATA3+ and secrete IL5 and IL13 and ILC3 depend on expression of RORγt and secrete IL17 and IL22. However, ILC retain a degree of plasticity depending on exposure to cytokines and environmental factors. IL23 responsive ILC have been implicated in the pathogenesis of colitis in several innate murine models through the production of IL17, IFNγ, and GM-CSF. We have previously identified IL23 responsive ILC in the human intestine and found that they accumulate in the inflamed colon and small bowel of patients with CD. Other studies have confirmed accumulation of ILC in CD with increased frequencies of IFNγ-secreting ILC1 in both the intestinal lamina propria and the epithelium. Moreover, IL23 driven IL22 producing ILC have been shown to drive bacteria-induced colitis-associated cancer in mice. Interestingly, our data show increased ILC accumulation in patients with IBD and primary sclerosing cholangitis, who carry an increased risk of

  10. Innate Lymphoid Cells in Intestinal Inflammation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandra Geremia

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD is a chronic inflammatory disorder of the intestine that encompasses Crohn’s disease (CD and ulcerative colitis. The cause of IBD is unknown, but the evidence suggests that an aberrant immune response toward the commensal bacterial flora is responsible for disease in genetically susceptible individuals. Results from animal models of colitis and human studies indicate a role for innate lymphoid cells (ILC in the pathogenesis of chronic intestinal inflammation in IBD. ILC are a population of lymphocytes that are enriched at mucosal sites, where they play a protective role against pathogens including extracellular bacteria, helminthes, and viruses. ILC lack an antigen-specific receptor, but can respond to environmental stress signals contributing to the rapid orchestration of an early immune response. Several subsets of ILC reflecting functional characteristics of T helper subsets have been described. ILC1 express the transcription factor T-bet and are characterized by secretion of IFNγ, ILC2 are GATA3+ and secrete IL5 and IL13 and ILC3 depend on expression of RORγt and secrete IL17 and IL22. However, ILC retain a degree of plasticity depending on exposure to cytokines and environmental factors. IL23 responsive ILC have been implicated in the pathogenesis of colitis in several innate murine models through the production of IL17, IFNγ, and GM-CSF. We have previously identified IL23 responsive ILC in the human intestine and found that they accumulate in the inflamed colon and small bowel of patients with CD. Other studies have confirmed accumulation of ILC in CD with increased frequencies of IFNγ-secreting ILC1 in both the intestinal lamina propria and the epithelium. Moreover, IL23 driven IL22 producing ILC have been shown to drive bacteria-induced colitis-associated cancer in mice. Interestingly, our data show increased ILC accumulation in patients with IBD and primary sclerosing cholangitis, who carry an

  11. The compartments of the parenchyma of the lymph nodes in newborn bull calves of domestic cattle (Bos taurus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. N. Gavrilin

    2017-04-01

    zones of the second morphotype, predominate T-dependent zones, the relative volume of which considerably exceeds the volume of B-dependent zones (lymphoid nodules: in the superficial somatic lymph nodes by 14–30 times, profound somatic by 12–14 times, somatovisceral by 6–7 times and visceral by 4.5–5.5 times. We determined that lymphatic nodules can form in different parts of compartments: in the interfollicular zone and paracortical cords of all lymph nodes and in the medullary cords of the visceral lymph nodes. The study shows that the parenchyma of the lymph nodes of newborn bull calves has a high degree of maturity, contains a full set of structural markers of immunocompetence, among which predominate the components that support lymphocyte migration, antigen detection and accumulation of plasma cells.

  12. Innate lymphoid cells in tissue homeostasis and diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ignacio, Aline; Breda, Cristiane Naffah Souza; Camara, Niels Olsen Saraiva

    2017-08-18

    Innate lymphoid cells (ILCs) are the most recently discovered family of innate immune cells. They are a part of the innate immune system, but develop from the lymphoid lineage. They lack pattern-recognition receptors and rearranged receptors, and therefore cannot directly mediate antigen specific responses. The progenitors specifically associated with the ILCs lineage have been uncovered, enabling the distinction between ILCs and natural killer cells. Based on the requirement of specific transcription factors and their patterns of cytokine production, ILCs are categorized into three subsets (ILC1, ILC2 and ILC3). First observed in mucosal surfaces, these cell populations interact with hematopoietic and non-hematopoietic cells throughout the body during homeostasis and diseases, promoting immunity, commensal microbiota tolerance, tissue repair and inflammation. Over the last 8 years, ILCs came into the spotlight as an essential cell type able to integrate diverse host immune responses. Recently, it became known that ILC subsets play a key role in immune responses at barrier surfaces, interacting with the microbiota, nutrients and metabolites. Since the liver receives the venous blood directly from the intestinal vein, the intestine and liver are essential to maintain tolerance and can rapidly respond to infections or tissue damage. Therefore, in this review, we discuss recent findings regarding ILC functions in homeostasis and disease, with a focus on the intestine and liver.

  13. Innate lymphoid cells in normal and disease: An introductory overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moretta, Lorenzo; Locatelli, Franco

    2016-11-01

    Innate lymphoid cells (ILC) represent a novel group of lymphocytes that, different from T and B-lymphocytes lack recombinant activating genes (RAG-1 or RAG-2) and thus do not express rearranged antigen-specific receptors. Members of this family, i.e. NK cells, have been known since long time, while the other ILCs have been discovered only in recent years, possibly because of their predominant localization in tissues, primarily in mucosal tissues, skin and mucosa-associated lymphoid organs. ILC have been grouped in three major subsets on the basis of their phenotypic and functional features as well as of their dependency on given transcription factors (TF). Briefly, ILC-1 are dependent on T-bet TF and produce interferon (IFN)-γ. Group 2 ILC (ILC2) express GATA-3 TF and produce IL-5, IL-4 and IL-13 (Type 2) cytokines while group 3 ILC (ILC3) express RORγt TF and produce IL-17 and IL-22. ILC provide early defenses against pathogens and intervene in the repair of damaged tissues. ILC activation is mediated by cytokines (specifically acting on different ILC groups) and/or by activating receptors that are, at least in part, the same that had been previously identified in NK cells [1]. Copyright © 2016 European Federation of Immunological Societies. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Tertiary lymphoid structures in cancer and beyond.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dieu-Nosjean, Marie-Caroline; Goc, Jérémy; Giraldo, Nicolas A; Sautès-Fridman, Catherine; Fridman, Wolf Herman

    2014-11-01

    Tertiary lymphoid structures (TLS) are ectopic lymphoid formations found in inflamed, infected, or tumoral tissues. They exhibit all the characteristics of structures in the lymph nodes (LN) associated with the generation of an adaptive immune response, including a T cell zone with mature dendritic cells (DC), a germinal center with follicular dendritic cells (FDC) and proliferating B cells, and high endothelial venules (HEV). In this review, we discuss evidence for the roles of TLS in chronic infection, autoimmunity, and cancer, and address the question of whether TLS present beneficial or deleterious effects in these contexts. We examine the relationship between TLS in tumors and patient prognosis, and discuss the potential role of TLS in building and/or maintaining local immune responses and how this understanding may guide therapeutic interventions. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Tertiary lymphoid organs in Takayasu Arteritis

    OpenAIRE

    Marc eClement; Marc eClement; Adrien eGaly; Patrick eBruneval; Marion eMorvan; Fabien eHyafil; Fabien eHyafil; Khadija eBenali; Nicoletta ePasi; Lydia eDeschamps; Quentin ePellenc; Quentin ePellenc; Thomas ePapo; Antonino eNicoletti; Antonino eNicoletti

    2016-01-01

    Objective: The role of B cells in the pathogenesis of Takayasu arteritis (TA) is controversial. We aimed to study the presence of tertiary lymphoid organs (TLOs) in the aortic wall of TA patients.Methods: Hematoxylin and eosin–stained sections from aorta specimens from patients with TA were screened for TLOs. The presence of B cell aggregates (CD20), follicular dendritic cells (FDCs, CD21), and high endothelial venules (HEVs, PNAd) was investigated by immunohistochemistry. Immune cells from t...

  16. Tertiary Lymphoid Organs in Takayasu Arteritis

    OpenAIRE

    Clement, Marc; Galy, Adrien; Bruneval, Patrick; Morvan, Marion; Hyafil, Fabien; Benali, Khadija; Pasi, Nicoletta; Deschamps, Lydia; Pellenc, Quentin; Papo, Thomas; Nicoletti, Antonino; Sacre, Karim

    2016-01-01

    Objective The role of B cells in the pathogenesis of Takayasu arteritis (TA) is controversial. We aimed to study the presence of tertiary lymphoid organs (TLOs) in the aortic wall of TA patients. Methods Hematoxylin and eosin-stained sections from aorta specimens from patients with TA were screened for TLOs. The presence of B cell aggregates (CD20), follicular dendritic cells (FDCs, CD21), and high endothelial venules (HEVs, PNAd) was investigated by immunohistochemistry. Immune ce...

  17. Human herpesvirus-8 infection leads to expansion of the preimmune/natural effector B cell compartment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Della Bella

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Human herpesvirus-8 (HHV-8 is the etiological agent of Kaposi's sarcoma (KS and of some lymphoproliferative disorders of B cells. Most malignancies develop after long-lasting viral dormancy, and a preventing role for both humoral and cellular immune control is suggested by the high frequency of these pathologies in immunosuppressed patients. B cells, macrophages and dendritic cells of peripheral lymphoid organs and blood represent the major reservoir of HHV-8. Due to the dual role of B cells in HHV-8 infection, both as virus reservoir and as agents of humoral immune control, we analyzed the subset distribution and the functional state of peripheral blood B cells in HHV-8-infected individuals with and without cKS. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Circulating B cells and their subsets were analyzed by 6-color flow cytometry in the following groups: 1- patients HHV-8 positive with classic KS (cKS (n = 47; 2- subjects HHV-8 positive and cKS negative (HSP (n = 10; 3- healthy controls, HHV-8 negative and cKS negative (HC (n = 43. The number of B cells belonging to the preimmune/natural effector compartment, including transitional, pre-naïve, naïve and MZ-like subsets, was significantly higher among HHV-8 positive subjects, with or without cKS, while was comparable to healthy controls in the antigen-experienced T-cell dependent compartment. The increased number of preimmune/natural effector B cells was associated with increased resistance to spontaneous apoptosis, while it did not correlate with HHV-8 viral load. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our results indicate that long-lasting HHV-8 infection promotes an imbalance in peripheral B cell subsets, perturbing the equilibrium between earlier and later steps of maturation and activation processes. This observation may broaden our understanding of the complex interplay between viral and immune factors leading HHV-8-infected individuals to develop HHV-8-associated malignancies.

  18. Serious Infections in Patients Receiving Ibrutinib for Treatment of Lymphoid Malignancies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varughese, Tilly; Taur, Ying; Cohen, Nina; Palomba, M Lia; Seo, Susan K; Hohl, Tobias M; Redelman-Sidi, Gil

    2018-03-02

    Ibrutinib is a Bruton's tyrosine kinase inhibitor that is used for the treatment of lymphoid malignancies, including chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL), Waldenström's macroglobulinemia and mantle cell lymphoma (MCL). Several case series have described opportunistic infections among ibrutinib recipients, but the full extent of these infections is unknown. We sought to determine the spectrum of serious infections associated with ibrutinib treatment. We reviewed the electronic medical records of patients with lymphoid malignancies at Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center who received ibrutinib during a five-year period from January 1, 2012 to December 31, 2016. Serious infections were identified by review of the relevant microbiology, clinical laboratory, and radiology data. Risk factors for infection were determined by univariate and multivariate analyses. 378 patients with lymphoid malignancies who received ibrutinib were analyzed. The most common underlying malignancies were CLL and MCL. 84% of patients received ibrutinib as monotherapy. Serious infection developed in 43 patients (11.4%), primarily during the first year of ibrutinib treatment. Of these, 23 (53.5%) developed invasive bacterial infections, and 16 (37.2%) developed invasive fungal infections (IFI). The majority of those who developed IFI on ibrutinib therapy (62.5%) lacked classical clinical risk factors for fungal infection (i.e., neutropenia, lymphopenia, and receipt of corticosteroids). Infection resulted in death in six of the 43 patients (14%). Patients with lymphoid malignancies receiving ibrutinib treatment are at risk for serious infections, including IFI.

  19. Innate Lymphoid Cells: A Promising New Regulator in Fibrotic Diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yi; Tang, Jun; Tian, Zhiqiang; van Velkinburgh, Jennifer C; Song, Jianxun; Wu, Yuzhang; Ni, Bing

    2016-09-02

    Fibrosis is a consequence of chronic inflammation and the persistent accumulation of extracellular matrix, for which the cycle of tissue injury and repair becomes a predominant feature. Both the innate and adaptive immune systems play key roles in the progress of fibrosis. The recently identified subsets of innate lymphoid cells (ILCs), which are mainly localize to epithelial surfaces, have been characterized as regulators of chronic inflammation and tissue remodeling, representing a functional bridge between the innate and adaptive immunity. Moreover, recent research has implicated ILCs as potential contributing factors to several kinds of fibrosis diseases, such as hepatic fibrosis and pulmonary fibrosis. Here, we will summarize and discuss the key roles of ILCs and their related factors in fibrotic diseases and their potential for translation to the clinic.

  20. Suitability of stratagene reference RNA for analysis of lymphoid tissues

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dybkaer, Karen; Zhou, Guimei; Iqbal, Javeed

    2004-01-01

    acceptable gene coverage to serve as a comprehensive standard for gene expression profiling of lymphoid tissues. Our lymphoid standard was prepared from thymus, spleen, tonsil, and cell lines representing immature B cells, plasma cells, and natural killer (NK) cells, thus covering the entire spectrum...... of lymphoid cells and most stromal elements present in specialized lymphoid tissues. The two standards were co-hybridized on oligonucleotide microarrays containing 17,260 genes, and both had fluorescence intensities above background for approximately 85% of the genes. Despite the limited representation...... of lymphoid cells in the Stratagene standard, only 4.2% genes exhibited expression differences greater than 2-fold including only 0.35% with differences greater than 4-fold. Although the lymphoid standard reflected a more comprehensive representation of immune system-associated genes, the Stratagene standard...

  1. Stromal cell regulation of homeostatic and inflammatory lymphoid organogenesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kain, Matthew J W; Owens, Benjamin M J

    2013-01-01

    Summary Secondary lymphoid organs function to increase the efficiency of interactions between rare, antigen-specific lymphocytes and antigen presenting cells, concentrating antigen and lymphocytes in a supportive environment that facilitates the initiation of an adaptive immune response. Homeostatic lymphoid tissue organogenesis proceeds via exquisitely controlled spatiotemporal interactions between haematopoietic lymphoid tissue inducer populations and multiple subsets of non-haematopoietic stromal cells. However, it is becoming clear that in a range of inflammatory contexts, ectopic or tertiary lymphoid tissues can develop inappropriately under pathological stress. Here we summarize the role of stromal cells in the development of homeostatic lymphoid tissue, and assess emerging evidence that suggests a critical role for stromal involvement in the tertiary lymphoid tissue development associated with chronic infections and inflammation. PMID:23621403

  2. Interferon gamma, interleukin 4 and transforming growth factor beta in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis in Lewis rats: dynamics of cellular mRNA expression in the central nervous system and lymphoid cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Issazadeh-Navikas, Shohreh; Mustafa, M; Ljungdahl, A

    1995-01-01

    , the target organ in EAE, cells expressing mRNA for IFN-gamma, first appeared at the onset of clinical signs, i.e., day 10 postimmunization (p.i.), peaked at the height of disease (day 13 p.i.) and then gradually decreased concomitant with recovery. Very few IL-4 mRNA-expressing cells appeared in the spinal...... to limit central nervous system (CNS) inflammation. In lymphoid organs, primed MBP 63-88 reactive T cells showed an interesting time-dependent evolution of their cytokine production in vitro. Thus, early after immunization there was a conspicuous MBP 63-88-induced production of both IFN-gamma and IL-4...... cord with no clear relation to clinical signs or histopathology. In contrast, expression of mRNA for TGF-beta did not increase until day 13 p.i., at height of the disease, shortly preceding recovery. These data are consistent with a disease upregulating role of IFN-gamma, while TGF-beta may act...

  3. Acute compartment syndrome caused by uncontrolled hypothyroidism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Modi, Anar; Amin, Hari; Salzman, Matthew; Morgan, Farah

    2017-06-01

    Acute compartment syndrome is increased tissue pressure exceeding perfusion pressure in a closed compartment resulting in nerve and muscle ischemia. Common precipitating causes are crush injuries, burns, substance abuse, osseous or vascular limb trauma. This is a case of 42year old female with history of hypothyroidism who presented to emergency room with acute onset of severe pain and swelling in right lower extremity. Physical examination was concerning for acute compartment syndrome of right leg which was confirmed by demonstration of elevated compartmental pressures. No precipitating causes were readily identified. Further laboratory testing revealed uncontrolled hypothyroidism. Management included emergent fasciotomy and initiating thyroid hormone replacement. This case represents a rare association between acute compartment syndrome and uncontrolled hypothyroidism. We also discuss the pathogenesis of compartment syndrome in hypothyroid patients and emphasize the importance of evaluating for less common causes, particularly in setting of non-traumatic compartment syndrome. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Forearm Compartment Syndrome: Evaluation and Management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kistler, Justin M; Ilyas, Asif M; Thoder, Joseph J

    2018-02-01

    Compartment syndrome of the forearm is uncommon but can have devastating consequences. Compartment syndrome is a result of osseofascial swelling leading to decreased tissue perfusion and tissue necrosis. There are numerous causes of forearm compartment syndrome and high clinical suspicion must be maintained to avoid permanent disability. The most widely recognized symptoms include pain out of proportion and pain with passive stretch of the wrist and digits. Early diagnosis and decompressive fasciotomy are essential in the treatment of forearm compartment syndrome. Closure of fasciotomy wounds can often be accomplished by primary closure but many patients require additional forms of soft tissue coverage procedures. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Dynamics of viral replication in blood and lymphoid tissues during SIVmac251 infection of macaques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mannioui Abdelkrim

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Extensive studies of primary infection are crucial to our understanding of the course of HIV disease. In SIV-infected macaques, a model closely mimicking HIV pathogenesis, we used a combination of three markers -- viral RNA, 2LTR circles and viral DNA -- to evaluate viral replication and dissemination simultaneously in blood, secondary lymphoid tissues, and the gut during primary and chronic infections. Subsequent viral compartmentalization in the main target cells of the virus in peripheral blood during the chronic phase of infection was evaluated by cell sorting and viral quantification with the three markers studied. Results The evolutions of viral RNA, 2LTR circles and DNA levels were correlated in a given tissue during primary and early chronic infection. The decrease in plasma viral load principally reflects a large decrease in viral replication in gut-associated lymphoid tissue (GALT, with viral RNA and DNA levels remaining stable in the spleen and peripheral lymph nodes. Later, during chronic infection, a progressive depletion of central memory CD4+ T cells from the peripheral blood was observed, accompanied by high levels of viral replication in the cells of this subtype. The virus was also found to replicate at this point in the infection in naive CD4+ T cells. Viral RNA was frequently detected in monocytes, but no SIV replication appeared to occur in these cells, as no viral DNA or 2LTR circles were detected. Conclusion We demonstrated the persistence of viral replication and dissemination, mostly in secondary lymphoid tissues, during primary and early chronic infection. During chronic infection, the central memory CD4+ T cells were the major site of viral replication in peripheral blood, but viral replication also occurred in naive CD4+ T cells. The role of monocytes seemed to be limited to carrying the virus as a cargo because there was an observed lack of replication in these cells. These data may have important

  6. The Development of Adult Innate Lymphoid Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Qi; Bhandoola, Avinash

    2016-01-01

    Innate lymphoid cells (ILC) are a specialized family of effector lymphocytes that transcriptionally and functionally mirror effector subsets of T cells, but differ from T cells in that they lack clonally-distributed adaptive antigen receptors. Our understanding of this family of lymphocytes is still in its infancy. In this review, we summarize current understanding and discuss recent insights into the cellular and molecular events that occur during early ILC development in adult mice. We discuss how these events overlap and diverge with the early development of adaptive T cells, and how they may influence the molecular and functional properties of mature ILC. PMID:26871595

  7. Total lymphoid irradiation in rhesus monkeys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vriesendorp, H.M.; Maat, B.; Hogeweg, B.

    Total lymphoid irradiation (TLI) consists of three contiguous fields, a mantle, an inverted Y and a spleen field. TLI induces a state of immunosuppression in patients with Hodgkin disease or in small rodents. Infusion of allogeneic bone marrow cells into mice after TLI led to the development split haemopoietic chimerism and indefinite survival of skin grafts from the bone marrow donor. A protocol for TLI was developed for rhesus monkeys to attempt to verify these interesting observations in a pre-clinical animal model. (Auth.)

  8. HIV Persistence in Gut-Associated Lymphoid Tissues: Pharmacological Challenges and Opportunities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Corbin G; Gay, Cynthia L; Kashuba, Angela D M

    2017-06-01

    An increasing amount of evidence suggests that HIV replication persists in gut-associated lymphoid tissues (GALT), despite treatment with combination antiretroviral therapy (cART). Residual replication in this compartment may propagate infection at other sites in the body and contribute to sustained immune dysregulation and delayed immune recovery. Therefore, it is important to focus efforts on eliminating residual replication at this site. There are several challenges to accomplishing this goal, including low antiretroviral (ARV) exposure at specific tissue locations within GALT, which might be overcome by using the tools of clinical pharmacology. Here, we summarize the evidence for GALT as a site of residual HIV replication, highlight the consequences of persistent infection in tissues, identify current pharmacologic knowledge of drug exposure in GALT, define the challenges that hinder eradication from this site, and propose several avenues for pharmacologic intervention.

  9. VH repertoire in progeny of long term lymphoid-cultured cells used to reconstitute immunodeficient mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Denis, K.A.; Timson, L.K.; Witte, O.N.

    1989-01-01

    VH gene utilization in the progeny of long term lymphoid-cultured cells used for reconstitution of severe combined immunodeficient mice under varying conditions was determined. Hybridomas made from the spleens of these animals were evaluated for clonality and donor origin and a panel of 146 independent hybridomas were subsequently examined for VH expression. Hybridomas derived from the spleens of SCID mice reconstituted with fresh cells, used as a control, utilized VH families in proportion to their numerical representation in the genome. However, hybridomas from the spleens of mice reconstituted with long term cultured cells utilized a predominance of the two VH gene families most proximal to JH, characteristic of cells early in B lymphocyte development. Coinjection of thymocytes with cultured fetal liver cells, to provide good levels of T lymphocytes, did not alter this pattern of VH utilization. Irradiation (3 Gy) of the mice before cultured cell injection, which leads to more complete reconstitution of the B cell compartment, was effective in removing this bias in the VH repertoire. Hybridomas derived from these mice expressed their VH genes more in proportion to family size, characteristic of cells later in B lymphocyte development. In this manner, long term lymphoid-cultured cells can be used to study the transitions that occur in VH repertoire expression which appear to be mediated by either B lymphocyte developmental microenvironment or population size

  10. Nonselective inhibition of the epigenetic transcriptional regulator BET induces marked lymphoid and hematopoietic toxicity in mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Dong U.; Katavolos, Paula; Palanisamy, Gopinath; Katewa, Arna; Sioson, Charly; Corpuz, Janice; Pang, Jodie; DeMent, Kevin; Choo, Edna; Ghilardi, Nico; Diaz, Dolores; Danilenko, Dimitry M.

    2016-01-01

    Bromo and extra terminal (BET) proteins (BRD2, BRD3, BRD4 and BRDT) are epigenetic transcriptional regulators required for efficient expression of growth promoting, cell cycle progression and antiapoptotic genes. Through their bromodomain, these proteins bind to acetylated lysine residues of histones and are recruited to transcriptionally active chromatin. Inhibition of the BET-histone interaction provides a tractable therapeutic strategy to treat diseases that may have epigenetic dysregulation. JQ1 is a small molecule that blocks BET interaction with histones. It has been shown to decrease proliferation of patient-derived multiple myeloma in vitro and to decrease tumor burden in vivo in xenograft mouse models. While targeting BET appears to be a viable and efficacious approach, the nonclinical safety profile of BET inhibition remains to be well-defined. We report that mice dosed with JQ1 at efficacious exposures demonstrate dose-dependent decreases in their lymphoid and immune cell compartments. At higher doses, JQ1 was not tolerated and due to induction of significant body weight loss led to early euthanasia. Flow cytometry analysis of lymphoid tissues showed a decrease in both B- and T-lymphocytes with a concomitant decrease in peripheral white blood cells that was confirmed by hematology. Further investigation with the inactive enantiomer of JQ1 showed that these in vivo effects were on-target mediated and not elicited through secondary pharmacology due to chemical structure.

  11. Nonselective inhibition of the epigenetic transcriptional regulator BET induces marked lymphoid and hematopoietic toxicity in mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Dong U., E-mail: lee.dong@gene.com [Department of Safety Assessment, Genentech, Inc., South San Francisco, CA 94080 (United States); Katavolos, Paula; Palanisamy, Gopinath [Department of Safety Assessment, Genentech, Inc., South San Francisco, CA 94080 (United States); Katewa, Arna [Department of Research Immunology, Genentech, Inc., South San Francisco, CA 94080 (United States); Sioson, Charly; Corpuz, Janice [Department of Safety Assessment, Genentech, Inc., South San Francisco, CA 94080 (United States); Pang, Jodie; DeMent, Kevin; Choo, Edna [Drug Metabolism and Pharmacokinetics, Genentech, Inc., South San Francisco, CA 94080 (United States); Ghilardi, Nico [Department of Research Immunology, Genentech, Inc., South San Francisco, CA 94080 (United States); Diaz, Dolores; Danilenko, Dimitry M. [Department of Safety Assessment, Genentech, Inc., South San Francisco, CA 94080 (United States)

    2016-06-01

    Bromo and extra terminal (BET) proteins (BRD2, BRD3, BRD4 and BRDT) are epigenetic transcriptional regulators required for efficient expression of growth promoting, cell cycle progression and antiapoptotic genes. Through their bromodomain, these proteins bind to acetylated lysine residues of histones and are recruited to transcriptionally active chromatin. Inhibition of the BET-histone interaction provides a tractable therapeutic strategy to treat diseases that may have epigenetic dysregulation. JQ1 is a small molecule that blocks BET interaction with histones. It has been shown to decrease proliferation of patient-derived multiple myeloma in vitro and to decrease tumor burden in vivo in xenograft mouse models. While targeting BET appears to be a viable and efficacious approach, the nonclinical safety profile of BET inhibition remains to be well-defined. We report that mice dosed with JQ1 at efficacious exposures demonstrate dose-dependent decreases in their lymphoid and immune cell compartments. At higher doses, JQ1 was not tolerated and due to induction of significant body weight loss led to early euthanasia. Flow cytometry analysis of lymphoid tissues showed a decrease in both B- and T-lymphocytes with a concomitant decrease in peripheral white blood cells that was confirmed by hematology. Further investigation with the inactive enantiomer of JQ1 showed that these in vivo effects were on-target mediated and not elicited through secondary pharmacology due to chemical structure.

  12. Clinical aspects of lower leg compartment syndrome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brand, Johan Gerard Henric van den

    2004-01-01

    A compartment syndrome is a condition in which increased pressure within a limited space compromises the circulation and function of tissues within that space. Although pathofysiology is roughly similar in chronic exertional and acute compartment syndrome of the lower leg, the clinical

  13. Indigenous opportunistic bacteria inhabit mammalian gut-associated lymphoid tissues and share a mucosal antibody-mediated symbiosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obata, Takashi; Goto, Yoshiyuki; Kunisawa, Jun; Sato, Shintaro; Sakamoto, Mitsuo; Setoyama, Hiromi; Matsuki, Takahiro; Nonaka, Kazuhiko; Shibata, Naoko; Gohda, Masashi; Kagiyama, Yuki; Nochi, Tomonori; Yuki, Yoshikazu; Fukuyama, Yoshiko; Mukai, Akira; Shinzaki, Shinichiro; Fujihashi, Kohtaro; Sasakawa, Chihiro; Iijima, Hideki; Goto, Masatoshi; Umesaki, Yoshinori; Benno, Yoshimi; Kiyono, Hiroshi

    2010-04-20

    The indigenous bacteria create natural cohabitation niches together with mucosal Abs in the gastrointestinal (GI) tract. Here we report that opportunistic bacteria, largely Alcaligenes species, specifically inhabit host Peyer's patches (PPs) and isolated lymphoid follicles, with the associated preferential induction of antigen-specific mucosal IgA Abs in the GI tract. Alcaligenes were identified as the dominant bacteria on the interior of PPs from naïve, specific-pathogen-free but not from germ-free mice. Oral transfer of intratissue uncultured Alcaligenes into germ-free mice resulted in the presence of Alcaligenes inside the PPs of recipients. This result was further supported by the induction of antigen-specific Ab-producing cells in the mucosal (e.g., PPs) but not systemic compartment (e.g., spleen). The preferential presence of Alcaligenes inside PPs and the associated induction of intestinal secretory IgA Abs were also observed in both monkeys and humans. Localized mucosal Ab-mediated symbiotic immune responses were supported by Alcaligenes-stimulated CD11c(+) dendritic cells (DCs) producing the Ab-enhancing cytokines TGF-beta, B-cell-activating factor belonging to the TNF family, and IL-6 in PPs. These CD11c(+) DCs did not migrate beyond the draining mesenteric lymph nodes. In the absence of antigen-specific mucosal Abs, the presence of Alcaligenes in PPs was greatly diminished. Thus, indigenous opportunistic bacteria uniquely inhabit PPs, leading to PP-DCs-initiated, local antigen-specific Ab production; this may involve the creation of an optimal symbiotic environment on the interior of the PPs.

  14. Prion pathogenesis and secondary lymphoid organs (SLO)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mabbott, Neil A.

    2012-01-01

    Prion diseases are subacute neurodegenerative diseases that affect humans and a range of domestic and free-ranging animal species. These diseases are characterized by the accumulation of PrPSc, an abnormally folded isoform of the cellular prion protein (PrPC), in affected tissues. The pathology during prion disease appears to occur almost exclusively within the central nervous system. The extensive neurodegeneration which occurs ultimately leads to the death of the host. An intriguing feature of the prion diseases, when compared with other protein-misfolding diseases, is their transmissibility. Following peripheral exposure, some prion diseases accumulate to high levels within lymphoid tissues. The replication of prions within lymphoid tissue has been shown to be important for the efficient spread of disease to the brain. This article describes recent progress in our understanding of the cellular mechanisms that influence the propagation of prions from peripheral sites of exposure (such as the lumen of the intestine) to the brain. A thorough understanding of these events will lead to the identification of important targets for therapeutic intervention, or alternatively, reveal additional processes that influence disease susceptibility to peripherally-acquired prion diseases. PMID:22895090

  15. Incidence of lymphoid neoplasms by subtype among six Asian ethnic groups in the United States, 1996-2004.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carreon, J Daniel; Morton, Lindsay M; Devesa, Susan S; Clarke, Christina A; Gomez, Scarlett L; Glaser, Sally L; Sakoda, Lori C; Linet, Martha S; Wang, Sophia S

    2008-12-01

    To establish baseline data for lymphoid neoplasm incidence by subtype for six Asian-American ethnic groups. Incident rates were estimated by age and sex for six Asian ethnic groups--Asian Indian/Pakistani, Chinese, Filipino, Japanese, Korean, Vietnamese--in five United States cancer registry areas during 1996-2004. For comparison, rates for non-Hispanic Whites were also estimated. During 1996-2004, Filipinos had the highest (24.0) and Koreans had the lowest incidence (12.7) of total lymphoid neoplasms. By subtype, Vietnamese and Filipinos had the highest incidence for diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) (8.0 and 7.2); Japanese had the highest incidence of follicular lymphoma (2.3). Although a general male predominance of lymphoid neoplasms was observed, this pattern varied by lymphoid neoplasm subtype. Whites generally had higher rates than all Asian ethnic groups for all lymphoid neoplasms and most lymphoma subtypes, although the magnitude of the difference varied by both ethnicity and lymphoma subtype. The observed variations in incidence patterns among Asian ethnic groups in the United States suggest that it may be fruitful to pursue studies that compare Asian populations for postulated environmental and genetic risk factors.

  16. [Comparative study of lymphoid follicles in mucosa of pharynx and mucosal associated lymphoid tissues in paranasal sinuses].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhai, Weigang; Yao, Min; Chen, Jue

    2013-08-01

    To study the relationship between the lymphoid follicles in mucous membrane of pharynx and mucosal associated lymphoid tissues (MALT). Ten folliculi obtained from 10 patients of follicular pharyngitis and mucosa taken form 10 patients of paranasal sinusitis were fixed in neutral formalin and embedded in paraffin. Sections were prepared, stained by H. E and by immunohistochemical method staining with S-100,and observe by light microscopy. We observed the morphology of lymphoid follicles in mucous membrane of pharynx with MALT in mucosa of paranasal sinusitis as the contrast. Lymphoid follicles in mucosa of pharynx compared with MALT in the mucosa of paranasal sinuses, there was no mantle zone, no typical germinal center and no mucosal epithelium, immunological staining with S-100 was week. The lymphoid follicles in mucosa of pharynx does not belong to the MALT.

  17. Are certain fractures at increased risk for compartment syndrome after civilian ballistic injury?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meskey, Thomas; Hardcastle, John; O'Toole, Robert V

    2011-11-01

    Compartment syndrome after ballistic fracture is uncommon but potentially devastating. Few data are available to help guide clinicians regarding risk factors for developing compartment syndrome after ballistic fractures. Our primary hypothesis was that ballistic fractures of certain bones would be at higher risk for development of compartment syndrome. A retrospective review at a Level I trauma center from 2001 through 2007 yielded 650 patients with 938 fractures resulting from gunshots. We reviewed all operative notes, clinic notes, discharge summaries, and data from our prospective trauma database. Cases in which the attending orthopedic surgeon diagnosed compartment syndrome and performed fasciotomy were considered cases with compartment syndrome. We excluded all prophylactic fasciotomies. Univariate analyses were conducted to identify risk factors associated with development of compartment syndrome. Twenty-six (2.8%) of the 938 fractures were associated with compartment syndrome. Only fibular (11.6%) and tibial (11.4%) fractures had incidence significantly higher than baseline for all ballistic fractures (p Ballistic fractures of the fibula and tibia are at increased risk for development of compartment syndrome over other ballistic fractures. We recommend increased vigilance when treating these injuries, particularly if the fracture is in the proximal aspect of the bone or is associated with vascular injury.

  18. Clinical Impact of the Immunome in Lymphoid Malignancies: The Role of Myeloid-Derived Suppressor Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vetro, Calogero; Romano, Alessandra; Ancora, Flavia; Coppolino, Francesco; Brundo, Maria V.; Raccuia, Salvatore A.; Puglisi, Fabrizio; Tibullo, Daniele; La Cava, Piera; Giallongo, Cesarina; Parrinello, Nunziatina L.

    2015-01-01

    The better definition of the mutual sustainment between neoplastic cells and immune system has been translated from the bench to the bedside acquiring value as prognostic factor. Additionally, it represents a promising tool for improving therapeutic strategies. In this context, myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs) have gained a central role in tumor developing with consequent therapeutic implications. In this review, we will focus on the biological and clinical impact of the study of MDSCs in the settings of lymphoid malignancies. PMID:26052505

  19. Abdominal compartment syndrome with acute reperfusion syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maleeva, A.

    2017-01-01

    Abdominal compartment syndrome was recognized clinically in the 19th century when Marey and Burt observed its association with declines in respiratory function. Abdominal compartment syndrome is first used as a medical terminology from Fietsman in a case of ruptured abdominal aortic aneurysm. A condition caused by abnormally increased pressure within the abdomen. Causes of abdominal compartment syndrome include trauma, surgery, or infection. Common symptoms: abdominal distension, fast heart rate, insufficient urine production, or low blood pressure Medical procedure: nasogastric intubation Surgery: laparotomy Specialists: radiologist, primary care provider (PCP), surgeon, and emergency medicine doctor [6, 10]. Keywords: Stomach. Gastroparesis . Diabetes Mellitus [bg

  20. Expression and localization of vascular endothelial growth factor A (VEGFA) and its two receptors (VEGFR1/FLT1 and VEGFR2/FLK1/KDR) in the canine corpus luteum and utero-placental compartments during pregnancy and at normal and induced parturition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gram, Aykut; Hoffmann, Bernd; Boos, Alois; Kowalewski, Mariusz P

    2015-11-01

    VEGFA is one of the most potent known inducers of angiogenesis. However, the function of angiogenic factors in the canine corpus luteum (CL) of pregnancy and in the pregnant uterus and placenta has not yet been elucidated. Therefore, here we investigated the expression and localization of VEGFA and its receptors (VEGFR1/FLT1 and VEGFR2/FLK1/KDR) in the canine CL and utero-placental compartments (ut-pl) throughout pregnancy until prepartum luteolysis. Antigestagen-mediated effects on expression of VEGF system in ut-pl were elucidated in mid-pregnant dogs. While displaying high individual variation, the luteal VEGFA was elevated during pre-implantation and post-implantation, followed by a decrease during mid-gestation, which was more pronounced at the mRNA level, and showed constant expression afterwards. Within the uterus, it increased following implantation and during mid-gestation in ut-pl compartments, but was downregulated at prepartum luteolysis. Luteal VEGFR1 expression resembled that of VEGFA; VEGFR2 remained unaffected throughout pregnancy. In ut-pl compartments, both receptors increased gradually towards mid-gestation; a prepartum decrease was observed for VEGFR1. Antigestagen-treatment resulted in decreased expression of ut-pl VEGFR1. In the CL, VEGFA stained in luteal cells. Uterine signals of VEGFA and its two receptors were observed in epithelial and vascular compartments, and in myometrium. In placental labyrinth, additionally, trophoblast stained positively. Luteal VEGFR1 was localized to the luteal cells and tunica media of blood vessels, whereas VEGFR2 stained only in capillary endothelial cells. The upregulation of luteal and the ut-pl VEGF system during early gestational stages supports the increased vascularization rate during this time. The diminishing effects of the prepartum endocrine milieu on VEGFA function seem to be more pronounced in the ut-pl units. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Radiation effects on cultured human lymphoid cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johansson, L.; Nilsson, K.; Carlsson, J.; Larsson, B.; Jakobsson, P.

    1981-01-01

    The cloning efficiency of human normal and malignant lymphoid cells is usually low. Radiation effects in vitro on such cells can therefore not be analysed with conventional cloning. However, this problem can be circumscribed by using the growth extrapolation method. A panel of human leukemia-lymphoma cell-lines representing Epstein-Barr virus carrying lymphoblastoid cells of presumed non-neoplastic derivation and neoplastic T- and B-lymphocytes was used to test the efficiency of this method. The sensitivity to radiation could be determined for all these cell types. The growth extrapolation method gave generally the same result as conventional cloning demonstrated by comparison with one exceptional cell-line with capacity for cloning in agar. The sensitivity varied largely between the different cell types. A common feature was that none of the cell lines had a good capacity to accumulate sublethal radiation injury. (Auth.)

  2. Innate lymphoid cells and the MHC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinette, M L; Colonna, M

    2016-01-01

    Innate lymphoid cells (ILCs) are a new class of immune cells that include natural killer (NK) cells and appear to be the innate counterparts to CD4(+) helper T cells and CD8(+) cytotoxic T cells based on developmental and functional similarities. Like T cells, both NK cells and other ILCs also show connections to the major histocompatibility complex (MHC). In human and mouse, NK cells recognize and respond to classical and nonclassical MHC I molecules as well as structural homologues, whereas mouse ILCs have recently been shown to express MHC II. We describe the history of MHC I recognition by NK cells and discuss emerging roles for MHC II expression by ILC subsets, making comparisons between both mouse and human when possible. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Clinical epidemiological aspects of chronic lymphoid leukaemia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodriguez Brunet, Marisol; Hernandez Galano, Geldris P; Suarez Beyries, Lidia C; Duverger Magdaleon, Ernesto

    2011-01-01

    A descriptive and retrospective study of 71 patients with chronic lymphoid leukemia, attended at the Hematology Service from 'Dr Juan Bruno Zayas Alfonso' Teaching General Hospital in Santiago de Cuba was carried out from January, 2001 to November, 2006, in order to identify some clinical epidemiological variables on them, to show the therapeutical variables more used, as well as to assess survival, mortality, and the main causes of the clinical entity. Elderly, male sex, and high risk category related to advanced stage were predominant in the series. The therapeutical schedule of chlorambucil and prednisone was the most used, achieving good results in the majority of the case material. The survival of patients, in general, ranged among 1-5 years, whereas deaths occurred due to disease progression, infectious respiratory processes, pro-lymphocytic transformation, second neoplasias, and strokes. (author)

  4. Tertiary lymphoid organs in Takayasu Arteritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marc eClement

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The role of B cells in the pathogenesis of Takayasu arteritis (TA is controversial. We aimed to study the presence of tertiary lymphoid organs (TLOs in the aortic wall of TA patients.Methods: Hematoxylin and eosin–stained sections from aorta specimens from patients with TA were screened for TLOs. The presence of B cell aggregates (CD20, follicular dendritic cells (FDCs, CD21, and high endothelial venules (HEVs, PNAd was investigated by immunohistochemistry. Immune cells from the adventitial layer of one patient were characterized by flow cytometry. Demographic, medical history, laboratory, imaging, treatment and follow up data were extracted from medical records.Results: Aorta specimens from Bentall procedures were available from 7 patients (five female, aged 22 to 57 years with TA. Surgical treatment was performed at TA diagnosis (n=4 or at a median of 108 months [84-156] after TA diagnosis. Disease was active at surgery in four patients according to NIH score. B cell aggregates-TLOs containing HEVs were observed in the adventitia of all but one patient.. Of note, ectopic follicles containing CD21+ FDCs were found in all patients (4/4 with increased aortic FDG uptake before surgery but were absent in all but one patients (2/3 with no FDG uptake. In addition, flow cytometry analysis confirmed the accumulation of memory/germinal center–like B cells in the adventitial layer and showed the presence of antigen-experienced T follicular helper cells.Conclusion: Ectopic lymphoid neogenesis displaying functional features can be found in the aortic wall of a subset of patients with active TA. The function of these local B cell clusters on the pathogenesis of TA remains to be elucidated.

  5. Tertiary Lymphoid Organs in Takayasu Arteritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clement, Marc; Galy, Adrien; Bruneval, Patrick; Morvan, Marion; Hyafil, Fabien; Benali, Khadija; Pasi, Nicoletta; Deschamps, Lydia; Pellenc, Quentin; Papo, Thomas; Nicoletti, Antonino; Sacre, Karim

    2016-01-01

    The role of B cells in the pathogenesis of Takayasu arteritis (TA) is controversial. We aimed to study the presence of tertiary lymphoid organs (TLOs) in the aortic wall of TA patients. Hematoxylin and eosin-stained sections from aorta specimens from patients with TA were screened for TLOs. The presence of B cell aggregates (CD20), follicular dendritic cells (FDCs, CD21), and high endothelial venules (HEVs, PNAd) was investigated by immunohistochemistry. Immune cells from the adventitial layer of one patient were characterized by flow cytometry. Demographic, medical history, laboratory, imaging, treatment, and follow-up data were extracted from medical records. Aorta specimens from Bentall procedures were available from seven patients (5 females, aged 22-57 years) with TA. Surgical treatment was performed at TA diagnosis (n = 4) or at a median of 108 months (84-156) after TA diagnosis. Disease was active at surgery in four patients according to NIH score. B cell aggregates-TLOs containing HEVs were observed in the adventitia of all but one patient. Of note, ectopic follicles containing CD21(+) FDCs were found in all patients (4/4) with increased aortic (18)F-fluoro-deoxyglucose (FDG) uptake before surgery but were absent in all but one patients (2/3) with no FDG uptake. In addition, flow cytometry analysis confirmed the accumulation of memory/germinal center-like B cells in the adventitial layer and showed the presence of antigen-experienced T follicular helper cells. Ectopic lymphoid neogenesis displaying functional features can be found in the aortic wall of a subset of patients with active TA. The function of these local B cell clusters on the pathogenesis of TA remains to be elucidated.

  6. Abdominal Compartment Syndrome in Surgical Patients

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    abdominal hypertension and abdominal compartment syndrome, affect ... timely surgical intervention is crucial. Key words: .... On the second postoperative day, he was noted to be restless ... Although surgery is very effective in managing ACS.

  7. Compartment syndrome in a labrador retriever

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williams, J.; Bailey, M.Q.; Schertel, E.R.; Valentine, A.

    1994-01-01

    Compartment syndrome is an elevation of interstitial pressure in a closed osseofascial compartment that results in microvascular compromise. This report documents a clinical syndrome in the crus of a fourteen-month-old intact male Labrador Retriever which was consistent with trauma-induced compartment syndrome. A six month history of recurring trauma or complications resulted in the need for referral. Survey radiography and ultrasonography aided in the diagnosis, but the definitive answer was provided by femoral angiography. The patient was successfully treated and was discharged with normal limb function. One year later, there were no complications observed. Compartment syndrome is not uncommon in humans, and is routinely considered in certain blunt and most penetrating traumas. However, few reports of this complication in animals are found

  8. Expansion of inflammatory innate lymphoid cells in patients with common variable immune deficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cols, Montserrat; Rahman, Adeeb; Maglione, Paul J; Garcia-Carmona, Yolanda; Simchoni, Noa; Ko, Huai-Bin M; Radigan, Lin; Cerutti, Andrea; Blankenship, Derek; Pascual, Virginia; Cunningham-Rundles, Charlotte

    2016-04-01

    Common variable immunodeficiency (CVID) is an antibody deficiency treated with immunoglobulin; however, patients can have noninfectious inflammatory conditions that lead to heightened morbidity and mortality. Modular analyses of RNA transcripts in whole blood previously identified an upregulation of many interferon-responsive genes. In this study we sought the cell populations leading to this signature. Lymphoid cells were measured in peripheral blood of 55 patients with CVID (31 with and 24 without inflammatory/autoimmune complications) by using mass cytometry and flow cytometry. Surface markers, cytokines, and transcriptional characteristics of sorted innate lymphoid cells (ILCs) were defined by using quantitative PCR. Gastrointestinal and lung biopsy specimens of subjects with inflammatory disease were stained to seek ILCs in tissues. The linage-negative, CD127(+), CD161(+) lymphoid population containing T-box transcription factor, retinoic acid-related orphan receptor (ROR) γt, IFN-γ, IL-17A, and IL-22, all hallmarks of type 3 innate lymphoid cells, were expanded in the blood of patients with CVID with inflammatory conditions (mean, 3.7% of PBMCs). ILCs contained detectable amounts of the transcription factors inhibitor of DNA binding 2, T-box transcription factor, and RORγt and increased mRNA transcripts for IL-23 receptor (IL-23R) and IL-26, demonstrating inflammatory potential. In gastrointestinal and lung biopsy tissues of patients with CVID, numerous IFN-γ(+)RORγt(+)CD3(-) cells were identified, suggesting a role in these mucosal inflammatory states. An expansion of this highly inflammatory ILC population is a characteristic of patients with CVID with inflammatory disease; ILCs and the interferon signature are markers for the uncontrolled inflammatory state in these patients. Copyright © 2015 American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. A case of abdominal compartment syndrome derived from simple elongated sigmoid colon in an elderly man

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masaaki Shida

    2016-01-01

    Discussion and conclusion: Considering the increase in the aging population, we must bear in mind that abdominal compartment syndrome may occur in simple elongated sigmoid colon without other risk factors.

  10. High-resolution CT of lymphoid interstitial pneumonia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vilgrain, V.; Frija, J.; Yana, C.; Couderc, L.J.; David, M.; Clauvel, J.P.; Laval-Jeantet, M.

    1989-01-01

    Three patients with lymphoid interstitial pneumonia (two HIV 1+ patients with chronic lymphadenopathic syndromes and one with a not-characterized autoimmune disease) have been studied with high-resolution computed tomography (HR-CT). This technique reveals septal lines, small reticulonodular opacities, polyhedral micronodular opacities, 'ground-glass' opacities and a dense, subpleural, curved broken line in one patient. The lesions dominate in the bases of the lungs. They are not characteristic for lymphoid interstitial pneumonia. If a patient presents with a chronic lymphadenopathic syndrome, the diagnosis of an opportunistic infection should not be automatically made, since the syndrome can be caused by lymphoid interstitial pneumonia [fr

  11. Nasal-Associated Lymphoid Tissue Is a Mucosal Inductive Site for Virus-Specific Humoral and Cellular Immune Responses

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Zuercher, A. W.; Coffin, S. E.; Thurnheer, M. CH.; Fundová, Petra; Cebra, J. J.

    2002-01-01

    Roč. 168, - (2002), s. 1796-1803 ISSN 0022-1767 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z5020903 Keywords : lymphoid tissue * virus-specific * humoral Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 7.014, year: 2002

  12. Type 3 innate lymphoid cell depletion is mediated by TLRs in lymphoid tissues of simian immunodeficiency virus-infected macaques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Huanbin; Wang, Xiaolei; Lackner, Andrew A; Veazey, Ronald S

    2015-12-01

    Innate lymphoid cells (ILCs) type 3, also known as lymphoid tissue inducer cells, plays a major role in both the development and remodeling of organized lymphoid tissues and the maintenance of adaptive immune responses. HIV/simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) infection causes breakdown of intestinal barriers resulting in microbial translocation, leading to systemic immune activation and disease progression. However, the effects of HIV/SIV infection on ILC3 are unknown. Here, we analyzed ILC3 from mucosal and systemic lymphoid tissues in chronically SIV-infected macaques and uninfected controls. ILC3 cells were defined and identified in macaque lymphoid tissues as non-T, non-B (lineage-negative), c-Kit(+)IL-7Rα(+) (CD117(+)CD127(+)) cells. These ILC3 cells highly expressed CD90 (∼ 63%) and aryl hydrocarbon receptor and produced IL-17 (∼ 63%), IL-22 (∼ 36%), and TNF-α (∼ 72%) but did not coexpress CD4 or NK cell markers. The intestinal ILC3 cell loss correlated with the reduction of total CD4(+) T cells and T helper (Th)17 and Th22 cells in the gut during SIV infection (P lymphoid tissues in SIV-infected macaques, further contributing to the HIV-induced impairment of gut-associated lymphoid tissue structure and function, especially in mucosal tissues. © FASEB.

  13. Regulation of Innate Lymphoid Cells by Aryl Hydrocarbon Receptor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Shiyang; Bostick, John W.; Zhou, Liang

    2018-01-01

    With striking similarity to their adaptive T helper cell counterparts, innate lymphoid cells (ILCs) represent an emerging family of cell types that express signature transcription factors, including T-bet+ Eomes+ natural killer cells, T-bet+ Eomes− group 1 ILCs, GATA3+ group 2 ILCs, RORγt+ group 3 ILCs, and newly identified Id3+ regulatory ILC. ILCs are abundantly present in barrier tissues of the host (e.g., the lung, gut, and skin) at the interface of host–environment interactions. Active research has been conducted to elucidate molecular mechanisms underlying the development and function of ILCs. The aryl hydrocarbon receptor (Ahr) is a ligand-dependent transcription factor, best known to mediate the effects of xenobiotic environmental toxins and endogenous microbial and dietary metabolites. Here, we review recent progresses regarding Ahr function in ILCs. We focus on the Ahr-mediated cross talk between ILCs and other immune/non-immune cells in host tissues especially in the gut. We discuss the molecular mechanisms of the action of Ahr expression and activity in regulation of ILCs in immunity and inflammation, and the interaction between Ahr and other pathways/transcription factors in ILC development and function with their implication in disease. PMID:29354125

  14. Regulation of Innate Lymphoid Cells by Aryl Hydrocarbon Receptor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shiyang Li

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available With striking similarity to their adaptive T helper cell counterparts, innate lymphoid cells (ILCs represent an emerging family of cell types that express signature transcription factors, including T-bet+ Eomes+ natural killer cells, T-bet+ Eomes− group 1 ILCs, GATA3+ group 2 ILCs, RORγt+ group 3 ILCs, and newly identified Id3+ regulatory ILC. ILCs are abundantly present in barrier tissues of the host (e.g., the lung, gut, and skin at the interface of host–environment interactions. Active research has been conducted to elucidate molecular mechanisms underlying the development and function of ILCs. The aryl hydrocarbon receptor (Ahr is a ligand-dependent transcription factor, best known to mediate the effects of xenobiotic environmental toxins and endogenous microbial and dietary metabolites. Here, we review recent progresses regarding Ahr function in ILCs. We focus on the Ahr-mediated cross talk between ILCs and other immune/non-immune cells in host tissues especially in the gut. We discuss the molecular mechanisms of the action of Ahr expression and activity in regulation of ILCs in immunity and inflammation, and the interaction between Ahr and other pathways/transcription factors in ILC development and function with their implication in disease.

  15. Vitamin A Controls the Presence of RORγ+ Innate Lymphoid Cells and Lymphoid Tissue in the Small Intestine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goverse, Gera; Labao-Almeida, Carlos; Ferreira, Manuela; Molenaar, Rosalie; Wahlen, Sigrid; Konijn, Tanja; Koning, Jasper; Veiga-Fernandes, Henrique; Mebius, Reina E

    2016-06-15

    Changes in diet and microbiota have determining effects on the function of the mucosal immune system. For example, the active metabolite of vitamin A, retinoic acid (RA), has been described to maintain homeostasis in the intestine by its influence on both lymphocytes and myeloid cells. Additionally, innate lymphoid cells (ILCs), important producers of cytokines necessary for intestinal homeostasis, are also influenced by vitamin A in the small intestines. In this study, we show a reduction of both NCR(-) and NCR(+) ILC3 subsets in the small intestine of mice raised on a vitamin A-deficient diet. Additionally, the percentages of IL-22-producing ILCs were reduced in the absence of dietary vitamin A. Conversely, mice receiving additional RA had a specific increase in the NCR(-) ILC3 subset, which contains the lymphoid tissue inducer cells. The dependence of lymphoid tissue inducer cells on vitamin A was furthermore illustrated by impaired development of enteric lymphoid tissues in vitamin A-deficient mice. These effects were a direct consequence of ILC-intrinsic RA signaling, because retinoic acid-related orphan receptor γt-Cre × RARα-DN mice had reduced numbers of NCR(-) and NCR(+) ILC3 subsets within the small intestine. However, lymphoid tissue inducer cells were not affected in these mice nor was the formation of enteric lymphoid tissue, demonstrating that the onset of RA signaling might take place before retinoic acid-related orphan receptor γt is expressed on lymphoid tissue inducer cells. Taken together, our data show an important role for vitamin A in controlling innate lymphoid cells and, consequently, postnatal formed lymphoid tissues within the small intestines. Copyright © 2016 by The American Association of Immunologists, Inc.

  16. Type 3 innate lymphoid cell depletion is mediated by TLRs in lymphoid tissues of simian immunodeficiency virus–infected macaques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Huanbin; Wang, Xiaolei; Lackner, Andrew A.; Veazey, Ronald S.

    2015-01-01

    Innate lymphoid cells (ILCs) type 3, also known as lymphoid tissue inducer cells, plays a major role in both the development and remodeling of organized lymphoid tissues and the maintenance of adaptive immune responses. HIV/simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) infection causes breakdown of intestinal barriers resulting in microbial translocation, leading to systemic immune activation and disease progression. However, the effects of HIV/SIV infection on ILC3 are unknown. Here, we analyzed ILC3 from mucosal and systemic lymphoid tissues in chronically SIV-infected macaques and uninfected controls. ILC3 cells were defined and identified in macaque lymphoid tissues as non-T, non-B (lineage-negative), c-Kit+IL-7Rα+ (CD117+CD127+) cells. These ILC3 cells highly expressed CD90 (∼63%) and aryl hydrocarbon receptor and produced IL-17 (∼63%), IL-22 (∼36%), and TNF-α (∼72%) but did not coexpress CD4 or NK cell markers. The intestinal ILC3 cell loss correlated with the reduction of total CD4+ T cells and T helper (Th)17 and Th22 cells in the gut during SIV infection (P lymphoid tissues in SIV-infected macaques, further contributing to the HIV-induced impairment of gut-associated lymphoid tissue structure and function, especially in mucosal tissues.—Xu, H., Wang, X., Lackner, A. A., Veazey, R. S. Type 3 innate lymphoid cell depletion is mediated by TLRs in lymphoid tissues of simian immunodeficiency virus–infected macaques. PMID:26283536

  17. Characterization of New Zealand White Rabbit Gut-Associated Lymphoid Tissues and Use as Viral Oncology Animal Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haines, Robyn A; Urbiztondo, Rebeccah A; Haynes, Rashade A H; Simpson, Elaine; Niewiesk, Stefan; Lairmore, Michael D

    2016-01-01

    Rabbits have served as a valuable animal model for the pathogenesis of various human diseases, including those related to agents that gain entry through the gastrointestinal tract such as human T cell leukemia virus type 1. However, limited information is available regarding the spatial distribution and phenotypic characterization of major rabbit leukocyte populations in mucosa-associated lymphoid tissues. Herein, we describe the spatial distribution and phenotypic characterization of leukocytes from gut-associated lymphoid tissues (GALT) from 12-week-old New Zealand White rabbits. Our data indicate that rabbits have similar distribution of leukocyte subsets as humans, both in the GALT inductive and effector sites and in mesenteric lymph nodes, spleen, and peripheral blood. GALT inductive sites, including appendix, cecal tonsil, Peyer's patches, and ileocecal plaque, had variable B cell/T cell ratios (ranging from 4.0 to 0.8) with a predominance of CD4 T cells within the T cell population in all four tissues. Intraepithelial and lamina propria compartments contained mostly T cells, with CD4 T cells predominating in the lamina propria compartment and CD8 T cells predominating in the intraepithelial compartment. Mesenteric lymph node, peripheral blood, and splenic samples contained approximately equal percentages of B cells and T cells, with a high proportion of CD4 T cells compared with CD8 T cells. Collectively, our data indicate that New Zealand White rabbits are comparable with humans throughout their GALT and support future studies that use the rabbit model to study human gut-associated disease or infectious agents that gain entry by the oral route. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Institute for Laboratory Animal Research. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  18. Bioengineering of Artificial Antigen Presenting Cells and Lymphoid Organs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chao; Sun, Wujin; Ye, Yanqi; Bomba, Hunter N; Gu, Zhen

    2017-01-01

    The immune system protects the body against a wide range of infectious diseases and cancer by leveraging the efficiency of immune cells and lymphoid organs. Over the past decade, immune cell/organ therapies based on the manipulation, infusion, and implantation of autologous or allogeneic immune cells/organs into patients have been widely tested and have made great progress in clinical applications. Despite these advances, therapy with natural immune cells or lymphoid organs is relatively expensive and time-consuming. Alternatively, biomimetic materials and strategies have been applied to develop artificial immune cells and lymphoid organs, which have attracted considerable attentions. In this review, we survey the latest studies on engineering biomimetic materials for immunotherapy, focusing on the perspectives of bioengineering artificial antigen presenting cells and lymphoid organs. The opportunities and challenges of this field are also discussed.

  19. Morphology of mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue in odontocetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Fernanda M O; Guimarães, Juliana P; Vergara-Parente, Jociery E; Carvalho, Vitor L; Carolina, Ana; Meirelles, O; Marmontel, Miriam; Oliveira, Bruno S S P; Santos, Silvanise M; Becegato, Estella Z; Evangelista, Janaina S A M; Miglino, Maria Angelica

    2016-09-01

    This study describes the mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) in odontocetes from the Brazilian coast and freshwater systems. Seven species were evaluated and tissue samples were analyzed by light, scanning and transmission electron microscopy, and immunohistochemistry. Laryngeal tonsil was a palpable oval mass located in the larynx, composed of a lymphoepithelial complex. Dense collections of lymphocytes were found in the skin of male fetus and calf. Clusters of lymphoid tissue were found in the uterine cervix of a reproductively active juvenile female and along the pulmonary artery of an adult female. Lymphoid tissues associated with the gastrointestinal tract were characterized by diffusely arranged or organized lymphocytes. The anal tonsil was composed of an aggregate of lymphoid tissue occurring exclusively in the anal canal, being composed of squamous epithelium branches. MALT was present in different tissues and organic systems of cetaceans, providing constant protection against mucosal pathogens present in their environment. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Total lymphoid irradiation for treatment of intractable cardiac allograft rejection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hunt, S.A.; Strober, S.; Hoppe, R.T.; Stinson, E.B.

    1991-01-01

    The ability of postoperative total lymphoid irradiation to reverse otherwise intractable cardiac allograft rejection was examined in a group of 10 patients in whom conventional rejection therapy (including pulsed steroids and monoclonal or polyclonal anti-T-cell antibody therapy) had failed to provide sustained freedom from rejection. Follow-up periods range from 73 to 1119 days since the start of total lymphoid irradiation. No patient died or sustained serious morbidity because of the irradiation. Three patients have had no further rejection (follow-up periods, 105 to 365 days). Two patients died--one in cardiogenic shock during the course of total lymphoid irradiation, the other with recurrent rejection caused by noncompliance with his medical regimen. Total lymphoid irradiation appears to be a safe and a moderately effective immunosuppressive modality for 'salvage' therapy of cardiac allograft rejection unresponsive to conventional therapy

  1. Early lymphoid lesions: conceptual, diagnostic and clinical challenges

    OpenAIRE

    Ganapathi, Karthik A.; Pittaluga, Stefania; Odejide, Oreofe O.; Freedman, Arnold S.; Jaffe, Elaine S.

    2014-01-01

    There are no “benign lymphomas”, a fact due to the nature of lymphoid cells to circulate and home as part of their normal function. Thus, benign clonal expansions of lymphocytes are only rarely recognized when localized. Recent studies have identified a number of lymphoid proliferations that lie at the interface between benign and malignant. Some of these are clonal proliferations that carry many of the molecular hallmarks of their malignant counterparts, such as BCL2/IGH and CCND1/IGH transl...

  2. Lymphoid Progenitor Cells from Childhood Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia Are Functionally Deficient and Express High Levels of the Transcriptional Repressor Gfi-1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica Purizaca

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL is the most frequent malignancy of childhood. Substantial progress on understanding the cell hierarchy within ALL bone marrow (BM has been recorded in the last few years, suggesting that both primitive cell fractions and committed lymphoid blasts with immature stem cell-like properties contain leukemia-initiating cells. Nevertheless, the biology of the early progenitors that initiate the lymphoid program remains elusive. The aim of the present study was to investigate the ability of lymphoid progenitors from B-cell precursor ALL BM to proliferate and undergo multilineage differentiation. By phenotype analyses, in vitro proliferation assays, and controlled culture systems, the lymphoid differentiation potentials were evaluated in BM primitive populations from B-cell precursor ALL pediatric patients. When compared to their normal counterparts, functional stem and progenitor cell contents were substantially reduced in ALL BM. Moreover, neither B nor NK or dendritic lymphoid-cell populations developed recurrently from highly purified ALL-lymphoid progenitors, and their proliferation and cell cycle status revealed limited proliferative capacity. Interestingly, a number of quiescence-associated transcription factors were elevated, including the transcriptional repressor Gfi-1, which was highly expressed in primitive CD34+ cells. Together, our findings reveal major functional defects in the primitive hematopoietic component of ALL BM. A possible contribution of high levels of Gfi-1 expression in the regulation of the stem/progenitor cell biology is suggested.

  3. Innate lymphoid cells at the interface between obesity and asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Everaere, Laetitia; Ait Yahia, Saliha; Bouté, Mélodie; Audousset, Camille; Chenivesse, Cécile; Tsicopoulos, Anne

    2018-01-01

    Obesity and asthma prevalence has dramatically and concomitantly increased over the last 25 years, and many epidemiological studies have highlighted obesity as an important risk factor for asthma. Although many studies have been performed, the underlying mechanisms remain poorly understood. Innate mechanisms have been involved in both diseases, in particular through the recently described innate lymphoid cells (ILCs). ILCs are subdivided into three groups that are defined by their cytokine production and by their master transcription factor expression, in sharp correlation with their T helper counterparts. However, unlike T helper cells, ILCs do not express antigen-specific receptors, but respond to damage-induced signals. ILCs have been found in target tissues of both diseases, and data have implicated these cells in the pathogenesis of both diseases. In particular group 2 ILCs (ILC2) are activated in both the adipose and lung tissues under the effect of interleukin-33 and interleukin-25 expression. However, counter-intuitively to the well-known association between obesity and asthma, ILC2 are beneficial for obesity but deleterious for asthma. This review will examine the roles of ILCs in each disease and recent data highlighting ILCs as a putative link between obesity and asthma. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Influence of a radioprotector WR-638 on the lymphoid compartment of the irradiated rat thymus: a flow cytometric analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dragojevic-Simic, V.; Colic, M.; Gasic, S.

    1994-01-01

    The T cell composition of the thymus of X-ray irradiated (3.5 Gy) Wistar rat protected with WR-638 was analyzed by flow cytometry using monoclonal antibodies directed to the Thy 1.1, CD43, CD2, CD5, CD4, CD8 and class I and II MHC antigens. It was shown that this dose of X-rays caused cyclic changes in thymic cellularity manifested as: primary involution (until day 2), primary regeneration (from days 2 to 14), secondary involution (from days 14 to 21) and secondary regeneration (from days 21 to 30). WR-638 reduced the magnitude of thymocyte depletion in the primary involutive phase of the irradiated thymi. (author)

  5. CIITA promoter I CARD-deficient mice express functional MHC class II genes in myeloid and lymphoid compartments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zinzow-Kramer, W M; Long, A B; Youngblood, B A; Rosenthal, K M; Butler, R; Mohammed, A-U-R; Skountzou, I; Ahmed, R; Evavold, B D; Boss, J M

    2012-06-01

    Three distinct promoters control the master regulator of major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II expression, class II transactivator (CIITA), in a cell type-specific manner. Promoter I (pI) CIITA, expressed primarily by dendritic cells (DCs) and macrophages, expresses a unique isoform that contains a caspase-recruitment domain (CARD). The activity and function of this isoform are not understood, but are believed to enhance the function of CIITA in antigen-presenting cells. To determine whether isoform I of CIITA has specific functions, CIITA mutant mice were created in which isoform I was replaced with isoform III sequences. Mice in which pI and the CARD-encoding exon were deleted were also created. No defect in the formation of CD4 T cells, the ability to respond to a model antigen or bacterial or viral challenge was observed in mice lacking CIITA isoform I. Although CIITA and MHC-II expression was decreased in splenic DCs, pI knockout animals expressed CIITA from downstream promoters, suggesting that control of pI activity is mediated by unknown distal elements that could act at pIII, the B-cell promoter. Thus, no critical function is linked to the CARD domain of CIITA isoform I with respect to basic immune system development, function and challenge.

  6. Superficially located enlarged lymphoid follicles characterise nodular gastritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okamura, Takuma; Sakai, Yasuhiro; Hoshino, Hitomi; Iwaya, Yugo; Tanaka, Eiji; Kobayashi, Motohiro

    2015-01-01

    Nodular gastritis is a form of chronic Helicobacter pylori gastritis affecting the gastric antrum and characterised endoscopically by the presence of small nodular lesions resembling gooseflesh. It is generally accepted that hyperplasia of lymphoid follicles histologically characterises nodular gastritis; however, quantitative analysis in support of this hypothesis has not been reported. Our goal was to determine whether nodular gastritis is characterised by lymphoid follicle hyperplasia.The number, size, and location of lymphoid follicles in nodular gastritis were determined and those properties compared to samples of atrophic gastritis. The percentages of high endothelial venule (HEV)-like vessels were also evaluated.The number of lymphoid follicles was comparable between nodular and atrophic gastritis; however, follicle size in nodular gastritis was significantly greater than that seen in atrophic gastritis. Moreover, lymphoid follicles in nodular gastritis were positioned more superficially than were those in atrophic gastritis. The percentage of MECA-79 HEV-like vessels was greater in areas with gooseflesh-like lesions in nodular versus atrophic gastritis.Superficially located hyperplastic lymphoid follicles characterise nodular gastritis, and these follicles correspond to gooseflesh-like nodular lesions observed endoscopically. These observations suggest that MECA-79 HEV-like vessels could play at least a partial role in the pathogenesis of nodular gastritis.

  7. Iliopsoas compartment lesions: a radiologic evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leao, Alberto Ribeiro de Souza; Amaral, Raquel Portugal Guimaraes; Abud, Thiago Giansante; Demarchi, Guilherme Tadeu Sauaia; Freire Filho, Edison de Oliveira; Novack, Paulo Rogerio; Campos, Flavio do Amaral; Shigueoka, David Carlos; Fernandes, Artur da Rocha Correa; Szejnfeld, Jacob; D'Ippolito, Giuseppe

    2007-01-01

    The iliopsoas compartment, a posterior boundary of the retroperitoneum, is comprised of the psoas major, psoas minor and iliac muscles. The symptoms picture in patients presenting with pathological involvement of this compartment may show a wide range of nonspecific clinical presentations that may lead to delayed diagnosis. However, in the search of an etiological diagnosis, it is already known that inflammation, tumors, and hemorrhages account for almost all the lesions affecting the iliopsoas compartment. By means of a retrospective analysis of radiological studies in patients with iliopsoas compartment lesions whose diagnosis was confirmed by anatomopathological evaluation or clinical follow-up, we have reviewed its anatomy as well as the main forms of involvement, with the purpose of identifying radiological signs that may help to narrow down the potential differential diagnoses. As each lesion is approached we will discuss the main radiological findings such as presence of gas in pyogenic abscesses, bone destruction and other bone changes of vertebral bodies in lesions secondary to tuberculosis, involvement of fascial planes in cases of neoplasms, and differences in signal density and intensity of hematomas secondary to hemoglobin degradation, among others. So, we have tried to present cases depicting the most frequent lesions involving the iliopsoas compartment, with emphasis on those signs that can lead us to a more specific etiological diagnosis. (author)

  8. Iliopsoas compartment lesions: a radiologic evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leao, Alberto Ribeiro de Souza; Amaral, Raquel Portugal Guimaraes; Abud, Thiago Giansante; Demarchi, Guilherme Tadeu Sauaia; Freire Filho, Edison de Oliveira; Novack, Paulo Rogerio; Campos, Flavio do Amaral; Shigueoka, David Carlos; Fernandes, Artur da Rocha Correa; Szejnfeld, Jacob; D' Ippolito, Giuseppe [Universidade Federal de Sao Paulo (UNIFESP-EPM), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Dept. de Diagnostico por Imagem]. E-mail: ar.leao@uol.com.br; Santos, Jose Eduardo Mourao [Universidade Federal de Sao Paulo (UNIFESP-EPM), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2007-07-15

    The iliopsoas compartment, a posterior boundary of the retroperitoneum, is comprised of the psoas major, psoas minor and iliac muscles. The symptoms picture in patients presenting with pathological involvement of this compartment may show a wide range of nonspecific clinical presentations that may lead to delayed diagnosis. However, in the search of an etiological diagnosis, it is already known that inflammation, tumors, and hemorrhages account for almost all the lesions affecting the iliopsoas compartment. By means of a retrospective analysis of radiological studies in patients with iliopsoas compartment lesions whose diagnosis was confirmed by anatomopathological evaluation or clinical follow-up, we have reviewed its anatomy as well as the main forms of involvement, with the purpose of identifying radiological signs that may help to narrow down the potential differential diagnoses. As each lesion is approached we will discuss the main radiological findings such as presence of gas in pyogenic abscesses, bone destruction and other bone changes of vertebral bodies in lesions secondary to tuberculosis, involvement of fascial planes in cases of neoplasms, and differences in signal density and intensity of hematomas secondary to hemoglobin degradation, among others. So, we have tried to present cases depicting the most frequent lesions involving the iliopsoas compartment, with emphasis on those signs that can lead us to a more specific etiological diagnosis. (author)

  9. Compartment Syndrome following Open Femoral Fracture with an Isolated Femoral Vein Injury Treated with Acute Repair

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Walmsley

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Acute compartment syndrome is a surgical emergency and its diagnosis is more difficult in obtunded or insensate patients. We present the case of a 34-year-old woman who sustained a Gustilo-Anderson grade III open midshaft femur fracture with an isolated femoral vein injury treated with direct repair. She developed lower leg compartment syndrome at 48 hours postoperatively, necessitating fasciotomies. She was subsequently found to have a DVT in her femoral vein at the level of the repair and was started on therapeutic anticoagulation. This case highlights the importance of recognition of isolated venous injuries in a trauma setting as a risk factor for developing compartment syndrome.

  10. Retinoic Acid Differentially Regulates the Migration of Innate Lymphoid Cell Subsets to the Gut.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Myung H; Taparowsky, Elizabeth J; Kim, Chang H

    2015-07-21

    Distinct groups of innate lymphoid cells (ILCs) such as ILC1, ILC2, and ILC3 populate the intestine, but how these ILCs develop tissue tropism for this organ is unclear. We report that prior to migration to the intestine ILCs first undergo a "switch" in their expression of homing receptors from lymphoid to gut homing receptors. This process is regulated by mucosal dendritic cells and the gut-specific tissue factor retinoic acid (RA). This change in homing receptors is required for long-term population and effector function of ILCs in the intestine. Only ILC1 and ILC3, but not ILC2, undergo the RA-dependent homing receptor switch in gut-associated lymphoid tissues. In contrast, ILC2 acquire gut homing receptors in a largely RA-independent manner during their development in the bone marrow and can migrate directly to the intestine. Thus, distinct programs regulate the migration of ILC subsets to the intestine for regulation of innate immunity. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Saccharomyces boulardii administration can inhibit the formation of gastric lymphoid follicles induced by Helicobacter suis infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Lin; Tian, Zi-Bin; Yu, Ya-Nan; Zhang, Cui-Ping; Li, Xiao-Yu; Mao, Tao; Jing, Xue; Zhao, Wen-Jun; Ding, Xue-Li; Yang, Ruo-Ming; Zhang, Shuai-Qing

    2017-01-01

    Helicobacter suis has a greater tendency to induce gastric mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma compared with other Helicobacter species in humans and animals. Saccharomyces boulardii has been established as an adjunct to H. pylori eradication treatment, but the effect of S. boulardii administration alone on Helicobacter infection remains unclear. Here, we found that S. boulardii administration effectively decreased the bacterial load of H. suis and inhibited the formation of lymphoid follicles in the stomach post-infection. The levels of H. suis-specific immunoglobulin A (IgA) and secretory IgA in the gastric juice and small intestinal secretions and the production of mouse β-defensin-3 in the small intestinal secretions were significantly increased by S. boulardii administration at 12 weeks after H. suis infection. In addition, feeding with S. boulardii inhibited the expression of inflammatory cytokines and lymphoid follicle formation-related factors after H. suis infection. These results suggested that S. boulardii may be useful for the prevention and treatment of Helicobacter infection-related diseases in humans. © FEMS 2017. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  12. Lymphoid Aggregates That Resemble Tertiary Lymphoid Organs Define a Specific Pathological Subset in Metal-on-Metal Hip Replacements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barone, Francesca; Hardie, Debbie L.; Matharu, Gulraj S.; Davenport, Alison J.; Martin, Richard A.; Grant, Melissa; Mosselmans, Frederick; Pynsent, Paul; Sumathi, Vaiyapuri P.; Addison, Owen; Revell, Peter A.; Buckley, Christopher D.

    2013-01-01

    Aseptic lymphocyte-dominated vasculitis-associated lesion (ALVAL) has been used to describe the histological lesion associated with metal-on-metal (M-M) bearings. We tested the hypothesis that the lymphoid aggregates, associated with ALVAL lesions resemble tertiary lymphoid organs (TLOs). Histopathological changes were examined in the periprosthetic tissue of 62 M-M hip replacements requiring revision surgery, with particular emphasis on the characteristics and pattern of the lymphocytic infiltrate. Immunofluorescence and immunohistochemistry were used to study the classical features of TLOs in cases where large organized lymphoid follicles were present. Synchrotron X-ray fluorescence (XRF) measurements were undertaken to detect localisation of implant derived ions/particles within the samples. Based on type of lymphocytic infiltrates, three different categories were recognised; diffuse aggregates (51%), T cell aggregates (20%), and organised lymphoid aggregates (29%). Further investigation of tissues with organised lymphoid aggregates showed that these tissues recapitulate many of the features of TLOs with T cells and B cells organised into discrete areas, the presence of follicular dendritic cells, acquisition of high endothelial venule like phenotype by blood vessels, expression of lymphoid chemokines and the presence of plasma cells. Co-localisation of implant-derived metals with lymphoid aggregates was observed. These findings suggest that in addition to the well described general foreign body reaction mediated by macrophages and a T cell mediated type IV hypersensitivity response, an under-recognized immunological reaction to metal wear debris involving B cells and the formation of tertiary lymphoid organs occurs in a distinct subset of patients with M-M implants. PMID:23723985

  13. Innate lymphoid cells and natural killer T cells in the gastrointestinal tract immune system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enrique Montalvillo

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The gastrointestinal tract is equipped with a highly specialized intrinsic immune system. However, the intestine is exposed to a high antigenic burden that requires a fast, nonspecific response -so-called innate immunity- to maintain homeostasis and protect the body from incoming pathogens. In the last decade multiple studies helped to unravel the particular developmental requirements and specific functions of the cells that play a role in innate immunity. In this review we shall focus on innate lymphoid cells, a newly discovered, heterogeneous set of cells that derive from an Id2-dependent lymphoid progenitor cell population. These cells have been categorized on the basis of the pattern of cytokines that they secrete, and the transcription factors that regulate their development and functions. Innate lymphoid cells play a role in the early response to pathogens, the anatomical contention of the commensal flora, and the maintenance of epithelial integrity. Amongst the various innate lymphoid cells we shall lay emphasis on a subpopulation with several peculiarities, namely that of natural killer T cells, a subset of T lymphocytes that express both T-cell and NK-cell receptors. The most numerous fraction of the NKT population are the so-called invariant NKT or iNKT cells. These iNKT cells have an invariant TCR and recognize the glycolipidic structures presented by the CD1d molecule, a homolog of class-I MHC molecules. Following activation they rapidly acquire cytotoxic activity and secrete both Th1 and Th2 cytokines, including IL-17. While their specific role is not yet established, iNKT cells take part in a great variety of intestinal immune responses ranging from oral tolerance to involvement in a number of gastrointestinal conditions.

  14. Innate lymphoid cells and natural killer T cells in the gastrointestinal tract immune system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montalvillo, Enrique; Garrote, José Antonio; Bernardo, David; Arranz, Eduardo

    2014-05-01

    The gastrointestinal tract is equipped with a highly specialized intrinsic immune system. However, the intestine is exposed to a high antigenic burden that requires a fast, nonspecific response -so-called innate immunity- to maintain homeostasis and protect the body from incoming pathogens. In the last decade multiple studies helped to unravel the particular developmental requirements and specific functions of the cells that play a role in innate immunity. In this review we shall focus on innate lymphoid cells, a newly discovered, heterogeneous set of cells that derive from an Id2-dependent lymphoid progenitor cell population. These cells have been categorized on the basis of the pattern of cytokines that they secrete, and the transcription factors that regulate their development and functions. Innate lymphoid cells play a role in the early response to pathogens, the anatomical contention of the commensal flora, and the maintenance of epithelial integrity.Amongst the various innate lymphoid cells we shall lay emphasis on a subpopulation with several peculiarities, namely that of natural killer T cells, a subset of T lymphocytes that express both T-cell and NK-cell receptors. The most numerous fraction of the NKT population are the so-called invariant NKT or iNKT cells. These iNKT cells have an invariant TCR and recognize the glycolipidic structures presented by the CD1d molecule, a homolog of class-I MHC molecules. Following activation they rapidly acquire cytotoxic activity and secrete both Th1 and Th2 cytokines, including IL-17. While their specific role is not yet established, iNKT cells take part in a great variety of intestinal immune responses ranging from oral tolerance to involvement in a number of gastrointestinal conditions.

  15. Innate lymphoid cells contribute to allergic airway disease exacerbation by obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Everaere, Laetitia; Ait-Yahia, Saliha; Molendi-Coste, Olivier; Vorng, Han; Quemener, Sandrine; LeVu, Pauline; Fleury, Sebastien; Bouchaert, Emmanuel; Fan, Ying; Duez, Catherine; de Nadai, Patricia; Staels, Bart; Dombrowicz, David; Tsicopoulos, Anne

    2016-11-01

    Epidemiologic and clinical observations identify obesity as an important risk factor for asthma exacerbation, but the underlying mechanisms remain poorly understood. Type 2 innate lymphoid cells (ILC2s) and type 3 innate lymphoid cells (ILC3s) have been implicated, respectively, in asthma and adipose tissue homeostasis and in obesity-associated airway hyperresponsiveness (AHR). We sought to determine the potential involvement of innate lymphoid cells (ILCs) in allergic airway disease exacerbation caused by high-fat diet (HFD)-induced obesity. Obesity was induced by means of HFD feeding, and allergic airway inflammation was subsequently induced by means of intranasal administration of house dust mite (HDM) extract. AHR, lung and visceral adipose tissue inflammation, humoral response, cytokines, and innate and adaptive lymphoid populations were analyzed in the presence or absence of ILCs. HFD feeding exacerbated allergic airway disease features, including humoral response, airway and tissue eosinophilia, AHR, and T H 2 and T H 17 pulmonary profiles. Notably, nonsensitized obese mice already exhibited increased lung ILC counts and tissue eosinophil infiltration compared with values in lean mice in the absence of AHR. The numbers of total and cytokine-expressing lung ILC2s and ILC3s further increased in HDM-challenged obese mice compared with those in HDM-challenged lean mice, and this was accompanied by high IL-33 and IL-1β levels and decreased ILC markers in visceral adipose tissue. Furthermore, depletion of ILCs with an anti-CD90 antibody, followed by T-cell reconstitution, led to a profound decrease in allergic airway inflammatory features in obese mice, including T H 2 and T H 17 infiltration. These results indicate that HFD-induced obesity might exacerbate allergic airway inflammation through mechanisms involving ILC2s and ILC3s. Copyright © 2016 American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Post-dialysis urea concentration: comparison between one- compartment model and two-compartment model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tamrin, N S Ahmad; Ibrahim, N

    2014-01-01

    The reduction of the urea concentration in blood can be numerically projected by using one-compartment model and two-compartment model with no variation in body fluid. This study aims to compare the simulated values of post-dialysis urea concentration for both models with the clinical data obtained from the hospital. The clinical assessment of adequacy of a treatment is based on the value of Kt/V. Further, direct calculation using clinical data and one-compartment model are presented in the form of ratio. It is found that the ratios of postdialysis urea concentration simulated using two-compartment model are higher compared to the ratios of post-dialysis urea concentration using one-compartment model. In addition, most values of post-dialysis urea concentration simulated using two-compartment model are much closer to the clinical data compared to values simulated using one-compartment model. Kt/V values calculated directly using clinical data are found to be higher than Kt/V values derived from one-compartment model

  17. Immunosuppressive effect of total lymphoid irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bendel, V.; Medizinische Hochschule Hannover

    1981-01-01

    Contrary to the immunosuppression by means of wholebody irradiation which is known for a long while but connected with considerable side effects and risks, the total lymphoid irradiation (TLI) is a new possibility of immunosuppression the tolerance of which by man is known by virtue of long-standing experiences with the treatment of malignant lymphatic system diseases. In connexion with organ transplantations, TLI might possibly soon be important for the radiotherapeutist. In the experimentation on animals, the unspecific immunosuppression induced by TLI causes a prolonged survival time of allogeneic skin and organ grafts in certain mammals. Furthermore, a formation of blood chimeras combined with specific, permanent tolerance of organ grafts from the bone marrow donor can be caused by bone marrow transplantation after TLI. First experiences with man have been made. In the German literature, TLI has not been mentioned yet. In the present study, a summary is given on the Anglo-Saxon literature, and the first own experiments with regard to the problem of irradiation dose and transplantation interval are presented. (orig.) [de

  18. Cell-mediated immune responses in the head-associated lymphoid tissues induced to a live attenuated avian coronavirus vaccine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurjar, Rucha S; Gulley, Stephen L; van Ginkel, Frederik W

    2013-12-01

    Humoral immunity is important for controlling viral diseases of poultry, but recent studies have indicated that cytotoxic T cells also play an important role in the immune response to infectious bronchitis virus (IBV). To better understand the cell mediated immune responses to IBV in the mucosal and systemic immune compartments chickens were ocularly vaccinated with IBV. This induced a lymphocyte expansion in head-associated lymphoid tissues (HALT) and to a lesser extent in the spleen, followed by a rapid decline, probably due to homing of lymphocytes out of these organs and contraction of the lymphocyte population. This interpretation was supported by observations that changes in mononuclear cells were mirrored by that in CD3(+)CD44(+) T cell abundance, which presumably represent T effector cells. Increased interferon gamma (IFN-γ) expression was observed in the mucosal immune compartment, i.e., HALT, after primary vaccination, but shifted to the systemic immune compartment after boosting. In contrast, the expression of cytotoxicity-associated genes, i.e., granzyme A (GZMA) and perforin mRNA, remained associated with the HALT after boosting. Thus, an Ark-type IBV ocular vaccine induces a central memory IFN-γ response in the spleen while the cytotoxic effector memory response, as measured by GZMA and perforin mRNA expression, remains associated with CALT after boosting. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  19. [The perichromatin compartment of the cell nucleus].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogoliubov, D S

    2014-01-01

    In this review, the data on the structure and composition of the perichromatin compartment, a special border area between the condensed chromatin and the interchromatin space of the cell nucleus, are discussed in the light of the concept of nuclear functions in complex nuclear architectonics. Morphological features, molecular composition and functions of main extrachromosomal structures of the perichromatin compartment, perichromatin fibrils (PFs) and perichromatin granules (PGs) including nuclear stress-bodies (nSBs) that are derivates of the PGs under heat shock, are presented. A special attention was paid to the features of the molecular compositions of PFs and PGs in different cell types and at different physiological conditions.

  20. Effects of combustible stacking in large compartments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gentili, Filippo; Giuliani, Luisa; Bontempi, Franco

    2013-01-01

    This paper focuses on the modelling of fire in case of various distributions of combustible materials in a large compartment. Large compartments often represent a challenge for structural fire safety, because of lack of prescriptive rules to follow and difficulties of taking into account the effect...... of non uniform distribution of the combustible materials and fire propagation. These aspects are discussed in this paper with reference to an industrial steel building, taken as case study. Fires triggered by the burning of wooden pallets stored in the premises have been investigated with respect...

  1. Digital Microscopy Assessment of Angiogenesis in Different Breast Cancer Compartments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anca Haisan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. Tumour angiogenesis defined by microvessel density (MVD is generally accepted as a prognostic factor in breast cancer. However, due to variability of measurement systems and cutoffs, it is questionable to date whether it contributes to predictive outline. Our study aims to grade vascular heterogeneity by comparing clear-cut compartments: tumour associated stroma (TAS, tumour parenchyma, and tumour invasive front. Material and Methods. Computerized vessel area measurement was performed using a tissue cytometry system (TissueFAXS on slides originated from 50 patients with breast cancer. Vessels were marked using immunohistochemistry with CD34. Regions of interest were manually defined for each tumour compartment. Results. Tumour invasive front vascular endothelia area was 2.15 times higher than that in tumour parenchyma and 4.61 times higher than that in TAS (P<0.002. Worth to mention that the lymph node negative subgroup of patients show a slight but constant increase of vessel index in all examined compartments of breast tumour. Conclusion. Whole slide digital examination and region of interest (ROI analysis are a valuable tool in scoring angiogenesis markers and disclosing their prognostic capacity. Our study reveals compartments’ variability of vessel density inside the tumour and highlights the propensity of invasive front to associate an active process of angiogenesis with potential implications in adjuvant therapy.

  2. Total lymphoid irradiation for multiple sclerosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Devereux, C.K.; Vidaver, R.; Hafstein, M.P.; Zito, G.; Troiano, R.; Dowling, P.C.; Cook, S.D.

    1988-01-01

    Although chemical immunosuppression has been shown to benefit patients with chronic progressive multiple sclerosis (MS), it appears that chemotherapy has an appreciable oncogenic potential in patients with multiple sclerosis. Accordingly, we developed a modified total lymphoid irradiation (TLI) regimen designed to reduce toxicity and applied it to a randomized double blind trial of TLI or sham irradiation in MS. Standard TLI regimens were modified to reduce dose to 1,980 rad, lowering the superior mantle margin to midway between the thyroid cartilage and angle of the mandible (to avert xerostomia) and the lower margin of the mantle field to the inferior margin of L1 (to reduce gastrointestinal toxicity by dividing abdominal radiation between mantle and inverted Y), limiting spinal cord dose to 1,000 rad by custom-made spine blocks in the mantle and upper 2 cm of inverted Y fields, and also protecting the left kidney even if part of the spleen were shielded. Clinical efficacy was documented by the less frequent functional scale deterioration of 20 TLI treated patients with chronic progressive MS compared to to 20 sham-irradiated progressive MS patients after 12 months (16% versus 55%, p less than 0.03), 18 months (28% versus 63%, p less than 0.03), and 24 months (44% versus 74%, N.S.). Therapeutic benefit during 3 years follow-up was related to the reduction in lymphocyte count 3 months post-irradiation (p less than 0.02). Toxicity was generally mild and transient, with no instance of xerostomia, pericarditis, herpes zoster, or need to terminate treatment in TLI patients. However, menopause was induced in 2 patients and staphylococcal pneumonia in one

  3. Close Encounters of Lymphoid Cells and Bacteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruz-Adalia, Aranzazu; Veiga, Esteban

    2016-01-01

    During infections, the first reaction of the host against microbial pathogens is carried out by innate immune cells, which recognize conserved structures on pathogens, called pathogen-associated molecular patterns. Afterward, some of these innate cells can phagocytose and destroy the pathogens, secreting cytokines that would modulate the immune response to the challenge. This rapid response is normally followed by the adaptive immunity, more specific and essential for a complete pathogen clearance in many cases. Some innate immune cells, usually named antigen-presenting cells, such as macrophages or dendritic cells, are able to process internalized invaders and present their antigens to lymphocytes, triggering the adaptive immune response. Nevertheless, the traditional boundary of separated roles between innate and adaptive immunity has been blurred by several studies, showing that very specialized populations of lymphocytes (cells of the adaptive immunity) behave similarly to cells of the innate immunity. These “innate-like” lymphocytes include γδ T cells, invariant NKT cells, B-1 cells, mucosal-associated invariant T cells, marginal zone B cells, and innate response activator cells, and together with the newly described innate lymphoid cells are able to rapidly respond to bacterial infections. Strikingly, our recent data suggest that conventional CD4+ T cells, the paradigm of cells of the adaptive immunity, also present innate-like behavior, capturing bacteria in a process called transinfection. Transinfected CD4+ T cells digest internalized bacteria like professional phagocytes and secrete large amounts of proinflammatory cytokines, protecting for further bacterial challenges. In the present review, we will focus on the data showing such innate-like behavior of lymphocytes following bacteria encounter. PMID:27774092

  4. Characterization of nasal cavity-associated lymphoid tissue in ducks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Haihong; Yan, Mengfei; Yu, Qinghua; Yang, Qian

    2014-05-01

    The nasal mucosa is involved in immune defense, as it is the first barrier for pathogens entering the body through the respiratory tract. The nasal cavity-associated lymphoid tissue (NALT), which is found in the mucosa of the nasal cavity, is considered to be the main mucosal immune inductive site in the upper respiratory tract. NALT has been found in humans and many mammals, which contributes to local and systemic immune responses after intranasal vaccination. However, there are very few data on NALT in avian species, especially waterfowl. For this study, histological sections of the nasal cavities of Cherry Valley ducks were used to examine the anatomical location and histological characteristics of NALT. The results showed that several lymphoid aggregates are present in the ventral wall of the nasal cavity near the choanal cleft, whereas several more lymphoid aggregates were located on both sides of the nasal septum. In addition, randomly distributed intraepithelial lymphocytes and isolated lymphoid follicles were observed in the regio respiratoria of the nasal cavity. There were also a few lymphoid aggregates located in the lamina propria of the regio vestibularis, which was covered with a stratified squamous epithelium. This study focused on the anatomic and histological characteristics of the nasal cavity of the duck and performed a systemic overview of NALT. This will be beneficial for further understanding of immune mechanisms after nasal vaccination and the development of effective nasal vaccines for waterfowls. Copyright © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Leg 201Tl-SPECT in chronic exertional compartment syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elkadri, N.; Slim, I.; Blondet, C.; Choquet, Ph.; Constantinesco, A.; Lecocq, J.

    2004-01-01

    Leg 201 Tl-SPECT in chronic exertional compartment syndrome Background: The chronic exertional compartment syndrome is one of the most frequent origins regarding leg pain due to sport training. The diagnosis can be established by invasive compartment pressure measurement. The aim of this study is to evaluate the role that could have 201 Tl-SPECT for patients with suspicion of compartment syndrome. Patients and methods: 51 leg 201 Tl-SPECT exams were performed (exercise - and rest without reinjection) in 49 patients; 28 had compartment syndrome confirmed by pressure measurement. About 100 MBq of 201 Tl were injected during exercise, when pain appeared or at least after 25 minutes exercise. We studied mean percentages of level uptake for each compartment, referred to the maximal uptake of both legs. Results: 47 compartments were concerned by compartment syndrome and 361 compartments were not. Scintigraphic patterns in compartments are reversible ischaemia (45%), uptake stability (36%) or reverse redistribution (19%); these patterns are not linked to compartment syndrome. However, there is a significant difference of rest 201 Tl level uptake between compartments with and without compartment syndrome and a significant correlation between muscular pressure measurement and rest level uptake. Conclusion: 201 Tl-SPECT shows that only ischaemia does not explain compartment syndrome. Moreover, it allows to predict pressure variation during exercise but it does not offer any interest in order to select patients for muscular invasive pressure measurement. (author)

  6. [Rectal tonsil or lymphoid follicular hyperplasia of the rectum].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trillo Fandiño, L; Arias González, M; Iglesias Castañón, A; Fernández Eire, M P

    2014-01-01

    The rectal tonsil is a reactive proliferation of lymphoid tissue located in the rectum. The morphology of the lymphoid proliferation of the colon is usually polypoid or, less commonly, nodular. Only in exceptional cases does lymphoid proliferation of the colon present as a mass in the rectum (rectal tonsil), although this is the most common presentation in middle-aged patients. It is important to be familiar with the rectal tonsil because in cases of exuberant growth it can be difficult to distinguish it from other types of masses. We present the case of rectal tonsil in a four-year-old girl. We describe the magnetic resonance imaging findings and review the literature. Copyright © 2011 SERAM. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  7. Induction and Analysis of Bronchus-Associated Lymphoid Tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleige, Henrike; Förster, Reinhold

    2017-01-01

    Bronchus-associated lymphoid tissue (BALT) forms spontaneously in the lung after pulmonary infection and has been identified as a highly organized lymphoid structure supporting the efficient priming of T cells in the lung. To explore the mechanisms and instructive signals controlling BALT neogenesis we used both, a single dose of vaccinia virus MVA and repeated inhalations of heat-inactivated Pseudomonas aeruginosa (P. aeruginosa). Intranasal administration of both pathogens induces highly organized BALT but distinct pathways and molecules are used to promote the development of BALT. Here, we describe the induction and phenotype of the distinct types of BALT as well as the immunofluorescence microscopy-based analysis of the induced lymphoid tissue in the lung.

  8. Flow cytometric analysis of immunoglobulin heavy chain expression in B-cell lymphoma and reactive lymphoid hyperplasia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grier, David D; Al-Quran, Samer Z; Cardona, Diana M; Li, Ying; Braylan, Raul C

    2012-01-01

    The diagnosis of B-cell lymphoma (BCL) is often dependent on the detection of clonal immunoglobulin (Ig) light chain expression. In some BCLs, the determination of clonality based on Ig light chain restriction may be difficult. The aim of our study was to assess the utility of flow cytometric analysis of surface Ig heavy chain (HC) expression in lymphoid tissues in distinguishing lymphoid hyperplasias from BCLs, and also differentiating various BCL subtypes. HC expression on B-cells varied among different types of hyperplasias. In follicular hyperplasia, IgM and IgD expression was high in mantle cells while germinal center cells showed poor HC expression. In other hyperplasias, B cell compartments were blurred but generally showed high IgD and IgM expression. Compared to hyperplasias, BCLs varied in IgM expression. Small lymphocytic lymphomas had lower IgM expression than mantle cell lymphomas. Of importance, IgD expression was significantly lower in BCLs than in hyperplasias, a finding that can be useful in differentiating lymphoma from reactive processes. PMID:22400070

  9. B lymphocyte autoimmunity in rheumatoid synovitis is independent of ectopic lymphoid neogenesis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cantaert, Tineke; Kolln, Johanna; Timmer, Trieneke; van der Pouw Kraan, Tineke C.; Vandooren, Bernard; Thurlings, Rogier M.; Cañete, Juan D.; Catrina, Anca I.; Out, Theo; Verweij, Cor L.; Zhang, Yiping; Tak, Paul P.; Baeten, Dominique

    2008-01-01

    B lymphocyte autoimmunity plays a crucial role in the pathogenesis of rheumatoid arthritis. The local production of autoantibodies and the presence of ectopic lymphoid neogenesis in the rheumatoid synovium suggest that these dedicated microenvironments resembling canonical lymphoid follicles may

  10. Increased pressure within the abdominal compartment: intra-abdominal hypertension and the abdominal compartment syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Derek J; Ball, Chad G; Kirkpatrick, Andrew W

    2016-04-01

    This article reviews recent developments related to intra-abdominal hypertension (IAH)/abdominal compartment syndrome (ACS) and clinical practice guidelines published in 2013. IAH/ACS often develops because of the acute intestinal distress syndrome. Although the incidence of postinjury ACS is decreasing, IAH remains common and associated with significant morbidity and mortality among critically ill/injured patients. Many risk factors for IAH include those findings suggested to be indications for use of damage control surgery in trauma patients. Medical management strategies for IAH/ACS include sedation/analgesia, neuromuscular blocking and prokinetic agents, enteral decompression tubes, interventions that decrease fluid balance, and percutaneous catheter drainage. IAH/ACS may be prevented in patients undergoing laparotomy by leaving the abdomen open where appropriate. If ACS cannot be prevented with medical or surgical management strategies or treated with percutaneous catheter drainage, guidelines recommend urgent decompressive laparotomy. Use of negative pressure peritoneal therapy for temporary closure of the open abdomen may improve the systemic inflammatory response and patient-important outcomes. In the last 15 years, investigators have better clarified the pathogenesis, epidemiology, diagnosis, and appropriate prevention of IAH/ACS. Subsequent study should be aimed at understanding which treatments effectively lower intra-abdominal pressure and whether these treatments ultimately affect patient-important outcomes.

  11. PrP expression, PrPSc accumulation and innervation of splenic compartments in sheep experimentally infected with scrapie.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Randi Sørby

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: In prion disease, the peripheral expression of PrP(C is necessary for the transfer of infectivity to the central nervous system. The spleen is involved in neuroinvasion and neural dissemination in prion diseases but the nature of this involvement is not known. The present study undertook the investigation of the spatial relationship between sites of PrP(Sc accumulation, localisation of nerve fibres and PrP(C expression in the tissue compartments of the spleen of scrapie-inoculated and control sheep. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Laser microdissection and quantitative PCR were used to determine PrP mRNA levels and results were compared with immunohistochemical protocols to distinguish PrP(C and PrP(Sc in tissue compartments of the spleen. In sheep experimentally infected with scrapie, the major sites of accumulation of PrP(Sc in the spleen, namely the lymphoid nodules and the marginal zone, expressed low levels of PrP mRNA. Double immunohistochemical labelling for PrP(Sc and the pan-nerve fibre marker, PGP, was used to evaluate the density of innervation of splenic tissue compartments and the intimacy of association between PrP(Sc and nerves. Some nerve fibres were observed to accompany blood vessels into the PrP(Sc-laden germinal centres. However, the close association between nerves and PrP(Sc was most apparent in the marginal zone. Other sites of close association were adjacent to the wall of the central artery of PALS and the outer rim of germinal centres. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The findings suggest that the degree of PrP(Sc accumulation does not depend on the expression level of PrP(C. Though several splenic compartments may contribute to neuroinvasion, the marginal zone may play a central role in being the compartment with most apparent association between nerves and PrP(Sc.

  12. Apparent clusters of childhood lymphoid malignancy in Northern England

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Craft, A.W.; Openshaw, S.; Birch, J.

    1984-01-01

    The authors have reanalysed their previous data on the incidence of childhood malignancy in the North of England by very small geographical areas. Seascale, which ranks first by Poisson probability for all lymphoid malignancies is the village closest to the Sellafield plant. However, it is not unique in the region; nor are wards of apparent excess confined to coastal areas of Cumbria. The highest rate of lymphoid malignancies is in Whittingham, a village in north Northumberland. For other varieties of childhood cancer, there is a similar spread of 'Highly ranked', but different, wards throughout the region. (U.K.)

  13. Interactions between the intestinal microbiota and innate lymphoid cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Vincent L; Kasper, Dennis L

    2014-01-01

    The mammalian intestine must manage to contain 100 trillion intestinal bacteria without inducing inappropriate immune responses to these microorganisms. The effects of the immune system on intestinal microorganisms are numerous and well-characterized, and recent research has determined that the microbiota influences the intestinal immune system as well. In this review, we first discuss the intestinal immune system and its role in containing and maintaining tolerance to commensal organisms. We next introduce a category of immune cells, the innate lymphoid cells, and describe their classification and function in intestinal immunology. Finally, we discuss the effects of the intestinal microbiota on innate lymphoid cells. PMID:24418741

  14. Mature lymphoid malignancies: origin, stem cells, and chronicity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Husby, Simon; Grønbæk, Kirsten

    2017-01-01

    after treatment. Lately, the use of next-generation sequencing techniques has revealed essential information on the clonal evolution of lymphoid malignancies. Also, experimental xenograft transplantation point to the possible existence of an ancestral (stem) cell. Such a malignant lymphoid stem cell...... population could potentially evade current therapies and be the cause of chronicity and death in lymphoma patients; however, the evidence is divergent across disease entities and between studies. In this review we present an overview of genetic studies, case reports, and experimental evidence of the source...

  15. Introduction of transplantation tolerance after total lymphoid irradiation: cellular mechanisms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strober, S.; King, D.P.; Gottlieb, M.; Hoppe, R.T.; Kaplan, H.S.

    1981-01-01

    High-dose fractionated total lymphoid irradiation (TLI) is a safe, routine regimen used to treat patients with lymphoid malignancies. Although few side effects are associated with the regimen, a profound suppression of cell-mediated immunity is observed for several years after therapy, as judged by both in vivo and in vitro assays. A profound immunosuppression has also been observed in mice and rats given TLI. Recently, we have achieved similar results using TLI in nonmatched bone marrow transplantation in outbred dogs. The experimental work in animals and underlying cellular mechanisms are reviewed here

  16. Clinical impact of the immunome in lymphoid malignancies: the role of Myeloid-Derived Suppressor Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Calogero eVetro

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The better definition of the mutual sustainment between neoplastic cells and immune system has been translated from the bench to the bedside acquiring value as prognostic factor. Additionally, it represents a promising tool for improving therapeutic strategies. In this context, myeloid-derived suppressor cells have gained a central role in tumor developing with consequent therapeutic implications. In this review, we will focus on the biological and clinical impact of the study of myeloid-derived suppressor cells in the settings of lymphoid malignancies.

  17. Radiation response of mouse lymphoid and myeloid cell lines. Pt. 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radford, I.R.

    1994-01-01

    The sensitivity of 10 mouse lymphoid or myeloid cell lines to γ-ray- and DNA-associated 125 I-decay-induced clonogenic cell killing have been compared with their rate of loss of viability (membrane integrity) and with their putative cell type of origin. The increased sensitivity of haematopoietic cell lines to killing by DNA dsb may be related to their mode of death (apoptosis versus necrosis). Mode of cell death may thus be an important factor in determining the 'inherent radiosensitivity' of normal cells/tissues. Haematopoietic cell lines that undergo rapid interphase apoptotic death showed extreme sensitivity to DNA dsb. (author)

  18. Multi-compartment Aerosol Transport Model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hubbard, Joshua Allen; Santarpia, Joshua; Brotherton, Christopher M.; Omana, Michael Alexis; Rivera, Danielle; Lucero, Gabriel Anthony

    2017-06-01

    A simple aerosol transport model was developed for a multi-compartmented cleanroom. Each compartment was treated as a well-mixed volume with ventilating supply and return air. Gravitational settling, intercompartment transport, and leakage of exterior air into the system were included in the model. A set of first order, coupled, ordinary differential equations was derived from the conservation equations of aerosol mass and air mass. The system of ODEs was then solved in MATLAB using pre-existing numerical methods. The model was verified against cases of (1) constant inlet-duct concentration, and (2) exponentially decaying inlet-duct concentration. Numerical methods resulted in normalized error of less than 10 -9 when model solutions were compared to analytical solutions. The model was validated against experimental measurements from a single field test and showed good agreement in the shape and magnitude of the aerosol concentration profile with time.

  19. A modern definition of mediastinal compartments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Brett W; Tomiyama, Noriyuki; Bhora, Faiz Y; Rosado de Christenson, Melissa L; Nakajima, Jun; Boiselle, Phillip M; Detterbeck, Frank C; Marom, Edith M

    2014-09-01

    Division of the mediastinum into compartments is used to help narrow the differential diagnosis of newly detected mediastinal masses, to assist in planning biopsy and surgical procedures, and to facilitate communication among clinicians of multiple disciplines. Several traditional mediastinal division schemes exist based upon arbitrary landmarks on the lateral chest radiograph. We describe a modern, computed tomography-based mediastinal division scheme, which has been accepted by the International Thymic Malignancy Interest Group as a new standard. This clinical classification defines a prevascular (anterior), a visceral (middle), and a paravertebral (posterior) compartment, with anatomic boundaries defined clearly by computed tomography. It is our intention that this definition be used in the reporting of clinical cases and the design of prospective clinical trials.

  20. Hermetic compartments leak-tightness enhancement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murani, J.

    2000-01-01

    In connection with the enhancement of the nuclear safety of the Jaslovske Bohunice V-1 NPP actions for the increase of the leak tightness are performed. The reconstruction has been done in the following directions: hermetic compartments leak tightness enhancement; air lock installation; installation of air lock in SP 4 vent system; integrated leakage rate test to hermetic compartments with leak detection. After 'major' leaks on the hermetic boundary components had been eliminated, since 1994 works on a higher qualitative level began. The essence of the works consists in the detection and identification of leaks in the structural component of the hermetic boundary during the planned refueling outages. The results of the Small Reconstruction and gradual enhancement of leak tightness are presented

  1. Functional differences between human NKp44(-) and NKp44(+) RORC+ innate lymphoid cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoorweg, Kerim; Peters, Charlotte P.; Cornelissen, Ferry; Aparicio-Domingo, Patricia; Papazian, Natalie; Kazemier, Geert; Mjösberg, Jenny M.; Spits, Hergen; Cupedo, Tom

    2012-01-01

    Human RORC+ lymphoid tissue inducer cells are part of a rapidly expanding family of innate lymphoid cells (ILC) that participate in innate and adaptive immune responses as well as in lymphoid tissue (re) modeling. The assessment of a potential role for innate lymphocyte-derived cytokines in human

  2. File list: InP.Bld.50.AllAg.Lymphoid_cells [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  3. File list: ALL.Bld.20.AllAg.Lymphoid_cells [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ALL.Bld.20.AllAg.Lymphoid_cells mm9 All antigens Blood Lymphoid cells SRX658437,SRX...658389,SRX021894,SRX971603,SRX658419,SRX971601,SRX971602,SRX658405 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/ALL.Bld.20.AllAg.Lymphoid_cells.bed ...

  4. File list: ALL.Bld.05.AllAg.Lymphoid_cells [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ALL.Bld.05.AllAg.Lymphoid_cells mm9 All antigens Blood Lymphoid cells SRX658419,SRX...658405,SRX658389,SRX658437,SRX971601,SRX971603,SRX021894,SRX971602 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/ALL.Bld.05.AllAg.Lymphoid_cells.bed ...

  5. File list: InP.Bld.05.AllAg.Lymphoid_cells [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available InP.Bld.05.AllAg.Lymphoid_cells mm9 Input control Blood Lymphoid cells SRX971601,SR...X021894 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/InP.Bld.05.AllAg.Lymphoid_cells.bed ...

  6. Locations of gut-associated lymphoid tissue in the 3-month-old chicken: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casteleyn, C; Doom, M; Lambrechts, E; Van den Broeck, W; Simoens, P; Cornillie, P

    2010-06-01

    The lymphoid tissue that is associated with the intestinal tract, the so-called gut-associated lymphoid tissue (GALT), is well developed in the chicken. Depending on the location, it is present as aggregations of lymphoid cells, or organized in lymphoid follicles and tonsils. From proximal to distal, the intestinal tract contains a pharyngeal tonsil, diffuse lymphoid tissue and lymphoid follicles in the cervical and thoracic parts of the oesophagus, an oesophageal tonsil, diffuse lymphoid tissue in the proventriculus, a pyloric tonsil, Peyer's patches, Meckel's diverticulum, two caecal tonsils, diffuse lymphoid tissue in the rectum, the bursa of Fabricius, and diffuse lymphoid tissue in the wall of the proctodeum. The lymphoid tissues are frequently covered by a lympho-epithelium that is infiltrated by lymphoid cells. Such an epithelium often contains M or microfold cells, which are specialized in antigen sampling and transport antigens to the underlying lymphoid tissue. A solid knowledge of the avian GALT could contribute to the development of vaccines to be administered orally. Additionally, immune stimulation via pre- and probiotics is based on the presence of a well-developed intestinal immune system.

  7. File list: ALL.Bld.50.AllAg.Lymphoid_cells [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ALL.Bld.50.AllAg.Lymphoid_cells mm9 All antigens Blood Lymphoid cells SRX658389,SRX...021894,SRX658437,SRX971603,SRX971601,SRX971602,SRX658419,SRX658405 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/ALL.Bld.50.AllAg.Lymphoid_cells.bed ...

  8. File list: InP.Bld.20.AllAg.Lymphoid_cells [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  9. File list: His.Bld.05.AllAg.Lymphoid_cells [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available His.Bld.05.AllAg.Lymphoid_cells mm9 Histone Blood Lymphoid cells SRX658419,SRX65840...5,SRX658389,SRX658437,SRX971603,SRX971602 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/His.Bld.05.AllAg.Lymphoid_cells.bed ...

  10. Monoterpene biosynthesis potential of plant subcellular compartments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Lemeng; Jongedijk, Esmer; Bouwmeester, Harro; Van Der Krol, Alexander

    2016-01-01

    Subcellular monoterpene biosynthesis capacity based on local geranyl diphosphate (GDP) availability or locally boosted GDP production was determined for plastids, cytosol and mitochondria. A geraniol synthase (GES) was targeted to plastids, cytosol, or mitochondria. Transient expression in Nicotiana benthamiana indicated local GDP availability for each compartment but resulted in different product levels. A GDP synthase from Picea abies (PaGDPS1) was shown to boost GDP production. PaGDPS1 was also targeted to plastids, cytosol or mitochondria and PaGDPS1 and GES were coexpressed in all possible combinations. Geraniol and geraniol-derived products were analyzed by GC-MS and LC-MS, respectively. GES product levels were highest for plastid-targeted GES, followed by mitochondrial- and then cytosolic-targeted GES. For each compartment local boosting of GDP biosynthesis increased GES product levels. GDP exchange between compartments is not equal: while no GDP is exchanged from the cytosol to the plastids, 100% of GDP in mitochondria can be exchanged to plastids, while only 7% of GDP from plastids is available for mitochondria. This suggests a direct exchange mechanism for GDP between plastids and mitochondria. Cytosolic PaGDPS1 competes with plastidial GES activity, suggesting an effective drain of isopentenyl diphosphate from the plastids to the cytosol. © 2015 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2015 New Phytologist Trust.

  11. Salus: Kernel Support for Secure Process Compartments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raoul Strackx

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Consumer devices are increasingly being used to perform security and privacy critical tasks. The software used to perform these tasks is often vulnerable to attacks, due to bugs in the application itself or in included software libraries. Recent work proposes the isolation of security-sensitive parts of applications into protected modules, each of which can be accessed only through a predefined public interface. But most parts of an application can be considered security-sensitive at some level, and an attacker who is able to gain inapplication level access may be able to abuse services from protected modules. We propose Salus, a Linux kernel modification that provides a novel approach for partitioning processes into isolated compartments sharing the same address space. Salus significantly reduces the impact of insecure interfaces and vulnerable compartments by enabling compartments (1 to restrict the system calls they are allowed to perform, (2 to authenticate their callers and callees and (3 to enforce that they can only be accessed via unforgeable references. We describe the design of Salus, report on a prototype implementation and evaluate it in terms of security and performance. We show that Salus provides a significant security improvement with a low performance overhead, without relying on any non-standard hardware support.

  12. Evaluation of acute compartment syndrome of extremities in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Arun Kumar Agnihotri

    compartment syndrome in children; Acute compartment syndrome and fasciotomy. INTRODUCTIONᴪ .... these patients were manipulated under general anaesthesia ... of these children. The clinical diagnosis of increased ICP is not easy.

  13. Compartment syndrome can also be seen in the forearm

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Asmar, Ali; Broholm, Rikke; Bülow, Jens

    2014-01-01

    Chronic compartment syndrome is a challenge for the clinician and symptomatic similar to neuropathies, tenosynovitis, stress fractures and referred pain from lumbar cervicalis. Thus, chronic compartment syndrome of the upper extremities is probably an underdiagnosed condition. In patients...

  14. 14 CFR 23.853 - Passenger and crew compartment interiors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Photographic Film PH1.25 (available from the American National Standards Institute, 1430 Broadway, New York, N... stowage compartments and compartments for stowing small items such as magazines and maps) must be self...

  15. Group 1 innate lymphoid cells in Toxoplasma gondii infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunay, I R; Diefenbach, A

    2018-02-01

    Innate lymphoid cells (ILCs) are a group of lymphocytes that carry out important functions in immunity to infections and in organ homeostasis at epithelial barrier surfaces. ILCs are innate immune cells that provide an early source of cytokines to initiate immune responses against pathogens. Cytotoxic ILCs (i.e. conventional (c)NK cells) and several subsets of helper-like ILCs are the major branches of the ILC family. Conventional NK cells and group 1 ILCs share several characteristics such as surface receptors and the ability to produce IFN-γ upon activation, but they differ in their developmental paths and in their dependence on specific transcription factors. Infection of mice with the intracellular parasite Toxoplasma gondii is followed by a strong Th1-mediated immune response. Previous studies indicate that NK1.1 + cells contribute to the production of IFN-γ and TNF and cytotoxicity during acute T. gondii infection. Upon oral infection, the parasite infects intestinal enterocytes, and within the lamina propria, innate immune responses lead to initial parasite control although the infection disseminates widely and persists long-term in immune privileged sites despite adaptive immunity. Upon parasite entry into the small intestine, during the acute stage, ILC1 produce high levels of IFN-γ and TNF protecting barrier surfaces, thus essentially contributing to early parasite control. We will discuss here the role of innate lymphocytes during T. gondii infection in the context of the only recently appreciated diversity of ILC subsets. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. A role for gut-associated lymphoid tissue in shaping the human B cell repertoire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vossenkämper, Anna; Blair, Paul A; Safinia, Niloufar; Fraser, Louise D; Das, Lisa; Sanders, Theodore J; Stagg, Andrew J; Sanderson, Jeremy D; Taylor, Kirstin; Chang, Fuju; Choong, Lee M; D'Cruz, David P; Macdonald, Thomas T; Lombardi, Giovanna; Spencer, Jo

    2013-08-26

    We have tracked the fate of immature human B cells at a critical stage in their development when the mature B cell repertoire is shaped. We show that a major subset of bone marrow emigrant immature human B cells, the transitional 2 (T2) B cells, homes to gut-associated lymphoid tissue (GALT) and that most T2 B cells isolated from human GALT are activated. Activation in GALT is a previously unknown potential fate for immature human B cells. The process of maturation from immature transitional B cell through to mature naive B cell includes the removal of autoreactive cells from the developing repertoire, a process which is known to fail in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). We observe that immature B cells in SLE are poorly equipped to access the gut and that gut immune compartments are depleted in SLE. Thus, activation of immature B cells in GALT may function as a checkpoint that protects against autoimmunity. In healthy individuals, this pathway may be involved in generating the vast population of IgA plasma cells and also the enigmatic marginal zone B cell subset that is poorly understood in humans.

  17. An Overview of the Role of Innate Lymphoid Cells in Gut Infections and Inflammation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Sedda

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Innate lymphoid cells (ILCs are a group of hematopoietic cells devoid of antigen receptors that have important functions in lymphoid organogenesis, in the defense against extracellular pathogens, and in the maintenance of the epithelial barrier. Three distinct groups of ILCs have been identified on the basis of phenotypic and functional criteria and termed ILCs1, ILCs2, and ILCs3. Specifically, ILCs1 express the transcription factor T-bet and secrete T helper type-1- (Th1- related cytokines, ILCs2 are dependent on the transcription factor RORα and express Gata-3 and the chemokine receptor homologous molecule (CRTH2 and produce Th2-related cytokines, and ILCs3 express the transcription factor RORγt and synthesize interleukin- (IL- 17, IL-22, and, under specific stimuli, interferon-γ. ILCs represent a relatively small population in the gut, but accumulating evidence suggests that these cells could play a decisive role in orchestrating both protective and detrimental immune responses. In this review, we will summarize the present knowledge on the distribution of ILCs in the intestinal mucosa, with particular focus on their role in the control of both infections and effector cytokine response in immune-mediated pathologies.

  18. THE EXTENT OF CLONAL STRUCTURE IN DIFFERENT LYMPHOID ORGANS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    HERMANS, MHA; WUBBENA, A; KROESE, FGM; HUNT, SV; COWAN, R; OPSTELTEN, D

    1992-01-01

    To gain insight into the clonal organization of lymphoid organs, we studied the distribution in situ of donor-derived cells in near-physiological chimeras. We introduced RT7b fetal liver cells into nonirradiated congenic RT7a neonatal rats. The chimerism 6-20 wk after injection ranged from 0.3 to

  19. Innate lymphoid cells and parasites: Ancient foes with shared history.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neill, D R; Fallon, P G

    2018-02-01

    This special issue of Parasite Immunology charts the rapid advances made in our understanding of the myriad interactions between innate lymphoid cells and parasites and how these interactions have shaped our evolutionary history. Here, we provide an overview of the issue and highlight key findings from studies in mice and man. © 2017 The Authors. Parasite Immunology Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. Cytokine Networks between Innate Lymphoid Cells and Myeloid Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mortha, Arthur; Burrows, Kyle

    2018-01-01

    Innate lymphoid cells (ILCs) are an essential component of the innate immune system in vertebrates. They are developmentally rooted in the lymphoid lineage and can diverge into at least three transcriptionally distinct lineages. ILCs seed both lymphoid and non-lymphoid tissues and are locally self-maintained in tissue-resident pools. Tissue-resident ILCs execute important effector functions making them key regulator in tissue homeostasis, repair, remodeling, microbial defense, and anti-tumor immunity. Similar to T lymphocytes, ILCs possess only few sensory elements for the recognition of non-self and thus depend on extrinsic cellular sensory elements residing within the tissue. Myeloid cells, including mononuclear phagocytes (MNPs), are key sentinels of the tissue and are able to translate environmental cues into an effector profile that instructs lymphocyte responses. The adaptation of myeloid cells to the tissue state thus influences the effector program of ILCs and serves as an example of how environmental signals are integrated into the function of ILCs via a tissue-resident immune cell cross talks. This review summarizes our current knowledge on the role of myeloid cells in regulating ILC functions and discusses how feedback communication between ILCs and myeloid cells contribute to stabilize immune homeostasis in order to maintain the healthy state of an organ.

  1. Innate lymphoid cells--a proposal for uniform nomenclature

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spits, Hergen; Artis, David; Colonna, Marco; Diefenbach, Andreas; Di Santo, James P.; Eberl, Gerard; Koyasu, Shigeo; Locksley, Richard M.; McKenzie, Andrew N. J.; Mebius, Reina E.; Powrie, Fiona; Vivier, Eric

    2013-01-01

    Innate lymphoid cells (ILCs) are a family of developmentally related cells that are involved in immunity and in tissue development and remodelling. Recent research has identified several distinct members of this family. Confusingly, many different names have been used to characterize these newly

  2. Innate lymphoid cells: the new kids on the block.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Withers, David R; Mackley, Emma C; Jones, Nick D

    2015-08-01

    The purpose of this article is to review recent advances in our understanding of innate lymphoid cell function and to speculate on how these cells may become activated and influence the immune response to allogeneic tissues and cells following transplantation. Innate lymphoid cells encompass several novel cell types whose wide-ranging roles in the immune system are only now being uncovered. Through cytokine production, cross-talk with both haematopoietic and nonhaematopoietic populations and antigen presentation to T cells, these cells have been shown to be key regulators in maintaining tissue integrity, as well as initiating and then sustaining immune responses. It is now clear that innate lymphoid cells markedly contribute to immune responses and tissue repair in a number of disease contexts. Although experimental and clinical data on the behaviour of these cells following transplantation are scant, it is highly likely that innate lymphoid cells will perform similar functions in the alloimmune response following transplantation and therefore may be potential therapeutic targets for manipulation to prevent allograft rejection.

  3. 'Managing' the immune system with total lymphoid irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strober, S.

    1981-01-01

    Total lymphoid irradiation (TLI), which in the past was limited to the treatment of malignant disease, is now emerging as a practical technique in the management of unwanted immune reactions in the areas of transplant tolerance and various autoimmune diseases. Current studies are particularly promising for application of TLI in rheumatoid arthritis and lupus nephritis

  4. Innate lymphoid cells in autoimmunity: emerging regulators in rheumatic diseases

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shikhagaie, Medya M.; Germar, Kristine; Bal, Suzanne M.; Ros, Xavier Romero; Spits, Hergen

    2017-01-01

    Innate lymphoid cells (ILCs) are important in the regulation of barrier homeostasis. These cells do not express T cell receptors but share many functional similarities with T helper cells and cytotoxic CD8(+) T lymphocytes. ILCs are divided into three groups, namely group 1 ILCs, group 2 ILCs and

  5. Occurrence of lymphoid cells in the intestine of the Goldfish

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weinberg, Steven

    1975-01-01

    The Goldfish intestine normally contains a large number of lymphocytes, many of them being present in the epithelial layer. After stimulation with antigen, the number of lymphoid cells does not increase, but the proportion of large pyroninophilic cells and plasma cells does. It seems therefore that

  6. Induction of secondary and tertiary lymphoid structures in the skin.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cupedo, T.; Jansen, W.; Kraal, G.; Mebius, R.E.

    2004-01-01

    During embryogenesis a developmental program leading to the formation of lymph nodes and Peyer's patches is initiated. We now show that lymph node-like structures as well as tertiary lymphoid structures can ectopically be induced by intradermal injection of newborn lymph node-derived cells.

  7. 46 CFR 169.627 - Compartments containing diesel fuel tanks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Compartments containing diesel fuel tanks. 169.627... SCHOOL VESSELS Machinery and Electrical Ventilation § 169.627 Compartments containing diesel fuel tanks. Unless they are adequately ventilated, enclosed compartments or spaces containing diesel fuel tanks and...

  8. Cell-based laboratory evaluation of coagulation activation by antineoplastic drugs for the treatment of lymphoid tumors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Misae Tsunaka

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Combining vorinostat, L-asparaginase, and doxorubicin (Dox led to improved response rates in the treatment of lymphoid tumors. However, deep-vein thrombosis has been noted as one of the most serious side effects with these drugs, and how these regimens cause deep-vein thrombosis is unclear. Methods: We investigated the procoagulant effects of vorinostat, L-asparaginase, and doxorubicin in lymphoid tumors, focusing on tissue factor, phosphatidylserine, and antithrombin. The human vascular endothelial cell line EAhy926 as well as the lymphoid neoplastic cell lines HUT78 (cutaneous T-cell lymphoma, Molt4 (acute T-lymphoblastic leukemia, and Ramos (Burkitt lymphoma were employed to investigate these procoagulant effects. Results: Vorinostat, L-asparaginase, and doxorubicin induced exposure of phosphatidylserine and procoagulant activity on the surface of lymphoid tumor cells. Vorinostat and doxorubicin also induced phosphatidylserine exposure and increased procoagulant activity on EAhy926 cells. Expression of tissue factor antigen was induced by doxorubicin on the surface of each type of cells, whereas expression of tissue factor mRNA was unchanged. Secretion of antithrombin from HepG2 cells was reduced only by L-asparaginase. Conclusion: These data suggest that vorinostat and doxorubicin may induce procoagulant activity in vessels through apoptosis of tumor cells and through phosphatidylserine exposure and/or tissue factor expression on vascular endothelial cells. L-asparaginase may induce a thrombophilic state by reducing the secretion of anticoagulant proteins such as antithrombin. The laboratory methods described here could be useful to evaluate the procoagulant effects of antineoplastic drugs.

  9. Microbial investigations of deep geological compartments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barsotti, V.; Sergeant, C.; Vesvres, M.H.; Joulian, C.; Coulon, S.; Le Marrec, C.; Garrido, F.

    2010-01-01

    Document available in extended abstract form only. Deep sedimentary rocks are now considered to contain a significant part of the total bacterial population, but are microbiologically unexplored. The drilling down to the base of the Triassic (1980 meters deep) in the geological formations of the eastern Paris Basin performed by ANDRA (EST433) in 2008 provides us a good opportunity to explore the deep biosphere. We conditioned and sub-sampled on the coring site, in as aseptic conditions as possible, the nine cores: two in the Callovo-Oxfordian clay, two in the Dogger, five in the Triassic compartments. In addition to storage at atmospheric pressure, a portion of the five Triassic samples was placed in a 190 bars pressurized bars chamber to investigate the influence of the conservation pressure factor on the found microflora. In parallel, in order to evaluate a potential bacterial contamination of the core by the drilling fluids, samples of mud just before each sample drilling were taken and analysed. The microbial exploration we started can be divided in two parts: - A cultural approach in different culture media for six metabolic groups to try to find microbial cells still viable. This type of experiment is difficult because of the small proportion of cultivable species, especially in these extreme environmental samples. - A molecular approach by direct extraction of genomic DNA from the geological samples to explore a larger biodiversity. Here, the limits are the difficulties to extract DNA from these low biomass containing rocks. The five Triassic samples were partly crushed in powder and inoculated in the six culture media with four NaCl concentrations, because this type of rock is known as saline or hyper-saline, and incubated at three temperatures: 30 deg. C, 55 deg. C under agitation and 70 deg. C. First results will be presented. The direct extraction of DNA needs a complete method optimisation to adapt existent procedures (using commercial kit and classical

  10. Lymphoid Precursor Cells and their Differentiation; Kletki-predshestvenniki v limfoidnoj tkani i ikh differentsirovka

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chertkov, I. L. [Central' Nyj Institut Gematologii I Perelivanija Krovi, Moskva, SSSR (Russian Federation); Fridenshtejn, A. Ja. [Institut Epidemiologii, Mikrobiologii i Immunologii Im. N.F.Gamaleja, Moskva, SSSR (Russian Federation)

    1968-08-15

    The authors discuss present-day ideas concerning precursor cells in lymphoid tissues and suggest that the stem cells' decision in regard to proliferation and the path of further differentiation may be a multi-stage process, occurring at various successive phases in the histogenesis of lymphoid cells. They propose that only those elements which are capable of actively deciding (under the influence of suitable stimuli or factors inherent in the cell) in which direction the successor cells are to differentiate should be regarded as precursor cells. It is shown that there are in lymphoid tissue at least three stages with the properties of precursor cells: the stem haemopoietic cell, the antigen-sensitive cell and the immunological memory cell. The authors suggest that the working cells of immune response are transformed into immunological memory cells, and discuss the morphological characteristics of the precursor cells. (author) [Russian] V doklade rassmatrivajutsja sovremennye predstavlenija o kletkah-pred- shestvennjakah v limfoidnoj tkani. Predpolagaetsja, chto prinjatie stvolovymi kletkami reshenija o proliferacii i napravlenii dal'nejshej differencirovki mozhet predstavljat' soboj mnogostadijnyj process, proishodjashhij posledovatel'no na raznyh jetapah gistogenez a limfoidnyh kletok. Predlagaetsja rassmatrivat' v kach estv e kletok-predshestvennikov tol'ko te jelementy, kotorye sposobny aktivno (pod vlijaniem sootvetstvujushhih induktorov ili vnutrennih dlja kletki faktorov) prinimat' reshenie o napravlenii differencirovki kletok-potomkov. Dok azyvaet sja nalichie v limfoidnoj tkani, po men'shej mere, treh stadij so svojstvami kletok-predshestvennikov: stvolovaja krovetvornaja kletka, antigen-chuvstvitel'naja kletka i kletka immunologicheskoj pamjati. Vyskazyvaet sja gi poteza o transformacii rabochih kletok immunnogo otvet a v kletki immunologicheskoj pamjati. Obsuzhdaetsja morfologicheskaja harakteristika kletok-predshestvennikov. (author)

  11. Multi-compartment linear noise approximation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Challenger, Joseph D; McKane, Alan J; Pahle, Jürgen

    2012-01-01

    The ability to quantify the stochastic fluctuations present in biochemical and other systems is becoming increasing important. Analytical descriptions of these fluctuations are attractive, as stochastic simulations are computationally expensive. Building on previous work, a linear noise approximation is developed for biochemical models with many compartments, for example cells. The procedure is then implemented in the software package COPASI. This technique is illustrated with two simple examples and is then applied to a more realistic biochemical model. Expressions for the noise, given in the form of covariance matrices, are presented. (paper)

  12. [Intraabdominal hypertension and abdominal compartment syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sonne, M.; Hilligsø, Jens Georg

    2008-01-01

    Intraabdominal hypertension (IAH) and abdominal compartment syndrome (ACS) are rare conditions with high mortality. IAH is an intraabdominal pressure (IAP) above 12 mmHg and ACS an IAP above 20 mmHg with evidence of organ dysfunction. IAP is measured indirectly via the bladder or stomach. Various...... medical and surgical conditions increase the intraabdominal volume. When the content exceeds the compliance of the abdominal wall, the IAP rises. Increased IAP affects the functioning of the brain, lungs, circulation, kidneys, and bowel. The treatment of ACS is a reduction of IAP Udgivelsesdato: 2008/2/11...

  13. Dietary restriction improves repopulation but impairs lymphoid differentiation capacity of hematopoietic stem cells in early aging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Duozhuang; Tao, Si; Chen, Zhiyang; Koliesnik, Ievgen Oleksandrovich; Calmes, Philip Gerald; Hoerr, Verena; Han, Bing; Gebert, Nadja; Zörnig, Martin; Löffler, Bettina

    2016-01-01

    Dietary restriction (DR) improves health, delays tissue aging, and elongates survival in flies and worms. However, studies on laboratory mice and nonhuman primates revealed ambiguous effects of DR on lifespan despite improvements in health parameters. In this study, we analyzed consequences of adult-onset DR (24 h to 1 yr) on hematopoietic stem cell (HSC) function. DR ameliorated HSC aging phenotypes, such as the increase in number of HSCs and the skewing toward myeloid-biased HSCs during aging. Furthermore, DR increased HSC quiescence and improved the maintenance of the repopulation capacity of HSCs during aging. In contrast to these beneficial effects, DR strongly impaired HSC differentiation into lymphoid lineages and particularly inhibited the proliferation of lymphoid progenitors, resulting in decreased production of peripheral B lymphocytes and impaired immune function. The study shows that DR-dependent suppression of growth factors and interleukins mediates these divergent effects caused by DR. Supplementation of insulin-like growth factor 1 partially reverted the DR-induced quiescence of HSCs, whereas IL-6/IL-7 substitutions rescued the impairment of B lymphopoiesis exposed to DR. Together, these findings delineate positive and negative effects of long-term DR on HSC functionality involving distinct stress and growth signaling pathways. PMID:26951333

  14. Coordinate expansion of murine hematopoietic and mesenchymal stem cell compartments by SHIPi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks, R; Iyer, S; Akada, H; Neelam, S; Russo, C M; Chisholm, J D; Kerr, W G

    2015-03-01

    Promoting the expansion of adult stem cell populations offers the potential to ameliorate radiation or chemotherapy-induced bone marrow failure and allows for expedited recovery for patients undergoing these therapies. Previous genetic studies suggested a pivotal role for SH2 domain-containing inositol-5-phosphatase 1 (SHIP1) in limiting the size of the hematopoietic stem cell (HSC) compartment. The aim of this study was to determine whether our recent development of small molecule SHIP1 inhibitors offers the potential for pharmacological expansion of the HSC compartment in vivo. We show here that treatment of mice with aminosteroid inhibitors of SHIP1 (SHIPi) more than doubles the size of the adult mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) compartment while simultaneously expanding the HSC pool sixfold. Consistent with its ability to target SHIP1 function in vivo, SHIPi also significantly increases plasma granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) levels, a growth factor that supports proliferation of HSC. Here, we show that SHIPi-induced G-CSF production mediates HSC and MSC expansion, as in vivo neutralization of G-CSF abrogates the SHIPi-induced expansion of both the HSC and MSC compartments. Due to its expansionary effect on adult stem cell compartments, SHIPi represents a potential novel strategy to improve declining stem cell function in both therapy induced and genetically derived bone marrow failure syndromes. © 2014 AlphaMed Press.

  15. Spontaneous Compartment Syndrome of the Thigh in the Absence of Trauma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Javedani, Parisa P; Ratnabalasuriar, Radhika; Grall, Kristi J H

    2016-07-01

    Compartment syndrome occurs when an increase in pressure results in vascular and functional impairment of the underlying nerve and muscles. Thigh compartment syndrome (TCS) is uncommon, but clinical suspicion warrants emergent surgical consultation and fasciotomy. We present a 42-year-old man evaluated for right lateral thigh pain, without a history of trauma, deep venous thrombosis (DVT), previous surgery, or intravenous drug use. He was febrile, tachycardic, with a mild leukocytosis, an elevated C-reactive protein level, and an elevated creatinine kinase level. Radiographs showed no abnormality and right lower extremity duplex ultrasound showed no DVT. A computed tomography scan of the right lower extremity was concerning for compartment syndrome. Surgical consultation was obtained, and the patient was taken to the operating room for fasciotomy. He was diagnosed with compartment syndrome intraoperatively. The patient was discharged on hospital day 10. WHY SHOULD AN EMERGENCY PHYSICIAN BE AWARE OF THIS?: TCS is exceedingly rare, especially in the absence of underlying traumatic and nontraumatic etiologies. The diagnosis is challenging because more elastic fascia with larger space in the thigh allows for accommodation of acute increases in pressure. Consequently, there may not be the expected acute rise in compartment pressures; increased compartment pressure may only be a late sign, when underlying neurovascular damage has already occurred. TCS is complicated by high morbidity and mortality. Emergent surgical consultation should be obtained when there is a high clinical suspicion for TCS, and limb-saving fasciotomy should not be delayed. This case shows the importance of a high level of suspicion for TCS in patients with no identifiable etiology and no historical risk factors for development of compartment syndrome, because TCS may not present with classic symptoms. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. An experimental study of the effect of total lymphoid irradiation on the survival of skin allografts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Charn Il; Han, Man Chung

    1981-01-01

    The study was undertaken to determine the effect of fractionated high-dose total lymphoid irradiation (TLI) on the survival of skin allograft despite major histocompatibility difference. Total lymphoid irradiation is a relatively safe form of radiotherapy, has been used extensively to treat lymphoid malignancies in humans with few side effects. A total of 90 rats, Sprague-Dawley rat as recipient and Wistar rat as donor, were used for the experiment, of which 10 rats were used to determine mixed lymphocyte response (MLR) for antigenic difference and skin allografts was performed in 30 rats given total lymphoid irradiation to assess the immunosuppressive effect of total lymphoid irradiation despite major histocompatibility difference. In addition, the peripheral white blood cell counts and the proportion of lymphocytes was studied in 10 rats given total lymphoid irradiation but no skin graft to determine the effects of bone marrow suppression. The results obtained are summarized as follows. 1. The optimum dose of total lymphoid irradiation was between 1800 rads to 2400 rads. 2. The survival of skin graft on rats given total lymphoid irradiation (23.2 ± 6.0 days) was prolonged about three folds as compared to unirradiated control (8.7 ± 1.3 days). 3. Total lymphoid irradiation resulted in a severe leukopenia with marked lymphopenia, but the count was normal by the end of 3rd week. 4. The study suggests that total lymphoid irradiation is a nonlethal procedure that could be used successfully in animals to transplant allograft across major histocompatibility barriers

  17. An experimental study of the effect of total lymphoid irradiation on the survival of skin allografts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Charn Il; Han, Man Chung [College of Medicine, Seoul National University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1981-06-15

    The study was undertaken to determine the effect of fractionated high-dose total lymphoid irradiation (TLI) on the survival of skin allograft despite major histocompatibility difference. Total lymphoid irradiation is a relatively safe form of radiotherapy, has been used extensively to treat lymphoid malignancies in humans with few side effects. A total of 90 rats, Sprague-Dawley rat as recipient and Wistar rat as donor, were used for the experiment, of which 10 rats were used to determine mixed lymphocyte response (MLR) for antigenic difference and skin allografts was performed in 30 rats given total lymphoid irradiation to assess the immunosuppressive effect of total lymphoid irradiation despite major histocompatibility difference. In addition, the peripheral white blood cell counts and the proportion of lymphocytes was studied in 10 rats given total lymphoid irradiation but no skin graft to determine the effects of bone marrow suppression. The results obtained are summarized as follows. 1. The optimum dose of total lymphoid irradiation was between 1800 rads to 2400 rads. 2. The survival of skin graft on rats given total lymphoid irradiation (23.2 {+-} 6.0 days) was prolonged about three folds as compared to unirradiated control (8.7 {+-} 1.3 days). 3. Total lymphoid irradiation resulted in a severe leukopenia with marked lymphopenia, but the count was normal by the end of 3rd week. 4. The study suggests that total lymphoid irradiation is a nonlethal procedure that could be used successfully in animals to transplant allograft across major histocompatibility barriers.

  18. Ambiguous roles of innate lymphoid cells in chronic development of liver diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Yue; Li, Jing; Wang, Si-Qi; Jiang, Wei

    2018-05-14

    Innate lymphoid cells (ILCs) are defined as a distinct arm of innate immunity. According to their profile of secreted cytokines and lineage-specific transcriptional factors, ILCs can be categorized into the following three groups: group 1 ILCs (including natural killer (NK) cells and ILC1s) are dependent on T-bet and can produce interferon-γ; group 2 ILCs (ILC2s) are dependent on GATA3 and can produce type 2 cytokines, including interleukin (IL)-5 and IL-13; and, group 3 ILCs (including lymphoid tissue-like cells and ILC3s) are dependent on RORγt and can produce IL-22 and IL-17. Collaborative with adaptive immunity, ILCs are highly reactive innate effectors that promptly orchestrate immunity, inflammation and tissue repair. Dysregulation of ILCs might result in inflammatory disorders. Evidence regarding the function of intrahepatic ILCs is emerging from longitudinal studies of inflammatory liver diseases wherein they exert both physiological and pathological functions, including immune homeostasis, defenses and surveillance. Their overall effect on the liver depends on the balance of their proinflammatory and antiinflammatory populations, specific microenvironment and stages of immune responses. Here, we review the current data about ILCs in chronic liver disease progression, to reveal their roles in different stages as well as to discuss their therapeutic potency as intervention targets.

  19. Innate Lymphoid Cells (ILCs) as Mediators of Inflammation, Release of Cytokines and Lytic Molecules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elemam, Noha Mousaad; Hannawi, Suad; Maghazachi, Azzam A

    2017-12-10

    Innate lymphoid cells (ILCs) are an emerging group of immune cells that provide the first line of defense against various pathogens as well as contributing to tissue repair and inflammation. ILCs have been classically divided into three subgroups based on their cytokine secretion and transcription factor profiles. ILC nomenclature is analogous to that of T helper cells. Group 1 ILCs composed of natural killer (NK) cells as well as IFN-γ secreting ILC1s. ILC2s have the capability to produce T H 2 cytokines while ILC3s and lymphoid tissue inducer (LTis) are subsets of cells that are able to secrete IL-17 and/or IL-22. A recent subset of ILC known as ILC4 was discovered, and the cells of this subset were designated as NK17/NK1 due to their release of IL-17 and IFN-γ. In this review, we sought to explain the subclasses of ILCs and their roles as mediators of lytic enzymes and inflammation.

  20. Innate Lymphoid Cells (ILCs as Mediators of Inflammation, Release of Cytokines and Lytic Molecules

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noha Mousaad Elemam

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Innate lymphoid cells (ILCs are an emerging group of immune cells that provide the first line of defense against various pathogens as well as contributing to tissue repair and inflammation. ILCs have been classically divided into three subgroups based on their cytokine secretion and transcription factor profiles. ILC nomenclature is analogous to that of T helper cells. Group 1 ILCs composed of natural killer (NK cells as well as IFN-γ secreting ILC1s. ILC2s have the capability to produce TH2 cytokines while ILC3s and lymphoid tissue inducer (LTis are subsets of cells that are able to secrete IL-17 and/or IL-22. A recent subset of ILC known as ILC4 was discovered, and the cells of this subset were designated as NK17/NK1 due to their release of IL-17 and IFN-γ. In this review, we sought to explain the subclasses of ILCs and their roles as mediators of lytic enzymes and inflammation.

  1. Ocular adnexal marginal zone lymphoma of mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalogeropoulos, Dimitrios; Papoudou-Bai, Alexandra; Kanavaros, Panagiotis; Kalogeropoulos, Chris

    2018-05-01

    Ocular adnexal lymphomas are a group of heterogeneous neoplasms representing approximately 1-2% of non-Hodgkin lymphomas and 8% of extranodal lymphomas. The incidence of primary ocular adnexal lymphoid tumors has raised over the last decades, and this could be probably attributed to the more sophisticated diagnostic techniques. Due to the wide spectrum of clinical manifestations, ocular tissue biopsy is important in order to set a precise diagnosis based on histological, immunophenotypical and, in some cases, molecular findings. The most common subtype, which may account for up to 80% of primary ocular adnexal lymphomas, is extranodal marginal zone lymphoma (EMZL) of mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue. This lymphoma is usually asymptomatic in the early phase of the disease causing a delay in the final diagnosis and prompt therapy. The pathogenesis of a proportion of these tumors has been linked to chronic inflammatory stimulation from specific infectious factors (e.g., Chlamydia psittaci) or to autoimmunity. The further improvement in diagnostic methods and the further understanding of the pathogenesis of ocular adnexal EMZL may contribute to the establishment of a more successful multidisciplinary therapeutic planning.

  2. Clinical outcomes of childhood x-irradiation for lymphoid hyperplasia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pottern, L.M.

    1987-01-01

    A prospective study was conducted to explore the relationship between childhood x-irradiation for lymphoid hyperplasia and the subsequent development of thyroid gland and other head and neck disorders. All individuals under 18 years of age who were x-irradiated for lymphoid hyperplasia during the years 1938-69 at Children's Hospital Medical Center, Boston comprised the exposed population. The comparison group consisted of non-exposed, surgically treated individuals. The study included a health questionnaire and a clinical examination component. A history of thyroid cancer was reported by 11 exposed subjects and no non-exposed subjects. Significantly elevated standardized incidence ratios of thyroid cancer were seen for both exposed males and females, 19.9 and 12.1, respectively. The average thyroid radiation dose was 25.8 rads and the mean latency period was 17.3 years

  3. Total lymphoid irradiation in refractory systemic lupus erythematosus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ben-Chetrit, E.; Gross, D.J.; Braverman, A.; Weshler, Z.; Fuks, Z.; Slavin, S.; Eliakim, M.

    1986-01-01

    In two patients with systemic lupus erythematosus, conventional therapy was considered to have failed because of persistent disease activity and unacceptable side effects. Both were treated with total lymphoid irradiation without clinical benefit, despite adequate immunosuppression as documented by markedly reduced numbers of circulating T lymphocytes and T-lymphocyte-dependent proliferative responses in vitro. The first patient developed herpes zoster, gram-negative septicemia, neurologic symptoms, and deterioration of lupus nephritis. The second patient developed massive bronchopneumonia, necrotic cutaneous lesions, and progressive nephritis and died 2 weeks after completion of radiotherapy. These observations, although limited to two patients, indicate that total lymphoid irradiation in patients with severe systemic lupus erythematosus should be regarded as strictly experimental

  4. Immunosuppression by fractionated total lymphoid irradiation in collagen arthritis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCune, W.J.; Buckley, J.A.; Belli, J.A.; Trentham, D.E.

    1982-01-01

    Treatments with fractionated total lymphoid irradiation (TLI) and cyclophosphamide were evaluated for rats injected with type II collagen. Preadministration of TLI and repeated injections of cyclophosphamide suppressed the severity of arthritis and lowered antibody titers to collagen significantly. TLI initiated at the onset of collagen arthritis decreased humoral and cellular responses to collagen but did not affect the severity of arthritis. These data demonstrate that both TLi and cyclophosphamide are immunosuppressive in an experimentally inducible autoimmune disease

  5. Compartment modelling in nuclear medicine: a new program for the determination of transfer coefficients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hallstadius, L.

    1986-01-01

    In many investigations concerning transport/exchange of matter in a natural system, e.g. functional studies in nuclear medicine, it is advantageous to relate experimental results to a model of the system. A new computer program is presented for the determination of linear transfer coefficients in a compartment model from experimentally observed time-compartment content curves. The program performs a least-square fit with the specified precision of the observed values as weight factors. The resulting uncertainty in the calculated transfer coefficients may also be assessed. The application of the program in nuclear medicine is demonstrated and discussed. (author)

  6. Collagen/chitosan based two-compartment and bi-functional dermal scaffolds for skin regeneration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Feng [Department of Plastic Surgery and Burns, Shenzhen Second People' s Hospital, Shenzhen 518035 (China); Wang, Mingbo [Key Laboratory of Biomedical Materials and Implants, Research Institute of Tsinghua University in Shenzhen, Shenzhen 518057 (China); She, Zhending [Key Laboratory of Biomedical Materials and Implants, Research Institute of Tsinghua University in Shenzhen, Shenzhen 518057 (China); Shenzhen Lando Biomaterials Co., Ltd., Shenzhen 518057 (China); Fan, Kunwu; Xu, Cheng [Department of Plastic Surgery and Burns, Shenzhen Second People' s Hospital, Shenzhen 518035 (China); Chu, Bin; Chen, Changsheng [Key Laboratory of Biomedical Materials and Implants, Research Institute of Tsinghua University in Shenzhen, Shenzhen 518057 (China); Shi, Shengjun, E-mail: shengjunshi@yahoo.com [The Burns Department of Zhujiang Hospital, Southern Medical University, Guangzhou 510280 (China); Tan, Rongwei, E-mail: tanrw@landobiom.com [Key Laboratory of Biomedical Materials and Implants, Research Institute of Tsinghua University in Shenzhen, Shenzhen 518057 (China); Shenzhen Lando Biomaterials Co., Ltd., Shenzhen 518057 (China)

    2015-07-01

    Inspired from the sophisticated bilayer structures of natural dermis, here, we reported collagen/chitosan based two-compartment and bi-functional dermal scaffolds. Two functions refer to mediating rapid angiogenesis based on recombinant human vascular endothelial growth factor (rhVEGF) and antibacterial from gentamicin, which were encapsulated in PLGA microspheres. The gentamicin and rhVEGF encapsulated PLGA microspheres were further combined with collagen/chitosan mixtures in low (lower layer) and high (upper layer) concentrations, and molded to generate the two-compartment and bi-functional scaffolds. Based on morphology and pore structure analyses, it was found that the scaffold has a distinct double layered porous and connective structure with PLGA microspheres encapsulated. Statistical analysis indicated that the pores in the upper layer and in the lower layer have great variations in diameter, indicative of a two-compartment structure. The release profiles of gentamicin and rhVEGF exceeded 28 and 49 days, respectively. In vitro culture of mouse fibroblasts showed that the scaffold can facilitate cell adhesion and proliferation. Moreover, the scaffold can obviously inhibit proliferation of Staphylococcus aureus and Serratia marcescens, exhibiting its unique antibacterial effect. The two-compartment and bi-functional dermal scaffolds can be a promising candidate for skin regeneration. - Highlights: • The dermal scaffold is inspired from the bilayer structures of natural dermis. • The dermal scaffold has two-compartment structures. • The dermal scaffold containing VEGF and gentamicin encapsulated PLGA microspheres • The dermal scaffold can facilitate cell adhesion and proliferation.

  7. Collagen/chitosan based two-compartment and bi-functional dermal scaffolds for skin regeneration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Feng; Wang, Mingbo; She, Zhending; Fan, Kunwu; Xu, Cheng; Chu, Bin; Chen, Changsheng; Shi, Shengjun; Tan, Rongwei

    2015-01-01

    Inspired from the sophisticated bilayer structures of natural dermis, here, we reported collagen/chitosan based two-compartment and bi-functional dermal scaffolds. Two functions refer to mediating rapid angiogenesis based on recombinant human vascular endothelial growth factor (rhVEGF) and antibacterial from gentamicin, which were encapsulated in PLGA microspheres. The gentamicin and rhVEGF encapsulated PLGA microspheres were further combined with collagen/chitosan mixtures in low (lower layer) and high (upper layer) concentrations, and molded to generate the two-compartment and bi-functional scaffolds. Based on morphology and pore structure analyses, it was found that the scaffold has a distinct double layered porous and connective structure with PLGA microspheres encapsulated. Statistical analysis indicated that the pores in the upper layer and in the lower layer have great variations in diameter, indicative of a two-compartment structure. The release profiles of gentamicin and rhVEGF exceeded 28 and 49 days, respectively. In vitro culture of mouse fibroblasts showed that the scaffold can facilitate cell adhesion and proliferation. Moreover, the scaffold can obviously inhibit proliferation of Staphylococcus aureus and Serratia marcescens, exhibiting its unique antibacterial effect. The two-compartment and bi-functional dermal scaffolds can be a promising candidate for skin regeneration. - Highlights: • The dermal scaffold is inspired from the bilayer structures of natural dermis. • The dermal scaffold has two-compartment structures. • The dermal scaffold containing VEGF and gentamicin encapsulated PLGA microspheres • The dermal scaffold can facilitate cell adhesion and proliferation

  8. Pediatric Nonfracture Acute Compartment Syndrome: A Review of 39 Cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Livingston, Kristin; Glotzbecker, Michael; Miller, Patricia E; Hresko, Michael T; Hedequist, Daniel; Shore, Benjamin J

    2016-01-01

    Compartment syndrome in the absence of fracture is rare and poorly described within the pediatric literature. The purpose of this study was to report the varying etiologies, risk factors, and treatment outcomes associated with pediatric nonfracture acute compartment syndrome (NFACS). We conducted a retrospective chart review on 37 children who suffered a NFACS and were treated at a single pediatric trauma center between 1997 and 2013. Demographic, diagnostic, treatment, and outcome characteristics were reviewed. Five causal groups were generated: trauma, exercise related (acute presentation after exercise without trauma), infectious, vascular, and postoperative (in the absence of osteotomy). Univariate and multivariate analyses were performed to identify risk factors of NFACS. P-values 39 cases of NFRCS in 37 children [6 females, 31 males, mean age of 11.7 y (SD+7.2 y)]. The leg was the most commonly involved limb (29 cases, 74%). Diagnosis of NFRCS was made either by compartment pressure monitoring [59%, 23/39 cases, mean pressure 66 mm Hg (SD+28)] or by clinical examination. According to etiology, vascular was most common (11/39, 28%), followed by trauma (10/39, 26%) and postoperative (8/39, 21%), with exertion and infection representing a small proportion (6/39, 15% and 4/39, 10%, respectively). Pain was present in 33 cases (85%), swelling in 28 cases (72%), paresthesias in 13 cases (33%), motor deficit in 12 cases (31%), and poor perfusion in 11 cases (28%). Average time from symptom onset to diagnosis was 48 hours (IQR, 9 to 96 h). At surgery, 21 patients (54%) had evidence of myonecrosis. Children required an average of 3 surgeries for wound closure. The median time to follow-up was 232 days (IQR, 73 to 608 d). A total of 54% made a full recovery, whereas 31% suffered a persistent neurological or functional deficit. NFACS in children is associated with a delay in diagnosis and a high rate of myonecrosis. Timely assessment with high clinical suspicion is

  9. Modeling malware propagation using a carrier compartment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández Guillén, J. D.; Martín del Rey, A.

    2018-03-01

    The great majority of mathematical models proposed to simulate malware spreading are based on systems of ordinary differential equations. These are compartmental models where the devices are classified according to some types: susceptible, exposed, infectious, recovered, etc. As far as we know, there is not any model considering the special class of carrier devices. This type is constituted by the devices whose operative systems is not targeted by the malware (for example, iOS devices for Android malware). In this work a novel mathematical model considering this new compartment is considered. Its qualitative study is presented and a detailed analysis of the efficient control measures is shown by studying the basic reproductive number.

  10. The upper hand on compartment syndrome.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Dolan, Roisin T

    2012-11-01

    Metacarpal fractures are common injuries, accounting for approximately 30% to 40% of all hand fractures and with a lifetime incidence of 2.5%. Traditionally regarded as an innocuous injury, metacarpal fractures tend to be associated with successful outcomes after closed reduction and immobilization. Hand compartment syndrome (HCS) is a rare clinical entity with potential devastating consequences in terms of loss of function and quality-of-life outcomes. We discuss the case of a 44-year-old woman presenting with multiple closed metacarpal fractures as a result of low-energy trauma, complicated by acute HCS. We review the presentation, clinical assessment, and optimal surgical management of acute HCS with reference to international literature.

  11. Surgical and anatomical studies on De Quervain's tenosynovitis syndrome: Variations in the first extensor compartment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Randal Pires J and uacute;nior

    2016-08-01

    Clinical relevance: As septation of the first extensor compartment and multiple APL tendons appears to represent risk factors for the development of DQT, prior knowledge of the frequency of such anomalies may assist surgeons in pre-operative evaluation and perioperative procedures. [Hand Microsurg 2016; 5(2.000: 50-55

  12. Total lymphoid irradiation in the Wistar rat: technique and dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoogenhout, J.; Kazem, I.; de Jong, J.

    1983-01-01

    The technical and dosimetric aspects of total lymphoid irradiation (TLI) in the Wistar rat were evaluated as part of a set-up to develop a new model for tumor xenotransplantation. Information obtained from anatomical dissections, radionuclide imaging of the spleen, lymphography and chromolymphography was used to standardize the localization portals cut out in a lead plate. The two portals encompassed the lymphoid tissue above and below the diaphragm. A specially designed masonite phantom was used to measure the dose distribution in the simulated target volumes. Ionization chamber dosimetery, thermoluminescence dosimetry and film densitometry were used for measuring exposure and absorbed dose. Irradiation was performed with 250 kV X rays (HVL 3.1 mm Cu). The dose rate was regulated by adjusting the treatment distance. The dose inhomogeneity measured in the target volumes varied between 80-100%. The side scatter dose to non target tissues under the shielded area between the two portals ranged between 20-30%. The technique and dosimetry of total lymphoid irradiation in Wistar rats are now standardized and validated and pave the way for tumor xenotransplantation experiments

  13. Dysregulation of Innate Lymphoid Cells in Common Variable Immunodeficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maglione, Paul J; Cols, Montserrat; Cunningham-Rundles, Charlotte

    2017-10-05

    Common variable immunodeficiency (CVID) is the most prevalent symptomatic primary immune deficiency. With widespread use of immunoglobulin replacement therapy, non-infectious complications, such as autoimmunity, chronic intestinal inflammation, and lung disease, have replaced infections as the major cause of morbidity and mortality in this immune deficiency. The pathogenic mechanisms that underlie the development of these complications in CVID are not known; however, there have been numerous associated laboratory findings. Among the most intriguing of these associations is elevation of interferon signature genes in CVID patients with inflammatory/autoimmune complications, as a similar gene expression profile is found in systemic lupus erythematosus and other chronic inflammatory diseases. Linked with this heightened interferon signature in CVID is an expansion of circulating IFN-γ-producing innate lymphoid cells. Innate lymphoid cells are key regulators of both protective and pathogenic immune responses that have been extensively studied in recent years. Further exploration of innate lymphoid cell biology in CVID may uncover key mechanisms underlying the development of inflammatory complications in these patients and may inspire much needed novel therapeutic approaches.

  14. Human natural killer cell development in secondary lymphoid tissues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freud, Aharon G.; Yu, Jianhua; Caligiuri, Michael A.

    2014-01-01

    For nearly a decade it has been appreciated that critical steps in human natural killer (NK) cell development likely occur outside of the bone marrow and potentially necessitate distinct microenvironments within extramedullary tissues. The latter include the liver and gravid uterus as well as secondary lymphoid tissues such as tonsils and lymph nodes. For as yet unknown reasons these tissues are naturally enriched with NK cell developmental intermediates (NKDI) that span a maturation continuum starting from an oligopotent CD34+CD45RA+ hematopoietic precursor cell to a cytolytic mature NK cell. Indeed despite the detection of NKDI within the aforementioned tissues, relatively little is known about how, why, and when these tissues may be most suited to support NK cell maturation and how this process fits in with other components of the human immune system. With the discovery of other innate lymphoid subsets whose immunophenotypes overlap with those of NKDI, there is also need to revisit and potentially re-characterize the basic immunophenotypes of the stages of the human NK cell developmental pathway in vivo. In this review, we provide an overview of human NK cell development in secondary lymphoid tissues and discuss the many questions that remain to be answered in this exciting field. PMID:24661538

  15. Treatment of intractable lupus nephritis with total lymphoid irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strober, S.; Field, E.; Hoppe, R.T.; Kotzin, B.L.; Shemesh, O.; Engleman, E.; Ross, J.C.; Myers, B.D.

    1985-01-01

    Ten patients with lupus nephritis and marked proteinuria (3.9 g or more/d) that did not respond adequately to treatment with prednisone alone or prednisone in combination with azathioprine were treated with total lymphoid irradiation in an uncontrolled feasibility study. Within 6 weeks after the start of total lymphoid irradiation, the serum albumin level rose in all patients in association with a reduction in the serum level of anti-DNA antibodies, an increase in the serum complement level, or both. Improvement in these variables persisted in eight patients followed for more than 1 year, with the stabilization or reduction of the serum creatinine level. Urinary leakage of albumin was substantially reduced in all patients. Side effects associated with radiotherapy included transient constitutional complaints in ten patients, transient blood element depressions in three, localized viral and bacterial infections in four, and ovarian failure in one. The results suggest that total lymphoid irradiation may provide an alternative to cytotoxic drugs in the treatment of lupus nephritis

  16. COMPBRN III: a computer code for modeling compartment fires

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ho, V.; Siu, N.; Apostolakis, G.; Flanagan, G.F.

    1986-07-01

    The computer code COMPBRN III deterministically models the behavior of compartment fires. This code is an improvement of the original COMPBRN codes. It employs a different air entrainment model and numerical scheme to estimate properties of the ceiling hot gas layer model. Moreover, COMPBRN III incorporates a number of improvements in shape factor calculations and error checking, which distinguish it from the COMPBRN II code. This report presents the ceiling hot gas layer model employed by COMPBRN III as well as several other modifications. Information necessary to run COMPBRN III, including descriptions of required input and resulting output, are also presented. Simulation of experiments and a sample problem are included to demonstrate the usage of the code. 37 figs., 46 refs

  17. Fludarabine Melphalan reduced-intensity conditioning allotransplanation provides similar disease control in lymphoid and myeloid malignancies: analysis of 344 patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryant, A; Nivison-Smith, I; Pillai, E S; Kennedy, G; Kalff, A; Ritchie, D; George, B; Hertzberg, M; Patil, S; Spencer, A; Fay, K; Cannell, P; Berkahn, L; Doocey, R; Spearing, R; Moore, J

    2014-01-01

    This was an Australasian Bone Marrow Transplant Recipient Registry (ABMTRR)-based retrospective study assessing the outcome of Fludarabine Melphalan (FluMel) reduced-intensity conditioning between 1998 and 2008. Median follow-up was 3.4 years. There were 344 patients with a median age of 54 years (18-68). In all, 234 patients had myeloid malignancies, with AML (n=166) being the commonest indication. There were 110 lymphoid patients with non-hodgkins lymphoma (NHL) (n=64) the main indication. TRM at day 100 was 14% with no significant difference between the groups. OS and disease-free survival (DFS) were similar between myeloid and lymphoid patients (57 and 50% at 3 years, respectively). There was no difference in cumulative incidence of relapse or GVHD between groups. Multivariate analysis revealed four significant adverse risk factors for DFS: donor other than HLA-identical sibling donor, not in remission at transplant, previous autologous transplant and recipient CMV positive. Chronic GVHD was associated with improved DFS in multivariate analysis predominantly due to a marked reduction in relapse (HR:0.44, P=0.003). This study confirms that FluMel provides durable and equivalent remissions in both myeloid and lymphoid malignancies. Disease stage and chronic GVHD remain important determinants of outcome for FluMel allografting.

  18. An experimental study on crib fires in a closed compartment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dhurandher Bhisham Kumar

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available An experimental investigation on burning behavior of fire in closed compartments is presented. Fire experiments were performed in a closed compartment of interior dimensions 4 × 4 × 4 m (length × width × height with ply board cribs as fire source. The parameters including the gas temperature, mass loss rate, heat flux, flame temperature, and compartment pressure were measured during the experiments. Experimental results indicated that the providing sudden ventilation to the closed compartment had great influence on the behavior of fire. The mass loss rate of the burning crib increased by 150% due to sudden ventilation which results in the increase in heat release rate by 198 kW. From the perspective of total heat flux, compartment pressure, and gas temperatures closed compartment with sudden ventilation were more hazardous.

  19. Inflammation regulates 11 beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 differentially in specific compartments of the gut mucosal immune system

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Ergang, Peter; Vodička, Martin; Vagnerová, Karla; Moravec, Martin; Kvapilová, Pavlína; Kment, M.; Pácha, Jiří

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 126, Oct 2017 (2017), s. 66-73 ISSN 0039-128X R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP303/10/0969; GA ČR GA15-07268S Institutional support: RVO:67985823 Keywords : metabolism of glucocorticoids * cytokine microenvironment * lymphoid organs * colon * Dextran sodium sulfate colitis Subject RIV: ED - Physiology OBOR OECD: Physiology (including cytology) Impact factor: 2.282, year: 2016

  20. Ageing combines CD4 T cell lymphopenia in secondary lymphoid organs and T cell accumulation in gut associated lymphoid tissue

    OpenAIRE

    Martinet , Kim ,; Bloquet , Stéphane; Bourgeois , Christine

    2014-01-01

    International audience; BackgroundCD4 T cell lymphopenia is an important T cell defect associated to ageing. Higher susceptibility to infections, cancer, or autoimmune pathologies described in aged individuals is thought to partly rely on T cell lymphopenia. We hypothesize that such diverse effects may reflect anatomical heterogeneity of age related T cell lymphopenia. Indeed, no data are currently available on the impact of ageing on T cell pool recovered from gut associated lymphoid tissue ...

  1. A human cadaver fascial compartment pressure measurement model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Messina, Frank C; Cooper, Dylan; Huffman, Gretchen; Bartkus, Edward; Wilbur, Lee

    2013-10-01

    Fresh human cadavers provide an effective model for procedural training. Currently, there are no realistic models to teach fascial compartment pressure measurement. We created a human cadaver fascial compartment pressure measurement model and studied its feasibility with a pre-post design. Three faculty members, following instructions from a common procedure textbook, used a standard handheld intra-compartment pressure monitor (Stryker(®), Kalamazoo, MI) to measure baseline pressures ("unembalmed") in the anterior, lateral, deep posterior, and superficial posterior compartments of the lower legs of a fresh human cadaver. The right femoral artery was then identified by superficial dissection, cannulated distally towards the lower leg, and connected to a standard embalming machine. After a 5-min infusion, the same three faculty members re-measured pressures ("embalmed") of the same compartments on the cannulated right leg. Unembalmed and embalmed readings for each compartment, and baseline readings for each leg, were compared using a two-sided paired t-test. The mean baseline compartment pressures did not differ between the right and left legs. Using the embalming machine, compartment pressure readings increased significantly over baseline for three of four fascial compartments; all in mm Hg (±SD): anterior from 40 (±9) to 143 (±44) (p = 0.08); lateral from 22 (±2.5) to 160 (±4.3) (p cadaver using a standard embalming machine. Set-up is minimal and the model can be incorporated into teaching curricula. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Type 2 innate lymphoid cells: at the cross-roads in allergic asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Rijt, Leonie; von Richthofen, Helen; van Ree, Ronald

    2016-07-01

    Allergic asthma is a chronic inflammatory disease of the lower airways that affects millions of people worldwide. Allergic asthma is a T helper 2 cell (Th2)-mediated disease, in which Th2 cytokines interleukin (IL)-4, IL-5, and IL-13 are closely associated with the symptoms. IL-4 is needed by B cells to switch toward an IgE response, IL-5 recruits and activates eosinophils while IL-13 increases mucus production. The identification of type 2 innate lymphoid cells (ILC2), which are able to rapidly produce large amounts of IL-5 and IL-13 in response to epithelial derived cytokines, implicated a new key player besides Th2 cells. ILCs constitute a family of innate lymphocytes distinct from T and B cells. ILC2s are located in various epithelial compartments in mice and human, including the lung. The recent finding of increased numbers of ILC2s in the airways of severe asthma patients prompts further research to clarify their immunological function. Murine studies have shown that ILC2s are an early innate source of IL-5 and IL-13 after allergen exposure, which induce airway eosinophilic infiltration, mucus hyperproduction, and airway hyperresponsiveness but not allergen-specific IgE production. ILC2s contribute to the initiation as well as to the maintenance of the adaptive type 2 immune response. Here, we review the recent progress on our understanding of the role of ILC2s in the immunopathology of allergic asthma, in particular by studies using murine models which have elucidated fundamental mechanisms by which ILC2s act.

  3. Effect of heterogeneity on the characterization of cell membrane compartments: I. Uniform size and permeability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Damien

    2010-03-15

    Observations of the motion of individual molecules in the membrane of a number of different cell types have led to the suggestion that the outer membrane of many eukaryotic cells may be effectively partitioned into microdomains. A major cause of this suggested partitioning is believed to be due to the direct/indirect association of the cytosolic face of the cell membrane with the cortical cytoskeleton. Such intimate association is thought to introduce effective hydrodynamic barriers into the membrane that are capable of frustrating molecular Brownian motion over distance scales greater than the average size of the compartment. To date, the standard analytical method for deducing compartment characteristics has relied on observing the random walk behavior of a labeled lipid or protein at various temporal frequencies and different total lengths of time. Simple theoretical arguments suggest that the presence of restrictive barriers imparts a characteristic turnover to a plot of mean squared displacement versus sampling period that can be interpreted to yield the average dimensions of the compartment expressed as the respective side lengths of a rectangle. In the following series of articles, we used computer simulation methods to investigate how well the conventional analytical strategy coped with heterogeneity in size, shape, and barrier permeability of the cell membrane compartments. We also explored questions relating to the necessary extent of sampling required (with regard to both the recorded time of a single trajectory and the number of trajectories included in the measurement bin) for faithful representation of the actual distribution of compartment sizes found using the SPT technique. In the current investigation, we turned our attention to the analytical characterization of diffusion through cell membrane compartments having both a uniform size and permeability. For this ideal case, we found that (i) an optimum sampling time interval existed for the analysis

  4. Abdominal Compartment Syndrome Secondary to Chronic Constipation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helene Flageole

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abdominal compartment syndrome (ACS is defined as an elevated intraabdominal pressure with evidence of organ dysfunction. The majority of published reports of ACS are in neonates with abdominal wall defects and in adults following trauma or burns, but it is poorly described in children. We describe the unusual presentation of an 11-year-old boy with a long history of chronic constipation who developed acute ACS requiring resuscitative measures and emergent disimpaction. He presented with a 2-week history of increasing abdominal pain, nausea, diminished appetite and longstanding encopresis. On exam, he was emaciated with a massively distended abdomen with a palpable fecaloma. Abdominal XR confirmed these findings. Within 24 hours of presentation, he became tachycardic and oliguric with orthostatic hypotension. Following two enemas, he acutely deteriorated with severe hypotension, marked tachycardia, acute respiratory distress, and a declining mental status. Endotracheal intubation, fluid boluses, and vasopressors were commenced, followed by emergent surgical fecal disimpaction. This resulted in rapid improvement in vital signs. He has been thoroughly investigated and no other condition apart from functional constipation has been identified. Although ACS secondary to constipation is extremely unusual, this case illustrates the need to actively treat constipation and what can happen if it is not.

  5. Measuring Compartment Size and Gas Solubility in Marine Mammals

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-30

    bends? Effect of diving behaviour and physiology on modelled gas exchange for three species: Ziphius cavirostris, Mesoplodon densirostris and Hyperoodon...1 DISTRIBUTION STATEMENT A. Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. Measuring Compartment Size and Gas Solubility in Marine...is to develop methods to estimate marine mamal tissue compartment sizes, and tissue gas solubility. We aim to improve the data available for the

  6. [Progress of midfacial fat compartments and related clinical applications].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Lihong; Wang, Jinhuang; Li, Yang; Liu, Dalie

    2018-02-01

    To review the research progress of midfacial fat compartments, and to thoroughly understand its current state of the anatomy and the aging morphologic characters of midfacial fat compartments, as well as the current status of clinical applications. The recent literature concerning the midfacial fat compartments and related clinical applications were extensively reviewed and analyzed. Midfacial fat layer has been considered as a fusion and a continuous layer, experiencing a global atrophy when aging. As more anatomical researches have done, recent studies have shown that midfacial fat layer is broadly divided into superficial and deep layers, which are both divided into different fat compartments by fascia, ligaments, or muscles. Midfacial fat compartments tend to atrophy with age, specifically in the deep fat compartments while hypertrophy in the superficial fat compartments. Clinical applications show that fat volumetric restoration with deep medial cheek fat and Ristow's space can restore the appearance of midface effectively. In recent years, the researches of midfacial fat compartments have achieved obvious progress, which will provide new ideas and basis for fat volumetric restoration. Corresponding treatments are selected based on different sites and different layers with different aging changes, reshaping a more youthful midface.

  7. Relationships between streamwater nitrogen and primary uptake compartments: an isotopic approach

    OpenAIRE

    Pastor Oliveras, Ada

    2014-01-01

    The overarching goal of this dissertation was to explore relationships between streamwater nitrogen (N) and the most representative primary uptake compartments (PUCs) in stream ecosystems (e.g. microbial biofilm, algae, bryophytes, macrophytes). In particular, environmental factors driving these biogeochemical relationships along a strong anthropogenic gradient were explored and differences among and within PUC types were compared. To elucidate the factors controlling these relationships, we ...

  8. Compartment in vertical flow reactor for ferruginous mine water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hur, Won; Cheong, Young-Wook; Yim, Gil-Jae; Ji, Sang-Woo; Hong, Ji-Hye

    2014-05-01

    Mine effluents contain varying concentrations of ferrous ion along with other metal ions. Fe(II) that quickly oxidizes to form precipitates in the presence of oxygen under net alkaline or neutral conditions. Thus, passive treatment methods are designed for the mine water to reside in an open containment area so as to allow simultaneous oxidation and precipitation of Fe(II), such as in a lagoon or an oxidation pond. A vertical flow reactor (VFR) was also suggested to remediate ferruginous mine drainage passing down through an accreting bed of ochre. However, VFR has a limited operation time until the system begins to overflow. It was also demonstrated that two-compartment VFR has a longer operation time than single compartment VFR of same size. In this study, a mathematical model was developed as a part of efforts to explore the operation of VFR, showing dynamic changes in head differences, ochre depth and Fe(II)/Fe(III) concentration in the effluent flow. The analysis shows that Fe(II) oxidation and ochre formation should be balanced with permeability of ochre bed to maximize VFR operation time and minimize residual Fe(II) in the effluent. The model demonstrates that two compartment VFR can have a longer operation time than a single-compartment VFR and that an optimum compartment ratio exists that maximize VFR operation time. Accelerated Fe(II) oxidation significantly affects the optimum ratio of compartment area and reduced residual Fe(II) in the effluent. VFR operation time can be significantly prolonged by increasing the rate of ochre formation not by accelerated Fe(II) oxidation. Taken together, ochre forms largely in the first compartment while overflowed mine water with reduced iron contents is efficiently filtered in the second compartment. These results provide us a better understanding of VFR operation and optimum design criteria for maximum operation time in a two-compartment VFR. Rapid ochre accretion in the first compartment maintains constant hydraulic

  9. Wrist arthrography: The value of the three compartment injection technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Levinsohn, E.M.; Coren, A.B.; Palmer, A.K.; Zinberg, E.

    1987-10-01

    Arthrography of the wrist was performed on 50 consecutive patients with obscure post-traumatic wrist pain by injecting contrast separately into the radiocarpal joint, midcarpal compartment, and distal radioulnar joint. When distal radioulnar joint and midcarpal compartment injections were added to the standard radiocarpal injection, many significant unsuspected abnormalities were identified. Of the 25 triangular fibrocartilage complex abnormalities identified, six (24%) were found only with the distal radioulnar joint injection. Of the 29 abnormal communications between the midcarpal compartment and the radiocarpal joint, ten (35%) were found only with the midcarpal injection. Similarly, five of 29 (17%) of the abnormal radiocarpal-midcarpal communications would have been missed if a midcarpal injection alone had been performed. These findings indicate that separate injections into the radiocarpal joint, midcarpal compartment, and distal radioulnar joint are needed to identify a large number of abnormalities not seen with injections into one compartment alone.

  10. Computation of thermal comfort inside a passenger car compartment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mezrhab, A.; Bouzidi, M.

    2006-01-01

    This paper describes a numerical model to study the behaviour of thermal comfort inside the passenger car compartment according to climatic conditions and materials that compose the vehicle. The specifically developed numerical model is based on the nodal method and the finite difference method. Its specificities are: (i) the transient mode, (ii) the taking into account of the combined convection, conduction and radiation heat transfer, (iii) the coupling of two spectral bands (short-wave and long-wave radiation) and two solar fluxes (beam and diffuse). The compartment is subdivided in several solid nodes (materials constituting the compartment) and fluid nodes (volumes of air inside the compartment). The establishment of the heat balance for each node gives the evolution of its temperature. Effects of solar radiation, types of glazing, car colour and radiative properties of materials constituting the compartment are investigated

  11. Cytokine-free directed differentiation of human pluripotent stem cells efficiently produces hemogenic endothelium with lymphoid potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galat, Yekaterina; Dambaeva, Svetlana; Elcheva, Irina; Khanolkar, Aaruni; Beaman, Kenneth; Iannaccone, Philip M; Galat, Vasiliy

    2017-03-17

    , and B-lymphoid cells. The results of this study substantiate a method that significantly reduces the complexity of current protocols for hematopoietic induction, offers a defined system to study the factors that affect the early stages of hematopoiesis, and provides a new route of lymphoid and myeloid cell derivation from human pluripotent stem cells, thus enhancing their use in translational medicine.

  12. Isolation and Flow Cytometry Analysis of Innate Lymphoid Cells from the Intestinal Lamina Propria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gronke, Konrad; Kofoed-Nielsen, Michael; Diefenbach, Andreas

    2017-01-01

    The intestinal mucosa constitutes the biggest surface area of the body. It is constantly challenged by bacteria, commensal and pathogenic, protozoa, and food-derived irritants. In order to maintain homeostasis, a complex network of signaling circuits has evolved that includes contributions of immune cells. In recent years a subset of lymphocytes, which belong to the innate immune system, has caught particular attention. These so-called innate lymphoid cells (ILC) reside within the lamina propria of the small and large intestines and rapidly respond to environmental challenges. They provide immunity to various types of infections but may also contribute to organ homeostasis as they produce factors acting on epithelial cells thereby enhancing barrier integrity. Here, we describe how these cells can be isolated from their environment and provide an in-depth protocol how to visualize the various ILC subsets by flow cytometry.

  13. Human Innate Lymphoid Cell Subsets Possess Tissue-Type Based Heterogeneity in Phenotype and Frequency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simoni, Yannick; Fehlings, Michael; Kloverpris, Henrik N.

    2017-01-01

    Animal models have highlighted the importance of innate lymphoid cells (ILCs) in multiple immune responses. However, technical limitations have hampered adequate characterization of ILCs in humans. Here, we used mass cytometry including a broad range of surface markers and transcription factors...... to accurately identify and profile ILCs across healthy and inflamed tissue types. High dimensional analysis allowed for clear phenotypic delineation of ILC2 and ILC3 subsets. We were not able to detect ILC1 cells in any of the tissues assessed, however, we identified intra-epithelial (ie)ILC1-like cells...... that represent a broader category of NK cells in mucosal and non-mucosal pathological tissues. In addition, we have revealed the expression of phenotypic molecules that have not been previously described for ILCs. Our analysis shows that human ILCs are highly heterogeneous cell types between individuals...

  14. Interactions between Innate Lymphoid Cells and Cells of the Innate and Adaptive Immune System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Symowski, Cornelia; Voehringer, David

    2017-01-01

    Type 2 innate lymphoid cells (ILC2s) are a major source of cytokines, which are also produced by Th2 cells and several cell types of the innate immune system. Work over the past few years indicates that ILC2s play a central role in regulating type 2 immune responses against allergens and helminths. ILC2s can interact with a variety of cells types of the innate and adaptive immune system by cell-cell contacts or by communication via soluble factors. In this review, we provide an overview about recent advances in our understanding how ILC2s orchestrate type 2 immune responses with focus on direct interactions between ILC2s and other cells of the immune system.

  15. Septic arthritis as the first sign of Candida tropicalis fungaemia in an acute lymphoid leukemia patient

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vicari Perla

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Fungal infections caused by Candida species have increased in incidence during the past two decades in England, North America and Europe. Candidal arthritis is rare in patients who are not intravenous drug users or are who not using a prostheses. We report the case of a 24-year-old man with acute lymphoid leukemia, who developed Candida tropicalis arthritis during an aplastic period after chemotherapy. This is the eighth case described in the literature of C. tropicalis causing arthritis without intra-articular inoculation. We call attention to an unusual first sign of fungal infection: septic arthritis without intra-articular inoculation. However, this case differs from the other seven, since despite therapy a fast and lethal evolution was observed. We reviewed reported cases, incidence, risk factors, mortality and treatment of neutropenic patients with fungal infections.

  16. Bronchus-associated lymphoid tissue in pulmonary hypertension produces pathologic autoantibodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colvin, Kelley L; Cripe, Patrick J; Ivy, D Dunbar; Stenmark, Kurt R; Yeager, Michael E

    2013-11-01

    Autoimmunity has long been associated with pulmonary hypertension. Bronchus-associated lymphoid tissue plays important roles in antigen sampling and self-tolerance during infection and inflammation. We reasoned that activated bronchus-associated lymphoid tissue would be evident in rats with pulmonary hypertension, and that loss of self-tolerance would result in production of pathologic autoantibodies that drive vascular remodeling. We used animal models, histology, and gene expression assays to evaluate the role of bronchus-associated lymphoid tissue in pulmonary hypertension. Bronchus-associated lymphoid tissue was more numerous, larger, and more active in pulmonary hypertension compared with control animals. We found dendritic cells in and around lymphoid tissue, which were composed of CD3(+) T cells over a core of CD45RA(+) B cells. Antirat IgG and plasma from rats with pulmonary hypertension decorated B cells in lymphoid tissue, resistance vessels, and adventitia of large vessels. Lymphoid tissue in diseased rats was vascularized by aquaporin-1(+) high endothelial venules and vascular cell adhesion molecule-positive vessels. Autoantibodies are produced in bronchus-associated lymphoid tissue and, when bound to pulmonary adventitial fibroblasts, change their phenotype to one that may promote inflammation. Passive transfer of autoantibodies into rats caused pulmonary vascular remodeling and pulmonary hypertension. Diminution of lymphoid tissue reversed pulmonary hypertension, whereas immunologic blockade of CCR7 worsened pulmonary hypertension and hastened its onset. Bronchus-associated lymphoid tissue expands in pulmonary hypertension and is autoimmunologically active. Loss of self-tolerance contributes to pulmonary vascular remodeling and pulmonary hypertension. Lymphoid tissue-directed therapies may be beneficial in treating pulmonary hypertension.

  17. Skin-associated lymphoid tissues (SALT): origins and functions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Streilein, J.W.

    1983-01-01

    The skin has an unusual set of immunologic requirements. It is confronted by a specialized set of pathogenic organisms and environmental chemicals that represent a distinctive spectrum of antigenic specificities. Skin is subjected to physicochemical stresses such as irradiation with ultraviolet light that alter dramatically its immunologic properties. It is proposed that nature has provided skin with a unique collection of lymphoid cells, reticular cells, and organized lymphoid organs to deal with these special demands. Evidence in favor of the existence of skin-associated lymphoid tissues (SALT) includes (1) the cutaneous microenvironment is capable on its own of accepting, processing, and presenting nominal antigen; (2) strategically located peripheral lymph nodes are able to accept immunogenic signals derived from skin; (3) subsets of T lymphocytes display differential affinity for skin and its associated peripheral nodes; and (4) acquisition of this affinity by T cells is determined at least in part by differentiation signals received in situ from resident cutaneous cells. Responsibility for the establishment and integration of SALT rests with keratinocytes, Langerhans cells, and immunocompetent lymphocytes, each of which contributes uniquely to the synthesis. Together they provide skin with immune surveillance that effectively prejudices against the development of cutaneous neoplasms and persistent infection with intracellular pathogens. In patients who have been under long-term immunosuppressive therapy, the large majority of nonlymphoid malignancies arise within the skin, rather than other types of tissues. These data suggest that immune surveillance, once thought to be an immune defense operative in all somatic tissues, is a specialized immune function dedicated to the skin and mediated by SALT

  18. Development of venetoclax for therapy of lymphoid malignancies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhu H

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Huayuan Zhu,1,2 Alexandru Almasan1 1Department of Cancer Biology, Lerner Research Institute, Cleveland Clinic, Cleveland, OH, USA; 2Department of Hematology, The First Affiliated Hospital of Nanjing Medical University, Jiangsu Province Hospital, Nanjing, People’s Republic of China Abstract: B-cell lymphoma-2 (BCL-2 family dysfunction and impairment of apoptosis are common in most B-cell lymphoid malignancies. Venetoclax (Venclexta™, formerly ABT-199, GDC-0199 is a highly selective BCL-2 inhibitor, which mimics its BCL-2 homology 3-domain to induce apoptosis. It was approved for treatment of previously treated chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL patients with 17p deletion early in 2016. It has also been in clinical trials for other B-cell lymphoid malignancies. Unlike the other recently approved targeted agents idelalisib and ibrutinib, so far there has been no relapse reported in some patients. Also, unlike the other targeted agents, it is effective against tumor cells that reside in the blood marrow. Despite its promising outcome in CLL, preclinical data have already uncovered mechanistic insights underlying venetoclax resistance, such as upregulation of MCL-1 or BCL-xL expression and protective signaling from the microenvironment. In this review, we describe the role of the BCL-2 family in the pathogenesis of B-cell lymphoid malignancies, the development of venetoclax, and its current clinical outcome in CLL and other B-cell malignancies. We also discuss the resistance mechanisms that develop following venetoclax therapy, potential strategies to overcome them, and how this knowledge can be translated into clinical applications. Keywords: BCL-2, BCL-xL, chronic lymphocytic leukemia, MCL-1, venetoclax

  19. Lymphoid follicles in children with Helicobacter pylori-negative gastritis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broide, Efrat; Richter, Vered; Mendlovic, Sonia; Shalem, Tzippora; Eindor-Abarbanel, Adi; Moss, Steven F; Shirin, Haim

    2017-01-01

    Purpose The prevalence of Helicobacter pylori gastritis has been declining, whereas H. pylori-negative gastritis has become more common. We evaluated chronic gastritis in children with regard to H. pylori status and celiac disease (CD). Patients and methods Demographic, clinical, endoscopic, and histologic features of children who underwent elective esophagogastroduodenoscopy were reviewed retrospectively. Gastric biopsies from the antrum and corpus of the stomach were graded using the Updated Sydney System. H. pylori presence was defined by hematoxylin and eosin, Giemsa, or immunohistochemical staining and urease testing. Results A total of 184 children (61.9% female) met the study criteria with a mean age of 10 years. A total of 122 (66.3%) patients had chronic gastritis; 74 (60.7%) were H. pylori-negative. Children with H. pylori-negative gastritis were younger (p=0.003), were less likely to present with abdominal pain (p=0.02), and were mostly of non-Arabic origin (p=0.011). Nodular gastritis was found to be less prevalent in H. pylori-negative gastritis (6.8%) compared with H. pylori-positive gastritis (35.4%, pgastritis and lymphoid follicles were associated most commonly with H. pylori. Although less typical, lymphoid follicles were demonstrated in 51.3% of H. pylori-negative patients. The presence or absence of CD was not associated with histologic findings in H. pylori-negative gastritis. Conclusion Our findings suggest that lymphoid follicles are a feature of H. pylori-negative gastritis in children independent of their CD status. PMID:28860835

  20. High risk of rhabdomyolysis and acute kidney injury after traumatic limb compartment syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Wei-Hsuan; Huang, Shih-Tsai; Liu, Wen-Chung; Chen, Lee-Wei; Yang, Kuo-Chung; Hsu, Kuei-Chang; Lin, Cheng-Ta; Ho, Yen-Yi

    2015-05-01

    Rhabdomyolysis often occurs after traumatic compartment syndrome, and high morbidity and mortality have been reported with the acute kidney injury that develops subsequently. We focused on the risk factors for rhabdomyolysis and acute kidney injury in patients with traumatic compartment syndrome. We also analyzed the relation between renal function and rhabdomyolysis in these patients. A retrospective chart review was conducted from January 2006 to March 2012. Inpatients with traumatic compartment syndrome were included. We evaluated patients' demographics, history of illicit drugs use or alcohol consumption, mechanism of injury, symptoms, serum creatine kinase levels, and kidney function. A total of 52 patients with a mean age of 40.9 years were included; 23 patients had rhabdomyolysis (44.2%), of which 9 patients developed acute kidney injury (39.1%). Significant predictive factors for rhabdomyolysis were history of illicit drugs or alcohol use (P=0.039; odds ratio, 5.91) and ischemic injury (P=0.005). We found a moderate correlation between serum creatine kinase levels and serum creatinine levels (R=0.57; PRhabdomyolysis was a predisposing factor for acute kidney injury (P=0.011; odds ratio, 8.68). Four patients with rhabdomyolysis required a short period of renal replacement therapy. A high percentage of patients with traumatic compartment syndrome developed rhabdomyolysis (44.2%). Patients with rhabdomyolysis had a higher possibility of developing acute kidney injury (39.1%), and rhabdomyolysis was correlated to renal function. Early diagnosis, frequent monitoring, and aggressive treatment are suggested once compartment syndrome is suspected. The overall prognosis is good with early diagnosis and proper treatment.

  1. Isolation and characterization of mouse innate lymphoid cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halim, Timotheus Y F; Takei, Fumio

    2014-08-01

    Innate lymphoid cells (ILCs) are rare populations of cytokine-producing lymphocytes and are divided into three groups, namely ILC1, ILC2, and ILC3, based on the cytokines that they produce. They comprise less than 1% of lymphocytes in mucosal tissues and express no unique cell surface markers. Therefore, they can only be identified by combinations of multiple cell surface markers and further characterized by cytokine production in vitro. Thus, multicolor flow cytometry is the only reliable method to purify and characterize ILCs. Here we describe the methods for cell preparation, flow cytometric analysis, and purification of murine ILC2 and ILC3. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

  2. Effect of total lymphoid irradiation in chronic progressive multiple sclerosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cook, S.D.; Devereux, C.; Troiano, R.; Hafstein, M.P.; Zito, G.; Hernandez, E.; Lavenhar, M.; Vidaver, R.; Dowling, P.C.

    1986-01-01

    Total lymphoid irradiation (TLI; 1980 cGy) or sham irradiation was given to 40 patients with chronic progressive multiple sclerosis (MS) in a prospective, randomised, double-blind study. During mean follow-up of 21 months, MS patients treated with TLI has less functional decline than sham-irradiated MS patients (p<0.01). A significant relation was noted between absolute blood lymphocyte counts in the first year after TLI and subsequent course, patients with higher lymphocyte counts generally having a worse prognosis (p<0.01). TLI was well tolerated and associated with only mild short-term, and to date, long-term side-effects. (author)

  3. Tissue Pharmacologic and Virologic Determinants of Duodenal and Rectal Gastrointestinal-Associated Lymphoid Tissue Immune Reconstitution in HIV-Infected Patients Initiating Antiretroviral Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asmuth, David M; Thompson, Corbin G; Chun, Tae-Wook; Ma, Zhong-Min; Mann, Surinder; Sainz, Talia; Serrano-Villar, Sergio; Utay, Netanya S; Garcia, Juan Carlos; Troia-Cancio, Paolo; Pollard, Richard B; Miller, Christopher J; Landay, Alan; Kashuba, Angela D

    2017-10-17

    Plasma, duodenal, and rectal tissue antiretroviral therapy (ART) drug concentrations, human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) RNA and HIV DNA copy numbers, and recovery of mucosal immunity were measured before and 9 months after initiation of 3 different ART regimens in 26 subjects. Plasma and tissue HIV RNA correlated at baseline and when 9-month declines were compared, suggesting that these compartments are tightly associated. Antiretroviral tissue:blood penetration ratios were above the 50% inhibitory concentration values in almost 100% of cases. There were no correlations between drug concentrations and HIV DNA/RNA. Importantly, no evidence was found for residual viral replication or deficient tissue drug penetration to account for delayed gastrointestinal-associated lymphoid tissue immune recovery. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press for the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  4. Functional outcome of tibial fracture with acute compartment syndrome and correlation to deep posterior compartment pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goyal, Saumitra; Naik, Monappa A; Tripathy, Sujit Kumar; Rao, Sharath K

    2017-05-18

    To measure single baseline deep posterior compartment pressure in tibial fracture complicated by acute compartment syndrome (ACS) and to correlate it with functional outcome. Thirty-two tibial fractures with ACS were evaluated clinically and the deep posterior compartment pressure was measured. Urgent fasciotomy was needed in 30 patients. Definite surgical fixation was performed either primarily or once fasciotomy wound was healthy. The patients were followed up at 3 mo, 6 mo and one year. At one year, the functional outcome [lower extremity functional scale (LEFS)] and complications were assessed. Three limbs were amputated. In remaining 29 patients, the average times for clinical and radiological union were 25.2 ± 10.9 wk (10 to 54 wk) and 23.8 ± 9.2 wk (12 to 52 wk) respectively. Nine patients had delayed union and 2 had nonunion who needed bone grafting to augment healing. Most common complaint at follow up was ankle stiffness (76%) that caused difficulty in walking, running and squatting. Of 21 patients who had paralysis at diagnosis, 13 (62%) did not recover and additional five patients developed paralysis at follow-up. On LEFS evaluation, there were 14 patients (48.3%) with severe disability, 10 patients (34.5%) with moderate disability and 5 patients (17.2%) with minimal disability. The mean pressures in patients with minimal disability, moderate disability and severe disability were 37.8, 48.4 and 58.79 mmHg respectively ( P fractures causes severe functional disability in majority of patients. These patients are prone for delayed union and nonunion; however, long term disability is mainly because of severe soft tissue contracture. Intra-compartmental pressure (ICP) correlates with functional disability; patients with relatively high ICP are prone for poor functional outcome.

  5. T helper 2 (Th2) cell differentiation, type 2 innate lymphoid cell (ILC2) development and regulation of interleukin-4 (IL-4) and IL-13 production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Jinfang

    2015-09-01

    Interleukin-4 (IL-4), IL-5 and IL-13, the signature cytokines that are produced during type 2 immune responses, are critical for protective immunity against infections of extracellular parasites and are responsible for asthma and many other allergic inflammatory diseases. Although many immune cell types within the myeloid lineage compartment including basophils, eosinophils and mast cells are capable of producing at least one of these cytokines, the production of these "type 2 immune response-related" cytokines by lymphoid lineages, CD4 T helper 2 (Th2) cells and type 2 innate lymphoid cells (ILC2s) in particular, are the central events during type 2 immune responses. In this review, I will focus on the signaling pathways and key molecules that determine the differentiation of naïve CD4 T cells into Th2 cells, and how the expression of Th2 cytokines, especially IL-4 and IL-13, is regulated in Th2 cells. The similarities and differences in the differentiation of Th2 cells, IL-4-producing T follicular helper (Tfh) cells and ILC2s as well as their relationships will also be discussed. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  6. T helper 2 (Th2) cell differentiation, type 2 innate lymphoid cell (ILC2) development and regulation of interleukin-4 (IL-4) and IL-13 production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Jinfang

    2015-01-01

    Interleukin-4 (IL-4), IL-5 and IL-13, the signature cytokines that are produced during type 2 immune responses, are critical for protective immunity against infections of extracellular parasites and are responsible for asthma and many other allergic inflammatory diseases. Although many immune cell types within the myeloid lineage compartment including basophils, eosinophils and mast cells are capable of producing at least one of these cytokines, the production of these “type 2 immune response-related” cytokines by lymphoid lineages, CD4 T helper 2 (Th2) cells and type 2 innate lymphoid cells (ILC2s) in particular, are the central events during type 2 immune responses. In this review, I will focus on the signaling pathways and key molecules that determine the differentiation of naïve CD4 T cells into Th2 cells, and how the expression of Th2 cytokines, especially IL-4 and IL-13, is regulated in Th2 cells. The similarities and differences in the differentiation of Th2 cells, IL-4-producing T follicular helper (Tfh) cells and ILC2s as well as their relationships will also be discussed. PMID:26044597

  7. Trace elements distribution in environmental compartments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Queiroz, Juliana C. de; Peres, Sueli da Silva; Godoy, Maria Luiza D.P.

    2017-01-01

    Trace elements term defines the presence of low concentrations metals at environment. Some of them are considered biologically essential, as Co, Cu and Mn. Others can cause detriment to environment and human health, as Pb, Cd, Hg, As, Ti and U. A large number of them have radioactive isotopes, implying the evaluation of risks for human health should be done considering the precepts of environmental radiological protection. The ecosystem pollution with trace elements generates changes at the geochemistry cycle of these elements and in environmental quality. Soils have single characteristics when compared with another components of biosphere (air, water and biota), cause they introduce themselves not only as a drain towards contaminants, but also as natural buffer that control the transport of chemical elements and other substances for atmosphere, hydrosphere and biota. The main purpose of environmental monitoring program is to evaluate the levels of contaminants in the various compartments of the environment: natural or anthropogenic, and to assess the contribution of a potential contaminant source on the environment. Elemental Composition for the collected samples was determined by inductively coupled plasma mass spectroscopy. The main objective of this work was to evaluate the map baseline of concentration of interest trace elements in environmental samples of water, sediment and soil from Environmental Monitoring Program of Instituto de Radioprotecao e Dosimetria (IRD). The samples were analyzed using an inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometer (ICP-MS) at IRD. >From the knowledge of trace elements concentrations, could be evaluated the environmental quality parameters at the studied ecosystems. The data allowed evaluating some relevant aspects of the study of trace elements in soil and aquatic systems, with emphasis at the distribution, concentration and identification of main anthropic sources of contamination at environment. (author)

  8. Trace elements distribution in environmental compartments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Queiroz, Juliana C. de; Peres, Sueli da Silva; Godoy, Maria Luiza D.P., E-mail: suelip@ird.gov.br [Instituto de Radioprotecao e Dosimetria (IRD/CNEN-RJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2017-11-01

    Trace elements term defines the presence of low concentrations metals at environment. Some of them are considered biologically essential, as Co, Cu and Mn. Others can cause detriment to environment and human health, as Pb, Cd, Hg, As, Ti and U. A large number of them have radioactive isotopes, implying the evaluation of risks for human health should be done considering the precepts of environmental radiological protection. The ecosystem pollution with trace elements generates changes at the geochemistry cycle of these elements and in environmental quality. Soils have single characteristics when compared with another components of biosphere (air, water and biota), cause they introduce themselves not only as a drain towards contaminants, but also as natural buffer that control the transport of chemical elements and other substances for atmosphere, hydrosphere and biota. The main purpose of environmental monitoring program is to evaluate the levels of contaminants in the various compartments of the environment: natural or anthropogenic, and to assess the contribution of a potential contaminant source on the environment. Elemental Composition for the collected samples was determined by inductively coupled plasma mass spectroscopy. The main objective of this work was to evaluate the map baseline of concentration of interest trace elements in environmental samples of water, sediment and soil from Environmental Monitoring Program of Instituto de Radioprotecao e Dosimetria (IRD). The samples were analyzed using an inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometer (ICP-MS) at IRD. >From the knowledge of trace elements concentrations, could be evaluated the environmental quality parameters at the studied ecosystems. The data allowed evaluating some relevant aspects of the study of trace elements in soil and aquatic systems, with emphasis at the distribution, concentration and identification of main anthropic sources of contamination at environment. (author)

  9. Compartmented pyruvate in perfused working heart

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buenger, R.

    1985-01-01

    Pyruvate compartmentation and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) were studied in isolated perfused working guinea pig hearts. The mean intracellular pyruvate (Pyr) contents increased with perfusate Pyr (0-2 mM) but varied only slightly with glucose (0-10 mM) and additional insulin (0.04-5 U/l), respectively. With 5-10 mM glucose plus 5 U/l insulin, but not with Pyr or lactate (Lac) as substrates, a near equilibrium between the LDH and the glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase seemed to exist. Evidence for an inhibitory effect of Pyr on the activity of the LDH system of the perfused hearts was not obtained. With [U- 14 C]glucose as sole substrate, the specific activity of coronary venous Lac was near half that of precursor glucose. 14 CO 2 production was thus in quantitative agreement with rates of pyruvate oxidation that were determined as glucose uptake minus (Pyr + Lac) release. In contrast, with 0.2 mM [1- 14 C]Pyr plus 5 mM glucose, the ratio of 14 CO 2 production to specific activity of Lac overestimated Pyr oxidation judged from myocardial substrate balances and O 2 uptake, respectively; here, at least three pools of [ 14 C]HCO-3 and [ 14 C]lac, respectively, were kinetically demonstrable during washout of trace amounts of 14 C-labeled Pyr. Evidently, the specific activity of Lac was equivalent to that of mitochondrial oxidized Pyr provided [ 14 C]glucose was the sole or major precursor of cellular pyruvate. However, exogenously applied [1- 14 C]Pyr of high specific activity seemed to induce intracellular formation of both a highly and lowly labeled Pyr; the latter Pyr compartment did not seem in ready equilibrium with the cell physiologically prevailing highly labeled Pyr pool

  10. Immunohistochemical detection of prion protein in lymphoid tissues of sheep with natural scrapie

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Keulen, van L.J.M.; Schreuder, B.E.C.; Meloen, R.H.; Mooij-Harkes, G.; Vromans, M.E.W.; Langeveld, J.P.M.

    1996-01-01

    The scrapie-associated form of the prion protein (PrP(Sc)) accumulates in the brain and lymphoid tissues of sheep with scrapie. In order to assess whether detecting PrP(Sc) in lymphoid tissue could he used as a diagnostic test for scrapie, we studied the localization and distribution of PrP(Sc) in

  11. [Histopathological Study of the Relationship between Lymphoid Follicles and Different Endoscopic Types of Nodular Gastritis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagata, Takuo; Ishitake, Hisahito; Shimamoto, Fumio; Tamura, Tadamasa; Matsumura, Kazunori; Sumii, Masaharu; Nakai, Shirou

    2014-11-01

    Nodular gastritis is characterized histologically by hyperplasia and enlargement of lymphoid follicles in the lamina propria. With the objective of elucidating the relationship between different endoscopic types of nodular gastritis and lymphoid follicles, distributions of lymphoid follicles in the lamina propria were investigated in young gastric cancer patients with nodular gastritis. For the study, whole-mucosal step sectioning of each resected stomach was performed, the densities of lymphoid follicles of all specimens were measured microscopically, and the horizontal and depth distributions were calculated. For assessment in the horizontal direction, density distribution diagrams of lymphoid follicles were created. For assessment in the depth direction, the different endoscopic types of nodular gastritis were compared in the five different analysis sites. In the assessment of the horizontal distribution, no characteristic distribution tendencies were observed in either the granular type group or the scattered type group; however, it was found that areas with relatively high densities of lymphoid follicles generally coincided with the areas where nodular gastritis was observed endoscopically. These results suggested that hyperplasia and aggregation of lymphoid follicles in the lamina propria are involved at the sites where nodular gastritis is observed endoscopically. In the assessment of the depth distribution, lymphoid follicles tended to be more unevenly distributed in the upper lamina propria in the granular type group than in the scattered type at the three different analysis sites where nodular gastritis was observed endoscopically. These results suggested the possibility of a granular type characteristic.

  12. The expanding family of innate lymphoid cells: regulators and effectors of immunity and tissue remodeling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spits, Hergen; Di Santo, James P.

    2011-01-01

    Research has identified what can be considered a family of innate lymphoid cells (ILCs) that includes not only natural killer (NK) cells and lymphoid tissue-inducer (LTi) cells but also cells that produce interleukin 5 (IL-5), IL-13, IL-17 and/or IL-22. These ILC subsets are developmentally related,

  13. Innate Lymphoid Cells: Emerging Insights in Development, Lineage Relationships, and Function

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spits, Hergen; Cupedo, Tom

    2012-01-01

    Innate lymphoid cells (ILCs) are immune cells that lack a specific antigen receptor yet can produce an array of effector cytokines that in variety match that of T helper cell subsets. ILCs function in lymphoid organogenesis, tissue remodeling, antimicrobial immunity, and inflammation, particularly

  14. Hydrogen Peroxide Probes Directed to Different Cellular Compartments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malinouski, Mikalai; Zhou, You; Belousov, Vsevolod V.; Hatfield, Dolph L.; Gladyshev, Vadim N.

    2011-01-01

    Background Controlled generation and removal of hydrogen peroxide play important roles in cellular redox homeostasis and signaling. We used a hydrogen peroxide biosensor HyPer, targeted to different compartments, to examine these processes in mammalian cells. Principal Findings Reversible responses were observed to various redox perturbations and signaling events. HyPer expressed in HEK 293 cells was found to sense low micromolar levels of hydrogen peroxide. When targeted to various cellular compartments, HyPer occurred in the reduced state in the nucleus, cytosol, peroxisomes, mitochondrial intermembrane space and mitochondrial matrix, but low levels of the oxidized form of the biosensor were also observed in each of these compartments, consistent with a low peroxide tone in mammalian cells. In contrast, HyPer was mostly oxidized in the endoplasmic reticulum. Using this system, we characterized control of hydrogen peroxide in various cell systems, such as cells deficient in thioredoxin reductase, sulfhydryl oxidases or subjected to selenium deficiency. Generation of hydrogen peroxide could also be monitored in various compartments following signaling events. Conclusions We found that HyPer can be used as a valuable tool to monitor hydrogen peroxide generated in different cellular compartments. The data also show that hydrogen peroxide generated in one compartment could translocate to other compartments. Our data provide information on compartmentalization, dynamics and homeostatic control of hydrogen peroxide in mammalian cells. PMID:21283738

  15. Hydrogen peroxide probes directed to different cellular compartments.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mikalai Malinouski

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Controlled generation and removal of hydrogen peroxide play important roles in cellular redox homeostasis and signaling. We used a hydrogen peroxide biosensor HyPer, targeted to different compartments, to examine these processes in mammalian cells.Reversible responses were observed to various redox perturbations and signaling events. HyPer expressed in HEK 293 cells was found to sense low micromolar levels of hydrogen peroxide. When targeted to various cellular compartments, HyPer occurred in the reduced state in the nucleus, cytosol, peroxisomes, mitochondrial intermembrane space and mitochondrial matrix, but low levels of the oxidized form of the biosensor were also observed in each of these compartments, consistent with a low peroxide tone in mammalian cells. In contrast, HyPer was mostly oxidized in the endoplasmic reticulum. Using this system, we characterized control of hydrogen peroxide in various cell systems, such as cells deficient in thioredoxin reductase, sulfhydryl oxidases or subjected to selenium deficiency. Generation of hydrogen peroxide could also be monitored in various compartments following signaling events.We found that HyPer can be used as a valuable tool to monitor hydrogen peroxide generated in different cellular compartments. The data also show that hydrogen peroxide generated in one compartment could translocate to other compartments. Our data provide information on compartmentalization, dynamics and homeostatic control of hydrogen peroxide in mammalian cells.

  16. Dose and dose rate effects of whole-body gamma-irradiation: I. Lymphocytes and lymphoid organs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pecaut, M. J.; Nelson, G. A.; Gridley, D. S.

    2001-01-01

    The major goal of part I of this study was to compare varying doses and dose rates of whole-body gamma-radiation on lymphoid cells and organs. C57BL/6 mice (n = 75) were exposed to 0, 0.5, 1.5, and 3.0 Gy gamma-rays (60Co) at 1 cGy/min (low-dose rate, LDR) and 80 cGy/min (high-dose rate, HDR) and euthanized 4 days later. A significant dose-dependent loss of spleen mass was observed with both LDR and HDR irradiation; for the thymus this was true only with HDR. Decreasing leukocyte and lymphocyte numbers occurred with increasing dose in blood and spleen at both dose rates. The numbers (not percentages) of CD3+ T lymphocytes decreased in the blood in a dose-dependent manner at both HDR and LDR. Splenic T cell counts decreased with dose only in HDR groups; percentages increased with dose at both dose rates. Dose-dependent decreases occurred in CD4+ T helper and CD8+ T cytotoxic cell counts at HDR and LDR. In the blood the percentages of CD4+ cells increased with increasing dose at both dose rates, whereas in the spleen the counts decreased only in the HDR groups. The percentages of the CD8+ population remained stable in both blood and spleen. CD19+ B cell counts and percentages in both compartments declined markedly with increasing HDR and LDR radiation. NK1.1+ natural killer cell numbers and proportions remained relatively stable. Overall, these data indicate that the observed changes were highly dependent on the dose, but not dose rate, and that cells in the spleen are more affected by dose rate than those in blood. The results also suggest that the response of lymphocytes in different body compartments may be variable.

  17. Effect of total lymphoid irradiation on levels of serum autoantibodies in systemic lupus erythematosus and in rheumatoid arthritis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanay, A.; Schiffman, G.; Strober, S.

    1986-01-01

    The effects of total lymphoid irradiation (TLI) on serum levels of autoantibodies, and of antibodies to diphtheria toxoid, tetanus toxoid, and pneumococcal polysaccharide in patients with lupus nephritis were compared with those previously observed in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients. Baseline levels of antibodies to diphtheria toxoid and tetanus toxoid decreased significantly after TLI in patients with lupus and RA, but antibody levels to pneumococcal polysaccharide remained unchanged. After TLI, the levels of antinuclear and anti-DNA antibodies were reduced significantly in lupus, but levels of rheumatoid factor, antinuclear, and antigranulocyte antibodies all tended to increase in RA

  18. Innate Lymphoid Cells in HIV/SIV Infections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Spandan V. Shah

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Over the past several years, new populations of innate lymphocytes have been described in mice and primates that are critical for mucosal homeostasis, microbial regulation, and immune defense. Generally conserved from mice to humans, innate lymphoid cells (ILC have been divided primarily into three subpopulations based on phenotypic and functional repertoires: ILC1 bear similarities to natural killer cells; ILC2 have overlapping functions with TH2 cells; and ILC3 that share many functions with TH17/TH22 cells. ILC are specifically enriched at mucosal surfaces and are possibly one of the earliest responders during viral infections besides being involved in the homeostasis of gut-associated lymphoid tissue and maintenance of gut epithelial barrier integrity. Burgeoning evidence also suggests that there is an early and sustained abrogation of ILC function and numbers during HIV and pathogenic SIV infections, most notably ILC3 in the gastrointestinal tract, which leads to disruption of the mucosal barrier and dysregulation of the local immune system. A better understanding of the direct or indirect mechanisms of loss and dysfunction will be critical to immunotherapeutics aimed at restoring these cells. Herein, we review the current literature on ILC with a particular emphasis on ILC3 and their role(s in mucosal immunology and the significance of disrupting the ILC niche during HIV and SIV infections.

  19. Sustained improvement of intractable rheumatoid arthritis after total lymphoid irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Field, E.H.; Strober, S.; Hoppe, R.T.

    1983-01-01

    Total lymphoid irradiation (TLI) was administered to 11 patients who had intractable rheumatoid arthritis that was unresponsive to conventional medical therapy, including aspirin, multiple nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs, gold salts, and D-penicillamine. Total lymphoid irradiation was given as an alternative to cytotoxic drugs such as azathioprine and cyclophosphamide. After radiotherapy, 9 of the 11 patients showed a marked improvement in clinical disease activity as measured by morning stiffness, joint tenderness, joint swelling, and overall functional abilities. The mean improvement of disease activity in all patients ranged from 40-70 percent and has persisted throughout a 13-28 month followup period. This improvement permitted the mean daily steroid dose to be reduced by 54%. Complications included severe fatigue and other constitutional symptoms during radiotherapy, development of Felty's syndrome in 1 patient, and an exacerbation of rheumatoid lung disease in another. After therapy, all patients exhibited a profound T lymphocytopenia, and a reversal in their T suppressor/cytotoxic cell to helper cell ratio. The proliferative responses of peripheral blood mononuclear cells to phytohemagglutinin, concanavalin A, and allogeneic leukocytes (mixed leukocyte reaction) were markedly reduced, as was in vitro immunoglobulin synthesis after stimulation with pokeweed mitogen. Alterations in T cell numbers and function persisted during the entire followup period, except that the mixed leukocyte reaction showed a tendency to return to normal values

  20. [The lymph nodes imprint for the diagnosis of lymphoid neoplasms].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peniche-Alvarado, Carolina; Ramos-Peñafiel, Christian Omar; Martínez-Murillo, Carlos; Romero-Guadarrama, Mónica; Olarte-Carrillo, Irma; Rozen-Fuller, Etta; Martínez-Tovar, Adolfo; Collazo-Jaloma, Juan; Mendoza-García, Carlos Alberto

    2013-01-01

    lymphoma is the most frequent lymphoid neoplasm in our country. Its diagnosis is based on histopathological findings. The lymph node imprint has been used for more than 40 years. The aim was to establish the sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value and negative predictive value of lymph node imprint and estimate the inter-observer rate. we did an observational, retrospective, prolective study, based on the lymph node imprint obtained by excisional biopsies over a period of 6 years. the inclusion criteria was met on 199 samples, 27.1 % were considered as reactive (n = 54), 16.1 % Hodgkin lymphoma (n = 32), 40.2 % (n = 80) non-Hodgkin lymphoma and 16.6 % (n = 33) as metastatic carcinoma. Comparing with the final histopathology report, the sensitivity and specificity of lymph node imprint were 88 % (0.81-0.95) and 64 % (0.55-0.73) respectively, the positive predictive value was 67 % (0.59-0.76) and the negative predictive value was 86 % (0.79-0.94). The interobserver kappa index was 0.467. the lymph node imprint remains as a useful tool for the diagnosis of lymphoid neoplasm. The agreement between observers was acceptable.

  1. Human innate lymphoid cells (ILCs) in filarial infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonne-Année, S; Nutman, T B

    2018-02-01

    Filarial infections are characteristically chronic and can cause debilitating diseases governed by parasite-induced innate and adaptive immune responses. Filarial parasites traverse or establish niches in the skin (migrating infective larvae), in nonmucosal tissues (adult parasite niche) and in the blood or skin (circulating microfilariae) where they intersect with the host immune response. While several studies have demonstrated that filarial parasites and their antigens can modulate myeloid cells (monocyte, macrophage and dendritic cell subsets), T- and B-lymphocytes and skin resident cell populations, the role of innate lymphoid cells during filarial infections has only recently emerged. Despite the identification and characterization of innate lymphoid cells (ILCs) in murine helminth infections, little is actually known about the role of human ILCs during parasitic infections. The focus of this review will be to highlight the composition of ILCs in the skin, lymphatics and blood; where the host-parasite interaction is well-defined and to examine the role of ILCs during filarial infections. Published 2017. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  2. The Yin and Yang of Innate Lymphoid Cells in Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrega, Paolo; Campana, Stefania; Bonaccorsi, Irene; Ferlazzo, Guido

    2016-11-01

    The recent appreciation of novel subsets of innate lymphoid cells (ILCs) as important regulators of tissue homeostasis, inflammation and repair, raise questions regarding the presence and role of these cells in cancer tissues. In addition to natural killer and fetal lymphoid tissue inducer (LTi) cells, the ILC family comprises non-cytolytic, cytokine-producing cells that are classified into ILC1, ILC2 and ILC3 based on phenotypic and functional characteristics. Differently from natural killer cells, which are the prototypical members of ILC1 and whose role in tumors is better established, the involvement of other ILC subsets in cancer progression or resistance is still fuzzy and in several instances controversial, since current studies indicate both context-dependent beneficial or pathogenic effects. Here, we review the current knowledge regarding the involvement of these novel ILC subsets in the context of tumor immunology, highlighting how ILC subsets might behave either as friends or foes. Copyright © 2016 European Federation of Immunological Societies. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Emerging concepts and future challenges in innate lymphoid cell biology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Artis, David

    2016-01-01

    Innate lymphoid cells (ILCs) are innate immune cells that are ubiquitously distributed in lymphoid and nonlymphoid tissues and enriched at mucosal and barrier surfaces. Three major ILC subsets are recognized in mice and humans. Each of these subsets interacts with innate and adaptive immune cells and integrates cues from the epithelium, the microbiota, and pathogens to regulate inflammation, immunity, tissue repair, and metabolic homeostasis. Although intense study has elucidated many aspects of ILC development, phenotype, and function, numerous challenges remain in the field of ILC biology. In particular, recent work has highlighted key new questions regarding how these cells communicate with their environment and other cell types during health and disease. This review summarizes new findings in this rapidly developing field that showcase the critical role ILCs play in directing immune responses through their ability to interact with a variety of hematopoietic and nonhematopoietic cells. In addition, we define remaining challenges and emerging questions facing the field. Finally, this review discusses the potential application of basic studies of ILC biology to the development of new treatments for human patients with inflammatory and infectious diseases in which ILCs play a role. PMID:27811053

  4. Innate Lymphoid Cells in HIV/SIV Infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Spandan V; Manickam, Cordelia; Ram, Daniel R; Reeves, R Keith

    2017-01-01

    Over the past several years, new populations of innate lymphocytes have been described in mice and primates that are critical for mucosal homeostasis, microbial regulation, and immune defense. Generally conserved from mice to humans, innate lymphoid cells (ILC) have been divided primarily into three subpopulations based on phenotypic and functional repertoires: ILC1 bear similarities to natural killer cells; ILC2 have overlapping functions with TH2 cells; and ILC3 that share many functions with TH17/TH22 cells. ILC are specifically enriched at mucosal surfaces and are possibly one of the earliest responders during viral infections besides being involved in the homeostasis of gut-associated lymphoid tissue and maintenance of gut epithelial barrier integrity. Burgeoning evidence also suggests that there is an early and sustained abrogation of ILC function and numbers during HIV and pathogenic SIV infections, most notably ILC3 in the gastrointestinal tract, which leads to disruption of the mucosal barrier and dysregulation of the local immune system. A better understanding of the direct or indirect mechanisms of loss and dysfunction will be critical to immunotherapeutics aimed at restoring these cells. Herein, we review the current literature on ILC with a particular emphasis on ILC3 and their role(s) in mucosal immunology and the significance of disrupting the ILC niche during HIV and SIV infections.

  5. Trafficking of α-L-fucosidase in lymphoid cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DiCioccio, R.A.; Brown, K.S.

    1987-01-01

    The quantity of α-L-fucosidase in human serum is determined by heredity. The mechanism controlling levels of the enzyme in serum is unknown. To investigate this, lymphoid cell lines derived from individuals with either low, intermediate or high α-L-fucosidase in serum were established. Steady state levels of extracellular α-L-fucosidase protein and activity overlapped among the cell lines. Thus, in vivo serum phenotypes of α-L-fucosidase are not adequately expressed in this system. α-L-Fucosidase was also metabolically labelled with 35 S-methionine, immunoprecipitated, and examined by SDS-PAGE. Cells pulse-labelled from 0.25-2 h had a major intracellular form of enzyme (Mr = 58,000). Cells pulsed for 1.5 h and chased for 21 h with unlabeled methionine had an intracellular form of Mr = 60,000 and an extracellular form of Mr = 62,000. Cells treated with chloroquine had only the 58,000-form both intra- and extra-cellularly. Moreover, chloroquine did not effect the quantitative distribution of α-L-fucosidase between cells and medium. In fibroblasts, chloroquine enhanced the secretion of newly made lysosomal enzymes and blocked the processing of intercellular enzyme forms from a higher to a lower molecular mass. Thus, there are trafficking differences between α-L-fucosidase in lymphoid cells and lysosomal enzymes in fibroblasts. This suggests that alternative targeting mechanisms for lysosomal enzymes exist in these cells

  6. Gut-associated Lymphoid Tissue (GALT) Carcinoma or Dome Carcinoma?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubio, Carlos A; Schmidt, Peter T

    2016-10-01

    The vast majority of colorectal carcinomas (CRCs) evolve from mucosa not associated to lymphoid tissues aggregates via the adenoma-carcinoma sequence or via the serrated pathway. Rarely CRCs evolve from gut mucosa associated to lymphoid tissue (GALT). Based on the presence of a circumscribed elevation in the colorectal mucosa, GALT carcinomas are also referred to as dome carcinomas (DC). Descriptions of the surface mucosa covering 21 GALT-CRCs appearing in pathological reports were reviewed. Three of the 21 GALT-CRCs fulfilled the criteria of dome carcinoma. Of the remaining 18 GALT-CRCs, nine were described as polypoid lesions, five as plaque-like lesions, two as sessile elevated lesions or mass, one as ulcerated and one as histological finding. Hence, only 14.3% (n=3) of the 21 GALT-CRCs displayed a dome configuration, whereas the majority, 85.7% (n=18), exhibited structures other than dome shapes at gross or at histologic examination. It becomes apparent that by using "dome" in addressing carcinomas in the colorectal mucosa, many cases of GALT carcinomas might be overlooked. Another drawback of using the "dome" nomenclature is that dome-like outlines may be detected in small metastatic tumors in the submucosa or in small colorectal carcinomas not arising from GALT mucosa. Instead, by using "GALT carcinoma", that is the histologic diagnosis in addressing these neoplasias, all cases of GALT-CRCs will be included. Copyright© 2016 International Institute of Anticancer Research (Dr. John G. Delinassios), All rights reserved.

  7. Treatment of intractable rheumatoid arthritis with total lymphoid irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kotzin, B.L.; Strober, S.; Engleman, E.G.; Calin, A.; Hoppe, R.T.; Kansas, G.S.; Terrell, C.P.; Kaplan, H.S.

    1981-01-01

    Eleven patients with intractable rheumatoid arthritis were treated with total lymphoid irradiation (total dose, 2000 rad) in an uncontrolled feasibility study, as an alternative to long-term therapy with cytotoxic drugs such as cyclophosphamide and azathioprine. During a follow-up period of five to 18 months after total lymphoid irradiation, there was a profound and sustained suppression of the absolute lymphocyte count and in vitro lymphocyte function, as well as an increase in the ratio of Leu-2 (suppressor/cytotoxic) to Leu-3 (helper) T cells in the blood. Persistent circulating suppressor cells of the mixed leukocyte response and of pokeweed mitogen-induced immunoglobulin secretion developed in most patients. In nine of the 11 patients, these changes in immune status were associated with relief of joint tenderness and swelling and with improvement in function scores. Maximum improvement occurred approximately six months after irradiation and continued for the remainder of the observation period. Few severe or chronic side effects were associated with the radiotherapy

  8. Postirradiation recovery of lymphoid cells in the rat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farnsworth, A.; Wotherspoon, J.S.; Dorsch, S.E.

    1988-01-01

    Whole-body irradiation has been extensively used to remove immune responsiveness in rodent recipients in adoptive allograft assays. This study was undertaken to determine the relative radioresistance and the tempo of regeneration, following whole-body irradiation, of cells involved in the allograft response. Six distinct cell populations have been identified in the lymphoid tissues of rats subjected to sublethal whole-body irradiation. The relative representation of these subpopulations was significantly different from that in nonirradiated controls. NK cells, macrophages, and plasma cells, which are present in very low numbers in cell suspensions prepared from normal lymphoid tissues, made up a significant proportion of the residual/regenerating population in the tissues of rats recovering from whole-body irradiation. More significantly perhaps, the mature T cell populations showed a significant increase in the T cytotoxic/suppressor to T helper cell ratio. These observations support the suggestion that a number of the cell types within the mixed cell population observed in the rejecting indicator grafts of irradiated recipients in adoptive allograft assays are host derived. The finding that the T cytotoxic/suppressor population is apparently more radioresistant than the T helper population supports a conclusion that graft rejection in irradiated recipients, restored with pure populations of T helper cells, may not be directly mediated by the injected cells but may be the result of collaboration between these and host-derived cytotoxic cell populations

  9. Stochastic Turing Patterns: Analysis of Compartment-Based Approaches

    KAUST Repository

    Cao, Yang; Erban, Radek

    2014-01-01

    © 2014, Society for Mathematical Biology. Turing patterns can be observed in reaction-diffusion systems where chemical species have different diffusion constants. In recent years, several studies investigated the effects of noise on Turing patterns and showed that the parameter regimes, for which stochastic Turing patterns are observed, can be larger than the parameter regimes predicted by deterministic models, which are written in terms of partial differential equations (PDEs) for species concentrations. A common stochastic reaction-diffusion approach is written in terms of compartment-based (lattice-based) models, where the domain of interest is divided into artificial compartments and the number of molecules in each compartment is simulated. In this paper, the dependence of stochastic Turing patterns on the compartment size is investigated. It has previously been shown (for relatively simpler systems) that a modeler should not choose compartment sizes which are too small or too large, and that the optimal compartment size depends on the diffusion constant. Taking these results into account, we propose and study a compartment-based model of Turing patterns where each chemical species is described using a different set of compartments. It is shown that the parameter regions where spatial patterns form are different from the regions obtained by classical deterministic PDE-based models, but they are also different from the results obtained for the stochastic reaction-diffusion models which use a single set of compartments for all chemical species. In particular, it is argued that some previously reported results on the effect of noise on Turing patterns in biological systems need to be reinterpreted.

  10. Characteristics of patients with chronic exertional compartment syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Daniel E; Raikin, Steven; Garras, David N; Vitanzo, Peter; Labrador, Hallie; Espandar, Ramin

    2013-10-01

    Chronic exertional compartment syndrome (CECS) is a condition that causes reversible ischemia and lower extremity pain during exercise. To date there are few large studies examining the characteristics of patients with CECS. This study aimed to present these characteristics by examining the largest published series of patients with a confirmed diagnosis of the disorder. An IRB-approved, retrospective review was undertaken of patients with a suspected diagnosis of CECS undergoing pre- and postexercise compartment pressure testing between 2000 and 2012. Patients were evaluated for gender, age, duration of symptoms, pain level, specific compartments involved, compartment pressure measurements, and participation and type of athletics. Two-hundred twenty-six patients (393 legs) underwent compartment pressure testing. A diagnosis of CECS was made in 153 (67.7%) patients and 250 (63.6%) legs with elevated compartment measurements; average age of the patients was 24 years (range, 13-69 years). Female patients accounted for 92 (60.1%) of those with elevated pressures. Anterior and lateral compartment pressures were elevated most frequently, with 200 (42.5%) and 167 (35.5%) compartments, respectively. One hundred forty-one (92.2%) patients reported participation in sports, with running being the most common individual sport and soccer being the most common team sport. Duration of pain prior to diagnosis averaged 28 months. Although there is ample literature pertaining to the diagnostic criteria and treatment algorithm of the condition, few papers have described the type of patient most likely to develop CECS. This is the largest study to date to evaluate the type of patient likely to present with chronic exertional compartment syndrome. Level III, retrospective review.

  11. Stochastic Turing Patterns: Analysis of Compartment-Based Approaches

    KAUST Repository

    Cao, Yang

    2014-11-25

    © 2014, Society for Mathematical Biology. Turing patterns can be observed in reaction-diffusion systems where chemical species have different diffusion constants. In recent years, several studies investigated the effects of noise on Turing patterns and showed that the parameter regimes, for which stochastic Turing patterns are observed, can be larger than the parameter regimes predicted by deterministic models, which are written in terms of partial differential equations (PDEs) for species concentrations. A common stochastic reaction-diffusion approach is written in terms of compartment-based (lattice-based) models, where the domain of interest is divided into artificial compartments and the number of molecules in each compartment is simulated. In this paper, the dependence of stochastic Turing patterns on the compartment size is investigated. It has previously been shown (for relatively simpler systems) that a modeler should not choose compartment sizes which are too small or too large, and that the optimal compartment size depends on the diffusion constant. Taking these results into account, we propose and study a compartment-based model of Turing patterns where each chemical species is described using a different set of compartments. It is shown that the parameter regions where spatial patterns form are different from the regions obtained by classical deterministic PDE-based models, but they are also different from the results obtained for the stochastic reaction-diffusion models which use a single set of compartments for all chemical species. In particular, it is argued that some previously reported results on the effect of noise on Turing patterns in biological systems need to be reinterpreted.

  12. Rheumatoid myositis leading to acute lower extremity compartment syndrome: a case-based review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jo, Daniel; Pompa, Tiffany; Khalil, Ambreen; Kong, Frank; Wetz, Robert; Goldstein, Mark

    2015-10-01

    Muscle pain and weakness in a rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patient has a broad differential, and myositis should be considered early in the disease course as serious limb and life-threatening sequelae may occur. A 55-year-old woman with a past medical history of methotrexate-controlled RA presented with right leg pain for 4 days. The patient suffered sensory loss in the right foot and decreased strength in the toes. Lab tests revealed elevated creatine kinase, ESR, and anti-rheumatoid factor antibody titers. CT scan revealed myositis of posterior compartment muscles. Progressive edema, pain, and neuromuscular deficits persisted despite steroid and antibiotic therapy, so the patient was taken for urgent fasciotomy for acute compartment syndrome. The muscle biopsy showed diffuse mononuclear cell infiltration as well as perivascular and perineural involvement consistent with rheumatoid myositis (RM). The patient did well post-op on a prednisone taper. This case underlines the systemic nature of RA and exemplifies the severity of inflammation that may lead to grave consequences such as compartment syndrome. The histopathology is diagnostic when there is evidence of mononuclear cell infiltration; however, this is not entirely specific. Early, aggressive therapy with immunosuppressives is warranted in such patients. RM has not, to our knowledge, been recorded to cause acute compartment syndrome. Clinicians should be aware of this uncommon manifestation of RA keeping the various presentations of rheumatoid disease in mind when faced with these patients.

  13. High Endothelial Venules and Other Blood Vessels: Critical Regulators of Lymphoid Organ Development and Function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ager, Ann

    2017-01-01

    The blood vasculature regulates both the development and function of secondary lymphoid organs by providing a portal for entry of hemopoietic cells. During the development of lymphoid organs in the embryo, blood vessels deliver lymphoid tissue inducer cells that initiate and sustain the development of lymphoid tissues. In adults, the blood vessels are structurally distinct from those in other organs due to the requirement for high levels of lymphocyte recruitment under non-inflammatory conditions. In lymph nodes (LNs) and Peyer’s patches, high endothelial venules (HEVs) especially adapted for lymphocyte trafficking form a spatially organized network of blood vessels, which controls both the type of lymphocyte and the site of entry into lymphoid tissues. Uniquely, HEVs express vascular addressins that regulate lymphocyte entry into lymphoid organs and are, therefore, critical to the function of lymphoid organs. Recent studies have demonstrated important roles for CD11c+ dendritic cells in the induction, as well as the maintenance, of vascular addressin expression and, therefore, the function of HEVs. Tertiary lymphoid organs (TLOs) are HEV containing LN-like structures that develop inside organized tissues undergoing chronic immune-mediated inflammation. In autoimmune lesions, the development of TLOs is thought to exacerbate disease. In cancerous tissues, the development of HEVs and TLOs is associated with improved patient outcomes in several cancers. Therefore, it is important to understand what drives the development of HEVs and TLOs and how these structures contribute to pathology. In several human diseases and experimental animal models of chronic inflammation, there are some similarities between the development and function of HEVs within LN and TLOs. This review will summarize current knowledge of how hemopoietic cells with lymphoid tissue-inducing, HEV-inducing, and HEV-maintaining properties are recruited from the bloodstream to induce the development and

  14. Murine Neonates Infected with Yersinia enterocolitica Develop Rapid and Robust Proinflammatory Responses in Intestinal Lymphoid Tissues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siefker, David T.; Echeverry, Andrea; Brambilla, Roberta; Fukata, Masayuki; Schesser, Kurt

    2014-01-01

    Neonatal animals are generally very susceptible to infection with bacterial pathogens. However, we recently reported that neonatal mice are highly resistant to orogastric infection with Yersinia enterocolitica. Here, we show that proinflammatory responses greatly exceeding those in adults arise very rapidly in the mesenteric lymph nodes (MLN) of neonates. High-level induction of proinflammatory gene expression occurred in the neonatal MLN as early as 18 h postinfection. Marked innate phagocyte recruitment was subsequently detected at 24 h postinfection. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent spot assay (ELISPOT) analyses indicated that enhanced inflammation in neonatal MLN is contributed to, in part, by an increased frequency of proinflammatory cytokine-secreting cells. Moreover, both CD11b+ and CD11b− cell populations appeared to play a role in proinflammatory gene expression. The level of inflammation in neonatal MLN was also dependent on key bacterial components. Y. enterocolitica lacking the virulence plasmid failed to induce innate phagocyte recruitment. In contrast, tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) protein expression and neutrophil recruitment were strikingly higher in neonatal MLN after infection with a yopP-deficient strain than with wild-type Y. enterocolitica, whereas only modest increases occurred in adults. This hyperinflammatory response was associated with greater colonization of the spleen and higher mortality in neonates, while there was no difference in mortality among adults. This model highlights the dynamic levels of inflammation in the intestinal lymphoid tissues and reveals the protective (wild-type strain) versus harmful (yopP-deficient strain) consequences of inflammation in neonates. Moreover, these results reveal that the neonatal intestinal lymphoid tissues have great potential to rapidly mobilize innate components in response to infection with bacterial enteropathogens. PMID:24478090

  15. The subapical compartment : a traffic center in membrane polarity development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoekstra, D; Tyteca, D; van IJzendoorn, SCD

    2004-01-01

    Spatially separated apical and basolateral plasma membrane domains that have distinct functions and molecular compositions are a characteristic feature of epithelial cell polarity. The subapical compartment (SAC), also known as the common endosome (CE), where endocytic pathways from both surfaces

  16. 14 CFR 25.365 - Pressurized compartment loads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... flight, and stress concentrations and fatigue effects must be accounted for. (c) If landings may be made... small compartment. The size Ho must be computed by the following formula: Ho=PAs where, Ho=Maximum...

  17. Turbofan Engine Core Compartment Vent Aerodynamic Configuration Development Methodology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hebert, Leonard J.

    2006-01-01

    This paper presents an overview of the design methodology used in the development of the aerodynamic configuration of the nacelle core compartment vent for a typical Boeing commercial airplane together with design challenges for future design efforts. Core compartment vents exhaust engine subsystem flows from the space contained between the engine case and the nacelle of an airplane propulsion system. These subsystem flows typically consist of precooler, oil cooler, turbine case cooling, compartment cooling and nacelle leakage air. The design of core compartment vents is challenging due to stringent design requirements, mass flow sensitivity of the system to small changes in vent exit pressure ratio, and the need to maximize overall exhaust system performance at cruise conditions.

  18. Environmental fate and transport analysis with compartment modeling

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Little, Keith W

    2012-01-01

    .... Discussing various modeling issues in a single volume, this text provides an introduction to a specific numerical modeling technique called the compartment approach and offers a practical user's guide to the GEM...

  19. Chronic exertional compartment syndrome in the forearm of a rower

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ICP) measurement (Fig. 1). Testing of the flexor compart- ments revealed a raised resting pressure of 16 ... the following values suggestive of CECS in the lower limb: A pre- ... toxin decreases muscle mass and therefore causes a reduction of.

  20. T-bet-dependent NKp46+ innate lymphoid cells regulate the onset of TH17-induced neuroinflammation. | Center for Cancer Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    The process by which self-reactive CD4+ T cells infiltrate the central nervous system (CNS) and trigger neuroinflammation is not fully understood. Lazarevic and colleagues show that NKp46+innate lymphoid cells dependent on the transcription factor T-bet are critical mediators in facilitating the entry of autoreactive CD4+ cells of the TH17 subset of helper T cells into the

  1. Evaluation of the neuromuscular compartments in the peroneus longus muscle through electrical stimulation and accelerometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guillermo A. Mendez

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Muscles are innervated exclusively by a nerve branch and possess definite actions. However, mammalian skeletal muscles, such as the trapezius, the medial gastrocnemius, and the peroneus longus, are compartmentalized. In the peroneus longus muscle, multiple motor points, which innervate individual neuromuscular compartments (NMC, the superior (S-NMC, anteroinferior (AI-NMC, and posteroinferior (PI-NMC, have been described. The contribution of each neuromuscular compartment to the final action of the muscle is fundamental for the rehabilitation of patients afflicted by neurological and muscle dysfunctions. Interventions are often based on electrical principles that take advantage of the physiological characteristics of muscles and nerves to generate therapeutic effects. OBJECTIVE: To compare the effects of stimulating the different neuromuscular compartments (NMCs of the peroneus longus muscle on the motor threshold (MT and acceleration of the foot. METHOD: This is a cross-sectional study comprising 37 subjects. The three NMCs of the peroneus longus muscle were stimulated, and the acceleration of the foot and the motor threshold of each NMC were evaluated. A repeated measures analysis of variance with Bonferroni corrections of two intra-subjects factors was performed. RESULTS: The stimulation of the different NMCs did not result in any differences in MT (F=2.635, P=0.079. There were significant differences between the axes of acceleration caused by the stimulation of the different NMCs (F=56,233; P=0.000. The stimulation of the posteroinferior compartment resulted in the greatest acceleration in the X-axis (mean 0.614; standard deviation 0.253. CONCLUSIONS: The posteroinferior compartment primarily contributes to the eversion movement of the foot. NMCs have specific functional roles that contribute to the actions of the muscles to which they belong.

  2. Topology Optimization of Spacecraft Transfer Compartment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A. Borovikov

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available IntroductionThe subject of this research is topology optimization of the adapter of a spacecraft transfer compartment. The finite element topology optimization [1] is widely used for simple structure elements [6, 7]. It is argued that using this method in conjunction with additive technology (3D - printing it is possible to create construction designs with the best weight characteristics. However, the paper shows that when applying this method to a complex construction design the optimization results are highly sensitive to optimization algorithm parameters. The goal of this research is to study parameters of the topology optimization algorithm and the influence of their variations on results.1.      Problem formulation   A commercial software Altair HyperWorks/OptiStruct (student’s license performed numerical calculations. The paper presents a detailed description of the finite element model.The main features of the proposed model are as follows:-          Simplicity with non-complicated geometry;-          Building a finite element model in terms of computing time minimization;-          Using the lumped mass elements to simulate the impacts of the conjugates on the adapter;-          A limit of material strength, decreased by an order of magnitude, to eliminate stress concentrators;-          The gravitational load applied corresponds to the loads for the Angara-A5 launcher [8]. 2.      Method of solutionA brief description of the SIMP-method realized in the Altair HyperWorks/OptiStruct software is given.3.      ResultsPerformed numerical calculations, and shown the influence of variations of algorithm parameters (DISCRETE, MATINIT, MINDIM, MAXDIM on construction design as well as the parameters SINGLE and SPLIT used to reveal restrictions on manufacturing.Shown that, depending on variations of parameters, an adapter construction strives to «truss» or «shell» type. Described

  3. Connexin Communication Compartments and Wound Repair in Epithelial Tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chanson, Marc; Watanabe, Masakatsu; O'Shaughnessy, Erin M; Zoso, Alice; Martin, Patricia E

    2018-05-03

    Epithelial tissues line the lumen of tracts and ducts connecting to the external environment. They are critical in forming an interface between the internal and external environment and, following assault from environmental factors and pathogens, they must rapidly repair to maintain cellular homeostasis. These tissue networks, that range from a single cell layer, such as in airway epithelium, to highly stratified and differentiated epithelial surfaces, such as the epidermis, are held together by a junctional nexus of proteins including adherens, tight and gap junctions, often forming unique and localised communication compartments activated for localised tissue repair. This review focuses on the dynamic changes that occur in connexins, the constituent proteins of the intercellular gap junction channel, during wound-healing processes and in localised inflammation, with an emphasis on the lung and skin. Current developments in targeting connexins as corrective therapies to improve wound closure and resolve localised inflammation are also discussed. Finally, we consider the emergence of the zebrafish as a concerted whole-animal model to study, visualise and track the events of wound repair and regeneration in real-time living model systems.

  4. Connexin Communication Compartments and Wound Repair in Epithelial Tissue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marc Chanson

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Epithelial tissues line the lumen of tracts and ducts connecting to the external environment. They are critical in forming an interface between the internal and external environment and, following assault from environmental factors and pathogens, they must rapidly repair to maintain cellular homeostasis. These tissue networks, that range from a single cell layer, such as in airway epithelium, to highly stratified and differentiated epithelial surfaces, such as the epidermis, are held together by a junctional nexus of proteins including adherens, tight and gap junctions, often forming unique and localised communication compartments activated for localised tissue repair. This review focuses on the dynamic changes that occur in connexins, the constituent proteins of the intercellular gap junction channel, during wound-healing processes and in localised inflammation, with an emphasis on the lung and skin. Current developments in targeting connexins as corrective therapies to improve wound closure and resolve localised inflammation are also discussed. Finally, we consider the emergence of the zebrafish as a concerted whole-animal model to study, visualise and track the events of wound repair and regeneration in real-time living model systems.

  5. Prelysosomal Compartments in the Unconventional Secretion of Amyloidogenic Seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helena Borland

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A mechanistic link between neuron-to-neuron transmission of secreted amyloid and propagation of protein malconformation cytopathology and disease has recently been uncovered in animal models. An enormous interest in the unconventional secretion of amyloids from neurons has followed. Amphisomes and late endosomes are the penultimate maturation products of the autophagosomal and endosomal pathways, respectively, and normally fuse with lysosomes for degradation. However, under conditions of perturbed membrane trafficking and/or lysosomal deficiency, prelysosomal compartments may instead fuse with the plasma membrane to release any contained amyloid. After a brief introduction to the endosomal and autophagosomal pathways, we discuss the evidence for autophagosomal secretion (exophagy of amyloids, with a comparative emphasis on Aβ1–42 and α-synuclein, as luminal and cytosolic amyloids, respectively. The ESCRT-mediated import of cytosolic amyloid into late endosomal exosomes, a known vehicle of transmission of macromolecules between cells, is also reviewed. Finally, mechanisms of lysosomal dysfunction, deficiency, and exocytosis are exemplified in the context of genetically identified risk factors, mainly for Parkinson’s disease. Exocytosis of prelysosomal or lysosomal organelles is a last resort for clearance of cytotoxic material and alleviates cytopathy. However, they also represent a vehicle for the concentration, posttranslational modification, and secretion of amyloid seeds.

  6. Clonal dominance and transplantation dynamics in hematopoietic stem cell compartments.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Ashcroft

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Hematopoietic stem cells in mammals are known to reside mostly in the bone marrow, but also transitively passage in small numbers in the blood. Experimental findings have suggested that they exist in a dynamic equilibrium, continuously migrating between these two compartments. Here we construct an individual-based mathematical model of this process, which is parametrised using existing empirical findings from mice. This approach allows us to quantify the amount of migration between the bone marrow niches and the peripheral blood. We use this model to investigate clonal hematopoiesis, which is a significant risk factor for hematologic cancers. We also analyse the engraftment of donor stem cells into non-conditioned and conditioned hosts, quantifying the impact of different treatment scenarios. The simplicity of the model permits a thorough mathematical analysis, providing deeper insights into the dynamics of both the model and of the real-world system. We predict the time taken for mutant clones to expand within a host, as well as chimerism levels that can be expected following transplantation therapy, and the probability that a preconditioned host is reconstituted by donor cells.

  7. The formation and transformation of hormones in maternal, placental and fetal compartments: biological implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasqualini, Jorge R; Chetrite, Gérard S

    2016-07-01

    The fetal endocrine system constitutes the earliest system developing in fetal life and operates during all the steps of gestation. Its regulation is in part dependent on the secretion of placental and/or maternal precursors emanating across the feto-maternal interface. Human fetal and placental compartments possess all the enzymatic systems necessary to produce steroid hormones. However, their activities are different and complementary: the fetus is very active in converting acetate into cholesterol, in transforming pregnanes to androstanes, various hydroxylases, sulfotransferases, while all these transformations are absent or very limited in the placenta. This compartment can transform cholesterol to C21-steroids, convert 5-ene to 4-ene steroids, and has a high capacity to aromatize C19 precursors and to hydrolyze sulfates. Steroid hormone receptors are present at an early stage of gestation and are functional for important physiological activities. The production rate of some steroids greatly increases with fetal evolution (e.g. estriol increases 500-1000 times in relation to non-pregnant women). Other hormones, such as glucocorticoids, in particular the stress hormone cortisol, adipokines (e.g. leptin, adiponectin), insulin-like growth factors, are also a key factor for regulating reproduction, metabolism, appetite and may be significant in programming the fetus and its growth. We can hypothesize that the fetal and placental factors controlling hormonal levels in the fetal compartment can be of capital importance in the normal development of extra-uterine life.

  8. Prolonged heart xenograft survival using combined total lymphoid irradiation and cyclosporine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knechtle, S.J.; Halperin, E.C.; Saad, T.; Bollinger, R.R.

    1986-01-01

    Total lymphoid irradiation and cyclosporine have profound immunosuppressive properties and permit successful heart allotransplantation. Cyclosporine used alone has not permitted consistently successful transplantation between species in all cases. Total lymphoid irradiation has not been applied to xenotransplantation. The efficacy of total lymphoid irradiation alone and in combination with cyclosporine was examined using an animal model of heart xenotransplantation. Heterotopic heart transplants were performed using inbred Syrian hamsters as donors and Lewis rats as recipients. Total lymphoid irradiation was administered preoperatively over 3 weeks for a total dose of 15 gray. Cyclosporine was started on the day of surgery and was given as a daily intramuscular injection of 2.5, 5, or 10 mg/kg/day until rejection was complete. Neither total lymphoid irradiation nor cyclosporine alone markedly prolonged graft survival. However, combined total lymphoid irradiation and cyclosporine, 5 or 10 mg/kg/day, dramatically prolonged graft survival to greater than 100 days in most recipients. There were no treatment-related deaths. In conclusion, combined total lymphoid irradiation and cyclosporine permit successful long-term survival of heart xenotransplants in this hamster-to-rat model

  9. Immunosuppression and tolerance after total lymphoid irradiation (TLI)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strober, S.; Gottlieb, M.; Slavin, S.; King, D.P.; Hoppe, R.T.; Fuks, Z.; Bieber, C.P.; Kaplan, H.S.

    1980-01-01

    The immunosuppressive effects of total lymphoid irradiation (TLI) in humans and in several species of inbred and outbred laboratory animals have been investigated. A unique property of TLI, the prevention of the graft vs. host disease, was used to induce transplantation tolerance in order to study the mechanism of altered immunity when the celluar basis of the TLI-induced immunosuppression was examined by means of the mixed lymphocyte response (MLR), no suppression of the MLR was observed when spleen cells from unirradiated or whole body-irradiated donors were used instead of donors given TLI. These results indicated that TLI induces a population of cells in the spleen that can nonspecifically suppress the MLR

  10. Innate Lymphoid Cell Biology: Lessons Learnt from Natural Killer Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuhao Jiao

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Group 1 innate lymphoid cells (ILC comprise the natural killer (NK cells and ILC1 which reside within peripheral tissues. Several different ILC1 subsets have recently been characterised, however no unique markers to define these subsets have been identified. Whether ILC1 and NK cells are in fact distinct lineages, or alternately exhibit transitional molecular programs, that allow them to adapt to different tissue niches remains an open question. NK cells are the prototypic member of the Group 1 ILC and have been historically assigned the functions of what now appears to be a multi-subset family that are distributed throughout the body. This raises the question of whether each of these populations mediate distinct functions during infection and tumour immunosurveillance. Here, we review the diversity in the Group 1 ILC subsets with regards to their transcriptional regulation, localization, mobility and receptor expression and highlight the challenges in unraveling the individual functions of these different populations of cells.

  11. Innate lymphoid cells in autoimmunity and chronic inflammatory diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Tingting; Turner, Jan-Eric

    2018-03-22

    Abnormal activation of the innate immune system is a common feature of autoimmune and chronic inflammatory diseases. Since their identification as a separate family of leukocytes, innate lymphoid cells (ILCs) have emerged as important effector cells of the innate immune system. Alterations in ILC function and subtype distribution have been observed in a variety of immune-mediated diseases in humans and evidence from experimental models suggests a subtype specific role of ILCs in the pathophysiology of autoimmune inflammation. In this review, we discuss recent advances in the understanding of ILC biology in autoimmune and chronic inflammatory disorders, including multiple sclerosis, inflammatory bowel diseases, psoriasis, and rheumatic diseases, with a special focus on the potential of ILCs as therapeutic targets for the development of novel treatment strategies in humans.

  12. Role of Type 2 Innate Lymphoid Cells in Allergic Diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cosmi, Lorenzo; Liotta, Francesco; Maggi, Laura; Annunziato, Francesco

    2017-09-11

    The adaptive immune response orchestrated by type 2 T helper (Th2) lymphocytes, strictly cooperates with the innate response of group 2 innate lymphoid cells (ILC2), in the protection from helminths infection, as well as in the pathogenesis of allergic disease. The aim of this review is to explore the pathogenic role of ILC2 in different type 2-mediated disorders. Recent studies have shown that epithelial cell-derived cytokines and their responding cells, ILC2, play a pathogenic role in bronchial asthma, chronic rhinosinusitis, and atopic dermatitis. The growing evidences of the contribution of ILC2 in the induction and maintenance of allergic inflammation in such disease suggest the possibility to target them in therapy. Biological therapies blocking ILC2 activation or neutralizing their effector cytokines are currently under evaluation to be used in patients with type 2-dominated diseases.

  13. Innate Lymphoid Cells: a new paradigm in immunology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eberl, Gérard; Colonna, Marco; Di Santo, James P.; McKenzie, Andrew N.J.

    2016-01-01

    Summary Innate lymphoid cells (ILCs) are a growing family of immune cells that mirror the phenotypes and functions of T cells. However, in contrast to T cells, ILCs do not express acquired antigen receptors or undergo clonal selection and expansion when stimulated. Instead, ILCs react promptly to signals from infected or injured tissues and produce an array of secreted proteins termed cytokines that direct the developing immune response into one that is adapted to the original insult. The complex crosstalk between microenvironment, ILCs and adaptive immunity remains to be fully deciphered. Only by understanding these complex regulatory networks can the power of ILCs be controlled or unleashed to regulate or enhance immune responses in disease prevention and therapy. PMID:25999512

  14. Migration and Tissue Tropism of Innate Lymphoid Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Chang H.; Hashimoto-Hill, Seika; Kim, Myunghoo

    2016-01-01

    Innate lymphoid cell (ILCs) subsets differentially populate various barrier and non-barrier tissues, where they play important roles in tissue homeostasis and tissue-specific responses to pathogen attack. Recent findings have provided insight into the molecular mechanisms that guide ILC migration into peripheral tissues, revealing common features among different ILC subsets as well as important distinctions. Recent studies have also highlighted the impact of tissue-specific cues on ILC migration, and the importance of the local immunological milieu. We review these findings here and discuss how the migratory patterns and tissue tropism of different ILC subsets relate to the development and differentiation of these cells, and to ILC-mediated tissue-specific regulation of innate and adaptive immune responses. In this context we outline open questions and important areas of future research. PMID:26708278

  15. Development and function of secondary and tertiary lymphoid organs in the small intestine and the colon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuela Buettner

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The immune system of the gut has evolved a number of specific lymphoid structures that contribute to homeostasis in the face of microbial colonization and food-derived antigenic challenge. These lymphoid organs encompass Peyer’s patches (PP in the small intestine and their colonic counterparts that develop in a programmed fashion before birth. In addition, the gut harbors a network of lymphoid tissues that is commonly designated as solitary intestinal lymphoid tissues (SILT. In contrast to PP, SILT develop strictly after birth and consist of a dynamic continuum of structures ranging from small cryptopatches (CP to large, mature isolated lymphoid follicles (ILF. Although the development of PP and SILT follow similar principles, such as an early clustering of lymphoid tissue inducer (LTi cells and the requirement for lymphotoxin beta (LTβ receptor-mediated signaling, the formation of CP and their further maturation into ILF is associated with additional intrinsic and environmental signals. Moreover, recent data also indicate that specific differences exist in the regulation of ILF formation between the small intestine and the colon. Importantly, intestinal inflammation in both mice and humans is associated with a strong expansion of the lymphoid network in the gut. Recent experiments in mice suggest that these structures, although they resemble large, mature ILF in appearance, may represent de novo-induced tertiary lymphoid organs (TLO. While so far it is not clear whether intestinal TLO contribute to the exacerbation of inflammatory pathology, it has been shown that ILF provide the critical microenvironment necessary for the induction of an effective host response upon infection with enteric bacterial pathogens. Regarding the importance of ILF for intestinal immunity, interfering with the development and maturation of these lymphoid tissues may offer novel means for manipulating the immune response during intestinal infection or inflammation.

  16. Development and Function of Secondary and Tertiary Lymphoid Organs in the Small Intestine and the Colon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buettner, Manuela; Lochner, Matthias

    2016-01-01

    The immune system of the gut has evolved a number of specific lymphoid structures that contribute to homeostasis in the face of microbial colonization and food-derived antigenic challenge. These lymphoid organs encompass Peyer’s patches (PP) in the small intestine and their colonic counterparts that develop in a programed fashion before birth. In addition, the gut harbors a network of lymphoid tissues that is commonly designated as solitary intestinal lymphoid tissues (SILT). In contrast to PP, SILT develop strictly after birth and consist of a dynamic continuum of structures ranging from small cryptopatches (CP) to large, mature isolated lymphoid follicles (ILF). Although the development of PP and SILT follow similar principles, such as an early clustering of lymphoid tissue inducer (LTi) cells and the requirement for lymphotoxin beta (LTβ) receptor-mediated signaling, the formation of CP and their further maturation into ILF is associated with additional intrinsic and environmental signals. Moreover, recent data also indicate that specific differences exist in the regulation of ILF formation between the small intestine and the colon. Importantly, intestinal inflammation in both mice and humans is associated with a strong expansion of the lymphoid network in the gut. Recent experiments in mice suggest that these structures, although they resemble large, mature ILF in appearance, may represent de novo-induced tertiary lymphoid organs (TLO). While, so far, it is not clear whether intestinal TLO contribute to the exacerbation of inflammatory pathology, it has been shown that ILF provide the critical microenvironment necessary for the induction of an effective host response upon infection with enteric bacterial pathogens. Regarding the importance of ILF for intestinal immunity, interfering with the development and maturation of these lymphoid tissues may offer novel means for manipulating the immune response during intestinal infection or inflammation. PMID

  17. Development and Function of Secondary and Tertiary Lymphoid Organs in the Small Intestine and the Colon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buettner, Manuela; Lochner, Matthias

    2016-01-01

    The immune system of the gut has evolved a number of specific lymphoid structures that contribute to homeostasis in the face of microbial colonization and food-derived antigenic challenge. These lymphoid organs encompass Peyer's patches (PP) in the small intestine and their colonic counterparts that develop in a programed fashion before birth. In addition, the gut harbors a network of lymphoid tissues that is commonly designated as solitary intestinal lymphoid tissues (SILT). In contrast to PP, SILT develop strictly after birth and consist of a dynamic continuum of structures ranging from small cryptopatches (CP) to large, mature isolated lymphoid follicles (ILF). Although the development of PP and SILT follow similar principles, such as an early clustering of lymphoid tissue inducer (LTi) cells and the requirement for lymphotoxin beta (LTβ) receptor-mediated signaling, the formation of CP and their further maturation into ILF is associated with additional intrinsic and environmental signals. Moreover, recent data also indicate that specific differences exist in the regulation of ILF formation between the small intestine and the colon. Importantly, intestinal inflammation in both mice and humans is associated with a strong expansion of the lymphoid network in the gut. Recent experiments in mice suggest that these structures, although they resemble large, mature ILF in appearance, may represent de novo-induced tertiary lymphoid organs (TLO). While, so far, it is not clear whether intestinal TLO contribute to the exacerbation of inflammatory pathology, it has been shown that ILF provide the critical microenvironment necessary for the induction of an effective host response upon infection with enteric bacterial pathogens. Regarding the importance of ILF for intestinal immunity, interfering with the development and maturation of these lymphoid tissues may offer novel means for manipulating the immune response during intestinal infection or inflammation.

  18. The role of each compartment in a two-compartment vertical flow reactor for ferruginous mine water treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yim, G J; Cheong, Y W; Hong, J H; Hur, W

    2014-10-01

    A vertical flow reactor (VFR) has been suggested for remediation of ferruginous mine drainage that passes down through an accreting bed of ochre. However, a VFR has a limited operation time until the system begins to overflow. In this study, a mathematical model was developed as a part of the effort to explore the operation of a VFR, showing dynamic changes in the head differences, ochre depths, and Fe(II)/Fe(III) concentrations in the effluent flow. The analysis showed that VFR operation time extended from 148.5 days to 163 days in an equally divided and to 168.4 days in asymmetrically (0.72:0.28) divided two-compartment VFR, suggesting that an optimum compartment ratio exists that maximizes the VFR operation time. A constant head filtration in the first compartment maximized filtration efficiency and thus prolonged VFR longevity in the two-compartment VFR. Fe(II) oxidation and ochre formation should be balanced with the permeability of the ochre bed to maximize the VFR operation time and minimize the residual Fe(II) in the effluent. Accelerated Fe(II) oxidation affected the optimum ratio of the compartment area and reduced the residual Fe(II) in the effluent. The VFR operation time can be prolonged significantly from 764 days to 3620 days by increasing the rate of ochre formation, much more than by accelerating the Fe(II) oxidation. During the prolonged VFR operation, ochre formed largely in the first compartment, while overflowing mine water with reduced iron content was effectively filtered in the second compartment. These results not only provide a better understanding of VFR operation but also suggest the direction of evolution of two-compartment VFR toward a compact and highly efficient facility integrated with an aerated cascade and with automatic coagulant feeding. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Role of lymphotoxin and homeostatic chemokines in the development and function of local lymphoid tissues in the respiratory tract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rangel-Moreno, Javier; Carragher, Damian; Randall, Troy D

    2007-01-01

    Secondary lymphoid organs are strategically placed to recruit locally activated antigen presenting cells (APCs) as well as naïve, recirculating T and B cells. The structure of secondary lymphoid organs - separated B and T zones, populations of specialized stromal cells, high endothelial venules and lymphatic vessles - has also evolved to maximize encounters between APCs and lymphocytes and to facilitate the expansion and differentiation of antigen-stimulated T and B cells. Many of the general mechanisms that govern the development and organization of secondary lymphoid organs have been identified over the last decade. However, the specific cellular and molecular interactions involved in the development and organization of each secondary lymphoid organ are slightly different and probably reflect the cell types available at that time and location. Here we review the mechanisms involved in the development, organization and function of local lymphoid tissues in the respiratory tract, including Nasal Associated Lymphoid Tissue (NALT) and inducible Bronchus Associated Lymphoid Tissue (iBALT).

  20. Analysis of Th17 and Tc17 Frequencies and Antiviral Defenses in Gut-Associated Lymphoid Tissue of Chronic HIV-1 Positive Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    d'Ettorre, Gabriella; Ceccarelli, Giancarlo; Andreotti, Mauro; Selvaggi, Carla; Giustini, Noemi; Serafino, Sara; Schietroma, Ivan; Nunnari, Giuseppe; Antonelli, Guido; Vullo, Vincenzo; Scagnolari, Carolina

    2015-01-01

    The complex relationship between both the Th1/Th17 and Tc1/Tc17 axis and innate defences in the intestinal mucosa during HIV-1 infection has not been well characterized. This study examined the frequency, phenotype, and functional status of T cell populations in the gut-associated lymphoid tissue and peripheral blood of virologically suppressed HIV-1-infected patients on therapy, focusing on the Th1, Th17, Tc1, and Tc17 cell subsets. We found a persistent immune cell activation (CD38 and HLADR expression) into the GALT despite the higher levels of Th17 and Tc17 in respect to peripheral blood. An upregulation of type I IFN response in GALT compared to the peripheral blood compartment was also recorded. Furthermore, IFN-α/β levels were negatively related to the frequencies of Th1 naïve cells and Tc1 cell subsets (naïve, central memory, and effector memory) in the GALT. In contrast, no relationships between type I IFN response and Th1 or Tc1 cell subsets in peripheral blood compartment and between IFN-α/β and Th17/Tc17 in both GALT and peripheral blood district were recorded. These data indicate that prolonged antiretroviral treatment improves GALT immune function despite the persistence of immune activation and type I IFN response in chronic HIV-1 positive patients.

  1. Analysis of Th17 and Tc17 Frequencies and Antiviral Defenses in Gut-Associated Lymphoid Tissue of Chronic HIV-1 Positive Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriella d’Ettorre

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The complex relationship between both the Th1/Th17 and Tc1/Tc17 axis and innate defences in the intestinal mucosa during HIV-1 infection has not been well characterized. This study examined the frequency, phenotype, and functional status of T cell populations in the gut-associated lymphoid tissue and peripheral blood of virologically suppressed HIV-1-infected patients on therapy, focusing on the Th1, Th17, Tc1, and Tc17 cell subsets. We found a persistent immune cell activation (CD38 and HLADR expression into the GALT despite the higher levels of Th17 and Tc17 in respect to peripheral blood. An upregulation of type I IFN response in GALT compared to the peripheral blood compartment was also recorded. Furthermore, IFN-α/β levels were negatively related to the frequencies of Th1 naïve cells and Tc1 cell subsets (naïve, central memory, and effector memory in the GALT. In contrast, no relationships between type I IFN response and Th1 or Tc1 cell subsets in peripheral blood compartment and between IFN-α/β and Th17/Tc17 in both GALT and peripheral blood district were recorded. These data indicate that prolonged antiretroviral treatment improves GALT immune function despite the persistence of immune activation and type I IFN response in chronic HIV-1 positive patients.

  2. Early Bronchus-Associated Lymphoid Tissue Lymphoma Diagnosed with Immunoglobulin Heavy Chain Molecular Testing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pen Li

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available When extranodal marginal zone B-cell lymphoma of mucosa associated lymphoid tissue (MALT, a low grade B-cell lymphoma, arises in the lung it is referred to as bronchus-associated lymphoid tissue (BALT lymphoma. We describe a patient with a history of Sjögren’s syndrome and rheumatoid arthritis with dyspnea and imaging consistent with lymphoid interstitial pneumonia (LIP. However, while histology and immunohistochemistry lacked definitive features of a lymphoma, immunoglobulin heavy chain (IgH polymerase chain reaction testing demonstrated B-cell monoclonality, consistent with an early BALT lymphoma.

  3. The effect of ionizing radiation on lipid metabolism in lymphoid cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kolomiytseva, I.K.; Novoselova, E.G.; Kulagina, T.P.; Kuzin, A.M.

    1987-01-01

    Lipid metabolism was studied in lymphoid tissues of rats after whole body irradiation with doses producing damage of different degrees to lymphoid cells (4-10 Gy). The content of free cholesterol, cholesterol esters, and total phospholipids was determined in peripheral blood lymphocytes and thymocytes 1-2 h after exposure. Simultaneously, the rate of in vitro incorporation of 2 14 C-acetate into total lipids, phospholipids, and cholesterol of lymphoid cells was estimated. It was shown that exposure of rats to ionizing radiation caused activation of lipogenesis. Cholesterol synthesis was activated after a dose of 4 Gy and decreased with increasing dose. (author)

  4. Long-term survival of skin allografts in mice treated with fractionated total lymphoid irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Slavin, S.; Strober, S.; Fuks, Z.; Kaplan, H.S.

    1976-01-01

    Treatment of recipient Balb/c mice with fractionated, high-dose total lymphoid irradiation, a procedure commonly used in the therapy of human malignant lymphomas, resulted in fivefold prolongation of the survival of C57BL/Ka skin allografts despite major histocompatibility differences between the strains (H-2/sup d/ and H-2/sup b/, respectively). Infusion of 10 7 (C57BL/Ka x Balb/c)F 1 bone marrow cells after total lymphoid irradiation further prolonged C57BL/Ka skin graft survival to more than 120 days. Total lymphoid irradiation may eventually prove useful in clinical organ transplantation

  5. Adjuvant effect of Bacillus firmus on the expression of cytokines and toll-like receptors in mouse nasopharynx-associated lymphoid tissue (NALT) after intranasal immunization with inactivated influenza virus type A

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Zanvit, P.; Tichopád, Aleš; Havlíčková, M.; Novotná, O.; Jirkovská, M.; Kološtová, K.; Čechová, D.; Julák, J.; Šterzl, I.; Prokešová, L.

    -, č. 134 (2010), s. 26-34 ISSN 0165-2478 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50520701 Keywords : multimarker gene expression * toll-like receptors * nasopharynx-associated lymphoid tissue Subject RIV: EC - Immunology Impact factor: 2.511, year: 2010

  6. Oxysterol Sensing through the Receptor GPR183 Promotes the Lymphoid-Tissue-Inducing Function of Innate Lymphoid Cells and Colonic Inflammation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emgård, Johanna; Kammoun, Hana; García-Cassani, Bethania; Chesné, Julie; Parigi, Sara M; Jacob, Jean-Marie; Cheng, Hung-Wei; Evren, Elza; Das, Srustidhar; Czarnewski, Paulo; Sleiers, Natalie; Melo-Gonzalez, Felipe; Kvedaraite, Egle; Svensson, Mattias; Scandella, Elke; Hepworth, Matthew R; Huber, Samuel; Ludewig, Burkhard; Peduto, Lucie; Villablanca, Eduardo J; Veiga-Fernandes, Henrique; Pereira, João P; Flavell, Richard A; Willinger, Tim

    2018-01-16

    Group 3 innate lymphoid cells (ILC3s) sense environmental signals and are critical for tissue integrity in the intestine. Yet, which signals are sensed and what receptors control ILC3 function remain poorly understood. Here, we show that ILC3s with a lymphoid-tissue-inducer (LTi) phenotype expressed G-protein-coupled receptor 183 (GPR183) and migrated to its oxysterol ligand 7α,25-hydroxycholesterol (7α,25-OHC). In mice lacking Gpr183 or 7α,25-OHC, ILC3s failed to localize to cryptopatches (CPs) and isolated lymphoid follicles (ILFs). Gpr183 deficiency in ILC3s caused a defect in CP and ILF formation in the colon, but not in the small intestine. Localized oxysterol production by fibroblastic stromal cells provided an essential signal for colonic lymphoid tissue development, and inflammation-induced increased oxysterol production caused colitis through GPR183-mediated cell recruitment. Our findings show that GPR183 promotes lymphoid organ development and indicate that oxysterol-GPR183-dependent positioning within tissues controls ILC3 activity and intestinal homeostasis. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Relación entre los niveles circulantes del factor de crecimiento similar a la insulina tipo I (IGF-I) y la expresión diferencial de genes relacionados con migración en células linfoides / Relatioship between circulating levels of insulin-like growth factor-I and differential expression of genes related to lymphoid cell migration

    OpenAIRE

    Cuervo Escobar, Sergio Andrei

    2011-01-01

    A partir de investigaciones realizadas en los últimos años, se ha hecho evidente la comunicación bidireccional entre los sistemas inmune y endocrino. Existe un gran cuerpo de evidencia que sugiere que el eje conformado por la hormona de crecimiento (GH) y el factor de crecimiento similar a la insulina tipo I (IGF-I) tiene un papel importante en la funcionalidad del sistema inmune. Los efectos de estas hormonas sobre los diferentes tipos celulares y tejidos pueden darse por meca...

  8. Group 2 Innate Lymphoid Cells Exhibit a Dynamic Phenotype in Allergic Airway Inflammation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Bobby W. S.; Stadhouders, Ralph; de Bruijn, Marjolein J. W.; Lukkes, Melanie; Beerens, Dior M. J. M.; Brem, Maarten D.; KleinJan, Alex; Bergen, Ingrid; Vroman, Heleen; Kool, Mirjam; van IJcken, Wilfred F. J.; Rao, Tata Nageswara; Fehling, Hans Jörg; Hendriks, Rudi W.

    2017-01-01

    Group 2 innate lymphoid cells (ILC2) are implicated in allergic asthma as an early innate source of the type 2 cytokines IL-5 and IL-13. However, their induction in house dust mite (HDM)-mediated airway inflammation additionally requires T cell activation. It is currently unknown whether phenotypic differences exist between ILC2s that are activated in a T cell-dependent or T cell-independent fashion. Here, we compared ILC2s in IL-33- and HDM-driven airway inflammation. Using flow cytometry, we found that surface expression levels of various markers frequently used to identify ILC2s were dependent on their mode of activation, highly variable over time, and differed between tissue compartments, including bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid, lung, draining lymph nodes, and spleen. Whereas in vivo IL-33-activated BAL fluid ILC2s exhibited an almost uniform CD25+CD127+T1/ST2+ICOS+KLRG1+ phenotype, at a comparable time point after HDM exposure BAL fluid ILC2s had a very heterogeneous surface marker phenotype. A major fraction of HDM-activated ILC2s were CD25lowCD127+T1/ST2low ICOSlowKLRG1low, but nevertheless had the capacity to produce large amounts of type 2 cytokines. HDM-activated CD25low ILC2s in BAL fluid and lung rapidly reverted to CD25high ILC2s upon in vivo stimulation with IL-33. Genome-wide transcriptional profiling of BAL ILC2s revealed ~1,600 differentially expressed genes: HDM-stimulated ILC2s specifically expressed genes involved in the regulation of adaptive immunity through B and T cell interactions, whereas IL-33-stimulated ILC2s expressed high levels of proliferation-related and cytokine genes. In both airway inflammation models ILC2s were present in the lung submucosa close to epithelial cells, as identified by confocal microscopy. In chronic HDM-driven airway inflammation ILC2s were also found inside organized cellular infiltrates near T cells. Collectively, our findings show that ILC2s are phenotypically more heterogeneous than previously thought

  9. Group 2 Innate Lymphoid Cells Exhibit a Dynamic Phenotype in Allergic Airway Inflammation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bobby W. S. Li

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Group 2 innate lymphoid cells (ILC2 are implicated in allergic asthma as an early innate source of the type 2 cytokines IL-5 and IL-13. However, their induction in house dust mite (HDM-mediated airway inflammation additionally requires T cell activation. It is currently unknown whether phenotypic differences exist between ILC2s that are activated in a T cell-dependent or T cell-independent fashion. Here, we compared ILC2s in IL-33- and HDM-driven airway inflammation. Using flow cytometry, we found that surface expression levels of various markers frequently used to identify ILC2s were dependent on their mode of activation, highly variable over time, and differed between tissue compartments, including bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL fluid, lung, draining lymph nodes, and spleen. Whereas in vivo IL-33-activated BAL fluid ILC2s exhibited an almost uniform CD25+CD127+T1/ST2+ICOS+KLRG1+ phenotype, at a comparable time point after HDM exposure BAL fluid ILC2s had a very heterogeneous surface marker phenotype. A major fraction of HDM-activated ILC2s were CD25lowCD127+T1/ST2low ICOSlowKLRG1low, but nevertheless had the capacity to produce large amounts of type 2 cytokines. HDM-activated CD25low ILC2s in BAL fluid and lung rapidly reverted to CD25high ILC2s upon in vivo stimulation with IL-33. Genome-wide transcriptional profiling of BAL ILC2s revealed ~1,600 differentially expressed genes: HDM-stimulated ILC2s specifically expressed genes involved in the regulation of adaptive immunity through B and T cell interactions, whereas IL-33-stimulated ILC2s expressed high levels of proliferation-related and cytokine genes. In both airway inflammation models ILC2s were present in the lung submucosa close to epithelial cells, as identified by confocal microscopy. In chronic HDM-driven airway inflammation ILC2s were also found inside organized cellular infiltrates near T cells. Collectively, our findings show that ILC2s are phenotypically more heterogeneous than

  10. Membrane order in the plasma membrane and endocytic recycling compartment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iaea, David B; Maxfield, Frederick R

    2017-01-01

    The cholesterol content of membranes plays an important role in organizing membranes for signal transduction and protein trafficking as well as in modulating the biophysical properties of membranes. While the properties of model or isolated membranes have been extensively studied, there has been little evaluation of internal membranes in living cells. Here, we use a Nile Red based probe, NR12S, and ratiometric live cell imaging, to analyze the membrane order of the plasma membrane and endocytic recycling compartment. We find that after a brief incubation to allow endocytosis, NR12S is distributed between the plasma membrane and the endocytic recycling compartment. The NR12S reports that the endocytic recycling compartment is more highly ordered than the plasma membrane. We also find that the plasma membrane and the endocytic recycling compartment are differentially affected by altering cellular cholesterol levels. The membrane order of the plasma membrane, but not the endocytic recycling compartment, is altered significantly when cellular cholesterol content is increased or decreased by 20%. These results demonstrate that changes in cellular cholesterol differentially alter membrane order within different organelles.

  11. Measurement of compartment elasticity using pressure related ultrasound: a method to identify patients with potential compartment syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sellei, R M; Hingmann, S J; Kobbe, P; Weber, C; Grice, J E; Zimmerman, F; Jeromin, S; Gansslen, A; Hildebrand, F; Pape, H C

    2015-01-01

    PURPOSE OF THE STUDY Decision-making in treatment of an acute compartment syndrome is based on clinical assessment, supported by invasive monitoring. Thus, evolving compartment syndrome may require repeated pressure measurements. In suspected cases of potential compartment syndromes clinical assessment alone seems to be unreliable. The objective of this study was to investigate the feasibility of a non-invasive application estimating whole compartmental elasticity by ultrasound, which may improve accuracy of diagnostics. MATERIAL AND METHODS In an in-vitro model, using an artificial container simulating dimensions of the human anterior tibial compartment, intracompartmental pressures (p) were raised subsequently up to 80 mm Hg by infusion of saline solution. The compartmental depth (mm) in the cross-section view was measured before and after manual probe compression (100 mm Hg) upon the surface resulting in a linear compartmental displacement (Δd). This was repeated at rising compartmental pressures. The resulting displacements were related to the corresponding intra-compartmental pressures simulated in our model. A hypothesized relationship between pressures related compartmental displacement and the elasticity at elevated compartment pressures was investigated. RESULTS With rising compartmental pressures, a non-linear, reciprocal proportional relation between the displacement (mm) and the intra-compartmental pressure (mm Hg) occurred. The Pearson's coefficient showed a high correlation (r2 = -0.960). The intraobserver reliability value kappa resulted in a statistically high reliability (κ = 0.840). The inter-observer value indicated a fair reliability (κ = 0.640). CONCLUSIONS Our model reveals that a strong correlation between compartmental strain displacements assessed by ultrasound and the intra-compartmental pressure changes occurs. Further studies are required to prove whether this assessment is transferable to human muscle tissue. Determining the complete

  12. The interbranchial lymphoid tissue of Atlantic Salmon (Salmo salar L) extends as a diffuse mucosal lymphoid tissue throughout the trailing edge of the gill filament

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalum, Alf S; Austbø, Lars; Bjørgen, Håvard

    2015-01-01

    in all gill segments investigated. Numerous major histocompatibility complex class II(+) -cells were distributed uniformly throughout the filament epithelial tissue. Few Ig(+) -cells were detected. Overall, the morphological features and comparable immune gene expression of the previously described ILT......The teleost gill forms an extensive, semipermeable barrier that must tolerate intimate contact with the surrounding environment and be able to protect the body from external pathogens. The recent discovery of the interbranchial lymphoid tissue (ILT) has initiated an anatomical and functional...... investigation of the lymphoid tissue of the salmonid gill. In this article, sectioning of gill arches in all three primary planes revealed an elongation of the ILT outward along the trailing edge of the primary filament to the very distal end, a finding not previously described. This newly found lymphoid tissue...

  13. Lymphotoxin organizes contributions to host defense and metabolic illness from innate lymphoid cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Upadhyay, Vaibhav; Fu, Yang-Xin

    2014-04-01

    The lymphotoxin (LT)-pathway is a unique constituent branch of the Tumor Necrosis Superfamily (TNFSF). Use of LT is a critical mechanism by which fetal innate lymphoid cells regulate lymphoid organogenesis. Within recent years, adult innate lymphoid cells have been discovered to utilize this same pathway to regulate IL-22 and IL-23 production for host defense. Notably, genetic studies have linked polymorphisms in the genes encoding LTα to several phenotypes contributing to metabolic syndrome. The role of the LT-pathway may lay the foundation for a bridge between host immune response, microbiota, and metabolic syndrome. The contribution of the LT-pathway to innate lymphoid cell function and metabolic syndrome will be visited in this review. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Characterization of lymphoid cells in the blood of healthy adults: sequential immunological, cytochemical and cytokinetic studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirt, A.; Wagner, H.P.

    1980-01-01

    With a new method, sequential immunological, cytochemical and cytokinetic studies were done on lymphoid cells in the peripheral blood of 12 healthy adults. Every single lymphoid cell could therefore be characterized by the following markers: surface immunoglobulins (sIg); rosetting with sheep red blood cells (E); unspecific acid alpha-naphthyl acetate esterase (ANAE); and 3HdT incorporation. Significantly more E+sIg-ANAE-cells (51% and 22% of all lymphoid cells, respectively). Of all ANAE+ cells 90% were E+, but 64% of all ANAE- cells were also E+. In all individuals a subpopulation of E+sIg+ cells was found. The esterase pattern of these cells was similar to that of E-sIg+ cells. The overall labeling index of the lymphoid cells examined was less than or equal to 0.2%

  15. Primary Pulmonary Mucosa-Associated Lymphoid Tissue Lymphoma with a Nodular Opacity: Report of a Case.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshino, Naoyuki; Hirata, Tomomi; Takeuchi, Chie; Usuda, Jitsuo; Hosone, Masaru

    2017-01-01

    Herein, we describe our experience in treating a case of primary pulmonary mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma detected as a nodular opacity. A 79-year-old man was referred to our hospital. Computed tomography showed a nodular opacity measuring 20 mm in diameter with regular margins in segment 5 of the right middle lobe of the lung. Although the bronchoscopic brush cytology result was class III, the patient was tentatively diagnosed with suspected mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma. A thoracoscopic right middle lobectomy was performed. The pathological findings showed nodular proliferation of small to medium-sized, mature-appearing atypical lymphoid cells, lymphoepithelial lesions, and vague follicles suggesting follicular colonization in some areas. The patient was diagnosed with low-grade small B-cell lymphoma and mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma. He has remained well to date, 23 months after surgery, without evidence of recurrence.

  16. Spectrum of lymphoid hyperplasia: colonic manifestations of sarcoidosis, infectious mononucleosis, and Crohn's disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ell, S.R.; Frank, P.H.

    1981-10-15

    The radiographic pattern of nodular lymphoid hyperplasia, perhaps better called the lymphoid follicular pattern, has variously been described as an indication of disease and as a normal variant in the adult, with current opinion favoring the latter. We report 3 cases wherein this pattern resulted from definite pathologic processes: sarcoidosis, infectious mononucleosis, and Crohn's disease. Although usually of no pathological significance, the benign follicular pattern may reflect a variety of diseases.

  17. Colonization and effector functions of innate lymphoid cells in mucosal tissues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Myunghoo; Kim, Chang H.

    2016-01-01

    Innate lymphoid cells (ILCs) protect mucosal barrier tissues to fight infection and maintain tissue integrity. ILCs and their progenitors are developmentally programmed to migrate, differentiate and populate various mucosal tissues and associated lymphoid tissues. Functionally mature ILC subsets respond to diverse pathogens such as bacteria, viruses, fungi and parasites in subset-specific manners. In this review, we will discuss how ILCs populate mucosal tissues and regulate immune responses to distinct pathogens to protect the host and maintain tissue integrity. PMID:27365193

  18. Characterization of membranous (M) cells in normal feline conjunctiva-associated lymphoid tissue (CALT).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giuliano, Elizabeth A; Finn, Kevin

    2011-09-01

    To characterize conjunctival lymphoid nodules obtained from the nictitans of healthy cats to determine if the follicle-associated epithelium (FAE) of conjunctiva-associated lymphoid tissue (CALT) in this species contains membranous (M)-cells analogous to those described in other regions of mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT). Lymphoid follicles from nictitan bulbar surfaces of 10 healthy cats (20 eyes total) were examined. Nictitans from five cats were harvested immediately post-mortem and a minimum of 12 lymphoid nodules from each third eyelid were isolated using a Zeiss operating microscope. At least three lymphoid follicles from each eye were examined using light microscopy (LM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) using standard fixation and embedding protocols. Nictitan-lymphoid follicles from another five healthy cats were processed for immunohistochemistry to characterize the distribution of T- and B-lymphocytes present beneath the FAE. The FAE overlying CALT from 10 healthy cats demonstrated morphology characteristic of M-cells including attenuated apical cell surface with blunted microvilli and microfolds, invaginated basolateral membrane forming a cytoplasmic pocket, and diminished distance between the apical and pocket membrane. Immunohistochemistry of lymphoid tissue subtending the FAE demonstrated B-cell dependent regions in the germinal centers surrounded by T-cell dependent interfollicular zones. Healthy feline CALT contains morphologic features analogous to those described in other regions of MALT. Documentation of feline conjunctival M-cells is of clinical relevance in the study of primary infectious, allergic, and autoimmune ocular diseases, as well as a potential means of vaccination or drug delivery. © 2011 American College of Veterinary Ophthalmologists.

  19. Exercise Induced Rhabdomyolysis with Compartment Syndrome and Renal Failure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mary Colleen Bhalla

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Exertional rhabdomyolysis is sequela that is occasionally seen after strenuous exercise. The progression to compartment syndrome or renal failure is a rare complication that requires prompt recognition and treatment to prevent morbidity (Giannoglou et al. 2007. We present a case of a 22-year-old college football player who presented to the emergency department (ED after a typical leg workout as part of his weight conditioning. He was found to have rhabdomyolysis with evidence of renal insufficiency. His condition progressed to bilateral compartment syndrome and renal failure requiring dialysis. After bilateral fasciotomies were performed he had resolution of his compartment syndrome. He continued to be dialysis dependent and had no return of his renal function at discharge 12 days after admission.

  20. Gel-trapped lymphorganogenic chemokines trigger artificial tertiary lymphoid organs and mount adaptive immune responses in vivo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takeshi Watanabe

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available We previously generated artificial lymph node-like tertiary lymphoid organs (artTLOs in mice using lymphotoxin α-expressing stromal cells. Here, we show the construction of transplantable and functional artTLOs by applying soluble factors trapped in slow-releasing gels in the absence of lymphoid tissue organizer- (LTo stromal cells. The resultant artTLOs were easily removable, transplantable, and were capable of attracting memory B and T cells. Importantly, artTLOs induced a powerful antigen-specific secondary immune response, which was particularly pronounced in immune-compromised hosts. Synthesis of functionally stable immune tissues/organs like those described here may be a first step to eventually develop immune system-based therapeutics. Although much needs to be learned from the precise mechanisms of action, they may offer ways in the future to reestablish immune functions to overcome hitherto untreatable diseases including severe infection, cancer, autoimmune diseases, and various forms of immune deficiencies including immune-senescence during aging.

  1. Critical role of CD4 T cells in maintaining lymphoid tissue structure for immune cell homeostasis and reconstitution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Ming; Paiardini, Mirko; Engram, Jessica C; Beilman, Greg J; Chipman, Jeffrey G; Schacker, Timothy W; Silvestri, Guido; Haase, Ashley T

    2012-08-30

    Loss of the fibroblastic reticular cell (FRC) network in lymphoid tissues during HIV-1 infection has been shown to impair the survival of naive T cells and limit immune reconstitution after antiretroviral therapy. What causes this FRC loss is unknown. Because FRC loss correlates with loss of both naive CD4 and CD8 T-cell subsets and decreased lymphotoxin-β, a key factor for maintenance of FRC network, we hypothesized that loss of naive T cells is responsible for loss of the FRC network. To test this hypothesis, we assessed the consequences of antibody-mediated depletion of CD4 and CD8 T cells in rhesus macaques and sooty mangabeys. We found that only CD4 T-cell depletion resulted in FRC loss in both species and that this loss was caused by decreased lymphotoxin-β mainly produced by the CD4 T cells. We further found the same dependence of the FRC network on CD4 T cells in HIV-1-infected patients before and after antiretroviral therapy and in other immunodeficiency conditions, such as CD4 depletion in cancer patients induced by chemotherapy and irradiation. CD4 T cells thus play a central role in the maintenance of lymphoid tissue structure necessary for their own homeostasis and reconstitution.

  2. Gel-Trapped Lymphorganogenic Chemokines Trigger Artificial Tertiary Lymphoid Organs and Mount Adaptive Immune Responses In Vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Yuka; Watanabe, Takeshi

    2016-01-01

    We previously generated artificial lymph node-like tertiary lymphoid organs (artTLOs) in mice using lymphotoxin α-expressing stromal cells. Here, we show the construction of transplantable and functional artTLOs by applying soluble factors trapped in slow-releasing gels in the absence of lymphoid tissue organizer stromal cells. The resultant artTLOs were easily removable, transplantable, and were capable of attracting memory B and T cells. Importantly, artTLOs induced a powerful antigen-specific secondary immune response, which was particularly pronounced in immune-compromised hosts. Synthesis of functionally stable immune tissues/organs like those described here may be a first step to eventually develop immune system-based therapeutics. Although much needs to be learned from the precise mechanisms of action, they may offer ways in the future to reestablish immune functions to overcome hitherto untreatable diseases, including severe infection, cancer, autoimmune diseases, and various forms of immune deficiencies, including immune-senescence during aging.

  3. Metabolic and physiologic studies of nonimmune lymphoid cells cytotoxic for fibroblastic cells in vitro

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mayhew, E.; Bennett, M.

    1974-01-01

    An in vitro reaction between mouse lymphoid cells and target fibroblastic cells in wells of microtest plates, which appears to simulate the in vivo rejection of hemopoietic allografts, has been analyzed for metabolic and physiologic requirements. Protein synthesis was required for only the first few hours of culture. Inhibition of RNA synthesis and alteration of cell surface charge with various agents were without obvious effects. Metabolic slowing at 4 0 C or deviation of the pH of the culture medium suppressed the reaction. Thymus cells, which are not cytotoxic in this system, significantly but not completely inhibited the cytotoxicity of lymph node cells. Antiserum directed against target cells specifically protected them from the cytotoxic lymphoid cells in the absence of complement. Precursors of cytotoxic lymphoid cells were radiosensitive, unlike the cytotoxic cells themselves. BALB/c anti-C57BL/6 spleen cell serum and 89 Sr both are able to prevent rejection of marrow allografts in vivo. Lymphoid cells incubated with this antiserum plus complement lost much of their cytotoxicity but were still effective at high ratios of aggressor to target cells. Lymphoid cells of mice treated with 89 Sr were effectively cytotoxic but lost practically all of their cytotoxicity after incubation with the antiserum plus complement. Thus, it appears that this reaction detects two different cytotoxic lymphoid cells, either of which can function in vitro. Both cell types may need to cooperate in vivo during marrow allograft rejections

  4. A Stromal Cell Niche for Human and Mouse Type 3 Innate Lymphoid Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoorweg, Kerim; Narang, Priyanka; Li, Zhi; Thuery, Anne; Papazian, Natalie; Withers, David R; Coles, Mark C; Cupedo, Tom

    2015-11-01

    Adaptive immunity critically depends on the functional compartmentalization of secondary lymphoid organs. Mesenchymal stromal cells create and maintain specialized niches that support survival, activation, and expansion of T and B cells, and integrated analysis of lymphocytes and their niche has been instrumental in understanding adaptive immunity. Lymphoid organs are also home to type 3 innate lymphoid cells (ILC3), innate effector cells essential for barrier immunity. However, a specialized stromal niche for ILC3 has not been identified. A novel lineage-tracing approach now identifies a subset of murine fetal lymphoid tissue organizer cells that gives rise exclusively to adult marginal reticular cells. Moreover, both cell types are conserved from mice to humans and colocalize with ILC3 in secondary lymphoid tissues throughout life. In sum, we provide evidence that fetal stromal organizers give rise to adult marginal reticular cells and form a dedicated stromal niche for innate ILC3 in adaptive lymphoid organs. Copyright © 2015 by The American Association of Immunologists, Inc.

  5. Flt3 Ligand Regulates the Development of Innate Lymphoid Cells in Fetal and Adult Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baerenwaldt, Anne; von Burg, Nicole; Kreuzaler, Matthias; Sitte, Selina; Horvath, Edit; Peter, Annick; Voehringer, David; Rolink, Antonius G; Finke, Daniela

    2016-03-15

    Flt3 ligand (Flt3L) promotes survival of lymphoid progenitors in the bone marrow and differentiation of dendritic cells (DCs), but its role in regulating innate lymphoid cells (ILCs) during fetal and adult life is not understood. By using Flt3L knockout and transgenic mice, we demonstrate that Flt3L controls ILC numbers by regulating the pool of α4β7(-) and α4β7(+) lymphoid tissue inducer cell progenitors in the fetal liver and common lymphoid progenitors in the bone marrow. Deletion of flt3l severely reduced the number of fetal liver progenitors and lymphoid tissue inducer cells in the neonatal intestine, resulting in impaired development of Peyer's patches. In the adult intestine, NK cells and group 2 and 3 ILCs were severely reduced. This effect occurred independently of DCs as ILC numbers were normal in mice in which DCs were constitutively deleted. Finally, we could show that administration of Flt3L increased the number of NKp46(-) group 3 ILCs in wild-type and even in Il7(-/-) mice, which generally have reduced numbers of ILCs. Taken together, Flt3L significantly contributes to ILC and Peyer's patches development by targeting lymphoid progenitor cells during fetal and adult life. Copyright © 2016 by The American Association of Immunologists, Inc.

  6. Functional Differences between Human NKp44(-) and NKp44(+) RORC(+) Innate Lymphoid Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoorweg, Kerim; Peters, Charlotte P; Cornelissen, Ferry; Aparicio-Domingo, Patricia; Papazian, Natalie; Kazemier, Geert; Mjösberg, Jenny M; Spits, Hergen; Cupedo, Tom

    2012-01-01

    Human RORC(+) lymphoid tissue inducer cells are part of a rapidly expanding family of innate lymphoid cells (ILC) that participate in innate and adaptive immune responses as well as in lymphoid tissue (re) modeling. The assessment of a potential role for innate lymphocyte-derived cytokines in human homeostasis and disease is hampered by a poor characterization of RORC(+) innate cell subsets and a lack of knowledge on the distribution of these cells in adults. Here we show that functionally distinct subsets of human RORC(+) innate lymphoid cells are enriched for secretion of IL-17a or IL-22. Both subsets have an activated phenotype and can be distinguished based on the presence or absence of the natural cytotoxicity receptor NKp44. NKp44(+) IL-22 producing cells are present in tonsils while NKp44(-) IL-17a producing cells are present in fetal developing lymph nodes. Development of human intestinal NKp44(+) ILC is a programmed event that is independent of bacterial colonization and these cells colonize the fetal intestine during the first trimester. In the adult intestine, NKp44(+) ILC are the main ILC subset producing IL-22. NKp44(-) ILC remain present throughout adulthood in peripheral non-inflamed lymph nodes as resting, non-cytokine producing cells. However, upon stimulation lymph node ILC can swiftly initiate cytokine transcription suggesting that secondary human lymphoid organs may function as a reservoir for innate lymphoid cells capable of participating in inflammatory responses.

  7. Immunophenotype of cells within cervine rectoanal mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue and mesenteric lymph nodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dagleish, M P; Finlayson, J; Steele, P J; Pang, Y; Hamilton, S; Eaton, S L; Sales, J; González, L; Chianini, F

    2012-05-01

    Rectoanal mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (RAMALT) is a part of the lymphoid system that can be sampled easily in live animals, especially ruminants. RAMALT biopsy is useful for the diagnosis of transmissible spongiform encephalopathies, including scrapie in sheep and goats and chronic wasting disease (CWD) in cervids. Diagnosis is reliant on detection of abnormal prion protein (PrP(d)), which is associated with lymphoid follicles. For enzyme linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs) detecting PrP(d) it is necessary to ensure that lymphoid follicles are present in biopsy samples to avoid false-negative results. Monoclonal antibodies known to recognize specific immune cell subsets present in lymphoid tissues of sheep were tested for cross-reactivity with cervine RAMALT and mesenteric lymph nodes (MLNs) preserved in zinc salts fixative. The distribution of cells expressing CD3, CD4, CD79, CD21 and class II molecules of the major histocompatibility complex was determined in these tissues. Cells of each immunophenotype had similar distributions in RAMALT and MLNs and these distributions were similar to those reported previously for sheep and cattle. The identification and validation of cervine lymphoid follicle cell markers (CD79 and CD21) may allow reduction in false-negative results during diagnosis of CWD by ELISA. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Tertiary Lymphoid Structures in Cancer: Drivers of Antitumor Immunity, Immunosuppression, or Bystander Sentinels in Disease?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colbeck, Emily Jayne; Ager, Ann; Gallimore, Awen; Jones, Gareth Wyn

    2017-01-01

    Secondary lymphoid organs are integral to initiation and execution of adaptive immune responses. These organs provide a setting for interactions between antigen-specific lymphocytes and antigen-presenting cells recruited from local infected or inflamed tissues. Secondary lymphoid organs develop as a part of a genetically preprogrammed process during embryogenesis. However, organogenesis of secondary lymphoid tissues can also be recapitulated in adulthood during de novo lymphoid neogenesis of tertiary lymphoid structures (TLSs). These ectopic lymphoid-like structures form in the inflamed tissues afflicted by various pathological conditions, including cancer, autoimmunity, infection, or allograft rejection. Studies are beginning to shed light on the function of such structures in different disease settings, raising important questions regarding their contribution to progression or resolution of disease. Data show an association between the tumor-associated TLSs and a favorable prognosis in various types of human cancer, attracting the speculation that TLSs support effective local antitumor immune responses. However, definitive evidence for the role for TLSs in fostering immune responses in vivo are lacking, with current data remaining largely correlative by nature. In fact, some more recent studies have even demonstrated an immunosuppressive, tumor-promoting role for cancer-associated TLSs. In this review, we will discuss what is known about the development of cancer-associated TLSs and the current understanding of their potential role in the antitumor immune response. PMID:29312327

  9. Differentiation of the lateral compartment of the cochlea requires a temporally restricted FGF20 signal.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sung-Ho Huh

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A large proportion of age-related hearing loss is caused by loss or damage to outer hair cells in the organ of Corti. The organ of Corti is the mechanosensory transducing apparatus in the inner ear and is composed of inner hair cells, outer hair cells, and highly specialized supporting cells. The mechanisms that regulate differentiation of inner and outer hair cells are not known. Here we report that fibroblast growth factor 20 (FGF20 is required for differentiation of cells in the lateral cochlear compartment (outer hair and supporting cells within the organ of Corti during a specific developmental time. In the absence of FGF20, mice are deaf and lateral compartment cells remain undifferentiated, postmitotic, and unresponsive to Notch-dependent lateral inhibition. These studies identify developmentally distinct medial (inner hair and supporting cells and lateral compartments in the developing organ of Corti. The viability and hearing loss in Fgf20 knockout mice suggest that FGF20 may also be a deafness-associated gene in humans.

  10. Treatment of experimental myasthenia gravis with total lymphoid irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    de Silva, S.; Blum, J.E.; McIntosh, K.R.; Order, S.; Drachman, D.B.

    1988-01-01

    Total lymphoid irradiation (TLI) has been reported to be effective in the immunosuppressive treatment of certain human and experimental autoimmune disorders. We have investigated the effects of TLI in Lewis rats with experimental autoimmune myasthenia gravis (EAMG) produced by immunization with purified torpedo acetylcholine receptor (AChR). The radiation is given in 17 divided fractions of 200 rad each, and nonlymphoid tissues are protected by lead shielding. This technique suppresses the immune system, while minimizing side effects, and permits the repopulation of the immune system by the patient's own bone marrow cells. Our results show that TLI treatment completely prevented the primary antibody response to immunization with torpedo AChR, it rapidly abolished the ongoing antibody response in established EAMG, and it suppressed the secondary (anamnestic) response to a boost of AChR. No EAMG animals died during TLI treatment, compared with six control animals that died of EAMG. TLI produces powerful and prompt immunosuppression and may eventually prove useful in the treatment of refractory human myasthenia gravis

  11. Clinical drawbacks of total lymphoid irradiation: the cons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Myers, L.W.; Ellison, G.W.; Fahey, J.L.; Tesler, A.; Gottlieb, M.S.

    1988-01-01

    Success has been reported with use of total lymphoid irradiation (TLI) in organ transplant recipients and in patients with rheumatoid arthritis and other autoimmune diseases. In a well-conducted randomized double blind clinical trial, Cook et al have found that TLI was superior to sham irradiation of patients with multiple sclerosis (MS). However, it is clear from looking at this data that not all patients responded to TLI and that with time disease activity returned. Our own experience with TLI in two MS patients was very disappointing. Despite its apparent benefit in some conditions, considerable drawbacks are associated with TLI. These include high financial cost, unpleasant treatment-related side effects, and the possibility that more serious morbidity as well as mortality may be treatment-related. Furthermore, the optimum therapeutic regimen for TLI has not yet been established. Issues related to cumulative dose, dose per fraction, frequency of fractions, field of irradiation, and interaction with other therapies still need clarification. For these reasons we do not recommend TLI as a treatment for MS

  12. Role of innate lymphoid cells in obesity and metabolic disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saetang, Jirakrit; Sangkhathat, Surasak

    2018-01-01

    The immune system has previously been demonstrated to be associated with the pathophysiological development of metabolic abnormalities. However, the mechanisms linking immunity to metabolic disease remain to be fully elucidated. It has previously been suggested that innate lymphoid cells (ILCs) may be involved in the progression of numerous types of metabolic diseases as these cells act as suppressors and promoters for obesity and associated conditions, and are particularly involved in adipose tissue inflammation, which is a major feature of metabolic imbalance. Group 2 ILCs (ILC2s) have been revealed as anti-obese immune regulators by secreting anti-inflammatory cytokines and promoting the polarization of M2 macrophages, whereas group 1 ILCs (ILC1s), including natural killer cells, may promote adipose tissue inflammation via production of interferon-γ, which in turn polarizes macrophages toward the M1 type. The majority of studies to date have demonstrated the pathological association between ILCs and obesity in the context of adipose tissue inflammation, whereas the roles of ILCs in other organs which participate in obesity development have not been fully characterized. Therefore, identifying the roles of all types of ILCs as central components mediating obesity-associated inflammation, is of primary concern, and may lead to the discovery of novel preventative and therapeutic interventions. PMID:29138853

  13. Kidney allograft survival in dogs treated with total lymphoid irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Howard, R.J.; Sutherland, D.E.R.; Lum, C.T.; Lewis, W.I.; Kim, T.H.; Slavin, S.; Najarian, J.S.

    1981-01-01

    Total lymphoid irradiation (TLI) is immunosuppressive and, in rodents, can induce a state where transplantation of allogenic bone marrow results in chimerism and permanent acceptance of organ allografts from the donor strain. Twelve splenectomized dogs were treated with TLI (150 rads per fraction, total dose 1950 to 3000 rads) before bilateral nephrectomy and renal allotransplantation. Eight dogs received bone marrow from the kidney donor. In 13 untreated control dogs renal allografts functioned for a mean +- (SE) of 4.7 +- 0.3 days. In the four TLI treated dogs who did not receive bone marrow the renal allografts functioned for 15 to 76 days (two dogs died with functioning grafts). In the eight TLI treated dogs who received donor bone marrow, two died immediately after transplantation, two rejected at 3 and 13 days, one died at 13 days with a functioning graft, and two have had the grafts function for longer than 500 days. Chimerism was not detected in the one dog tested. The response of peripheral blood lymphocytes to stimulation with phytohemaglutinin and in mixed lymphocyte culture was suppressed for at least one month after TLI. The results confirm the immunosuppressive effect of TLI. The absence of kidney rejection in two recipients of donor bone marrow show the potential of this approach to induce long-term immunologic unresponsiveness as to an organ allograft, but the outcome is unpredictable and further experiments are needed to define the optimal conditions for administration of TLI and bone marrow to the recipients

  14. Treatment of experimental myasthenia gravis with total lymphoid irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    de Silva, S.; Blum, J.E.; McIntosh, K.R.; Order, S.; Drachman, D.B.

    1988-07-01

    Total lymphoid irradiation (TLI) has been reported to be effective in the immunosuppressive treatment of certain human and experimental autoimmune disorders. We have investigated the effects of TLI in Lewis rats with experimental autoimmune myasthenia gravis (EAMG) produced by immunization with purified torpedo acetylcholine receptor (AChR). The radiation is given in 17 divided fractions of 200 rad each, and nonlymphoid tissues are protected by lead shielding. This technique suppresses the immune system, while minimizing side effects, and permits the repopulation of the immune system by the patient's own bone marrow cells. Our results show that TLI treatment completely prevented the primary antibody response to immunization with torpedo AChR, it rapidly abolished the ongoing antibody response in established EAMG, and it suppressed the secondary (anamnestic) response to a boost of AChR. No EAMG animals died during TLI treatment, compared with six control animals that died of EAMG. TLI produces powerful and prompt immunosuppression and may eventually prove useful in the treatment of refractory human myasthenia gravis.

  15. CT appearances of mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) lymphoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kessar, P.; Norton, A.; Rohatiner, A.Z.S.; Lister, T.A.; Reznek, R.H.

    1999-01-01

    Mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) lymphoma is a low-grade lymphoma that differs from high-grade non-Hodgkin lymphoma both clinically and histologically. The CT appearances of MALT lymphoma are described. Of 40 patients referred with biopsy-proven MALT lymphoma, only seven had not had gastrectomy or chemotherapy prior to CT examination. The CT scans of these seven cases were analysed for the degree and extent of gastric wall thickening, enlargement of abdominal and extra-abdominal lymph nodes, and presence of extranodal disease. In all patients the stomach was distended with oral contrast medium and scans performed at narrow collimation, after intravenous administration of 20 mg hyoscine butylbromide. In six patients focal thickening of the gastric wall was 1 cm or less. One patient had thickening of over 4 cm. There was no enlargement of abdominal or extra-abdominal lymph nodes or extension to adjacent organs. Thus on CT, at presentation, MALT lymphoma results in minimal gastric wall thickening, unlike high-grade non-Hodgkin lymphoma, which typically causes bulky gastric disease, nodal enlargement and extension into adjacent organs. CT is therefore of limited value in monitoring response to treatment. With disease greater than minimal thickening, transformation to a higher grade should be considered. (orig.)

  16. Gut-associated Lymphoid Tissue (GALT) Carcinoma in Ulcerative Colitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubio, Carlos A; DE Petris, Giovanni; Puppa, Giacomo

    2018-02-01

    In ulcerative colitis (UC), the majority of colorectal carcinomas (CRC) arise in the vast colorectal mucosal domain built with mucus-producing goblet cells and columnar cells. Conversely, CRC in UC rarely evolve in the tiny, spotty gut-associated lymphoid tissue (GALT) mucosal domain. Here we review the four reported cases of colonic carcinoma developing in GALT mucosa in UC, searching for possible precursor lesions connected with the evolution of these tumours. The clinical history, age, gender, endoscopic descriptions, and the pathology (localization, gross and histological descriptions of the luminal surface) of the four UC-GALT carcinomas reported in the literature were reviewed. The luminal surface in three out of the four carcinomas revealed conventional (tubular/villous) adenomas or high-grade dysplasia. All four UC-GALT-carcinomas were detected at an early stage (T1N0). GALT carcinomas do occur, albeit infrequently, in patients with UC. The finding that three out of the four GALT carcinomas on record were covered by conventional adenomas or by high-grade dysplasia strongly suggests that non-invasive conventional neoplasias might often precede GALT carcinomas in UC. Copyright© 2018, International Institute of Anticancer Research (Dr. George J. Delinasios), All rights reserved.

  17. CT findings of pulmonary mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Weidong; Guan Yubao; Li Chuanxing; Wu Peihong

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To study the CT findings of pulmonary mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) lymphoma. Methods: The CT examinations of 12 patients with pathologically proven pulmonary MALT lymphoma were reviewed retrospectively. Evaluated imaging findings included number, distribution, shape, attenuation and other associated findings of each lesion were evaluated. Results: Thirty-two pulmonary lesions, including consolidations, masses, nodules and lesions with ground glass attenuation, were identified in 12 patients. Multiple lesions were founded in 10 of 12 patients and solitary lesion in 2 patients. Multiple lesions found in one lung in 2 patients, and multiple lesions found in both lungs in 8 patients. Ten cases demonstrated 21 consolidation lesions with air bronchogram, and one of the ten cases demonstrated two lesions with airway dilatation. Three cases demonstrated 5 masses or nodular lesions, 3 of these 5 lesions showed air bronchogram. Two cases demonstrated 6 ground glass attenuation lesions. One case showed mediastinal and hilar lymphadenopathy. Conclusion: Pulmonary MALT lymphoma usually appears as multiple bilateral consolidations, masses, nodules with air bronchogram or lesions with ground- glass attenuation at CT imaging. The imaging findings described above and with an indolent clinical course may suggest the diagnosis of pulmonary MALT lymphoma. (authors)

  18. Innate lymphoid cells and their role in immune response regulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bibiana Patricia Ruiz-Sánchez

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Innate lymphoid cells (ILCs are lymphocytes lacking antigen recognition receptors and become activated in response to cytokines and through microbe-associated molecular pattern (MAMP receptors. ILCs are found mainly in mucosal tissues and participate in the immune response against infections and in chronic inflammatory conditions. ILCs are divided in ILC-1, ILC-2 and ILC-3, and these cells have analogue functions to those of immune adaptive response lymphocytes Th1, Th2 and Th17. ILC-1 express T-bet, produce IFNγ, protect against infections with intracellular microorganisms and are related to inflammatory bowel disease immunopathology. ILC-2 express GATA3, produce IL-4, IL-5, IL-13 and amphiregulin, protect against parasitic infections and related to allergy and obesity immunopathology. ILC-3 express ROR(γt, produce IL-17 and IL-22, protect against fungal infections and contribute to tolerance to intestinal microbiota and intestinal repair. They are related to inflammatory bowel disease and psoriasis immunopathology. In general terms, ILCs maintain homeostasis and coadjuvate in the protection against infections.

  19. EVALUATION OF CYTOKINE GENE POLYMORPHISM IN B CELL LYMPHOID MALIGNANCIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. L. Nazarova

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Previous studies with some solid tumors has shown that polymorphisms of certain cytokine genes may be used as predictors of clinical outcome in the patients. It seemed important to evaluate potential correlations between production of certain pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines and co-receptor molecules, and promoter polymorphism of the cytokine genes involved into regulation of cell proliferation, differentiation, apoptosis, lipid metabolism and blood clotting in the patients with hematological malignancies. The article contains our results concerning associations between of IL-1β, -2, -4, -10, -17, TNFα, and allelic polymorphisms of their genes in 62 patients with B cell lymphoid malignancies in an ethnically homogenous group (self-identified as Russians. We have shown that the GА and AA genotypes of the G-308A polymorphism in TNFα gene are significantly associated with increased production of this cytokine, being more common in aggressive non-Hodgkin lymphomas, more rare in multiple myeloma and in indolent non-Hodgkin lymphomas.

  20. Tertiary Lymphoid Organs in Central Nervous System Autoimmunity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meike Mitsdoerffer

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Multiple sclerosis (MS is an autoimmune disease characterized by chronic inflammation in the central nervous system (CNS, which results in permanent neuronal damage and substantial disability in patients. Autoreactive T cells are important drivers of the disease, however, the efficacy of B cell depleting therapies uncovered an essential role for B cells in disease pathogenesis. They can contribute to inflammatory processes via presentation of autoantigen, secretion of pro-inflammatory cytokines and production of pathogenic antibodies. Recently, B cell aggregates reminiscent of tertiary lymphoid organs (TLOs were discovered in the meninges of MS patients, leading to the hypothesis that differentiation and maturation of autopathogenic B and T cells may partly occur inside the CNS. Since these structures were associated with a more severe disease course, it is extremely important to gain insight into the mechanism of induction, their precise function and clinical significance. Mechanistic studies in patiens are limited. However, a few studies in the MS animal model experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE recapitulate TLO formation in the CNS and provide new insight into CNS TLO features, formation and function. This review summarizes what we know so far about CNS TLOs in MS and what we have learned about them from EAE models. It also highlights the areas that are in need of further experimental work, as we are just beginning to understand and evaluate the phenomenon of CNS TLOs.

  1. ACTIVATION MECHANISMS OF GUT-ASSOCIATED LYMPHOID TISSUE UNDER CHRONIC SOCIAL STRESS CONDITIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. M. Kamyshnyi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Stress-induced immune disregulation is a risk factor of autoimmune and inflammatory diseases, but, so far, the mechanisms for this effect are not fully known. Expression levels of specific mRNAs were assessed in gut-associated lymphoid tissue (GALT from Wistar rats subjected to chronic social stress (CSS. Gene expression was evaluated for NR3C1, Adrβ2, as well as IL-1β, IL-17α pro-inflammatory cytokines, and Nlrp, an inflammasome gene. Under the CSS conditions, we have shown altered distribution of RORγt +, FoxP3+, LMP2+, XBP1+ lymphocytes in GALT.The experiments were carried out with female Wistar rats aged 5–6 months. Specific mRNA expression for the target genes was determined by means of real-time PCR performed in a CFX96™ thermocycler («BioRadLaboratories, Inc»,USA. Relative levels of a target gene expression were quantified by the ΔΔCt method, being compared with rat GAPDH reference gene expression. Statistical analysis was performed with available «BioRad СFX Manager 3.1» software. Specific monoclonal rat antibodes were used for detection of immunopositive lymphocytes by means of indirect immunofluorescence technique.CSS development leads to decreased levels of mRNA expression for Nr3c1 and Adrβ2-genes in the GALT cells, being accompanied with unidirectional changes, i.e., increased transcription of pro-inflammatory cytokine mRNAs (IL-1β, IL-17α and Nlrp3-inflammasome genes. These changes are accompanied by decreased FoxP3+/RORγt + cell ratio and predominant Th17 differentiation accompanied by suppressor failure. In addition, CSS development was characterized by unidirectional tendency for increasing total number of LMP2+ lymphocytes and reduced ХВР1+ cell population density in lymphoid structures of rat ileum.The events observed in GALT cell populations under CSS conditions are opposing classical paradigm of the stress response. The CSS-associated effects do not promote immunosuppression, however, are able to cause

  2. Ectopic lymphoid tissues support local immunoglobulin production in patients with chronic rhinosinusitis with nasal polyps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Jia; Wang, Hai; Zhang, Ya-Na; Cao, Ping-Ping; Liao, Bo; Wang, Zhe-Zheng; Shi, Li-Li; Yao, Yin; Zhai, Guan-Ting; Wang, Zhi-Chao; Liu, Li-Meng; Zeng, Ming; Lu, Xiang; Wang, Heng; Yang, Xiang-Ping; Yu, Di; Bachert, Claus; Liu, Zheng

    2018-03-01

    The contribution of ectopic lymphoid tissues (eLTs) to local immunoglobulin hyperproduction in patients with chronic rhinosinusitis with nasal polyps (CRSwNP) is unclear. We sought to explore the cellular basis, formation mechanisms, and function of eLTs in patients with CRSwNP. We graded lymphoid aggregations in sinonasal mucosa and histologically studied their structures. The expression of lymphorganogenic factors and molecules required for immunoglobulin production was measured by using real-time PCR, and their localization was analyzed by means of immunohistochemistry and immunofluorescence. The phenotype of follicular helper T cells was analyzed by performing flow cytometry. Immunoglobulin levels were quantified by using the Bio-Plex assay or ImmunoCAP system. Nasal tissue explants were challenged ex vivo with Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus group 1 (Der p 1), and the expression of Iε-Cμ and Iε-Cγ circle transcripts was detected by using seminested PCR. Increased formation of eLTs with germinal center-like structures was discovered in patients with eosinophilic (20.69%) and noneosinophilic (17.31%) CRSwNP compared with that in patients with chronic rhinosinusitis without nasal polyps (5.66%) and control subjects (3.70%). The presence of eLTs was associated with increased expression of lymphorganogenic and inflammatory chemokines and cytokines, as well as their receptors. The expression of molecules required for immunoglobulin production, generation of follicular helper T cells, and production of IgE in eosinophilic polyps and IgG and IgA in both eosinophilic and noneosinophilic polyps were predominantly upregulated in patients with eLTs. After Der p 1 challenge ex vivo, Iε-Cμ transcript was detected only in eosinophilic polyps with eLTs but not in polyps without eLTs and noneosinophilic polyps. eLTs might support local immunoglobulin production and therefore significantly contribute to the development of CRSwNP. Copyright © 2017 American Academy of

  3. Microbiological characterization of deep geological compartments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barsotti, V.; Sergeant, C.; Vesvres, M.H.; Coulon, S.; Joulian, C.; Garrido, F.; Ollivier, B.

    2012-01-01

    Document available in extended abstract form only. Microbial life in deep sediments and Earth's crust is now acknowledged by the scientific world. The deep subsurface biosphere contributes significantly to fundamental biogeochemical processes. However, despite great advances in geo-microbiological studies, deep terrestrial ecosystems are microbiologically poorly understood, mainly due to their inaccessibility. The drilling down to the base of the Triassic (1980 meters deep) in the geological formations of the eastern Paris Basin performed by ANDRA (EST433) in 2008 provides us a good opportunity to explore the deep biosphere. We conditioned the samples on the coring site, in as aseptic conditions as possible. In addition to storage at atmospheric pressure, a portion of the four Triassic samples was placed in a 190 bars pressurized chamber to investigate the influence of the conservation pressure factor on the found microflora. In parallel, in order to evaluate a potential bacterial contamination of the cores by the drilling fluids, samples of mud just before each sample drilling were taken and analyzed. The microbial exploration can be divided in two parts: - A cultural approach in different culture media for metabolic groups as methanogens, fermenters and sulphate reducing bacteria to stimulate their growth and to isolate microbial cells still viable. - A molecular approach by direct extraction of genomic DNA from the geological samples to explore a larger biodiversity. The limits are here the difficulties to extract DNA from these low biomass containing rocks. After comparison and optimization of several DNA extraction methods, the bacterial diversity present in rock cores was analyzed using DGGE (Denaturating Gel Gradient Electrophoresis) and cloning. The detailed results of all these investigations will be presented: - Despite all 400 cultural conditions experimented (with various media, salinities, temperatures, conservation pressure, agitation), no viable and

  4. Well-leg compartment syndrome after gynecological laparoscopic surgery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boesgaard-Kjer, Diana H; Boesgaard-Kjer, Daniel; Kjer, Jens Jørgen

    2013-01-01

    Well-leg compartment syndrome in the lower extremities after surgery in the lithotomy position is a rare but severe complication requiring early diagnosis and intervention. Several circumstances predispose to this condition as a consequence of increased intra-compartmental pressure, such as posit...

  5. Compartment specific importance of glutathione during abiotic and biotic stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernd eZechmann

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The tripeptide thiol glutathione (γ-L-glutamyl-L-cysteinyl-glycine is the most important sulfur containing antioxidant in plants and essential for plant defense against abiotic and biotic stress conditions. It is involved in the detoxification of reactive oxygen species, redox signaling, the modulation of defense gene expression and important for the regulation of enzymatic activities. Even though changes in glutathione contents are well documented in plants and its roles in plant defense are well established, still too little is known about its compartment specific importance during abiotic and biotic stress conditions. Due to technical advances in the visualization of glutathione and the redox state of plants through microscopical methods some progress was made in the last few years in studying the importance of subcellular glutathione contents during stress conditions in plants. This review summarizes the data available on compartment specific importance of glutathione in the protection against abiotic and biotic stress conditions such as high light stress, exposure to cadmium, drought, and pathogen attack (Pseudomonas, Botrytis, Tobacco Mosaic Virus. The data will be discussed in connection with the subcellular accumulation of ROS during these conditions and glutathione synthesis which are both highly compartment specific (e.g. glutathione synthesis takes place in chloroplasts and the cytosol. Thus this review will reveal the compartment specific importance of glutathione during abiotic and biotic stress conditions.

  6. Talofibular compartment of the ankle joint after recent ankle sprain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lindstrand, A.; Mortensson, W.; Norman, O.

    1978-01-01

    The validity of predicting the condition of the anterior talofibular ligament from the shape of the lateral compartment of the ankle joint was investigated in patients with recent ankle sprain. The diagnostic value of the method was found to be restricted. (Auth.)

  7. Volume of the effect compartment in simulations of neuromuscular block

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nigrovic, Vladimir; Proost, Johannes H.; Amann, Anton; Bhatt, Shashi B.

    2005-01-01

    Background: The study examines the role of the volume of the effect compartment in simulations of neuromuscular block (NMB) produced by nondepolarizing muscle relaxants. Methods: The molar amount of the postsynaptic receptors at the motor end plates in muscle was assumed constant; the apparent

  8. A wolf in wolf's clothing the abdominal compartment syndrome

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    abdomen. These findings are consistent with the diagnosis of intra-abdominal compartment syndrome. In 1 case trauma was remote from the abdomen .... although they tend to develop most often in those who have undergone major vascular operations or suffered abdominal trauma. The effects of the pressure on the bowel ...

  9. "Compartment"-syndrom på underben, atypisk traumemekanisme

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Michael H; Nielsen, Henrik Toft; Wester, Jens Ulrik

    2003-01-01

    Acute compartment syndrome (CS) is a limb threatening condition which warrants emergency treatment. We describe a case of a 37-year-old man with acute CS developed without major trauma. Early diagnosis and prompt treatment by decompressive fasciotomy is of vital importance in order to preserve limb...

  10. Surgical treatment for ~brain compartment syndrome' in children ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objectives. Traumatic brain injury accounts for a high percentage of deaths in children. Raised intracranial pressure (ICP) due to brain swelling within the closed compartment of the skull leads to death or severe neurological disability if not effectively treated. We report our experience with 12 children who presented with ...

  11. Intraabdominal Compartment Syndrome Complicating Transurethral Resection of Bladder Tumor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sachin Narain

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abdominal compartment syndrome can result from many different causes. We present a case where this dangerous syndrome occurred in the operating room during a transurethral resection of a bladder tumor. It was initially recognized by an elevation in the peak inspiratory pressure. We report the typical physiologic changes that occur with this syndrome and its treatment options.

  12. The anammoxosome: an intracytoplasmic compartment in anammox bacteria

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Niftrik, L.A.M.P. van; Fuerst, J.A.; Damste, J.S.S.; Kuenen, J.G.; Jetten, M.S.M.; Strous, M.

    2004-01-01

    Anammox bacteria belong to the phylum Planctomycetes and perform anaerobic ammonium oxidation (anammox); they oxidize ammonium with nitrite as the electron acceptor to yield dinitrogen gas. The anammox reaction takes place inside the anammoxosome: an intracytoplasmic compartment bounded by a single

  13. The anammoxosome : An intracytoplasmic compartment in anammox bacteria

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sinninghe Damsté, J.S.; Niftrik, L.A. van; Fuerst, J.A.; Kuenen, J.G.; Jetten, M.S.M.; Strous, M.

    2004-01-01

    Anammox bacteria belong to the phylum Planctomycetes and perform anaerobic ammonium oxidation (anammox); they oxidize ammonium with nitrite as the electron acceptor to yield dinitrogen gas. The anammox reaction takes place inside the anammoxosome: an intracytoplasmic compartment bounded by a single

  14. Compartment syndrome and popliteal vascular injury complicating unicompartmental knee arthroplasty

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kort, Nanne Pieter; Van Raay, Jos J. J. A. M.; van Horn, Jim R.

    Popliteal vascular injury and the compartment syndrome of the leg are rare but important complications of knee arthroplasties. Early diagnosis and treatment are of paramount importance in preventing the devastating complications of these conditions. To our knowledge, these complications have not

  15. Two-Compartment Pharmacokinetic Models for Chemical Engineers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanneganti, Kumud; Simon, Laurent

    2011-01-01

    The transport of potassium permanganate between two continuous-stirred vessels was investigated to help chemical and biomedical engineering students understand two-compartment pharmacokinetic models. Concepts of modeling, mass balance, parameter estimation and Laplace transform were applied to the two-unit process. A good agreement was achieved…

  16. 14 CFR 121.314 - Cargo and baggage compartments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ...: (a) Each Class C or Class D compartment, as defined in § 25.857 of this Chapter in effect on June 16, 1986 (see Appendix L to this part), that is greater than 200 cubic feet in volume must have ceiling and sidewall liner panels which are constructed of: (1) Glass fiber reinforced resin; (2) Materials which meet...

  17. Ward Round - Late Presentation of Acute Compartment Syndrome in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    following the course of ibuprofen mentioned. Twelve days after admission he started to complain of increasing pain and tightness in his left thigh. Sensation and motor function. Ward Round - Late Presentation of Acute. Compartment Syndrome in the Thigh. University of Malawi, College of Medicine, Department of Surgery,.

  18. Prevalence of Helicobacter pylori and risk factors among dyspepsia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    unhcc

    It is also an important risk factor for the development of gastric cancer and mucosal associated lymphoid tissue. (MALT) lymphoma. ..... dyspepsia, methodological weaknesses, including low ... In the current finding, a significant association was.

  19. Autologous Chondrocyte Implantation for Bipolar Chondral Lesions in the Tibiofemoral Compartment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogura, Takahiro; Bryant, Tim; Mosier, Brian A; Minas, Tom

    2018-05-01

    knee arthroplasty at a mean of 4.4 years. Two patients underwent revision ACI at 5 and 17 months. The other 1 patient did not require revision surgery. Our study showed that ACI for the treatment of bipolar chondral lesions in the TF compartment provided successful clinical outcomes in patients with retained grafts and possibly prevented or delayed osteoarthritis progression at midterm to long-term follow-up. A collagen membrane is more encouraging than periosteum for bipolar lesions in the TF compartment. While addressing the predisposing factors affecting cartilage repair, ACI could be an adequate salvage procedure for bipolar chondral lesions in the TF compartment for the relatively young arthritic patient who wishes to avoid arthroplasty.

  20. Innate lymphoid cells: models of plasticity for immune homeostasis and rapid responsiveness in protection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almeida, F F; Belz, G T

    2016-09-01

    Innate lymphoid cells (ILCs) have stormed onto the immune landscape as "newly discovered" cell types. These tissue-resident sentinels are enriched at mucosal surfaces and engage in complex cross talk with elements of the adaptive immune system and microenvironment to orchestrate immune homeostasis. Many parallels exist between innate cells and T cells leading to the initial partitioning of ILCs into rather rigid subsets that reflect their "adaptive-like" effector cytokines profiles. ILCs themselves, however, have unique attributes that are only just beginning to be elucidated. These features result in complementarity with, rather than complete duplication of, functions of the adaptive immune system. Key transcription factors determine the pathway of differentiation of progenitors towards an ILC1, ILC2, or ILC3 subset. Once formed, flexibility in the responses of these subsets to stimuli unexpectedly allows transdifferentation between the different subsets and the acquisition of altered phenotypes and function. This provides a mechanism for rapid innate immune responsiveness. Here, we discuss the models of differentiation for maintenance and activation of tissue-resident ILCs in maintaining immune homeostasis and protection.

  1. Control of epithelial cell function by interleukin-22-producing RORγt+ innate lymphoid cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanos, Stephanie L; Vonarbourg, Cedric; Mortha, Arthur; Diefenbach, Andreas

    2011-01-01

    It is rapidly emerging that the defence system of innate lymphocytes is more diverse than previously recognized. In addition to natural killer (NK) cells, lymphoid tissue inducer (LTi) cells, and natural helper cells have now been identified. LTi cells are developmentally dependent on the orphan transcription factor RORγt and instruct lymph node development during embryogenesis. More recently, it has become evident, that in addition to their role for lymph organ development, LTi cells are also potent producers of cytokines such as interleukin-22 (IL-22) and IL-17 in adult mice. In addition to LTi cells, another RORγt-dependent innate lymphocyte subset co-expressing RORγt and NK cell receptors (NKRs) has been identified. These NKR+ RORγt+ cells are also potent producers of IL-22 but it is unclear whether they are part of the NK cell or LTi cell lineage. This review will highlight recent progress in understanding development and function of innate IL-22-producing lymphocyte subsets. PMID:21391996

  2. Urocortin-like immunoreactivity in the primary lymphoid organs of the duck (Anas platyrhynchos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. De Luca

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Urocortin (UCN is a 40 aminoacid peptide which belongs to corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF family. This family of peptides stimulates the secretion of proopiomelanocortin (POMC-derived peptides, adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH, b-endorphin and melanocyte-stimulating hormone (MSH in the pituitary gland. In the present study, using Western blotting and immunohistochemistry, the distribution of UCN in the primary lymphoid organs of the duck was investigated at different ages. In the cloacal burse and thymus, Western blot demonstrated the presence of a peptide having a molecular weight compatible with that of the mammalian UCN. In the cloacal burse, immunoreactivity was located in the medullary epithelial cells and in the follicular associated and cortico-medullary epithelium. In the thymus, immunoreactivity was located in single epithelial cells. Double labelling immunofluorescence studies showed that UCN immunoreactivity completely colocalised with cytokeratin immunoreactivity in both the thymus and cloacal burse. Statistically significant differences in the percentage of UCN immunoreactivity were observed between different age periods in the cloacal burse. The results suggest that, in birds, urocortin has an important role in regulating the function of the immune system.

  3. Effect of total lymphoid irradiation on functional status in chronic multiple sclerosis: importance of lymphopenia early after treatment--the pros

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Devereux, C.; Troiano, R.; Zito, G.

    1988-01-01

    To determine whether immunosuppression by total lymphoid irradiation (TLI) slowed deterioration of chronic progressive multiple sclerosis (MS), functional impairment score and blood lymphocyte counts were compared at 6-month intervals through 4 years following treatment of MS patients by either TLI (n = 27) or sham irradiation (n = 21). At each interval, 20 to 30% fewer TLI-treated patients had deteriorated (p less than 0.05 at 6, 12, and 18 months), and the difference in mean functional impairment score between groups became progressively greater (p less than 0.01 at 42 and 48 months). Benefit accrued principally to the 17 TLI-treated patients with absolute blood lymphocyte counts less than 900/mm3 3 months after treatment, whose mean functional impairment score remained within 0.6 units of baseline (p = NS), whereas the ten TLI patients with higher post-treatment lymphocyte counts had progressive deterioration (p less than 0.05 to p less than 0.001 versus TLI-treated patients with lower lymphocyte counts at all intervals except 30 months) and had deteriorated by more than 5 functional scale units by 42 and 48 months. Side effects were minor and complications rare in TLI-treated patients, but one TLI-treated patient developed staphylococcal sepsis. Thus, TLI slows deterioration of chronic progressive MS, with what appears to be enduring benefit through 4 years compartmented to patients with greater induced lymphopenia. Modification of lymphoid irradiation regimens to increase the proportion of MS patients who achieve a favorable degree of lymphopenia and to avert functional hyposplenism may further improve the benefit/risk ratio

  4. Comparison of human memory CD8 T cell responses to adenoviral early and late proteins in peripheral blood and lymphoid tissue.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amita Joshi

    Full Text Available Treatment of invasive adenovirus (Ad disease in hematopoietic stem cell transplant (SCT recipients with capsid protein hexon-specific donor T cells is under investigation. We propose that cytotoxic T cells (CTLs targeted to the late protein hexon may be inefficient in vivo because the early Ad protein E3-19K downregulates HLA class I antigens in infected cells. In this study, CD8+ T cells targeted to highly conserved HLA A2-restricted epitopes from the early regulatory protein DNA polymerase (P-977 and late protein hexon (H-892 were compared in peripheral blood (PB and tonsils of naturally infected adults. In tonsils, epitope-specific pentamers detected a significantly higher frequency of P-977+CD8+ T cells compared to H-892+CD8+ T cells; this trend was reversed in PB. Tonsil epitope-specific CD8+ T cells expressed IFN-γ and IL-2 but not perforin or TNF-α, whereas PB T cells were positive for IFN-γ, TNF-α, and perforin. Tonsil epitope-specific T cells expressed lymphoid homing marker CCR7 and exhibited lower levels of the activation marker CD25 but higher proliferative potential than PB T cells. Finally, in parallel with the kinetics of mRNA expression, P-977-specific CTLs lysed targets as early as 8 hrs post infection. In contrast, H-892-specific CTLs did not kill unless infected fibroblasts were pretreated with IFN-γ to up regulate HLA class I antigens, and cytotoxicity was delayed until 16-24 hours. These data show that, in contrast to hexon CTLs, central memory type DNA polymerase CTLs dominate the lymphoid compartment and kill fibroblasts earlier after infection without requiring exogenous IFN-γ. Thus, use of CTLs targeted to both early and late Ad proteins may improve the efficacy of immunotherapy for life-threatening Ad disease in SCT recipients.

  5. Acute lumbar paraspinal compartment syndrome: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, William; Low, Nelson; Pratt, George

    2018-01-08

    While still a rare entity, acute lumbar paraspinal compartment syndrome has an increasing incidence. Similar to other compartment syndromes, acute lumbar paraspinal compartment syndrome is defined by raised pressure within a closed fibro-osseous space, limiting tissue perfusion within that space. The resultant tissue ischaemia presents as acute pain, and if left untreated, it may result in permanent tissue damage. A literature search of 'paraspinal compartment syndrome' revealed 21 articles. The details from a case encountered by the authors are also included. A common data set was extracted, focusing on demographics, aetiology, clinical features, management and outcomes. There are 23 reported cases of acute compartment syndrome. These are typically caused by weight-lifting exercises, but may also result from other exercises, direct trauma or non-spinal surgery. Pain, tenderness and paraspinal paraesthesia are key clinical findings. Serum creatine kinase, magnetic resonance imaging and intracompartment pressure measurement confirm the diagnosis. Half of the reported cases have been managed with surgical fasciotomy, and these patients have all had good outcomes relative to those managed with conservative measures with or without hyperbaric oxygen therapy. These good outcomes were despite significant delays to operative intervention. The diagnostic uncertainty and subsequent delay to fasciotomy result from the rarity of this disease entity, and a high level of suspicion is recommended in the appropriate setting. This is particularly true in light of the current popularity of extreme weight lifting in non-professional athletes. Operative intervention is strongly recommended in all cases based on the available evidence. © 2018 Royal Australasian College of Surgeons.

  6. Lift-and-fill face lift: integrating the fat compartments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rohrich, Rod J; Ghavami, Ashkan; Constantine, Fadi C; Unger, Jacob; Mojallal, Ali

    2014-06-01

    Recent discovery of the numerous fat compartments of the face has improved our ability to more precisely restore facial volume while rejuvenating it through differential superficial musculoaponeurotic system treatment. Incorporation of selective fat compartment volume restoration along with superficial musculoaponeurotic system manipulation allows for improved control in recontouring while addressing one of the key problems in facial aging, namely, volume deflation. This theory was evaluated by assessing the contour changes from simultaneous face "lifting" and "filling" through fat compartment-guided facial fat transfer. A review of 100 face-lift patients was performed. All patients had an individualized component face lift with fat grafting to the nasolabial fold, deep malar, and high/lateral malar fat compartment locations. Photographic analysis using a computer program was conducted on oblique facial views preoperatively and postoperatively, to obtain the most projected malar contour point. Two independent observers visually evaluated the malar prominence and nasolabial fold improvements based on standardized photographs. Nasolabial fold improved by at least one grade in 81 percent and by over one grade in 11 percent. Malar prominence average projection increase was 13.47 percent and the average amount of lift was 12.24 percent. The malar prominence score improved by at least one grade in 62 percent of the patients postoperatively, and 9 percent had a greater than one grade improvement. Twenty-eight percent of the patients had a convex malar prominence postoperatively compared with 6 percent preoperatively. Malar prominence improved by at least one grade in 63 percent and by over one grade in 10 percent. The lift-and-fill face lift merges two key concepts in facial rejuvenation: (1) effective tissue manipulation by means of lifting and tightening in differential vectors according to original facial asymmetry and shape; and (2) selective fat compartment filling

  7. Lymphocyte trafficking and HIV infection of human lymphoid tissue in a rotating wall vessel bioreactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Margolis, L. B.; Fitzgerald, W.; Glushakova, S.; Hatfill, S.; Amichay, N.; Baibakov, B.; Zimmerberg, J.

    1997-01-01

    The pathogenesis of HIV infection involves a complex interplay between both the infected and noninfected cells of human lymphoid tissue, the release of free viral particles, the de novo infection of cells, and the recirculatory trafficking of peripheral blood lymphocytes. To develop an in vitro model for studying these various aspects of HIV pathogenesis we have utilized blocks of surgically excised human tonsils and a rotating wall vessel (RWV) cell culture system. Here we show that (1) fragments of the surgically excised human lymphoid tissue remain viable and retain their gross cytoarchitecture for at least 3 weeks when cultured in the RWV system; (2) such lymphoid tissue gradually shows a loss of both T and B cells to the surrounding growth medium; however, this cellular migration is reversible as demonstrated by repopulation of the tissue by labeled cells from the growth medium; (3) this cellular migration may be partially or completely inhibited by embedding the blocks of lymphoid tissue in either a collagen or agarose gel matrix; these embedded tissue blocks retain most of the basic elements of a normal lymphoid cytoarchitecture; and (4) both embedded and nonembedded RWV-cultured blocks of human lymphoid tissue are capable of productive infection by HIV-1 of at least three various strains of different tropism and phenotype, as shown by an increase in both p24 antigen levels and free virus in the culture medium, and by the demonstration of HIV-1 RNA-positive cells inside the tissue identified by in situ hybridization. It is therefore reasonable to suggest that gel-embedded and nonembedded blocks of human lymphoid tissue, cocultured with a suspension of tonsillar lymphocytes in an RWV culture system, constitute a useful model for simulating normal lymphocyte recirculatory traffic and provide a new tool for testing the various aspects of HIV pathogenesis.

  8. Co-localization of lymphoid aggregates and lymphatic networks in nose- (NALT) and lacrimal duct-associated lymphoid tissue (LDALT) of mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lohrberg, Melanie; Pabst, Reinhard; Wilting, Jörg

    2018-01-25

    The lymphatic vascular pattern in the head of mice has rarely been studied, due to problems of sectioning and immunostaining of complex bony structures. Therefore, the association of head lymphoid tissues with the lymphatics has remained unknown although the mouse is the most often used species in immunology. Here, we studied the association of nasal and nasolacrimal duct lymphatics with lymphoid aggregates in 14-day-old and 2-month-old mice. We performed paraffin sectioning of whole, decalcified heads, and immunostaining with the lymphatic endothelial cell-specific antibodies Lyve-1 and Podoplanin. Most parts of the nasal mucous membrane do not contain any lymphatics. Only the region of the inferior turbinates contains lymphatic networks, which are connected to those of the palatine. Nose-associated lymphoid tissue (NALT) is restricted to the basal parts of the nose, which contain lymphatics. NALT is continued occipitally and can be found at both sides along the sphenoidal sinus, again in close association with lymphatic networks. Nasal lymphatics are connected to those of the ocular region via a lymphatic network along the nasolacrimal duct (NLD). By this means, lacrimal duct-associated lymphoid tissue (LDALT) has a dense supply with lymphatics. NALT and LDALT play a key role in the immune system of the mouse head, where they function as primary recognition sites for antigens. Using the dense lymphatic networks along the NLD described in this study, these antigens reach lymphatics near the palatine and are further drained to lymph nodes of the head and neck region. NALT and LDALT develop in immediate vicinity of lymphatic vessels. Therefore, we suggest a causative connection of lymphatic vessels and the development of lymphoid tissues.

  9. Does evaluation of the ligamentous compartment enhance diagnostic utility of sacroiliac joint MRI in axial spondyloarthritis?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Weber, Ulrich; Maksymowych, Walter P; Chan, Stanley M

    2015-01-01

    in the ligamentous compartment and their potential diagnostic utility in axial SpA. We therefore aimed to evaluate the ligamentous compartment on sacroiliac joint MRI for lesion distribution and potential incremental value towards diagnosis of SpA over and above the traditional assessment of the cartilaginous...... and ligamentous compartment. The incremental value of evaluating the ligamentous additionally to the cartilaginous compartment alone for diagnosis of SpA was graded qualitatively. We determined the lesion distribution between the two compartments, and the impact of the ligamentous compartment evaluation...... on diagnostic utility. RESULTS: MRI bone marrow lesions solely in the ligamentous compartment in the absence of lesions in the cartilaginous compartment were reported in just 0-2.0/0-4.0 % (BME/fat metaplasia) of all subjects. Additional assessment of the ligamentous compartment was regarded as essential...

  10. Enrichment of Phosphatidylethanolamine in Viral Replication Compartments via Co-opting the Endosomal Rab5 Small GTPase by a Positive-Strand RNA Virus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kai Xu

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Positive-strand RNA viruses build extensive membranous replication compartments to support replication and protect the virus from antiviral responses by the host. These viruses require host factors and various lipids to form viral replication complexes (VRCs. The VRCs built by Tomato bushy stunt virus (TBSV are enriched with phosphatidylethanolamine (PE through a previously unknown pathway. To unravel the mechanism of PE enrichment within the TBSV replication compartment, in this paper, the authors demonstrate that TBSV co-opts the guanosine triphosphate (GTP-bound active form of the endosomal Rab5 small GTPase via direct interaction with the viral replication protein. Deletion of Rab5 orthologs in a yeast model host or expression of dominant negative mutants of plant Rab5 greatly decreases TBSV replication and prevents the redistribution of PE to the sites of viral replication. We also show that enrichment of PE in the viral replication compartment is assisted by actin filaments. Interestingly, the closely related Carnation Italian ringspot virus, which replicates on the boundary membrane of mitochondria, uses a similar strategy to the peroxisomal TBSV to hijack the Rab5-positive endosomes into the viral replication compartments. Altogether, usurping the GTP-Rab5-positive endosomes allows TBSV to build a PE-enriched viral replication compartment, which is needed to support peak-level replication. Thus, the Rab family of small GTPases includes critical host factors assisting VRC assembly and genesis of the viral replication compartment.

  11. Scrapie-specific pathology of sheep lymphoid tissues.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gillian McGovern

    Full Text Available Transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSEs or prion diseases often result in accumulation of disease-associated PrP (PrP(d in the lymphoreticular system (LRS, specifically in association with follicular dendritic cells (FDCs and tingible body macrophages (TBMs of secondary follicles. We studied the effects of sheep scrapie on lymphoid tissue in tonsils and lymph nodes by light and electron microscopy. FDCs of sheep were grouped according to morphology as immature, mature or regressing. Scrapie was associated with FDC dendrite hypertrophy and electron dense deposit or vesicles. PrP(d was located using immunogold labelling at the plasmalemma of FDC dendrites and, infrequently, mature B cells. Abnormal electron dense deposits surrounding FDC dendrites were identified as immunoglobulins suggesting that excess immune complexes are retained and are indicative of an FDC dysfunction. Within scrapie-affected lymph nodes, macrophages outside the follicle and a proportion of germinal centre TBMs accumulated PrP(d within endosomes and lysosomes. In addition, TBMs showed PrP(d in association with the cell membrane, non-coated pits and vesicles, and also with discrete, large and random endoplasmic reticulum networks, which co-localised with ubiquitin. These observations suggest that PrP(d is internalised via the caveolin-mediated pathway, and causes an abnormal disease-related alteration in endoplasmic reticulum structure. In contrast to current dogma, this study shows that sheep scrapie is associated with cytopathology of germinal centres, which we attribute to abnormal antigen complex trapping by FDCs and abnormal endocytic events in TBMs. The nature of the sub-cellular changes in FDCs and TBMs differs from those of scrapie infected neurones and glial cells suggesting that different PrP(d/cell membrane interactions occur in different cell types.

  12. HIV-1 Envelope Glycoprotein Trafficking through the Endosomal Recycling Compartment Is Required for Particle Incorporation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirschman, Junghwa; Qi, Mingli; Ding, Lingmei; Hammonds, Jason; Dienger-Stambaugh, Krista; Wang, Jaang-Jiun; Lapierre, Lynne A; Goldenring, James R; Spearman, Paul

    2018-03-01

    The human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) envelope glycoprotein (Env) encodes specific trafficking signals within its long cytoplasmic tail (CT) that regulate incorporation into HIV-1 particles. Rab11-family interacting protein 1C (FIP1C) and Rab14 are host trafficking factors required for Env particle incorporation, suggesting that Env undergoes sorting from the endosomal recycling compartment (ERC) to the site of particle assembly on the plasma membrane. We disrupted outward sorting from the ERC by expressing a C-terminal fragment of FIP1C (FIP1C 560-649 ) and examined the consequences on Env trafficking and incorporation into particles. FIP1C 560-649 reduced cell surface levels of Env and prevented its incorporation into HIV-1 particles. Remarkably, Env was trapped in an exaggerated perinuclear ERC in a CT-dependent manner. Mutation of either the Yxxϕ endocytic motif or the YW 795 motif in the CT prevented Env trapping in the ERC and restored incorporation into particles. In contrast, simian immunodeficiency virus SIVmac239 Env was not retained in the ERC, while substitution of the HIV-1 CT for the SIV CT resulted in SIV Env retention in this compartment. These results provide the first direct evidence that Env traffics through the ERC and support a model whereby HIV-1 Env is specifically targeted to the ERC prior to FIP1C- and CT-dependent outward sorting to the particle assembly site on the plasma membrane. IMPORTANCE The HIV envelope protein is an essential component of the viral particle. While many aspects of envelope protein structure and function have been established, the pathway it follows in the cell prior to reaching the site of particle assembly is not well understood. The envelope protein has a very long cytoplasmic tail that interacts with the host cell trafficking machinery. Here, we utilized a truncated form of the trafficking adaptor FIP1C protein to arrest the intracellular transport of the envelope protein, demonstrating that it becomes

  13. Nasal associated lymphoid tissue of the Syrian golden hamster expresses high levels of PrPC.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melissa D Clouse

    Full Text Available The key event in the pathogenesis of the transmissible spongiform encephalopathies is a template-dependent misfolding event where an infectious isoform of the prion protein (PrPSc comes into contact with native prion protein (PrPC and changes its conformation to PrPSc. In many extraneurally inoculated models of prion disease this PrPC misfolding event occurs in lymphoid tissues prior to neuroinvasion. The primary objective of this study was to compare levels of total PrPC in hamster lymphoid tissues involved in the early pathogenesis of prion disease. Lymphoid tissues were collected from golden Syrian hamsters and Western blot analysis was performed to quantify PrPC levels. PrPC immunohistochemistry (IHC of paraffin embedded tissue sections was performed to identify PrPC distribution in tissues of the lymphoreticular system. Nasal associated lymphoid tissue contained the highest amount of total PrPC followed by Peyer's patches, mesenteric and submandibular lymph nodes, and spleen. The relative levels of PrPC expression in IHC processed tissue correlated strongly with the Western blot data, with high levels of PrPC corresponding with a higher percentage of PrPC positive B cell follicles. High levels of PrPC in lymphoid tissues closely associated with the nasal cavity could contribute to the relative increased efficiency of the nasal route of entry of prions, compared to other routes of infection.

  14. The enigma of the lower gut-associated lymphoid tissue (GALT).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler, John E; Sinkora, Marek

    2013-08-01

    Artiodactyls possess GALT that appears in fetal life and is located at the extreme end of the ileum. These IPP contain mostly B cells and involute early in postnatal life. Rabbits have a similarly located lymphoid organ, called the sacculus rotundus. Studies in sheep and rabbits have led to the concept that the lower hindgut GALT represents primary lymphoid tissue for B cells and is necessary for normal B cell development, analogous to the bursa of Fabricius. This review traces the history of the observations and theories that have led to the existing concept concerning the role of lower GALT. We then review recent data from piglets with resected IPP that challenges the concept that the IPP is primary B cell lymphoid tissue and that artiodactyls and rabbits are members of the GALT group in the same context as gallinaceous birds. Eliminating the IPP as the primary lymphoid tissue for B cells leads to the hypothesis that the IPP acts as first-responder mucosal lymphoid tissue.

  15. Nasal associated lymphoid tissue of the Syrian golden hamster expresses high levels of PrPC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clouse, Melissa D; Shikiya, Ronald A; Bartz, Jason C; Kincaid, Anthony E

    2015-01-01

    The key event in the pathogenesis of the transmissible spongiform encephalopathies is a template-dependent misfolding event where an infectious isoform of the prion protein (PrPSc) comes into contact with native prion protein (PrPC) and changes its conformation to PrPSc. In many extraneurally inoculated models of prion disease this PrPC misfolding event occurs in lymphoid tissues prior to neuroinvasion. The primary objective of this study was to compare levels of total PrPC in hamster lymphoid tissues involved in the early pathogenesis of prion disease. Lymphoid tissues were collected from golden Syrian hamsters and Western blot analysis was performed to quantify PrPC levels. PrPC immunohistochemistry (IHC) of paraffin embedded tissue sections was performed to identify PrPC distribution in tissues of the lymphoreticular system. Nasal associated lymphoid tissue contained the highest amount of total PrPC followed by Peyer's patches, mesenteric and submandibular lymph nodes, and spleen. The relative levels of PrPC expression in IHC processed tissue correlated strongly with the Western blot data, with high levels of PrPC corresponding with a higher percentage of PrPC positive B cell follicles. High levels of PrPC in lymphoid tissues closely associated with the nasal cavity could contribute to the relative increased efficiency of the nasal route of entry of prions, compared to other routes of infection.

  16. The Conjunctiva-Associated Lymphoid Tissue in Chronic Ocular Surface Diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mastropasqua, Rodolfo; Agnifili, Luca; Fasanella, Vincenzo; Nubile, Mario; Gnama, Agbeanda A; Falconio, Gennaro; Perri, Paolo; Di Staso, Silvio; Mariotti, Cesare

    2017-08-01

    Ocular surface diseases (OSDs) represent a widely investigated field of research given their growing incidence and the negative impact on quality of life. During OSDs, cytokines generated by damaged epithelia trigger and deregulate the lymphoid cells composing the eye-associated lymphoid tissues, inducing an immune-mediated chronic inflammation that amplifies and propagates the disease during time. The conjunctiva-associated lymphoid tissue (CALT), given its particular position that permits immune cells covering the cornea, might play a crucial role in the development of OSDs. Despite the recognized inflammatory role of mucosa-associated lymphoid tissues in other stations taking contact with the external environment (gut or bronchus), CALT did not gain the deserved consideration. In the last years, the diffusion of the in vivo confocal microscopy (IVCM) stimulated the interest to CALT, especially in dry eye, ocular allergy, and glaucoma. Though the initial stimuli were different, IVCM documented similar changes, represented by increased lymphoid cells within the diffuse layer, follicles and interfollicular spaces. These findings, which need to be validated by immunohistology, support the CALT stimulation during OSDs. However, while an involvement of the CALT in OSDs is hypothesizable, the exact role of this structure in their pathogenesis remains unclear and warrants further investigations.

  17. [Function and modulation of type Ⅱ innate lymphoid cells and their role in chronic upper airway inflammatory diseases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Y; Liu, Z

    2017-02-07

    Type Ⅱ innate lymphoid cells (ILC2) is a family of innate immune lymphocytes, which provide effective immune responses to cytokines. ILC2 are regulated by the nuclear transcription factor ROR alpha and GATA3, secreting cytokines IL-5 and IL-13, etc. Animal models have shown that ILC2 are involved in allergic diseases, such as asthma and atopic dermatitis, and also play a very important role in the metabolic balance. In addition, recent reports suggest that ILC2 not only play a role in the initial stages of the disease, but also can lead to chronic pathological changes in the disease, such as fibrosis, and may have an effect on acquired immunity. This paper mainly focus in the role and regulation of ILC2 cells, and review the research status of ILC2 in the field of chronic upper airway inflammatory diseases including allergic rhinitis and chronic rhinosinusitis.

  18. Epithelial-stromal interaction via Notch signaling is essential for the full maturation of gut-associated lymphoid tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obata, Yuuki; Kimura, Shunsuke; Nakato, Gaku; Iizuka, Keito; Miyagawa, Yurika; Nakamura, Yutaka; Furusawa, Yukihiro; Sugiyama, Machiko; Suzuki, Keiichiro; Ebisawa, Masashi; Fujimura, Yumiko; Yoshida, Hisahiro; Iwanaga, Toshihiko; Hase, Koji; Ohno, Hiroshi

    2014-12-01

    Intrinsic Notch signaling in intestinal epithelial cells restricts secretory cell differentiation. In gut-associated lymphoid tissue (GALT), stromal cells located beneath the follicle-associated epithelium (FAE) abundantly express the Notch ligand delta-like 1 (Dll1). Here, we show that mice lacking Rbpj-a gene encoding a transcription factor implicated in Notch signaling-in intestinal epithelial cells have defective GALT maturation. This defect can be attributed to the expansion of goblet cells, which leads to the down-regulation of CCL20 in FAE. These data demonstrate that epithelial Notch signaling maintained by stromal cells contributes to the full maturation of GALT by restricting secretory cell differentiation in FAE. © 2014 The Authors.

  19. Disturbance of the gut-associated lymphoid tissue is associated with disease progression in chronic HIV infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofer, Ursula; Speck, Roberto F

    2009-07-01

    Why and how HIV makes people sick is highly debated. Recent evidence implicates heightened immune activation due to breakdown of the gastrointestinal barrier as a determining factor of lentiviral pathogenesis. HIV-mediated loss of Th17 cells from the gut-associated lymphoid tissue (GALT) impairs mucosal integrity and innate defense mechanisms against gut microbes. Translocation of microbial products from the gut, in turn, correlates with increased immune activation in chronic HIV infection and may further damage the immune system by increasing viral and activation-induced T cell death, by reducing T cell reconstitution due to tissue scarring, and by impairing the function of other cell types, such as gammadelta T cells and epithelial cells. Maintaining a healthy GALT may be the key to reducing the pathogenic potential of HIV.

  20. Epithelial–stromal interaction via Notch signaling is essential for the full maturation of gut-associated lymphoid tissues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obata, Yuuki; Kimura, Shunsuke; Nakato, Gaku; Iizuka, Keito; Miyagawa, Yurika; Nakamura, Yutaka; Furusawa, Yukihiro; Sugiyama, Machiko; Suzuki, Keiichiro; Ebisawa, Masashi; Fujimura, Yumiko; Yoshida, Hisahiro; Iwanaga, Toshihiko; Hase, Koji; Ohno, Hiroshi

    2014-01-01

    Intrinsic Notch signaling in intestinal epithelial cells restricts secretory cell differentiation. In gut-associated lymphoid tissue (GALT), stromal cells located beneath the follicle-associated epithelium (FAE) abundantly express the Notch ligand delta-like 1 (Dll1). Here, we show that mice lacking Rbpj—a gene encoding a transcription factor implicated in Notch signaling—in intestinal epithelial cells have defective GALT maturation. This defect can be attributed to the expansion of goblet cells, which leads to the down-regulation of CCL20 in FAE. These data demonstrate that epithelial Notch signaling maintained by stromal cells contributes to the full maturation of GALT by restricting secretory cell differentiation in FAE. Subject Categories Development & Differentiation; Immunology; Signal Transduction PMID:25378482

  1. Air quality inside the passenger compartment of a bus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conceição, E Z; Silva, M C; Viegas, D X

    1997-01-01

    The indoor air quality in the passenger compartment of an intercity bus is studied. A system used for the remotion of the contaminants from the compartment, based on an extraction duct, was projected using a simple, unidimensional flow model with capability to predict the air exchange rate as a function of the vehicle velocity. Some tests using tracer gan methods were performed in a real vehicle with the contaminant remotion system mounted, in order to validate the calculation model and evaluate the performances of the system. A good agreement between the predicted and the experimental results was verified and the obtained air exchange rate was quite reasonable when compared with the former situation, without extraction duct.

  2. Bladder distension as a cause of abdominal compartment syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yasir, M.; Hoda, M.Q.

    2018-01-01

    Abdominal compartment syndrome (ACS) is increasingly identified in critically ill patient and its harmful effects are well documented. The disparity among the pressure, volume in abdominal cavity and its contents, results in ACS. The actual incidence of ACS is not known. However, it has been observed predominantly in patients with severe blunt and penetrating abdominal trauma, ruptured abdominal aortic aneurysms, retro- and intra-peritoneal hemorrhage, pneumoperitoneum, neoplasm, pancreatitis, ascites and multiple bone fracture. We present a case of 40-year female who underwent emergency cesarean section and developed abdominal compartment syndrome due to urinary bladder distension secondary to blockade of urinary catheter with blood clots. This is a very unusual cause of ACS. (author)

  3. CoMIC, the hidden dynamics of mitochondrial inner compartments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Bongki; Sun, Woong

    2017-12-01

    Mitochondria have evolutionarily, functionally and structurally distinct outer- (OMM) and inner-membranes (IMM). Thus, mitochondrial morphology is controlled by independent but coordinated activity of fission and fusion of the OMM and IMM. Constriction and division of the OMM are mediated by endocytosis-like machineries, which include dynamin-related protein 1 with additional cytosolic vesicle scissoring machineries such as actin filament and Dynamin 2. However, structural alteration of the IMM during mitochondrial division has been poorly understood. Recently, we found that the IMM and the inner compartments undergo transient and reversible constriction prior to the OMM division, which we termed CoMIC, Constriction of Mitochondrial Inner Compartment. In this short review, we further discuss the evolutionary perspective and the regulatory mechanism of CoMIC during mitochondrial division. [BMB Reports 2017; 50(12): 597-598].

  4. Bacterial assemblages differ between compartments within the coral holobiont

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sweet, M. J.; Croquer, A.; Bythell, J. C.

    2011-03-01

    It is widely accepted that corals are associated with a diverse and host species-specific microbiota, but how they are organized within their hosts remains poorly understood. Previous sampling techniques (blasted coral tissues, coral swabs and milked mucus) may preferentially sample from different compartments such as mucus, tissue and skeleton, or amalgamate them, making comparisons and generalizations between studies difficult. This study characterized bacterial communities of corals with minimal mechanical disruption and contamination from water, air and sediments from three compartments: surface mucus layer (SML), coral tissue and coral skeleton. A novel apparatus (the `snot sucker') was used to separate the SML from tissues and skeleton, and these three compartments were compared to swab samples and milked mucus along with adjacent environmental samples (water column and sediments). Bacterial 16S rRNA gene diversity was significantly different between the various coral compartments and environmental samples (PERMANOVA, F = 6.9, df = 8, P = 0.001), the only exceptions being the complete crushed coral samples and the coral skeleton, which were similar, because the skeleton represents a proportionally large volume and supports a relatively rich microflora. Milked mucus differed significantly from the SML collected with the `snot sucker' and was contaminated with zooxanthellae, suggesting that it may originate at least partially from the gastrovascular cavity rather than the tissue surface. A common method of sampling the SML, surface swabs, produced a bacterial community profile distinct from the SML sampled using our novel apparatus and also showed contamination from coral tissues. Our results indicate that microbial communities are spatially structured within the coral holobiont, and methods used to describe these need to be standardized to allow comparisons between studies.

  5. Hydrogen peroxide probes directed to different cellular compartments.

    OpenAIRE

    Mikalai Malinouski; You Zhou; Vsevolod V Belousov; Dolph L Hatfield; Vadim N Gladyshev

    2011-01-01

    Background Controlled generation and removal of hydrogen peroxide play important roles in cellular redox homeostasis and signaling. We used a hydrogen peroxide biosensor HyPer, targeted to different compartments, to examine these processes in mammalian cells. Principal Findings Reversible responses were observed to various redox perturbations and signaling events. HyPer expressed in HEK 293 cells was found to sense low micromolar levels of hydrogen peroxide. When targeted to various cellular ...

  6. Compartment syndrome after total knee arthroplasty: regarding a clinical case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Alexandra da Costa Pinheiro

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Although compartment syndrome is a rare complication of total knee arthroplasty, it is one of the most devastating complications. It is defined as a situation of increased pressure within a closed osteofascial space that impairs the circulation and the functioning of the tissues inside this space, thereby leading to ischemia and tissue dysfunction. Here, a clinical case of a patient who was followed up in orthopedic outpatient consultations due to right gonarthrosis is presented. The patient had a history of arthroscopic meniscectomy and presented knee flexion of 10° before the operation, which consisted of total arthroplasty of the right knee. The operation seemed to be free from intercurrences, but the patient evolved with compartment syndrome of the ipsilateral leg after the operation. Since compartment syndrome is a true surgical emergency, early recognition and treatment of this condition through fasciotomy is crucial in order to avoid amputation, limb dysfunction, kidney failure and death. However, it may be difficult to make the diagnosis and cases may not be recognized if the cause of compartment syndrome is unusual or if the patient is under epidural analgesia and/or peripheral nerve block, which thus camouflages the main warning sign, i.e. disproportional pain. In addition, edema of the limb that underwent the intervention is common after total knee arthroplasty operations. This study presents a review of the literature and signals that the possible rarity of cases is probably due to failure to recognize this condition in a timely manner and to placing these patients in other diagnostic groups that are less likely, such as neuropraxia caused by using a tourniquet or peripheral nerve injury.

  7. Elimination behavior of shelter dogs housed in double compartment kennels.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denae Wagner

    Full Text Available For animals in confinement housing the housing structure has tremendous potential to impact well being. Dogs in animal shelters are often housed in one of two types of confinement housing - single kennels and rooms or double compartment kennels and rooms most often separated by a guillotine door. This study examines the effect of housing on the location of elimination behavior in dogs housed in double compartment kennels were the majority of the dogs were walked daily. One side of the kennel contained the food, water and bed and the other side was empty and available except during cleaning time. Location of urination and defecation was observed daily for 579 dogs housed in indoor double compartment kennels for a total of 4440 days of observation. There were 1856 days (41.9% when no elimination was noted in the kennel. Feces, urine or both were observed in the kennel on 2584 days (58.1%. When elimination occurred in the kennel the probability of fecal elimination on the opposite side of the bed/food/water was 72.5% (95% CI 69.05% to 75.69%. The probability of urination on the opposite side of the bed/food/water was 77.4% (95% CI 74.33% to 80.07%. This study demonstrates the strong preference of dogs to eliminate away from the area where they eat, drink and sleep. Double compartment housing not only allows this - it allows staff the ability to provide safe, efficient, humane daily care and confers the added benefits of reducing risks for disease transmission for the individual dog as well as the population.

  8. SACHET, Dynamic Fission Products Inventory in PWR Multiple Compartment System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kodaira, Hideki

    1990-01-01

    1 - Description of program or function: SACHET evaluates the dynamic fission product inventories in the multiple compartment system of pressurized water reactor (PWR) plants. 2 - Method of solution: SACHET utilizes a matrix of fission product core inventory which is previously calculated by the ORIGEN code. 3 - Restrictions on the complexity of the problem: Liquid wastes such as chemical waste and detergent waste are not included

  9. The pseudo-compartment method for coupling partial differential equation and compartment-based models of diffusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yates, Christian A; Flegg, Mark B

    2015-05-06

    Spatial reaction-diffusion models have been employed to describe many emergent phenomena in biological systems. The modelling technique most commonly adopted in the literature implements systems of partial differential equations (PDEs), which assumes there are sufficient densities of particles that a continuum approximation is valid. However, owing to recent advances in computational power, the simulation and therefore postulation, of computationally intensive individual-based models has become a popular way to investigate the effects of noise in reaction-diffusion systems in which regions of low copy numbers exist. The specific stochastic models with which we shall be concerned in this manuscript are referred to as 'compartment-based' or 'on-lattice'. These models are characterized by a discretization of the computational domain into a grid/lattice of 'compartments'. Within each compartment, particles are assumed to be well mixed and are permitted to react with other particles within their compartment or to transfer between neighbouring compartments. Stochastic models provide accuracy, but at the cost of significant computational resources. For models that have regions of both low and high concentrations, it is often desirable, for reasons of efficiency, to employ coupled multi-scale modelling paradigms. In this work, we develop two hybrid algorithms in which a PDE in one region of the domain is coupled to a compartment-based model in the other. Rather than attempting to balance average fluxes, our algorithms answer a more fundamental question: 'how are individual particles transported between the vastly different model descriptions?' First, we present an algorithm derived by carefully redefining the continuous PDE concentration as a probability distribution. While this first algorithm shows very strong convergence to analytical solutions of test problems, it can be cumbersome to simulate. Our second algorithm is a simplified and more efficient implementation of

  10. Clinical and immunologic effects of fractionated total lymphoid irradiation in refractory rheumatoid arthritis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trentham, D.E.; Belli, J.A.; Anderson, R.J.; Buckley, J.A.; Goetzl, E.J.; David, J.R.; Austen, K.F.

    1981-01-01

    Ten patients with refractory rheumatoid arthritis were given 3000 rad of fractionated total lymphoid irradiation in an uncontrolled therapeutic trial. Total lymphoid irradiation was associated with objective evidence of considerable clinical improvement in eight patients and with reduced blood lymphocyte counts in all 10. On completion of irradiation, there was an abrogation of lymphocyte reactivity in vitro in the patients with clinical responses, but abnormal antibody activities characteristic of rheumatoid arthritis and normal components of humoral immunity were not suppressed. Partial recrudescence of arthritis occurred shortly after a year after the completion of irradiation and was paralleled by a restitution of lymphocyte concentrations and responsiveness to mitogens to levels similar to those observed before irradiation. These data provide further evidence of T-cell involvement in the pathogenesis of rheumatoid arthritis and demonstrate that total lymphoid irradiation can induce temporary relief, but they do not ascertain whether the natural history of this disease was altered

  11. Clinical and immunologic effects of fractionated total lymphoid irradiation in refractory rheumatoid arthritis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trentham, D.E.; Belli, J.A.; Anderson, R.J.; Buckley, J.A.; Goetzl, E.J.; David, J.R.; Austen, K.F.

    1981-01-01

    Ten patients with refractory rheumatoid arthritis were given 3000 rad of fractionated total lymphoid irradiation in an uncontrolled therapeutic trial. Total lymphoid irradiation was associated with objective evidence of considerable clinical improvement in eight patients and with reduced blood lymphocyte counts in all 10. On completion of irradiation, there was an abrogation of lymphocyte reactivity in vitro in the patients with clinical responses, but abnormal antibody activities characteristic of rheumatoid arthritis and normal components of humoral immunity were not suppressed. Partial recrudescence of arthritis occurred shortly before a year after the completion of irradiation and was paralleled by a restitution of lymphocyte concentrations and responsiveness to mitogens to levels similar to those observed before irradiation. These data provide further evidence of T-cell involvement in the pathogenesis of rheumatoid arthritis and demonstrate that total lymphoid irradiation can induce temporary relief, but they do not ascertain whether the natural history of this disease was altered

  12. Immunological tumor destruction in a murine melanoma model by targeted LTalpha independent of secondary lymphoid tissue

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schrama, D.; Voigt, H.; Eggert, A.O.

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: We previously demonstrated that targeting lymphotoxin alpha (LTalpha) to the tumor evokes its immunological destruction in a syngeneic B16 melanoma model. Since treatment was associated with the induction of peritumoral tertiary lymphoid tissue, we speculated that the induced immune...... response was initiated at the tumor site. METHODS AND RESULTS: In order to directly test this notion, we analyzed the efficacy of tumor targeted LTalpha in LTalpha knock-out (LTalpha(-/-)) mice which lack peripheral lymph nodes. To this end, we demonstrate that tumor-targeted LTalpha mediates the induction...... of specific T-cell responses even in the absence of secondary lymphoid organs. In addition, this effect is accompanied by the initiation of tertiary lymphoid tissue at the tumor site in which B and T lymphocytes are compartmentalized in defined areas and which harbor expanded numbers of tumor specific T cells...

  13. Twin Rectal Tonsils Mimicking Carcinoid or Mucosa-Associated Lymphoid Tissue Lymphoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takehara, Masanori; Muguruma, Naoki; Kitamura, Shinji; Kimura, Tetsuo; Okamoto, Koichi; Miyamoto, Hiroshi; Bando, Yoshimi; Takayama, Tetsuji

    2017-09-01

    The rectal tonsil is a rare polypoid lesion exclusively found in the rectum and is considered a reactive proliferation of the lymphoid tissue. Although this lesion is benign, we recommend that it should be differentiated from carcinoid or polypoid type of mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphomas, based on gross findings. In this case report, we describe a case of rectal lesions with a unique appearance in a 41-year-old man. Colonoscopy revealed two 5-mm-sized nodules located opposite from each other on the left and right sides of the lower rectum. Endoscopic mucosal resection was conducted. Histopathologically, both lesions were mainly located in the submucosa and consisted of prominent lymphoid follicles with germinal centers of various sizes. No immunoreactivity of Bcl-2 was seen in the germinal centers. Immunohistochemical staining for kappa and lambda light chains revealed a polyclonal pattern. Therefore, these lesions were diagnosed as rectal tonsils.

  14. Activation of vestibule-associated lymphoid tissue in localized provoked vulvodynia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tommola, Päivi; Bützow, Ralf; Unkila-Kallio, Leila; Paavonen, Jorma; Meri, Seppo

    2015-04-01

    Localized provoked vulvodynia (LPV) may have inflammatory etiology. We wanted to find out whether the cell-mediated immune system becomes activated in the vestibular mucosa in LPV. This was a controlled cross-sectional study. Vestibular mucosal specimens were obtained from 27 patients with severe LPV and 15 controls. Detailed clinical history of the patients was obtained. For immunohistochemistry, antibodies against CD3 (T cells), CD20 (B cells), IgA (mucosal plasma cells), CD163 (dendritic cells [DCs]), CD68 (macrophages), and CD117 (mast cells) were employed. Mann-Whitney U test and χ(2) test were used for statistical analyses. More B lymphocytes and mature mucosal IgA-plasma cells were found in patients than in controls (P associated lymphoid tissue analogous to mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue. Vestibule-associated lymphoid tissue may emerge as a response to local infection or inflammation in LPV. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Gut-associated lymphoid tissue, T cell trafficking, and chronic intestinal inflammation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koboziev, Iurii; Karlsson, Fridrik; Grisham, Matthew B

    2010-10-01

    The etiologies of the inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD; Crohn's disease, ulcerative colitis) have not been fully elucidated. However, there is very good evidence implicating T cell and T cell trafficking to the gut and its associated lymphoid tissue as important components in disease pathogenesis. The objective of this review is to provide an overview of the mechanisms involved in naive and effector T cell trafficking to the gut-associated lymphoid tissue (GALT; Peyer's patches, isolated lymphoid follicles), mesenteric lymph nodes and intestine in response to commensal enteric antigens under physiological conditions as well as during the induction of chronic gut inflammation. In addition, recent data suggests that the GALT may not be required for enteric antigen-driven intestinal inflammation in certain mouse models of IBD. These new data suggest a possible paradigm shift in our understanding of how and where naive T cells become activated to yield disease-producing effector cells. © 2010 New York Academy of Sciences.

  16. A rear case of multilocular thymic cyst with follicular lymphoid hyperplasia; Radiologic and histopathologic features

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jin Suk; Cha, Eun Jung [Konyang University Hospital, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-06-15

    Multilocular thymic cysts are rare and acquired lesions induced by an inflammatory arising within the thymus. We report a rare case of multilocular thymic cyst with follicular lymphoid hyperplasia in a 59-year-old female. Chest CT and MRI revealed a large multilocular cystic mass, which contains thick septa and nodules in the thymus. F-18 FDG PET/CT showed almost no FDG uptake of the multilocular cystic mass but moderate FDG uptake of the solid nodules. Extended total thymectomy was performed. Histopathological findings revealed follicular lymphoid hyperplasia of thymic tissue but no neoplastic lesion. Based on these findings, diagnosis of multilocular thymic cyst with follicular lymphoid hyperplasia was made. This is a rare case that preoperatively was difficult to diagnose.

  17. Hypothyroid-induced acute compartment syndrome in all extremities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musielak, Matthew C; Chae, Jung Hee

    2016-12-20

    Acute compartment syndrome (ACS) is an uncommon complication of uncontrolled hypothyroidism. If unrecognized, this can lead to ischemia, necrosis and potential limb loss. A 49-year-old female presented with the sudden onset of bilateral lower and upper extremity swelling and pain. The lower extremity anterior compartments were painful and tense. The extensor surface of the upper extremities exhibited swelling and pain. Motor function was intact, however, limited due to pain. Bilateral lower extremity fasciotomies were performed. Postoperative Day 1, upper extremity motor function decreased significantly and paresthesias occurred. She therefore underwent bilateral forearm fasciotomies. The pathogenesis of hypothyroidism-induced compartment syndrome is unclear. Thyroid-stimulating hormone-induced fibroblast activation results in increased glycosaminoglycan deposition. The primary glycosaminoglycan in hypothyroid myxedematous changes is hyaluronic acid, which binds water causing edema. This increases vascular permeability, extravasation of proteins and impaired lymphatic drainage. These contribute to increased intra-compartmental pressure and subsequent ACS. Published by Oxford University Press and JSCR Publishing Ltd. All rights reserved. © The Author 2016.

  18. Perforated peptic ulcer associated with abdominal compartment syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynn, Jiun-Jen; Weng, Yi-Ming; Weng, Chia-Sui

    2008-11-01

    Abdominal compartment syndrome (ACS) is defined as an increased intra-abdominal pressure with adverse physiologic consequences. Abdominal compartment syndrome caused by perforated peptic ulcer is rare owing to early diagnosis and management. Delayed recognition of perforated peptic ulcer with pneumoperitoneum, bowel distension, and decreased abdominal wall compliance can make up a vicious circle and lead to ACS. We report a case of perforated peptic ulcer associated with ACS. A 74-year-old man with old stroke and dementia history was found to have distended abdomen, edema of bilateral legs, and cyanosis. Laboratory tests revealed deterioration of liver and kidney function. Abdominal compartment syndrome was suspected, and image study was arranged to find the cause. The study showed pneumoperitoneum, contrast stasis in heart with decreased caliber of vessels below the abdominal aortic level, and diffuse lymphedema at the abdominal walls. Emergent laparotomy was performed. Perforated peptic ulcer was noted and the gastrorrhaphy was done. The symptoms, and liver and kidney function improved right after emergent operation.

  19. The statolith compartment in Chara rhizoids contains carbohydrate and protein

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang-Cahill, F.; Kiss, J. Z.

    1995-01-01

    In contrast to higher plants, the alga Chara has rhizoids with single membrane-bound compartments that function as statoliths in gravity perception. Previous work has demonstrated that these statoliths contain barium sulfate crystals. In this study, we show that statoliths in Chara rhizoids react with a Coomassie Brilliant Blue cytochemical stain for proteins. While statoliths did not react with silver methenamine carbohydrate cytochemistry, the monoclonal antibody CCRC-M2, which is against a carbohydrate (sycamore-maple rhamnogalacturonan I), labeled the statolith compartment. These results demonstrate that in addition to barium sulfate, statoliths in Chara rhizoids have an organic matrix that consists of protein and carbohydrate moieties. Since the statoliths were silver methenamine negative, the carbohydrate in this compartment could be a 3-linked polysaccharide. CCRC-M2 also labeled Golgi cisternae, Golgi-associated vesicles, apical vesicles, and cell walls in the rhizoids. The specificity of CCRC-M2 immunolabeling was verified by several control experiments, including the demonstration that labeling was abolished when the antibody was preabsorbed with its antigen. Since in this and a previous study (John Z. Kiss and L. Andrew Staehelin, American Journal of Botany 80: 273-282, 1993) antibodies against higher plant carbohydrates crossreacted with cell walls of Chara in a specific manner, Characean algae may be a useful model system in biochemical and molecular studies of cell walls.

  20. MRI of idiopathic orbital inflammation and lymphoid disease with lesions in extraocular muscle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsuda, Chiharu; Kotake, Fumio; Kawanishi, Masayuki; Saito, Kazuhiro; Abe, Kimihiko

    2004-01-01

    Of the disorders accompanied by hypertrophy of the extraocular muscles, differentiating between idiopathic orbital inflammation and malignant lymphoma is difficult but important to treatment and prognosis. In this study using MRI, shape, signal intensity, and enhancement effects were compared between idiopathic orbital inflammation and lymphoproliferative lesions. The subjects were 27 patients (8 with idiopathic orbital inflammation, 1 with reactive lymphoid hyperplasia, 3 with atypical lymphoid hyperplasia, and 15 with malignant lymphoma) and 10 normal controls. The evaluation items were: thickness of extraocular muscles, number of extraocular muscles involved signal intensity of extraocular muscles, and enhancement effects on extraocular muscles. When compared to control subjects (p<0.05) the attachment portion of extraocular muscles were significantly thicker in the patients with idiopathic orbital inflammation, atypical lymphoid hyperplasia, or malignant lymphoma; the most marked hypertrophy was observed in patients with malignant lymphoma. The number of extraocular muscles involved was 1.5 (mean) in the patients with idiopathic orbital inflammation, 1 in the patient with reactive lymphoid hyperplasia, 1.7 (mean) in the patients with atypical lymphoid hyperplasia, and 5.1 (mean) in those with malignant lymphoma. The signal intensity ratio on T1W-images did not significantly differ between the patients and controls for all the disorders investigated. Signal intensity ratio on T2W-images significantly differed between patients with atypical lymphoid hyperplasia or malignant lymphoma and the controls (p<0.05) but not between patients with idiopathic orbital inflammation and controls. Signal intensity ratio after contrast enhancement differed significantly only between patients with idiopathic orbital inflammation and controls (p<0.05). (author)

  1. Clinical pilot study for the automatic segmentation and recognition of abdominal adipose tissue compartments from MRI data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noel, P.B.; Bauer, J.S.; Ganter, C.; Markus, C.; Rummeny, E.J.; Engels, H.P.; Hauner, H.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: In the diagnosis and risk assessment of obesity, both the amount and distribution of adipose tissue compartments are critical factors. We present a hybrid method for the quantitative measurement of human body fat compartments. Materials and Methods: MRI imaging was performed on a 1.5 T scanner. In a pre-processing step, the images were corrected for bias field inhomogeneity. For segmentation and recognition a hybrid algorithm was developed to automatically differentiate between different adipose tissue compartments. The presented algorithm is designed with a combination of shape and intensity-based techniques. To incorporate the presented algorithm into the clinical routine, we developed a graphical user interface. Results from our methods were compared with the known volume of an adipose tissue phantom. To evaluate our method, we analyzed 40 clinical MRI scans of the abdominal region. Results: Relatively low segmentation errors were found for subcutaneous adipose tissue (3.56 %) and visceral adipose tissue (0.29 %) in phantom studies. The clinical results indicated high correlations between the distribution of adipose tissue compartments and obesity. Conclusion: We present an approach that rapidly identifies and quantifies adipose tissue depots of interest. With this method examination and analysis can be performed in a clinically feasible timeframe. (orig.)

  2. Clinical pilot study for the automatic segmentation and recognition of abdominal adipose tissue compartments from MRI data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Noel, P.B.; Bauer, J.S.; Ganter, C.; Markus, C.; Rummeny, E.J.; Engels, H.P. [Klinikum rechts der Isar, Technische Univ. Muenchen (Germany). Inst. fuer Radiologie; Hauner, H. [Klinikum rechts der Isar, Technische Univ. Muenchen (Germany). Else Kroener-Fresenius-Center for Nutritional Medicine

    2012-06-15

    Purpose: In the diagnosis and risk assessment of obesity, both the amount and distribution of adipose tissue compartments are critical factors. We present a hybrid method for the quantitative measurement of human body fat compartments. Materials and Methods: MRI imaging was performed on a 1.5 T scanner. In a pre-processing step, the images were corrected for bias field inhomogeneity. For segmentation and recognition a hybrid algorithm was developed to automatically differentiate between different adipose tissue compartments. The presented algorithm is designed with a combination of shape and intensity-based techniques. To incorporate the presented algorithm into the clinical routine, we developed a graphical user interface. Results from our methods were compared with the known volume of an adipose tissue phantom. To evaluate our method, we analyzed 40 clinical MRI scans of the abdominal region. Results: Relatively low segmentation errors were found for subcutaneous adipose tissue (3.56 %) and visceral adipose tissue (0.29 %) in phantom studies. The clinical results indicated high correlations between the distribution of adipose tissue compartments and obesity. Conclusion: We present an approach that rapidly identifies and quantifies adipose tissue depots of interest. With this method examination and analysis can be performed in a clinically feasible timeframe. (orig.)

  3. Interposition of the posterior cruciate ligament into the medial compartment of the knee joint on coronal magnetic resonance imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Hyun Su; Yoon, Young Cheol; Park, Ki Jeong; Wang, Joon Ho [Dept. of Radiology, Samsung Medical Center, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Choe, Bong Keun [Dept. of Preventive Medicine, Kyung Hee University School of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-04-15

    The purpose of our study was to evaluate the overall prevalence and clinical significance of interposition of the posterior cruciate ligament (PCL) into the medial compartment of the knee joint in coronal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). We retrospectively reviewed 317 consecutive patients referred for knee MRI at our institution between October 2009 and December 2009. Interposition of the PCL into the medial compartment of the knee joint on proton coronal MRI was evaluated dichotomously (i.e., present or absent). We analyzed the interposition according to its prevalence as well as its relationship with right-left sidedness, gender, age, and disease categories (osteoarthritis, anterior cruciate ligament tear, and medial meniscus tear). Prevalence of interposition of PCL into the medial compartment of the knee joint was 47.0% (149/317). There was no right (50.0%, 83/166) to left (43.7%, 66/151) or male (50.3%, 87/173) to female (43.1%, 62/144) differences in the prevalence. There was no significant association between the prevalence and age, or the disease categories. Interposition of the PCL into the medial compartment of the knee joint is observed in almost half of patients on proton coronal MRI of the knee. Its presence is not associated with any particular factors including knee pathology and may be regarded as a normal MR finding.

  4. Type 2 innate lymphoid cells-new members of the "type 2 franchise" that mediate allergic airway inflammation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mjösberg, Jenny; Spits, Hergen

    2012-01-01

    Type 2 innate lymphoid cells (ILC2s) are members of an ILCfamily, which contains NKcells and Ror?t+ ILCs, the latter including lymphoid tissue inducer (LTi) cells and ILCs producing IL-17 and IL-22. ILC2s are dedicated to the production of IL-5 and IL-13 and, as such, ILC2s provide an early and

  5. Regulation of Cytokine Secretion in Human CD127(+) LTi-like Innate Lymphoid Cells by Toll-like Receptor 2

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Crellin, Natasha K.; Trifari, Sara; Kaplan, Charles D.; Satoh-Takayama, Naoko; Di Santo, James P.; Spits, Hergen

    2010-01-01

    Lymphoid tissue inducer cells are members of an emerging family of innate lymphoid cells (ILC). Although these cells were originally reported to produce cytokines such as interleukin-17 (IL-17) and IL-22, we demonstrate here that human CD127(+)RORC(+) and CD56(+)CD127(+) LTi-like ILC also express

  6. 75 FR 6092 - Special Conditions: Model C-27J Airplane; Class E Cargo Compartment Lavatory

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-08

    ... envision that a lavatory would be installed inside a Class E cargo compartment. Lavatories, including the... envision that a lavatory would be installed in a Class E cargo compartment. Therefore, special conditions...

  7. Endocytosis of desmosomal plaques depends on intact actin filaments and leads to a nondegradative compartment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm, Pernille K.; Hansen, Steen H.; Sandvig, Kirsten

    1993-01-01

    Cellebiologi, human epithelial cell line, growth inhibition, desmosomes, clathrin-independent endocytosis, cytoskeleton, nondegradative compartment......Cellebiologi, human epithelial cell line, growth inhibition, desmosomes, clathrin-independent endocytosis, cytoskeleton, nondegradative compartment...

  8. Long-term followup of rheumatoid arthritis patients treated with total lymphoid irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanay, A.; Field, E.H.; Hoppe, R.T.; Strober, S.

    1987-01-01

    Total lymphoid irradiation was administered to 32 patients with intractable rheumatoid arthritis. Twenty-four patients showed at least a 25% improvement in 3 of 4 disease activity parameters, which persisted during the followup period of up to 48 months. Eight of the 32 patients required adjunctive immunosuppressive drug therapy to maintain improvement. Four patients died after total lymphoid irradiation; the causes of death were acute myocardial infarction (1 patient), pulmonary embolism (1 patient), and rheumatoid lung disease complicated by respiratory infection (2 patients). After therapy, patients exhibited a prolonged reduction in the number and function of circulating T helper cells

  9. The role of innate lymphoid cells in healthy and inflamed skin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bonefeld, Charlotte M.; Geisler, Carsten

    2016-01-01

    system. During the last years, it has become clear that innate lymphoid cells play a role in homeostasis and inflammation of the skin in humans and mice. In this review, we will discuss the role of innate lymphoid cells in healthy and inflamed skin with special focus on their role in atopic dermatitis.......The skin constitutes the interface between the organism and the environment, and it protects the body from harmful substances in the environment via physical, chemical and immunological barriers. The immunological barrier of the skin comprises both cells from the innate and the adaptive immune...

  10. Imaging Findings of Localized Lymphoid Hyperplasia of the Pancreas: a Case Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Jin Woong; Heo, Suk Hee; Jeong, Yong Yeon; Kang, Heoung Keun; Shin, Sang Soo; Choi, Yoo Duk

    2011-01-01

    We report here on a case of localized lymphoid hyperplasia of the pancreas in a 70-year-old man which manifested as double lesions (uncinate process and tail) in the organ. The lesions were incidentally detected as hypoechoic lesions on ultrasonography and they appeared as delayed enhancing lesions on the contrast-enhanced dynamic CT and MRI. Total pancreatectomy was performed, because malignant tumor could not be excluded according to the preoperative imaging studies and the endoscopic ultrasound-guided biopsy failed. Pathology revealed localized lymphoid hyperplasia. The patient had an uneventful postoperative course. He has been alive for 18 months after surgery.

  11. Colonization and effector functions of innate lymphoid cells in mucosal tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Myunghoo; Kim, Chang H

    2016-10-01

    Innate lymphoid cells (ILCs) protect mucosal barrier tissues to fight infection and maintain tissue integrity. ILCs and their progenitors are developmentally programmed to migrate, differentiate and populate various mucosal tissues and associated lymphoid tissues. Functionally mature ILC subsets respond to diverse pathogens such as bacteria, viruses, fungi and parasites in subset-specific manners. In this review, we will discuss how ILCs populate mucosal tissues and regulate immune responses to distinct pathogens to protect the host and maintain tissue integrity. Copyright © 2016 Institut Pasteur. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  12. Imaging Findings of Localized Lymphoid Hyperplasia of the Pancreas: a Case Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jin Woong; Heo, Suk Hee; Jeong, Yong Yeon; Kang, Heoung Keun [Chonnam National University Hwasun Hospital and Medical School, Hwasun (Korea, Republic of); Shin, Sang Soo; Choi, Yoo Duk [Chonnam National University Hospital and Medical School, Gwangju (KR)

    2011-08-15

    We report here on a case of localized lymphoid hyperplasia of the pancreas in a 70-year-old man which manifested as double lesions (uncinate process and tail) in the organ. The lesions were incidentally detected as hypoechoic lesions on ultrasonography and they appeared as delayed enhancing lesions on the contrast-enhanced dynamic CT and MRI. Total pancreatectomy was performed, because malignant tumor could not be excluded according to the preoperative imaging studies and the endoscopic ultrasound-guided biopsy failed. Pathology revealed localized lymphoid hyperplasia. The patient had an uneventful postoperative course. He has been alive for 18 months after surgery.

  13. Allograft tolerance in pigs after fractionated lymphoid irradiation. II. Kidney graft after conventional total lymphoid irradiation and bone marrow cell grafting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fradelizi, D.; Mahouy, G.; de Riberolles, C.; Lecompte, Y.; Alhomme, P.; Douard, M.C.; Chotin, G.; Martelli, H.; Daburon, F.; Vaiman, M.

    1981-01-01

    Experiments with pigs have been performed in order to establish bone marrow chimerism and kidney graft tolerance between SLA genotyped semi-incompatible animals. Recipients were conditioned by means of conventional fractionated total lymphoid irradiation (TLI) delivered by a vertical cobalt source. The principal lymphoid regions of the pig, including thymus and spleen, were submitted to irradiation. Two protocols were tested: A = 250 cGy four times a week x 13 times (TLI) (two animals) and B = 350 cGy three times a week x 8 times (TLI) (four animals). Bone marrow cells were injected 24 h after the last irradiation. One day later, bilateral nephrectomy and the graft of one kidney from the bone marrow cell donor were performed simultaneously. Results convinced us that application of the TLI protocol to humans is not yet practicable and that further experimental work is needed

  14. Numerical Study on Hydrogen Flow Behavior in Two Compartments with Different Connecting Pipes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    HanChen Liu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Hydrogen accumulation in the containment compartments under severe accidents would result in high concentration, which could lead to hydrogen deflagration or detonation. Therefore, getting detailed hydrogen flow and distribution is a key issue to arrange hydrogen removal equipment in the containment compartments. In this study, hydrogen flow behavior in local compartments has been investigated in two horizontal compartments. The analysis model is built by 3-dimensional CFD code in Cartesian coordinates based on the connection structure of the Advanced Pressurized Water Reactor (PWR compartments. It consists of two cylindrical vessels, representing the Steam Generator compartment (SG and Core Makeup Tank compartment (CMT. With standard k-ε turbulence model, the effects of the connecting pipe size and location on hydrogen concentration distribution are investigated. Results show that increasing the diameter of connection pipe (IP which is located at 800 mm from 150 mm to 300 mm facilitates hydrogen flow between compartments. Decreasing the length of IP which is located at 800 mm from 1000 mm to 500 mm can also facilitate hydrogen flow between compartments. Lower IP is in favor of hydrogen mixing with air in non-source compartment. Higher IP is helpful for hydrogen flow to the non-source term compartment from source term compartment.

  15. 46 CFR 171.017 - One and two compartment standards of flooding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false One and two compartment standards of flooding. 171.017... standards of flooding. (a) One compartment standard of flooding. A vessel is designed to a one compartment standard of flooding if the margin line is not submerged when the total buoyancy between each set of two...

  16. Acute compartment syndrome after muscle rupture in a non-athlete.

    OpenAIRE

    Thennavan, A S; Funk, L; Volans, A P

    1999-01-01

    Acute compartment syndrome after muscle rupture, although rare, is a limb threatening condition, which warrants emergency treatment. The case of acute compartment syndrome secondary to a gastrocnemius muscle tear of the right lower leg, in a non-athlete is reported. To our knowledge, this is the only description of acute compartment syndrome due to muscle rupture in a non-athlete.

  17. Functional Defects in Type 3 Innate Lymphoid Cells and Classical Monocytes in a Patient with Hyper-IgE Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Yuna; Kang, Sung-Yoon; Kim, Jihyun; Kang, Hye-Ryun; Kim, Hye Young

    2017-10-01

    Hyper-IgE syndrome (HIES) is a very rare primary immune deficiency characterized by elevated serum IgE levels, recurrent bacterial infections, chronic dermatitis, and connective tissue abnormalities. Autosomal dominant (AD) HIES involves a mutation in signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) that leads to an impaired T H 17 response. STAT3 signaling is also involved in the function of RORγt + type 3 innate lymphoid cells (ILC3s) and RORγt + T H 17 cells. The aim of this study was to investigate the role of innate immune cells such as innate lymphoid cells (ILCs), granulocytes, and monocytes in a patient with HIES. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) from a patient with HIES and three age-matched healthy controls were obtained for the analysis of the innate and adaptive immune cells. The frequencies of ILCs in PBMCs were lower in the patient with HIES than in the controls. Moreover, granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) and IL-17A produced by ILC3s in PBMCs were lower in the patient with HIES than the controls. Compared with the controls, classical monocytes (CD14 + CD16 low ), which have a high antimicrobial capability, were also lower in the patient with HIES, while non-classical monocytes (CD14 low CD16 + ) as well as intermediate monocytes (CD14 + CD16 intermediate ) were higher. Taken together, these results indicate that the impaired immune defense against pathogenic microbes in the patient with HIES might be partially explained by functional defects in ILC3s and inflammatory monocytes.

  18. Limited immune surveillance in lymphoid tissue by cytolytic CD4+ T cells during health and HIV disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLane, Laura M.; Steblyanko, Maria; Anikeeva, Nadia; Ablanedo-Terrazas, Yuria; Demers, Korey; Eller, Michael A.; Streeck, Hendrik; Jansson, Marianne; Sönnerborg, Anders; Canaday, David H.; Naji, Ali; Wherry, E. John; Robb, Merlin L.; Reyes-Teran, Gustavo; Sykulev, Yuri; Betts, Michael R.

    2018-01-01

    CD4+ T cells subsets have a wide range of important helper and regulatory functions in the immune system. Several studies have specifically suggested that circulating effector CD4+ T cells may play a direct role in control of HIV replication through cytolytic activity or autocrine β-chemokine production. However, it remains unclear whether effector CD4+ T cells expressing cytolytic molecules and β-chemokines are present within lymph nodes (LNs), a major site of HIV replication. Here, we report that expression of β-chemokines and cytolytic molecules are enriched within a CD4+ T cell population with high levels of the T-box transcription factors T-bet and eomesodermin (Eomes). This effector population is predominately found in peripheral blood and is limited in LNs regardless of HIV infection or treatment status. As a result, CD4+ T cells generally lack effector functions in LNs, including cytolytic capacity and IFNγ and β-chemokine expression, even in HIV elite controllers and during acute/early HIV infection. While we do find the presence of degranulating CD4+ T cells in LNs, these cells do not bear functional or transcriptional effector T cell properties and are inherently poor to form stable immunological synapses compared to their peripheral blood counterparts. We demonstrate that CD4+ T cell cytolytic function, phenotype, and programming in the peripheral blood is dissociated from those characteristics found in lymphoid tissues. Together, these data challenge our current models based on blood and suggest spatially and temporally dissociated mechanisms of viral control in lymphoid tissues. PMID:29652923

  19. Peripheral tissue homing receptor control of naïve, effector, and memory CD8 T cell localization in lymphoid and non-lymphoid tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brinkman, C Colin; Peske, J David; Engelhard, Victor Henry

    2013-01-01

    T cell activation induces homing receptors that bind ligands on peripheral tissue vasculature, programing movement to sites of infection and injury. There are three major types of CD8 effector T cells based on homing receptor expression, which arise in distinct lymphoid organs. Recent publications indicate that naïve, effector, and memory T cell migration is more complex than once thought; while many effectors enter peripheral tissues, some re-enter lymph nodes (LN), and contain central memory precursors. LN re-entry can depend on CD62L or peripheral tissue homing receptors. Memory T cells in LN tend to express the same homing receptors as their forebears, but often are CD62Lneg. Homing receptors also control CD8 T cell tumor entry. Tumor vasculature has low levels of many peripheral tissue homing receptor ligands, but portions of it resemble high endothelial venules (HEV), enabling naïve T cell entry, activation, and subsequent effector activity. This vasculature is associated with positive prognoses in humans, suggesting it may sustain ongoing anti-tumor responses. These findings reveal new roles for homing receptors expressed by naïve, effector, and memory CD8 T cells in controlling entry into lymphoid and non-lymphoid tissues.

  20. Association of compartment defects in anorectal and pelvic floor dysfunction with female outlet obstruction constipation (OOC) by dynamic MR defecography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, M; Jiang, T; Peng, P; Yang, X-Q; Wang, W-C

    2015-04-01

    Chronic constipation affects more than 17% of the global population worldwide, and up to 50% of patients were outlet obstruction constipation (OOC). Women and the elderly are most likely to be affected, due to female-specific risk factors, such as menopause, parity and multiparity. The aim of our study was to investigate the association of compartment defects in anorectal and pelvic floor dysfunction with female outlet obstruction constipation (OOC) by MR defecography. Fifty-six consecutive women diagnosed with outlet obstruction constipation from October 2009 to July 2011 were included. They were categorized into the following groups: anorectal disorder only group (27 patients) and anorectal disorder plus multi-compartment pelvic disorder group (29 patients). Relevant measurements were taken at rest, during squeezing and straining. Anismus was significantly more common in the anorectal disorder group compared to the multi-compartment pelvic disorder group. Conversely, rectocele, rectal prolapse, and descending perineum were significantly more common in the multi-compartment pelvic disorder group compared to the anorectal disorder group. Of the total 56 OOC patients, 34 (60.7%) exhibited anismus and 38 (67.9%) rectocele. Among the anismus patients, there were 8 patients (23.5%) with combined cystocele, and 6 patients (17.6%) with combined vaginal/cervical prolapse. Among the rectocele patients, there were 23 patients (60.5%) with combined cystocele and 18 patients (47.4%) with combined vaginal/cervical prolapse. With respect to anorectal defects, 13 anismus patients (38.2%) were with signal posterior pelvic defects, 4 rectocele patients (10.5%) presented with signal posterior pelvic defects. Inadequate defecatory propulsion due to outlet obstruction constipation is often associated with multi-compartment pelvic floor disorders, whereas not about dyssynergic defecation.

  1. Dynamic and nucleolin-dependent localization of human cytomegalovirus UL84 to the periphery of viral replication compartments and nucleoli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bender, Brian J; Coen, Donald M; Strang, Blair L

    2014-10-01

    Protein-protein and protein-nucleic acid interactions within subcellular compartments are required for viral genome replication. To understand the localization of the human cytomegalovirus viral replication factor UL84 relative to other proteins involved in viral DNA synthesis and to replicating viral DNA in infected cells, we created a recombinant virus expressing a FLAG-tagged version of UL84 (UL84FLAG) and used this virus in immunofluorescence assays. UL84FLAG localization differed at early and late times of infection, transitioning from diffuse distribution throughout the nucleus to exclusion from the interior of replication compartments, with some concentration at the periphery of replication compartments with newly labeled DNA and the viral DNA polymerase subunit UL44. Early in infection, UL84FLAG colocalized with the viral single-stranded DNA binding protein UL57, but colocalization became less prominent as infection progressed. A portion of UL84FLAG also colocalized with the host nucleolar protein nucleolin at the peripheries of both replication compartments and nucleoli. Small interfering RNA (siRNA)-mediated knockdown of nucleolin resulted in a dramatic elimination of UL84FLAG from replication compartments and other parts of the nucleus and its accumulation in the cytoplasm. Reciprocal coimmunoprecipitation of viral proteins from infected cell lysates revealed association of UL84, UL44, and nucleolin. These results indicate that UL84 localization during infection is dynamic, which is likely relevant to its functions, and suggest that its nuclear and subnuclear localization is highly dependent on direct or indirect interactions with nucleolin. Importance: The protein-protein interactions among viral and cellular proteins required for replication of the human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) DNA genome are poorly understood. We sought to understand how an enigmatic HCMV protein critical for virus replication, UL84, localizes relative to other viral and cellular

  2. TC-PTP and PTP1B: Regulating JAK-STAT signaling, controlling lymphoid malignancies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pike, Kelly A; Tremblay, Michel L

    2016-06-01

    Lymphoid malignancies are characterized by an accumulation of genetic lesions that act co-operatively to perturb signaling pathways and alter gene expression programs. The Janus kinases (JAK)-signal transducers and activators of transcription (STATs) pathway is one such pathway that is frequently mutated in leukemia and lymphoma. In response to cytokines and growth factors, a cascade of reversible tyrosine phosphorylation events propagates the JAK-STAT pathway from the cell surface to the nucleus. Activated STAT family members then play a fundamental role in establishing the transcriptional landscape of the cell. In leukemia and lymphoma, somatic mutations have been identified in JAK and STAT family members, as well as, negative regulators of the pathway. Most recently, inactivating mutations in the protein tyrosine phosphatase (PTP) genes PTPN1 (PTP1B) and PTPN2 (TC-PTP) were sequenced in B cell lymphoma and T cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (T-ALL) respectively. The loss of PTP1B and TC-PTP phosphatase activity is associated with an increase in cytokine sensitivity, elevated JAK-STAT signaling, and changes in gene expression. As inactivation mutations in PTPN1 and PTPN2 are restricted to distinct subsets of leukemia and lymphoma, a future challenge will be to identify in which cellular contexts do they contributing to the initiation or maintenance of leukemogenesis or lymphomagenesis. As well, the molecular mechanisms by which PTP1B and TC-PTP loss co-operates with other genetic aberrations will need to be elucidated to design more effective therapeutic strategies. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Gastric mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphomas and Helicobacter pylori infection: A Colombian perspective

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sally Yepes; Maria Mercedes Torres; Carlos Saavedra; Rafael Andrade

    2012-01-01

    AIM:To assess the significance of chromosome translocation t(11;18)(q21;q21),B-cell lymphoma 10 (BCL-10)protein and Helicobacter pylori (H.pylori) infection in gastric mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) lymphoma in Colombia.METHODS:Fifty cases of gastric MALT lymphoma and their respective post-treatment follow-up biopsies were examined to assess the presence of the translocation t(11;18)(q21;q21) as identified by fluorescence in situ hybridization; to detect protein expression patterns of BCL10 using immunohistochemistry; and for evaluation of tumor histology to determine the correlation of these factors and resistance to H.pylori eradication.RESULTS:Infection with H.pylori was confirmed in all cases of gastric MALT lymphoma in association with chronic gastritis.Bacterial eradication led to tumor regression in 66% of cases.The translocation t(11;18)(q21;q21) was not present in any of these cases,nor was there evidence of tumor transformation to diffuse large B-cell lymphoma.Thirty-four percent of the patients showed resistance to tumor regression,and within this group,7 cases,representing 14% of all those analyzed,were considered to be t(11;18)(q21;q21)-positive gastric MALT lymphomas.Protein expression of BCL10 in the nucleus was associated with the presence of translocation and treatment resistance.Cases that were considered unresponsive to therapy were histologically characterized by the presence of homogeneous tumor cells and a lack of plasmacytic differentiation.Responder cases exhibited higher cellular heterogeneity and a greater frequency of plasma cells.CONCLUSION:Both t(11;18)(q21;q21)-positive MALT lymphoma cases and those with nuclear BCL10 expression are considered resistant to H,pylori eradication.It is suggested that chronic antigenic stimulation is not a dominant event in resistant cases.

  4. Vancomycin pre-treatment impairs tissue healing in experimental colitis: Importance of innate lymphoid cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Di; Cai, Chenwen; Zheng, Qing; Jin, Shuang; Song, Dongjuan; Shen, Jun; Ran, Zhihua

    2017-01-29

    The interplay between luminal microbes and innate immunity during colonic epithelial repair has been well noted. At the same time, antibiotic has widely been used during flare-ups of ulcerative colitis. The possible effects of luminal microbiota disruption caused by antibiotics usage on epithelial repairing have been scarcely discussed. Innate lymphoid cells (ILCs) embedded in the lamina propria can be modulated by gut microbes, resulting in altered colonic IL-22/pSTAT3 levels, which is considered a prominent molecular axis in tissue repairing after epithelium damage. This study aimed to investigate whether antibiotics could interfere with ILCs-dependent tissue repair. Dextran sodium sulfate (DSS)-induced colitis was established in mice pre-treated with reagent of different antibiotic spectrum. Both morphological and molecular markers of tissue repair after DSS cessation were detected. ILCs population and function status were also recorded. Further attention was paid to the response of dendritic cells after antibiotics treatment, which were claimed to regulate colonic ILC3s in an IL-23 dependent way. Using of vancomycin resulted in delayed tissue repairing after experimental colitis. Both colonic IL-22/pSTAT3 axis and ILC3 population were found decreased in this situation. Vancomycin treatment diminished the upstream IL-23 and producer dendritic cell population. The reduced dendritic cell number may due to inadequate chemokines and colony-stimulating factors supply. Presence of vancomycin-sensitive microbiota is required for the maturation of ILC3-activating dendritic cells hence maintain the sufficient IL-22/pSTAT3 level in the colon during tissue healing. Manipulation of colonic microbiota may help achieve colonic mucosal healing post inflammation and injury. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  5. RANKL regulates differentiation of microfold cells in mouse nasopharynx-associated lymphoid tissue (NALT).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mutoh, Mami; Kimura, Shunsuke; Takahashi-Iwanaga, Hiromi; Hisamoto, Meri; Iwanaga, Toshihiko; Iida, Junichiro

    2016-04-01

    Murine nasopharynx-associated lymphoid tissue (NALT), located at the base of the nasal cavity, serves as a major site for the induction of mucosal immune responses against airway antigens. The follicle-associated epithelium (FAE) covering the luminal surface of NALT is characterized by the presence of microfold cells (M cells), which take up and transport luminal antigens to lymphocytes. Glycoprotein 2 (GP2) has recently been identified as a reliable marker for M cells in Peyer's patches of the intestine. However, the expression of GP2 and other functional molecules in the M cells of NALT has not yet been examined. We have immunohistochemically detected GP2-expressing cells in the FAE of NALT and the simultaneous expression of other intestinal M-cell markers, namely Tnfaip2, CCL9, and Spi-B. These cells have been further identified as M cells because of their higher uptake capacity of luminal microbeads. Electron microscopic observations have shown that GP2-expressing cells on the FAE display morphological features typical of M cells: they possess short microvilli and microfolds on the luminal surface and are closely associated with intraepithelial lymphocytes. We have also found that the receptor activator of nuclear factor kappa-B ligand (RANKL) is expressed by stromal cells underneath the FAE, which provides its receptor RANK. The administration of RANKL markedly increases the number of GP2(+)Tnfaip2(+) cells on the NALT FAE and that of intestinal M cells. These results suggest that GP2(+)Tnfaip2(+) cells in NALT are equivalent to intestinal M cells, and that RANKL-RANK signaling induces their differentiation.

  6. DNMT3AR882H mutant and Tet2 inactivation cooperate in the deregulation of DNA methylation control to induce lymphoid malignancies in mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scourzic, L; Couronné, L; Pedersen, Marianne Terndrup

    2016-01-01

    malignancies with one mouse developing an AITL-like disease, two mice presenting acute myeloid leukemia (AML)-like and two others T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (T-ALL)-like diseases within 6 months following transplantation. Serial transplantations of DNMT3A(R882H) Tet2(-/-) progenitors led...... to a differentiation bias toward the T-cell compartment, eventually leading to AITL-like disease in 9/12 serially transplanted recipients. Expression profiling suggested that DNMT3A(R882H) Tet2(-/-) T-ALLs resemble those of NOTCH1 mutant. Methylation analysis of DNMT3A(R882H) Tet2(-/-) T-ALLs showed a global increase...... in DNA methylation affecting tumor suppressor genes and local hypomethylation affecting genes involved in the Notch pathway. Our data confirm the transformation potential of DNMT3A(R882H) Tet2(-/-) progenitors and represent the first cooperative model in mice involving Tet2 inactivation driving lymphoid...

  7. Contribution of Mesenteric Lymph Nodes and GALT to the Intestinal Foxp3+ Regulatory T-Cell CompartmentSummary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duke Geem

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Background & Aims: Foxp3+ regulatory T cells (Tregs in the intestine promote immune tolerance to enteric antigens. Previous studies have shown that C-C chemokine receptor 7 (CCR7-dependent migration of intestinal dendritic cells to the mesenteric lymph nodes (mLN is involved in peripheral Foxp3+ Treg accumulation in the intestine and the establishment of oral tolerance. However, the relative contribution of this CCR7+ dendritic cell–mLN–Treg axis to the total intestinal Foxp3+ Treg pool during the steady-state remains unclear. In this study, the contribution of CCR7, as well as the mLN and gut-associated lymphoid tissue (GALT, to the intestinal Foxp3+ Treg compartment in the small intestine (SI and large intestine (LI was assessed. Methods: Intestinal Foxp3+ Tregs were quantitated in Ccr7-/- mice and in mice devoid of secondary lymphoid organs—including mLN and GALT—owing to a deficiency in lymphotoxin (LT signaling. Specific analyses of Foxp3+Helios+ thymically derived (tTregs and Foxp3+Helios- peripherally derived (pTregs in the SI and LI, as well as the role for the mLN in supporting Foxp3+ pTreg development using the B6.Cg-Tg(TcraTcrb425Cbn/J/ovalbumin (OVA feeding system, were performed. Results: Foxp3+ Tregs were enriched in the intestine relative to the mLN, independent of CCR7. In the absence of the mLN and GALT, normal frequency and numbers of Foxp3+ Tregs were observed in LTα-deficient (Lta-/- mice. However, Foxp3+Helios- pTregs were decreased in the SI of Lta-/- mice, corresponding with defective Foxp3+ pTreg expansion to OVA. In the LI, however, the proportion of Foxp3+Helios- pTregs and Foxp3+ pTreg induction to OVA was comparable between Lta-/- and Lta+/+ mice, which coincided with preferential expression of Treg-inducing/immunoregulatory cytokines. Conclusions: The overall size of the intestinal Foxp3+Treg pool is not impacted significantly by CCR7, mLN, or GALT during the steady-state. However, m

  8. NUMERICAL SIMULATION OF CAVITY FLOW AND FLOW OVER AIRCRAFT COMPARTMENT USING SEMI-EMPIRICAL TURBULENCE MODELS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to the validation and application of CFD code for turbulent flows. Two-dimensional un- steady flows in the cavities and compartments and three-dimensional flow in the compartment of complex geometry have been considered. Two turbulence parameter oriented models are used.Numerical simulation of unsteady transonic flow (Mоо=0.74 in a narrow channel with a cavity inside has been conducted. The dependence of the static pressure on time at fixed points in space has been obtained. The fast Fourier trans- form has been applied for processing data of static pressure. The difference of 6-10% between the numerical and experi-mental data has been obtained.The computations of unsteady transonic cavity flow with Mach number Mоо=0.85 have been performed. Low fre- quency oscillations of the static pressure in several fixed points in space have been obtained. Power spectrum of oscilla- tions at the center of the cavity is compared with experimental data and Rossiter modes. An acceptable agreement between experimental and computed data has been achieved. The influence of geometrical factors on the frequency characteristics of the flow has been investigated. For this purpose two round flaps have been added to the cavity. The most low-frequency oscillation modes changed by the presence of the flaps. The first mode was gone, the second mode amplitude decreased and the third mode amplitude significantly decreased. The changes in height of protruding part of the geometry to the external flow have led to changes in pressure pulsation amplitude without changing the frequency. The spectral functions obtained while using the two considered models of turbulence have been compared for this case. It is found that the frequency values are only slightly different; the main difference is present at the amplitude of pulsations.The effect of deflection of flat flap on the non-stationary subsonic flow parameters in a cylindrical body with an inner

  9. Regular character of chromatin degradation in lymphoid tissues after treatment with biological alkylating agents in vivo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matyasova, J.; Skalka, M.; Cejkova, M.

    1979-01-01

    The chromatin changes are reevaluated occurring in lymphoid tissues of mice treated with alkylating agents of the nitrogen-mustard type in relation to recent evidence on the nucleosomal organization of chromatin and to our new data on the regular character of chromatin degradation in lymphoid tissues of irradiated mice. DNA was isolated from nuclei at various intervals (1 to 18 h) after treatment of mice and subjected to gel electrophoresis in polyacrylamide gels. Thymus chromatin from treated mice has been shown to degrade in a regular fashion and to yield discrete DNA fragments, resembling those that originate in lymphoid tissues of irradiated mice or in thymus nuclei digested with micrococcal nuclease in vitro. With increasing interval after treatment higher amounts of smaller DNA fragments appear. Chromatin in spleen cells responds to treatment in a similar way, whilst no degradation in vivo takes place in liver chromatin. Chromatin of LS/BL lymphosarcoma cells in mice treated with alkylating agents or with irradiation suffers from a similar regular degradation. The results stress the significance of the action of liberated or activated endogenous nuclease(s) in the development of chromatin damage in lymphoid cells after treatment with alkylating agents. (author)

  10. Case of CML lymphoid blast crisis presenting as bilateral breast masses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hossain, Aneesha; Gupta, Kanika; Mener, Andrew; Tabbara, Imad

    2016-08-10

    A woman aged 42 years with a 1-month history of rapidly expanding bilateral breast masses presented with severe leucocytosis, anaemia, blurry vision, headaches and shortness of breath. Evaluation revealed chronic myeloid leukaemia in lymphoid blast crisis with extramedullary leukaemia involving her breasts. 2016 BMJ Publishing Group Ltd.

  11. Treatment of severe aplastic anaemia with total lymphoid irradiation and methylprednisolone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mehta, J.; Singhal, S.; Huilgol, N.; Merchant, R.; Mehta, B.C.

    1992-01-01

    This case report briefly summarizes the treatment of aplastic anaemia with total lymphoid irradiation and methylprednisolone and recommends that this procedure should be considered a therapeutic option in patients who are not candidates for bone marrow transplantation or antithymocyte globulin, or those who have failed one course of the latter. (Author)

  12. The 2016 revision of the World Health Organization classification of lymphoid neoplasms | Center for Cancer Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    A revision of the nearly 8-year-old World Health Organization classification of the lymphoid neoplasms and the accompanying monograph is being published. It reflects a consensus among hematopathologists, geneticists, and clinicians regarding both updates to current entities as well as the addition of a limited number of new provisional entities.

  13. Genotypic and phenotypic aspects of primary immunodeficiency diseases of the lymphoid system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.G. Noordzij

    2002-01-01

    textabstractThis thesis focuses on the immunological phenotype, the mutation analysis, and the residual activity of mutated proteins in patients with PID of the lymphoid system. During this project, we have investigated possible genotype-(immuno)phenotype relationships in patients with antibody

  14. Microscopic aspects of lymphoid organs in the guinea pig (Cavia porcellus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda Menezes de Oliveira e Silva

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/2175-7925.2013v26n4p233 Microscopy of lymphoid organs was studied in the guinea pig at different developmental stages – fetus, pup, and adult. Liver is a lobed organ, coated with a mesothelium, and it consists of sinusoids and cell plates in its parenchyma, named hepatocytes. Thymus is covered by a thin capsule of connective tissue which is protruded as septa into the entire organ. The parenchyma of each lobule is not clearly separated into a cortex and medulla. Hassall’s corpuscles are abundant. Lymph nodes are arranged into cortex and medulla. The cortex has germinal centers or lymphoid nodules, surrounded by diffuse lymphoid tissue. Spleen is divided into red and white pulp. Trabeculae of connective tissue are protruded into the spleen from the capsule; however, they are sparsely found around the red and white pulps. Germinal centers were found in the white pulp, where small and large lymphocytes and lymphoblasts can be found. Since the guinea pig is regarded as an important model for morphological studies due to its closeness to human beings, this article raises relevant information on the structural components of the lymphoid system in these animals, providing a new source of data to other knowledge fields.

  15. Microscopic aspects of lymphoid organs in the guinea pig (Cavia porcellus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda Menezes de Oliveira e Silva

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Microscopy of lymphoid organs was studied in the guinea pig at different developmental stages – fetus, pup, and adult. Liver is a lobed organ, coated with a mesothelium, and it consists of sinusoids and cell plates in its parenchyma, named hepatocytes. Thymus is covered by a thin capsule of connective tissue which is protruded as septa into the entire organ. The parenchyma of each lobule is not clearly separated into a cortex and medulla. Hassall’s corpuscles are abundant. Lymph nodes are arranged into cortex and medulla. The cortex has germinal centers or lymphoid nodules, surrounded by diffuse lymphoid tissue. Spleen is divided into red and white pulp. Trabeculae of connective tissue are protruded into the spleen from the capsule; however, they are sparsely found around the red and white pulps. Germinal centers were found in the white pulp, where small and large lymphocytes and lymphoblasts can be found. Since the guinea pig is regarded as an important model for morphological studies due to its closeness to human beings, this article raises relevant information on the structural components of the lymphoid system in these animals, providing a new source of data to other knowledge fields.

  16. Context-Dependent Development of Lymphoid Stroma from Adult CD34+ Adventitial Progenitors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sitnik, Katarzyna Maria; Wendland, Kerstin; Weishaupt, Holger

    2016-01-01

    Despite the key role of primary and secondary lymphoid organ stroma in immunity, our understanding of the heterogeneity and ontogeny of these cells remains limited. Here, we identify a functionally distinct subset of BP3-PDPN+PDGFRβ+/α+CD34+ stromal adventitial cells in both lymph nodes (LNs...

  17. Disseminated Cryptococcosis With Brain Involvement in Patients With Chronic Lymphoid Malignancies on Ibrutinib.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Messina, Julia A; Maziarz, Eileen K; Spec, Andrej; Kontoyiannis, Dimitrios P; Perfect, John R

    2017-01-01

    We report 2 cases of disseminated cryptococcosis with central nervous system involvement in patients with chronic lymphoid malignancies occurring within 1 month of starting on ibrutinib. Characteristically, in both cases, no inflammation was seen in the cerebrospinal fluid. Central nervous system mycoses should be considered as a potential complication of ibrutinib.

  18. Disseminated Cryptococcosis With Brain Involvement in Patients With Chronic Lymphoid Malignancies on Ibrutinib

    OpenAIRE

    Messina, Julia A.; Maziarz, Eileen K.; Spec, Andrej; Kontoyiannis, Dimitrios P.; Perfect, John R.

    2017-01-01

    Abstract We report 2 cases of disseminated cryptococcosis with central nervous system involvement in patients with chronic lymphoid malignancies occurring within 1 month of starting on ibrutinib. Characteristically, in both cases, no inflammation was seen in the cerebrospinal fluid. Central nervous system mycoses should be considered as a potential complication of ibrutinib.

  19. Treatment of Mucosa-associated Lymphoid Tissue Lymphoma in Sjogren's Syndrome : A Retrospective Clinical Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pollard, Rodney P. E.; Pijpe, Justin; Bootsma, Hendrika; Spijkervet, Fred K. L.; Kluin, Philip M.; Roodenburg, Jan L. N.; Kallenberg, Cees G. M.; Vissink, Arjan; van Imhoff, Gustaaf W.

    2011-01-01

    Objective. To retrospectively analyze the clinical course of patients with mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT)-type lymphoma of the parotid gland and associated Sjogren's syndrome (SS). Methods. All consecutive patients with SS and MALT lymphoma (MALT-SS) diagnosed in the University Medical

  20. S1P dependent inter organ trafficking of group 2 innate lymphoid cells suppots host defense

    Science.gov (United States)

    Innate lymphoid cells (ILCs) are considered to be the innate counterparts of adaptive T lymphocytes and play important roles in host defense, tissue repair, metabolic homeostasis, and inflammatory diseases. ILCs are generally thought of as tissue-resident cells, but whether ILCs strictly behave in a...