WorldWideScience

Sample records for lymphohematopoietic system pregnant

  1. Extracellular ATP in the lymphohematopoietic system: P2Z purinoceptors and membrane permeabilization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Persechini P.M.

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available The effects of extracellular nucleosides and nucleotides on many organs and systems have been recognized for almost 50 years. The effects of extracellular ATP (ATPo, UTPo, ADPo, and other agonists are mediated by P2 purinoceptors. One of the most dramatic effects of ATPo is the permeabilization of plasma membranes to low molecular mass solutes of up to 900 Da. This effect is evident in several cells of the lymphohematopoietic system and is supposed to be mediated by P2Z, an ATP4--activated purinoceptor. Here, we review some basic information concerning P2 purinoceptors and focus our attention on P2Z-associated phenomena displayed by macrophages. Using fluorescent dye uptake, measurement of free intracellular Ca2+ concentration and electrophysiological recordings, we elucidate some of the events that follow the application of ATP to the extracellular surface of macrophages. We propose a regulatory mechanism for the P2Z-associated permeabilization pore. The presence of P2 purinoceptors in cells of the lymphohematopoietic system makes them potential candidates to mediate immunoregulatory events

  2. 75 FR 76460 - Lymphohematopoietic Cancers Induced by Chemicals and Other Agents: Overview and Implications for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-08

    ... AGENCY Lymphohematopoietic Cancers Induced by Chemicals and Other Agents: Overview and Implications for..., ``Lymphohematopoietic Cancers Induced by Chemicals and Other Agents: Overview and Implications for Risk Assessment.... ADDRESSES: The draft ``Lymphohematopoietic Cancers Induced by Chemicals and Other Agents: Overview...

  3. Systematic review of the epidemiology literature on formaldehyde and lymphohematopoietic cancers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Background: EPA is currently drafting a Toxicological Review of formaldehyde. As part of the comprehensive evaluation of potential hazards associated with exposure to formaldehyde, the potential hazards for lymphohematopoietic cancers are being evaluated. We are aware of multiple...

  4. Lymphohematopoietic Cancer Mortality and Morbidity of Workers in a Refinery/Petrochemical Complex in Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dong-Hee Koh

    2011-03-01

    Conclusion: The results showed a potential relationship between leukemia and lymphohematopoietic cancers and exposure to benzene in refinery/petrochemical complex workers. This study yielded limited results due to a short observational period; therefore, a follow-up study must be performed to elucidate the relationship between petrochemical exposure and cancer rates.

  5. Current approach for urinary system stone disease in pregnant women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orcun Celik

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Urinary system stones can be classified according to size, location, X-ray characteristics, aetiology of formation, composition, and risk of recurrence. Especially urolithiasis during pregnancy is a diagnostic and therapeutic challenge. In most cases, it becomes symptomatic in the second or third trimester. Diagnostic options in pregnant women are limited due to the possible teratogenic, carcinogenic, and mutagenic risk of foetal radiation exposure. Clinical management of a pregnant urolithiasis patient is complex and demands close collaboration between patient, obstetrician and urologist. We would like to review current diagnosis and treatment modalities of stone disease of pregnant woman.

  6. Current approach for urinary system stone disease in pregnant women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Celik, Orcun; Türk, Hakan; Cakmak, Ozgur; Budak, Salih; Ekin, Rahmi Gokhan; Keskin, Mehmet Zeynel; Yildiz, Guner; Ilbey, Yusuf Ozlem

    2016-01-14

    Urinary system stones can be classified according to size, location, X-ray characteristics, aetiology of formation, composition, and risk of recurrence. Especially urolithiasis during pregnancy is a diagnostic and therapeutic challenge. In most cases, it becomes symptomatic in the second or third trimester. Diagnostic options in pregnant women are limited due to the possible teratogenic, carcinogenic, and mutagenic risk of foetal radiation exposure. Clinical management of a pregnant urolithiasis patient is complex and demands close collaboration between patient, obstetrician and urologist. We would like to review current diagnosis and treatment modalities of stone disease of pregnant woman.

  7. Current approach for urinary system stone disease in pregnant women

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    Urinary system stones can be classified according to size, location, X-ray characteristics, aetiology of formation, composition, and risk of recurrence. Especially urolithiasis during pregnancy is a diagnostic and therapeutic challenge. In most cases, it becomes symptomatic in the second or third trimester. Diagnostic options in pregnant women are limited due to the possible teratogenic, carcinogenic, and mutagenic risk of foetal radiation exposure. Clinical management of a pregnant urolithia...

  8. Lymphohematopoietic Cancers Induced by Chemicals and Other Agents: Overview and Implications for Risk Assessment (External Review Draft)

    Science.gov (United States)

    This draft report provides an overview of the types of mechanisms underlying the lymphohematopoietic cancers induced by chemical agents and radiation in humans, with a primary emphasis on leukemia and leukemia-inducing agents. It focuses on how mechanistic information on human l...

  9. Public Attitudes to Housing Systems for Pregnant Pigs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E B Ryan

    Full Text Available Understanding concerns about the welfare of farm animals is important for the development of socially sustainable production practices. This study used an online survey to test how views on group versus stall housing for pregnant sows varied when Canadian and US participants were provided information about these systems, including access to scientific papers, YouTube videos, Google images, and a frequently-asked-questions page (S1 Appendix. Initial responses and changes in responses after accessing the information were analyzed from Likert scores of 242 participants and from their written comments. Participants were less willing to accept the use of gestation stalls after viewing information on sow housing. For example, initially 30.4% of respondents indicated that they supported the use of gestation stalls; this declined to 17.8% after participants were provided additional information. Qualitative analysis of comments showed that supporters of gestation stalls expressed concern about the spread of disease and aggression between animals in less confined systems, whereas supporters of group housing placed more emphasis on the sow's ability to interact socially and perform natural behaviors. These results point to public opposition to the use of gestation stalls, and indicate that the more that the public learns about gestation stalls the less willing they will be to accept their use.

  10. Systemic alterations and their oral manifestations in pregnant women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva de Araujo Figueiredo, Camilla; Gonçalves Carvalho Rosalem, Cíntia; Costa Cantanhede, Andre Luis; Abreu Fonseca Thomaz, Érika Bárbara; Fontoura Nogueira da Cruz, Maria Carmen

    2017-01-01

    The aims of this literature review are: to depict the main oral diseases that are related to pregnancy; to clarify some of the possible systemic mechanisms that are associated with these changes; and to address issues about oral care during pregnancy. A woman's organs undergo various physiological, neurological, and hormonal changes during pregnancy. Such changes occur gradually and are essential for the development of the fetus, providing what is needed for tissue formation and establishment of reserves for uterine and fetal life. In turn, the oral cavity shows some events during this period. Among the changes most frequently cited in the literature are pyogenic granuloma, gingivitis, and periodontitis. The inflammation of the periodontal tissues due to the formation of the biofilm increases dramatically in size and severity during the course of a normal pregnancy, even without changes in the amount of biofilm present. In addition, a decrease in salivary pH is observed in pregnant women and may lead to an increased incidence of dental caries in this period.

  11. Systematic review and meta-analysis of glyphosate exposure and risk of lymphohematopoietic cancers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Ellen T; Delzell, Elizabeth

    2016-01-01

    This systematic review and meta-analysis rigorously examines the relationship between glyphosate exposure and risk of lymphohematopoietic cancer (LHC) including NHL, Hodgkin lymphoma (HL), multiple myeloma (MM), and leukemia. Meta-relative risks (meta-RRs) were positive and marginally statistically significant for the association between any versus no use of glyphosate and risk of NHL (meta-RR = 1.3, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.0-1.6, based on six studies) and MM (meta-RR = 1.4, 95% CI = 1.0-1.9; four studies). Associations were statistically null for HL (meta-RR = 1.1, 95% CI = 0.7-1.6; two studies), leukemia (meta-RR = 1.0, 95% CI = 0.6-1.5; three studies), and NHL subtypes except B-cell lymphoma (two studies each). Bias and confounding may account for observed associations. Meta-analysis is constrained by few studies and a crude exposure metric, while the overall body of literature is methodologically limited and findings are not strong or consistent. Thus, a causal relationship has not been established between glyphosate exposure and risk of any type of LHC.

  12. BIOFEEDBACK APPLICATION FOR PREGNANT WOMAN TRAINING UNDER MONITORING OF MOTHER – FETUS SYSTEM CONDITION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A. Khlopova

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Raining influence with biofeedback on system mother fetus was investigated. The technique of biofeedback training for the pregnant women was developed, which had main objective to control of parameters of vegetative nervous system by means of breath. The technique was tested on a group of pregnant wo men on term of a gestation of 32–35 weeks. It is established: change of a functional condition of mother influences level of sympathetic regulation of a heart rhythm of a fetus.

  13. Anxiety levels, health behaviors, and support systems of pregnant women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albrecht, S A; Rankin, M

    1989-01-01

    The purpose of this correlational descriptive study was to assess health behaviors, anxiety levels, and social support of pregnant women, ages 20 to 40, who were without complications and were patients of four private obstetrical practices in a large metropolitan city. Although sampling was a nonprobability approach, various socioeconomic, racial, and religious groups were represented. The three instruments used to test the hypotheses included the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI), the Personal Resource Questionnaire (PRQ) and a detailed Health Behavior Demographic Questionnaire. Results of the data indicated no significant differences between pregnant smokers' and pregnant nonsmokers' STAI or PRQ scores. Significant positive correlations were revealed between the following variables: Trait anxiety with increased age of pregnancy (r = .77, p = .008); trait anxiety with high educational level (r = .72, p = .001); trait anxiety with state anxiety (r = .64, p = .001); trait anxiety with years married (r = .68, p = .018); trait anxiety with numbers of children (r = .82, p = .005); trait anxiety with high occupation level (r = .68, p = .001), increased age with PRQ support (r = -.88, p = .001); caucasian women examined breast more frequently (r = .47, p = .005); pregnant women who were smokers also were more likely to drink (r = .66, p = .03). Significant negative correlations were: Increased state anxiety with decreased social support (r = -.28, p = .05); higher trait anxiety with lower PRQ (r = -.59, p = .001), and more drinks of alcohol per day with decreased social support (r = .88, p = .04). The study indicated that the subjects who continue to smoke while pregnant were highly educated. All had at least two years of college with 45% having completed graduate school. All were working in managerial or professional jobs. This has implications for nursing interventions focused on enhancing health coping strategies at the workplace and specific health promotion

  14. Behavior assessments of pregnant adolescents using TFA Systems (tm)

    OpenAIRE

    Bundy, Patricia Pulliam

    1991-01-01

    The purpose of this descriptive study was to assess the thoughts, feelings, and actions of pregnant teens at significant decision-making times: time of intercourse, confirmation of pregnancy, and six weeks post delivery. Factors associated with adolescent pregnancy and patterns of behavior were analyzed. Examination of the extant literature on adolescent pregnancy yielded insight into parental, socio-economic, and partner factors. The interview protocol emanated from the literature anal...

  15. Blood Pressure Mobile Monitoring for Pregnant Woman Based Android System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Supriyanti, Retno; Erfayanto, Uji; Ramadani, Yogi; Murdyantoro, Eko; Widodo, Haris B.

    2016-01-01

    Currently, at least 18,000 women die every year in Indonesia due to pregnancy or childbirth. It means that every half hour a woman dies due to pregnancy or childbirth. As a result, every year 36,000 children became orphans. The high maternal mortality rate was put Indonesia on top in ASEAN. The main causes of maternal mortality are high-risk pregnancy. Mothers who have diseases like high blood pressure, pre-eclampsia, diabetes, hyperthyroidism, and already over 40 years old and infectious diseases such as rubella, hepatitis and HIV can be factors that lead to high-risk pregnancy. This paper will discuss the development of a blood pressure monitoring device that is suitable for pregnant women. It is based on convenience for pregnant women to get the equipment that is flexible with her presence. Results indicate that the equipment is in use daily support for pregnant women therefore, one of the causes of maternal mortality can be detected earlier.

  16. Modelling of animal welfare : the development of a decision support system to assess the welfare status of pregnant sows

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bracke, M.B.M.

    2001-01-01

    A computer-based decision support system for welfare assessment in pregnant sows was constructed. This system uses a description of a husbandry system as input and produces a welfare score on a scale from 0 to 10 as output. Pregnant sows were chosen as a case in search for a formalised, i.e. structu

  17. Ontology-Based Clinical Decision Support System for Predicting High-Risk Pregnant Woman

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Umar Manzoor

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available According to Pakistan Medical and Dental Council (PMDC, Pakistan is facing a shortage of approximately 182,000 medical doctors. Due to the shortage of doctors; a large number of lives are in danger especially pregnant woman. A large number of pregnant women die every year due to pregnancy complications, and usually the reason behind their death is that the complications are not timely handled. In this paper, we proposed ontology-based clinical decision support system that diagnoses high-risk pregnant women and refer them to the qualified medical doctors for timely treatment. The Ontology of the proposed system is built automatically and enhanced afterward using doctor’s feedback. The proposed framework has been tested on a large number of test cases; experimental results are satisfactory and support the implementation of the solution.

  18. Thyroid disease in pregnant women with systemic lupus erythematosus: increased preterm delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stagnaro-Green, A; Akhter, E; Yim, C; Davies, Terry F; Magder, Ls; Petri, M

    2011-06-01

    Thyroid disease is common in pregnancy and is associated with miscarriage, preterm delivery and postpartum thyroiditis (PPT). Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is associated with miscarriage and preterm delivery. The hypotheses of the study are (1) pregnant women with SLE will have a high prevalence of undiagnosed hypothyroidism and a high prevalence of PPT, and (2) women with SLE and thyroid disease will have an increased incidence of adverse pregnancy outcomes as compared with pregnant women with SLE who do not have thyroid disease. This was a retrospective study of the Hopkins Lupus Cohort. All women had thyroid-stimulating hormone and thyroid antibodies assayed on frozen sera. In total, 63 pregnant women who met the ACR classification for SLE were evaluated. Outcome measures were the prevalence of thyroid disease during pregnancy and postpartum, and pregnancy outcomes. Some 13% of the women were on thyroid hormone prior to becoming pregnant, 11% were diagnosed with hypothyroidism during pregnancy, and 14% developed PPT. The prevalence of preterm delivery was 67% in women with thyroid disease and 18% in women who were thyroid disease free (p = 0.002). The presence of thyroid antibodies was not correlated with preterm delivery. Pregnant women with SLE have an increased prevalence of thyroid disease. Women with SLE and thyroid disease have an increased prevalence of preterm delivery.

  19. Internal carotid artery dissection following chiropractic treatment in a pregnant woman with Systemic Lupus Erythematosus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morton Adam

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract A case of internal carotid artery dissection in a pregnant woman with Systemic Lupus Erythematosus (SLE immediately following chiropractic treatment is presented. The literature regarding complications of neck manipulation during pregnancy, spontaneous dissection of craniocervical arteries in pregnancy and the postpartum period, and dissection of craniocervical arteries in SLE are reviewed. To the best of the author’s knowledge, this is the first case of carotid artery dissection following chiropractic treatment in a pregnant woman published in the literature.

  20. Nutritional assessment of pregnant adolescents: comparison of two popular classification systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amaral, Janaina de Fátima Ávila; Vasconcelos, Guilherme Miranda; Torloni, Maria Regina; Fisberg, Mauro; Sampaio, Isa de Pádua Cintra; Guazzelli, Cristina Aparecida Falbo

    2015-07-01

    The objective of this study was to assess the degree of concordance between two popular classification systems [the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC)-2000 and the Institute of Medicine (IOM)-2009] used to categorise the nutritional status of pregnant adolescents. This cross-sectional study involved 327 pregnant adolescents (10-19 years) booking for antenatal care at a single public maternity in São Paulo, Brazil. Participants were classified into one of four categories, by both systems according to their pre-pregnancy body mass index and age. The CDC-2000 system classified significantly fewer pregnant adolescents as underweight (3.7% vs. 12.5%, P nutritional classification, which does not take into account age and gender, tends to overestimate the proportion of underweight adolescents, especially in the younger-age group. The use of this classification system can lead to recommendations of higher gestational weight gain in a substantial proportion of pregnant adolescents, which could predispose to post-partum weight retention and future obesity.

  1. Seasonal influenza vaccine coverage among pregnant women: pregnancy risk assessment monitoring system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahluwalia, Indu B; Singleton, James A; Jamieson, Denise J; Rasmussen, Sonja A; Harrison, Leslie

    2011-05-01

    Since 2004, the American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists (ACOG) and the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP) have recommended that pregnant women receive the seasonal influenza vaccine, regardless of pregnancy trimester, because of their increased risk for severe complications from influenza. However, the uptake of the influenza vaccine by pregnant women has been low. During the 2009-2010 influenza season, pregnant women were identified as a priority population to receive the influenza A (H1N1) 2009 (2009 H1N1) monovalent vaccine in addition to the seasonal influenza vaccine. In this issue, we highlight information from the 10 states that collected data using the survey administered by the Pregnancy Risk Assessment and Monitoring System (PRAMS) about seasonal vaccine coverage among women with recent live births and reasons for those who chose not to get vaccinated. The combined estimates from PRAMS of influenza vaccination coverage for the 2009-2010 season, which included data from October 2009 to March 2010, from 10 states were 50.7% for seasonal and 46.6% for 2009 H1N1 vaccine among women with recent live births. Among women who did not get vaccinated, reasons varied from worries about the safety of the vaccines for self and baby to not normally getting the vaccination. Further evaluation is needed on ways to increase influenza vaccination among pregnant women, effectively communicate the risk of influenza illness during pregnancy, and address women's concerns about influenza vaccination safety during pregnancy.

  2. Racial discrimination predicts greater systemic inflammation in pregnant African American women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giurgescu, Carmen; Engeland, Christopher G; Templin, Thomas N; Zenk, Shannon N; Koenig, Mary Dawn; Garfield, Lindsey

    2016-11-01

    Chronic exposure to racial discrimination by pregnant African American women may lead to allostatic overload; thereby, predisposing women to systemic inflammation. Thus, the goal of this study was to examine if experiences of racial discrimination are related to systemic inflammation in pregnant African Americans. A sample of 96 African American women from Chicago completed questionnaires and had blood drawn during the second trimester of pregnancy (19.7±2.5 weeks). Experiences of racial discrimination were associated with higher cytokine levels of interleukin (IL)-4 (B=2.161, 95% CI = 1.02-3.30, pracial discrimination may cause physiological wear and tear on the body leading to alteration of immune functions. Nurses should inquire about women's experiences of racial discrimination and make referrals for community or church support groups for women who report racial discrimination. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. The functional condition of fetoplacental system in pregnant women with thyroid gland autoimmune pathology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. A. Melikova

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Some kind of specific system: placenta - thyroid gland - is said to be formed during pregnancy. Regulation of thyroid hormone metabolism depends on the state of the fetoplacental complex (FPC. The nature of the relationship of thyroid gland (TG with the FPC affects the course of pregnancy, fetal growth and the formation of his own pituitary-thyroid system. Goal. To study the characteristics of the hormonal function of fetoplacental complex in pregnant women with autoimmune thyroid disease. Materials and methods. The study included 102 pregnant women: group I – 29 women with euthyroid as the outcome of autoimmune thyroiditis (AIT, 25 women with a diagnosis of hypothyroidism as a form of AIT were included into the second group, in III group – 23 women with autoimmune hyperthyroidism. The control group consisted of 25 healthy women. Hypophysial and thyroid system hormonal profile and FPK of pregnant women were detected in dynamics. Results. It is revealed that reliable change of hormonal indexes of function of hypophysial and thyroid system leads to weighable changes of indexes of FPK and the AFP level in mother's blood, i.e. to a placentary failure, are result of it: early and late gestosis (54.5 %, chronic fetal hypoxia (21.7 %, discoordination of patrimonial activity (5.2 %, premature births (17.2 %, threat of an abortion (7.4 %. Conclusions. According to our data the most accurate diagnostic criterion for the development of primary placental insufficiency in pregnant women with thyroid conditions can be considered the change in the level of estriol, progesterone, placental lactogen and AFP in the dynamics of gestation. Their determination can be considered as predictor for early treatment and prevention of placental insufficiency.

  4. [Preoperative preparation of pregnant with hypertension according to state of the autonomic nervous system and circulatory system].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gur'ianov, V A; Tolmachev, G N; Volodin, A V; Marichik, N V; Nemirovskiĭ, V B; Pivovarova, G M; Shepetovskaia, N L

    2010-01-01

    Pregnancy in patients with hypertension is considered in the spotlight of creation of general adaptation syndrome. According to evidence, when a stable hypertension in pregnant patients with hyper- and eukinetic types of haemodynamics is observed, the response of circulatory system and body fluid compartments has a moderate difference with normal. In pregnant patients with hypertension and a hypokinetic type of haemodynamics and pregnant patients with gestosis developed against the background of eukinetic type of hypertension, a physiological decrease of total peripheral resistance (TPR) is absent, which contributes into interstitial hyperhydration. In pregnant patients with gestosis developed against the background of hypokinetic type of haemodynamics, a pathological rise of TPR occurs, which is followed with a more significant interstitial hyperhydration. A differentiated preoperative preparation of pregnant with hypertension with the calcium antagonists and hydroxyethyl starch solution (130/0,4) favours the conversion of hyper- and hypokinetic types of haemodynamics to eukinetic, forms a physiological type of sympathicotonia and improves the water-salt metabolism.

  5. Immunosuppression in pregnant women with systemic lupus erythematosus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponticelli, Claudio; Moroni, Gabriella

    2015-05-01

    Most pregnancies are successful in women with systemic lupus erythematosus, particularly if the disease is quiescent and there are no signs of active nephritis. There is no major impact of immunosuppression on maternal outcome. However, high doses of cyclosporine and glucocorticoids are used which may favor development of hypertension or preeclampsia. Some immunosuppressive drugs may exert toxic effects on the fetus. Glucocorticoids may cause small birth weight, and azathioprine and calcineurin inhibitors may be associated with lower birth weight, gestational age and prematurity. Cyclophosphamide may cause fetal malformation when given in the first trimester. Mycophenolate and leflunomide are teratogenic drugs and should be withdrawn before conception in case of programmed pregnancy or should be rapidly discontinued in case of unexpected pregnancy. Option counseling for pregnancy and correct use of immunosuppressive drugs are prerequisites for a successful pregnancy in women with lupus.

  6. Web-based telemedicine system is useful for monitoring glucose control in pregnant women with diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carral, Florentino; Ayala, María del Carmen; Fernández, Juan Jesús; González, Carmen; Piñero, Antonia; García, Gloria; Cañavate, Concepción; Jiménez, Ana Isabel; García, Concepción

    2015-05-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the impact of a Web-based telemedicine system for monitoring glucose control in pregnant women with diabetes on healthcare visits, metabolic control, and pregnancy outcomes. A prospective, single-center, interventional study with two parallel groups was performed in Puerto Real University Hospital (Cadiz, Spain). Women were assigned to two different glucose monitoring groups: the control group (CG), which was managed only by follow-ups with the Gestational Diabetes Unit (GDU), and the telemedicine group (TMG), which was monitored by both more spaced GDU visits and a Web-based telemedicine system. The number of healthcare visits, degree of metabolic control, and maternal and neonatal outcomes were evaluated. One hundred four pregnant women with diabetes (77 with gestational diabetes, 16 with type 1 diabetes, and 11 with type 2 diabetes) were included in the TMG (n=40) or in the CG (n=64). There were no significant differences in mean glycated hemoglobin level during pregnancy or after delivery, despite a significantly lower number of visits to the GDU (3.2±2.3 vs. 5.9±2.3 visits; P3.0±1.7 visits; PWeb-based telemedicine system can be a useful tool facilitating the management of pregnant diabetes patients, as a complement to conventional outpatient clinic visits.

  7. FRAGMENT Bb: EVIDENCE FOR ACTIVATION OF THE ALTERNATIVE PATHWAY OF THE COMPLEMENT SYSTEM IN PREGNANT WOMEN WITH ACUTE PYELONEPHRITIS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soto, Eleazar; Romero, Roberto; Vaisbuch, Edi; Erez, Offer; Mazaki-Tovi, Shali; Kusanovic, Juan Pedro; Dong, Zhong; Chaiworapongsa, Tinnakorn; Yeo, Lami; Mittal, Pooja; Hassan, Sonia S.

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Pyelonephritis during pregnancy is associated with a more severe course than in the non-pregnant state. This has been attributed to an increased susceptibility of pregnant women to microbial products. The complement system is part of innate immunity and its alternative pathway is activated mainly by microorganisms. The purpose of this study was to determine if activation of the alternative pathway of the complement system (determined by maternal fragment Bb concentrations) occurs in pregnant women with acute pyelonephritis. METHODS This cross-sectional study included the following groups: 1) normal pregnant women (n=62); and 2) pregnant women with pyelonephritis (n=38). Maternal plasma Fragment Bb concentrations were determined by ELISA. Non-parametric statistics were used for analyses. RESULTS 1) Pregnant women with pyelonephritis had a higher median plasma concentration of fragment Bb than those with a normal pregnancy (1.3 μg/ml, IQR: 1.1-1.9 vs. 0.8 μg/m, IQR: 0.7-0.9; ppyelonephritis who had a positive blood culture and those with a negative blood culture (1.4 μg/ml, IQR: 1.1-3.5 vs. 1.3 μg/ml, IQR: 1.1-1.9; p=0.2). CONCLUSIONS Pregnant women with acute pyelonephritis have evidence of activation of the alternative pathway of the complement system, regardless of the presence or absence of a positive blood culture. PMID:20218820

  8. Estimation of the Adaptive Capacities of the Cardiovascular System in Pregnant Females by Active Orthostatic Test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu. V. Struk

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The investigation was undertaken to study the adaptive capacities of the cardiovascular system (CVS in physiological full-term pregnancy, by using the active orthostatic test (AOT and to analyze cardiac rhythm variability (CRV. The study covered 49 low-risk group females during 38—39-week physiological pregnancy, who had indications for planned surgery -cesarean section. Before surgery, during an anesthesiological examination, all the pregnant females performed AOT during which ECG was continuously recorded. For CRV estimation, 5-min ECG fragments recorded in the standing and lying positions. AOT could reveal a normal orthostatic response (NOR in 37 pregnant females, postural orthostatic tachycardia (POT in 8 and orthostatic hypotension in 4. No relationship was found between the clinical characteristics and the types of responses to AOT. At the same time, comparison of CVS demonstrated that the baseline enhanced activity of the sympathetic portion of the autonomic nervous system was typical of females with POT as compared with females showing a NOR. Thus, estimation of CRV parameters in pregnant females permits predetermination of adaptive CVS capacities, which is important to be taken into account in choosing an anesthesiological support and modes of hemodynamic correction when cesarean section is performed.

  9. The Condition of Thyroid and Fetoplacental Systems in Pregnant Women with Clinically Euthyroid Goiter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V N Petrova

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim is to study a condition of thyroid and fetoplacental systems at pregnant women with clinically euthyroid goiter. Materials and methods: 116 pregnant women have been included in the basic group with clinically euthyroid goiter. The control group was made by 60 pregnant women with physiologically proceeding pregnancy, not having anamnestic and the clinical data on diseases of the thyroid. Inspection included: definition of concentration thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH and free thyroxine (fT4 by a radio-immunologic method, sets “RIA-gnost” (France and the maintenance of antibodies to thyroid peroxydase (anti-TPO by a method hard phase immune-enzyme analysis; ultrasonic assessment of a thyroid with the help of device SONOACE 8800 “GAIA MT”; ultrasonic fetometry, placentography, measurement of amniotic fluid volume, doppler ultrasound examination of the blood flow, an estimation of a functional condition of a fetus on parameters of its biophysical profile (BP and cardiotocography (CTG, carried out on device “Oxford Sonicaid Team S8000”. Results: At studying hormonal function thyroid systems at 25 pregnant (21.6% with euthyroid goiter in the third trimester of pregnancy a level fT4 norms were lower and had values from 4.5 up to 6.9 ng/ml, therefore an average level fT4 at pregnant women of the basic group was authentically lower, than in control (8.26 ± 0.30 and 10.71 ± 0.52 ng/ml, accordingly. At the retrospective analysis it is established, that only at 5 of 116 (4.3% pregnant women with a goiter were not complications pregnancy, at the others — 111 (95.7% took place a combination various obstetric complications: an anemia — at 72 (62.0%, threat noncarrying of pregnancy — at 75 (64.6 %, an early toxicosis — at 45 (38.6%, a gestosis — at 47 (40.5% which frequency authentically is higher, than in control group: 20.0%, 25.0%, 16.6%. 20.0%, accordingly, р < 0.05. Average Estimation CTG at patients of the basic group is

  10. Drug use by pregnant women and comparable non-pregnant women in The Netherlands with reference to the Australian classification system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schirm, Eric; Meijer, W.M.; Tobi, H; de Jong-van den Berg, Lolkje Theodora Wilhelmina

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To describe drug use in pregnancy, and compare drug use of pregnant women with non-pregnant women with respect to possible teratogenicity. Study design: A cross-sectional study based on pharmacy records from 1997 to 2001 was performed. Pregnant women and matched non-pregnant women (same p

  11. Drug use by pregnant women and comparable non-pregnant women in The Netherlands with reference to the Australian classification system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schirm, Eric; Meijer, W.M.; Tobi, H; de Jong-van den Berg, Lolkje Theodora Wilhelmina

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To describe drug use in pregnancy, and compare drug use of pregnant women with non-pregnant women with respect to possible teratogenicity. Study design: A cross-sectional study based on pharmacy records from 1997 to 2001 was performed. Pregnant women and matched non-pregnant women (same p

  12. The dynamics of autonomic nervous system activity and hemodynamic changes in pregnant women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balajewicz-Nowak, Marta; Furgala, Agata; Pitynski, Kazimierz; Thor, Piotr; Huras, Hubert; Rytlewski, Krzysztof

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to assess the dynamics of autonomic nervous system(ANS) and hemodynamic activity changes during uncomplicated pregnancy. We enrolled 36 pregnant women (mean age 29 ± 4.8 years) and a control group of 10 non-pregnant women (mean age 25.9 ± 0.88 years). The examination was performed in the 1st, 2nd, and 3rd trimester. Continuous registration of BP, ECG, and cardioimpedance was performed with Task Force Monitor 3040i. ANS activity was measured using the following parameters: HRV, BPV, BRS at rest, and in response to autonomic tests. Compared to the 1st trimester, an increase in HR (73 vs. 92 bpm; p pregnant women was insignificantly higher than in the controls (24.8 vs. 22.3 ms/mmHg); subsequently, it decreased significantly, to 13.4 ms/mmHg in the 3rd trimester (p = 0.0004). An increase in nLF (39.57 ± 13.75 vs. 58.73 ± 15.55; p = 0.001) and LF/HF ratio (1.03 ± 0.76 vs. 1.85 ± 0.8; p changes in autonomic balance, namely doubled dominance of the sympathetic component. Hypervolemia seems the major factor responsible for autonomic and hemodynamic changes observed during pregnancy, as it causes an increase in BP and simultaneous decrease in BRS.

  13. Prevention of female reproductive system cancer among rural and urban Polish pregnant women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bojar, Iwona; Biliński, Przemysław; Boyle, Peter; Zatoński, Witold; Marcinkowski, Jerzy T; Wojtyła, Andrzej

    2011-01-01

    Based on data obtained from the system MoZMaD - PL (Polish Mother and Child Health Monitoring System; an equivalent of the American system PRAMS (Pregnancy Risk Assessment Monitoring System). In the developed countries prevention programmes proved to be efficient in reducing morbidity and mortality due to breast and cervical cancer. In Poland, these diseases still constitute a very big problem, despite relatively easy and early diagnostics of pathological conditions preceding their development. The objective of the study was analysis of the usage of prophylactic examinations and the assessment of knowledge concerning risk factors of the development of reproductive cancers among pregnant women from rural and urban environments in Poland. The study was based on questionnaire forms within the Pregnancy Risk Assessment Monitoring System (MoZMaD - PL) implemented in Poland. The precise date of the study for the whole of Poland is announced annually by the Chief Sanitary Inspector. The questionnaire forms were correctly completed in 2010 by 2,877 women. The replies to the questions were introduced by surveyors into the MoZMaD - PL system central database managed by the Institute of Agricultural Medicine in Lublin. The results obtained were subjected to statistical analysis. The studies of pregnant women in Poland showed that the situation with respect to the performance of prevention examinations for cervical cancer was significantly worse among rural than urban women. Pregnant women from both rural and urban areas very rarely had breast USG performed. Awareness concerning cervical cancer risk factors was lower among rural than urban women. Also, knowledge concerning the examinations which should be performed for the prevention of breast cancer was poorer among rural, compared to urban women. The recognition of the attitudes of women at reproductive age towards prevention examinations is necessary in order to effectively plan health education and social health promotion

  14. Changes in attenuation characteristics of axial system of pregnant drivers detected by the TVS method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jelen, Karel; Klouckova, Katerina; Zeman, Josef; Kubovy, Petr; Fanta, Ondrej

    2012-01-01

    During a longer car drive there are changes in rheological properties of driver's or passenger's connective tissues taking place as a consequence of monotonous and vibration load. These changes show more among the pregnant drivers, whose motion system is under heavier demands due to pregnancy. To asses these changes we have used the TVS (transfer vibration through the spine) method. The TVS is based on application of γ excitation pulses with half-length 5 ms and then harmonic excitation continuously periodically changing from 5 Hz to 160 Hz on C7 and L5 vertebrae. This wave is transferred along the axial system and the acceleration of all the spinous tips of the vertebrae, along which the waves spread between C7 and S1, is detected by accelerometric sensors. The measurement was carried out on three drivers before and after a 4-hours driving. The same measurements of wave transfer along the spine with just one pregnant woman were carried out in th 16th, 26th and 32nd week of pregnancy. Consequently we constructed a simplified model of the spine in order to analyze gathered data by discovering elementary properties of the measured system. After both vibration and physical load there is a more significant dampening of the spinal tissues apparent, i.e. lower acceleration amplitude and the tissues resonance frequency also shifts towards the lower frequencies. On the other hand after long lasting relaxation on a bed an opposite tendency showed, the acceleration amplitude was higher, tissues were relaxed and dampening was lower. The same tendency manifested among the pregnant women. The influence of progressing pregnancy on the spinal segment transfer function showed through a shifting of peaks above 20Hz. Their size also changes monotonously. An absorption area moves towards higher frequencies, rigidity of axial system connections grows. The results say that drivers, including pregnant women, show changes in mechanical properties of examined tissues before and after

  15. The information system of pregnant womans' health nutritious based on android (Case study: Puskesmas Mopah Merauke)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Letsoin, Sri Murniani Angelina; Kolyaan, Yuliana; Cahyadi, Dedy

    2017-02-01

    The cause of maternal mortality can be divided into two, the direct cause and indirect cause. One of the indirect causes is too difficult to reach health services and the lack of pregnancy knowledge. On the other hand, Android smartphone development of communications technology has increased compared to users of other devices, e.g. blackberry, which has dropped from 11.5% to 4.8% while the android market share has grown from 46.9% up to 68.1%. This increasing is being an opportunity for the software developers to design some software based on Android. The aim of this study was to facilitate the pregnant women to find out some information about the nutritional health, abstinence, calculate gestational age and nutrition based on the period of pregnancy. The information system was designed by using UML, the Eclipse IDE with the java programming language, MySQL as the database. The testing results showed that the nutrition information system based on android could help pregnant women to obtain health nutrition information such as nutrition, calories, dietary restrictions that should be avoided during the first month to the nine month of pregnancy, and the calculation of gestation.

  16. Utility of the NavX® Electroanatomic Mapping System for Permanent Pacemaker Implantation in a Pregnant Patient with Chagas Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandro Velasco, MD

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Chagas disease is a highly prevalent zoonosis in Mexico, Central, and South America. Early cardiac involvement is one of the most serious complications of this disease, and conduction disturbances may occur at an early age. We describe a young pregnant woman with Chagas disease and a high degree atrioventricular block, who required implantation of a permanent dual chamber pacemaker. Using an electroanatomic navigation EnSite NavX® system the pacemaker was successfully implanted with minimal fluoroscopic exposure. This case demonstrates the safety and feasibility of using an electroanatomic navigation system to guide permanent pacemaker implantation minimizing x-ray exposure in pregnant patients.

  17. Anatomical and physiological changes in the venous system of lower limbs in pregnant women and findings associated with the symptomatology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goulart, Vitória Brito; Cabral, Antonio Carlos Vieira; Reis, Zilma Silveira; Navarro, Túlio Pinho; Alves, Silvia Lúcia; de Miranda, Paulo Roberto Toledo; Sarquis, Alberto Lourençoni; de Lima Rezende, Cezar Alencar

    2013-07-01

    Quantify the volume and diameter of veins in the lower limbs of primigravidae and associate the presence of venous signs and symptoms with the vascular measurements. A cross-sectional study assessed 64 lower limbs of 32 healthy women of whom 16 were primigravidae between 22 and 36 weeks pregnant, and 16 nulligravidae. The women were submitted to physical assessment, air plethysmography and vascular ultrasound. The volumes and diameters of the main veins in the lower limbs were compared between pregnant and non-pregnant women. In the group of pregnant women, the attempt was also made to associate such measurements to the presence of vascular signs and symptoms. The average venous volume of the lower limbs (110.1 ± 30.2 and 94.7 ± 27.3 mL; p = 0.036), as well as the diameters of the common femoral (12.72 ± 2.27 and 10.14 ± 1.24 mm; p pregnant women compared with the control group. In pregnant women with venous stasis symptoms, a venous diameter of the saphenous vein compared to those without no symptoms (5.05 ± 1.19 and 4.09 ± 0.70 mm; p = 0.011) was noted. Anatomical and functional changes in the venous system during pregnancy were detected by the air plethysmography and the vascular ultrasound in primigravidae. In pregnant women, the presence of venous stasis symptoms found an anatomical and functional substrate detected in the differences in diameter of the saphenous vein.

  18. Acute respiratory distress syndrome in a pregnant woman with systemic lupus erythematosus: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Y-J A; Tseng, J-J; Yang, M-J; Tsao, Y-P; Lin, H-Y

    2014-12-01

    When the disease activity of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is controlled appropriately, a pregnant woman who has lupus is able to carry safely to term and deliver a healthy infant. While the physiology of a healthy pregnancy itself influences ventilatory function, acute pulmonary distress may decrease oxygenation and influence both mother and fetus. Though respiratory failure in pregnancy is relatively rare, it remains one of the leading conditions requiring intensive care unit admission in pregnancy and carries a high risk of maternal and fetal morbidity and mortality, not to mention the complexity caused by lupus flare. We report a case of SLE complicated with lupus pneumonitis and followed by acute respiratory distress during pregnancy. Though there is a high risk of maternal and fetal morbidity and mortality, maternal respiratory function improved after cesarean section and treatment of the underlying causes. The newborn had an extremely low birth weight but was well at discharge.

  19. Antibodies to annexin-5 in pregnant women with systemic lupus erythematosus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. S. Alekberova

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To assess change of annexin-5 antibodies (AA5 level and AA5 influence on gestation outcome in pregnant women with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE.Material and methods. 15 pregnant women with SLE who fulfilled 1997 ACR criteria (4 of them with concomitant antiphospholipid syndrome – APS were included. Median age of pts was 28,0 (23- 33 years, median SLE duration – 4,0 (3-9 years. SLEDAI activity score at the beginning of gestation was 2 (2-11. All but one pts received metypred from 2 to 20 mg/day. The women were examined in every trimester of gestation. AA5 and anticardiolipine antibodies (ACLA were evaluated with immunoenzyme assay.Results. AA5 elevation was revealed in 7 women (group 1: 6 of them were only IgG AA5 positive, 1 had both IgG and IgM AA5. Isolated IgM AA5 elevation was absent. 4 pts had borderline IgG AA5 values (from 5,3 to 7,4 U/ml. 3 pts had respectively 9,6, 12,1 and 168,5 U/ml. The last pt was also positive for IgM AA5 (till 14,4 U/ml. AA5 elevation was more frequent and more prominent during the II trimester of gestation. 8 pts with SLE (group 2 did not have AA5 elevation. 11 from 15 gestations ended with birth of viable baby, the rest 4 had unfavorable outcome. Median terms of delivery did not differ in both groups and came to 36 weeks. 3 pts with normal AA5 and 1 pt with elevated AA5 had gestation lost. 3 from these 4 pts were ACLA positive and APS was earlier diagnosed in 2 from them.Conclusion. Almost half of pregnant women with SLE (7 from 15 had AA5 elevation mainly during the II trimester of gestation. Unfavorable gestation outcomes were not associated with AA5 elevation. Possibly low levels of AA5 positivity and small sample size could influence the results.

  20. Research of the state of the stress-realizing systems in pregnant women with miscarriage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. A. Plotnik

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Miscarriage or spontaneous abortion is the spontaneous end of a pregnancy at a stage where the embryo or fetus is incapable of surviving independently, within the time limit to 22 weeks. Unfortunately, the incidence of abortion in Ukraine remains quite high and ranges from 15 to 23% of all reported pregnancies, while over 92% of them occurred before 12 weeks (Ventskivskyy BM, 2004, Ginsburg V., 2003, Beetle C.I., 2000. The hypothesis of the development of spontaneous miscarriage as a result of the impact of mental stress factors C.T. Javert first proposed back in 1954. Later it was shown that biochemical substances (epinephrine, norepinephrine, oxytocin, prostaglandins are involved in the processes of influence of stressfactors on pregnant women. The aim of the work was to investigate some stress-realizing systems by adopting an integrated approach in women with threatened abortion for further development of the algorithm of the evaluation and prediction of risk of the miscarriage, which will contribute to the reduction of perinatal losses and improve the reproductive health of women. Materials and methods. Study involved 34 pregnant women with diagnosis of "threatened abortion" gestational age from 7 to20 weeks with a singleton pregnancy. The control group consisted of 15 women with usual pregnancy. Was used an integrated approach, consisting of a set of methods for studying the autonomic nervous system using computer cardiointervalography, rheovasography, research levels of hormones such as cortisol, insulin, dehydroepiandrosteronesulfate, progesterone, estradiol, and clinical and laboratory parameters. Results. According to the gynecological, obstetric and physical anamnesis any significant difference between the women of the 1st and 2nd groups were not found. In the study were found that in the main group cortisol levels were significantly (p ≤ 0,01 elevated and index ratio of cortisol and insulin was higher almost in 2 times

  1. Influence of Different Housing Systems on Distribution, Function and Mitogen-Response of Leukocytes in Pregnant Sows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grün, Verena; Schmucker, Sonja; Schalk, Christiane; Flauger, Birgit; Weiler, Ulrike; Stefanski, Volker

    2013-01-01

    Simple Summary The European Union imposes housing of pregnant sows in social groups since 2013 for animal welfare reasons. Nevertheless, the consequences of different housing conditions for the immune system of pregnant sows remain poorly investigated. We therefore analyzed important aspects of blood cellular immunity and cortisol concentrations of sows either housed in individual crates or in a group during gestation. The results show that individually housed sows had lower T cell numbers, but higher cortisol concentrations. Obviously, common housing conditions can differentially affect key elements of the adaptive immune system and hormonal indicators of stress in pregnant sows. Abstract In pig production, pregnant sows are either housed in individual crates or in groups, the latter being mandatory in the EU since 2013. The consequences of different housing conditions on the immune system are however poorly investigated, although immunological alterations may have severe consequences for the animal’s health, performance, and welfare. This study assessed measures of blood celluar immunity with special emphasis on T cells in pregnant German Landrace sows either housed in individual crates or in a social group. Blood samples were taken at four samplings pre partum to evaluate numbers of lymphocyte subpopulations, mitogen-induced lymphocyte proliferation and cytokine-producing T cells. Plasma cortisol concentrations were evaluated as an indicator of stress. We found lower blood lymphocyte numbers (p sows, an effect due to lower numbers of cytotoxic T cells, naive TH cells, and CD8+ γδ-T cells. Individually housed sows showed higher cortisol concentrations (p sows of both housing systems. Possible implications and underlying mechanisms for the endocrine and immunological differences are discussed. We favor the hypothesis that differences in the stressfulness of the environment contributed to the effects, with crate-housing being a more stressful environment

  2. PP097. Cardiac output and systemic vascular resistance in normal pregnancy and in control non-pregnant women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalil, A; Goodyear, Gemma; Joseph, Ehizele; Khalil, Asma

    2012-07-01

    Changes in cardiac output (CO) and systemic vascular resistance (SVR) have been shown to precede the clinical onset of pregnancy complications, such as pre-eclampsia and fetal growth restriction. CO and SVR undergo major changes during normal pregnancy. However, assessment of these vascular parameters requires intensive training and expensive techniques, so currently can be performed only in specialised centres. The aim of this study was to investigate maternal cardiovascular function measured using an ultrasonic cardiac output monitor (USCOM), a simple non-invasive continuous wave Doppler device, in a cohort of pregnant women and non-pregnant controls. This was a cross sectional study including 185 women with normal singleton pregnancies at 11-40weeks of gestation and 49 non-pregnant controls. Stroke volume (SV), CO and SVR were measured using the USCOM device. All measurements were performed with the patients in supine position. All women with a gestational age of >20weeks were in a left lateral position by placing a wedge-shaped pillow under their right side to prevent vena cava compression. In a group of 25 pregnant women, each measurement was repeated three times to evaluate the reproducibility of this technique. Cardiac index (CI), SV index (SVI) and SVR index (SVRI) relate CO, SV and SVR to the body surface area. The data were normally distributed after logarithmic transformation. Comparisons between pregnant and non-pregnant women were performed using Studentt-test, Chi-Square test or multiple regression analysis, when adjustment for potential confounders was necessary. Data analysis was performed using SPSS 16.0. In the first trimester, all of the following vascular parameters were higher in pregnant women compared to non-pregnant controls: CO [median (IQR): 4.86 (4.45-5.57) vs 5.57 (4.76-6.52)L/min, PPregnant women had significantly lower SVR [median (IQR): 1458 (1261-1649) vs 1165 (1023-1406)sec/cm(-5), P<0.001] and SVRI [median (IQR): 2646 (2307

  3. [Hemodynamics, the autonomic nervous system and water metabolism as criteria for developing the general adaptation syndrome in pregnant women].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gur'ianov, V A; Shepetovskaia, N L; Pivovarova, G M; Tolmachev, G N; Volodin, A V

    2007-01-01

    By taking into account the fact that the autonomic nervous and cardiovascular systems (ANS and CVS) are the major links of development of the general adaptation syndrome in pregnancy, which are affected by all the processes involved in the development of the syndrome, the author analyzed the state of these systems in healthy non-pregnant and pregnant women (HNPW and HPW) and in pregnant women with gestosis. HNPW were found to have already a prerequisite for impairing pregnancy adaptive processes as ANS and CVS dysfunction. In HPW, these impairments were more pronounced. In the pregnant women, impaired adaptive processes manifested themselves as excess sympathicotonia in 72% and parasympathicotonia in 23% of cases despite the treatment performed, which was accompanied by hypokinetic hemodynamics in 53 and 50%, respectively. In hyper- and eukinetic hemodynamics, there were no physiologically required decreases in total peripheral vascular resistance while in hypokinetic hemodynamics, there was its pathological increase. Such disorders enhance the significance of abdominal compartment syndrome, aortocaval compression, ischemia-reperfusion, hydrodynamic and membranogenic (capillary leakage) factors of impaired water metabolism, which contributes to adaptation derangement. Based on the findings, the authors have created a developmental modulation algorithm for the general adaptation syndrome by completed pregnancy and surgical delivery.

  4. Mercury 203 distribution in pregnant and nonpregnant rats following systemic infusions with thiol-containing amino acids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aschner, M.; Clarkson, T.W.

    1987-12-01

    Near-term pregnant (gestational day 17) and nonpregnant Long-Evans female rats were continuously infused into the external jugular vein with 0.1 mmole/hour L-cysteine, 0.1 mmole/hour L-leucine, or saline. At 24, 48, and 72 hours, 50 mumole/hour (/sup 203/Hg)-MeHgCl was administered over 1 hour. Total /sup 203/Hg body burden, brain, kidney, liver, and blood /sup 203/Hg concentrations were determined at 96 hours by gamma scintillation spectrometry. Despite significantly greater /sup 203/Hg whole body retention in the pregnant animals /sup 203/Hg concentrations in blood, brain, kidney, and liver were higher in nonpregnant rats. In addition, brain /sup 203/Hg concentrations in both pregnant and virgin rats were significantly higher in L-cysteine-treated rats compared with controls. These results suggest that the fetus may act as a sink for MeHg, thus decreasing /sup 203/Hg concentrations in maternal blood, brain, kidney, and liver. Furthermore, the data indicate that brain uptake of methylmercury in both pregnant and nonpregnant rats is enhanced by chronic L-cysteine infusion, lending support to the hypothesis that methylmercury in the rat may be translocated across the blood-brain barrier by the neutral amino acid carrier transport system.

  5. Modelling effective diagnosis of risk complications in gestational diabetes mellitus: an e-diabetic expert system for pregnant women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sreedevi, E.; Vijaya Lakshmi, K.; Chaitanya Krishna, E.; Padmavathamma, M.

    2012-04-01

    Diabetes is a chronic illness that requires continuous medical care and patient self-management education to prevent acute complications and to reduce the risk of long-term complications. This paper deals with study and development of algorithm to develop an initial stage expert system to provide diagnosis to the pregnant women who are suffering from Gestational Diabetes Mellitus (GDM) by means of Oral Glucose Tolerance Test (OGTT).

  6. Characterization of the adaptive immune response following immunization in pregnant sows (Sus scrofa) kept in two different housing systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grün, V; Schmucker, S; Schalk, C; Flauger, B; Stefanski, V

    2014-08-01

    Housing conditions might differentially affect the adaptive immune responses to a neoantigen in pregnant sows with possible consequences for the success of vaccinations. Therefore, this study aimed at characterizing antigen-specific T cell and B cell responses of pregnant sows (German Landrace) either housed in a social group (GP; n = 22) or confined in individual gestation crates (CR; n = 11). All sows were immunized with the neoantigen keyhole limpet hemocyanin (KLH) 7 and 5 wk prepartum. Blood samples were taken 7, 6, 4, and 2 wk prepartum, thus before and after the first as well as second immunization. This study aimed at identifying both the resulting cellular as well as humoral KLH-specific immune response in the pregnant sows. We therefore analyzed total IgG and anti-KLH IgG concentrations and the KLH-specific lymphocyte proliferation as well as the KLH-specific production of the T helper cell type 1 (TH1)-related cytokines tumor necrosis factor (TNF) α and interferon (IFN) γ in main T cell subsets before and after the immunization. Anti-KLH IgG titers significantly increased during the experimental procedure (P sows showed greater anti-KLH IgG concentrations compared to GP-housed sows (P sows not before the second immunization (both P sows (CTL: P sows than in CR-housed sows (both P sows. Whereas GP housing of pregnant sows induced a rather TH1-mediated cellular response, individual housing in CR resulted in a T helper cell type 2 (TH2)-pronounced humoral response to KLH. The greater anti-KLH IgG concentration and the delayed activation and differentiation of KLH-specific TH1 cells in CR-housed sows support the hypothesis of a shifted TH1:TH2 ratio in individually housed sows of this study. We presume differences in the stressfulness of the housing system to be mainly responsible for the occurring effects.

  7. Maternal Dexamethasone Treatment Alters Tissue and Circulating Components of the Renin-Angiotensin System in the Pregnant Ewe and Fetus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forhead, Alison J; Jellyman, Juanita K; De Blasio, Miles J; Johnson, Emma; Giussani, Dino A; Broughton Pipkin, Fiona; Fowden, Abigail L

    2015-08-01

    Antenatal synthetic glucocorticoids promote fetal maturation in pregnant women at risk of preterm delivery and their mechanism of action may involve other endocrine systems. This study investigated the effect of maternal dexamethasone treatment, at clinically relevant doses, on components of the renin-angiotensin system (RAS) in the pregnant ewe and fetus. From 125 days of gestation (term, 145 ± 2 d), 10 ewes carrying single fetuses of mixed sex (3 female, 7 male) were injected twice im, at 10-11 pm, with dexamethasone (2 × 12 mg, n = 5) or saline (n = 5) at 24-hour intervals. At 10 hours after the second injection, maternal dexamethasone treatment increased angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) mRNA levels in the fetal lungs, kidneys, and heart and ACE concentration in the circulation and lungs, but not kidneys, of the fetuses. Fetal cardiac mRNA abundance of angiotensin II (AII) type 2 receptor decreased after maternal dexamethasone treatment. Between the two groups of fetuses, there were no significant differences in plasma angiotensinogen or renin concentrations; in transcript levels of renal renin, or AII type 1 or 2 receptors in the lungs and kidneys; or in pulmonary, renal or cardiac protein content of the AII receptors. In the pregnant ewes, dexamethasone administration increased pulmonary ACE and plasma angiotensinogen, and decreased plasma renin, concentrations. Some of the effects of dexamethasone treatment on the maternal and fetal RAS were associated with altered insulin and thyroid hormone activity. Changes in the local and circulating RAS induced by dexamethasone exposure in utero may contribute to the maturational and tissue-specific actions of antenatal glucocorticoid treatment.

  8. Oral Mucosal Disorders in Pregnant versus Non-Pregnant Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fahimeh Rezazadeh

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The effects of pregnancy on the Oral Mucosa Disorder (OMD have been sporadically documented in some developed countries. Less known is the status of OMD during pregnancy in less developed/developing countries. Iran is no exception. This study assesses the prevalence of OMD in 200 pregnant women and compares the findings with the findings from a 200 non-pregnant woman of similar age distribution in Iran. The participants had been referred to a clinic to receive reproductive age-related services. Participants suffering from systemic chronic diseases, those on medications/drugs, smokers, needing biopsies, and those with urgent Oral Mucosal Lesion (OML treatments were excluded from the study. Oral mucosal of all 400 participants were examined. The participants’ age ranges were from 17 to 47; with the average age of 33.14 for one group; and 30.23 for the other group. Both groups had the same level of formal education. Out of 400 examined women; 62 had lesions, including 47 pregnant (23.5%; and 15 non-pregnant (7.5% women. This result shows that the OMD rate of occurrence was significantly higher among the pregnant women. Higher OML prevalence in pregnant women, as compared to the non-pregnant women, indicates the importance of timely oral examination of pregnant women and subsequent treatment plans for them.

  9. The leptin system and its expression at different nutritional and pregnant stages in lined seahorse (Hippocampus erectus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huixian Zhang

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Leptin is an essential hormone for the regulation of energy metabolism and food intake in vertebrate animals. To better understand the physiological roles of leptin in nutrient regulation in paternal ovoviviparous fish (family Syngnathidae, the present study cloned the full-length of leptin-a and leptin receptor (lepr genes in lined seahorse (Hippocampus erectus. Results showed that there was a 576-bp intron between two exons in leptin-a gene but no leptin-b gene in seahorse. Although the primary amino acid sequence conservation of seahorse leptin-a was very low, the 3-D structure modeling of seahorse leptin-a revealed strong conservation of tertiary structure with other vertebrates. Seahorse leptin-a mRNA was highly expressed in brain, whereas lepr mRNA was mainly expressed in ovary and gill. Interestingly, both leptin-a and lepr mRNA were expressed in the brood pouch of male seahorse, suggesting the leptin system plays a role during the male pregnancy. Physiological experiments showed that the expression of hepatic leptin-a and lepr mRNA in unfed seahorses was significantly higher than that in those fed 100%, as well as 60%, of their food during the fasting stage, showing that seahorse might initiate the leptin system to regulate its energy metabolism while starving. Moreover, the expression of leptin-a in the brood pouch of pregnant seahorse was significantly upregulated compared with non-pregnant seahorse, whereas the expression of lepr was downregulated, suggesting that the leptin system might be involved in the male pregnancy. In conclusion, the leptin system plays a role in the energy metabolism and food intake, and might provide new insights into molecular regulation of male pregnancy in seahorse.

  10. The leptin system and its expression at different nutritional and pregnant stages in lined seahorse (Hippocampus erectus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Huixian; Qin, Geng; Zhang, Yanhong; Li, Shuisheng

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Leptin is an essential hormone for the regulation of energy metabolism and food intake in vertebrate animals. To better understand the physiological roles of leptin in nutrient regulation in paternal ovoviviparous fish (family Syngnathidae), the present study cloned the full-length of leptin-a and leptin receptor (lepr) genes in lined seahorse (Hippocampus erectus). Results showed that there was a 576-bp intron between two exons in leptin-a gene but no leptin-b gene in seahorse. Although the primary amino acid sequence conservation of seahorse leptin-a was very low, the 3-D structure modeling of seahorse leptin-a revealed strong conservation of tertiary structure with other vertebrates. Seahorse leptin-a mRNA was highly expressed in brain, whereas lepr mRNA was mainly expressed in ovary and gill. Interestingly, both leptin-a and lepr mRNA were expressed in the brood pouch of male seahorse, suggesting the leptin system plays a role during the male pregnancy. Physiological experiments showed that the expression of hepatic leptin-a and lepr mRNA in unfed seahorses was significantly higher than that in those fed 100%, as well as 60%, of their food during the fasting stage, showing that seahorse might initiate the leptin system to regulate its energy metabolism while starving. Moreover, the expression of leptin-a in the brood pouch of pregnant seahorse was significantly upregulated compared with non-pregnant seahorse, whereas the expression of lepr was downregulated, suggesting that the leptin system might be involved in the male pregnancy. In conclusion, the leptin system plays a role in the energy metabolism and food intake, and might provide new insights into molecular regulation of male pregnancy in seahorse. PMID:27628034

  11. Loss of learning space within a legally inclusive education system : institutional responsiveness to mainstreaming of pregnant learners in formal education

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Vandeyar, Saloshna; Runhare, Tawanda

    2011-01-01

    .... The major findings were that: sociocultural beliefs of the community on pregnancy were more influential to educational access and participation of pregnant teenagers than the official school policy...

  12. Interleukin-6 impairs endothelium-dependent NO-cGMP-mediated relaxation and enhances contraction in systemic vessels of pregnant rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orshal, Julia M; Khalil, Raouf A

    2004-06-01

    IL-6 is elevated in plasma of preeclamptic women, and twofold elevation of plasma IL-6 increases vascular resistance and arterial pressure in pregnant rats, suggesting a role of the cytokine in hypertension of pregnancy. However, whether the hemodynamic effects of IL-6 reflect direct effects of the cytokine on the mechanisms of vascular contraction/relaxation is unclear. The purpose of this study was to test the hypothesis that IL-6 directly impairs endothelium-dependent relaxation and enhances vascular contraction in systemic vessels of pregnant rats. Active stress was measured in aortic strips isolated from virgin and late pregnant Sprague-Dawley rats and then nontreated or treated for 1 h with IL-6 (10 pg/ml to 10 ng/ml). In endothelium-intact vascular strips, phenylephrine (Phe, 10(-5) M) caused an increase in active stress that was smaller in pregnant (4.2 +/- 0.3) than virgin rats (5.1 +/- 0.3 x 10(4) N/m(2)). IL-6 (1,000 pg/ml) caused enhancement of Phe contraction that was greater in pregnant (10.6 +/- 0.7) than virgin rats (7.5 +/- 0.4 x 10(4) N/m(2)). ACh and bradykinin caused relaxation of Phe contraction and increases in vascular nitrite production that were greater in pregnant than virgin rats. IL-6 caused reductions in ACh- and bradykinin-induced vascular relaxation and nitrite production that were more prominent in pregnant than virgin rats. Incubation of endothelium-intact strips in the presence of N(omega)-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (10(-4) M) to inhibit nitric oxide (NO) synthase, or 1H-[1,2,4]oxadiazolo[4,3]-quinoxalin-1-one (ODQ, 10(-5) M) to inhibit cGMP production in smooth muscle, inhibited ACh-induced relaxation and enhanced Phe-induced stress in nontreated but to a lesser extent in IL-6-treated vessels, particularly those of pregnant rats. Removal of the endothelium enhanced Phe-induced stress in nontreated but not IL-6-treated vessels, particularly those of pregnant rats. In endothelium-denuded strips, relaxation of Phe contraction with

  13. 系统性红斑狼疮患者妊娠时机选择与妊娠结局%Selection of pregnant time in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus and their pregnant outcome

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周红辉; 卢彦平; 高志英; 付晓宇

    2012-01-01

    Objective To study the correlation between selection of pregnant time in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) and their pregnant outcome. Methods Clinical data about 33 pregnant SLE patients admitted to our hospital from January 2005 to July 2011 were retrospectively analyzed. The patients were randomly divided into persistent SLE remission group (Group A, n=20) and active SLE group(Group B, n=13) according to their pregnant time. Complications and pregnant outcomes were compared between the two groups. Results Severe complications occurred in 6 (30%) out of the 20 patients in group A, with full-term delivery, premature delivery, therapeutic abortion, and fetal death in 10, 7, 2, and 1 patients respectively, no death of pregnant and parturient, women, and no deformity of neonates. Severe complications occurred in 11 (84.6%) out of the 13 patients in group B, with premature delivery, therapeutic abortion, and fetal death in 8,3 and 2 patients respectively. The incidence of complications, the fetal loss and the premature delivery rate were significantly higher while the body weight of neonates was significantly lower in group B than in group A(P<0.05). Conclusion SLE patients should have pregnancy when their SLE is stable. Careful monitoring, rational use of drugs, and termination of pregnancy are the keys to decreasing the incidence of complications during pregnancy and improving the outcomes of both mothers and infants.%目的 探讨系统性红斑狼疮(SLE)患者妊娠时机的选择与妊娠结局的相关性.方法 回顾性分析2005年1月-2011年7月我院收治的33例SLE合并妊娠患者临床资料,根据妊娠时机分为孕前持续缓解期(A组)和活动期(B组),比较两组孕期并发症及母婴结局.结果 A组20例中,孕期发生严重并发症者6例(30.0%),足月终止妊娠10例,早产7例,治疗性引产2例,胎死宫内1例,无孕产妇死亡,无新生儿畸形;B组13例中,孕期发生严重并发症11例(84.6

  14. The relationship between the internal oxidation-reduction system and fetal distress on pregnant patients with intrahepatic cholestasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, B; Wang, C-H; Ding, R-B; Chen, J-G; Che, Y-H; Deng, Y-X

    2015-10-01

    To discuss the relationship between the internal oxidation-reduction system and fetal distress in pregnant patients with intrahepatic cholestasis in order to provide a new basis for clinical treatment and research. From March 2012 to March 2015, eighty patients with intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy (ICP) were selected and divided into two groups: the distressed group (n = 31) and non-distressed group (n = 49). We compared the two groups for differences in MDA, SOD, NO level, GSH level, venous blood and total bile acid level. The relevance of the oxidation-reduction system indicators and the venous blood and total bile acid levels, as well as the differences in the delivery outcome and fetal distress, were compared between the two groups. The serum MDA level of the distressed group was higher than the non-distressed group while the SOD, NO, and GSH levels were lower than the non-distressed group. All differences were statistically significant (p intrahepatic cholestasis, which are MDA, SOD, NO and GSH levels, may contribute to the occurrence of fetal distress.

  15. Pregnancy induces transcriptional activation of the peripheral innate immune system and increases oxidative DNA damage among healthy third trimester pregnant women.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xinyin Jiang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Pregnancy induces physiological adaptations that may involve, or contribute to, alterations in the genomic landscape. Pregnancy also increases the nutritional demand for choline, an essential nutrient that can modulate epigenomic and transcriptomic readouts secondary to its role as a methyl donor. Nevertheless, the interplay between human pregnancy, choline and the human genome is largely unexplored. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: As part of a controlled feeding study, we assessed the influence of pregnancy and choline intake on maternal genomic markers. Healthy third trimester pregnant (n = 26, wk 26-29 gestation and nonpregnant (n = 21 women were randomized to choline intakes of 480 mg/day, approximating the Adequate Intake level, or 930 mg/day for 12-weeks. Blood leukocytes were acquired at study week 0 and study week 12 for microarray, DNA damage and global DNA/histone methylation measurements. A main effect of pregnancy that was independent of choline intake was detected on several of the maternal leukocyte genomic markers. Compared to nonpregnant women, third trimester pregnant women exhibited higher (P<0.05 transcript abundance of defense response genes associated with the innate immune system including pattern recognition molecules, neutrophil granule proteins and oxidases, complement proteins, cytokines and chemokines. Pregnant women also exhibited higher (P<0.001 levels of DNA damage in blood leukocytes, a genomic marker of oxidative stress. No effect of choline intake was detected on the maternal leukocyte genomic markers with the exception of histone 3 lysine 4 di-methylation which was lower among pregnant women in the 930 versus 480 mg/d choline intake group. CONCLUSIONS: Pregnancy induces transcriptional activation of the peripheral innate immune system and increases oxidative DNA damage among healthy third trimester pregnant women.

  16. Extracellular Adenosine Triphosphate Affects Systemic and Kidney Immune Cell Populations in Pregnant Rats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spaans, Floor; Melgert, Barbro N.; Borghuis, Theo; Klok, Pieter A.; de Vos, Paul; Bakker, Winston W.; van Goor, Harry; Faas, Marijke

    PROBLEM: Changes in the systemic immune response are found in preeclampsia. This may be related to high extracellular adenosine triphosphate (ATP) levels. The question arose whether ATP could affect immune responses in pregnancy. Previously, we investigated whether ATP affected monocyte activation

  17. [Bacterial flora in infections of the urinary system system in pregnant women with pre-gestational diabetes].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobczak, M; Wilczyński, J; Cypryk, K; Woch, G

    1999-10-01

    Urinary tract infections are accounted to serious complications, particularly in pregnancy complicated by diabetes. In this paper, cases of pregnancy have been analysed, affected by diabetes of type 1 and type 2, according to status of metabolic control and the type of urinary tract infection. In a group of 217 diabetic pregnant women, the incidence of urinary tract infections was 26.7%, 19.0% of them being recurrent. In the group with bad metabolic control, infections were statistically more frequent (17.4% vs. 37.3%, p = 0.001); bacteriuria without clinical demonstrations 10.4% vs. 19.6% (p > 0.05), pyelonephritis (7.0% vs. 17.7%, p = 0.001). The following types of pathogenic bacteria were found: E. coli--44.4%, Staphylococcous--28.9%, Enterococcocus--18.7%. A high frequency of Gram (+) bacteria was observed. A good metabolic control without chronic diabetic complications correlated with less frequent infections of the urinary tract.

  18. [Treatment with immunosuppressive and biologic drugs of pregnant women with systemic rheumatic or autoimmune disease].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alijotas-Reig, Jaume; Esteve-Valverde, Enrique; Ferrer-Oliveras, Raquel

    2016-10-21

    Rheumatic and systemic autoimmune diseases occur in women and, to a lesser degree, men of reproductive age. These disorders have to be clinically nonactive before conception, which is usually only possible after anti-inflammatory and immunosuppressive treatment. We must be alert since 50% of pregnancies are unplanned. Physicians should know the embryo-foetal toxicity of these drugs during pregnancy and lactation. This January 2016-updated review allows us to conclude that the majority of immunosuppressives available -anti-TNF inhibitors included- can be used before and during pregnancy, with the exception of cyclophosphamide, methotrexate, mycophenolate and leflunomide. Lactation is permitted with all drugs except methotrexate, leflunomide, mycophenolate and cyclophosphamide. Although data on abatacept, belimumab, rituximab, tocilizumab and anakinra are scant, preliminary reports agree on their safety during pregnancy and, probably, lactation. Cyclophosphamide and sulfasalazine apart, no negative effects on sperm quality, or embryo-foetal anomalies in men treated with immunosuppressives have been described.

  19. Iatrogenic aspergillus infection of the central nervous system in a pregnant woman

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lokuhetty Menaka

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available A healthy postnatal woman succumbed to fulminant iatrogenic Aspergillus infection of the central nervous system, following accidental inoculation into the subarachnoid space at spinal anesthesia, during an outbreak of Aspergillus meningitis in Sri Lanka. Autopsy revealed extensive Aspergillus meningitis and culture confirmed Aspergillus fumigatus. The thalamic parenchyma in the brain was invaded by fungal hyphae producing necrotizing angitis with thrombosis, thalamic infarcts and fungal abscesses. The directional growth of fungal hyphae from the extra-luminal side of blood vessels towards the lumen favored extension from the brain parenchyma over hematogenous spread. The spinal parenchyma was resistant to fungal invasion in spite of the heavy growth within the spinal meninges and initial inoculation at spinal level. Modulation of the immune response in pregnancy with depression of selective aspects of cell-mediated immunity probably contributed to rapid spread within the subarachnoid space, to involve the brain parenchyma leading to clinical deterioration and death.

  20. The use of cell phones and radio communication systems to reduce delays in getting help for pregnant women in low- and middle-income countries: a scoping review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunday O. Oyeyemi

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Delays in getting medical help are important factors in the deaths of many pregnant women and unborn children in the low- and middle-income countries (LMIC. Studies have suggested that the use of cell phones and radio communication systems might reduce such delays. Objectives: We review the literature regarding the impact of cell phones and radio communication systems on delays in getting medical help by pregnant women in the LMIC. Design: Cochrane Library, PubMed, Maternity and Infant care (Ovid, Web of Science (ISI, and Google Scholar were searched for studies relating to the use of cell phones for maternal and child health services, supplemented with hand searches. We included studies in LMIC and in English involving the simple use of cell phones (or radio communication to either make calls or send text messages. Results: Fifteen studies met the inclusion criteria. All the studies, while of various designs, demonstrated positive contributory effects of cell phones or radio communication systems in reducing delays experienced by pregnant women in getting medical help. Conclusions: While the results suggested that cell phones could contribute in reducing delays, more studies of a longer duration are needed to strengthen the finding.

  1. Comparison of pregnant and non-pregnant occupant crash and injury characteristics based on national crash data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manoogian, Sarah

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to provide specific characteristics of injuries and crash characteristics for pregnant occupants from the National Automotive Sampling System/Crashworthiness Data System (NASS/CDS) database for pregnant women as a group, broken down by trimester, and compared to non-pregnant women. Using all NASS/CDS cases collected between the years 2000 and 2012 with at least one pregnant occupant, the entire pregnant data set included 321,820 vehicles, 324,535 occupants, and 640,804 injuries. The pregnant occupant data were compared to the characteristics of NASS/CDS cases for 14,719,533 non-pregnant females 13-44 years old in vehicle crashes from 2000 to 2012. Sixty five percent of pregnant women were located in the front left seat position and roughly the same percentage of pregnant women was wearing a lap and shoulder belt. The average change in velocity was 11.6 mph for pregnant women and over 50% of crashes for pregnant women were frontal collisions. From these collisions, less than seven percent of pregnant women sustained MAIS 2+ injuries. Minor differences between the pregnant and non-pregnant occupants were identified in the body region and source of injuries sustained. However, the data indicated no large differences in injury or crash characteristics based on trimester of pregnancy. Moreover, the risk of an MAIS 2+ level injury for pregnant occupants is similar to the risk of injury for non-pregnant occupants based on the total vehicle change in velocity. Overall this study provides useful data for researchers to focus future efforts in pregnant occupant research. Additionally, this study reinforces that more detailed and complete data on pregnant crashes needs to be collected to understand the risk for pregnant occupants.

  2. [Prenatal care and management of hypertension in pregnant women in the public healthcare system in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vettore, Marcelo Vianna; Dias, Marcos; Domingues, Rosa Maria Soares Madeira; Vettore, Mario Vianna; Leal, Maria do Carmo

    2011-05-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the adequacy of prenatal care for pregnant women with hypertension as compared to those at low risk. Adequate management of hypertension and associated factors were also investigated. A cross-sectional study was conducted with 1,947 women, 187 of whom with hypertension, in public prenatal care units in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, in 2007-2008. Demographic and socioeconomic data, obstetric history, and information on adequacy of prenatal care were collected using interviews and prenatal care cards. Adequacy of management of hypertension was evaluated according to performance of health professionals and health services and women's individual characteristics. Chi-square and multivariate logistic regression were used to compare groups and identify factors associated with management of hypertension. Adequacy of prenatal care was 79% and did not differ between groups. Only 27% of pregnant women with hypertension received appropriate management, with poor professional performance. Hypertensive pregnant women with better prenatal care were those with previous neonatal deaths and/or stillbirths and those with 35 years of age and older. Despite adequate use of prenatal care, management of hypertension in pregnant women was inadequate.

  3. Diagnosis of hepatitis C virus infection in pregnant women in the healthcare system in Poland: Is it worth the effort?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walewska-Zielecka, Bożena; Religioni, Urszula; Juszczyk, Grzegorz; Czerw, Aleksandra; Wawrzyniak, Zbigniew; Soszyński, Piotr

    2016-07-01

    The hepatitis C virus (HCV) is globally recognized as a serious public health concern. Current statistics indicate that approximately 2% of people worldwide and 1.9% of people in Poland suffer from HCV infection.This study was conducted to assess the anti-HCV seroprevalence in pregnant women in Poland and subsequently provide recommendations on the rationale for obligatory screening.A total of 42,274 women participated in our study, of which 16,130 were pregnant. We were granted access to their health data stored in the form of electronic medical records kept by the network of outpatient clinics throughout Poland.The lowest rate of positive anti-HCV test results was found in women ages 25 to 34 (0.73%); however, younger and older age groups had similar rates (15-24 = 0.86%; 35-44 = 0.84%). Additional analysis of data from the period between 2011 and 2014 revealed a downward trend in the proportion of positive anti-HCV tests among pregnant women (mean positive anti-HCV = -0.001 × year + 1.9451; R = 0.7274). Regardless of the gradual increase in the number of female patients undergoing screening between 2004 and 2015, there has been a constant decrease in the rate of positive cases. The rate of pregnant women potentially infected with HCV was twice as lower than that in a control group of women undergoing tests for other medical circumstances: 0.76% vs 1.67% (P Poland provides evidence that screening based on an individual's medical history and behavioral risk factors in clinical circumstances would be more effective than obligatory testing of all pregnant women.

  4. Management of Pregnant Patient in Dentistry

    OpenAIRE

    Kurien, Sophia; Kattimani, Vivekanand S.; Sriram, Roopa Rani; Sriram, Sanjay Krishna; Rao V K, Prabhakara; Bhupathi, Anitha; Bodduru, Rupa Rani; N Patil, Namrata

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to update general dentists and maxillofacial surgeons in the perioperative management of the pregnant patient. Pregnancy results in physiologic changes in almost all organ systems in the body mediated mainly by hormones; which influences the treatment schedule. Understanding these normal changes is essential for providing quality care for pregnant women.

  5. A Systematic Review of Health System Barriers and Enablers for Antiretroviral Therapy (ART) for HIV-Infected Pregnant and Postpartum Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colvin, Christopher J.; Konopka, Sarah; Chalker, John C.; Jonas, Edna; Albertini, Jennifer; Amzel, Anouk; Fogg, Karen

    2014-01-01

    Background Despite global progress in the fight to reduce maternal mortality, HIV-related maternal deaths remain persistently high, particularly in much of Africa. Lifelong antiretroviral therapy (ART) appears to be the most effective way to prevent these deaths, but the rates of three key outcomes—ART initiation, retention in care, and long-term ART adherence—remain low. This systematic review synthesized evidence on health systems factors affecting these outcomes in pregnant and postpartum women living with HIV. Methods Searches were conducted for studies addressing the population of interest (HIV-infected pregnant and postpartum women), the intervention of interest (ART), and the outcomes of interest (initiation, adherence, and retention). Quantitative and qualitative studies published in English since January 2008 were included. A four-stage narrative synthesis design was used to analyze findings. Review findings from 42 included studies were categorized according to five themes: 1) models of care, 2) service delivery, 3) resource constraints and governance challenges, 4) patient-health system engagement, and 5) maternal ART interventions. Results Low prioritization of maternal ART and persistent dropout along the maternal ART cascade were key findings. Service delivery barriers included poor communication and coordination among health system actors, poor clinical practices, and gaps in provider training. The few studies that assessed maternal ART interventions demonstrated the importance of multi-pronged, multi-leveled interventions. Conclusions There has been a lack of emphasis on the experiences, needs and vulnerabilities particular to HIV-infected pregnant and postpartum women. Supporting these women to successfully traverse the maternal ART cascade requires carefully designed and targeted interventions throughout the steps. Careful design of integrated service delivery models is of critical importance in this effort. Key knowledge gaps and research

  6. Influencing factors in the health promoting behaviors of Urinary system based on health belief model in pregnant women in Bushehr 2013-14

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farzaneh Noroozi

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Urinary tract infection is the second most common complication of pregnancy that will follow with maternal and fetal complications. The aim of this study was to identify factors affecting the urinary system health promoting behaviors in pregnant women based on the health belief model. Materials and methods: The present study is a descriptive - analytic study was performed on 250 pregnant women referred to health centers of Bushehr. The tools for collecting information was a multi sectional questionnaire consisting of demographic information, measurement of urinary system health behavior, knowledge and health belief model constructs, which its validity and reliability were ensured previously. Data analysis was performed with SPSS version 20 by using correlation coefficient and linear regression tests. Results: The mean age of subjects 27/4±4/4 years.The relationship between demographic variables and health behavior wasn’t found. The most people (179 equivalents to 71/6% had medium level of knowledge about urinary tract infection, and only 44 women (17.6% had appropriate awareness. Mean score of preventive behaviors was significant difference between different levels of knowledge (p =0/026, self efficacy (p=0/000 and perceived barriers (p=0/002. In multivariate ANOVA, only the self efficacy had strong positive relationship with the preventing behaviors of urinary tract infection (p=0/000. Conclusion: Based on these results, the necessity of education based on health belief model with an emphasis on increasing the efficacy is necessary.

  7. Muscle sympathetic nerve activity and volume regulating factors in healthy pregnant and non-pregnant women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charkoudian, Nisha; Usselman, Charlotte W; Skow, Rachel J; Staab, Jeffery S; Julian, Colleen Glyde; Stickland, Michael K; Chari, Radha S; Khurana, Rshmi; Davidge, Sandra T; Davenport, Margie H; Steinback, Craig D

    2017-07-21

    Healthy, normotensive human pregnancies are associated with striking increases in both plasma volume and vascular sympathetic nerve activity (SNA). In non-pregnant humans, volume regulatory factors including plasma osmolality, vasopressin and the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system have important modulatory effects on control of sympathetic outflow. We hypothesized that pregnancy would be associated with changes in the relationships between SNA (measured as muscle SNA) and volume regulating factors, including plasma osmolality, plasma renin activity and arginine vasopressin (AVP). We studied 46 healthy, normotensive young women (23 pregnant and 23 non-pregnant). We measured SNA, arterial pressure, plasma osmolality, plasma renin activity, AVP and other volume regulatory factors in resting, semi-recumbent posture. Pregnant women had significantly higher resting SNA (38 ± 12 vs. non-pregnant: 23 ± 6 bursts/minute), lower osmolality and higher plasma renin activity and aldosterone (all P pregnant] vs. 5.17 ± 2.03 [pregnant], P > 0.05). However, regression analysis detected a significant relationship between individual values for SNA and AVP in pregnant (r = 0.71, P pregnant women (r = 0.04). No relationships were found for other variables. These data suggest that the link between AVP release and resting SNA becomes stronger in pregnancy, which may contribute importantly to blood pressure regulation in healthy women during pregnancy. Copyright © 2017, American Journal of Physiology-Heart and Circulatory Physiology.

  8. The interrelationships between clinical signs and their effect on involuntary culling among pregnant sows in group-housing systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Tina Birk; Bonde, Marianne; Kongsted, Anne Grete

    2010-01-01

    Sows suffering from clinical signs of disease (e.g. lameness, wounds and shoulder ulcers) are often involuntarily culled, affecting the farmer's economy and the welfare of the animals. In order to investigate the interrelationships between clinical signs of individual pregnant group-housed sows, we...... the explanatory factor analysis, we identified three factors describing the underlying structure of the 16 clinical variables. We interpreted the factors as ‘pressure marks', ‘wounds' and ‘lameness' Logistic analyses were performed to investigate the effect of the three factors and the parity number of each sow...... of disease (P = 0.026). Lameness is generally considered to be an important welfare problem in sows, which could explain the increased risk seen in this study. By contrast, ‘pressure marks' and ‘wounds' did not have any significant effect on the four outcomes (P > 0.05). Udgivelsesdato: June 2010...

  9. Comparison of Ankle Proprioception Between Pregnant and Non Pregnant Women

    OpenAIRE

    Preetha R; John Solomon M

    2011-01-01

    Pregnant women report falls especially during their third trimester. Physiological changes along with ligament laxity can affect the joint proprioception in this population. This study was conducted to compare the ankle proprioception between pregnant and non pregnant women. Thirty pregnant and 30 non pregnant women were included in the study and the position of ankles were recorded by a digital camera placed 60 cms away from the feet of the subject. UTHSCSA Image tool software version 3.0. w...

  10. Induction of apoptosis in placentas of pregnant mice exposed to lipopolysaccharides: possible involvement of Fas/Fas ligand system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ejima, K; Koji, T; Tsuruta, D; Nanri, H; Kashimura, M; Ikeda, M

    2000-01-01

    To explore the pathogenesis in placental dysfunction and abruptio placentae, we analyzed the occurrence of placental cell apoptosis and the role of Fas and Fas ligand (L) in that process in an inflammatory placental dysfunction model of pregnant mice, using lipopolysaccharides (LPS). In the present study, Day 13 pregnant mice were injected i.p. with LPS (50 microg/kg) or saline as a control, and the placentas were isolated at various time points after the injection. Analysis of the isolated DNA in agarose-gel electrophoresis revealed a typical ladder pattern of bands consisting of 180-200 base pairs (bp), which is regarded as a hallmark of apoptosis. The intensity of the bands increased time-dependently, reaching a maximum level at 12 h after LPS injection. In accord with the biochemical data, histochemical analysis using terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP-biotin nick end labeling (TUNEL) revealed that nuclei positive for double-stranded DNA breaks were found in decidua, diploid trophoblasts in the basal zone, and spongiotrophoblasts. The number of positive nuclei was maximized at 12 h after LPS injection. As a next step, we investigated the possible involvement of Fas and Fas L in the induction of apoptosis of the placental cells after LPS injection. Western blot analysis indicated that LPS increased the expression of Fas and Fas L in the placenta by about 4-fold at 12 h and 18 h, respectively, after injection. The cells expressing Fas and Fas L were identified, using immunohistochemistry and nonradioactive in situ hybridization, as decidua, diploid trophoblasts in the basal zone, and spongiotrophoblasts. Furthermore, when the expression of 4-hydroxy-2-nonenal (HNE)-modified proteins was assessed to evaluate the relation of oxidative stress elicited by LPS to the induction of apoptosis, once again decidua, diploid trophoblasts in the basal zone, and spongiotrophoblasts were positive. Therefore, the placental dysfunction by LPS may be brought about

  11. EXPERIMENTAL PARACOCCIDIOIDOMYCOSIS IN PREGNANT RATS

    Science.gov (United States)

    LOTH, Eduardo Alexandre; CECATTO, Vanessa; BIAZIM, Samia Khalil; FERREIRA, José Henrique Fermino; DANIELLI, Caroline; GENSKE, Rodrigo Daniel; GANDRA, Rinaldo Ferreira; de FRANCO, Marcello Fabiano

    2015-01-01

    Paracoccidioidomycosis (PCM), caused by the dimorphic fungus Paracoccidioides brasiliensis (Pb), is the most prevalent systemic mycosis in Latin America. There are few reports in the literature about the disease damages during pregnancy and the consequences to the fetuses and breeding. This study evaluated the implications of PCM during pregnancy on offspring and mothers in Wistar rats. Groups of rats were submitted to systemic Pb infection, by intraperitoneal infusion, and mated 30 days after the infection date. Immediately after birth, rats and neonates were sacrificed to obtain organs for standard histological examination, morphometric analysis, fungi recovery by plating (CFU) and dosing of anti-Pb antibodies by ELISA. There were no stillbirths or miscarriages, however, the fetuses from infected pregnant rats had lower body and organ weight but the fertility rate was 100%. The largest number of CFU was recovered from the organ of pregnant rats, the pathological examination revealed more severe infection in the same group, further on the largest number of granulomas and fungal field. It can be concluded that the PCM was more severe in the group of pregnant rats, with implications to the weight of offspring. PMID:27049707

  12. EXPERIMENTAL PARACOCCIDIOIDOMYCOSIS IN PREGNANT RATS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loth, Eduardo Alexandre; Cecatto, Vanessa; Biazim, Samia Khalil; Ferreira, José Henrique Fermino; Danielli, Caroline; Genske, Rodrigo Daniel; Gandra, Rinaldo Ferreira; Franco, Marcello Fabiano de

    2015-12-01

    Paracoccidioidomycosis (PCM), caused by the dimorphic fungus Paracoccidioides brasiliensis (Pb), is the most prevalent systemic mycosis in Latin America. There are few reports in the literature about the disease damages during pregnancy and the consequences to the fetuses and breeding. This study evaluated the implications of PCM during pregnancy on offspring and mothers in Wistar rats. Groups of rats were submitted to systemic Pb infection, by intraperitoneal infusion, and mated 30 days after the infection date. Immediately after birth, rats and neonates were sacrificed to obtain organs for standard histological examination, morphometric analysis, fungi recovery by plating (CFU) and dosing of anti-Pb antibodies by ELISA. There were no stillbirths or miscarriages, however, the fetuses from infected pregnant rats had lower body and organ weight but the fertility rate was 100%. The largest number of CFU was recovered from the organ of pregnant rats, the pathological examination revealed more severe infection in the same group, further on the largest number of granulomas and fungal field. It can be concluded that the PCM was more severe in the group of pregnant rats, with implications to the weight of offspring.

  13. EXPERIMENTAL PARACOCCIDIOIDOMYCOSIS IN PREGNANT RATS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Alexandre LOTH

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Paracoccidioidomycosis (PCM, caused by the dimorphic fungus Paracoccidioides brasiliensis (Pb, is the most prevalent systemic mycosis in Latin America. There are few reports in the literature about the disease damages during pregnancy and the consequences to the fetuses and breeding. This study evaluated the implications of PCM during pregnancy on offspring and mothers in Wistar rats. Groups of rats were submitted to systemic Pb infection, by intraperitoneal infusion, and mated 30 days after the infection date. Immediately after birth, rats and neonates were sacrificed to obtain organs for standard histological examination, morphometric analysis, fungi recovery by plating (CFU and dosing of anti-Pb antibodies by ELISA. There were no stillbirths or miscarriages, however, the fetuses from infected pregnant rats had lower body and organ weight but the fertility rate was 100%. The largest number of CFU was recovered from the organ of pregnant rats, the pathological examination revealed more severe infection in the same group, further on the largest number of granulomas and fungal field. It can be concluded that the PCM was more severe in the group of pregnant rats, with implications to the weight of offspring.

  14. serum lipid profile in non-pregnant and pregnant hausa

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DR. AMINU

    Body weight and height of each subject were taken to calculate body mass index ... contribute in unraveling the serum lipid profile among pregnant and non pregnant Hausa - Fulani women in ... Changes in loudness were not considered.

  15. Do pregnant women contact their general practitioner? A register-based comparison of healthcare utilisation of pregnant and non-pregnant women in general practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feijen-de Jong Esther I

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Midwives and obstetricians are the key providers of care during pregnancy and postpartum. Information about the consultations with a general practitioner (GP during this period is generally lacking. The aim of this study is to compare consultation rates, diagnoses and GP management of pregnant women with those of non-pregnant women. Methods Data were retrieved from the Netherlands Information Network of General Practice (LINH, a nationally representative register. This register holds longitudinal data on consultations, prescriptions and the referrals of all patients listed at 84 practices in the Netherlands in 2007–2009, including 15,123 pregnant women and 102,564 non-pregnant women in the same age-range (15 to 45 years. We compared consultation rates (including all contacts with the practice, diagnoses (ICPC-1 coded, medication prescriptions (coded according to the Anatomical Therapeutic Chemical classification system, and rate and type of referrals from the start of the pregnancy until six weeks postpartum (336 days. Results Pregnant women contacted their GP on average 3.6 times, compared to 2.2 times for non-pregnant women. The most frequently recorded diagnoses for pregnant women were ‘pregnancy’ and ‘cystitis/urinary infection’, and ‘cystitis/urinary infection’ and ‘general disease not otherwise specified’ for non-pregnant women. The mean number of prescribed medications was lower in pregnant women (2.1 against 4.4. For pregnant women, the most frequent referral indication concerned obstetric care, for non-pregnant women this concerned physiotherapy. Conclusions GP consultation rates in pregnancy and postpartum shows that GPs are important providers of care for pregnant women. Therefore, the involvement of GPs in collaborative care during pregnancy and postpartum should be reinforced.

  16. Travelers' Health: Pregnant Travelers

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Zika is present and take precautions to avoid sexual transmission of the virus. If travel cannot be avoided, pregnant women should strictly follow steps to prevent mosquito bites. Additional information, including the most current list of countries and territories where Zika virus is a risk, ...

  17. Evaluation of the macula, retinal nerve fiber layer and choroid in preeclampsia, healthy pregnant and healthy non-pregnant women using spectral-domain optical coherence tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ataş, Mustafa; Açmaz, Gökhan; Aksoy, Hüseyin; Demircan, Süleyman; Ataş, Fatma; Gülhan, Ahmet; Zararsız, Gökmen

    2014-08-01

    To evaluate the macular, retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) and choroidal thickness alterations by using spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) in preeclampsia and compare with healthy pregnant and healthy non-pregnant controls. The study population included healthy pregnant control group (n: 25), healthy non-pregnant control group (n: 26) and study group with preeclampsia (n: 27). Retinal thickness parameters were measured by SD-OCT. There was a statistically significant difference among all of the groups for choroidal thickness (p Choroidal thickness in preeclamptic women was significantly thinner than healthy pregnant women. The most thick choroid layer was detected in healthy pregnant group, and also the most thin choroidal thickness was detected in healthy non-pregnant group (p thickness were significantly thinner in preeclamptic study and healthy pregnant groups than healthy non-pregnant group (p thickness. Average of RNFL thickness was significantly thicker in healthy pregnant group than healthy non-pregnant group (p = 0.004). This study revealed that choroidal thickness measured using SD-OCT increased in women with preeclampsia and healthy pregnant women but the increase in choroidal thickness in preeclampsia was lower than the healthy pregnant controls. This lower rise in choroidal thickness can be generally attributed to the markedly increased systemic vascular vasospasm secondary to preeclampsia.

  18. Dental considerations in pregnant patient

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    khedmat S.

    1999-07-01

    Full Text Available During the human gestation period, various systemic alterations occur in the mother"nsecondary to endocrine changes. These changes, combined with the presence of the gravid uterus, result"nin conditions affecting the various systems of the mother which must be considered by the dentist."nFetal development is divided into three stages:"n1 The fertilization and implantation period"n2 The embryonic period and"n3 The fetal period."nThe second period characterized by organogenesis which taratogens may result in functional and"nmorphogenic malformations."nThe ideal dental treatment schedule for the pregnant patient is twice during first trimester, at least once"nduring second trimester and once during third trimester."nThe second trimester is an ideal time for performing dental treatment."nEmergency problem should be alleviated immediately during pregnancy."nIndicated medications should not be with held because of pregnancy but patients must be informed of"nbenefits and risks."nWith careful attention to the special needs of the pregnant patient, the dentist can provide high quality"ndental care while minimizing potential risks to mother and fetus."nEmphasis should be on preventive strategies and meticulous oral hygiene to manage common oral"nproblems associated with pregnancy.

  19. [Effect of tobacco smoke on permeability of capillary of pregnant and non-pregnant rats].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Florek, Tewa; Ignatowicz, Ewa; Piekoszewski, Wojciech; Wachowiak, Anna; Wrzosek, Jagna

    2006-01-01

    From among 4200 chemical compounds contained in the tobacco smoke, nicotine and carbon monoxide are responsible for changes in the heart-vessel system to the greatest extent. Additionally, other toxic compounds, including the carcinogenic ones, have a significant impact on the biological activity in the tissues of blood vessels. A particularly complex picture of the detrimental impact of the tobacco smoke is presented in case of pregnant women, fetuses and newborns. The aim of the research was to assess the impact of tobacco smoke on the permeability of capillaries in different tissues of rats (lungs, brain, liver, kidneys) and testing of the potentially protective impact of rutine (3-rutinozide of quercetin). The research on the permeability of capillaries has been carried out applying Evans blue. The animals were divided into 8 research groups: pregnant animals--"control", "rutine", "tobacco smoke", "rutine+tobacco smoke", and non-pregnant animals--"control", "rutine", "tobacco smoke", "rutine+tobacco smoke". In the first stage of research (pregnant, non-pregnant-- groups: "rutine" and "rutine+tobacco smoke"), the water rutine solution in a dose of 40 mg/kg of body weight was administered. The non-pregnant and pregnant animals from groups "tobacco smoke" and "rutine+tobacco smoke" were exposed to tobacco smoke via inhalation (1500 mg CO/m3 of air) for 21 days. All the animals were injected with the water Evans blue solution in a dose of 30 mg/kg of body weight. After 30 minutes, the animals were killed by cutting the abdominal aorta, and lungs, brain, liver and kidneys were taken for further testing. The cotinine in the urine was determined by the HPLC method, using norephedrine as the internal standard, after the preceding extraction by means of the liquid-liquid technique. The concentration of cotinine in case of non-pregnant and pregnant females was respectively 11.8 +/- 1.9 pg/ml of urine and 12.0 +/- 2.5 microg/ml of urine. In case of the rats, which

  20. Management of pregnant patient in dentistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurien, Sophia; Kattimani, Vivekanand S; Sriram, Roopa Rani; Sriram, Sanjay Krishna; Rao V K, Prabhakara; Bhupathi, Anitha; Bodduru, Rupa Rani; N Patil, Namrata

    2013-02-01

    The purpose of this article is to update general dentists and maxillofacial surgeons in the perioperative management of the pregnant patient. Pregnancy results in physiologic changes in almost all organ systems in the body mediated mainly by hormones; which influences the treatment schedule. Understanding these normal changes is essential for providing quality care for pregnant women. The general principles that apply in this situation are discussed, followed by the relevant physiologic changes and their treatment implications, the risks of various medications to the mother and fetus, the management of concomitant medical problems in the pregnant patient, appropriate timing of oral and maxillofacial surgery during pregnancy, and management of emergencies during pregnancy. Information about the compatibility, complications, and excretion of the common drugs during pregnancy is provided. Guidelines for the management of a pregnant patient in the dental office are summarized. How to cite this article: Kurien S, Kattimani V S, Sriram R, Sriram S K, Prabhakar Rao V K, Bhupathi A, Bodduru R, Patil N N. Management of Pregnant Patient in Dentistry. J Int Oral Health 2013; 5(1):88-97.

  1. Periodontal status in pregnant women in comparison with non-pregnant individuals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R Surekha

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Our understanding of pathogenesis of periodontal disease has changed remarkably over a few decades. Rather than being confined to periodontium, periodontal disease may have a wide ranging systemic effects. It is now recognized that it shares most of the common risk factors for diabetes, coronary heart disease preterm low birth weight, miscarriage or early pregnancy loss and preeclampsia. Materials and Methods: The study group comprised of 400 women (200 pregnant women and 200 non-pregnant with an age range of 18-40 years. Maternal demographic and medical data were collected. Periodontal examinations included: Oral hygiene index (OHI-S, gingival index (GI, pocket probing depth and clinical attachment loss (CAL. Results: The results were analyzed using test of proportion when OHI-S was compared in pregnant women with that of non-pregnant individuals, there was no significant difference in good oral hygiene group (P = 0.187, Z = 1.32. When the GI index was evaluated, a definite statistical difference was noted in mild, moderate and severe gingivitis (P - 0.000, Z = 0.365; P - 0.00, Z = 4.17; P - 0.000, Z = 0.75. CAL index revealed a statistical difference was observed healthy periodontium, mild, moderate and severe periodontitis in both pregnant and non-pregnant women (P = −0.000, Z = 3.65; P - 0.000, Z = 5.83; P - 0.001, Z - 3.24; P - 0.000, Z - 6.47. Conclusion: The present study conducted supports the hypothesis that there is a definite correlation between the pregnant women and poor oral hygiene (gingivitis and periodontitis as compared with the non-pregnant controls.

  2. Central sleep apnea in pregnant women with sleep disordered breathing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourjeily, Ghada; Sharkey, Katherine M; Mazer, Jeffrey; Moore, Robin; Martin, Susan; Millman, Richard

    2015-09-01

    Physiologic changes in the cardiac, respiratory, and renal systems in pregnancy likely impact ventilatory control. Though obstructive sleep apnea and snoring are common in the pregnant population, the predisposition to central respiratory events during sleep and the prevalence of such events is less well studied. The aim of this study was to assess the presence of central apneas during sleep in pregnant women and non-pregnant controls suspected of sleep disordered breathing. Twenty-five pregnant women referred for polysomnography for sleep disordered breathing were compared with non-pregnant controls matched for age, body mass index, gender, and apnea hypopnea index (AHI). Central apnea index was defined as the number of central apneas per hour of sleep, and mixed apnea index was defined as the number of mixed apneas per hour of sleep. Sixty-four percent of pregnant women had a respiratory disturbance index >5 events per hour of sleep. Mean body mass index was 44.1 ± 6.9 kg/m(2) pregnant compared to 44.0 ± 7.3 kg/m(2) in controls. The total number of central apneas observed during sleep in the pregnant group consisted of two central apneas in one patient, and of 98 central apneas in 11 patients in the control group (p = 0.05). Median central apnea index was low in both groups (pregnant 0, interquartile range (IQR) 0, 0 vs. non-pregnant 0, IQR 0, 0.2, p = 0.04). Mixed apnea index was similarly low in both groups. Despite some physiologic changes of pregnancy that impact ventilatory control, the prevalence of central sleep apnea was low in our sample of overweight pregnant women with sleep-disordered breathing.

  3. THE PREGNANT MAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.Arulmani

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This scientific research article focus that the “Human Ancestor” lived in “Mars Planet‟ in the early universe shall be considered having distinguished genetic characteristics compared to “Modern Human” living in earth Planet especially in reproduction of population. This research further focus that MALE PARENT shall be considered as “become pregnant” and responsible for child birth. During the course of “Space” and “Time” of expanding universe the mars populations consider have descended to Earth planet due to varied climatic condition and FEMALE PARENT become pregnant and responsible for child birth at later stage of “Nuclear age”

  4. The Legal Rights of Pregnant Students and Pregnant Employees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evers, Irving C.

    This speech presents an analysis of court cases dealing with the rights of pregnant students and pregnant employees. The discussion of these rights, such as the right to maternity leave, focuses around the Civil Rights Act of 1964 and its implications for equal employment opportunity. The court cases discussed consider the application of the equal…

  5. Vaccinations for pregnant women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swamy, Geeta K; Heine, R Phillips

    2015-01-01

    In the United States, eradication and reduction of vaccine-preventable diseases through immunization has directly increased life expectancy by reducing mortality. Although immunization is a public priority, vaccine coverage among adult Americans is inadequate. The Institute of Medicine, the Community Preventive Services Task Force, and other public health entities have called for the development of innovative programs to incorporate adult vaccination into routine clinical practice. Obstetrician-gynecologists are well suited to serve as vaccinators of women in general and more specifically pregnant women. Pregnant women are at risk for vaccine-preventable disease-related morbidity and mortality and adverse pregnancy outcomes, including congenital anomalies, spontaneous abortion, preterm birth, and low birth weight. In addition to providing direct maternal benefit, vaccination during pregnancy likely provides direct fetal and neonatal benefit through passive immunity (transplacental transfer of maternal vaccine-induced antibodies). This article reviews: 1) types of vaccines; 2) vaccines specifically recommended during pregnancy and postpartum; 3) vaccines recommended during pregnancy and postpartum based on risk factors and special circumstances; 4) vaccines currently under research and development for licensure for maternal-fetal immunization; and 5) barriers to maternal immunization and available patient and health care provider resources.

  6. How I Got Pregnant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dwyer, James

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available This short story raises ethical issues about a woman’s request for medical assistance to get pregnant. In this fictional account, a 34-year-old woman has been trying to get pregnant for the last year. Her husband would like to keep trying for one more year, but the woman loses patience. She visits an ob-gyn and requests artificial insemination. She does not intend to tell her husband about this medical assistance. The doctor has helped single women, lesbian couples, and married couples with pregnancies, but he feels conflicted by this request. The doctor and the woman discuss their concerns and plans. Then they decide on a course of action. In a creative way, this story aims to bring to life ethical issues about assisted reproduction, complex relationships, individual choice, non- judgmental attitudes, deception, confidentiality, genetic connections, and social parents. But this story is not a textbook case that illustrates a clearly defined ethical issue. On the contrary, the story shows that some common ethical ideas don’t quite fit the characters’ experiences and the readers’ reactions.

  7. I'm Pregnant. Should I Get a Flu Shot?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... are breastfeeding during flu season. Pregnancy leads to changes in a woman's body. The immune system becomes a bit weaker. That makes it easier for pregnant women to catch whatever bug is going around. ...

  8. Who is telling pregnant women about listeriosis?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Mary Anne E; MacLaurin, Tanya L

    2011-01-01

    During pregnancy, a woman's immune system is compromised and she is at an increased risk of infection and illness. In particular, the risk of contracting foodborne listeriosis is 20 times greater for pregnant women than for other women of reproductive age. Considering the negative effects of listeriosis on the developing fetus and that more than 380,000 babies were born in Canada in 2010, listeriosis is an important public health concern. And yet, in Canada, it is not clear who is responsible for educating pregnant women on the importance of safe food handling and the avoidance of high-risk foods. Not all women attend prenatal education classes and the circle of care during pregnancy is highly variable. Physicians, however, are very often included in the care circle and may represent a consistent, reliable and trustworthy source of food safety information. At present, only one province has prenatal records that prompt physicians to counsel pregnant women on food safety issues, though all include some assessment of nutrition, diet or supplement use. Improving provincial and territorial prenatal records may be one important way of helping to ensure that critical food safety information is reaching pregnant Canadians.

  9. Psychological readiness of pregnant women to parenthood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Galjautdinova S. I.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In this article the results of a study of psychological readiness of pregnant women to parenthood are presented. Psychological readiness is defined as a structure consisting of three components: the cognitive, emotional, and behavioral, which is consistent with the single theory of psychological processes L. M. Vekkera. It was found that the main component that determines the high level of psychological readiness for motherhood is a cognitive component. The content of the cognitive component includes an understanding of the child as a value. Some results of the research of value orientations of pregnant women in the structure of psychological readiness for parenthood. To identify the value system of pregnant women, the method of “Value Orientations” by M. Rokich was applied. The analysis of empirical data was performed using factor analysis and U criterion of Mann-Whitney. Respondents were distributed into two age groups: first group of 21-25 years (56 persons, second group of 26-30 years (44 persons. All women are nulliparous. The younger age group of pregnant women is characterized by values that are directed at the outside world. Emotional component dominates in the structure of psychological readiness for motherhood. Values of women in the second group are aimed at children. Cognitive and behavioral components dominate in the structure of their psychological readiness for motherhood. Knowledge of the structure of psychological readiness of women to parenthood will help to diagnose disorders of maternal behavior, to design methods of its correction and prevention.

  10. Prevalence of the colonization by Streptococcus agalactiae in pregnant women from a public health system in Santo Ângelo – RS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franciane Rios Senger

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: Background and Objectives: Streptococcus agalactiae (GBS is part of the female genital tract microbiota, however, its clinical significance is related to infections in newborns and can cause severe cases of pneumonia, septicemia and meningitis. Thus, the aim of this study is to determine the prevalence of colonization by S. agalactiae in pregnant women and analyze the sensitivity profile of the isolated front of antimicrobials. Methods: Vaginal and anorectal samples of pregnant women over 30 weeks of gestation were collected from February to June 2013. The samples were stored in Stuart transport medium and then inoculated in Todd-Hewitt broth added gentamicin and acid nalidixic with subsequent subculture on blood agar plates. For identification were performed Gram test, catalase, CAMP and latex agglutination. Furthermore, the antimicrobial susceptibility tests and the test for the detection of resistance induced clindamycin in the samples resistant to erythromycin were conducted. They are also assessed, through interviews, demographic, socioeconomic and clinical and obstetric data. Results: It was observed colonization in 22.5% (18/80 of the pregnant women. The strains were sensitive to most of the antibiotics tested except erythromycin, showing a resistance of 22.2% (4/18 isolates. However, none of the samples erythromycin resistant had induced resistance to clindamycin. Conclusion: The high maternal colonization by S. agalactiae found emphasize the importance of isolation of this bacterium in late pregnancy, preventing the occurrence of neonatal infection. KEYWORDS: Streptococcus agalactiae. Pregnancy. Prevalence.

  11. Pregnant phenotype in aquaporin 8-deficient mice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiao-yan SHA; Zheng-fang XIONG; Hui-shu LIU; Zheng ZHENG; Tong-hui MA

    2011-01-01

    Aim: Aquaporin 8 (AQP8) is expressed within the female reproductive system but its physiological function reminds to be elucidated.This study investigates the role of AQP8 during pregnancy using AQP8-knockout (AQP8-KO) mice.Methods: Homozygous AQP8-KO mice were mated, and the conception rate was recorded. AQP8-KO pregnant mice or their offspring were divided into 5 subgroups according to fetal gestational day (7, 13, 16, 18 GD) and newborn. Wild type C57 pregnant mice served as the control group. The number of pregnant mice, total embryos and atrophic embryos, as well as fetal weight, placental weight and placental area were recorded for each subgroup. The amount of amniotic fluid in each sac at 13, 16, and 18 GD was calculated. Statistical significance was determined by analysis of variance of factorial design and chi-square tests.Results: Conception rates did not differ significantly between AQP8-KO and wild type mice. AQP8-KO pregnant mice had a significantly higher number of embryos compared to wild type controls. Fetal/neonatal weight was also significantly greater in the AQP8-KO group compared to age-matched wild type controls. The amount of amniotic fluid was greater in AQP8-KO pregnant mice than wild type controis, although the FM/AFA (fetal weight/amniotic fluid amount) did not differ. While AQP8-KO placental weight was significantly larger than wild type controls, there was no evidence of placental pathology in either group.Conclusion: The results suggest that AQP8 deficiency plays an important role in pregnancy outcome.

  12. Manejo de novilhas prenhes aos 13/15 meses de idade em sistemas a pasto Pregnant heifers management at 13/15 months of age in grazing systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alcides Pilau

    2008-07-01

    de vaca.This experiment was carried out to evaluate the development of 32 primiparous beef heifers Aberdeen Angus and Angus crossbred raised and mating from 13 to the 15 months of age. The experiment had beginning in the pregnancy diagnosis of using ultra-sound technique, realized at 28 days after the ending of the reproductive period. The initial average weight and body condition (BC was 288 kg LW and 3.2 points, respectively. In this occasion, the beef heifers were uniformly distributed by genetic group, LW and conception order in two grazing systems. Grazing systems were: PMI - pregnant beef heifers maintained in the initial pregnancy period on pearl millet pasture (Pennisetum americanum, L.; PNA - pregnant heifers maintained in the initial pregnancy period on natural pasture. Grazed period was 67 days in pearl millet pasture. At end of the treatments the beef heifers were maintained as a unique group: on natural pasture at pre calving period, on annual ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum, Lam pasture at post calving period and on natural pasture at second reproductive period. In the initial pregnancy phase, the average daily gain (ADG of 0.899 kg and body condition gain (BCG, 0.34 points of the PMI heifers were higher then the ADG of 0.377 kg and BC lost of -0.15 for PNA heifers. The PMI beef heifers had post calving live weight (PCW and post calving body condition of 301 kg and 2.9 points, respectively, higher values than of PNA beef heifers, 267 kg and 2.7 points. Calving, dystocia, birth and weaning rates were not different between the feeding treatment. The PMI beef heifers were 31 kg heaviest and with more 0.30 point of BC at initial second reproductive period. The pregnancy rate (PR and estimations of calving productive efficiency (CPEE and weaning productive efficiency at 100 days of age (WPEE were not different between feeding treatments. Mean PR was 77%. Mean CPEE was 30.3 and WPEE 28.1 kg of weaning calf/100 kg of cow.

  13. Pregnant Woman's Custom in Japan

    OpenAIRE

    1990-01-01

    Foods are one of the important things in order to keep the life of pregnant women in good condition, because they must bring up a new life in their bodies In early Showa Age, the life of Japanese common people was in difficult circumstances. At that time the food life of pregnant women were restricted by various food taboos. For instance, if the pregnant women ate Tororo, brayed yam, she was considered to deliver a baby who had no tooth. They kept many taboos and prayed to their guardian deit...

  14. Sedentary behavior patterns in non-pregnant and pregnant women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawkins, Marquis; Kim, Youngdeok; Gabriel, Kelley Pettee; Rockette-Wagner, Bonny Jane; Chasan-Taber, Lisa

    2017-06-01

    Sedentary behavior has been associated with adverse health outcomes among pregnant women; however, few studies have characterized sedentary behavior patterns in this population. We described patterns of accelerometer-determined indicators of sedentary behavior among a national sample of US pregnant (n = 234) women and non-pregnant (n = 1146) women participating in the NHANES 2003-06 cycles. We included women with ≥ 4 days of accelerometer wear of ≥ 10 h/day. A count threshold of sedentary behavior as: 1) total accumulated sedentary time by bout length categories; 2) accumulated sedentary time within discrete bout length categories; 3) mean, median, and usual bout length; and 4) and bout frequency. Both non-pregnant and pregnant women spent up to 60% of their accelerometer wear time in sedentary behavior depending on the minimum bout threshold applied. Sedentary time was higher among pregnant women compared to non-pregnant women when lower bout thresholds (i.e. 10 min or less) were applied. The majority of total sedentary time was accumulated in bouts lasting sedentary bouts (i.e., ≥ 30 min) per day, which accounted for nearly 20% of total accumulated sedentary time. When applying a minimum threshold of at least 15 min, sedentary time increased across pregnancy trimesters, while sedentary time was similar across trimesters when using lower thresholds. These findings provide the first characterization of accelerometer-determined indicators of sedentary behavior in pregnant women. The minimum bout threshold applied influenced estimates of sedentary time and patterns sedentary time accumulation across pregnancy trimesters.

  15. Twenty-nine cases of the pregnant women with Systemic Lupus Erythematosus in nursing%29例妊娠合并系统性红斑狼疮的护理

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陆云波

    2011-01-01

    目的 探讨妊娠合并系统性红斑狼疮的护理方法.方法对本院29例妊娠合并系统性红斑狼疮孕产妇的临床资料进行回顾性分析.结果除了1例产妇因妊娠 29+1周新生儿重度窒息死亡外,其余28例孕产妇均能顺利度过孕产期,无并发症,新生儿均成活,母婴康复出院.结论 对妊娠合并系统性红斑狼疮孕产妇给予加强健康教育,重视产前检查,选择合适的妊娠时机,加强母儿监护,系统性红斑狼疮患者能够顺利生育.%Objective To investigate the nursing on pregnant women with systemic lupus erythematosus. Methods Twenty-nine cases of pregnant women with systemic lupus erythematosus clinical data are analyzed retrospectively. Results One ease of severe neonatal asphyxia was dead due to maternal pregnancy (29 + 1 ) weeks, the remaining 28 cases of pregnant women survived with no serious complications, and neonates also survived. Conclusions SLE patients should be educated with maternal health knowledge, and they should master the right time of pregnancy. If the care of the maternal and the fetal can be intensified, the better outcomes could occur.

  16. 基于B/S模式的孕妇儿童体检系统的设计与实现%DESIGN AND REALISATION OF A PHYSICAL EXAMINATION SYSTEM FOR CHILDREN AND PREGNANT WOMEN BASED ON B/S PATTERN

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王丽霞

    2013-01-01

    A physical examination system for children and pregnant women based on B/S pattern is proposed by referring the “National Basic Public Health Service Specification (2011)”in order to improve the heavy manual management of physical examination processes for children and pregnant women,enhance the quality of health care and the efficiency of physical examination and simultaneously realise the sharing of the system in medical enterprises and etc.for health care of children and pregnant women.The overall structure,development environment,design of database and functional module are illustrated in this paper,furthermore,the doctor platform is taking as the example to give the detailed explanation on specific implementing process of children physical examination module.The system basically realises the paperless,standardisation and high efficient management of work evaluation and physical examination information for children and pregnant women in medical institutions,it has better practical value.%为了改善孕妇、儿童体检流程的繁重手工管理,提高保健质量和体检效率,同时实现系统在妇幼保健等医疗单位更好地共享。参照《国家基本公共卫生服务规范(2011年)》提出基于B/S模式的孕妇儿童体检系统。介绍系统的总体结构,开发环境、数据库及功能模块设计,并以医生平台为例详细说明儿童体检模块的具体实现过程。系统基本上实现了妇幼保健机构孕妇儿童体检信息及工作考核等的无纸化、规范化和高效化管理,具有较好的实用价值。

  17. Folate inadequacy in the diet of pregnant women

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To estimate food and dietary folate inadequacies in the diets of adult pregnant women. METHODS: A prospective study was conducted with 103 healthy pregnant adult users of the Public Health Care System of Ribeirão Preto, São Paulo, Brazil. The present study included the 82 women with complete food intake data during pregnancy, which were collected by three 24-hour dietary recalls. Food folate (folate naturally present in foods) and dietary folate (food folate plus folate from f...

  18. First nationwide web-based surveillance system for influenza-like illness in pregnant women: participation and representativeness of the French G-GrippeNet cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loubet, Paul; Guerrisi, Caroline; Turbelin, Clément; Blondel, Béatrice; Launay, Odile; Bardou, Marc; Blanchon, Thierry; Bonmarin, Isabelle; Goffinet, François; Ancel, Pierre-Yves; Colizza, Vittoria; Hanslik, Thomas; Kernéis, Solen

    2016-03-11

    Pregnancy is a risk factor for severe influenza resulting in increased risks of hospitalisation and death in mothers and their new-borns. Our objective was to assess the representativeness and participation of French women to a new web-based collaborative tool for data collection and monitoring of Influenza Like Illness (ILI) during pregnancy. During the 2014/2015 influenza season, pregnant women living in metropolitan France were enrolled through a web platform ( https://www.grippenet.fr/). Then throughout the season, participants were asked to report, on a weekly basis, if they had experienced symptoms of ILI. Representativeness was assessed by comparing the characteristics of participants to those of the French National Perinatal Survey. For each participant, the participation rate was the number of weekly questionnaires completed, divided by the length of follow-up (in weeks). Predictors of active participation (participation rate >15%) were assessed by multivariate logistic regression. A total of 153 women were enrolled. Participants were older (mean age 34 years vs. 29 years) and more highly educated (high school level 89% versus 52%) than the general population of pregnant women in France, but the sample did not differ on pregnancy-related characteristics (parity, history of hospitalisation during a previous pregnancy). The median rate of participation was high (78%, interquartile range: 34-96). Higher educational level and participation to a previous GrippeNet.fr season were associated with active participation. Despite small sample size and lack of representativeness, the retention rate was high, suggesting that pregnant women are prone to adhere to a longitudinal follow-up of their health status via the Internet.

  19. Pregnant and other works

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elinor Carucci

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available I have been photographing my children, Eden and Emmanuelle since I got pregnant in 2003. I photograph as a mother, from a mother's point of view, showing the different aspects of motherhood as I see them; the beautiful and the ugly, the magic and the frustration, the extremes that live side by side when you are a mother. I try to photograph them all. Crying, sadness, anxiety, mourning the body I will never have again, the woman I will never be again. The strong physical connection to the children, erotic at times, something I found out many mothers experience but do not talk about much. With my images I try to sing a love song to my children, they are my inspiration. Their love, sadness, joy and neediness are for me the most meaningful moments of my life, the moments I want to photograph and preserve. Those images are taken from my life, they are very personal, they are about being a mother, being a child, the intensity of raising a child. This work is about the essence of being human.

  20. Pregnant? Don't Smoke!

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this? Submit Button Past Emails Pregnant? Don't Smoke! Language: English Español (Spanish) Recommend on Facebook Tweet ... cancer, heart disease, and stroke. But women who smoke during pregnancy put themselves and their developing babies ...

  1. [Low back pain in pregnant women].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majchrzycki, Marian; Mrozikiewicz, Przemysław M; Kocur, Piotr; Bartkowiak-Wieczorek, Joanna; Hoffmann, Marcin; Stryła, Wanda; Seremak-Mrozikiewicz, Agnieszka; Grześkowiak, Edmund

    2010-11-01

    Pain of lumbosacral segment of the vertebral column and the pelvis concerns about 45% of all pregnant women. The change of the body posture during pregnancy is the result of gravity centre relocation, which affects the musculosceletal system. Development of the joint, ligament and myofascial dysfunctions, as well as the pain in the lumbosacral segment and the pelvis, are the most common reasons of spine pain. The aim of this review is to present the current state of knowledge about lumbar spine pain in pregnant women with special focus on the pain connected with muscular, joint and ligament disorders. Pregnancy is a serious burden for the female osteo-skeletal system. Lumbar pain with different location and intensification is the negative consequence of the position changes during pregnancy. Pharmacotherapy could be useful only in cases of intensive low back pain, with possible application of small spectrum of drugs that are safe during pregnancy. Physical therapy including manual therapy exercises, massage and techniques of local anesthesia are alternative methods in case of low back pain in pregnant women.

  2. Porphyromonas Gingivalis and E-coli induce different cytokine production patterns in pregnant women.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marijke M Faas

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Pregnant individuals of many species, including humans, are more sensitive to various bacteria or their products as compared with non-pregnant individuals. Pregnant individuals also respond differently to different bacteria or their products. Therefore, in the present study, we evaluated whether the increased sensitivity of pregnant women to bacterial products and their heterogeneous response to different bacteria was associated with differences in whole blood cytokine production upon stimulation with bacteria or their products. METHODS: Blood samples were taken from healthy pregnant and age-matched non-pregnant women and ex vivo stimulated with bacteria or LPS from Porphyromonas Gingivalis (Pg or E-coli for 24 hrs. TNFα, IL-1ß, IL-6, IL-12 and IL-10 were measured using a multiplex Luminex system. RESULTS: We observed a generally lower cytokine production after stimulation with Pg bacteria or it's LPS as compared with E-coli bacteria. However, there was also an effect of pregnancy upon cytokine production: in pregnant women the production of IL-6 upon Pg stimulation was decreased as compared with non-pregnant women. After stimulation with E-coli, the production of IL-12 and TNFα was decreased in pregnant women as compared with non-pregnant women. CONCLUSION: Our results showed that cytokine production upon bacterial stimulation of whole blood differed between pregnant and non-pregnant women, showing that the increased sensitivity of pregnant women may be due to differences in cytokine production. Moreover, pregnancy also affected whole blood cytokine production upon Pg or E-coli stimulation differently. Thus, the different responses of pregnant women to different bacteria or their products may result from variations in cytokine production.

  3. Pregnant Childbirth Way Reasonable Evaluation System of the Application Effect is Analyzed%孕妇分娩方式合理性评价体系的应用效果分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨晓华; 夏凤英; 周茵; 熊光燕; 黄晓琴; 刘兴玲; 刘敏芬

    2014-01-01

    目的:探究高剖宫产率的原因,寻找降低高剖宫产率的措施。方法:将我院2013年住院分娩的447例孕妇作为干预组,2012年住院分娩的525例产妇作为对照组。笔者根据孕产妇的一般情况、选择性剖宫产、顺产、助产、中转剖宫产及相关管理因素确定了200项指标构建的“孕妇分娩方式合理性评价体系”,对对照组产妇的病历资料进行回顾性分析,对干预组孕妇的住院分娩经过进行全程指导及干预。结果:我院孕妇剖宫产率由干预前的48.00%下降为36.02%,其中初产妇与经产妇剖宫产率分别由干预前的46.15%和51.34%下降为37.80%和33.68%( P<0.05),具有显著差异。结论:“孕妇分娩方式合理性评价体系”操作简单、实用,是降低剖宫产率重要措施之一。%Objective :Probing into the cause of the high rate of cesarean section ,looking for measures to reduce high cesarean section rate .Methods :Our hospital from 2013 to 447 cases of pregnant women in childbirth as intervention group ,2012 ,525 cases hospitalized childbirth puerpera as control group .By a has a subtropical high title of obstetrics and gynecology doctors by the author according to the general situation of maternal selective cesarean birth midwives transit cesarean delivery and related management factors determine 200 pregnant childbirth way rationality of indicators to construct evaluation system ,to control the medical records were retrospectively analyzed .The intervention group of pregnant women in hospital childbirth after full guidance and intervention .Results:Our pregnant women cesarean deliv‐ery rate reduced to 36 .02% ,from 48 .00% before intervention among first‐time mothers and multipara cesarean section rate from 46 .15% before intervention and 51 .34% respectively 37 .80% and 33 .68% (P< 0 .05) ,with significant difference .Conclusion:Pregnant childbirth way rationality

  4. Effects of dexamethasone on the glucogenic capacity of fetal, pregnant, and non-pregnant adult sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franko, K L; Giussani, D A; Forhead, A J; Fowden, A L

    2007-01-01

    Fetal glucocorticoids have an important role in the pre-partum maturation of physiological systems essential for neonatal survival such as glucogenesis. Consequently, in clinical practice, synthetic glucocorticoids, like dexamethasone, are given routinely to pregnant women threatened with pre-term delivery to improve the viability of their infants. However, little is known about the effects of maternal dexamethasone treatment on the glucogenic capacity of either the fetus or mother. This study investigated the effects of dexamethasone treatment using a clinically relevant dose and regime on glycogen deposition and the activities of glucose-6-phosphatase (G6Pase) and phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCK) in the liver and kidney of pregnant ewes and their fetuses, and of non-pregnant ewes. Dexamethasone administration increased the glycogen content of both the fetal and adult liver within 36 h of beginning treatment. It also increased G6Pase activity in the liver and kidney of the fetuses but not of their mothers or the non-pregnant ewes. Neither hepatic nor renal PEPCK activity was affected by dexamethasone in any group of animals. These changes in glycogen content and G6Pase activity were accompanied by rises in the plasma glucose and insulin concentrations and by a fall in the plasma cortisol level in the fetus and both groups of adult animals. In addition, dexamethasone treatment raised fetal plasma tri-iodothyronine (T(3)) concentrations and reduced maternal levels of plasma T(3) and thyroxine, but had no effect on thyroid hormone concentrations in the non-pregnant ewes. These findings show that maternal dexamethasone treatment increases the glucogenic capacity of both the mother and fetus and has major implications for glucose availability both before and after birth.

  5. The influence of 1800 MHz GSM-like signals on blood chemistry and oxidative stress in non-pregnant and pregnant rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kismali, Gorkem; Ozgur, Elcin; Guler, Goknur; Akcay, Aytac; Sel, Tevhide; Seyhan, Nesrin

    2012-05-01

    Environmental electromagnetic fields originate from man-made sources, such as mobile phones and base stations, and have led to increasing public concern about their possible adverse health effects. We aimed to investigate the possible effects of radiofrequency radiation (RFR) generated from these devices on oversensitive animals, such as pregnant rabbits. In the present study, the effects of whole body 1800 MHz Global System for Mobile Communications (GSM)-like RFR exposure for 15 min/day for seven days on blood chemistry and lipid peroxidation levels in both non-pregnant and pregnant New Zealand White rabbits were investigated. Thirteen-month-old rabbits were studied in the following four groups: Non-pregnant control, non-pregnant RFR-exposed, pregnant control and pregnant RFR-exposed. Lipid peroxidation, namely malondialdehyde (MDA) levels, did not change after RFR exposure. However, blood chemistry parameters, such as cholesterol (CHO), total protein (TP), albumin (ALB), uric acid, creatinin and creatine kinase (CK) and creatine kinase-myocardial band isoenzyme (CK-MB) changed due to both pregnancy and RFR exposure. Our investigations have been shown that no indication for oxidative stress was detected in the blood of pregnant rabbits upon RF exposure at specific conditions employed in the present study. Minor changes in some blood chemistry parameters were detected but CK-MB and CK increases were found remarkable. Studies on RFR exposure during pregnancy will help establish international standards for the protection of pregnant women from environmental RFR.

  6. 重度血小板减少对妊娠合并狼疮患者的影响%Effect of severe lupus-associated thrombocytopenia on pregnant women with systemic lupus erythematosus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张建瑜; 屈谦; 唐加明; 罗冰; 黄凯清

    2012-01-01

    Objective To investigate the effect of severe thrombocytopenia ( STP ) on pregnancy outcomes andobstetric complications in pregnant women with systemic lupus erythematosus ( SLE ).Methods The clinical dats on 11pregnant women with SLE-associated STP who had treated during the period of 2006 to 2011 were analyzed retrospectively.Results 11 of 49 pregnant women with SLE met the criteria for platelet count of less than 40× 109/L,with a median count of 21 × 109/L,ranging from 5 to 38× 109/L.STP mainly occurred in the third trimester,which was always complicated with multiple organ damage.Cesarean sections were performed in all patients.Fetal loss occurred in 4 women,premature labor in 5,and low neonatal weight in 4.The median neonatal weight was 2212 g.ConCltsions Even though the systemic symptoms were severe,the women with thrombocytopenia induced by lupus have a better pregnancy outcome under the conditions of proper treatment and close supervision during the perinatal period.%目的 探讨重度血小板减少症( sever thrombocytopenia,STP)对狼疮合并妊娠患者妊娠结局、产科并发症影响.方法 对2006至201 1年收治的11例妊娠合并SLE性STP患者临床资料进行回顾性分析.结果 49例妊娠合并狼疮患者中,重度血小板减少(血小板低于40× 109/L)11例(中位数为28×109/L,范围为5~38×109/L).STP主要发生在妊娠晚期,常常合并多脏器损害.该组病例中4例胎儿丢失(包括治疗性引产3例.治疗性流产1例),余7例活产,其中早产儿5例,低体重儿4例,新生儿体重中位数为2212 9.结论 SLE相关的STP患者全身系统性病变严重,经过及时处理,在严密的围产期监测下,注意防治妊娠并发症,可获得较好的妊娠结局.

  7. Quitting Smoking While Pregnant: What Works

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_160106.html Quitting Smoking While Pregnant: What Works Nicotine patches, Zyban helped 4 out ... of nicotine patches or the drug Zyban helps pregnant women quit smoking before and after they give birth, a new ...

  8. PRRSV and the pregnant female

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Pregnant Gilt Model (PGM) is substantially complete and has provided substantive deliverables for the swine industry in Canada and beyond. The success of the PGM was largely dependent on a team of more than 30 researchers, students and technicians, along with external collaborators and instituti...

  9. Asymptomatic bacteriuria in pregnant women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thakur, Achala; Baral, Ratna; Basnet, Pritha; Rai, Rubina; Agrawal, Ajay; Regmi, Mohan Chandra; Uprety, Dhruba Kumar

    2013-01-01

    Asymptomatic bacteriuria is the significant presence of bacteria in urine of an individual without symptoms. The aim of the study is to determine the prevalence of asymptomatic bacteriuria in pregnant women. This study was a prospective study conducted in the department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology at B. P. Koirala Institute of Health Sciences. The duration of the study was six months from January to June 2012. A total of 600 pregnant women were enrolled. All women were clinically identified to have no signs and symptoms of UTI. Clean catch midstream urine sample was collected from each patient into a sterile vial. The urine samples were examined for microscopic and culture sensitivity test. Out of 600 pregnant women, 52 were positive for significant bacteriuria with a prevalence rate of 8.7%. There was a significant difference in prevalence of asymptomatic bacteriuria with respect to trimester (p=0.005). Age did not show any significant difference in the prevalence of asymptomatic bacteriuria (p=0.807). There was not any significant difference in the prevalence of asymptomatic bacteriuria with respect to parity (p=0.864) and booking status (p=0.397). Escherichia coli (35%), Acinetobacter species (15%), Enterococcus species (12%) and Klebsiella pneumoniae (10%) were the common isolates. Most of the isolates were sensitive either to Nitrofurantoin, Norfloxacin or Amikacin. Asymptomatic bacteriuria is common in pregnancy. Urine culture sensitivity should be carried out routinely on all pregnant patients in order to prevent the dangerous complications associated with it.

  10. Reducing Smoking among Pregnant Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duffy, Joanne; Coates, Thomas J.

    1989-01-01

    Describes psychosocial intervention designed to reduce smoking in a group of pregnant teenagers. Five modules are presented, each being designed to heighten awareness of the issue; provide motivational messages; enhance the adolescent's social skills; and teach specific smoking-cessation skills. (Author/NB)

  11. INFECTIOUS MYXOMATOSIS (SANARELLI) IN PREGNANT RABBITS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sprunt, Douglas H.

    1932-01-01

    Pregnancy in rabbits alters the reactivity of the tissues to the virus of infectious myxomatosis. The livers of pregnant animals with the myxoma have a central acidophilic necrosis. Secondary lesions in the lungs are much more numerous and larger in the pregnant than in the non-gravid animals. In like manner the lesions in the spleen are more extensive in the pregnant rabbit. On the other hand the skin lesions of the pregnant animal are decreased in size. PMID:19870088

  12. Hiperperfusão no território orbital de gestantes portadoras de lúpus eritematoso sistêmico Orbital territory hyperperfusion in pregnant women with systemic lupus erythematosus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Márcia Aires Rodrigues de Freitas

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: analisar o comportamento da artéria oftálmica em grávidas portadoras de lúpus eritematoso sistêmico (GL, sem doença renal em atividade, comparando com não-grávidas com lúpus (NGL, sem doença renal em atividade e grávidas normais (GN. MÉTODOS: estudo observacional que analisou as variáveis doplervelocimétricas da artéria oftálmica de 20 GN, 10 GL e 17 NGL. As variáveis analisadas foram os índices de pulsatilidade (IP, a velocidade diastólica final (VDF e a razão entre picos de velocidade (RPV. Foram calculadas as médias dos índices e respectivos desvios padrões. Para comparação das médias dos índices dos três grupos, utilizou-se o teste de variância (ANOVA e prova pós-análise de Tukey, com intervalo de confiança de 95% (pPURPOSE: to analyze the ophthalmic artery functioning in pregnant women with systemic lupus erythematosus (PL without active renal disease as compared to non-pregnant women with lupus (NPL without active renal disease, and to normal pregnant women (PN. METHODS: observational study that analyzed ophthalmic artery dopplervelocimetric variables of 20 PN, 10 PL and 17 NPL women. The variables analyzed were: pulsatility index (PI, final diastolic velocity (FDV and velocity peak ratio (VPR. Mean and standard deviation of these indexes were calculated. For group mean comparison, analysis of variance (ANOVA and the post-hoc Tukey test have been used, with confidence interval of 95% (p<0.05. RESULTS: the PN group showed the following means and standard deviations of ophthalmic artery parameters: PI=2,4±0,3; VPR=0,5±0,1 e FDV=5,1±2,1 cm/s. The PL and NPL groups showed the following values, respectively: PI=2,0±0,4 and 1,9±0,4; VPR=0,6±0,1 and 0,6±0,1; FDV=9,7±3,9 cm/s and 8,1±4,3 cm/s. There was not significant mean difference between the PL and NPL groups for PI, VPR or FDV. However, statistically significant mean differences were observed between PN and PL for PI, VPR and FDV, with

  13. Telephone smoking cessation quitline use among pregnant and non-pregnant women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bombard, Jennifer M; Farr, Sherry L; Dietz, Patricia M; Tong, Van T; Zhang, Lei; Rabius, Vance

    2013-08-01

    To describe characteristics, referrals, service utilization, and self-reported quit rates among pregnant and non-pregnant women enrolled in a smoking cessation quitline. This information can be used to improve strategies to increase pregnant and non-pregnant smokers' use of quitlines. We examined tobacco use characteristics, referral sources, and use of services among 1,718 pregnant and 24,321 non-pregnant women aged 18-44 years enrolled in quitline services in 10 states during 2006-2008. We examined self-reported 30-day quit rates 7 months after enrollment among 246 pregnant and 4,123 non-pregnant women and, within groups, used Chi-square tests to compare quit rates by type of service received. The majority of pregnant and non-pregnant callers, respectively, smoked ≥10 cigarettes per day (62 %; 83 %), had recently attempted to quit (55 %; 58 %), smoked 5 or minutes after waking (59 %; 55 %), and lived with a smoker (63 %; 48 %). Of callers, 24.3 % of pregnant and 36.4 % of non-pregnant women were uninsured. Pregnant callers heard about the quitline most often from a health care provider (50 %) and non-pregnant callers most often through mass media (59 %). Over half of pregnant (52 %) and non-pregnant (57 %) women received self-help materials only, the remainder received counseling. Self-reported quit rates at 7 months after enrollment in the subsample were 26.4 % for pregnant women and 22.6 % for non-pregnant women. Quitlines provide needed services for pregnant and non-pregnant smokers, many of whom are uninsured. Smokers should be encouraged to access counseling services.

  14. Folate inadequacy in the diet of pregnant women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lívia de Castro Crivellenti

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To estimate food and dietary folate inadequacies in the diets of adult pregnant women. METHODS: A prospective study was conducted with 103 healthy pregnant adult users of the Public Health Care System of Ribeirão Preto, São Paulo, Brazil. The present study included the 82 women with complete food intake data during pregnancy, which were collected by three 24-hour dietary recalls. Food folate (folate naturally present in foods and dietary folate (food folate plus folate from fortified wheat flour and cornmeal inadequacies were determined, using the Estimated Average Requirement as cutoff. RESULTS: The diets of 100% and 94% of the pregnant women were inadequate in food folate and dietary folate, respectively. However, fortified foods increased the medium availability of the nutrient by 87%. CONCLUSION: The large number of pregnant women consuming low-folate diets was alarming. Nationwide population studies are needed to confirm the hypothesized high prevalence of low-folate diets among pregnant women.

  15. Asymptomatic bacteriuria among pregnant women

    OpenAIRE

    Sudha Biradar Kerure; Rajeshwari Surpur; Sheela S. Sagarad; Sneha Hegadi

    2013-01-01

    Background: Urinary tract infections (UTIs) are the most common bacterial infections during pregnancy. Asymptomatic bacteriuria (ASB) is a major risk factor for the development of urinary tract infections during pregnancy and with further risk of preterm birth & pyelonephritis if untreated. Aims & Objectives: This study was carried out to determine the prevalence of asymptomatic bacteriuria (ASB) in pregnant women & to isolate, identify and establish antimicrobial susceptibility of pathogens....

  16. Hepatitis B Management in the Pregnant Patient: An Update

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayoub, Walid S.; Cohen, Erica

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Chronic hepatitis B is a worldwide disease, with significant burden on health care systems. While universal vaccination programs have led to an overall decrease in incidence of transmission of hepatitis B, unfortunately, there remain large areas in the world where vaccination against hepatitis B is not practiced. In addition, vertical transmission of hepatitis B persists as a major concern. Hepatitis B treatment of the pregnant patient requires a thorough assessment of disease activity and close monitoring for flares, regardless of initiation of antiviral therapy. We discuss, in this article, the current and emergent strategies which aim to reduce the rate of transmission of hepatitis B from the pregnant mother to the infant and we review the updated guidelines regarding management of liver disease in pregnant women with hepatitis B. PMID:27777892

  17. Asymptomatic bacteriuria among pregnant women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sudha Biradar Kerure

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Urinary tract infections (UTIs are the most common bacterial infections during pregnancy. Asymptomatic bacteriuria (ASB is a major risk factor for the development of urinary tract infections during pregnancy and with further risk of preterm birth & pyelonephritis if untreated. Aims & Objectives: This study was carried out to determine the prevalence of asymptomatic bacteriuria (ASB in pregnant women & to isolate, identify and establish antimicrobial susceptibility of pathogens. Methods: A total of 500 pregnant women were studied over a period of one year. Clean catch midstream urine sample was collected into a sterile container & then subjected to culture method. Results: Significant bacteriuria was noted in 45 patients (9%. 3% patients had insignificant bacteriuria. Growth of contaminants was noted in 8%. 80% samples were sterile with no growth. E. coli was the most common etiological agent, followed by Staphylococcus aureus. Conclusions: Asymptomatic bacteriuria is not uncommon in antenatal patients. All pregnant women should be screened by urine culture to detect asymptomatic bacteriuria at their first visit to prevent overt UTI & other complications in both mother & fetus. [Int J Reprod Contracept Obstet Gynecol 2013; 2(2.000: 213-216

  18. Asymptomatic bacteriuria among pregnant women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Erhunmwunse Imade

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Asymptomatic bacteriuria is the significant presence of bacteria in the urine of an individual without symptoms. In pregnancy, the apparent reduction in immunity of pregnant women tends to encourage the growth of pathogens. Aim: This study was carried out to determine the prevalence of asymptomatic bacteriuria in pregnant women attending a primary health centre in Benin City, Nigeria. Materials and Methods: A total of 1,228 pregnant women were recruited for this study. All subjects were clinically identified to have no signs and symptoms of UTI. Clean catch midstream urine sample was collected from each patient into sterile universal container. The urine samples were examined microscopically and by cultural method. Identification of isolates was by standard microbiological technique. Result: A total of 556 (45.3% were positive for significant bacteriuria. There was a significant difference in the prevalence of asymptomatic bacteriuria with respect to age (P < 0.0001. Trimester did not show any significant difference (P = 0.2006 in the prevalence of asymptomatic bacteriuria. Escherichia coli was the most predominant organism followed closely by Staphylococcus aureus. Ciprofloxacin, Ceftriaxone and Augmentin were found to be the most effective antibiotics against the urinary isolates. Conclusion: Asymptomatic bacteriuria is not uncommon among antenatal patients in the population studied. Routine urine cultural test should be carried out on all antenatal patients in order to identify any unsuspecting infection. This measure will go a long way in reducing maternal and obstetric complications associated with pregnancy.

  19. Asymptomatic bacteriuria among pregnant women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Erhunmwunse Imade

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Asymptomatic bacteriuria is the significant presence of bacteria in the urine of an individual without symptoms. In pregnancy, the apparent reduction in immunity of pregnant women tends to encourage the growth of pathogens. Aim : This study was carried out to determine the prevalence of asymptomatic bacteriuria in pregnant women attending a primary health centre in Benin City, Nigeria. Materials and Methods: A total of 1,228 pregnant women were recruited for this study. All subjects were clinically identified to have no signs and symptoms of UTI. Clean catch midstream urine sample was collected from each patient into sterile universal container. The urine samples were examined microscopically and by cultural method. Identification of isolates was by standard microbiological technique. Result: A total of 556 (45.3% were positive for significant bacteriuria. There was a significant difference in the prevalence of asymptomatic bacteriuria with respect to age (P < 0.0001. Trimester did not show any significant difference (P = 0.2006 in the prevalence of asymptomatic bacteriuria. Escherichia coli was the most predominant organism followed closely by Staphylococcus aureus. Ciprofloxacin, Ceftriaxone and Augmentin were found to be the most effective antibiotics against the urinary isolates. Conclusion : Asymptomatic bacteriuria is not uncommon among antenatal patients in the population studied. Routine urine cultural test should be carried out on all antenatal patients in order to identify any unsuspecting infection. This measure will go a long way in reducing maternal and obstetric complications associated with pregnancy.

  20. Imaging Pregnant and Lactating Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tirada, Nikki; Dreizin, David; Khati, Nadia J; Akin, Esma A; Zeman, Robert K

    2015-10-01

    As use of imaging in the evaluation of pregnant and lactating patients continues to increase, misperceptions of radiation and safety risks have proliferated, which has led to often unwarranted concerns among patients and clinicians. When radiologic examinations are appropriately used, the benefits derived from the information gained usually outweigh the risks. This review describes appropriateness and safety issues, estimated doses for imaging examinations that use iodizing radiation (ie, radiography, computed tomography, nuclear scintigraphy, and fluoroscopically guided interventional radiology), radiation risks to the mother and conceptus during various stages of pregnancy, and use of iodinated or gadolinium-based contrast agents and radiotracers in pregnant and lactating women. Maternal radiation risk must be weighed with the potential consequences of missing a life-threatening diagnosis such as pulmonary embolus. Fetal risks (ie, spontaneous abortion, teratogenesis, or carcinogenesis) vary with gestational age and imaging modality and should be considered in the context of the potential benefit of medically necessary diagnostic imaging. When feasible and medically indicated, modalities that do not use ionizing radiation (eg, magnetic resonance imaging) are preferred in pregnant and lactating patients. Radiologists should strive to minimize risks of radiation to the mother and fetus, counsel patients effectively, and promote a realistic understanding of risks related to imaging during pregnancy and lactation.

  1. Craving and Withdrawal Symptoms During Smoking Cessation: Comparison of Pregnant and Non-Pregnant Smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berlin, Ivan; Singleton, Edward G; Heishman, Stephen J

    2016-04-01

    Although pregnant smokers are aware of the negative peri- and postnatal health consequences of smoking, the cessation rate in pregnancy is low, raising the question of why pregnant smokers have difficulty quitting. Reasons might be that pregnant smokers experience more intense craving and withdrawal symptoms than non-pregnant smokers. We compared craving and withdrawal in 306 pregnant smokers versus 93 non-pregnant women using data from two smoking cessation trials. Complete data were analyzed using pre-quit and post-quit (2 weeks after quit date) craving and withdrawal measured by the 12-item French Tobacco Craving Questionnaire (FTCQ-12) and French Minnesota Nicotine Withdrawal Scale (FMNWS). Pregnant smokers started smoking and smoked regularly earlier and succeeded far less at quitting smoking by week 2 than the general population of smokers (11% versus 43%). Post-quit date FTCQ-12 general score was higher in pregnant smokers compared to comparison groups, and was driven by elevated emotionality and expectancy. FMNWS decreased significantly less among pregnant smokers than among non-pregnant smokers. Insufficient reduction of craving and withdrawal symptoms in response to a quit attempt may partially explain why pregnant smokers may have more difficulty quitting than non-pregnant smokers. Because this was a historical comparison, findings are preliminary; however, they might foster further investigation of differences in craving and withdrawal symptoms in pregnant versus non-pregnant smokers.

  2. Can I Be Excused from Gym?--I'm Pregnant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solberg, Eileen

    1988-01-01

    Appropriate physical conditioning can improve the physical and psychological health of pregnant students, ease delivery, aid recovery, and contribute to fetal health. This article discusses the importance of exercise during pregnancy, effects of exercise on maternal and fetal systems, and outlines precautions and guidelines for an exercise plan.…

  3. Features of psychoemotional status of pregnant women with fetoplacental insuffciency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chekhonatsky A.A.

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available

     

    Research Goal was to study features of psychoemotional status of pregnant women with chronic fetoplacental insuffciency. Materials. 112 pregnant women with chronic fetoplacental insuffciency; 73 women with physiological course of pregnancy and delivery. Research of personal psychological characteristics was carried out by Minnesota multidimensional personal index (MMPI, adapted by F. B. Berezina and V. P Miroshnikova (1989. Personal and reactive anxiety was defned by method of self-appraisal according to D. Spilberger and Yu. L. Khalin. Results. Psychoveg-etative changes lead to unequal mobilization of various visceral systems, which can promote development of different complications of pregnancy course along with other factors, including fetoplacental insuffciency. Pregnant women with increased level of reactive anxiety more often have isolated decrease of uteroplacental blood fow; at hyperdepression combined disturbance of uteroplacental and fetoplacental blood fow was revealed; at hypochondria disturbance of uteroplacental and fetoplacental blood fow was also marked. Conclusion. Pregnant women with fetoplacental insuf-fciency demonstrated increase of anxiety and psychasthenia. As gestation period extended, patients with fetoplacental insuffciency marked high level of lability and reactivity of vegetative nervous system in combination with increased anxiety and presence of depression. Taking into consideration psychovegetative basis of occurrence of functional disturbances in the system mother-placenta-fetus, determination of personal psychoemotional features and state of vegetative nervous system, with future correction of reveled disturbances, should be obligatory.

  4. Technology And Pregnant Pigs

    Science.gov (United States)

    1978-01-01

    One of the interesting things about aerospace spinoff is the way it keeps cropping up in uncommon applications unimaginably remote from the original technology. For example, the pig pregnancy detector. The pig pregnancy detector? City folk may be surprised to learn that there is such a thing-and wonder why. The why is because it is a sow's job to produce piglets and farmers can't afford to keep those who don't; it costs about a half-dollar a day in feed, labor and facilities, and even in small herds that's intolerable. So the barren sow must go. Until recently, the best method of determining pig pregnancy was "eyeballing," daily visual examination over a period of time. The problem with eyeballing is that pregnancy is not evident until well advanced; when there is no pregnancy, the farmer learns too late that he has been feeding a sow that won't give him a litter. Advancing technology provided an answer: the quick, easy-to-use, accurate automatic detector for early evaluation of pregnancy status. Among the most popular of these devices are Scanopreg and Scanoprobe, to whose development NASA technology contributed. Scanopreg is an ultrasonic system which detects pregnancy about 30 days after breeding, long before eyeballing can provide an answer. The companion Scanoprobe is a dual-function unit which not only determines pregnancy but also gives farmers an analysis of a hog's meat-fat ratio, an important factor in breeding. Only a short time on the market, Scanopreg and Scanoprobe have already found wide acceptance among meat producers because they rapidly repay their cost.

  5. Caracterização bioclimática de sistemas ao ar livre e confinado para a criação de matrizes suínas gestantes Bioclimatic characterization of outdoor and confined systems for pregnant sows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aérica C. Nazareno

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available O confinamento de matrizes suínas foi criado com o intuito de maximizar a produtividade; entretanto, existem problemas relacionados ao bem-estar animal. Objetivou-se avaliar a criação de matrizes suínas gestantes no sistema de confinamento e ao ar livre, com relação ao ambiente térmico e às respostas fisiológicas. O experimento foi realizado em Monte Mor/SP. A avaliação fisiológica foi realizada por meio do registro das variáveis: frequência respiratória e temperatura de pele. Foram registradas as variáveis meteorológicas: temperatura de bulbo seco, temperatura de bulbo úmido e temperatura de globo negro, caracterizando o ambiente por meio da entalpia e índice de temperatura de globo e umidade. Foram utilizados seis animais por tratamento. O delineamento experimental foi inteiramente casualizado em parcelas subdivididas, e as médias comparadas pelo teste de Tukey. As variáveis fisiológicas e meteorológicas apresentaram valores superiores no confinamento. O sistema de criação ao ar livre potencializou as trocas térmicas entre os animais e o ambiente, o que refletiu em menor estresse por calor observado nos animais.Pregnant sows confinement systems were created in order to maximize the productivity, however there are problems concerning the animal welfare. The aim of this research was to evaluate pregnant sows in outdoors and in confinement systems in relation to the thermal environment and physiological animal responses. The experiment was conducted in a commercial farm in Monte Mor city, São Paulo, Brazil. The physiological evaluation was performed by recording physiological variables, such as respiratory frequency and skin temperature. Furthermore, variables like dry bulb temperature, wet bulb temperature, and black globe temperature were also evaluated to characterize the ambient by means of enthalpy and black globe humidity index. In each treatment six animals were evaluated. The experimental design was completely

  6. Telephone Smoking Cessation Quitline Use Among Pregnant and Non-pregnant Women

    OpenAIRE

    Bombard, Jennifer M.; Farr, Sherry L.; Dietz, Patricia M.; Tong, Van T.; Zhang, Lei; Rabius, Vance

    2013-01-01

    To describe characteristics, referrals, service utilization, and self-reported quit rates among pregnant and non-pregnant women enrolled in a smoking cessation quitline. This information can be used to improve strategies to increase pregnant and non-pregnant smokers’ use of quitlines. We examined tobacco use characteristics, referral sources, and use of services among 1,718 pregnant and 24,321 non-pregnant women aged 18–44 years enrolled in quitline services in 10 states during 2006–2008. We ...

  7. Pregnant teenagers' group: contributions to prenatal care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Queiroz, Maria Veraci Oliveira; Menezes, Giselle Maria Duarte; Silva, Thaís Jormanna Pereira; Brasil, Eysler Gonçalves Maia; Silva, Raimunda Magalhães da

    2017-06-05

    To describe changes in nurses' care following the implementation of a group of pregnant teenagers in prenatal care based on the expectations and experiences of pregnant teenagers. Qualitative and descriptive study conducted from February to November 2013 at a Primary Care Unit in Fortaleza, Ceará, Brazil, through focus groups with 16 adolescents from the group of pregnant women in the second or third trimester of pregnancy. The analysis identified central ideas and units of meanings that formed the categories. The strategy of a group of pregnant teenagers, which provides a space for coexistence and the establishment of ties encourages these individuals to talk about their needs, re-signifying their ties. Educational strategies to promote self-care of pregnant teenagers and care for their babies involve the sharing of experiences, doubts and beliefs. Considerations and suggestions of the adolescents contributed to guide nurses' practice and provide a strategic space of care and support for pregnant adolescents in primary care.

  8. Influência do sistema de alojamento no comportamento e bem-estar de matrizes suínas em gestação Effect of housing system on the behavior and welfare for pregnant sows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iran José Oliveira da Silva

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Esta pesquisa foi desenvolvida no setor de gestação, com 24 matrizes primíparas, 12 fêmeas alojadas em baias individuais e 12 animais em baias coletivas, para avaliar diferentes sistemas de alojamento (baias individuais e baias coletivas para matrizes gestantes, visando caracterizar aspectos quantitativos e qualitativos do ambiente e as variáveis que influenciam o sistema de produção. O trabalho foi dividido em duas etapas em função da forma de avaliação dos dados: análise bioclimática e análise dos sistemas de alojamento. A avaliação bioclimática foi realizada por meio do registro dos elementos meteorológicos, na sala de gestação e no ambiente externo. Nos sistemas de alojamento, foram avaliados as relações comportamentais, os parâmetros fisiológicos e os índices zootécnicos. O delineamento experimental foi em blocos casualizados, com dois sistemas de alojamento e 67 blocos. As características ambientais apontam o sistema de alojamento em baias coletivas como aquele que permitiu melhor condicionamento térmico natural às matrizes em gestação. Os parâmetros fisiológicos e os índices zootécnicos apresentaram valores mais adequados para o sistema de alojamento em baias coletivas, assim como seu reflexo no desempenho da parição dos leitões. A avaliação comportamental, realizada pelo monitoramento por meio do registro de imagens de vídeo, apontou menor incidência de comportamentos resultantes do estresse ambiental, estereotipias e interações agressivas no sistema de alojamento em baias coletivas.This research was carried out in the gestation facility, with 24 gilts, 12 females housed in individual cages and 12 housed in collective pens, to evaluate different housing systems (individual cages, collective pens for pregnant sows, aiming to describe quantitative and qualitative aspects of environment and the characteristics that influence the production system. This work was divided in two stages in function of

  9. Clinical analysis of complications and outcome of pregnant women with systemic lupus erythematosus%系统性红斑狼疮合并妊娠14例临床分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李莉敏; 王芳; 程永静; 黄慈波

    2011-01-01

    Objective To investigate complications and perinatal outcome of pregnant women with systemic lupus erythematosus( SLE). Methods Retrospective analysis of 14 cases of pregnant women with SLE was done. The factors that may influence complications and perinatal outcome were studied. Results Among the 14 cases,3(21% ) were diagnosed as SLE for the first time, and disease activity index elevated in 4 (29% ), while the other 7 (50% ) keeped stable. As for the outcome of pregnancy,3(21% )experienced miscarriage,while the other 11 delivered successfully. 4 of those 11 cases had no complications, while the other 7 experienced complications either in neonates or mothers. Complications in neonates included placenta perfusion(1 case) ,fetal distress(2 cases)and low birth weight (1 case). Mothers with complications included 1 case with heart failure, 1 with gestational hypertension and 2 with a-nemia and postpartum bleeding. The SLEDAI max and complications in mothers and neonates in the disease activity group were much higher than those in the disease stable group (P <0.05). Conclusion Pregnant women with SLE should be considered as a high risk group,even those condition was stable before pregnancy. A close monitoring for SLE patients during pregnancy should be necessary.%目的 分析并探讨系统性红斑狼疮(SLE)患者的妊娠情况,孕期产期并发症及妊娠结局.方法 回顾性分析卫生部北京医院收治的14例系统性红斑狼疮合并妊娠患者的临床资料,分析妊娠对SLE患者病情的影响及对母亲胎儿的影响.结果 14例患者中,3例(21%)患者妊娠诱发系统行红斑狼疮发病,5例(36%)患者妊娠诱发系统性红斑狼疮活动,其余6例病情稳定(43%).14例患者中,3(21%)例流产,11(79%)例分娩.在11例(72%)成功分娩者中,有4例(29%)患者母婴平安.7例(50%)出现围生期母婴并发症,新生儿出现1例胎盘血流灌注,2例宫内窘迫,1例低体质量儿;产妇1

  10. Expression and localization of IL-18 in the hypothalamic-pituitary-ovarian axis of non-pregnant, pregnant, and abortive rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yuesi; Zhang, Xiuli; Zhang, Yan; Xu, Hui; Fang, Guangli

    2011-12-01

    Cytokines present in the reproductive system play an important role both in the modulation of immune responses to infectious challenge and in the establishment and maintenance of pregnancy. Interleukin 18 (IL-18) has been regarded as an important regulator of innate and acquired immune response, but its expression and distribution in the hypothalamic-pituitary-ovarian axis remain unclear. In this paper, the expression and distribution of IL-18 in non-pregnant, pregnant, and early abortive rats were examined using an ultra-sensitive immunohistochemical streptavidin-peroxidase method, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, and reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. The results showed that IL-18 expression in the pituitary, in follicular ovaries, and in the corpus luteum of abortive rats were significantly lower than that of pregnant and non-pregnant rats. However, the staining of IL-18 in the hypothalamus, interstitial glands of the ovary, and uterus of abortive rats was strikingly stronger than those of the non-pregnant ones. IL-18 mRNA expression in rat uterus was detected in all groups, whereas IL-18 mRNA content in abortive rat uterus was significantly higher than in normal pregnant rats. Further, IL-18 in the peripheral blood serum of abortive rats was significantly lower than in same-period normal pregnant rats. The differential expression of IL-18 in early abortion suggests that IL-18 may be related to the underlying mechanisms of abortion.

  11. Evaluation of safety and tolerability of antiretroviral therapy in pregnant and non-pregnant women

    OpenAIRE

    Kamini Tyagi; Veena Gupta

    2015-01-01

    Background: The study was conducted to evaluate safety and tolerability of different components of combined antiretroviral therapy (CART) in pregnant and non-pregnant women and to find out substitute of the drug causing intolerance. Methods: An observational study on 75 pregnant and 125 non pregnant, HIV infected women receiving CART, over a period of 1 year (Jan 2013-Jan 20140 in SRN Hospital affiliated to MLN Medical college, Allahabad. All women were examined clinically and investigated...

  12. Assessment of self-esteem in pregnant women using Rosenberg's Self-Esteem Scale

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Maçola, Ligia; do Vale, Ianê Nogueira; Carmona, Elenice Valentim

    2010-01-01

    .... Data collection was performed using the Rosenberg's Self-esteem Scale; unsatisfactory self-esteem was related to socio-demographic and health variables of the pregnant woman, and to the presence or absence of support systems...

  13. Association between perceived social support and anxiety in pregnant adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrícia J. Peter

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate the association between perceived social support and anxiety disorders in pregnant adolescents. Methods: We conducted a cross-sectional study with a sample of 871 pregnant women aged 10 to 19 years who received prenatal care in the national public health care system in the urban area of Pelotas, state of Rio Grande do Sul, southern Brazil. We assessed perceived social support and anxiety disorders using the Medical Outcomes Study Social Support Survey and the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview. A self-report questionnaire was used to obtain sociodemographic information. Results: The prevalence of any anxiety disorder was 13.6%. Pregnant adolescents with an anxiety disorder reported less perceived social support in all domains (affectionate, emotional, tangible, informational, and positive social interaction. Older teenagers reported lower perceived support in the emotional, informational, and positive social interaction domains, whereas those with low socioeconomic status reported lower perceived social support in the material domain. Women who did not live with a partner had less perceived social support in the affectionate and positive social interaction domains. Conclusion: Perceived social support seems to be a protective factor against anxiety disorders in pregnant adolescents, with a positive effect on mental health.

  14. Changes in foot plantar pressure in pregnant women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elsayed, Enas; Devreux, Isabelle; Embaby, Heba; Alsayed, Amani; Alshehri, Maram

    2017-01-01

    During pregnancy, the body undergoes many hormonal and anatomical changes causing several medical problems as the musculoskeletal system problems. To investigate the plantar pressure distribution during pregnancy. Twenty two pregnant and non-pregnant females were selected from the King Abdulaziz University in Jeddah. All females were evaluated by inspection regarding their deformities of the spine, pelvis, lower extremities and feet. Pain was assessed by the Visual Analog Scale (VAS), and the weight and height were recorded using a calibrated weighing scale. Finally, the plantar pressure distribution was examined by a Global Postural Analysis device (GPA). The results revealed significant asymmetry of weight bearing in the study group (pregnant) compared to the control group (non-pregnant) (p 0.05). Moreover, there was a significant direct relationship between the month of pregnancy and increased weight bearing on the 5th metatarsal in the study group (p= 0.04). There is an effect of pregnancy on plantar pressure distribution as well as weight symmetry which should be considered when designing an antenatal program.

  15. Association between perceived social support and anxiety in pregnant adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peter, Patrícia J; de Mola, Christian L; de Matos, Mariana B; Coelho, Fábio M; Pinheiro, Karen A; da Silva, Ricardo A; Castelli, Rochele D; Pinheiro, Ricardo T; Quevedo, Luciana A

    2017-01-01

    To evaluate the association between perceived social support and anxiety disorders in pregnant adolescents. We conducted a cross-sectional study with a sample of 871 pregnant women aged 10 to 19 years who received prenatal care in the national public health care system in the urban area of Pelotas, state of Rio Grande do Sul, southern Brazil. We assessed perceived social support and anxiety disorders using the Medical Outcomes Study Social Support Survey and the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview. A self-report questionnaire was used to obtain sociodemographic information. The prevalence of any anxiety disorder was 13.6%. Pregnant adolescents with an anxiety disorder reported less perceived social support in all domains (affectionate, emotional, tangible, informational, and positive social interaction). Older teenagers reported lower perceived support in the emotional, informational, and positive social interaction domains, whereas those with low socioeconomic status reported lower perceived social support in the material domain. Women who did not live with a partner had less perceived social support in the affectionate and positive social interaction domains. Perceived social support seems to be a protective factor against anxiety disorders in pregnant adolescents, with a positive effect on mental health.

  16. Influence of Conception Timing on Lupus Flares and Pregnancy Outcomes in Pregnant Women with Systemic Lupus Erythematosus%妊娠时机对妊娠合并系统性红斑狼疮病情及妊娠结局的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    尹玉竹; 周水生; 吴玲玲; 黄建林; 张培珍

    2011-01-01

    目的:探讨妊娠时机对妊娠合并系统性红斑狼疮(SLE)患者孕期病情及妊娠结局的影响.方法:对46例妊娠合并SLE孕妇的临床资料进行回顾性分析,按妊娠时机的不同分为两组:SLE控制期和缓解期达6个月以上怀孕者为指导性妊娠组(32例);SLE活动期怀孕者以及孕期新发SLE的病例为非指导性妊娠组(14例),比较两组患者孕期SLE的病情和妊娠结局的不同.结果:①指导性妊娠组孕期SLE的活动率和泼尼松用量分别为15.6%和9.6±1.1 mg/d明显低于非指导性妊娠组100%和24.1±18.2 mg/d(P =0.000,P=0.012).②指导性妊娠组24小时尿蛋白定量、肌酐、抗dsDNA抗体等指标的异常率均较非指导性妊娠组明显降低(P=0.003,P=0.004,P=0.021).③指导性妊娠组无一例母婴死亡;非指导性妊娠组产妇死亡1例,胎儿丢失5例.指导性妊娠组的活产率(100%)较非指导性妊娠组(64.3%)明显升高(P=0.001);胎儿丢失和胎儿生长受限发生率分别为0和18.8%,较非指导性妊娠组35.7%和50.0%明显降低(P=0.001,P=0.030).结论:妊娠时机对妊娠合并SLE患者孕期是否出现狼疮活动以及妊娠结局,尤其是胎儿结局影响较大,选择在SLE病情稳定半年以上计划怀孕,妊娠结局较好.%Objective:To explore the influence of conception timing on lupus flares and pregnancy outcomes in pregnant women with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). Methods:The clinical data of 46 pregnant women with SLE were retrospectively analyzed. According to the different conception timing, 46 gravi-das with SLE were divided into two groups: 32 patients who had controlled SLE and remission duration over 6 months before conception belonged to guidance pregnant group. Active lupus disease before conception and new onset SLE during pregnancy belonged to nonguidance pregnant group (n = 14). The rate of lupus flares and pregnancy outcomes were compared between two groups. Results:①The rate of lupus

  17. Nutritional Guide for Pregnant and Lactating Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gelbard, Nancy

    Designed to provide accurate and up-to-date information about nutrition and health, this booklet is centered on the nutritional needs of pregnant and lactating adolescents and on the role of schools and the California State Department of Education in meeting those needs. The first section presents information for pregnant adolescents regarding…

  18. Extracellular ATP induces albuminuria in pregnant rats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Faas, M.M.; van der Schaaf, G.; Borghuis, T.; Jongman, R.M.; van Pampus, Maria; de Vos, P.; van Goor, Harry; Bakker, W.W.

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: As circulating plasma ATP concentrations are increased in pre-eclampsia, we tested whether increased plasma ATP is able to induce albuminuria during pregnancy. METHODS: Pregnant (day 14) and non-pregnant rats were infused with ATP (3000 microg/kg bw) via a permanent jugular vein cannula.

  19. Steps to take before you get pregnant

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... be based on your overall health and how active you are before you get pregnant. Talk to your doctor or midwife about what kind of exercise, and how much, is good for you. Stress, Rest, and Relaxation While you are trying to get pregnant, try ...

  20. [Vaginal colonization by genital mycoplasmas in pregnant and non-pregnant women].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castellano-González, Maribel; Ginestre-Pérez, Messaria; Perozo-Mena, Armindo; Alaña, Freddy; Fernández-Bravo, Marisol; Rincón-Villalobos, Gresleida

    2007-12-01

    To compare vaginal colonization by genital micoplasmas in pregnant and non pregnant women and to determine the association between pregnancy and colonization by these microorganisms, samples of exocervix an endocervix from pregnant (n = 80) and non pregnant (n = 65) women, from two health centers of Maracaibo, Zulia State, Venezuela were processed. The Mycoplasma-Lyo kit (bioMérieux laboratories) was used for the culture and identification of genital micoplasmas. In pregnant women, prevalences of 10% for M. hominis and 26.25% for Ureaplasma spp. were found; 35.38% for M. hominis and 20% for Ureaplasma spp. in non-pregnant, were obtained. Among the pregnant, Ureaplasma spp. was the most frequently isolated micoplasma, in symptomatic and asymptomatic; while in the non pregnant group, M. hominis was more common among the symptomatic patients; only one case (1.54%) was an asymptomatic carrier of Ureaplasma spp. The highest positivity percentages were obtained in primigravidas (48.71%) and during the second gestational trimester (34.21%). No statistically significant differences were found between vaginal colonization by genital micoplasmas according to age, number of pregnancy and gestational trimester; but they were found between the presented symptomatology and vaginal colonization by genital micoplasmas. Genital micoplasmas were isolated from gravid women at approximately the same recovery rate as in non-pregnant women; being M. hominis the most frequently isolated in non-pregnant women and Ureaplasma spp. in the pregnant group.

  1. 上海市松江区《全覆盖孕产期系统保健管理》项目效果评估%Effect evaluation of "complete coverage system health care management during pregnant period" project in Songjiang district in Shanghai

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王芳; 杨青; 杜秉新; 陈秀华

    2012-01-01

    目的:探讨《全覆盖孕产期系统保健管理》对孕产妇死亡、围产儿死亡、孕产妇系统管理的影响.方法:开展全社会孕情排摸提高早孕建册率、评估孕期妊娠风险加强重点孕妇管理、设立危重抢救中心提高抢救技能与设立抢救“绿色”通道积极应对危重抢救、政府经济支持设立外来孕产妇住院分娩点及免费产后访视、开展孕产期全程健康教育等方法.结果:评估项目前后(2008年、2011年)非本市孕产妇的系统管理率、早孕建册率、产前检查(产检)≥5次率、产后访视率、围产儿死亡率均有明显改变,经x2检验,差异都具有统计学意义(P<0.05).结论:项目对降低孕产妇死亡率、围产儿死亡率效果明显,对提高孕产妇系统管理率有一定的作用.%Objective: To explore the effect of "complete systematical health care management during pregnant period" project on maternal death, perinatal death, and maternal system management. Methods: The system management rate, the registration rate of early pregnancy, the rate of prenatal examination≥5 times, the postpartum visit rate, and the perinatal mortality of migrant pregnant women before and after implementation of "complete coverage systematical health care management during pregnant period" project (2008 and 2011, respectively) were evaluated. The contents of the project included conducting maternal investigation to improve the registration rate of early pregnancy, assessing pregnancy risk, enhancing management of key pregnant women, establishing critically ill rescue center, improving rescue skills, setting up green channel of maternal rescue to cope with rescue of critically ill patients, founding hospital delivery sites of migrant pregnant women and performing free postpartum visit based on economic support from the government, and carrying out health education during the whole course of pregnant period. Results: There was statistically significant

  2. Comparison of Sexual Functions in Pregnant and Non-Pregnant Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aydin, Mustafa; Cayonu, Neval; Kadihasanoglu, Mustafa; Irkilata, Lokman; Atilla, Mustafa Kemal; Kendirci, Muammer

    2015-11-14

    The physiology and anatomy of pregnant women change during pregnancy. Pregnancy is an anatomically and physiologically amended process experienced by women and as a result of these changes, sexual life of pregnant women alters during pregnancy. We aimed to compare sexual functions of pregnant and non-pregnant women. Sexually active 246 pregnant women were included into this cross-sectional controlled study. A total of 210 non-pregnant women were served as control. Both groups were compared in terms of age, gestational age, presence of urinary incontinence, body mass index, and obstetrical history. Sexual functions of the women were evaluated with Female Sexual Function Index (FSFI). Data were analyzed using chi-square, Mann-Whitney U, Fisher's Exact, Shapiro Wilk, Kruskal Wallis and Dunnett's tests where appropriate. The Pvalues < .05 were considered statistically significant. Mean age in both groups were comparable (P = .053). Median total FSFI scores in the pregnant women were significantly lower than those non-pregnant (18.9 vs. 22.7; P < .05). Additionally, the subgroup analyses of the FSFI scores were found that, total FSFI score is significantly lower in the pregnant group compared to non-pregnant group (P < .05). Furthermore, rate of sexual dysfunction in pregnant women was significantly higher than those non-pregnant women (91.08% vs. 67.61%, P = .0001). However, in pregnant women, no meaningful difference in rate of sexual dysfunction was found according to the trimesters (P = .632). Moreover, gravidity and parity exhibited negative impacts on the sexual functions. But number of abortions did not affect sexual function. These data demonstrate that pregnancy significantly diminishes sexual function in women. We believe that, couples need to be counseled regarding the impact of pregnancy on sexual functions.

  3. [Active community case-finding for uptake of pregnant and postpartum women in Ecuador].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roldán, Jakeline Calle; Acuña, Cecilia; Ríos, Paulina

    2017-06-08

    Document and analyze Ecuador's experience using active community case-finding for uptake of pregnant and postpartum women in Ecuador. A cross-sectional descriptive study was conducted of information obtained on active community case-finding of pregnant and postpartum women in the catchment areas of 200 primary care facilities of Ecuador's Ministry of Public Health. Visits were made to 460 451 homes in 20 provinces; 15 622 pregnant women and 4 014 postpartum women were identified. Of the pregnant women, 89% (13 875) had had at least one prenatal check-up, while 70% of postpartum women (4 014) had had at least one post-delivery or post-caesarean check-up. Potential risk was identified in 29% of pregnant women (4 601). Orellana and Sucumbíos provinces had the lowest percentages of pregnant women with at least one prenatal check-up and the lowest percentages of postpartum women with at least one postpartum checkup. A total of 3 951 brigades were formed at the national level for this activity. Active community case-finding was valuable in identifying pregnant and postpartum women who had not been captured by the health system, especially to detect their risk status, in addition to the advantages of participatory uptake, especially with support from universities with health majors. Low coverage for postpartum check-ups underscores the importance of learning why women do not receive this care. Similar experiences need to be systematized to improve the process.

  4. The expectations of pregnant women regarding antenatal care

    OpenAIRE

    JM Mathibe-Neke

    2008-01-01

    From a feminist perspective, research on childbirth and women’s health is a means to a positive change that is conducted in partnership with women for their benefit. A patient-led National Health System (NHS) (Hillan, 1999) also calls for consultation with patients and the wider public for shaping the current and future health services. This study was aimed at exploring and describing the expectations that pregnant women have regarding antenatal care service by the midwife practitioner. In-de...

  5. Factors affecting influenza vaccination among pregnant women : a systematic review

    OpenAIRE

    Fong, Choi-ching; 方賽貞

    2013-01-01

    Objective: Pregnancy has been recognized as a risk factor for severe pandemic influenza illness and this “vulnerable” group is suggested to be heightened alertness to the disease by WHO. This systemic review aims to identify the factors affecting the uptake of influenza vaccination among pregnant women as the immunization uptake among this particular group of population is low or suboptimal worldwide. Methods: Systematic literature reviews were conducted by using MEDLINE and PubMed with th...

  6. 系统性红斑狼疮患者合并妊娠的临床研究%Maternal and fetal outcomes in pregnant patients with systemic lupus erythematosus:a retrospective study

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    温艳芳; 李懿莎; 罗卉; 左晓霞; 周亚欧

    2010-01-01

    Objective To determine the safety, pregnancy outcome and the affect on neonates in pregnant patients with systemic lupus erythematosus(SLE).Methods Sixty-two pregnant patients with SLE were evaluated retrospectively from 1999 to 2009 in our hospital. These patients were divided into two groups:selective pregnancy group and nonselective pregnancy group. The pregnancy outcomes, fetal outcomes, and lupus activity during pregnancy were compared between the two groups. The children of the SLE patients were followed up. Results There were 43 patients in the selective pregnancies group and 19 patients in nonselective pregnancies group. In the selective pregnancies group, lupus flare occurred in 10 pregnancies(23%), 35(81%)had a live birth, 7 had low birth weight infants and 7 had premature delivery; however, in the nonselective pregnancies group, lupus flare occurred in 16 pregnancies(84%), 13(68%) had abortion,6 had a live birth, but all neonates were low birth weight infants. The rates of lupus flare and pregnancy loss in the nonselective pregnancy group were higher than those of the selective pregnancy group(P<0.05). None of the 22 children had SLE during the follow-up period. Conclusion Both selective and nonselective pregnancy may adversely affectmaternal and fetal outcomes, but patients with selective pregnancy have better outcomes either in lupus flare or maternal and fetal outcomes compared with those of the nonselective pregnancy.%目的 探讨系统性红斑狼疮(SLE)患者妊娠的安全性、妊娠结局及对子代的影响.方法 回顾性分析1999年6月至2009年10月我院收治的SLE合并妊娠的患者的妊娠情况,比较选择性妊娠和非选择性妊娠组患者的SLE疾病活动情况、产科并发症情况、胎儿情况.并对SLE患者的子代进行随访.统计学处理采用x2检验和t检验.结果 SLE合并妊娠的患者共62例,选择性妊娠组43例,非选择性妊娠组19例;选择性妊娠组中10例(23%)患者在妊

  7. The safety of hydroxychloroquine in pregnant patients with systemic lupus erythematosus%羟氯喹治疗系统性红斑狼疮合并妊娠24例临床研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    章璐; 马丽; 林冰; 吴东海; 王国春

    2011-01-01

    目的 评价羟氯喹治疗系统性红斑狼疮(SLE)患者合并妊娠的疗效与安全性.方法 回顾性分析2006年5月至2011年2月中日友好医院风湿免疫科收治的24例妊娠期间使用羟氯喹治疗SLE患者的疾病控制和新生儿安全情况,并对其子代进行随访.结果 24例患者中22例在妊娠期间持续应用羟氯喹治疗,21例患者SLE病情平稳,无复发.2例患者妊娠后停用羟氯喹,在妊娠中期出现SLE活动,增加糖皮质激素剂量并再度加用羟氯喹,SLE病情稳定至分娩和产后.3例患者诊断妊娠高血压,3例患者早产.副作用:2例患者在妊娠期加用羟氯喹后,分别出现一过性厌食和脱发,未予特殊治疗,症状大约持续3周后自行缓解.所有患者均未出现眼部不适及视野缺损症状.至目前为止,患者在我院眼科门诊定期复查视野及眼底均无异常发现.新生儿听力筛查和身高、体重均在正常范围内,未发现心肺异常及生长发育异常.结论 羟氯喹对SLE妊娠期妇女及胎儿具有良好的安全性,应在妊娠期间持续使用.%Objective To evaluate the efficacy and safety of hydroxychloroquine(HCQ) in pregnant patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE).Methods Twenty-four pregnant patients with SLE treated with HCQ during pregnancy from May,2006 to February,2011 were studied retrospectively.All babies were followed up during early infancy for growth development.Results Of them,22 patients were treated with HCQ throughout the whole pregnancy with no lupus flare occurred in 21 patients (95.4%),while temporary discontinuation of HCQ precipitated a flare of disease in two patients.Three patients ( 12.5% ) had premature delivery,and pregnancy induced hypertension happened in 3 patients (12.5% ).No congenital abnormalities occurred and mean follow-up of 26 months ( range 1 - 47 months) revealed no abnormalities in these children.Conclusion Our findings reinforce the safety of HCQ therapy during

  8. [Effect of respiratory and aqua-gymnastics on the adaptive potential of pregnant women].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krivonogova, T S; Gerget, O M; Agarkova, L A

    2010-01-01

    This paper deals with one of the most promising methods for the assessment of the health status of pregnant women and their children based on information criteria in the framework of an intelligent system. Inter-relations between the revealed adaptation strategies and functional disturbances in the organism are considered with special reference to various types of adaptive reactions in pregnant women and adaptational capacities of their children.

  9. Plasma concentration of atrial natriuretic peptide in normal pregnant women and in pregnant women with preeclampsia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mikkelsen, A L; Schütten, G; Asping, U;

    1991-01-01

    Plasma concentration of atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) was determined in pregnant women with preeclampsia, in normal pregnant and in nonpregnant women by a specific radioimmunoassay. Results did not show important differences between nonpregnant controls and normal pregnant women, but a signifi......Plasma concentration of atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) was determined in pregnant women with preeclampsia, in normal pregnant and in nonpregnant women by a specific radioimmunoassay. Results did not show important differences between nonpregnant controls and normal pregnant women......, but a significant rise was seen in women with preeclampsia compared to nonpregnant controls. Marked interindividual variation was found in all three groups. The mechanism of ANP release may differ between those women with normal pregnancy and those with preeclampsia. It is unclear whether the increased level of ANP...... in preeclampsia is an effect or a cause of the disease....

  10. [Systemic loxoscelism presented in a pregnant patient].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Villegas, María del Carmen; Rodríguez-Álvarez, Daniel; Ortega-Carrillo, Concepción; Alagón-Cano, Alejandro; Zaldívar-Cervera, Jaime; Loría-Castellanos, Jorge; Urzúa-Rodríguez, Norma Alicia

    2014-01-01

    INTRODUCCIÓN: el loxoscelismo se debe a la inoculación de un conjunto de enzimas proteolíticas por la mordedura de la araña Loxosceles. Puede tener una expresión local, sin embargo, la forma viscerocutánea o sistémica tiene una evolución grave. Se presenta el primer caso de la variante sistémica en una mujer embarazada. CASO CLÍNICO: mujer con embarazo normoevolutivo de 28 semanas. Después de estar expuesta a un ambiente semirrural, presentó placa plana eritematosa en el glúteo derecho, con aumento de la temperatura e hiperestesia local. Fue hospitalizada para administrarle antibióticos parenterales, por considerarse que se trataba de la picadura de un insecto. A las cuatro horas se incrementó el dolor y la paciente desarrolló deshidratación e hipotensión severas hasta llegar al choque, por lo que se inició tratamiento con cristaloides, aminas vasopresoras y protección de la vía aérea. Se realizó operación cesárea, de la que se obtuvo un niño, y se efectuó desbridación en el glúteo derecho. El diagnóstico fue loxoscelismo sistémico, por lo que se administró el antiveneno específico. La paciente fue egresada a los dos meses.

  11. Treatment of acne vulgaris in pregnant patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pugashetti, Rupa; Shinkai, Kanade

    2013-01-01

    The management of acne vulgaris in the setting of pregnancy raises important clinical considerations regarding the efficacy and safety of acne treatments in this special patient population. Particular challenges include the absence of safety data, discrepancy in safety data between different safety rating systems, and lack of evidence-based recommendations for the treatment of acne during pregnancy. Nonetheless, many therapeutic options exist, and the treatment of acne in pregnant women can be safely and often effectively accomplished. For mild or moderate disease, patients can be treated with topical antimicrobial agents, anti-inflammatory agents, as well as glycolic and salicylic acid. Several topical agents, notably benzoyl peroxide, previously viewed as potentially dangerous are cited by many sources as being considered safe. When necessary, systemic therapies that can be safely added include penicillins, amoxicillin, cephalosporins, erythromycin, clindamycin, and tetracyclines or sulfonamides, depending on the stage of fetal development. Adjunct therapy may include phototherapy or laser treatments. Physicians should work with this often highly motivated, safety-conscious patient population to tailor an individualized treatment regimen. This treatment regimen will likely shift throughout the different stages of fetal development, as distinct safety considerations are raised prior to conception as well as during each of the trimesters of pregnancy. Important considerations regarding acne management in breast-feeding mothers is also discussed.

  12. Prevalence of human papillomavirus infection in pregnant versus non-pregnant women in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salcedo, Mila M B P; Damin, Andrea P S; Agnes, Grasiela; Pessini, Suzana A; Beitune, Patricia El; Alexandre, Claudio O P; Schmeler, Kathleen M; da Silveira, Gustavo Py Gomes

    2015-12-01

    To investigate the prevalence of human papillomavirus (HPV) in cervical samples of pregnant and non-pregnant women in South-Brazil. A prospective study of 91 pregnant and 92 non-pregnant women with no previous history of cervical dysplasia or cancer was carried out. Cervical samples for HPV testing and cytology were collected in each trimester of pregnancy and in the puerperium for pregnant women and at matched intervals for the non-pregnant women. All samples were analyzed through PCR with consensus primers GP5+/GP6+. Genotyping was performed using specific primers. To control for confounding factors, the analysis of multivariate logistic regression was applied. The measure of odds ratio (OR) and the 95 % confidence interval (95 % CI) were used. The level of statistical significance was set at 5 % (P ≤ 0.05). HPV DNA was detected in 23/91 (25.3 %) cervical samples from the pregnant women and in 12/92 (13 %) cervical samples from non-pregnant women (P = 0.035). There was a significant association among cervical HPV infection and young age, number of lifetime sexual partners, and the presence of abnormal cervical cytology. HPV16 and HPV18 were the viral types more frequently detected. Out of the 23 HPV-positive pregnant women, 17 (73.9 %) had normal cervical cytology. Our results suggest a higher prevalence of HPV infection in pregnant vs. non-pregnant women. This finding may be related to the relative immunosuppression observed in pregnant women, outlining the importance of the appropriate monitoring of the viral infection in this specific population.

  13. Zika Virus: Protecting Pregnant Women and Babies

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Digital Press Kit Read the MMWR Science Clips Zika Virus Protecting Pregnant Women and Babies Language: English ... Pregnancy Registry (50 US states and DC) Problem Zika infection during pregnancy can cause serious birth defects ...

  14. Counselor Values and the Pregnant Adolescent Client.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, Bebe C.; And Others

    1984-01-01

    Reviews options counselors can suggest to pregnant adolescents, including abortion, adoption, marriage, and single parenthood. Discusses the need for counselors to be aware of their own values and help the client explore her values. (JAC)

  15. Contraception knowledge and practices in pregnant adolescents

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Villanueva, L A; Campos, R; del Milagro Pérez-Fajardo, M

    2001-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to describe the knowledge and the background in the use of contraceptive methods in 100 pregnant adolescents in the prenatal care of the Hospital General "Dr. Manuel Gea González...

  16. Urinary bisphenol A concentrations in pregnant women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callan, Anna Carita; Hinwood, Andrea Lee; Heffernan, Amy; Eaglesham, Geoff; Mueller, Jochen; Odland, Jon Øyvind

    2013-11-01

    Bisphenol A is a chemical that is present in a number of products and types of food packaging. Prenatal exposure to bisphenol A may cause behavioural changes in young children. The aim of this study was to investigate exposure to bisphenol A in pregnant Australian women as a surrogate of neonatal exposure. First morning void urine samples were collected from 26 pregnant women at around week 38 of gestation. Bisphenol A was detectable in 85% of the samples analysed. The median concentration in this group of women was 2.41μg/L with a range of bisphenol A concentrations, as did women with a pre-pregnancy BMI of bisphenol A exposure in Australia and reveals that pregnant women have measured biological concentrations of urinary bisphenol A similar to those reported for pregnant women in other developed countries. Given the potential impacts of prenatal bisphenol A exposure, further research in this area is warranted.

  17. Food Safety for Pregnant and Breastfeeding Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Waste Food Safety Newsroom Dietary Guidelines Communicator’s Guide Food Safety You are here Home / Audience / Adults / Moms/ Moms- ... and raw sprouts. Do not eat these foods. Food safety advice when you are pregnant Follow the food ...

  18. Health & Nutrition Information for Pregnant & Breastfeeding Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Adults Moms/ Moms-to-Be Print Share Health & Nutrition Information When you are pregnant or breastfeeding, you ... Story Last Updated: Feb 9, 2017 RESOURCES FOR NUTRITION AND HEALTH MYPLATE What Is MyPlate? Fruits Vegetables ...

  19. Anesthetic Management of Pregnant Patients with Appendectomy

    OpenAIRE

    Celik, Feyzi; Oguz, Abdullah; Yildirim, Zeynep Baysal; Guzel, Abdulmenap; Dogan, Erdal; Ciftci, Taner; Aycan, Ilker Onguc

    2014-01-01

    Our goal was to present our anesthesia procedure of pre-diagnosis and laparotomy on pregnant patients with acute appendicitis. After approval Ethics Committee, 77 pregnant patients with a diagnosis of acute appendicitis were evaluated. Patients were separated into two groups: group G (general anesthesia) and Group S (spinal anesthesia), according to the method of anesthesia applied. The patients' age, gestational age, method of anesthesia applied, duration of hospital stay, duration of a...

  20. Psychological Empowerment Model in Iranian Pregnant Women

    OpenAIRE

    Ali Taghipour; Narjes Sadat Borghei; RobabLatifnejad Roudsari; Afsaneh Keramat; Hadi Jabbari Nooghabi

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Background: Women’s empowerment programs during pregnancy focus primarily on increasing women’s health goals and psychological empowerment has been considered important in most issues related to pregnant mothers’ mental health. Using path analysis, this study aims to examine the direct and indirect components of psychological empowerment of pregnant mothers. Methods: This model-testing study was conducted in Gorgan, northwest of Iran during three months in spring of 2015. Through ran...

  1. Approaches to the vaccination of pregnant women

    OpenAIRE

    Baxter, David

    2013-01-01

    For the 2010/11 influenza season the prenatal vaccination program was extended to all women in England and Wales irrespective of gestational age—this was a considerable shift in practice for both pregnant women and healthcare providers where the emphasis previously had been only on targeted vaccination for pregnant women with adverse risk factors for influenza infection. This paper will describe the program’s operation in Stockport, UK during this season when uptake was among the highest in t...

  2. The expectations of pregnant women regarding antenatal care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JM Mathibe-Neke

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available From a feminist perspective, research on childbirth and women’s health is a means to a positive change that is conducted in partnership with women for their benefit. A patient-led National Health System (NHS (Hillan, 1999 also calls for consultation with patients and the wider public for shaping the current and future health services. This study was aimed at exploring and describing the expectations that pregnant women have regarding antenatal care service by the midwife practitioner. In-depth interviews were conducted in an antenatal unit of an Academic Hospital in Gauteng Povince. Data saturation was reached with a sample of eighteen pregnant women who were conveniently selected. Data analysis ran concurrently with data collection. A manual content analysis as described by Tesch was used. Lincoln and Guba’s method of ensuring trustworthiness was adopted (Lincoln & Guba, 1985:328

  3. Recommendations for physical activity for pregnant women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mateja Videmšek

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Properly selected and prescribed physical activity during pregnancy has a favorable effects on the health of pregnant women and the fetus, and is excellent preparation for childbirth. Absolute and relative contraindications to exercise during pregnancy are well defined, as well as the warning signs to terminate exercise while pregnant. Knowledge of these is essential for physically active pregnant women and exercise professionals that work with pregnant women. Pregnant women should be moderately physically active every day of the week for at least 30 minutes. The term moderate is thoroughly and clearly defined in the guidelines. Resistance exercises during pregnancy are safe but it is advised to use light loads and a large number of repetitions (e.g. 15-20 repetitions. Strength exercises for the pelvic floor muscles deserves a special place during pregnancy. Appropriate forms of physical activity for pregnant women are walking and jogging, swimming and aquatic exercise, cycling, Pilates and yoga, aerobics, fitness and cross-country skiing. Certain forms of physical activity need special adjustments (alpine skiing, ice skating and rollerblading, racket sports, team ball games, horseback riding and scuba diving. 

  4. AN ETHNOGRAPHY STUDY OF NUTRITIONAL CONDITIONS OF PREGNANT WOMEN IN BANTEN INDONESIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Setyowati

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Maternal mortality in childbirth in developing countries is still high. The study describes the qualitative methods used to examine the knowledge, attitude, beliefs and behaviour related to nutrition and nutritional supplementation of pregnant women. The role of village midwives and cadres’ in relation to nutrition education resulted in improving nutritional behaviour of pregnant women to some extent, but poverty and culture restricted the ability of pregnant women to access better food. The study shows that the position of pregnant woman is low within the hierarchy of both the health care system and the power structures of the broader community. Husbands, mothers-in-law, village midwives, cadres and village leaders all have more power in determining nutrition during pregnancy. However, some women tried to eat better and more nutritious food in secret, thereby subverting culture and the authority of husbands and mothers-in-law.

  5. An observational assessment of the sublingual microcirculation of pregnant and non-pregnant women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    George, R B; Munro, A; Abdo, I; McKeen, D M; Lehmann, C

    2014-02-01

    The microcirculation is responsible for distribution of blood within tissues, delivery of oxygen and other nutrients, and regulation of blood pressure. The objective of this study was to compare the sublingual microcirculation of pregnant participants to that of comparable non-pregnant volunteers. Two groups of participants were recruited: a group of pregnant, non-laboring women with singleton pregnancies at term gestation and a control group of age-comparable non-pregnant volunteers. A sidestream dark field imaging device was applied to the sublingual mucosal surface obtaining a steady image for at least 20 s duration, in five visual fields. The resultant five video clips per participant were analyzed blindly and at random to prevent coupling between images. The mean microvascular flow index values for each group were compared using a paired t-test. Thirty-seven participants were recruited (19 pregnant, 18 non-pregnant); a single pregnant participant was withdrawn because of technical issues. Baseline characteristics were similar with the exception of weight and body mass index. The mean microvascular flow index was significantly higher in the pregnant group 2.7 ± 0.2 compared to the non-pregnant group 2.5 ± 0.3 (P = 0.021), while the perfused vessel density and proportion of perfused vessels were not significantly different (P = 0.707 and 0.403, respectively). The microvascular flow index of pregnant women is higher than a comparable non-pregnant group, which appears to correlate with the physiological changes of pregnancy. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Factors associated with Genital Hygiene Behaviours in pregnant and non-pregnant women in Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyhan Çankaya

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: This descriptive study was conducted to determine the factors associated with genital hygiene behaviours in pregnant and non-pregnant women.Method and material: Seventy pregnant women and 70 non-pregnant women, aged between 25 and 45 years, who were in the third trimester of pregnancy and presented to the Gynecology and Obstetrics Clinic at the Faculty of Medicine in Konya Province, Turkey, were included in the study. The data were gathered using a questionnaire with 26 questions designed by the researcher using the Genital Hygiene Behavior Inventory (GHBI.Results: There was no significant difference between the GHBI scores of the pregnant and non-pregnant women (p>0.05. Therefore, both groups were combined, and it was aimed to discover the factors associated with genital hygiene behaviours more effectively. A positive correlation between the GHBI scores and the monthly income was found, whereas there was a negative correlation between the GHBI scores and age, marriage age, number of pregnancies, and birth (p<0.05. There was a significant difference between the GHBI scores and the educational status of the women and their husbands, the employment status of the women and the perceived income status (p<0.05. A statistically significant difference was found between the groups in terms of GHBI scores and the women’s pain and/or bleeding experience during sexual intercourse, vaginal douching, and training on the hygiene of the genital area (p<0.05.Conclusion: There was no significant difference in genital hygiene behaviours between the pregnant and non-pregnant women. This may be attributed to the fact that the genital hygiene practices of women who did not have sufficient knowledge of genital hygiene before they became pregnant did not change during pregnancy. Therefore, we suggest that midwives provide both pregnant and non-pregnant women with training on genital hygiene.

  7. Happiness and related factors in pregnant women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayasvasti, Kanthika; Kanchanatawan, Buranee

    2005-09-01

    Pregnancy is a crisis in the human life cycle as an important turning point in aspects of anatomical, physiological and psychosocial changes. An unhappy pregnanus could influence the fetal growth and development and sense of maternal competence as well as bonding with the fetus which profoundly affect the nurture of the infant after delivery. The authors'purposes were to study happiness and related factors in pregnant women having antenatal care at King Chulalongkorn Memorial Hospital. Four hundred and thirty-eight pregnant women from the antenatal clinic at King Chulalongkorn Memorial Hospital were randomly selected to complete a set of questionnaires that consisted of personal information, pregnant information, The Oxford Happiness Questionnaire (OHQ), The Maudsley Personality Inventory (MPI) and The Marital Satisfaction Scale (MSS). Prevalence of happiness level was classified by descriptive analysis. Unpaired t-test, ANOVA and Pearson's Product Moment Correlation analyzed related factors to happiness in pregnant woman. Also Stepwise Multiple Regression Analysis was used to define predictive factors for happiness in pregnant women. The sample had a high level of happiness of 57.3%. Significant related factors to happiness were age between 31-35 years, high education level, high individual and family income, having saving deposition, no drug abuse, improved marital relationship, no conflict with relatives, extrovert and stable personality types and no concerns about post-partum body image. Four predictive factors for happiness in pregnant women were extrovert personality, stable personality, high family income and improved marital relationship. Level of happiness in pregnant women could be predicted by type of personality, family income and marital relationship.

  8. Pharmacokinetics of fenoterol in pregnant women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Mandach, U; Böni, R; Danko, J; Huch, R; Huch, A

    1995-02-01

    The beta 2-sympathomimetic drug fenoterol (fenoterol hydrobromide, CAS 1944-12-3, Partusisten) is routinely used to inhibit uterine contractions (tocolysis). Investigations of plasma concentrations of those receiving i.v. or oral tocolysis often show different results, both within particular groups of pregnant women and in comparison with non-pregnant persons. The aim of this study was to determine the pharmacokinetics of fenoterol in pregnant women, an important factor which so far had not been known. Four healthy pregnant women with similar weight and gestational age and all with premature labor were administered a continuous intravenous infusion of 4 micrograms fenoterol/min. During and up to 24 hours after the end of the infusion, venous blood samples were taken in order to determine the fenoterol plasma concentrations by radioimmunoassay. From a steady state concentration (css) of 2242 +/- 391 pg/ml (x +/- S.E.), a non-linear two-phased plasma elimination was seen with half-lives t1/2 of 11.40 min and 4.87 h. The area under the plasma concentration-time curve (AUC0-12h) was 6.27 ng/ml x h. The total clearance (Cltot) was 114.8 l/h. These data are nearly the same as the data already known for healthy non-pregnant (male) volunteers. The deviations which are seen in the plasma concentrations in pregnant women in comparison to non-pregnant persons during or after continuous i.v. infusion can therefore not be caused by differences in the pharmacokinetics. Other factors, however, such as body weight and/or gestational age, might influence the results.

  9. Factors Associated with Periodontal Disease in Pregnant Diabetic Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anwar, N; Zaman, N; Nimmi, N; Chowdhury, T A; Khan, M H

    2016-04-01

    There have been an association between systemic diseases and hormonal changes particularly diabetes which has been cited as a risk factor in the progression of periodontitis in pregnant women. The incidence and severity of periodontal diseases are increasing at a higher rate and a common condition in pregnant diabetic women among Bangladeshi population. This cross sectional study included 200 pregnant women who were selected from gynecological department and examined at the dental unit. The clinical parameters used were the Silness and Loe plaque index (PI), gingival scores and periodontal status and any relationship to socio demographic variables (age, occupation, level of education and urban or rural residence) and clinical variables (gestation period, previous pregnancy, type of diabetes and periodontal maintenance) were evaluated. The results showed that these clinical parameters increased concomitantly with an increase in the stage of pregnancy and in women with multiple pregnancies. Increased age, lower level of education, unemployment and patients residing in rural areas were associated with significantly higher gingival scores and periodontal measures. Women with increased age and multiple pregnancies usually have less interest to frequent periodontal maintenance showing a significant statistical relation between an increased age and changes in gingival and periodontal status; however no significant association was found between increased age and plaque index. It is concluded that gingival inflammatory symptoms are aggravated during pregnancy in diabetic women and are related to different clinical and demographic variables.

  10. Physiological reactivity of pregnant women to evoked fetal startle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DiPietro, Janet A; Voegtline, Kristin M; Costigan, Kathleen A; Aguirre, Frank; Kivlighan, Katie; Chen, Ping

    2013-10-01

    The bidirectional nature of mother-child interaction is widely acknowledged during infancy and childhood. Prevailing models during pregnancy focus on unidirectional influences exerted by the pregnant woman on the developing fetus. Prior work has indicated that the fetus also affects the pregnant woman. Our objective was to determine whether a maternal psychophysiological response to stimulation of the fetus could be isolated. Using a longitudinal design, an airborne auditory stimulus was used to elicit a fetal heart rate and motor response at 24 (n=47) and 36 weeks (n=45) of gestation. Women were blind to condition (stimulus versus sham). Maternal parameters included cardiac (heart rate) and electrodermal (skin conductance) responses. Multilevel modeling of repeated measures with 5 data points per second was used to examine fetal and maternal responses. As expected, compared to a sham condition, the stimulus generated a fetal motor response at both gestational ages, consistent with a mild fetal startle. Fetal stimulation was associated with significant, transient slowing of maternal heart rate coupled with increased skin conductance within 10s of the stimulus at both gestational ages. Nulliparous women showed greater electrodermal responsiveness. The magnitude of the fetal motor response significantly corresponded to the maternal skin conductance response at 5, 10, 15, and 30s following stimulation. Elicited fetal movement exerts an independent influence on the maternal autonomic nervous system. This finding contributes to current models of the dyadic relationship during pregnancy between fetus and pregnant woman. © 2013.

  11. Treatment of pregnant and non-pregnant rheumatic patients : a survey among Dutch rheumatologists

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vroom, F.; van de Laar, M. A. J. F.; van Roon, E. N.; Brouwers, J. R. B. J.; den Berg, L. T. W. de Jong-van

    2008-01-01

    Background: The aim of this study was to explore, among Dutch rheumatologists, aspects such as attitude towards guidelines, pharmacotherapy and information needs in the treatment of pregnant as well as non-pregnant rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients. Methods: Fifteen rheumatologists from nine differ

  12. Treatment of pregnant and non-pregnant rheumatic patients: a survey among Dutch rheumatologists

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vroom, F.; Laar, van de M.A.F.J.; Roon, van E.N.; Brouwers, J.R.B.J.; Jong-van den Berg, de L.T.W.

    2008-01-01

    Background: The aim of this study was to explore, among Dutch rheumatologists, aspects such as attitude towards guidelines, pharmacotherapy and information needs in the treatment of pregnant as well as non-pregnant rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients. - Methods: Fifteen rheumatologists from nine dif

  13. Glomerular immunoglobulin deposits induce glomerular inflammation in pregnant but not in non-pregnant rats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Faas, MM; Van Der Schaaf, G; Schipper, M; Moes, H

    2003-01-01

    PROBLEM: Does an inflammatory stimulus evoke a more intense inflammatory response in pregnant rats as compared with nonpregnant rats? METHOD OF STUDY: Non-pregnant rats were injected with antibodies against the glomerular basement membrane (GBM), 14 days before pregnancy, to induce a subclinical glo

  14. Pertussis vaccine in pregnant women: safety and uptake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Munoz FM

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Flor M Munoz Department of Pediatrics, Section of Infectious Diseases, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, TX, USA Abstract: Pertussis continues to be an important cause of morbidity and mortality in children worldwide, particularly among infants too young to be vaccinated or who are unvaccinated and unprotected by naturally acquired passive antibodies from their mothers. Vaccination of women during pregnancy with an adult formulation of acellular pertussis vaccine in combination with tetanus and diphtheria toxoids (Tdap [tetanus, reduced diphtheria and acellular pertussis vaccine] is recommended in several industrialized countries to boost the levels of maternal antibodies that are transferred transplacentally and protect infants during the period of life when they are more likely to succumb to pertussis. Data from clinical and epidemiologic studies are supportive of the safety and effectiveness of maternal immunization with pertussis vaccines. Tdap is safe and well tolerated in pregnant women. Local and systemic reactogenicity is similar to that observed in nonpregnant adults, and no serious adverse events have been attributed to Tdap vaccination during pregnancy. Maternal antibodies elicited by the vaccine are efficiently transferred to the fetus through the placenta, and studies have consistently found that infants born to vaccinated mothers have significantly higher concentrations of pertussis antibodies than infants of nonvaccinated mothers. Although a correlate of protection against pertussis is unknown, higher concentrations of antibodies are likely to result in protection of young infants. A reduction in infant pertussis has been shown to occur when high vaccine coverage rates are achieved by pregnant women, as reported in the UK vaccination program. Furthermore, as more vaccine programs incorporate Tdap vaccination during pregnancy, prospective and epidemiologic data will be available to continuously assess the safety and efficacy of

  15. Pregnant outcomes and prognosis of women complicated with systemic lupus erythematosus%妊娠合并系统性红斑狼疮的妊娠结局及预后

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张岩; 杨慧霞; 廖秦平

    2009-01-01

    Objective To understand the clinical features, management, pregnant outcomes and prognosis of pregnant women complicated with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). Methods Retrospective analysis of 34 women (35 pregnancies) complicated with SLE were conducted and 26 of them were followed up for 0.5~15 years. Results (1) Out of the 35 pregnancies in these 34 women, 8 were in remission stage, 8 in the well-controlled period, 1 in active phase and 18 were primary onset (10 diagnosed during the pregnancy, and 8 after terminations) during the pregnancy. (2) Among those diagnosed during the pregnancy, 2 women in the remission group and 3 in the well-controlled group were in the active stage of SLE. The several most common clinical manifestations indicating SLE deterioration were proteinuria, fatigue, edema, hypertension, erythra and decreased serum C3. (3) In women with onset during the pregnancy, 7 (38.9%) presented with proteinuria, edema and hypertension which similar to symptoms of gestational hypertension. (4) The average maternal age of the remission group was much older than those women with onset during pregnancy [(32.4±5.5) years vs (26.6±3.9) years, P=0.034]. while the proportion of active lupus nephritis was lower than that of the later (1/4 vs 16/16, P=0.004) and the well-controlled group (1/4 vs 6/6,P=0.033) during post-partum follow-ups. Conclusions Pregnancy prompted lupus nephritis has nothing to do with maternal age, but the stage of SLE. Patients who conceived in the remission stage are the least likely to have nephritic damage. Although women with onset during the pregnancy is relatively young, they are expected to have more serious renal damage and poor prognosis.%目的 了解妊娠合并系统性红斑狼疮(systemic lupus erythematosus,SLE)的临床特点、妊娠结局及远期预后. 方法对我院34例妊娠合并SLE患者的临床资料进行回顾性分析,并对其中26例患者进行了0.5~15年的随访. 结果 (1)34例患者,共35次

  16. Dermatologic conditions in patients of color who are pregnant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Jeon, BS

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Certain dermatoses that present during pregnancy have a predilection for populations with skin of color (SOC. Additionally, certain systemic diseases such as systemic lupus erythematosus tend to be more aggressive during pregnancy and confer worse prognoses in women with SOC. The purpose of this review is to highlight the unique implications of selected diseases during pregnancy as it relates to SOC. Dermatologists should be vigilant for the unique clinical variations of dermatological conditions in patients of color who are pregnant to ensure correct diagnoses and optimize treatment outcomes.

  17. [Anaesthesia in abdominal delivery in pregnant patients with hypertension].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tolmachev, G N; Volodin, A V; Marichik, N V; Nemirovskiĭ, V B; Pivovarova, G M; Shepetovskaia, N L; Gur'ianov, V A

    2010-01-01

    A differentiated administration of calcium antagonists in preoperative preparation of pregnant patients with hypertension enabled the conversion of circulatory system state to "normal pregnancy range": a conversion of hypokinetic (including the HES solution infusion) and hyperkinetic types of haemodynamics to eukinetic one, with the decrease of total peripheral resistance and myocardium need for oxygen, autonomous nervous system state to physiological sympathicotonia. Evidence shows that continued intra-operative treatment including tranexamic acid enables to maintain those results during the surgery. In postoperational period, the clinical manifestations of SIRS in patients who has received the mentioned therapy were marked less then in control group, and the newborns have a higher Apgar score.

  18. 阿司匹林在系统性红斑狼疮孕妇中的应用%The Application of Aspirin in Pregnant Women with Systemic Lupus Erythematosus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴珈悦

    2015-01-01

    妊娠对于系统性红斑狼疮(systemic lupus erythematosus,SLE)患者是一个巨大的挑战. 因为高凝状态会导致不同程度的产科并发症以及不良妊娠结局.故抗凝治疗非常关键.SLE孕妇由于体内免疫复合物沉积和系统炎性反应损伤了胎盘结构,造成子宫胎盘灌注不良,从而导致血栓素A2(TXA2)与前列环素比值的失衡,这与胎盘血栓血管性病变密切相关. 阿司匹林通过调节血栓素和前列环素的平衡,抑制血小板活性,扩张血管,从而降低不良妊娠结局以及预防产科并发症的发生.推荐SLE及抗磷脂抗体综合征的高危产妇在整个孕期使用低剂量(40~160 mg/d)阿司匹林.血小板聚集实验是监测抗血小板聚集药物效果的重要指标.其他抗血小板聚集药物的安全性仍未知.肝素/低分子肝素可根据产妇有无复发性流产史和血栓史联合使用.%Pregnancy is a huge challenge for systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) patients. Because hypercoagulable state can lead to various obstetric complications and adverse pregnancy outcomes. Therefore anticoagulant therapy is critical. The immune complex deposition and systemic inflammation cause placental structure injury, resulting in poor uteroplacental perfusion, and lead to imbalance of thromboxane A2 (TXA2) and prostacycl, which is closely related to placental vascular thrombotic lesions. Aspirin by adjusting the balance of thromboxane and prostacyclin, inhibit platelet activity, and dilate blood vessels, which reducing the occurrence of adverse pregnancy outcomes and preventing obstetric complications. SLE and antiphospholipid syndrome (APS) pregnant women are recommended taking low-dose aspirin (40-160 mg/d) throughout pregnancy. Platelet aggregation test is an important indicator to monitor anti-platelet aggregation effect of the medicine. The safety of other anti-platelet aggregation medicine is still unknown. Heparin/low molecular weight heparin may be combined

  19. BREASTFEEDING: THE MEANING FOR PREGNANT POSITIVE HIV

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jane Portes de Oliveira

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available In The actions of prevention to the HIV AIDS, in the prenatal lens the advising of women infected bythe HIV about the risk from the vertical transmission causing to prohibition from the lactation and from the breastfeedingcrossed. Objective it identify joined the pregnants HIV positive the main worries as regards the impedimentfrom the breast-feeding natural and evaluate the individual educational needs of activities as form alternative to theaffectionate and psychic emotional support to the pregnant. Methodology treats itself of a boarding qualitative, theywere interviewed pregnants soropositivas inscription in the outpatient clinic of prenatal of high risk, of a PublicHospital, in Goiânia GO. Analyzing the facts: them interviewed were unanimous in affirm that to pregnancy wasnot planned. It be pregnant and uncover that they are bearers of the virus HIV brought bigger expectationsregarding the pregnancy: fear, insecurity, anguish and doubts are emotions by them related. And, they stood outthat the specific groups permit bigger liberty for argument and change of experiences, the work helps to pregnantreact to the consequences of the virus HIV. Like this being, we understand that the aid to the pregnantsoroposotive, in the institution studied attends a standard quality, however, is important thing systematize thespecific formation of groups of pregnant soropositives for HIV.

  20. Doula birth support for incarcerated pregnant women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schroeder, Carole; Bell, Janice

    2005-01-01

    The objective of this study was to provide trained labor support (doulas) to pregnant women in jail. A multiagency intervention project provided doula birth services to pregnant women in urban jails. Program evaluation included interviews with women and written satisfaction surveys of providers and correctional officers. A convenience sample of 18 incarcerated women received doula services. A doula visited each woman in jail antepartum to review expectations for labor and birth; during hospitalization, the doula provided continuous support throughout labor and birth. Doulas visited women postpartum to review birth events. Surveys administered to providers and officers demonstrated high satisfaction with the program. Qualitative interviews with 14 women indicated unanimous support for the services and documented women's major concerns. Findings support offering doula services to all pregnant women in custody and expanding doula services to include early and comprehensive intervention coordinated by nurses.

  1. Iodine Status in Pregnant & Breastfeeding Women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Stine Linding

    Iodine is required for the synthesis of thyroid hormones, which are crucial regulator of early brain development. The source of iodine in the fetus and the breastfed infant is maternal iodine, and adequate iodine intake in pregnant and breastfeeding is of major concern. Severe iodine deficiency can...... cause irreversible brain damage, whereas the consequences of mild to moderate iodine deficiency are less clear. Denmark was previously iodine deficient with regional differences (mild iodine deficiency in East Denmark and moderate iodine deficiency in West Denmark), and also pregnant and breastfeeding...... women suffered from iodine deficiency. A mandatory iodine fortification of household salt and salt used for commercial production of bread was introduced in Denmark in the year 2000. The PhD thesis investigates intake of iodine supplements and urinary iodine status in Danish pregnant and breastfeeding...

  2. [Cartography of healthcare for pregnant women].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Raimunda Magalhães da; Costa, Milena Silva; Matsue, Regina Yoshie; Sousa, Girliani Silva de; Catrib, Ana Maria Fontenelle; Vieira, Luiza Jane Eyre de Souza

    2012-03-01

    This work uses cartography as a method for mapping the trajectory of primary healthcare provided to pregnant women. The scope of the study comprises 9 Basic Healthcare Units located in the city of Juazeiro do Norte in the State of Ceará. In all, fifteen women in the 37th to 39th week of pregnancy were selected. Interviews were conducted with these women during the period from January to June 2010. The cartographic findings were depicted in stages in the flowchart, which exposed lacunas in prenatal healthcare, such as the low number of oncotic cytology exams conducted and the lack of educational counseling. Nevertheless, in the interviews, a significant number of pregnant women expressed satisfaction with the prenatal care provided. The good relationships developed between the healthcare professionals and the pregnant women were the main reason that led them to continue the treatment. This fact reinforces the importance of dialogue between these two actors for the success of prenatal healthcare.

  3. Assisting pregnant women to prepare for disaster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ewing, Bonnie; Buchholtz, Susan; Rotanz, Richard

    2008-01-01

    Disasters are natural or man-made life-altering events that require preplanning to save lives. Pregnant women are a particularly vulnerable population in such events, because they have special physical and psychosocial needs. Preparations made for labor and birth might have to be drastically altered in the event of an emergency, especially if a woman is separated from her familiar healthcare providers and facilities. The issue of breastfeeding also must be considered in disaster planning for pregnant women, along with occurrences such as food shortages and outbreak of illnesses caused by overcrowding of displaced persons. Recent events such as hurricane Katrina have demonstrated that maternal/child nurses need to become more aware of disaster planning and help to empower pregnant women with knowledge of how to handle their special needs in times of crisis.

  4. A linear study of pulmonary function tests in normal pregnant and non-pregnant women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Lata; Dixit, R

    2013-10-01

    Pregnancy is principally a phenomenon of maternal adaptation to the increasing demands of the growing foetus. Pregnancy causes many visible and invisible changes in human body and it represents one of the best example of selective adaptation in terms of respiratory physiology. To evaluate the changes in dynamic pulmonary function tests in all three trimesters of pregnancy and compare the results between normal pregnant women (case group) and normal non-pregnant women (control group) and also to compare the results of the study with other studies, 50 subjects were selected and divided into two groups, non-pregnant women (n = 20, mean age = 26.5 +/- 2.69 years) and normal pregnant women of all three trimesters (n = 30, mean age = 24.84 +/- 3.00 years). Pulmonary function tests were done by medspiror. Significant decrease in all the parameters of pulmonary function tests like forced vital capacity, forced expiratory volume in one second, peak expiratory flow rate, maximum ventilation volume, were noticed in all trimesters of normal pregnant women as compared to normal non-pregnant women. The data suggest that there is alteration in pulmonary function tests in pregnant women. Continuous Monitoring of pulmonary function tests may prove to be of great value in maternal healthcare as cases of restriction and obstruction in lungs during pregnancy can be identified early and its deterioration can be prevented by proper management.

  5. The study of serum Carnitine, Triglyceride and Cholesterol changes in pregnant and non-pregnant women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahraei M

    1993-04-01

    Full Text Available Carnitine is a water-soluble quaternary amine which increases the long-chain fatty acid metabolism by facilitation of their transport to the oxidation site (mitochondria. Carnitine most likely is present in all animal species, in many microorganisms, and in many plants. In this study, we determined the carnitine level of sera in pregnant and non-pregnant women by segade modified method. Average concentration of carnitine in the sera of fifty pregnant women was about 25/83 umol/I: First trimester-30.96 umol/I. Second trimester-29.11 umol/I. Third trimester-25.11 umol/I. concentration of cholesterol and triglyceride in the above-mentioned group was the following: Cholesterol: 258.84 mg/dl triglyceride: 267.02 mg/dl. The above values show that the carnitine level in sera of pregnant women decreases significantly and this decrease is tolerated well by pregnant women. According to our results, the serum carnitine concentration in pregnant women gradually decreases as gestation proceeds. So that the end of this period, is half of its concentration before conception. During pregnancy, there was an inverse correlation between carnitine level and that of cholesterol and triglycerides. Decrease in carnitine concentration and increase in cholesterol and triglyceride levels may be due to the following factors: 1 Increase in FFA oxidation in pregnancy. 2 Hormones. 3 Dilution of the blood. 4 Decrease in Fe storage in pregnant women.

  6. Pseudomembranous colitis in a pregnant woman.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mridula, T; Pai, R R; Mathai, A M; Tantry, B V; Adhikari, P

    2010-01-01

    Pseudomembranous colitis in association with pregnancy has not been well described in English literature. Recent studies show a drastic increase in the incidence and severity of Pseudomembranous colitis in pregnant women, who were once thought to be at low risk. We report here a case of Pseudomembranous colitis in a young healthy immunocompetent pregnant lady. An early suspicion of this entity with the characteristic appearance of pseudomembranes on colonoscopy and histology confirmed the diagnosis enabling prompt treatment and complete recovery without any serious consequences.

  7. CORRELATION OF PROGRESSION RISK OF FETOPLACENTAL INSUFFICIENCY WITH VEGETATIVE STATUS DISTURBANCE IN PREGNANT WOMEN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chernyshkova E.V.

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available

    Research Goal was to compare probability of risk progression of chronic fetoplacental insuffciency with various disturbances of vegetative nervous system (VNS in pregnant women. Materials. Basic group consisted of 112 pregnant women with chronic fetoplacental insuffciency; control group included 73 women with physiological course of pregnancy and delivery. Status of VNS was determined with the purpose to estimate initial vegetative tone in various functional systems and forming concept of general vegetative status in the sample. Results. Presence of fetoplacental insuffciency in pregnant women was extensively associated with increase of sympathetic section tone and VNS lability. Occurrence frequency of critical indices of hemodynamics disturbances in the system mother- placenta-fetus revealed reliable correlation dependence on VNS lability and index of vegetative supply of activity. Conclusion. Pregnant women with fetoplacental insuffciency had 25 – 30 % increased tone and lability indices of VNS sympathetic section in contrast to physiological course of pregnancy. Progression of fetoplacental insuffciency was more often revealed in pregnant women in case of replacement of sympathicotonia by vagotonia, and against a background of high VNS lability and reactivity.

  8. The Haemostatic Effects of Mifepristone in Early Pregnant Women

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    贺昌海; 范倩; 顾江; 桂幼伦; 汪荣卿; 李盛华; 陈俊康

    1994-01-01

    The paper reported the effects of four different regimens of mifepristone on clotting and fibrinolytic systems in pregnant women. Nine parameters (PT,KPTT,Ⅶ: C, Ⅷ: C, VWF , AT Ⅲ = C, AT Ⅱ = Ag , α2-macroglobulin and plasminogen antigen levels) were determined. All the data were analysed on VAX-Ⅱ using SAS software package, The results showed that among the four groups there was no significant.difference in pretreated values of each parameter, and in values of PT、KPTT、 AT

  9. nutritional status in pregnant women attending kiru general hospital ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DR. AMINU

    2012-12-02

    Dec 2, 2012 ... Blood Glucose (FBS) and Total Cholesterol (TC) in pregnant women (PW) in the three trimesters and in non-pregnant .... carbohydrates, lipids and amino acids metabolism, .... Total Cholesterol Determination. Journal of.

  10. Comparison between Olfactory Function of Pregnant Women and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2017-05-22

    May 22, 2017 ... study was carried out to investigate and compare olfactory function of pregnant women with non-pregnant ..... Prevalence and assessment of qualitative olfactory dysfunction in different ... A qualitative and quantitative review.

  11. More Pregnant Women Getting Flu Shot, But Improvement Needed

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_162444.html More Pregnant Women Getting Flu Shot, But Improvement Needed All ... and her baby. And while the percentage of pregnant American women who got the vaccine has doubled ...

  12. Pregnant Women Should Avoid Zika-Hit Texas Town: CDC

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_162573.html Pregnant Women Should Avoid Zika-Hit Texas Town: CDC ... 15, 2016 THURSDAY, Dec. 15, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- Pregnant women should avoid traveling to a south Texas ...

  13. Population pharmacokinetics of abacavir in pregnant women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fauchet, Floris; Treluyer, Jean-Marc; Préta, Laure-Helene; Valade, Elodie; Pannier, Emmanuelle; Urien, Saik; Hirt, Déborah

    2014-10-01

    For the first time, a population approach was used to describe abacavir (ABC) pharmacokinetics in HIV-infected pregnant and nonpregnant women. A total of 266 samples from 150 women were obtained. No covariate effect (from age, body weight, pregnancy, or gestational age) on ABC pharmacokinetics was found. Thus, it seems unnecessary to adapt the ABC dosing regimen during pregnancy.

  14. Scorpion envenomation symptoms in pregnant women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Ben Nasr

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Scorpion envenomation is common in many countries; however, its effects on pregnancy are still unclear. In the present paper, we described the effects of scorpion envenomation on pregnant patients. A retrospective study was carried out considering the clinical and laboratory exams of patients admitted to the emergency room of Habib Bourguiba Hospital, Sfax, Tunisia, from 1990 to 2004. Variability of these clinical and laboratory profiles according to maternal age, gestational age and number of previous parities was also discussed. Among 167 scorpion-envenomed women, age ranged from 17 to 42 years, 7.18% were pregnant. These presented symptoms similar to those of non-pregnant women envenomed by scorpions. Two pregnant patients developed intense pelvic pain and one manifested vaginal bleeding. Although the studied parameters showed non-significant differences, we could conclude that scorpion envenomation may lead to abnormal uterine contraction probably causing preterm delivery. Maternal disturbances induced by scorpion envenomation may influence the fetus development. The effects were more severe in the second trimester of pregnancy.

  15. HIV among Pregnant Women, Infants, and Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Prevention VIH En Español Get Tested Find an HIV testing site near you. Enter ZIP code or city Follow HIV/AIDS CDC HIV CDC HIV/AIDS See RSS | ... Email Updates on HIV Syndicated Content Website Feedback HIV Among Pregnant Women, Infants, and Children Format: Select ...

  16. Toluene depresses plasma corticosterone in pregnant rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hougaard, Karin S; Hansen, Åse Marie; Hass, Ulla

    2003-01-01

    of corticosteroids from the maternal to the foetal compartment. Pregnant rats were subjected to either 1500 ppm toluene 6 hr/day and/or a schedule of "Chronic mild stress" during the last two weeks of gestation. Exposure to toluene was associated with reduced birth weight and lower maternal weight gain, the latter...

  17. Prevalence of rhesus negativity among pregnant women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ezhil Arasi Nagamuthu

    2016-08-01

    Conclusions: The prevalence of Rh D negative women is low when compared to Rh D positive women.There is a need for adequate counselling of pregnant women on the importance of Rh D negative factor during the antenatal period in order to prevent hemolytic disease of the newborn. [Int J Res Med Sci 2016; 4(8.000: 3305-3309

  18. Seroprevalence of cytomegalovirus among pregnant women ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2014-03-03

    Mar 3, 2014 ... es minimal disability, allowing infected individuals to re- ... to evaluate the role of maternal education on CMV and the role ... Conclusion: Seroprevalence of pregnant women to CMV Ig G is high, hence the need for CMV - IgM ...

  19. Secondary school teachers' experiences of teaching pregnant ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Hennie

    Pregnancy amongst secondary school learners is a public health concern ... of high risk pregnancies, which require appropriate care during the antenatal, labour and .... ous sizes. According to the Department of Basic. Education (2012), in ... scribes what he or she has observed in order to as- ... pregnant learner in class;.

  20. Pregnant Women Need a Flu Shot

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2010-11-17

    This podcast explains why pregnant women need a flu shot.  Created: 11/17/2010 by National Center for Immunization and Respiratory Diseases (NCIRD), Office of the Director (OD).   Date Released: 11/17/2010.

  1. Protection for pregnant women in employment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potrykus, C

    1994-03-01

    October 19 is the deadline for employers to implement improvements in maternity rights laid down by the Trade Union Reform and Employment Rights Act (TURERA) and the European directive to protect pregnant women's health and safety at work. Christina Potrykus outlines what the government and, separately, the general Whitley council have in store for women employees.

  2. 建立地市级妇幼保健院危重孕产妇救治院级质量管理体系的成效%Effect of establishing hospital - level quality management system for rescue of critically ill pregnant women in prefecture -level maternal and child health hospitals

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高建慧; 杨孜; 崔仁忠; 万波; 叶光福

    2012-01-01

    目的:建立持续有效可行的危重孕产妇救治的院级质量管理体系,提高抢救成功率,降低孕产妇死亡率.方法:分析2005~2009年该院危重孕产妇抢救及25例死亡孕产妇情况.结果:①5年危重孕产妇共2054例,占年分娩数的8.12%,其中81.60%的危重孕产妇由全市各医院转运而来.②5年危重孕产妇死亡率逐年降低,分别为:5.08%、1.57%、1.36%、0.68%、0.44%,主要死亡原因是产前子痫、产后出血、重症感染及妊娠合并内外科疾病.死亡的影响因素以外籍户口非计划生育管理人员为主,且非第一胎占多数(84.00%),48.00%未进行产检,发现问题未进行就诊处理的占64.00%.各级医疗保健知识技能占36.00%.③中山地区孕产妇系统管理率、产前检查率及住院分娩率5年平均为90.80%、96.25%和99.98%,而25例死亡孕产妇明显低于平均水平,分别为76.00%、40.00%和60.00%.结论:落实危重病人院级质量管理、发挥抢救团队的作用,各级医院密切配合,保健部门与医疗部门形成有效的合力机制,提高医务人员知识技能、严格执行分级诊疗及系统的孕产妇保健管理,是提高抢救成功率的保证.%Objective: To establish sustainable and effective hospital - level quality management system for rescue of critically ill pregnant women, increase the success rate of rescue, and reduce mortality of pregnant women. Methods; The rescue conditions of critically ill pregnant women and the conditions of 25 maternal deaths in the hospital from 2005 to 2009 were analyzed. Results: A total of 2 054 critically ill pregnant women were rescued from 2005 to 2009, accounting for 8. 12% of the whole pregnant women, 81. 60% of the critically ill pregnant women were transferred from other hospitals in Zhongshan city. The mortalities of critically ill pregnant women from 2005 to 2009 decreased year by year, which were 5. 08% , 1.57% , 1.36% , 0. 68% , and 0

  3. Higher prevalence of anemia among pregnant immigrant women compared to pregnant ethnic Danish women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nybo, Mads; Friis-Hansen, Lennart; Felding, Peter

    2007-01-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate whether the well-known high anemia prevalence in pregnant women from the eastern Mediterranean and Asian regions decreased when the women immigrated to a low-frequency region (Denmark). During 70 months, 1,741 pregnant immigrant women referred from primary...... status parameters were examined in the two groups. The prevalence of anemia was higher in the immigrant group (20.0%) compared to the Danish women (4.9%) (P ... indicated iron deficiency. Conclusively, the pregnant immigrant women had significantly higher prevalence of anemia compared to pregnant women of Danish origin. It indicates the need for an alternative routine screening procedure for this population group, which should also include nutritional counselling....

  4. Evaluation of sleep problems in preeclamptic, healthy pregnant and non-pregnant women.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Habibolah Khazaie

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Sleep problems are common complaints among pregnant women. This study was designed to compare subjective sleep problems in non-pregnancy condition, healthy and preeclamptic pregnancy as a major complication of pregnancy. We hypothesized that some sleep problems are more prevalent in females with preeclampsia.In this cross-sectional study, 102 women with preeclampsia, 106 healthy pregnant women in the third trimester and 103 healthy non-pregnant women were selected through random sampling. Age and parity were matched in the three groups. We used Global sleep assessment questionnaire (GSAQ to check the subjective sleep problems, and then we performed statistical analysis using Analysis of variance (ANOVA and Pearson Chi-square tests.Our findings revealed significant differences in initial insomnia (p = 0.034, fragmented sleep (p = 0.022, snoring (p<0.001, non-idiopathic insomnia (p = 0.045 and sadness and anxiety (p = 0.001 between the three groups. Some sleep problems were more common in preeclampctic compared to healthy pregnant women including initial insomnia, fragmented sleep, snoring, sleep apnea and non-idiopathic insomnia. Moreover, the subjects with preeclampsia revealed more fragmented sleep, snoring, sadness and anxiety and lack of getting enough sleep due to other activities compared to non-pregnant women.Different kinds of sleep problems can occur in subjects with preeclampsia in comparison with the non-pregnant and healthy pregnant subjects. Sleep problems should be evaluated during pregnancy, particularly in pregnant women with preeclampsia, and suitable treatment should be provided for any specific sleep problem.

  5. Pathophysiological Aspects of the Development of Respiratory Distress Syndrome in Pregnant Women with Preeclampsia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. P. Bakhtina

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to estimate the incidence of adult respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS and to define the main biochemical parameters characterizing the severity of preeclampsia in pregnant women. Subjects and methods. The study was conducted in 117 pregnant women aged 18 to 42 years with varying preeclampsia at 36—38 weeks of gestation. Results. According to the severity of preeclampsia in pregnant women, there was an increase in the rate of free radical oxidation that caused direct damage to the vascular endothelium, by inhibiting the total antioxidant activity of plasma, which largely depended on the state of the nitroxidergic system. There was an inverse correlation between nitrite levels and hemodynamic parameters and a functional relationship between systemic hemodynamic disorders and nitrite levels in pregnant women with preeclampsia. There was a reduction in the count of platelets and a significant increase in platelet aggregation in stages III and IV ARDS. Conclusion. Varying interstitial lung edemas develop in relation to the severity of preeclampsia. The maximum impairment of lipid peroxidation processes and lower nitrate levels were noted in severe preeclampsia. There was a progressive platelet count fall in Stages III and IV ARDS. In the authors’ opinion, the magnitude of involvement of platelets in aggregates and free radical damage to the pulmonary vascular endothelium play a significant role in the development of ARDS in pregnant women with preeclampsia. However, impairments in the thrombocytic link are likely to be regarded as a direct cause of lung dysfunction. Key words: preeclampsia, respiratory distress syndrome, nitrites, lipid peroxidation.

  6. I'm Pregnant. Should I Get a Flu Shot?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Surgery? A Week of Healthy Breakfasts Shyness I'm Pregnant. Should I Get a Flu Shot? KidsHealth > For Teens > I'm Pregnant. Should I Get a Flu Shot? A A A I just found out that I'm 6 weeks pregnant. Do I need to get ...

  7. Psychotherapeutic correction and rehabilitation of mental disorders in pregnant women with threatened miscarriage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. E. Kupriyanova

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to study the efficiency of psychotherapeutic correction of mental disorders in pregnant women with threatened miscarriage.Patients and methods. Psychotherapy for mental disorders and prenosological conditions was performed in 84 pregnant women aged 18 to 41 years with threatened miscarriage. The efficiency of performed measures was evaluated using the quality of life questionnaire, Spielberger–Hanin’s scale, and a therapy efficiency assessment scale in patients with borderline states. Delivery outcomes were analyzed in relation to management tactics in this cohort of pregnant women. The health status of newborn infants was assessed by the neonatologists of maternity hospitals.Results and discussion. After psychotherapeutic correction, the quality-of-life indicators in the pregnant women with threatened miscarriage from the study group were significantly higher than in those from the comparison group. The level of reactive and personality anxiety significantly decreased in the pregnant women in the study group. The pregnant women with the asthenic variant of prenosological conditions and those who had ICD-10 diagnoses F40-48 were most successful in the context of psychotherapeutic rehabilitation. Sporadic cases of incomplete recovery were noted when psychotherapeutical support was got. In the study group, pregnancy resulted in full-term babies in 100% of the women. In the pregnant women with prenosological conditions and mental disorders from the study group, parturition proceeded significantlymore rapidly than in those from the comparison study. Significantly higher physical quotients were found in the newborn babies from the study group parturients. The psychotherapy that supplements the complex system of therapeutic measures has been shown to be highly effective in the women with threatened miscarriage accompanied by mental disorders.

  8. Seafood consumption among pregnant and non-pregnant women of childbearing age in the United States, NHANES 1999-2006

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: Long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids found in seafood are essential for optimal neurodevelopment of the fetus. However, concerns about mercury contamination of seafood and its potential harm to the developing fetus have created uncertainty about seafood consumption for pregnant women. We compared fish and shellfish consumption patterns, as well as their predictors, among pregnant and non-pregnant women of childbearing age in the US.Methods: Data from 1,260 pregnant and 5,848 non...

  9. Possible Zika Virus Infection Among Pregnant Women - United States and Territories, May 2016.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simeone, Regina M; Shapiro-Mendoza, Carrie K; Meaney-Delman, Dana; Petersen, Emily E; Galang, Romeo R; Oduyebo, Titilope; Rivera-Garcia, Brenda; Valencia-Prado, Miguel; Newsome, Kimberly B; Pérez-Padilla, Janice; Williams, Tonya R; Biggerstaff, Matthew; Jamieson, Denise J; Honein, Margaret A

    2016-05-27

    Zika virus is a cause of microcephaly and brain abnormalities (1), and it is the first known mosquito-borne infection to cause congenital anomalies in humans. The establishment of a comprehensive surveillance system to monitor pregnant women with Zika virus infection will provide data to further elucidate the full range of potential outcomes for fetuses and infants of mothers with asymptomatic and symptomatic Zika virus infection during pregnancy. In February 2016, Zika virus disease and congenital Zika virus infections became nationally notifiable conditions in the United States (2). Cases in pregnant women with laboratory evidence of Zika virus infection who have either 1) symptomatic infection or 2) asymptomatic infection with diagnosed complications of pregnancy can be reported as cases of Zika virus disease to ArboNET* (2), CDC's national arboviral diseases surveillance system. Under existing interim guidelines from the Council for State and Territorial Epidemiologists (CSTE), asymptomatic Zika virus infections in pregnant women who do not have known pregnancy complications are not reportable. ArboNET does not currently include pregnancy surveillance information (e.g., gestational age or pregnancy exposures) or pregnancy outcomes. To understand the full impact of infection on the fetus and neonate, other systems are needed for reporting and active monitoring of pregnant women with laboratory evidence of possible Zika virus infection during pregnancy. Thus, in collaboration with state, local, tribal, and territorial health departments, CDC established two surveillance systems to monitor pregnancies and congenital outcomes among women with laboratory evidence of Zika virus infection(†) in the United States and territories: 1) the U.S. Zika Pregnancy Registry (USZPR),(§) which monitors pregnant women residing in U.S. states and all U.S. territories except Puerto Rico, and 2) the Zika Active Pregnancy Surveillance System (ZAPSS), which monitors pregnant women

  10. HEALTH TECHNOLOGIES FOR INCREASING ADAPTIVE CAPABILITIESOF PREGNANT WOMEN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. S. Krivonogova

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Our research is aimed to investigate the influence of breathing exercises and aqua-gymnastics on the adaptive capabilities of pregnant women in different trimesters of gestation.The estimation of adaptive capabilities of the pregnant women organism was carried out on the basis of functional tests on breath-holding duration – Stange’s test (for inhalation and Ghencea’s test (for exhalation in the initial period, 11–19, 21–29 and 31–39 weeks periods of pregnancy.To identify the adaptation strategies for pregnant women the method proposed by Ya.S. Pekker and A. Rotov was used, namely, the consideration of information measure as a measure of biological object preference behavior. Analysis of the results with information criterion of curve types using cluster analysis allowed to identify 4 standard types of adaptation strategies for pregnant women: adaptive, compensatory, compensatory-adaptive and maladaptive compensatory type of response. To estimate the adaptive capabilities of the respiratory system the ratio between the level of respiratory system functioning, its functional reserve and the degree of stress regulation mechanisms was considered.The intensity of lipid peroxidation processes (LPO in the blood serum of pregnant women was assessed by determining malondialdehyde (MDA in the reaction with 2-thiobarbituric acid. Determination of vitamin D content in blood serum was estimated by fluorimetric method using spectrophotometer «Hitachi-85» (Japan at an excitation wavelength of 295 nm and 320 nm fluorescence. Determination of the level of stress hormones (cortisol, insulin in the blood serum of pregnant women was performed by radio ligand assay.The following somatic diseases were registered among pregnant women applying to hospital: chronic tonsillitis, sinusitis, vasomotor rhinitis, bronchitis, bronchial asthma, hay fever, chronic pyelonephritis, atopic dermatitis. The next prenatal risks were revealed: morning sickness in I

  11. Paroxysmal supraventricular tachycardia in pregnant women and birth outcomes of their children: a population-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bánhidy, Ferenc; Ács, Nándor; Puhó, Erzsébet H; Czeizel, Andrew E

    2015-08-01

    The aim of the study was to estimate the possible association of pregnant women with paroxysmal supraventricular tachycardia (PSVT) with the possible risk for adverse birth outcomes, particularly different congenital abnormalities (CAs) in their children. Prospectively and medically recorded PSVT was evaluated in 103 pregnant women who later had offspring with CA (case group) and 149 pregnant women who later delivered newborn infants without CA (control group) and matched to cases in the population-based data set of the Hungarian Case-Control Surveillance System of Congenital Abnormalities, 1980-1996. Of 252 pregnant women with PSVT, 115 (45.6%) had the onset of this condition before the study pregnancy, that is, their PSVT was a chronic condition, while the rest (N = 137) of PSVT was considered as new onset in the study pregnancy. The comparison of occurrence of PSVT in pregnant women who had offspring with different CA groups and in control mothers showed a higher risk for cardiovascular CAs (adjusted OR with 95% CI: 2.1, 1.1-3.8) explained mainly by secundum atrial septal defect. This association was confirmed in pregnant women with PSVT in the second and/or third gestational month, that is, critical period of cardiovascular CAs. In conclusion PSVT in pregnant women associates with a higher risk of secundum atrial septal defect in their children.

  12. Outcome of Anesthesia and Open Heart Surgery in Pregnant Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Golamali Mollasadeghi

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Cardiovascular disease is an important non-obstetric cause of maternal and fetal /neonatal morbidity and mortality during pregnancy. For a pregnant woman with cardiac disease, the potential inability of the maternal cardiovascular system to contend with normal pregnancy-induced physiologic changes may produce deleterious effects on both mother and fetus. To determine the most frequent surgical indications of maternal and fetal mortality, we studied 15 cases of severe cardiac disease in pregnant women who required cardiac surgical procedures. Methods: In this descriptive study, fifteen pregnant women who underwent cardiac surgery were studied. Maternal age ranged from 27 to 36 years, and gestational age varied from 4 to 22 weeks. Most of the patients were in New York Heart Association Classes II and III. Opioid- based anesthesia with fentanyl citrate (50µ/kg or sufentanil (5µ/kg plus low dose of thiopental were used for the induction of anesthesia. During non-pulsatile cardio-pulmonary bypass, core temperature was between 28-36 °C, average CBP time was 61.2±22 min, average aortic cross-clamp time was 34.13±14 min, and mean pump pressure was maintained between 65-80 mmHg. Results: Ten patients had severe mitral valve disease (66.6%, three had aortic valve disease (20%, one had subvalvular aortic stenosis (6.7%, and the remaining one had left atrial myxoma (6.7%. There were five fetal deaths (33.3% and one maternal death (6.7%. Conclusion: It seems that open heart surgery in the first trimester is very hazardous for the fetus and may lead to fetal death. If possible, surgery should be carried out in the second trimester of pregnancy. The recommendations are simply guidelines because research data and clinical experience in this area are limited.

  13. Cholesterol cholelithiasis in pregnant women: pathogenesis, prevention and treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Bari, Ornella; Wang, Tony Y; Liu, Min; Paik, Chang-Nyol; Portincasa, Piero; Wang, David Q-H

    2014-01-01

    Epidemiological and clinical studies have found that gallstone prevalence is twice as high in women as in men at all ages in every population studied. Hormonal changes occurring during pregnancy put women at higher risk. The incidence rates of biliary sludge (a precursor to gallstones) and gallstones are up to 30 and 12%, respectively, during pregnancy and postpartum, and 1-3% of pregnant women undergo cholecystectomy due to clinical symptoms or complications within the first year postpartum. Increased estrogen levels during pregnancy induce significant metabolic changes in the hepatobiliary system, including the formation of cholesterol-supersaturated bile and sluggish gallbladder motility, two factors enhancing cholelithogenesis. The therapeutic approaches are conservative during pregnancy because of the controversial frequency of biliary disorders. In the majority of pregnant women, biliary sludge and gallstones tend to dissolve spontaneously after parturition. In some situations, however, the conditions persist and require costly therapeutic interventions. When necessary, invasive procedures such as laparoscopic cholecystectomy are relatively well tolerated, preferably during the second trimester of pregnancy or postpartum. Although laparoscopic operation is recommended for its safety, the use of drugs such as ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA) and the novel lipid-lowering compound, ezetimibe would also be considered. In this paper, we systematically review the incidence and natural history of pregnancy-related biliary sludge and gallstone formation and carefully discuss the molecular mechanisms underlying the lithogenic effect of estrogen on gallstone formation during pregnancy. We also summarize recent progress in the necessary strategies recommended for the prevention and the treatment of gallstones in pregnant women.

  14. Possibilities for the early detection of hypertensive disease in pregnant women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ye. B. Savinova

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to evaluate morphofunctional changes in the cardiovascular system of pregnant women with arterial hypertension (AH to detectchronic AH - hypertensive disease.Subjects and methods. 126 pregnant women with AH (at 28–34 weeks gestation; mean age 26.1 ± 1.7 years were examined. All the pregnantwomen underwent assessment of risk factors for AH, double measurement of office blood pressure, 24-hour blood pressure monitoring, electrocardiography, carotid ultrasonography, a microalbumin urine test, and eyeground examination. The pattern of AH was specified 12 weeks after childbirth.Results. Chronic AH – hypertensive disease – was diagnosed in 51 % of the examined pregnant women with AH. There was a considerable spread of risk factors for AH in this patient group. 26 % of them were found to have lesions of target organs (heart and/or arterial vessels; the rate of microalbuminuria registration was 41 %.Conclusion. Among our examined group of pregnant patients with AH, the prevalence of hypertensive disease is 51 %. In the identified patientgroup, cardiac and arterial vascular changes that could be considered as target organ lesions were found in almost a third of cases. Pregnant women with AH need to be meticulously examined and followed up by a therapist and a cardiologist in the postpartum period.

  15. Pathophysiological Features of Endogenous Intoxication in Pregnant Women with Arterial Hypertension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. V. Kabanova

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to determine the nature and specific features of development of endogenous intoxication in pregnant women with arterial hypertension. Subjects and materials. Humoral extracellular fluid volume regulation, partial renal functions, placental hormonal function, membranous lipid peroxidation activity, antiradical defense, the parameters of central hemodynamics, endogenous intoxication, and a biochemical coagulogram were studied and differential blood count with the leukocytic ratio indices was estimated in 172 pregnant females with arterial hypertension and 54 healthy pregnant ones in the third trimester. The statistical package «Stadia» was applied. Results. Arterial hypertension caused by pregnancy was ascertained to involve pathogenetically different types: low-, normal-, and high-renin ones. In pregnant women with arterial hypertension, the general pathogenetic homeostatic changes were placental hormonal imbalance, activated membranous lipid peroxidation, impaired lymph outflow, sodium and water retention, hepatic and renal failure, and endogenous intoxication. Conclusion. Placental ischemia appearing as placental hormonal imbalance (extrarenal pressor system was accompanied by a compensatory humoral response: arterial hypertension and metabolic disturbances. Changes in medium-weight molecule 280, leukocytic intoxication index, erythrocytic sorption capacity, and Paramecium test, by confirming the presence of endogenous intoxication in pregnant females with arterial hypertension, were caused by a type of arterial hypertension (by the hemodynamic profile and the type of impaired partial renal functions. Key words: pregnancy, arterial hypertension, endogenous intoxication.

  16. [Assessment of self-esteem in pregnant women using Rosenberg's Self-Esteem Scale].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maçola, Ligia; do Vale, Ianê Nogueira; Carmona, Elenice Valentim

    2010-09-01

    The objective of this descriptive, cross-sectional study was to evaluate the self-esteem of 127 pregnant women seen in a prenatal care program conducted in a public school hospital. Data collection was performed using the Rosenberg's Self-esteem Scale; unsatisfactory self-esteem was related to socio-demographic and health variables of the pregnant woman, and to the presence or absence of support systems. Descriptive and univariate statistical analysis were used to assess possible associations. Pregnant women who had low scores for self-esteem were 60% of all subjects. As for the sociodemographic data, women with fewer years of education presented higher frequency of lower self-esteem scores, which disagrees with other studies. Pregnant women who report having an unplanned pregnancy presented higher prevalence of low self-esteem than those who reported having planned their pregnancy. The lack of support from the partner to look after the baby was also associated to the pregnant women's low self-esteem. Other associations between variables were not statistically significant.

  17. Association between periodontitis, gestational diabetes mellitus and diabetes mellitus type 1 and 2 in pregnant women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Paschoal Esteves Lima

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Diabetes is considered a risk factor for periodontitis. However, it is possible that periodontitis induces a systemic inflammatory process which could initiate and propagate an insulin resistance. The aim of this study was to analyze the association between periodontitis, gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM, diabetes mellitus type 1 (DM 1 and diabetes mellitus type 2 (DM 2 in pregnant women. Methods: The sample consisted of studying 20 pregnant women with DM 1 or DM 2, 20 women with GDM and 40 pregnant women without any endocrinopathy. Periodontal examination included analysis of bleeding on probing (BOP, probing depth (PD and clinical attachment level (CAL. Periodontitis was defined as the presence of four or more teeth with at least one site with PD ≥ 4 mm and CAL ≥ 3 mm with BOP associated in the same site. Results: Results demonstrated an association between GDM and high maternal age, body mass index (BMI and hypertension. The prevalence of periodontitis observed was 55%, 40% and 42,5% for women with DM 1 or DM 2 (p=0,360, with GDM (p=0,853 and in the control group, respectively. Conclusions: The sample showed high prevalence of periodontitis; however, there was no significant difference between pregnant women with DM 1 or DM 2, women with GDM or pregnant women in the control group.

  18. Oral changes in pregnant and nonpregnant women: A case-control study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santosh R Patil

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The numerous changes occurring during pregnancy affect every body system, resulting in localized physical alterations in almost all parts of the body, including the oral cavity. The aim of the present study was to find the incidence of oral conditions seen particularly in the pregnant women than in the nonpregnant women. Materials and Methods: The oral health condition of 120 pregnant women referred to the outpatient department of Jodhpur Dental College General Hospital from a gynecology clinic were examined and compared with 120 nonpregnant women. The pregnant women were divided in a 3 groups of 40 each, according to the stage of pregnancy. The common oral conditions seen during pregnancy were assessed. Results: Pregnant women had a higher incidence of gingivitis and pyogenic granuloma. Gingivitis and erosion of teeth due to vomiting was seen commonly in the 3 rd trimester. The results indicated that pregnancy had an effect on the oral condition, which was mainly due to the hormonal changes seen during this period rather than other factors. Conclusion: Women planning a pregnancy or those already pregnant should be informed about the role of oral health during pregnancy and the possible outcomes of these conditions for the welfare of their foetus. They should be referred to the dental clinician for necessary counselling for preventive oral self-care and treatment, if required.

  19. Gestational Pityriasis Rosea: Suggestions for Approaching Affected Pregnant Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monastirli, Alexandra; Pasmatzi, Efstathia; Badavanis, George; Tsambaos, Dionysios

    2016-12-01

    Dear Editor, Pityriasis rosea is a common, acute, and self-limiting dermatosis, which is associated with the endogenous systemic reactivation of human herpesvirus (HHV)-6 and/or HHV-7 (1). It predominantly affects individuals of both sexes in their second or third decade of life and is clinically characterized by the occurrence of an initial erythematosquamous plaque followed by the appearance of disseminated similar but smaller lesions one or two weeks later. Several patients develop systemic symptoms such as nausea, anorexia, malaise, headache, fever, arthralgia, and lymphadenopathy that may precede or accompany the eruption; the latter follows the cleavage lines of the trunk creating the configuration of a Christmas tree and spontaneously resolves within 4 to 8 weeks. Mainly based on the nature of the underlying viral reactivation, pityriasis rosea is classified into five different forms (2): 1) Classic and 2) Relapsing (characterized by sporadic and relapsing HHV-6/7 systemic reactivation, respectively), 3) Persistent (persistence of HHV-6/7 viremia), 4) Pediatric (longer activity of HHV-6/7 infection; recent primary infection) and 5) Gestational (HHV-6/7 reactivation and possible intrauterine transmission). Clearly, the inevitable impairment of immune response in pregnancy favors viral reactivation and possibly also the intrauterine transmission of HHV-6/7. Indeed, it is well known and documented that pityriasis rosea more frequently occurs in pregnant women (18%) as compared to the general population (6%) (3). However, the literature concerning the possible effect of pityriasis rosea on the outcome of pregnancy is surprisingly sparse. Only an Italian group, Drago et al (4,5), has systematically investigated the impact of this disorder on pregnant women. They found that 22 out of 61 women (36%) who developed pityriasis rosea during pregnancy had unfavorable outcomes, whereas 8 others miscarried (13%). None of the latter had any risk factors, other than

  20. Seafood consumption among pregnant and non-pregnant women of childbearing age in the United States, NHANES 1999–2006

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hilda Razzaghi

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids found in seafood are essential for optimal neurodevelopment of the fetus. However, concerns about mercury contamination of seafood and its potential harm to the developing fetus have created uncertainty about seafood consumption for pregnant women. We compared fish and shellfish consumption patterns, as well as their predictors, among pregnant and non-pregnant women of childbearing age in the US. Methods: Data from 1,260 pregnant and 5,848 non-pregnant women aged 16–49 years from the 1999 to 2006 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES were analyzed. Frequency and type of seafood consumed and adjusted associations of multiple characteristics with seafood consumption were estimated for pregnant and non-pregnant women, separately. Time trends were also examined. Results: There were no significant differences in the prevalence of fish or shellfish consumption, separately or combined, between pregnant and non-pregnant women using either the 30-day questionnaire or the Day 1, 24-h recall. Seafood consumption was associated with higher age, income, and education among pregnant and non-pregnant women, and among fish consumers these groups were more likely to consume ≥3 servings in the past 30 days. Tuna and shrimp were the most frequently reported fish and shellfish, respectively, among both pregnant and non-pregnant women. We observed no significant time trends. Conclusion: There were no differences in seafood consumption between pregnant and non-pregnant women, and the factors related to seafood consumption were similar for both groups. Our data suggest that many women consume less than the recommended two servings of seafood a week.

  1. An unusual case of disseminated toxoplasmosis in a previously healthy pregnant patient: radiographic, CT, and MRI findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paruthikunnan, Samir; Shankar, Balasubramanyam; Kadavigere, Rajagopal; Prabhu, Mukhyaprana; Narayanan, Ramakrishna; Jain, Harshwardhan

    2014-11-01

    Toxoplasmosis is a ubiquitous protozoal infection that during pregnancy commonly affects the fetus severely, with maternal infection usually being mild self-limiting. Disseminated toxoplasmosis in a healthy pregnant woman has, to the best of our knowledge, not been reported before. We present a case of disseminated toxoplasmosis involving pulmonary, central nervous system, and lymph nodes in a pregnant woman and imaging findings on radiography, computed tomography, and magnetic resonance imaging.

  2. Drug therapy for the pregnant dental patient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendia, Jonathan; Cuddy, Michael A; Moore, Paul A

    2012-09-01

    Providing needed dental treatment, managing oral infection, and controlling pain are essential functions of dentists for helping patients maintain overall health during pregnancy. Medications commonly required for dental care consist of local anesthetics and associated vasoconstrictors, centrally and peripherally acting analgesics, sedative and anxiolytic agents, and antibiotics. Therapeutic drugs routinely used in dental practice are selected because of their known safety and effectiveness. However, for a pregnant patient requiring dental care, the agents routinely prescribed should be reevaluated for potential risks to the mother and/or fetus. The decision to administer a specific drug requires that the benefits outweigh the potential risks of the drug therapy. This article reviews and updates the recommendations for using dental therapeutic agents, thereby enabling general practitioners to select the safest drugs when treating pregnant dental patients.

  3. Iron supplementation studies among pregnant women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuizon, M D; Platon, T P; Ancheta, L P; Angeles, J C; Nunez, C B; Macapinlac, M P

    1979-12-01

    The effect of iron supplementation alone or in combination with ascorbic acid as a preventive and or corrective measure against anemia were tested using pregnant women seeking pre-natal consultation at various health centers in Greater Manila Area. One tablet containing 65 mg iron alone or in combination with ascorbic acid per day during a supplementation period which varied from 16.5 to 17.8 weeks maintained initial hemoglobin and hematocrit levels in non-anemic women. Three tablets of the same iron preparation (total of 195 mg iron) daily resulted in significant increases in hemoglobin and hematocrit in anemic women. Ascorbic acid had no apparent beneficial effect. Considering the positive response to iron treatment, it is recommended that a nationwide program of iron supplementation of pregnant Filipinos be undertaken.

  4. [Concentration of heavy metals in pregnant women].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacyszyn, K; Walas, J; Malinowski, A; Latkowski, T; Cwynar, L

    1982-01-01

    Copper, zinc, and lead concentrations were measured in two groups 72 pregnant women. Twenty-one of them, making up the control group, lived and worked in Wrocław. The other 51 women, the second group, had lived more than five years in Lubin-Polkowice and worked in the local non-ferrous metal plants. They were particularly endangered by their exposure to copper, zinc, and lead concentrations. Pregnancy was normal in all cases. Maternal blood, umbilical cord blood, placenta homogenate, and amniotic fluid were examined by techniques of atom-absorption spectrometry. The metals tested were conspicuously absorbed by placental tissue, but no danger to the pregnant women could be established.

  5. Risk profile of pregnant mothers in Kelantan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zulkifli, A; Rogayah, J; Hashim, M H; Shukri, O; Azmi, H

    1995-12-01

    A demographic and obstetric profile of pregnant mothers attending antenatal clinics in kelantan over period of one year was determined by a retrospective study of 10,032 registered pregnant mothers. The prevalence of risk factors related to the age of the mother, parity, weight, haemoglobin level, bad obstetric history and pregnancy related diseases were determined. Prevalence of teenage pregnancy and primigravida accounted for 4.3 and 17.2 percent respectively. Nearly 3.9 percent of the mothers weighed less than 40 kg and 44.5 percent of mothers were found to be anaemic (Hb less than 11g/d) at the first antenatal visit. Only 3.2 percent of the mothers did not have any designated risk factor. Previous bad obstetric history and pregnancy related disease accounted for 17.1 and 3.5 percent of mothers respectively.

  6. Psychological Empowerment Model in Iranian Pregnant Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taghipour, Ali; Sadat Borghei, Narjes; Latifnejad Roudsari, Robab; Keramat, Afsaneh; Jabbari Nooghabi, Hadi

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Background: Women’s empowerment programs during pregnancy focus primarily on increasing women’s health goals and psychological empowerment has been considered important in most issues related to pregnant mothers’ mental health. Using path analysis, this study aims to examine the direct and indirect components of psychological empowerment of pregnant mothers. Methods: This model-testing study was conducted in Gorgan, northwest of Iran during three months in spring of 2015. Through random cluster sampling, a total number of 160 pregnant women were selected from 10 urban medical centers and clinics as primary centers. We used Spritzer’s Psychological empowerment scale. Suitable sampling based on Nunally and Bernstein was followed in the model. The relationships between the dependent variables were then examined by means of path analysis using Amos 18. Results: The psychological empowerment of pregnant mothers (PEPW) model is impacted by individual factors, such as marriage age and employment, including some subjectively rated factors such as marital satisfaction and experience of violence. The PEPW model was deemed appropriate as optimum conditions indicators of goodness of fit; low index of χ2/df shows little difference between the conceptual model and observed data, while RMSEA value indicated the goodness of fit. Other indicators such as CMIN=0.957, CMIN/DF=0.957, P-CLOSE=0.418, χ2=0.957 and probability level=0.328 the fact that the model is ideal. The mothers’ employment had the highest coefficient in the PEPW path model .731 (0.443, 0.965) bootstrap confidence intervals by 95%, and with a p-value of less than 0.05. Conclusions: The mothers’ employment is the most important factor in psychological empowerment, but it cannot be addressed quickly. Programming to increase marital satisfaction followed by a decrease in family violence and prevention of early marriage are necessary for promotion of psychological empowerment during pregnancy. PMID

  7. Psychological Empowerment Model in Iranian Pregnant Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Taghipour

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Women’s empowerment programs during pregnancy focus primarily on increasing women’s health goals and psychological empowerment has been considered important in most issues related to pregnant mothers’ mental health. Using path analysis, this study aims to examine the direct and indirect components of psychological empowerment of pregnant mothers. Methods: This model-testing study was conducted in Gorgan, northwest of Iran during three months in spring of 2015. Through random cluster sampling, a total number of 160 pregnant women were selected from 10 urban medical centers and clinics as primary centers. We used Spritzer’s Psychological empowerment scale. Suitable sampling based on Nunally and Bernstein was followed in the model. The relationships between the dependent variables were then examined by means of path analysis using Amos 18. Results: The psychological empowerment of pregnant mothers (PEPW model is impacted by individual factors, such as marriage age and employment, including some subjectively rated factors such as marital satisfaction and experience of violence. The PEPW model was deemed appropriate as optimum conditions indicators of goodness of fit; low index of χ2/df shows little difference between the conceptual model and observed data, while RMSEA value indicated the goodness of fit. Other indicators such as CMIN=0.957, CMIN/DF=0.957, P-CLOSE=0.418, χ2=0.957 and probability level=0.328 the fact that the model is ideal. The mothers’ employment had the highest coefficient in the PEPW path model .731 (0.443, 0.965 bootstrap confidence intervals by 95%, and with a p-value of less than 0.05. Conclusions: The mothers’ employment is the most important factor in psychological empowerment, but it cannot be addressed quickly. Programming to increase marital satisfaction followed by a decrease in family violence and prevention of early marriage are necessary for promotion of psychological empowerment during

  8. [Pathogenic mechanisms of proatherogenic changes in pregnant women with concomitant obesity].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarasenko, K V; Mamontova, T V

    2013-12-01

    The concentration of insulin, high sensitivity C-reactive protein (CRP) and indices of lipid metabolism (concentrations of triacylglycerols, total cholesterol, cholesterol of low density lipoproteins and cholesterol of very low density lipoproteins) in women with concomitant obesity in the second trimester of pregnancy were studied. Changes of the lipid profile in the pregnant women with concomitant obesity indicate development of type IV hyperlipoproteinemia. Concentrations of insulin and CRP in the blood serum of the pregnant women with obesity were respectively 92.1% and 62.5% higher than in the control group. On the basis of literature data and our own research it was concluded that the complex of the metabolic changes (insulin resistance, dislipidemia, endothelial dysfunction, systemic inflammation) in pregnant women with obesity promotes development of proatherogenic changes.

  9. The pregnant healthcare worker: fact and fiction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynch, Laura; Spivak, Emily Sydnor

    2015-08-01

    A pregnant healthcare worker (HCW) may be at risk of occupational exposure to pathogens associated with increased maternal morbidity and mortality as well as perinatal complications. In this article, we review recent literature on infectious diseases commonly encountered in the healthcare setting and of highest concern for a pregnant HCW, focusing on prevention and management of exposures. Pregnancy does not seem to be an independent risk factor for occupationally acquired infectious diseases. Vaccination and standard precautions continue to be the most effective means of preventing transmission to HCWs. Pandemic 2009 influenza A (H1N1) is associated with increased risk of fetal death, highlighting the importance of influenza vaccination. A recent meta-analysis highlights the safety of influenza vaccination during pregnancy. New treatments for hepatitis C have not been studied in pregnancy but pose an important area for research and advancement. Cytomegalovirus immunoglobulin may play a role in postexposure prophylaxis but recent results are inconclusive. Primary prevention with vaccination and use of appropriate infection control precautions is imperative for prevention of occupationally acquired infectious diseases. Pregnant HCWs with occupational exposure to communicable diseases should be evaluated immediately for appropriate postexposure prophylaxis and followed for development of active infection.

  10. Folic acid supplementation in pregnant women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasmussen, Mikkel Mylius; Clemmensen, Dorte

    2010-01-01

    Folic acid (FA) deficiency is associated with neural tube defects (NTD). In a non-risk pregnancy, The Danish National Board of Health recommends FA supplementation from planned pregnancy until three months after conception. We explored pregnant women's knowledge about and actual supplementation with FA and related this to education, number of pregnancies and age. Eighty-four consecutive pregnant women with a midwife consultation were included in the period 25-28 August 2008. All filled in a unified questionnaire. 82% had knowledge of FA supplementation and 89% received FA supplementation. 51% followed national recommendations. We found a statistically significant correlation between higher educational level and knowledge about FA supplementation, actual supplementation of FA and FA supplementation in accordance with national recommendations. No statistical associations were found between number of pregnancies or age and any FA-related parameters. Family, friends, general practitioner (GP) and the internet were the main information sources. Correct FA supplementation is quite low; conversely, knowledge about and actual FA supplementation are fairly high. Further intervention is necessary to increase the level of correct FA supplementation. Women with a low educational level--which may herald low socio-economic status--seem to form a suitable target group for information campaigns. Multiple pregnancies or higher age should not be perceived as indicators of a higher information level. Dissemination of information to the pregnant women including family, friends, GPs or the internet is recommended.

  11. Vitamin D status and periodontal disease among pregnant and non-pregnant women in an underdeveloped district of Pakistan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Farhan R.; Ahmad, Tashfeen; Hussain, Rabia; Bhutta, Zulfiqar A.

    2016-01-01

    Aim: To compare pregnant and non-pregnant females for vitamin D level and periodontal status and to determine if there is any association between the periodontal health and hypovitaminosis D in pregnant women. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted in Jhelum, Pakistan. Participants were pregnant females at ~ 12 weeks of gestation (n = 36) and non-pregnant (n = 35) females selected from the same locality. Periodontal parameters such as probing depth, bleeding on probing, and attachment loss were recorded. Serum samples were taken to measure blood indices and vitamin D levels. Chi-square test and Odds ratio were applied to determine the association between hypovitaminosis D and periodontal status. Results: Vitamin D deficiency was common in the pregnant group compared to non-pregnant (P < 0.001). Blood indices (hemoglobin, hematocrit, mean corpuscular volume) were significantly lower among the pregnant compared to the non-pregnant group (P < 0.001). However, there was no significant difference between the two groups for probing depth and attachment loss. Conclusions: Pregnant women were more deficient in Vitamin D than non-pregnant women. However, no association between low vitamin D levels and periodontal disease was seen in the studied population. PMID:27382540

  12. PLASMA ADIPONECTIN CONCENTRATIONS IN NON PREGNANT, NORMAL PREGNANCY AND OVERWEIGHT PREGNANT WOMEN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nien, Jyh Kae; Mazaki-Tovi, Shali; Romero, Roberto; Erez, Offer; Kusanovic, Juan Pedro; Gotsch, Francesca; Pineles, Beth L.; Gomez, Ricardo; Edwin, Samuel; Mazor, Moshe; Espinoza, Jimmy; Yoon, Bo Hyun; Hassan, Sonia S.

    2008-01-01

    Aims Adiponectin is an adipokine that has anti-diabetic, anti-atherogenic, anti-inflammatory and angiogenic properties. This hormone has been implicated in both the physiological adaptation to normal pregnancy and obstetrical complications. The aims of this study were to determine normal maternal plasma concentrations of adiponectin throughout gestation and to explore the relationships between plasma adiponectin concentration, pregnancy, and maternal overweight. Study design A cross-sectional study was designed to include normal pregnant women (normal weight and overweight; 11–42 weeks of gestation), and non-pregnant women. Plasma adiponectin concentration was determined by immunoassay. Non-parametric statistics were used for analysis. Results (1) Adiponectin was detectable in the plasma of all patients; (2) there was no significant difference in the median adiponectin concentrations between pregnant and non-pregnant women; (3) plasma adiponectin concentrations were negatively correlated with gestational age only among normal weight pregnant women; and (4) overweight patients had significantly lower adiponectin concentrations than normal weight women. Conclusion Consistent with the increased insulin resistance and weight gain that occur in pregnancy, adiponectin concentrations were negatively correlated with gestational age. The results of this study and the nomogram herein presented can serve as the basis to explore the relationship between adiponectin and pregnancy complications and facilitate the clinical use of this important adipokine. Condensation Plasma adiponectin concentrations decrease with advancing gestational age only in nonobese women. PMID:17919116

  13. Disposition of stiripentol in the pregnant and non-pregnant female rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maurizis, J C; Rapp, M; Madelmont, J C; Gillardin, J M; Lepage, F; Labarre, P; Dupuy, J M; Veyre, A

    1993-12-01

    1. The disposition of stiripentol labelled with 14C and 3H on two positions has been studied in the pregnant and non-pregnant female rat after p.o. administration of a 200 mg/kg dose. 2. For both labelled species radioactivity was eliminated mainly in the faeces (69% within 72 h). Urinary excretion was rather low (22% within 72 h). No significant difference was found between the disposition of the two labelled species. 3. For both labelled species concentrations of radioactivity reached a plateau in the plasma and tissues between 1 and 6 h after administration. The liver, fat, mammary gland and adrenal gland were the most extensively-labelled organs. The affinity for the mammary gland was significantly greater in pregnant rats and for the adrenal gland was significantly greater in the non-pregnant rats. The fact that the concentration in the placenta was higher than in the foetus demonstrated that this membrane acts as a barrier for the penetration of the drug in the amniotic fluid. 4. Chromatographic analysis of the faeces and urine showed that an important portion of the dose remained unabsorbed through the gastrointestinal tract. The absorbed fraction undergoes an extensive first-pass metabolism involving mainly the oxidative cleavage of the methylenedioxy ring. Comparison with the results of other work conducted on the non-pregnant rat demonstrated that pregnancy did not affect the disposition and metabolic process.

  14. Protein turnover and 3-methylhistidine excretion in non-pregnant, pregnant and gestational diabetic women

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fitch, W.L.; King, J.C.

    1986-03-01

    Protein turnover was studied in nine non-pregnant (NP) women, eight pregnant (P) and two gestational diabetic (GDM) women. Whole body protein turnover, synthesis and catabolism rates were measured using a single oral dose of /sup 15/N-glycine followed by measurement of enrichment of urinary ammonia. Urinary 3-methylhistidine (3MH) excretion was measured for three consecutive days, including the day of the protein turnover study. Whole body protein turnover and synthesis rates did not differ between the P and NP women, although the synthesis rates tended to be higher in the P group. Gestational diabetic women appeared to have considerably higher rates of both turnover and synthesis. Pregnant women excreted significantly more urinary 3MH than did non-pregnant women. GDM women appeared to have lower 3MH excretion than the P women. Correlation between 3MH excretion and protein turnover rates was nearly significant (p = .06) in the NP women, but was poorly correlated (p = .43) in the P women, suggesting that muscles may be a less important site of whole body protein turnover in pregnancy than in the non-pregnant state.

  15. Ammonia and Mineral Losses on Dutch Organic Farms with Pregnant Sows

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ivanova-Peneva, S.G.; Aarnink, A.J.A.; Verstegen, M.W.A.

    2006-01-01

    The main objective of this study was to quantify ammonia emissions from organically raised pregnant sows and to compare them with emissions from conventional pig production. A second objective was to quantify the nutrients deposited in the paddock in organic pig grazing systems. Measurements were

  16. Differential effect of neocuproine, a copper(I) chelator, on contractile activity in isolated ovariectomized non-pregnant rat, pregnant rat and pregnant human uterus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumcu, Eda Karabal; Büyüknacar, Hacer Sinem Göktürk; Göçmen, Cemil; Evrüke, Ismail Cüneyt; Onder, Serpil

    2009-03-01

    The study was conducted to examine effects of a selective copper(I) chelator, neocuproine on the spontaneous or oxytocin-induced contractions in isolated ovariectomized non-pregnant rat, pregnant rat and pregnant human uterus. Uterus activity was evaluated in tissues obtained from bilaterally ovariectomized non-pregnant rats on the 21st day of the operation (n = 24), pregnant rats on the 19-21st day of gestation (n = 24) and women undergoing caesarean section at 38-42 weeks of pregnancy (n = 15). Neocuproine (100 microM) significantly suppressed the amplitude and frequency of the spontaneous contractions in the ovariectomized non-pregnant rat uterus while this agent facilitated the frequency of the spontaneous or oxytocin-induced contractions in the pregnant rat and human uterus without altering the amplitude of these contractions. At high concentration of 200 microM, neocuproine could enhance the amplitude of the contractions in the pregnant uterus. These effects were blocked by a purinergic receptor antagonist, suramin (100 microM) and did not occur following the administration of neocuproine-copper(I) complex or copper(II) chelator cuprizone. alpha, beta-methylene ATP increased the amplitude and frequency of contractions in the pregnant uterus, but not affected the contractions in the ovariectomized non-pregnant rat uterus, and neocuproine potentiated this facilitation effect. However, the suppressive effect of neocuproine on the ovariectomized non-pregnant rat uterus increased in the presence of alpha,beta-methylene ATP. Beta-adrenoceptor blocker, propranolol or nitric oxide synthase inhibitor, L-nitroarginine did not affect the responses to neocuproine. These findings suggest that neocuproine can affect the uterus contractile activity by modulation purinergic excitatory responses and that copper(I)-sensitive mechanisms may play a role in this effect.

  17. Correlates of anemia in pregnant women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ranjana Singh

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Anemia during pregnancy is a global public health challenge facing the world today. Prevalence of anemia in pregnancy in all the age groups is higher in India as compared to other developing countries. Objective: This study is aimed at determining the magnitude and to explore the socio-demographic and other correlates of anemia among pregnant women. Methodology: This descriptive study with cross-sectional design was conducted in a tertiary care hospital. Pregnant who were attending antenatal clinic for a period of one year were comprised the study material. Correlation between variables was analyzed using the chi-square and odd ratio. Results: Three hundred and thirty eight pregnant women were registered for the present study, whose age ranged from 16 to 45 years with a mean age of 26.08 years. Majority (81.95% participants were found to be anemic. It was observed that anemia was more prevalent in pregnant women age groups i.e. 25-29 years and 30+years i.e. 86.67% and 86.21% respectively. Anemia was 82.92% in women were belonging to Hindu and others religion and 82.24% in women having vegetarian diet. Maximum prevalence (83.93% of anemia was observed in women who were booked for antenatal care in the 3rd trimester of pregnancy. The prevalence of anemia is higher (>85% in women having parity two or more, but this association was not statistically significant. Very few (6.21% were found to be severely anemic as compared to women who were moderately anemic (43.19%. Multiple logistic regression analysis of these factors showed that possibility of anemia is less in women who belong to rural area and it is highly significant. Analysis further showed significant association between anemia and type of diet and other factors like women having parity 1 and 4. Conclusion: The prevalence of anemia amongst the pregnant participants was very high. The socio-demographic and obstetrics factors were found to be associated with anemia. To prevent

  18. Clinical malaria in African pregnant women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bardají, Azucena; Sigauque, Betuel; Bruni, Laia; Romagosa, Cleofé; Sanz, Sergi; Mabunda, Samuel; Mandomando, Inacio; Aponte, John; Sevene, Esperança; Alonso, Pedro L; Menéndez, Clara

    2008-01-30

    There is a widespread notion, based on limited information, that in areas of stable malaria transmission most pregnant women with Plasmodium falciparum infection are asymptomatic. This study aim to characterize the clinical presentation of malaria in African pregnant women and to evaluate the adequacy of case management based on clinical complaints. A hospital-based descriptive study between August 2003 and November 2005 was conducted at the maternity clinic of a rural hospital in Mozambique. All women attending the maternity clinic were invited to participate. A total of 2,330 women made 3,437 eligible visits, 3129 were analysed, the remainder were excluded because diagnostic results were unavailable or they were repeat visits. Women gave a standardized clinical history and had a medical exam. Malaria parasitaemia and haematocrit in capillary blood was determined for all women with signs or symptoms compatible with malaria including: presence and history of fever, arthromyalgias, headache, history of convulsions and pallor. Outcome measure was association of malaria symptoms or signs with positive blood slide for malaria parasitaemia. In 77.4% of visits pregnant women had symptoms suggestive of malaria; 23% (708/3129) were in the first trimester. Malaria parasitaemia was confirmed in 26.9% (842/3129) of visits. Headache, arthromyalgias and history of fever were the most common symptoms (86.5%, 74.8% and 65.4%) presented, but their positive predictive values for malaria parasitaemia were low [28% (27-30), 29% (28-31), and 33% (31-35), respectively]. Symptoms suggestive of malaria were very frequent among pregnant women attending a rural maternity clinic in an area of stable malaria transmission. However, less than a third of them were parasitaemic. In the absence of microscopy or rapid diagnostic tests, a large proportion of women, including those in the first trimester of gestation, would be unnecessarily receiving antimalarial drugs, often those with unknown

  19. Clinical malaria in African pregnant women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aponte John

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is a widespread notion, based on limited information, that in areas of stable malaria transmission most pregnant women with Plasmodium falciparum infection are asymptomatic. This study aim to characterize the clinical presentation of malaria in African pregnant women and to evaluate the adequacy of case management based on clinical complaints. Methods A hospital-based descriptive study between August 2003 and November 2005 was conducted at the maternity clinic of a rural hospital in Mozambique. All women attending the maternity clinic were invited to participate. A total of 2,330 women made 3,437 eligible visits, 3129 were analysed, the remainder were excluded because diagnostic results were unavailable or they were repeat visits. Women gave a standardized clinical history and had a medical exam. Malaria parasitaemia and haematocrit in capillary blood was determined for all women with signs or symptoms compatible with malaria including: presence and history of fever, arthromyalgias, headache, history of convulsions and pallor. Outcome measure was association of malaria symptoms or signs with positive blood slide for malaria parasitaemia. Results In 77.4% of visits pregnant women had symptoms suggestive of malaria; 23% (708/3129 were in the first trimester. Malaria parasitaemia was confirmed in 26.9% (842/3129 of visits. Headache, arthromyalgias and history of fever were the most common symptoms (86.5%, 74.8% and 65.4% presented, but their positive predictive values for malaria parasitaemia were low [28% (27–30, 29% (28–31, and 33% (31–35, respectively]. Conclusion Symptoms suggestive of malaria were very frequent among pregnant women attending a rural maternity clinic in an area of stable malaria transmission. However, less than a third of them were parasitaemic. In the absence of microscopy or rapid diagnostic tests, a large proportion of women, including those in the first trimester of gestation, would be

  20. Zika Virus Infection in Pregnant Women in Rio de Janeiro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brasil, Patrícia; Pereira, José P; Moreira, M Elisabeth; Ribeiro Nogueira, Rita M; Damasceno, Luana; Wakimoto, Mayumi; Rabello, Renata S; Valderramos, Stephanie G; Halai, Umme-Aiman; Salles, Tania S; Zin, Andrea A; Horovitz, Dafne; Daltro, Pedro; Boechat, Marcia; Raja Gabaglia, Claudia; Carvalho de Sequeira, Patrícia; Pilotto, José H; Medialdea-Carrera, Raquel; Cotrim da Cunha, Denise; Abreu de Carvalho, Liege M; Pone, Marcos; Machado Siqueira, André; Calvet, Guilherme A; Rodrigues Baião, Ana E; Neves, Elizabeth S; Nassar de Carvalho, Paulo R; Hasue, Renata H; Marschik, Peter B; Einspieler, Christa; Janzen, Carla; Cherry, James D; Bispo de Filippis, Ana M; Nielsen-Saines, Karin

    2016-12-15

    Zika virus (ZIKV) has been linked to central nervous system malformations in fetuses. To characterize the spectrum of ZIKV disease in pregnant women and infants, we followed patients in Rio de Janeiro to describe clinical manifestations in mothers and repercussions of acute ZIKV infection in infants. We enrolled pregnant women in whom a rash had developed within the previous 5 days and tested blood and urine specimens for ZIKV by reverse-transcriptase-polymerase-chain-reaction assays. We followed women prospectively to obtain data on pregnancy and infant outcomes. A total of 345 women were enrolled from September 2015 through May 2016; of these, 182 women (53%) tested positive for ZIKV in blood, urine, or both. The timing of acute ZIKV infection ranged from 6 to 39 weeks of gestation. Predominant maternal clinical features included a pruritic descending macular or maculopapular rash, arthralgias, conjunctival injection, and headache; 27% had fever (short-term and low-grade). By July 2016, a total of 134 ZIKV-affected pregnancies and 73 ZIKV-unaffected pregnancies had reached completion, with outcomes known for 125 ZIKV-affected and 61 ZIKV-unaffected pregnancies. Infection with chikungunya virus was identified in 42% of women without ZIKV infection versus 3% of women with ZIKV infection (PBrasil and others.).

  1. Dietary melatonin alters uterine artery hemodynamics in pregnant Holstein heifers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brockus, K E; Hart, C G; Gilfeather, C L; Fleming, B O; Lemley, C O

    2016-04-01

    The objective was to examine uterine artery hemodynamics and maternal serum profiles in pregnant heifers supplemented with dietary melatonin (MEL) or no supplementation (CON). In addition, melatonin receptor-mediated responses in steroid metabolism were examined using a bovine endometrial epithelial culture system. Twenty singleton pregnant Holstein heifers were supplemented with 20 mg of melatonin (n = 10) or no melatonin supplementation (control; n = 10) from days 190 to 262 of gestation. Maternal measurements were recorded on days 180 (baseline), 210, 240, and 262 of gestation. Total uterine blood flow was increased by 25% in the MEL-treated heifers compared with the CON. Concentrations of progesterone were decreased in MEL vs CON heifers. Total serum antioxidant capacity was increased by 43% in MEL-treated heifers when compared with CON. Activity of cytochrome P450 1A, 2C, and superoxide dismutase was increased in bovine endometrial epithelial cells treated with melatonin, whereas the melatonin receptor antagonist, luzindole, negated the increase in cytochrome P450 2C activity. Moreover, estradiol or progesterone treatment altered bovine uterine melatonin receptor expression, which could potentiate the melatonin-mediated responses during late gestation. The observed increase in total uterine blood flow during melatonin supplementation could be related to its antioxidant properties. Compromised pregnancies are typically accompanied by increased oxidative stress; therefore, melatonin could serve as a therapeutic supplementation strategy. This could lead to further fetal programming implications in conjunction with offspring growth and development postnatally.

  2. Effects of family doctor responsibility system on metabolic syndrome in pregnant women in community%家庭医生责任制管理对社区代谢综合征孕妇治疗效果的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何玉冰; 蔡仲仁

    2012-01-01

    目的 评估家庭医生责任制管理对社区代谢综合征孕妇治疗效果的影响.方法 将入选的60例代谢综合征孕妇随机分为观察组和对照组,每组各30例.对照组实施常规诊疗,观察组在接受常规诊疗的同时实施家庭医生责任制管理,治疗10周后观察两组代谢综合征各组成成分的变化.结果 治疗10周后对照组和观察组患者症状均有所改善,BMI、血压、血糖和血脂水平等代谢综合征组成成分均明显降低,观察组改善较对照组更明显(P<0.05).结论 运用家庭医生责任制对社区代谢综合征孕妇进行管理,可取得较好的治疗效果.%Objective To study the effect of family doctor on metabolic syndrome in pregnant women in community. Methods Sixty pregnant women with metabolic syndrome in community were randomly divided into the study group and the control group, with 30 patients in each group. Routine diagnosis and treatment were used for patients in the control group, while the family doctor responsibility system was applied for patients in the study group based on routine diagnosis and treatment Then the changes in the components of metabolic syndrome were detected 10 weeks after treatment Results The components of metabolic syndrome unproved 10 weeks after treatment in both the study group and the control group, with lower levels of BMT, blood pressure, blood sugar, and blood lipids. The improvement in the study group was significantly better than that in the control group (P<0.05). Conclusion The application of family doctor responsibility system can achieve good effects in the management of metabolic syndrome in pregnant women in community.

  3. Runaway and pregnant: risk factors associated with pregnancy in a national sample of runaway/homeless female adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Sanna J; Bender, Kimberly A; Lewis, Carol M; Watkins, Rita

    2008-08-01

    Homeless youth are at particularly high risk for teen pregnancy; research indicates as many as 20% of homeless young women become pregnant. These pregnant and homeless teens lack financial resources and adequate health care, resulting in increased risk for low-birth-weight babies and high infant mortality. This study investigated individual and family-level predictors of teen pregnancy among a national sample of runaway/homeless youth in order to better understand the needs of this vulnerable population. Data from the Runaway/Homeless Youth Management Information System (RHY MIS) provided a national sample of youth seeking services at crisis shelters. A sub-sample of pregnant females and a random sub-sample (matched by age) of nonpregnant females comprised the study sample (N = 951). Chi-square and t tests identified differences between pregnant and nonpregnant runaway females; maximum likelihood logistic regression identified individual and family-level predictors of teen pregnancy. Teen pregnancy was associated with being an ethnic minority, dropping out of school, being away from home for longer periods of time, having a sexually transmitted disease, and feeling abandoned by one's family. Family factors, such as living in a single parent household and experiencing emotional abuse by one's mother, increased the odds of a teen being pregnant. The complex problems associated with pregnant runaway/homeless teens create challenges for short-term shelter services. Suggestions are made for extending shelter services to include referrals and coordination with teen parenting programs and other systems of care.

  4. Population pharmacokinetics of artesunate and dihydroartemisinin in pregnant and non-pregnant women with malaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bose Carl

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The World Health Organization endorses the use of artemisinin-based combination therapy for treatment of acute uncomplicated falciparum malaria in the second and third trimesters of pregnancy. However, the effects of pregnancy on the pharmacokinetics of artemisinin derivatives, such as artesunate (AS, are poorly understood. In this analysis, the population pharmacokinetics of oral AS, and its active metabolite dihydroartemisinin (DHA, were studied in pregnant and non-pregnant women at the Kingasani Maternity Clinic in the DRC. Methods Data were obtained from 26 pregnant women in the second (22 - 26 weeks or the third (32 - 36 weeks trimester of pregnancy and from 25 non-pregnant female controls. All subjects received 200 mg AS. Plasma AS and DHA were measured using a validated LC-MS method. Estimates for pharmacokinetic and variability parameters were obtained through nonlinear mixed effects modelling. Results A simultaneous parent-metabolite model was developed consisting of mixed zero-order, lagged first-order absorption of AS, a one-compartment model for AS, and a one-compartment model for DHA. Complete conversion of AS to DHA was assumed. The model displayed satisfactory goodness-of-fit, stability, and predictive ability. Apparent clearance (CL/F and volume of distribution (V/F estimates, with 95% bootstrap confidence intervals, were as follows: 195 L (139-285 L for AS V/F, 895 L/h (788-1045 L/h for AS CL/F, 91.4 L (78.5-109 L for DHA V/F, and 64.0 L/h (55.1-75.2 L/h for DHA CL/F. The effect of pregnancy on DHA CL/F was determined to be significant, with a pregnancy-associated increase in DHA CL/F of 42.3% (19.7 - 72.3%. Conclusions In this analysis, pharmacokinetic modelling suggests that pregnant women have accelerated DHA clearance compared to non-pregnant women receiving orally administered AS. These findings, in conjunction with a previous non-compartmental analysis of the modelled data, provide further evidence that

  5. [Prevalence of malaria in Dakar, Senegal. Comparative study of the plasmodial indices in pregnant and non-pregnant women].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diallo, S; Ndir, O; Dieng, Y; Ba, F D; Bah, I B; Diop, B M; Gaye, O; Dieng, T

    1995-01-01

    The comparison of the prevalence of malaria in pregnant and non pregnant women living in Dakar has interested 1819 women among whom 950 pregnant and 869 non pregnant. For all the examined women, the global plasmoidic index was 2.6% and the gametocytic index 0.1%. Plasmodium falciparum was the only observed species. According to the obtained results, pregnant women, with a plasmoidic index of 4.5% are more often parasited than the non pregnant women, only affected in a proportion of 0.5% Whatever the age, the number of previous pregnancy, the place of residence, the duration of the stay in Dakar may be, the pregnant women are always more often parasited than the non pregnant women and the registered differences are statistically significant. That situation could come from a greater receptivity of the pregnant women what is admitted by some authors. But a more important proportion of natives from rural area was observed among the pregnant women, from where a difference in the exposure to the risk of impaludation between the two groups that could explain the registered results. The global plasmoidic index of 2.6% obtained in the examined women, reflects well the present situation of the malaria endemy in Dakar, a weak hypo-endemic area.

  6. Oxidative stress and mitochondrial dysfunction in infected pregnant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Нана Мерабівна Пасієшвілі

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The infected pregnant women have been various perinatal complications. The aim of the work was to clarify the role of oxidative stress and mitochondrial dysfunction in the development of perinatal complications in infected pregnant.Methods. The study included 68 pregnant women with signs of maternal-fetal infection (MFI and 30 pregnant women who were found infected (control group. Later pregnant with MFI were divided into 2 groups: the first included 30 women who received traditional antibacterial and antiviral therapy, the second group consisted of 28 women who were additionally given an immunomodulator in combination with ozone therapy.Results. During pregnancy with MFI it is characterized the thrombophilic disorders, break immune homeostasis pregnant, endothelial dysfunction, which adversely affects perinatal indicators.Conclusions. The use of immunomodulators and ozone therapy in the complex treatment of MFI is pathogenetically substantiated effective treatment of oxidative stress and mitochondrial toxicity in the prevention of perinatal complications in infected women

  7. Prevalence of HIV and anemia among pregnant women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bankole Henry Oladeinde

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV prevalence is high among rural dwellers and pregnant women. Aims: This study aims to determine the prevalence of HIV and anemia among pregnant women attending antenatal clinic in rural community of Okada, Edo State, Nigeria. Patients and Methods: Anticoagulated blood and sera samples were obtained from 480 women consisting of 292 pregnant and 188 non-pregnant women. Antibodies to HIV were detected in the sera samples and hemoglobin concentration of the anticoagulated blood specimens were determined using standard techniques. Anemia was defined as hemoglobin concentration <11g/dl for pregnant women and <12g/dl for non-pregnant women. Results: Pregnancy was not a risk factor for acquiring HIV infection (pregnant vs. non-pregnant: 10.2% vs. 13.8%; OR=0.713, 95% CI=0.407, 1.259, P = 0.247. The prevalence of HIV was significantly (P = 0.005 and P = 0.025 higher in the age group 10-20 years and 21 - 30 years among pregnant and non-pregnant women respectively. Pregnancy was a risk factor for acquiring anemia (OR=1.717, 95% CI=1.179, 2.500, P = 0.006. Only the age of pregnant women significantly (P = 0.004 affected the prevalence of anemia inversely. Conclusion: The prevalence of HIV and anemia among pregnant women were 10.2% and 49.3% respectively. Pregnancy was associated with anemia. Interventions by appropriate agencies are advocated to reduce associated sequelae.

  8. Potentiation of the hypotensive effect of adrenomedullin in pregnant rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makino, I; Shibata, K; Makino, Y; Kangawa, K; Kawarabayashi, T

    1999-12-03

    The hypotensive effect of adrenomedullin, a potent vasodilator peptide, was examined in conscious pregnant (6, 13 and 20 days of pregnancy) and non-pregnant rats. The intravenous administration of adrenomedullin (0.01-3.0 nmol/kg) produced a dose-dependent depressor response in pregnant and non-pregnant rats. At low doses (0.01-0.1 nmol/kg), the maximum decrease in blood pressure was significantly higher in pregnant rats (20 days pregnant) than in non-pregnant rats. At high doses, no significant difference was observed between the two groups. Furthermore, the administration of adrenomedullin did not significantly affect the basal mean blood pressure (MBP) at any dose when compared to the non-pregnant group at 6 and 13 days of pregnancy. In the ovariectomized rats, the depressor responses in 17beta-estradiol-treated, progesterone-treated and 17beta-estradiol+progesterone-treated rats were not significantly different from that in the control rats, suggesting that the augmented effect on the depressor response to adrenomedullin in pregnant rats may not be due to hormonal changes during pregnancy. The adrenomedullin receptor mRNA level of the descending thoracic aorta was significantly higher in the late-pregnancy rats (20 days of pregnancy). However, the levels did not show any difference between the early-pregnant rats (6 and 13 days of pregnancy) and the non-pregnant rats. These findings suggested that the changes in the depressor response to adrenomedullin which occur at term in pregnant rats may be mediated by changes of adrenomedullin receptor gene expression rather than by sex hormones.

  9. Food safety: correct information for pregnant women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Ausilia Grassi

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available This study was aimed at investigating the knowledge of pregnant women on food safety with particular attention to the effectiveness of the informative material (pamphlet and poster prepared in a previous study. To this scope, a questionnaire composed by 8 questions (Likert scaled was used except for one which was a Y/N question. Themes of the questionnaire were: level of concerns on food safety, and knowledge on foodborne diseases (salomonellosis, toxoplasmosis and listeriosis, risk factors and preventive measures. Results indicate that knowledge increased in respect to that of the previous study, but in relation to informative material previously distributed.

  10. Smoking in Rural and Underserved Pregnant Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Handley, Marilyn Cooper; Avery, Daniel M

    2015-09-01

    This article reviews the persistent problem of smoking, especially as it relates to the rural and underserved population. The negative effects of smoking and disparities in health that occur as a result are highlighted. The article reviews the general state of smoking in the United States and discusses health-related issues and concerns of individuals who continue to smoke. The report explores individuals' rationale for smoking, barriers to cessation, and general knowledge related to the outcomes of smoking during pregnancy. The conclusions highlight the need for providers to provide information and interventions to reduce the smoking rates of pregnant women.

  11. Assessment of Macular Peripapillary Nerve Fiber Layer and Choroidal Thickness Changes in Pregnant Women with Gestational Diabetes Mellitus, Healthy Pregnant Women, and Healthy Non-Pregnant Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acmaz, Gokhan; Atas, Mustafa; Gulhan, Ahmet; Acmaz, Banu; Atas, Fatma; Aksoy, Huseyin; Zararsiz, Gokmen; Gokce, Gokcen

    2015-06-18

    Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) is a risk factor for the development of type II diabetes and it causes maternal and child morbidity. Screening for diabetic retinopathy (DR) is important because patients who develop DR have no symptoms until macular edema and/or proliferative diabetic retinopathy (PDR) are already present. The aim of this study was to determine the early retinal findings of GDM. This study was conducted in a tertiary research center. We conducted a prospective cross-sectional study with 3 groups: Group 1 consisted of 36 pregnant women with GDM, Group 2 consisted of 24 healthy pregnant women, and Group 3 consisted of 38 healthy non-pregnant women of reproductive age. Spectralis optical coherence tomography (OCT) was used for the assessment. Macular, choroid, and retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) thicknesses were evaluated in patients with GDM and comparisons were made among pregnant women with GDM, healthy pregnant women, and healthy non-pregnant women for these parameters. The nasal part of the RNFL was significantly thinner in the GDM group than in the healthy pregnant group. None of the patients had retinopathy or macular edema at the time of examination. Decreased nasal part of RNFL thickness may be the first retinal change in patients with GDM. Our study suggests that OCT should be performed for the patients with GDM for detection of early retinal changes associated with GDM.

  12. Domestic violence against pregnant women in iran.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mansoureh Jamshidimanesh

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available To determine the relationship between preterm birth and domestic violence against pregnant women in Iran.This cross-sectional study was carried out on 600 women who were hospitalized for giving birth in one of hospitals affiliated to Tehran Medical Science University in Iran, between September 9, 2010 and December 30, 2010. This study was approved by the Research Ethics Committee affiliated with Tehran University, Iran. We applied Abuse Assessment Screen (AAS Questionnaire.A total of 338 participants (56.3% declared to experience domestic violence during pregnancy. Psychological violence was the most common form of violence against these women in postpartum (51.3%, and followed by physical violence (5%. Prevalence rate of premature labor was 37.7% among all women in this study which 63.3% of this rate belongs to abuse women.It is noted that healthcare providers with screening violence during pregnancy and assessing the prevalence, consequences, and possible interventions may help to reduce domestic violence against pregnant women.

  13. Pregnant women become insensitive to cold stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Glover Vivette

    2002-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The function of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA axis is known to be altered during pregnancy, but it has not been tested with a natural stressor. Methods A group of pregnant women (n = 10 were tested towards the end of pregnancy (mean 36.8 ± 2.5 weeks gestation and about 8 weeks postpartum (mean 7.8 ± 1.5 weeks, together with a matched control group, with a one minute cold hand stressor test. Saliva samples were collected before and 10 and 20 minutes after the test, and stored for later radioimmunoassay of cortisol. Results The control group showed a highly significant response to the test. The pregnant group showed no response, and the postpartum group a variable but non significant one Conclusions This shows that the HPA axis becomes hypofunctional to a natural stressor at the end of pregnancy. It is suggested that one possible evolutionary function for this is to protect the fetus from the stress responses of the mother.

  14. Acute kidney injury in the pregnant patient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nwoko, Rosemary; Plecas, Darko; Garovic, Vesna D

    2012-12-01

    Acute kidney injury (AKI) is costly and is associated with increased mortality and morbidity. An understanding of the renal physiologic changes that occur during pregnancy is essential for proper evaluation, diagnosis, and management of AKI. As in the general population, AKI can occur from prerenal, intrinsic, and post-renal causes. Major causes of pre-renal azotemia include hyperemesis gravidarum and uterine hemorrhage in the setting of placental abruption. Intrinsic etiologies include infections from acute pyelonephritis and septic abortion, bilateral cortical necrosis, and acute tubular necrosis. Particular attention should be paid to specific conditions that lead to AKI during the second and third trimesters, such as preeclampsia, HELLP syndrome, acute fatty liver of pregnancy, and TTP-HUS. For each of these disorders, delivery of the fetus is the recommended therapeutic option, with additional therapies indicated for each specific disease entity. An understanding of the various etiologies of AKI in the pregnant patient is key to the appropriate clinical management, prevention of adverse maternal outcomes, and safe delivery of the fetus. In pregnant women with pre-existing kidney disease, the degree of renal dysfunction is the major determining factor of pregnancy outcomes, which may further be complicated by a prior history of hypertension.

  15. Comparing Smoking Topography and Subjective Measures of Usual Brand Cigarettes Between Pregnant and Non-Pregnant Smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergeria, Cecilia L; Heil, Sarah H; Bunn, Janice Y; Sigmon, Stacey C; Higgins, Stephen T

    2017-06-27

    Most pregnant smokers report abruptly reducing their cigarettes per day (CPD) by ~50% after learning of pregnancy and making further smaller reductions over the remainder of their pregnancy. Laboratory and naturalistic studies with non-pregnant smokers have found that these types of reductions often lead to changes in smoking topography (i.e., changes in smoking intensity to maintain a desired blood-nicotine level). If pregnant women smoke more intensely, they may expose themselves and their offspring to similar levels of toxicants despite reporting reductions in CPD. Pregnant and non-pregnant female smokers (n = 20 and 89, respectively) participated. At the experimental session, after biochemical confirmation of acute abstinence, participants smoked one usual brand cigarette ad lib through a Borgwaldt CReSS Desktop Smoking Topography device. Carbon monoxide (CO) and measures of nicotine withdrawal, craving, and reinforcement derived from smoking were also collected. The two groups did not differ on demographic or smoking characteristics at screening, except nicotine metabolism rate, which as expected, was faster in pregnant smokers. Analyses suggest that none of the smoking topography parameters differed between pregnant and non-pregnant smokers, although pregnant smokers had a significantly smaller CO boost. Both groups reported similar levels of relief of withdrawal and craving after smoking, but other subjective effects suggest that pregnant smokers find smoking less reinforcing than non-pregnant smokers. Pregnant smokers do not smoke cigarettes differently than non-pregnant women, but appear to find smoking comparatively less pleasurable. This is the first study to assess smoking topography in pregnant women. Pregnant women appear to be at increased risk for smoking cigarettes with more intensity because of (1) their tendency to make significant abrupt reductions in the number of cigarettes they smoke each day after learning of pregnancy and (2) an increase in

  16. Determination of a saliva cotinine cut-off to distinguish pregnant smokers from pregnant non-smokers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hegaard, Hanne K; Kjaergaard, Hanne; Møller, Lars F

    2007-01-01

    Objective validation of smoking status is necessary. Earlier studies have used saliva cotinine concentrations between 14.2 and 30 ng/ml as cut-off values to distinguish pregnant smokers from non-smokers. However, these cut-offs derive from studies including men and non-pregnant women. This consti......Objective validation of smoking status is necessary. Earlier studies have used saliva cotinine concentrations between 14.2 and 30 ng/ml as cut-off values to distinguish pregnant smokers from non-smokers. However, these cut-offs derive from studies including men and non-pregnant women...

  17. Preventive behavior for toxoplasmosis in pregnant adolescents in the state of Ceara, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Costa Fabianne

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background When toxoplasmosis is acquired during pregnancy, it can be transmitted to the fetus causing severe lesions in the first two gestational trimesters. This study analyzed the main factors associated with the preventive behavior for toxoplasmosis among pregnant adolescents in the city of Fortaleza in northeast Brazil. Methods It is a cross-sectional study conducted from March 2009 to November 2010, with a sample of 320 pregnant adolescents, ages ranging from 12 to 19 years old, receiving prenatal care in the Public Health Care System. Bivariate and multivariate logistic regression model analyses were used to identify the association between preventive behavior for toxoplasmosis, and the independent variables and 95% confidence interval. Results We observed that 16.3% of the pregnant adolescents showed preventive behavior for toxoplasmosis. The factors positively associated to the preventive behavior for toxoplasmosis were: age group between 12 and 14 years old (OR = 2.75; 95%CI 1.23-6.12 and more than two prenatal consultations (OR = 2.19; 95%CI 1.17-4.09. Conclusions Noteworthy is the importance of a serologic follow-up for pregnant adolescents with clearer and more precise information about risk factors and the importance of adopting preventive behaviors. Thus, it is necessary to establish educational measures for handling food and raising kittens during prenatal care.

  18. Metabolic Disturbances in Obese Pregnant Residents of an Industrial Region (The Urals, Russia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kovalchuk Liudmila Akhmetovna

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: We sought to investigate the presence of metabolic disturbances in obese pregnant women living in an industrial city in Russia. Methods: We retrospectively analyzed the ambulatory cards of 96 pregnant women with alimentary obesity (aged 23–34, their birth history, and their newborn development history (anamnesis. Results: Sixty-two percent of women had obstetric and gynecological complications. Pregnancy complications (gestational diabetes, risk of pregnancy interruption, toxicosis in the first half gestation, gestosis were experienced in 36% of women. Increased glucose in the blood was accompanied by higher concentrations of atherogenic components (i.e., triglycerides and low density lipoproteins (LDL. The imbalance of metabolic processes in the homeostatic system of pregnant obese women (total protein: 50.4 g/L, cholesterol: 6.1 mmol/L, LDL: 4.1 mmol//L, high density lipoproteins (HDL: 0.85 mmol/L, triglycerides: 3.5 mmol/L, glucose: 7.0 mmol/L formed a pathogenic link in the development of obesity. Conclusions: Increased glucose and atherogenic lipid profile and decreased protein levels in the blood promote the processes of the adiposity in women and aggravate the pathological processes of gestation and the postnatal period. Pregnant obese women of reproductive age form a group at high risk of developing complications during gestation and parturition. Obesity is not a contraindication for pregnancy, although the risk of complications is great.

  19. Influence of physical activity and different sensory conditions on static and dynamic balance of pregnant women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanessa Patrícia Soares de Sousa

    Full Text Available Abstract BACKGROUND Physical activity during pregnancy provides countless benefits to pregnant women and results in a smaller number of falls during pregnancy. Thus, this study aims to verify the influence of physical activity and test conditions on the static and dynamic balance of pregnant women. METHODOLOGY The study was an analytical, transversal, and comparative study with a sample of 99 pregnant women divided into two groups, with physical activity as the grouping factor. The evaluation included questions about the type and frequency of physical activity and investigation of postural balance (Balance Master System(r. For statistical analysis, we used the following tests: Shapiro Wilk, Mann-Whitney, ANOVA One Way and Wilcoxon. RESULTS No relationship was found between physical activity and postural balance (F > 0.40, P > 0.07. However, the test conditions alter the sway velocity (P = 0.001 and directional control movement (P = 0.001. CONCLUSIONS Results suggest that: (1 physical activity does not influence variables related to postural balance in active and sedentary pregnant women; and (2 postural sway velocity and directional control of movement are related to the test conditions used during balance evaluation.

  20. Cigarette exposure induces changes in maternal vascular function in a pregnant mouse model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gandley, Robin E; Jeyabalan, Arun; Desai, Ketaki; McGonigal, Stacy; Rohland, Jennifer; DeLoia, Julie A

    2010-05-01

    Smoking is associated with multiple adverse pregnancy outcomes, including fetal growth restriction. The objective of this study was to determine whether cigarette smoke exposure during pregnancy in a mouse model affects the functional properties of maternal uterine, mesenteric, and renal arteries as a possible mechanism for growth restriction. C57Bl/CJ mice were exposed to whole body sidestream smoke for 4 h/day. Smoke particle exposure was increased from day 4 of gestation until late pregnancy (day 16-19), with mean total suspended particle levels of 63 mg/m(3), representative of moderate-to-heavy smoking in humans. Uterine, mesenteric, and renal arteries from late-pregnant and virgin mice were isolated and studied in a pressure-arteriograph system (n = 23). Plasma cotinine was measured by ELISA. Fetal weights were significantly reduced in smoke-exposed compared with control fetuses (0.88 +/- 0.1 vs. 1.0 +/- 0.08 g, P pregnant mice exposed to cigarette smoke during gestation. This difference was not apparent in isolated renal arteries from pregnant mice exposed to cigarette smoke; however, relaxation was significantly reduced in renal arteries from smoke-exposed virgin mice. In conclusion, we found that passive cigarette smoke exposure is associated with impaired vascular relaxation of uterine and mesenteric arteries in pregnant mice. Functional maternal vascular perturbations during pregnancy, specifically impaired peripheral and uterine vasodilation, may contribute to a mechanism by which smoking results in fetal growth restriction.

  1. Volume regulatory hormones and plasma volume in pregnant women with sickle cell disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bosede B Afolabi

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Sickle cell disease (haemoglobin SS (HbSS mainly affects those of West African origin and is associated with hypervolaemia. Plasma volume rises by up to 50% in normal pregnancy but was previously found to be paradoxically contracted in late sickle cell pregnancy. The renin–angiotensin–aldosterone system is activated very early in human pregnancy to support the plasma volume expansion. We hypothesised that activation of the renin–angiotensin–aldosterone system would be blunted in pregnant women with sickle cell disease. Materials and methods: We measured plasma volume and concentrations of plasma renin, angiotensinogen, aldosterone and other volume-related hormones in a cross-sectional study of pregnant and non-pregnant Nigerian women with HbSS or HbAA. Results: Plasma volume was higher in non-pregnant HbSS than HbAA women, but had not risen by 16 weeks, unlike plasma volume in HbAA women. The concentration of plasma renin also rose significantly less by 16 weeks in HbSS; angiotensinogen and aldosterone concentrations increased. Conclusions: The lower plasma renin concentration at 16 weeks with HbSS could be either primary or secondary to vasoconstriction related to inadequate vasodilator activity. The contracted plasma volume might then stimulate aldosterone synthesis by non-angiotensin II dependent stimulation. Studies of vasodilators such as nitric oxide, vasodilator eicosanoids or the PlGF/VEGF/sFlT-1 axis in pregnant HbSS and HbAA women will test this hypothesis.

  2. Zika and Pregnancy: What Pregnant Women Need to Know

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2016-06-13

    As a pregnant woman, you may have questions about Zika. Learn more about what Zika is, what it means for pregnant women, and how you can protect your pregnancy.  Created: 6/13/2016 by National Center on Birth Defects and Developmental Disabilities (NCBDDD).   Date Released: 6/13/2016.

  3. First results of the nationwide pregnant register in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Puijenbroek, Eugene; Vorstenbosch, Saskia; Kant, Agnes

    2014-01-01

    Background: At the time of marketing, knowledge on the safety of the use of drugs during pregnancy is still limited, as pregnant women are not included in pre-marketing research. Also after marketing, collecting information on drug use during pregnancy can be bothersome. In 2013 the pREGnant project

  4. Prevalence of group B Streptococcus colonization among pregnant ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    admin

    to analyze related risk factors among pregnant women attending the ... Clinical and laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI) by disk diffusion method. ... colonization rate in pregnant women and to consider the use of intra-partum antibiotics prophylaxis for prevention of ... labor to women at risk of transmitting GBS to their.

  5. Pregnant teens in prison. Prevalence, management, and consequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breuner, C C; Farrow, J A

    1995-04-01

    To estimate the number of pregnant and parenting teens currently incarcerated and to assess the correctional health care and social services provided to this target population, we surveyed 430 juvenile detention and long-term correctional facilities in the United States that incarcerate adolescent girls. Of these, 261 (61%) institutions responded and are included in the analysis. Of these facilities, 68% estimated that they were holding 1 to 5 pregnant adolescents on a given day, with a reported yearly (September 1991 to September 1992) census of 2,000 pregnant teenagers and 1,200 teenaged mothers. Nearly half of the facilities (45%) continue to incarcerate after it is determined that a youth is pregnant. Of those institutions that incarcerate pregnant adolescents, 31% provide no prenatal services and 70% provide no parenting classes. Of these facilities, 60% reported at least 1 obstetric complication in their pregnant population. A substantial number of pregnant and parenting adolescents are in custody in the United States. General community standards of health and social services for pregnant and parenting teenagers are not being met by the institutions that incarcerate them.

  6. Histories of Child Maltreatment and Psychiatric Disorder in Pregnant Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romano, Elisa; Zoccolillo, Mark; Paquette, Daniel

    2006-01-01

    Objective: The study investigated histories of child maltreatment and psychiatric disorder in a high-risk sample of pregnant adolescents. Method: Cross-sectional data were obtained for 252 pregnant adolescents from high school, hospital, and group home settings in Montreal (Canada). Adolescents completed a child maltreatment questionnaire and a…

  7. Pregnant? Drugs and Alcohol Can Hurt Your Unborn Baby.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Department of Agriculture, Washington, DC.

    This brochure, directed towards pregnant women, describes the dangers of alcohol, street drugs, smoking, and prescription drugs or over-the-counter medicines. It presents a story (in the mother's words) of a woman who took drugs to get high while pregnant and the ill effects on her son. The brochure claims being drug free means being a better…

  8. Silver nanoparticles cause complications in pregnant mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang XF

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Xi-Feng Zhang,1,2 Jung-Hyun Park,1 Yun-Jung Choi,1 Min-Hee Kang,1 Sangiliyandi Gurunathan,1 Jin-Hoi Kim11Department of Animal Biotechnology, Konkuk University, Seoul, Republic of Korea; 2College of Biological and Pharmaceutical Engineering, Wuhan Polytechnic University, Wuhan, People’s Republic of ChinaBackground: Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs have attracted much interest and have been used for antibacterial, antifungal, anticancer, and antiangiogenic applications because of their unique properties. The increased usage of AgNPs leads to a potential hazard to human health. However, the potential effects of AgNPs on animal models are not clear. This study was designed to investigate the potential impact of AgNPs on pregnant mice.Methods: The synthesis of AgNPs was performed using culture extracts of Bacillus cereus. The synthesized AgNPs were characterized by X-ray diffraction, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, and transmission electron microscopy. AgNPs were administrated into pregnant mice via intravenous infusion at 1.0 mg/kg doses at 6.5 days postcoitum (dpc. At 13.5, 15.5, and 17.5 dpc, the pregnant mice were euthanized, and the embryo and placenta were isolated. The meiotic status of oocytes was evaluated. DNA methylation studies were performed, and aberrant imprinting disrupted fetal, placental, and postnatal development. Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction analysis and Western blot were used to analyze various gene expressions.Results: The synthesized AgNPs were uniformly distributed and were spherical in shape with an average size of 8 nm. AgNPs exposure increased the meiotic progression of female germ cells in the fetal mouse ovaries, and maternal AgNP exposure significantly disrupted imprinted gene expression in 15.5 dpc embryos and placentas, such as Ascl2, Snrpn, Kcnq1ot1, Peg3, Zac1, H19, Igf2r, and Igf2; DNA methylation studies revealed that AgNPs exposure significantly altered the methylation levels of

  9. 45 CFR 46.204 - Research involving pregnant women or fetuses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... benefit to the pregnant woman, the prospect of a direct benefit both to the pregnant woman and the fetus... the fetus then the consent of the pregnant woman and the father is obtained in accord with...

  10. The expectations of pregnant women regarding antenatal care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathibe-Neke, J M

    2008-09-01

    From a feminist perspective, research on childbirth and women's health is a means to a positive change that is conducted in partnership with women for their benefit. A patient-led National Health System (NHS) (Hillan, 1999) also calls for consultation with patients and the wider public for shaping the current and future health services. This study was aimed at exploring and describing the expectations that pregnant women have regarding antenatal care service by the midwife practitioner. In-depth interviews were conducted in an antenatal unit of an Academic Hospital in Gauteng Povince. Data saturation was reached with a sample of eighteen pregnant women who were conveniently selected. Data analysis ran concurrently with data collection. A manual content analysis as described by Tesch was used. Lincoln and Guba's method of ensuring trustworthiness was adopted (Lincoln & Guba, 1985:328) Literature was undertaken to compare the findings of this study with those of other previous studies. Women displayed several common expectations that led to the saturation of data. It also became apparent from the findings that each woman had varied expectations. There were also some commonalities within the women's expectations. Health care, as the major expectation and a basic human right, appeared to be basically fulfilled, with the exception of interactional characteristics such as the communication of information, guidance, involvement, the understanding and explanation of aspects, freedom of choice, punctuality, individualized care and continuity of care. The conclusions that were reached let to recommendations for nursing practice, education, research and the formulation of guidelines for the midwife practitioner for the implementation of effective antenatal care, based on the identified expectations.

  11. Connectedness of pregnant adolescents who smoke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albrecht, Susan A; Reynolds, Maureen D; Cornelius, Marie D; Heidinger, Joely; Armfield, Caroline

    2002-01-01

    To examine the relationship of the constructs from the family and school environments and protective individual characteristics to health risk behaviors among pregnant adolescents who smoke. Inner-city adolescents (N = 53), aged 14-19 years, who were participating in a smoking cessation intervention program, completed self-report demographic, social, and behavioral questionnaires. Independent variables included family connectedness, school connectedness, and individual characteristics of religiosity, self-esteem, and grade-point average. Three areas of health risk behavior were dependent variables: delinquent behavior, substance, and precocious sexual behavior. Positive self-esteem served as a protectivefactorfor alcohol use. In contrast to past studies, school connectedness was a risk, not a protective, factor for substance abuse. Neither school nor family connectedness were protective against delinquent or precocious sexual behavior.

  12. Toluene depresses plasma corticosterone in pregnant rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hougaard, Karin S; Hansen, Åse Marie; Hass, Ulla

    2003-01-01

    Combined exposure to stressors and chemicals may result in synergistic effects. The effects of prenatal exposure to the organic solvent toluene resemble those observed in offspring of gestationally stressed dams, a possible common mechanism being transfer of stress-/toluene-induced increments...... of corticosteroids from the maternal to the foetal compartment. Pregnant rats were subjected to either 1500 ppm toluene 6 hr/day and/or a schedule of "Chronic mild stress" during the last two weeks of gestation. Exposure to toluene was associated with reduced birth weight and lower maternal weight gain, the latter...... being enhanced by maternal stress. A depressant effect of toluene on maternal corticosterone was observed, hence the study does not provide immediate evidence that transfer of elevated levels of corticosterone from the maternal to the foetal compartment mediates the effects of prenatal exposure...

  13. Obstetricians and the rights of pregnant women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minkoff, Howard; Paltrow, Lynn M

    2007-05-01

    At times, obstetricians are called upon to assist pregnant women in making clinical choices between options that may selectively disadvantage either the mother or the fetus. If a mother chooses a therapeutic course that disadvantages the fetus the physician may feel distressed. In this paper we argue that the choices made by mothers are almost always in the interests of the fetus, and supported by physicians. When there is disagreement it is often due to poor communication. While acknowledging that the rare circumstances in which the physician and patient wish to pursue different clinical paths can be stressful for the provider, we explain why obstetricians should accept the judgment of their patient in all instances. Finally, we will maintain that positing a choice between maternal and fetal interests is, in fact, creating a false choice, in as much as options are presented as being exclusive, when in fact that is not the case.

  14. Physical activity of pregnant Hispanic women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynch, Kristine E; Landsbaugh, Jill R; Whitcomb, Brian W; Pekow, Penny; Markenson, Glenn; Chasan-Taber, Lisa

    2012-10-01

    A growing body of evidence suggests that physical activity during pregnancy can reduce risk of pregnancy complications. However, factors influencing activity in pregnant Hispanic women, who have high rates of sedentary activity as compared to non-Hispanic whites, are not well characterized. To assess patterns and correlates of physical activity among 1355 participants in Proyecto Buena Salud, a prospective cohort of pregnant Hispanic women in Massachusetts from 2006 to 2011. Analyses were conducted in 2012. Pre-, early-, mid-, and late-pregnancy physical activity were assessed using the Pregnancy Physical Activity Questionnaire. Women reported the frequency and duration of household/caregiving, occupational, sports/exercise, and transportation activities and were classified according to compliance with American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists guidelines for physical activity. Household/caregiving activity was the primary mode of pregnancy activity ranging from 56% to 60% of total activity while sports/exercise contributed the least (<10%). Compared to nulliparous women, women with two or more children were 85% less likely to become inactive at any time during pregnancy (OR=0.15, 95% CI=0.04, 0.56, p-trend <0.01). Women with one or more children increased their total physical activity on average 9.73±2.04 MET-hours/week and 12.04±2.39 MET-hours/week, respectively, with the onset of pregnancy (p<0.01). Those with the highest levels of total physical activity prior to pregnancy were 87% less likely to become inactive with the onset of pregnancy than those who were inactive prior to pregnancy (OR=0.13, 95% CI= 0.05, 0.29). Findings can inform culturally appropriate interventions designed to reduce pregnancy complications through the promotion of physical activity during pregnancy. Copyright © 2012 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Determination of a saliva cotinine cut-off to distinguish pregnant smokers from pregnant non-smokers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hegaard, Hanne K; Kjaergaard, Hanne; Møller, Lars F

    2007-01-01

    Objective validation of smoking status is necessary. Earlier studies have used saliva cotinine concentrations between 14.2 and 30 ng/ml as cut-off values to distinguish pregnant smokers from non-smokers. However, these cut-offs derive from studies including men and non-pregnant women. This consti...

  16. Pregnancy Outcome and Its Influencing Factors among Pregnant Women with Systemic Lupus Erythematosus%系统性红斑狼疮合并妊娠患者的妊娠结局及其影响因素

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘恩令; 周玉秀; 刘铮

    2014-01-01

    目的:探讨系统性红斑狼疮( SLE)合并妊娠患者的妊娠结局及其影响因素。方法选取2000年1月-2013年9月河北医科大学唐山临床医学院收治的SLE合并妊娠患者112例。将患者按照妊娠成功并分娩活婴与否分为妊娠成功组和妊娠失败组。比较两组患者狼疮性肾炎发生率、抗Ro/SSA抗体阳性率、抗La/SSB抗体阳性率、低补体C3及C4发生率、高血压发生率、抗心磷脂抗体( aCL)阳性率、雷诺现象发生率、狼疮复发率等,并采用多因素Logistic回归分析影响妊娠不良结局的因素。结果妊娠成功组75例,妊娠失败组37例。两组抗Ro/SSA抗体阳性率、抗La/SSB抗体阳性率、低补体C3及C4发生率、高血压发生率、雷诺现象发生率比较,差异均无统计学意义( P>0.05);妊娠成功组狼疮性肾炎发生率、抗aCL阳性率、狼疮复发率均低于妊娠失败组( P0. 05). Lupus nephritis inci-dence,aCL positive rate,and recurrence rate of lupus in pregnancy success group were significantly lower than those in pregnan-cy failure group(P<0. 05). According to multiple Logistic regression analysis results,lupus nephritis,anti-Ro/SSA posi-tive,anti- La/SSB positive, low levels of complement C3 and C4 , aCL positive, recurrence of lupus, hypertension and Raynaud's phenomenon were important influencing factors for adverse pregnancy outcome(P<0. 05). Conclusion Lupus ne-phritis,anti-Ro/SSA positive,anti -La/SSB positive,low levels of complement C3 and C4,hypertension,aCL positive, Raynaud's phenomenon and recurrence of lupus are important factors which lead to adverse pregnancy outcome. The rheumatolo-gists and obstetricians should jointly manage pregnant women with SLE,immune parameters should be monitored during pregnan-cy and after delivery,systematic pregnancy management can improve pregnancy outcome,and reduce the incidence of adverse pregnancy outcome.

  17. Eficácia de intervenção com enoxaparina baseada em sistema de pontuação nos desfechos perinatais de gestantes com trombofilias Usefulness of a scoring system on perinatal outcomes in pregnant women with thrombophilia in the effectiveness of an enoxaparin-based intervention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ernesto Antonio Figueiró-Filho

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Avaliar se a intervenção com heparina de baixo peso molecular (HBPM - enoxaparina sódica - foi eficaz na melhora dos desfechos perinatais de mulheres com trombofillias com base em sistema de pontuação. MÉTODOS: Estudo prospectivo, não randomizado, não controlado, realizado em um Ambulatório de Gestação de Alto Risco, durante o período de novembro de 2009 a novembro de 2011. Foram incluídas gestantes com diagnóstico e intervenção terapêutica para trombofilias adquiridas e/ou hereditárias na gestação atual. Os dados obstétricos e perinatais das gestantes anteriores à intervenção foram comparados com os desfechos subsequentes à intervenção, sendo analisados estatisticamente através do teste do χ², com correção de Yates, considerando significativos quando pPURPOSES: To assess whether an enoxaparin-based intervention using a score system was effective in improving perinatal outcome in women with thrombophilia. METHODS: Study Design: Prospective, not randomized, uncontrolled, performed at a Clinic of High-Risk Pregnancy from November 2009 to November 2011. We included women with a diagnosis and therapeutic intervention for thrombophilia acquired and/or inherited in the current pregnancy. The obstetric and perinatal outcomes of pregnant women before the intervention were compared with outcomes after the intervention, and statistically analyzed using the χ2 test with Yates correction, considered significant when p<0.05. The initial dose of low-molecular-weight Heparin (LMWH was guided by a scoring system based on the clinical and gestational history of the patients and screening tests for acquired and/or inherited thrombophilia. RESULTS: We included 84 pregnant women with 175 pregnancies before diagnosis, 20.0% of which resulted in fetal ou perinatal death, 40.0% resulted in abortion, 17.7% developed preeclampsia/eclampsia, 10.3% resulted in full-term births, and 29.7% in premature births. In the 84 pregnancies

  18. Cumulative Stress and Cortisol Disruption among Black and Hispanic Pregnant Women in an Urban Cohort

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suglia, Shakira Franco; Staudenmayer, John; Cohen, Sheldon; Enlow, Michelle Bosquet; Rich-Edwards, Janet W.; Wright, Rosalind J.

    2010-01-01

    While adult hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical (HPA) axis functioning is thought to be altered by traumatic experiences, little data exist on the effects of cumulative stress on HPA functioning among pregnant women or among specific racial and ethnic groups. Individuals may be increasingly vulnerable to physiological alterations when experiencing cumulative effects of multiple stressors. These effects may be particularly relevant in urban poor communities where exposure to multiple stressors is more prevalent. The goal of this study was to explore the effects of multiple social stressors on HPA axis functioning in a sample of urban Black (n = 68) and Hispanic (n = 132) pregnant women enrolled in the Asthma Coalition on Community, Environment, and Social Stress (ACCESS). Pregnant women were administered the Revised Conflict Tactics Scale (R-CTS) survey to assess interpersonal violence, the Experiences of Discrimination (EOD) survey, the Crisis in Family Systems-Revised (CRISYS-R) negative life events survey, and the My Exposure to Violence (ETV) survey, which ascertains exposure to community violence. A cumulative stress measure was derived from these instruments. Salivary cortisol samples were collected five times per day over three days to assess area under the curve (AUC), morning change, and basal awakening response in order to characterize diurnal salivary cortisol patterns. Repeated measures mixed models, stratified by race/ethnicity, were performed adjusting for education level, age, smoking status, body mass index and weeks pregnant at time of cortisol sampling. The majority of Hispanic participants (57%) had low cumulative stress exposure, while the majority of Black participants had intermediate (35%) or high (41%) cumulative stress exposure. Results showed that among Black but not Hispanic women, cumulative stress was associated with lower morning cortisol levels, including a flatter waking to bedtime rhythm. These analyses suggest that the combined

  19. Cumulative Stress and Cortisol Disruption among Black and Hispanic Pregnant Women in an Urban Cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suglia, Shakira Franco; Staudenmayer, John; Cohen, Sheldon; Enlow, Michelle Bosquet; Rich-Edwards, Janet W; Wright, Rosalind J

    2010-12-01

    While adult hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical (HPA) axis functioning is thought to be altered by traumatic experiences, little data exist on the effects of cumulative stress on HPA functioning among pregnant women or among specific racial and ethnic groups. Individuals may be increasingly vulnerable to physiological alterations when experiencing cumulative effects of multiple stressors. These effects may be particularly relevant in urban poor communities where exposure to multiple stressors is more prevalent. The goal of this study was to explore the effects of multiple social stressors on HPA axis functioning in a sample of urban Black (n = 68) and Hispanic (n = 132) pregnant women enrolled in the Asthma Coalition on Community, Environment, and Social Stress (ACCESS). Pregnant women were administered the Revised Conflict Tactics Scale (R-CTS) survey to assess interpersonal violence, the Experiences of Discrimination (EOD) survey, the Crisis in Family Systems-Revised (CRISYS-R) negative life events survey, and the My Exposure to Violence (ETV) survey, which ascertains exposure to community violence. A cumulative stress measure was derived from these instruments. Salivary cortisol samples were collected five times per day over three days to assess area under the curve (AUC), morning change, and basal awakening response in order to characterize diurnal salivary cortisol patterns. Repeated measures mixed models, stratified by race/ethnicity, were performed adjusting for education level, age, smoking status, body mass index and weeks pregnant at time of cortisol sampling. The majority of Hispanic participants (57%) had low cumulative stress exposure, while the majority of Black participants had intermediate (35%) or high (41%) cumulative stress exposure. Results showed that among Black but not Hispanic women, cumulative stress was associated with lower morning cortisol levels, including a flatter waking to bedtime rhythm. These analyses suggest that the combined

  20. Features of laboratory tests for diagnosis of rubella in pregnant women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. D. Grigor’eva

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Despite on mandatory vaccination against rubella, the amount of pregnant women without immunity to rubella may exceed 20%. These women represent a risk group for the rubella disease.Objectives: The goals of the presented work are to analyze the cases of anti-rubella IgM detection in pregnant women, and to develop an algorithm for management of such patients.Materials and Methods: Screening has been performed by ELISA test systems company Radim (Italy. In total 799 patients were examined for rubella in 2013, 56 of them were pregnant women.Results. Positive IgM antibodies to rubella in 2013 have been identified in 5 cases, including 4 pregnant women. A detailed analysis of medical history, clinical and laboratory data has been done. In none of these cases the diagnosis of rubella has been confirmed.Conclusions. The main criterion for the diagnosis of rubella in pregnant women with rubella markers in the absence of clinical symptoms must be a dynamic examination, including study on IgM- and IgG-antibodies to rubella virus. The study must be conducted in the same laboratory at intervals of 10–14 days. In most cases, determination of IgG-antibodies avidity helps to estimate the time of infection. In complicated cases it is recommended to use PCR and immunoblot.

  1. Automated Software Analysis of Fetal Movement Recorded during a Pregnant Woman's Sleep at Home.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishihara, Kyoko; Ohki, Noboru; Kamata, Hideo; Ryo, Eiji; Horiuchi, Shigeko

    2015-01-01

    Fetal movement is an important biological index of fetal well-being. Since 2008, we have been developing an original capacitive acceleration sensor and device that a pregnant woman can easily use to record fetal movement by herself at home during sleep. In this study, we report a newly developed automated software system for analyzing recorded fetal movement. This study will introduce the system and compare its results to those of a manual analysis of the same fetal movement signals (Experiment I). We will also demonstrate an appropriate way to use the system (Experiment II). In Experiment I, fetal movement data reported previously for six pregnant women at 28-38 gestational weeks were used. We evaluated the agreement of the manual and automated analyses for the same 10-sec epochs using prevalence-adjusted bias-adjusted kappa (PABAK) including quantitative indicators for prevalence and bias. The mean PABAK value was 0.83, which can be considered almost perfect. In Experiment II, twelve pregnant women at 24-36 gestational weeks recorded fetal movement at night once every four weeks. Overall, mean fetal movement counts per hour during maternal sleep significantly decreased along with gestational weeks, though individual differences in fetal development were noted. This newly developed automated analysis system can provide important data throughout late pregnancy.

  2. Automated Software Analysis of Fetal Movement Recorded during a Pregnant Woman's Sleep at Home.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyoko Nishihara

    Full Text Available Fetal movement is an important biological index of fetal well-being. Since 2008, we have been developing an original capacitive acceleration sensor and device that a pregnant woman can easily use to record fetal movement by herself at home during sleep. In this study, we report a newly developed automated software system for analyzing recorded fetal movement. This study will introduce the system and compare its results to those of a manual analysis of the same fetal movement signals (Experiment I. We will also demonstrate an appropriate way to use the system (Experiment II. In Experiment I, fetal movement data reported previously for six pregnant women at 28-38 gestational weeks were used. We evaluated the agreement of the manual and automated analyses for the same 10-sec epochs using prevalence-adjusted bias-adjusted kappa (PABAK including quantitative indicators for prevalence and bias. The mean PABAK value was 0.83, which can be considered almost perfect. In Experiment II, twelve pregnant women at 24-36 gestational weeks recorded fetal movement at night once every four weeks. Overall, mean fetal movement counts per hour during maternal sleep significantly decreased along with gestational weeks, though individual differences in fetal development were noted. This newly developed automated analysis system can provide important data throughout late pregnancy.

  3. [Optimization of anesthetic service during abdominal delivery of pregnant women with gestosis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiukov, V L; Pyregov, A V; Shepetovskaia, N L; Pivovarova, G M; Gur'ianov, V A

    2007-01-01

    Differential preoperative preparation of pregnant women with gestosis, by using calcium antagonists is an effective preventive measure against a circulatory hyperdynamic response to transportation to the operating suite. In pregnant women who had all hemodynamic types at baseline, the eukinetic type achieved during the preparation is retained. The patients with gestosis who did not receive calcium antagonists were found to have a circulatory hyperdynamic response with increased myocardial oxygen uptake (during surgery in particular). The use of calcium antagonists, ketonal, tranexamic acid, and hydroxyethyl starch-130/04 solution in the anesthetic appliance promoted the preservation of eukinetic hemodynamics in all those operated on, without increasing myocardial oxygen demands. The better reaction of the circulatory system and myocardial oxygen demands to surgical injury (the second mediatory wave of the systemic inflammatory response syndrome) correlated with higher neonatal Apgar scores in this category of puerperas with gestosis.

  4. Factors influencing brain natriuretic peptide levels in healthy pregnant women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayama, Michinori; Yoshihara, Masato; Uno, Kaname; Tano, Sho; Takeda, Takehiko; Ukai, Mayu; Kishigami, Yasuyuki; Oguchi, Hidenori

    2017-02-01

    The normal range of plasma brain natriuretic peptide (BNP) in pregnant women is still unclear. Moreover, pregnant women experience dynamic body weight changes and suffer from anemia, but effects on maternal BNP have not been investigated. This study aimed to reveal the normal plasma BNP range and examine the effects of physiological changes on BNP among pregnant women. Plasma BNP, hemoglobin, plasma creatinine and BMI were measured in 58 non-pregnant control women and in 773 normal pregnant women at late pregnancy, early postpartum and 1-month postpartum. Mean plasma BNP (in pg/mL) was 11.8 (95% confidence interval: 0-27.5) in non-pregnant women, 17.9 (0-44.7, pchange during pregnancy (p=0.001) and post-delivery creatinine (p=0.010) but negatively associated with body weight loss at delivery (pchanges, creatinine and hemoglobin levels; therefore, these factors should be considered when analysing cardiac function and the physiological implications of BNP levels in pregnant women. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Dental awareness and oral health of pregnant women in Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ewelina Gaszyńska

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The level of dental awareness of a pregnant woman affects the sanitary condition of her own teeth and the health of the child to be born. Poor oral health is considered to be a probable risk factor for the pre-term birth or low birth weight. The aim of this work was to assess the level of oral health knowledge that determines oral health condition of pregnant women in Poland. Material and Methods: Empirical data were obtained from the National Monitoring of Oral Health and Its Determinants, financed by the Ministry of Health. This socio-epidemiological study assessed oral health status and dental health awareness, which affects that status. Study subjects included 1380 pregnant women at the age ranging from 15 to 44, randomly-selected from urban and rural environments. Dental health status was recorded in the clinical examination sheets supplied by the World Health Organization, and the socio-medical data were recorded in the questionnaire interview sheets. Results: Almost 3/4 of the pregnant women evaluated their dental health as unsatisfactory or poor. Over 60% of the pregnant women rated their knowledge and practical skills concerning care of their own teeth and of the child to be born as limited, inadequate or none. Only 40% of the pregnant women provided right answers to the questions about dental issues. Conclusions: Low oral health awareness results in poor oral health status of the study subjects. A statistical pregnant woman has a total of 13 teeth showing the symptoms of tooth decay or caries. Over 70% of the pregnant women developed gingivitis or periodontitis. There is an urgent need in Poland to make the European principle of treating pregnant women as a dentally vulnerable group obligatory.

  6. Gestational thrombocytopaenia among pregnant women in Lagos, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Oluwatayo Ajibola

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Thrombocytopaenia is a common haematologic abnormality during pregnancy. Pregnant women with thrombocytopenia have a higher risk of bleeding excessively during or after childbirth, particularly if they need to have a caesarean section or other surgical intervention during pregnancy, labour or in the puperium. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of gestational thrombocytopaenia among pregnant women reporting for antenatal care at tertiary health care centres in Lagos. Materials and Methods: Platelet count was analyzed in 274 consecutive pregnant women who gave informed consent and 70 non-pregnant female staff of the hospitals. Platelet count was performed on each sample using the Sysmex KN-21N automated haematology analyzer. The study design was cross-sectional, proportions were analyzed for statistical significance with the chi-square, and Odds ratio was also calculated. Thrombocytopaenia is classically defined as a platelet count of less than 150 × 10 [9] /L. [3],[4] Counts from 100 to 150 × 10 [9] /L are considered mildly depressed, 50 to 100 × 10 [9] /L are moderately depressed and less than 50 × 10 [9] /L are severely depressed. Results: Thirty-four (13.5% pregnant women were thrombocytopaenic compared with three (4.3% non-pregnant women. This was statistically significant; P = 0.03; Odds ratio: 3.5 (95% CI 1.03-11.82. Out of the 37 pregnant women who were thrombocytopaenic, most of them (78% had mild thrombocytopenia, only 6% had severe thrombocytopaenia. Conclusion: The prevalence of gestational thrombocytopaenia in this study was 13.5%. Although majority of the pregnant women had mild thrombocytopaenia, healthcare providers should screen all pregnant women routinely for thrombocytopaenia to avoid excessive bleeding during or after childbirth.

  7. Severe Renal Hemorrhage in a Pregnant Woman Complicated with Antiphospholipid Syndrome: A Case Report

    OpenAIRE

    Shohei Kawaguchi; Kouji Izumi; Takahiro Nohara; Tohru Miyagi; Hiroyuki Konaka; Atsushi Mizokami; Eitetsu Koh; Mikio Namiki

    2011-01-01

    Antiphospholipid syndrome is a systemic autoimmune disease with thrombotic tendency. Consensus guidelines for pregnancy with antiphospholipid syndrome recommend low-dose aspirin combined with unfractionated or low-molecular-weight heparin because antiphospholipid syndrome causes habitual abortion. We report a 36-year-old pregnant woman diagnosed with antiphospholipid syndrome receiving anticoagulation treatment. The patient developed left abdominal pain and gross hematuria at week 20 of pregn...

  8. The effect of morphine consumption on plasma corticosteron concentration and placenta development in pregnant rats

    OpenAIRE

    Masoomeh Kazemi; Hedayat Sahraei; Mahnaz Azarnia; Leila Dehghani; Hossein Bahadoran; Elaheh Tekieh1

    2011-01-01

    Background: Previous studies have shown that morphine consumption during pregnancy may delay embryo development or cause abnormal nervous system function. Objective: The present study focused on the effect of maternal morphine consumption on development of placenta and blood corticosteron concentration in addictive pregnant mothers. Materials and Methods: 24 female rats, 170-200g weight, were used. The experimental groups after pregnancy received an oral dose of 0.05 mg/ml of morphine by tap ...

  9. A pregnant woman with spontaneous rupture of the uterine artery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jònsdòttir, Fjòla; Pinborg, Anja; Wilken-Jensen, Charlotte

    2014-01-01

    Pregnant women with acute abdominal pain are a clinical challenge. We present a rare but potential life-threatening condition of a pregnant woman with acute abdominal pain. The woman was in gestational week 37 with severe abdominal pain and was admitted to the labour ward. She became haemo......-dynamic instable 24 hours after vaginal delivery, and emergency laparotomi revealed a spontaneous rupture of the right uterine artery. Spontaneous rupture of the uterine artery is rare but should be considered as a possible cause of acute abdominal pain in pregnant women....

  10. Immunological changes in pregnant women with dysbiotic disturbances

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Y. Nikulina

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The biological properties of the vaginosis pathogens isolated from 255 pregnant patients of the Pregnancy Pathology Department of the Mechnikov Dnipropetrovsk Region Clinical Hospital were studied. It was found that all investigated microflora was represented by the Candida yeasts, Trichomonas vaginalis, Toxoplasma gondii, Chlamidia trachomatis, Gardnerella vaginalis and Leptotrix vaginalis. The yeasts of genus Candida were the most common isolated pathogens of the vaginosis in pregnant women. The presence of Candida sp., Trichomonas vaginalis, Chlamidia trachomatis and Toxoplasma gondii in the vaginal smears taken from pregnant women was accompanied by changes of the immunity cell parameters and concentration of circulating immune complexes.

  11. Determinants of measles seroprevalence among pregnant women in Paris, France.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodilis, H; Goffinet, F; Krivine, A; Andrieu, T; Anselem, O; Tsatsaris, V; Rozenberg, F; Launay, O

    2014-08-01

    Non-immune pregnant women are at risk of severe measles. As the measles vaccination is contraindicated during pregnancy, women should be vaccinated before conception or during the postpartum period. Nevertheless, measles serology is not recommended during pregnancy in France, and there are no data available concerning measles susceptibility and its associated risk factors among pregnant women. The socio-demographic determinants of measles seronegativity have been identified in a prospective cohort of 826 pregnant women in Paris, France. Measles seronegativity was 10.41% (95% CI 8.32-12.50). Women from higher socio-economic groups, born in France after 1980, were more frequently seronegative.

  12. 羟氯喹对系统性红斑狼疮妊娠患者疗效及安全性的前瞻性研究%Prospective study of efficacy and safety of hydroxychloroquine in pregnant patients with systemic lupus erythematosus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郝冬林; 徐东; 刘晶; 金笛儿; 赵岩; 高忠恩

    2014-01-01

    目的 评价羟氯喹对系统性红斑狼疮(SLE)妊娠患者的疗效及安全性.方法 对象为北京协和医院风湿免疫科和妇产科在2010年1月至2012年12月诊治的妊娠合并SLE患者,共48例,妊娠前SLE病情稳定和重要脏器功能正常至少6个月,并且停用免疫抑制剂半年以上.所有患者妊娠期间服用泼尼松≤15 mg/d和羟氯喹0.2g/次,2次/d.分析SLE患者妊娠前后的疾病活动情况及妊娠结局.结果 48例中9例(18.8%)在妊娠期间出现SLE疾病活动,2例(4.2%)在妊娠后出现;48例中无死亡者,44例(91.7%)成功妊娠,早产儿12例(27.3%),低体重儿13例(29.6%),新生儿除1例因为早产发育迟缓,其余均未出现生长发育异常及病理情况.所有患者视野及眼底均未见明显异常.结论 羟氯喹可能改善SLE患者妊娠及胎儿结局,并对孕妇及胎儿具有良好的安全性,妊娠中后期较易复发,应加强监测随诊.%Objective To evaluate the efficacy and safety of hydroxychloroquine (HCQ) in pregnant patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE).Methods A total of 48 pregnant patients with SLE were prospectively recruited from January 2010 to December 2012 at Peking Union Medical College Hospital.Diseases were stable,functions of important organs normal and immunosupressants were discontinued for at least 6 months.Predisone (≤ 15mg qd) and HCQ (0.2 bid) were taken during the whole pregnancy.SLE disease activity before,during and after pregnancy and pregnancy outcome were analyzed.Results SLE relapsed in 9 (18.8%) patients during pregnancy and 2 (4.2%) cases relapsed after delivery.There was no mortality.And 44 cases (91.7%) had successful pregnancy with 12(27.3%) preterm infants and 13(29.6%) infants with low birth weight.All neonates grew healthily,except one with hypoevolutism because of premature growth.Neither visual field nor fundus showed any abnormality.Conclusion HCQ may be effective in improving the pregnancy and

  13. Uso de medicamentos por gestantes usuárias do Sistema Único de Saúde Uso de medicamentos por gestantes del Sistema Único de Salud The use of medicines by pregnant women who receive care in the Brazilian Universal Healthcare System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simone Cristina Castanho Sabaini de Melo

    2009-02-01

    ón con criterio para evitar posibles daños al feto.OBJECTIVE: To identify the use of medicines by pregnant women who receive care at the Brazilian universal healthcare system, specifically in the municipal district of Bandeirantes, Paraná. METHODS: A cross-sectional descriptive study was used. A sample of 205 women participated in the study. Data were collected from July 2006 to November 2007 using a structured questionnaire. RESULTS: A great number of participants (83.4% reported they had used at least one medicine during their pregnancy and 8.2% of them used over-the-counter medicines. The majority of the women (80.5% received warnings about the use of medicines during pregnancy. There was significant statistical relationship between the last 3 months of pregnancy and the increase in medicines use. Although Ferrous sulfate (45.0% and Paracetamol (43.4% offer serious risks to the fetus, these two medicines were among those most used by the participants. CONCLUSION: Pregnant women have been exposed to a variety of medicines. There is a need to improve the quality of care to pregnant women in order to prevent potential risks to the fetus.

  14. Antagonistic Potential against Pathogenic Microorganisms and Hydrogen Peroxide Production of Indigenous Lactobacilli Isolated from Vagina of Chinese Pregnant Women

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HENG-YI XU; WAN-HONG TIAN; CUI-XIANG WAN; LI-JUN JIA; LAN-YIN WANG; JING YUAN; CHUN-MEI LIU; MING ZENG; HUA WEI

    2008-01-01

    Objective To investigate the indigenous lactobacilli from the vagina of pregnant women and to screen the isolates with antagonistic potential against pathogenic microorganisms. Methods The strains were isolated from pregnant women's vagina and identified using the APISOCH system. The ability of the isolates to produce hydrogen peroxide was analyzed semi-quantitatively using the TMB-HRP-MRS agar. The antagonistic effects of the isolates on pathogenic microorganisms were determined with a double layer agar plate. Results One hundred and three lactobacilli strains were isolated from 60 samples of vaginal secretion from healthy pregnant women. Among them, 78 strains could produce hydrogen peroxide, in which 68%, 80%, 80%, and 88% had antagonistic effects against Candida albicans CMCC98001, Staphylococcus aureus CMCC26003, Escherichia coli CMCC44113, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa CMCC10110, respectively. Conclusion The recovery of hydrogen peroxide-producing lactobacilli decreases with the increasing pregnant age and time. The most commonly isolated species from vagina of Chinese pregnant women are Lactobacillus acidophilus and Lactobacillus crispatus. Most of L. Acidophilus and L. Crispatus produce a high H2O2 level.

  15. Difference in ponderal growth and body composition among pregnant vs. never-pregnant adolescents varies by birth outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rah, Jee H; Shamim, Abu Ahmed; Arju, Ummeh T; Labrique, Alain B; Klemm, Rolf D W; Rashid, Mahbubur; Christian, Parul

    2010-01-01

    Recently, we showed that following pregnancy and 6 months of lactation, adolescents cease linear growth and have reduced fat and lean mass in rural Bangladesh. Here, we examined whether these changes varied by pregnancy outcomes such as fetal loss, low birthweight (LBW) and neonatal mortality. Anthropometric measurements were taken among 12-19-year-old primigravidae (n = 229) in early pregnancy and at 6 months post-partum. Never-pregnant adolescents (n = 456) matched on age and time since menarche were also measured at the same time. Change in anthropometry among pregnant vs. never-pregnant adolescents was compared by pregnancy outcome adjusting for confounders using mixed effects regression models. Pregnant girls, irrespective of birth outcome, did not gain in stature, while never-pregnant girls increased in height by 0.36 +/- 0.04 cm year(-1) (P Body mass index, mid-upper arm circumference (MUAC) and % body fat among pregnant adolescents whose infants survived the neonatal period had decreased at 6 months post-partum, whereas those who experienced a fetal loss or neonatal death did not change in any of the measurements. Consequently, the difference in change in ponderal size and body composition measures between pregnant and never-pregnant girls was higher among those whose neonates survived vs. those who experienced a fetal loss/neonatal death (BMI: -0.64 +/- 0.11 vs. 0.01 +/- 0.16 kg m(-2) year(-1); MUAC: -0.96 +/- 0.12 vs. -0.35 +/- 0.17 cm year(-1), both P pregnant girls regardless of birth outcome. Maternal weight loss and depletion of fat and lean mass at 6 months post-partum were more pronounced when the infants survived through the neonatal period.

  16. Goal-oriented incentive payment in CUDAM institution and variation in medical visit indicators in children under one and pregnant women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Morales

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available ntroduction: The establishment of National Integrated Health System in Uruguay from 2007 led to changes in the financing of the Collective Health Care Institutions (IAMC. They charge the National Health Fund (FONASA for their partners from social security (SS a health fee consists of: a A risk-adjusted capita (94%b A component for compliance with performance (6%, depending on the fulfillment of three goals of care. Goal 1 is a component of the child under 1 year and a component of the pregnant woman. For both components were established institutional baseline (July 2007-September 2008 in the control patients in both age groups. This motif COMPLIANCE quarterly reports with a fee of $48/user FONASA/month for average baseline compliment. Las for children and pregnant women were monitored for IAMC CUDAM 64% and 59% respectively.This institution has 42,000 users, 95% derived from SS, featuring 45 births, 585 children <1 year and 405 pregnant women tested monthly.Objectives: Evaluate two years (July-September 2010:a The mean percentages of compliance for children and pregnant CUDAM with medical controlb Relationship between income through the FONASA insitucional for goal 1 and children and pregnant women in medical management during the quarter.Methods: a retrospective study of children and pregnant women with medical control CUDAM. In turn, each target has 6 indicators (N: children, F: females. Child: N1 and N2: derivation and acquisition of the newborn, N3: controls as a guideline, N4: current vaccination, N5: ultrasound hip and pregnant, N6: accreditation in good feeding practices for infants and young children and pregnant women. Pregnant woman: M1 controls as a guideline, M2: leaf perinatal information system, M3: HIV and VDRL performed, M4: uptake in 1 st quarter, M5 and M6: dental checkup during pregnancy and postpartum.Results: The mean percentages of compliance for children and pregnant women increased to 92% (164 additional children and 88

  17. Pregnant crack addicts in a psychiatric unit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela de Moraes Costa

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: In this study we aim to characterize a sample of 85 pregnant crack addicts admitted for detoxification in a psychiatric inpatient unit. METHOD: Cross-sectional study. Sociodemographic, clinical, obstetric and lifestyle information were evaluated. RESULTS: Age of onset for crack use varied from 11 to 35 years (median = 21. Approximately 25% of the patients smoked more than 20 crack rocks in a typical day of use (median = 10; min-max = 1-100. Tobacco (89.4%, alcohol (63.5% and marijuana (51.8% were the drugs other than crack most currently used. Robbery was reported by 32 patients (41.2%, imprisonment experience by 21 (24.7%, trade of sex for money/drugs by 38 (44.7%, home desertion by 33 (38.8%; 15.3% were positive for HIV, 5.9% for HCV, 1.2% for HBV and 8.2% for syphilis. After discharge from the psychiatric unit, only 25% of the sample followed the proposed treatment in the chemical dependency outpatient service. CONCLUSION: Greater risky behaviors for STD, as well as high rates of maternal HIV and Syphilis were found. Moreover, the high rates of concurrent use of other drugs and involvement in illegal activities contribute to show their chaotic lifestyles. Prevention and intervention programs need to be developed to address the multifactorial nature of this problem.

  18. Hemoglobin levels in normal Filipino pregnant women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuizon, M D; Natera, M G; Ancheta, L P; Platon, T P; Reyes, G D; Macapinlac, M P

    1981-09-01

    The hemoglobin concentrations during pregnancy in Filipinos belonging to the upper income group, who were prescribed 105 mg elemental iron daily, and who had acceptable levels of transferrin saturation, were examined in an attempt to define normal levels. The hemoglobin concentrations for each trimester followed a Gaussian distribution. The hemoglobin values equal to the mean minus one standard deviation were 11.4 gm/dl for the first trimester and 10.4 gm/dl for the second and third trimesters. Using these values as the lower limits of normal, in one group of pregnant women the prevalence of anemia during the last two trimesters was found lower than that obtained when WHO levels for normal were used. Groups of women with hemoglobin of 10.4 to 10.9 gm/dl (classified anemic by WHO criteria but normal in the present study) and those with 11.0 gm/dl and above could not be distinguished on the basis of their serum ferritin levels nor on the degree of decrease in their hemoglobin concentration during pregnancy. Many subjects in both groups, however, had serum ferritin levels less than 12 ng/ml which indicate poor iron stores. It might be desirable in future studies to determine the hemoglobin cut-off point that will delineate subjects who are both non-anemic and adequate in iron stores using serum ferritin levels as criterion for the latter.

  19. Ocular changes in pregnant Nigerian women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebeigbe, J A; Ebeigbe, P N; Ighoroje, Ada

    2012-01-01

    Pregnancy results in a lot of hormonal changes in the body and the eyes are no exception. These ocular changes could be physiologic, pathologic or a modification of a pre-existing condition. The aim of this study was to determine physiologic ocular changes that are associated with pregnancy in healthy Nigerian women. A total of 100 women were followed longitudinally through out the course of their pregnancy and 6 weeks postpartum. The women were recruited at 8 weeks of pregnancy at the anti-natal clinic in the Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University of Benin Teaching Hospital, Nigeria. The women were aged between 20 and 35 years. Tests carried out included visual acuity, ophthalmoscopy, retinoscopy, and tonometry. The tests were carried out in each of the three trimesters of pregnancy and 6 weeks postpartum. There was a fall in intraocular pressure across the trimesters and this was very significant (Pchanges associated with pregnancy are transient and most tend to resolve postpartum, with values returning to near pre-pregnant state.

  20. Effect of ether inhalation by adrenalectomized pregnant rats on the adrenal corticosterone concentration in norma, decapitated, and encephalectomized fetuses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Negellen-Perchellet, E; Cohen, A

    1975-01-01

    The influence of decapitation or encephalectomy (total removal of the brain leaving the pituitary in place) on the adrenal corticosterone concentration of the 20-day-old rat fetus has been studied in normal pregnant rats, in adrenalectomized pregnant rats, and in adrenalectomized pregnant rats subjected to the stress conditions of inhalation of ether for 40 min. Decapitation or encephalectomy of the fetus always results in a drop in adrenal corticosterone concentration within 4 h which is prevented in 15 min by injecting 3.2 mU of hog ACTH into the decapitated fetus. In mothers adrenalectomized in order to avoid a negative feedback reaction of maternal corticosteroids on the fetal pituitary-adrenal system, ether inhalation causes an important rise in adrenal corticosterone concentration in normal fetuses but not in decapitated or encephalectomized ones. Thus ether, which crosses the placental barrier, is a stressor agent for the fetal rat.

  1. Nutritional status and weight gain in pregnant women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Ana Paula Sayuri; Fujimori, Elizabeth

    2012-01-01

    This study described the nutritional status of 228 pregnant women and the influence of this on birth weight. This is a retrospective study, developed in a health center in the municipality of São Paulo, with data obtained from medical records. Linear regression analysis was carried out. An association was verified between the initial and final nutritional status (ppregnancy underweight was higher compared those who started overweight/obese (p=0.005). Weight gain was insufficient for 43.4% of the pregnant women with adequate initial weight and for 36.4% of all the pregnant women studied. However, 37.1% of those who began the pregnancy overweight/obese finished with excessive weight gain, a condition that ultimately affected almost a quarter of the pregnant women. Anemia and low birth weight were uncommon, however, in the linear regression analysis, birth weight was associated with weight gain (pnutritional care before and during pregnancy to promote maternal-infant health.

  2. Malaria in pregnancy: Knowledge, attitude and practices of pregnant ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Malaria in pregnancy: Knowledge, attitude and practices of pregnant women in ... secondary school qualification (76.5%) attributed malaria more to mosquito bite. ... of doctors (4.0%) were the preferred method of prevention by women in the ...

  3. Pregnant teens: signs, symptoms, complications and presence of stress

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Correia, Divanise Suruagy; Santos, Layse Veloso de Amorim; Calheiros, Ascanio Marcos de Novais; Vieira, Maria Jésia

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this work is to analyze the correlation between signs, symptoms and complications and the presence of stress in pregnant adolescents in health facilities in Maceio, Alagoas, Brazil...

  4. Pregnant & Lactating Populations Research - NCS Dietary Assessment Literature Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Identifying and studying additional biomarkers of energy and nutrient intake will advance validation efforts and lead to a better understanding of the biases and sources of measurement error in dietary assessment instruments in pregnant or lactating populations.

  5. Pregnancy planning and acceptance among Danish pregnant women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasch, V; Knudsen, L B; Wielandt, H

    2001-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To study how living conditions influence pregnancy planning and acceptance among Danish women. METHOD: A cross-sectional questionnaire study performed among 3516 pregnant women attending Odense University Hospital, Denmark. The study population consisted of women with spontaneous abort...

  6. Being Pregnant with Twins, Triplets and Other Multiples

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... twins, triplets and other multiples Being pregnant with twins, triplets and other multiples E-mail to a ... embryos that grow into two or more babies. Twins are called identical when one fertilized egg splits ...

  7. Medical advice seeking behaviors of pregnant women in imo state ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Medical advice seeking behaviors of pregnant women in imo state, nigeria. ... instrument was ensured through constructive criticisms of seven health professionals. ... safe motherhood and family life education concepts that would sensitize the ...

  8. Maternity perception by pregnant women living with HIV

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thelma Spindola

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective.Identify the perceptions of pregnant women living with HIV about motherhood and understand the expectations and feelings experienced by these women. Methodology. Study with descriptive design and qualitative approach, carried out with 10 pregnant women living with HIV who attend the prenatal service of a university hospital in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. The participants answered a semi-structured interview. Data were analyzed using the content analysis technique. Results. Pregnant women in their descriptions revealed that motherhood gives them different perspectives on the present and future. They see it as a good thing, a responsibility to care for the child, and consider bearing a child to be a gift. Conclusion. For pregnant women living with HIV, motherhood is a positive experience in their lives. Nurses must be sensitive to the needs of this group and aware of their role in health care and preventing any possible complications that may affect the mother and her baby.

  9. Guidelines for endoscopy in pregnant and lactating women

    Science.gov (United States)

    GUIDELINE Guidelines for endoscopy in pregnant and lactating women This is one of a series of statements discussing the ... text. This guide- line updates a previously issued guideline on this topic. 1 In preparing this guideline, ...

  10. 539 Prevalence of Vaginal Candidiasis among Pregnant Women in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    2010-10-17

    Oct 17, 2010 ... parity and is significantly higher in pregnant women who are in their first or .... highly educated women with tertiary education and the others. ... albicans is highly sensitive; there is considerable maternal disability and neonatal ...

  11. Exploring fertility decisions among pregnant HIV- positive women on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    antenatal clinic at a health centre in Balaka, Malawi. Methods. This was a ... pregnant women enroled in the antiretroviral therapy (ART) programme. A sample size of thirty-five ..... Some women reported suffering the physical and psychological ...

  12. Increasing Numbers of Pregnant Women Also Have Heart Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... html Increasing Numbers of Pregnant Women Also Have Heart Disease Multiple specialists may be needed to care for ... 2017 (HealthDay News) -- Many more American women with heart disease are choosing to have babies, a new study ...

  13. Awareness, Practice, and Predictors of Family Planning by Pregnant ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Awareness, Practice, and Predictors of Family Planning by Pregnant Women Attending a Tertiary Hospital in a Semi-rural Community of North-West Nigeria. ... Background: Nigeria's maternal and perinatal health status is still among the ...

  14. Tuberculosis prevention in HIV-infected pregnant women in South ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2012-11-02

    Nov 2, 2012 ... settings, and 15 - 34% of indirect obstetric maternal mortality.10. In SA between 2008 and ... TB prevention, diagnosis and treatment in HIV-infected pregnant women should be ..... Bothamley G. Drug treatment for tuberculosis.

  15. RESEARCH Safety of nevirapine in HIV-infected pregnant women ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    11 SAMJ. In January 2005, the United States (US) Food and Drug Administration ... therapy (ART) for pregnant women with CD4 ≤350 cells/µl,7 based on their ... Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, University of the Witwatersrand and.

  16. Immunological changes in pregnant women with dysbiotic disturbances

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Y. Y. Nikulina; I. E. Sokolova; A. I. Vinnikov

    2012-01-01

    .... The presence of Candida sp., Trichomonas vaginalis, Chlamidia trachomatis and Toxoplasma gondii in the vaginal smears taken from pregnant women was accompanied by changes of the immunity cell parameters and concentration...

  17. Haemodynamic monitoring of the pregnant woman in intensive care.

    OpenAIRE

    Edwards, Sharon

    1998-01-01

    A brief summary of the reasons why a pregnant woman may require intensive care is outlined. The clinical relevance of the physiological changes occurring in pregnancy is discussed. The haemodynamic differences and their relevance to monitoring are highlighted

  18. urinary tract infections amongst pregnant women attending a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    boaz

    Urinary tract infection (UTI) constitutes a major health problem in pregnant women due to their relatively ... due to the anatomical and physiological changes that occur during pregnancy. ... by bacteria species that are part of the normal body.

  19. FDA Issues Anesthesia Warning for Pregnant Women, Kids Under 3

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_162543.html FDA Issues Anesthesia Warning for Pregnant Women, Kids Under ... agency news release. She is director of the FDA's Center for Drug Evaluation and Research. "Parents and ...

  20. FDA Offers Guidance on Fish Intake for Kids, Pregnant Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_163113.html FDA Offers Guidance on Fish Intake for Kids, Pregnant ... is far less than the recommended amount, the FDA said. Fish offers nutritional benefits important for growth ...

  1. Anaemia in pregnant women in eastern Caprivi, Namibia

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Medical. Student. Research. Anaemia in pregnant women in eastern Caprivi,. Namibia ... Julia Thomson, medk:aJ student. In recognition of this ..... College of General Practitioners, the Commonwealth ... Maternal nutritional status in pregnancy.

  2. nutrient intake among pregnant teenage girls attending ante-natal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2012-03-03

    Mar 3, 2012 ... demands of heavy physical labour, the nutritional demands of ... facilities. Inclusion and exclusion criteria: Pregnant teenage girls ... had any physical disability, mental retardation, were unwilling ..... Reviews in Obstetrics and.

  3. Wildfires: Information for Pregnant Women and Parents of Young Infants

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Weather: Wildfires Ready.gov (U.S. Department of Homeland Security) Are You Ready? (FEMA) American Red Cross Family Preparedness Guide (Florida Department of Health) Preparedness Information for Pregnant Women Pregnancy and Disaster Information from ...

  4. The evaluation of rubella and sitomegalovirus IgG avidity tests in pregnants: four-year experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Berrin Uzun

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: In this study, we aim to evaluate the retrospective IgG avidity index (AI test results of the pregnant, who have applied to our hospital and had pregnancy screening test and have been asked for rubella and cytomegalovirus antibody tests and IgG AI test in 4 year period. Methods: Anti-rubella IgM, anti-rubella IgG, anti-CMV IgM and anti-CMV antibodies were performed by IMMULITE 2000XPi™ Immunoassay System (Siemens, Germany whereas IgG AI tests were performed by commercial kits of rubella and cytomegalovirus antibody tests (Dia.Pro® Diagnostic, Milano-Italy. Results: Between January 2010 and December 2013, 23 (7.32 % of 314 pregnant women tested rubella IgG AI had low AI, and 266 cases had high AI rate; 14 (17.28% of 81 pregnant women tested CMV IgG AI, had lower AI rate, 52 of them had high AI. 9 out of 23 pregnant women, who were detected low rubella were requested only AI without any IgM and IgG value; the IgG antibody of 13 pregnant was reactive, and IgM antibody was not requested; IgG and IgM antibody of 1 pregnant was detected positive. When 5 pregnant, who were detected low CMV AI were requested AI without IgG and IgM value; the IgG and IgM of 4 was reactive; 4 of them had IgG reactive but IgM negative; 1 had IgG and IgM negative. Conclusion: As a result, our low rubella AI rate has been detected lower than the rates in our country since our study population contains only the pregnant. Our low CMV AI rate varies due to the same reasons as literature data. During pregnancy scanning, performing of AI testing together with specific IgG and IgM will save both time and will be more meaningful in clinical evaluation for pregnant women. J Clin Exp Invest 2014; 5 (3: 420-423

  5. Challenges of the pregnant athlete and low back pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noon, Megan L; Hoch, Anne Z

    2012-01-01

    Low back pain during pregnancy is a common problem with a high prevalence among pregnant athletes. The etiology of pregnancy-related low back pain remains unclear, although more evidence is supporting a biomechanical/musculoskeletal origin. This article will review the causes of low back pain in athletes and pregnant women, differentiate low back from pelvic girdle pain, and discuss the treatment and prevention of pregnancy-related low back and pelvic girdle pain.

  6. Heart failure in pregnant women: is it peripartum cardiomyopathy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dennis, Alicia Therese

    2015-03-01

    Peripartum cardiomyopathy is a rare but important cause of maternal morbidity and mortality. Women with peripartum cardiomyopathy often present with symptoms and signs of heart failure. The diagnosis of peripartum cardiomyopathy is made after all other causes of heart failure are excluded. Emphasis is on the immediate recognition of an unwell pregnant or recently pregnant woman, early diagnosis with the use of echocardiography, and the correct treatment of heart failure.

  7. Clostridium difficile carriage in healthy pregnant women in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Guang-yong; Li, Na; Chen, Yun-Bo; Lv, Tao; Shen, Ping; Gu, Si-Lan; Fang, Yun-Hui; Li, Lan-Juan

    2016-02-01

    Infection with Clostridium difficile has been shown to have particularly poor outcomes for pregnant women, including an increased risk of death. The purpose of this study was to investigate the prevalence, genotypic distribution, and characterization of C. difficile strains isolated from pregnant women without diarrhea in China. As part of this study, 3.7% (37 out of 1009) of samples acquired from pregnant females tested positive for C. difficile. Of these positive samples, 27.0% (10) were toxigenic isolates containing both toxin A and toxin B genes (A+B+), 13.5% (5) of the variant strains contained the toxin B gene (A-B+) only, while the rest were non-toxigenic isolates (59.5%, 22 isolates). Among the non-pregnant women without diarrhea tested, 1.4% (9 of 651) contained toxigenic isolates (all of which were A+B+). Sixteen different sequence types (STs) were isolated during the course of this study. ST-37 (ribotype 017) and ST-54 (ribotype 012) were the most frequent toxigenic types observed in pregnant women. All strains showed susceptibility to the antibiotics metronidazole and vancomycin. The resistance rates of toxigenic C. difficile strains isolated from pregnant females to clindamycin, erythromycin, moxifloxacin, levofloxacin, and rifampicin were 20%, 46.7%, 13.6%, 46.7% and 13.3%, respectively. There was no significant difference between resistance rates of toxigenic and non-toxigenic strains with respect to their susceptibility to these antibiotics. However, when compared with the same data from non-pregnant women, toxigenic strains from pregnant women showed lower resistance rates to clindamycin (P < 0.05). Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Pregnant teens in prison. Prevalence, management, and consequences.

    OpenAIRE

    Breuner, C C; Farrow, J A

    1995-01-01

    To estimate the number of pregnant and parenting teens currently incarcerated and to assess the correctional health care and social services provided to this target population, we surveyed 430 juvenile detention and long-term correctional facilities in the United States that incarcerate adolescent girls. Of these, 261 (61%) institutions responded and are included in the analysis. Of these facilities, 68% estimated that they were holding 1 to 5 pregnant adolescents on a given day, with a repor...

  9. Dietary interventions in overweight and obese pregnant women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Flynn, Angela C; Dalrymple, Kathryn; Barr, Suzanne

    2016-01-01

    : A systematic review of the literature, consistent with PRISMA guidelines, was performed as part of the International Weight Management in Pregnancy collaboration. STUDY SELECTION: Thirteen randomized controlled trials, which aimed to modify diet and physical activity in overweight and obese pregnant women...... gestational weight gain. CONCLUSION: This review reveals large methodological variability in dietary interventions to control gestational weight gain and improve clinical outcomes in overweight and obese pregnant women. This lack of consensus limits the ability to develop clinical guidelines and apply...

  10. Severe Renal Hemorrhage in a Pregnant Woman Complicated with Antiphospholipid Syndrome: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shohei Kawaguchi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Antiphospholipid syndrome is a systemic autoimmune disease with thrombotic tendency. Consensus guidelines for pregnancy with antiphospholipid syndrome recommend low-dose aspirin combined with unfractionated or low-molecular-weight heparin because antiphospholipid syndrome causes habitual abortion. We report a 36-year-old pregnant woman diagnosed with antiphospholipid syndrome receiving anticoagulation treatment. The patient developed left abdominal pain and gross hematuria at week 20 of pregnancy. An initial diagnosis of left ureteral calculus was made. Subsequently abdominal-pelvic computed tomography was required for diagnosis because of the appearance of severe contralateral pain. Computed tomography revealed serious renal hemorrhage, and ureteral stent placement and pain control by patient-controlled analgesia were required. After treatment, continuance of pregnancy was possible and vaginal delivery was performed safely. This is the first case report of serious renal hemorrhage in a pregnant woman with antiphospholipid syndrome receiving anticoagulation treatment and is an instructive case for urological and obstetrical practitioners.

  11. [Control of Chagas disease in pregnant Latin-American women and her children].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merino, Francisco J; Martínez-Ruiz, Rocío; Olabarrieta, Iciar; Merino, Paloma; García-Bujalance, Silvia; Gastañaga, Teresa; Flores-Chavez, María

    2013-09-01

    Chagas disease is a chronic and systemic infection caused by Trypanosoma cruzi. According to estimates from WHO, 10 million people are affected by this parasite. In the last years, birthrate among the immigrant women from Latin America settled in the Comunidad Autónoma de Madrid has been increasing, and as T. cruzi can be transmitted from mother to child, in fact 11 cases of congenital Chagas disease have been confirmed. Therefore, the aim of this paper is encouraging improvements in the coverage of the anti-T. cruzi antibodies detection in pregnant women from endemic areas. By this strategy, an active search for infected pregnant women and early detection of her infected newborns could be conducted, and then an early specific treatment could be administrated. Thus, there could be an important contribution to the control of Chagas disease in non-endemic area.

  12. Care cost for pregnant and parturient women with diabetes and mild hyperglycemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Claudia Molina Cavassini

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To compare inpatient and outpatient care costs for pregnant/parturient women with diabetes and mild hyperglycemia. METHODS: A prospective observational quantitative study was conducted in the Perinatal Diabetes Center in the city of Botucatu, Southeastern Brazil, between 2007 and 2008. Direct and indirect costs and disease-specific costs (medications and tests were estimated. Thirty diet-treated pregnant women with diabetes were followed up on an outpatient basis, and 20 who required insulin therapy were hospitalized. RESULTS: The cost of diabetes disease (prenatal and delivery care was US$ 3,311.84 for inpatients and US$ 1,366.04 for outpatients. CONCLUSIONS: Direct and indirect costs as well as total prenatal care cost were higher for diabetic inpatients while delivery care costs and delivery-postpartum hospitalization were similar. Prenatal and delivery-postpartum care costs were higher for these patients compared to those paid by Brazilian National Health System.

  13. Comparison of aerobic conjunctival bacterial flora in pregnant, reproductive-aged and postmenopausal women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melike Balikoglu-Yilmaz

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To evaluate the effect of hormonal status on aerobic conjunctival flora in women.METHODS: One hundred fifty-eight women [reproductive-aged (n=55, pregnant (n=51, and postmenopausal (n=52] who admitted to outpatient clinic of Obstetrics and Gynecology Department of Denizli State Hospital were enrolled. Age, body-mass index (BMI, obstetric history, cigarette smoking, drug usage, presence of systemic disease, and intraocular pressure (IOP were recorded for each patient. The samples were taken from the lower fornix with two culture swabs and directly incubated in culture containing 5% sheep blood, eosin-methylene blue and chocolate agar. The other swab specimen was Gram stained. All growths and microscopic results were analyzed.RESULTS: The coagulase-negative Staphylococcus was the predominant organism isolated in the conjunctival samples in both three groups. The aerobic microorganism growth rate for all isolated aerobic organisms revealed no significant change in the three groups (P >0.05. The conjunctival culture positivity rates were similar in the three groups (49% in reproductive-aged, 57% in pregnant and 58% in postmenopausal women (P >0.05. Age, IOP, BMI, gravidity, parity, cigarette smoking, drug usage, and presence of systemic diseases did not have an effect on culture positivity in three groups.CONCLUSION: Results of this study showed that conjunctival aerobic flora and bacterial colonization did not differ between reproductive-aged, pregnant and postmenopausal women.

  14. Spatial analysis of infection by the human immunodeficiency virus among pregnant women1

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Holanda, Eliane Rolim; Galvão, Marli Teresinha Gimeniz; Pedrosa, Nathália Lima; Paiva, Simone de Sousa; de Almeida, Rosa Lívia Freitas

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: to analyze the spatial distribution of reported cases of pregnant women infected by the human immunodeficiency virus and to identify the urban areas with greater social vulnerability to the infection among pregnant women. METHOD: ecological study, developed by means of spatial analysis techniques of area data. Secondary data were used from the Brazilian National Disease Notification System for the city of Recife, Pernambuco. Birth data were obtained from the Brazilian Information System on Live Births and socioeconomic data from the 2010 Demographic Census. RESULTS: the presence of spatial self-correlation was verified. Moran's Index was significant for the distribution. Clusters were identified, considered as high-risk areas, located in grouped neighborhoods, with equally high infection rates among pregnant women. A neighborhood located in the Northwest of the city was distinguished, considered in an epidemiological transition phase. CONCLUSION: precarious living conditions, as evidenced by the indicators illiteracy, absence of prenatal care and poverty, were relevant for the risk of vertical HIV transmission, converging to the grouping of cases among disadvantaged regions. PMID:26155005

  15. [Pregnant women's oral hygiene knowledge and habits after the second millennium in South-East Hungary].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Battancs, Emese; Gorzó, István; Pál, Attila; Novák, Tibor; Eller, József; Kókai, Erzsébet L; Radnai, Márta

    2011-09-01

    Among the predisposing agents for inflammatory periodontal lesion dental plaque is the most important, but different local and systemic factors may influence the seriousness or progression of periodontitis. Hormonal changes during pregnancy belong to the systemic aggravating factors. The aim of the present study was to assess pregnant women's oral hygiene knowledge and habits, and if these have a relationship with age, residence, educational level and profession/occupation. Questionnaires were used for the data collection. 275 pregnant women, who underwent prenatal care at the Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology in Szeged, volunteered to answer the questions. The results showed that almost all the women brushed their teeth daily, but only about one third of them used special oral hygiene tools, like dental floss. Many of the women claimed to have gingival bleeding when brushing their teeth. More then 70% visited a dentist during pregnancy. There was a significant relationship between educational level and the use of dental floss (p=0.004) and gingival bleeding (p=0.023) Oral hygiene education, dental and periodontal treatment of pregnant women need more emphasis during prenatal care.

  16. Comparison of aerobic conjunctival bacterial flora in pregnant, reproductive-aged and postmenopausal women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balikoglu-Yilmaz, Melike; Sen, Emine; Sevket, Osman; Polat, Yusuf; Karabulut, Aysun; Uysal, Omer

    2012-01-01

    AIM To evaluate the effect of hormonal status on aerobic conjunctival flora in women. METHODS One hundred fifty-eight women [reproductive-aged (n=55), pregnant (n=51), and postmenopausal (n=52)] who admitted to outpatient clinic of Obstetrics and Gynecology Department of Denizli State Hospital were enrolled. Age, body-mass index (BMI), obstetric history, cigarette smoking, drug usage, presence of systemic disease, and intraocular pressure (IOP) were recorded for each patient. The samples were taken from the lower fornix with two culture swabs and directly incubated in culture containing 5% sheep blood, eosin-methylene blue and chocolate agar. The other swab specimen was Gram stained. All growths and microscopic results were analyzed. RESULTS The coagulase-negative Staphylococcus was the predominant organism isolated in the conjunctival samples in both three groups. The aerobic microorganism growth rate for all isolated aerobic organisms revealed no significant change in the three groups (P >0.05). The conjunctival culture positivity rates were similar in the three groups (49% in reproductive-aged, 57% in pregnant and 58% in postmenopausal women) (P >0.05). Age, IOP, BMI, gravidity, parity, cigarette smoking, drug usage, and presence of systemic diseases did not have an effect on culture positivity in three groups. CONCLUSION Results of this study showed that conjunctival aerobic flora and bacterial colonization did not differ between reproductive-aged, pregnant and postmenopausal women. PMID:23275909

  17. Prevalence of bacterial vaginosis among pregnant women attending antenatal care in Tikur Anbessa University Hospital, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mengistie, Zemenu; Woldeamanuel, Yimtubezinash; Asrat, Daniel; Adera, Addis

    2014-11-20

    Bacterial vaginosis is one of the most common genital tract infections among reproductive age group. The prevalence of bacterial vaginosis varies from country to country even in the same country it varies among populations of interest. Different social and sexual factors can contribute to the development of bacterial vaginosis. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of bacterial vaginosis and to identify the possible risk factors associated among pregnant women attending antenatal care in Tikur Anbessa University Hospital, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. Randomly selected 57 symptomatic and 195 asymptomatic pregnant women aged between 18 and 40 years visiting obstetric and gynecological clinic from November 2011 to April 2012 screenedusing Gram stain Nugent scoring system. Statistical analysis like univariate analysis to calculate frequencies and proportions, bivariate analysis to see association of selected exposure variables with the outcome variable, and multivariate analysis to check the association of possible factors with bacterial vaginosis by adjusting potential confounding factors was calculated using SPSS (Version 16.0). The prevalence of bacterial vaginosis is 19.4% using Gram stain Nugent scoring system. In addition, prevalence of bacterial vaginosis is 31.6% and 15.9% among symptomatic and asymptomatic pregnant women respectively. A high percentage of bacterial vaginosis positive pregnant women were asymptomatic (63.3%). 36.7% bacterial vaginosis positive pregnant women reported abnormal vaginal discharge with or without unpleasant smell. Multiple lifetime sexual partner (OR: 8.6; 95% CI: 2.5, 29) and previous history of spontaneous abortion (OR: 5.9; 95% CI: 1.5, 23) had remained significantly associated with prevalence of bacterial vaginosis. The prevalence of bacterial vaginosis is higher among asymptomatic pregnant women and associated with the factors previous history of multiple lifetime sexual partner and spontaneous abortion.

  18. Prevalence of Musculoskeletal Dysfunctions among Indian Pregnant Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Preetha Ramachandra

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives. Pregnancy triggers a wide range of changes in a woman’s body leading to various musculoskeletal dysfunctions. Most commonly reported musculoskeletal discomforts by pregnant women are low back pain and symphysis pubis pain. The culture and the environmental factors may influence the discomforts experienced by a pregnant woman. There is a dearth of literature in India, regarding the common musculoskeletal dysfunctions experienced by a pregnant woman, and hence this study. Method. A questionnaire to identify the musculoskeletal dysfunction was developed; content was validated and was translated to local languages through parallel back translation. 261 primiparous pregnant women participated in the study and filled the questionnaire in their native language. Results. Among the musculoskeletal dysfunctions reported by the pregnant women, 64.6% reported calf muscle cramps, 37.1% reported foot pain, and 33.7% experienced low back pain in their third trimester. In the second trimester, common musculoskeletal dysfunctions experienced by the women were that of calf pain (47.8%, low back pain (42%, and pelvic girdle pain (37%. Conclusion. Musculoskeletal dysfunctions and general discomforts very commonly affect the activities of daily living of pregnant women. Understanding the common discomforts during various trimesters of pregnancy will help to develop a comprehensive program for prevention and cure.

  19. Strategies for Successful Recruitment of Pregnant Patients Into Clinical Trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutton, Elizabeth F; Cain, Loren E; Vallo, Porsha M; Redman, Leanne M

    2017-03-01

    Clinical research in the pregnant population allows for delivery of quality, evidence-based care in obstetrics. However, in recent years, the field of obstetrics has faced severe challenges in the recruitment of the pregnant population into clinical trials, a struggle also shared by several other medical disciplines. We candidly describe our failure to recruit a healthy population of overweight and obese pregnant women in their first trimester. We were then able to glean unsuccessful and successful recruitment approaches and improve our recruitment effort by autopsy of failed strategies and with guidance from a survey disseminated to improve our understanding of community feelings about participating in research while pregnant. These "lessons learned" taught us that active recruitment within this population is a necessity; that is, direct (face-to-face discussions at obstetric appointments) compared with indirect (flyers and general emails) modalities and that prenatal care provider support of the proposed research study is vital to a patient's willingness to participate. By implementation of "lessons learned," we describe how we successfully recruited a similar pregnant population 1 year later. The Clinical Trials related to our article are as follows: 1) Expecting Success: NCT01610752, https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT01610752; 2) MomEE: NCT01954342, https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT01954342; and 3) Participate While Pregnant Survey: NCT02699632, https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT02699632.

  20. Prevalence of musculoskeletal dysfunctions among Indian pregnant women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramachandra, Preetha; Maiya, Arun G; Kumar, Pratap; Kamath, Asha

    2015-01-01

    Pregnancy triggers a wide range of changes in a woman's body leading to various musculoskeletal dysfunctions. Most commonly reported musculoskeletal discomforts by pregnant women are low back pain and symphysis pubis pain. The culture and the environmental factors may influence the discomforts experienced by a pregnant woman. There is a dearth of literature in India, regarding the common musculoskeletal dysfunctions experienced by a pregnant woman, and hence this study. A questionnaire to identify the musculoskeletal dysfunction was developed; content was validated and was translated to local languages through parallel back translation. 261 primiparous pregnant women participated in the study and filled the questionnaire in their native language. Among the musculoskeletal dysfunctions reported by the pregnant women, 64.6% reported calf muscle cramps, 37.1% reported foot pain, and 33.7% experienced low back pain in their third trimester. In the second trimester, common musculoskeletal dysfunctions experienced by the women were that of calf pain (47.8%), low back pain (42%), and pelvic girdle pain (37%). Musculoskeletal dysfunctions and general discomforts very commonly affect the activities of daily living of pregnant women. Understanding the common discomforts during various trimesters of pregnancy will help to develop a comprehensive program for prevention and cure.

  1. Nutritional behaviours of pregnant women in rural and urban environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edyta Suliga

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Monitoring of the environmental differences in the mode of nutrition is especially important in pregnant women, for whom normal body weight gain is especially important for both the course of pregnancy and the normal development of the foetus, and is inseparably associated with rational nutrition. Objective. The objective of the study was evaluation of the mode of nutrition of pregnant women according to the place of residence. Materials and methods. The investigation comprised 704 women. Information was collected by means of an anonymous survey concerning place of residence, consumption of selected products and beverages, and taking folic acid and other vitamin and/or mineral dietary supplements. Results. In the urban environment, pregnant women more frequently consumed vegetables, milk and dairy products, sea fish and wholemeal cereal products, drank more liquids, as well as more fruit and/or vegetable juices, and more often used the supplementation with folic acid, even before becoming pregnant. No significant differences were found in the consumption of fruits, pulses, products which are the source of complete proteins, confectionery products and sweets, according to the place of residence. Conclusions. The diet of pregnant women from the rural environment compared to that of women from urban areas, was characterized by worse quality. It is necessary to carry out health education in the area of adequate nutrition among pregnant women, and those who plan pregnancy, directed primarily to all women from the rural environment.

  2. Gastroesophagial reflux disease and asthma in pregnant women with dyspnea.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katayoon Bidad

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Asthma and gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD are two common problems in pregnancy and they affect pregnancy in several ways. In this study, we aimed to evaluate GERD and asthma in pregnant women who referred for prenatal care visits. One-hundred and seventy three pregnant women with a complaint of dyspnea were included in the study. A questionnaire was filled and lung function tests were performed. All patients were visited by a respiratory specialist and questionnaires were evaluated by a gastroenterologist. Out of the total number of women studied, 37% were diagnosed to have asthma and 36.4% were non-asthmatics. Twenty six percent of the pregnant women who had symptoms and signs of asthma with normal spirometry were classified as probable to have asthma. GERD was diagnosed in 80.9% of the pregnant women, but it was not significantly higher in asthmatic or probable asthmatic women compared to non-asthmatic ones. However, severity of GERD was significantly higher in asthmatic pregnant women compared to the others. In conclusion, the prevalence of GERD was quite high in pregnant women, irrespective of the fact that they were asthmatic or non-asthmatic. Further studies evaluating women throughout pregnancy will inform us more about this relationship.

  3. Risk factors and risk index of cardiac events in pregnant women with heart disease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Hua; HUANG Tao-tao; LIN Jian-hua

    2012-01-01

    Background Pregnant women with heart disease are at high risk.Studies of risk factors of these patients are of great significance to improve maternal and fetal outcomes.In this paper,we try to discuss the main risk factors of cardiac events in pregnant women with heart disease and to establish a risk assessment system.Methods A retrospective analysis was carried out for pregnancies in 1741 women with heart disease who delivered in Shanghai Obstetrical Cardiology Intensive Care Center between January 1993 and September 2010.A Logistic regression model was used to identify independent risk factors of cardiac events and calculate the risk index in pregnant women with heart disease.Results The composition of heart disease in pregnant women was arrhythmia (n=662,38.00%),congenital heart disease (CHD; n=529,30.40%),cardiomyopathy (n=327,18.80%),rheumatic heart disease (RHD; n=151,8.70%),and cardiopathy induced by pre-eclampsia (n=53,3.00%).Main cardiac events were heart failure (n=110,6.32%),symptomatic arrhythmia needing medication (n=43,2.47%),cardiac arrest (n=2,0.11%),syncope (n=3,0.17%),and maternal death (n=10,0.57%).Six independent risk factors to predict cardiac events in pregnant women with heart disease were cardiac events before pregnancy (heart failure,severe arrhythmia,cardiac shock,etc.,P=0.000),New York Heart Association (NYHA) class >ll (P=0.000),oxygen saturation <90% (P=0.018),pulmonary artery hypertention (PAH)>50 mmHg (P=0.025),cyanotic heart disease without surgical correction (P=0.015),and reduced left ventricular systolic function (ejection fraction <40%,P=0.003).Every risk factor was calculated as 1 score.The incidence of cardiac events in patients with scores 0,1,2,3,and ≥4 was 2.10%,31.61%,61.25%,68.97%,and 100.00% respectively.Conclusions Pregnancy with heart disease could lead to undesirable pregnancy outcomes.The risk of cardiac events in pregnant women with heart disease could be assessed by risk

  4. Anesthetic management of a pregnant patient with pseudo-pancreatic cyst for cysto-gastrostomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shetti, Akshaya N; Dhulkhed, Vithal K; Gujarati, Amrish; Swetha, G S

    2014-01-01

    Non-obstetric diseases during pregnancy are not uncommon. The presence of systemic disease may further insult the pregnancy leading to alteration in the normal function of other system. Hence, it is important to treat the disease depending upon the severity and type of urgency. Several systemic diseases in pregnancy and management have been reported earlier but it is necessary to report a rare pathology, treatment option and its anesthetic management. We report anesthetic management of a rare case of pseudo pancreatic cyst in a pregnant lady operated for cysto-gastrostomy and also highlighting the recent guidelines for non-obstetric surgery in pregnancy.

  5. [Seroprevalance Differences of Toxoplasma Between Syrian Refugees Pregnants and Indigenous Turkish Pregnants in Kahramanmaraş].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakacak, Murat; Serin, Salih; Aral, Murat; Ercan, Önder; Köstü, Bülent; Kireçci, Ahmet; Bostancı, Mehmet Sühha; Bakacak, Zeyneb

    2015-06-01

    In this study, we aimed to compare the Syrian refugees and resident Turkish pregnant population in terms of Toxoplasma seroprevalence. Data acquired from Kahramanmaraş Necip Fazıl City Hospital Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology between 2012 and 2013 were analyzed retrospectively. Results of 7201 Toxoplasma IgM tests and 4113 Toxoplasma IgG tests were evaluated. For 2012 and 2013 Toxoplasma IgM seropositivity was found in Syrian refugees 4.76% and 4.84% respectively in our study. In the same population Toxoplasma IgG seropositivity rates were 80% and 62.6%, respectively. Toxoplasma IgM seropositivity rates for the native peoples in Turkey in 2012 and 2013 was 1.96% and 2.34%, while in the same population Toxoplasma IgG seropositivity was detected 49.7% and 45.7% respectively. Toxoplasma IgM seropositivity was statistically higher in Syrian refugees for each year (p refugees was statistically higher (p refugees living in the region of Kahramanmaraş were statistically higher than the rates of local inhabitants, we consider that this condition should be taken into account in the follow-ups of Syrian pregnant refugees outnumbering in Kahramanmaraş and its vicinity.

  6. Correlates of Stress among Pregnant Hispanic Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silveira, Marushka Leanne; Pekow, Penelope S.; Dole, Nancy; Markenson, Glenn; Chasan-Taber, Lisa

    2012-01-01

    Objectives Prenatal psychosocial stress has been associated with adverse pregnancy outcomes, even after controlling for known risk factors. This paper aims to evaluate correlates of high perceived stress among Hispanic women, a group with elevated rates of stress during pregnancy. Methods We conducted this analysis among 1426 pregnant Hispanic women using data from Proyecto Buena Salud, a prospective cohort study conducted in Western Massachusetts. Cohen’s Perceived Stress Scale (PSS-14) validated in English and Spanish was administered in early (mean=12.4 wks gestation), mid (mean=21.3 wks gestation) and late (mean=30.8 wks gestation) pregnancy at which time bilingual interviewers collected data on socio-demographic, acculturation, behavioral, and psychosocial factors. High perceived stress was defined as a PSS score>30. Results Young maternal age (odds ratio (OR) =0.6; 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.4-0.9 for 12 drinks/mo. vs. none) and smoking (OR=2.2; 95% CI 1.3-3.7 for >10 cigarettes/day vs. none) were associated with high perceived stress during early pregnancy. Furthermore, higher annual household income (OR=0.4; 95% CI 0.1-0.9 for >$30,000 vs. <$15,000), greater number of adults in the household (OR=1.8; 95% CI 1.1-3.0 for ≥3 vs. 1) and language preference (OR=0.6; 95% CI 0.4-0.9 for Spanish vs. English) were associated with high stress during mid-pregnancy. Likewise, annual household income was inversely associated with high stress during late pregnancy. Conclusion Our results have important implications for incorporation of routine screening for psychosocial stress during prenatal visits and implementation of psychosocial counseling services for women at high risk. PMID:23010861

  7. Psychophysiology and posttraumatic stress disorder symptom profile in pregnant African-American women with trauma exposure

    OpenAIRE

    Michopoulos, Vasiliki; Rothbaum, Alex O.; Corwin, Elizabeth; Bradley, Bekh; Kerry J Ressler; Jovanovic, Tanja

    2014-01-01

    While female sex is a robust risk factor for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), pregnant women are an understudied population in regards to PTSD symptom expression profiles. Because circulating hormones during pregnancy affect emotionality, we assessed whether pregnant women would have increased expression of the intermediate phenotypes of hyperarousal and fear-potentiated startle (FPS) compared to non-pregnant women. We examined PTSD symptom profiles in pregnant (n=207) and non-pregnant w...

  8. CERVICAL CYTOLOGICAL SCREENING AND MANAGEMENT IN PREGNANT AND POSTPARTUM WOMEN

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Gui-fang He; Mei-lu Bian; Ying Wang; Xiao-yan Liu

    2005-01-01

    Objective To examine and follow up cervical cytology of pregnant and postpartum women and study their cytopathologic characteristics, so as to determine screening and managing programs for abnormal cervical cytology.Methods Totally 5296 patients in pregnancy and postpartum, in which 3729 by computer-assisted cytology test and 1567 by liquid-based monolayers cytology test, were examined and diagnosed by the Bethesda System made in 2001. Those proven epithelial abnormalities patients were followed up until the lesions regressed to normal. The remaining patients,who exhibited persistent abnormalities or progression, were given further examinations.Results The positive rate of cervical cytological test was 8.72% (462/5296), including squamous carcinoma (SCA) 1case (0.02%), high grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (HSIL) 34 cases (0.64%), low grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (LSIL) 145 cases (2.74%), atypical glandular cells (AGC) 5 cases (0.09%), atypical squamous cells cannot exclude HSIL (ASC-H) 14 cases (0.26%), atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance (ASC-US) 263 cases (4.97%). The 419 proven cytological abnormality cases were followed up successfully. The total transnegative rate in three months was 73.74% (309/419), in which 303 cases (72.32%) persisted normal status for more than six months after regression. And the transnegative rate of ASC-US, ASC-H, AGC, LSIL, and HSIL were 79.56%, 64.29%, 100%,72.14% and 44.12%, respectively. Forty-six cases received biopsy directed by colposcopy. The distribution of coincidence of cytopathologic and histopathologic diagnosis was: SCA 1 case (100%), HSIL 10 cases (76.92%), LSIL 13 cases (65%), ASC-H 2 cases (50%), ASC-US 3 cases (37.50%), total 29 cases (63.04%).Conclusions We should cast more attention to screening cervix lesions in pregnant and postpartum women. Their cytopathologic characteristics are liable to make the clinician give a false positive diagnosis. So we propose to follow up them closely

  9. Effectiveness of the Gold Standard Programmes (GSP for Smoking Cessation in Pregnant and Non-Pregnant Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mette Rasmussen

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Smoking is considered the most important preventable risk factor in relation to the development of complications during pregnancy and delivery. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of an intensive 6-week gold standard programme (GSP on pregnant women in real life. Methods: This was a prospective cohort study based on data from a national Danish registry on smoking cessation interventions. The study population included 10,682 women of a fertile age. The pregnancy status of the study population was identified using the National Patient Registry. Results: The response rate to follow up was 76%. The continuous abstinence rate for both pregnant and non-pregnant smokers was 24–32%. The following prognostic factors for continuous abstinence were identified: programme format (individual/group, older age, heavy smoking, compliance with the programme, health professional recommendation, and being a disadvantaged smoker. Conclusions: The GSP seems to be as effective among pregnant smokers as among non-pregnant smoking women. Due to the relatively high effect and clinical significance, the GSP would be an attractive element in smoking cessation intervention among pregnant women.

  10. Localization of interleukin-6 receptor mRNA in the pregnant and non-pregnant mouse uterus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hondo, Eiichi; Kokubu, Keiji; Kato, Kahori; Kiso, Yasuo

    2005-12-01

    To understand roles of interleukin 6 (IL-6) family cytokines for pregnancy in mice, localization of IL-6 receptor (IL-6R) mRNA was investigated in non- and early pregnant uteri by in situ hybridization. IL-6R mRNA was expressed in all non-pregnant uteri and in pregnant uteri from the third day (Day 3) to the sixth day of pregnancy (Day 6; the day of plug = Day 1). IL-6R mRNA signals were detected in non-pregnant mice in the luminal and glandular epithelium. Signal strength varied according to the sexual cycle. There was no correlation between the signal strength of the IL-6R mRNA and the serum concentrations of progesterone and 17beta-estradiol, which show a monophasic rise in the non-pregnant sexual cycle. In pregnant mice, slight signals were detectable in the luminal and glandular epithelium on Day 3. IL-6R mRNA messages increased with progression towards Day 4, however, localization changed drastically on Day 5. Stromal cells abruptly expressed their mRNA on Day 5, and these cells strongly expressed it on Day 6. The function of IL-6R in the luminal and glandular epithelium might be different from that in the stroma during the implantation period. In addition, few signals were identified in the stromal cells adjacent to the luminal epithelium on Day 6. This suggests that there are two types of stromal cells on Day 6 in mice.

  11. High-density cervical ureaplasma urealyticum colonization in pregnant women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ranđelović Gordana

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/aim: Ureaplasma urealyticum, a common commensal of the female lower genital tract, has been observed as an important opportunistic pathogen during pregnancy. The aims of this study were to determine the degree of cervical colonization with U. urealyticum in pregnant women with risk pregnancy and in pregnant women with normal term delivery and to evaluate the correlation between high-density cervical U. urealyticum colonization and premature rupture of membranes (PROM as well. Methods. This research was conducted on the samples comprising 130 hospitalized pregnant women with threatening preterm delivery and premature rupture of membranes. The control group consisted of 39 pregnant women with term delivery without PROM. In addition to standard bacteriological examination and performing direct immunofluorescence test to detect Chlamydia trachomatis, cervical swabs were also examined for the presence of U. urealyticum and Mycoplasma hominis by commercially available Mycofast Evolution 2 test (International Microbio, France. Results. The number of findings with isolated high-density U. urealyticum in the target group was 69 (53.08%, while in the control group was 14 (35.90%. Premature rupture of membranes (PROM occurred in 43 (33.08% examinees: 29 were pPROM, and 14 were PROM. The finding of U.urealyticum ≥104 was determined in 25 (58.14% pregnant women with rupture, 17 were pPROM, and 8 were PROM. There was statistically significant difference in the finding of high-density U. urealyticum between the pregnant women with PROM and the control group (χ² = 4.06, p < 0.05. U. urealyticum was predominant bacterial species found in 62.79% of isolates in the PROM cases, while in 32.56% it was isolated alone. Among the 49 pregnant women with preterm delivery, pPROM occurred in 29 (59.18% examinees, and in 70.83% of pregnant women with findings of high-density U. urealyticum pPROM was observed. Conclusion. Cervical colonization with U

  12. Prevalence of HIV among rural pregnant women attending antenatal clinics at Pravara Rural Hospital, Loni, Maharashtra, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Purushottam A Giri

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Many antenatal clinics (ANC-based HIV surveillance systems in India have limited coverage of remote rural sites, a weakness that compromises adequate estimation, monitoring, and development of effective preventive and care programs. To address this void in rural area of western Maharashtra, we conducted antenatal clinic-based sentinel surveillance to know the prevalence of HIV infection among rural pregnant women. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study was carried out at ANC clinic, Dept. of Obstetrics and Gynaecology of Pravara Rural Hospital, Loni, Maharashtra. A total of 12,171 pregnant women from rural area accepted HIV testing after counseling who attending ANC clinic in Pravara Rural Hospital, Loni, during January 2008 to December 2011 were included in the study. Data were entered in Microsoft excel and percentage and proportion was calculated. Results: In the present study, out of 12171 pregnant women from the rural area accepted HIV testing after counseling who attending ANC clinic, only 50 (0.41% were HIV positive and remaining 12, 221 (99.59% were HIV negative. The study showed that the prevalence of HIV among pregnant women was 0.41%. Out of the 50 HIV positive pregnant women studied majority, 32 (64.0%, were primigravidas and 18 (36.0% were multigravidas. Conclusion: In our study all 12171 pregnant women from the rural area accepted HIV testing after counseling and prevalence of HIV was found to be 0.41%. The need of the hour is to provide universal access to these services by involving the NGO′s and the private sector.

  13. Helicobacter pylori infection and gastrointestinal symptoms on Chilean pregnant women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gina Ferrer Poveda

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective: the aim of this research was to determine the prevalence of Helicobacter pylori infection on Chilean pregnant women and its relationship with the appearance and severity of hyperemesis and dyspepsia. Methods: quantitative study of prevalence in a transversal cut with variable analysis. The sample was taken from 274 Chilean pregnant women from the Bío Bío province through vein puncture between June and December, 2005. Pregnant women were informed of this study, interviewed and signed an informed consent. The samples were processed using ImmunoComb II Helicobacter pylori IgG kit. Statistical analysis was performed by means of the Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS Program. Results: out of the total number of pregnant women, 68.6% showed infection by Helicobacter pylori. 79.6% of the total sample had symptoms of dyspepsia, and 72.5% of this group presented Helicobacter pylori infection. 12.4% showed pregnancy hyperemesis; among them, 79.4% were infected with Helicobacter pylori. 73.4% of the pregnant women that showed gastric discomfort during the first three months had Helicobacter pylori infection. 53.7% of them continued with gastric discomfort after the first three months; of those, 95.8% were infected. Helicobacter pylori infection was present only in 1.5% of pregnant women without gastric discomfort. Conclusion: both, gastric discomfort of pregnant women and the continuity of severe symptoms of dyspepsia and hyperemesis after the first three months of gestation are significantly correlated with Helicobacter pylori infection.

  14. Ventricular dyssynchrony in pregnant women: A tissue Doppler study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahfouz, Ragab A; El-Awady, Waleed S; Dewedar, Ashraf

    2017-07-01

    The aim of the study was to assess the left ventricular (LV) synchronicity in pregnant women and to identify the main determinants of LV dyssynchrony in asymptomatic pregnant women. One hundred sixty-seven pregnant women consecutively and 48 age-matched nonpregnant controls were enrolled. For the assessment of LV systolic dyssynchrony, the standard deviation of the time from QRS onset to peak systolic (Tps-LV- standard deviation [SD]) velocity and the maximal difference of the time from QRS onset to peak systolic velocity (Tps-LV) from 12 segments at the apical views. For the LV diastolic dyssynchrony, the standard deviation of the time from QRS onset to peak diastolic (Tpe-LV-SD) velocity and the maximal difference of the time from QRS onset to peak diastolic velocity (Tpe-LV) were calculated. Both systolic and diastolic dyssynchrony indexes were significantly higher in pregnant women than in the normal controls (Tps-LV; Ppregnant women had a dyssynchrony index above the accepted value for LV dyssynchrony (>34.4 msec). There was a significant correlation between LV dyssynchrony indexes with, multiparty, multifetal pregnancies, systolic blood pressure in pregnant women with LV dyssynchrony. Additionally LV dyssynchrony was significantly associated with elevated E/e" and brain natriuretic peptide (BNP). Both systolic synchronicity and diastolic synchronicity were affected in pregnant women compared to nonpregnant women. LV dyssynchrony was significantly correlated with age, multiparity, and BNP level. Early detectable changes in systolic and diastolic synchrony may be present in pregnant women at higher risk of peripartum cardiomyopathy. © 2017, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Carbon tetrachloride-induced hepatotoxicity in pregnant and lactating rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mochizuki, Masahiro; Shimizu, Satomi; Urasoko, Yoshinaka; Umeshita, Kazuhiko; Kamata, Takashi; Kitazawa, Takahiro; Nakamura, Daichi; Nishihata, Yoshito; Ohishi, Takumi; Edamoto, Hiroshi

    2009-04-01

    Carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) is well known to induce hepatotoxicity after being metabolized to trichloromethyl free radical ((.)CCl3) by CYP2E1. In the present study, the hepatotoxicity induced by a single oral dose (2,000 mg/kg) of CCl4 was compared between pregnant (gestation days (GD) 13 and 19) or postpartum (postpartum days (PPD) 1, 13 and 27) and non-pregnant rats. Hepatotoxicity in CCl4-treated pregnant rats evaluated by blood chemistry (alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) activities) and histopathological finding (area of damaged hepatocytes) was minimal on GD19, being weaker than that in non-pregnant rats. CYP2E1 expression in non-treated pregnant rats decreased as pregnancy progressed and reached minimum level on GD19. Thus, the degree of CCl4-induced hepatotoxicity roughly corresponded to CYP2E1 levels during pregnancy. After delivery, hepatotoxicity in CCl4-treated lactating rats was maximal on PPD13, being stronger than that in non-pregnant rats, and then it decreased slightly on PPD27. The CYP2E1 level in the non-treated lactating rats tended to increase but remained at lower levels until PPD13 compared with that in non-pregnant rats. Thus, the degree of CCl4-induced hepatotoxicity did not correspond to CYP2E1 levels during lactation. This suggests that during lactation, there may be certain factors other than CYP2E1 expression responsible for the degree of CCl4-induced hepatotoxicity.

  16. Lectin binding pattern in the uterus of pregnant mice infected with Tritrichomonas foetus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woudwyk, M A; Gimeno, E J; Soto, P; Barbeito, C G; Monteavaro, C E

    2013-01-01

    Bovine genital tritrichomonosis is caused by the protozoon Tritrichomonas foetus and leads to embryonic death and abortion. The complexity of handling bovine experimental systems has led to the development of alternative models. The infection has been reproduced in pregnant BALB/c mice. In the pathogenesis of the disease, adhesion of the protozoon to host cell surface glycoproteins is important. Labelling with soya bean agglutinin (SBA) and peanut agglutinin (PNA) lectins increases in the luminal and glandular uterine epithelium of non-pregnant infected mice. The aim of the present study was to determine whether these changes also occur in pregnant infected BALB/c mice. Female BALB/c mice were inoculated intravaginally with T. foetus and, 15 ± 3 days post infection, were paired with males overnight. Infected and control mice were sacrificed 6, 8 and 10 days later. Samples of uterus were labelled with a panel of biotinylated lectins. Infected mice showed increased binding of PNA and SBA. There was also increased binding of concanavalin (Con-A) by luminal epithelium and Ricinus communis agglutinin (RCA-1) by glandular epithelium at day 6 post coitum. These changes may be due to the production of enzymes by T. foetus, which could act to enhance adhesion and colonization and thus favour infection.

  17. Possible overexposure of pregnant women to emissions from a walk through metal detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Dagang; Qiang, Rui; Chen, Ji; Seidman, Seth; Witters, Donald; Kainz, Wolfgang

    2007-09-01

    This paper presents a systematic procedure to evaluate the induced current densities and electric fields due to walk-through metal detector (WTMD) exposure. This procedure is then used to assess the exposure of nine pregnant women models exposed to one WTMD model. First, we measured the magnetic field generated by the WTMD, then we extracted the equivalent current source to represent the WTMD emissions and finally we calculated the induced current densities and electric fields using the impedance method. The WTMD emissions and the induced fields in the pregnant women and fetus models are then compared to the ICNIRP Guidelines and the IEEE C95.6 exposure safety standard. The results prove the consistency between maximum permissible exposure (MPE) levels and basic restrictions for the ICNIRP Guidelines and IEEE C95.6. We also found that this particular WTMD complies with the ICNIRP basic restrictions for month 1-5 models, but leads to both fetus and pregnant women overexposure for month 6-9 models. The IEEE C95.6 restrictions (MPEs and basic restrictions) are not exceeded. The fetus overexposure of this particular WTMD calls for carefully conducted safety evaluations of security systems before they are deployed.

  18. Possible overexposure of pregnant women to emissions from a walk through metal detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu Dagang [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Houston, Houston, TX 77204 (United States); Qiang Rui [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Houston, Houston, TX 77204 (United States); Chen Ji [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Houston, Houston, TX 77204 (United States); Seidman, Seth [Division of Physics, Office of Science and Engineering Labs, Center for Devices and Radiological Health, FDA, 10903 New Hampshire Avenue, Silver Spring, MD 20993 (United States); Witters, Donald [Division of Physics, Office of Science and Engineering Labs, Center for Devices and Radiological Health, FDA, 10903 New Hampshire Avenue, Silver Spring, MD 20993 (United States); Kainz, Wolfgang [Division of Physics, Office of Science and Engineering Labs, Center for Devices and Radiological Health, FDA, 10903 New Hampshire Avenue, Silver Spring, MD 20993 (United States)

    2007-09-21

    This paper presents a systematic procedure to evaluate the induced current densities and electric fields due to walk-through metal detector (WTMD) exposure. This procedure is then used to assess the exposure of nine pregnant women models exposed to one WTMD model. First, we measured the magnetic field generated by the WTMD, then we extracted the equivalent current source to represent the WTMD emissions and finally we calculated the induced current densities and electric fields using the impedance method. The WTMD emissions and the induced fields in the pregnant women and fetus models are then compared to the ICNIRP Guidelines and the IEEE C95.6 exposure safety standard. The results prove the consistency between maximum permissible exposure (MPE) levels and basic restrictions for the ICNIRP Guidelines and IEEE C95.6. We also found that this particular WTMD complies with the ICNIRP basic restrictions for month 1-5 models, but leads to both fetus and pregnant women overexposure for month 6-9 models. The IEEE C95.6 restrictions (MPEs and basic restrictions) are not exceeded. The fetus overexposure of this particular WTMD calls for carefully conducted safety evaluations of security systems before they are deployed.

  19. Possible overexposure of pregnant women to emissions from a walk through metal detector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Dagang; Qiang, Rui; Chen, Ji; Seidman, Seth; Witters, Donald; Kainz, Wolfgang

    2007-10-07

    This paper presents a systematic procedure to evaluate the induced current densities and electric fields due to walk-through metal detector (WTMD) exposure. This procedure is then used to assess the exposure of nine pregnant women models exposed to one WTMD model. First, we measured the magnetic field generated by the WTMD, then we extracted the equivalent current source to represent the WTMD emissions and finally we calculated the induced current densities and electric fields using the impedance method. The WTMD emissions and the induced fields in the pregnant women and fetus models are then compared to the ICNIRP Guidelines and the IEEE C95.6 exposure safety standard. The results prove the consistency between maximum permissible exposure (MPE) levels and basic restrictions for the ICNIRP Guidelines and IEEE C95.6. We also found that this particular WTMD complies with the ICNIRP basic restrictions for month 1-5 models, but leads to both fetus and pregnant women overexposure for month 6-9 models. The IEEE C95.6 restrictions (MPEs and basic restrictions) are not exceeded. The fetus overexposure of this particular WTMD calls for carefully conducted safety evaluations of security systems before they are deployed.

  20. Characterization of Vaginal Escherichia coli Isolated from Pregnant Women in Two Different African Sites.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emma Sáez-López

    Full Text Available The relevance of vaginal colonization of pregnant women by Escherichia coli is poorly understood, despite these strains sharing a similar virulence profile with other extraintestinal pathogenic E. coli producing severe obstetric and neonatal infections. We characterized the epidemiology, antimicrobial susceptibility and virulence profiles of 84 vaginal E. coli isolates from pregnant women from Rabat (Morocco and Manhiça (Mozambique, two very distinct epidemiological settings. Low levels of antimicrobial resistance were observed to all drugs tested, except for trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole in Manhiça, where this drug is extensively used as prophylaxis for opportunistic HIV infections. The most prevalent virulence factors were related to iron acquisition systems. Phylogroup A was the most common in Rabat, while phylogroups E and non-typeable were the most frequent in Manhiça. Regardless of the apparently "low virulence" of these isolates, the frequency of infections is higher and the outcomes more devastating in constrained-resources conditions, especially among pregnant women and newborns.

  1. Biomathematical pattern of EMG signal propagation in smooth muscle of the non-pregnant porcine uterus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domino, Malgorzata; Pawlinski, Bartosz; Gajewski, Zdzislaw

    2017-01-01

    Uterine contractions are generated by myometrial smooth muscle cells (SMCs) that comprise most of the myometrial layer of the uterine wall. Aberrant uterine motility (i.e., hypo- or hyper-contractility or asynchronous contractions) has been implicated in the pathogenesis of infertility due to the failure of implantation, endometriosis and abnormal estrous cycles. The mechanism whereby the non-pregnant uterus initiates spontaneous contractions remains poorly understood. The aim of the present study was to employ linear synchronization measures for analyzing the pattern of EMG signal propagation (direction and speed) in smooth muscles of the non-pregnant porcine uterus in vivo using telemetry recording system. It has been revealed that the EMG signal conduction in the uterine wall of the non-pregnant sow does not occur at random but it rather exhibits specific directions and speed. All detectable EMG signals moved along the uterine horn in both cervico-tubal and tubo-cervical directions. The signal migration speed could be divided into the three main types or categories: i. slow basic migration rhythm (SBMR); ii. rapid basic migration rhythm (RBMR); and iii. rapid accessory migration rhythm (RAMR). In conclusion, the EMG signal propagation in smooth muscles of the porcine uterus in vivo can be assessed using a linear synchronization model. Physiological pattern of the uterine contractile activity determined in this study provides a basis for future investigations of normal and pathologicall myogenic function of the uterus. PMID:28282410

  2. Indigenous practices of pregnant women at Dilokong hospital in Limpopo province, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mamagoro A. Mogawane

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Indigenous practices (IPs are experiences generated by people who are living in a specific regional context and cultural group. IPs are shaped by cultural traits that are passed from one generation to the next. IPs practices are rooted and embedded in society and, therefore, the practices become part of the people’s lifestyle. It is difficult to try and change these practices as people have adhered to them throughout their entire lives. The believe system plays a major role in health care seeking behaviour of individuals because they are informed by the IPs that are observed in their environment.Objectives: To explore and describe the IPs of pregnant women at Dilokong hospital in Limpopo province.Method: A qualitative, descriptive, explorative and contextual research design was used for the participants to describe the IPs used by pregnant women. Data were collected through unstructured one-on-one interviews.Results: The following four themes with sub-themes emerged from the data: IPs based on ancestral knowledge; IPs based on spiritual diviners versus church principles; restricted practices versus instructions followed during pregnancy; and labour and IPs during labour and delivery.Conclusion: IPs are regarded as an honourable health intervention by traditional health practitioners (THPs, families and pregnant women. IPs like cords around women’s waists are still observed during physical examinations. However, there is a reduction of prescribed indigenous oral medication used to accelerate labour because of their potential toxicity.

  3. The impact of pregnancy on the HIV-1-specific T cell function in infected pregnant women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hygino, Joana; Vieira, Morgana M; Kasahara, Taissa M; Xavier, Luciana F; Blanco, Bernardo; Guillermo, Landi V C; Filho, Renato G S; Saramago, Carmen S M; Lima-Silva, Agostinho A; Oliveira, Ariane L; Guimarães, Vander; Andrade, Arnaldo F B; Bento, Cleonice A M

    2012-12-01

    Evidences indicate that pregnancy can alter the Ag-specific T-cell responses. This work aims to evaluate the impact of pregnancy on the in vitro HIV-1-specific immune response. As compared with non-pregnant patients, lower T-cell proliferation and higher IL-10 production were observed in T-cell cultures from pregnant patients following addition of either mitogens or HIV-1 antigens. In our system, the main T lymphocyte subset involved in producing IL-10 was CD4(+)FoxP3(-). Depletion of CD4(+) cells elevated TNF-α and IFN-γ production. Interestingly, the in vitro HIV-1 replication was lower in cell cultures from pregnant patients, and it was inversely related to IL-10 production. In these cultures, the neutralization of IL-10 by anti-IL-10 mAb elevated TNF-α release and HIV-1 replication. In conclusion, our results reveal that pregnancy-related events should favor the expansion of HIV-1-specific IL-10-secreting CD4(+) T-cells in HIV-1-infected women, which should, in the scenario of pregnancy, help to reduce the risk of vertical HIV-1 transmission.

  4. Hair mercury levels in pregnant women in Mahshahr, Iran: fish consumption as a determinant of exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salehi, Zohreh; Esmaili-Sari, Abbas

    2010-09-15

    MeHg is a well-documented neurotoxicant even at low levels of exposure. Developing brain, in particular, is vulnerable to that. Through bioaccumulating to differing degrees in various fish species, it can have serious adverse effects on the development and functioning of the human central nervous system, especially during prenatal exposure. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to investigate mercury concentration in hair samples of pregnant women living in Mahshahr located in Khuzestan province, Iran. It assessed the association between fish consumption and specific characteristics that can influence exposure. From April to June 2008, 149 pregnant women were invited to participate in this study. An interview administered questionnaire was used to collect information about age, body weight, height, fish (fresh, canned and shrimp) consumption, pregnancy stage, residence duration, education level, family income and number of dental amalgam fillings. The obtained results showed that the geometric mean and range for hair total Hg concentration was 3.52 microg/g (0.44-53.56 microg/g). About 5.4% of mothers had hair total Hg levels in excess of 10 microg/g. Maternal hair mercury level was less than threshold level of WHO (5 microg/g). As expected, there was a clear increase in hair Hg with reported fresh marine fish consumption (p=0.04). The highest mean for hair mercury level in a group who consumed fish several times per week, was 4.93 microg/g. Moreover, a significant effect of age and residential time on Hg concentration in the hair of the women was found. Pregnant women in Mahshahr consumed large amounts of fish; consequently, most of their offspring were prenatally exposed to moderately high levels of mercury. The results found suggest that pregnant women should decrease their fish consumption.

  5. Knowledge of diabetes mellitus among pregnant women in three districts of Nepal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shrestha, S; Thapa, P; Saleh, F; Thapa, N; Stray, B Pedersen; Khanom, K

    2013-09-01

    Diabetes mellitus is an emerging health problem in developing world with the consumption of energy dense diet and inactive lifestyle. The problem of diabetes is further expanded due to ignorance and lack of knowledge. The aim of the study was to assess the knowledge of diabetes among pregnant women in three districts of Nepal. A community based cross-sectional study was conducted in three districts in mountain, hilly and plain areas of Nepal. A total of 590 pregnant women were interviewed during the period of July 2009 to June 2010. A knowledge score system was applied. Poor score was 60%) of the total score. Statistical software SPSS 11.5 was used for data entry, data management and analysis. Out of 590 pregnant women, only 41% had heard about diabetes mellitus. Majority of the participants (75%) from age group >30 years had not heard about diabetes. Among the 241 with some knowledge, the knowledge score median percent(range) on the meaning, symptoms, risk factors, treatment, prevention, complications and overall knowledge were 50%(0-100), 25% (0-75), 20% (0-60), 20% (0-100), 25% (0-100), 20% (0-60) and 26% (0- 58) respectively. According to defined category, majority of those who ever heard about diabetes had poor knowledge (95%). Knowledge among literate women (p=.001), women residing in Kailali district (plain region) (p=.003) and those with positive family history of diabetes (p=.003) was found to be significant. As large proportions of Nepalese pregnant women do not have any knowledge or have poor knowledge regarding diabetes, extensive health education and health promotion programs are urgently recommended to prevent diabetes in Nepal.

  6. Differential expression of uterine NO in pregnant and nonpregnant rats with intrauterine bacterial infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, L; Nowicki, B; Yallampalli, C

    2001-05-01

    Previous studies have demonstrated that nitric oxide (NO) is involved in the uterine host defense against bacterial infection. In nonpregnant rats, NO production in the uterus was shown to be lower, and inducible NO synthase (NOS) expression was undetectable. However, studies in pregnant rats show abundant expression of inducible NOS with significant elevation in NO production in the uterus. We have recently reported that intrauterine Escherichia coli infection caused a localized increase in uterine NO production and inducible NOS expression in the nonpregnant rat. In our present study, we examined whether the uterine NO production, NOS expression, and uterine tumor necrosis factor-alpha protein are increased in pregnant rats with intrauterine pathogenic Escherichia coli infection. Unlike the nonpregnant state, the NO production in the infected uterine horn of pregnant rats was not significantly elevated after bacterial inoculation compared with the contralateral uterine horn. The expression of uterine NOS (types II and III) also did not show significant upregulation in the infected horn. This is in contrast to that in nonpregnant animals, in which type II NOS was induced in the uterus on infection. Moreover, intrauterine infection induced an elevated expression of tumor necrosis factor-alpha protein in the infected horn both of nonpregnant and of pregnant rats. These data suggest that the sequential stimulation of NOS expression, especially the inducible isoform, and generation of uterine NO are lacking during pregnancy despite an elevated tumor necrosis factor-alpha after infection. In summary, NO synthesis response may be maximal at pregnancy, and infection may not further induce the NO system. Present studies, together with our previous report that intrauterine infection-induced lethality in pregnancy rats was amplified with the inhibition of NO, suggest that pregnancy is a state predisposed for increased complications associated with intrauterine infection and

  7. Ondansetron Exposure Changes in a Pregnant Woman.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemon, Lara S; Zhang, Hongfei; Hebert, Mary F; Hankins, Gary D; Haas, David M; Caritis, Steve N; Venkataramanan, Raman

    2016-09-01

    Pregnancy results in many physiologic changes that can alter the pharmacokinetic profiles of medications used during pregnancy. One of the primary factors leading to these pharmacokinetic changes is altered activity of drug-metabolizing enzymes. Ondansetron is a substrate of cytochrome P450 (CYP) 3A4 (primary metabolic pathway), 2D6, and 1A2, all of which are altered during pregnancy. We evaluated the pharmacokinetics of ondansetron at three different gestational time points in a 26-year-old, pregnant, Caucasian woman with normal liver and kidney function, who was maintained on ondansetron 8 mg administered orally 3 times/day throughout her pregnancy. Serial plasma samples were collected from the subject over one 8-hour dosing interval at 14, 24, and 35 weeks' gestation (representing early-, mid-, and late-pregnancy time points, respectively). Ondansetron plasma concentrations were determined using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. Ondansetron area under the plasma concentration-time curve decreased progressively across gestation (634 ng hr/ml in early pregnancy, 553 ng hr/ml in mid-pregnancy, and 387 ng hr/ml in late pregnancy), with a corresponding increase in apparent oral clearance (12.6 L/hr in early-pregnancy, 14.5 L/hr in mid-pregnancy, and 20.7 L/hr in late-pregnancy). The decreased area under the plasma concentration-time curve and exposure to ondansetron across gestation is likely due to increased activity of CYP3A4 and CYP2D6 during pregnancy. We were not able to study this patient during the postpartum period; however, as with other CYP3A4 and CYP2D6 substrates, the apparent activities of these isoenzymes are likely return to baseline. To our knowledge, this is the first report to describe ondansetron pharmacokinetics across gestation. Additional pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic data are needed to confirm our results and to evaluate clinical impact; however, in the meantime, clinicians should be aware of these pharmacokinetic changes in

  8. O acesso à assistência ao parto para parturientes adolescentes nas maternidades da rede SUS Accesibilidad a asistencia del parto para parturientes adolescentes en las maternidades del sistema de salud Accessibility to childbirth attendance for pregnant adolescents in health system's maternities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrícia Santos Barbastefano

    2010-12-01

    servicios de asistencia al parto.The study aimed at identifies the factors that interfere in the accessibility of pregnant woman to the attendance of childbirth in the Health System in the city of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. It is quantitative study, with traverse and observational design, accomplished at maternities of Health System, through structured interview. The sample was constituted of 328 adolescent during post partum. Data were organized in a database, for subsequent analysis, done with the software EPI INFO version 6.03. The prevalence reason was used as association measure. The results evidenced that 40.5% of the adolescents were black; 54.9% had fundamental teaching; 91.5% had had prenatal attendance. The access was considered unsatisfactory for 36.6% of them, and 20.7% went to more than one maternity for giving birth. It was concluded that the attendance to the pregnant adolescent still needs some adjustments, in order to favor their access to the services of attendance to childbirth.

  9. Red blood cell glutathione peroxidase activity in female nulligravid and pregnant rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martino Guglielmo

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The alterations of the glutathione peroxidase enzyme complex system occur in physiological conditions such as aging and oxidative stress consequent to strenuous exercise. Methods Authors optimize the spectrophotometric method to measure glutathione peroxidase activity in rat red blood cell membranes. Results The optimization, when applied to age paired rats, both nulligravid and pregnant, shows that pregnancy induces, at seventeen d of pregnancy, an increase of both reactive oxygen substance concentration in red blood cells and membrane glutathione peroxidase activity. Conclusion The glutathione peroxidase increase in erythrocyte membranes is induced by systemic oxidative stress long lasting rat pregnancy.

  10. Retention in care of HIV-infected pregnant and lactating women starting ART under Option B+ in rural Mozambique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Llenas-García, Jara; Wikman-Jorgensen, Philip; Hobbins, Michael; Mussa, Manuel Aly; Ehmer, Jochen; Keiser, Olivia; Mbofana, Francisco; Wandeler, Gilles

    2016-08-01

    In 2013, Mozambique adopted Option B+, universal lifelong antiretroviral therapy (ART) for all pregnant and lactating women, as national strategy for prevention of mother-to-child transmission of HIV. We analysed retention in care of pregnant and lactating women starting Option B+ in rural northern Mozambique. We compared ART outcomes in pregnant ('B+ pregnant'), lactating ('B+ lactating') and non-pregnant non-lactating women of childbearing age starting ART according to clinical and/or immunological criteria ('own health') between July 2013 and June 2014. Lost to follow-up was defined as no contact >180 days after the last visit. Multivariable competing risk models were adjusted for type of facility (type 1 vs. peripheral type 2 health centre), age, WHO stage and time from HIV diagnosis to ART. Over 333 person-years of follow-up (243 'B+ pregnant', 65'B+ lactating' and 317 'own health' women), 3.7% of women died and 48.5% were lost to follow-up. 'B+ pregnant' and 'B+ lactating' women were more likely to be lost in the first year (57% vs. 56.9% vs. 31.6%; P < 0.001) and to have no follow-up after the first visit (42.4% vs. 29.2% vs. 16.4%; P < 0.001) than 'own health' women. In adjusted analyses, risk of being lost to follow-up was higher in 'B+ pregnant' (adjusted subhazard ratio [asHR]: 2.77; 95% CI: 2.18-3.50; P < 0.001) and 'B+ lactating' (asHR: 1.94; 95% CI: 1.37-2.74; P < 0.001). Type 2 health centre was the only additional significant risk factor for loss to follow-up. Retention among PLW starting option B+ ART was poor and mainly driven by early losses. The success of Option B+ for prevention of mother-to-child transmission of HIV in rural settings with weak health systems will depend on specific improvements in counselling and retention measures, especially at the beginning of treatment. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Dynamic material properties of the pregnant human uterus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manoogian, Sarah J; Bisplinghoff, Jill A; Kemper, Andrew R; Duma, Stefan M

    2012-06-01

    Given that automobile crashes are the largest single cause of death for pregnant females, scientists are developing advanced computer models of pregnant occupants. The purpose of this study is to quantify the dynamic material properties of the human uterus in order to increase the biofidelity of these models. A total of 19 dynamic tension tests were performed on pregnant human uterus tissues taken from six separate donors. The tissues were collected during full term Cesarean style deliveries and tested within 36 h of surgery. The tissues were processed into uniform coupon sections and tested at 1.5 strains/s using linear motors. Local stress and strain were determined from load data and optical markers using high speed video. The experiments resulted in a non-linear stress versus strain curves with an overall average peak failure true strain of 0.32±0.112 and a corresponding peak failure true stress of 656.3±483.9 kPa. These are the first data available for the dynamic response of pregnant human uterus tissues, and it is anticipated they will increase the accuracy of future pregnant female computational models.

  12. Bile Acid Determination after Standardized Glucose Load in Pregnant Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, April; Jacobs, Katherine; Vogel, Rachel Isaksson; Lupo, Virginia

    2015-01-01

    Objective Intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy (ICP) is a rare liver disorder, usually manifesting in the third trimester and associated with increased perinatal morbidity and mortality. The hallmark laboratory abnormality in ICP is elevated fasting serum bile acids; however, there are limited data on whether a nonfasting state affects a pregnant woman's total bile acids. This study assesses fasting and nonfasting bile acid levels in 10 healthy pregnant women after a standardized glucose load to provide insight into the effects of a glucose load on bile acid profiles. Study Design Pilot prospective cohort analysis of serum bile acids in pregnant women. A total of 10 healthy pregnant women from 28 to 32 weeks' gestation were recruited for the study before undergoing a glucose tolerance test. Total serum bile acids were collected for each subject in the overnight fasting state, and 1 and 3 hours after the 100-g glucose load. Results There was a statistically significant difference between fasting versus 3-hour values. There was no statistically significant difference between fasting versus 1-hour and 1-hour versus 3-hour values. Conclusion There is a difference between fasting and nonfasting total serum bile acids after a 100-g glucose load in healthy pregnant women. PMID:26495178

  13. Swimming of pregnant rats at different water temperatures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osorio, R A L; Silveira, V L F; Maldjian, S; Morales, A; Christofani, J S; Russo, A K; Silva, A C; Piçarro, I C

    2003-08-01

    We studied the chronic effect of exercise during water immersion, associated with thermal stress (water temperature at 22, 35 and 40 degrees C) at an intensity of 80% of maximal work load supported in pregnant rats (P) and non-pregnant female rats (NP). P and NP were subdivided into three subgroups according to water temperature during exercise (P22 and NP22; P35 and NP35; P40 and NP40). The animals were submitted to daily swimming sessions of 10-15 min, for 19 days of pregnancy (P) or experimental conditions (NP). Plasma concentration of triglycerides, cholesterol, glucose, total protein, albumin and corticosterone were determined 24 h after the last exercise session. Weight gain and rectal temperature pre- and post-swimming session were also determined. The offspring were examined just after caesarian section on the 20th day of pregnancy to check weight, length and litter size. Pregnant rats showed an increase of triglycerides, reduction of glycemia, total protein and albumin and cholesterol (at 35 degrees C) when compared to non-pregnant animals. Such effects probably lead to an adequate delivery of substrate to the fetus and prepare the mother for lactation. Daily thermal stress did not modify metabolic responses to exercise in pregnant rats. Results also show a deleterious effect on offspring when the mother is exposed daily to extreme temperatures during swimming. These results suggest that water temperature (cold and hot) in swimming have to be considered to avoid damage in fetal development.

  14. Intestinal Parasitic Infections among Pregnant Women in Venezuela

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Intestinal parasitic infections, especially due to helminths, increase anemia in pregnant women. The results of this are low pregnancy weight gain and IUGR, followed by LBW, with its associated greater risks of infection and higher perinatal mortality rates. For these reasons, in the setting of no large previous studies in Venezuela about this problem, a national multicentric study was conducted. Methods. Pregnant women from nine states were studied, a prenatal evaluation with a coproparasitological study. Univariated and multivariated analyses were made to determine risk factors for intestinal parasitosis and related anemia. Results. During 19 months, 1038 pregnant women were included and evaluated. Intestinal parasitosis was evidenced in 73.9%: A lumbricoides 57.0%, T trichiura 36.0%, G lamblia 14.1%, E hystolitica 12.0%, N americanus 8.1%, E vermicularis 6.3%, S stercoralis 3.3%. Relative risk for anemia in those women with intestinal parasitosis was 2.56 ( P<.01 . Discussion. Intestinal parasitoses could be associated with conditions for development of anemia at pregnancy. These features reflect the need of routine coproparasitological study among pregnant women in rural and endemic zones for intestinal parasites. Further therapeutic and prophylactic protocols are needed. Additional research on pregnant intestinal parasitic infection impact on newborn health is also considered.

  15. Canine herpesvirus during pregnancy and non-pregnant luteal phase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ström Holst, B; Hagberg Gustavsson, M; Grapperon-Mathis, M; Lilliehöök, I; Johannisson, A; Isaksson, M; Lindhe, A; Axnér, E

    2012-12-01

    Canine herpesvirus (CHV) is a widespread infection among dogs that typically get latently infected after exposure and can reactivate the infection after stress. The aim of the present study was to study the effects of latent CHV infection during pregnancy on pregnancy outcome, and to study if there are signs of genital viral reactivation during pregnancy or during non-pregnant luteal phase. Twelve mated bitches and eight control bitches were followed and sampled regularly during pregnancy or non-pregnant luteal phase. Blood samples were taken for antibody analysis and vaginal swabs for real-time PCR analysis. Three of the pregnant bitches were vaccinated against CHV during pregnancy. All bitches had antibodies to CHV. Two pregnant bitches that were not vaccinated had a twofold or larger increase in CHV titre, with no negative effects detected on pregnancy. Higher titres were not associated with smaller litters or with vaccination. There was no consistent variation in antibody titres due to pregnancy or non-pregnant luteal phase. Vaginal excretion of CHV was not detected from any of the bitches.

  16. Zika virus and pregnant women: A psychological approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filgueiras Meireles, Juliana Fernandes; Neves, Clara Mockdece; Morgado, Fabiane Frota da Rocha; Caputo Ferreira, Maria Elisa

    2017-07-01

    Zika virus presents risk of physical harm to pregnant women, but the fear of infection is also affecting women around the world. There is a gap in the research on Zika virus in the areas involving the impact on the psychosocial well-being of pregnant women. Therefore, this study is aimed at the investigation of the psychosocial adjustment of pregnant women to the risks of Zika virus infection during pregnancy. We investigated 14 pregnant women who were classified in three different groups: six in the first trimester, five in the second trimester and three in the third trimester, aged from 28 to 40 years (33.43 ± 3.76 years). Content analysis was used to interpret data. Our results show that the psychosocial adjustment of participants was significantly negative and included five aspects: (1) negative feelings, (2) changes in family planning, (3) adopting new customs (avoiding places of risk, use of specific clothes and use of repellent), (4) changed attitudes regarding body image and (5) feeling of external demand regarding prevention. The fear of Zika virus infection and all its associated risks have a negative biopsychosocial impact on the pregnant women in this study.

  17. Epidemiology and Risk Factors of Functional Constipation in Pregnant Women.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenjun Shi

    Full Text Available To understand the prevalence of functional constipation in pregnant women and to analyze the impact of its risk factors.We searched hospital databases for women who were 37-41 weeks pregnant (1698 cases from July 2012 to January 2014 in four hospitals in Shanghai. We reviewed factors including general data, living and eating habits, psychological history, past history of defecation in the 6 months before pregnancy and defecation after pregnancy. Data were analyzed using SPSS software.Pregnant women who were more than 35 years old, with a pre-pregnancy body mass index >24, who were highly educated and employed in a sedentary occupation, showed a higher prevalence of functional constipation. Multivariate logistic regression analysis indicated that the prevalence of functional constipation among pregnant women was related to age, pre-pregnancy body mass index, diet, exercise, occupation, psychological factors, threatened abortion in early pregnancy and constipation history.The prevalence rate of functional constipation in pregnant women was significantly higher than in the general population.

  18. Malaria prevention in the pregnant traveller: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roggelin, Louise; Cramer, Jakob P

    2014-01-01

    Malaria is still a major threat to health in tropical regions. Particular attention should be directed to malaria prevention in infants and pregnant women as they are at high risk for plasmodial infection and complicated malaria. In this review, we summarize and discuss current evidence on malaria prevention in pregnant travellers. As neither anti-mosquito measures nor anti-malarial drugs have been proven to be unequivocally safe or toxic in pregnant women, the individual risk assessment should take into account the risk of transmission at the destination, the benefit of travelling despite being pregnant as well as the individual risk perception. All three factors may differ in various groups of travellers like tourist travellers, expatriate travellers as well as those visiting friends and relatives. For pregnant women, mefloquine appears to be the drug of choice for prophylaxis and stand by-therapy if no contraindications exist - despite recent renewed warnings related to prolonged side effects. In areas with high resistance against mefloquine or in women with contraindications to mefloquine, atovaquone-proguanil or artemether-lumefantrine should be considered as an option for stand-by emergency therapy. Nevertheless, evidence on the safety of anti-malarials especially during the first trimester is still insufficient.

  19. M-cholinoreactivity of erythrocytes of non-pregnant and pregnant women evaluated by changes in the rate of erythrocyte agglutination under the influence of acetylcholine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strelnikova, A I; Tsirkin, V I; Krysova, A V; Hlybova, S V; Dmitrieva, S L

    2012-12-01

    Acetylcholine (5.5×10(-10)-5.5×10(-6)M) accelerated erythrocyte agglutination in men, non-pregnant women in follicular phase of the menstrual cycle, and pregnant women in the first trimester. The effect was blocked with atropine (5.5×10(-6)M). Acetylcholine had no effect on the rate of erythrocyte agglutination in non-pregnant women in the luteal phase and pregnant women in the second and third trimesters, which coincided with the development of myometrium refractoriness to acetylcholine in pregnant women. The results indicate that erythrocytes can reflect M-cholinoreactivity of internal organs.

  20. A field experiment: reducing interpersonal discrimination toward pregnant job applicants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, Whitney Botsford; Walker, Sarah Singletary; Hebl, Michelle Mikki R; King, Eden B

    2013-09-01

    The current research targets 4 potential stereotypes driving hostile attitudes and discriminatory behaviors toward pregnant women: incompetence, lack of commitment, inflexibility, and need for accommodation. We tested the relative efficacy of reducing concerns related to each of the stereotypes in a field experiment in which female confederates who sometimes wore pregnancy prostheses applied for jobs in a retail setting. As expected, ratings from 3 perspectives (applicants, observers, and independent coders) converged to show that pregnant applicants received more interpersonal hostility than did nonpregnant applicants. However, when hiring managers received (vs. did not receive) counterstereotypic information about certain pregnancy-related stereotypes (particularly lack of commitment and inflexibility), managers displayed significantly less interpersonal discrimination. Explicit comparisons of counterstereotypic information shed light on the fact that certain information may be more effective in reducing discrimination than others. We conclude by discussing how the current research makes novel theoretical contributions and describe some practical organizational implications for understanding and improving the experiences of pregnant workers.

  1. Cholinesterase and self-reported pesticide exposure among pregnant women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Peyster, A; Willis, W O; Molgaard, C A; MacKendrick, T M; Walker, C

    1993-01-01

    Ascertainment of exposure to cholinesterase-inhibiting pesticides in pregnant subjects is complicated by altered enzyme activity that results from metabolic changes associated with pregnancy. Nevertheless, this study found a high correlation (Pearson chi-square = 13.67, p = .008) between classification of pesticide exposure using self-reported interview information and plasma cholinesterase activity for 203 pregnant women for whom three trimester cholinesterase values were available. All plasma cholinesterase activity values were referenced, by trimester, to a larger sample of 1,050 plasma cholinesterase values from 535 pregnant women. Subjects who lived nearest to agricultural land and who reported that they worked with pesticides in agricultural and other occupations tended to have lower plasma cholinesterase activity than those who reported use of household pesticides only.

  2. First trimester Down's syndrome screening - pregnant women's knowledge

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahl, Katja; Hvidman, Lone; Jørgensen, Finn Stener;

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The primary aim of this study was to assess pregnant women's knowledge of first trimester combined Down's syndrome screening in a setting of required informed consent. Secondary, we wanted to identify relevant differences in knowledge level among subgroups of pregnant women, including...... of adverse findings other than Down's syndrome. Knowledge level was positively associated with length of education (adjusted ORs 1.0 (0.8-1.4) to 3.9 (2.4-6.4)) and participation in the screening programme (adjusted OR 0.9 (0.6-1.3) to 5.9 (3.9-8.8)). Participation in an individual information session...... subgroups informed in different ways about prenatal examinations. METHODS: Data stem from a population-based cross-sectional questionnaire study including 15 multiple-choice questions assessing knowledge of different screening aspects. Included were 6,427 first trimester pregnant women from three Danish...

  3. Airway changes in pregnant women before and after delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aydas, A D; Basaranoglu, G; Ozdemir, H; Dooply, S L S; Muhammedoglu, N; Kucuk, S; Saidoglu, L

    2015-06-01

    High incidence of difficult or failed intubation in obstetric patients is still a major problem to challenge anaesthesiologists. Although the probability of difficult intubation is impossible to predict preoperatively, some simple, practical bedside tests may help. This study used five simple tests in an attempt to better evaluate airway changes in pregnant women before and after delivery. Pregnant women from the ASA I-II group who were planning to undergo a normal vaginal delivery were evaluated as to the possibility of experiencing difficult intubation. Mallampati scores, thyromental distance, sternomental distance, mouth opening, and the degree of neck extension were recorded just before delivery and 24 h after delivery. Significant differences were seen in the pre- and post-delivery measurements (p changed in one-third (n 21, 36.6%) of the patients. Significant differences between the two measurements of thyromental and sternomental distances, mouth opening, and the degree of neck extension confirm difficult airway management in pregnant women.

  4. Hemoglobin values for pregnant women residing at middle altitude

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mercedes Jatziri Gaitán-González

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To determine maternal hemoglobin behavior during pregnancy for middle altitude residents and to compare it with that reported in other populations with or without iron supplementation. Materials and methods. Hematological values from 227 pregnant women residing at 2 240 m altitude (Mexico City, with low obstetric and perinatal risk, and receiving supplementary iron, were compared with reference values obtained from other populations of pregnant women residing at different altitudes, after correcting for altitude. Results. While the hemoglobin values for the first and second trimester of pregnancy in our studied population were similar to those reported for iron-supplemented populations (p mayor que 0.05, the third trimester values were similar to those reported for a population without this supplement (p mayor que 0.05. Conclusions. Despite receiving supplementary iron, hemoglobin values during pregnancy from women residing at middle altitude show similar behavior to that reported for pregnant women without iron supplementation.

  5. PRESENT DAY CONCERNS ON DIET OF PREGNANT AND NURSING MOTHERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.G. Mamonova

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Proper nutrition of women at pregnancy and delivery is known to provide basis for normal healthy growth and development of their children. Deficiency of animal proteins, vegetable fats, polyunsaturated fatty acids, vitamins (as b-carotine, А, Е, С, В2, В6, В12, folic acid, as well as calcium, magnesium, iron, cuprum, zinc, chrome, selenium, iodine and other microelements have been shown in the studies of actual diets of pregnant and nursing mothers in different regions of Russia, which was conducted by scientific research institute of nutrition, Russian academy of medical sciences. Methods of diet improvement to correct macro- and micronutrient deficiency in pregnant and nursing mothers, including use of specialized food products, are taken up in the article.Key words: diet, pregnant mothers, nursing mothers, nutritive support.

  6. Health care to immigrant and Portuguese pregnant women in Portugal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emília de Carvalho Coutinho

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to assess the care received and the barriers faced by immigrants and Portuguese pregnant women in Portugal. This is an exploratory qualitative study, resorting to applying semi-structured interviews to 60 immigrant and 22 Portuguese women. Content analysis supported by QSR Nvivo10 program was used. The study was approved by an Ethics Committee. The results showed four categories related to affective dimensions-relational, cognitive, technical-instrumental and health care policy for pregnant women. As for the barriers in health care, these were mentioned by some of the expectant mothers, especially immigrant women. Almost all, both immigrant and Portuguese, pregnant women were satisfied with the health care.

  7. Immunological disorders in formation of periodontal diseases at pregnant women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.V. Lepilin

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The research goal is to study clinical and immunological features of parodentium and cytokine profile in oral cavity of pregnant women. The condition of parodentium tissues was studied at 200 women with physiological pregnancy and 300 women with pregnancy complicated by gestosis. According to the results of examination 50 women with gestosis and 50 women with physiological pregnancy had inflammatory periodontal diseases. Phenotyping of lymphocytes by immunofluorescence method, investigation of necrosis containing factor of tumour-a, interleukin-8, interleukin-4 and transforming growth factor beta-1 in oral cavity by immunofermental analysis were performed. Frequency and character of inflammatory periodontal diseases at pregnancy were defined. Correlation of gingivitis and periodontitis at pregnancy with extragenital pathology was demonstrated. Immune and cytokine disbalance contributed greatly to pathogenesis of inflammatory periodontal diseases at pregnant women. Thus pathogenesis of oral hygiene, smoking, gestosis, immunosuppression and cytokine disbalance affects inflammatory periodontal diseases at pregnant women

  8. Comparative evaluation of subgingival plaque microflora in pregnant and non-pregnant women: A clinical and microbiologic study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rishi Emmatty

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Gingival changes in pregnancy have been attributed to changes in the subgingival biofilm related to hormonal variations. Aims: To evaluate the subgingival plaque microflora in pregnant and nonpregnant women to determine if pregnancy induces any alterations in the subgingival plaque and to associate these changes with changes in periodontal status. Settings and Design: Thirty pregnant and 10 nonpregnant women within the age group of 20-35 years having a probing pocket depth (PPD of 3-4 mm were included in the study. The pregnant women were equally divided into 3 groups of 10, each belonging to I, II, and III trimester. Materials and Methods: Plaque index, gingival index, PPD, and microbiologic evaluation for specific bacterial counts for Prevotella intermedia, Porphyromonas gingivalis, Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans, Parvimonas micra, and Fusobacterium nucleatum were carried out for all subjects. Statistical Analysis: Mann-Whitney U test. Results: Increase in gingival inflammation was observed in II and III trimester as compared with I trimester and control. Plaque scores did not show any significant difference between pregnant and nonpregnant women. Specific bacterial examination revealed an increase in proportion of P. intermedia in pregnant women of both II and III trimester as compared with I trimester and nonpregnant women. Conclusions: A definite increase in proportions of P. intermedia occurs in subgingival plaque microflora in pregnancy that may be responsible for the exaggerated gingival response.

  9. Posture analysis of lifting a load for head carriage and comparison between pregnant and non-pregnant women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dumas, G A; Preston, D; Beaucage-Gauvreau, E; Lawani, M

    2014-01-01

    In Western Africa, women continue performing heavy physical work that includes carrying loads on their heads during pregnancy. Women may adapt to pregnancy related body changes by modifying their postures to perform such tasks. The objectives of this biomechanical task analysis study were to 1) determine sagittal plane postures of the trunk and upper extremities at specific events during the task of lifting and lowering a load to be carried on the head, 2) compare postures of pregnant and non-pregnant participants, 3) evaluate risk for musculo-skeletal disorders (MSD) with the rapid entire body assessment (REBA) criteria. Twenty-six pregnant (26 ± 5 years, 159 ± 9 cm, 63 ± 15 kg, 25 ± 9 weeks of pregnancy) and 25 paired non-pregnant retail merchants were recruited in Porto-Novo (Benin). Participants were recorded on video in a laboratory setting while they lifted a tray (20% body weight) from a stool to their head and then put it back down. Trunk inclination and knee, shoulder and elbow flexion angles were determined using Dartfish® software. The trunk was bent by more than 80° at pick-up and set-down and knees were moderately flexed, significantly less (pregnant women, possibly because it was harder to lift the trunk, or for stability. For all postures analysed, the majority of trials were classified as "high" risk or "very high risk" for MSD. Future research should investigate prevalence of MSDs in this population to confirm the results of this study.

  10. Changes in blood glucose, plasma non-esterified fatty acids and insulin in pregnant and non-pregnant goats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, J R; Ludri, R S

    2002-02-01

    The blood glucose and the plasma non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA) and insulin concentrations were estimated in jugular blood samples from 18 Alpine x Beetal and Sannen x Beetal goats during pregnancy and compared with samples from non-pregnant goats and from goats during the periparturient period. The blood glucose levels in the pregnant goats rose to a peak of about 60 +/- 1.36 mg/ml at 42-56 days and then declined to about 46 +/- 2.37 mg/ml at 112-126 days. In non-pregnant goats, the blood glucose levels were significantly (p goats, except between days 42 and 70 (59 +/- 1.36 mg/ml). On the day of kidding, the levels declined significantly (p goats from days 56 to 126. The NEFA concentration increased on the day of kidding, followed by a transient fall by day 3. The plasma insulin concentration was usually higher in pregnant than in non-pregnant goats, except between days 56 and 70 and from day 126 onwards. The insulin concentration fell late in pregnancy, but there was a transient increase 2 days after parturition. The blood glucose and plasma NEFA concentrations can be used as indices of nutritional status during pregnancy in goats.

  11. Supporting pregnant Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander women to quit smoking: views of antenatal care providers and pregnant indigenous women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Passey, Megan E; Sanson-Fisher, Rob W; Stirling, Janelle M

    2014-12-01

    To assess support for 12 potential smoking cessation strategies among pregnant Australian Indigenous women and their antenatal care providers. Cross-sectional surveys of staff and women in antenatal services providing care for Indigenous women in the Northern Territory and New South Wales, Australia. Respondents were asked to indicate the extent to which each of a list of possible strategies would be helpful in supporting pregnant Indigenous women to quit smoking. Current smokers (n = 121) were less positive about the potential effectiveness of most of the 12 strategies than the providers (n = 127). For example, family support was considered helpful by 64 % of smokers and 91 % of providers; between 56 and 62 % of smokers considered advice and support from midwives, doctors or Aboriginal Health Workers likely to be helpful, compared to 85-90 % of providers. Rewards for quitting were considered helpful by 63 % of smokers and 56 % of providers, with smokers rating them more highly and providers rating them lower, than most other strategies. Quitline was least popular for both. This study is the first to explore views of pregnant Australian Indigenous women and their antenatal care providers on strategies to support smoking cessation. It has identified strategies which are acceptable to both providers and Indigenous women, and therefore have potential for implementation in routine care. Further research to explore their feasibility in real world settings, uptake by pregnant women and actual impact on smoking outcomes is urgently needed given the high prevalence of smoking among pregnant Indigenous women.

  12. Hepatitis E among Pregnant Women in Urmia, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z Rostamzadeh Khameneh

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Although the hepatitis E virus mostly causes a self-limited disease in general population, but the disease is more severe in pregnant women. Hepatitis E accounts for about 10% of pregnancy associated deaths in southern Asia. But the prevalence in Iran is almost unclear, so this study is aimed to investigate the seroprevalence of anti-HEV IgG among a population of pregnant women in West Azerbaijan of Iran.   Materials and Methods: 136 pregnant women who referred to an urban health centers of Urmia for pursuing pregnancy-related health services were selected randomly and enrolled in a descriptive, cross-sectional study. Each subject was tested for the presence of anti-HEV IgG antibody using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA, Dia.Pro; Diagnostic Bioprobes, Italy.   Results: The mean age among 136 pregnant women was 25.12±4.91 years old (range of 14-39 years. Only five cases (3.6% among all 136 subjects were demonstrated to be seropositive for anti-HEV IgG using ELISA method. There was no significant difference between age (P=0.88, income level (P=0.19 of two seropositive and seronegative groups. All seropositive cases were from urban areas.   Conclusion: The seroprevalence of anti-HEV IgG is low in the population of pregnant women in Urmia, Iran. Because of limited sample size in this study, we recommend to perform further studies with larger sample size in other regions of Iran in order to be able to systematically generalize the findings of studies to the population of Iranian pregnant women.   Keywords: Pregnancy, Hepatitis E, women ELISA  

  13. Spinal curvature and characteristics of postural change in pregnant women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okanishi, Natsuko; Kito, Nobuhiro; Akiyama, Mitoshi; Yamamoto, Masako

    2012-07-01

    Pregnant women often report complaints due to physiological and postural changes. Postural changes during pregnancy may cause low back pain and pelvic girdle pain. This study aimed to compare the characteristics of postural changes in pregnant compared with non-pregnant women. Prospective case-control study. Pregnancy care center. Fifteen women at 17-34 weeks pregnancy comprised the study group, while 10 non-pregnant female volunteers comprised the control group. Standing posture was evaluated in the sagittal plane with static digital pictures. Two angles were measured by image analysis software: (1) between the trunk and pelvis; and (2) between the trunk and lower extremity. Spinal curvature was measured with Spinal Mouse® to calculate the means of sacral inclination, thoracic and lumbar curvature and inclination. The principal components were calculated until eigenvalues surpassed 1. Three distinct factors with eigenvalues of 1.00-2.49 were identified, consistent with lumbosacral spinal curvature and inclination, thoracic spine curvature, and inclination of the body. These factors accounted for 77.2% of the total variance in posture variables. Eleven pregnant women showed postural characteristics of lumbar kyphosis and sacral posterior inclination. Body inclination showed a variety of patterns compared with those in healthy women. Spinal curvature demonstrated a tendency for lumbar kyphosis in pregnant women. Pregnancy may cause changes in spinal curvature and posture, which may in turn lead to relevant symptoms. Our data provide a basis for investigating the effects of spinal curvature and postural changes on symptoms during pregnancy. © 2012 The Authors Acta Obstetricia et Gynecologica Scandinavica© 2012 Nordic Federation of Societies of Obstetrics and Gynecology.

  14. Pharmacological Treatment for Pregnant Women who Smoke Cigarettes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koren G

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Smoking has been associated with several concerns in pregnancy including miscarriage, preterm delivery and stillbirth. Unfortunately, approximately 12% of the pregnant population continue to smoke cigarettes, suggesting a need for additional therapy beyond behavioural change. This paper reviews the literature on the use of nicotine replacement therapy and bupropion (Zyban® in the pregnant human population, the pharmacokinetics of nicotine in the pregnant woman, and current guidelines for smoking cessation for pregnant patients. There are currently four studies that have investigated the use of nicotine patch, three for nicotine gum, and registry and preliminary reports for bupropion. These studies did not show any adverse pregnancy outcomes with the use of pharmacological aid for smoking cessation. All the nicotine replacement therapy studies, with the exception of one randomized-controlled nicotine patch trial had small sample sizes and looked at short-term use of drug in the third trimester. Two studies have examined the pharmacokinetics of nicotine in the pregnant woman. The results from these studies reveal greater nicotine metabolism in pregnant individuals who continue to smoke during pregnancy. Current guidelines from several organizations uniformly recommend that Nicotine Replacement Therapy should be considered if non-pharmacological therapies have been unsuccessful. Bupropion is recommended in pregnancy if the benefits outweigh the risks. There is a need for further studies on the safety and effectiveness of Nicotine Replacement therapy and bupropion in pregnancy. However, considering the current research and guidelines, pharmacological cessation aids should be considered if non-pharmacological therapies have not been effective.

  15. Group B Streptococcal Colonization Among Pregnant Women in Delhi, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaudhary, Manu; Rench, Marcia A; Baker, Carol J; Singh, Pushpa; Hans, Charoo; Edwards, Morven S

    2017-07-01

    Little is known regarding maternal group B streptococcal (GBS) colonization prevalence and capsular (CPS) serotype distribution among pregnant women in India. The objective of this prospective cohort study was to determine GBS recto-vaginal colonization prevalence in pregnant women at Dr. Ram Manohar Lohia Hospital in Delhi, India. Literature review identified reports from India assessing GBS colonization prevalence in pregnant women. Rectal and vaginal swabs were inoculated into Strep B Carrot Broth (Hardy Diagnostics, Santa Maria, CA) and subcultured onto GBS Detect plates (Hardy Diagnostics, Santa Maria, CA). Isolates were serotyped using ImmuLex Strep-B latex kits (Statens Serum Institut, Copenhagen, Denmark). Thirteen studies were identified citing GBS colonization prevalence during pregnancy as 0.47%-16%. Among 300 pregnant women (mean age: 26.9 years; mean gestation: 34 weeks) enrolled (August 2015 to April 2016), GBS colonization prevalence was 15%. Fifteen percent of women had vaginal only, 29% had rectal only and 56% had both sites colonized. CPS types were Ia (13.3%), Ib (4.4%), II (20%), III (22.2%), V (20%) and VII (6.7%); 13.3% were nontypable. Fetal loss in a prior pregnancy at ≥20-weeks gestation was more common in colonized than noncolonized women (15.6% vs. 3.5%; P = 0.004). Employing recent census data for the birth cohort and estimating that 1%-2% of neonates born to colonized women develop early-onset disease, at least 39,000 cases of early-onset disease may occur yearly in India. Using optimal methods, 15% of third trimester pregnant women in India are GBS colonized. A multivalent vaccine containing 6 CPS types (Ia, Ib, II, III, V and VII) would encompass ~87% of GBS carried by pregnant women in India.

  16. Gunshot wound to the pregnant uterus: case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osnaya-Moreno, Humberto; Zaragoza Salas, Tahitiana Abelina; Escoto Gomez, Jorge Armando; Mondragon Chimal, Marco Antonio; Torres Castaneda, Maria De Lourdes; Jimenez Flores, Mauro

    2013-09-01

    Crime and violence have become a public health problem. Pregnant women have not been the exception and gunshot injuries occupy an important place as a cause of trauma. An important fact is that pregnant women, who suffer trauma, are special patients because pregnancy causes physiological and anatomical changes. Management of these patients should be multidisciplinary, by the general surgeon, the obstetrician and the neonatologist. However, even trauma referral centers could neither have the staff nor the ideal training for these specific cases. In this context we present the following case.

  17. Pemphigus vulgaris in a pregnant woman and her neonate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibrahim, Sameera Begum Kader; BM, Yashodhara; Umakanth, Shashikiran; Kanagasabai, Sachchithanatham

    2012-01-01

    A 23-year-old pregnant woman in her second trimester of pregnancy presented with blisters on the face, abdomen and the leg. Based on the clinical presentation and skin biopsy (histopathology and direct immunofluorescence) the diagnosis of pemphigus vulgaris was established. The child born to this patient also had similar skin lesions. The lesions in the mother and the child improved after treatment. The authors report a rare case of pemphigus vulgaris in a pregnant lady and neonatal pemphigus in her child, both of whom were treated successfully. PMID:22744241

  18. Evaluation of sexual functions of the pregnant women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tosun Güleroğlu, Funda; Gördeles Beşer, Nalan

    2014-01-01

    Pregnant women may avoid sexual intercourse or may unavoidably undergo problems in their sexual lives because of various complaints they suffer from. The study aims to evaluate sexual functions of the pregnant women and to determine the factors that negatively affect their sexual health. This is a descriptive research study conducted to evaluate sexual functions of pregnant women. Three hundred six pregnant women admitted to the Women Birth Polyclinics within the Women Birth and Children's Hospital between October 1, 2010 and March 31, 2011 were included in the study. The data were gathered using a personal information form and the Female Sexual Function Index (FSFI). Kruskall-Wallis variance analysis and Mann-Whitney U-tests were used for the statistical analysis. The main outcome is an assessment of the FSFI domains in pregnancy and relationships between pregnancy complaints and sexual functions. The results indicated that the mean age of the pregnant women was 25.6 ± 5.4 and their length of marriage was 5.93 ± 5.4 years. The study revealed that 88.9% of the pregnant women had sexual desire disorders, 86.9% had sexual arousal disorder, 42.8% had lubrication disorders, 69.6% had orgasm disorders, and 48% had sexual satisfaction disorders. Statistically significant differences were found in correlations between FSFI medians and the characteristics of the pregnant women in terms of age, educational level, length and type of marriage, and gestational week. There were also statistically significant differences in correlations between the pregnancy characteristics in terms of backache, constipation, respiratory difficulty, leg ache, and cramp problems (P sexual lives of the pregnant women were negatively affected not only by factors such as old age, low educational status, arranged marriages lasting for more than 10 years, undesired pregnancy, and gestational week but also by health problems such as backache, constipation, respiratory difficulty, leg ache

  19. First trimester Down's syndrome screening - pregnant women's knowledge

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahl, Katja; Hvidman, Lone; Jørgensen, Finn Stener

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The primary aim of this study was to assess pregnant women's knowledge of first trimester combined Down's syndrome screening in a setting of required informed consent. Secondary, we wanted to identify relevant differences in knowledge level among subgroups of pregnant women, including...... of adverse findings other than Down's syndrome. Knowledge level was positively associated with length of education (adjusted ORs 1.0 (0.8-1.4) to 3.9 (2.4-6.4)) and participation in the screening programme (adjusted OR 0.9 (0.6-1.3) to 5.9 (3.9-8.8)). Participation in an individual information session...

  20. Simplified pregnant woman models for the fetus exposure assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jala, Marjorie; Conil, Emmanuelle; Varsier, Nadège; Wiart, Joe; Hadjem, Abdelhamid; Moulines, Éric; Lévy-Leduc, Céline

    2013-05-01

    In this paper, we introduce a study that we carried out in order to validate the use of a simplified pregnant woman model for the assessment of the fetus exposure to radio frequency waves. This simplified model, based on the use of a homogeneous tissue to replace most of the inner organs of the virtual mother, would allow us to deal with many issues that are raised because of the lack of pregnant woman models for numerical dosimetry. Using specific absorption rate comparisons, we show that this model could be used to estimate the fetus exposure to plane waves.

  1. Need of tetraiodothyronine supplemental therapy in pregnant women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoian, Dana; Craciunescu, Mihalea; Timar, Romulus; Schiller, Adalbert; Pater, Liana; Craina, Marius

    2013-10-01

    Thyroid hormones are essential for fetal development. Normal thyroid function in pregnant women adjusts by itself in cases of pregnancy, phenomenon that is deficient in cases of previous maternal thyroid disease. The study group was represented by 120 females, with reproductive age, with known thyroid disease, that had a up to delivery pregnancy. Thyroid ultrasound parameters and functional parameters were follow-up during the 9-month of gestation. The study proposes a mathematical model of predicting the need and the amount of tetraiodothyronine treatment in pregnant women with prevalent thyroid disease.

  2. Plasma homocysteine levels in cycling, pregnant, and spayed bitches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trisolini, C; Minoia, G; Manca, R; Rizzo, A; Robbe, D; Valentini, L; Sciorsci, R L

    2008-10-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the physiological range of homocysteine (Hcy) exhibited by bitches during the follicular (pro-oestrus), luteal (dioestrus) and anoestrus phases of cycling animals, and in pregnant and spayed bitches. The lowest concentrations of Hcy were observed during dioestrus (3.2+/-1.27micromol/L) and in pregnant bitches (3.9+/-1.72micromol/L), and the highest concentrations during anoestrus (7.8+/-0.6micromol/L) and in spayed bitches (12.1+/-5.16micromol/L).

  3. Anti-NMDA Receptor Encephalitis in a Pregnant Woman.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jiyoung; Park, Seung Ha; Jung, Yu Ri; Park, Soon Won; Jung, Dae Soo

    2015-06-01

    Anti N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor encephalitis is one of the most common types of autoimmune synaptic encephalitis. Anti-NMDA receptor encephalitis commonly occurs in young women with ovarian teratoma. It has variable clinical manifestations and treatment responses. Sometimes it is misdiagnosed as a psychiatric disorder or viral encephalitis. To the best of our knowledge, anti-NMDA receptor encephalitis is a rare condition in pregnant women. We report a case of anti-NMDA receptor encephalitis in a pregnant woman who presented with abnormal behavior, epileptic seizure, and hypoventilation.

  4. Attenuated neuroendocrine responses to emotional and physical stressors in pregnant rats involve adenohypophysial changes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neumann, I D; Johnstone, H A; Hatzinger, M; Liebsch, G; Shipston, M; Russell, J A; Landgraf, R; Douglas, A J

    1998-01-01

    The responsiveness of the rat hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis and hypothalamo-neurohypophysial system (HNS) to emotional (elevated plus-maze) and physical (forced swimming) stressors and to administration of synthetic corticotrophin-releasing hormone (CRH) was investigated during pregnancy and lactation. In addition to pregnancy-related adaptations at the adenohypophysial level, behavioural responses accompanying the neuroendocrine changes were studied. Whereas basal (a.m.) plasma corticosterone, but not corticotrophin (adrenocorticotrophic hormone; ACTH), levels were increased on the last day (i.e. on day 22) of pregnancy, the stress-induced rise in both plasma hormone concentrations was increasingly attenuated with the progression of pregnancy beginning on day 15 and reaching a minimum on day 21 compared with virgin control rats. A similar attenuation of responses to both emotional and physical stressors was found in lactating rats. Although the basal plasma oxytocin concentration was elevated in late pregnancy, the stress-induced rise in oxytocin secretion was slightly lower in day 21 pregnant rats. In contrast to vasopressin, oxytocin secretion was increased by forced swimming in virgin and early pregnant rats indicating a differential stress response of these neurohypophysial hormones. The blunted HPA response to stressful stimuli is partly due to alterations at the level of corticotrophs in the adenohypophysis, as ACTH secretion in response to CRH in vivo (40 ng kg−1, i.v.) was reduced with the progression of pregnancy and during lactation. In vitro measurement of cAMP levels in pituitary segments demonstrated reduced basal levels of cAMP and a lower increase after CRH stimulation (10 nm, 10 min) in day 21 pregnant compared with virgin rats, further indicating reduced corticotroph responsiveness to CRH in pregnancy. The reduced pituitary response to CRH in late pregnancy is likely to be a consequence of a reduction in CRH receptor binding as

  5. Significance of Immune Indexes in Predicting Pregnancy Outcomes of Pregnant Patients With Systemic Lupus ;Erythematosus%免疫指标对妊娠合并系统性红斑狼疮患者妊娠结局的指导意义研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王慧英; 叶艺璇; 于莎莎; 赵绵松; 张蕊

    2016-01-01

    Objective To investigate the significance of immune indexes in predicting pregnancy outcomes of pregnant patients with systemic lupus erythematosus(SLE). Methods From January 2003 to December 2015,we enrolled 20 pregnant SLE patients who received treatment in Beijing Shijitan Hospital Affiliated to Capital Medical University. The patients all received regular examination and treatment during pregnancy. Antinuclear antibodies, serum complement level and erythrocyte sedimentation rate were selected as immune indexes. Pregnancy outcomes and the incidence of pregnancy complications were compared among patients with different positive conditions of immune indexes. Results Among the 20 patients,there were 13 patients with positive antinuclear antibodies, 5 patients whose serum complement level decreased, and 5 patients whose erythrocyte sedimentation rate increased. Compared with patients who had negative antinuclear antibodies,patients with positive antinuclear antibodies had more cases of early delivery,less average gestational weeks,and lighter body weight of newborns( P﹤0. 05);the number of cases of stillbirth was not significantly different(P﹥0. 05). Compared with patients with normal serum complement level,patients whose serum complement level decreased had more cases of early delivery,less average gestational weeks,and lighter body weight of newborns(P﹤0. 05);the number of cases of stillbirth was not significantly different(P﹥0. 05) . Compared with patients with normal erythrocyte sedimentation rate, patients whose erythrocyte sedimentation rate increased had more cases of premature delivery and stillbirth,less gestational weeks and lighter average body weight of newborns ( P﹤0. 05 ) . Patients with different titers of antinuclear antibodies, serum complement levels, and erythrocyte sedimentation rate were not significantly different in the incidence of complications(P﹥0. 05). Conclusion Pregnant patients with SLE have higher incidence of unfavorable

  6. Social rank of pregnant sows affects their body weight gain and behavior and performance of the offspring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kranendonk, G; Van der Mheen, H; Fillerup, M; Hopster, H

    2007-02-01

    Previous studies on group housing of pregnant sows have mainly focused on reproduction, but we hypothesized that the social rank of pregnant sows housed in groups could also affect birth weight, growth, and behavior of their offspring. Therefore, in the present study, pregnant gilts and sows were housed in 15 different groups (n = 7 to 14 animals per group) from 4 d after AI until 1 wk before the expected farrowing date. All groups were fed by an electronically controlled sow feeding system that registered, on a 24-h basis, the time of first visit, number of feeding and non-feeding visits, and number of times succeeding another sow within 2 s. Only in the first 6 groups (n = 57 animals), agonistic interactions were observed continuously. The percentage of agonistic interactions won was highly correlated (r(s) = 0.90, P 50% (n = 62) and low-social ranking (LSR) sows a DS gestation length, litter size, or percentage of live born piglets. During a novel object (NO) test at 3 wk of age, HSR offspring moved and vocalized more than LSR offspring (P Pig breeders that apply group housing for pregnant sows should pay attention to reducing competition around the feeding area, which may reduce aggression among the sows and minimize differences between HSR and LSR sows.

  7. 系统性红斑狼疮合并妊娠患者孕期病情的变化及其对母儿结局的影响%The impact of lupus flares on maternal and fetal outcomes in pregnant patients with systemic lupus erythematosus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    尹玉竹; 周水生; 黄建林; 吴玲玲; 余芹

    2012-01-01

    Objective To determine the impact of lupus flares on maternal and fetal outcomes in pregnant patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE).Methods Data was obtained from 46 pregnancies of 44 pregnant women with SLE.The relationship between lupus flares and pregnant outcomes,and the risk factors for adverse maternal and fetal prognosis were analyzed.T-test,X2 test or Fisher's exact test and Logistic regression were used for statistical analysis.Results ① Lupus flares occurred in 19 (41%)pregnancies (group A) and stable lupus disease was observed in 27 (59%) pregnancies (group B) during pregnancy.Compared to pregnancies in patients with stable lupus disease at the conception (n=32),pregnancies in patients with unstable lupus disease at the conception (n=8) had higher lupus flare during pregnancy ( 100% vs 16%,P<0.05).(②) The common manifestations of lupus flares during pregnancy were lupus nephritis (LN) (11 cases),skin rashes (10 cases),arthritis (7 cases),and the common complication was infection ( 11 cases).(③) The incidence of premature labor,fetal growth retardation (FGR) and fetal loss in group A was 42%,47% and 26% respectively,which was significantly higher than that of the group B (7%,15% and 0 respectively) (P<0.05).There was no difference in the incidence of preeclampsia,fetal distress and neonatal asphyxia between the two groups ( 16% vs 7%,16% vs 19%,5% vs O,respectively,P>0.05).The incidence of premature labor and FGR in patients with active LN was higher than that of patients without active LN (55% vs 11%,64% vs 17%,respectively,P<0.05).(④)The binary Logistic regression analysis showed that renal impairment,hypocomplementemia,aPL and serum urea nitrogen level were independent risk factors for premature delivery,FGR,fetal loss and fetal distress.Conclusion (①) Lupus flares during pregnancy increase the incidence of premature labor,FGR and fetal loss.Active LN during pregnancy can increase the

  8. Anticoagulant therapy in pregnant patients with metabolic syndrome: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mierzynski, Radzisław; Poniedzialek-Czajkowska, Elzbieta; Kimber-Trojnar, Zaneta; Leszczynska-Gorzelak, Bozena; Oleszczuk, Jan

    2014-01-01

    Pregnancy is a specific state of heightened coagulability related to the increase in procoagulant agents and to the reduced fibrinolysis. Pregnancy is associated with a 4-fold increased risk of developing venous thromboembolism (VTE) and this risk still increases to 14-fold during puerperium. A correlation between the metabolic syndrome and development of cardiovascular events and cerebrovascular incidents has been described. Such a relationship is referred to a hypercoagulable state due to increased serum levels of the plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1), fibrinogen, factor (F) VII and VIII, von Willebrand factor and from endothelial activation, caused by increased circulating adhesion molecules. As to the risk of VTE, the probability for its association with cardiovascular incidents is increased by common underlying mechanisms such as the activation of platelets and the blood coagulation. A correlation between idiopathic VTE and the metabolic syndrome has been reported. The anticoagulant therapy may be recommended during the pregnancy for the treatment or the prophylaxis of VTE and, in women with artificial heart valves, for the prevention of the valve thrombosis and systemic embolisation. There are also specific conditions during pregnancy which benefit from anticoagulant use, such as recurrent fetal loss, thrombophilia and assisted reproductive technology. There are no published specific data about using of anticoagulant agents in pregnant patients with the metabolic syndrome except for a few articles addressing reproductive problems. The mechanisms of anticoagulant action were studied with the focus on heparinoids, because of their safety not only for the patient but also for the fetus. The new oral anticoagulants were also shortly described although they have been contraindicated during the pregnancy.

  9. Effect of Bauhinia forficata extract in diabetic pregnant rats: maternal repercussions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damasceno, D C; Volpato, G T; Calderon, I de Mattos Paranhos; Aguilar, R; Rudge, M V Cunha

    2004-02-01

    Bauhinia forficata, commonly known as "paw-of-cow", is widely used in Brazil folk medicine for the treatment of Diabetes mellitus. The purposes of present study were to determine the repercussions of diabetes on the defense system against oxidative stress in pregnant female rats and to characterize the influence of the treatment with Bauhinia forficata extract on the antioxidant system, glycemic control, hepatic glycogen, cholesterol, triglycerides, total proteins and lipids. Virgin female Wistar rats were injected with 40 mg/kg streptozotocin (STZ) before mating. Oral administration of an aqueous extract of Bauhinia forficata leaves was given to non-diabetic and diabetic pregnant rats in 3 doses: 500 mg/kg from 0 to 4th day of pregnancy, 600 mg/kg from 5th to 14th day and 1000 mg/kg from 15th to 20th day. All the females were killed on the day 21 of pregnancy. A maternal blood sample was collected by venous puncture and the maternal liver was removed for biochemical measurement. The diabetic pregnant rats presented hyperglycemia, hyperlipemia, hypertriglyceridemia, hypercholesterolemia, hyperuricemia, decreased determinations of reduced glutathione (GSH) and superoxide dismutase (SOD). Treatment with B. forficata extract did not interfere in the albumin, total protein and lipid, triglyceride, cholesterol and SOD determinations. Increased hepatic glycogen, decreased uric acid concentration and increased GSH activity was observed. This last fact suggests that the plant may have some action on antioxidant defense system. However, the demonstration of the active component present in B. forficata responsible for its antioxidant effect and the increase in hepatic glycogen deserve further investigation.

  10. Social status and housing factors affect reproductive performance of pregnant sows in groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salak-Johnson, Janeen L

    2017-08-01

    Group-housing systems for pregnant sows are considered a welfare-promoting alternative to the individual stall. A major concern associated with pregnant sows housed in group pens is increased aggression at mixing and at feeding, which may cause chronic stress among some of the sows in the group due to low feed intake and social stress. Prolonged activation of the stress axis, based on elevated cortisol levels, may inhibit or impair reproductive success via disruption of the reproductive axis. Mixing sows into groups shortly after insemination evokes a stress response, which may affect fertilization and implantation due to sustained, elevated cortisol levels that disrupt reproductive processes. Yet, most studies reported minimal effects of group housing sows during pregnancy on reproduction or cortisol-related stress response. Differences between housing systems-in terms of group size, floor-space allowance, feeding system, and genetics-could account for these unexpected results. Indeed, interrupted feed intake, especially in early pregnancy, and sustained aggression in late pregnancy are two unfavorable social stresses that deserve special attention in order to achieve good reproductive performance. Unfortunately, most studies do not consider other factors, such as social rank and parity, which may interactively affect reproductive success and aggressive behavior of sows, especially in group-pen systems. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Gall bladder perforation and biliary peritonitis in a young pregnant lady.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, D K; Panwar, R S; Kumari, K

    2001-11-01

    A rare event of acute free perforation of gall bladder with biliary peritonitis in a case of calculous cholecystitis in a 28 years old pregnant lady occurring in the absence of the usual factors associated with gall stone disease is reported. The clinical features resembled acute appendicitis and a pre-operative diagnosis could not be made. It is suggested that a thorough attempt should be made to exclude conditions mimicking appendicitis, including those of the biliary system, on finding a normal appendix at emergency appendicectomy without hesitating to convert to full laparotomy if required.

  12. Substance abuse treatment services for pregnant women: psychosocial and behavioral approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haug, Nancy A; Duffy, Megan; McCaul, Mary E

    2014-06-01

    Women who use tobacco, alcohol and drugs during pregnancy are at increased risk of maternal and fetal morbidity. Universal screening using empirically validated approaches can improve identification of substance-using pregnant women and facilitate comprehensive assessment of treatment needs. There is strong evidence for effectiveness of psychosocial and behavioral substance abuse treatments across a range of intensities and levels of care. In addition to addressing substance use, services for co-occurring psychiatric disorders, trauma exposure, and prenatal care are important components of coordinated systems of care. More research on and greater access to evidence-based interventions is needed for this underserved population.

  13. Beliefs and Perceptions of Pregnant Women at Ileşa About ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Beliefs and Perceptions of Pregnant Women at Ileşa About Caesarean Section. ... it is the devil's work; punishment for marital infidelity or out of doctors self interest. ... Conclusion: More pregnant women supported caesarean section than were ...

  14. Don't Punish Pregnant Women for Opioid Use, Docs Say

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... gov/news/fullstory_163680.html Don't Punish Pregnant Women for Opioid Use, Docs Say Better prevention ... action, should be the focus when dealing with pregnant women who use opioids, a leading pediatricians' group ...

  15. Salivary flow rate, pH, and concentrations of calcium, phosphate, and sIgA in Brazilian pregnant and non-pregnant women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lindemann Laura

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Studies on salivary variables and pregnancy in Latin America are scarce. This study aimed to compare salivary flow rate, pH, and concentrations of calcium, phosphate, and sIgA of unstimulated whole saliva in pregnant and non-pregnant Brazilians. Methods Cross-sectional study. Sample was composed by 22 pregnant and 22 non-pregnant women attending the Obstetrics and Gynecology Clinics, São Lucas Hospital, in Porto Alegre city, South region of Brazil. Unstimulated whole saliva was collected to determine salivary flow rate, pH, and biochemical composition. Data were analyzed by Student t test and ANCOVA (two-tailed α = 0.05. Results No difference was found for salivary flow rates and concentrations of total calcium and phosphate between pregnant and non-pregnant women (p > 0.05. Pregnant women had lower pH (6.7 than non-pregnant women (7.5 (p Conclusion Some of the tested variables of unstimulated whole saliva were different between pregnant and non-pregnant Brazilians in this sample. Overall, the values of the tested salivary parameters were within the range of international references of normality.

  16. 16S rRNA gene-based metagenomic analysis reveals differences in bacteria-derived extracellular vesicles in the urine of pregnant and non-pregnant women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoo, Jae Young; Rho, Mina; You, Young-Ah; Kwon, Eun Jin; Kim, Min-Hye; Kym, Sungmin; Jee, Young-Koo; Kim, Yoon-Keun; Kim, Young Ju

    2016-02-05

    Recent evidence has indicated that bacteria-derived extracellular vesicles (EVs) are important for host-microbe communication. The aims of the present study were to evaluate whether bacteria-derived EVs are excreted via the urinary tract and to compare the composition of bacteria-derived EVs in the urine of pregnant and non-pregnant women. Seventy-three non-pregnant and seventy-four pregnant women were enrolled from Dankook University and Ewha Womans University hospitals. DNA was extracted from urine EVs after EV isolation using the differential centrifugation method. 16S ribosomal RNA (16S rRNA) gene sequencing was performed using high-throughput 454 pyrosequencing after amplification of the V1-V3 region of the 16S rDNA. The composition of 13 taxa differed significantly between the pregnant and non-pregnant women. At the genus level, Bacillus spp. EVs were more significantly enriched in the urine of the pregnant women than in that of the non-pregnant women (45.61% vs 0.12%, respectively). However, Pseudomonas spp. EVs were more dominant in non-pregnant women than in pregnant women (13.2% vs 4.09%, respectively). Regarding the compositional difference between pregnant women with normal and preterm delivery, EVs derived from Ureaplasma spp. and the family Veillonellaceae (including Megasphaera spp.) were more abundant in the urine of preterm-delivered women than in that of women with normal deliveries. Taken together, these data showed that Bacillus spp. EVs predominate in the urine of pregnant women, whereas Pseudomonas spp. EVs predominate in the urine of non-pregnant women; this suggests that Bacillus spp. EVs might have an important role in the maintenance of pregnancy.

  17. Vitamin D Deficiency in Pregnant Women and Their Neonates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbasian, Maryam; Chaman, Reza; Amiri, Mohammad; Ajami, Mohammad Esmaeil; Jafari-Koshki, Tohid; Rohani, Hossein; Taghavi-Shahri, Seyed Mahmood; Sadeghi, Erfan; Raei, Mehdi

    2016-01-01

    Background and Objective: Vitamin D deficiency during pregnancy is a worldwide problem. Studies have reported prevalence ranged 18-84% in pregnant women. Receiving adequate calcium and vitamin D during pregnancy period is necessary for calcium homeostasis, fetal growth and bone mineralization. This study was aimed to determine the prevalence of vitamin D deficiency in pregnant women and their neonates in Shahroud city in the northeast Iran. Methods: In this cross-sectional study, 284 pregnant women and their neonates referred to Fatemiyeh Hospital of Shahroud were included. Blood samples of mothers and umbilical cords were collected during the delivery and were sent to laboratory in order to measure calcium and 25-hydroxy vitamin D. Findings: Amounts of Vitamin D insufficiency (20-30 ng/mL) and deficiency (vitamin D (r=0.12, p=0.053). Conclusion: More than half of the mothers and their neonates had some degrees of vitamin D deficiency. It is recommended to evaluate the nutritional status of vitamin D in pregnant women along with public health interventions to be carried out. PMID:27157170

  18. Pregnant Women in Louisiana Are Not Meeting Dietary Seafood Recommendations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. L. Drewery

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. The 2015–2020 Dietary Guidelines for Americans recommend that pregnant women and women of childbearing ages consume 8–12 oz. of seafood per week. Fish are the major dietary source of omega-3 long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids, which have benefits for the mother and fetus. Methods. In this observational study, we investigated dietary habits of pregnant women in Baton Rouge, Louisiana, USA, to determine if they achieve recommended seafood intake. A print survey, which included commonly consumed foods from protein sources (beef, chicken, pork, and fish, was completed by pregnant women at a single-day hospital convention for expecting families in October 2015. Women (n=221 chose from six predefined responses to answer how frequently they were consuming each food. Results. Chicken was consumed most frequently (75% of women, followed by beef (71%, pork (65%, and fish (22%, respectively. Consumption frequency for the most consumed fish (catfish, once per month was similar to or lower than that of the least consumed beef, chicken, and pork foods. Consumption frequency for the most consumed chicken and beef foods was at least once per week. Conclusion. Our data indicate that pregnant women in Louisiana often consume protein sources other than fish and likely fail to meet dietary seafood recommendations.

  19. School Exclusion and Educational Inclusion of Pregnant Young Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudoe, Naomi

    2014-01-01

    This article analyses the school exclusion and subsequent educational inclusion of pregnant young women participating in a course of antenatal and key skills education at an alternative educational setting. It examines the young women's transitions from "failure" in school to "success" in motherhood and re-engagement with…

  20. High Prevalence of Vitamin D Deficiency among Pregnant Saudi Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nora A. Al-Faris

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Vitamin D deficiency has emerged as a public health problem worldwide due to its important role in health and disease. The present work is intended to examine prevalence of vitamin D deficiency among pregnant Saudi women and related risk factors. A cross-sectional study was carried out at King Fahad Medical City in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. Serum 25-hydroxy vitamin D (25(OHD was measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay in 160 pregnant women during the first trimester of pregnancy. Socio-demographic, lifestyle and maternal characteristics were collected and vitamin D intake was assessed using a 24-h dietary recall. Weight and height were measured using standardized methods. Vitamin D deficiency (25(OHD < 50 nmol/L and insufficiency (25(OHD = 50–74 nmol/L were reported in 50% and 43.8% of the study sample, respectively. Median serum 25(OHD concentration was 49.9 nmol/L. Adequate vitamin D intake (≥600 IU/day was reported among only 8.1% of pregnant women. Age group, educational level, sun exposure frequency and daytime and daily practice of exercise were significantly associated with vitamin D status. Overall, vitamin D deficiency was common among pregnant Saudi women in Riyadh. Steps should be taken to address the current situation, including increased sunlight exposure, consumption of fatty fish, and vitamin D supplements.

  1. Intimate partner violence and correlates in pregnant HIV positive Nigerians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ezechi, Oliver Chukwujekwu; Gab-Okafor, Chidinma; Onwujekwe, Dan I; Adu, Rosemary A; Amadi, Eva; Herbertson, Ebiere

    2009-11-01

    To determine the prevalence, types and correlates of intimate partner violence (IPV) in pregnant Nigerian living with HIV. Cross sectional study. HIV positive pregnant women. A large HIV comprehensive treatment centre. A cross sectional study of 652 HIV positive pregnant Nigerians seen at Nigerian Institute of Medical Research, Lagos, Nigeria over a 24 months period. Prevalence of intimate partner violence after HIV diagnosis. Among the women interviewed, 423 (65.8%) reported abuse. In 74.0% of abused women, the abuse started after HIV diagnosis. Though having a HIV negative spouse and disclosure of HIV status were associated with abuse, only having a HIV negative partner retained its association with IPV (OR 3.1; CI 2.4-5.3) after controlling for confounding variables. Sixty-two (9.6%) women have not disclosed their HIV status because of fear of rejection. Verbal abuse (51.7%), threat of violence in 97 (22.9%) and sexual deprivation in 91 (21.5%) were the common forms of abuse reported. IPV is common among HIV positive pregnant Nigerians; with a threefold increased risk in women in HIV serodiscordant relationship.

  2. School Exclusion and Educational Inclusion of Pregnant Young Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudoe, Naomi

    2014-01-01

    This article analyses the school exclusion and subsequent educational inclusion of pregnant young women participating in a course of antenatal and key skills education at an alternative educational setting. It examines the young women's transitions from "failure" in school to "success" in motherhood and re-engagement with…

  3. Pregnancy resolutions among pregnant teens: termination, parenting or adoption?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loke, Alice Yuen; Lam, Pui-Ling

    2014-12-19

    Teenagers are unprepared to face or to deal with an unexpected pregnancy. Adolescents do not necessarily possess the cognitive ability needed to clearly evaluate such a situation or to determine how to resolve their pregnancy. This study seeks to shed light on what pregnant adolescents consider when coming to a decision about what to do about their pregnancy. In-depth interviews were conducted among a purposive sample of Hong Kong Chinese women recruited from a Maternal and Child Health Centre, who had a history of being pregnant in their teens and out of wedlock. Interviews were conducted to explore the considerations surrounding their decision on how to resolve their pregnancy. A total of nine women were interviewed. An analysis of the interview transcripts revealed that to arrive at a decision on what to do about their pregnancy, pregnant teens took into consideration their relationship with their boyfriend, their family's advice or support, practical considerations, their personal values in life, and views on adoption. The results of this study results highlighted that during this life-altering event for adolescents, an open discussion should take place among all of the parties concerned. A better understanding of each party's perspective would allow for better decision making on the resolution of the pregnancy. Health professionals or social workers are there to help pregnant adolescents, romantic partners, and family members make informed choices on how to resolve the pregnancy.

  4. School Exclusion and Educational Inclusion of Pregnant Young Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudoe, Naomi

    2014-01-01

    This article analyses the school exclusion and subsequent educational inclusion of pregnant young women participating in a course of antenatal and key skills education at an alternative educational setting. It examines the young women's transitions from "failure" in school to "success" in motherhood and re-engagement with…

  5. Immune response to Babesia bigemina infection in pregnant cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García, T D; Figueroa, M J V; Ramos, A J A; Rojas, M C; Cantó, A G J; Falcón, N A; Alvarez, M J A

    2004-10-01

    Babesiosis is a tick-borne disease of cattle caused by Babesia bigemina and Babesia bovis and is transmitted by the tick vector Boophilus microplus. In this study, we investigate B. bigemina infection regarding the clinical infection, T cell distribution, and cytokine profile during the acute phase of an experimental infection in pregnant cows.

  6. Seroprevalence of hepatitis B in pregnant women in Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vázquez-Martínez José Luis

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To determine the seroprevalence of hepatitis B in pregnant women from several regions of Mexico, as well as the risk factors associated with its occurrence. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted between May and August 2000. It included 9 992 pregnant women attending the health services of the Mexican Institute of Social Security (Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social-IMSS in five cities: Tijuana, Ciudad Juarez, Acapulco, Cancun, and Mexico City (northeast and southeast regions. RESULTS: The overall prevalence for confirmed cases was 1.65% (165/9 992. The prevalences for individual cities were as follows: Tijuana, 1.27%; Ciudad Juarez, 1.46%; Acapulco, 2.47%; Cancun, 0.93%; northeastern Mexico City, 1.20%, and southeastern Mexico City, 2.52%. The risk factors found to be associated with HBsAg were: age, age at first sexual intercourse, city (Acapulco and southeastern Mexico City, and marital status (single or divorced. CONCLUSIONS: The prevalence of HBsAg in pregnant women (1.65% was greater than that reported in previous studies and showed geographical differences. This high prevalence suggests that a considerable amount of cases of hepatitis B occurs perinatally and through contact with carriers in the general population. Vaccination of newborns of high-risk pregnant women should be considered.

  7. Avoidable factors associated with pregnant and postpartum patients ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The hospital records of all pregnant and postpartum patients in two public hospital ICUs ... N C Ngene,1 Dip Obst, Dip HIV Man, MMed (Fam Med), FCOG, MMed (O&G); J Moodley,2 MB ChB, FRCOG, FCOG, MD; ... 3 Department of Anaesthesia, Critical Care and Pain Management, Grey's ..... Ingestion of herbal concoction.

  8. Do Pregnant Women Report Use of Dispensed Medications?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, Charlotte; Søndergaard, Charlotte; Thrane, Nana

    2001-01-01

    Surveillance of drug safety in pregnancy often draws on administrative prescription registries. Noncompliance in the use of prescribed medication may be frequent among pregnant women owing to their fear of fetotoxic side effects. To estimate compliance in the use of prescription drugs dispensed...

  9. Hepatitis B virus infection among pregnant women delivering at ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PROMOTING ACCESS TO AFRICAN RESEARCH ... Design: A serological survey study of pregnant women admitted for labour and delivery. ... Hence, 0.8% of the entire study population was found to be at high risk of transmitting ... status, may be the most effective approach to HBV prevention and control in Zimbabwe.

  10. Epidural abscess caused by Streptococcus milleri in a pregnant woman

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bearman Gonzalo

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Bacteria in the Streptococcus milleri group (S. anginosus, S. constellatus, and S. intermedius are associated with bacteremia and abscess formation. While most reports of Streptococcus milleri group (SMG infection occur in patients with underlying medical conditions, SMG infections during pregnancy have been documented. However, SMG infections in pregnant women are associated with either neonatal or maternal puerperal sepsis. Albeit rare, S. milleri spinal-epidural abscess in pregnancy has been reported, always as a complication of spinal-epidural anesthesia. We report a case of spinal-epidural abscess caused by SMG in a young, pregnant woman without an antecedent history of spinal epidural anesthesia and without any underlying risk factors for invasive streptococcal disease. Case presentation A 25 year old pregnant woman developed neurological symptoms consistent with spinal cord compression at 20 weeks gestation. She underwent emergency laminectomy for decompression and was treated with ceftriaxone 2 gm IV daily for 28 days. She was ambulatory at the time of discharge from the inpatient rehabilitation unit with residual lower extremity weakness. Conclusion To our knowledge, this is the first reported case of a Streptococcus milleri epidural abscess in a healthy, pregnant woman with no history of epidural anesthesia or invasive procedures. This report adds to the body of literature on SMG invasive infections. Treatment of SMG spinal-epidural abscess with neurologic manifestations should include prompt and aggressive surgical decompression coupled with targeted anti-infective therapy.

  11. The Process of Mentoring Pregnant Adolescents: An Exploratory Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blinn-Pike, Lynn; Kuschel, Diane; McDaniel, Annette; Mingus, Suzanne; Mutti, Megan Poole

    1998-01-01

    The process that occurs in relationships between volunteer adult mentors and pregnant adolescent "mentees" is described empirically; testable hypotheses based on findings concerning the mentor role are proposed. Case records from 20 mentors are analyzed; findings regarding mentors' roles are discussed. Criteria for conceptualizing quasi-parenting…

  12. Designated rooting areas to reduce pasture damage by pregnant sows

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mheen, van der H.; Spoolder, H.A.M.

    2005-01-01

    To assess whether rooting damage by pregnant sows can be reduced by offering a designated area for wallowing and foraging, four groups of four sows each were subjected to four treatments, during eight periods in a 4 × 4 Latin square designed experiment. During each period, each group was given acces

  13. Clinical Analysis of 5 Cases of Laparoscopy in Pregnant Patients

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨佳欣; 冷金花; 郎景和

    2003-01-01

    @@ Five pregnant patients were given laparoscopicsurgery in PUMCH in recent two years. All the pa-tients have the indications for operation. The age ofthe patients was 25 to 33 years old. The operationwas done in the first and second trimester. The dura-tion of the operation was about 30 mins with no ma-nipulation of the cervix.

  14. pregnant women's perspectives on skilled birth attendance and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    AJRH Managing Editor

    The present study utilized semi-structured interviews with 85 pregnant .... achieve successful outcome for mom and baby, cost, access, .... Caucasian-American female graduate student ... structured interview guide with open-ended ..... HC completed the open coding. ... W: The Skilled Attendance Index: Proposal for a new.

  15. Effect of reproductive ageing on pregnant mouse uterus and cervix

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Rima; Moffatt, James D.; Mourmoura, Evangelia; Demaison, Luc; Seed, Paul T.; Poston, Lucilla

    2017-01-01

    Key points Older pregnant women have a greater risk of operative delivery, still birth and post‐term induction.This suggests that maternal age can influence the timing of birth and processes of parturition.We have found that increasing maternal age in C57BL/6J mice is associated with prolongation of gestation and length of labour.Older pregnant mice also had delayed progesterone withdrawal and impaired myometrial function.Uterine ageing and labour dysfunction should be investigated further in older primigravid women. Abstract Advanced maternal age (≥35 years) is associated with increased rates of operative delivery, stillbirth and post‐term labour induction. The physiological causes remain uncertain, although impaired myometrial function has been implicated. To investigate the hypothesis that maternal age directly influences successful parturition, we assessed the timing of birth and fetal outcome in pregnant C57BL/6J mice at 3 months (young) and 5 months (intermediate) vs. 8 months (older) of age using infrared video recording. Serum progesterone profiles, myometrium and cervix function, and mitochondrial electron transport chain complex enzymatic activities were also examined. Older pregnant mice had a longer mean gestation and labour duration (P changes to the enzymatic activities of the mitochondrial electron transport chain complexes. In conclusion, 8‐month‐old mice provide a useful model of reproductive ageing. The present study has identified potential causes of labour dysfunction amenable to investigation in older primigravid women. PMID:28083928

  16. Melissa Rowland and the rights of pregnant women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minkoff, Howard; Paltrow, Lynn M

    2004-12-01

    On March 11, 2004, the State of Utah charged Melissa Rowland with the murder of her stillborn fetus, claiming that the death resulted from her rejection of the advice of her physicians to have a cesarean delivery. Although Ms. Rowland avoided the homicide charge by pleading guilty to lesser child endangerment charges, the approach taken by the State raises important and troubling issues regarding the autonomy rights of pregnant women, as well as their right to speak on behalf their unborn children. We use this case to review relevant ethical principals and legal precedents. We conclude that if Ms. Rowland is to be judged legally culpable for the death of her fetus, then the courts must first create a new and significant exception to the doctrine of informed consent and the common law and constitutional principles upon which it is based. Such a precedent could introduce a substantial disparity between the rights of pregnant women and those of all other persons. We would argue that a better means of assuring the health interests of the pregnant woman and the fetus in similar circumstances is through advocacy by obstetricians for pregnant women's fully realized rights, including the right to informed consent.

  17. Copper and selenium status of healthy pregnant women in Enugu ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dietary intake should be modified to ensure optimal selenium levels during pregnancy. Key words: Copper ... common practice to routinely supplement iron and folic acid with the aim of ... pregnant women to assist in the optimal formulation of micronutrient needs .... trend has been shown in many other studies from different.

  18. Governing the conduct of health of overweight pregnant women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toxvig, Lene

    2016-01-01

    -making, responsibility-making and disciplinary technologies, to govern people to promote physical health. Conclusion: Public health programmes conjure up an image of overweight individuals as strongly burdened subjectivities. The implications for overweight pregnant women are the formation of new subjectivities...

  19. Maraviroc Pharmacokinetics in HIV-1-Infected Pregnant Women

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Colbers, A.; Best, B.; Schalkwijk, S.J.; Wang, J; Stek, A.; Tenorio, C.H.; Hawkins, D.; Taylor, G.; Kreitchmann, R.; Burchett, S.; Haberl, A.; Kabeya, K.; Kasteren, M.E.E. van; Smith, E.; Capparelli, E.; Burger, D.M.; Mirochnick, M.; Ven, A. van der

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To describe the pharmacokinetics of maraviroc in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected women during pregnancy and post partum. METHODS: HIV-infected pregnant women receiving maraviroc as part of clinical care had intensive steady-state 12-hour pharmacokinetic profiles performed

  20. Etravirine Pharmacokinetics in HIV-Infected Pregnant Women

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mulligan, N.; Schalkwijk, S.J.; Best, B.M.; Colbers, A.; Wang, J; Capparelli, E.V.; Molto, J.; Stek, A.M.; Taylor, G.; Smith, E.; Tenorio, C.H.; Chakhtoura, N.; Kasteren, M. van; Fletcher, C.V.; Mirochnick, M.; Burger, D.M.

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The study goal was to describe etravirine pharmacokinetics during pregnancy and postpartum in HIV-infected women. METHODS: IMPAACT P1026s and PANNA are on-going, non-randomized, open-label, parallel-group, multi-center phase-IV prospective studies in HIV-infected pregnant women.

  1. Elemental profile in amniotic fluid of some Nigerian pregnant women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yahaya, M I; Ogunfowokan, A O; Orji, E O

    2011-06-01

    In this study concentration level of calcium, cadmium, copper, iron, magnesium, manganese, nickel, lead and zinc were determined in the amniotic fluid of pregnant women, aged 15 - 45 years enrolled at the Obafemi Awolowo University Teaching Hospitals Complex Ile - Ife. This was with a view to predict the body burden of the metals in the pregnant women and assess the health implications of the toxic elements to the pregnant women and their fetuses. Fifty samples of the amniotic fluid were collected from the pregnant women. The efficiency of extraction of trace metals using conventional wet acid digestion method (CDM) and microwave induced acid digestion method (MWD) was determined by recovery experiments. Levels of trace metals were determined using Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometry. The high percentage recoveries obtained from MWD made it a more efficient method than the CDM and hence its adoption for sample digestion. Statistical analysis of data using descriptive and inferential statistics revealed that age; education and profession have effects on the levels of the trace metals. The mean levels of most of the toxic metals obtained in this study were lower than the recommended limits of trace metals in women whole blood.

  2. Determinants of anaemia among pregnant women in rural Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mbule, Marjorie A; Byaruhanga, Yusuf B; Kabahenda, Magaret; Lubowa, Abdulrahman

    2013-01-01

    In spite of intervention efforts, in Uganda, as in other developing countries, high levels of anaemia among pregnant women continue. Anaemia among women of reproductive age (15-49 years) is a matter of national concern. This study was carried out to assess determinants of anaemia in Kiboga district. This was a single cross-sectional, descriptive survey. The anaemia status of the pregnant women was determined by measuring their haemoglobin levels. Possible determinant factors including socio-economic characteristics, knowledge, attitudes, practices and food intake were assessed using a structured questionnaire. Results showed that the prevalence of anaemia among pregnant women in Kiboga district was high enough (63.1%) to be described as a severe public health problem. The uptake and utilisation of the public-health intervention package to combat anaemia in pregnancy was low, with iron/folic acid supplementation at 13.2%, use of intermittent preventive treatment of malaria 45.4%, and use of de-worming medicines 14.5%. Women from households without a functional radio were 2.07 times more likely be anaemic (95%CI, 1.08-3.00) compared with women from households where there was a functional radio. There was little awareness and functional knowledge about anaemia among pregnant women. The high prevalence of anaemia observed in Kiboga district can be attributed to poverty and limited access to nutrition and health education information which lead to low uptake and utilization of the public-health intervention package to combat anaemia in pregnancy.

  3. Anaemia in pregnant adolescent girls with malaria and practicing pica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Intiful, Freda Dzifa; Wiredu, Edwin Kwame; Asare, George Awuku; Asante, Matilda; Adjei, David Nana

    2016-01-01

    Pregnancy during the adolescent period is challenging mainly because of the nutritional demands of both the adolescent and pregnancy period. The risk for anaemia increases especially in developing countries such as Ghana where malaria is endemic and the practice of pica is common. In this study, we sought to determine the prevalence of anaemia, pica practice and malaria infection among pregnant adolescent girls and assess the extent to which these factors are associated. Two hundred and sixty five (265) pregnant adolescent girls were recruited from three hospitals in Accra. Haemoglobin levels, malaria infection and the practice of pica were assessed. Pearson's Chi squared tests were used to determine associations and logistic regression analysis was used to determine the odds of being anaemic. Significance was set at p≤0.05. Anaemia prevalence was 76% with severity ranging from mild (47.8%) to severe (0.8%). About 27.5% were moderately anaemic. Pica was practiced in only 9.1% of the girls. Malaria infection was prevalent in 17.7% of the girls. The logistic regression analysis indicated that pregnant girls with malaria infection were 3.56 times more likely to be anaemic when compared to those without malaria. Also, those who practiced pica were 1.23 times more likely to be anaemic when compared to those who did not practice pica. Anaemia is very prevalent in pregnant adolescent girls and is a public health problem. Drastic measures should be taken to reduce the high prevalence.

  4. Assessment of Iodine Deficiency in Pregnant Women in Swaziland ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Assessment of Iodine Deficiency in Pregnant Women in Swaziland. ... Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. ... It is estimated that iodine intake from salt is between 113 to 225 mg per day assuming salt iodization levels of 20 to ...

  5. High Prevalence of Vitamin D Deficiency among Pregnant Saudi Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Faris, Nora A

    2016-02-04

    Vitamin D deficiency has emerged as a public health problem worldwide due to its important role in health and disease. The present work is intended to examine prevalence of vitamin D deficiency among pregnant Saudi women and related risk factors. A cross-sectional study was carried out at King Fahad Medical City in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. Serum 25-hydroxy vitamin D (25(OH)D) was measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay in 160 pregnant women during the first trimester of pregnancy. Socio-demographic, lifestyle and maternal characteristics were collected and vitamin D intake was assessed using a 24-h dietary recall. Weight and height were measured using standardized methods. Vitamin D deficiency (25(OH)D vitamin D intake (≥600 IU/day) was reported among only 8.1% of pregnant women. Age group, educational level, sun exposure frequency and daytime and daily practice of exercise were significantly associated with vitamin D status. Overall, vitamin D deficiency was common among pregnant Saudi women in Riyadh. Steps should be taken to address the current situation, including increased sunlight exposure, consumption of fatty fish, and vitamin D supplements.

  6. Gynaecological morbidity among HIV positive pregnant women in Cameroon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nana Philip N

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective To compare the prevalence of gynaecological conditions among HIV infected and non-infected pregnant women. Methods Two thousand and eight (2008 pregnant women were screened for HIV, lower genital tract infections and lower genital tract neoplasia at booking antenatal visit. Results About 10% (198/2008 were HIV positive. All lower genital tract infections except candidiasis were more prevalent among HIV positive compared to HIV negative women: vaginal candidiasis (36.9% vs 35.4%; p = 0.678, Trichomoniasis (21.2% vs 10.6%; p p p = 0.026, syphilis (35.9% vs 10.6%; p Chlamydia trachomatis (38.4% vs 7.1%; p p p Conclusion We conclude that (i sexually transmitted infections (STIs are common in both HIV positive and HIV negative pregnant women in Cameroon, and (ii STIs and preinvasive cervical lesions are more prevalent in HIV-infected pregnant women compared to their non-infected compatriots. We recommend routine screening and treatment of STIs during antenatal care in Cameroon and other countries with similar social profiles.

  7. Mother-infant bonding in pregnant drug addicts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina Henriques

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available In female addicts, pregnancy carries risks associated with lifestyles, modes of consumption and effect of drugs on the developing fetus. This investigation tried to determine the level of antenatal attachment in pregnant addicts, as well as assess the relationship between the number of nursing visits and held attendance of the preparation for childbirth, with the level of prenatal attachment. We conducted a correlational study (Fortin, 2009, applied to a single point. Regarding the level of prenatal attachment, and considering that the maximum value for scale is 80, pregnant drug users have an average of 53.53 (SD=24.10, a value above the average value of the scale, it emphasizes that these pregnant have a value of linking prenatal satisfactory. It was found that the greater the number of nurse consultations conducted surveillance of the pregnancy, the greater the level of prenatal attachment, noting also that pregnant addicts who attend the course in preparation for childbirth, have higher levels of binding prenatal care (p <0.05.

  8. Hookworm-related anaemia among pregnant women: a systematic review.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon Brooker

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Hookworm infection is among the major causes of anaemia in poor communities, but its importance in causing maternal anaemia is poorly understood, and this has hampered effective lobbying for the inclusion of anthelmintic treatment in maternal health packages. We sought to review existing evidence on the role of hookworm as a risk factor for anaemia among pregnant women. We also estimate the number of hookworm infections in pregnant women in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA. METHODS: Structured searches using MEDLINE and EMBASE as well as manual searches of reference lists were conducted, and unpublished data were obtained by contacting authors. Papers were independently reviewed by two authors, and relevant data were extracted. We compared haemoglobin concentration (Hb according to intensity of hookworm infection and calculated standardised mean differences and 95% confidence intervals. To estimate the number of pregnant women, we used population surfaces and a spatial model of hookworm prevalence. FINDINGS: One hundred and five reports were screened and 19 were eligible for inclusion: 13 cross-sectional studies, 2 randomised controlled trials, 2 non-randomised treatment trials and 2 observational studies. Comparing uninfected women and women lightly (1-1,999 eggs/gram [epg] infected with hookworm, the standardised mean difference (SMD was -0.24 (95% CI: -0.36 to -0.13. The SMD between women heavily (4000+ epg infected and those lightly infected was -0.57 (95% CI: -0.87 to -0.26. All identified intervention studies showed a benefit of deworming for maternal or child health, but since a variety of outcomes measures were employed, quantitative evaluation was not possible. We estimate that 37.7 million women of reproductive age in SSA are infected with hookworm in 2005 and that approximately 6.9 million pregnant women are infected. CONCLUSIONS: Evidence indicates that increasing hookworm infection intensity is associated with

  9. The Impact of Neighborhood Environment, Social Support and Avoidance Coping on Depressive Symptoms of Pregnant African American Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giurgescu, Carmen; Zenk, Shannon N.; Templin, Thomas; Engeland, Christopher G.; Dancy, Barbara L.; Park, Chang; Kavanaugh, Karen; Dieber, William; Misra, Dawn

    2015-01-01

    Background Although depressive symptoms during pregnancy have been related to negative maternal and child health outcomes such as preterm birth, low birthweight infants, postpartum depression and maladaptive mother-infant interactions, studies on the impact of neighborhood environment on depressive symptoms in pregnant women are limited. Pregnant women residing in disadvantaged neighborhoods reported higher levels of depressive symptoms and lower levels of social support. No researchers have examined the relationship between neighborhood environment and avoidance coping in pregnant women. Guided by the Ecological model and Lazarus and Folkman’s transactional model of stress and coping, we examined whether social support and avoidance coping mediated associations between the neighborhood environment and depressive symptoms in pregnant African American women. Methods Pregnant African American women (N = 95) from a medical center in Chicago completed the instruments twice during pregnancy between 15-25 weeks and 25-37 weeks. The self-administered instruments measured perceived neighborhood environment, social support, avoidance coping, and depressive symptoms using items from existing scales. Objective measures of the neighborhood environment were derived using geographic information systems. Findings Perceived neighborhood environment, social support, avoidance coping and depressive symptoms were significantly correlated in the expected directions. Objective physical disorder and crime were negatively related to social support. Social support at time one (20 ± 2.6 weeks) mediated associations between the perceived neighborhood environment at time one and depressive symptoms at time two (29 ± 2.7 weeks). An increase in avoidance coping between time one and time two also mediated the effects of perceived neighborhood environment at time one on depressive symptoms at time two. Conclusion Pregnant African American women’s negative perceptions of their neighborhoods

  10. Reduced endothelial NO-cGMP-mediated vascular relaxation and hypertension in IL-6-infused pregnant rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orshal, Julia M; Khalil, Raouf A

    2004-02-01

    Placental ischemia during pregnancy is associated with increased plasma cytokines such as interleukin-6 (IL-6), which may contribute to increased vascular resistance and hypertension of pregnancy. We tested the hypothesis that an increase in plasma IL-6 during pregnancy is associated with impaired endothelium-dependent relaxation, enhanced vascular contraction, and hypertension. Systolic blood pressure was measured in virgin and pregnant Sprague-Dawley rats non-treated or infused with IL-6 (200 ng/kg per day for 5 days). Isometric contraction was measured in isolated aortic strips, and endothelial nitric oxide (NO) synthase (eNOS) was measured in aortic homogenate using Western blots. Blood pressure was greater in IL-6-infused (146+/-3) than in control pregnant rats (117+/-2 mm Hg). In endothelium-intact vascular strips, phenylephrine (Phe) caused greater increase in active stress in IL-6-infused (maximum: 10.6+/-0.6) than in control pregnant rats (maximum: 4.1+/-0.3x10(4) N/m2). Acetylcholine (ACh)-induced relaxation of Phe contraction and vascular eNOS protein and nitrite/nitrate production were less in IL-6-infused than in control pregnant rats. N(omega)-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (10(-4) mol/L), inhibitor of NOS, or 1H-[1,2,4]oxadiazolo[4,3]-quinoxalin-1-one (10(-5) mol/L), inhibitor of cGMP production in smooth muscle, inhibited ACh-induced relaxation and enhanced Phe-induced stress in control but not IL-6-infused pregnant rats. Endothelium removal enhanced Phe-induced stress in control but not in IL-6-infused pregnant rats. The blood pressure and vascular Phe-induced contraction, ACh relaxation, and eNOS protein were not different between control and IL-6-infused virgin rats. Thus, an endothelium-dependent NO-cGMP-mediated relaxation pathway is inhibited in systemic vessels of pregnant rats infused with IL-6. The results support a role for IL-6 as a possible mediator of the increased vascular resistance during hypertension of pregnancy.

  11. Smoking during pregnancy--hematological observations in pregnant women and their newborns after delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wojtyła, Cezary; Głuszek, Łukasz; Biliński, Przemysław; Paprzycki, Piotr; Warzocha, Krzysztof

    2012-01-01

    Cigarette smoking is a global public health problem. According to the current estimations, more than one billion people worldwide smoke tobacco. The highest prevalence of smoking is observed in Europe and Central Asia. In Poland, nearly a half of males and 1/3 of females are smokers. Information concerning an increase in the prevalence of tobacco smoking among women is alarming. It is estimated that tobacco smoking is the cause of approximately 10% of deaths worldwide. If the present trend maintains itself, in the present 21(st) century nearly one billion people will prematurely loose their lives due to tobacco smoking. Tobacco smoking by pregnant women additionally exerts a negative effect on the developing foetus. The objective of the study was analysis of haematological parameters of the erythropoietic system in pregnant women and their newborn babies after delivery according to the number of cigarettes smoked daily by the mothers in pregnancy. The studies were based on the questionnaire forms. The studies were carried out in all hospitals in Poland where pregnant women were hospitalized with their newborns on one day in 2010 and 2011. The material for the study were replies to the questions concerning the results of blood tests of mothers and newborns. No significant changes concerning haematological parameters of the erythropoietic system were observed in women after delivery. With respect to newborns, an increase was noted in the level of haemoglobin in the babies of women who, in the third trimester of pregnancy, smoked more than 6 cigarettes daily. The hematocrit value and amount of erythrocytes did not change. The results of the studies showed that tobacco smoking in pregnancy exerts a negative effect on the environment in which the foetus develops, and consequently, on the health of newborn babies.

  12. Use of herbal product among pregnant women in Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kıssal, Aygül; Çevik Güner, Ümran; Batkın Ertürk, Döndü

    2017-02-01

    This study was conducted to determine the herbal product use of pregnants as there is not adequate information relating to the rate of herbal product use during pregnancy in Turkey and what is thought about effects and side effects thereof. It is a descriptive study consisted of 366 pregnants admitted to hospital for childbirth in gynaecology and obstetrics clinics of a public hospital or a university hospital. Data were collected with individual information form and question form of herbal product use in pregnancy. We conducted number, percentage, chi-square analyses. It was determined that 47.3% of the women had used at least one herbal product during pregnancy; the relationship between education level, working status, family structure, and status of herbal product use is statistically significant (pginger are the first three herbs used due to common cold-influenza frequently in pregnancy during 1st and 2nd trimesters. More than half of the pregnants stated that they had started herbal product use without any suggestions from anyone, and profoundly low healthcare professional suggestion was detected. Our study has showed that almost half of women use at least one herbal product during pregnancy. So few healthcare professionals give information to pregnants thereabout. Thus, providing information in general health education to pregnant women about benefits and damages of herbal product use, planning researchers on effectiveness of herbal products, assessment of healthcare professionals relating to the matter and provision of available guidelines and in-service education relating to herbal products that can be used during pregnancy may be suggested. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Improvement of perinatal outcome in diabetic pregnant women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szilagyi, A; Szabo, I

    2001-01-01

    Obstetrical and perinatal outcomes in newborns of diabetic pregnant women depend on metabolic control and fetal surveillance during pregnancy. The effects of fetal surveillance on perinatal mortality and morbidity was analyzed in diabetic pregnant women with appropriate glucose control in our regional center for diabetes and pregnancy. 480 deliveries complicated by frank or gestational diabetes occurred in our Department in the period of 1988-1999. Perinatal mortality and morbidity, prevalence of premature deliveries, methods of fetal surveillance, options for respiratory distress syndrome (RDS) profilaxis, cesarean section rate, timing of delivery and its indications and occurrence of malformations have been analyzed. It was found that malformation rate and perinatal mortality may be reduced to even lower level than that of in healthy pregnant women by appropriate glucose control and by using the latest methods of intrauterine fetal surveillance including cardiotocography (non stress test and oxytocin challenge test), doppler fetal artery velocimetry and fetal pulse oximetry. Timing of delivery was needed in 35% of the cases with IDDM and 15% of gestational diabetes due to chronic placental insufficiency. If labour induction was needed before the 38 weeks, amniocentesis was performed to test fetal lung maturity. Direct fetal glucocorticoid administration was used to enhance fetal lung maturation in 14 cases. C-section rate was slightly higher than that of in non diabetic pregnant women. Our perinatal morbidity data (macrosomia, hyperbilirubinemia, hypoglycemia, injuries, infections) are comparable with the data from the literature. Although perinatal mortality with the help of thorough fetal surveillance is even better in diabetic pregnant women than in non diabetic patients, future eye should be focused on factors affecting perinatal morbidity, because it is still higher than in newborns of healthy mothers.

  14. Characteristics of pregnant women who use ecstasy (3, 4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, E; Karimi-Tabesh, L; Koren, G

    2001-01-01

    To determine the characteristics of pregnant women who use Ecstasy (3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine, MDMA), and to identify reproductive risk factors associated with this group of women. Prospective, observational study. Pregnant women who have contacted the Motherisk Alcohol and Substance Use Helpline at The Hospital for Sick Children, in Toronto, about exposure to drugs, chemicals, infection or radiation. All inquiries from December 1998 to October 2000 concerning pregnant women who reported use of MDMA, and control cases of women not exposed to MDMA selected within the same week of the MDMA callers. Age, maternal demographics, pregnancy characteristics, patterns of alcohol, tobacco, and illicit drug use, psychological/emotional status, sexually transmitted disease, MDMA method and pattern of use, and adverse drug reactions after ingestion of MDMA. The 132 pregnant women who used MDMA were significantly younger (mean 23.2 vs. 31.2 years, Palcohol (66.4% vs. 37.3%, Ppsilocybin were used more frequently among the MDMA sample. Over a third of MDMA users reported psychiatric/emotional problems, including 6.5% with a clinically diagnosed condition that was being treated with medication and/or counseling. Pregnant women who use MDMA tend to be young, single, and report psychological morbidity, and have a clustering of risk factors that may compromise the pregnancy and fetus. Smoking, heavy alcohol intake, and polydrug use, combined with a higher than expected rate of unplanned pregnancies, increases the risk of fetal exposure to potentially harmful substances. It is important to account for the range of confounding risk factors among women who use MDMA in order to define possible direct effects of MDMA in pregnancy.

  15. Pregnant womens' concerns when invited to a randomized trial : a qualitative case control study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oude Rengerink, Katrien; Logtenberg, Sabine; Hooft, Lotty; Bossuyt, Patrick M; Mol, Ben Willem; Oude Rengerink, K

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Pregnant women were excluded from clinical trials until the 1990s, but the Food and Drug Administration nowadays allows--and even encourages--responsible inclusion of pregnant women in trials with adequate safety monitoring. Still, randomized trials in pregnant women face specific enrolm

  16. Porphyromonas Gingivalis and E-coli induce different cytokine production patterns in pregnant women

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Faas, Marijke M; Kunnen, Alina; Dekker, Daphne C; Harmsen, Hermie J M; Aarnoudse, Jan G; Abbas, Frank; De Vos, Paul; Van Pampus, Maria G

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Pregnant individuals of many species, including humans, are more sensitive to various bacteria or their products as compared with non-pregnant individuals. Pregnant individuals also respond differently to different bacteria or their products. Therefore, in the present study, we evaluated

  17. Factors Associated with Preference for Repeat Cesarean in Neyshabur Pregnant Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Gholami

    2014-01-01

    Conclusions: As observed in this study, most pregnant women with previous caesarean delivery prefer repeated caesarean delivery rather than VD in their subsequent pregnancy and educational level of pregnant women and doctor′s advice were important factors that influenced this preference. This subject suggests the need to counsel pregnant women with an obstetrician before select delivery type.

  18. 42 CFR 436.122 - Pregnant women eligible for extended coverage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Pregnant women eligible for extended coverage. 436... ISLANDS Mandatory Coverage of the Categorically Needy § 436.122 Pregnant women eligible for extended... period following termination of pregnancy to women who, while pregnant, applied for, were eligible...

  19. 42 CFR 435.170 - Pregnant women eligible for extended coverage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Pregnant women eligible for extended coverage. 435... Mandatory Coverage of Special Groups § 435.170 Pregnant women eligible for extended coverage. (a) The agency... pregnancy to women who, while pregnant, applied for, were eligible for, and received Medicaid services...

  20. Effectiveness of the gold standard programmes (GSP) for smoking cessation in pregnant and non-pregnant women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Mette; Heitmann, Berit Lilienthal; Tønnesen, Hanne

    2013-01-01

    Smoking is considered the most important preventable risk factor in relation to the development of complications during pregnancy and delivery. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of an intensive 6-week gold standard programme (GSP) on pregnant women in real life....

  1. Anesthetic management for cesarean delivery in a pregnant woman with polymyositis: A case report and review of literature

    OpenAIRE

    Gunusen, Ilkben; Karaman, Semra; Nemli, Seymen; FIRAT, Vicdan

    2009-01-01

    Introduction Polymyositis which is a rare disease both in general population and in pregnancy is systemic connective tissue disorder characterized by inflammation and degeneration of muscles. There is only a little information relating to the anesthetic management of a pregnant woman with polymyositis. Case presentation In this article, we present anesthetic management of urgent cesarean delivery of a 28-year-old parturient with polymyositis under epidural anesthesia who was diagnosed with po...

  2. Biodistribution of (137)Cs in a mouse model of chronic contamination by ingestion and effects on the hematopoietic system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertho, Jean-Marc; Louiba, Sonia; Faure, Marie-Cécile; Tourlonias, Elie; Stefani, Johanna; Siffert, Baptiste; Paquet, François; Dublineau, Isabelle

    2010-05-01

    The aim of this work was to define the possible occurrence of hematological changes during the course of a chronic ingestion of (137)Cs. A mouse model was used, with ingestion through drinking water with a cesium concentration of 20 kBq l(-1). Ingestion started in parent animals before mating, and (137)Cs intake and its effect on the hematopoietic system was studied in offspring at various ages between birth and 20 weeks. (137)Cs content was measured in various organs, indicating that (137)Cs was distributed throughout the organism including lympho-hematopoietic organs, i.e., femurs, spleen and thymus. However, we did not observe any effect on the hematopoietic system, whatever the parameter used. In fact, blood cell counts, mononuclear cell counts and progenitor frequency in bone marrow and spleen, and Flt3-ligand, Erythropoietin, G-CSF and SDF-1 concentration in plasma remained unchanged when compared to control animals. Moreover, phenotypic analysis did not show any change in the proportions of bone marrow cell populations. These results indicate that, although (137)Cs was found in all organs implicated in the hematopoietic system, this did not induce any changes in bone marrow function.

  3. [Impact of nutritional deficiencies on anemia in pregnant women].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leke, L; Kremp, D

    1989-12-01

    Dietary deficiency in iron and to a lesser extent folic acid is the principle cause of anemia in the world. Reproductive aged women and growing children are the principle groups at risk of anemia. About half of nonpregnant reproductive aged women in tropical countries have hemoglobin levels lower than 12 g/100 ml, the level used by the World Health Organization to define anemia. Nutritional anemia is even more widespread among pregnant and lactating women because of the increased needs for iron during those periods. Pregnant women need almost 500 mg of iron for their increased red blood cell mass, 220 mg for routine iron loss through the urine, bile, sweat, and other routes; 290 mg for the fetus, and almost 25 mg for the placenta. In all, the pregnant women theoretically requires over 1000 mg of iron through diet or bodily reserves. Healthy, well-nourished women have total iron reserves of 2500 mg, but according to published data almost 2/3 of pregnant women even in favorable circumstances end their pregnancies with no remaining iron reserves. In tropical regions the lack of iron reserves is aggravated by parasites and infections, closely spaced pregnancies that do not allow restoration of reserves, and poor dietary availability of iron. Anemia during pregnancy is associated with elevated risks of maternal morbidity and mortality. Fatigue, dyspnea, palpitations and tachycardia, vertigo, loss of appetite and cravings for soil or other inappropriate substances are frequently observed in anemic women. The risks of prematurity and low weight are increased for infants of anemic women. Fetal malformation may be associated with folic acid deficiency. Nutrition education is needed for pregnant women. Local foods may be enriched with iron, and pregnant women may be given iron and vitamin B12 supplements directly. Iron supplements may rapidly increase iron reserves, but they are poorly tolerated by many women. The supplements should be avoided if possible early in the

  4. Intimate partner violence among pregnant women in Rwanda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siziya Seter

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Intimate partner violence (IPV, defined as actual or threatened physical, sexual, psychological, and emotional abuse by current or former partners is a global public health concern. The prevalence and determinants of intimate partner violence (IPV against pregnant women has not been described in Rwanda. A study was conducted to identify variables associated with IPV among Rwandan pregnant women. Methods A convenient sample of 600 pregnant women attending antenatal clinics were administered a questionnaire which included items on demographics, HIV status, IPV, and alcohol use by the male partner. Mean age and proportions of IPV in different groups were assessed. Odds of IPV were estimated using logistic regression analysis. Results Of the 600 respondents, 35.1% reported IPV in the last 12 months. HIV+ pregnant women had higher rates of all forms of IVP violence than HIV- pregnant women: pulling hair (44.3% vs. 20.3%, slapping (32.0% vs. 15.3%, kicking with fists (36.3% vs. 19.7%, throwing to the ground and kicking with feet (23.3% vs. 12.7%, and burning with hot liquid (4.1% vs. 3.5%. HIV positive participants were more than twice likely to report physical IPV than those who were HIV negative (OR = 2.38; 95% CI [1.59, 3.57]. Other factors positively associated with physical IPV included sexual abuse before the age of 14 years (OR = 2.69; 95% CI [1.69, 4.29], having an alcohol drinking male partner (OR = 4.10; 95% CI [2.48, 6.77] for occasional drinkers and OR = 3.37; 95% CI [2.05, 5.54] for heavy drinkers, and having a male partner with other sexual partners (OR = 1.53; 95% CI [1.15, 2.20]. Education was negatively associated with lifetime IPV. Conclusion We have reported on prevalence of IPV violence among pregnant women attending antenatal care in Rwanda, Central Africa. We advocate that screening for IPV be an integral part of HIV and AIDS care, as well as routine antenatal care. Services for battered women should also be

  5. Comparing caring practices between two groups of pregnant women in the city of sincelejo

    OpenAIRE

    2010-01-01

    In order to compare the care practices that a group of pregnant women exercise in respect of themselves and their unborn child of a group of adolescent pregnant girls andanother of adult pregnant women who attended prenatal check ups in Sincelejo during the months of July and September of 2006, a descriptive, quantitative and transversal study was developed, with a sample of 97 adolescent pregnant girls between 15 and 19 years and of 153 adult pregnant women between 20 and 45 years of age, wi...

  6. Accelerating the paradigm shift toward inclusion of pregnant women in drug research: Ethical and regulatory considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Amina

    2015-11-01

    Although there has been long-standing reluctance to include pregnant women as clinical trial participants, increasing recognition of profound gaps in research on the safety and efficacy of drugs often prescribed to pregnant women calls into question the practice of routinely excluding them. This article presents compelling reasons for including pregnant women in clinical research, highlights certain regulatory barriers to the inclusion of pregnant women, and proposes that professional societies with expertise in obstetrics and maternal-fetal medicine can be instrumental in hastening the paradigm shift from the systematic exclusion of pregnant women in research to a one of responsible and fair inclusion.

  7. Improving ambulatory saliva-sampling compliance in pregnant women: a randomized controlled study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julian Moeller

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Noncompliance with scheduled ambulatory saliva sampling is common and has been associated with biased cortisol estimates in nonpregnant subjects. This study is the first to investigate in pregnant women strategies to improve ambulatory saliva-sampling compliance, and the association between sampling noncompliance and saliva cortisol estimates. METHODS: We instructed 64 pregnant women to collect eight scheduled saliva samples on two consecutive days each. Objective compliance with scheduled sampling times was assessed with a Medication Event Monitoring System and self-reported compliance with a paper-and-pencil diary. In a randomized controlled study, we estimated whether a disclosure intervention (informing women about objective compliance monitoring and a reminder intervention (use of acoustical reminders improved compliance. A mixed model analysis was used to estimate associations between women's objective compliance and their diurnal cortisol profiles, and between deviation from scheduled sampling and the cortisol concentration measured in the related sample. RESULTS: Self-reported compliance with a saliva-sampling protocol was 91%, and objective compliance was 70%. The disclosure intervention was associated with improved objective compliance (informed: 81%, noninformed: 60%, F(1,60  = 17.64, p<0.001, but not the reminder intervention (reminders: 68%, without reminders: 72%, F(1,60 = 0.78, p = 0.379. Furthermore, a woman's increased objective compliance was associated with a higher diurnal cortisol profile, F(2,64  = 8.22, p<0.001. Altered cortisol levels were observed in less objective compliant samples, F(1,705  = 7.38, p = 0.007, with delayed sampling associated with lower cortisol levels. CONCLUSIONS: The results suggest that in pregnant women, objective noncompliance with scheduled ambulatory saliva sampling is common and is associated with biased cortisol estimates. To improve sampling compliance, results suggest

  8. Prototype for Internet support of pregnant women and mothers with type 1 diabetes: focus group testing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adolfsson A

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Annsofie Adolfsson,1,2 Malin Jansson1,21School of Life Sciences, University of Skovde, Skovde, Sweden; 2Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Skaraborg Hospital, Skovde, SwedenBackground: The aim of this study was to pilot test a prototype website called MODIAB-web designed to support pregnant women and mothers with type 1 diabetes.Method: A focus group was undertaken and the results were analyzed using qualitative content analysis.Results: Eight subthemes were identified, comprising "blood glucose versus insulin," "application for smart phones," "the time aspect," "interface and technology," "forum," "direct link to the diabetes midwife," "ask the expert," and "lack of contact information." These subthemes were condensed into two main themes. The first theme was "easily understood interface, but in need of a more blood-glucose focused orientation" and the second theme was "forum for interaction with both equals and experts." Conclusion: The women in this study had positive impressions of several of the MODIAB-web functions, including a forum for pregnant mothers with type 1 diabetes and the possibility of being able to put their blood glucose levels into a diagram which could be sent directly to the diabetes midwife. Access to articles and information via the "fact" tab and the ability to ask questions of experts were also significantly helpful to women in the focus group. Pregnant women and mothers with type 1 diabetes can gain support from such a Web-based self-help system.Keywords: type 1 diabetes, web support, pregnancy, focus group interview

  9. The Effect of Peppermint Oil on Symptomatic Treatment of Pruritus in Pregnant Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akhavan Amjadi, Marjan; Mojab, Faraz; Kamranpour, Seyedeh Bahareh

    2012-01-01

    Itching is one of the most common skin symptoms. Generalized pruritus occurs in 1-8% of pregnant women. It can create unpleasant feeling for these women especially at nights. Most pregnant women avoid using synthetic drugs because of their side effects. Peppermint is a plant which has been used as a traditional drug in Iran. It decreases skin’s temperature. This study was done to determine the effects of peppermint oil on symptomatic treatment of pruritus in pregnant women attending to Rasoul Akram Hospital in Rasht, 2011. In this triple-blind clinical trial, 96 randomly selected subjects diagnosed with pruritus gravidarum were studied (47 cases and 49 controls). A bottle containing 60 mL of peppermint oil 0.5% in sesame oil and identical placebos were provided to be taken twice a day during 2 weeks by the case and control groups, respectively. The severity of the itch was assessed and compared before and after the study by VAS system. The results were analyzed by SPSS. Statistical methods such as descriptive analysis, independent samples’ t-test, paired samples’ t-test and Chi-square were employed. The severity of the itch in the treated group with peppermint oil in comparison with the placebo group, showed a significant statistical difference (p = 0.003). In accordance with the results of this study, it seems that peppermint oil can be effective in reducing the severity of Pruritus Gravidarum. More studies with larger sample sizes are required to confidently declare the mentioned results. PMID:24250539

  10. mHealth Physical Activity Intervention: A Randomized Pilot Study in Physically Inactive Pregnant Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, JiWon; Lee, Ji Hyeon; Vittinghoff, Eric; Fukuoka, Yoshimi

    2016-05-01

    Physical inactivity is prevalent in pregnant women, and innovative strategies to promote physical activity are strongly needed. The purpose of the study was to test a 12-week mobile health (mHealth) physical activity intervention for feasibility and potential efficacy. Participants were recruited between December 2012 and February 2014 using diverse recruitment methods. Thirty pregnant women between 10 and 20 weeks of gestation were randomized to an intervention (mobile phone app plus Fitbit) or a control (Fitbit) group. Both conditions targeted gradual increases in physical activity. The mHealth intervention included daily messages and a mobile phone activity diary with automated feedback and self-monitoring systems. On monthly average, 4 women were screened for initial eligibility by telephone and 2.5 were randomized. Intervention participants had a 1096 ± 1898 step increase in daily steps compared to an increase of 259 ± 1604 steps in control participants at 12 weeks. The change between groups in weekly mean steps per day during the 12-week study period was not statistically significant (p = 0.38). The intervention group reported lower perceived barrier to being active, lack of energy, than the control group at 12-week visit (p = 0.02). The rates of responding to daily messages and using the daily diary through the mobile app declined during the 12 week study period. It was difficult to recruit and randomize inactive women who wanted to increase physical activity during pregnancy. Pregnant women who were motivated to increase physical activity might find using mobile technologies in assessing and promoting PA acceptable. Possible reasons for the non-significant treatment effect of the mHealth intervention on physical activity are discussed. Public awareness of safety and benefits of physical activity during pregnancy should be promoted. Clinicaltrials.Gov Identifier NCT01461707.

  11. The effect of morphine consumption on plasma corticosteron concentration and placenta development in pregnant rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masoomeh Kazemi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Previous studies have shown that morphine consumption during pregnancy may delay embryo development or cause abnormal nervous system function. Objective: The present study focused on the effect of maternal morphine consumption on development of placenta and blood corticosteron concentration in addictive pregnant mothers.Materials and Methods: 24 female rats, 170-200g weight, were used. The experimental groups after pregnancy received an oral dose of 0.05 mg/ml of morphine by tap water while the control group received only tap water. On 10th and 14th day of pregnancy, rats were anesthetized and placenta removed surgically, 1ml blood was collected from each pregnant mother from retro-orbital sinus, the concentration of blood corticosteron was determined by corticosteron Elisa kit after centrifugation. The fixed tissue was processed, sectioned and stained with hematoxylin and eosin. Placenta was studied microscopically according to the thickness of layers, area of blood cisterns, and the number of cells.Results: Comparing the plasma corticosteron concentration of the treatment and the control groups, not only a severe increase in the treatment group was detected, but also the thickness of maternal and embryonic portions of the placenta at day 10th and 14th of gestation was different significantly (p≤0.05. Furthermore, an increase in number of cells in maternal and embryonic portion of placenta and a decrease in blood cistern area were demonstrated in both the experimental and the control groups.Conclusion: The effects of morphine, including an increase in blood concentration of corticosteron, in dependent pregnant mothers were seen. Development of placenta in the experimental group was delayed.

  12. The association between nonylphenols and sexual hormones levels among pregnant women: a cohort study in Taiwan.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chia-Huang Chang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Nonylphenol (NP has been proven as an endocrine disrupter and had the ability to interfere with the endocrine system. Though the health effects of NP on pregnant women and their fetuses are sustained, these negative associations related to the mechanisms of regulation for estrogen during pregnancy need to be further clarified. The objective of this study is to explore the association between maternal NP and hormonal levels, such as estradiol, testosterone, luteinizing hormone (LH and follicle stimulating hormone (FSH, and progesterone. METHODS: A pregnant women cohort was established in North Taiwan between March and December 2010. Maternal urine and blood samples from the first, second, and third trimesters of gestation were collected. Urinary NP concentration was measured by high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with fluorescent detection. A mixed-effects model using a generalised estimating equation (GEE was applied to assess the associations between maternal NP concentration and plasma hormones throughout the three trimesters. RESULTS: In total, 162 singleton pregnant women completed this study through delivery. The geometric mean of creatinine-adjusted urinary NP concentrations were 4.27, 4.21, and 4.10 µg/g cre. in the first, second, and third trimesters respectively. A natural log-transformation of urinary NP concentrations were significantly associated with LH in the GEE model (β = -0.23 mIU/ml, p<0.01. CONCLUSION: This perspective cohort study demonstrates that negative association occurs between maternal NP exposure and plasma LH levels. The estrogen-mimic effect of NP might influence the negative feedback on LH during pregnancy.

  13. Evaluation of pregnant patients admitted to the emergency department with suicide attempt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yılmaz Zengin

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: In the pregnancy period, the incidence of suicide attempt is lower compared to other life-periods. However, according to the recent studies, suicide attempts may lead life-threatening consequences in high-risk pregnant women. The aim of this study is to compare pregnant patients admitted to the emergency department for suicide attempt in terms of their sociodemographic and clinical properties and suicide attempt methods. Methods: In this study, 56 patients admitted to the emergency department of university for suicide attempt between January 1, 2009, and December 31, 2014, were included and they were classified according to suicide attempt methods into 2 groups as violent ones. Group 1 included violent methods as hanging, jumping, shooting and Group 2 included non-violent method as drugs. The study was a retrospective cross-sectional study. The sociodemographic, psychiatric and clinical properties of the patients were identified by patient registry system and patient files, and inter-group differences were compared. Results: In this study, 15 (26.7% patients in the violent suicide attempt group, and 41 (73.3% patients in the non-violent suicide attempt group, totally 56 patients were included. In the non-violent suicide attempt group, cigarette smoking, suicide attempt due to boredom, and live birth was significantly higher as compared to violent group; hospitalization period and fetal death was lower (p=0.04; p=0.006; p=0.004; p=0.004, respectively. Conclusion: Most of our pregnant suicide attempt patients are in the non-violent group, however, violent suicide attempt increased hospitalization period and fetal mortality significantly. J Clin Exp Invest 2015; 6 (2: 115-120

  14. SAR exposure from UHF RFID reader in adult, child, pregnant woman, and fetus anatomical models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiocchi, Serena; Markakis, Ioannis A; Ravazzani, Paolo; Samaras, Theodoros

    2013-09-01

    The spread of radio frequency identification (RFID) devices in ubiquitous applications without their simultaneous exposure assessment could give rise to public concerns about their potential adverse health effects. Among the various RFID system categories, the ultra high frequency (UHF) RFID systems have recently started to be widely used in many applications. This study addresses a computational exposure assessment of the electromagnetic radiation generated by a realistic UHF RFID reader, quantifying the exposure levels in different exposure scenarios and subjects (two adults, four children, and two anatomical models of women 7 and 9 months pregnant). The results of the computations are presented in terms of the whole-body and peak spatial specific absorption rate (SAR) averaged over 10 g of tissue to allow comparison with the basic restrictions of the exposure guidelines. The SAR levels in the adults and children were below 0.02 and 0.8 W/kg in whole-body SAR and maximum peak SAR levels, respectively, for all tested positions of the antenna. On the contrary, exposure of pregnant women and fetuses resulted in maximum peak SAR(10 g) values close to the values suggested by the guidelines (2 W/kg) in some of the exposure scenarios with the antenna positioned in front of the abdomen and with a 100% duty cycle and 1 W radiated power.

  15. Association between uterine artery Doppler blood flow changes and arterial wall elasticity in pregnant women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Wowern, Emma; Andersson, Jakob; Skarping, Ida Dalene; Howie, Maria Teresa; Olofsson, Per

    2017-10-01

    Uterine artery (UtA) Doppler velocimetry changes and increased arterial stiffness are associated with preeclampsia. We aimed to investigate the relation between UtA velocimetry changes and arterial stiffness in pregnant women. Doppler velocimetry and photoplethysmographic digital pulse wave analysis (DPA) were performed in 173 pregnant women in the second or the third trimester, where UtA Doppler pulsatility index (PI), diastolic notching, and UtA score (UAS) combining notching and high PI were calculated. DPA stiffness parameters representing large arteries were ejection elasticity index (EEI) and b/a, small arteries dicrotic index (DI) and d/a, and global stiffness the aging index (AI). One hundred and thirty women had normal Doppler and 43 had diastolic notching, of whom nine had high PI. DI indicated increased stiffness in small arteries when notching was present (p = 0.044) and showed a significant but weak correlation to UAS (p = 0.025, tau 0.12). EEI and b/a indicated increased large artery stiffness (p ≤0.014), d/a small artery stiffness (p = 0.023), and AI a systemic stiffness (p = 0.040) when high PI. High UtA PI was associated with increased systemic arterial stiffness, whereas notching was related to increased stiffness in small arteries only. This indicates pathophysiological differences between the two Doppler parameters.

  16. [Hemodynamic effects of spinal anaesthesia during caesarian section in pregnant women with hypertensive disorders].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinzhalova, S V; Makarov, R A; Davydova, N S

    2014-01-01

    To make the comparative analysis of the changes of main parameters of haemodynamic during caesarean section with spinal anaesthesia (SA) in patients with uncomplicated pregnancy and pregnancy with hypertensive disorders. The study included 103 pregnant women undergoing caesarean section under SA. The comparative analysis of the main haemodynamic parameters was performed in patients into three groups: an uncomplicated pregnancy (n = 35); pregnancy with chronic hypertension (n = 33) and pregnancy complicated by severe preeclampsia (n = 35). Heart rate (HR), mean blood pressure (BP), cardiac index (CI) and systemic vascular resistance (SVR) were measured by noninvasive bioimpedans technology. Data were recorded at 5 stages of the study. The data of study demonstrated that haemodynamic stability better if SA is used during caesarean section in women with normal pregnancy. In the group of pregnant women with severe preeclampsia observed the most significant hemodynamic changes: BP and SVR decreased significantly greater at all stages of the operation, whereas the increase SI on the 3rd stage was higher in comparison with the control group. There were significant differences changes in the main hemodynamic parameters between groups at all stages of the study. Results of this survey suggest that hemodynamic response to anaesthesia depends on the initial state of the circulatory system.

  17. Oxidative Profile and δ-Aminolevulinate Dehydratase Activity in Healthy Pregnant Women with Iron Supplementation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Lucca, Leidiane; Rodrigues, Fabiane; Jantsch, Letícia B; Neme, Walter S; Gallarreta, Francisco M P; Gonçalves, Thissiane L

    2016-05-03

    An oxidative burst occurs during pregnancy due to the large consumption of oxygen in the tissues and an increase in metabolic demands in response to maternal physiological changes and fetal growth. This study aimed to determine the oxidative profile and activity of δ-aminolevulinate dehydratase (δ-ALA-D) in pregnant women who received iron supplementation. Oxidative stress parameters were evaluated in 25 pregnant women with iron supplementation, 25 pregnant women without supplementation and 25 non-pregnant women. The following oxidative stress parameters were evaluated: thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS), protein thiol groups (P-SH), non-protein thiol levels (NP-SH), vitamin C levels, catalase and δ-ALA-D activity. Markers of oxidative stress and cell damage, such as TBARS in plasma were significantly higher in pregnant women without supplementation. Levels of P-SH, NP-SH and δ-ALA-D activity were significantly lower in pregnant women without supplementation compared to non-pregnant and pregnant women with supplementation, while vitamin C levels were significantly lower in pregnant women without supplementation when compared to non-pregnant women. The increase in the generation of oxidative species and decrease of antioxidants suggest the loss of physiological oxidative balance during normal pregnancy, which was not observed in pregnant women with iron supplementation, suggesting a protective effect of iron against oxidative damage.

  18. Enzymatic collagen degradation in the pregnant guinea pig cervix during physiological maturation of the cervix and after local application of prostaglandins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rath, W; Adelmann-Grill, B C; Osmers, R; Kuhn, W

    1989-09-01

    The role of enzymatic collagen degradation in prostaglandin-induced and physiological cervical ripening was studied in guinea pigs. The cervices were removed from (a) 8 non-pregnant guinea pigs, (b) 8 animals at day 45 of pregnancy, (c) 14 pregnant animals of comparable gestational age which had either an intracervical application of 0.2 ml 5% tylose or 10 micrograms sulprostone gel, and (d) 8 guinea pigs at day 63 to 65 of pregnancy. Collagenase activity was assayed in a highly specific and sensitive system using native collagen type I as substrate. Protease activity was measured by the method of Green and Shaw. Collagen fragments were identified by SDS-polyacrylamide electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) of acetic-soluble fractions. Collagenase and protease activities were found in all extracts from the different groups. However, there were no differences in enzymatic activities between the non-pregnant, early-pregnant and late-pregnant cervical specimens. Prostaglandin pre-treatment of the cervix led to no significant increase in either collagenase or protease activity as compared to the control groups. The absence of typical collagen degradation products in the SDS-PAGE suggested that no significant collagen breakdown had taken place. In contrast to previously published literature, we conclude that enzymatic collagen degradation is unlikely to be a key factor in prostaglandin-induced and physiological cervical ripening.

  19. Cardiac Arrest in a Pregnant Patient Diagnosed with Bochdalek Hernia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pinar Karabacak

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Bochdalek hernia is thought to be the result of a defect of the pleuroperitoneal fold and the septum transversum fusion in the 8th week of gestation. The majority of these patients present with respiratory distress after delivery; asymptomatic progress until adulthood is an extremely rare clinical occurrence. The adult form of a Bochdalek hernia accompanying pregnancy is a rare entity. A 39-year-old, 24-week pregnant patient applied to Emergency service with epigastric pain and vomiting. Abdominal ultrasonography was planned due to the abdominal pain; sudden cardiopulmonary arrest occurred during the procedure. In this case report, congenital diaphragmatic hernia in a young pregnant woman who underwent cardiac arrest is presented.

  20. Evaluation of ventricular repolarization in pregnant women with intrahepatic cholestasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirbas, Ozgur; Biberoglu, Ebru Hacer; Kirbas, Ayse; Daglar, Korkut; Kurmus, Ozge; Danisman, Nuri; Biberoglu, Kutay

    2015-01-01

    Bile acids can induce arrhythmia by altering cardiomyocyte contractility or electrical conduction. The aim of this study was to investigate, by means of QT dispersion parameter detected by simple standard electrocardiogram (ECG), ventricular repolarization changes in pregnant women with and without intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy (ICP). In this case-control study including 75 pregnant women with cholestasis and 35 healthy, uncomplicated pregnancy cases, electrocardiographic QT interval durations and QT dispersion (QT-disp) parameters, corrected for the patients' heart rate using the Hodges formula, were investigated. Maximum corrected QT interval values were significantly higher in the severe ICP group than in the control group (p cholestasis when compared to the normal ones. This simple ECG parameter can be used to screen high-risk women, in order to better target counseling regarding lifestyle modifications and to conduct closer follow up and management of women with a history of ICP. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Urinary excretion of parabens in pregnant Japanese women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shirai, Sayaka; Suzuki, Yayoi; Yoshinaga, Jun; Shiraishi, Hiroaki; Mizumoto, Yoshifumi

    2013-01-01

    Urinary excretion of free and total (free plus conjugated) forms of methyl, ethyl, n-propyl and n-butyl parabens (MP, EP, PP and BP, respectively) and their metabolite p-hydroxybenzoic acid were measured for 111 pregnant Japanese women. Frequent detection of parabens and their metabolite indicated that exposure takes place daily for pregnant Japanese women. The estrogenic potency of PP was 20 times higher than those of the other 3 parabens for the present subjects when both abundance in the urine and the relative estrogenic activity of each compound was considered. Detection of free parabens suggested dermal exposure, probably from their inclusion in personal care products. No statistical association was found between the anogenital index (birth weight-adjusted AGD) of male offspring and the concentrations of any parabens in the urine of the mothers suggesting that the parabens were not apparently estrogenically active at the exposure level of the present subjects. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Inhaled beclomethasone in pregnant asthmatic women--a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Aguiar, M M; da Silva, H J; Rizzo, J Â; Leite, D F B; Silva Lima, M E P L; Sarinho, E S C

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to systematically review the safety and efficacy of inhaled beclomethasone for asthma treatment in pregnant women. We performed a systematic review in Medline, LILACS and SciELO electronic databases in December 2012. A total of 3433 articles were found by using the keywords asthma, pregnancy and beclomethasone. Among these, 1666 were from Medline, via PubMed, and 1767 were from LILACS and SciELO. Nine of these articles were selected. Only one paper suggested an increased foetal risk for congenital malformations, and one other for offspring endocrine and metabolic disturbances. Data are mostly reassuring, supporting the use of glucocorticoid inhalants during pregnancy, and we found no evidence of inferiority in relation to efficacy and safety of beclomethasone compared to other drugs used in pregnant asthmatic women.

  3. Pregnant women’s preference for vaginal or caesarean childbirth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lígia Ebner Melchiori

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available The study investigated the preference for delivery in 40 pregnant women using a semi-structured interview. Most women (75% reported a preference for vaginal delivery, mainly because they believe it will result in a speedy recovery and be better for them and/or their babies. Of the women interviewed, 15% preferred a caesarean section because they considered it be less painful. These preferences, in general, were influenced by friends. Most women said they had fear of parturition due to: feelings of pain/suffering, concern of something happening to them or their babies and because the situation is unknown or assessed in a negative fashion. The presence of trusted people, like one’s husband, mother or doctor, could minimize this fear. These results reinforce the contributions of health professionals, such as psychologists, in answering the psychosocial needs of pregnant women in situations of delivery and birth.   Keywords: vaginal birth; caesarean section; pregnancy; health psychology.

  4. Disseminated Mycobacterium avium complex infection in an immunocompetent pregnant woman

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kim Woo

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Disseminated mycobacterium avium complex (MAC occurs mainly in immunocompromised hosts, which is associated with abnormal cellular immunity. Case presentation A 26-year-old pregnant woman presented with fever and general weakness. Miliary lung nodules were noted on chest X-ray. Under the impression of miliary tuberculosis, anti-tuberculosis medication was administered. However, the patient was not improved. Further work-up demonstrated MAC in the sputum and placenta. The patient was treated successfully with clarithromycin-based combination regimen. Conclusion This appears to be the first case of disseminated MAC in an otherwise healthy pregnant woman. Clinicians should be alert for the diagnosis of MAC infection in diverse clinical conditions.

  5. Sexual positions and sexual satisfaction of pregnant women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jian Tao; Lin, Chao Ling; Wan, Gwo Hwa; Liang, Ching Chung

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the sexual positions and sexual satisfaction of women during pregnancy. The authors sampled pregnant women (N = 215) from outpatients registered at the antepartum clinic of a medical center in northern Taiwan. The authors gathered data on recent sexual satisfaction, general sexual satisfaction, and sexual position using a self-report, structured questionnaire. The results showed that coital frequency decreased from the first to third trimester (p sexual position for pregnant women (67.6%) was man on top, face-to-face. Sexual position did not change significantly by trimester. More women with more sexual satisfaction than women with poor sexual satisfaction tended to adopt the woman-on-top, face-to-face, and abdominal-supportive sexual positions.

  6. Sugar expressions on the vaginal epithelium in pregnant mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yasunaga, Youhei; Takeuchi, Takashi; Shimokawa, Tetsuya; Nabeta, Motowo; Matsuu, Aya; Asano, Atsushi; Ohta, Yasuhiko

    2012-06-01

    Sugar expressions were examined on the epithelium of both the middle portion of the vagina and the vaginal portion of the cervical canal (CC) in pregnant mice to understand the pathogenesis of bacterial infection in the female reproductive organ by using a panel of lectins. As a result, N-acetylglucosamine was positive before pregnant day (P) 7 but negative after P10 and at diestrus on both the vagina and the CC. In addition, some differences in sugar expressions were seen between them. These results suggest that sugar expressions on the mucosal surface would change not only site-specifically but also time-dependently, and these sugar differences indicate the possibility of the alteration of the settled bacterial species on the vaginal mucosa in pregnancy.

  7. Pressure and volume controlled mechanical ventilation in anaesthetized pregnant sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, J; Musk, G C

    2014-10-01

    Optimal mechanical ventilation of the pregnant ewe during anaesthesia is of vital importance for maintaining fetal viability. This study aimed to compare peak inspiratory pressure (PIP), oxygenation and cardiovascular parameters with pressure-control (PCV) or volume-control (VCV) mechanical ventilation of anaesthetized pregnant sheep. Twenty ewes at 110 days gestation underwent general anaesthesia in dorsal recumbency for fetal surgery in a research setting. All the sheep were mechanically ventilated; one group with PCV (n = 10) and another with VCV (n = 10) to maintain normocapnia. PIP, direct arterial blood pressure, heart rate, arterial pH and arterial oxygen tension were recorded. PIP was lower in the PCV group (P sheep anaesthetized in dorsal recumbency, though PCV may provide superior oxygenation at a lower PIP.

  8. Proteolytic antibodies in the sera of pregnant women: a case control study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahimzadeh jahromi M, Mirshahi M, Shamsipour F, Mohamadi M

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available "n Normal 0 false false false MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:10.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:#0400; mso-fareast-language:#0400; mso-bidi-language:#0400;} Background: The induction of catalytic antibodies (abzymes was first postulated by Pauling in 1948. Various catalytic antibodies have been detected recently in the sera of patients with several autoimmune pathologies such as systemic lupus erythematosus and rheumatoid arthritis. In addition, antibodies with DNase and RNase activity have been discovered in the milk and sera of healthy human mothers, which shows the physiologic role of these antibodies. In this study, we examined the proteolytic activity of antibodies in the sera of pregnant women. "n"nMethods: IgG antibody fractions were isolated from the sera of 30 healthy pregnant women in the first trimester of pregnancy and 10 control samples (men and nonpregnant women by subsequent steps of chromatographic purification on Protein G sepharose and sephacryl S-300. All patients were in their first pregnancy and aged 25-35 years. The conditions for proteolytic activity, such as type of buffer, pH and temperature, were optimized. The proteolytic activity of these antibodies was demonstrated by in-gel assay with gelatin as the substrate. "n"nResults: Antibody treatments at the optimum temperature showed that some samples from pregnant women contain proteolytic abzymes, as demonstrated by in-gel assays. Western blot results confirmed that the proteolytic activity is an intrinsic property of the antibodies. "n"nConclusions: During pregnancy and immediately after delivery women very often experience autoimmune processes similar to

  9. Pharmacokinetics of a single oral dose of vitamin D3 (70,000 IU in pregnant and non-pregnant women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roth Daniel E

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Improvements in antenatal vitamin D status may have maternal-infant health benefits. To inform the design of prenatal vitamin D3 trials, we conducted a pharmacokinetic study of single-dose vitamin D3 supplementation in women of reproductive age. Methods A single oral vitamin D3 dose (70,000 IU was administered to 34 non-pregnant and 27 pregnant women (27 to 30 weeks gestation enrolled in Dhaka, Bangladesh (23°N. The primary pharmacokinetic outcome measure was the change in serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentration over time, estimated using model-independent pharmacokinetic parameters. Results Baseline mean serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentration was 54 nmol/L (95% CI 47, 62 in non-pregnant participants and 39 nmol/L (95% CI 34, 45 in pregnant women. Mean peak rise in serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentration above baseline was similar in non-pregnant and pregnant women (28 nmol/L and 32 nmol/L, respectively. However, the rate of rise was slightly slower in pregnant women (i.e., lower 25-hydroxyvitamin D on day 2 and higher 25-hydroxyvitamin D on day 21 versus non-pregnant participants. Overall, average 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentration was 19 nmol/L above baseline during the first month. Supplementation did not induce hypercalcemia, and there were no supplement-related adverse events. Conclusions The response to a single 70,000 IU dose of vitamin D3 was similar in pregnant and non-pregnant women in Dhaka and consistent with previous studies in non-pregnant adults. These preliminary data support the further investigation of antenatal vitamin D3 regimens involving doses of ≤70,000 IU in regions where maternal-infant vitamin D deficiency is common. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov (NCT00938600

  10. Listeriosis Prevention Knowledge Among Pregnant Women in the USA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruth Lynfield

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Listeriosis is a food-borne disease often associated with ready-to-eat foods. It usually causes mild febrile gastrointestinal illness in immunocompetent persons. In pregnant women, it may cause more severe infection and often crosses the placenta to infect the fetus, resulting in miscarriage, fetal death or neonatal morbidity. Simple precautions during pregnancy can prevent listeriosis. However, many women are unaware of these precautions and listeriosis education is often omitted from prenatal care.

  11. Administration of praziquantel to pregnant and lactating women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olds, G Richard

    2003-05-01

    Praziquantel (PZQ) is the safest of all anti-helminthics and now forms the backbone for all national control programs against schistosomiasis (Med. Res. Rev. 3 (1983) 147-200; Bull. WHO 57 (1979) 767-771; Wegner, D.H.G, Therapeutic Drugs (1991), Churchill Livingstone; Adv. Intern. Med. 32 (1987) 193-206; Drugs 42 (1991) 379-405; Pharmac. Ther. 68 (1995) 35-85; Ann. Intern. Med. 110 (1989) 290-296). Despite its lack of known toxicity, the drug was not tested on pregnant or lactating women prior to release. It is currently listed as Pregnancy Category B by the US FDA, which is a drug presumed safe based in animal studies. Unfortunately, this has been interpreted by most national control programs and WHO (1998) to exclude lactating and pregnant women from treatment. In fact, some experts advocate excluding adolescent girls from mass treatment campaigns over this issue. As a result, a large number of women living in endemic countries are currently left untreated or have treatment significantly delayed. A review of the current known toxicology of PZQ, combined with over two decades of clinical experience with this drug, suggest very low potential for adverse effects on either the mother or her unborn child. In contrast, significant animal and human data are presented in this review that suggest both the pregnant woman and her unborn fetus suffer morbid sequella from schistosomiasis. A double-blind placebo-controlled trial that could resolve this issue would require a very large and expensive study and in light of the above facts might not now be ethically appropriate. The author concludes that pregnant women should be treated with PZQ, that women of childbearing age should be included in all mass treatment programs and that lactating women are not systematically excluded from treatment.

  12. Nutritional status of pregnant women: prevalence and associated pregnancy outcomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nucci Luciana Bertoldi

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Although obesity is well recognized as a current public health problem, its prevalence and impact among pregnant women have been less investigated in Brazil. The objective of the study was to evaluate the impact of pre-obesity and obesity among pregnant women, describing its prevalence and risk factors, and their association with adverse pregnancy outcomes. METHODS: A cohort of 5,564 pregnant women, aged 20 years or more, enrolled at aproximately 20 to 28 weeks of pregnancy, seen in prenatal public clinics of six state capitals in Brazil were followed up, between 1991 and 1995. Prepregnancy weight, age, educational level and parity were obtained from a standard questionnaire. Height was measured in duplicate and the interviewer assigned the skin color. Nutritional status was defined using body mass index (BMI, according to World Health Organization (WHO criteria. Odds ratios and 95% confidence interval were calculated using logistic regression. RESULTS: Age-adjusted prevalences (and 95% CI based on prepregnancy weight were: underweight 5.7% (5.1%-6.3%, overweight 19.2% (18.1%-20.3%, and obesity 5.5% (4.9%-6.2%. Obesity was more frequently observed in older black women, with a lower educational level and multiparous. Obese women had higher frequencies of gestational diabetes, macrosomia, hypertensive disorders, and lower risk of microsomia. CONCLUSIONS: Overweight nutritional status (obesity and pre-obesity was seen in 25% of adult pregnant women and it was associated with increased risk for several adverse pregnancy outcomes, such as gestational diabetes and pre-eclampsia.

  13. Dopaminergic modulation of grooming behavior in virgin and pregnant rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.P. Serafim

    2001-11-01

    Full Text Available Dopamine receptors are involved in the expression of grooming behavior. The pregnancy-induced increase in self-licking observed in rats is important for mammary gland development and lactation. This study focuses on the role of dopamine receptor subtypes in grooming behavior of virgin and pregnant female rats. General and mammary gland grooming were measured in virgin rats treated with 0.25 mg/kg of the D1-like agonist SKF-81297 and antagonist SKF-83566 and the D2-like agonist lisuride and antagonist sulpiride. The effects of 0.01 and 0.25 mg/kg doses of the same agonists and antagonists were evaluated in pregnant rats as well. In virgin animals both SKF-83566 and sulpiride treatments significantly reduced the time spent in general grooming, while none of the dopamine agonists was able to significantly change any parameter of general grooming. Time spent in grooming directed at the mammary glands was not affected significantly by any of the drug treatments in virgin rats. All drugs tested significantly decreased the frequency of and the time spent with general grooming, while SKF-81297 treatment alone did not significantly reduce the duration of mammary gland grooming in pregnant rats. These data show that in female rats the behavioral effects of D1-like and D2-like dopamine receptor stimulation and blockade differ according to physiological state. The results suggest that dopamine receptors may play specific roles modulating grooming behavior in pregnant rats. Since grooming of the mammary gland during pregnancy may influence lactation, this aspect is relevant for studies regarding the perinatal use of dopamine-related drugs.

  14. Poor and pregnant: perinatal ganja use in rural Jamaica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dreher, M C

    1989-01-01

    This paper reports the ethnographic findings from a study of cannabis use by pregnant women in rural Jamaica. The perceived functions of ganja in reducing the physiological symptoms of pregnancy and associated psychological stress are described in relation to the sociocultural context of pregnancy in low-income rural communities. The data suggest that distinguishing life-style characteristics of cannabis-smoking women may actually mitigate the potentially harmful effects of marihuana.

  15. Increasing prevalence of group B streptococcal infection among pregnant women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Kathrine Birch; Johansen, Helle Krogh; Rosthoj, Susanne

    2014-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Group B streptococci (GBS) can cause preterm delivery for women and sepsis and meningitis in infants younger than 90 days of age. The present retrospective cohort study determines the trend over time in the rates of GBS and in demographic risk factors for GBS among pregnant women.......3% in 2002 to 5.1% in 2010 (p neonates in the general population and 7.8 per 1,000 among women with GBS (p

  16. Histomorphometric changes of small intestine in pregnant rat

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    Food intake of rats increases during pregnancy. This requires changes in the structure of the small intestine to absorb additional food. The aim of the present study was to investigate the morphological changes in the layers of small intestine in rats during pregnancy. Duodenum, jejunum and ileum of 18 pregnant Sprague-Dawley rats (day 7, 14 and 21 of pregnancy) were collected. Villous height and width and thickness of lamina propria, tunica muscularis entirely and separately (circular and lo...

  17. Management of inflammatory bowel disease in the pregnant patient

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Flavio M Habal; Nikila C Ravindran

    2008-01-01

    Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is a chronic disorder affecting young adults in their reproductive years.Many young women with IBD express concern about the effect their disease will have on fertility,pregnancy course and fetal development This article presents an approach to management of IBD in the pregnant patient,including counseling and investigation,and summarizes existing data on the safety of medications used to treat IBD in pregnancy and breastfeeding.

  18. Pregnancy planning and acceptance among Danish pregnant women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasch, V; Knudsen, L B; Wielandt, H

    2001-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To study how living conditions influence pregnancy planning and acceptance among Danish women. METHOD: A cross-sectional questionnaire study performed among 3516 pregnant women attending Odense University Hospital, Denmark. The study population consisted of women with spontaneous abort...... be considered appropriate for childbirth. The contraceptive prevalence rate among accepting non-planners was low and might reflect that these women were not entirely against the thought of having a child, although they did not actively plan to have one....

  19. Being the mother of a pregnant adolescent: experiences and expectations

    OpenAIRE

    Caldeira,Sebastião; Merighi,Miriam Aparecida Barbosa; JESUS, Maria Cristina Pinto de; Oliveira,Deíse Moura de; Domingos,Selisvane Ribeiro da Fonseca; Gonçalves, Roselane

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To understand the typical actions of the mother during the pregnancy of her teenage daughter. METHODS: Qualitative study, based on the theoretical-methodological framework of social phenomenology of Alfred Schütz. The data were collected in 2009, and the subjects were nine mothers of adolescent primigravidae. RESULTS: The mother of the pregnant adolescent is typified as one that reacts with surprise and disappointment to being notified of the pregnancy and who, subsequently, confor...

  20. Cervical stiffness evaluated in vivo by endoflip in pregnant women.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lene Hee

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To determine the stiffness of the pregnant uterine cervix in vivo. METHOD: Five women in early pregnancy and six women in late pregnancy were included. The EndoFlip is a 1-m-long probe with a 12-cm-long bag mounted on the tip. The tip of the probe was inserted into the cervical canal. Sensors spaced at 0.5-cm intervals along the probe were used to determine 16 serial cross-sectional areas of the bag. The diameter of the cervical canal could thereby be determined during inflation with up to 50 ml saline solution. Tissue stiffness was calculated from the geometric profiles and the pressure-strain elastic modulus (EP at each sensor site. Three parts of the cervix were defined: the uterus-near part, the middle and the vaginal part. The EPmax was defined as the highest EP detected along the cervical canal. RESULTS: The EPmax was always found in the middle part of the cervix. The median EPmax was 243 kPa (IQR, 67-422 kPa for the early pregnant women and 5 kPa (IQR, 4-15 kPa for those at term. In the early pregnant women the stiffness differed along the cervical length (p<0.05 whereas difference along the cervix was not found for late pregnant women. A positive correlation coefficient (Spearman's rho was established between the EPs of the uterus-near and the middle part (0.84, between the vaginal and the middle part (0.81, and between the uterus-near and the vaginal part (0.85. CONCLUSION: This new method can estimate the stiffness along the cervical canal in vivo. This method may be useful in the clinical examination of the biomechanical properties of the uterine cervix.