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Sample records for lymphogranuloma venereum lgv

  1. Lymphogranuloma Venereum Presenting as a Rectovaginal Fistula

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    C. M. Lynch

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Lymphogranuloma venereum (LGV is a rare form of the sexually transmitted disease caused by Chlamydia trachomatis. In the United States, there are fewer than 350 cases per year. In a review of the world’s literature, there has not been a case reported in the last thirty years of a case ofLGV presenting as a rectovaginal fistula. We present a case of an otherwise healthy American woman who presented with a rectovaginal fistula. Although uncommon, LGV does occur in developed countries and may have devastating tissue destruction if not recognized and treated before the tertiary stage. Infect. Dis. Obstet. Gynecol. 7:199–201, 1999.

  2. European guideline for the management of lymphogranuloma venereum, 2010

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Vries, H.J.C.; Morré, S.A.; White, J.A.; Moi, H.

    2010-01-01

    Lymphogranuloma venereum (LGV) has re-emerged among European men who have sex with men (MSM) in recent years and is probably endemic in this population where it is a relatively common cause of proctitis and occasional genital ulcer-adenopathy disease. While occasional cases of heterosexual LGV are s

  3. Lymphogranuloma venereum proctitis: A differential diagnose to inflammatory bowel disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høie, Sverre; Knudsen, Lene Surland; Gerstoft, Jan

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Objective. Lymphogranuloma venereum (LGV) is a sexually transmitted disease, endemic in tropical and subtropical areas for many years. After 2003 there have been several outbreaks in western countries, especially among HIV-positive men who have sex with men (MSM). An important...

  4. Molecular diagnosis of lymphogranuloma venereum in patients with genital ulcer disease.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sturm, P.D.J.; Moodley, P.; Govender, K.; Bohlken, L.; Mali, T. van; Sturm, A.W.

    2005-01-01

    The detection of herpes, chancroid, and syphilis in genital ulcers is done by PCR. This is not so for lymphogranuloma venereum (LGV). We report on the use of a PCR with digestion that differentiates the LGV biovar from the trachoma biovar. Our findings suggest that the clinical description of LGV in

  5. Lymphogranuloma venereum and non-Hodgkin lymphoma: a case report

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    Mauro Romero Leal Passos

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Lymphogranuloma venereum (LGV is an uncommon, contagious, sexually transmitted disease (STD. We report a case of a 17-year-old teenager who presented with a 2-month-old ulcerous vegetant lesion in the right inguinal region. The patient was diagnosed with LGV and received erythromycin treatment. Three months after treatment, he presented with a new ulcerous lesion, very similar to the previous one, in the right supraclavicular region. He was diagnosed with a diffuse large B-cell non-Hodgkin lymphoma. Both diseases are rare in Rio de Janeiro City, Brazil, and physicians should not neglect the possibility of STDs in such cases.

  6. Lymphogranuloma venereum caused by Chlamydia trachomatis serovar L3: a case report

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    KANG Er-xun; GAO Xing; YIN Yue-ping; WANG Fu-sheng; YAO Wei-dong; GONG Xiang-qian; CHEN Xiang-sheng

    2007-01-01

    @@ Lymphogranuloma venereum (LGV) is a systemic sexually transmitted disease caused by Chlamydia trachomatis (C. trachomatis) L1, L2 and L3, the organism gains entrance through skin breaks and abrasions and travels via the lymphatics to multiply within mononuclear phagocytes in regional lymph nodes.

  7. Lymphogranuloma venereum: diagnostic and treatment challenges

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    Ceovic R

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Romana Ceovic,1 Sandra Jerkovic Gulin21Department of Dermatology and Venereology, University Hospital Center Zagreb and School of Medicine, Zagreb, Croatia; 2Department of Dermatology and Venereology, General Hospital Sibenik, Sibenik, CroatiaAbstract: Lymphogranuloma venereum is a sexually transmitted disease caused by L1, L2, and L3 serovars of Chlamydia trachomatis. In the last 10 years outbreaks have appeared in North America, Europe, and Australia in the form of proctitis among men who have sex with men. Three stages of disease have been described. The disease in primary stage may go undetected when only a painless papule, pustule, or ulceration appears. The diagnosis is difficult to establish on clinical grounds alone and frequently relies upon either serologic testing, culture, or more recently, nucleic acid amplification testing of direct specimens. A proper treatment regimen cures the infection and prevents further damage to tissues. Lymphogranuloma venereum causes potentially severe infections with possibly irreversible sequels if adequate treatment is not begun promptly. Early and accurate diagnosis is essential. Doxycycline is the drug of choice. Pregnant and lactating women should be treated with erythromycin or azithromycin. Patient must be followed up during the treatment, until disease signs and symptoms have resolved. Repeated testing for syphilis, hepatitis B and C, and HIV to detect early infection should be performed.Keywords: sexually transmitted disease, Chlamydia trachomatis, early and accurate diagnosis

  8. Extra-rectal lymphogranuloma venereum in France: a clinical and molecular study.

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    Desclaux, Arnaud; Touati, Arabella; Neau, Didier; Laurier-Nadalié, Cécile; Bébéar, Cécile; de Barbeyrac, Bertille; Cazanave, Charles

    2017-07-11

    To describe a series of extrarectal lymphogranuloma venereum (LGV) cases diagnosed in France. Consecutive LGV cases confirmed at the French Reference Centre for chlamydiae with an extrarectal sample from January 2010 to December 2015 were included. The first part of the study consisted of a retrospective case note review and analysis. In a second part, the complete ompA gene sequence of our samples was determined. There were 56 cases overall: 50 cases of genital LGV and six cases of pharyngeal LGV. Subjects were all men, median age 39 years, 27/53 were HIV-positive, 47/51 reported having sex with other men, 43/49 reported multiple sexual partners (a mean 25 in the last 6 months). Median time from symptom onset to diagnosis was 21 days. Subjects most commonly presented with inguinal adenopathy alone (19 of 50 genital cases) and adenopathy with genital ulcer (17 of 50). Three pharyngeal cases were symptomatic. Fever was reported in 11 cases. Inguinal abscess was reported in 22 of 42 cases presenting with lymphadenopathy. Co-infections were frequent: eight cases of syphilis, four non-LGV Chlamydia trachomatis infections, one case of gonorrhoea. Cure was always achieved with doxycycline therapy but prolonged treatment was necessary in eight cases with inguinal abscess. Genotyping according to ompA sequencing showed the co-circulation of genovars L2 (16 of 42 strains successfully typed) and L2b (24 of 42). There was no association between HIV status and disease severity or genovar distribution. In the span of 6 years, 56 extrarectal LGV cases were confirmed through genotyping in France. Extrarectal LGV seemed to share a common epidemiological background with rectal disease in terms of affected population and genovar distribution. HIV prevalence was lower than expected. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  9. Clinical and epidemiological characterization of a lymphogranuloma venereum outbreak in Madrid, Spain: co-circulation of two variants.

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    Rodríguez-Domínguez, M; Puerta, T; Menéndez, B; González-Alba, J M; Rodríguez, C; Hellín, T; Vera, M; González-Sainz, F J; Clavo, P; Villa, M; Cantón, R; Del Romero, J; Galán, J C

    2014-03-01

    The lymphogranuloma venereum (LGV) outbreak described in the Netherlands in 2003, increased the interest in the genotyping of Chlamydia trachomatis. Although international surveillance programmes were implemented, these studies slowly decreased in the following years. Now data have revealed a new accumulation of LGV cases in those European countries with extended surveillance programmes. Between March 2009 and November 2011, a study was carried out to detect LGV cases in Madrid. The study was based on screening of C. trachomatis using commercial kits, followed by real-time pmpH-PCR discriminating LGV strains, and finally ompA gene was sequenced for phylogenetic reconstruction. Ninety-four LGV infections were identified. The number of cases increased from 10 to 30 and then to 54 during 2009-2011. Incidence of LGV was strongly associated with men who have sex with men; but in 2011, LGV cases were described in women and heterosexual men. Sixty-nine patients were also human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) positive, with detectable viral loads at the moment of LGV diagnosis, suggesting a high-risk of co-transmission. In fact, in four patients the diagnosis of HIV was simultaneous with LGV infection. The conventional treatment with doxycycline was prescribed in 75 patients, although in three patients the treatment failed. The sequencing of the ompA gene permitted identification of two independent transmission nodes. One constituted by 25 sequences identical to the L2b variant, and a second node including 37 sequences identical to L2. This epidemiological situation characterized by the co-circulation of two LGV variants has not been previously described, reinforcing the need for screening and genotyping of LGV strains.

  10. Proctitis as the clinical presentation of lymphogranuloma venereum, a re-emerging disease in developed countries

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    Jorge López-Vicente

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Lymphogranuloma venereum (LGV is a sexually transmitted infectious disease caused by serovars L1, L2 and L3 of Chlamydia trachomatis. The initial presentation is usually a painless ulcerated papule on the genitalia or distal proctitis. The progression of the infection can lead to major complications: rectal strictures, intestinal obstruction or perforation. We present five cases of LGV proctitis as the initial presentation of the disease. All patients were male, mean age 44.6 years, with positive serology to human immunodeficiency virus (HIV and promiscuous men who have sex with men (MSM. The initial diagnosis was made by rectosigmoidoscopy indicated for pain and anal discharge. All cases were confirmed by polymerase chain reaction technique in rectal tissue. Endoscopic images obtained showed a great variety of rectal lesions, from mild erythema of the mucosa and ulcers to deep ulcers with elevated borders and purulent exudate. All cases were resolved after treatment with doxycycline for 3 weeks. It emphasizes the importance of suspecting this re-emerging disease in patients with risk factors (HIV and MSM, with the aim of early treatment and to avoid major complications.

  11. 性病性淋巴肉芽肿的研究进展%Lymphogranuloma venereum: an update

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    苏晓红; 龚向东

    2011-01-01

    Lymphogranuloma venereum ( LGV ) is a classical sexually transmitted disease (STD) caused by Chlamydia trachomatis serovar L (L1,L2 and L3).Clinically,LGV mainly manifests as chronic genital ulceration,inguinal lymphadenopathy or anogenitorectal syndrome.Cases of LGV have been sporadiclly reported in China.Recently outbreaks of LGV have been observed among men who have sex with men (MSM) in European countries and the United States,and the predominant LGV strain was Chlamydia trachomatis serovar L2b.LGV among MSM usually manifests as asymptomatic proctitis complicated by other STDs and blood-borne diseases including HIV infection,and is associated with having multiple sex partners or high risk behavior.Molecular techniques play an important role in the diagnosis and confirmation of LGV.%性病性淋巴肉芽肿是由L型沙眼衣原体引起的一种经典的性传播疾病.临床上以生殖器溃疡、腹股沟淋巴结病或生殖器肛门直肠综合征为主要特征,病程慢性.中国仅有散发病例报道.近年在欧美国家的男男同性性行为者中有性病性淋巴肉芽肿暴发流行,其流行菌株主要是L2b型沙眼衣原体.男男同性性行为者人群中的性病性淋巴肉芽肿多为有症状的直肠炎,有多性伴或高危性行为,常合并HIV感染、其他性传播疾病和血源性疾病.分子生物学检测技术在性病性淋巴肉芽肿的诊断与鉴定中发挥着重要的作用.

  12. Lymphogranuloma venereum proctitis: A differential diagnose to inflammatory bowel disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høie, Sverre; Knudsen, Lene Surland; Gerstoft, Jan

    2011-01-01

    , relapses of GI-symptoms or extended information concerning sexual habits, LGV was suspected and diagnosed. All patients responded with remission of GI-symptoms and endoscopic findings after oral treatment with doxycycline. Conclusion. Due to similarities between LGV and IBD, LGV should be considered...

  13. Changing Pattern of Chlamydia trachomatis Strains in Lymphogranuloma Venereum Outbreak, France, 2010-2015.

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    Peuchant, Olivia; Touati, Arabella; Sperandio, Clément; Hénin, Nadège; Laurier-Nadalié, Cécile; Bébéar, Cécile; de Barbeyrac, Bertille

    2016-11-01

    We describe a change in the molecular epidemiology of Chlamydia trachomatis strains involved in an outbreak of rectal lymphogranuloma venereum in France during January 2010-April 2015. Until 2012, the C. trachomatis L2b strain predominated; however, starting in 2013, most cases involved the L2 strain. We also identified 4 genetic L2b ompA variants.

  14. Did L Strains Responsible for Lymphogranuloma Venereum Proctitis Spread Among People With Genital Chlamydia trachomatis Infection in France in 2013?

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    Touati, Arabella; Vernay-Vaisse, Chantal; Janier, Michel; Le Hen, Isabelle; Charlois, Cécile; Dhotte, Philippe; Decré, Dominique; Bébéar, Cécile; de Barbeyrac, Bertille

    2016-06-01

    We retrospectively analyzed 1802 nonrectal Chlamydia trachomatis-positive specimens to determine if the L strains responsible for rectal Lymphogranuloma venereum in men who have sex with men could spread to the heterosexual population. No evidence for Lymphogranuloma venereum transmission among heterosexuals in France was observed in 2013. L2b strains seem to be restricted to the men who have sex with men population.

  15. High Prevalence of Co-Infections by Invasive and Non-Invasive Chlamydia trachomatis Genotypes during the Lymphogranuloma Venereum Outbreak in Spain.

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    Mario Rodriguez-Dominguez

    Full Text Available The evolution of Chlamydia trachomatis is mainly driven by recombination events. This fact can be fuelled by the coincidence in several European regions of the high prevalence of non-invasive urogenital genotypes and lymphogranuloma venereum (LGV outbreaks. This scenario could modify the local epidemiology and favor the selection of new C. trachomatis variants. Quantifying the prevalence of co-infection could help to predict the potential risk in the selection of new variants with unpredictable results in pathogenesis or transmissibility. In the 2009-2013 period, 287 clinical samples with demonstrated presence of C. trachomatis were selected. They were divided in two groups. The first group was constituted by 137 samples with C. trachomatis of the LGV genotypes, and the second by the remaining 150 samples in which the presence of LGV genotypes was previously excluded. They were analyzed to detect the simultaneous presence of non-LGV genotypes based on pmpH and ompA genes. In the first group, co-infections were detected in 10.9% of the cases whereas in the second group the prevalence was 14.6%, which is the highest percentage ever described among European countries. Moreover, bioinformatic analyses suggested the presence among men who have sex with men of a pmpH-recombinant variant, similar to strains described in Seattle in 2002. This variant was the result of genetic exchange between genotypes belonging to LGV and members of G-genotype. Sequencing of other genes, phylogenetically related to pathotype, confirmed that the putative recombinant found in Madrid could have a common origin with the strains described in Seattle. Countries with a high prevalence of co-infections and high migration flows should enhance surveillance programs in at least their vulnerable population.

  16. High Prevalence of Co-Infections by Invasive and Non-Invasive Chlamydia trachomatis Genotypes during the Lymphogranuloma Venereum Outbreak in Spain.

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    Rodriguez-Dominguez, Mario; Gonzalez-Alba, Jose Maria; Puerta, Teresa; Menendez, Blanca; Sanchez-Diaz, Ana Maria; Canton, Rafael; del Romero, Jorge; Galan, Juan Carlos

    2015-01-01

    The evolution of Chlamydia trachomatis is mainly driven by recombination events. This fact can be fuelled by the coincidence in several European regions of the high prevalence of non-invasive urogenital genotypes and lymphogranuloma venereum (LGV) outbreaks. This scenario could modify the local epidemiology and favor the selection of new C. trachomatis variants. Quantifying the prevalence of co-infection could help to predict the potential risk in the selection of new variants with unpredictable results in pathogenesis or transmissibility. In the 2009-2013 period, 287 clinical samples with demonstrated presence of C. trachomatis were selected. They were divided in two groups. The first group was constituted by 137 samples with C. trachomatis of the LGV genotypes, and the second by the remaining 150 samples in which the presence of LGV genotypes was previously excluded. They were analyzed to detect the simultaneous presence of non-LGV genotypes based on pmpH and ompA genes. In the first group, co-infections were detected in 10.9% of the cases whereas in the second group the prevalence was 14.6%, which is the highest percentage ever described among European countries. Moreover, bioinformatic analyses suggested the presence among men who have sex with men of a pmpH-recombinant variant, similar to strains described in Seattle in 2002. This variant was the result of genetic exchange between genotypes belonging to LGV and members of G-genotype. Sequencing of other genes, phylogenetically related to pathotype, confirmed that the putative recombinant found in Madrid could have a common origin with the strains described in Seattle. Countries with a high prevalence of co-infections and high migration flows should enhance surveillance programs in at least their vulnerable population.

  17. Linfogranuloma venério: aumento na incidência sugere surto mundial da doença Lymphogranuloma venereum: increased incidence suggests diseases world outbreak

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    Bruno de Lucia Hernani

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available O Linfogranuloma venéreo (LGV é uma doença sexualmente transmissível (DST causada pelos sorotipos L1, L2 ou L3 da bactéria intracelular Chlamydia trachomatis. Possui caráter endêmico em partes da África, Ásia, América do Sul e Caribe, e é rara em países industrializados. No entanto, vários casos foram diagnosticados em homossexuais masculinos, na Holanda, e desde 2004, essa doença vem sendo notificada por outros países da Europa, da América do Norte e Austrália. Esse aumento da incidência tem características de surto, e tem acometido homens brancos com menos de 35 anos que mantém relações sexuais com outros homens e apresentam infecções anorretais com diversos sintomas, que incluem dor retal, tenesmo e constipação. A maior parte dos pacientes (>70% também está co-infectada pelo HIV. Depois das primeiras notificações, muitos países passaram a fazer buscas ativas em suas populações. Pela falta de um teste diagnóstico rápido e de uso difundido, os doentes com quadros sugestivos devem receber terapia antimicrobiana durante pelo menos três semanas. Há autores fazendo a mesma recomendação nas retites observadas durante a retoscopia, na presença de mais de 10 leucócitos por campo nas amostras colhidas com swab e nos doentes HIV-positivo.20 Acreditamos que o número de casos esteja também aumentando no Brasil e, por desconhecimento sobre a doença, a mesma não venha sendo diagnosticada. Sugerimos que a hipótese diagnóstica de LGV, seja afastada nos doentes que pratiquem sexo anal e apresentem úlceras na região ou quadros de retite.Lymphogranuloma venereum (LGV is a sexually transmitted disease (STD caused by L1, L2 L3 sorovars of the intracellular bacteria Chlamydia trachomatis. It has endemic features in parts of Africa, Asia, South America and Caribbean, and is rare in developed countries. Meanwhile, many cases were diagnosed, mainly in men who have sex with men (MSM, in the Netherlands, and since 2004

  18. Lymphogranuloma venereum proctitis in men who have sex with men is associated with anal enema use and high-risk behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Vries, H.J.C.; van der Bij, A.K.; Fennema, J.S.A.; Smit, C.; de Wolf, F.; Prins, M.; Coutinho, R.A.; Morré, S.A.

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: In the industrialized world, lymphogranuloma venereum proctitis (LGVP) has been reported only in men who have sex with men. Factors responsible for the outbreak remain to be elucidated. GOAL: The goal of the present work was to elucidate risk factors associated with LGVP. STUDY DESIGN: T

  19. Prevalence and predictors of Lymphogranuloma venereum in a high risk population attending a STD outpatients clinic in Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background We evaluated LGV prevalence and predictors in a high risk population attending a STI Outpatients Clinic in the North of Italy. Methods A total of 108 patients (99 MSM and 9 women), with a history of unsafe anal sexual intercourses, were enrolled. Anorectal swabs and urine samples were tested for Chlamydia trachomatis (CT) DNA detection by Versant CT/GC DNA 1.0 Assay (Siemens Healthcare Diagnostics Terrytown, USA). RFLP analysis was used for CT molecular typing. Results L2 CT genotype was identified in 13/108 (12%) rectal swabs. All LGV cases were from MSM, declaring high-risk sexual behaviour and complaining anorectal symptoms. Patients first attending the STI Outpatient Clinic received a significant earlier LGV diagnosis than those first seeking care from general practitioners or gastroenterologists (P = 0.0046). LGV prevalence and characteristics found in our population are in agreement with international reports. Statistical analysis showed that LGV positive patients were older (P = 0.0008) and presented more STIs (P = 0.0023) than LGV negative ones, in particular due to syphilis (P < 0.001), HIV (P < 0.001) and HBV (P = 0.001). Multivariate logistic regression analysis revealed that HIV and syphilis infections are strong risk factors for LGV presence (respectively, P = 0.001 and P = 0.010). Conclusions Even if our results do not provide sufficient evidence to recommend routine screening of anorectal swabs in high-risk population, they strongly suggest to perform CT NAAT tests and genotyping on rectal specimens in presence of ulcerative proctitis in HIV and/or syphilis-positive MSM. In this context, CT DNA detection by Versant CT/GC DNA 1.0 Assay, followed by RFLP analysis for molecular typing demonstrated to be an excellent diagnostic algorithm for LGV identification. PMID:24716676

  20. The L2b real-time PCR targeting the pmpH gene of Chlamydia trachomatis used for the diagnosis of lymphogranuloma venereum is not specific to L2b strains.

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    Touati, A; Peuchant, O; Hénin, N; Bébéar, C; de Barbeyrac, B

    2016-06-01

    The French Reference Centre for chlamydiae uses two real-time PCRs targeting the pmpH gene of Chlamydia trachomatis to differentiate between L strains and variant L2b, responsible for a lymphogranuloma venereum outbreak in Europe. We compared the results obtained for 122 L2b C. trachomatis-positive specimens, using the two real-time PCRs, with the sequencing of the ompA gene. Only 91 specimens were confirmed as L2b. Our results demonstrate that the lymphogranuloma venereum outbreak is no longer dominated by the variant L2b, and that many L-positive specimens were misidentified as L2b with the method used, which raises the question of its specificity. Copyright © 2016 European Society of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Anal infections with concomitant Chlamydia trachomatis genotypes among men who have sex with men in Amsterdam, the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Quint, K.D.; Bom, R.J.M.; Quint, W.G.V.; Bruisten, S.M.; van der Loeff, M.F.S.; Morre, S.A.; de Vries, H.J.C.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Lymphogranuloma venereum (LGV) proctitis is caused by Chlamydia trachomatis (Ct) genotype L and is endemic among men who have sex with men (MSM) in western society. Genotype L infections need to be distinguished from non-LGV (genotypes A-K) Ct infections since they require prolonged anti

  2. HIV and Sexually Transmitted Infections in the Netherlands in 2003

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Laar MJW van de; Op de Coul ELM; CIE

    2004-01-01

    The increasing trend of Sexually Transmitted Infections (STIs), as observed in the last few years, seemed to have stabilised in 2003. The continuous increase of syphilis diagnoses and the outbreak of Lymphogranuloma venereum (LGV) among men who have sex with men (MSM), indicate an increase of sexual

  3. CLINICOPATHOLOGICAL STUDIES OF EOSINOPHILIC LYMPHOGRANULOMA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang Jizeng; Chen Jumei; Zhang Chenguang

    1998-01-01

    Objective: To research the formative mechanism of eosinophilic lymphogranuloma (ELG), investigate its essence, provide morphologic base for treatment.Methods: The biopsies and surgical specimens of 41 cases were studied with the light microscope, fluorescein microscope, electron microscope and immunohistochemical methods. In these cases, 10 cases levels of serum IgE were measured, it was high level, and 11 cases cured with radiotherapy. Results: The lesions mainly included proliferation of both lymph tissues and post-capillary venues and formed many new scattered lymph follicles.Marked hyperplasia of plasmocytes and mast cells and diffusible infiltration of eosinophilic granulocytes were observed in tissues. The eosinophilic granulocytes were obviously degranulated. When stained with fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC) labeled antiserum IgE, the cells showed yellow-green fluorescence, which showed reticular shape in the germinal center of lymph follicles. The swollen tumor-like masses could disappear with radiotherapy, and the eosinophilic granulocytes count in circulation and level of serum IgE reduced to normal.Conclusion: The serum IgE is high lever and it is positive reaction in the tissues strongly. It is accord with allergic granuloma. The lymphocytes are allergenic ambocepotor cells, the x-ray can kill them and stop allergenic agent, the illness was recovered.

  4. Whole genome analysis of diverse Chlamydia trachomatis strains identifies phylogenetic relationships masked by current clinical typing

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    Harris, Simon R.; Clarke, Ian N.; Seth-Smith, Helena M. B.; Solomon, Anthony W.; Cutcliffe, Lesley T.; Marsh, Peter; Skilton, Rachel J.; Holland, Martin J.; Mabey, David; Peeling, Rosanna W.; Lewis, David A.; Spratt, Brian G.; Unemo, Magnus; Persson, Kenneth; Bjartling, Carina; Brunham, Robert; de Vries, Henry J.C.; Morré, Servaas A.; Speksnijder, Arjen; Bébéar, Cécile M.; Clerc, Maïté; de Barbeyrac, Bertille; Parkhill, Julian; Thomson, Nicholas R.

    2012-01-01

    Chlamydia trachomatis is responsible for both trachoma and sexually transmitted infections causing substantial morbidity and economic cost globally. Despite this, our knowledge of its population and evolutionary genetics is limited. Here we present a detailed whole genome phylogeny from representative strains of both trachoma and lymphogranuloma venereum (LGV) biovars from temporally and geographically diverse sources. Our analysis demonstrates that predicting phylogenetic structure using the ompA gene, traditionally used to classify Chlamydia, is misleading because extensive recombination in this region masks true relationships. We show that in many instances ompA is a chimera that can be exchanged in part or whole, both within and between biovars. We also provide evidence for exchange of, and recombination within, the cryptic plasmid, another important diagnostic target. We have used our phylogenetic framework to show how genetic exchange has manifested itself in ocular, urogenital and LGV C. trachomatis strains, including the epidemic LGV serotype L2b. PMID:22406642

  5. 沙眼衣原体血清型L2体外培养影响因素的研究%Influential Factors of Trachoma (Chlamydia trachomatis) Serotype LGV L2 in vitro Culture

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张军华; 陈丽丽; 李忠玉; 吴移谋

    2011-01-01

    研究沙眼表原体(Ghlamydia trachomatis,Ct)血清型LGV L2在体外培养的繁殖规律及其影响因素,确定血清型LGV L2在体外培养的最佳生长发育条件.用沙眼衣原体血清型LGV L2分别感染HEp-2细胞、HeLa229细胞、HepG-2细胞、SGC-7901细胞和Vero细胞,在荧光显微镜下计数包涵体形成单位(inclusion figure unity,IFU)和观察培养不同时同后包涵体的形态,比较不同细胞对血清型LGV L2的敏感性及血清型LGVL2在不同细胞内的生长情况.同时分别设DEAE葡聚糖处理组与未处理组,含放线菌酮培养组与不含放线菌酮培养组,比较培养12、24、36和48 h后血清型LGV L2包函体形态、IFU和Real-Time PCR定量检测血清型LGV L2的核酸量,判断DEAE葡聚糖和放线菌酮对沙眼表原体血清型LGV L2生长的影响.在感染20h后,王微境下观察发现HEp-2、Vero、HepG-2、HeLa和SGC-7901细胞均不同程度肿胀,5种细胞内均可见包涵体,大约40 ~48 h后包涵体占据整个胞浆.IFU计数和Real-Time PCR结果王示5种细胞中HeLa细胞感染率最高,HepG-2细胞感染率最低,血清型LGV L2在HeLa细胞中生长速度最快.荧光显微镜下计数IFU,发现DEAE葡聚糖预处理组和对照组中血清型LGV L2的感染率和生长发育没有明显区别,而含放残菌酮培养组中各细胞内血清型LGV L2生长速度较对照组快,Real-Time PCR检测结果显示放线菌酮组各细胞内血清型LGVL2核酸量较对熙组高.血清型LGV L2在HeLa细胞中的感染率最高,DEAE葡聚糖时血清型LGV L2的感染没有明显影响,而体外培养时添加放残菌酮有利于血清型LGV L2的生长发育.%The propagation pattern and influential factors of trachoma (Cklamydia trackomatis) serotype LCV L2 in vitro were studied and confirmed the optimization of its growth conditions in vitro. Hep-2, HeLa229, HepG-21 SGC-7901 and Vero cells were respectively infected with C. Irachomalis LGV 12, then stained with fluorescent

  6. Chlamydia trachomatis Mip-like protein

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lundemose, AG; Rousch, DA; Birkelund, Svend

    1992-01-01

    A 27 kDa Chlamydia trachomatis Mip-like protein with homology of a 175-amino-acid C-terminal fragment to the surface-exposed Legionella pneumophila mip-gene product has previously been described. In this paper the entire chlamydia Mip-like sequence of C. trachomatis serovar L2 (lymphogranuloma...... venereum (LGV) biovar) is presented. The sequence shows high similarity to the legionella Mip protein and its C-terminal region, like that of the legionella Mip, has high amino acid similarity to eukaryotic and prokaryotic FK506-binding proteins. The chlamydial mip-like gene was detected by polymerase...... chain reaction (PCR) in other C. trachomatis serovars and by sequencing of the mip-like genes of serovars B and E (trachoma biovar) was shown to be highly conserved within the two major biovars of C. trachomatis. Monoclonal and polyclonal antibodies raised against the recombinant Mip-like protein failed...

  7. Chlamydia trachomatis Mip-like protein

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lundemose, AG; Rousch, DA; Birkelund, Svend

    1992-01-01

    A 27 kDa Chlamydia trachomatis Mip-like protein with homology of a 175-amino-acid C-terminal fragment to the surface-exposed Legionella pneumophila mip-gene product has previously been described. In this paper the entire chlamydia Mip-like sequence of C. trachomatis serovar L2 (lymphogranuloma...... chain reaction (PCR) in other C. trachomatis serovars and by sequencing of the mip-like genes of serovars B and E (trachoma biovar) was shown to be highly conserved within the two major biovars of C. trachomatis. Monoclonal and polyclonal antibodies raised against the recombinant Mip-like protein failed...... venereum (LGV) biovar) is presented. The sequence shows high similarity to the legionella Mip protein and its C-terminal region, like that of the legionella Mip, has high amino acid similarity to eukaryotic and prokaryotic FK506-binding proteins. The chlamydial mip-like gene was detected by polymerase...

  8. HIV-1 does not significantly influence Chlamydia trachomatis serovar L2 replication in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broadbent, Andrew; Horner, Patrick; Wills, Gillian; Ling, Alexandra; Carzaniga, Raffaella; McClure, Myra

    2011-06-01

    Individuals with lymphogranuloma venereum (LGV), caused by Chlamydia trachomatis serovar L2, are commonly co-infected with human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1), for reasons that remain unknown. One hypothesis is that a biological synergy exists between the two pathogens. We tested this by characterising for the first time in vitro C. trachomatis L2 replication in the presence of HIV-1. The human epithelial cell-line, MAGI P4R5 was infected with C. trachomatis L2 and HIV-1 (MN strain). Co-infected cultures contained fewer and larger chlamydial inclusions, but the inclusions did not contain morphologically aberrant organisms. C. trachomatis remained infectious in the presence of HIV-1 and showed neither an alteration in genome accumulation, nor in the acumulation of ompA, euo or unprocessed 16S rRNA transcripts. However, omcB was slightly elevated. Taken together, these data indicate that HIV-1 co-infection did not significantly alter C. trachomatis replication and the association between HIV-1 and LGV is likely due to other factors that require further investigation. The fewer, larger inclusions observed in co-infected cultures probably result from the fusion of multiple inclusions in HIV-1 induced syncytia and indicate that C. trachomatis-host-cell interactions continue to function, despite considerable host-cell re-modelling. Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier SAS.

  9. Multi Locus Sequence Typing of Chlamydia Reveals an Association between Chlamydia psittaci Genotypes and Host Species

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pannekoek, Y.; Dickx, V.; Beeckman, D.S.A.; Jolley, K.A.; Keijzers, W.C.; Vretou, E.; Maiden, M.C.J.; Vanrompay, D.; van den Ende, A.

    2010-01-01

    Chlamydia comprises a group of obligate intracellular bacterial parasites responsible for a variety of diseases in humans and animals, including several zoonoses. Chlamydia trachomatis causes diseases such as trachoma, urogenital infection and lymphogranuloma venereum with severe morbidity.

  10. Diagnostic Procedures to Detect Chlamydia trachomatis Infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Thomas

    2016-08-05

    The intracellular life style of chlamydia and the ability to cause persistent infections with low-grade replication requires tests with high analytical sensitivity to directly detect C. trachomatis (CT) in medical samples. Nucleic acid amplification tests (NAATs) are the most sensitive assays with a specificity similar to cell culture and are considered the method of choice for CT detection. In addition, NAATs can be performed on various clinical specimens that do not depend on specific transport and storage conditions, since NAATs do not require infectious bacteria. In the case of lower genital tract infections, first void urine and vaginal swabs are the recommended specimens for testing males and females, respectively. Infections of anorectal, oropharyngeal and ocular epithelia should also be tested by NAAT analysis of corresponding mucosal swabs. In particular, anorectal infections of men who have sex with men (MSM) should include evaluation of lymphogranuloma venereum (LGV) by identification of genotypes L1, L2 or L3. Detection of CT antigens by enzyme immunoassay (EIAs) or rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs) are unsuitable due to insufficient sensitivity and specificity. Recent PCR-based RDTs, however, are non-inferior to standard NAATs, and might be used at the point-of-care. Serology finds application in the diagnostic work-up of suspected chronic CT infection but is inappropriate to diagnose acute infections.

  11. 21 CFR 866.3120 - Chlamydia serological reagents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... identification aids in the diagnosis of disease caused by bacteria belonging to the genus Chlamydia and provides epidemiological information on these diseases. Chlamydia are the causative agents of psittacosis (a form of pneumonia), lymphogranuloma venereum (a venereal disease), and trachoma (a chronic disease of the eye...

  12. Evaluation and management of acute genital ulcers in sexually active patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraus, S J

    1984-02-01

    The causes of genital ulcers vary with the age of the patient. Although sexually related genital ulcers can be seen at any age, they are most common between the ages of 15 and 30. The differential diagnosis includes syphilis, chancroid, genital herpes, lymphogranuloma venereum, granuloma inguinale, fixed drug reactions, and traumatic ulcers.

  13. 生殖健康与性传播疾病

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张淑兰; 银铎

    2003-01-01

    性传播疾病(sexually transmitted diseases,STD),是国际上通用的病名,我国可简称为性病,主要由性接触传播.以往性病只包括梅毒(syphilis)、淋病(gonorrhea)、软下疳(chancroid)、性病性淋巴肉芽肿(lymphogranuloma venereum)和腹股沟肉芽肿 (granuloma inguinale)5种.

  14. Multi locus sequence typing of Chlamydiales: clonal groupings within the obligate intracellular bacteria Chlamydia trachomatis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Langerak Ankie A

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The obligate intracellular growing bacterium Chlamydia trachomatis causes diseases like trachoma, urogenital infection and lymphogranuloma venereum with severe morbidity. Several serovars and genotypes have been identified, but these could not be linked to clinical disease or outcome. The related Chlamydophila pneumoniae, of which no subtypes are recognized, causes respiratory infections worldwide. We developed a multi locus sequence typing (MLST scheme to understand the population genetic structure and diversity of these species and to evaluate the association between genotype and disease. Results A collection of 26 strains of C. trachomatis of different serovars and clinical presentation and 18 strains of C. pneumoniae were included in the study. For comparison, sequences of C. abortus, C. psittaci, C. caviae, C. felis, C. pecorum (Chlamydophila, C. muridarum (Chlamydia and of Candidatus protochlamydia and Simkania negevensis were also included. Sequences of fragments (400 – 500 base pairs from seven housekeeping genes (enoA, fumC, gatA, gidA, hemN, hlfX, oppA were analysed. Analysis of allelic profiles by eBurst revealed three non-overlapping clonal complexes among the C. trachomatis strains, while the C. pneumoniae strains formed a single group. An UPGMA tree produced from the allelic profiles resulted in three groups of sequence types. The LGV strains grouped in a single cluster, while the urogenital strains were distributed over two separated groups, one consisted solely of strains with frequent occurring serovars (E, D and F. The distribution of the different serovars over the three groups was not consistent, suggesting exchange of serovar encoding ompA sequences. In one instance, exchange of fumC sequences between strains of different groups was observed. Cluster analyses of concatenated sequences of the Chlamydophila and Chlamydia species together with those of Candidatus Protochlamydia amoebophila and Simkania

  15. Diagnosis and management of genital ulcers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roett, Michelle A; Mayor, Mejebi T; Uduhiri, Kelechi A

    2012-02-01

    Herpes simplex virus infection and syphilis are the most common causes of genital ulcers in the United States. Other infectious causes include chancroid, lymphogranuloma venereum, granuloma inguinale (donovanosis), secondary bacterial infections, and fungi. Noninfectious etiologies, including sexual trauma, psoriasis, Behçet syndrome, and fixed drug eruptions, can also lead to genital ulcers. Although initial treatment of genital ulcers is generally based on clinical presentation, the following tests should be considered in all patients: serologic tests for syphilis and darkfield microscopy or direct fluorescent antibody testing for Treponema pallidum, culture or polymerase chain reaction test for herpes simplex virus, and culture for Haemophilus ducreyi in settings with a high prevalence of chancroid. No pathogen is identified in up to 25 percent of patients with genital ulcers. The first episode of herpes simplex virus infection is usually treated with seven to 10 days of oral acyclovir (five days for recurrent episodes). Famciclovir and valacyclovir are alternative therapies. One dose of intramuscular penicillin G benzathine is recommended to treat genital ulcers caused by primary syphilis. Treatment options for chancroid include a single dose of intramuscular ceftriaxone or oral azithromycin, ciprofloxacin, or erythromycin. Lymphogranuloma venereum and donovanosis are treated with 21 days of oral doxycycline. Treatment of noninfectious causes of genital ulcers varies by etiology, and ranges from topical wound care for ulcers caused by sexual trauma to consideration of subcutaneous pegylated interferon alfa-2a for ulcers caused by Behçet syndrome.

  16. A microbiological study of genital ulcers in Kuala Lumpur.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zainah, S; Cheong, Y M; Sinniah, M; Gan, A T; Akbal, K

    1991-09-01

    The microbial aetiology of genital ulcers was studied in 249 patients (241 men and 8 women) attending a Sexually Transmitted Disease Clinic in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. Herpes simplex virus type 2 was isolated in 48 (19.2%) patients, Haemophilus ducreyi from 22 (8.8%), Neisseria gonorrhoeae from seven (2.8%) and Chlamydia trachomatis from four (1.6%). Syphilis was diagnosed in 18 (7.2%) patients on the basis of dark field microscopy. Two (0.8%) patients were found to have both chancroid and syphilis and one (0.5%) had both gonorrhoea and syphilis. No organism was isolated in the remaining 151 (61.5%) patients. Overall, the accuracy of clinical diagnosis was 58% for single infection, 67% for herpes, 63% for syphilis, 47% for chancroid and 0% for lymphogranuloma venereum. Therefore, our study confirms the need for laboratory tests to diagnose accurately the aetiology of genital ulcer disease.

  17. [Microbiological study of male genital ulcers. Apropos of 75 cases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casin, I; Bianchi, A; Ramel, F; Lajoie, C; Chastang, C; Scieux, C; Ferchal, F; Janier, M; Morel, P; Perol, Y

    1990-09-01

    Between November 1986 and June 1987, the microbial aetiology of genital ulcers was assessed in 75 male patients attending the Sexually Transmitted Disease (STD) clinic in Hôpital Saint-Louis, Paris. Evidence of Haemophilus ducreyi was found in 18 patients (24%), Herpes simplex virus in 19 (25.3%). Syphilis was diagnosed on the basis of dark field microscopy and/or positive serology test in 19 patients (25.3%). Lymphogranuloma venereum was not diagnosed in any patient. Primary pathogens were not identified from the remaining 19 (25.3%) men. Neisseria gonorrhoea was isolated in five patients, from the ulcer in three cases, from the urethra in two. Asymptomatic urethral carriage of Chlamydia trachomatis was culture proven in seven cases. The presence of IgM antibodies to C. trachomatis at a titre greater than 40 found in 17 patients was a indication of a current chlamydial infection. Three patients (4%) were discovered to be HIV-1 positive.

  18. A clinico-epidemiological study of ulcerative sexually transmitted diseases with human immunodeficiency virus status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehta, Bhavesh

    2014-01-01

    Genital ulcerative diseases are a major public health problem. The advert of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)/AIDS over the past 25 years has deepened the scope of morbidity, mortality, and various forms of clinical presentations of sexually transmitted diseases (STDs). A total of 50 cases having Genital ulcerative diseases and STD reporting to STD clinic during the period of the year from November 2005 to December 2006 were included and detailed history and clinical examination were carried out and provisional diagnosis is made. Laboratory confirmation of clinically diagnosed cases was done using laboratory tests such as S. HIV, venereal disease research laboratory, Tzanck smear, gram stain, and Giemsa stain. In the present study, the incidence of herpes progenitalis was (38%) followed by primary syphilis (32%), chancroid (26%), lymphogranuloma venereum (02%), and genital scabies (02%). HIV sero-positivity was detected in 12% (n = 6) cases. HIV was found to be more common among genital ulcer disease patients, especially syphilis and genital herpes.

  19. Sexually transmitted infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuchs, Wolfgang; Brockmeyer, Norbert H

    2014-06-01

    In no other medical field former rare infections of the 1980(th) and 1990(th) occur again as this is seen in the field of venerology which is as well based on the mobility of the population. Increasing rates of infections in Europe, and increasing bacteriological resistances face health professionals with new challenges. The WHO estimates more than 340 million cases of illnesses worldwide every year. Diseases caused by sexually transmitted infections (STI) in a strict sense are syphilis, gonorrhea, lymphogranuloma venereum, granuloma inguinale, and chancroid. In a wider sense, all illnesses are included which can mainly be transmitted through sexual contact. The term "sexual contact" has to be seen widely, from close physical contact to all variants of sexual behavior. This CME article is an overview of the most common occurring sexually transmitted infections in clinical practice. Both, basic knowledge as well as recent developments are discussed below.

  20. 泌尿外科常用术语英文缩写(之三)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    (续第15卷第9期第433页) IA idiopathic Addison's disease 特发性阿狄森氏病 IAH idiopathic adrenal hyperplasia 特发性肾上腺增生 IBI intermittent bladder irrigation 间歇性膀胱灌注法 IC ion chromatography 离子色谱(法) ICT immunoreactive calcitonin 免疫反应性降钙素 ID idiotype 个体基因型 IEC intraepithelial carcinoma 上皮内癌 IF intrinsic factor 内因子 Ig immunoglobulin 免疫球蛋白 IHC idiopathic hypercalcemia 特发性高钙血 IHC idiopathic hypercalciuria 特发性高钙尿 IL-2 interleukin-2 白细胞介素2 IMP incomplete male pseudohermaphroditism 不完全性 男性假两性畸形 INF interferon 干扰素 IP intravenous pyelography 静脉肾盂造影术 IPARF idiopathic postpartum acute renal failure 特发性 产后急性肾功能衰竭 IS index of sexuality 性指数 ITFS incomplete testicular feminization syndrome 不完 全性睾丸女性化综合征 IVF in vitro fertilization 体外受精 IVP intravenous pyelography 静脉(或排泄性)肾盂造影 术 IVU intravenous urography 静脉尿路造影术 K 17-K 17-ketosteroid 17-酮类固醇 KFAB kidney-fixing antibody 肾结合抗体 KGT kidney glucosidetransferase 肾葡萄糖苷转移酶 KUB kidneys,ureters,bladder 肾,输尿管,膀胱 L LAD lactic acid dehydrogenase 乳酸脱氢酶 LAF lymphocyte activating factor 淋巴细胞活化因子 LAG lymphangiogram 淋巴管造影照片 LASER light amplification by stimulated emission of ra- diation (Laser) 激光 LC liquid chromatography 液相色谱(法 LDH lactate dehydrogenase 乳酸脱氢酶 LGV lymphogranuloma venereum 性病性淋巴肉芽肿 LH luteinizing hormone 促黄体(生成)激素 LK left kidney 左肾 LU left ureter 左输尿管 Lues I primary syphilis 一期梅毒 Lys lysine 赖氨酸 M M male 男性,雄性 MA membrane antigen 膜抗原 MC mineralocorticoid (肾上腺)盐皮质激素 MMC mitomycin 丝裂霉素 McAb monoclonal antibody 单克隆抗体 MDR multidrug resistance

  1. Medical Examination of Aliens--Revisions to Medical Screening Process. Final rule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-26

    The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), within the Department of Health and Human Services (HHS), is issuing this final rule (FR) to amend its regulations governing medical examinations that aliens must undergo before they may be admitted to the United States. Based on public comment received, HHS/CDC did not make changes from the NPRM published on June 23, 2015. Accordingly, this FR will: Revise the definition of communicable disease of public health significance by removing chancroid, granuloma inguinale, and lymphogranuloma venereum as inadmissible health-related conditions for aliens seeking admission to the United States; update the notification of the health-related grounds of inadmissibility to include proof of vaccinations to align with existing requirements established by the Immigration and Nationality Act (INA); revise the definitions and evaluation criteria for mental disorders, drug abuse and drug addiction; clarify and revise the evaluation requirements for tuberculosis; clarify and revise the process for the HHS/CDC-appointed medical review board that convenes to reexamine the determination of a Class A medical condition based on an appeal; and update the titles and designations of federal agencies within the text of the regulation.

  2. Chlamydia trachomatis: milestones in clinical and microbiological diagnostics in the last hundred years: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budai, Irén

    2007-03-01

    Chlamydia trachomatis an obligate intracellular, Gram-negative bacterium is the causative agent of several acute or chronic, local and systemic human diseases such as trachoma, oculogenital and neonatal infections. It was discovered in 1907 by Halberstaedter and von Prowazek who observed it in conjunctival scrapings from an experimentally infected orangutan. In the last hundred years the detection and study of the intracellular pathogens, including chlamydiae, passed through an enormous evolution. This memorial review is dedicated to these important research and diagnostic discoveries and to the scientists who significantly contributed to this evolution starting from the application of simple light microscopy through the cell culture technique, antibiotic susceptibility, antigen and antibody detection, serotyping, to the real-time nucleic acid amplification and restriction fragment lengths polymorphism analysis. Although the majority of these old and new excellent diagnostic methods have been introduced into the rutine practice, the trachoma has remained one of the leading causes of blindness, and oculogenital chlamydial infections still are the most frequent sexually transmitted bacterial diseases, furthermore lymphogranuloma venereum is a disease emerging in the developed countries at the beginning of the 21 st century.

  3. Sexually transmitted diseases treatment guidelines, 2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Workowski, Kimberly A; Berman, Stuart

    2010-12-17

    These guidelines for the treatment of persons who have or are at risk for sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) were updated by CDC after consultation with a group of professionals knowledgeable in the field of STDs who met in Atlanta on April 18-30, 2009. The information in this report updates the 2006 Guidelines for Treatment of Sexually Transmitted Diseases (MMWR 2006;55[No. RR-11]). Included in these updated guidelines is new information regarding 1) the expanded diagnostic evaluation for cervicitis and trichomoniasis; 2) new treatment recommendations for bacterial vaginosis and genital warts; 3) the clinical efficacy of azithromycin for chlamydial infections in pregnancy; 4) the role of Mycoplasma genitalium and trichomoniasis in urethritis/cervicitis and treatment-related implications; 5) lymphogranuloma venereum proctocolitis among men who have sex with men; 6) the criteria for spinal fluid examination to evaluate for neurosyphilis; 7) the emergence of azithromycin-resistant Treponema pallidum; 8) the increasing prevalence of antimicrobial-resistant Neisseria gonorrhoeae; 9) the sexual transmission of hepatitis C; 10) diagnostic evaluation after sexual assault; and 11) STD prevention approaches.

  4. 2013 European Guideline on the management of proctitis, proctocolitis and enteritis caused by sexually transmissible pathogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Vries, Henry J C; Zingoni, Adele; White, John A; Ross, Jonathan D C; Kreuter, Alexander

    2014-06-01

    Proctitis is defined as an inflammatory syndrome of the distal 10-12 cm of the anal canal, also called the rectum. Infectious proctitis can be sexually transmitted via genital-anal mucosal contact, but some also via mutual masturbation.N. gonorrhoeae,C. trachomatis(including lymphogranuloma venereum), Herpes Simplex Virus andT. pallidumare the most common sexually transmitted anorectal pathogens. Shigellosis can be transferred via oral-anal contact and may lead to proctocolitis or enteritis. Although most studies on these infections have concentrated on men who have sex with men (MSM), a significant proportion of women have anal intercourse and therefore may also be at risk. A presumptive clinical diagnosis of proctitis can be made when there are symptoms and signs, and a definitive diagnosis when the results of laboratory tests are available. The symptoms of proctitis include anorectal itching, pain, cramps (tenesmus) and discharge in and around the anal canal. Asymptomatic proctitis occurs frequently and can only be detected by laboratory tests. The majority of rectal chlamydia and gonococcal infections are asymptomatic. Therefore when there is a history of receptive anal contact, exclusion of anorectal infections is generally indicated as part of standard screening for sexually transmitted infections (STIs). Condom use does not guarantee protection from bacterial and protozoan STIs, which are often spread without penile penetration.

  5. Genital ulcers disease among sexually transmitted disease clinic attendees in Ibadan, Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fawole, O I; Okesola, A O; Fawole, A O

    2000-03-01

    Genital ulcer disease (GUD) is a risk factor in the transmission of human immuno deficiency virus (HIV). The goal of this study is to estimate proportion, identify risk factors, and improve prevention and control of GUD. This is a retrospective study of 211 cases of GUD seen between 1993 and 1997 in an urban public sexually transmitted disease (STD) clinic. Genital ulcers form 7.6% of all STDs seen. Overall, genital herpes was commonest (89 or 42.25%). It was the predominant infection (84 or 44.7%) in the males, while lymphogranuloma venereum (52 or 24.7%) was in females. The peak incidence in both sexes occurred in the 20-29 age group. Males out numbered females by a ratio of 8:1. Most of the patients were single 114 (68.3%) and most 70 or 33.3% were students. Risk markers identified were: casual sex (103 or 53.5%) and multiple sexual partners (77 or 36.5%). Both were significantly higher (P < 0.05) in single patients. Self-treatment, use of multiple drugs and incomplete course of antibiotics were also common. The need to intensify STDS education programmes to all occupational groups and to students in particular is highlighted. Commercial sex workers require periodic education, screening and treatment.

  6. Genital ulcers: etiology, clinical diagnosis, and associated human immunodeficiency virus infection in Kingston, Jamaica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behets, F M; Brathwaite, A R; Hylton-Kong, T; Chen, C Y; Hoffman, I; Weiss, J B; Morse, S A; Dallabetta, G; Cohen, M S; Figueroa, J P

    1999-05-01

    Individuals presenting consecutively with genital ulcers in Kingston, Jamaica, underwent serological testing for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection, chlamydial infection, and syphilis. Ulcer material was analyzed by multiplex polymerase chain reaction (M-PCR) analysis. DNA from herpes simplex virus (HSV), Haemophilus ducreyi, and Treponema pallidum was detected in 158 (52.0%), 72 (23.7%), and 31 (10.2%) of 304 ulcer specimens. Of the 304 subjects, 67 (22%) were HIV-seropositive and 64 (21%) were T. pallidum-seroreactive. Granuloma inguinale was clinically diagnosed in nine (13.4%) of 67 ulcers negative by M-PCR analysis and in 12 (5.1%) of 237 ulcers positive by M-PCR analysis (P = .03). Lymphogranuloma venereum was clinically diagnosed in eight patients. Compared with M-PCR analysis, the sensitivity and specificity of a clinical diagnosis of syphilis, herpes, and chancroid were 67.7%, 53.8%, and 75% and 91.2%, 83.6%, and 75.4%, respectively. Reactive syphilis serology was 74% sensitive and 85% specific compared with M-PCR analysis. Reported contact with a prostitute in the preceding 3 months was associated with chancroid (P = .009), reactive syphilis serology (P = .011), and HIV infection (P = .007). The relatively poor accuracy of clinical and locally available laboratory diagnoses pleads for syndromic management of genital ulcers in Jamaica. Prevention efforts should be intensified.

  7. Sexually Transmitted Infections: Experience in a Multidisciplinary Clinic in a Tertiary Hospital (2010-2013).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno-Ribera, N; Fuertes-de Vega, I; Blanco-Arévalo, J L; Bosch-Mestres, J; González-Cordón, A; Estrach-Panella, T; García-de Olalla, P; Alsina-Gibert, M

    2016-04-01

    The number of consultations for sexually transmitted infections (STIs) is increasing in Spain. The aim of this study was to describe and analyze the epidemiological, behavioral, clinical, and microbiological characteristics of patients registered at the STI unit of a tertiary hospital. This was a retrospective, single-center descriptive study carried out between 2010 and 2013 in a multidisciplinary unit specialized in STIs, situated in a tertiary hospital. Epidemiological, clinical, and behavioral data were gathered using a face-to-face interview and a standardized questionnaire. Samples were collected for microbiology analysis. The study included 546 patients: 96% were men, 41% had human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection, and 56% were men who have sex with men. The reasons for consultation were the following: urethritis; genital, anal, or perianal ulcers; proctitis; oral ulcers; sexual contact with a person with a known STI; and high-risk sexual contact. The most common microbiological diagnoses were Neisseria gonorrhoeae in urethritis, Treponema pallidum in genital and anal or perianal ulcers, and Chlamydia trachomatis lymphogranuloma venereum serovars in proctitis. The highest prevalences of the main STIs studied occurred in homosexual men with HIV infection. This study confirms the increase in the incidence of STIs in recent years and the epidemiological characteristics of the HIV/STI epidemic in Spain. Copyright © 2015 AEDV. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  8. Vulval elephantiasis as a result of tubercular lymphadenitis: two case reports and a review of the literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bamal Rahul

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Elephantiasis as a result of chronic lymphedema is characterized by gross enlargement of the arms, legs or genitalia, and occurs due to a variety of obstructive diseases of the lymphatic system. Genital elephantiasis usually follows common filariasis and lymphogranuloma venereum. It may follow granuloma inguinale, carcinomas, lymph node dissection or irradiation and tuberculosis but this happens rarely. Vulval elephantiasis as a consequence of extensive lymph node destruction by tuberculosis is very rare. We present two very unusual cases of vulval elephantiasis due to tuberculous destruction of the inguinal lymph nodes. Case presentation Two Indian women - one aged 40 years and the other aged 27 years, with progressively increasing vulval swellings over a period of five and four years respectively - presented to our hospital. In both cases, there was a significant history on presentation. Both women had previously taken a complete course of anti-tubercular treatment for generalized lymphadenopathy. The vulval swellings were extremely large: in the first case report, measuring 35 × 25 cm on the right side and 45 × 30 cm on the left side, weighing 20 lb and 16 lb respectively. Both cases were managed by surgical excision with reconstruction and the outcome was positive. Satisfactory results have been maintained during a follow-up period of six years in both cases. Conclusions Elephantiasis of the female genitalia is unusual and it has rarely been reported following tuberculosis. We report two cases of vulval elephantiasis as a consequence of extensive lymph node destruction by tuberculosis, in order to highlight this very rare clinical scenario.

  9. Sexually transmitted infections in HIV-infected people in Switzerland: cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katharina Sprenger

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Sexually transmitted infections (STI in HIV-infected people are of increasing concern. We estimated STI prevalence and sexual healthcare seeking behaviour in 224 sexually active HIV-infected people, including men who have sex with men (MSM, n = 112, heterosexual men (n = 65 and women (n = 47. Laboratory-diagnosed bacterial STI were more common in MSM (Chlamydia trachomatis 10.7%; 95% CI 6.2, 18.0%, lymphogranuloma venereum 0.9%; 95% CI 0.1, 6.2%, Neisseria gonorrhoeae 2.7%; 95% CI 0.9, 8.0%, syphilis seroconversion 5.4%; 95% CI 2.0, 11.3% than heterosexual men (gonorrhoea 1.5%; 95% CI 0.2, 10.3% or women (no acute infections. Combined rates of laboratory-diagnosed and self-reported bacterial STI in the year before the study were: MSM (27.7%; 95% CI 21.1, 36.7%; heterosexual men (1.5%; 95% CI 0.2, 10.3%; and women (6.4%; 95% CI 2.1, 21.0%. Antibodies to hepatitis C virus were least common in MSM. Antibodies to herpes simplex type 2 virus were least common in heterosexual men. Most MSM, but not heterosexual men or women, agreed that STI testing should be offered every year. In this study, combined rates of bacterial STI in MSM were high; a regular assessment of sexual health would allow those at risk of STI to be offered testing, treatment and partner management.

  10. Multi locus sequence typing of Chlamydia reveals an association between Chlamydia psittaci genotypes and host species.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yvonne Pannekoek

    Full Text Available Chlamydia comprises a group of obligate intracellular bacterial parasites responsible for a variety of diseases in humans and animals, including several zoonoses. Chlamydia trachomatis causes diseases such as trachoma, urogenital infection and lymphogranuloma venereum with severe morbidity. Chlamydia pneumoniae is a common cause of community-acquired respiratory tract infections. Chlamydia psittaci, causing zoonotic pneumonia in humans, is usually hosted by birds, while Chlamydia abortus, causing abortion and fetal death in mammals, including humans, is mainly hosted by goats and sheep. We used multi-locus sequence typing to asses the population structure of Chlamydia. In total, 132 Chlamydia isolates were analyzed, including 60 C. trachomatis, 18 C. pneumoniae, 16 C. abortus, 34 C. psittaci and one of each of C. pecorum, C. caviae, C. muridarum and C. felis. Cluster analyses utilizing the Neighbour-Joining algorithm with the maximum composite likelihood model of concatenated sequences of 7 housekeeping fragments showed that C. psittaci 84/2334 isolated from a parrot grouped together with the C. abortus isolates from goats and sheep. Cluster analyses of the individual alleles showed that in all instances C. psittaci 84/2334 formed one group with C. abortus. Moving 84/2334 from the C. psittaci group to the C. abortus group resulted in a significant increase in the number of fixed differences and elimination of the number of shared mutations between C. psittaci and C. abortus. C. psittaci M56 from a muskrat branched separately from the main group of C. psittaci isolates. C. psittaci genotypes appeared to be associated with host species. The phylogenetic tree of C. psittaci did not follow that of its host bird species, suggesting host species jumps. In conclusion, we report for the first time an association between C. psittaci genotypes with host species.

  11. Genital ulcers in women: clinical, microbiologic and histopathologic characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christiane Maria Moreira Gomes

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Female genital ulcer is a disease that affects a large number of women, and its etiologic diagnosis can be difficult. The disease may increase the risk of acquiring HIV. Genital ulcer may be present in sexually transmitted diseases (STD - syphilis, chancroid, genital herpes, donovanosis, lymphogranuloma venereum and other non-STD disorders (NSTD - Behçet's syndrome, pemphigus, Crohn's disease, erosive lichen planus and others. This study evaluated the clinical-histopathologic-microbiologic characteristics of female genital ulcers. A cross-sectional descriptive prospective study was conducted during a six-month period to investigate the first 53 women without a definitive diagnosis, seeking medical care for genital ulcers at a genital infections outpatient facility in a university hospital. A detailed and specific history was taken, followed by a dermatologic and gynecologic examination. In addition to collecting material from the lesions for microbiologic study, a biopsy of the ulcer was performed for histopathologic investigation. The average age of the patients was 32.7 years, 56.6% had junior high school education and higher education. The most frequent etiology was herpetic lesion, followed by auto-immune ulcers. At the time of their first consultation, around 60% of the women were using inadequate medication that was inconsistent with the final diagnosis. Histologic diagnosis was conclusive in only 26.4% of the patients (14/53. Cure was obtained in 99% of the cases after proper therapy. The female genital ulcers studied were equally distributed between sexually transmitted and non-sexually transmitted causes. Herpes was the most frequent type of genital ulcer, affecting women indiscriminately, mostly between the ages of 20 and 40 years. The etiologic diagnosis of herpetic ulcers is difficult to make even when various diagnostic methods are applied. It is imperative that NSTD should be included in the differential diagnoses of female

  12. Episodic therapy for genital herpes in sub-saharan Africa: a pooled analysis from three randomized controlled trials.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helen A Weiss

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: A randomized controlled trial in South Africa found a beneficial effect of acyclovir on genital ulcer healing, but no effect was seen in trials in Ghana, Central African Republic and Malawi. The aim of this paper is to assess whether the variation in impact of acyclovir on ulcer healing in these trials can be explained by differences in the characteristics of the study populations. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Pooled data were analysed to estimate the impact of acyclovir on the proportion of ulcers healed seven days after randomisation by HIV/CD4 status, ulcer aetiology, size and duration before presentation; and impact on lesional HIV-1. Risk ratios (RR were estimated using Poisson regression with robust standard errors. Of 1478 patients with genital ulcer, most (63% had herpetic ulcers (16% first episode HSV-2 ulcers, and a further 3% chancroid, 2% syphilis, 0.7% lymphogranuloma venereum and 31% undetermined aetiology. Over half (58% of patients were HIV-1 seropositive. The median duration of symptoms before presentation was 6 days. Patients on acyclovir were more likely to have a healed ulcer on day 7 (63% vs 57%, RR = 1.08, 95% CI 0.98-1.18, shorter time to healing (p = 0.04 and less lesional HIV-1 RNA (p = 0.03. Small ulcers (<50 mm(2, HSV-2 ulcers, first episode HSV-2 ulcers, and ulcers in HIV-1 seropositive individuals responded best but the better effectiveness in South Africa was not explained by differences in these factors. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: There may be slight benefit in adding acyclovir to syndromic management in settings where most ulcers are genital herpes. The stronger effect among HIV-1 infected individuals suggests that acyclovir may be beneficial for GUD/HIV-1 co-infected patients. The high prevalence in this population highlights that genital ulceration in patients with unknown HIV status provides a potential entry point for provider-initiated HIV testing.

  13. Genital ulcers in women: clinical, microbiologic and histopathologic characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomes, Christiane Maria Moreira; Giraldo, Paulo César; Gomes, Francis de Assis Moraes; Amaral, Rose; Passos, Mauro Romero Leal; Gonçalves, Ana Katherine da Silveira

    2007-04-01

    Female genital ulcer is a disease that affects a large number of women, and its etiologic diagnosis can be difficult. The disease may increase the risk of acquiring HIV. Genital ulcer may be present in sexually transmitted diseases (STD)--syphilis, chancroid, genital herpes, donovanosis, lymphogranuloma venereum; and other non-STD disorders (NSTD)--Behçet's syndrome, pemphigus, Crohn's disease, erosive lichen planus and others. This study evaluated the clinical-histopathologic-microbiologic characteristics of female genital ulcers. A cross-sectional descriptive prospective study was conducted during a six-month period to investigate the first 53 women without a definitive diagnosis, seeking medical care for genital ulcers at a genital infections outpatient facility in a university hospital. A detailed and specific history was taken, followed by a dermatologic and gynecologic examination. In addition to collecting material from the lesions for microbiologic study, a biopsy of the ulcer was performed for histopathologic investigation. The average age of the patients was 32.7 years, 56.6% had junior high school education and higher education. The most frequent etiology was herpetic lesion, followed by auto-immune ulcers. At the time of their first consultation, around 60% of the women were using inadequate medication that was inconsistent with the final diagnosis. Histologic diagnosis was conclusive in only 26.4% of the patients (14/53). Cure was obtained in 99% of the cases after proper therapy. The female genital ulcers studied were equally distributed between sexually transmitted and non-sexually transmitted causes. Herpes was the most frequent type of genital ulcer, affecting women indiscriminately, mostly between the ages of 20 and 40 years. The etiologic diagnosis of herpetic ulcers is difficult to make even when various diagnostic methods are applied. It is imperative that NSTD should be included in the differential diagnoses of female genital ulcers. The

  14. Doenças sexualmente transmissíveis na gestação: uma síntese de particularidades Sexually transmitted diseases during pregnancy: a synthesis of particularities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana Carvalho Costa

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available As doenças sexualmente transmissíveis (DSTs apresentam prevalência significativa tanto na população geral quanto nas gestantes. Nestas, em especial, devem-se considerar as alterações fisiológicas em seu organismo que podem, inclusive, alterar o curso dessas doenças. Complicações obstétricas e neonatais podem ocorrer em decorrência delas, acarretando aumento da morbimortalidade materno-infantil. Abordam-se, neste artigo, as particularidades da história natural e terapêutica no período gestacional das principais DSTs: cancro mole, donovanose, gonorreia, clamidíase, hepatites virais, herpes genital, infecção pelo papilomavírus humano (HPV, linfogranuloma venéreo, sífilis e vulvovaginites. As DSTs devem ser enfrentadas com extrema atenção e conscientização por parte dos profissionais de saúde, principalmente, no tocante ao diagnóstico, que deve ser o mais precoce possível, e ao tratamento, que apresenta limitações na terapêutica durante a gestação, pela toxicidade de muitos dos medicamentos comumente empregados. A prevenção e o tratamento do parceiro são importantes para que as ações sejam efetivas.Sexually transmitted diseases (STDs have a significant prevalence in both the general population and pregnant women. Accordingly, we consider the physiological changes of the maternal organism that can alter the clinical course of these diseases. In addition, obstetric and neonatal complications may occur, resulting in increased maternal and infant morbidity and mortality. We explore features of the natural course and treatment during pregnancy of the major STDs: soft chancre, donovanosis, gonorrhea, chlamydia, viral hepatitis, genital herpes, human papillomavirus (HPV infection, lymphogranuloma venereum, syphilis, and vulvovaginitis. We believe that health professionals should pay careful attention to STDs, particularly in relation to early diagnosis and precautions on the use of drugs during pregnancy. Prevention

  15. Co-evolution of genomes and plasmids within Chlamydia trachomatis and the emergence in Sweden of a new variant strain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Skilton Rachel J

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Chlamydia trachomatis is the most common cause of sexually transmitted infections globally and the leading cause of preventable blindness in the developing world. There are two biovariants of C. trachomatis: 'trachoma', causing ocular and genital tract infections, and the invasive 'lymphogranuloma venereum' strains. Recently, a new variant of the genital tract C. trachomatis emerged in Sweden. This variant escaped routine diagnostic tests because it carries a plasmid with a deletion. Failure to detect this strain has meant it has spread rapidly across the country provoking a worldwide alert. In addition to being a key diagnostic target, the plasmid has been linked to chlamydial virulence. Analysis of chlamydial plasmids and their cognate chromosomes was undertaken to provide insights into the evolutionary relationship between chromosome and plasmid. This is essential knowledge if the plasmid is to be continued to be relied on as a key diagnostic marker, and for an understanding of the evolution of Chlamydia trachomatis. Results The genomes of two new C. trachomatis strains were sequenced, together with plasmids from six C. trachomatis isolates, including the new variant strain from Sweden. The plasmid from the new Swedish variant has a 377 bp deletion in the first predicted coding sequence, abolishing the site used for PCR detection, resulting in negative diagnosis. In addition, the variant plasmid has a 44 bp duplication downstream of the deletion. The region containing the second predicted coding sequence is the most highly conserved region of the plasmids investigated. Phylogenetic analysis of the plasmids and chromosomes are fully congruent. Moreover this analysis also shows that ocular and genital strains diverged from a common C. trachomatis progenitor. Conclusion The evolutionary pathways of the chlamydial genome and plasmid imply that inheritance of the plasmid is tightly linked with its cognate chromosome. These data

  16. Hemodynamic analysis of esophageal varices in patients with liver cirrhosis using color Doppler ultrasound

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Feng-Hua Li; Jing Hao; Jian-Guo Xia; Hong-Li Li; Hua Fang

    2005-01-01

    AIM: To study the portal hemodynamics and their relationship with the size of esophageal varices seen at endoscopy and to evaluate whether these Doppler ultrasound parameters might predict variceal bleeding in patients with liver cirrhosis and portal hypertension.METHODS: One hundred and twenty cirrhotic patients with esophageal varices but without any previous bleeding were enrolled in the prospective study. During a 2-year observation period, 52 patients who had at least one episode of acute esophageal variceal hemorrhage constituted the bleeding group, and the remaining 68 patients without any previous hemorrhage constituted the non-bleeding group. All patients underwent endoscopy before or after color Doppler-ultrasonic examination, and images were interpreted independently by two endoscopists. The control group consisted of 30 healthy subjects, matched to the patient group in age and gender. Measurements of diameter,flow direction and flow velocity in the left gastric vein (LGV) and the portal vein (PV) were done in all patients and controls using color Doppler unit. After baseline measurements, 30 min after oral administration of 75 g glucose in 225 mL, changes of the diameter, flow velocity and direction in the PV and LGV were examined in 60 patients with esophageal varices and 15 healthy controls.RESULTS: The PV and LGV were detected successfully in 115 (96%) and 105 (88%) of 120 cirrhotic patients,respectively, and in 27 (90%) and 21 (70%) of 30 healthy controls, respectively. Among the 120 cirrhotic patients,37 had F1, 59 had F2, and 24 had F3 grade varices. Compared with the healthy controls, cirrhotic group had a significantly lower velocity in the PV, a significantly greater diameter of the PV and LGV, and a higher velocity in the LGV. In the cirrhotic group, no difference in portal flow velocity and diameter were observed between patients with or without esophageal variceal bleeding (EVB). However, the diameter and blood flow velocity of the LGV were

  17. Environmental perspective of Location Based Services and Light Goods Vehicles in urban areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The article looks at the underexplored area of light goods vehicle (LGV operation. Specifically, it is investigated to what extent various location based services (LBS can be applied in the context of LGV operation in order to improve their environmental friendliness in urban areas. In doing so, LBS applied in real time navigation, dynamic fleet management, freight tracking and monitoring, hazardous materials transport, location-specific tolls and taxes and geo-eco-driving are described in relation to their usefulness in LGV operation as well as the potential in reducing LGV-originating pollution. Where available, real world examples of such applications are given. The discussion reveals particular significance in that context of real time navigation and dynamic fleet management, which are widely applicable solutions in LGVs operation. Freight monitoring and tracking, including hazardous materials transport, have been also found to be of an importance due, yet with a more limited applicability. As regards location-specific tolls and taxes, and geo-eco-driving, significant potential of these LBS has been identified, yet due to their very limited applicability in general, no robust conclusions could be drawn. Last but not least, a significant gap in the detailed knowledge regarding the area has been revealed and directions for further research have been suggested.

  18. Piscivory and trophic position of Anguilla anguilla in two lakes: importance of macrozoobenthos density

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dorner, H.; Skov, Christian; Berg, Søren

    2009-01-01

    The feeding habits of the European eel Anguilla anguilla (> 300 mm total length, L-T) were compared in two lakes of different environmental state: Lake Gro ss er Vatersee (LGV), Germany (clear water, mesotrophic and submerged macrophytes), and Lake Vallum (LV), Denmark (turbid, eutrophic and no s......The feeding habits of the European eel Anguilla anguilla (> 300 mm total length, L-T) were compared in two lakes of different environmental state: Lake Gro ss er Vatersee (LGV), Germany (clear water, mesotrophic and submerged macrophytes), and Lake Vallum (LV), Denmark (turbid, eutrophic...... and no submerged macrophytes). The density of macrozoobenthos was higher in LV (3500 individuals m(-2)) than in LGV (1500 individuals m(-2)). The abundance of small prey fishes (40-99 mm L-T) was highest in LV. In LV, A. anguilla fed on macrozoobenthos, in particular, chironomid larvae. In LGV, A. anguilla used...... on these results, it is concluded that piscivory among A. anguilla was generally controlled by the density of macrozoobenthos. Stable isotope analysis further indicated that A. anguilla may act as integrators between benthic and pelagic food webs when density of insect larvae is low....

  19. Sexually transmitted infections (STI) in men who have sex with men (MSM)

    OpenAIRE

    Bratt, G. A.; Edlund, M; Cullberg, M.; Hejdeman, B; Blaxhult, A; Eriksson, L. E.

    2009-01-01

    The impact of increasingly efficient antiretroviral therapy (ART) on survival and general well-being has contributed to a "business as usual" attitude to sex among men who have sex with men (MSM). There has been a recent marked increase of sexually transmitted infections (STI) including syphilis, LGV and Hepatits C among MSM. STIs located in the oral cavity or rectum are asymptomatic in over 80% and 50%, respectively and these sites must be seen as important reservoirs. On the other hand seve...

  20. Evaluation of magnetic resonance angiography in detection of gastric varices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sato, Takahiro; Yamazaki, Katsu; Toyota, Jouji; Karino, Yoshiyasu; Ohmura, Takumi; Suga, Toshihiro [Sapporo Kosei General Hospital (Japan)

    1999-06-01

    We evaluated the detection of gastric varices, inflowing blood vessels to gastric varices, and outflowing blood vessels from gastric varices via magnetic resonance (MR) angiography in 31 patients with gastric varices. Twenty-four patients had F{sub 2} type varices and 7 had F{sub 3} type, classified according to the Japanese Research Society for Portal Hypertension. Seventeen patients had cardiofornical varices, and 14 had fundal varices. All patients were examined with an MR system operating at 1.5 T. MR angiography was performed using the two-dimensional time-of-flight method. With MR angiography, the imaging of gastric varices was clearly delineated in 28 of the 31 patients (90.3%). From the images of MR angiography, flow direction itself cannot be determined. The outflowing blood vessels of gastric varices were reported to be the gastro-renal shunt and the subphrenic vein, and angiographic findings have shown the inflowing blood vessels to be the left gastric vein (LGV), the short gastric vein (SGV), and the posterior gastric vein (PGV). In 25 of the 31 patients (80.7%), the outflowing blood vessels from gastric varices were detected (gastro-renal shunt in 24; subphrenic vein in 1). MR angiography provided clear images of the inflowing blood vessels to gastric varices in 18 of the 31 patients (58.1%). These inflowing vessels were categorized as SGV in 7 patients, LGV in 5, LGV and SGV in 4, and LGV and PGV in 2. We suggest that MR angiography be used as a routine method for detecting and diagnosing collateral veins in patients with gastric varices. (author)

  1. Profile Of Sexually Transmitted Diseases In A Clinic In The Suburb Of Kolkata (West Bengal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaiswal A K

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Records of new STD patients attending the Base Hospital, Barrackpore, near Kolkata between 1991 and 2000 were analysed to examine the pattern of STDs among them. Among 567 new STD patients examined, syphilis predominated, followed by gonorrhoea, chancroid, genital warts, lymphogramuloma venereum and herpes genitalis. Non- gonococcal urethritis constituted 4.2% of study population. The overall HIV seropositivity showed a rising treads in the recent past.

  2. Detecção de Chlamydia trachomatis pela técnica de Reação em Cadeia de Polimerase (PCR) em mulheres atendidas na clínica de infertilidade do Hospital Dona Francisca Mendes, Manaus - Amazonas

    OpenAIRE

    Freitas,Norma Suely de Lima

    2007-01-01

    A Chlamydia trachomatis é uma bactéria sexualmente transmissível, de grande impacto no sistema reprodutivo das mulheres, sendo também um importante problema para a Saúde Pública. A estimativa dos casos de infecção por C. trachomatis é de 90 milhões em todo o mundo. A C. trachomatis é considerada a bactéria sexualmente transmissível de maior prevalência, principalmente em países desenvolvidos e causa doenças do trato urogenital, linfogranuloma venéreo (LGV) e outras. Um dos fatores de risco...

  3. A Study Of Sexually Transmitted Diseases With Application Of Syndromic Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Choudhury Hasan Hana

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available The pattern of sexually transmitted diseases in Assam Medical College was studied for a period of one year. The incidence of sexually transmitted diseases was 1.43%. Out of 150 patients the number of patients with genitoulcerative diseases was syphilis 27 (18%, herpes genitalis 26(17.33%, condyloma acuminate 30 (20%, chancroid 11 (7.33%, donovanosis 2(1.33% and LGV 1(0.67%. Patients with urethral or vaginal discharge comprised of gonorrhoea 4(2.67% Vulvovaginitis 14 (9.33%, NGU 12(8.00%, trichomoniasis 2(1.33%, balanoposthitis 17(11.33%.

  4. Domino tilings and the six-vertex model at its free-fermion point

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferrari, Patrik L; Spohn, Herbert [Zentrum Mathematik and Physik Department, Technische Universitaet Muenchen, D-85747 Garching (Germany)

    2006-08-18

    At the free-fermion point, the six-vertex model with domain wall boundary conditions (DWBC) can be related to the Aztec diamond, a domino tiling problem. We study the mapping on the level of complete statistics for general domains and boundary conditions. This is obtained by associating with both models a set of non-intersecting lines in the Lindstroem-Gessel-Viennot (LGV) scheme. One of the consequences for DWBC is that the boundaries of the ordered phases are described by the Airy process in the thermodynamic limit.

  5. Domino tilings and the six-vertex model at its free-fermion point

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrari, Patrik L.; Spohn, Herbert

    2006-08-01

    At the free-fermion point, the six-vertex model with domain wall boundary conditions (DWBC) can be related to the Aztec diamond, a domino tiling problem. We study the mapping on the level of complete statistics for general domains and boundary conditions. This is obtained by associating with both models a set of non-intersecting lines in the Lindström-Gessel-Viennot (LGV) scheme. One of the consequences for DWBC is that the boundaries of the ordered phases are described by the Airy process in the thermodynamic limit.

  6. Therapeutic effects of endoscopic variceal ligation combined with partial splenic embolization for portal hypertension

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Rui-Yun Xu; Bo Liu; Nan Lin

    2004-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate the feasibility of a new strategy of endoscopic variceal ligation combined with partial splenic embolization (EVL-PSE) for patients with cirrhosis and portal hypertension.METHODS: From May 1999 to May 2002, 41 cases with cirrhosis and portal hypertension underwent EVL-PSE.Hemodynamics of the main portal vein (MPV), the left gastric vein (LGV) and azygos vein, including maximum velocity,flow rate and vein diameter, were assessed by Doppler ultrasonography.RESULTS: One case died from pulmonary artery embolism.One case complicated with splenic abscess was successfully managed by laparotomy. The esophageal varices and hypersplenism were well controlled after EVL-PSE in other patients. After EVL-PSE, the flow rate and velocity of MPV was significantly reduced (P<0.05), as well as the flow rate of the LGV and azygos vein. During the follow-up, no recurrent bleeding was found.CONCLUSION: Being more convenient and less invasive,EVL-PSE is hopeful to be a proper intervention strategy for portal hypertensive patients with impaired hepatic function or those intolerant to shunting or devascularization surgery.

  7. Determination of multi-residue for malachite green, gentian violet and their metabolites in aquatic products by high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with molecularly imprinted solid-phase extraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Chaoyang; Mai, Zhibin; Yang, Yingfen; Zhu, Binghui; Xu, Xiumin; Lu, Lin; Zou, Xiaoyong

    2009-03-20

    A sorbent was synthesized and investigated for molecularly imprinted solid-phase extraction (MISPE). Molecularly imprinted polymers (MIPs) were synthesized via precipitation polymerization procedure, where methacrylic acid (MAA) was used as functional monomer and ethylene glycol dimethacrylate (EDMA) as cross-linking agent. The imprinting effect and selectivity of the MISPE were evaluated by elution experiments. The resulting MISPE showed high extraction selectivity to malachite green, gentian violet and their metabolites, which may be caused by both the ion exchange and the hydrophobic interactions. The determination of multi-residue for malachite green, gentian violet and their metabolites in aquatic products by HPLC coupled with MISPE was also investigated. The mean recoveries calculated by solvent calibration curve for malachite green (MG), gentian violet (GV), leucomalachite green (LMG) and leucogentian violet (LGV) were from 89.8% to 99.1% for grass carp, 90.6% to 101.2% for shrimp and 91.3% to 96.3% for shellfish. The decision limit (CCalpha) and the detection capability (CCbeta) obtained for MG, GV, LMG and LGV were in the range of 0.11-0.14 and 0.19-0.24 microg kg(-1) for grass carp, shrimp and shellfish. The MISPE was successfully used off-line for the determination of MG, GV and their metabolites in aquatic products.

  8. Testing study of subcritical crack growth rate and fracture toughness in different rocks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CAO Ping; LI Jiang-teng; YUAN Hai-ping

    2006-01-01

    Subcritical crack growth of double torsion specimens made of ore, lherzolite, marble and granite was studied using Instron1342 type electro hydraulic servo test machine. The relations of the mode-Ⅰ stress intensity factor KI versus the subcritical crack growth velocity v and the fracture toughness KIC were obtained by the double torsion constant displacement load relaxation method. The behavior of subcritical crack growth was analyzed for different rocks. The results show that lgKI-lgv relations of four kinds of rocks measured by this method accord with linear rule, i.e. the relations between subcritical crack growth velocity and stress intensity factor have a power law, which is in good agreement with CHARLES theory. lgKI-lgv curves move to top left corner with the decrease of the elastic modulus, which implies that the subcritical crack growth velocity speeds up. The maximum subcritical crack growth velocity exhibits negative exponential increase, and mode-Ⅰ fracture toughness KIC decreases with the decrease of elastic modulus. The testing results provide a basis for time-dependence of rock engineering stability.

  9. Application of CT Portography in Esophagogastric Varices in Cirrhotic Patients%CT 门静脉成像在肝硬化食管胃静脉曲张中的应用价值

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵尚飞; 冯琨; 曲巧燕; 崔铭娟; 王艳婷; 谭军英; 宋明全

    2016-01-01

    Background:CT portography(CTP)permits comprehensive evaluation of portal vein and its collateral pathways. It is widely used for assessment of portal hypertension in clinical practice. Aims:To assess the value of CTP in esophagogastric varices in cirrhotic patients. Methods:A retrospective cohort study was performed in 143 cirrhotic patients admitted from Jan. 2013 to Sep. 2015 at the Affiliated Hospital of Qingdao University. All patients fulfilled the inclusion criteria and underwent CTP and gastroscopy within 7 days after admission. According to the occurrence of gastrointestinal bleeding at admission,patients were allocated into two groups:bleeding group( n = 70 ) and non-bleeding group( n = 73 ). Consistency of the results of CTP and gastroscopy was analyzed by kappa coefficient;the accuracy of CTP parameters, including diameters of main portal vein(MPV),splenic vein(SPV)and left gastric vein(LGV)for prediction of variceal bleeding was evaluated by ROC curve. Results:CTP and gastroscopy had a good consistency in typing and grading of esophagogastric varices,with the kappa value of 0. 793 and 0. 775,respectively. The diameters of MPV,SPV and LGV were significantly higher in bleeding group than in non-bleeding group(P < 0. 01),and their area under the ROC curve (AUC)in predicting variceal bleeding was 0. 741,0. 627 and 0. 816,respectively. The accuracy of diameter of LGV was superior to that of MPV and SPV. With the cutoff value of 6. 1 mm,the sensitivity and specificity of diameter of LGV were 65. 71% and 84. 93% ,respectively. With the cutoff value of 16. 3 mm,the sensitivity of diameter of MPV was 75. 71% , which was higher than that of LGV and SPV. Conclusions:CTP can be used in clinical diagnosis of esophagogastric varices in cirrhotic patients,and two CTP parameters,the diameters of LGV and MPV,might be helpful for prediction of variceal bleeding.%背景:CT 门静脉成像(CTP)可直观地显示门静脉及其侧支循环,为临床常用的门静

  10. A study on the present scenario of STD management in an urban clinic in Kolkata

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    Ghosh Sadhan Kumar

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available A total of 4129 patients attended the STD clinic from 1996 to 1999. Of those 25.75% were STD cases. Male and female cases comprised 86% and 14% respectively. Majority were in the age group between 18 to 38 years. Choncroid was the commonest STD (37. 7%. Other STDs in order were syphilis (30. 66%, NGU (15.71%, gonorrhoea (7%, venereal wart (3.57%, candidiasis (2.53%, trichomonal vaginitis (1.6%, herpes genitalis (0.65% and LGV (0.47%. No case of Donovanosis or HIV was detected. 13.7% of STD cases were reactive for VDRL test and 8% of the antenatal attendents were strongly VDRL test reactive. The urethral discharge on gram staining was positive for gonococcus, in 29%. 68% of the clinic attendents were given safer sex education and served condom.

  11. Integration and Expression of Human Growth Hormone Gene in Caladium bicolor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李宝健; 王金发; 徐增富; 许友卿; 余慕贞; 何新; 沈玉

    1994-01-01

    Human growth hormone (hGH) gene has been inserted into the plasmid pLGV1103 to give the recombinant plasmid pLB-9. It has been introduced into the agrobacterium containing plasmid pGV3850. The recombinant Ti plasmid pGL198(hGH) has been obtained by homologous recombination. The monocotyledon Caladium bicolor has been transferred with pGL198 (hGH) with the leaf-disk co-cultivation method, and transgenic plants have been regenerated. The results of nopaline analysis, NPT II detection Southern blot and Western blot show that the hGH gene was integrated into the genome of Caladium bicolor, and a 22-kD protein was synthesized in the transgenic plants.

  12. Conformational and phase transitions in DNA--photosensitive surfactant solutions: Experiment and modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasyanenko, N; Lysyakova, L; Ramazanov, R; Nesterenko, A; Yaroshevich, I; Titov, E; Alexeev, G; Lezov, A; Unksov, I

    2015-02-01

    DNA binding to trans- and cis-isomers of azobenzene containing cationic surfactant in 5 mM NaCl solution was investigated by the methods of dynamic light scattering (DLS), low-gradient viscometry (LGV), atomic force microscopy (AFM), circular dichroism (CD), gel electrophoresis (GE), flow birefringence (FB), UV-Vis spectrophotometry. Light-responsive conformational transitions of DNA in complex with photosensitive surfactant, changes in DNA optical anisotropy and persistent length, phase transition of DNA into nanoparticles induced by high surfactant concentration, as well as transformation of surfactant conformation under its binding to macromolecule were studied. Computer simulations of micelles formation for cis- and trans-isomers of azobenzene containing surfactant, as well as DNA-surfactant interaction, were carried out. Phase diagram for DNA-surfactant solutions was designed. The possibility to reverse the DNA packaging induced by surfactant binding with the dilution and light irradiation was shown.

  13. Most ultraviolet irradiation induced mutations in the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans are chromosomal rearrangements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stewart, H.I.; Rosenbluth, R.E.; Baillie, D.L. (Simon Fraser University, Burnaby, BC (Canada). Department of Biological Sciences, Institute of Molecular Biology)

    1991-07-01

    In this study the utility of 254-nm ultraviolet light (UV) as a magnetic tool in C.elegans is determined. It is demonstrated that irradiation of adult hermaphrodites provides a simple method for the induction of heritable chromosomal rearrangements. A screening protocol was employed that identifies either recessive lethal mutations in the 40 map unit region balanced by the translocation eT1(III;V), or unc-36(III) duplications. Mutations were recovered in 3% of the chromosomes screened after a dose of 120 J/m{sup 2}. This rate resembles that for 1500 R {gamma}-ray-induced mutations selected in a similar manner. The mutations were classified either as lethals (mapping to Linkage Group (LG)III or LGV) or as putative unc-36 duplications. In contrast to the majority of UV-induced mutations analysed in micro-organisms, a large fraction of the C.elegans UV-induced mutations were found to be not simple intragenic lesions, but deficiencies for more than one adjacent gene or more complex events. Preliminary evidence for this conclusion came from the high frequency of mutations that had a dominant effect causing reduced numbers of adult progeny. Subsequently 6 out of 9 analysed LGV mutations were found to be deficiencies. Other specific rearrangements also identified were: one translocation, sT5(II;III), and two unc-36 duplications, sDp8 and sDp9. It was concluded that UV irradiation can easily be used as an additional tool for the analysis of C.elegans chromosomes, and that C.elegans should prove to be a useful organism in which to study the mechanisms whereby UV acts as a mutagen in cells of complex eukaryotes. (author). 46 refs.; 5 figs.; 4 tabs.

  14. Sexually transmitted diseases in men who have sex with men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayer, Kenneth H

    2011-12-01

    Men who have sex with men (MSM) have increased rates of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection and sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) compared with demographically matched controls. The reasons for the disproportionate infection burden are complex, including biological, behavioral, and sociocultural factors. HIV and syphilis may often be coprevalent among MSM. The use of nucleic acid amplification testing has enhanced the ability to detect frequently asymptomatic gonococcal and chlamydial infections of the rectum and other sites. Lymphogranuloma proctitis outbreaks among MSM were noted in the developed world several years ago but have not been common recently. MSM are at increased risk for viral hepatitis and anal human papillomavirus disease. Preventive interventions include vaccination for the former and anal cytologic screening for the latter. Because of the diverse ways in which MSM may be exposed to STDs, it is essential for clinicians to obtain a thorough sexual history in a culturally competent manner.

  15. Value-Personality Link Measured With Novel Instruments Developed With an Emic Perspective

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    Suna Tevrüz

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The first aim of this study is to investigate whether instruments developed with an emic approach in Turkey produce the same trait-value links obtained with studies using near universal instruments, and if emic traits and value concepts are composed under agency and communal conceptions. So, the first aim of this study is to inspect the conceptual similarities in the links between traits and values. The second aim is to examine the moderating effect of disposable income on the strength of the trait-value relationship. Undergraduate and graduate students (N = 595 from six universities in Istanbul responded to the Personality Profile Scale (PPS and the Life Goal Values (LGV questionnaire. Second order factor analysis indicated that indigenous value and trait items were representative of communal and agency conceptions. Furthermore, most of the value-trait links revealed with regression analysis, and the sinusoid relationships revealed with Pearson correlation coefficients were consistent with the findings measured with near universal instruments. Additionally found relationships between traits and especially conservation values can be interpreted as the instrumentality of agentic traits for personal as well for social focused values. Disposable income had a moderating effect on five trait-value relationships and three out of five were weaker in the low-income group.

  16. Lipid rafts, caveolae, caveolin-1, and entry by Chlamydiae into host cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stuart, Elizabeth S; Webley, Wilmore C; Norkin, Leonard C

    2003-07-01

    Obligate intracellular bacterial pathogens of the genus Chlamydia are reported to enter host cells by both clathrin-dependent and clathrin-independent processes. C. trachomatis serovar K recently was shown to enter cells via caveolae-like lipid raft domains. We asked here how widespread raft-mediated entry might be among the Chlamydia. We show that C. pneumoniae, an important cause of respiratory infections in humans that additionally is associated with cardiovascular disease, and C. psittaci, an important pathogen in domestic mammals and birds that also infects humans, each enter host cells via cholesterol-rich lipid raft microdomains. Further, we show that C. trachomatis serovars E and F also use these domains to enter host cells. The involvement of these membrane domains in the entry of these organisms was indicated by the sensitivity of their entry to the raft-disrupting agents Nystatin and filipin, and by their intracellular association with caveolin-1, a 22-kDa protein associated with the formation of caveolae in rafts. In contrast, caveolin-marked lipid raft domains do not mediate entry of C. trachomatis serovars A, 36B, and C, nor of LGV serovar L2 and MoPn. Finally, we show that entry of each of these chlamydial strains is independent of cellular expression of caveolin-1. Thus, entry via the Nystatin and filipin-sensitive pathway is dependent on lipid rafts containing cholesterol, rather than invaginated caveolae per se.

  17. Genital Ulcer Disease: How Worrisome Is It Today? A Status Report from New Delhi, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sumathi Muralidhar

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives. Genital ulcer diseases represent a diagnostic dilemma, especially in India, where few STI clinics have access to reliable laboratory facility. The changing STI trends require that a correct diagnosis be made in order to institute appropriate treatment and formulate control policies. The objective of this study was to determine recent trends in aetiology of genital ulcers, by using accurate diagnostic tools. Methods. Specimens from 90 ulcer patients were processed for dark field microscopy, stained smears, culture for H. ducreyi, and real-time PCR. Blood samples were collected for serological tests. Results. Prevalence of GUD was 7.45 with mean age at initial sexual experience as 19.2 years. Use of condom with regular and nonregular partners was 19.5% and 42.1%, respectively. Sexual orientation was heterosexual (92.2% or homosexual (2.2%. There were 8 cases positive for HIV (8.9%. Herpes simplex virus ulcers were the commonest, followed by syphilis and chancroid. There were no cases of donovanosis and LGV. Conclusions. A valuable contribution of this study was in validating clinical and syndromic diagnoses of genital ulcers with an accurate aetiological diagnosis. Such reliable data will aid treatment and better define control measures of common agents and help eliminate diseases amenable to elimination, like donovanosis.

  18. Conservation of extrusion as an exit mechanism for Chlamydia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuck, Meghan; Sherrid, Ashley; Suchland, Robert; Ellis, Tisha; Hybiske, Kevin

    2016-10-01

    Chlamydiae exit via membrane-encased extrusion or through lysis of the host cell. Extrusions are novel, pathogen-containing structures that confer infectious advantages to Chlamydia, and are hypothesized to promote cell-to-cell spread, dissemination to distant tissues and facilitate immune evasion. The extrusion phenomenon has been characterized for several Chlamydia trachomatis serovars, but a thorough investigation of extrusion for additional clinically relevant C. trachomatis strains and Chlamydia species has yet to be performed. The key parameters investigated in this study were: (i) the conservation of extrusion across the Chlamydia genus, (ii) the functional requirement for candidate Chlamydia genes in extrusion formation i.e. IncA and CT228 and (iii) extrusion-mediated uptake, and consequent survival of Chlamydia inside macrophages. Inclusion morphology was characterized by live fluorescence microscopy, using an inverted GFP strategy, at early and mid-stages of infection. Enriched extrusions were used to infect bone marrow-derived macrophages, and bacterial viability was measured following macrophage engulfment. Our results demonstrate that extrusion is highly conserved across chlamydiae, including ocular, STD and LGV biovars and divergent Chlamydia species. Consequently, this exit mechanism for Chlamydia may fulfill common advantages important for pathogenesis.

  19. [Microbiological diagnosis of sexually-transmitted infection (2007)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vázquez, Fernando; Lepe, José Antonio; Otero, Luis; Blanco, María Antonia; Aznar, Javier

    2008-01-01

    Sexually transmitted infections (STIs) constitute an important world-wide public health problem. The use of sensitive and specific laboratory methods for diagnosing this condition is crucial to reduce the transmission and sequelae of STI. The present review describes current microbiological methods for the diagnosis of STIs. Neisseria gonorrhoeae and Chlamydia trachomatis are the pathogens most frequently involved in urethral and cervical infection. Culture continues to be the gold standard for diagnosing gonorrhea. Nucleic acid amplification assays are considered the new gold standard for C. trachomatis, although culture is till the most specific technique. Genital ulcers due to Treponema pallidum, Haemophilus ducreyi, or herpes simplex virus have little clinical and bacteriological correlation; therefore, it is essential to establish the microbiological diagnosis. Lesions present in the primary or secondary period of syphilis can be diagnosed by dark field microscopy. Serologic diagnosis for the remaining periods is based on non-treponemal tests associated with confirmatory treponemal tests. Cell culture is considered the gold standard for herpes simplex virus although molecular methods also have a sensitivity and specificity near 100%. Currently, microbiologic diagnosis of H. ducreyi and venereal lymphogranuloma is achieved with the use of molecular methods on samples obtained from the ulceration or lymph adenopathy. The diagnosis of genital warts in immunocompetent patients is based on clinical findings in most cases because the lesions are sufficiently characteristic. Culture is considered the reference method in Trichomonas vaginalis infection.

  20. Comparing mesophilic and thermophilic anaerobic digestion of chicken manure: Microbial community dynamics and process resilience

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Niu, Qigui; Takemura, Yasuyuki; Kubota, Kengo [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Graduate School of Engineering Tohoku University, 6-6-06 Aza-Aoba, Aramaki, Aoba-ku, Sendai, Miyagi 980-8579 (Japan); Li, Yu-You, E-mail: yyli@epl1.civil.tohoku.ac.jp [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Graduate School of Engineering Tohoku University, 6-6-06 Aza-Aoba, Aramaki, Aoba-ku, Sendai, Miyagi 980-8579 (Japan); Key Lab of Northwest Water Resource, Environment and Ecology, MOE, Xi’an University of Architecture and Technology, Xi’an (China)

    2015-09-15

    Highlights: • Microbial community dynamics and process functional resilience were investigated. • The threshold of TAN in mesophilic reactor was higher than the thermophilic reactor. • The recoverable archaeal community dynamic sustained the process resilience. • Methanosarcina was more sensitive than Methanoculleus on ammonia inhibition. • TAN and FA effects the dynamic of hydrolytic and acidogenic bacteria obviously. - Abstract: While methane fermentation is considered as the most successful bioenergy treatment for chicken manure, the relationship between operational performance and the dynamic transition of archaeal and bacterial communities remains poorly understood. Two continuous stirred-tank reactors were investigated under thermophilic and mesophilic conditions feeding with 10%TS. The tolerance of thermophilic reactor on total ammonia nitrogen (TAN) was found to be 8000 mg/L with free ammonia (FA) 2000 mg/L compared to 16,000 mg/L (FA1500 mg/L) of mesophilic reactor. Biomethane production was 0.29 L/gV S{sub in} in the steady stage and decreased following TAN increase. After serious inhibition, the mesophilic reactor was recovered successfully by dilution and washing stratagem compared to the unrecoverable of thermophilic reactor. The relationship between the microbial community structure, the bioreactor performance and inhibitors such as TAN, FA, and volatile fatty acid was evaluated by canonical correspondence analysis. The performance of methanogenic activity and substrate removal efficiency were changed significantly correlating with the community evenness and phylogenetic structure. The resilient archaeal community was found even after serious inhibition in both reactors. Obvious dynamics of bacterial communities were observed in acidogenic and hydrolytic functional bacteria following TAN variation in the different stages.

  1. Research on clinical feasures and sexual behaviors of venereal disease sufferers charactered with genital ulcer%以生殖器溃疡为特征性病患者的临床和性行为情况研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    叶顺章; 韩国柱; 赖伟红; 苏晓红; 尹跃平; 王千秋; 钟铭英

    2005-01-01

    目的:了解我国以生殖器溃疡为特征的性病患者的临床、病原学和性行为情况.方法:按统一标准在南京、大连、深圳性病专科门诊部收集有生殖器溃疡的初诊病例作临床和实验室诊断及性行为特征调查.结果:在有生殖器溃疡的380例性病患者中,检出梅毒患者153例占40.26%,生殖器疱疹患者167例占43.95%、未发现软下疳和性病性淋巴肉芽肿(LGV)患者.患者中未婚者占25.4%,近3个月内有2个以上性伴的占25.28%,有口-阴接触者占23.56%,在有皮损时有性交者占44.16%,多数患者未采取安全措施,在有措施者中采用安全套的仅占46.56%.结论:目前在我国以生殖器溃疡为特征的性病以梅毒和生殖器疱疹为主,未发现经实验室确诊的软下疳和LGV病例.开展性健康教育尤其是对青少年的性健康教育仍然是一项迫切而艰巨的任务.

  2. QTLs for Woolly Poplar Aphid (Phloeomyzus passerinii L. Resistance Detected in an Inter-Specific Populus deltoides x P. nigra Mapping Population.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giorgia Carletti

    Full Text Available The genus Populus represents one of the most economically important groups of forest trees. It is composed by approximately 30 species used for wood and non-wood products, phytoremediation and biomass. Poplar is subjected to several biological and environmental threats although, compared to annual crops, we know far less about the genetic bases of biotic stress resistance. Woolly poplar aphid (Phloeomyzus passerinii is considered a main pest of cultivated poplars in European and American countries. In this work we present two high density linkage maps in poplar obtained by a genotyping by sequencing (GBS approach and the identification of QTLs involved in Ph. passerinii resistance. A total of 5,667 polymorphic markers (5,606 SNPs and 61 SSRs identified on expressed sequences have been used to genotype 131 plants of an F1 population P ×canadensis obtained by an interspecific mate between Populus deltoides (resistant to woolly poplar aphid and Populus nigra (susceptible to woolly poplar aphid. The two linkage maps, obtained following the two-way pseudo-testcross mapping strategy, have been used to investigate the genetic bases of woolly poplar aphid resistance. One major QTL and two QTLs with minor effects (mapped on LGV, LGXVI and LG XIX explaining the 65.8% of the genetic variance observed in the progeny in response to Ph. passerinii attack were found. The high density coverage of functional markers allowed the identification of three genes belonging to disease resistance pathway as putative candidates for P. deltoides resistance to woolly poplar aphid. This work is the first report on genetic of woolly poplar aphid genetic resistance and the resistant loci associated markers identified represent a valuable tool in resistance poplar breeding programs.

  3. A study on sexually transmitted diseases in patients in a STD clinic in a district hospital in North India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neerja Puri

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The Sexually transmitted diseases (STDs are a global health problem of great magnitude. The pattern of STDs differs from country to country and from region to region. The increased risk of the transmission of HIV is known to be associated with the presence of sexually transmitted diseases (STDs and despite the presence of the National STD Control Program in India the number of people with STDs remains high. Aim: The aim of our study was to study the profile of patients in a STD clinic in North India and to study various sexually transmitted infections in both male and female patients. Material and Methods: A prospective study of the patients attending STD clinic in a district hospital in North India from December 2009 to December 2012 was done. A total of 2700 patients attending the STDclinic in three years from December 2009 to December 2012 were taken up for the study. Results: The commonest sexually transmitted infection in males was herpes genitalis (30% followed by 20% cases of genital warts. 10% patients had gonorrhoea, genital molluscum contagiosum, syphilis and genital scabies each and 5% patients had nongonococcal urethritis. Only 5% of the total patients had chancroid, donovanosis and LGV. The commonest sexually transmitted infection in females was vaginal discharge seen in 40% patients, lower abdominal pain in 20% patients, herpes genitalis in 15% patients followed by 20% cases of genital warts and syphilis each. Genital molluscum contagiosum was seen in 5% patients only. Conclusions: The treatment of STD’s is important as both non-ulcerative and ulcerative STDs increase the susceptibility to or transmissibility of HIV infection and as such, an increase in STD prevalence as revealed by clinic attendance in this study was bound to facilitate the spread of HIV/AIDS. Perhaps it is high time health planners adopted a more aggressive and result oriented HIV/AIDS/STD awareness campaign strategy.

  4. Comparison of Local Recurrence Rate of Three Treatment Modalities for Kimura Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Peng; Wei, Tai; Yu, Guang-Yan; Wu, Li-Ling; Peng, Xin

    2016-01-01

    Eosinophilic hyperplastic lymphogranuloma, also known as Kimura disease, is a benign and chronic inflammatory condition, predominantly involving the head and neck region. Surgical excision, radiotherapy (RA), surgical resection combined with low-dose postoperative radiotherapy and oral corticosteroids are 4 treatment modalities reported to control this disease effectively. Local recurrence, however, is common and the optimum treatment for Kimura disease is controversial. Thus, the present meta-analysis was performed to identify the treatment modality associated with the lowest local recurrence. Electronic databases (Cochrane Library, Wiley Online Library, PubMed, Chinese National Knowledge Infrastructure, and Wanfang Data) were searched. Data were also obtained from other sources such as related references and communication with the relevant authors. Two reviewers screened the literature according to preselected criteria. All studies involving different treatments for Kimura disease were collected. After data extraction and research quality assessment, the meta-analysis of 22 studies involving 570 patients was conducted using STATA 12.1 software. Meta-analysis revealed that administration of RA or surgical excision alone were inferior in controlling local recurrence compared with surgical resection combined with postoperative RA (risk ratio (RR) = 2.72; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.47-5.04 and RR = 4.72; 95% CI, 2.53-8.82). Surgical excision alone did not show significant advantage in controlling local recurrence compared with RA alone (RR = 2.13; 95% CI, 0.88-5.17). Surgical resection combined with postoperative RA is superior to either surgery or RA alone in treating Kimura disease. More large scale prospective randomized controlled trials, however, should be conducted to assess the long-term effects and safety issues.

  5. Instrumentation and monitoring of the nextgen road infrastructure: Some results and perspectives from the R5G project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hautière, Nicolas; Bourquin, Frédéric

    2017-04-01

    Through the centuries, the roads - which today constitute in France a huge transport network of 1 millions kilometers length - have always been able to cope with society needs and challenges. As a consequence, the next generation road infrastructure will have to take into account at least three societal transitions: ecological, energetic and digital. The goal of the 5th generation road project (R5G©) [1], led by Ifsttar in France, aligned with the Forever Open program [2], is to design and build demonstrators of such future road infrastructures. The goal of this presentation is to present different results related to the greening of road materials [3], the design of energy-positive roads [4, 5], the test of roads that self-diagnose [6], the design of roads adapted for connected [7], autonomous [8] and electrified vehicles [9], etc. In terms of perspectives, we will demonstrate that the road infrastructures will soon become a complex system: On one side road users will benefit from new services, on the other side such massively connected and instrumented infrastructures will potentially become an opportune sensor for knowledge development in geoscience, such as air quality, visibility and fog monitoring. References: [1] R5G project. r5g.ifsttar.fr [2] Forever Open Road project. www.foreveropenroad.eu [3] Biorepavation project. www.infravation.net/projects/BIOREPAVATION [4] N. Le Touz, J. Dumoulin. Numerical study of the thermal behavior of a new deicing road structure design with energy harvesting capabilities. EGU General Assembly 2015, Apr 2015, Vienne, Austria. [5] S. Asfour, F. Bernardin, E. Toussaint, J.-M. Piau. Hydrothermal modeling of porous pavement for its surface de-freezing. Applied Thermal Engineering. Volume 107, 25 August 2016, Pages 493-500 [6] LGV BPL Instrumentation. http://railenium.eu/wp-content/uploads/2016/08/INSTRUMENTATION-BPL-FR.pdf [7] SCOOP@F project. https://ec.europa.eu/inea/en/connecting

  6. Désirs de gares TGV : du projet des édiles locaux au “désaménagement” du territoire Desire for stations : from local officials’ projects to territorial “displanning”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-François Troin

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Le TGV a suscité en France, à côté de gares urbaines assez bien insérées en ville, des gares “exurbanisées”, stations de plein champ, créées de toutes pièces et bien souvent à la demande d’élus locaux. Ceux-ci en attendaient de multiples bienfaits dont le développement d’activités auprès de la gare. La plupart de ces attentes n’ont pas été satisfaites. Pourquoi alors existe-t-il toujours un fort “désir de gare” chez des élus locaux, des responsables économiques, voisins d’une ligne à grande vitesse en service ou à construire ? Pourquoi dédaigne-t-on le passage des TGV en gare centrale ? Pourquoi ignore-t-on les connexions TGV/trains régionaux pouvant irriguer en profondeur les territoires ?Nous interrogerons l’image perçue du TGV, les compétitions interurbaines, les rationalités économiques, les conceptions territoriales pour rendre compte de ce “désir de gare” et pour conclure à l’impérieuse nécessité d’un cadrage national des rêves d’une grande partie des édiles français, un peu trop prompts à déménager le territoire à leur profit supposé.The French TGV (High Speed Train, beside urban stations well integrated in the city, created some “out of town” railway stations in the open fields, very often by request of local elected officials. Those officials expected many benefits, particularly the development of activities around the station. Most of these hopes have not been fulfilled. So, why does a strong “desire for a station” still exist among local officials, economy leaders neighbouring a High Speed Line (LGV in operation or to be constructed ? Why is the passing of TGV through central stations so much spurned ? Why are connections between regional trains (TER and high-speed trains (TGV nearly always ignored ?We shall examine the perceived image of TGV, interurban competitions, economic rationality, territorial concepts in order to account for this

  7. The Complete Genome of a New Betabaculovirus from Clostera anastomosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Feifei; Zhu, Zheng; Liu, Xiaoping; Hou, Dianhai; Wang, Jun; Zhang, Lei; Wang, Manli; Kou, Zheng; Wang, Hualin; Deng, Fei; Hu, Zhihong

    2015-01-01

    Clostera anastomosis (Lepidoptera: Notodontidae) is a defoliating forest insect pest. Clostera anastomosis granulovirus-B (ClasGV-B) belonging to the genus Betabaculovirus of family Baculoviridae has been used for biological control of the pest. Here we reported the full genome sequence of ClasGV-B and compared it to other previously sequenced baculoviruses. The circular double-stranded DNA genome is 107,439 bp in length, with a G+C content of 37.8% and contains 123 open reading frames (ORFs) representing 93% of the genome. ClasGV-B contains 37 baculovirus core genes, 25 lepidopteran baculovirus specific genes, 19 betabaculovirus specific genes, 39 other genes with homologues to baculoviruses and 3 ORFs unique to ClasGV-B. Hrs appear to be absent from the ClasGV-B genome, however, two non-hr repeats were found. Phylogenetic tree based on 37 core genes from 73 baculovirus genomes placed ClasGV-B in the clade b of betabaculoviruses and was most closely related to Erinnyis ello GV (ErelGV). The gene arrangement of ClasGV-B also shared the strongest collinearity with ErelGV but differed from Clostera anachoreta GV (ClanGV), Clostera anastomosis GV-A (ClasGV-A, previously also called CaLGV) and Epinotia aporema GV (EpapGV) with a 20 kb inversion. ClasGV-B genome contains three copies of polyhedron envelope protein gene (pep) and phylogenetic tree divides the PEPs of betabaculoviruses into three major clades: PEP-1, PEP-2 and PEP/P10. ClasGV-B also contains three homologues of P10 which all harbor an N-terminal coiled-coil domain and a C-terminal basic sequence. ClasGV-B encodes three fibroblast growth factor (FGF) homologues which are conserved in all sequenced betabaculoviruses. Phylogenetic analysis placed these three FGFs into different groups and suggested that the FGFs were evolved at the early stage of the betabaculovirus expansion. ClasGV-B is different from previously reported ClasGV-A and ClanGV isolated from Notodontidae in sequence and gene arrangement

  8. The Complete Genome of a New Betabaculovirus from Clostera anastomosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feifei Yin

    Full Text Available Clostera anastomosis (Lepidoptera: Notodontidae is a defoliating forest insect pest. Clostera anastomosis granulovirus-B (ClasGV-B belonging to the genus Betabaculovirus of family Baculoviridae has been used for biological control of the pest. Here we reported the full genome sequence of ClasGV-B and compared it to other previously sequenced baculoviruses. The circular double-stranded DNA genome is 107,439 bp in length, with a G+C content of 37.8% and contains 123 open reading frames (ORFs representing 93% of the genome. ClasGV-B contains 37 baculovirus core genes, 25 lepidopteran baculovirus specific genes, 19 betabaculovirus specific genes, 39 other genes with homologues to baculoviruses and 3 ORFs unique to ClasGV-B. Hrs appear to be absent from the ClasGV-B genome, however, two non-hr repeats were found. Phylogenetic tree based on 37 core genes from 73 baculovirus genomes placed ClasGV-B in the clade b of betabaculoviruses and was most closely related to Erinnyis ello GV (ErelGV. The gene arrangement of ClasGV-B also shared the strongest collinearity with ErelGV but differed from Clostera anachoreta GV (ClanGV, Clostera anastomosis GV-A (ClasGV-A, previously also called CaLGV and Epinotia aporema GV (EpapGV with a 20 kb inversion. ClasGV-B genome contains three copies of polyhedron envelope protein gene (pep and phylogenetic tree divides the PEPs of betabaculoviruses into three major clades: PEP-1, PEP-2 and PEP/P10. ClasGV-B also contains three homologues of P10 which all harbor an N-terminal coiled-coil domain and a C-terminal basic sequence. ClasGV-B encodes three fibroblast growth factor (FGF homologues which are conserved in all sequenced betabaculoviruses. Phylogenetic analysis placed these three FGFs into different groups and suggested that the FGFs were evolved at the early stage of the betabaculovirus expansion. ClasGV-B is different from previously reported ClasGV-A and ClanGV isolated from Notodontidae in sequence and gene

  9. Analysis of Synonymous Codon Usage Bias in Chlamydia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hui L(ü); Wei-Ming ZHAO; Yan ZHENG; Hong WANG; Mei QI; Xiu-Ping YU

    2005-01-01

    Chlamydiae are obligate intracellular bacterial pathogens that cause ocular and sexually transmitted diseases, and are associated with cardiovascular diseases. The analysis of codon usage may improve our understanding of the evolution and pathogenesis of Chlamydia and allow reengineering of target genes to improve their expression for gene therapy. Here, we analyzed the codon usage of C. muridarum, C.trachomatis (here indicating biovar trachoma and LGV), C. pneumoniae, and C. psittaci using the codon usage database and the CUSP (Create a codon usage table) program of EMBOSS (The European Molecular Biology Open Software Suite). The results show that the four genomes have similar codon usage patterns,with a strong bias towards the codons with A and T at the third codon position. Compared with Homo sapiens, the four chlamydial species show discordant seven or eight preferred codons. The ENC (effective number of codons used in a gene)-plot reveals that the genetic heterogeneity in Chlamydia is constrained by the G+C content, while translational selection and gene length exert relatively weaker influences. Moreover,mutational pressure appears to be the major determinant of the codon usage variation among the chlamydial genes. In addition, we compared the codon preferences of C. trachomatis with those of E. coli, yeast,adenovirus and Homo sapiens. There are 23 codons showing distinct usage differences between C. trachomatis and E. coli, 24 between C. trachomatis and adenovirus, 21 between C. trachomatis and Homo sapiens, but only six codons between C. trachomatis and yeast. Therefore, the yeast system may be more suitable for the expression of chlamydial genes. Finally, we compared the codon preferences of C. trachomatis with those of six eukaryotes, eight prokaryotes and 23 viruses. There is a strong positive correlation between the differences in coding GC content and the variations in codon bias (r=0.905, P<0.001). We conclude that the variation of codon bias

  10. STI screening in people living with HIV: are we getting the whole story?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K Perez

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available People living with HIV are able to enjoy meaningful sexual relationships; there remains however the key responsibility of reducing transmission to others and within this the prevention and management of sexually transmitted infections (STIs. In 2008 and 2011 BHIVA published guidance on STI testing recommending annual STI screening in asymptomatic patients with consideration of more frequent screening dependent on risk. We conducted a retrospective case note review of 385 HIV-positive patients presenting for routine HIV care in a large city teaching hospital HIV clinic during 2010. Data included demographics, HIV parameters, sexual history and STI screening were collected. 297 (77% were male, 215 (56% white British, 105 (27% black African. 229 (56% were MSM. Median age was 37 years (range 17–75 and the median year of diagnosis was 2005 (range 1998–2010. Median CD4 count was 467 cells/mm3 (range 1–1849 and undetectable viral load in 248 (64%. 296 (77% were on HAART. 18 were co-infected with HBV and 17 with HCV. 249 (65% patients had at least one STI screen. 56 (15% declined testing and 77 (20% were not offered. 238 (62% had regular partner(s and of these 109 (46% were known HIV-positive and 128 (32% reported casual partners. 11 (3% had sex exclusively with HIV-positive partners. 91 (69% always used condoms for vaginal sex. With regards to anal sex, 16 (68% always used condoms. 11% used condoms for oral sex. 25 patients (6.5% had rectal chlamydia, 27 (7.0% had rectal gonorrhoea, 8 had dual infection and 3 had LGV. 10 HSV, 12 syphilis and 6 acute HCV infections were diagnosed during this period. 172 patients reported monogamous relationship over 12 months 11 (6.4% of these had STIs. 160 reported consistent condom use for anal sex; of these 24 (15% had rectal STIs diagnosed. Routine STI screening is offered annually in our cohort with reasonable uptake rates. STIs are still being diagnosed in people living with HIV despite our repeated safe sex

  11. Desserte ferroviaire à grande vitesse, activation des ressources spécifiques et développement du tourisme : le cas de l’agglomération rémoise High speed rail service, specific resources activation, and tourist development: the case of Rheims

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sylvie Bazin

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available La LGV est-européenne a été mise en service le 10 juin 2007. Les acteurs économiques des territoires desservis attendent beaucoup de cette arrivée notamment en matière de développement des tourismes urbain et d’affaires. Mais un tel développement n’est pas automatique. C’est l’appropriation collective de l’innovation que constitue la desserte à grande vitesse dans un territoire qui est au coeur de ses effets positifs. En effet, cette appropriation collective constitue une innovation relationnelle de laquelle peuvent naître des innovations de services complémentaires en matière de tourisme susceptibles de valoriser les ressources spécifiques existantes (patrimoine historique, culturel, gastronomique, etc.. Ainsi, si l’existence de ressources spécifiques joue un rôle pour les villes desservies, les efforts coordonnés des acteurs pour favoriser la “mise en tourisme” de la ville sont également décisifs. L’analyse est illustrée par le cas de l’agglomération rémoise.The East European High-Speed Rail started on June 10, 2007. Economic actors of beneficiary territories are expecting a lot of positive effects such as the development of urban and business tourisms. But such development is not automatic. The collective appropriation of the innovations linked to a High-Speed Rail Service seems to be central for generating positive effects. Indeed, this collective appropriation constitutes a relational innovation, which may give birth to additional services innovations in tourism that could enhance the value of existing specific resources (historical, cultural, gastronomic, etc. and turn them into assets. Thus, if the availability of specific resources plays a specific role for the connected cities, coordinated efforts of actors to promote the tourist development of the city are also decisive. We will illustrate our subject with the case of Rheims.

  12. [Investigation of Chlamydia trachomatis with Cell Culture, DFA and PCR Methods in the Genital Swab Samples of Symptomatic Patients].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozüberk, Osman Özüberk; Gökahmetoğlu, Selma; Ozçelik, Bülent; Ekmekçioğlu, Oğuz

    2013-01-01

    Chlamydia trachomatis infection is considered the most prevalent bacterial sexually transmitted disease worldwide. C.trachomatis causes eye infections such as trachoma and newborn inclusion conjunctivitis, newborn pneumonia, genitourinary system infections and suppurative inguinal lymphadenitis namely lymphogranuloma venerum. The aim of this study was to investigate C.trachomatis by direct fluorescent antibody (DFA), polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and cell culture methods in the clinical samples sent to the microbiology laboratory with the prediagnosis of genital infections. A total of 50 swab samples obtained from adult patients (49 female, 1 male) who were admitted to Erciyes University Hospital, Kayseri, Turkey between February-March 2010, were included in the study. C.trachomatis antigens were investigated by a commercial DFA (PathoDx, Remel, USA) method. McCoy cell cultures prepared in microplate wells were used for the isolation of C.trachomatis. The growth of C.trachomatis in cell cultures was confirmed by DFA and iodine staining methods. C.trachomatis DNA was investigated by commercially available PCR (Chlamydia trachomatis 330/740 IC; Sacace, Italy) method. In our study, 4 (8%) of the 50 swab samples were found positive with DFA, 1 (2%) was positive with cell culture, and 1 (2%) was positive with PCR. The only sample that gave positive results with all of the three methods was an urethral swab. Three cervical swab samples that were found positive only with DFA method was evaluated as false positivity. When cell culture was considered as the reference method, the sensitivity and specificity of DFA method were estimated as 100% and 94%, respectively, while those rates for PCR were 100% and 100%, respectively. In conclusion, although cell culture is still the gold standard in the diagnosis of C.trachomatis. infections, since it is time consuming and difficult to apply, more rapid and reliable PCR methods may be applied in diagnosis. DFA method which is

  13. Recursos diagnósticos para las infecciones de transmisión sexual en los laboratorios de Cataluña (España Diagnostic resources for sexually-transmitted infections in laboratories in Catalonia (Spain

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    Montserrat Calmet

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: Describir la capacidad y organización de los laboratorios de Cataluña (España para el diagnóstico de infecciones de transmisión sexual. Para ello, entre noviembre de 2005 y marzo de 2006 se realizó un estudio transversal incluyendo 140 laboratorios. Resultados: 98 realizan alguna prueba diagnóstica, 45 reciben más de 50 muestras vaginales al mes, 42 diagnostican Chlamydia trachomatis, pero solo 6 mediante amplificación de ácidos nucleicos. Ninguno diagnostica el linfogranuloma venéreo. 80 detectan la Neisseria gonorrhoeae (n 1/4 80, 76 de ellos mediante cultivo y 63 analizan su sensibilidad antimicrobiana. En total 23, 22, 22 y 14 laboratorios reciben más de 500 peticiones al mes, respectivamente de hepatitis B, hepatitis C, VIH y sífilis. 84 disponen de pruebas no treponémicas parala sífilis y 51 disponen de pruebas treponémicas. Conclusiones: La actividad de los laboratorios cubre prácticamente todo el espectro patológico, pero es necesario introducir nuevas técnicas y mejorar la eficiencia de los circuitos de muestras.Objective: With the aim of describing both the capacity and organization of the laboratories in Catalonia to diagnose sexually transmitted infections, a cross-sectional study was performed between November 2005 and March 2006, which included 140 laboratories. Results: Ninety-eight laboratories performed some STI tests, 45 received more than 50 vaginal swabs per month, 42 diagnosed Chlamydia trachomatis, but only six used polymerase chain reaction techniques. None diagnosed venereal lymphogranuloma. Eighty were able to detect Neisseria gonorrhoeae, 76 by means of culture and 63 analyzed its antibiotic resistance. A total of 23, 22, 22 and 14 laboratories received more than 500 blood samples for hepatitis B, hepatitis C, HIV and syphilis, respectively. Non-treponemic and treponemic tests were available in 84 and 52 laboratories, respectively. Conclusions: In Catalonia, most STIs can be diagnosed but

  14. Coronary renal shunt via splenic vein for portal hypertension after splenectomy%脾切除后经脾静脉冠肾静脉分流术治疗门静脉高压症

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    田明国; 杨勇; 杜鹏; 丁洋; 辛国军; 詹晶

    2016-01-01

    SV was freed from the residual end to the right for 5-6 cm in length and end-to-side spleno-renal shunt was carried out.The anterior wall of superior mesenteric vein (SMV) was exposed beneath the pancreatic neck and dissected behind the neck upward until the upper edge of the SV and its confluence with the left gastric vein (LGV) were exposed.The SV was ligated with clip between portal vein (PV) and LGV to let blood flow from LGV drain through the whole course of SV to left renal vein (LRV).Procedure 2:the peritoneum at the inferior border of the pancreas was incised,and the junctions of the SV and SMV and junctions of the SV and LGV were exposed.The inferior mesenteric vein (IMV) was divided between ligations.Dissection of the SV was carried out to the left for 3-4 cm in length and was divided.Its distal end was tied and proximal stump anastomosed to LRV by the end-to-side anastomosis.The SV was ligated with clip between PV and LGV.The right gastric and gastroepiploic vessels were ligated at the junction of the antrum and the body,and from this point,the hepatogastric ligment and the omentum were divided upward and downward respectively to completely separate the venous flow between the hepatointestinal area and the stomach in the two procedures.Patients took oral enteric-coated aspirin and warfarin after operation.(1) Intraoperative observation indicators included surgical procedures,operation time,volume of blood loos and free portal pressure (FPP).(2) Postoperative observation indicators included recovery of patients,time to anal exsufflation,time for diet intake,time of abdominal drainage,duration of hospital stay and occurrence of complications.(3)The follow-up using telephone interview and outpatient examination was performed to detect the changes of platelet (PLT),portal vein thrombosis (PVT),patency of spleno-renal vein anastomosis,oral anticoagulants and gastroesophageal varices up to October 2015.Measurement data with skewed distribution were analyzed by M

  15. Diagnóstico laboratorial da infecção pela Chlamydia trachomatis: vantagens e desvantagens das técnicas Laboratory diagnosis of Chlamydia trachomatis infection: advantages and disadvantages of the tests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudete Farina Seadi

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste artigo é revisar e comentar as vantagens e desvantagens dos diferentes tipos de testes de detecção de Chlamydia trachomatis na rotina de laboratórios clínicos, com ênfase nas técnicas de amplificação. A Chlamydia trachomatis é considerada a bactéria sexualmente transmissível mais freqüente em países desenvolvidos e de grande impacto no sistema reprodutivo das mulheres. É o agente causador de doenças do trato urogenital, linfogranuloma venéreo (LGV, tracoma, conjuntivite de inclusão e pneumonia no recém-nascido. Um dos fatores de risco para a infecção é a prática sexual entre adolescentes. A recorrência das infecções é comum. Episódios sucessivos de infecção aumentam o risco de desenvolver seqüelas e a chance de contrair a infecção pelo vírus da imunodeficiência humana. O diagnóstico da infecção pela Chlamydia trachomatis ainda é crítico, devido à freqüência de infecções assintomáticas. As técnicas de amplificação de ácidos nucléicos permitem utilizar urina para a detecção da clamídia, simplificando a coleta. Apresentam maior sensibilidade do que a cultura e do que os testes mais utilizados, como a imunofluorescência direta e o enzimaimunoensaio. A cultura celular, utilizada como padrão- ouro, tem especificidade de 100% e sensibilidade de 70% a 85%. De acordo com o Centers for Disease Control (CDC, um diagnóstico é considerado definitivo quando positivo em cultura ou em pelo menos dois testes não-culturais distintos. Os testes de amplificação são mais dispendiosos do que os demais testes não-culturais, mas de menor custo que a cultura.The purpose of this article is to review and comment the advantages and disadvantages of Chlamydia trachomatis tests in clinical laboratories routine, emphasizing the techniques of amplification. Chlamydia trachomatis is considered the most frequent sexually transmitted bacterium in developed countries and it has an important impact on

  16. Selective acetate production by a coupling acetogenesis and homoacetogenesis process from sewage sludge:impact of pH and methanogenesis inhibition%pH值和产甲烷抑制剂对两相耦合系统污泥发酵定向产乙酸的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    扶郡; 刘和; 王新华; 李秀芬; 陈坚

    2011-01-01

    采用产氢产乙酸/同型产乙酸两相耦合工艺对剩余污泥进行了半连续式厌氧发酵,主要研究了pH值和产甲烷抑制剂2-bromoethanesulphonate(BES)对耦合系统定向产乙酸的影响.结果表明:碱性pH(pH=10.0)和添加BES都能促进A相乙酸的积累,提高乙酸的产率,同时碱性pH比添加BES更有利于污泥的水解.当两种调控方法结合使用时,污泥的水解效率,A相乙酸和TVFA产率都达到最大值,分别为:63.11%、0.27 g/gVS、0.40 g/gVS;碱性pH和添加BES都非常有效的抑制了甲烷的生产.碱性pH有利于氢气生产(最高达16.96 mL/gVS),但是抑制了二氧化碳生产和释放,对H相乙酸的积累非常不利.因此当两种调控方法结合使用时,H相乙酸对整个系统的贡献率仅为7.5%,比中性条件下低的多(最高达31.7%),但是中性条件下整个系统乙酸日产量(0.99 g/d)却远低于两种调控方法结合使用时乙酸日产量(3.67g/d).%A novel coupled syntrophic acetogenesis with hom oacetogenesis process w as used to produce acetate from sew age sludge by sem rcontinuous anaerobic ferm en tation . Effects of various pH and m ethanogenesis inh ibition (2-brom oethanesulphonate , BES ) on the efficiency of acetate and gas production from excess sludge w ere investigated . The result show ed that the akaline pH and BES of the A-phase (acetogenesis phase) in prove the acetate accum ulation . A lkaline pH also m ore favorabb than BES to sludge hydrolysis. W ith pH controlat 10 .0 and BES addition , the hydrolysis yield , the yield of acetate and TV FA reached 63 .11% , 0 .27 g/g V S and 0 .40 g/g V S , respectively . A kaline pH orBES addition could rem arkably inhlbit CH4 production . A kaline pH w as conducwed to hydrogen production (up to 16 .96 m L/gV S) ,but inhibited carbon dioxide production and release , w hich w as not conducive to the accum ulation of acetic acid in Hphase. So w hen these tw o controlm ethods w ere used , the contrbution of H

  17. SYNAPTOLOGICAL STUDY ON SUPERFICIAL FIBER AND GRAY STRATUM IN THE TECTUM DURING THE OPTIC REGENERATION IN ADULT ZEBRAFISH%成年斑马鱼视神经再生期间顶盖表面纤维层和灰质层的突触形态学研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    景孝堂; 王子仁

    2005-01-01

    Objective To investigate the changes of neurotransmitters and the relationship between neurotransmitters and nerve regeneration during the optic regeneration in zebrafish. Methods Using the classical retinotectal regeneration model and electromicroscopy, we observed the ultrastructural changes of synapses of the superficial fiber and gray stratum(SFGS) in the tectum. Results The morphological changes of synapses can be divided into 4 stages: 1. Synaptic degeneration at the early stage after lesion. 2. Regenerating optic nerve fibers entered the SFGS laminar of the tectum, the densities of large granule vesicles (LGV) and small granule vesicles(SGV) were increased. 3. Lots of synapses were formed, the densities of small round clear vesicles (SCV) and small flat clear vesicles(FCV)were increased dramatically .4. Morphological recovery and refinement of the retinotopic innervation. Conclusion Neurotransmitters might play an important role during the regeneration of optic nerve, and they exhibited their effects in a chronological way.%目的研究斑马鱼视神经再生过程中神经递质的变化,探讨神经递质和神经再生的关系.方法应用斑马鱼视神经再生模型,通过电镜技术观察顶盖表面纤维和灰质层突触的形态变化.结果视神经损伤后顶盖突触变化过程大致可分4个时期:1.视神经损伤后早期顶盖突触结构的退变;突触密度和突触小泡密度均下降,空型终末密度增大,8 d时突触小泡密度降到最低水平;而空型终末密度最高.2.损伤后14d再生纤维大量进入顶盖;这一时期大核小泡和小核小泡密度都大量增加,但进入顶盖的纤维还没有或很少形成突触,14 d时突触密度降到最低.3.损伤后21 d的特征是突触大量形成和圆形清亮小泡、扁平清亮小泡密度增加.4.再生晚期突触形态和功能恢复及精确化;100 d时突触密度和突触小泡密度都大体恢复正常,但大核小泡密度还很高. 结论兴奋性