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Sample records for lymphogranuloma venereum chlamydia

  1. Typing of lymphogranuloma venereum Chlamydia trachomatis strains

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Christerson, Linus; de Vries, Henry J. C.; de Barbeyrac, Bertille; Gaydos, Charlotte A.; Henrich, Birgit; Hoffmann, Steen; Schachter, Julius; Thorvaldsen, Johannes; Vall-Mayans, Martí; Klint, Markus; Herrmann, Björn; Morré, Servaas A.

    2010-01-01

    We analyzed by multilocus sequence typing 77 lymphogranuloma venereum Chlamydia trachomatis strains from men who have sex with men in Europe and the United States. Specimens from an outbreak in 2003 in Europe were monoclonal. In contrast, several strains were in the United States in the 1980s,

  2. Typing of Lymphogranuloma Venereum Chlamydia trachomatis Strains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christerson, Linus; de Vries, Henry J.C.; de Barbeyrac, Bertille; Gaydos, Charlotte A.; Henrich, Birgit; Hoffmann, Steen; Schachter, Julius; Thorvaldsen, Johannes; Vall-Mayans, Martí; Klint, Markus; Morré, Servaas A.

    2010-01-01

    We analyzed by multilocus sequence typing 77 lymphogranuloma venereum Chlamydia trachomatis strains from men who have sex with men in Europe and the United States. Specimens from an outbreak in 2003 in Europe were monoclonal. In contrast, several strains were in the United States in the 1980s, including a variant from Europe. PMID:21029543

  3. [Lymphogranuloma venereum].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaňousová, Daniela; Zákoucká, Hana; Marvan, Jaroslav; Jilich, David; Vojáčková, Naděžda; Hercogová, Jana; Machala, Ladislav

    2012-01-01

    Lymphogranuloma venereum is a sexually transmitted disease caused by serovars L1-3 of Chlamydia trachomatis. This infection was originally endemic in tropics and transmitted predominantly by heterosexual contact but since the beginning of the century it spreads in industrialized countries mainly among men having sex with men causing them severe proctitis. In the Czech Republic the first case was diagnosed in 2011. Lymphogranuloma venereum can resemble other forms of anorectal disorders inclusive inflammatory bowel diseases and thus it must be included into differential diagnostic considerations. Definitive diagnosis is based on detection of specific serovars of Chlamydia trachomatis by polymerase chain reaction. In patients with lymphogranuloma venereum it is also necessary to exclude other sexually transmitted diseases, particularly syphilis, HIV and also hepatitis C. The therapy of choice is doxycycline administered for three weeks.

  4. Lymphogranuloma venereum

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/000634.htm Lymphogranuloma venereum To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Lymphogranuloma venereum (LGV) is a sexually transmitted bacterial infection. Causes ...

  5. Lymphogranuloma venereum proctitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, Tucker; Stroup, Jeff

    2016-01-01

    We describe a 60-year-old man who presented with rectal pain and bleeding of a month's duration. His presentation was highly suggestive of lymphogranuloma venereum (LGV) proctitis. Nucleic acid amplification for chlamydia and gonorrhea via rectal swab revealed evidence supportive of anorectal chlamydia. Treatment with doxycycline resulted in complete resolution of his symptoms. PMID:27695183

  6. Chlamydia trachomatis in Cervical Lymph Node of Man with Lymphogranuloma Venereum, Croatia, 20141.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gjurašin, Branimir; Lepej, Snježana Židovec; Cole, Michelle J; Pitt, Rachel; Begovac, Josip

    2018-04-01

    We report an HIV-infected person who was treated for lymphogranuloma venereum cervical lymphadenopathy and proctitis in Croatia in 2014. Infection with a variant L2b genovar of Chlamydia trachomatis was detected in a cervical lymph node aspirate. A prolonged course of doxycycline was required to cure the infection.

  7. Changing Pattern of Chlamydia trachomatis Strains in Lymphogranuloma Venereum Outbreak, France, 2010–2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    Touati, Arabella; Sperandio, Clément; Hénin, Nadège; Laurier-Nadalié, Cécile; Bébéar, Cécile; de Barbeyrac, Bertille

    2016-01-01

    We describe a change in the molecular epidemiology of Chlamydia trachomatis strains involved in an outbreak of rectal lymphogranuloma venereum in France during January 2010–April 2015. Until 2012, the C. trachomatis L2b strain predominated; however, starting in 2013, most cases involved the L2 strain. We also identified 4 genetic L2b ompA variants. PMID:27767927

  8. Changing Pattern of Chlamydia trachomatis Strains in Lymphogranuloma Venereum Outbreak, France, 2010-2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peuchant, Olivia; Touati, Arabella; Sperandio, Clément; Hénin, Nadège; Laurier-Nadalié, Cécile; Bébéar, Cécile; de Barbeyrac, Bertille

    2016-11-01

    We describe a change in the molecular epidemiology of Chlamydia trachomatis strains involved in an outbreak of rectal lymphogranuloma venereum in France during January 2010-April 2015. Until 2012, the C. trachomatis L2b strain predominated; however, starting in 2013, most cases involved the L2 strain. We also identified 4 genetic L2b ompA variants.

  9. A case of lymphogranuloma venereum of 20 years' duration. Isolation of Chlamydia trachomatis from perianal lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dan, M; Rotmensch, H H; Eylan, E; Rubinstein, A; Ginsberg, R; Liron, M

    1980-01-01

    Chlamydia trachomatis was isolated from perianal lesions in a patient in whom lymphogranuloma venereum had been diagnosed 20 years previously. Treatment with tetracycline resulted in a pronounced improvement. Although C trachomatis is known to persist for a long time in the host, isolation of the micro-organism from infected tissues after such a prolonged period has not previously been reported. Images PMID:7427708

  10. Approach to lymphogranuloma venereum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Byrne, Patrick; MacPherson, Paul; DeLaplante, Stephane; Metz, Gila; Bourgault, Andree

    2016-07-01

    To review the literature about lymphogranuloma venereum (LGV) and to provide an overview and discussion of practice guidelines. The terms Chlamydia trachomatis and lymphogranuloma venereum were searched separately in PubMed. Empirical studies, practice reviews, and clinical guidelines were included. All reference lists were reviewed for additional articles. Since 2003, there has been a resurgence of LGV among men who have sex with men in many Western countries, including Canada. Although LGV is a serovar of Chlamydia trachomatis (serovar L), it can invade regional lymph nodes, and consequently presents with different symptoms than the other subtypes of chlamydia (serovars A through K). Specifically, LGV transitions through 3 phases: a painless papule or ulcer at the site of inoculation; invasion of the regional lymph nodes, which can present with an inguinal or rectal syndrome; and irreversible destruction of lymph tissue. In contrast, chlamydia serovars A to K exclusively produce superficial mucosal infections. Lymphogranuloma venereum also requires a different treatment regimen than other chlamydia serovars. In light of the current resurgence of LGV, its unique symptoms and clinical course, and its requirement for a different treatment than other chlamydia serovars, it is important for primary care providers to recognize when LGV should be included as an appropriate differential diagnosis. Copyright© the College of Family Physicians of Canada.

  11. Did L Strains Responsible for Lymphogranuloma Venereum Proctitis Spread Among People With Genital Chlamydia trachomatis Infection in France in 2013?

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    Touati, Arabella; Vernay-Vaisse, Chantal; Janier, Michel; Le Hen, Isabelle; Charlois, Cécile; Dhotte, Philippe; Decré, Dominique; Bébéar, Cécile; de Barbeyrac, Bertille

    2016-06-01

    We retrospectively analyzed 1802 nonrectal Chlamydia trachomatis-positive specimens to determine if the L strains responsible for rectal Lymphogranuloma venereum in men who have sex with men could spread to the heterosexual population. No evidence for Lymphogranuloma venereum transmission among heterosexuals in France was observed in 2013. L2b strains seem to be restricted to the men who have sex with men population.

  12. Rapid Determination of Lymphogranuloma Venereum Serovars of Chlamydia trachomatis by Quantitative High-Resolution Melt Analysis (HRMA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevens, Matthew P.; Garland, Suzanne M.; Zaia, Angelo M.; Tabrizi, Sepehr N.

    2012-01-01

    A quantitative high-resolution melt analysis assay was developed to differentiate lymphogranuloma venereum-causing serovars of Chlamydia trachomatis (L1 to L3) from other C. trachomatis serovars (D to K). The detection limit of this assay is approximately 10 copies per reaction, comparable to the limits of other quantitative-PCR-based methods. PMID:22933594

  13. Chlamydia and lymphogranuloma venereum in Canada: 2003-2012 Summary Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Totten, S; MacLean, R; Payne, E; Severini, A

    2015-01-01

    Background Chlamydia continues to be the most commonly reported sexually transmitted infection in Canada. Lymphogranuloma venereum (LGV), caused by certain serovars of Chlamydia trachomatis, is becoming established in some populations in a number of Western countries. Objective To identify trends in reported cases of chlamydia and LGV in Canada from January 1, 2003 to December 31, 2012. Methods Notifiable disease data on chlamydia were submitted to the Public Health Agency of Canada by provincial and territorial epidemiological units and summarized at the national level by age and sex. Confirmatory testing for suspected LGV cases and serovar subtyping were performed by the National Microbiology Laboratory (NML). Where possible, provincial/territorial health authorities use a standardized national case report form to collect enhanced epidemiological data on each case and to submit the data to the Agency. Results Rates of reported cases of chlamydia increased by 57.6%, from 189.6 to 298.7 per 100,000 between 2003 and 2012. The rate of reported cases of chlamydia among females (383.5 per 100,000) was almost twice as high as that among males (212.0 per 100,000), although the highest relative rate increase occurred among males. In both males and females, the rates of chlamydia were highest in those aged 20 to 24 years. From 2004 to 2012, 170 cases of LGV were reported to the Agency by provincial health authorities (including 104 confirmed and 66 probable cases). In 2012, case reports were received on 12 confirmed and probable cases, compared to 38 laboratory-positive cases confirmed by the NML. Conclusion In Canada, as in many countries, chlamydia rates have markedly increased over the last 10 years, in part due to improved diagnosis through nucleic acid amplification (NAAT) testing. Consistent with trends in Europe and other countries, LGV is emerging in Canada among men who have sex with men (MSM). PMID:29769927

  14. Identification of lymphogranuloma venereum-associated Chlamydia trachomatis serovars by fluorescence in situ hybridisation--a proof-of-principle analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frickmann, Hagen; Essig, Andreas; Poppert, Sven

    2014-04-01

    We describe a proof-of-principle evaluation of a fluorescence in situ hybridisation (FISH) procedure to identify Chlamydia trachomatis serovars L1-L3, the causative agents of lymphogranuloma venereum, in cell cultures based on newly designed DNA probes. Rapid and easy-to-perform FISH could facilitate the diagnosis of lymphogranuloma venereum without nucleic acid amplification or serotyping, but requires broader evaluation studies, for example, in tropical high-endemicity regions. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Lymphogranuloma venereum presenting with erythema nodosum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borsje, Annemiek; van der Reijden, Wil; Soetekouw, Robin

    2016-12-01

    Lymphogranuloma venereum is a sexually transmitted infection caused by Chlamydia trachomatis serovar L1, L2 or L3. Anorectal infections in HIV-positive men who have sex with men comprise the majority of cases in the developed world. We present the case of a 30-year-old HIV-negative man with inguinal type lymphogranuloma venereum accompanied by erythema nodosum. © The Author(s) 2016.

  16. Differences in outer membrane proteins of the lymphogranuloma venereum and trachoma biovars of Chlamydia trachomatis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Batteiger, B.E.; Jones, R.B.

    1985-01-01

    The lymphogranuloma venereum (LGV) and trachoma biovars of Chlamydia trachomatis exhibit differences in biological properties both in vivo and in vitro. To identify analogous biochemical differences, the authors studied the molecular charges of chlamydial outer membrane proteins (OMPs) by means of isoelectric focusing and nonequilibrium pH gradient electrophoresis. Analysis of proteins of whole elementary bodies biosynthetically labeled with L-[35S]cysteine revealed that most chlamydial proteins were neutral or acidic. The major OMPs (MOMPs) of all strains tested were acidic and had apparent isoelectric points (pIs) that varied within narrow limits despite differences in molecular mass of up to 3,000 daltons (Da). However, a low-molecular-mass cysteine-rich OMP analogous to that previously described for Chlamydia psittaci varied consistently in molecular mass (12,500 versus 12,000 Da) and pI (5.4 versus 6.9) between LGV strains and trachoma strains, respectively. OMPs with a molecular mass of 60,000 Da in the trachoma biovar strains had pIs in the 7.3 to 7.7 range. However, analogous OMPs in the LGV strains existed as a doublet with a molecular mass of about 60,000 Da. These data indicate substantial differences in biochemical characteristics of analogous OMPs in the LGV and trachoma biovars. Such differences are the first structural differences described between LGV and trachoma strains which support their distinction into separate biovars and may be related to some of their biological differences

  17. Lymphogranuloma venereum: a review of literature. | Fadeyi ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Lymphogranuloma venereum (LGV) is a systemic STD caused by Chlamydia trachomatis serotypes L1, L2 and L3. The disease is endemic in parts of Africa, Asia, South America and the Caribbean but rare in Western countries where the disease occurs mainly in sporadic form. Large outbreaks occurred recently in Europe ...

  18. Hypervirulent Chlamydia trachomatis Clinical Strain Is a Recombinant between Lymphogranuloma Venereum (L2) and D Lineages

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    Somboonna, Naraporn; Wan, Raymond; Ojcius, David M.; Pettengill, Matthew A.; Joseph, Sandeep J.; Chang, Alexander; Hsu, Ray; Read, Timothy D.; Dean, Deborah

    2011-01-01

    ABSTRACT Chlamydia trachomatis is an obligate intracellular bacterium that causes a diversity of severe and debilitating diseases worldwide. Sporadic and ongoing outbreaks of lymphogranuloma venereum (LGV) strains among men who have sex with men (MSM) support the need for research on virulence factors associated with these organisms. Previous analyses have been limited to single genes or genomes of laboratory-adapted reference strain L2/434 and outbreak strain L2b/UCH-1/proctitis. We characterized an unusual LGV strain, termed L2c, isolated from an MSM with severe hemorrhagic proctitis. L2c developed nonfusing, grape-like inclusions and a cytotoxic phenotype in culture, unlike the LGV strains described to date. Deep genome sequencing revealed that L2c was a recombinant of L2 and D strains with conserved clustered regions of genetic exchange, including a 78-kb region and a partial, yet functional, toxin gene that was lost with prolonged culture. Indels (insertions/deletions) were discovered in an ftsK gene promoter and in the tarp and hctB genes, which encode key proteins involved in replication, inclusion formation, and histone H1-like protein activity, respectively. Analyses suggest that these indels affect gene and/or protein function, supporting the in vitro and disease phenotypes. While recombination has been known to occur for C. trachomatis based on gene sequence analyses, we provide the first whole-genome evidence for recombination between a virulent, invasive LGV strain and a noninvasive common urogenital strain. Given the lack of a genetic system for producing stable C. trachomatis mutants, identifying naturally occurring recombinants can clarify gene function and provide opportunities for discovering avenues for genomic manipulation. PMID:21540364

  19. Lymphogranuloma venereum: "a clinical and histopathological chameleon?".

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    Tchernev, Georgi; Salaro, Cristina; Costa, Mariana Carvalho; Patterson, James W; Nenoff, Pietro

    2010-01-01

    Lymphogranuloma venereum is an infection caused by a variety of the bacterium Chlamydia trachomatis. Both genital and extragenital manifestations of the disease can cause serious differential diagnostic difficulties, indirectly leading to progression and dissemination of the infection. This work describes cases of patients with lymphogranuloma venereum showing atypical clinical and/or histopathological findings. It also focuses on alternative therapeutic approaches, such as surgical excision at stage 1, that may lead to a positive outcome. It is not completely clear whether histopathological findings of lymphogranuloma venereum can reveal progression or changes in the course of the disease over time, as is the case in other diseases. We conclude that both clinical and histopathological observations in a larger number of patients are needed in order to further evaluate the findings presented in this article.

  20. Deep comparative genomics among Chlamydia trachomatis lymphogranuloma venereum isolates highlights genes potentially involved in pathoadaptation.

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    Borges, Vítor; Gomes, João Paulo

    2015-06-01

    Lymphogranuloma venereum (LGV) is a human sexually transmitted disease caused by the obligate intracellular bacterium Chlamydia trachomatis (serovars L1-L3). LGV clinical manifestations range from severe ulcerative proctitis (anorectal syndrome), primarily caused by the epidemic L2b strains, to painful inguinal lymphadenopathy (the typical LGV bubonic form). Besides potential host-related factors, the differential disease severity and tissue tropism among LGV strains is likely a function of the genetic backbone of the strains. We aimed to characterize the genetic variability among LGV strains as strain- or serovar-specific mutations may underlie phenotypic signatures, and to investigate the mutational events that occurred throughout the pathoadaptation of the epidemic L2b lineage. By analyzing 20 previously published genomes from L1, L2, L2b and L3 strains and two new genomes from L2b strains, we detected 1497 variant sites and about 100 indels, affecting 453 genes and 144 intergenic regions, with 34 genes displaying a clear overrepresentation of nonsynonymous mutations. Effectors and/or type III secretion substrates (almost all of those described in the literature) and inclusion membrane proteins showed amino acid changes that were about fivefold more frequent than silent changes. More than 120 variant sites occurred in plasmid-regulated virulence genes, and 66% yielded amino acid changes. The identified serovar-specific variant sites revealed that the L2b-specific mutations are likely associated with higher fitness and pointed out potential targets for future highly discriminatory diagnostic/typing tests. By evaluating the evolutionary pathway beyond the L2b clonal radiation, we observed that 90.2% of the intra-L2b variant sites occurring in coding regions involve nonsynonymous mutations, where CT456/tarp has been the main target. Considering the progress on C. trachomatis genetic manipulation, this study may constitute an important contribution for prioritizing

  1. Delayed Microbial Cure of Lymphogranuloma Venereum Proctitis with Doxycycline Treatment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Vries, H.J.C.; Smelov, V.; Middelburg, J.G.; Pleijster, J.; Speksnijder, A.G.; Morré, S.A.

    2009-01-01

    Microbial cure of chlamydia proctitis (lymphogranuloma venereum [LGV] and non-LGV) with doxycycline treatment was evaluated by chlamydia DNA and RNA persistence in anal swab specimens. In LGV proctitis, RNA persisted for up to 16 days. In non-LGV chlamydia proctitis, DNA was undetectable after 7

  2. Rapid Detection of Chlamydia trachomatis and Typing of the Lymphogranuloma venereum associated L-Serovars by TaqMan PCR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henrich Birgit

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Infection due to Chlamydia trachomatis is the most common sexually transmitted bacterial disease of global health significance, and especially the L-serovars causing lymphogranuloma venereum are increasingly being found in Europe in men who have sex with men. Results The design and evaluation of a rapid, multiplex, real-time PCR targeting the major outer membrane protein (omp-1 -gene and a L-serovar-specific region of the polymorphic protein H (pmp-H -gene for the detection of Chlamydia trachomatis is reported here. The PCR takes place as a single reaction with an internal control. For L1-, L2- and L3-serovar differentiation a second set of real-time PCRs was evaluated based on the amplification of serovar-specific omp-1-regions. The detection limit of each real-time PCR, multiplexed or not, was 50 genome copies per reaction with an efficiency ranging from 90,5–95,2%. In a retrospective analysis of 50 ocular, rectal and urogenital specimens formerly tested to be positive for C. trachomatis we identified six L2-serovars in rectal specimens of HIV-positive men, one in a double-infection with L3, and one L2 in a urethral specimen of an HIV-negative male. Conclusion This unique real-time PCR is specific and convenient for the rapid routine-diagnostic detection of lymphogranuloma venereum-associated L-serovars and enables the subsequent differentiation of L1, L2 and L3 for epidemiologic studies.

  3. Rapid Detection of Chlamydia trachomatis and Typing of the Lymphogranuloma venereum associated L-Serovars by TaqMan PCR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaeffer, Anke; Henrich, Birgit

    2008-01-01

    Background Infection due to Chlamydia trachomatis is the most common sexually transmitted bacterial disease of global health significance, and especially the L-serovars causing lymphogranuloma venereum are increasingly being found in Europe in men who have sex with men. Results The design and evaluation of a rapid, multiplex, real-time PCR targeting the major outer membrane protein (omp-1) -gene and a L-serovar-specific region of the polymorphic protein H (pmp-H) -gene for the detection of Chlamydia trachomatis is reported here. The PCR takes place as a single reaction with an internal control. For L1-, L2- and L3-serovar differentiation a second set of real-time PCRs was evaluated based on the amplification of serovar-specific omp-1-regions. The detection limit of each real-time PCR, multiplexed or not, was 50 genome copies per reaction with an efficiency ranging from 90,5–95,2%. In a retrospective analysis of 50 ocular, rectal and urogenital specimens formerly tested to be positive for C. trachomatis we identified six L2-serovars in rectal specimens of HIV-positive men, one in a double-infection with L3, and one L2 in a urethral specimen of an HIV-negative male. Conclusion This unique real-time PCR is specific and convenient for the rapid routine-diagnostic detection of lymphogranuloma venereum-associated L-serovars and enables the subsequent differentiation of L1, L2 and L3 for epidemiologic studies. PMID:18447917

  4. [Lymphogranuloma venereum: the first Hungarian cases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bánvölgyi, András; Balla, Eszter; Bognár, Péter; Tóth, Béla; Ostorházi, Eszter; Bánhegyi, Dénes; Kárpáti, Sarolta; Marschalkó, Márta

    2015-01-04

    Lymphogranuloma venereum is a sexually transmitted infection caused by the Chlamydia trachomatis serovars L1-3. It has been found to be endemic in tropical countries. In the last decades several cases have been reported in Western Europe, particularly in men who have sex with men population infected with human immunodeficiency virus. The authors present three cases of lymphogranuloma venereum infections, observed at their department in 2013 and 2014. The three human immunodeficiency virus infected patients who belonged to men who have sex with men population had casual sexual contacts in Western Europe. The symptoms included urethral discharge, discomfort and inguinal lymphadenomegaly in two patients, and rectal pain, discharge and perianal ulceration in one patient. The diagnosis was confirmed by nucleic acid amplification test performed in samples obtained from urethral discharge and exudate of perianal ulcer; lymphogranuloma venereum 2b serovars were demonstrated in two patients and serovar 2 in one patient. Doxycyclin (daily dose of two times 100 mg for 21 days) resolved the symptoms in all cases. The authors conclude that lymphogranuloma venereum is a diagnostic challenge in Hungary, too. It is important to be aware of the altered clinical features of this disease to prevent complications and spreading.

  5. [Lymphogranuloma venereum. An old disease in a new dress].

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Roche, M; Sawatzki, M; Degen, L; Itin, P; Flückiger, U; Frei, R; Goldenberger, D

    2011-05-01

    Lymphogranuloma venereum is a sexually transmitted disease caused by Chlamydia trachomatis, serotypes L1, L2 and L3. The classical clinical manifestation is a painful inguinal lymphadenopathy, resulting without treatment in severe complications. Over the last years, however, the emergence of massive ulcerative proctitis has been observed, especially in men who have sex with men. Because the clinical symptoms are unspecific, Chlamydia trachomatis should actively be looked for. Reliable and rapid molecular tests have now been established to diagnose lymphogranuloma venereum. The therapeutic recommendation is tetracycline for 3 weeks. We present 5 cases to illustrate this disease.

  6. Manifestations and management of lymphogranuloma venereum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, John A

    2009-02-01

    This review was prompted by a sustained outbreak of lymphogranuloma venereum that has been observed among men who have sex with men (MSM) worldwide since 2004. Recent developments in the epidemiology, diagnosis and management of the infection are summarized. Between the early 1980s and 2003, lymphogranuloma venereum was rarely seen in the developed world. In 2003, a cluster of cases was seen in the Netherlands occurring mostly in HIV-positive MSM with high levels of sexual risk. With the assistance of novel molecular diagnostic techniques, more than a thousand cases of Chlamydia trachomatis L2 serovar disease have now been reported in MSM worldwide. Almost all have presented with rectal infection, usually manifesting as severe proctitis, with ulcer adenopathy syndrome seldom seen. Oral doxycycline remains the recommended treatment and has proven effective in the recent outbreak. Conflicting data exist regarding the prevalence of asymptomatic infection, and our understanding of the exact modes of transmission remains incomplete. Lymphogranuloma venereum appears to have reestablished endemicity among MSM populations in many industrialized nations. In the relative absence of recent publications from its traditional endemic regions it can be assumed that these populations remain afflicted by the infection as well.

  7. Lymphogranuloma venereum: the Italian experience

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cusini, M.; Boneschi, V.; Arancio, L.; Ramoni, S.; Venegoni, L.; Gaiani, F.; de Vries, H.J.C.

    2009-01-01

    An epidemic of lymphogranuloma venereum (LGV) has been described in men who have sex with men (MSM) in the western world, particularly in western Europe. The first Italian case was reported by the authors in 2006, and up to March 2008 there have been 13 symptomatic cases, all in MSM. Ten cases had

  8. Lymphogranuloma Venereum Presenting as a Rectovaginal Fistula

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. M. Lynch

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Lymphogranuloma venereum (LGV is a rare form of the sexually transmitted disease caused by Chlamydia trachomatis. In the United States, there are fewer than 350 cases per year. In a review of the world’s literature, there has not been a case reported in the last thirty years of a case ofLGV presenting as a rectovaginal fistula. We present a case of an otherwise healthy American woman who presented with a rectovaginal fistula. Although uncommon, LGV does occur in developed countries and may have devastating tissue destruction if not recognized and treated before the tertiary stage. Infect. Dis. Obstet. Gynecol. 7:199–201, 1999.

  9. Lymphogranuloma venereum presenting as a rectovaginal fistula.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynch, C M; Felder, T L; Schwandt, R A; Shashy, R G

    1999-01-01

    Lymphogranuloma venereum (LGV) is a rare form of the sexually transmitted disease caused by Chlamydia trachomatis. In the United States, there are fewer than 350 cases per year. In a review of the world's literature, there has not been a case reported in the last thirty years of a case of LGV presenting as a rectovaginal fistula. We present a case of an otherwise healthy American woman who presented with a rectovaginal fistula. Although uncommon, LGV does occur in developed countries and may have devastating tissue destruction if not recognized and treated before the tertiary stage. PMID:10449269

  10. Ano-rectal lymphogranuloma venereum: the first case in Italy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cusini, M.; Boneschi, V.; Tanzi, C.; Girgenti, V.; de Vries, H. [=Henry J. C.; Alessi, E.

    2008-01-01

    Lymphogranuloma venereum (LGV) is a sexually transmitted infection endemic in Central Africa, South-East Asia and in some countries of Central and South America. In Italy LGV has been sporadically reported in patients coming from abroad. The etiological agent of LGV is Chlamydia trachomatis serovars

  11. Slow Epidemic of Lymphogranuloma Venereum L2b Strain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spaargaren, Joke; Schachter, Julius; Moncada, Jeanne; de Vries, Henry J.C.; Fennema, Han S.A.; Peña, A. Salvador; Coutinho, Roel A.

    2005-01-01

    We traced the Chlamydia trachomatis L2b variant in Amsterdam and San Francisco. All recent lymphogranuloma venereum cases in Amsterdam were caused by the L2b variant. This variant was also present in the 1980s in San Francisco. Thus, the current "outbreak" is most likely a slowly evolving epidemic. PMID:16318741

  12. Lymphogranuloma venereum causing a persistent genital ulcer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcotte, Terrence; Lee, Yer; Pandori, Mark; Jain, Vivek; Cohen, Stephanie Elise

    2014-04-01

    Lymphogranuloma venereum (LGV) is a sexually transmitted cause of inguinal lymphadenopathy and proctocolitis. We report a patient with a persistent genital ulcer due to LGV (serovar L2b), an unusual presentation among US men who have sex with men. Lymphogranuloma venereum should be considered when evaluating persistent genital ulcers, and LGV-specific testing should be sought.

  13. Anal lymphogranuloma venereum infection screening with IgA anti-Chlamydia trachomatis-specific major outer membrane protein serology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Vries, Henry J C; Smelov, Vitaly; Ouburg, Sander; Pleijster, Jolein; Geskus, Ronald B; Speksnijder, Arjen G C L; Fennema, Johannes S A; Morré, Servaas A

    2010-12-01

    Anal lymphogranuloma venereum (LGV) infections, caused by Chlamydia trachomatis biovar L (Ct+/LGV+), are endemic among men who have sex with men (MSM). Anal non-LGV biovar Ct infections (Ct+/LGV-) can be eradicated with 1 week doxycycline, whereas Ct+/LGV+ infections require 3-week doxycycline. To differentiate Ct+/LGV+ from Ct+/LGV- infections, biovar-specific Nucleic Acid Amplification Test (NAAT) are standard, but also expensive and laborious. A chlamydia-specific serological assay could serve as an alternative test. MSM were screened for anal Ct+/LGV+ and Ct+/LGV- infections with a commercial nonspecific NAAT and an in house biovar L-specific NAAT. Serum samples were evaluated with chlamydia-specific anti-Major Outer Membrane Protein (MOMP) and antilipopolysaccharide assays of IgA and IgG classes. Asymptomatic patients were identified as: (1) no anal complaints or (2) no microscopic inflammation (i.e., <10 leucocytes per high power field in anal smears). The best differentiating assay was subsequently evaluated in 100 Ct+/LGV+ and 100 Ct+/LGV- MSM using different cut-off points. The anti-MOMP IgA assay was the most accurate to differentiate Ct+/LGV+ (n = 42) from Ct+/LGV- (n = 19) with 85.7% sensitivity (95% confidence interval [CI], 72.2-93.3) and 84.2% specificity (95% CI, 62.4-94.5), even among asymptomatic patients. In a population comprising 98 Ct+/LGV+ and 105 Ct+/LGV- patients, the anti-MOMP IgA assay scored most accurate when the cut-off point was set to 2.0 with 75.5% (95% CI, 65.8-83.6) sensitivity and 74.3% (95% CI, 64.8-82.3) specificity. The IgA anti-MOMP assay can identify a considerable proportion of the (asymptomatic) anal LGV infections correctly. Yet, biovar L-specific NAAT are still the preferred diagnostic tests in clinical settings.

  14. Global survey of mRNA levels and decay rates of Chlamydia trachomatis trachoma and lymphogranuloma venereum biovars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rita Ferreira

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Interpreting the intricate bacterial transcriptomics implies understanding the dynamic relationship established between de novo transcription and the degradation of transcripts. Here, we performed a comparative overview of gene expression levels and mRNA decay rates for different-biovar (trachoma and lymphogranuloma venereum strains of the obligate intracellular bacterium Chlamydia trachomatis. By using RNA-sequencing to measure gene expression levels at mid developmental stage and mRNA decay rates upon rifampicin-based transcription blockage, we observed that: i 60–70% of the top-50 expressed genes encode proteins with unknown function and proteins involved in “Translation, ribosomal structure and biogenesis” for all strains; ii the expression ranking by genes' functional categories was in general concordant among different-biovar strains; iii the median of the half-life time (t1/2 values of transcripts were 15–17 min, indicating that the degree of transcripts’ stability seems to correlate with the bacterial intracellular life-style, as these values are considerably higher than the ones observed in other studies for facultative intracellular and free-living bacteria; iv transcript decay rates were highly heterogeneous within each C. trachomatis strain and did not correlate with steady-state expression levels; v only at very few instances (essentially at gene functional category level was possible to unveil dissimilarities potentially underlying phenotypic differences between biovars. In summary, the unveiled transcriptomic scenario, marked by a general lack of correlation between transcript production and degradation and a huge inter-transcript heterogeneity in decay rates, likely reflects the challenges underlying the unique biphasic developmental cycle of C. trachomatis and its intricate interactions with the human host, which probably exacerbate the complexity of the bacterial transcription regulation.

  15. Global survey of mRNA levels and decay rates of Chlamydia trachomatis trachoma and lymphogranuloma venereum biovars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, Rita; Borges, Vítor; Borrego, Maria José; Gomes, João Paulo

    2017-07-01

    Interpreting the intricate bacterial transcriptomics implies understanding the dynamic relationship established between de novo transcription and the degradation of transcripts. Here, we performed a comparative overview of gene expression levels and mRNA decay rates for different-biovar (trachoma and lymphogranuloma venereum) strains of the obligate intracellular bacterium Chlamydia trachomatis . By using RNA-sequencing to measure gene expression levels at mid developmental stage and mRNA decay rates upon rifampicin-based transcription blockage, we observed that: i ) 60-70% of the top-50 expressed genes encode proteins with unknown function and proteins involved in "Translation, ribosomal structure and biogenesis" for all strains; ii ) the expression ranking by genes' functional categories was in general concordant among different-biovar strains; iii ) the median of the half-life time (t 1/2 ) values of transcripts were 15-17 min, indicating that the degree of transcripts' stability seems to correlate with the bacterial intracellular life-style, as these values are considerably higher than the ones observed in other studies for facultative intracellular and free-living bacteria; iv ) transcript decay rates were highly heterogeneous within each C. trachomatis strain and did not correlate with steady-state expression levels; v ) only at very few instances (essentially at gene functional category level) was possible to unveil dissimilarities potentially underlying phenotypic differences between biovars. In summary, the unveiled transcriptomic scenario, marked by a general lack of correlation between transcript production and degradation and a huge inter-transcript heterogeneity in decay rates, likely reflects the challenges underlying the unique biphasic developmental cycle of C. trachomatis and its intricate interactions with the human host, which probably exacerbate the complexity of the bacterial transcription regulation.

  16. Lymphogranuloma venereum: diagnostic and treatment challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ceovic R

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Romana Ceovic,1 Sandra Jerkovic Gulin21Department of Dermatology and Venereology, University Hospital Center Zagreb and School of Medicine, Zagreb, Croatia; 2Department of Dermatology and Venereology, General Hospital Sibenik, Sibenik, CroatiaAbstract: Lymphogranuloma venereum is a sexually transmitted disease caused by L1, L2, and L3 serovars of Chlamydia trachomatis. In the last 10 years outbreaks have appeared in North America, Europe, and Australia in the form of proctitis among men who have sex with men. Three stages of disease have been described. The disease in primary stage may go undetected when only a painless papule, pustule, or ulceration appears. The diagnosis is difficult to establish on clinical grounds alone and frequently relies upon either serologic testing, culture, or more recently, nucleic acid amplification testing of direct specimens. A proper treatment regimen cures the infection and prevents further damage to tissues. Lymphogranuloma venereum causes potentially severe infections with possibly irreversible sequels if adequate treatment is not begun promptly. Early and accurate diagnosis is essential. Doxycycline is the drug of choice. Pregnant and lactating women should be treated with erythromycin or azithromycin. Patient must be followed up during the treatment, until disease signs and symptoms have resolved. Repeated testing for syphilis, hepatitis B and C, and HIV to detect early infection should be performed.Keywords: sexually transmitted disease, Chlamydia trachomatis, early and accurate diagnosis

  17. The use of serological titres of IgA and IgG in (early) discrimination between rectal infection with non-lymphogranuloma venereum and lymphogranuloma venereum serovars of Chlamydia trochomotis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E.M. van der Snoek (Eric); J.M. Ossewaarde (Jacobus); W.I. van der Meijden (Willem); P.G.H. Mulder (Paul); H.B. Thio (Bing)

    2007-01-01

    textabstractObjectives: To investigate whether serological titres of species-specific IgA and IgG antibodies in patients with rectal chlamydial infection could discriminate between infection with serovar L2 lymphogranuloma venereum (LGV) and infection with non-LGV serovars. Methods: A total of 39

  18. Lymphogranuloma venereum: diagnostic and treatment challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ceovic, Romana; Gulin, Sandra Jerkovic

    2015-01-01

    Lymphogranuloma venereum is a sexually transmitted disease caused by L1, L2, and L3 serovars of Chlamydia trachomatis. In the last 10 years outbreaks have appeared in North America, Europe, and Australia in the form of proctitis among men who have sex with men. Three stages of disease have been described. The disease in primary stage may go undetected when only a painless papule, pustule, or ulceration appears. The diagnosis is difficult to establish on clinical grounds alone and frequently relies upon either serologic testing, culture, or more recently, nucleic acid amplification testing of direct specimens. A proper treatment regimen cures the infection and prevents further damage to tissues. Lymphogranuloma venereum causes potentially severe infections with possibly irreversible sequels if adequate treatment is not begun promptly. Early and accurate diagnosis is essential. Doxycycline is the drug of choice. Pregnant and lactating women should be treated with erythromycin or azithromycin. Patient must be followed up during the treatment, until disease signs and symptoms have resolved. Repeated testing for syphilis, hepatitis B and C, and HIV to detect early infection should be performed.

  19. Lymphogranuloma venereum rates increased and Chlamydia trachomatis genotypes changed among men who have sex with men in Sweden 2004-2016.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isaksson, Jenny; Carlsson, Ola; Airell, Åsa; Strömdahl, Susanne; Bratt, Göran; Herrmann, Björn

    2017-11-01

    This study aimed to determine the incidence of lymphogranuloma venereum (LGV) in Sweden since 2004 and to study in detail a consecutive number of Chlamydia trachomatis cases in men who have sex with men (MSM) during a 10 month period (September 2014 to July 2015). LGV increased from sporadic import cases in 2004 to comprise a spread within Sweden in 2016. Initially, only the L2b ompA genotype was detected, but in 2015 half of the genotyped LGV cases were L2 genotype. The changing genotype distribution in Sweden is linked to increased LGV spread in Europe. High-resolution multilocus sequence typing of 168 C. trachomatis cases from MSM in 2015 resulted in 29 sequence types, of which 3 accounted for 49 % of cases. The increased rates and different genotypes of LGV indicate that more concern for high-risk taking MSM is needed to avoid further spread of this invasive infection.

  20. Asymptomatic urethral lymphogranuloma venereum: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charest, Louise; Fafard, Judith; Greenwald, Zoë R

    2018-07-01

    Since 2003, there has been a resurgence of lymphogranuloma venereum (LGV), a variant of Chlamydia trachomatis (CT), among men who have sex with men (MSM) in several urban areas of Europe and North America. LGV infection occurs most often at anal sites causing proctitis. Urethral and oropharyngeal infections are rare. In Quebec, LGV incidence has been increasing exponentially in recent years and the current guidelines support systematic LGV genotype testing among anorectal CT-positive samples only. This case report describes a patient with a urethral LGV infection, remarkable due to its prolonged asymptomatic development prior to the manifestation of an inguinal bubo. Physicians should be vigilant of potential cases of LGV and forward CT-positive samples occurring among individuals with LGV risk factors for genotype testing.

  1. The L2b real-time PCR targeting the pmpH gene of Chlamydia trachomatis used for the diagnosis of lymphogranuloma venereum is not specific to L2b strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Touati, A; Peuchant, O; Hénin, N; Bébéar, C; de Barbeyrac, B

    2016-06-01

    The French Reference Centre for chlamydiae uses two real-time PCRs targeting the pmpH gene of Chlamydia trachomatis to differentiate between L strains and variant L2b, responsible for a lymphogranuloma venereum outbreak in Europe. We compared the results obtained for 122 L2b C. trachomatis-positive specimens, using the two real-time PCRs, with the sequencing of the ompA gene. Only 91 specimens were confirmed as L2b. Our results demonstrate that the lymphogranuloma venereum outbreak is no longer dominated by the variant L2b, and that many L-positive specimens were misidentified as L2b with the method used, which raises the question of its specificity. Copyright © 2016 European Society of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. A Macaque Model for Rectal Lymphogranuloma Venereum and Non-Lymphogranuloma Venereum Chlamydia trachomatis: Impact on Rectal Simian/Human Immunodeficiency Virus Acquisition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vishwanathan, Sundaram Ajay; Aubert, Rachael D; Morris, Monica R; Zhao, Chunxia; Philips, Christi; Khalil, George M; Deyounks, Frank; Kelley, Kristen; Ritter, Jana M; Chen, C Y; Kersh, Ellen N; McNicholl, Janet M

    2017-09-01

    Sustained genital tract inflammation caused by sexually transmitted infections (STIs) is known to increase risk of vaginal human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infections but, to our knowledge, there are no nonhuman primate studies that have evaluated its link to rectal HIV acquisition. Rhesus macaques inoculated with Chlamydia trachomatis (CT) (serovars LGV-L2 and CT-E; n = 7) or saline (n = 7) received up to 20 rectal challenges twice a week of simian/HIV immunodeficiency virus (SHIVSF162p3). SHIV viremia was determined by real-time PCR and Chlamydia infection by APTIMA Combo 2 testing. The rectal cytokine-chemokine levels were evaluated by multiplex bead assays. Rectal Chlamydia infection was maintained throughout the study. We did not observe significant differences (P = 1.0) in frequency of SHIV acquisition between the STI and control arms. It took fewer SHIV challenges to infect the STI animals although the difference was not significant (P = 0.59). There were no significant differences in peak plasma viremia between STI and control arms (P = 0.63). The association of plasma viremia with rectal shedding was significantly different by arm (P = 0.038). In the first such study in a macaque model, we did not observe an increased risk of SHIV acquisition due to rectal Chlamydia coinfection. This macaque model can be further developed and expanded to better investigate the impact of different rectal STIs on HIV acquisition.

  3. Asymptomatic Lymphogranuloma Venereum in Men who Have Sex with Men, United Kingdom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saxon, Cara; Hughes, Gwenda; Ison, Catherine

    2016-01-01

    We investigated prevalence of lymphogranuloma venereum (LGV) among men who have sex with men who were tested for chlamydia at 12 clinics in the United Kingdom during 10 weeks in 2012. Of 713 men positive for Chlamydia trachomatis, 66 (9%) had LGV serovars; 15 (27%) of 55 for whom data were available were asymptomatic.

  4. Lymphogranuloma venereum as a cause of rectal strictures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papagrigoriadis, S.; Rennie, J. A.

    1998-01-01

    Rectal strictures are uncommon in young patients without a history of malignancy, inflammatory bowel disease or previous surgery. Lymphogranuloma venereum of the rectum has been described as a rare cause of rectal strictures in the western world, mainly in homosexual men and in blacks. It presents with nonspecific symptoms, rectal ulcer, proctitis, anal fissures, abscesses and rectal strictures. Clinical and endoscopic findings as well as histology resemble Crohn's disease, which may be misdiagnosed. Serology is often positive for Chlamydia trachomatis but negative serology is not uncommon. We present two young black women who suffered from chronic diarrhoea, abdominal pain and weight loss. There was no previous history and investigations showed in both cases a long rectal stricture. Serology was positive in one patient. They were treated with erythromycin and azithromycin and they both underwent an anterior resection of the rectum. Postoperative histology confirmed the presence of lymphogranuloma venereum of the rectum. We conclude that rectal lymphogranuloma venereum is a rare cause of rectal strictures but surgeons should be aware of its existence and include it in the differential diagnosis of unexplained strictures in high-risk patients. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 PMID:9640444

  5. PUBLIC HEALTH ASPECTS OF LYMPHOGRANULOMA VENEREUM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koch, Richard A.; McDonald, Ruth S.; Marshall, Max S.

    1949-01-01

    The clinical symptoms of lymphogranuloma venereum with the serious pathologic changes often occurring in the late stages of the disease warrant greater attention to the disease. The reported ratio of cases of lymphogranuloma venereum to cases of syphilis and gonorrhea is much higher in San Francisco than in other metropolitan ports of western United States, apparently because of greater use of diagnostic tests for the disease. Tests of persons likely to be exposed and other persons not likely to be exposed to venereal diseases indicate that a positive reaction to a Frei test implies past or present infection with lymphogranuloma venereum. Positive reactions to complement fixation tests are notably more frequent than positive response to Frei tests. The complement fixation test appears to be an unreliable diagnostic aid. The frequency of positive reactions associated with other venereal diseases, and their infrequency otherwise, suggests that lymphogranuloma venereum may exist, unrecognized, in many persons, who may be, potentially at least, carriers of the disease. PMID:18147525

  6. Bubonic lymphogranuloma venereum with multidrug treatment failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vall-Mayans, Martí; Isaksson, Jenny; Caballero, Estrella; Sallés, Beatriz; Herrmann, Björn

    2014-03-01

    A patient with proctitis and inguinal buboes diagnosed with lymphogranuloma venereum (LGV) was treated with doxycycline 21 days, azithromycin 20 days and moxifloxacin for a further 12 days because of progressive worsening of inguinal symptoms. Despite extensive antibiotic treatment, the inguinal LGV lesions persisted; however, the patient recovered spontaneously after three months.

  7. Polymorphisms in Inc Proteins and Differential Expression of inc Genes among Chlamydia trachomatis Strains Correlate with Invasiveness and Tropism of Lymphogranuloma Venereum Isolates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almeida, Filipe; Borges, Vítor; Ferreira, Rita; Borrego, Maria José; Gomes, João Paulo

    2012-01-01

    Chlamydia trachomatis is a human bacterial pathogen that multiplies only within an intracellular membrane-bound vacuole, the inclusion. C. trachomatis includes ocular and urogenital strains, usually causing infections restricted to epithelial cells of the conjunctiva and genital mucosa, respectively, and lymphogranuloma venereum (LGV) strains, which can infect macrophages and spread into lymph nodes. However, C. trachomatis genomes display >98% identity at the DNA level. In this work, we studied whether C. trachomatis Inc proteins, which have a bilobed hydrophobic domain that may mediate their insertion in the inclusion membrane, could be a factor determining these different types of infection and tropisms. Analyses of polymorphisms and phylogeny of 48 Inc proteins from 51 strains encompassing the three disease groups showed significant amino acid differences that were mainly due to variations between Inc proteins from LGV and ocular or urogenital isolates. Studies of the evolutionary dynamics of inc genes suggested that 10 of them are likely under positive selection and indicated that most nonsilent mutations are LGV specific. Additionally, real-time quantitative PCR analyses in prototype and clinical strains covering the three disease groups identified three inc genes with LGV-specific expression. We determined the transcriptional start sites of these genes and found LGV-specific nucleotides within their promoters. Thus, subtle variations in the amino acids of a subset of Inc proteins and in the expression of inc genes may contribute to the unique tropism and invasiveness of C. trachomatis LGV strains. PMID:23042990

  8. Three cases of reactive arthritis secondary to lymphogranuloma venereum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, Melissa E O; White, John A

    2015-01-01

    We describe 3 cases of sexually acquired reactive arthritis following rectal lymphogranuloma venereum (LGV) infection in London men who have sex with men. While sexually acquired reactive arthritis is well recognized following urogenital Chlamydia trachomatis infections, the association with rectal infection by LGV-associated serovars of C. trachomatis has been seldom reported, and thus the organism might not be sought by clinicians. The recognition of the various clinical syndromes of LGV by all clinicians, including rheumatologists, is essential given the endemicity of LGV in European men who have sex with men.

  9. Lymphogranuloma venereum proctosigmoiditis is a mimicker of inflammatory bowel disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallegos, Marlene; Bradly, Dawn; Jakate, Shriram; Keshavarzian, Ali

    2012-07-07

    There has been an increasing prevalence of lymphogranuloma venereum (LGV) or Chlamydia trachomatis (C. trachomatis) cases among the men who have sex with men (MSM) population, particularly in Europe and North America. These cases may present with an incomplete or undisclosed history and proctosigmoiditis without characteristic adenopathy syndrome. During the initial evaluation and colonoscopy, there is a strong clinical and endoscopic suspicion of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) by virtue of presentation and endoscopic and histological findings. The diagnosis of IBD is subsequently modified to LGV proctosigmoiditis when one or more of the following transpire: (1) there is failure of response to IBD therapy; (2) additional components of history (MSM/travel) may be identified; (3) return of initially performed Chlamydia antibody test is positive; and (4) response to antibiotics effective against Chlamydia. We describe three such cases initially suspected to be an inflammatory bowel disease and subsequently identified as C. trachomatis proctosigmoiditis.

  10. A case of late-stage lymphogranuloma venereum in a woman in Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lázaro, Maria Jesus; López, Patricia Mejuto; Vall-Mayans, Marti; Fernández, Beatriz Lorenzana; Rodríguez-Guardado, Azucena

    2013-10-01

    Lymphogranuloma venereum is caused by Chlamydia trachomatis serovars L1-L3. The third stage of the disease leads to chronic progressive lymphangitis. The first European case of elephantiasic enlargement of the female genitalia caused by C. trachomatis L2 serovar in decades is reported.

  11. Lymphogranuloma venereum in men screened for pharyngeal and rectal infection, Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haar, Karin; Dudareva-Vizule, Sandra; Wisplinghoff, Hilmar; Wisplinghoff, Fabian; Sailer, Andrea; Jansen, Klaus; Henrich, Birgit; Marcus, Ulrich

    2013-03-01

    To determine prevalence of lymphogranuloma venereum among men who have sex with men in Germany, we conducted a multicenter study during 2009-2010 and found high rates of rectal and pharyngeal infection in men positive for the causative agent, Chlamydia trachomatis. Many infections were asymptomatic. An adjusted C. trachomatis screening policy is justified in Germany.

  12. Lymphogranuloma venereum: a rare and forgotten cause of rectal stricture formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craxford, Leia; Fox, Ashini

    2018-01-01

    Lymphogranuloma venereum (LGV) is caused by L1, L2 and L3 serovars of Chlamydia trachomatis. The anorectal syndrome caused by LGV is often misdiagnosed as inflammatory bowel disease and may rarely lead to stricture formation. Recurrent stricture formation, despite adequate LGV treatment, has not to our knowledge, previously been reported.

  13. A Case of Reactive Arthritis Associated With Lymphogranuloma Venereum Infection in a Woman.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foschi, Claudio; Banzola, Nicoletta; Gaspari, Valeria; D'Antuono, Antonietta; Cevenini, Roberto; Marangoni, Antonella

    2016-09-01

    We report the first case of reactive arthritis associated with lymphogranuloma venereum (LGV) in an Italian human immunodeficiency virus-negative woman with urogenital and rectal Chlamydia trachomatis L2 serovar infection. The LGV-associated arthritis has to be considered even when classic symptoms of arthritis are missing and in case of asymptomatic or cryptic LGV localizations.

  14. High Prevalence of Co-Infections by Invasive and Non-Invasive Chlamydia trachomatis Genotypes during the Lymphogranuloma Venereum Outbreak in Spain.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario Rodriguez-Dominguez

    Full Text Available The evolution of Chlamydia trachomatis is mainly driven by recombination events. This fact can be fuelled by the coincidence in several European regions of the high prevalence of non-invasive urogenital genotypes and lymphogranuloma venereum (LGV outbreaks. This scenario could modify the local epidemiology and favor the selection of new C. trachomatis variants. Quantifying the prevalence of co-infection could help to predict the potential risk in the selection of new variants with unpredictable results in pathogenesis or transmissibility. In the 2009-2013 period, 287 clinical samples with demonstrated presence of C. trachomatis were selected. They were divided in two groups. The first group was constituted by 137 samples with C. trachomatis of the LGV genotypes, and the second by the remaining 150 samples in which the presence of LGV genotypes was previously excluded. They were analyzed to detect the simultaneous presence of non-LGV genotypes based on pmpH and ompA genes. In the first group, co-infections were detected in 10.9% of the cases whereas in the second group the prevalence was 14.6%, which is the highest percentage ever described among European countries. Moreover, bioinformatic analyses suggested the presence among men who have sex with men of a pmpH-recombinant variant, similar to strains described in Seattle in 2002. This variant was the result of genetic exchange between genotypes belonging to LGV and members of G-genotype. Sequencing of other genes, phylogenetically related to pathotype, confirmed that the putative recombinant found in Madrid could have a common origin with the strains described in Seattle. Countries with a high prevalence of co-infections and high migration flows should enhance surveillance programs in at least their vulnerable population.

  15. High Prevalence of Co-Infections by Invasive and Non-Invasive Chlamydia trachomatis Genotypes during the Lymphogranuloma Venereum Outbreak in Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez-Dominguez, Mario; Gonzalez-Alba, Jose Maria; Puerta, Teresa; Menendez, Blanca; Sanchez-Diaz, Ana Maria; Canton, Rafael; del Romero, Jorge; Galan, Juan Carlos

    2015-01-01

    The evolution of Chlamydia trachomatis is mainly driven by recombination events. This fact can be fuelled by the coincidence in several European regions of the high prevalence of non-invasive urogenital genotypes and lymphogranuloma venereum (LGV) outbreaks. This scenario could modify the local epidemiology and favor the selection of new C. trachomatis variants. Quantifying the prevalence of co-infection could help to predict the potential risk in the selection of new variants with unpredictable results in pathogenesis or transmissibility. In the 2009-2013 period, 287 clinical samples with demonstrated presence of C. trachomatis were selected. They were divided in two groups. The first group was constituted by 137 samples with C. trachomatis of the LGV genotypes, and the second by the remaining 150 samples in which the presence of LGV genotypes was previously excluded. They were analyzed to detect the simultaneous presence of non-LGV genotypes based on pmpH and ompA genes. In the first group, co-infections were detected in 10.9% of the cases whereas in the second group the prevalence was 14.6%, which is the highest percentage ever described among European countries. Moreover, bioinformatic analyses suggested the presence among men who have sex with men of a pmpH-recombinant variant, similar to strains described in Seattle in 2002. This variant was the result of genetic exchange between genotypes belonging to LGV and members of G-genotype. Sequencing of other genes, phylogenetically related to pathotype, confirmed that the putative recombinant found in Madrid could have a common origin with the strains described in Seattle. Countries with a high prevalence of co-infections and high migration flows should enhance surveillance programs in at least their vulnerable population.

  16. Screening for asymptomatic lymphogranuloma venereum co-infection in men who have sex with men newly diagnosed with HIV, hepatitis C or syphilis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pallawela, Sns; Bradshaw, D; Hodson, L; Rehill, K; Wong, F; Rockwood, N; Gedela, K; Hardie, J; Price, H; Alexander, S; McLean, K; Dean, G; Smith, A; Sullivan, A K

    2016-07-01

    Patients diagnosed with lymphogranuloma venereum have high rates of co-infection with HIV, syphilis and hepatitis C. The aim of this enhanced surveillance was to screen all men who have sex with men (MSM) newly diagnosed with HIV, syphilis or hepatitis C for co-infection with asymptomatic lymphogranuloma venereum as part of the recommended sexual health screen. Of the 145 patients screened, 21 patients were diagnosed with rectal Chlamydia trachomatis, one with both rectal and urethral chlamydia and six with urethral chlamydia. One rectal chlamydia-positive sample, when tested, was equivocal for lymphogranuloma venereum. Our data suggested that there was not a pool of asymptomatic lymphogranuloma venereum infection in MSM recently diagnosed with HIV, hepatitis C and syphilis. However, there have been recent reports of an increased incidence of asymptomatic lymphogranuloma venereum, raising the question whether lymphogranuloma venereum should be screened for in high risk asymptomatic MSM. The prevalence of asymptomatic rectal chlamydia infections was 19%. © The Author(s) 2015.

  17. Syphilitic lymphadenitis clinically and histologically mimicking lymphogranuloma venereum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wessels, Annesu; Bamford, Colleen; Lewis, David; Martini, Markus; Wainwright, Helen

    2016-04-19

    An inguinal lymph node was discovered incidentally during surgery for a suspected strangulated inguinal hernia. The patient had recently been treated for candidal balanoposthitis and was known to have a paraphimosis. A new foreskin ulcer was discovered when he was admitted for the hernia surgery. The lymph node histology showed stellate abscesses suggestive of lymphogranuloma venereum (LGV). Chlamydial serologic tests were negative. As the histological appearance and clinical details provided were thought to suggest LGV, tissue was also sent for a real-time quadriplex polymerase chain reaction assay. This was used to screen for Chlamydia trachomatis in conjunction with other genital ulcer-related pathogens. The assay was negative for C. trachomatis, but positive for Treponema pallidum. Further histochemical staining of the histological specimen confirmed the presence of spirochaetes.

  18. Lymphogranuloma venereum in men who have sex with men: evidence of local transmission in New Zealand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basu, Indira; Bromhead, Collette; Balm, Michelle; Upton, Arlo; Reid, Murray; Franklin, Rick; Morgan, Jane; Bower, James; Henderson, Gillian; Roberts, Sally A

    2015-03-13

    Lymphogranuloma venereum (LGV) is a sexually transmitted infection caused by Chlamydia trachomatis. Five laboratory confirmed cases of LGV were detected in MSM (men who have sex with men) in the upper North Island; four in Auckland between September and December 2013 and a fifth case was detected in Waikato in June 2014. The absence of a recent travel history for four cases supports the likelihood of local transmission of this uncommon infection.

  19. The first case record of a female patient with bubonic lymphogranuloma venereum (LGV), serovariant L2b.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verweij, Stephan P; Ouburg, Sander; de Vries, Harry; Morré, Servaas A; van Ginkel, Cees J W; Bos, Hanna; Sebens, Fré W

    2012-08-01

    Since 2003, a lymphogranuloma venereum epidemic has been reported in The Netherlands and other European countries. This epidemic is caused by Chlamydia trachomatis serovariant L2b and has only been seen in men having sex with men. The authors investigated a woman presenting with a bubo in her right groin. The authors showed by real-time PCR that the woman was infected with C trachomatis, serovariant L2b. This is the first reported case study of a female patient with bubonic lymphogranuloma venereum caused by serovariant L2b, which was probably contracted via her bisexual male partner.

  20. Lymphogranuloma venereum proctitis: A differential diagnose to inflammatory bowel disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høie, Sverre; Knudsen, Lene Surland; Gerstoft, Jan

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Objective. Lymphogranuloma venereum (LGV) is a sexually transmitted disease, endemic in tropical and subtropical areas for many years. After 2003 there have been several outbreaks in western countries, especially among HIV-positive men who have sex with men (MSM). An important...

  1. European guideline for the management of lymphogranuloma venereum, 2010

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Vries, H.J.C.; Morré, S.A.; White, J.A.; Moi, H.

    2010-01-01

    Lymphogranuloma venereum (LGV) has re-emerged among European men who have sex with men (MSM) in recent years and is probably endemic in this population where it is a relatively common cause of proctitis and occasional genital ulcer-adenopathy disease. While occasional cases of heterosexual LGV are

  2. [Lymphogranuloma venereum proctocolitis in men with HIV-1 infection].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heras, Eva; Llibre, Josep M; Martró, Elisa; Casabona, Jordi; Martin-Iguacel, Raquel; Martín, Raquel; Sirera, Guillem

    2011-02-01

    We present a series of 15 cases with lymphogranuloma venereum (LGV) with the aim of evaluating the response to a 21-day oral course of doxycycline (100mg twice daily). It is an observational study where we describe a series of cases with LGV diagnosed in the Hospital Germans Trias i Pujol's HIV Unit between March 2008 and April 2009. All our patients were HIV infected men who had sex with men with proctitis in 80% of the cases. In all of them Chlamydia trachomatis was determined by PCR on rectal swab specimens, with a negative result after 21 days of treatment with doxycycline. Serovar L2 was confirmed in all the specimens with the reverse hybridization technique. A high index of clinical suspicion is the mainstay to the early diagnosis of LGV since the clinical presentation remains unspecific. The treatment with doxycycline eradicates C. trachomatis in HIV patients with LGV. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier España, S.L. All rights reserved.

  3. Lymphogranuloma venereum: an old, forgotten re-emerging systemic disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dal Conte, I; Mistrangelo, M; Cariti, C; Chiriotto, M; Lucchini, A; Vigna, M; Morino, M; Di Perri, G

    2014-03-01

    Lymphogranuloma venereum (LGV) is a sexually transmitted infection endemic in parts of Africa, Asia, South America, and the Caribbean, but once was rarely observed in Western countries, where most cases were considered to be imported. However, recent outbreaks have been reported in Europe, Australia, New Zealand, the United States and Canada, mainly among HIV positive men who have sex with men, signaling LGV re-emergence. The etiological agent of LGV is Chlamydia trachomatis serotypes L1, L2 and L3, and current outbreaks are mostly sustained by L2b type. The clinical course can be classically divided into three stages: an initial papule, which may ulcerate at the site of inoculation, followed by regional lymphoadenopathy (second stage, generally unilateral). In the tertiary stage, lymphatic obstruction, with elephantiasis of genitalia, and rectal involvement can lead to the formation of strictures and fistulae that may require surgical treatment. Recent cases are observed mainly among HIV positive people, often co-infected with HCV and others STIs, engaging in high-risk sexual practices. The main clinical picture is a relative new entity characterized by progressive ulcerative proctitis, the so called anorectal syndrome. Diagnosis is often delayed, requires a high index of clinical suspicion and must rely on the use of nucleic acid amplification tests. The differential diagnosis of proctitis should include LGV infection. Gastroenterologists, coloproctologists, dermatologists and other specialists need to be aware of LGV proctitis to avoid diagnostic delay and progression of disease to the tertiary stage.

  4. Urethral Lymphogranuloma Venereum Infections in Men With Anorectal Lymphogranuloma Venereum and Their Partners: The Missing Link in the Current Epidemic?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Vrieze, Nynke Hesselina Neeltje; van Rooijen, Martijn; Speksnijder, Arjen Gerard Cornelis Lambertus; de Vries, Henry John C.

    2013-01-01

    Urethral lymphogranuloma venereum (LGV) is not screened routinely. We found that in 341 men having sex with men with anorectal LGV, 7 (2.1%) had concurrent urethral LGV. Among 59 partners, 4 (6.8%) had urethral LGV infections. Urethral LGV is common, probably key in transmission, and missed in

  5. Urethral lymphogranuloma venereum infections in men with anorectal lymphogranuloma venereum and their partners: the missing link in the current epidemic?

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Vrieze, Nynke Hesselina Neeltje; van Rooijen, Martijn; Speksnijder, Arjen Gerard Cornelis Lambertus; de Vries, Henry John C

    2013-08-01

    Urethral lymphogranuloma venereum (LGV) is not screened routinely. We found that in 341 men having sex with men with anorectal LGV, 7 (2.1%) had concurrent urethral LGV. Among 59 partners, 4 (6.8%) had urethral LGV infections. Urethral LGV is common, probably key in transmission, and missed in current routine LGV screening algorithms.

  6. [Haemorrhagic proctocolitis as primary manifestation of lymphogranuloma venereum in an HIV-positive male].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gormsen, Andreas Brandt; Fraes Diernæs, Jon Erik; Jensen, Jørgen Skov; Koppelhus, Uffe

    2018-05-14

    This is a case report of lymphogranuloma venereum (LGV) manifesting as haemorrhagic proctocolitis in a homosexual HIV-positive male. The primary symptom was a rectal abscess, which was initially surgically treated and subsequently insufficiently treated with single-dose tablet azithromycin. The patient's symptoms were successfully treated after a 21-day doxycycline regime. LGV is a se xually transmitted infection with a rising incidence among persons with risk behaviour. This case report underlines the importance, that all positive rectal screenings for Chlamydia trachomatis should be routinely serotyped.

  7. Lymphogranuloma venereum detected from the pharynx in four London men who have sex with men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dosekun, O; Edmonds, S; Stockwell, S; French, P; White, J A

    2013-06-01

    Lymphogranuloma venereum (LGV) is an established cause of proctitis in men who have sex with men (MSM). Currently in the UK, testing for pharyngeal Chlamydia trachomatis (CT) is not routine, and LGV typing is usually only performed in patients with anorectal symptoms. We report four cases where LGV-associated CT DNA was detected from the pharynx in MSM, demonstrating that nucleic acid amplification testing (NAAT) can be used for detecting and typing pharyngeal CT infection. These cases also highlight other possible routes of infection for LGV, and add to the broad spectrum of clinical presentations associated with this infection.

  8. Lymphogranuloma venereum in an Italian MSM: concurrent pharyngeal and rectal infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foschi, Claudio; Filippini, Andrea; D'Antuono, Antonietta; Compri, Monica; Macca, Francesca; Banzola, Nicoletta; Marangoni, Antonella

    2014-07-01

    An Italian HIV-positive man having sex with men (MSM) attended the STIs Outpatients Clinic of Sant'Orsola Hospital in Bologna complaining of anal pain and constipation. According to patient's sexual history and repertoires, NAAT testing for Chlamydia trachomatis (CT) and Neisseria gonorrhoeae (GC) was performed. Pharyngeal and anal swabs resulted positive for CT DNA detection and the following molecular genotyping identified a L2 serovar, coming to the final diagnosis of pharyngeal and rectal lymphogranuloma venereum (LGV) infection. After an antibiotic therapy with doxycycline 100 mg twice a day for 3 weeks, the patient completely recovered and the test of cure was negative for LGV infection.

  9. Confirmed inguinal lymphogranuloma venereum genovar L2c in a man who had sex with men, Slovenia, 2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matičič, Mojca; Klavs, Irena; Videčnik Zorman, Jerneja; Vidmar Vovko, Darja; Kogoj, Rok; Keše, Darja

    2016-01-01

    A laboratory-confirmed lymphogranuloma venereum (LGV) case in Slovenia was reported in 2015, in a human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-negative man presenting with inguinal lymphadenopathy. He reported unprotected insertive anal intercourse with two male partners in Croatia. Variant L2c of Chlamydia trachomatis was detected in clinical samples. Although the patient was eventually cured, the recommended treatment regimen with doxycycline had to be prolonged.

  10. Lymphogranuloma venereum: a hidden emerging problem, Barcelona, 2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vargas-Leguas, H; Garcia de Olalla, P; Arando, M; Armengol, P; Barbera, Mj; Vall, M; Vives, A; Martin-Ezquerra, G; Alsina, M; Blanco, J; Munoz, C; Caballero, E; Andreu, A; Ros, M; Gorrindo, P; Dominguez, A; Cayla, Ja

    2012-01-12

    From the beginning of 2007 until the end of 2011, 146 cases of lymphogranuloma venereum (LGV) were notified to the Barcelona Public Health Agency. Some 49% of them were diagnosed and reported in 2011, mainly in men who have sex with men. Almost half of them, 32 cases, were reported between July and September. This cluster represents the largest since 2004. This article presents the ongoing outbreak of LGV in Barcelona.

  11. Lymphogranuloma venereum and non-Hodgkin lymphoma: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mauro Romero Leal Passos

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Lymphogranuloma venereum (LGV is an uncommon, contagious, sexually transmitted disease (STD. We report a case of a 17-year-old teenager who presented with a 2-month-old ulcerous vegetant lesion in the right inguinal region. The patient was diagnosed with LGV and received erythromycin treatment. Three months after treatment, he presented with a new ulcerous lesion, very similar to the previous one, in the right supraclavicular region. He was diagnosed with a diffuse large B-cell non-Hodgkin lymphoma. Both diseases are rare in Rio de Janeiro City, Brazil, and physicians should not neglect the possibility of STDs in such cases.

  12. Lymphogranuloma venereum and HIV infection: misdiagnosed as Crohn's disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Sheel; Hay, Phillip

    2010-01-01

    The report describes a young Caucasian homosexual man who presented with a 4-month history of bloody diarrhoea and weight loss. Over the next 4 months he was investigated for inflammatory bowel disease and subsequently started on mesalazine and prednisolone as an outpatient. Within a month of starting treatment his symptoms worsened, leading to his self-referral to the genitourinary medicine clinic. The patient was subsequently diagnosed with advanced HIV infection and lymphogranuloma venereum infection. The patient was treated with doxycycline for 3 weeks and started on antiretrovirals. One month later the patient is symptom free with a recovering immune system. PMID:22797476

  13. The first case of lymphogranuloma venereum in a woman in East-Central Europe and its multiple co-infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juzlova, Katerina; Rob, Filip; Zakoucka, Hana; Kubatova, Andrea; Secnikova, Zuzana; Krasova, Martina; Bohac, Petr; Hercogova, Jana

    2018-01-01

    We are reporting the first case of lymphogranuloma venereum in women in East-Central Europe. A 22-year-old heterosexual woman attended our department of venereology. She complained about a burning sensation in the urethra and vaginal discharge. Many tests were performed, and lymphogranuloma venereum, syphilis, gonorrhea, chlamydial urethritis and cervicitis, genital herpes, genital warts, and hepatitis C were diagnosed. Lymphogranuloma venereum was originally endemic in tropical and subtropical areas, but since 2003, outbreaks of this infection have been reported in North America, Europe, and Australia in men who have sex with men (MSM) community. To date, all cases of lymphogranuloma venereum in the Czech Republic appeared in men, predominantly in HIV-positive MSM. There are not many evidences about lymphogranuloma venereum (LGV) in women in developed countries. This report underlines the need for awareness of lymphogranuloma venereum in women among gynecologists, venereologists, and other physicians not only in Western Europe, but across all European countries.

  14. Problems in the diagnosis of lymphogranuloma venereum

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    disease caused by Chlamydia crachomacis serotypes L I, L2 and. L3. These serotypes differ ... act as asymptomatic carriers. The only previous report of LGV ... histiocytes, lymphocytes and plasma cells with breakdown in the central areas.

  15. Lymphogranuloma venereum proctitis: A differential diagnose to inflammatory bowel disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høie, Sverre; Knudsen, Lene Surland; Gerstoft, Jan

    2011-01-01

    each other. All cases were MSM. Three out of four were HIV-positive. Three out of four contacted their general practitioner (GP) due to gastrointestinal (GI) symptoms, and were referred to a gastroenterologist (GE) with suspicion of IBD. Because of non-successful IBD treatment, control of HIV status...... as a differential diagnosis in patients with proctitis or IBD-related symptoms, especially among HIV-positive men. Hence LGV patients may be spared long-lasting examination, mistreatment and surgery.......Abstract Objective. Lymphogranuloma venereum (LGV) is a sexually transmitted disease, endemic in tropical and subtropical areas for many years. After 2003 there have been several outbreaks in western countries, especially among HIV-positive men who have sex with men (MSM). An important...

  16. 2013 European guideline on the management of lymphogranuloma venereum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Vries, H J C; Zingoni, A; Kreuter, A; Moi, H; White, J A

    2015-01-01

    WHAT IS NEW IN THIS UPDATED GUIDELINE?: This is the update version of the 2010 European guideline on the management of lymphogranuloma venereum (LGV). New issues are: Based on clonal relatedness of prevalent LGV strains there is evidence that the LGV epidemic among men who have sex with men (MSM) in the Western world prevailed already in the United States in the 1980s and was introduced into Europe by the end of the last century. A new LGV variant causing severe proctitis was unveiled and designated L2c. The L2b LGV variant causing the vast majority of infections among MSM is now also found among a few heterosexual women. Apart from HIV and STI screening, Hepatitis C Virus (HCV) testing should be offered to all LGV patients. To exclude reinfections, STI screening during a follow-up visit 3 months after an LGV diagnosis should be offered. © 2014 European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology.

  17. Control Measures Used during Lymphogranuloma Venereum Outbreak, Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hulscher, Marlies E.J.L.; Vos, Dieuwke; van de Laar, Marita J.W.; Fenton, Kevin A.; van Steenbergen, Jim E.; van der Meer, Jos W.M.; Grol, Richard P.T.M.

    2008-01-01

    To assess the response to the reemergence of lymphogranuloma venereum, we conducted a cross-sectional survey by administering a structured questionnaire to representatives from 26 European countries. Responses were received from 18 countries. The ability to respond quickly and the measures used for outbreak detection and control varied. Evidence-based criteria were not consistently used to develop recommendations. We did not develop criteria to determine the effectiveness of the recommendations. The degree of preparedness for an unexpected outbreak, as well as the ability of countries to respond quickly to alerts, varied, which indicates weaknesses in the ability to control an outbreak. More guidance is needed to implement and evaluate control measures used during international outbreaks. PMID:18394274

  18. The frequency of lymphogranuloma venereum in persons with perirectal abscesses, fistulae in ano, or both

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greaves, A. B.

    1963-01-01

    Altogether 94 patients with perirectal abscesses and/or fistulae in ano were tested for lymphogranuloma venereum in a Washington, D.C., clinic. They included men and women of low socio-economic status, many of the men being overt psycho-sexual hermaphrodites. The findings were compared with those in a control group of similar sex distribution (females, male homosexuals, male heterosexuals). All persons in the study were tested for lymphogranuloma venereum by the complement-fixation and Frei tests. Homosexuals and persons with rectal lesions were also examined by proctoscopy. Among other findings, a significantly higher frequency of Frei reactors or positive complement-fixation reactions was observed among patients (both male and female) with abscesses than among the controls and among male homosexuals than heterosexuals. The author concludes that lymphogranuloma venereum should be excluded in the differential diagnosis of perirectal abscess and fistual in ano, that homosexuals should be routinely tested for lymphogranuloma venereum, and that sexual perversion should be considered in male patients with ano-rectal disease of lymphogranuloma venereum origin. PMID:14107753

  19. Prevalence and predictors of lymphogranuloma venereum among men who have sex with men at a Sydney metropolitan sexual health clinic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Templeton, David J; Sharp, Nicola; Gryllis, Sophie; O'Connor, Catherine C; Dubedat, Sally M

    2013-05-01

    During an 18-month period to June 2012, 1732 anal chlamydia (Chlamydia trachomatis) tests were performed among men who have sex with men (MSM) at RPA Sexual Health in Sydney's inner west. Positive anal chlamydia samples were subsequently tested for lymphogranuloma venereum (LGV). Seventy-five (4.3%) anal samples were positive for chlamydia among 67 men during the study period. Anal symptoms were reported for 16 out of 75 (21.3%) of anal chlamydia episodes overall. Three episodes of LGV (all serovar L2b) were identified, all three of whom reported anal symptoms (100%, 95% confidence interval (CI): 29.2-100%). In contrast, only 13/72 (18.1%, 95% CI: 10.0-28.9%) of those with non-LGV anal chlamydia reported anal symptoms. LGV was not identified in any of 59 episodes of asymptomatic anal chlamydia (0%, 95% CI: 0-6.1%). Of those with LGV, two were known to be HIV-positive and one subsequently seroconverted to HIV within a year of the LGV diagnosis. Our findings suggest that routine LGV testing among MSM is not warranted, except among those with anal symptoms.

  20. Multi Locus Sequence Typing of Chlamydia Reveals an Association between Chlamydia psittaci Genotypes and Host Species

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pannekoek, Yvonne; Dickx, Veerle; Beeckman, Delphine S. A.; Jolley, Keith A.; Keijzers, Wendy C.; Vretou, Evangelia; Maiden, Martin C. J.; Vanrompay, Daisy; van der Ende, Arie

    2010-01-01

    Chlamydia comprises a group of obligate intracellular bacterial parasites responsible for a variety of diseases in humans and animals, including several zoonoses. Chlamydia trachomatis causes diseases such as trachoma, urogenital infection and lymphogranuloma venereum with severe morbidity.

  1. Lymphogranuloma venereum of the rectum in a homosexual man. Case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mindel, A

    1983-01-01

    A male homosexual presented initially with bloody diarrhoea and a swelling in the left groin, which was unsuccessfully treated with erythromycin. Examination in hospital showed a rectal mass and an abscess in the left groin. Histological examination of the rectal mass and a positive lymphogranuloma complement fixation test result confirmed the diagnosis of lymphogranuloma venereum. This disease, although rare, should not be forgotten in the differential diagnosis of rectal problems in male homosexuals. PMID:6850267

  2. Lymphogranuloma venereum proctitis: a differential diagnose to inflammatory bowel disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Høie, Sverre; Knudsen, Lene Surland; Gerstoft, Jan

    2011-04-01

    Lymphogranuloma venereum (LGV) is a sexually transmitted disease, endemic in tropical and subtropical areas for many years. After 2003 there have been several outbreaks in western countries, especially among HIV-positive men who have sex with men (MSM). An important manifestation of LGV is a proctitis, with a clinical presentation and endoscopic findings resembling those of inflammatory bowel diseases (IBDs). LGV is considered new in Scandinavia. This case report focuses on difficulties in differentiating LGV and IBD. This case report used a systematic search in the literature using PubMed and clinical cases from the Department of Infectious Diseases, Copenhagen University Hospital, Rigshospitalet, Denmark (Cases 1-3) and the Section of Surgery, Hamar Hospital, Norway (Case 4). Clinical and endoscopic findings in LGV and IBD resemble each other. All cases were MSM. Three out of four were HIV-positive. Three out of four contacted their general practitioner (GP) due to gastrointestinal (GI) symptoms, and were referred to a gastroenterologist (GE) with suspicion of IBD. Because of non-successful IBD treatment, control of HIV status, relapses of GI-symptoms or extended information concerning sexual habits, LGV was suspected and diagnosed. All patients responded with remission of GI-symptoms and endoscopic findings after oral treatment with doxycycline. Due to similarities between LGV and IBD, LGV should be considered as a differential diagnosis in patients with proctitis or IBD-related symptoms, especially among HIV-positive men. Hence LGV patients may be spared long-lasting examination, mistreatment and surgery.

  3. Lymphogranuloma Venereum 2015: Clinical Presentation, Diagnosis, and Treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoner, Bradley P; Cohen, Stephanie E

    2015-12-15

    Lymphogranuloma venereum (LGV) has emerged as an important cause of proctitis and proctocolitis in men who have sex with men; classical inguinal presentation is now increasingly uncommon. We report summary findings of an extensive literature review on LGV clinical presentation, diagnosis, and treatment that form the evidence base for the 2015 Centers for Disease Control and Prevention treatment guidelines for sexually transmitted diseases. Proctitis and proctocolitis are now the most commonly reported clinical manifestations of LGV, with symptoms resembling those of inflammatory bowel disease. Newer molecular tests to confirm LGV infection are sensitive and specific, but are generally restricted to research laboratory or public health settings. Doxycycline (100 mg twice daily for 21 days) remains the treatment of choice for LGV. Patients with rectal chlamydial infection and signs or symptoms of proctitis should be tested for LGV, or if confirmatory testing is not available, should be treated empirically with a recommended regimen to cover LGV infection. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  4. Molecular diagnosis of lymphogranuloma venereum in patients with genital ulcer disease.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sturm, P.D.J.; Moodley, P.; Govender, K.; Bohlken, L.; Vanmali, T.; Sturm, A.W.

    2005-01-01

    The detection of herpes, chancroid, and syphilis in genital ulcers is done by PCR. This is not so for lymphogranuloma venereum (LGV). We report on the use of a PCR with digestion that differentiates the LGV biovar from the trachoma biovar. Our findings suggest that the clinical description of LGV in

  5. Delayed diagnosis of lymphogranuloma venereum-associated colitis in a man first suspected to have rectal cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bancil, Aaron S; Alexakis, Christopher; Pollok, Richard

    2016-01-01

    Lymphogranuloma venereum-associated colitis is a diagnosis that should not be missed. The following case represents the importance of a thorough history, including the importance of the sexual history to prevent the misdiagnosis of these patients.

  6. Chancroid, primary syphilis, genital herpes, and lymphogranuloma venereum in Antananarivo, Madagascar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behets, F M; Andriamiadana, J; Randrianasolo, D; Randriamanga, R; Rasamilalao, D; Chen, C Y; Weiss, J B; Morse, S A; Dallabetta, G; Cohen, M S

    1999-10-01

    Ulcer material from consecutive patients attending clinics in Antananarivo, Madagascar, was tested using multiplex polymerase chain reaction (M-PCR) to detect Treponema pallidum, Haemophilus ducreyi, and herpes simplex virus. Sera were tested for syphilis and for IgG and IgM antibodies to Chlamydia trachomatis by microimmunofluorescence testing (MIF). By M-PCR, 33% of 196 patients had chancroid, 29% had syphilitic ulcers, and 10% had genital herpes; 32% of the ulcer specimens were M-PCR negative. Compared with M-PCR, syphilis serology was 72% sensitive and 83% specific. The sensitivity of clinical diagnosis of syphilis, chancroid, and genital herpes was 93%, 53%, and 0% and specificity was 20%, 52%, and 99%, respectively. Less schooling was associated with increased prevalence of syphilitic ulcers (P=.001). Sixteen patients (8%) were clinically diagnosed with lymphogranuloma venereum (LGV); 1 plausible case of LGV was found by MIF. In Madagascar, primary care of genital ulcers should include syndromic treatment for syphilis and chancroid.

  7. [Lymphogranuloma venereum: new serovariant L2b and old "groove sign"].

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Lavaissière, M; Nougué, J

    2013-08-01

    An ongoing lymphogranuloma venereum (LGV) outbreak has been reported in several European countries since 2003, related to a new variant L2b. This serovar appears to affect men who have sex with men (MSM), most of them being co-infected with the Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV). The secondary stage of LGV may involve lymph nodes and the inguinal form has sometimes been described on each side of the inguinal ligament thus named the "groove sign". We report the case of LGV serovariant L2b acquired by an heterosexual intercourse in an HIV seronegative patient who presented with an inguinal lymph node and a "groove sign". This is an uncommon but suggestive sign of LGV and we suggest that the clinical presentation of L2b LGV might not be so different than other variants and than the 20th century authors' description. Such a new Chlamydia trachomatis variant may circulate in other populations than MSM in Europe and clinical awareness must prevail.

  8. Proctitis as the clinical presentation of lymphogranuloma venereum, a re-emerging disease in developed countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge López-Vicente

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Lymphogranuloma venereum (LGV is a sexually transmitted infectious disease caused by serovars L1, L2 and L3 of Chlamydia trachomatis. The initial presentation is usually a painless ulcerated papule on the genitalia or distal proctitis. The progression of the infection can lead to major complications: rectal strictures, intestinal obstruction or perforation. We present five cases of LGV proctitis as the initial presentation of the disease. All patients were male, mean age 44.6 years, with positive serology to human immunodeficiency virus (HIV and promiscuous men who have sex with men (MSM. The initial diagnosis was made by rectosigmoidoscopy indicated for pain and anal discharge. All cases were confirmed by polymerase chain reaction technique in rectal tissue. Endoscopic images obtained showed a great variety of rectal lesions, from mild erythema of the mucosa and ulcers to deep ulcers with elevated borders and purulent exudate. All cases were resolved after treatment with doxycycline for 3 weeks. It emphasizes the importance of suspecting this re-emerging disease in patients with risk factors (HIV and MSM, with the aim of early treatment and to avoid major complications.

  9. Rectal Lymphogranuloma Venereum in HIV-infected Patients Can Mimic Lymphoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crickx, Etienne; Meignin, Véronique; Gérard, Laurence; Plantier-Colcher, Isabelle; Walker-Combrouze, Francine; Boutboul, David; Galicier, Lionel; Fieschi, Claire; Oksenhendler, Eric

    2016-01-01

    An outbreak of rectal lymphogranuloma venereum (LGV) has been reported since 2003 in men who have sex with men, most of them being infected with human immunodeficiency virus. In these patients, unusual clinical presentations such as rectal tumor or intense lymphoproliferation on rectal biopsies may lead to an erroneous diagnosis of aggressive non-Hodgkin lymphoma. Three patients were referred to our center for the management of rectal B-cell non-Hodgkin lymphoma on the basis of a rectal pathologic specimen showing intense lymphoproliferation, the very suspect of lymphoma. Because of anamnesis of anal intercourses and venereal diseases, additional study revealed that all 3 had a positive Chlamydia trachomatis polymerase chain reaction on the rectal biopsy specimen. Rectal LGV was therefore considered and successfully treated with antibiotics. We propose that all patients presenting with a suspected rectal lymphoma should have a careful anamnesis of sexual behavior and a specific detection of C. trachomatis using polymerase chain reaction analysis on biopsy specimen to rule out the possibility of rectal LGV.

  10. Pitfalls in the diagnosis and management of inguinal lymphogranuloma venereum: important lessons from a case series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oud, Emerentiana Veronica; de Vrieze, Nynke Hesselina Neeltje; de Meij, Arjan; de Vries, Henry John C

    2014-06-01

    Current lymphogranuloma venereum (LGV) guidelines mainly focus on anorectal infections. Inguinal LGV infections have been rare in the current epidemic among men who have sex with men (MSM), but might require a different approach not yet recommended in current guidelines for the treatment and diagnosis of LGV. We describe 4 inguinal LGV cases. Three MSM developed inguinal LGV infection several weeks after a previous consultation, of which two had received azithromycin after being notified for LGV. Three failed the recommended 21 days doxycycline treatment. These inguinal LGV cases highlight 3 pitfalls in the current standard management of LGV: (1) Urethral chlamydia infections in MSM can be caused by LGV biovars that in contrast to non-LGV biovars require prolonged antibiotic therapy. (2) The recommended one gram azithromycin contact treatment seems insufficient to prevent established infections. (3) Inguinal LGV may require prolonged courses of doxycycline, exceeding the currently advised 21 days regimen. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  11. Proctitis as the clinical presentation of lymphogranuloma venereum, a re-emerging disease in developed countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Vicente, Jorge; Rodríguez-Alcalde, Daniel; Hernández-Villalba, Luis; Moreno-Sánchez, Diego; Lumbreras-Cabrera, Mercedes; Barros-Aguado, Carlos; Galán, Juan Carlos

    2014-01-01

    Lymphogranuloma venereum (LGV) is a sexually transmitted infectious disease caused by serovars L1, L2 and L3 of Chlamydia trachomatis. The initial presentation is usually a painless ulcerated papule on the genitalia or distal proctitis. The progression of the infection can lead to major complications: rectal strictures, intestinal obstruction or perforation. We present five cases of LGV proctitis as the initial presentation of the disease. All patients were male, mean age 44.6 years, with positive serology to human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and promiscuous men who have sex with men (MSM).The initial diagnosis was made by rectosigmoidoscopy indicated for pain and anal discharge. All cases were confirmed by polymerase chain reaction technique in rectal tissue. Endoscopic images obtained showed a great variety of rectal lesions, from mild erythema of the mucosa and ulcers to deep ulcers with elevated borders and purulent exudate. All cases were resolved after treatment with doxycycline for 3 weeks. It emphasizes the importance of suspecting this re-emerging disease in patients with risk factors (HIV and MSM), with the aim of early treatment and to avoid major complications.

  12. [Diagnostic issues of lymphogranuloma venereum: A case series of 5 patients].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fabre-Baudouin, A; Roux, A L; Marin, C; Lachatre, M; De Laroche, M; Ponsoye, M; Hanslik, T; Trad, S

    2017-12-01

    Lymphogranuloma venereum (LG) is a sexually transmitted infection (STI) caused by Chlamydia trachomatis L serovar. These five consecutive cases aim to highlight the risk of LG misdiagnosis, in case of initial presentation with isolated inguinal adenitis. Five men (mean age: 30±7 years) were seen in an internal medicine department, for inguinal adenopathy. One patient had clinical signs of urethritis. None presented an associated rectitis. Three patients had a history of STI, and two had a discovery of related HIV disease. Urinary polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was positive for the symptomatic patient and negative for the others. Lymph node PCR was positive in all patients within a L2b serotype (searched in 4 out of 5 cases). LG should be evoked in any patient with inguinal adenomegaly, particularly in case of STI history or risk factors. Negativity of urinary PCR should lead to further investigations, essentially a lymph node cytopuncture to evidence C. trachomatis. Copyright © 2017 Société Nationale Française de Médecine Interne (SNFMI). Published by Elsevier SAS. All rights reserved.

  13. Observation of a cytopathogenic effect on cell lines used for routine viral cultures led to the diagnosis of lymphogranuloma venereum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Busson, Laurent; Crucitti, Tania; De Foor, Marc; Van den Wijngaert, Sigi; Vandenberg, Olivier

    2013-08-01

    This article reports the fortuitous recovery of nine Chlamydia trachomatis serovar L strains in cell cultures (Vero and LLC-MK(2) cell line) designed for viral culture. Nine ano-genital swabs were inoculated on confluent Vero, MRC5 and LLC-MK(2) cell cultures. They were collected from HIV-positive patients who were primarily men who have sex with men (MSM) presenting ulcerations that mimicked herpes simplex infections. A cytopathogenic effect was observed on Vero and LLC-MK(2) cells on day 14. The presence of C trachomatis serovar L in the cell lines was confirmed by Real Time-PCR. C trachomatis serovar L can grow on Vero and LLC-MK(2) cell lines designed for viral cultures. Lymphogranuloma venereum must be considered as a differential diagnosis for herpes-like lesions, particularly in MSM with high-risk behaviours.

  14. Extra-rectal lymphogranuloma venereum in France: a clinical and molecular study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desclaux, Arnaud; Touati, Arabella; Neau, Didier; Laurier-Nadalié, Cécile; Bébéar, Cécile; de Barbeyrac, Bertille; Cazanave, Charles

    2018-02-01

    To describe a series of extrarectal lymphogranuloma venereum (LGV) cases diagnosed in France. Consecutive LGV cases confirmed at the French Reference Centre for chlamydiae with an extrarectal sample from January 2010 to December 2015 were included. The first part of the study consisted of a retrospective case note review and analysis. In a second part, the complete omp A gene sequence of our samples was determined. There were 56 cases overall: 50 cases of genital LGV and six cases of pharyngeal LGV. Subjects were all men, median age 39 years, 27/53 were HIV-positive, 47/51 reported having sex with other men, 43/49 reported multiple sexual partners (a mean 25 in the last 6 months). Median time from symptom onset to diagnosis was 21 days. Subjects most commonly presented with inguinal adenopathy alone (19 of 50 genital cases) and adenopathy with genital ulcer (17 of 50). Three pharyngeal cases were symptomatic. Fever was reported in 11 cases. Inguinal abscess was reported in 22 of 42 cases presenting with lymphadenopathy. Co-infections were frequent: eight cases of syphilis, four non-LGV Chlamydia trachomatis infections, one case of gonorrhoea. Cure was always achieved with doxycycline therapy but prolonged treatment was necessary in eight cases with inguinal abscess. Genotyping according to omp A sequencing showed the co-circulation of genovars L2 (16 of 42 strains successfully typed) and L2b (24 of 42). There was no association between HIV status and disease severity or genovar distribution. In the span of 6 years, 56 extrarectal LGV cases were confirmed through genotyping in France. Extrarectal LGV seemed to share a common epidemiological background with rectal disease in terms of affected population and genovar distribution. HIV prevalence was lower than expected. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  15. Treatment Outcomes for Rectal Lymphogranuloma Venereum in Men Who Have Sex with Men Using Doxycycline, Azithromycin, or Both: A Review of Clinical Cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leeyaphan, Charussri; Ong, Jason J; Chow, Eric P F; Dimovski, Karolina; Kong, Fabian Y S; Hocking, Jane S; Howden, Ben; Bissessor, Melanie; Fairley, Christopher K; Bradshaw, Catriona; Read, Timothy; Chen, Marcus

    2017-04-01

    Treatment for rectal lymphogranuloma venereum where doxycycline 100 mg twice daily for 21 days was used-either alone or together with azithromycin 1 g single dose-resulted in microbiological cure of 97%. These data support doxycycline 100 mg twice daily for 21 days as the preferred treatment for rectal lymphogranuloma venereum.

  16. Low Prevalence of Urethral Lymphogranuloma Venereum Infections Among Men Who Have Sex With Men: A Prospective Observational Study, Sexually Transmitted Infection Clinic in Amsterdam, the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Vrieze, Nynke H. N.; Versteeg, Bart; Bruisten, Sylvia M.; van Rooijen, Martijn S.; van der Helm, Jannie J.; de Vries, Henry J. C.

    2017-01-01

    In contrast to anorectal lymphogranuloma venereum (LGV), few urogenital LGV cases are reported in men who have sex with men. Lymphogranuloma venereum was diagnosed in 0.06% (7/12,174) urine samples, and 0.9% (109/12,174) anorectal samples. Genital-anal transmission seems unlikely the only mode of

  17. Steady increase of lymphogranuloma venereum cases, Czech Republic, 2010 to 2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rob, Filip; Jůzlová, Kateřina; Krutáková, Helena; Zákoucká, Hana; Vaňousová, Daniela; Kružicová, Zuzana; Machala, Ladislav; Veselý, Dan; Jilich, David; Hercogová, Jana

    2016-01-01

    Since the notification of the first case of lymphogranuloma venereum (LGV) in the Czech Republic in 2010, the numbers of LGV cases have steadily increased in the country. In 2015, 40 LGV cases were diagnosed, bringing the total for 2010-2015, to 88 cases. The profile of the most affected group, HIV-positive men who have sex with men with a previous sexually transmitted infection, matches that of those described in LGV outbreaks in western Europe.

  18. Asymptomatic lymphogranuloma venereum among Nigerian men who have sex with men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crowell, Trevor A; Hardick, Justin; Lombardi, Kara; Parker, Zahra; Kokogho, Afoke; Amusu, Senate; Odeyemi, Sunday; Ivo, Andrew; Baral, Stefan D; Nowak, Rebecca G; Adebajo, Sylvia; Charurat, Manhattan E; Ake, Julie; Gaydos, Charlotte A

    2018-01-29

    Recent outbreaks of anorectal lymphogranuloma venereum (LGV) among men who have sex with men (MSM) have been characterised by proctocolitis requiring extended antibiotic treatment compared with infections caused by other serovars of Chlamydia trachomatis (CT). We describe the prevalence and clinical features of LGV among Nigerian MSM diagnosed with anorectal CT. MSM were recruited for this observational cohort in Lagos, Nigeria, using respondent-driven sampling and screened for HIV and bacterial STIs every three months for up to 18 months. Nucleic acid amplification tests for CT were performed on rectal swab specimens. Prevalent and incident cases of anorectal CT underwent additional testing to identify LGV using novel real-time PCR assays specific for the L-serovars of CT. From April 2014 to July 2016, 420 MSM underwent testing for rectal STIs, of whom 66 (15.7%) had prevalent anorectal CT. Among those without prevalent disease, 68 developed incident infections during 208 person-years of follow-up. Of 134 prevalent and incident cases of anorectal CT, 7 (5.2%) were identified as LGV. None of the seven participants with LGV reported any symptoms. Two of the participants with LGV were simultaneously coinfected with rectal gonorrhoea. HIV coinfection was common among participants with both LGV (n=5, 71%) and non-LGV (n=98, 77%) serovars of CT (P=0.66). Anorectal LGV was uncommon but present among Nigerian MSM in this study. Consistent screening for L-serovars of CT, or presumptive treatment for LGV in cases with a high suspicion for this diagnosis, could potentially improve patient outcomes and decrease transmission. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  19. Lymphogranuloma venereum among patients presenting at the HIV/STI clinic in Antwerp, Belgium : a case series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apers, Ludwig; Florence, Eric; Crucitti, Tania; Anwar, Nabila

    2017-01-01

    Objective of this study was to describe the patient characteristics and clinical presentation of laboratory confirmed lymphogranuloma venereum (LGV) cases, diagnosed at the Institute of Tropical Medicine (ITM), Antwerp, Belgium. Demographic and biomedical characteristics of all patients with chlamydia-positive sample results were retrieved for the years 2013 and 2014. Samples were obtained from both symptomatic and asymptomatic patients who consulted at the HIV/STI clinic. Fifty four patients with laboratory confirmed LGV were detected among 3885 nucleic acid amplification tests (NAATs) performed for the detection of chlamydia during the two years under review. Fifty three were men and equally fifty three had sex with men only (MSM). HIV (87%) and HCV (31.5%) were common concomitant infections, whilst anal gonorrhoea and syphilis were detected at the moment of the LGV diagnosis among 19 (35.2%) and 6 (11.0%) cases respectively. All cases were symptomatic, except one. The most frequent symptoms that were recorded could be categorised as proctitis (in 40 patients (74%)). Lymphadenopathy, anal and genital ulcers were signs that were present in 7 (13.0%), 4 (7.4%) and 2 patients (3.7%) respectively. LGV remains an important sexually transmitted disease among MSM. In this retrospective study, the far majority of LGV was detected amongst symptomatic persons. HCV, HIV, anal gonorrhoea and syphilis were associated co-infections. Proctitis in a high risk patient should alert the clinician for the possibility of an STI. © Acta Gastro-Enterologica Belgica.

  20. The prevalence of lymphogranuloma venereum infection in men who have sex with men: results of a multicentre case finding study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, H; Alexander, S; Carder, C; Dean, G; French, P; Ivens, D; Ling, C; Paul, J; Tong, W; White, J; Ison, C A

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To determine the prevalence of lymphogranuloma venereum (LGV) and non-LGV associated serovars of urethral and rectal Chlamydia trachomatis (CT) infection in men who have sex with men (MSM). Design: Multicentre cross-sectional survey. Setting: Four genitourinary medicine clinics in the United Kingdom from 2006–7. Subjects: 4825 urethral and 6778 rectal samples from consecutive MSM attending for sexual health screening. Methods: Urethral swabs or urine and rectal swabs were tested for CT using standard nucleic acid amplification tests. Chlamydia-positive specimens were sent to the reference laboratory for serovar determination. Main outcome: Positivity for both LGV and non-LGV associated CT serovars; proportion of cases that were symptomatic. Results: The positivity (with 95% confidence intervals) in rectal samples was 6.06% (5.51% to 6.66%) for non-LGV CT and 0.90% (0.69% to 1.16%) for LGV; for urethral samples 3.21% (2.74% to 3.76%) for non-LGV CT and 0.04% (0.01% to 0.16%) for LGV. The majority of LGV was symptomatic (95% of rectal, one of two urethral cases); non-LGV chlamydia was mostly symptomatic in the urethra (68%) but not in the rectum (16%). Conclusions: Chlamydial infections are common in MSM attending for sexual health screening, and the majority are non-LGV associated serovars. We did not identify a large reservoir of asymptomatic LGV in the rectum or urethra. Testing for chlamydia from the rectum and urethra should be included for MSM requesting a sexual health screen, but serovar-typing is not indicated in the absence of symptoms. We have yet to identify the source of most cases of LGV in the UK. PMID:19221105

  1. Squamous cell carcinoma of penis with bullous pemphigoid masquerading as lymphogranuloma venereum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venugopal, V.; Gnanaraj, Pushpa; Fernandes, S. D.; Narasimhan, Murali; Karthikeyan, Subashini; Rahul, Shwetha

    2013-01-01

    We report a case of a 60-year old unmarried male who presented with multiple ulcers and foul smelling discharge from the groin since 4 months and multiple tense bullae over the trunk of 1 month duration. Groove sign was present. Investigations for lymphogranuloma venereum (LGV) and other sexually transmitted diseases were negative. Histopathology from the ulcer in the groin and growth in the penis revealed squamous cell carcinoma (SCC). Skin biopsy of bulla was diagnostic of bullous pemphigoid (BP). We report a rare case of SCC masquerading as LGV with BP occurring as a paraneoplastic phenomenon. PMID:23919055

  2. Unusual presentation of early lymphogranuloma venereum in an HIV-1 infected patient: effective treatment with 1 g azithromycin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R.F. Nieuwenhuis; J.M. Ossewaarde (Jacobus); W.I. van der Meijden (Willem); H.A.M. Neumann (Martino)

    2003-01-01

    textabstractThe incidence of lymphogranuloma venereum (LGV) is low in the western world. Early LGV is characterised by bubonic disease following a painless papule or small ulcer. We report a white bisexual male who presented with a painful perianal ulcer, inguinal lymphadenitis,

  3. Clinical and epidemiological characterisation of lymphogranuloma venereum in southwest Spain, 2013-2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parra-Sánchez, Manuel; García-Rey, Silvia; Pueyo Rodríguez, Isabel; Viciana Fernández, Pompeyo; Torres Sánchez, María José; Palomares Folía, José Carlos

    2016-12-01

    Lymphogranuloma venereum (LGV) infections caused by Chlamydia trachomatis L serovars have emerged in 2003 in Europe among HIV-positive men having sex with men (MSM). Our aim was to evaluate LGV prevalence and predictors in a high-risk population attending to two STI clinics in the southwest of Spain between December 2013 and April 2015. Screening of C. trachomatis using commercial kits was carried out, followed by real-time pmpH-PCR discriminating LGV strains, and finally ompA gene was sequenced for phylogenetic reconstruction. A total of 6398 samples were tested, of which, 594 (9.3%) were C. trachomatis-positive specimens and successfully typed by pmpH PCR. Five hundred and eighty-one samples contained non-LGV and 13 (2.2%; 95% CI 1.3% to 3.7%) samples had LGV. One hundred and sixty-six (27.9%; 95% CI 24.5% to 31.7%) CT-positive results were found in MSM. All C. trachomatis LGV types were found in rectal samples from MSM (13/166, 7.8%; 95% CI 4.5% to 13.0%). Of these, five (38.5%; 95% CI 17.7% to 64.5%) patients were asymptomatic and 11 (84.6%; 95% CI 57.8% to 95.7%; p<0.001) were also HIV positive. Successful treatment of LGV was achieved in all patients including 11/13 (84.6%) who received single-dose azithromycin. All of the L types were confirmed to be genotype L2b with ompA PCR and sequencing. This analysis shows that LGV infections are occurring in MSM in southwest Spain, where no data about LGV have been described before, reinforcing the need for screening and genotyping for LGV. LGV should be taken into account when considering treatment and management of rectal C. trachomatis infections, including in asymptomatic HIV-positive MSM. Larger studies on appropriate treatment for asymptomatic LGV infection are needed. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  4. Lymphogranuloma venereum in Quebec: Re-emergence among men who have sex with men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boutin, C A; Venne, S; Fiset, M; Fortin, C; Murphy, D; Severini, A; Martineau, C; Longtin, J; Labbé, A C

    2018-02-01

    Lymphogranuloma venereum (LGV) is a sexually transmitted infection (STI) caused by Chlamydia trachomatis genotypes L 1 , L 2 and L 3 . This LGV is associated with significant morbidity and increased risk of HIV transmission. While fewer than two cases per year were reported in Quebec before 2005, LGV emerged in 2005-2006 with 69 cases, followed by a period of low incidence (2007-2012), and subsequent re-emergence since 2013. To describe the incidence of LGV in Quebec and the characteristics of the affected population, including demographics and risk factors, clinical manifestations, laboratory tests, treatments and reinfection rates. Descriptive data were collected from the notifiable diseases records through the Institut national de santé publique du Québec (INSPQ) infocentre portal. Questionnaires were obtained through the enhanced surveillance system and transmitted anonymously to the Quebec Ministry of Health. In-depth analysis was performed on cases from 2013 to 2016. There were 338 cases of LGV over the four-year period in Quebec. All cases were male, excluding one transsexual. Mean age was 41 years. Most lived in Montréal (81%) and were men who have sex with men (MSM; 99%). The majority (83%) reported four sexual partners or more in the last year, met mostly through the Internet (77%) and in saunas (73%). Frequency of sexual intercourse with out-of-province residents decreased in 2013-2016 (27%) compared with 2005-2012 (38%). History of STIs was frequent: 83% were HIV-infected, 81% reported previous syphilis and 78% previous gonorrhea. Recreational drug use was frequent (57%), reaching 71% in 2016. Most cases were symptomatic, a proportion which decreased in 2016 (68%) compared with 2013-2015 (82%; p =0.006). Clinical presentations included proctitis (86%), lymphadenopathy (13%) and ulcer/papule (12%). Reinfections, mostly within two years of first infection, occurred in 35 individuals (10%). Conclusion: The re-emergence of LGV in Quebec involves an urban

  5. Inguinal and anorectal Lymphogranuloma Venereum: a case series from a sexually transmitted disease center in Rome, Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latini, Alessandra; Zaccarelli, Mauro; Paglia, Maria Grazia; Donà, Maria Gabriella; Giglio, Amalia; Moretto, Domenico; Vulcano, Antonella; Giuliani, Massimo; Colafigli, Manuela; Ambrifi, Marina; Pimpinelli, Fulvia; Cristaudo, Antonio

    2017-06-02

    Lymphogranuloma venereum (LGV) is a sexually transmitted infection caused by L1, L2, L3 serovars of C. trachomatis (CT). Since 2003, LGV cases have been increasing in Europe. Aim of this report is to describe the LGV cases diagnosed in the largest STI center in Rome, Italy, from 2000 to 2016. This report shows that two clinically and epidemiologically different series of cases exist, and that, at present, the ano-rectal LGV represents the clinical variant occurring more frequently among men having sex with men (MSM), particularly those HIV-infected. Ten cases of LGV were observed. Three were diagnosed in 2009 in HIV-negative heterosexuals patients that presented the classical genito-ulcerative form with lymphadenopathy. Seven cases were observed in 2015-2016 in HIV-infected MSM, that presented the rectal variant and L2b serovar infection; 4 of these had been misclassified as a chronic bowel disease. Chlamydia infection was confirmed by CT-specific PCR (ompA gene nested PCR), followed by sequence analysis to identify the serovar. All the patients were treated with doxycycline for 3 weeks, obtaining a complete response with healing of both clinical symptoms and dermatological lesions. Our findings suggest that, in case of persistent rectal symptoms in HIV-infected MSM, LGV should be taken into account and investigated through molecular analyses, in order to achieve a correct diagnosis and management of the patients.

  6. The association between Lymphogranuloma venereum and HIV among men who have sex with men: systematic review and meta-analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ward Helen

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Lymphogranuloma venereum (LGV is an important re-emerging sexually transmitted infection which is reported to affect particularly HIV-positive men who have sex with men (MSM. The aim of this study is to quantify the association between LGV and HIV in the context of the current emergence of LGV. Methods A systematic review was performed on the emergence of LGV among MSM since 2000. We report the prevalence of HIV infection from descriptive studies of MSM with LGV, and conduct a meta-analysis to produce a summary estimate of the association between LGV and HIV from case-control studies where cases were MSM with LGV and controls were MSM with rectal chlamydia caused by non-LGV serovars. Results The prevalence of HIV among LGV cases ranges from 67% to 100% in 13 descriptive studies. There is a significant association between HIV and LGV (odds ratio 8.19, 95% CI 4.68-14.33. Conclusions HIV-positive MSM are disproportionately affected by LGV highlighting the importance of prevention efforts to be targeted to this group. Further research is needed to determine whether the association is due to biological or behavioural factors.

  7. A suspected case of lymphogranuloma venereum (LGV) suggests underdiagnosed LGV infection among Slovenian men who have sex with men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mlakar, Boštjan; Ramšak, Ana

    2016-06-01

    Lymphogranuloma venereum (LGV) is sexually transmitted infection caused by serovars of Chlamydia trachomatis, mostly seen among HIV-positive men who have sex with men. The first three reports of possible LGV in Slovenia were from April to June 2015, followed by a confirmed case of LGV in August 2015. We present the case of an HIV-positive MSM that presented with an anorectal abscess, discharge, lymphadenopathy, and unusual perianal plaque. Gonococcal proctitis was assumed and he received empirical antibiotic treatment, after which only intermittent improvement occurred. After a positive test result for chlamydial infection, but without a response to azithromycin treatment, LGV was suspected. Treatment according to the guidelines was introduced. When doxycycline therapy started, rapid improvement was observed, and it was therefore assumed that the LGV infection had been successfully treated. Two similar cases with an unusual anorectal presentation and an excellent response to antibiotic therapy for LGV were observed at the same center shortly thereafter. While pointing out possible delays and limitations in diagnostic procedures at self-pay facilities, the need for better access to high quality STI management in public and in private services is emphasized. Enhanced surveillance and testing guidelines could reveal a hidden LGV epidemic among MSM in Slovenia.

  8. The association between Lymphogranuloma venereum and HIV among men who have sex with men: systematic review and meta-analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background Lymphogranuloma venereum (LGV) is an important re-emerging sexually transmitted infection which is reported to affect particularly HIV-positive men who have sex with men (MSM). The aim of this study is to quantify the association between LGV and HIV in the context of the current emergence of LGV. Methods A systematic review was performed on the emergence of LGV among MSM since 2000. We report the prevalence of HIV infection from descriptive studies of MSM with LGV, and conduct a meta-analysis to produce a summary estimate of the association between LGV and HIV from case-control studies where cases were MSM with LGV and controls were MSM with rectal chlamydia caused by non-LGV serovars. Results The prevalence of HIV among LGV cases ranges from 67% to 100% in 13 descriptive studies. There is a significant association between HIV and LGV (odds ratio 8.19, 95% CI 4.68-14.33). Conclusions HIV-positive MSM are disproportionately affected by LGV highlighting the importance of prevention efforts to be targeted to this group. Further research is needed to determine whether the association is due to biological or behavioural factors. PMID:21418569

  9. Low Prevalence of Urethral Lymphogranuloma Venereum Infections Among Men Who Have Sex With Men: A Prospective Observational Study, Sexually Transmitted Infection Clinic in Amsterdam, the Netherlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Vrieze, Nynke H N; Versteeg, Bart; Bruisten, Sylvia M; van Rooijen, Martijn S; van der Helm, Jannie J; de Vries, Henry J C

    2017-09-01

    In contrast to anorectal lymphogranuloma venereum (LGV), few urogenital LGV cases are reported in men who have sex with men. Lymphogranuloma venereum was diagnosed in 0.06% (7/12,174) urine samples, and 0.9% (109/12,174) anorectal samples. Genital-anal transmission seems unlikely the only mode of transmission. Other modes like oral-anal transmission should be considered.

  10. Lymphogranuloma venereum genovar L2b concomitantly with syphilis and hepatitis C in a male patient in Poland – case report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serwin, Agnieszka Beata; Koper, Marta; Unemo, Magnus

    2018-01-01

    We describe the first case of lymphogranuloma venereum (LGV) in Poland, with inguino-femoral lymphadenopathy, diagnosed and successfully treated according to the 2013 European LGV guideline. Chlamydia trachomatis genovar L2b, mainly responsible for the ongoing LGV epidemics among men who have sex with men (MSM) in Western European countries, was confirmed. The case also verified that co-infections with other sexually transmitted infections (syphilis and hepatitis C virus) are frequent in MSM LGV patients, as well as the very large difficulties with contact tracing for these patients. LGV needs to be considered in the diagnosis of inguinal lymph nodes inflammation or proctitis, especially in MSM. It is also crucial to have access to appropriate laboratory diagnostic methods in order to screen for and confirm all LGV cases by typing C. trachomatis genovars.

  11. Multi locus sequence typing of Chlamydiales: clonal groupings within the obligate intracellular bacteria Chlamydia trachomatis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pannekoek, Yvonne; Morelli, Giovanna; Kusecek, Barica; Morré, Servaas A.; Ossewaarde, Jacobus M.; Langerak, Ankie A.; van der Ende, Arie

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The obligate intracellular growing bacterium Chlamydia trachomatis causes diseases like trachoma, urogenital infection and lymphogranuloma venereum with severe morbidity. Several serovars and genotypes have been identified, but these could not be linked to clinical disease or outcome.

  12. Lymphogranuloma venereum: "a clinical and histopathological chameleon?" Linfogranuloma venéreo: "um camaleão clínico e histopatológico?"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georgi Tchernev

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Lymphogranuloma venereum is an infection caused by a variety of the bacterium Chlamydia trachomatis. Both genital and extragenital manifestations of the disease can cause serious differential diagnostic difficulties, indirectly leading to progression and dissemination of the infection. This work describes cases of patients with lymphogranuloma venereum showing atypical clinical and/or histopathological findings. It also focuses on alternative therapeutic approaches, such as surgical excision at stage 1, that may lead to a positive outcome. It is not completely clear whether histopathological findings of lymphogranuloma venereum can reveal progression or changes in the course of the disease over time, as is the case in other diseases. We conclude that both clinical and histopathological observations in a larger number of patients are needed in order to further evaluate the findings presented in this article.Linfogranuloma venéreo é uma infecção causada por um tipo específico da bactéria Chlamydia trachomatis. Manifestações genitais e extragenitais da doença podem causar uma série de dificuldades no diagnóstico diferencial, indiretamente levando a progressão ou disseminação da infecção. Este trabalho apresenta casos de pacientes com linfogranuloma venéreo cujos achados clínicos e/ou histopatológicos são atípicos, além de abordar métodos de terapia alternativos, tais como excisão cirúrgica na fase 1, os quais podem trazer um resultado positivo. Ainda não se sabe se achados histopatológicos do linfogranuloma venéreo podem revelar progressão ou mudanças no curso da doença ao longo do tempo, como ocorre com outras enfermidades. Concluímos que observações clínicas e histopatológicas devem envolver um número maior de pacientes a fim de avaliar os resultados clínicos deste trabalho.

  13. Acute seronegative polyarthritis associated with lymphogranuloma venereum infection in a patient with prevalent HIV infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kober, C; Richardson, D; Bell, C; Walker-Bone, K

    2011-01-01

    A 44-year-old man who has sex with men presented with a three-month asymmetrical polyarthropathy. He had a positive HIV-1 antibody test consistent with infection acquired more than six months previously. Lymphogranuloma venereum (LGV)-associated DNA was detected from a rectal swab. Following successful treatment for LGV his arthritis resolved completely. Infection with HIV-1 has been hypothesized to cause reactive arthritis but this has been disputed. The most likely diagnosis in this patient was sexually acquired reactive arthritis secondary to LGV infection. As LGV can be asymptomatic and treatment differs from that of the other serovars, screening should be considered in all men who have sex with men (MSM) presenting with acute arthritis, particularly if they are HIV infected.

  14. Lymphogranuloma venereum among men who have sex with men. An epidemiological and clinical review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Vrieze, Nynke Hesselina Neeltje; de Vries, Henry John Christiaan

    2014-06-01

    Lymphogranuloma venereum (LGV) is a sexually transmitted infection, previously only seen in tropical regions. This changed in 2003 when the first endemically acquired LGV cases were reported in Rotterdam, the Netherlands, among predominantly HIV positive men who have sex with men (MSM). Early diagnosis is important to prevent irreversible complications and to stop further transmission in the community. In contrast to earlier reports, approximately 25% of LGV infections are asymptomatic and form an easily missed undetected reservoir. The majority of reported infections in MSM are found in the anorectal canal and not urogenital, which leaves the mode of transmission within the MSM network unclear. Given the increasing trend, the LGV endemic is clearly not under control. Therefore directed screening must be intensified.

  15. Emergence of the lymphogranuloma venereum L2c genovariant, Hungary, 2012 to 2016.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrovay, Fruzsina; Balla, Eszter; Erdősi, Tímea

    2017-02-02

    In eastern Europe, few countries have so far reported laboratory-confirmed cases of lymphogranuloma venereum (LGV). Here we describe 22 LGV cases in men who have sex with men (MSM) detected in Hungary from November 2012 to July 2016. Sequence analyses show that 16 of these 22 cases were affected by the L2c genovariant, with from 2012 to 2014, one LGV L2c case detected per year, followed by seven cases in 2015 and six up to July 2016. Of the 16 total L2c LGV cases, 10 had severe haemorrhagic proctitis. These findings are concerning as cases with this new genovariant among MSM have not been frequently reported in Europe to date. More research is needed to assess the spread of the L2c genovariant and its potential association with virulence and severe clinical manifestation. This article is copyright of The Authors, 2017.

  16. Rapid increase in lymphogranuloma venereum in men who have sex with men, United Kingdom, 2003 to September 2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Childs, Tristan; Simms, Ian; Alexander, Sarah; Eastick, Kirstine; Hughes, Gwenda; Field, Nigel

    2015-01-01

    United Kingdom (UK) national data show a sharp increase in diagnoses of lymphogranuloma venereum (LGV) since 2012. Most cases are in men who have sex with men (MSM) living in London, with high rates of co-infection with HIV and other sexually transmitted infections. In light of these data, and the recent finding that one quarter of LGV infections may be asymptomatic, clinicians should be vigilant in testing for LGV, including in asymptomatic HIV-positive MSM.

  17. Clinical and epidemiological characterization of a lymphogranuloma venereum outbreak in Madrid, Spain: co-circulation of two variants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Domínguez, M; Puerta, T; Menéndez, B; González-Alba, J M; Rodríguez, C; Hellín, T; Vera, M; González-Sainz, F J; Clavo, P; Villa, M; Cantón, R; Del Romero, J; Galán, J C

    2014-03-01

    The lymphogranuloma venereum (LGV) outbreak described in the Netherlands in 2003, increased the interest in the genotyping of Chlamydia trachomatis. Although international surveillance programmes were implemented, these studies slowly decreased in the following years. Now data have revealed a new accumulation of LGV cases in those European countries with extended surveillance programmes. Between March 2009 and November 2011, a study was carried out to detect LGV cases in Madrid. The study was based on screening of C. trachomatis using commercial kits, followed by real-time pmpH-PCR discriminating LGV strains, and finally ompA gene was sequenced for phylogenetic reconstruction. Ninety-four LGV infections were identified. The number of cases increased from 10 to 30 and then to 54 during 2009-2011. Incidence of LGV was strongly associated with men who have sex with men; but in 2011, LGV cases were described in women and heterosexual men. Sixty-nine patients were also human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) positive, with detectable viral loads at the moment of LGV diagnosis, suggesting a high-risk of co-transmission. In fact, in four patients the diagnosis of HIV was simultaneous with LGV infection. The conventional treatment with doxycycline was prescribed in 75 patients, although in three patients the treatment failed. The sequencing of the ompA gene permitted identification of two independent transmission nodes. One constituted by 25 sequences identical to the L2b variant, and a second node including 37 sequences identical to L2. This epidemiological situation characterized by the co-circulation of two LGV variants has not been previously described, reinforcing the need for screening and genotyping of LGV strains. © 2013 The Authors Clinical Microbiology and Infection © 2013 European Society of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases.

  18. Notes from the Field: Cluster of Lymphogranuloma Venereum Cases Among Men Who Have Sex with Men - Michigan, August 2015-April 2016.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Voux, Alex; Kent, James B; Macomber, Kathryn; Krzanowski, Karen; Jackson, Dawn; Starr, Tayneata; Johnson, Sandra; Richmond, Deborah; Crane, Lawrence R; Cohn, Jonathan; Finch, Christopher; McFadden, Jevon; Pillay, Allan; Chen, Cheng; Anderson, Laurie; Kersh, Ellen N

    2016-09-02

    Lymphogranuloma venereum (LGV) is a sexually transmitted disease (STD) caused by infection with invasive Chlamydia trachomatis serovars L1-L3 (1). LGV is characterized by inguinal and/or femoral lymphadenopathy, typically following a transient, self-limited genital ulcer or papule that might go unnoticed. Rectal infection can result in proctocolitis that can present with mucoid and/or hemorrhagic rectal discharge, anal pain, constipation, fever, and tenesmus, and signs of granulomas and/or ulcerations on anoscopy (1,2). LGV can be an invasive, systemic infection, and if it is not treated early, LGV proctocolitis can lead to chronic colorectal fistulas and strictures (2). In Europe, outbreaks of LGV have been reported among men who have sex with men (MSM), often in association with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) coinfection (3-5). The prevalence of LGV in the United States is unknown (1), because diagnostic tests to differentiate LGV from non-LGV Chlamydia trachomatis are not widely available (6), and providers might not know that they should report cases that are presumptively treated.

  19. Chancroid, lymphogranuloma venereum, granuloma inguinale, genital herpes simplex infection, and molluscum contagiosum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basta-Juzbašić, Aleksandra; Čeović, Romana

    2014-01-01

    Chancroid, lymphogranuloma venereum, and granuloma inguinale may be considered as tropical venereal diseases. These diseases were a major diagnostic and therapeutic challenge in past centuries. Currently, patients with these bacterial infections that are endemic to the tropics occasionally consult with dermatologists in temperate climates. Due to the increasing frequency of travel to the tropics for tourism and work, as well as the increasing number of immigrants from these areas, it is important for dermatologists practicing in temperate climates to be familiar with the dermatologic manifestations of such infections, to be prepared to diagnose these diseases, and to treat these patients. All three "tropical" infections respond well to prompt and appropriate antimicrobial treatment, although herpes progenitalis still cannot be cured, and the number of people infected keeps growing; moreover, genital herpes can be transmitted by viral shedding before and after the visual signs or symptoms. Acyclovir, valacyclovir, and famciclovir can shorten outbreaks and make them less severe or even stop them from happening. There is currently no etiologic treatment for molluscum contagiosum, and the majority of treatment options are mechanical, causing a certain degree of discomfort. The molluscum contagiosum virus, unlike the other infectious agents mentioned, does not invade the skin. © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Anorectal Lymphogranuloma Venereum in Madrid: A Persistent Emerging Problem in Men Who Have Sex With Men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabello Úbeda, Alfonso; Fernández Roblas, Ricardo; García Delgado, Rosa; Martínez García, Laura; Sterlin, Fabiola; Fernández Guerrero, Manuel L; Górgolas, Miguel

    2016-07-01

    Since 2003, outbreaks of lymphogranuloma venereum (LGV) with anorectal syndrome have been increasingly recognized in many Western countries. All of them have been classified as LGV serovar L2b, mainly occurring in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected men who have had sex with men (MSM). We describe a series of 26 diagnosed cases of LGV proctitis in downtown Madrid, Spain, in 2014, after implementing routine diagnostic procedures for this disease in symptomatic MSM. We conducted an observational study of patients with symptomatic proctitis attending an outpatient infectious diseases clinic in Madrid, Spain during calendar year 2014. Clinical, epidemiological, laboratory, and therapeutic data were gathered and analyzed. Twenty-six patients were included in the analysis. All were MSM, and 24 of them were HIV-positive. All patients reported having acute proctitis symptoms including tenesmus (85%), pain (88%), constipation (62%), or anal discharge (96%). Proctoscopy showed mucopurulent exudate (25 patients [96%]), and rectal bleeding, with mucosal erythema and/or oedema in all cases. Rectal swabs were obtained from all patients, and LGV serovar L2 was confirmed in all of them. The cure rate was 100% after standard treatments with doxycycline 100 mg twice per day for 3 weeks. Simultaneous rectal infections with other sexually transmitted pathogens (gonorrhoea, herpes simplex virus, Mycoplasma genitalium) and systemic sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) (syphilis, acute HIV, and hepatitis C infections) were also documented in 12 patients (46%), but these co-infections did not appear to influence the clinical manifestations of LGV. Anorectal LGV is a common cause of acute proctitis and proctocolitis among HIV-infected MSM who practice unprotected anal sex, and it is frequently associated with other rectal STDs. The implementation of routine screening and prompt diagnosis of these rectal infections should be mandatory in all clinical settings attended by HIV and STD

  1. Syphilitic and lymphogranuloma venereum (LGV) proctocolitis: clues to a frequently missed diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnold, Christina A; Limketkai, Berkeley N; Illei, Peter B; Montgomery, Elizabeth; Voltaggio, Lysandra

    2013-01-01

    A rising incidence of syphilis and lymphogranuloma venereum (LGV) underscores the importance of recognizing these sexually transmitted infections (STI) in routine anocolonic biopsies. To increase awareness of their morphologic manifestations, we undertook a clinicopathologic study of our experience: syphilis (7 patients, 7 specimens), LGV (2 patients, 4 specimens), and syphilis/LGV (1 patient, 3 specimens). The diagnoses of all study specimens were confirmed with pertinent clinical studies. All study patients were human immunodeficiency virus positive, and all 9 with available history were men who have sex with men. The majority presented with bleeding (9), pain (6), and tenesmus (4). Ulcerations were the most common endoscopic abnormality (7), whereas mass lesions were confined to the syphilis group (4). None of the initial impressions included LGV, and syphilis was prospectively suggested only by pathologists (6 of 8) without the knowledge of clinical information and on the basis of morphology. Alternative impressions included condyloma acuminatum (3), inflammatory bowel disease (3), and malignancy (2), among others. All study specimens shared the following histologic core features: an intense lymphohistiocytic infiltrate with prominent plasma cells and lymphoid aggregates, only mild to moderate acute inflammation, minimal basal plasmacytosis and crypt distortion, and only rare granulomas and Paneth cell metaplasia. The spirochetes were focally demonstrated on a Treponema pallidum immunohistochemical stain (1) but not on silver stains (3). All patients with available follow-up data showed resolution of symptoms and imaging abnormalities after STI therapy (6). In summary, we report a unique pattern of STI proctocolitis consistently identified in patients with serologically confirmed syphilis and/or LGV infection; pertinent STI therapy leads to resolution of clinical abnormalities. This histologic pattern is important to recognize for timely treatment, for

  2. Enhanced surveillance of a lymphogranuloma venereum outbreak in Sydney 2010-2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Templeton, David J; Ressler, Kelly-Anne; Hope, Kirsty; Poynten, Isobel M

    2016-08-01

    To investigate an increase in lymphogranuloma venereum (LGV) notifications in New South Wales (NSW). Enhanced surveillance of notified LGV cases in NSW between May 2010 and April 2012 using doctor and patient questionnaires. Thirty-seven doctors who had diagnosed 67 (76%) of 88 notified anorectal LGV infections were interviewed. The majority (n=33, 89%) of treating doctors were formally trained and accredited in HIV management and prescribing, and most (n=32, 86%) worked in a public sexual health clinic or a general practice with a high caseload of men who have sex with men (MSM). All 67 cases were MSM who resided in inner-city Sydney and all were serovar L2b. Anal symptoms had been present in 64 cases (96%, 95%CI 87-99%) for a median of 8 days (range 2-1,825) prior to presentation. Almost one-third (n=20) had another concurrent STI diagnosed. Most (82%) of the 22 interviewed patients reported being HIV positive and having other STIs diagnosed over the past year. In the preceding month, all 22 men reported condomless anal sex and the median number of casual sexual partners was 5 (range 0-100). Characteristics of LGV cases in NSW are similar to those described worldwide, suggesting that a sexually adventurous subgroup of MSM are at particular risk of infection. Education of non-sexual-health clinicians on LGV risk factors, presentation, testing and management may allow more timely diagnosis and notification of contacts to reduce LGV transmission in the community. © 2016 Public Health Association of Australia.

  3. Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Doxycycline Efficacy for Rectal Lymphogranuloma Venereum in Men Who Have Sex with Men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leeyaphan, Charussri; Ong, Jason J; Chow, Eric P F; Kong, Fabian Y S; Hocking, Jane S; Bissessor, Melanie; Fairley, Christopher K; Chen, Marcus

    2016-10-01

    Rectal lymphogranuloma venereum (LGV) has reemerged as a sexually transmitted infection among men who have sex with men (MSM), particularly those who are HIV-positive. We undertook a systematic review and meta-analysis to determine the efficacy of doxycycline (100 mg 2×/d for 21 days) for rectal LGV in MSM. Nine studies were included: 4 prospective, 4 retrospective, and 1 combined retrospective and prospective. In total, 282 MSM with rectal LGV were included in the studies. All studies reported using nucleic acid amplification tests to assess microbial cure. Most patients (>80%) had symptomatic rectal infection. The fixed-effects pooled efficacy for doxycycline was 98.5% (95% CI 96.3%-100%, I (2)  = 0%; p = 0.993). Doxycycline at 100 mg twice daily for 21 days demonstrated a high microbial cure rate. These data support doxycycline at this dosage and duration as first-line therapy for rectal LGV in MSM.

  4. Laboratory Processes for Confirmation of Lymphogranuloma Venereum Infection During a 2015 Investigation of a Cluster of Cases in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kersh, Ellen N; Pillay, Allan; de Voux, Alex; Chen, Cheng

    2017-11-01

    In September 2015, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention were notified of a suspected outbreak investigation of lymphogranuloma venereum (LGV) cases by the Michigan Department of Health and Human Services. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention offered support with a laboratory-developed polymerase chain reaction test for LGV. This note describes the laboratory workflow and procedures used for the laboratory confirmation of LGV infection.

  5. Lymphogranuloma venereum among men who have sex with men in the Netherlands: regional differences in testing rates lead to underestimation of the incidence, 2006-2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koper, N E; van der Sande, M A; Gotz, H M; Koedijk, F D

    2013-08-22

    Since 2003, an epidemic of lymphogranuloma venereum (LGV) has been ongoing in men who have sex with men (MSM) in Europe. Of 92,271 MSM consulting sexually transmitted disease (STI) clinics in the Netherlands between 2006 and 2011, 63,228 (68%) were tested for anorectal Chlamydia infection, with 6,343 (10%) positive diagnoses. In 4,776 of those (75%), LGV testing was performed, with regional variation from 7% to 97%. In total 414 LGV cases were diagnosed, a mean annual positivity rate of 8.7%, decreasing from 14% in 2007 to 6% in 2011, but increasing to 13.1% during 2012 (184 new cases). Risk factors for LGV were human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) positivity (odds ratio (OR)=4.1; 95% confidence interval (CI): 3.2–5.3), STI symptoms (OR=4.1; 95% CI: 3.1–5.4), more than 50 sex partners in the past six months (OR=3.7; 95% CI: 1.1–12.4), older age (40–44 years: OR=2.1; 95% CI: 1.5–2.8), no condom use (OR=2.2; 95% CI: 1.2–3.9) and homosexuality (as opposed to bisexuality; OR=2.2; 95% CI: 1.1–4.2). Regional differences in LGV testing rates limit national LGV surveillance, leading to an underestimation of the real incidence. Characteristics of MSM with LGV did not change over time, so existing prevention strategies should be intensified.

  6. Anorectal and inguinal lymphogranuloma venereum among men who have sex with men in Amsterdam, The Netherlands: trends over time, symptomatology and concurrent infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Vrieze, Nynke Hesselina Neeltje; van Rooijen, Martijn; Schim van der Loeff, Maarten Franciscus; de Vries, Henry John C

    2013-11-01

    To examine lymphogranuloma venereum (LGV) trends over time among men who have sex with men (MSM) visiting the Amsterdam sexually transmitted infection (STI) clinic; to investigate anal LGV symptomatology; and to examine the positivity and characteristics of anorectal and inguinal LGV. We included MSM consultations from whom a swab (from anorectum, bubo or an genital ulcer) was taken for Chlamydia trachomatis (Ct) screening. Anorectal swabs were taken from all MSM who reported receptive anorectal intercourse in the preceding 6 months. Ct positive samples were further tested with a pmpH PCR to identify L-genovars. Patient symptoms, clinical and anoscopic inflammatory signs, and STI co-infections were noted; Gram-stained anorectal mucosal smears were examined. Between January 2005 and June 2012, 48 570 consultations among MSM were conducted. In 3628/35 650 visits, anorectal Ct infections were diagnosed, including 411 anal LGV (1.2%). Moreover, 65/1649 genital ulcer swabs were Ct positive; 10 were inguinal LGV (0.6%) Since January 2011 a significant increase in the positivity of LGV occurred (p<0.0001). 89 (27.2%) anorectal LGV cases were asymptomatic. HIV prevalence among anorectal LGV cases was significantly higher (p=0.008) than among inguinal LGV cases. STI co-morbidity in anorectal LGV cases remained invariably high during the study period. Since January 2011, LGV positivity in MSM consultations in Amsterdam has risen significantly. The great majority comprise anal LGV; inguinal LGV is rare. Anal LGV is asymptomatic in a quarter of cases. In all MSM with anal Ct infections LGV should be excluded, irrespective of symptoms or inflammatory signs.

  7. Epidemiology of infections by HIV, Syphilis, Gonorrhea and Lymphogranuloma Venereum in Barcelona City: a population-based incidence study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martí-Pastor, Marc; García de Olalla, Patricia; Barberá, Maria-Jesús; Manzardo, Christian; Ocaña, Inma; Knobel, Hernando; Gurguí, Mercè; Humet, Victoria; Vall, Martí; Ribera, Esteban; Villar, Judit; Martín, Gemma; Sambeat, Maria A; Marco, Andres; Vives, Alvaro; Alsina, Mercè; Miró, Josep M; Caylà, Joan A

    2015-10-05

    The aim of this study was to determine the evolution of HIV infection, gonorrhea, syphilis and lymphogranuloma venereum (LGV), and their epidemiological characteristics in Barcelona city. Population-based incidence study of all newly occurring diagnoses of HIV infection, syphilis, gonorrhea and LGV detected in Barcelona between January 2007 and December 2011. A descriptive analysis was performed. The annual incidence rates per 100,000 inhabitants were calculated by sex, sexual conduct and educational level. To estimate global sex-specific rates we used the Barcelona city census; for the calculation of rates by sexual conduct and educational level we used estimates of the Barcelona Health Interview Survey. Trends were analysed using the chi-squared test for linear trend. HIV. 66.8 % of the HIV cases were men who had sex with men (MSM). The incidence rates in MSM over the study period were from 692.67/100,000 to 909.88/100,000 inh. Syphilis. 74.2 % of the syphilis cases were MSM. The incidence rates in MSM were from 224.9/100,000 to 891.97/100,000 inh. and the MSM with a university education ranged from 196.3/100,000 to 1020.8/100,000. Gonorrhea. 45.5 % of the gonorrhea cases were MSM. The incidence rates in MSM were from 164.24/100,000 to 404.79/100,000 inh. and the MSM with university education ranged from 176.7/100,000 to 530.1/100,000 inh.. Lymphogranuloma venereum (LGV). 95.3 % of the LGV cases are MSM. The incidence rates in MSM were from 24.99/100,000 to 282.99/100,000 inh. and the MSM with university education ranged from 9.3/100,000 to 265/100,000 inh. An increase in cases of STI was observed. These STI mainly affected MSM with a university education. Continuing to monitor changes in the epidemiology of STI, and identifying the most affected groups should permit redesigning preventive programs, with the goal of finding the most efficient way to reach these population groups.

  8. Lymphogranuloma venereum in Barcelona, 2007-2012: the role of seroadaptation in men who have sex with men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyes-Urueña, J M; Garcia De Olalla, P; Vall-Mayans, M; Arando, M; Caballero, E; Cayla, J A

    2015-01-01

    This study describes the incidence rate of reported lymphogranuloma venereum (LGV) in men who have sex with men (MSM) in Barcelona from 2007 to 2012. Epidemiological, clinical and sexual behaviour characteristics of LGV cases are described. Seroadaptive behaviours as a transmission risk factor were assessed by a telephone questionnaire during 2012. Data were handled on a strictly confidential basis. LGV annual rate ratios in MSM were compared with cases from 2007. Differences were statistically analysed with a Poisson test. The incidence rate of LGV in MSM aged 15-69 years ranged from 32·1/105 MSM per year in 2007 to 182·7/105 MSM per year in 2012. In 2012, 31/51 LGV cases (61%) answered the telephone questionnaire, of which 84% (26/31) were HIV positive, 39% (12/31) reported having sex according to their partners' serostatus and 7% (2/31) used strategic positioning. The incidence of LGV has increased since 2007 and mainly affects HIV-positive MSM. It is probable that seroadaptation has facilitated LGV transmission.

  9. Observed Treatment Responses to Short-Course Doxycycline Therapy for Rectal Lymphogranuloma Venereum in Men Who Have Sex With Men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simons, Rebecca; Candfield, Sophie; French, Patrick; White, John A

    2018-06-01

    Lymphogranuloma venereum (LGV) has reestablished itself as an endemic sexually transmitted infection in the United Kingdom and elsewhere in Europe and North America over the last decade. Current guidelines suggest treatment with 21 days of doxycycline; however, the evidence base for LGV treatment including its duration is very limited. We conducted a retrospective review in 2 central London genitourinary medicine clinics of men who have sex with men (MSM) with LGV in whom less than 21 days of doxycycline was used initially. Sixty MSM were treated initially with less than 21 days of doxycycline, of whom 50 (83%) were prescribed a 7-day course. Fifty percent of patients were asymptomatic, with the rest having rectal or other symptoms. Fifty-nine (97%) of 60 had a negative test of cure for LGV at a median of 31 days (7-200 days). Reinfection as opposed to treatment failure was considered likely in the patient testing positive. A second test of cure at a median of 139 days later (37-638 days) was completed in 30 patients, of whom 28 (93%) were negative for LGV. Seven to 14 days of doxycycline is effective in most cases of LGV with negative TOCs in 59 of 60 patients. These data suggest that 7 days of doxycycline is effective in achieving cure of rectal LGV in most MSM. There is a case for a randomized controlled trial of LGV treatment including a 7-day regimen of doxycycline.

  10. Lymphogranuloma Venereum-Serovar L2b Presenting With Painful Genital Ulceration: An Emerging Clinical Presentation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haber, Roger; Maatouk, Ismaël; de Barbeyrac, Bertille; Bagot, Martine; Janier, Michel; Fouéré, Sébastien

    2017-05-01

    These 5 cases of atypical inflammatory lymphogranula venereum (LGV) serovar L2b presenting initially with edema and persistent painful ulceration illustrate that clinical manifestations of LGV in the current outbreak in men who have sex with men reflect the influence of both the serovars virulence and the host immune system and are not confined to proctitis. L2b serovar could have a particular high virulence profile, and the need for awareness of LGV as a cause of genital ulceration is crucial.

  11. Linfogranuloma venério: aumento na incidência sugere surto mundial da doença Lymphogranuloma venereum: increased incidence suggests diseases world outbreak

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno de Lucia Hernani

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available O Linfogranuloma venéreo (LGV é uma doença sexualmente transmissível (DST causada pelos sorotipos L1, L2 ou L3 da bactéria intracelular Chlamydia trachomatis. Possui caráter endêmico em partes da África, Ásia, América do Sul e Caribe, e é rara em países industrializados. No entanto, vários casos foram diagnosticados em homossexuais masculinos, na Holanda, e desde 2004, essa doença vem sendo notificada por outros países da Europa, da América do Norte e Austrália. Esse aumento da incidência tem características de surto, e tem acometido homens brancos com menos de 35 anos que mantém relações sexuais com outros homens e apresentam infecções anorretais com diversos sintomas, que incluem dor retal, tenesmo e constipação. A maior parte dos pacientes (>70% também está co-infectada pelo HIV. Depois das primeiras notificações, muitos países passaram a fazer buscas ativas em suas populações. Pela falta de um teste diagnóstico rápido e de uso difundido, os doentes com quadros sugestivos devem receber terapia antimicrobiana durante pelo menos três semanas. Há autores fazendo a mesma recomendação nas retites observadas durante a retoscopia, na presença de mais de 10 leucócitos por campo nas amostras colhidas com swab e nos doentes HIV-positivo.20 Acreditamos que o número de casos esteja também aumentando no Brasil e, por desconhecimento sobre a doença, a mesma não venha sendo diagnosticada. Sugerimos que a hipótese diagnóstica de LGV, seja afastada nos doentes que pratiquem sexo anal e apresentem úlceras na região ou quadros de retite.Lymphogranuloma venereum (LGV is a sexually transmitted disease (STD caused by L1, L2 L3 sorovars of the intracellular bacteria Chlamydia trachomatis. It has endemic features in parts of Africa, Asia, South America and Caribbean, and is rare in developed countries. Meanwhile, many cases were diagnosed, mainly in men who have sex with men (MSM, in the Netherlands, and since 2004

  12. DIRECT AND INDIRECT FLUORESCENT-ANTIBODY TECHNIQUES FOR THE PSITTACOSIS-LYMPHOGRANULOMA VENEREUM-TRACHOMA GROUP OF AGENTS1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Martin R.; Borman, Earle K.

    1963-01-01

    Ross, Martin R. (Connecticut State Department of Health, Hartford) and Earle K. Borman. Direct and indirect fluorescent-antibody techniques for the psittacosis-lymphogranuloma venereum-trachoma group of agents. J. Bacteriol. 85:851–858. 1963.—Direct and indirect fluorescent-antibody (FA) techniques were developed for the detection of group antigen in infected tissue cultures and the titration of group antibody in human antiserum. The growth of the agent of meningopneumonitis (MP) in mouse embryo lung cell monolayers was followed by infectivity and complement-fixing (CF) antigen titrations, and cytological examination of FA stained cultures. Although infectivity and CF antigen reached a peak at 2 days and remained constant for an additional 3 days, only cells tested 2 to 3 days after infection were suitable for FA staining with labeled anti-MP serum because of excessive artifacts in the older cultures. Fluorescein isothiocyanate-labeled rooster and guinea pig anti-MP serums and human antipsittacosis serums were titrated in direct FA and hemagglutination-inhibition (HI) tests. The rooster conjugate showed brighter staining and higher antibody titers than the guinea pig or human conjugates and was more effective in detecting minimal amounts of virus antigen. FA staining reactions with 1 and 2 units of labeled rooster serum were inhibited by unlabeled rooster serum but clear-cut inhibition with human antipsittacosis serum could not be demonstrated. The indirect FA technique was successfully used for the titration of group antibody in human serum. A comparison of the indirect FA, HI, and CF tests showed the indirect FA technique to be intermediate in sensitivity between the HI and CF tests. None of the three tests showed significant cross reactions with human serums reactive for influenza A and B; parainfluenza 1, 2, and 3; respiratory syncytial virus; Q fever; or the primary atypical pneumonia agent. PMID:14044954

  13. Clinical predictors of rectal lymphogranuloma venereum infection: results from a multicentre case–control study in the UK

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pallawela, S N S; Sullivan, A K; Macdonald, N; French, P; White, J; Dean, G; Smith, A; Winter, A J; Mandalia, S; Alexander, S; Ison, C; Ward, H

    2014-01-01

    Objective Since 2003, over 2000 cases of lymphogranuloma venereum (LGV) have been diagnosed in the UK in men who have sex with men (MSM). Most cases present with proctitis, but there are limited data on how to differentiate clinically between LGV and other pathology. We analysed the clinical presentations of rectal LGV in MSM to identify clinical characteristics predictive of LGV proctitis and produced a clinical prediction model. Design A prospective multicentre case–control study was conducted at six UK hospitals from 2008 to 2010. Cases of rectal LGV were compared with controls with rectal symptoms but without LGV. Methods Data from 98 LGV cases and 81 controls were collected from patients and clinicians using computer-assisted self-interviews and clinical report forms. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression was used to compare symptoms and signs. Clinical prediction models for LGV were compared using receiver operating curves. Results Tenesmus, constipation, anal discharge and weight loss were significantly more common in cases than controls. In multivariate analysis, tenesmus and constipation alone were suggestive of LGV (OR 2.98, 95% CI 0.99 to 8.98 and 2.87, 95% CI 1.01 to 8.15, respectively) and that tenesmus alone or in combination with constipation was a significant predictor of LGV (OR 6.97, 95% CI 2.71 to 17.92). The best clinical prediction was having one or more of tenesmus, constipation and exudate on proctoscopy, with a sensitivity of 77% and specificity of 65%. Conclusions This study indicates that tenesmus alone or in combination with constipation makes a diagnosis of LGV in MSM presenting with rectal symptoms more likely. PMID:24687130

  14. Clinical predictors of rectal lymphogranuloma venereum infection: results from a multicentre case-control study in the U.K.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pallawela, S N S; Sullivan, A K; Macdonald, N; French, P; White, J; Dean, G; Smith, A; Winter, A J; Mandalia, S; Alexander, S; Ison, C; Ward, H

    2014-06-01

    Since 2003, over 2000 cases of lymphogranuloma venereum (LGV) have been diagnosed in the U.K. in men who have sex with men (MSM). Most cases present with proctitis, but there are limited data on how to differentiate clinically between LGV and other pathology. We analysed the clinical presentations of rectal LGV in MSM to identify clinical characteristics predictive of LGV proctitis and produced a clinical prediction model. A prospective multicentre case-control study was conducted at six U.K. hospitals from 2008 to 2010. Cases of rectal LGV were compared with controls with rectal symptoms but without LGV. Data from 98 LGV cases and 81 controls were collected from patients and clinicians using computer-assisted self-interviews and clinical report forms. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression was used to compare symptoms and signs. Clinical prediction models for LGV were compared using receiver operating curves. Tenesmus, constipation, anal discharge and weight loss were significantly more common in cases than controls. In multivariate analysis, tenesmus and constipation alone were suggestive of LGV (OR 2.98, 95% CI 0.99 to 8.98 and 2.87, 95% CI 1.01 to 8.15, respectively) and that tenesmus alone or in combination with constipation was a significant predictor of LGV (OR 6.97, 95% CI 2.71 to 17.92). The best clinical prediction was having one or more of tenesmus, constipation and exudate on proctoscopy, with a sensitivity of 77% and specificity of 65%. This study indicates that tenesmus alone or in combination with constipation makes a diagnosis of LGV in MSM presenting with rectal symptoms more likely. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  15. Lymphogranuloma venereum diagnoses among men who have sex with men in the U.K.: interpreting a cross-sectional study using an epidemic phase-specific framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Gwenda; Alexander, Sarah; Simms, Ian; Conti, Stefano; Ward, Helen; Powers, Cassandra; Ison, Catherine

    2013-11-01

    To investigate the drivers behind the epidemic expansion of lymphogranuloma venereum (LGV) cases in late 2009 to help inform infection control. An epidemic curve of all LGV diagnoses between 2003 and mid-2012 was plotted and divided into the initial detection period, and endemic, growth and hyperendemic phases. Detailed clinical and behavioural data were collected and logistic regression was used to compare the characteristics of diagnoses made during the growth and endemic phases. Between April 2003 and June 2012, 2138 cases of LGV were diagnosed. Enhanced surveillance data were available for 1370 of whom 1353 were men who have sex with men (MSM). 98% of MSM presented with proctitis, 82% were HIV positive, 20% were hepatitis C virus (HCV) antibody positive, and 67% lived in London. Growth phase cases (n=488) were more likely to report meeting sexual contacts at sex parties (11% vs. 6%, p=0.014), unprotected receptive or insertive oral intercourse (93% vs. 86%, p=0.001; 92% vs. 85%, p=0.001) and sharing sex toys (8% vs 4%; p=0.011), and to be diagnosed HIV positive (86% vs. 80%; p=0.014), than endemic phase cases (n=423). Unprotected receptive anal intercourse was equally likely to be reported in both phases (71% vs. 73%). After adjustment, cases in the growth phase were more likely to meet new contacts at sex parties (p=0.031) and be HIV positive (p=0.045). Rapid epidemic growth coincided with an intensification of unprotected sexual activity among a core population of HIV-positive MSM. Efforts to develop innovative interventions for this hard-to-reach population are needed.

  16. Challenges Presented by Re-Emerging Sexually Transmitted Infections in HIV Positive Men who have Sex with Men: An Observational Study of Lymphogranuloma Venereum in the UK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rönn, Minttu; Hughes, Gwenda; Simms, Ian; Ison, Cathy; Alexander, Sarah; White, Peter J; Ward, Helen

    2014-08-01

    United Kingdom has reported the largest documented outbreak of lymphogranuloma venereum (LGV), a re-emerging sexually transmitted infection (STI) which is primarily seen in HIV-positive men who have sex with men (MSM). A diagnostic service was established in response to the outbreak linked to a voluntary LGV Enhanced Surveillance system. We examined the performance of this novel surveillance system to identify utility in tracking a re-emerging infection. We described laboratory data on samples and surveillance data from case reports for LGV from 2004-2010. We performed a cross-sectional analysis comparing clinical and behavioural characteristics of HIV-positive and HIV-negative/unknown LGV cases diagnosed in MSM using multivariable logistic regression models with generalised estimating equations to control for repeat infections. LGV Surveillance data were available for 87% (1,370/1,581) of LGV cases (after de-duplication). There were 1,342 episodes in 1,281 MSM, most of whom were known to be HIV-positive (1,028/1,281, 80.2%,). HIV-positive men reported a shorter duration of symptoms (aOR 0.5; 95%CI 0.3, 0.8 for reporting more than a week compared to a week or less) in comparison to HIV-negative/unknown MSM, and were more likely to report unprotected receptive anal intercourse (aOR 2.7; 95% CI 1.3, 5.8). The surveillance identified the population at greater risk of infection based on higher levels of risk behaviour in HIV-positive LGV cases. However, there was diagnostic bias towards HIV-positive LGV cases who presented with a shorter duration of symptoms when compared to HIV-negative/unknown LGV cases.

  17. Case report: lymphogranuloma venereum proctitis-from rapid screening to molecular confirmation of a masked sexually transmitted disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markowicz, Mateusz; Grilnberger, Evelyn; Huber, Florian; Leibl, Gabriele; Abrahamian, Heidemarie; Gartner, Manfred; Huber, Monika; Chott, Andreas; Reiter, Michael; Stanek, Gerold

    2013-08-01

    Proctitis caused by Chlamydia trachomatis L2b can manifest with very mild, nonspecific symptoms, and appropriate diagnostic evaluation is crucial. The case report demonstrates that rapid screening test, detection of specific antibodies in serum, and direct pathogen identification by PCR performed on tissue sample or rectal swab allow successful diagnosis of the still emerging sexually transmitted disease among homosexual patients. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Risk factors for rectal lymphogranuloma venereum in gay men: results of a multicentre case-control study in the U.K.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macdonald, N; Sullivan, A K; French, P; White, J A; Dean, G; Smith, A; Winter, A J; Alexander, S; Ison, C; Ward, H

    2014-06-01

    To identify risk factors for rectal lymphogranuloma venereum (rLGV) in men who have sex with men (MSM). A case-control study at 6 U.K. hospitals compared MSM with rLGV (cases) with rLGV-negative controls: MSM without potential rLGV symptoms (CGa) and separately, MSM with such symptoms (CGs). Between 2008 and 2010, there were 90 rLGV cases, 74 CGa and 69 CGs recruited. Lifestyles and sexual behaviours in the previous 3 months were reported using internet-based computer-assisted self-interviews. Logistic regression was used to investigate factors associated with rLGV. Cases were significantly more likely to be HIV-positive (89%) compared with CGa (46%) and CGs (64%). Independent behavioural risks for rLGV were: unprotected receptive anal intercourse (adjusted OR (AOR)10.7, 95% CI 3.5 to 32.8), fisting another (AOR=6.7, CI 1.8 to 25.3), sex under the influence of gamma-hydroxybutyrate (AOR=3.1, CI 1.3 to 7.4) and anonymous sexual contacts (AOR=2.7, CI 1.2 to 6.3), compared with CGa; unprotected insertive anal intercourse (AOR=4.7, CI 2.0 to 10.9) and rectal douching (AOR=2.9 CI 1.3 to 6.6), compared with CGs. An incubation period from exposure to symptoms of 30 days was indicated. Unprotected receptive anal intercourse is a key risk factor for rectal LGV with the likelihood that rectal-to-rectal transmission is facilitated where insertive anal sex also occurs. The association between HIV and rLGV appears linked to HIV-positive men seeking unprotected sex with others with the same HIV status, sexual and drug interests. Such men should be targeted for frequent STI screening and interventions to minimise associated risks. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  19. Prevalence and predictors of Lymphogranuloma venereum in a high risk population attending a STD outpatients clinic in Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foschi, Claudio; Marangoni, Antonella; D'Antuono, Antonietta; Nardini, Paola; Compri, Monica; Bellavista, Sara; Filippini, Andrea; Bacchi Reggiani, Maria Letizia; Cevenini, Roberto

    2014-04-09

    We evaluated LGV prevalence and predictors in a high risk population attending a STI Outpatients Clinic in the North of Italy. A total of 108 patients (99 MSM and 9 women), with a history of unsafe anal sexual intercourses, were enrolled. Anorectal swabs and urine samples were tested for Chlamydia trachomatis (CT) DNA detection by Versant CT/GC DNA 1.0 Assay (Siemens Healthcare Diagnostics Terrytown, USA). RFLP analysis was used for CT molecular typing. L2 CT genotype was identified in 13/108 (12%) rectal swabs. All LGV cases were from MSM, declaring high-risk sexual behaviour and complaining anorectal symptoms. Patients first attending the STI Outpatient Clinic received a significant earlier LGV diagnosis than those first seeking care from general practitioners or gastroenterologists (P = 0.0046). LGV prevalence and characteristics found in our population are in agreement with international reports. Statistical analysis showed that LGV positive patients were older (P = 0.0008) and presented more STIs (P = 0.0023) than LGV negative ones, in particular due to syphilis (P < 0.001), HIV (P < 0.001) and HBV (P = 0.001).Multivariate logistic regression analysis revealed that HIV and syphilis infections are strong risk factors for LGV presence (respectively, P = 0.001 and P = 0.010). Even if our results do not provide sufficient evidence to recommend routine screening of anorectal swabs in high-risk population, they strongly suggest to perform CT NAAT tests and genotyping on rectal specimens in presence of ulcerative proctitis in HIV and/or syphilis-positive MSM. In this context, CT DNA detection by Versant CT/GC DNA 1.0 Assay, followed by RFLP analysis for molecular typing demonstrated to be an excellent diagnostic algorithm for LGV identification.

  20. Chlamydia trachomatis Mip-like protein

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lundemose, AG; Rousch, DA; Birkelund, Svend

    1992-01-01

    A 27 kDa Chlamydia trachomatis Mip-like protein with homology of a 175-amino-acid C-terminal fragment to the surface-exposed Legionella pneumophila mip-gene product has previously been described. In this paper the entire chlamydia Mip-like sequence of C. trachomatis serovar L2 (lymphogranuloma...... venereum (LGV) biovar) is presented. The sequence shows high similarity to the legionella Mip protein and its C-terminal region, like that of the legionella Mip, has high amino acid similarity to eukaryotic and prokaryotic FK506-binding proteins. The chlamydial mip-like gene was detected by polymerase...... chain reaction (PCR) in other C. trachomatis serovars and by sequencing of the mip-like genes of serovars B and E (trachoma biovar) was shown to be highly conserved within the two major biovars of C. trachomatis. Monoclonal and polyclonal antibodies raised against the recombinant Mip-like protein failed...

  1. Genetic and Biochemical Characterization of Peptidoglycan Synthesis in Chlamydia

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-09-01

    23: 493-494. Hamre, D., and Rake, G. (1947) Studies on lymphogranuloma venereum . V. The action of some antibiotic stubstances and sulfonamides in...vitro and in vivo up the agents of feline pneumonitis and lymphogranuloma venereum . J Infect Dis 81: 175-190. Hantke, K. (2001) Iron and metal...agents of the psittacosis- lymphogranuloma group. 1. The effect of penicillin. J Infect Dis 87: 249-263. Witte, W. (2004) Glycopeptide resistant

  2. An Epidemiologic Analysis of Chlamydia trachomatis and Neisseria gonorrhoeae Infections in Female Federal Prisoners

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    lymphogranuloma venereum (caused by serotypes L1, L2, and L3). Endemic trachoma leads to blindness, whereas inclusion conjunctivitis is associated with the...infection caused by C. trachomatis, lymphogranuloma venereum , is characterized by a swelling of the lymph nodes in the groin area. This can lead to

  3. Comparison of Chlamydia trachomatis serovar L2 growth in polarized genital epithelial cells grown in three-dimensional culture with non-polarized cells

    OpenAIRE

    Dessus-Babus, Sophie; Moore, Cheryl G.; Whittimore, Judy D.; Wyrick, Priscilla B.

    2008-01-01

    A common model for studying Chlamydia trachomatis and growing chlamydial stocks uses Lymphogranuloma venereum serovar L2 and non-polarized HeLa cells. However, recent publications indicate that the growth rate and progeny yields can vary considerably for a particular strain depending on the cell line/type used, and seem to be partially related to cell tropism. In the present study, the growth of invasive serovar L2 was compared in endometrial HEC-1B and endocervical HeLa cells polarized on co...

  4. Multi locus sequence typing of Chlamydia reveals an association between Chlamydia psittaci genotypes and host species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pannekoek, Yvonne; Dickx, Veerle; Beeckman, Delphine S A; Jolley, Keith A; Keijzers, Wendy C; Vretou, Evangelia; Maiden, Martin C J; Vanrompay, Daisy; van der Ende, Arie

    2010-12-02

    Chlamydia comprises a group of obligate intracellular bacterial parasites responsible for a variety of diseases in humans and animals, including several zoonoses. Chlamydia trachomatis causes diseases such as trachoma, urogenital infection and lymphogranuloma venereum with severe morbidity. Chlamydia pneumoniae is a common cause of community-acquired respiratory tract infections. Chlamydia psittaci, causing zoonotic pneumonia in humans, is usually hosted by birds, while Chlamydia abortus, causing abortion and fetal death in mammals, including humans, is mainly hosted by goats and sheep. We used multi-locus sequence typing to asses the population structure of Chlamydia. In total, 132 Chlamydia isolates were analyzed, including 60 C. trachomatis, 18 C. pneumoniae, 16 C. abortus, 34 C. psittaci and one of each of C. pecorum, C. caviae, C. muridarum and C. felis. Cluster analyses utilizing the Neighbour-Joining algorithm with the maximum composite likelihood model of concatenated sequences of 7 housekeeping fragments showed that C. psittaci 84/2334 isolated from a parrot grouped together with the C. abortus isolates from goats and sheep. Cluster analyses of the individual alleles showed that in all instances C. psittaci 84/2334 formed one group with C. abortus. Moving 84/2334 from the C. psittaci group to the C. abortus group resulted in a significant increase in the number of fixed differences and elimination of the number of shared mutations between C. psittaci and C. abortus. C. psittaci M56 from a muskrat branched separately from the main group of C. psittaci isolates. C. psittaci genotypes appeared to be associated with host species. The phylogenetic tree of C. psittaci did not follow that of its host bird species, suggesting host species jumps. In conclusion, we report for the first time an association between C. psittaci genotypes with host species.

  5. Multi locus sequence typing of Chlamydia reveals an association between Chlamydia psittaci genotypes and host species.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yvonne Pannekoek

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Chlamydia comprises a group of obligate intracellular bacterial parasites responsible for a variety of diseases in humans and animals, including several zoonoses. Chlamydia trachomatis causes diseases such as trachoma, urogenital infection and lymphogranuloma venereum with severe morbidity. Chlamydia pneumoniae is a common cause of community-acquired respiratory tract infections. Chlamydia psittaci, causing zoonotic pneumonia in humans, is usually hosted by birds, while Chlamydia abortus, causing abortion and fetal death in mammals, including humans, is mainly hosted by goats and sheep. We used multi-locus sequence typing to asses the population structure of Chlamydia. In total, 132 Chlamydia isolates were analyzed, including 60 C. trachomatis, 18 C. pneumoniae, 16 C. abortus, 34 C. psittaci and one of each of C. pecorum, C. caviae, C. muridarum and C. felis. Cluster analyses utilizing the Neighbour-Joining algorithm with the maximum composite likelihood model of concatenated sequences of 7 housekeeping fragments showed that C. psittaci 84/2334 isolated from a parrot grouped together with the C. abortus isolates from goats and sheep. Cluster analyses of the individual alleles showed that in all instances C. psittaci 84/2334 formed one group with C. abortus. Moving 84/2334 from the C. psittaci group to the C. abortus group resulted in a significant increase in the number of fixed differences and elimination of the number of shared mutations between C. psittaci and C. abortus. C. psittaci M56 from a muskrat branched separately from the main group of C. psittaci isolates. C. psittaci genotypes appeared to be associated with host species. The phylogenetic tree of C. psittaci did not follow that of its host bird species, suggesting host species jumps. In conclusion, we report for the first time an association between C. psittaci genotypes with host species.

  6. Chlamydia

    Science.gov (United States)

    In men, chlamydia may cause symptoms similar to gonorrhea . Symptoms may include: Burning feeling during urination Discharge ... of sexually transmitted infection (STIs). Common STIs are gonorrhea, HIV, syphilis, hepatitis, and herpes . Even if you ...

  7. Type-specific IgG and IgA antibodies in old lymphogranuloma venerum determined by solid-phase radioimmunoassay

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meurman, O.; Terho, P.; Sonck, C.E.

    1981-01-01

    A solid-phase radioimmunoassay (RIA) using egg-grown purified Chlamydia trachomatis lymphogranuloma venereum (LGV) serotypes L1, L2, and L3 as antigen was used to measure type-specific IgG and IgA antibodies in sera of 36 patients who had contracted LGV infection about 40 years ago. The RIA test gave compatible results with the standard microimmunofluorescence test, and by RIA it was possible to identify the infecting serotype in 30 out of 36 patients studied. In 28 cases this was L2 and in two cases L1. Each patient had IgG antibodies and most of them (80%) IgA antibodies to at least one of the LGV serotypes. The antibody titers were still high 40 years after the acute infection, being higher than in male patients with a recent chlamydial urethritis. Highest antibody titers were detected in LGV patients who had a severe disease with intestinal involvement.

  8. Type-specific IgG and IgA antibodies in old lymphogranuloma venerum determined by solid-phase radioimmunoassay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meurman, O.; Terho, P.; Sonck, C.E.

    1981-01-01

    A solid-phase radioimmunoassay (RIA) using egg-grown purified Chlamydia trachomatis lymphogranuloma venereum (LGV) serotypes L1, L2, and L3 as antigen was used to measure type-specific IgG and IgA antibodies in sera of 36 patients who had contracted LGV infection about 40 years ago. The RIA test gave compatible results with the standard microimmunofluorescence test, and by RIA it was possible to identify the infecting serotype in 30 out of 36 patients studied. In 28 cases this was L2 and in two cases L1. Each patient had IgG antibodies and most of them (80%) IgA antibodies to at least one of the LGV serotypes. The antibody titers were still high 40 years after the acute infection, being higher than in male patients with a recent chlamydial urethritis. Highest antibody titers were detected in LGV patients who had a severe disease with intestinal involvement. (orig.)

  9. Chlamydia

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... No single step can protect you from every single type of STI. Can women who have sex with women get chlamydia? Yes. ... Notice Language Assistance Available Accessibility Privacy Policy Disclaimers Freedom of Information Act ... A federal government website managed by the Office on Women's Health in the Office of the Assistant Secretary ...

  10. Problems in the diagnosis of lymphogranuloma venereum

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    had not been preceded by any genital ulceration or urethral discharge. At this time a chlamydial complement fixation test was positive at a titre of 1:4096; the RPR test was negative and the FTA-Abs test positive (presumably as a re ult of previous syphilis). A diagnosis of LGV was made, and the patient was given tetracycline ...

  11. High-resolution typing of Chlamydia trachomatis: epidemiological and clinical uses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Vries, Henry J C; Schim van der Loeff, Maarten F; Bruisten, Sylvia M

    2015-02-01

    A state-of-the-art overview of molecular Chlamydia trachomatis typing methods that are used for routine diagnostics and scientific studies. Molecular epidemiology uses high-resolution typing techniques such as multilocus sequence typing, multilocus variable number of tandem repeats analysis, and whole-genome sequencing to identify strains based on their DNA sequence. These data can be used for cluster, network and phylogenetic analyses, and are used to unveil transmission networks, risk groups, and evolutionary pathways. High-resolution typing of C. trachomatis strains is applied to monitor treatment efficacy and re-infections, and to study the recent emergence of lymphogranuloma venereum (LGV) amongst men who have sex with men in high-income countries. Chlamydia strain typing has clinical relevance in disease management, as LGV needs longer treatment than non-LGV C. trachomatis. It has also led to the discovery of a new variant Chlamydia strain in Sweden, which was not detected by some commercial C. trachomatis diagnostic platforms. After a brief history and comparison of the various Chlamydia typing methods, the applications of the current techniques are described and future endeavors to extend scientific understanding are formulated. High-resolution typing will likely help to further unravel the pathophysiological mechanisms behind the wide clinical spectrum of chlamydial disease.

  12. Diagnostic Procedures to Detect Chlamydia trachomatis Infections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Meyer

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The intracellular life style of chlamydia and the ability to cause persistent infections with low-grade replication requires tests with high analytical sensitivity to directly detect C. trachomatis (CT in medical samples. Nucleic acid amplification tests (NAATs are the most sensitive assays with a specificity similar to cell culture and are considered the method of choice for CT detection. In addition, NAATs can be performed on various clinical specimens that do not depend on specific transport and storage conditions, since NAATs do not require infectious bacteria. In the case of lower genital tract infections, first void urine and vaginal swabs are the recommended specimens for testing males and females, respectively. Infections of anorectal, oropharyngeal and ocular epithelia should also be tested by NAAT analysis of corresponding mucosal swabs. In particular, anorectal infections of men who have sex with men (MSM should include evaluation of lymphogranuloma venereum (LGV by identification of genotypes L1, L2 or L3. Detection of CT antigens by enzyme immunoassay (EIAs or rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs are unsuitable due to insufficient sensitivity and specificity. Recent PCR-based RDTs, however, are non-inferior to standard NAATs, and might be used at the point-of-care. Serology finds application in the diagnostic work-up of suspected chronic CT infection but is inappropriate to diagnose acute infections.

  13. Comparison of Chlamydia trachomatis serovar L2 growth in polarized genital epithelial cells grown in three-dimensional culture with non-polarized cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dessus-Babus, Sophie; Moore, Cheryl G; Whittimore, Judy D; Wyrick, Priscilla B

    2008-04-01

    A common model for studying Chlamydia trachomatis and growing chlamydial stocks uses Lymphogranuloma venereum serovar L2 and non-polarized HeLa cells. However, recent publications indicate that the growth rate and progeny yields can vary considerably for a particular strain depending on the cell line/type used, and seem to be partially related to cell tropism. In the present study, the growth of invasive serovar L2 was compared in endometrial HEC-1B and endocervical HeLa cells polarized on collagen-coated microcarrier beads, as well as in HeLa cells grown in tissue culture flasks. Microscopy analysis revealed no difference in chlamydial attachment/entry patterns or in inclusion development throughout the developmental cycle between cell lines. Very comparable growth curves in both cell lines were also found using real-time PCR analysis, with increases in chlamydial DNA content of 400-500-fold between 2 and 36 h post-inoculation. Similar progeny yields with comparable infectivity were recovered from HEC-1B and HeLa cell bead cultures, and no difference in chlamydial growth was found in polarized vs. non-polarized HeLa cells. In conclusion, unlike other C. trachomatis strains such as urogenital serovar E, invasive serovar L2 grows equally well in physiologically different endometrial and endocervical environments, regardless of the host cell polarization state.

  14. Multi locus sequence typing of Chlamydiales: clonal groupings within the obligate intracellular bacteria Chlamydia trachomatis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pannekoek, Yvonne; Morelli, Giovanna; Kusecek, Barica; Morré, Servaas A; Ossewaarde, Jacobus M; Langerak, Ankie A; van der Ende, Arie

    2008-02-28

    The obligate intracellular growing bacterium Chlamydia trachomatis causes diseases like trachoma, urogenital infection and lymphogranuloma venereum with severe morbidity. Several serovars and genotypes have been identified, but these could not be linked to clinical disease or outcome. The related Chlamydophila pneumoniae, of which no subtypes are recognized, causes respiratory infections worldwide. We developed a multi locus sequence typing (MLST) scheme to understand the population genetic structure and diversity of these species and to evaluate the association between genotype and disease. A collection of 26 strains of C. trachomatis of different serovars and clinical presentation and 18 strains of C. pneumoniae were included in the study. For comparison, sequences of C. abortus, C. psittaci, C. caviae, C. felis, C. pecorum (Chlamydophila), C. muridarum (Chlamydia) and of Candidatus protochlamydia and Simkania negevensis were also included. Sequences of fragments (400 - 500 base pairs) from seven housekeeping genes (enoA, fumC, gatA, gidA, hemN, hlfX, oppA) were analysed. Analysis of allelic profiles by eBurst revealed three non-overlapping clonal complexes among the C. trachomatis strains, while the C. pneumoniae strains formed a single group. An UPGMA tree produced from the allelic profiles resulted in three groups of sequence types. The LGV strains grouped in a single cluster, while the urogenital strains were distributed over two separated groups, one consisted solely of strains with frequent occurring serovars (E, D and F). The distribution of the different serovars over the three groups was not consistent, suggesting exchange of serovar encoding ompA sequences. In one instance, exchange of fumC sequences between strains of different groups was observed. Cluster analyses of concatenated sequences of the Chlamydophila and Chlamydia species together with those of Candidatus Protochlamydia amoebophila and Simkania negevensis resulted in a tree identical to that

  15. Multi locus sequence typing of Chlamydiales: clonal groupings within the obligate intracellular bacteria Chlamydia trachomatis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Langerak Ankie A

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The obligate intracellular growing bacterium Chlamydia trachomatis causes diseases like trachoma, urogenital infection and lymphogranuloma venereum with severe morbidity. Several serovars and genotypes have been identified, but these could not be linked to clinical disease or outcome. The related Chlamydophila pneumoniae, of which no subtypes are recognized, causes respiratory infections worldwide. We developed a multi locus sequence typing (MLST scheme to understand the population genetic structure and diversity of these species and to evaluate the association between genotype and disease. Results A collection of 26 strains of C. trachomatis of different serovars and clinical presentation and 18 strains of C. pneumoniae were included in the study. For comparison, sequences of C. abortus, C. psittaci, C. caviae, C. felis, C. pecorum (Chlamydophila, C. muridarum (Chlamydia and of Candidatus protochlamydia and Simkania negevensis were also included. Sequences of fragments (400 – 500 base pairs from seven housekeeping genes (enoA, fumC, gatA, gidA, hemN, hlfX, oppA were analysed. Analysis of allelic profiles by eBurst revealed three non-overlapping clonal complexes among the C. trachomatis strains, while the C. pneumoniae strains formed a single group. An UPGMA tree produced from the allelic profiles resulted in three groups of sequence types. The LGV strains grouped in a single cluster, while the urogenital strains were distributed over two separated groups, one consisted solely of strains with frequent occurring serovars (E, D and F. The distribution of the different serovars over the three groups was not consistent, suggesting exchange of serovar encoding ompA sequences. In one instance, exchange of fumC sequences between strains of different groups was observed. Cluster analyses of concatenated sequences of the Chlamydophila and Chlamydia species together with those of Candidatus Protochlamydia amoebophila and Simkania

  16. Evaluation of a high resolution genotyping method for Chlamydia trachomatis using routine clinical samples.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yibing Wang

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Genital chlamydia infection is the most commonly diagnosed sexually transmitted infection in the UK. C. trachomatis genital infections are usually caused by strains which fall into two pathovars: lymphogranuloma venereum (LGV and the genitourinary genotypes D-K. Although these genotypes can be discriminated by outer membrane protein gene (ompA sequencing or multi-locus sequence typing (MLST, neither protocol affords the high-resolution genotyping required for local epidemiology and accurate contact-tracing.We evaluated variable number tandem repeat (VNTR and ompA sequencing (now called multi-locus VNTR analysis and ompA or "MLVA-ompA" to study local epidemiology in Southampton over a period of six months. One hundred and fifty seven endocervical swabs that tested positive for C. trachomatis from both the Southampton genitourinary medicine (GUM clinic and local GP surgeries were tested by COBAS Taqman 48 (Roche PCR for the presence of C. trachomatis. Samples tested as positive by the commercial NAATs test were genotyped, where possible, by a MLVA-ompA sequencing technique. Attempts were made to isolate C. trachomatis from all 157 samples in cell culture, and 68 (43% were successfully recovered by repeatable passage in culture. Of the 157 samples, 93 (i.e. 59% were fully genotyped by MLVA-ompA. Only one mixed infection (E & D in a single sample was confirmed. There were two distinct D genotypes for the ompA gene. Most frequent ompA genotypes were D, E and F, comprising 20%, 41% and 16% of the type-able samples respectively. Within all genotypes we detected numerous MLVA sub-types.Amongst the common genotypes, there are a significant number of defined MLVA sub-types, which may reflect particular background demographics including age group, geography, high-risk sexual behavior, and sexual networks.

  17. Rapid detection and strain typing of Chlamydia trachomatis using a highly multiplexed microfluidic PCR assay.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosemary S Turingan

    Full Text Available Nucleic acid amplification tests (NAATs are recommended by the CDC for detection of Chlamydia trachomatis (Ct urogenital infections. Current commercial NAATs require technical expertise and sophisticated laboratory infrastructure, are time-consuming and expensive, and do not differentiate the lymphogranuloma venereum (LGV strains that require a longer duration of treatment than non-LGV strains. The multiplexed microfluidic PCR-based assay presented in this work simultaneously interrogates 13 loci to detect Ct and identify LGV and non-LGV strain-types. Based on amplified fragment length polymorphisms, the assay differentiates LGV, ocular, urogenital, and proctocolitis clades, and also serovars L1, L2, and L3 within the LGV group. The assay was evaluated in a blinded fashion using 95 clinical swabs, with 76 previously reported as urogenital Ct-positive samples and typed by ompA genotyping and/or Multi-Locus Sequence Typing. Results of the 13-plex assay showed that 51 samples fell within urogenital clade 2 or 4, 24 samples showed both clade 2 and 4 signatures, indicating possible mixed infection, gene rearrangement, or inter-clade recombination, and one sample was a noninvasive trachoma biovar (either a clade 3 or 4. The remaining 19 blinded samples were correctly identified as LGV clade 1 (3, ocular clade 3 (4, or as negatives (12. To date, no NAAT assay can provide a point-of-care applicable turnaround time for Ct detection while identifying clinically significant Ct strain types to inform appropriate treatment. Coupled with rapid DNA processing of clinical swabs (approximately 60 minutes from swab-in to result-out, the assay has significant potential as a rapid POC diagnostic for Ct infections.

  18. Mosaic structure of intragenic repetitive elements in histone H1-like protein Hc2 varies within serovars of Chlamydia trachomatis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nilsson Anders

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The histone-like protein Hc2 binds DNA in Chlamydia trachomatis and is known to vary in size between 165 and 237 amino acids, which is caused by different numbers of lysine-rich pentamers. A more complex structure was seen in this study when sequences from 378 specimens covering the hctB gene, which encodes Hc2, were compared. Results This study shows that the size variation is due to different numbers of 36-amino acid long repetitive elements built up of five pentamers and one hexamer. Deletions and amino acid substitutions result in 14 variants of repetitive elements and these elements are combined into 22 configurations. A protein with similar structure has been described in Bordetella but was now also found in other genera, including Burkholderia, Herminiimonas, Minibacterium and Ralstonia. Sequence determination resulted in 41 hctB variants that formed four clades in phylogenetic analysis. Strains causing the eye disease trachoma and strains causing invasive lymphogranuloma venereum infections formed separate clades, while strains from urogenital infections were more heterogeneous. Three cases of recombination were identified. The size variation of Hc2 has previously been attributed to deletions of pentamers but we show that the structure is more complex with both duplication and deletions of 36-amino acid long elements. Conclusions The polymorphisms in Hc2 need to be further investigated in experimental studies since DNA binding is essential for the unique biphasic life cycle of the Chlamydiacae. The high sequence variation in the corresponding hctB gene enables phylogenetic analysis and provides a suitable target for the genotyping of C. trachomatis.

  19. Plasmid Negative Regulation of CPAF Expression Is Pgp4 Independent and Restricted to Invasive Chlamydia trachomatis Biovars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael John Patton

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Chlamydia trachomatis is an obligate intracellular bacterial pathogen that causes blinding trachoma and sexually transmitted disease. C. trachomatis isolates are classified into 2 biovars—lymphogranuloma venereum (LGV and trachoma—which are distinguished biologically by their natural host cell infection tropism. LGV biovars infect macrophages and are invasive, whereas trachoma biovars infect oculo-urogenital epithelial cells and are noninvasive. The C. trachomatis plasmid is an important virulence factor in the pathogenesis of these infections. Central to its pathogenic role is the transcriptional regulatory function of the plasmid protein Pgp4, which regulates the expression of plasmid and chromosomal virulence genes. As many gene regulatory functions are post-transcriptional, we employed a comparative proteomic study of cells infected with plasmid-cured C. trachomatis serovars A and D (trachoma biovar, a L2 serovar (LGV biovar, and the L2 serovar transformed with a plasmid containing a nonsense mutation in pgp4 to more completely elucidate the effects of the plasmid on chlamydial infection biology. Our results show that the Pgp4-dependent elevations in the levels of Pgp3 and a conserved core set of chromosomally encoded proteins are remarkably similar for serovars within both C. trachomatis biovars. Conversely, we found a plasmid-dependent, Pgp4-independent, negative regulation in the expression of the chlamydial protease-like activity factor (CPAF for the L2 serovar but not the A and D serovars. The molecular mechanism of plasmid-dependent negative regulation of CPAF expression in the LGV serovar is not understood but is likely important to understanding its macrophage infection tropism and invasive infection nature.

  20. Chlamydia trachomatis In Vivo to In Vitro Transition Reveals Mechanisms of Phase Variation and Down-Regulation of Virulence Factors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vítor Borges

    Full Text Available Research on the obligate intracellular bacterium Chlamydia trachomatis demands culture in cell-lines, but the adaptive process behind the in vivo to in vitro transition is not understood. We assessed the genomic and transcriptomic dynamics underlying C. trachomatis in vitro adaptation of strains representing the three disease groups (ocular, epithelial-genital and lymphogranuloma venereum propagated in epithelial cells over multiple passages. We found genetic features potentially underlying phase variation mechanisms mediating the regulation of a lipid A biosynthesis enzyme (CT533/LpxC, and the functionality of the cytotoxin (CT166 through an ON/OFF mechanism. We detected inactivating mutations in CT713/porB, a scenario suggesting metabolic adaptation to the available carbon source. CT135 was inactivated in a tropism-specific manner, with CT135-negative clones emerging for all epithelial-genital populations (but not for LGV and ocular populations and rapidly increasing in frequency (~23% mutants per 10 passages. RNA-sequencing analyses revealed that a deletion event involving CT135 impacted the expression of multiple virulence factors, namely effectors known to play a role in the C. trachomatis host-cell invasion or subversion (e.g., CT456/Tarp, CT694, CT875/TepP and CT868/ChlaDub1. This reflects a scenario of attenuation of C. trachomatis virulence in vitro, which may take place independently or in a cumulative fashion with the also observed down-regulation of plasmid-related virulence factors. This issue may be relevant on behalf of the recent advances in Chlamydia mutagenesis and transformation where culture propagation for selecting mutants/transformants is mandatory. Finally, there was an increase in the growth rate for all strains, reflecting gradual fitness enhancement over time. In general, these data shed light on the adaptive process underlying the C. trachomatis in vivo to in vitro transition, and indicates that it would be prudent to

  1. Co-evolution of genomes and plasmids within Chlamydia trachomatis and the emergence in Sweden of a new variant strain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Skilton Rachel J

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Chlamydia trachomatis is the most common cause of sexually transmitted infections globally and the leading cause of preventable blindness in the developing world. There are two biovariants of C. trachomatis: 'trachoma', causing ocular and genital tract infections, and the invasive 'lymphogranuloma venereum' strains. Recently, a new variant of the genital tract C. trachomatis emerged in Sweden. This variant escaped routine diagnostic tests because it carries a plasmid with a deletion. Failure to detect this strain has meant it has spread rapidly across the country provoking a worldwide alert. In addition to being a key diagnostic target, the plasmid has been linked to chlamydial virulence. Analysis of chlamydial plasmids and their cognate chromosomes was undertaken to provide insights into the evolutionary relationship between chromosome and plasmid. This is essential knowledge if the plasmid is to be continued to be relied on as a key diagnostic marker, and for an understanding of the evolution of Chlamydia trachomatis. Results The genomes of two new C. trachomatis strains were sequenced, together with plasmids from six C. trachomatis isolates, including the new variant strain from Sweden. The plasmid from the new Swedish variant has a 377 bp deletion in the first predicted coding sequence, abolishing the site used for PCR detection, resulting in negative diagnosis. In addition, the variant plasmid has a 44 bp duplication downstream of the deletion. The region containing the second predicted coding sequence is the most highly conserved region of the plasmids investigated. Phylogenetic analysis of the plasmids and chromosomes are fully congruent. Moreover this analysis also shows that ocular and genital strains diverged from a common C. trachomatis progenitor. Conclusion The evolutionary pathways of the chlamydial genome and plasmid imply that inheritance of the plasmid is tightly linked with its cognate chromosome. These data

  2. Chlamydia trachomatis Strain Types Have Diversified Regionally and Globally with Evidence for Recombination across Geographic Divides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vitaly Smelov

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Chlamydia trachomatis (Ct is the leading cause of bacterial sexually transmitted diseases worldwide. The Ct Multi Locus Sequence Typing (MLST scheme is effective in differentiating strain types (ST, deciphering transmission patterns and treatment failure, and identifying recombinant strains. Here, we analyzed 323 reference and clinical samples, including 58 samples from Russia, an area that has not previously been represented in Ct typing schemes, to expand our knowledge of the global diversification of Ct STs. The 323 samples resolved into 84 unique STs, a 3.23 higher typing resolution compared to the gold standard single locus ompA genotyping. Our MLST scheme showed a high discriminatory index, D, of 0.98 (95% CI 0.97–0.99 confirming the validity of this method for typing. Phylogenetic analyses revealed distinct branches for the phenotypic diseases of lymphogranuloma venereum, urethritis and cervicitis, and a sub-branch for ocular trachoma. Consistent with these findings, single nucleotide polymorphisms were identified that significantly correlated with each phenotype. While the overall number of unique STs per region was comparable across geographies, the number of STs was greater for Russia with a significantly higher ST/sample ratio of 0.45 (95% CI: 0.35–0.53 compared to Europe or the Americas (p < 0.009, which may reflect a higher level of sexual mixing with the introduction of STs from other regions and/or reassortment of alleles. Four STs were found to be significantly associated with a particular geographic region. ST23 [p = 0.032 (95% CI: 1–23], ST34 [p = 0.019 (95% CI: 1.1–25]; and ST19 [p = 0.001 (95% CI: 1.7–34.7] were significantly associated with Netherlands compared to Russia or the Americas, while ST 30 [p = 0.031 (95% CI: 1.1–17.8] was significantly associated with the Americas. ST19 was significantly associated with Netherlands and Russia compared with the Americans [p = 0.001 (95% CI: 1.7–34.7 and p = 0.006 (95

  3. Anal infections with concomitant Chlamydia trachomatis genotypes among men who have sex with men in Amsterdam, the Netherlands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    van der Loeff Maarten

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Lymphogranuloma venereum (LGV proctitis is caused by Chlamydia trachomatis (Ct genotype L and is endemic among men who have sex with men (MSM in western society. Genotype L infections need to be distinguished from non-LGV (genotypes A-K Ct infections since they require prolonged antibiotic treatment. For this purpose, an in-house developed pmpH based LGV polymerase chain reaction (PCR test is used at the Amsterdam STI outpatient clinic. We investigated retrospectively the anal Ct genotype distribution, and the frequency of concomitant genotype infections in MSM infected with LGV and non-LGV Ct infections. To detect concomitant Ct genotype infections, the pmpH LGV PCR and genoTyping Reverse Hybridization Assay (Ct-DT RHA were used. Methods A total of 201 Ct positive rectal swabs from MSM were selected, which were previously diagnosed as either LGV (n = 99 or non-LGV Ct infection (n = 102 according to the algorithm of Ct detection by the commercially available Aptima Combo 2 assay followed by an in-house pmpH LGV PCR. The samples were retested with the commercially available Ct-DT RHA, which differentiates between 14 major genotypes and is able to detect concomitant Ct genotypes. Results Excellent genotyping agreement was observed between the Ct-DT RHA and the pmpH LGV PCR (Kappa = 0.900, 95%CI = 0.845-0.955, McNemar's p = 1.000. A concomitant non-LGV genotype was detected in 6/99 (6.1% LGV samples. No additional LGV infections were observed with the Ct-DT RHA among the non-LGV Ct group. In the non-LGV group genotype G/Ga (34.3% was seen most frequent, followed by genotype D/Da (22.5% and genotype J (13.7%. All LGV infections were caused by genotype L2. Conclusions Concomitant non-LGV genotypes do not lead to missed LGV proctitis diagnosis. The pmpH LGV PCR displayed excellent agreement with the commercially available Ct-DT genotyping RHA test. The genotypes G/Ga, D/Da and J were the most frequent non-LGV Ct strains in MSM.

  4. Chlamydia, Gonorrhea, and Syphilis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Education & Events Advocacy For Patients About ACOG Chlamydia, Gonorrhea, and Syphilis Home For Patients Search FAQs Chlamydia, ... and Syphilis FAQ071, December 2016 PDF Format Chlamydia, Gonorrhea, and Syphilis Gynecologic Problems What is a sexually ...

  5. Bioinformatic Analysis of Chlamydia trachomatis Polymorphic Membrane Proteins PmpE, PmpF, PmpG and PmpH as Potential Vaccine Antigens.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandra Nunes

    Full Text Available Chlamydia trachomatis is the most important infectious cause of infertility in women with important implications in public health and for which a vaccine is urgently needed. Recent immunoproteomic vaccine studies found that four polymorphic membrane proteins (PmpE, PmpF, PmpG and PmpH are immunodominant, recognized by various MHC class II haplotypes and protective in mouse models. In the present study, we aimed to evaluate genetic and protein features of Pmps (focusing on the N-terminal 600 amino acids where MHC class II epitopes were mapped in order to understand antigen variation that may emerge following vaccine induced immune selection. We used several bioinformatics platforms to study: i Pmps' phylogeny and genetic polymorphism; ii the location and distribution of protein features (GGA(I, L/FxxN motifs and cysteine residues that may impact pathogen-host interactions and protein conformation; and iii the existence of phase variation mechanisms that may impact Pmps' expression. We used a well-characterized collection of 53 fully-sequenced strains that represent the C. trachomatis serovars associated with the three disease groups: ocular (N=8, epithelial-genital (N=25 and lymphogranuloma venereum (LGV (N=20. We observed that PmpF and PmpE are highly polymorphic between LGV and epithelial-genital strains, and also within populations of the latter. We also found heterogeneous representation among strains for GGA(I, L/FxxN motifs and cysteine residues, suggesting possible alterations in adhesion properties, tissue specificity and immunogenicity. PmpG and, to a lesser extent, PmpH revealed low polymorphism and high conservation of protein features among the genital strains (including the LGV group. Uniquely among the four Pmps, pmpG has regulatory sequences suggestive of phase variation. In aggregate, the results suggest that PmpG may be the lead vaccine candidate because of sequence conservation but may need to be paired with another protective

  6. Prevalence of chlamydia infection using chlamydia antigen ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Abstract. Background and Objectives: Tubal disease is often associated with persistent chlamydia trachomatis infection. The objective detection of this infection depends on tissue culture which is time consuming and expensive. Serologic techniques for chlamydia detection have been documented. While this may be rapid, ...

  7. Chlamydia infections in women

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... other types of STIs. Most common STIs are: Gonorrhea HIV/AIDS Syphilis Hepatitis Herpes Even if you ... you from passing the STIs back and forth. Gonorrhea often occurs with chlamydia. Therefore, treatment for gonorrhea ...

  8. Chlamydia - CDC Fact Sheet

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Archive STDs Home Page Bacterial Vaginosis (BV) Chlamydia Gonorrhea Genital Herpes Hepatitis HIV/AIDS & STDs Human Papillomavirus ( ... sheet Pelvic Inflammatory Disease (PID) – CDC fact sheet Gonorrhea – CDC fact sheet STDs Home Page Bacterial Vaginosis ( ...

  9. Chlamydia and Women

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2009-04-02

    This women's health podcast focuses on chlamydia, its severe health consequences for women if left untreated, and the importance of annual chlamydia screening.  Created: 4/2/2009 by Office of Women’s Health (OWH) and National Center for HIV/AIDS, Viral Hepatitis, STD, and TB Prevention (NCHHSTP).   Date Released: 4/2/2009.

  10. Chlamydia trachomatis Mip-like protein

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lundemose, AG; Rousch, DA; Birkelund, Svend

    1992-01-01

    venereum (LGV) biovar) is presented. The sequence shows high similarity to the legionella Mip protein and its C-terminal region, like that of the legionella Mip, has high amino acid similarity to eukaryotic and prokaryotic FK506-binding proteins. The chlamydial mip-like gene was detected by polymerase...

  11. Chlamydia Test: MedlinePlus Lab Test Information

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: https://medlineplus.gov/labtests/chlamydiatest.html Chlamydia Test To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. What is a Chlamydia Test? Chlamydia is one of the most common sexually ...

  12. 21 CFR 866.3120 - Chlamydia serological reagents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents § 866.3120 Chlamydia... and antisera used in serological tests to identify antibodies to chlamydia in serum. Additionally...

  13. Characterization of a secreted Chlamydia protease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shaw, A.C.; Vandahl, B.B.; Larsen, M.R.

    2002-01-01

    Chlamydiae are obligate intracellular bacteria that are important human pathogens. The Chlamydia genomes contain orthologues to secretion apparatus proteins from other intracellular bacteria, but only a few secreted proteins have been identified. Most likely, effector proteins are secreted in order...... to promote infection. Effector proteins cannot be identified by motif or similarity searches. As a new strategy for identification of secreted proteins we have compared 2D-PAGE profiles of [35S]-labelled Chlamydia proteins from whole lysates of infected cells to 2D-PAGE profiles of proteins from purified...... Chlamydia. Several secretion candidates from Chlamydia trachomatis D and Chlamydia pneumoniae were detected by this method. Two protein spots were identified among the candidates. These represent fragments of the 'chlamydial protease- or proteasome-like activity factor' (CPAF) and were clearly present in 2D...

  14. Chlamydia control in Europe: literature review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Low, N; S, Redmond; Alexander, K

    Executive summary The literature reviews in this report bring together published evidence about the prevalence and reproductive tract complications of chlamydia infection, and about the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of chlamydia screening interventions. Population prevalence of chlamydia...... in EU/EEA Member States • Ten EU/EEA Member States have conducted population-based cross-sectional surveys to measure the prevalence of chlamydia infection in a nationally representative sample of the population or in a subnational sample of the population. Fourteen EU/EEA Member States have conducted...... cross-sectional surveys using non-population-based sampling methods. Three EU/EEA Member States have no studies estimating chlamydia positivity or prevalence. • Estimates of chlamydia prevalence in population-based studies varied by country, sex, age group, national or sub-national coverage...

  15. Screening on urogenital Chlamydia trachomatis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Busse, Reinhard

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Around 92 million urogenital infections are caused yearly by Chlamydia trachomatis worldwide [1]. The overall incidence of sexually transmitted diseases is increasing, as shown by the increases in the number of reported cases of syphilis and gonorrhea [2]. Chlamydia trachomatis infections are associated with various serious diseases in women, men and newborns, which could be, at least partially, avoided by means of early diagnosis and therapy. The Federal Joint Committee - responsible for decision-making concerning the benefit package of the German Social Health Insurance - has publicly announced the starting of deliberations on the issue of screening for Chlamydia trachomatis. Research Questions: The leading question to be answered is whether screening for Chlamydia trachomatis should be included in the German benefit basket. The aim of this report is to provide a summary of the available evidence concerning the issue of screening for Chlamydia trachomatis. Methods: The summary of published scientific evidence, including HTA reports, systematic reviews, guidelines and primary research is represented. The synthesis follows the structure given by the criteria of Wilson and Jungner [3] for the introduction of screening in a population: relevance of the condition, availability of an adequate test, effectiveness of screening, acceptance of the programme, and economical issues. A literature search was conducted for each aspect of the synthesis and the evidence has been summarised in evidence tables. Results: We identified five HTA reports from three European agencies [4], [5], [6], [7] and one from the USA [8]. In addition, we identified four guidelines from Northamerica [9], [10], [11], [12] and one from Europe [13]. A total of 56 primary research publications were included: relevance of the disease (n=26, availability of test (n=1, effectiveness of screening (n=11, acceptance of the programme (n=11, economical issues (n=7. Discussion

  16. Submission Manual.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-06-01

    LGM) CF Conval. serum req, SF 557 Lymphogranuloma venereum 1 ml serum, Less than 1:8 (LGV) CF Red top tube, Conval. serum req, SF 557 Malaria Indirect...Vaccinia Herpes simplex S Vulvovaginitis Coxsackie Group B Vaginal swab Herpes simplex Lesion scraping Lymphogranuloma venereum Paired blood Central...simplex Paired sera Mumps Postmortem brain and cord Lvphocytic chorio- meningitis Lymphogranuloma venereum Psittacosis 134 TABLEV - ILLNESS VIRAL OR

  17. Prevalence of Chlamydia Trachomatis Infection among Female ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Alasia Datonye

    prevalence of and predictive risk factors for Chlamydia trachomatis infection among female undergraduate students of ... manage and associated with severe sequelae. Key Words: – Prevalence; Chlamydia trachomatis; ... genital infection during pregnancy increases the risk of spontaneous abortion, premature delivery and ...

  18. Chlamydia trachomatis in non-specific urethritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terho, P

    1978-01-01

    Chlamydia trachomatis was isolated from 58.5% of 159 patients with non-specific urethritis (NSU) using irradiated McCoy cell cultures. Patients with persistent Chlamydia-positive NSU remained Chlamydia-positive each time they were examined before treatment and patients with Chlamydia-negative NSU remained Chlamydia-negative during the course of the illness. Neither the duration of symptoms of urethritis nor a history of previous urethritis affected the chlamydial isolation rate significantly. Of 40 patients with severe discharge 30 (75%) harboured C. trachomatis. One-third of the Chlamydia-positive patients had a severe urethral discharge, while this was present in only 15% of Chlamydia-negative patients. Complications--such as conjunctivitis, arthritis, and epididymitis--were more severe in men with Chlamdia-positive NSU than in those with Chlamydia-negative NSU. Of 64 men matched for sexual promiscuity but without urethritis, none harboured C. trachomatis in his urethra. This differs significantly (P less than 0.001) when compared with patients with NSU. C. trachomatis was isolated from the urogenital tract in 24 (42%) out of 57 female sexual contacts of patients with NSU. The presence of C. trachomatis in the women correlated significantly (P less than 0.001) with the isolation of the agent from their male contacts. These findings give further evidence for the aetiological role of C. trachomatis in non-specific urethritis and its sexual transmission. PMID:678958

  19. Prevalence of Chlamydia trachomatis Infection among Women ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The prevalence of Chlamydia trachomatis infection was investigated among 100 women attending infertility clinics and compared with another subset of 100 pregnant women who served as control. Chlamydia trachomatis antigen detection cassette supplied by Biomil Diagnostics was used to detect the presence of ...

  20. Genital chlamydia trachomatis infection among female ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Genital Chlamydia trachomatis infection is a common bacterial sexually transmitted infection worldwide. There is little information about this infection in Nigeria. This study determined the prevalence of genital Chlamydia trachomatis infection among female undergraduates of University of Port Harcourt and ...

  1. Genital Chlamydia trachomatis: An update

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meenakshi Malhotra

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Chlamydia trachomatis is the most common cause of curable bacterial sexually transmitted infection (STI worldwide. It manifests primarily as urethritis in males and endocervicitis in females. Untreated chlamydial infection in man can cause epididymitis and proctitis. Though most women with Chlamydia infection are asymptomatic or have minimal symptoms, some develop salpingitis, endometritis, pelvic inflammatory disease (PID, ectopic pregnancy and tubal factor infertility. It is associated with an increased risk for the transmission or acquisition of HIV and is also attributed to be a risk factor for the development of cervical carcinoma. Early diagnosis and treatment of infected individuals is required to prevent the spread of the disease and severe sequelae. Traditionally, tissue culture was considered the gold standard for the diagnosis. However, with the availability of newer diagnostic techniques particularly molecular methods which are not only highly sensitive and specific but are cost-effective also, the diagnosis has became fast and easy. The purpose of this review is to study the various aspects of genital C. trachomatis infection. Also the advances related to the clinical picture, various diagnostic modalities, prevention, treatment, drug resistance and control measures will be dealt with.

  2. A review of Chlamydia pneumoniae and atherosclerosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindholt, Jes Sanddal; Fasting, H; Henneberg, E W

    1999-01-01

    Chlamydia pneumoniae is a Gram-negative obligate intracellular bacterium that causes acute upper and lower respiratory infections. Its distribution is worldwide. Seroepidemiological studies have shown an association between C. pneumoniae and atherosclerosis, and the risk of acute myocardial...

  3. NNDSS - Table II. Chlamydia to Coccidioidomycosis

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — NNDSS - Table II. Chlamydia to Coccidioidomycosis - 2017. In this Table, provisional cases of selected notifiable diseases (≥1,000 cases reported during the...

  4. NNDSS - Table II. Chlamydia to Coccidioidomycosis

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — NNDSS - Table II. Chlamydia to Coccidioidomycosis - 2016. In this Table, provisional* cases of selected† notifiable diseases (≥1,000 cases reported during the...

  5. Prevalence of Chlamydia trachomatis infection among patients ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Prevalence of Chlamydia trachomatis infection among patients attending infertility and sexually transmitted diseases clinic (STD) in Kano, North Western Nigeria. ... A higher percentage of the patients (95.2%) were not aware of the existence of ...

  6. Prevalence of Chlamydia trachomatis infection among patients ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    sexually transmitted diseases clinic (STD) in Kano, North Western Nigeria. ... A higher percentage of the patients (95.2%) were not aware of the existence of ... Key words: Chlamydia trachomatis, Prevalence, risk factors, Infertility, STD, Kano.

  7. NNDSS - Table II. Chlamydia to Coccidioidomycosis

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — NNDSS - Table II. Chlamydia to Coccidioidomycosis - 2015.In this Table, provisional cases of selected notifiable diseases (≥1,000 cases reported during the preceding...

  8. Prevalence of Chlamydia psittaci and Other Chlamydia Species in Wild Birds in Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krawiec, Marta; Piasecki, Tomasz; Wieliczko, Alina

    2015-11-01

    Avian chlamydiosis is a zoonotic disease occurring in humans, poultry, and exotic birds. It has been suggested that some wild bird species play an important role as reservoirs for Chlamydia, especially Chlamydia psittaci. Whereas C. psittaci is the predominant chlamydial agent in birds, in the present study we have determined the prevalence of different species of Chlamydia among selected wild bird species in Poland using a rapid and sensitive real-time PCR method. In total, 369 free-living birds from 35 bird species and 15 orders were examined. Samples from 27 birds (7.3%) were positive for chlamydial DNA in the PCR; 22 positive samples (81.5%) belonged to C. psittaci, three to Chlamydia trachomatis (11.1%), and two (7.4%) classified only to the genus Chlamydia. Most of C. psittaci-positive samples belonged to five orders: Anseriformes, Columbiformes, Gruiformes, Phasianiformes, and Passeriformes. All C. trachomatis samples were obtained from Eurasian coots (Gruiformes). Two Chlamydia-positive samples not classified to any Chlamydia species were obtained from a common wood pigeon (Columbiformes) and a common buzzard (Accipitriformes). Detection of C. psittaci and C. trachomatis in free-living bird populations force to think on significance of birds as reservoir of varied Chlamydia species and their epidemiological importance.

  9. Biosafety in the Laboratory: Prudent Practices for the Handling and Disposal of Infectious Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-03-01

    psittacosis, lymphogranuloma animal disease diagnostic laboratory). Biosafety Level venereum (LGV), and trachoma are documented APPENDIX A I11 hazards and...127 see also Facilities Lymphogranuloma venereum , 110-111 Laboratory practices academic laboratories, 68-69 M Biosafety Level 1, 90 Biosafety Level

  10. Detection of Chlamydia in postmortal formalin-fixed tissue

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lundemose, AG; Lundemose, JB; Birkelund, Svend

    1989-01-01

    A procedure to detect Chlamydia in postmortal formalin-fixed tissue is described. Monoclonal antibodies against a genus specific chlamydia epitope were used in immunofluorescence to detect chlamydia inclusions in formalin-fixed tissue sections. Lung sections from chlamydia-infected mice were....... Background and non-specific fluorescence were reduced by treating the tissue sections with trypsin, rabbit serum and Evans blue counterstain. Besides giving an exact diagnosis at autopsy, the method provides the possibility of determining the occurrence of chlamydia infections in various tissues, based...

  11. Immunoelectron microscopy of lipopolysaccharide in Chlamydia trachomatis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Birkelund, Svend; Lundemose, AG; Christiansen, Gunna

    1989-01-01

    Monoclonal antibodies (MAb) specific for Chlamydia trachomatis lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and major outer membrane protein (MOMP) were used for immunoelectron microscopy analysis. MAb specific for MOMP showed strong reaction with the chlamydial surface, whereas MAb specific for LPS showed strong...... association of gold particles with the periphery of the chlamydial body. After fixation of the chlamydia cells, the reactivity was, however, similar to the anti-MOMP reactivity. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay showed that MAb specific for LPS could remove LPS from the chlamydial membrane....

  12. Emerging role of Chlamydia and Chlamydia-like organisms in adverse pregnancy outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baud, David; Regan, Lesley; Greub, Gilbert

    2008-02-01

    This review considers the roles of Chlamydia spp. and newly identified Chlamydia-like organisms in miscarriage, stillbirths and preterm labour in both animals and humans. The cause of miscarriage, stillbirth and preterm labour often remains unexplained. Intracellular bacteria that grow either poorly or not at all on media used routinely to detect human pathogens could be the aetiological agents of these obstetrical conditions. There is growing evidence that Chlamydia trachomatis, Chlamydophila abortus, Chlamydophila psittaci and Chlamydophila pneumoniae infections may result in adverse pregnancy outcomes in humans and/or animals. Waddlia, a Chlamydia-like organism first isolated from an aborted bovine, has emerged as an agent of abortion in cattle. Recently, Waddlia was also implicated in human foetal death. Moreover, Parachlamydia acanthamoebae is also abortigenic in ruminants. Whether additional novel Chlamydia-like organisms, such as Protochlamydia amoebophila, Neochlamydia hartmanellae, Criblamydia sequanensis, Rhabdochlamydia crassificans and Simkania negevensis, are involved in foetal loss or premature delivery remains to be determined. This review provides an update on the consequences of chlamydial infection during pregnancy and summarizes current evidence suggesting that some Chlamydia-related organisms are probably emerging obstetrical pathogens.

  13. Chemical cross-linking of Chlamydia trachomatis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Birkelund, Svend; Lundemose, AG; Christiansen, Gunna

    1988-01-01

    Purified elementary bodies (EBs) of Chlamydia trachomatis serovar L2 were analyzed by chemical cross-linking with disuccinimidyl selenodipropionate. The effect of the cross-linking was analyzed by immunoblotting sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis-separated components which...

  14. CHLAMYDIA TRACHOMATIS IgG ANTIBODIES

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2014-12-31

    Dec 31, 2014 ... humans caused by the bacterium Chlamydia trachomatis. .... more people were living inside the school hostel in FCETU (45; 45.0%) .... seroprevalence than their counterparts with less risky behaviours ..... Janet S.B, Stephen A.M. Medical Microbiology 24th Edition, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. USA, ...

  15. Prevalence of Chlamydia trachomatis infections in symptomatic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Chlamydia trachomatis is a ubiquitous human pathogen that is responsible for the most prevalent bacterial sexually transmitted disease worldwide. Studies show that polymerase chain reaction (PCR) is more sensitive than cellular culture for detection of C. trachomatis infections. The aim of this study is to compare different ...

  16. Chlamydia pneumoniae : studies on an emerging pathogen

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R.P.A.J. Verkooyen (Roel)

    1997-01-01

    textabstractThe Chlamydiae are characterized as bacteria because of the composition of their cell wall and their growth by binary division. However, they are obligate intracellular bacterial parasites of eukaryotic cells that have a unique replication cycle similar to Rickettsia. Chlamydial

  17. [Chlamydia pneumoniae--etiology of ophthalmia neonatorum].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krásný, J; Borovanská, J; Hrubá, D

    2003-07-01

    The authors observed mucous discharge in palpebral aperture, accompanied by a different degree of effusion of eyelids and chemosis of conjunctivae, particularly the tarsal ones, in 12 physiological newborns. Chlamydia pneumoniae proved to be the etiological agent in the newborn ophthalmia. The eye infection was not detected in the same period of time and in the same maternity hospital in the period of observation from September 1999 to March 2001. The detection of Chlamydia pneumoniae was performed in conjunctiva smears. The impression films on slides were examined by the method of indirect immunofluorescence with the use of specific monoclonal antibodies (medac, Germany). In the early stages the secretion included a sanguineous component, which was then changing into a mucoid or mucopurulent form. The character of conjunctival symptoms was changing in the course of inflammation. Effusion of the lower transitory fold (plica) was gradually accompanied by a picture of pseudofollicular changes on the tarsal conjunctiva. Clarithromycin in the form of syrup at daily doses of 15 mg/kg/day for the period of two weeks offered an efficient therapy of the affection. Control smears after 14 days were always negative and, at the same time, the pathological finding on the conjunctivae disappeared. The nasolacrimal obstruction was the only complication of this chlamydia infection, taking place in seven sucklings, i.e. in 58%. The passage through lacrimal drainage system reappeared in all the affected infants until they reached one year of age. The remaining question to be answered is the way the newborns encountered the infection. A nosocomial infection may be the case, but Chlamydia pneumoniae could also be present in the urogenital tract of mothers and transferred to the newborn via the birth canal similarly as is the case of Chlamydia trachomatis infection. The mode of infection deserves further investigation.

  18. Synthesis of protein in host-free reticulate bodies of Chlamydia psittaci and Chlamydia trachomatis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hatch, T.P.; Miceli, M.; Silverman, J.A.

    1985-01-01

    Synthesis of protein by the obligate intracellular parasitic bacteria Chlamydia psittaci (6BC) and Chlamydia trachomatis (serovar L2) isolated from host cells (host-free chlamydiae) was demonstrated for the first time. Incorporation of [ 35 S]methionine and [ 35 S]cysteine into trichloroacetic acid-precipitable material by reticulate bodies of chlamydiae persisted for 2 h and was dependent upon a exogenous source of ATP, an ATP-regenerating system, and potassium or sodium ions. Magnesium ions and amino acids stimulated synthesis; chloramphenicol, rifampin, oligomycin, and carbonyl cyanide p-trifluoromethoxyphenylhydrazone (a proton ionophore) inhibited incorporation. Ribonucleoside triphosphates (other than ATP) had little stimulatory effect. The optimum pH for host-free synthesis was between 7.0 and 7.5. The molecular weights of proteins synthesized by host-free reticulate bodies closely resembled the molecular weights of proteins synthesized by reticulate bodies in an intracellular environment, and included outer membrane proteins. Elementary bodies of chlamydiae were unable to synthesize protein even when incubated in the presence of 10 mM dithiothreitol, a reducing agent which converted the highly disulfide bond cross-linked major outer membrane protein to monomeric form

  19. Activity of synthetic peptides against Chlamydia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donati, Manuela; Cenacchi, Giovanna; Biondi, Roberta; Papa, Valentina; Borel, Nicole; Vecchio Nepita, Edoardo; Magnino, Simone; Pasquinelli, Gianandrea; Levi, Aurora; Franco, Octavio L

    2017-11-01

    The in vitro activity of six synthetic peptides against 36 strains of Chlamydia from different origins was investigated. Clavanin MO (CMO) proved to be the most active peptide, reducing the inclusion number of all Chlamydia strains from eight different species tested by ≥50% at 10 µg mL -1 . Mastoparan L showed an equal activity against C. trachomatis, C. pneumoniae, C. suis, and C. muridarum, but did not exert any inhibitory effect against C. psittaci, C. pecorum, C. abortus, and C. avium even at 80 µg mL -1 . These data suggest that CMO could be a promising compound in the prevention and treatment of chlamydial infections. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Brain biopsy for diagnosis of chlamydia encephalitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. A. Voznyuk

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This is the case of encephalitis associated with chlamydia infection of central nervous system. The diagnostic protocol of the patient included: a careful observation of somatic and neurological status, laboratory tests of blood and cerebrospinal fluid, neurovisualization. The results of the diagnostic protocol suggest that laboratory tests blood and cerebrospinal fluid possess low sensitivity and specificity. The MRI study has revealed the localization and inflammatory character of the changes in brain tissue; it has also helped to choose the most favorable area for the stereotaxic biopsy. The obtained tissue was evaluated by means of light (immunohistochemistry and electronic microscopy. The active chlamydia infection was estimated. The subsequent antibacterial etiotropic therapy resulted in the regression of the neurologic symptoms and remission.The intravitalpathomorphology study of the brain could be recommended for the management of the severe encephalitis of the unknown origin. 

  1. Chlamydia psittaci in birds of prey, Sweden

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Blomqvist

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Chlamydia psittaci is an intracellular bacterium primarily causing respiratory diseases in birds but may also be transmitted to other animals, including humans. The prevalence of the pathogen in wild birds in Sweden is largely unknown. Methods: DNA was extracted from cloacae swabs and screened for C. psittaci by using a 23S rRNA gene PCR assay. Partial 16S rRNA and ompA gene fragments were sequence determined and phylogenies were analysed by the neighbour-joining method. Results and conclusion: The C. psittaci prevalence was 1.3% in 319 Peregrine Falcons and White-tailed Sea Eagles, vulnerable top-predators in Sweden. 16S rRNA and ompA gene analysis showed that novel Chlamydia species, as well as novel C. psittaci strains, are to be found among wild birds.

  2. Chlamydia and Male Lower Urinary Tract Diseases

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Young-Suk; Lee, Kyu-Sung

    2013-01-01

    Of the chlamydia species that can cause infections in humans, C. trachomatis is responsible for lower urinary tract diseases in men and women. C. trachomatis infections are prevalent worldwide, but current research is focused on females, with the burden of disease and infertility sequelae considered to be a predominantly female problem. However, a role for this pathogen in the development of male urethritis, epididymitis, and orchitis is widely accepted. Also, it can cause complications such ...

  3. Seroprevalence of Chlamydia trachomatis in Enugu, Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikeme, A C; Ezegwui, H U; Ikeako, L C; Agbata, I; Agbata, E

    2011-01-01

    Chlamydia infections in women cause pelvic inflammatory disease, which often results in devastating consequences of infertility, ectopic pregnancy, or chronic pelvic pain. The infection is largely asymptomatic. To determine the seroprevalence of Chlamydia trachomatis in Enugu, South Eastern Nigeria. A population-based prospective study comprising female residents of Enugu, South Eastern Nigeria. Indirect solid phase enzyme immunoassay of Chlamydia antibodies was done using ImmunoComb C0. Trachomatis IgG Kit (Orgenics). The population comprised 136 female undergraduate students and 150 non-student women. The overall prevalence of C. trachomatis in the population studied was 29.4%. The percentage of subjects who admitted to be having multiple sexual partners was higher among the student population (71.2%) compared to those from the non-student population (28.8%). The highest percentage of seroprevalence was 28 (33.3%) in the age group of 20-24 years for the student population and 18 (21.4%) in the age group of 25-29 years for the non-student population. The highest seroprevalence of C. trachomatis antibodies (69.0%) in both populations was observed in females without any history of infection. Females that had pelvic inflammatory disease, sexually transmitted infection, and secondary infertility assayed for C. trachomatis had seroprevalence levels of 19%, 9.5%, and 2.4%, respectively. There was a positive correlation between positive Chlamydia assay and the type of subject population (student or non-student) with r2 value of 1.55 at P Nigeria.

  4. Comparison of the population excess fraction of Chlamydia trachomatis infection on pelvic inflammatory disease at 12-months in the presence and absence of Chlamydia testing and treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Davies, Bethan; Turner, Katy M.E.; Leung, Stella

    2017-01-01

    Background: The impact of Chlamydia trachomatis (chlamydia) control on the incidence of pelvic inflammatory disease (PID) is theoretically limited by the proportion of PID caused by chlamydia. We estimate the population excess fraction (PEF) of treated chlamydia infection on PID at 12-months...... in settings with widespread chlamydia control (testing and treatment) and compare this to the estimated PEF of untreated chlamydia. Methods: We used two large retrospective population-based cohorts of women of reproductive age from settings with widespread chlamydia control to calculate the PEF of treated...... chlamydia on PID at 12-months. We undertook a systematic review to identify further studies that reported the risk of PID in women who were tested for chlamydia (infected and uninfected). We used the same method to calculate the PEF in eligible studies then compared all estimates of PEF. Results...

  5. Methods for Real-Time PCR-Based Diagnosis of Chlamydia pneumoniae, Chlamydia psittaci, and Chlamydia abortus Infections in an Opened Molecular Diagnostic Platform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Opota, Onya; Brouillet, René; Greub, Gilbert; Jaton, Katia

    2017-01-01

    The advances in molecular biology of the last decades have dramatically improved the field of diagnostic bacteriology. In particular, PCR-based technologies have impacted the diagnosis of infections caused by obligate intracellular bacteria such as pathogens from the Chlamydiacae family. Here, we describe a real-time PCR-based method using the Taqman technology for the diagnosis of Chlamydia pneumoniae, Chlamydia psittaci, and Chlamydia abortus infection. The method presented here can be applied to various clinical samples and can be adapted on opened molecular diagnostic platforms.

  6. Prevalence of chlamydia in patients attending gynecological clinics ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    From the cultured samples 230 were positive for Chlamydia trachomatis and 99 positive to Chlamydia pneumoniae. Statistical analysis using the student\\'s t test at 95% confidence interval shows that there was no significant difference between the number of females and males that presented themselves for screening.

  7. Seroevidence Of Chlamydia Trachomatis Infection In Infertile Male ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Given the lack of information concerning the role of Chlamydia trachomatis in male infertility, it has become imperative to analyse the quality of semen of male with seroevidence of antibody to Chlamydia trachomatis infection. A total of 156 male patients attending the Human Reproduction Research Programme/Invitro ...

  8. The production of labelled gammaglobulin for the detection of chlamydia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Popov, G.; Dimitrova, Zl.; Martinov, Sv.

    1981-01-01

    It was concluded that the main condition for the production of high titer labelled gammaglobulins was to obtain purified and concentrated Chlamydial antigens and use these with an adjuvant. To indicate Chlamydia in testing the conjugates it is essential to prepare standart test lamellas infected at high multiplicity of purified and concentrated Chlamydia. (authors)

  9. A cross sectional study on Dutch layer farms to investigate the prevalence and potential risk factors for different Chlamydia species.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heijne, Marloes; van der Goot, Jeanet A; Fijten, Helmi; van der Giessen, Joke W; Kuijt, Eric; Maassen, Catharina B M; van Roon, Annika; Wit, Ben; Koets, Ad P; Roest, Hendrik I J

    2018-01-01

    In poultry several Chlamydia species have been detected, but Chlamydia psittaci and Chlamydia gallinacea appear to be most prevalent and important. Chlamydia psittaci is a well-known zoonosis and is considered to be a pathogen of poultry. Chlamydia gallinacea has been described more recently. Its

  10. A cross sectional study on Dutch layer farms to investigate the prevalence and potential risk factors for different Chlamydia species

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heijne, Marloes; Goot, van der Jeanet A.; Fijten, Helmi; Giessen, van der Joke W.; Kuijt, Eric; Maassen, Catharina B.M.; Roon, van Annika; Wit, Ben; Koets, Ad P.; Roest, Hendrik I.J.

    2018-01-01

    In poultry several Chlamydia species have been detected, but Chlamydia psittaci and Chlamydia gallinacea appear to be most prevalent and important. Chlamydia psittaci is a well-known zoonosis and is considered to be a pathogen of poultry. Chlamydia gallinacea has been described more recently. Its

  11. Novel overlapping coding sequences in Chlamydia trachomatis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Klaus Thorleif; Petersen, Lise; Falk, Søren

    2006-01-01

    that are in agreement with the primary annotation. Forty two genes from the primary annotation are not predicted by EasyGene. The majority of these genes are listed as hypothetical in the primary annotation. The 15 novel predicted genes all overlap with genes on the complementary strand. We find homologues of several...... of the novel genes in C. trachomatis Serovar A and Chlamydia muridarum. Several of the genes have typical gene-like and protein-like features. Furthermore, we confirm transcriptional activity from 10 of the putative genes. The combined evidence suggests that at least seven of the 15 are protein coding genes...

  12. Molecular biology of the Chlamydia pneumoniae surface

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Gunna; Østergaard, Lars; Birkelund, Svend

    1997-01-01

    surface differs from that of Chlamydia trachomatis. In order to study the surface of C. pneumoniae we generated monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) against C. pneumoniae strain VR-1310 and selected 14 MAbs that reacted with the surface of C. pneumoniae. All MAbs reacted in immunoelectron microscopy...... with the surface of both whole C. pneumoniae VR-1310 elementary bodies and with purified sarcosyl extracted outer membrane complexes. However, only 2 of the MAbs reacted in immunoblotting with C. pneumoniae proteins and only with antigen that had not been heat treated in SDS-sample buffer. This indicates...

  13. Chlamydia in canine or feline coronary arteriosclerotic lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sostaric-Zuckermann, Ivan C; Borel, Nicole; Kaiser, Carmen; Grabarevic, Zeljko; Pospischil, Andreas

    2011-09-09

    There are numerous reports linking Chlamydia infection to human coronary atherosclerosis. However, there is a lack of data regarding this correlation in dogs and cats, and there are no reports investigating coronary arteriosclerosis and Chlamydia in these species. The aim of the present study was to examine whether there is a correlation between canine and feline spontaneous atherosclerosis or arteriosclerosis and the presence of Chlamydia. Archived histopathological samples of dogs (n = 16) and cats (n = 13) with findings of atherosclerosis or arteriosclerosis in heart tissue were examined for the presence of Chlamydiaceae using real-time PCR, ArrayTube Microarray and immunohistochemistry. Additionally, arteriosclerotic lesions of all cases were histologically classified and graded. Both canine atherosclerotic cases, and all 14 canine arteriosclerotic cases were negative for Chlamydia. Only one of the 13 arteriosclerotic feline cases was positive for Chlamydia by real-time PCR, revealing C. abortus by ArrayTube Microarray. To our knowledge, this is the first description of C. abortus in a cat. Overall, the type and grade of canine and feline arteriosclerotic lesions revealed similarities, and were predominantly moderate and hyperplastic. These findings suggest that there is no obvious correlation between canine and feline coronary arteriosclerosis and the presence of Chlamydia. In order to draw final conclusions about the correlation between Chlamydia and canine atherosclerosis, examination of more samples is required.

  14. Chlamydia in canine or feline coronary arteriosclerotic lesions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grabarevic Zeljko

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There are numerous reports linking Chlamydia infection to human coronary atherosclerosis. However, there is a lack of data regarding this correlation in dogs and cats, and there are no reports investigating coronary arteriosclerosis and Chlamydia in these species. The aim of the present study was to examine whether there is a correlation between canine and feline spontaneous atherosclerosis or arteriosclerosis and the presence of Chlamydia. Archived histopathological samples of dogs (n = 16 and cats (n = 13 with findings of atherosclerosis or arteriosclerosis in heart tissue were examined for the presence of Chlamydiaceae using real-time PCR, ArrayTube Microarray and immunohistochemistry. Additionally, arteriosclerotic lesions of all cases were histologically classified and graded. Results Both canine atherosclerotic cases, and all 14 canine arteriosclerotic cases were negative for Chlamydia. Only one of the 13 arteriosclerotic feline cases was positive for Chlamydia by real-time PCR, revealing C. abortus by ArrayTube Microarray. To our knowledge, this is the first description of C. abortus in a cat. Overall, the type and grade of canine and feline arteriosclerotic lesions revealed similarities, and were predominantly moderate and hyperplastic. Conclusions These findings suggest that there is no obvious correlation between canine and feline coronary arteriosclerosis and the presence of Chlamydia. In order to draw final conclusions about the correlation between Chlamydia and canine atherosclerosis, examination of more samples is required.

  15. Spontaneous pharyngeal Chlamydia trachomatis RNA clearance. A cross-sectional study followed by a cohort study of untreated STI clinic patients in Amsterdam, The Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Rooijen, Martijn S.; van der Loeff, Maarten F. Schim; Morré, Servaas A.; van Dam, Alje P.; Speksnijder, Arjen G. C. L.; de Vries, Henry J. C.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Pharyngeal Chlamydia trachomatis (chlamydia) might contribute to ongoing chlamydia transmission, yet data on spontaneous clearance duration are rare. We examined the prevalence, spontaneous clearance, chlamydial DNA concentration and genotypes of pharyngeal chlamydia among clinic patients

  16. The laboratory diagnosis of Chlamydia trachomatis infections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Max A Chernesky

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Lower genital tract infections with Chlamydia trachomatis are predominantly asymptomatic in men and women. Diagnostic technology has provided several approaches to the diagnosis of C trachomatis. Outside of cells, Chlamydia can die or degrade without optimal storage and transportation. Because some of the other assays perform better on certain specimen types, it is important for laboratories to recognize these differences and provide advice to physicians and nurses collecting patient specimens, with the objective of diagnosing lower genital tract infections to prevent transmission and upper tract damage. Most invasive specimens, such as cervical or urethral swabs, may be collected for culture, antigen or nucleic acid detection. Noninvasive samples such as first-void urine and vaginal swabs can be easily collected by the patient; these samples must be tested by more sensitive nucleic acid amplification tests. These newer investigative strategies should enable implementation of screening programs to identify and treat partners. Serology has not been particularly useful for the diagnosis of acute C trachomatis infections in adults. Presently, it appears that antibiotic-resistant C trachomatis is not a clinical problem. Laboratories providing C trachomatis diagnosis require participation in continuous quality improvement programs.

  17. The added value of chlamydia screening between 2008-2010 in reaching young people in addition to chlamydia testing in regular care; an observational study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Liere, Geneviève; Dukers-Muijrers, Nicole; van Bergen, Jan; Götz, Hannelore M.; Stals, Frans; Hoebe, Christian

    2014-01-01

    Background: Internet-based Chlamydia Screening Implementation (chlamydia screening programme) was introduced in the Netherlands in 2008-2010 to detect and treat asymptomatic infections and to limit ongoing transmission through annual testing and treatment of Chlamydia trachomatis in young people

  18. Atherogenic effects of Chlamydia pneumoniae: refuting the innocent bystander hypothesis.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Selzman, C.H.; Netea, M.G.; Zimmerman, M.A.; Weinberg, A.; Reznikov, L.L.; Grover, F.L.; Dinarello, C.A.

    2003-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Serologic evidence of Chlamydia pneumoniae infection and atherosclerosis was first demonstrated in patients with ischemic heart disease in 1988. Subsequently, the organism has been detected in several cardiovascular lesions. Outside of observational reports, few studies mechanistically

  19. Cost-effectiveness of Chlamydia Vaccination Programs for Young Women

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2015-06-19

    Dr. Kwame Owusu-Edusei discusses the importance of chlamydia vaccine development.  Created: 6/19/2015 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID).   Date Released: 6/22/2015.

  20. In vivo activities of Baicalin against Chlamydia trachomatis

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    2010-03-15

    Rasmussen et al., 1997). The infectivity of the chlamydia was expressed as the number of inclusion forming units. Baicalin (HPLC Content > 98.0%) from Chongqing Green Valley. Bio-tech Co. LTD. (Chongqing, China).

  1. The molecular biology and diagnostics of Chlamydia trachomatis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Birkelund, Svend

    1992-01-01

    The rapid development of biotechnological methods provides the potential of dissecting the molecular structure of microorganisms. In this review the molecular biology of chlamydia is described. The genus Chlamydia contains three species C. trachomatis, C. psittaci, and C. pneumonia which all...... are important human pathogens. Chlamydia is obligate intracellular bacteria with a unique biphasic life cycle. The extracellularly chlamydial elementary bodies (EB) are small, metabolic inactive, infectious particles with a tight outer cell membrane. After internalization into host cells the chlamydial...... of chlamydia have not yet been found. The adhesin(s) is unknown, and no factor of importance for the inhibition of fusion between phagosome and host cell lysosomes has been described. A protein similar to the mip gene product of Legionella pneumofila may be a possible candidate for a pathogenicity factor...

  2. NNDSS - Table II. Chlamydia trachomatis infection to Coccidioidomycosis

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — NNDSS - Table II. Chlamydia trachomatis infection to Coccidioidomycosis - 2018. In this Table, provisional cases of selected notifiable diseases (≥1,000 cases...

  3. Peripheral Neuropathy in Chlamydia Reactive Arthritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O.V. Syniachenko

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Relevance. Peripheral neuropathy (PNP in urogenital chlamydia reactive arthritis (CRA is described as single observations, and many clinical and pathogenetic aspects of this lesion of the nervous system remain unclear. Objective of the study: to evaluate the incidence and nature of the clinical course of PNP in CRA, the connection of the nerve and joint injuries, to explore the questions of pathogenetic constructions of this neuropathy, to identify risk factors. Material and methods. We observed 101 patients with CRA, mean age of them was 32 years, disease duration — 4 years, and the male to female ratio — 1 : 1. In 90 % of CRA cases, Chlamydia trochamatis was found in prostatic secretions, in scraps from the urethra, the cervix, the vaginal wall, in 83 % — positive serologic tests for chlamydia infection. Results. Signs of PNP in CRA were in 19 % of patients in the ratio of mononeuropathy to polyneuropathy as 1 : 1, with motor, sensory and mixed disorders in a ratio of 1 : 3 : 6, the presence of autonomic changes in every second patient and more frequent distal localization of the process in the hands, which is influenced by the severity of the articular syndrome, high levels of antichlamydia antibodies in the blood, and the axonal and demyelinating indicators of electroneuromyography — by the severity of urogenital lesions and the presence of Guillain-Barre syndrome. A high rate of arthritis progression is a prognosis-negative sign of PNP course in patients with CRA. The pathogenic constructions of PNP involve the inflammatory immune proteins, disturbances of vascular endothelial function and physicochemical surface rheological pro­perties of the serum. Conclusion. PNP takes place in every fifth patient with CRA, correlates with clinical and laboratory signs of joint disease, and in the future will be useful to identify actively this pathology of the nervous system for the subsequent timely rehabilitation, and CRA

  4. Inflammasome activation in ruminant cells infected with Chlamydia abortus

    OpenAIRE

    Doull, Laura Elizabeth

    2016-01-01

    Chlamydia abortus is the most common known infectious cause of ovine abortion worldwide but is rarely linked with bovine abortion. The reasons for this differential pathogenesis are unknown but may involve differences in innate immune recognition and immune responsiveness. This is supported by the observation that chlamydial abortion in sheep is associated with an inflammatory cytokine/chemokine cascade that is not commonly observed in cattle. Studies with other Chlamydia speci...

  5. Chlamydia trachomatis’ struggle to keep its host alive

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara S. Sixt

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Bacteria of the phylum Chlamydiae infect a diverse range of eukaryotic host species, including vertebrate animals, invertebrates, and even protozoa. Characteristics shared by all Chlamydiae include their obligate intracellular lifestyle and a biphasic developmental cycle. The infectious form, the elementary body (EB, invades a host cell and differentiates into the replicative form, the reticulate body (RB, which proliferates within a membrane-bound compartment, the inclusion. After several rounds of division, RBs retro-differentiate into EBs that are then released to infect neighboring cells. The consequence of this obligatory transition between replicative and infectious forms inside cells is that Chlamydiae absolutely depend on the viability and functionality of their host cell throughout the entire infection cycle. We recently conducted a forward genetic screen in Chlamydia trachomatis, a common sexually transmitted human pathogen, and identified a mutant that caused premature death in the majority of infected host cells. We employed emerging genetic tools in Chlamydia to link this cytotoxicity to the loss of the protein CpoS (Chlamydia promoter of survival that normally localizes to the membrane of the pathogen-containing vacuole. CpoS-deficient bacteria also induced an exaggerated type-1 interferon response in infected cells, produced reduced numbers of infectious EBs in cell culture, and were cleared faster from the mouse genital tract in a transcervical infection model in vivo. The analysis of this CpoS-deficient mutant yielded unique insights into the nature of cell-autonomous defense responses against Chlamydia and highlighted the importance of Chlamydia-mediated control of host cell fate for the success of the pathogen.

  6. Postabortal endometritis and isolation of Chlamydia trachomatis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbacci, M B; Spence, M R; Kappus, E W; Burkman, R C; Rao, L; Quinn, T C

    1986-11-01

    A prospective study of 505 unselected women presenting for induced abortion was undertaken to determine the prevalence of Chlamydia trachomatis and to determine if cervical isolation of C trachomatis before abortion increases the risk of postabortal endometritis. A comparison of direct fluorescent antibody (slide) test with tissue culture for diagnosing C trachomatis infection also was evaluated in this population. C trachomatis was identified by culture in 89 patients (17.6%) and by direct slide test in 85 patients (16.8%). Six of 17 patients with postabortal endometritis were culture positive for C trachomatis, with a significant correlation between C trachomatis infection and development of endometritis observed (P less than .05). These data suggest C trachomatis may play an important role in postabortal endometritis.

  7. Chlamydia pneumoniae infection-associated erythema multiforme

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shinsaku Imashuku

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available There is a well-known correlation between Herpes simplex (HSV infection and erythema multiforme (EM. More recently, in Japan, it was found that Chlamydia pneumoniae (Cp may promote the development of EM. All cases of Cp infection-associated EM that had been diagnosed in our clinic over the past two years (from 2011 to 2012 were analyzed. Cp infection was diagnosed on the basis of a significant increase (>2.00 in anti-Cp IgM titers, as measured by the HITAZYME-ELISA test. There were 7 cases of Cp-EM, one male and 6 females. Median age was 13 years (range 3-29 years. It is recommended that the possible involvement of Cp infection, besides HSV or Mycoplasma pneumoniae infections, should be considered in all cases of EM.

  8. Laboratory Diagnosis of Chlamydia Pneumoniae Infections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosanna W Peeling

    1995-01-01

    Full Text Available Chlamydia pneumoniae is an important cause of respiratory illness. There is a need for accurate and rapid laboratory diagnostic methods that will lead to improved patient care, appropriate use of antimicrobial therapy and a better understanding of the epidemiology of this emerging pathogen. Culture is highly specific but is technically demanding, expensive, has a long turnaround time and its sensitivity is highly dependent on transport conditions. Antigen detection tests such as enzyme immunoassay and direct fluorescent antibody assay, and molecular detection methods such as the polymerase chain reaction assay, may provide a rapid diagnosis without the requirement for stringent transport conditions. The results of these tests should be interpreted with caution until more thorough evaluation is available. Serology remains the method of choice. The limitations of different serological methods for the laboratory diagnosis of C pneumoniae are discussed.

  9. Impact of antiseptics on Chlamydia trachomatis growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Párducz, L; Eszik, I; Wagner, G; Burián, K; Endrész, V; Virok, D P

    2016-10-01

    Bacterial vaginosis is a frequent dysbiosis, where the normal lactobacillus-dominated flora is replaced by an anaerob/aerob polymicrobial flora. Bacterial vaginosis increases the risk of acquiring sexually transmitted infections (STI) including the most frequent Chlamydia trachomatis infections. Intravaginal antiseptics are part of the bacterial vaginosis treatment, and ideally they should also inhibit the bacterial vaginosis-related STI. Therefore, we tested the antichlamydial activity of four antiseptics: iodine aqueous solution, povidone-iodine, chlorhexidine and borax. First, we measured the impact of antiseptics on the viability of the HeLa cervical epithelial cells, and calculated the maximum nontoxic concentrations. Next, we infected the cells with C. trachomatis preincubated for 1 h with the particular antiseptic. The chlamydial growth was measured by direct quantitative PCR (qPCR) of the infected cells. The minimal inhibitory concentrations (MIC) of chlorhexidine and povidone-iodine were 3·91 and 97 μg ml(-1) respectively; however, the MIC of chlorhexidine was close to its maximum nontoxic concentration. The iodine aqueous solution and the borax showed no antichlamydial activity. Our in vitro studies showed that chlorhexidine and particularly povidone-iodine are potentially able to limit the bacterial vaginosis-related C. trachomatis infection. We measured the antichlamydial effects of various antiseptics. These antiseptics are being used for the treatment of bacterial vaginosis, but their effect on the bacterial vaginosis-related sexually transmitted infections, particularly the most frequent Chlamydia trachomatis (C. trachomatis) infections has not been investigated. We showed that povidone-iodine (Betadine) inhibited the chlamydial growth in concentrations that was not toxic to the epithelial cells. We concluded that due to its additional antichlamydial effect, povidone-iodine could be a preferable antiseptic in bacterial vaginosis treatment.

  10. Urogenital Chlamydia trachomatis Infections among Ethnic Groups in Paramaribo, Suriname; Determinants and Ethnic Sexual Mixing Patterns

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Helm, Jannie J.; Bom, Reinier J. M.; Grünberg, Antoon W.; Bruisten, Sylvia M.; Schim van der Loeff, Maarten F.; Sabajo, Leslie O. A.; de Vries, Henry J. C.

    2013-01-01

    Little is known about the epidemiology of urogenital Chlamydia trachomatis infection (chlamydia) in Suriname. Suriname is a society composed of many ethnic groups, such as Creoles, Maroons, Hindustani, Javanese, Chinese, Caucasians, and indigenous Amerindians. We estimated determinants for

  11. Genomic Relatedness of Chlamydia Isolates Determined by Amplified Fragment Length Polymorphism Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Meijer, Adam; Morré, Servaas A.; Van Den Brule, Adriaan J. C.; Savelkoul, Paul H. M.; Ossewaarde, Jacobus M.

    1999-01-01

    The genomic relatedness of 19 Chlamydia pneumoniae isolates (17 from respiratory origin and 2 from atherosclerotic origin), 21 Chlamydia trachomatis isolates (all serovars from the human biovar, an isolate from the mouse biovar, and a porcine isolate), 6 Chlamydia psittaci isolates (5 avian isolates and 1 feline isolate), and 1 Chlamydia pecorum isolate was studied by analyzing genomic amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) fingerprints. The AFLP procedure was adapted from a previously...

  12. Seroprevalence and risk factors of Chlamydia abortus infection in free-ranging white yaks in China

    OpenAIRE

    Qin, Si-Yuan; Huang, Si-Yang; Yin, Ming-Yang; Tan, Qi-Dong; Liu, Guang-Xue; Zhou, Dong-Hui; Zhu, Xing-Quan; Zhou, Ji-Zhang; Qian, Ai-Dong

    2015-01-01

    Background Chlamydia is gram-negative obligate bacteria which causes a wide variety of diseases in humans and animals. To date, there are a few reports about the seroprevalence of Chlamydia and the risk factors associated with Chlamydia infection in yaks in the world. In this study, 974 blood samples were collected from white yaks (Bos grunniens) in Tianzhu Tibetan Autonomous County, Gansu province, northwest China from June 2013 to April 2014. Results Antibodies against Chlamydia abortus wer...

  13. Inguinal syndrome with penoscrotal elephantiasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aggarwal Kamal

    2002-11-01

    Full Text Available Bilateral inguinal adenitis and penoscrotal elephantiasis are uncommonly encountered presentations of Lymphogranuloma venereum. Herein, we report a male who presented with bilateral inguinal bubos alongwith penoscrotal elephantiasis that developed within 6 months of the primary lesion.

  14. Exploring Chlamydia Positivity among Females on College Campuses, 2008-2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habel, Melissa A.; Leichliter, Jami S.; Torrone, Elizabeth

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Describe chlamydia positivity among young women tested at college health centers by student characteristics: age, race/ethnicity, and institution type. Participants: During 2008-2010, colleges participating in a national infertility prevention program provided chlamydia testing data from females aged 18-24. Methods: Chlamydia positivity…

  15. Dysuria in the Emergency Department: Missed Diagnosis of Chlamydia trachomatis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morgan D. Wilbanks

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The clinical presentation of genital Chlamydia trachomatis infection (chlamydia in women is often indistinguishable from a urinary tract infection. While merited in the setting of dysuria, emergency department (ED clinicians do not routinely test for chlamydia in women. The primary aim of our study was to evaluate the frequency of chlamydia testing among women presenting to the ED with dysuria. Methods: We conducted a retrospective chart review of women 19-25 years of age presenting with dysuria to an urban ED and who had been coded with urinary tract infection (UTI as their primary diagnosis (ICD-9 599.0 from October 2005 to March 2011. We excluded women who were pregnant, had underlying anatomical or neurological urinary system pathology, had continuation of symptoms from UTI or a sexually transmitted infection (STI diagnosed elsewhere, or were already on antibiotics for a UTI or STI. We identified the rates of sexual history screening, pelvic examination and chlamydia assay testing and evaluated predictors using univariate and multivariate analyses. Results: Of 280 women with dysuria and a UTI diagnosis, 17% were asked about their sexual history, with 94% reporting recent sexual activity. Pelvic examination was performed in 23%. We were unable to determine the overall chlamydia prevalence as only 20% of women in the cohort were tested. Among the 20% of women tested for chlamydia infection, 21% tested positive. Only 42% of chlamydia-positive women were prescribed treatment effective for chlamydia (azithromycin or doxycycline at their visit; the remaining were prescribed UTI treatment not effective against chlamydia. Predictors of sexual history screening included vaginal bleeding (OR 5.4, 95% CI=1.5 to 19.6 and discharge (OR 2.8, 95% CI=1.1 to 6.9. Predictors of a pelvic examination being performed included having a complaint of vaginal discharge (OR 11.8, 95% CI=4.2 to 32.9, a sexual history performed (OR 2.5, 95% CI=1.1 to 5

  16. [Chlamydia trachomatis and urogenital mycoplasms in nonconococcal urethritis in men].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vesić, Sonja; Vukićević, Jelica; Gvozdenović, Eleonora; Skiljević, Dusan; Janosević, Slobodanka; Medenica, Ljiljana

    2010-01-01

    Nongonococcal urethritis is the most common sexually transmitted infection in men, with vast majority of the etiological agents such as Chlamydia trachomatis, followed by urogenital mycoplasmas. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of Chlamydia trachomatis, Ureaplasma urealyticum and Mycoplasma hominis in nongonococcal urethritis in men, and to examine infections associated with these agents. Material and methods 299 sexually active, heterosexual men with nongonococcal urethritis were included into the study. Urethral samples were taken with a dacron swab placed into the urethra up to 2-3 cm. The Direct immunofluorescence technique was performed for identification of Chlamydia trachomatis. Ureaplasma urealyticum and Mycoplasma hominis were detected with Mycoplasma IST assay. Chlamydia trachomatis was detected in 22.75%, Uraeplasma urealyticum in 21.08% and Mycoplasma hominis in 8.02% cases. We found no significant differences in prevalence between Chlamydia trachomatis and Ureaplasma urealyticym (p > 0.05). Monoinfections were found in 51.85% with significantly higher rate (p urethritis with prevalence of 51.85% in monoinfections and 11.70% in associated infections. In 36.45% of cases the etiology of urethritis was not elucidated. These results suggest that more sensitive diagnostic tool should be applied when searching for the derailed etiology of nongonococcal urethritis.

  17. Catalog of Completed Studies, US Army Health Care Studies and Clinical Investigation Activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-12-10

    Arch. Dermatol, 1980, 116:559-561. 16 Becker, L. E. Charles, C. R., Babcock, W. S., Electrol microscopic diagnosis of lymphogranuloma venereum , J. Assn...852. 3 Becker, L. E., Skipworth, G. B., Ginkgo-tree dermatitis, stomatitis, and proctitis. JAMA, 1975, 231:1162-1163. 4 Becker, L. E., Lymphogranuloma ... venereum . Intl. J. Dermatol, 1976, 15:26-33 5 Jessen, R. T., Straight, M., Becker, L. E., Lichen myxedematosus. Treatment with cyclophosphamide. Int

  18. Skin diseases of the vulva

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sand, Freja Lærke; Thomsen, Simon Francis

    2017-01-01

    A multitude of infectious diseases of viral (genital herpes, herpes zoster, genital warts and molluscum contagiosum), bacterial (syphilis, chancroid, lymphogranuloma venereum, donovanosis, erysipelas, cellulitis and necrotising fasciitis, folliculitis, impetigo, bartholin gland abscess, trichomyc......A multitude of infectious diseases of viral (genital herpes, herpes zoster, genital warts and molluscum contagiosum), bacterial (syphilis, chancroid, lymphogranuloma venereum, donovanosis, erysipelas, cellulitis and necrotising fasciitis, folliculitis, impetigo, bartholin gland abscess...

  19. A prospective study of the psychosocial impact of a positive Chlamydia trachomatis laboratory test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gottlieb, Sami L; Stoner, Bradley P; Zaidi, Akbar A; Buckel, Christina; Tran, Molly; Leichliter, Jami S; Berman, Stuart M; Markowitz, Lauri E

    2011-11-01

    Few data exist on potential harms of chlamydia screening. We assessed the psychosocial impact of receiving a positive Chlamydia trachomatis test result. We prospectively studied women ≥16 years of age undergoing chlamydia testing in 2 Midwestern family planning clinics. We surveyed women at baseline and about 1 month after receiving test results, using 9 validated psychosocial scales/subscales and chlamydia-specific questions. Changes in scale scores were calculated for each woman. Mean percent changes in scores for chlamydia-positive and -negative women were compared using a t test. We enrolled 1807 women (response rate, 84%). Of the 1688 women with test results, 149 (8.8%) tested positive. At follow-up, chlamydia-positive women (n = 71) had a 75% increase in anxiety about sexual aspects of their life on the Multidimensional Sexual Self-Concept Questionnaire (P < 0.001), significantly greater than the 26% increase among 280 randomly selected chlamydia-negative women (P = 0.02). There were no differences for the other 8 scales/subscales, including general measures of anxiety, depression, and self-esteem. Chlamydia-positive women were more likely than chlamydia-negative women to be "concerned about chlamydia" (80% vs. 40%, P < 0.001) and to report breaking up with a main partner (33% vs. 11%, P < 0.001) at follow-up. Women testing positive reported a range of chlamydia-specific concerns. Chlamydia-positive women had significant increases in anxiety about sex and concern about chlamydia, but did not have marked changes in more general measures of psychosocial well-being about 1 month after diagnosis. Chlamydia diagnoses were associated with some disruption of relationships with main partners. Chlamydia-specific concerns may guide counseling messages to minimize psychosocial impact.

  20. Evidence for Chlamydia in wild mammals of the Serengeti.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pospischil, Andreas; Kaiser, Carmen; Hofmann-Lehmann, Regina; Lutz, Hans; Hilbe, Monika; Vaughan, Lloyd; Borel, Nicole

    2012-10-01

    Only limited information is available on the presence of Chlamydiaceae in wildlife, a deficit that is particularly acute concerning mammalian wildlife in Africa. In a retrospective analysis of organ material from an earlier study on wild mammals from the Seregenti National Park, 521 samples from 54 animals of 14 mammalian species were investigated. The presence of Chlamydiaceae was analyzed using molecular methods and immunohistochemistry. Chlamydial DNA was detected by real-time polymerase chain reaction in formalin-fixed and paraffin-embedded tissues from large ruminants (African buffaloes, Syncerus caffer, n=4) and a large predator (spotted hyena, Crocuta crocuta, n=1). Microarray results revealed Chlamydia abortus in all cases, confirmed by sequencing of selected samples, and a mixed infection with Chlamydia abortus and Chlamydia pneumoniae in an African buffalo. This is the first report of Chlamydiaceae in African wildlife of the Serengeti area.

  1. Pneumonia due to Chlamydia pecorum in a Koala (Phascolarctos cinereus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackie, J T; Gillett, A K; Palmieri, C; Feng, T; Higgins, D P

    2016-11-01

    Chlamydiosis is a common infectious disease of koalas (Phascolarctos cinereus), but Chlamydia spp. have not yet been demonstrated to cause pneumonia in these animals. A juvenile male koala died following an episode of respiratory disease. At necropsy examination, the lung tissue was consolidated. Microscopical lesions in the lung included pyogranulomatous bronchopneumonia, proliferation of bronchiolar and alveolar epithelium and interstitial fibrosis. Hyperplastic bronchiolar epithelial cells contained aggregates of small basophilic punctate organisms, which were confirmed as chlamydiae by transmission electron microscopy and immunohistochemistry. Real-time polymerase chain reaction identified these as Chlamydia pecorum. This report provides the best evidence to date of chlamydial infection causing pneumonia in a koala, and the first evidence that C. pecorum is capable of infecting the bronchiolar epithelium of the koala. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Sexually transmitted diseases during pregnancy: a synthesis of particularities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Mariana Carvalho; Bornhausen Demarch, Eduardo; Azulay, David Rubem; Périssé, André Reynaldo Santos; Dias, Maria Fernanda Reis Gavazzoni; Nery, José Augusto da Costa

    2010-01-01

    Sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) have a significant prevalence in both the general population and pregnant women. Accordingly, we consider the physiological changes of the maternal organism that can alter the clinical course of these diseases. In addition, obstetric and neonatal complications may occur, resulting in increased maternal and infant morbidity and mortality. We explore features of the natural course and treatment during pregnancy of the major STDs: soft chancre, donovanosis, gonorrhea, chlamydia, viral hepatitis, genital herpes, human papillomavirus (HPV) infection, lymphogranuloma venereum, syphilis, and vulvovaginitis. We believe that health professionals should pay careful attention to STDs, particularly in relation to early diagnosis and precautions on the use of drugs during pregnancy. Prevention and partner treatment to achieve effective results are also extremely relevant.

  3. Medical Surveillance Monthly Report MSMR). Volume 4, Number 7, October/November 1998

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-11-01

    from main and satellite clinics. Not all sites reporting. ** Other STDs: (a) Chancroid (b) Granuloma Inguinale (c) Lymphogranuloma Venereum (d...Vaccine advrs event 0 4 5 9 Lyme disease 4 10 18 32 Varicella,adult only 73 30 1 104 Lymphogranuloma Vnrm 0 0 0 0 Yellow fever 0 0 0 0 Total

  4. Journal of Special Operations Medicine. Volume 5, Edition 4, Fall 2005

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-01-01

    parts of southeast Asia and the Caribbean 0.5-4 weeks Lymphogranuloma venereum : bubo, fistula, lymphedema Neisseria gonorrhea Worldwide 3-10 days... lymphogranuloma venerum. The morphologic description of “grouped” vesi- cles on an erythematous base is characteristic for early herpes simplex virus

  5. Comparison of the population excess fraction of Chlamydia trachomatis infection on pelvic inflammatory disease at 12-months in the presence and absence of chlamydia testing and treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Davies, Bethan; Turner, Katy M. E.; Leung, Stella

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The impact of Chlamydia trachomatis (chlamydia) control on the incidence of pelvic inflammatory disease (PID) is theoretically limited by the proportion of PID caused by chlamydia. We estimate the population excess fraction (PEF) of treated chlamydia infection on PID at 12-months......: The systematic review identified a single study, a randomised controlled trial of chlamydia screening (POPI-RCT). In the presence of testing and treatment PID at 12-months was attributable to treated (baseline) chlamydia infections (Manitoba: 8.86%(95%CI 7.15-10.75); Denmark: 3.84%(3.26-4.45); screened...... in settings with widespread chlamydia control (testing and treatment) and compare this to the estimated PEF of untreated chlamydia. METHODS: We used two large retrospective population-based cohorts of women of reproductive age from settings with widespread chlamydia control to calculate the PEF of treated...

  6. Chlamydia trachomatis Genotypes and the Swedish New Variant among Urogenital Chlamydia trachomatis Strains in Finland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suvi Niemi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Our aims were to genotype Chlamydia trachomatis strains present in urogenital samples and to investigate the occurrence of the Swedish new variant of C. trachomatis in Finland. We genotyped 160 C. trachomatis positive samples with ompA real-time PCR and analyzed 495 samples for the new variant. The three most prevalent genotypes were E (40%, F (28%, and G (13%. Only two specimens containing bacteria with the variant plasmid were detected. It seems that in Finland the percentage of infections due to genotypes F and G has slightly increased during the last 20 years. Genotypes E and G appear to be more common, and genotypes J/Ja and I/Ia appear to be less common in Europe than in the USA. Although the genotype E was the most common genotype among C. trachomatis strains, the new variant was rarely found in Finland.

  7. Seroprevalence and genotype of Chlamydia in pet parrots in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, N-Z; Zhang, X-X; Zhou, D-H; Huang, S-Y; Tian, W-P; Yang, Y-C; Zhao, Q; Zhu, X-Q

    2015-01-01

    Parrots are one of the most popular pet birds in China, and can harbour Chlamydia which has significance for human and animal health. We investigated, by indirect haemagglutination assay, the seroprevalence of Chlamydia infection in four species of parrots, namely budgerigars (Melopsittacus undulatus), lovebirds (Agapornis sp.), cockatiels (Nymphicus hollandicus) and Alexandrine parakeets (Psittacula eupatria) that were collected from Weifang and Beijing cities, North China and explored the association between potential risk factors and chlamydial seropositivity. We further determined the genotype of Chlamydia in 21 fresh faecal samples based on the ompA sequence by reconstruction of phylogenetic relationships. Of the 311 parrots examined, 35·37% (95% confidence interval 30·06-40·68) were seropositive, and species, gender, age, season and geographical location were identified as risk factors. Two PCR-positive samples represented Chlamydia psittaci genotype A. The occurrence of C. psittaci genotype A in the droppings of two pet parrots in China suggests potential environmental contamination with Chlamydiaceae and may raise a public health concern.

  8. Chlamydia Trachomatis IgG Antibodies Seroprevalence Among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2014-12-31

    % for males and females respectively), while in the same state, Anaghalu (2006) among a seroprevalence rate of 23.8% for males and 28.0% for females among infertile couples. Chlamydia is known as the “silent epidemic” ...

  9. Primary endosymbiosis: have cyanobacteria and Chlamydiae ever been roommates?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philippe Deschamps

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Eukaryotes acquired the ability to process photosynthesis by engulfing a cyanobacterium and transforming it into a genuine organelle called the plastid. This event, named primary endosymbiosis, occurred once more than a billion years ago, and allowed the emergence of the Archaeplastida, a monophyletic supergroup comprising the green algae and plants, the red algae and the glaucophytes. Of the other known cases of symbiosis between cyanobacteria and eukaryotes, none has achieved a comparable level of cell integration nor reached the same evolutionary and ecological success than primary endosymbiosis did. Reasons for this unique accomplishment are still unknown and difficult to comprehend. The exploration of plant genomes has revealed a considerable amount of genes closely related to homologs of Chlamydiae bacteria, and probably acquired by horizontal gene transfer. Several studies have proposed that these transferred genes, which are mostly involved in the functioning of the plastid, may have helped the settlement of primary endosymbiosis. Some of these studies propose that Chlamydiae and cyanobacterial symbionts coexisted in the eukaryotic host of the primary endosymbiosis, and that Chlamydiae provided solutions for the metabolic symbiosis between the cyanobacterium and the host, ensuring the success of primary endosymbiosis. In this review, I present a reevaluation of the contribution of Chlamydiae genes to the genome of Archaeplastida and discuss the strengths and weaknesses of this tripartite model for primary endosymbiosis.

  10. Molecular detection of Chlamydia trachomatis and Neisseria gonorrhoeae

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Jens Kjølseth; Herrmann, B; Jensen, K.T.

    2011-01-01

    This chapter highlights the use of nucleic acid amplification tests (NAATs) for the molecular diagnosis of gonorrhoea and chlamydia infection. In addition, good laboratory practice and issues that should be considered before and after implementation of NAATs for C. trachomatis and N. gonorrhoeae...

  11. Forekomst af Chlamydia trachomatis hos værnepligtige

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søgaard, P; Møller, B R; Thorsen, Poul

    1996-01-01

    among Chlamydia positive men was 6. The frequency of earlier VD was 7.5% and 10% among men and women, respectively. Treatment with tetracycline was effective, which makes control of eradication unnecessary. We conclude that genital chlamydial infection among young asymptomatic people is common...

  12. Chlamydia control in Europe - a survey of Member States

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Berit; van Bergen, J; Ward, H

    ), contributed to the design and interpretation of the survey, commented on the draft report and approved the final report. Shelagh Redmond (Institute of Social and Preventive Medicine, University of Bern, Bern, Switzerland) provided technical support. Nicola Low (University of Bern) led the Chlamydia Control...

  13. Use of polymerase chain reaction for detection of Chlamydia trachomatis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østergaard, Lars; Birkelund, Svend; Christiansen, Gunna

    1990-01-01

    A polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay was developed for detection of Chlamydia trachomatis DNA. From the published sequence of the common C. trachomatis plasmid, two primer sets were selected. Detection of amplified sequences was done by agarose gel electrophoresis of cleaved or uncleaved...

  14. The Chlamydia psittaci genome: a comparative analysis of intracellular pathogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voigt, Anja; Schöfl, Gerhard; Saluz, Hans Peter

    2012-01-01

    Chlamydiaceae are a family of obligate intracellular pathogens causing a wide range of diseases in animals and humans, and facing unique evolutionary constraints not encountered by free-living prokaryotes. To investigate genomic aspects of infection, virulence and host preference we have sequenced Chlamydia psittaci, the pathogenic agent of ornithosis. A comparison of the genome of the avian Chlamydia psittaci isolate 6BC with the genomes of other chlamydial species, C. trachomatis, C. muridarum, C. pneumoniae, C. abortus, C. felis and C. caviae, revealed a high level of sequence conservation and synteny across taxa, with the major exception of the human pathogen C. trachomatis. Important differences manifest in the polymorphic membrane protein family specific for the Chlamydiae and in the highly variable chlamydial plasticity zone. We identified a number of psittaci-specific polymorphic membrane proteins of the G family that may be related to differences in host-range and/or virulence as compared to closely related Chlamydiaceae. We calculated non-synonymous to synonymous substitution rate ratios for pairs of orthologous genes to identify putative targets of adaptive evolution and predicted type III secreted effector proteins. This study is the first detailed analysis of the Chlamydia psittaci genome sequence. It provides insights in the genome architecture of C. psittaci and proposes a number of novel candidate genes mostly of yet unknown function that may be important for pathogen-host interactions.

  15. Chlamydia trachomatis infection and risk of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lehtinen, Matti; Ault, Kevin A; Lyytikainen, Erika

    2011-01-01

    High-risk human papillomavirus (hrHPV) is the primary cause of cervical cancer. As Chlamydia trachomatis is also linked to cervical cancer, its role as a potential co-factor in the development of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) grade 2 or higher was examined....

  16. Association of Chlamydia serology with HIV in Nigerian women ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    For an infection that is largely asymptomatic but has devastating effects on populations, only a preventive approach would have beneficial effects in controlling the disease and its effects on women's health in the country. Keywords: Chlamydia trachomatis, HIV, pregnant women, gynaecologic patients, co-infection ...

  17. The prevalence of Chlamydia trachomatis infection among infertile ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Chlamydia trachomatis is the most common cause of sexually transmitted diseases that is not of viral origin and there is accumulating evidence of a significant role played by this pathogen in causing male factor infertility. This study thus aimed to determine the prevalence of C. trachomatis among infertile males and to ...

  18. Association of anti-Chlamydia antibodies with ectopic pregnancy in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Ectopic pregnancy remains a major public health problem especially in many developing countries where it is a significant contributor to pregnancy related morbidity and mortality. Objective: To determine the association between prior Chlamydia trachomatis infection and the risk of ectopic pregnancy. Methods: ...

  19. The Chlamydia psittaci genome: a comparative analysis of intracellular pathogens.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anja Voigt

    Full Text Available Chlamydiaceae are a family of obligate intracellular pathogens causing a wide range of diseases in animals and humans, and facing unique evolutionary constraints not encountered by free-living prokaryotes. To investigate genomic aspects of infection, virulence and host preference we have sequenced Chlamydia psittaci, the pathogenic agent of ornithosis.A comparison of the genome of the avian Chlamydia psittaci isolate 6BC with the genomes of other chlamydial species, C. trachomatis, C. muridarum, C. pneumoniae, C. abortus, C. felis and C. caviae, revealed a high level of sequence conservation and synteny across taxa, with the major exception of the human pathogen C. trachomatis. Important differences manifest in the polymorphic membrane protein family specific for the Chlamydiae and in the highly variable chlamydial plasticity zone. We identified a number of psittaci-specific polymorphic membrane proteins of the G family that may be related to differences in host-range and/or virulence as compared to closely related Chlamydiaceae. We calculated non-synonymous to synonymous substitution rate ratios for pairs of orthologous genes to identify putative targets of adaptive evolution and predicted type III secreted effector proteins.This study is the first detailed analysis of the Chlamydia psittaci genome sequence. It provides insights in the genome architecture of C. psittaci and proposes a number of novel candidate genes mostly of yet unknown function that may be important for pathogen-host interactions.

  20. Survival of Chlamydia pneumoniae following contact with various surfaces

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R.P.A.J. Verkooyen (Roel); Harreveld, S. (Sonja); Joulandan, S.A.M. (S. Ahmad Mousavi); R.J.A. Diepersloot (Rob); H.A. Verbrugh (Henri)

    1995-01-01

    textabstractObjective: In this study, the survival and recovery of Chlamydia pneumoniae (Cp) strains TW‐183, AR‐39, AR‐388 and CWL‐029 were measured after inoculation on glass, stainless steel, FormicaR laminate, paper, fabric and human skin. Methods: Inoculum in throat washes from healthy

  1. Chlamydiae in the ejaculate: their influence on the quality and morphology of sperm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veznik, Zdenek; Pospisil, Leopold; Svecova, Drahomira; Zajicova, Atanaska; Unzeitig, Vit

    2004-07-01

    Given the lack of information concerning the role of Chlamydia trachomatis in male fertility, the aim of this study was to ascertain and analyze the quality of Chlamydiae-positive and -negative semen. Sperm count was performed according to the 1999 World Health Organization (WHO) laboratory manual for examination of human semen and sperm-cervical mucus interaction, and sperm survival was assessed by a 120-min test. The evaluation of the morphological examination of ejaculates was carried out using the sasmo (strict morphological analysis of ejaculates) computer program. Chlamydiae were detected by immunofluorescent reaction using the Progen Biotechnik GmbH diagnostic set. Fisher's exact test and the chi-quadrate test were used for statistical analysis. Of the total of 627 sperm samples examined, Chlamydiae were detected in 136 cases (21.7%). Sperm analysis showed significant differences between Chlamydiae-positive and -negative samples. The Chlamydiae-contaminated group showed normal sperm morphology 14.4% lower, volume 6.4% lower, concentration 8.3% lower, motility 7.8% and velocity 9.3% lower than in Chlamydiae-negative samples. The average values for normal spermatozoa and motility in the Chlamydiae-positive group were also significantly reduced. Chlamydia trachomatis was found to be a possible factor in sperm pathology. These results could help to elucidate the role of Chlamydia trachomatis in male infertility.

  2. Does population screening for Chlamydia trachomatis raise anxiety among those tested? Findings from a population based chlamydia screening study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Low Nicola

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The advent of urine testing for Chlamydia trachomatis has raised the possibility of large-scale screening for this sexually transmitted infection, which is now the most common in the United Kingdom. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of an invitation to be screened for chlamydia and of receiving a negative result on levels of anxiety, depression and self-esteem. Methods 19,773 men and women aged 16 to 39 years, selected at random from 27 general practices in two large city areas (Bristol and Birmingham were invited by post to send home-collected urine samples or vulvo-vaginal swabs for chlamydia testing. Questionnaires enquiring about anxiety, depression and self-esteem were sent to random samples of those offered screening: one month before the dispatch of invitations; when participants returned samples; and after receiving a negative result. Results Home screening was associated with an overall reduction in anxiety scores. An invitation to participate did not increase anxiety levels. Anxiety scores in men were lower after receiving the invitation than at baseline. Amongst women anxiety was reduced after receipt of negative test results. Neither depression nor self-esteem scores were affected by screening. Conclusion Postal screening for chlamydia does not appear to have a negative impact on overall psychological well-being and can lead to a decrease in anxiety levels among respondents. There is, however, a clear difference between men and women in when this reduction occurs.

  3. Does population screening for Chlamydia trachomatis raise anxiety among those tested? Findings from a population based chlamydia screening study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Rona; Mills, Nicola; Sanford, Emma; Graham, Anna; Low, Nicola; Peters, Tim J

    2006-04-25

    The advent of urine testing for Chlamydia trachomatis has raised the possibility of large-scale screening for this sexually transmitted infection, which is now the most common in the United Kingdom. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of an invitation to be screened for chlamydia and of receiving a negative result on levels of anxiety, depression and self-esteem. 19,773 men and women aged 16 to 39 years, selected at random from 27 general practices in two large city areas (Bristol and Birmingham) were invited by post to send home-collected urine samples or vulvo-vaginal swabs for chlamydia testing. Questionnaires enquiring about anxiety, depression and self-esteem were sent to random samples of those offered screening: one month before the dispatch of invitations; when participants returned samples; and after receiving a negative result. Home screening was associated with an overall reduction in anxiety scores. An invitation to participate did not increase anxiety levels. Anxiety scores in men were lower after receiving the invitation than at baseline. Amongst women anxiety was reduced after receipt of negative test results. Neither depression nor self-esteem scores were affected by screening. Postal screening for chlamydia does not appear to have a negative impact on overall psychological well-being and can lead to a decrease in anxiety levels among respondents. There is, however, a clear difference between men and women in when this reduction occurs.

  4. Evaluation of the Kodak Surecell Chlamydia test for the laboratory diagnosis of adult inclusion conjunctivitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tantisira, J G; Kowalski, R P; Gordon, Y J

    1995-07-01

    The Kodak Surecell Chlamydia test, a rapid enzyme immunoassay, has been reported to be highly sensitive (93%) and specific (96%) for detecting chlamydial lipopolysaccharide antigen in conjunctival specimens from infants, but has not been evaluated previously in adult conjunctival specimens. This study was designed to determine the efficacy of the Kodak Surecell Chlamydia test for the laboratory diagnosis of adult inclusion conjunctivitis. Twenty Chlamydia culture-positive conjunctival specimens from adults (true-positives) and 20 true-negative specimens were tested with the Kodak Surecell Chlamydia test. The Kodak Surecell Chlamydia test was 40% (8/20) sensitive, 100% (20/20) specific, and 70% (28/40) efficient. This study indicates that the Kodak Surecell Chlamydia test, though highly specific, is less sensitive in its ability to diagnose chlamydial conjunctivitis in adults than has been reported previously in infants.

  5. Changes in chlamydia control activities in Europe between 2007 and 2012: A cross-national survey

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van den Broek, I; Andersen, Berit; Herrmann, B

    2015-01-01

    Background: In 2012, the levels of chlamydia control activities including primary prevention, effective case management with partner management and surveillance were assessed in 2012 across countries in the European Union and European Economic Area (EU/EEA), on initiative of the European Centre...... indicators of chlamydia prevention and control activities; countries were assigned to one of five categories of chlamydia control. Results: In 2012, more countries than in 2007 reported availability of national chlamydia case management guidelines (80% vs. 68%), opportunistic chlamydia testing (68% vs. 44......%) and consistent use of nucleic acid amplification tests (64% vs. 36%). The number of countries reporting having a national sexually transmitted infection control strategy or a surveillance system for chlamydia did not change notably. In 2012, most countries (18/25, 72%) had implemented primary prevention...

  6. Seroepidemiologic survey for Chlamydia suis in wild boar (Sus scrofa) populations in Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Francesco, Antonietta; Donati, Manuela; Morandi, Federico; Renzi, Maria; Masia, Marco Antonio; Ostanello, Fabio; Salvatore, Daniela; Cevenini, Roberto; Baldelli, Raffaella

    2011-07-01

    We used serology to estimate the prevalence of exposure to chlamydiae in Italian populations of wild boars (Sus scrofa). Sera from 173 hunter-killed wild boars harvested during the 2006-2009 hunting seasons in three Italian regions were tested for antibodies to Chlamydia suis, Chlamydophila pecorum, Chlamydophila abortus, and Chlamydophila psittaci by the microimmunofluorescence test. Antibody titers to chlamydiae ≥ 1:32 were detected in 110 of the 173 samples tested (63.6%). Specific reactivity could be assessed only in 44 sera with antibody titers to C. suis that were two- to threefold higher than antibody titers against the other chlamydial species; the other 66 sera had similar reactivity against all the chlamydia species tested. Antibody to C. suis was detected in sera from wild boar populations with rare or no known contact with domestic pigs. These results suggest that the wild boar could be a chlamydia reservoir and may acquire chlamydiae independent of contacts with the domestic pig.

  7. Chlamydia and sudden infant death syndrome. A study of 166 SIDS and 30 control cases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Banner, Jytte; Lundemose, A G; Gregersen, M

    1990-01-01

    .04). Chlamydia trachomatis is an agent of pneumonia in 1-4 month-old infants who have acquired the disease from an infected cervix during birth, but other chlamydia species are also capable of causing pneumonia. The lung sections of the 32 chlamydia positive SIDS cases did not show typical histological signs......Chlamydia inclusions could be demonstrated by an immunofluorescence assay in formalin-fixed lung sections in 32 of 166 cases (19.4%) of Sudden Infant Death Syndrome (SIDS) and in the lungs of only 1 of 30 infants with a known cause of death (3.3%). The difference is statistically significant (P = 0...... of pneumonia. Even though chlamydia inclusions were detected in the lungs of 32 SIDS cases a causal relation between chlamydia infection and SIDS could not be demonstrated....

  8. Chlamydia prevalence in the general population: is there a sex difference? a systematic review

    OpenAIRE

    Dielissen, Patrick W; Teunissen, Doreth AM; Lagro-Janssen, Antoine LM

    2013-01-01

    Background The focus of Chlamydia trachomatis screening and testing lies more on women than on men. The study aim was to establish by systematic review the prevalence of urogenital Chlamydia trachomatis infection in men and women in the general population. Methods Electronic databases and reference lists were searched from 2000 to 2013 using the key words “Chlamydia trachomatis”, “population-based study” and “disease prevalence”. Reference lists were checked. Studies were included in the anal...

  9. Importancia clínica de las Chlamydias

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Digna Llorente Molina

    Full Text Available Introducción: las infecciones por Chlamydia han alcanzado alta incidencia en el mundo. Constituyen importantes patógenos para los animales y el hombre. En la especie humana pueden ocasionar múltiples infecciones en diferentes órganos y sistemas de órganos. Objetivo: resumir los aspectos más novedosos relacionados con las Chlamydias en cuanto a sus características y formas de evitarla. Métodos: se realizó una revisión bibliográfica sobre la importancia clínica de las Chlamydias en la especie humana y su elevada incidencia. Se consultó la base de datos Medline disponible en INFOMED, de donde se extrajeron referencias bibliográficas entre los años 1995 y 2011, acerca de algunos aspectos etiológicos, clínicos, diagnósticos y terapéuticos de acuerdo a los últimos apuntes más relevantes en la literatura médica sobre Chlamydias y su relación con el hombre. Resultados: la Chlamydia Trachomatis en particular responsable del tracoma, primera causa de ceguera prevenible, provoca un impacto deletéreo en la salud reproductiva, produciendo entidades como abortos espontáneos, rotura prematura de membranas, restricción del crecimiento intrauterino, endometritis, conjuntivitis y neumonía del recién nacido. Es responsable además de Linfogranuloma Venéreo, Uretritis no Gonocóccica, Síndrome de Reiter, Enfermedad Inflamatoria Pélvica, Síndrome de Fitz Hugh Curtis, Embarazo Ectópico Crónico, Dolor Pélvico Crónico y más recientemente Carcinoma Cervical, entre otras. Conclusiones: partiendo de la base del impacto social y económico que tiene la infección por Chlamydias en el mundo y en nuestro país, pudimos resumir los aspectos más novedosos en cuanto a los tipos, infecciones que causan y sus características, diagnóstico, terapéutica y medidas generales para evitarlas o reducir su impacto negativo en la sociedad.

  10. Seroprevalence and Risk Factors of Chlamydia Infection in Domestic Rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoting Ni

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Chlamydia spp. are obligate intracellular bacteria distributed all over the world, known to cause various forms of diseases in animals and humans. In the present study, a serological survey was conducted to detect the seroprevalence and risk factors associated with rabbit chlamydiosis in northeast China, including Liaoning province, Jilin province, Heilongjiang province, and Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region. Antibodies to Chlamydia were determined by indirect hemagglutination assay (IHA. The overall seroprevalence was estimated at 17.88% in total of 800 blood samples. The Chlamydia seroprevalence varied in domestic rabbits from different factors, and genders of domestic rabbits were considered as major risk factors associated with Chlamydia infection. Our study revealed a widespread and high prevalence of Chlamydia infection in domestic rabbits in northeast China, with higher exposure risk in female domestic rabbits. These findings suggested the potential importance of domestic rabbits in the transmission of zoonotic Chlamydia infection, and thus Chlamydia should be taken into consideration in diagnosing rabbit diseases. To our knowledge, there is no report of Chlamydia infection in domestic rabbits in China and the results extend the host range for Chlamydia, which has important implications for public health and the local economy.

  11. Chlamydia species-dependent differences in the growth requirement for lysosomes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scot P Ouellette

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Genome reduction is a hallmark of obligate intracellular pathogens such as Chlamydia, where adaptation to intracellular growth has resulted in the elimination of genes encoding biosynthetic enzymes. Accordingly, chlamydiae rely heavily on the host cell for nutrients yet their specific source is unclear. Interestingly, chlamydiae grow within a pathogen-defined vacuole that is in close apposition to lysosomes. Metabolically-labeled uninfected host cell proteins were provided as an exogenous nutrient source to chlamydiae-infected cells, and uptake and subsequent labeling of chlamydiae suggested lysosomal degradation as a source of amino acids for the pathogen. Indeed, Bafilomycin A1 (BafA1, an inhibitor of the vacuolar H(+/ATPase that blocks lysosomal acidification and functions, impairs the growth of C. trachomatis and C. pneumoniae, and these effects are especially profound in C. pneumoniae. BafA1 induced the marked accumulation of material within the lysosomal lumen, which was due to the inhibition of proteolytic activities, and this response inhibits chlamydiae rather than changes in lysosomal acidification per se, as cathepsin inhibitors also inhibit the growth of chlamydiae. Finally, the addition of cycloheximide, an inhibitor of eukaryotic protein synthesis, compromises the ability of lysosomal inhibitors to block chlamydial growth, suggesting chlamydiae directly access free amino acids in the host cytosol as a preferred source of these nutrients. Thus, chlamydiae co-opt the functions of lysosomes to acquire essential amino acids.

  12. Chlamydia trachomatis Serology in Women with and without Ovarian Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberta B. Ness

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Pelvic inflammation has been implicated in the genesis of ovarian cancer. We conducted serologic measurements of Chlamydia trachomatis antibodies as a surrogate marker of chlamydial pelvic inflammatory disease. Women with ovarian cancer (n=521 and population-based controls (n=766 were tested. IgG antibodies to serovar D of chlamydia elementary bodies (EBs were detected using an ELISA assay. The odds of having ovarian cancer among women with the highest titers (≥0.40 OD units were 0.6 (95% CI 0.4–0.9. These data do not support our earlier finding of elevated titers for antibodies to C. trachomatis among women with ovarian cancer.

  13. Considerations for the rational design of a Chlamydia vaccine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Steven; Bulir, David; Kaushic, Charu; Mahony, James

    2017-04-03

    Chlamydia trachomatis is the leading cause of preventable blindness and the most common bacterial sexually transmitted infection. Remarkable progress in vaccine research over the past six decades has led to the advancement of novel C. trachomatis vaccine candidates into clinical trials. However, many questions regarding the role of specific cellular populations and molecular mechanisms in protective immunity against human C. trachomatis genital tract infections remain unanswered. Biomarkers of vaccine induced protective immunity are elusive in humans, while a cautionary message on the translatability of data obtained from current animal models has emanated from vaccine research and development efforts against other important human pathogens. In this commentary, we highlight recent advances in Chlamydia vaccine development and discuss their implications in the context of a rational approach to the design of a human C. trachomatis vaccine.

  14. Considerations for the rational design of a Chlamydia vaccine

    OpenAIRE

    Liang, Steven; Bulir, David; Kaushic, Charu; Mahony, James

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Chlamydia trachomatis is the leading cause of preventable blindness and the most common bacterial sexually transmitted infection. Remarkable progress in vaccine research over the past six?decades has led to the advancement of novel C. trachomatis vaccine candidates into clinical trials. However, many questions regarding the role of specific cellular populations and molecular mechanisms in protective immunity against human C. trachomatis genital tract infections remain unanswered. Bio...

  15. Chlamydia pecorum: fetal and placental lesions in sporadic caprine abortion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giannitti, Federico; Anderson, Mark; Miller, Myrna; Rowe, Joan; Sverlow, Karen; Vasquez, Marce; Cantón, Germán

    2016-03-01

    Chlamydial abortion in small ruminants is usually associated with Chlamydia abortus infection. Although Chlamydia pecorum has been detected in aborted ruminants and epidemiological data suggests that C. pecorum is abortigenic in these species, published descriptions of lesions in fetuses are lacking. This work describes fetoplacental lesions in a caprine abortion with C. pecorum infection, and further supports the abortigenic role of C. pecorum in ruminants. A 16-month-old Boer goat aborted twin fetuses at ~130 days of gestation. Both fetuses (A and B) and the placenta of fetus A were submitted for postmortem examination and diagnostic workup. At autopsy, the fetuses had moderate anasarca, intermuscular edema in the hindquarters (A), and brachygnathia and palatoschisis (B). In the placenta, the cotyledons were covered by yellow fibrinosuppurative exudate that extended into the adjacent intercotyledonary areas. Histologically, there was severe suppurative and necrotizing placentitis with vasculitis (arteriolitis) and thrombosis, multifocal lymphohistiocytic and neutrophilic hepatitis (A), and fibrinosuppurative enteritis in both fetuses. Chlamydia antigen was detected in the placenta by the direct fluorescent antibody test and in fetal intestines by immunohistochemistry. Nested polymerase chain reaction of DNA extracted from formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded sections of placenta and intestine amplified 400 bp of the Chlamydia 16S rRNA gene that was sequenced and found to be 99% identical to C. pecorum by BLAST analysis. Other known abortigenic infectious agents were ruled out by specific testing. It is concluded that C. pecorum infection is associated with fetoplacental lesions and sporadic abortion in goats. © 2015 The Author(s).

  16. More than classical Chlamydia psittaci in urban pigeons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sachse, Konrad; Kuehlewind, Simone; Ruettger, Anke; Schubert, Evelyn; Rohde, Gernot

    2012-06-15

    In the literature, studies of Chlamydia infection in birds have usually been confined to the search for Chlamydia (C., formerly Chlamydophila) psittaci, so that little is known about the presence of other chlamydial agents. In the present study, cloacal swabs and faeces samples of urban pigeons have been examined by real-time PCR, DNA microarray assays and partial ompA sequencing. Whilst C. psittaci was the predominant chlamydial agent in this pigeon population (75.8% of all Chlamydiaceae positives), the combined use of highly specific and sensitive molecular assays facilitated the detection of atypical serovars of C. psittaci, as well as other species of Chlamydia, such as C. abortus. Detection of C. pecorum and C. trachomatis from an avian host is reported here for the first time. Rather unexpectedly, 19.5% of all Chlamydiaceae-positive cases turned out to be infected with non-classified organisms. The considerable prevalence of these novel agents raises the question of their epidemiological importance and possible role as pathogens. Future surveys in domestic and wild birds will have to take the extended variety of chlamydial organisms into account. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Characterization of interactions between inclusion membrane proteins from Chlamydia trachomatis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emilie eGauliard

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Chlamydiae are obligate intracellular pathogens of eukaryotes. The bacteria grow in an intracellular vesicle called an inclusion, the membrane of which is heavily modified by chlamydial proteins called Incs (Inclusion membrane proteins. Incs represent 7-10% of the genomes of Chlamydia and, given their localization at the interface between the host and the pathogen, likely play a key role in the development and pathogenesis of the bacterium. However, their functions remain largely unknown. Here, we characterized the interaction properties between various Inc proteins of C. trachomatis, using a bacterial two-hybrid (BACTH method suitable for detecting interactions between integral membrane proteins. To validate this approach, we first examined the oligomerization properties of the well-characterized IncA protein and showed that both the cytoplasmic domain and the transmembrane region independently contribute to IncA oligomerization. We then analyzed a set of Inc proteins and identified novel interactions between these components. Two small Incs, IncF and Ct222, were found here to interact with many other Inc proteins and may thus represent interaction nodes within the inclusion membrane. Our data suggest that the Inc proteins may assemble in the membrane of the inclusion to form specific multi-molecular complexes in an hierarchical and temporal manner. These studies will help to better define the putative functions of the Inc proteins in the infectious process of Chlamydia.

  18. Modelling the impact of chlamydia screening on the transmission of HIV among men who have sex with men

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. Xiridou (Maria); H.J. Vriend (Henrike); A.K. Lugnér (Anna); J. Wallinga (Jacco); J.S.A. Fennema (Johan); J.M. Prins (Jan); S.E. Geerlings (Suzanne); B.J.A. Rijnders (Bart); M. Prins (Mariia); H.J.C. de Vries (Henry); M.J. Postma (Maarten); M.G. van Veen (Maaike); M. Schim van der Loeff (Maarten); M.A.B. van der Sande (Marianne)

    2013-01-01

    textabstractBackground: Recent studies have found high prevalences of asymptomatic rectal chlamydia among HIV-infected men who have sex with men (MSM). Chlamydia could increase the infectivity of HIV and the susceptibility to HIV infection. We investigate the role of chlamydia in the spread of HIV

  19. Distinct intensity of host-pathogen interactions in Chlamydia psittaci- and Chlamydia abortus-infected chicken embryos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braukmann, Maria; Sachse, Konrad; Jacobsen, Ilse D; Westermann, Martin; Menge, Christian; Saluz, Hans-Peter; Berndt, Angela

    2012-09-01

    Factors and mechanisms determining the differences in virulence and host specificity between the zoonotic agents Chlamydia psittaci and Chlamydia abortus are still largely unknown. In the present study, two strains were compared for their invasiveness, virulence, and capability of eliciting an immune response in chicken embryos. On breeding day 10, embryonated chicken eggs were inoculated with 5 × 10(4) inclusion-forming units. As shown by immunohistochemistry and quantitative real-time PCR, C. psittaci displayed a significantly better capability of disseminating in the chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) and internal organs than C. abortus. The higher infectious potential of C. psittaci in birds was underlined by significantly higher mRNA expression rates of essential chlamydial genes, such as incA, groEL (in CAM, liver, and spleen), cpaf, and ftsW (in CAM). Although the immune responses to both pathogens were similar, C. psittaci elicited higher macrophage numbers and a stronger expression of a subset of immune-related proteins. The data imply that invasiveness of Chlamydia spp. and propagation in the host are not solely dependent on the level of host immune response but, even to a greater extent, on the expression of bacterial factors related to virulence. The fact that C. psittaci has coped far better than C. abortus with the avian embryo's response by upregulating essential genes may be a key to understanding the mechanisms underlying host adaptation and etiopathology.

  20. Proteolytic cleavage of the Chlamydia pneumoniae major outer membrane protein in the absence of Pmp10

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juul, Nicolai Stefan; Timmerman, E; Gevaert, K

    2007-01-01

    The genome of the obligate intracellular bacteria Chlamydia pneumoniae contains 21 genes encoding polymorphic membrane proteins (Pmp). While no function has yet been attributed to the Pmps, they may be involved in an antigenic variation of the Chlamydia surface. It has previously been demonstrated...

  1. Topological analysis of Chlamydia trachomatis L2 outer membrane protein 2

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mygind, P; Christiansen, Gunna; Birkelund, Svend

    1998-01-01

    Using monospecific polyclonal antisera to different parts of Chlamydia trachomatis L2 outer membrane protein 2 (Omp2), we show that the protein is localized at the inner surface of the outer membrane. Omp2 becomes immunoaccessible when Chlamydia elementary bodies are treated with dithiothreitol...

  2. Usefulness of primary care electronic networks to assess the incidence of chlamydia, diagnosed by general practitioners.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Suijkerbuijk, A.W.M.; Broek, I.V.F. van den; Brouwer, H.J.; Vanrolleghem, A.M.; Joosten, J.H.K.; Verheij, R.A.; Sande, M.A.B. van der; Kretzschmar, M.E.E.

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Chlamydia is the most common curable sexually transmitted infection (STI) in the Netherlands. The majority of chlamydia diagnoses are made by general practitioners (GPs). Baseline data from primary care will facilitate the future evaluation of the ongoing large population-based screening

  3. Population Genomics of Chlamydia trachomatis: Insights on Drift, Selection, Recombination, and Population Structure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Joseph, Sandeep J.; Didelot, Xavier; Rothschild, James; de Vries, Henry J. C.; Morré, Servaas A.; Read, Timothy D.; Dean, Deborah

    2012-01-01

    The large number of sexually transmitted diseases and ocular trachoma cases that are caused globally each year by Chlamydia trachomatis has made this organism a World Health Organization priority for vaccine development. However, there is no gene transfer system for Chlamydia to help identify

  4. Chlamydia pecorum Infection in Free-ranging Koalas ( Phascolarctos cinereus ) on French Island, Victoria, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Legione, Alistair R; Amery-Gale, Jemima; Lynch, Michael; Haynes, Leesa; Gilkerson, James R; Sansom, Fiona M; Devlin, Joanne M

    2016-04-28

    We detected Chlamydia pecorum in two koalas ( Phascolarctos cinereus ) from a closed island population in Victoria, Australia, previously free of Chlamydia infection. The ompA and multilocus sequence type were most closely related to published isolates of livestock rather than koala origin, suggesting potential cross-species transmission of C. pecorum .

  5. The prevalence and clinical significance of Chlamydia infection in island and mainland populations of Victorian koalas (Phascolarctos cinereus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patterson, Jade L S; Lynch, Michael; Anderson, Garry A; Noormohammadi, Amir H; Legione, Alistair; Gilkerson, James R; Devlin, Joanne M

    2015-04-01

    Chlamydia infection is known to impact the health of koalas (Phascolarctos cinereus) in New South Wales (NSW) and Queensland, but the clinical significance of Chlamydia infections in Victorian koalas is not well described. We examined the prevalence of Chlamydia infection and assessed associated health parameters in two Victorian koala populations known to be Chlamydia positive. The same testing regimen was applied to a third Victorian population in which Chlamydia had not been detected. We examined 288 koalas and collected samples from the urogenital sinus and conjunctival sacs. Detection and differentiation of Chlamydia species utilized real-time PCR and high-resolution melting curve analysis. Chlamydia pecorum was detected in two populations (prevalences: 25% and 41%, respectively) but only from urogenital sinus swabs. Chlamydia was not detected in the third population. Chlamydia pneumoniae was not detected. Chlamydia pecorum infection was positively associated with wet bottom (indicating chronic urinary tract disease) in one Chlamydia-positive population and with abnormal urogenital ultrasound findings in the other Chlamydia-positive population. The prevalence of wet bottom was similar in all populations (including the Chlamydia-free population), suggesting there is another significant cause (or causes) of wet bottom in Victorian koalas. Ocular disease was not observed. This is the largest study of Chlamydia infection in Victorian koalas, and the results suggest the potential for epidemiologic differences related to Chlamydia infections between Victorian koalas and koalas in Queensland and NSW and also between geographically distinct Victorian populations. Further studies to investigate the genotypes of C. pecorum present in Victorian koalas and to identify additional causes of wet bottom in koalas are indicated.

  6. [Chlamydia trachomatis proteasome protein as one of the significant pathogenicity factors of exciter].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davydov, D Iu; Zigangirova, N A

    2014-01-01

    Sex-related infections are a global problem. Such infections may lead to acute or chronic diseases. Chlamydia trachomatis is a dangerous and widespread pathogenicity factor that is not sensitive to conventional drugs and has no obvious symptoms. Protein CPAF is leading factor of pathogenesis. This protein inhibits the signaling pathways of host cell and supports long survival of the pathogen in the host cell. The goal of this work was to review general properties of the proteasome Chlamydia protein CPAF, its functions, and role in pathology. The role of protein CPAF in the anti-chlamydia immune reaction is discussed. The prospects of the development of promising anti-chlamydia vaccine, as well as new effective anti-chlamydia drugs are also discussed.

  7. Increased incidence of gonorrhoea and chlamydia in Greenland 1990-2012

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, Mila Broby; Koch, Anders; Wohlfahrt, Jan

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Since the 1970s, Greenland has presented the highest reported incidence rates of the sexually transmitted infections (STIs) gonorrhoea and chlamydia in the Arctic regions. OBJECTIVE: This study aims to describe sex- and age-specific incidence rates of gonorrhoea and chlamydia from 1990...... to 2012 in Greenland, and to evaluate if changes in case definitions, diagnostic procedures and implementation of STI interventions during the period coincide with rate changes. DESIGN: Gonorrhoea and chlamydia cases were identified from the national STI surveillance. For 1990-2008, STI cases were...... to sex, age and calendar period. RESULTS: Gonorrhoea and chlamydia incidence rates have increased since 1995 to reach 2,555 per 100,000 person-years (PY) for gonorrhoea and 6,403 per 100,000 PY for chlamydia in 2012. From 2006 to 2012, the incidence rates among young adults aged 15-19 years were 8...

  8. Analysis of the humoral immune response to Chlamydia outer membrane protein 2

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mygind, P; Christiansen, Gunna; Persson, K

    1998-01-01

    The humoral immune response to Chlamydia outer membrane protein 2 (Omp2) was studied. Omp2 is a highly genus-conserved structural protein of all Chlamydia species, containing a variable N-terminal fragment. To analyze where the immunogenic parts were localized, seven highly purified truncated...... fusion proteins constituting different regions of the protein were produced (Chlamydia pneumoniae-Omp2aa23-aa93, Chlamydia psittaci-Omp2aa23-aa94, and Chlamydia trachomatis-Omp2aa23-aa84, aa87-aa547, aa23-aa182, aa167-aa434, aa420-aa547). By an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay with serologically defined...... patient sera, Omp2 was found to be a major immunogen of both C. pneumoniae and C. trachomatis infections (P species-specific anti-Omp2 immunoglobulins were detected....

  9. Evaluation of the microparticle enzyme immunoassay Abbott IMx Select Chlamydia and the importance of urethral site sampling to detect Chlamydia trachomatis in women.

    OpenAIRE

    Brokenshire, M K; Say, P J; van Vonno, A H; Wong, C

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the commercial microparticle enzyme immunoassay (MEIA), Abbott IMx Select Chlamydia, for the detection of Chlamydia trachomatis in women and to compare its performance with endocervical cell culture. Also, to determine whether sampling the urethral site is an important part of chlamydial diagnosis in women. SETTING: The Auckland, Manukau, and Waitakere Sexual Health Clinics, Auckland, New Zealand and the Department of Clinical Microbiology, Auckland Hospital, Auckland, ...

  10. Pelvic inflammatory disease risk following negative results from chlamydia nucleic acid amplification tests (NAATs) versus non-NAATs in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Turner, Katy M E; Benfield, Thomas; Frølund, Maria

    2018-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Nucleic Acid Amplification Tests (NAATs) are the recommended test type for diagnosing Chlamydia trachomatis (chlamydia). However, less sensitive diagnostic methods-including direct immunofluorescence (IF) and enzyme-linked immunoassay (ELISA)-remain in use in lower resourced settings...... with a chlamydia test, just under half (44.78%, n = 121,857) were tested using NAATs. Overall, 6.38% (n = 17,353) tested positive for chlamydia and 0.64% (n = 1,732) were diagnosed with PID within 12 months. The risk of PID following a positive chlamydia test did not differ by test type (NAAT 0.81% [95% CI 0....... We estimate the risk of pelvic inflammatory disease (PID) following undiagnosed infection in women tested with non-NAATs and estimate the health gain from using accurate diagnostic tests. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We used Denmark's national Chlamydia Study dataset to extract all chlamydia tests performed...

  11. Chlamydia trachomatis infection of the male genital tract: an update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackern-Oberti, Juan Pablo; Motrich, Rubén Darío; Breser, María Laura; Sánchez, Leonardo Rodolfo; Cuffini, Cecilia; Rivero, Virginia Elena

    2013-11-01

    Chlamydia trachomatis (CT) is the most prevalent cause of sexually transmitted diseases. Although the prevalence of chlamydial infection is similar in men and women, current research and screening are still focused on women, who develop the most severe complications, leaving the study of male genital tract (MGT) infection underrated. Herein, we reviewed the literature on genital CT infection with special focus on the MGT. Data indicate that CT certainly infects different parts of the MGT such as the urethra, seminal vesicles, prostate, epididymis and testis. However, whether or not CT infection has detrimental effects on male fertility is still controversial. The most important features of CT infection are its chronic nature and the presence of a mild inflammation that remains subclinical in most individuals. Chlamydia antigens and pathogen recognition receptors (PRR), expressed on epithelial cells and immune cells from the MGT, have been studied in the last years. Toll-like receptor (TLR) expression has been observed in the testis, epididymis, prostate and vas deferens. It has been demonstrated that recognition of chlamydial antigens is associated with TLR2, TLR4, and possibly, other PRRs. CT recognition by PRRs induces a local production of cytokines/chemokines, which, in turn, provoke chronic inflammation that might evolve in the onset of an autoimmune process in genetically susceptible individuals. Understanding local immune response along the MGT, as well as the crosstalk between resident leukocytes, epithelial, and stromal cells, would be crucial in inducing a protective immunity, thus adding to the design of new therapeutic approaches to a Chlamydia vaccine. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Typing Chlamydia trachomatis: from egg yolk to nanotechnology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Lisbeth Nørum; Herrmann, Bjørn; Møller, Jens Kjølseth

    2009-01-01

    A historical review is provided of the various methods used for half a century to differentiate and type Chlamydia trachomatis strains. Typing of C. trachomatis is an important tool for revealing transmission patterns in sexual networks, and enabling association with clinical manifestations......, insufficient epidemiological resolution is achieved by characterization of both MOMP and omp1. This calls for new high-resolution genotyping methods applying for example a multilocus variable number tandem repeat assay (MLVA) or multilocus sequence typing (MLST). The futuristic nanotechnology already seems...

  13. Abortion associated with Chlamydia abortus in extensively reared Iberian sows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salinas, J; Ortega, N; Borge, C; Rangel, M J; Carbonero, A; Perea, A; Caro, M R

    2012-10-01

    Reproductive disease was investigated in Iberian pigs on an extensive farrow-to-finish farm in the southwest of Spain. Chlamydia abortus was isolated in cell culture and C. abortus-specific PCR products were detected in placental and fetal tissues. In one batch of 14 sows, the percentage of sera positive for C. abortus specific antibodies increased from 35.7% to 85.7% in the period of 2 weeks following abortion. C. abortus may play a role in abortion in extensively reared Iberian sows. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Deteccion de Chlamydia trachomatis en muestras uretrales mediante inmunofluorescencia directa Detecção de Chlamydia trachomatis em amostras uretrais mediante imunofluorescência direta Detection of Chlamydia trachomatis in urethral samples by means of direct immunofluorescence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Myra Wilson Schuster

    1989-12-01

    Full Text Available Se estudiaron 82 pacientes con uretritis para la búsqueda de Chlamydia trachomatis mediante inmunofluorescencia directa, Neisscria gonorrhoeae, Mycoplastna y Ureaplasma mediante métodos estándar. Se encontró un 19,5% de Chlamydia trachomatis y en 11 de ellos (68,8% se encontró asociada a otras bacterias y estos pacientes presentó una secreción escasa-gelatinosa.Em 82 doentes com uretrite foi pesquisada a presença de Chlamydia trachomatis, utilizando a prova da imunofluorescência direta, e de Neisseria gonorrhoeae, Mycoplasma e Ureaplasma, utilizando os métodos padrões. Ch. trachomatis foi encontrada em 19,5% dos casos, sendo que em 11 deles (68,8% observou-se associação entre Chlamydia e as outras bactérias pesquisadas. Nesses pacientes observou-se presença de secreção uretral escassa e de aspecto gelatinoso.The presence of Chlamydia trachomatis was studied by the direct immunofluorescence test, as also was that of Neisseria gonorrhoeae, Mycoplasma and Ureaplasma by the standard methods, in 82 patients with urethral discharge. Ch. trachomatis was found in 19.5% (16 of the cases and in 11 of them (68.8% there was association with the other bacteria investigated. This eleven patients presented a scanty gelatinous discharge.

  15. Chlamydia trachomatis Is Responsible for Lipid Vacuolation in the Amniotic Epithelium of Fetal Gastroschisis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feldkamp, Marcia L; Ward, Diane M; Pysher, Theodore J; Chambers, Christina T

    2017-07-17

    Vacuolated amniotic epithelium with lipid droplets in gastroschisis placentas is an unusual finding. Mass spectrometry of lipid droplets identified triglycerides, ester-linked to an unusual pattern of fatty acids. We hypothesize that these findings result from a Chlamydia trachomatis infection during the periconceptional period. The rising incidence of chlamydia infections has paralleled the increasing prevalence of gastroschisis among women less than 25 years of age. Histologically, young women are at greatest risk for a chlamydia infection due to their immature columnar epithelium, the preferential site for attachment of Chlamydia trachomatis infectious particle (elementary body). Chlamydia trachomatis survive in an inclusion, relying on its host to acquire essential nutrients, amino acids, and nucleotides for survival and replication. If essential nutrients are not available, the bacteria cannot replicate and may be trafficked to the lysosome for degradation or remain quiescent, within the inclusion, subverting innate immunologic clearance. Chlamydiae synthesize several lipids (phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidylserine, and phosphoatidylglycerol); however, their lipid content reveal eukaryotic lipids (sphingomyelin, cholesterol, phosphatidylcholine, and phosphatidylinositol), evidence that chlamydiae "hijack" host lipids for expansion and replication. The abnormal amniotic epithelial findings are supported by experimental evidence of the trafficking of host lipids into the chlamydiae inclusion. If not lethal, what harm will elementary bodies inflict to the developing embryo? Do these women have a greater pro-inflammatory response to an environmental exposure, whether cigarette smoking, change in partner, or a pathogen? Testing the hypothesis that Chlamydia trachomatis is responsible for amniotic epithelium vacuoles will be a critical first step. Birth Defects Research 109:1003-1010, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Repeat Chlamydia trachomatis testing among heterosexual STI outpatient clinic visitors in the Netherlands: a longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Visser, Maartje; van Aar, Fleur; Koedijk, Femke D H; Kampman, Carolina J G; Heijne, Janneke C M

    2017-12-20

    Chlamydia infections are common in both men and women, are often asymptomatic and can cause serious complications. Repeat testing in high-risk groups is therefore indicated. In the Netherlands, guidelines on repeat chlamydia testing differ between testing facilities, and knowledge on repeat testing behaviour is limited. Here, we analyse the current repeat testing behaviour of heterosexual STI clinic visitors, and aim to identify groups for which repeat testing advice could be advantageous. Longitudinal surveillance data from all Dutch STI outpatient clinics were used, which included all STI clinic consultations carried out among heterosexual men and women between June 2014 and December 2015. Repeat testing was defined as returning to the same STI clinic between 35 days and 12 months after initial consultation. We calculated chlamydia positivity at repeat test stratified by initial test result and time between consultations. Logistic regression analyses were used to identify predictors of repeat testing, and predictors of having a chlamydia positive repeat test. In total, 140,486 consultations in 75,487 women and 46,286 men were available for analyses. Overall, 15.4% of women and 11.1% of men returned to the STI clinic within the study period. Highest chlamydia positivity at repeat test was seen 3-5 months after initial positive test. Among both women and men, repeat testing was associated with non-Western ethnicity, having had more than two sex partners in the past 6 months, reporting STI symptoms, having a history of STI, and having a chlamydia positive initial test. Among repeat testers, chlamydia positive repeat test was most strongly associated with younger age, followed by a chlamydia positive initial test. Repeat testing most often resulted in a positive test result among young heterosexuals (<25) and heterosexuals of any age with a chlamydia infection at the initial consultation. Further efforts are needed to determine optimal repeat testing strategies.

  17. Management of Chlamydia trachomatis genital tract infection: screening and treatment challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brandie D Taylor

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Brandie D Taylor, Catherine L HaggertyUniversity of Pittsburgh, Department of Epidemiology, Pittsburgh, PA, USAAbstract: Chlamydia trachomatis is a prevalent sexually transmitted infection that can lead to serious reproductive morbidity. Management and control of C. trachomatis is a challenge, largely due to its asymptomatic nature and our incomplete understanding of its natural history. Although chlamydia screening programs have been implemented worldwide, several countries have observed increasing rates of reported chlamydia cases. We reviewed the literature relating to the long-term complications of C. trachomatis, as well as screening strategies, treatment, and prevention strategies for reducing chlamydia in the population. Articles from 1950–2010 were identified through a Medline search using the keyword “Chlamydia trachomatis” combined with “screening”, “pelvic inflammatory disease”, “endometritis”, “salpingitis”, “infertility”, "ectopic pregnancy”, “urethritis”, “epididymitis”, “proctitis”, “prostatitis”, “reinfection”, “cost-effectiveness”, “treatment”, “vaccines”, or “prevention”. Progression of C. trachomatis varies, and recurrent infections are common. Currently, there is limited evidence on the effectiveness of chlamydia screening. Higher quality studies are needed to determine the efficacy of more frequent screening, on a broader range of sequelae, including infertility and ectopic pregnancy, in addition to pelvic inflammatory disease. Studies should focus on delineating the natural history of recurrent infections, paying particular attention to treatment failures. Furthermore, alternatives to screening, such as vaccines, should continue to be explored.Keywords: Chlamydia trachomatis, sexually transmitted disease, chlamydia screening, chlamydia treatment

  18. Chlamydiae in febrile children with respiratory tract symptoms and age-matched controls, Ghana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Bühl

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Members of the Chlamydiales order are obligate intracellular pathogens causing acute and chronic infectious diseases. Chlamydiaceae are established agents of community- and zoonotically acquired respiratory tract infections, and emerging pathogens among the Chlamydia-related bacteria have been implicated in airway infections. The role of both in airway infections in Africa is underexplored. We performed a case -control study on the prevalence of Chlamydiaceae and Chlamydia-related emerging pathogens in children with febrile respiratory tract infections in West Africa, Ghana. Using a pan-Chlamydiales broad-range real-time PCR, we detected chlamydial DNA in 11 (1.9% of 572 hospitalized febrile children with respiratory tract symptoms and in 24 (4.3% of 560 asymptomatic age-matched controls (p 0.03. Chlamydiaceae were found to be common among both symptomatic and healthy Ghanaian children, with Chlamydia pneumoniae being the most prevalent species. Parachlamydiaceae were detected in two children without symptoms but not in the symptomatic group. We identified neither Chlamydia psittaci nor Simkania negevensis but a member of a new chlamydial family that shared 90.2% sequence identity with the 16S rRNA gene of the zoonotic pathogen Chlamydia pecorum. In addition, we found a new Chlamydia-related species that belonged to a novel family sharing 91.3% 16S rRNA sequence identity with Candidatus Syngnamydia venezia. The prevalence and spectrum of chlamydial species differed from previous results obtained from children of other geographic regions and our study indicates that both, Chlamydiaceae and Chlamydia-related bacteria, are not clearly linked to clinical symptoms in Ghanaian children. Keywords: Children, Chlamydia, Chlamydia-related bacteria, febrile respiratory tract infection, Ghana

  19. Chlamydia trachomatis in cervico vaginal smears of irradiated uteri: cytologic and immune cytochemical aspects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santos, D.R.; Marziona, F.; Oyafuso, M.; Carvalho, M.I. de

    1989-01-01

    Cervico vaginal smears of women with uterine carcinoma treated with radiotherapy are analyzed in the present work. A series of such smears showed morphological changes suggestive of Chlamydia infection with the Papanicolaou stain. Confirmation of the presence of such agent was done using an avidin-biotin peroxidase technique. A higher prevalence of Chlamydia in the group of patients with carcinoma of the uterus treated with irradiation than in the population without ionizing treatment was verified. The presence of cells with radiotherapic changes infected by Chlamydia is a new finding in cytology. (author)

  20. Survival of chlamydiae in human semen prepared for artificial insemination by donor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorsen, Poul; Møller, Birger R.; Halkier-Sørensen, Lars

    1991-01-01

    Semen specimens from 21 men with urethral infection with Chlamydia trachomatis were tested for the presence of the organism before and after cryopreservation for 3 weeks of storage at -196 degrees C. Five specimens were chlamydia-positive before preservation and four of them were still positive...... after storage when examined by enzyme immunoassay (Chlamydiazyme). When examined by cell culture, four proved chlamydia- positive before storage and two afterwards. The results indicate that testing for C. trachomatis has to be performed from the urethra of all donors of semen used for artificial...

  1. Comparison between ICT and PCR for diagnosis of Chlamydia trachomatis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, E R; Hossain, M A; Paul, S K; Mahmud, C; Hasan, M M; Rahman, M M; Nahar, K; Kubayashi, N

    2012-04-01

    Chlamydia trachomatis is an obligate intracellular gram-negative bacterium which is the most prevalent cause of bacterial sexually transmitted infections (STI). The present study was carried to diagnose genital Chlamydia trachomatis infection among women of reproductive age, attending Mymensingh Medical College Hospital, during July 2009 to June 2010 by Immunochromatographic test (ICT) and Polymerase chain reaction (PCR). A total of 70 females were included in this study. Out of 70 cases 56 were symptomatic and 14 asymptomatic. Endocervical swabs were collected from each of the cases and examined by Immunochromatographic test (ICT) for antigen detection and Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for detection of endogenous plasmid-based nucleic acid. A total 29(41.4%) of the cases were found positive for C. trachomatis either by ICT or PCR. Of the 56 symptomatic cases, 19(33.9%) were found ICT positive and 17(30.4%) were PCR positive. Among 14 asymptomatic females, 2(14.3%) were ICT positive and none were PCR positive. Though PCR is highly sensitive but a total of twelve cases were found ICT positive but PCR negative. It may be due to presence of plasmid deficient strain of C trachomatis which could be amplified by ompA based (Chromosomal gene) multiplex PCR.

  2. Detection of Chlamydia pneumoniae in Ankylosing Spondylitis Patients

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    Dunya Fareed Salloom

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Ankylosing spondylitis is a complex debilitating disease because its pathogenesis is not clear. This study aims at detecting some pathogenesis factors that lead to induce the disease. Chlamydia pneumoniae is one of these pathogenesis factors which acts as a triggering factor for the disease. The study groups included forty Iraqi Ankylosing spondylitis patients and forty healthy persons as a control group. Immunological and molecular examinations were done to detect Chlamydia. pneumoniae in AS group. The immunological results were performed by Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA to detect anti-IgG and anti-IgM antibodies of C. pneumoniae revealed that five of forty AS patients' samples (12.5% were positive for anti-IgG and IgM C. pneumoniae antibodies compared to controls which revealed seronegative. Molecular detection included 16srRNA and HSP-70 genes were to ensure the serological examination for detection of bacteria in the five blood samples which were positive; therefore, these results improved that C. pneumoniae played a role in the pathogenesis of the disease.

  3. Chlamydia abortus in Dairy Farms in Costa Rica

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    Lisa Fonseca Salazar

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to determine the presence of antibodies against Chlamydia abortus in specialized dairy farms. A total of 608 blood samples were collected during 2012 from 24 dairy farms located in the Northern regions of the provinces of Alajuela (15 and Heredia (9, and surveys were carried out to determine management practices in these farms. Serum samples were analyzed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA to detect antibodies against C. abortus (sensitivity 100.0%, specificity 99.7%. Only one serum yielded positive results (S/P 62 %, two sera weak positive results (S/P 51% and 52%, respectively, while the remaining sera (n=605 were negative in ELISA. Six months later, 22 animals that showed S/P values >22% in ELISA were analyzed again, yielding all negative results. Blood, milk, conjunctival and vulvar swabs from these animals were analyzed by Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR, and only one vulvar swab tested positive for Chlamydia spp. The analysis of the management practices and results obtained with ELISA and PCR lead us to conclude that C. abortus is not significantly present (<0.5% in dairy farms in the Northern regions of the provinces of Heredia and Alajuela in Costa Rica.

  4. Analysis of glycosidases activity in Chlamydia trachomatis L2 serotype

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr. Sanjiv Rughooputh

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Chlamydiae are prokaryotic, gram negative, intracellular parasites, causing a number of human diseases with serious sequelae. The exact mechanism of chlamydial attachment and entry into the host cell is still unclear. Chlamydia trachomatis, SA2F (L2 was tested for the activity of glycosidases. Glycosidases are involved in the synthesis and breakdown of cell-wall polysaccharides, and have a pivotal role in attachment to the surface of host cells as well as in the invasion process of other infective agents. For these reasons, glycosidases are likely to provide important information regarding the general behaviour of this bacterium. Ten different glycosides bound to p-nitrophenol (pNP substrate were tested. Assays were performed on lysed and unlysed chlamydial extracts.Our results provided strong evidence for the existence of glycosidase activity in C.trachomatis, strain SA2F peaking at pH 5.0 and pH 7.5-8.0 There was a high enzymatic activity against p-NPa mannopyranoside and p-NP b-N acetylglucosamine with a recovery of 88% suggesting that the enzymes were present on the bacterial surface. Activity against these sugars, which form part of either the extracellular filler or in endoplasmic reticulum may suggest of a possible mechanism of cellular invasion.

  5. Using Multiple Outcomes of Sexual Behavior to Provide Insights Into Chlamydia Transmission and the Effectiveness of Prevention Interventions in Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enns, Eva Andrea; Kao, Szu-Yu; Kozhimannil, Katy Backes; Kahn, Judith; Farris, Jill; Kulasingam, Shalini L

    2017-10-01

    Mathematical models are important tools for assessing prevention and management strategies for sexually transmitted infections. These models are usually developed for a single infection and require calibration to observed epidemiological trends in the infection of interest. Incorporating other outcomes of sexual behavior into the model, such as pregnancy, may better inform the calibration process. We developed a mathematical model of chlamydia transmission and pregnancy in Minnesota adolescents aged 15 to 19 years. We calibrated the model to statewide rates of reported chlamydia cases alone (chlamydia calibration) and in combination with pregnancy rates (dual calibration). We evaluated the impact of calibrating to different outcomes of sexual behavior on estimated input parameter values, predicted epidemiological outcomes, and predicted impact of chlamydia prevention interventions. The two calibration scenarios produced different estimates of the probability of condom use, the probability of chlamydia transmission per sex act, the proportion of asymptomatic infections, and the screening rate among men. These differences resulted in the dual calibration scenario predicting lower prevalence and incidence of chlamydia compared with calibrating to chlamydia cases alone. When evaluating the impact of a 10% increase in condom use, the dual calibration scenario predicted fewer infections averted over 5 years compared with chlamydia calibration alone [111 (6.8%) vs 158 (8.5%)]. While pregnancy and chlamydia in adolescents are often considered separately, both are outcomes of unprotected sexual activity. Incorporating both as calibration targets in a model of chlamydia transmission resulted in different parameter estimates, potentially impacting the intervention effectiveness predicted by the model.

  6. Prevalence of Chlamydia trachomatis infection in women, heterosexual men and MSM visiting HIV counselling institutions in North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany - should Chlamydia testing be scaled up?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne Lallemand

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Patients asking for a free anonymous HIV test may have contracted other sexually transmitted infections (STIs such as Chlamydia trachomatis, yet Chlamydia prevalence in that population is unknown. This study aimed to assess the prevalence and factors associated with Chlamydia infection in patients seeking HIV testing at local public health authorities (LPHA in order to evaluate whether Chlamydia testing should be routinely offered to them. Methods We conducted a cross-sectional study among patients (≥18 years attending 18 LPHA in North Rhine-Westphalia from November 2012 to September 2013. LPHA collected information on participants’ socio-demographic characteristics, sexual and HIV testing behaviours, previous STI history and clinical symptoms. Self-collected vaginal swabs and urine (men were analysed by Transcription-Mediated Amplification. We assessed overall and age-stratified Chlamydia prevalence and 95 % confidence intervals (95 % CI. Using univariate and multivariable binomial regression, we estimated adjusted prevalence ratios (aPR to identify factors associated with Chlamydia infection. Results The study population comprised 1144 (40.5 % women, 1134 (40.1 % heterosexual men and 549 (19.4 % men who have sex with men (MSM; median age was 30 years. Chlamydia prevalence was 5.3 % (95 % CI: 4.1–6.8 % among women, 3.2 % (95 % CI: 2.2–4.4 in heterosexual men and 3.5 % (95 % CI: 2.1–5.4 in MSM. Prevalence was highest among 18–24 year-old women (9 %; 95 % CI: 5.8–13 and heterosexual men (5.7 %; 95 % CI: 3.0–9.8 %, respectively. Among MSM, the prevalence was highest among 30–39 year-olds (4.4 %; 95 % CI: 1.9–8.5 %. Among those who tested positive, 76.7 % of women, 75.0 % of heterosexual men and 84.2 % of MSM were asymptomatic. Among women, factors associated with Chlamydia infection were young age (18–24 years versus ≥ 40 years, aPR: 3.0, 95 % CI: 1.2–7.8, having had more than 2

  7. Molecular prevalence and genotyping of Chlamydia spp. in wild birds from South Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Jipseol; An, Injung; Oem, Jae-Ku; Wang, Seung-Jun; Kim, Yongkwan; Shin, Jeong-Hwa; Woo, Chanjin; Kim, Youngsik; Jo, Seong-Deok; Son, Kidong; Lee, Saemi; Jheong, Weonhwa

    2017-07-07

    Wild birds are reservoirs for Chlamydia spp. Of the total 225 samples from wild birds during January to September 2016 in Korea, 4 (1.8%) and 2 (0.9%) showed positive for Chlamydia psittaci and Chlamydia gallinacea, respectively. Phylogenetic analyses and comparisons of sequence identities for outer-membrane protein A (ompA) revealed that Korean C. psittaci fall into three previously known genotypes; genotype E, 1V and 6N, whereas the Korean C. gallinacea were classified as new variants of C. gallinacea. Our study demonstrates that wild birds in South Korea carry at least two Chlamydia species: C. psittaci and C. gallinacea, and provides new information on the epidemiology of avian chlamydiosis in wild birds.

  8. [FEMALE STEROID HORMONES - MODULATORS OF IMMUNE RESPONSE TO GENITAL CHLAMYDIA TRACHOMATIS INFECTION.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovachev, E; Ivanov, S; Bechev, B; Angelova, M; Grueva, E; Kolev, N; Ivanova, V

    In the recent years according to WHO, genital chlamydia is the mos't common sexually transmitted infection. Chlamydia Trachomatis is an intracellular parasite which target are the tubular epithelial cells of the urethra, endocervix, endometrium, endosalpinx, conjunctiva, synovial lining of the joints, Glisson's capsule of the liver Our study, as well as some international researches, shows that in the cases of genital chlamydia there are changes in the ovarian hormones (estradiol and progesterone), their impact on the immune system and their importance for the development and the complications of the infection with Chlamydia trachomatis. The physiological level of the steroid hormones in its turn contributes for the normalization of the local immunity and reduces the possibility of recurrences.

  9. Detection of PCR inhibitors in cervical specimens by using the AMPLICOR Chlamydia trachomatis assay

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R.P.A.J. Verkooyen (Roel); A. Luijendijk (Ad); W.M. Huisman; W.H.F. Goessens (Wil); J.A.J.W. Kluytmans (Jan); J.H. van Rijsoort-Vos; H.A. Verbrugh (Henri)

    1996-01-01

    textabstractTo determine that susceptibility of AMPLICOR Chlamydia trachomatis PCR to inhibitory factors possibly present in cervical specimens, we obtained cervical specimens from 200 gynecology patients attending our outpatient clinic. The prevalence of C. trachomatis

  10. High Titers of Chlamydia trachomatis Antibodies in Brazilian Women with Tubal Occlusion or Previous Ectopic Pregnancy

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    A. C. S. Machado

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To evaluate serum chlamydia antibody titers (CATs in tubal occlusion or previous ectopic pregnancy and the associated risk factors. Methods. The study population consisted of 55 women wih tubal damage and 55 parous women. CAT was measured using the whole-cell inclusion immunofluorescence test and cervical chlamydial DNA detected by PCR. Odds ratios were calculated to assess variables associated with C. trachomatis infection. Results. The prevalence of chlamydial antibodies and antibody titers in women with tubal occlusion or previous ectopic pregnancy was significantly higher (P<.01 than in parous women. Stepwise logistic regression analysis showed that chlamydia IgG antibodies were associated with tubal damage and with a larger number of lifetime sexual partners. Conclusions. Chlamydia antibody titers were associated with tubal occlusion, prior ectopic pregnancy, and with sexual behavior, suggesting that a chlamydia infection was the major contributor to the tubal damage in these women.

  11. Chlamydia infection across host species boundaries promotes distinct sets of transcribed anti-apoptotic factors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joshua eMessinger

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Chlamydiae, obligate intracellular bacteria, cause significant human and veterinary associated diseases. Having emerged an estimated 700-million years ago, these bacteria have twice adapted to humans as a host species, causing sexually transmitted infection (C. trachomatis and respiratory associated disease (C. pneumoniae. The principle mechanism of host cell defense against these intracellular bacteria is the induction of cell death via apoptosis. However, in the arms race of co-evolution, Chlamydiae have developed mechanisms to promote cell viability and inhibit cell death. Herein we examine the impact of Chlamydiae infection across multiple host species on transcription of anti-apoptotic genes. We found mostly distinct patterns of gene expression (Mcl1 and cIAPs elicited by each pathogen-host pair indicating Chlamydiae infection across host species boundaries does not induce a universally shared host response. Understanding species specific host-pathogen interactions is paramount to deciphering how potential pathogens become emerging diseases.

  12. Taking control: reorganization of the host cytoskeleton by Chlamydia [version 1; referees: 5 approved

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jordan Wesolowski

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Both actin and microtubules are major cytoskeletal elements in eukaryotic cells that participate in many cellular processes, including cell division and motility, vesicle and organelle movement, and the maintenance of cell shape. Inside its host cell, the human pathogen Chlamydia trachomatis manipulates the cytoskeleton to promote its survival and enhance its pathogenicity. In particular, Chlamydia induces the drastic rearrangement of both actin and microtubules, which is vital for its entry, inclusion structure and development, and host cell exit. As significant progress in Chlamydia genetics has greatly enhanced our understanding of how this pathogen co-opts the host cytoskeleton, we will discuss the machinery used by Chlamydia to coordinate the reorganization of actin and microtubules.

  13. Access to chlamydia testing in remote and rural Scotland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawkins, Katherine E; Thompson, Lucy; Wilson, Philip

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess access to sexual health care in remote and rural settings using Chlamydia testing as a focus by measuring the extent of Chlamydia testing and positivity across the Scottish Highlands in relation to the Scottish Index of Multiple Deprivation Quintile (SIMD) and Urban Rural 8-fold index (UR8). Tests processed through Raigmore Hospital in Inverness, the main testing laboratory for microbiology tests in North and West and South and Mid Highlands, were studied. Where people are tested in relation to where they live was assessed, as well as the type of test they opt for. Also assessed was the rate of positivity in male and female patients in rural compared with urban settings using the Scottish Government UR8 and in relation to the SIMD. 9644 results were analysed. 77.2% of the results were for females and 22.4% for males. 8.1% of the results were positive and 84.4% were negative. There were proportionately more positive tests from the sexual health sources than from general practice. The proportion of men who had positive tests was almost double that for women (12.7% vs 6.6%) although men made up only 27.9% of the total number of tests. There was no significant difference in positivity when compared with UR8 index or SIMD. 37.7% of people living in the most rural areas (UR8 7-8) had their test performed in a more urban setting (UR8 1-6), and 20.4% people had their test performed in a very urban setting (UR8 1-2). Of these tests, there was a tendency for UR8 7-8 patients to be more likely to have a positive test if tested in an urban setting. These results are similar to previous results in other countries that suggest that Chlamydia positivity is similar in rural and urban settings. A large proportion of people living in more rurally classified areas, and perhaps those with a higher risk, have their test in a central setting, suggesting that they may be bypassing local resources to get a test. The reason for this is not clear. The

  14. Public health economics of chlamydia and other STIs : aspects of risk, prevention and resources

    OpenAIRE

    Deogan, Charlotte

    2013-01-01

    The overall aim of this thesis was to increase the knowledge of the public health economic aspects of chlamydia and other STIs, in terms of risk, prevention and resources. In Study I, we examined the association between demographic, socioeconomic and lifestyle factors and the risk of self-reported chlamydial infection among young adults in the Stockholm public health cohort. We found that the risk of self-reported chlamydia infection among young adults in Sweden was associated with lowe...

  15. Whole-Genome Sequence of Chlamydia abortus Strain GN6 Isolated from Aborted Yak Fetus

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Zhaocai; Cai, Jinshan; Cao, Xiaoan; Lou, Zhongzi; Chao, Yilin; Kan, Wei; Zhou, Jizhang

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT The obligate intracellular Gram-negative bacterium Chlamydia abortus is one of the causative agents of abortion and fetal loss in sheep, goats, and cattle in many countries. It also affects the reproductivity of yaks (Bos grunniens). This study reports the whole-genome sequence of Chlamydia abortus strain GN6, which was isolated from aborted yak fetus in Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau, China.

  16. Whole-Genome Sequence of Chlamydia abortus Strain GN6 Isolated from Aborted Yak Fetus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhaocai; Cai, Jinshan; Cao, Xiaoan; Lou, Zhongzi; Chao, Yilin; Kan, Wei; Zhou, Jizhang

    2017-08-31

    The obligate intracellular Gram-negative bacterium Chlamydia abortus is one of the causative agents of abortion and fetal loss in sheep, goats, and cattle in many countries. It also affects the reproductivity of yaks ( Bos grunniens ). This study reports the whole-genome sequence of Chlamydia abortus strain GN6, which was isolated from aborted yak fetus in Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau, China. Copyright © 2017 Li et al.

  17. Attachment and entry of Chlamydia have distinct requirements for host protein disulfide isomerase.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephanie Abromaitis

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Chlamydia is an obligate intracellular pathogen that causes a wide range of diseases in humans. Attachment and entry are key processes in infectivity and subsequent pathogenesis of Chlamydia, yet the mechanisms governing these interactions are unknown. It was recently shown that a cell line, CHO6, that is resistant to attachment, and thus infectivity, of multiple Chlamydia species has a defect in protein disulfide isomerase (PDI N-terminal signal sequence processing. Ectopic expression of PDI in CHO6 cells led to restoration of Chlamydia attachment and infectivity; however, the mechanism leading to this recovery was not ascertained. To advance our understanding of the role of PDI in Chlamydia infection, we used RNA interference to establish that cellular PDI is essential for bacterial attachment to cells, making PDI the only host protein identified as necessary for attachment of multiple species of Chlamydia. Genetic complementation and PDI-specific inhibitors were used to determine that cell surface PDI enzymatic activity is required for bacterial entry into cells, but enzymatic function was not required for bacterial attachment. We further determined that it is a PDI-mediated reduction at the cell surface that triggers bacterial uptake. While PDI is necessary for Chlamydia attachment to cells, the bacteria do not appear to utilize plasma membrane-associated PDI as a receptor, suggesting that Chlamydia binds a cell surface protein that requires structural association with PDI. Our findings demonstrate that PDI has two essential and independent roles in the process of chlamydial infectivity: it is structurally required for chlamydial attachment, and the thiol-mediated oxido-reductive function of PDI is necessary for entry.

  18. The prevalence of Chlamydia trachomatis infection in Australia: a systematic review and meta-analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lewis Dyani

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Chlamydia trachomatis is a common sexually transmitted infection in Australia. This report aims to measure the burden of chlamydia infection by systematically reviewing reports on prevalence in Australian populations. Methods Electronic databases and conference websites were searched from 1997–2011 using the terms ‘Chlamydia trachomatis’ OR ‘chlamydia’ AND ‘prevalence’ OR ‘epidemiology’ AND ‘Australia’. Reference lists were checked and researchers contacted for additional literature. Studies were categorised by setting and participants, and meta-analysis conducted to determine pooled prevalence estimates for each category. Results Seventy-six studies met the inclusion criteria for the review. There was a high level of heterogeneity between studies; however, there was a trend towards higher chlamydia prevalence in younger populations, Indigenous Australians, and those attending sexual health centres. In community or general practice settings, pooled prevalence for women Conclusions Chlamydia trachomatis infections are a significant health burden in Australia; however, accurate estimation of chlamydia prevalence in Australian sub-populations is limited by heterogeneity within surveyed populations, and variations in sampling methodologies and data reporting. There is a need for more large, population-based studies and prospective cohort studies to compliment mandatory notification data.

  19. Barriers and Facilitators of Partner Treatment of Chlamydia: A Qualitative Investigation with Prescribers and Community Pharmacists

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helen Wood

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Chlamydia trachomatis is the most frequently-notified sexually transmitted infection in Australia. Effective and timely partner treatment of chlamydia is essential to reduce overall prevalence and the burden of infection. Currently in most of Australia, the only avenue for partner treatment of chlamydia (“standard partner therapy” is a tedious, and often inconvenient, process. The barriers and facilitators of standard partner therapy, and newer models of accelerated partner therapy (APT, need to be identified in the Australian setting. Additionally, the potential role of community pharmacists need to be explored. Semi-structured interview guides for two key stakeholder groups (prescribers and pharmacists were developed and piloted. Eleven prescribers (general practitioners, sexual health clinicians and nurse practitioners and twelve pharmacists practicing in the Perth metropolitan region were interviewed. Key reported barriers to standard partner therapy were lack of or delayed chlamydia testing. Key facilitators included ability to test and educate sexual partner. Key barriers for APT included prescribers’ legal responsibility and potential for medication-related adverse effects. Healthcare provider consultation and chlamydia testing were seen as potential facilitators of APT. Pharmacists were receptive to the idea of expanding their role in chlamydia treatment, however, barriers to privacy must be overcome in order to be acceptable to prescribers and pharmacists.

  20. Serological diagnosis of Chlamydia infections: proposal of a cost-effective approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gino Ciarrocchi

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Infections caused by genus Chlamydia are challenging for phisicians, as a results of a complicated pathogenesis and a variable clinical picture. Furthermore, potential sequelae following Chlamydia trachomatis, Chlamydia pneumoniae, Chlamydia psittaci infections are of clinical relevant interest. Serodiagnosis is a clue tool when the direct antigen research or the bacteria fragments detection is impaired. Some serological tests such as the ELISA or the indirect micro-immunofluorescence methods are routinely performed. To improve the diagnostic efficiency of these tests, a selective coating of specie-specific reactive antigens on microwells or on microscopic slides is proposed.A highly selective coating is essential to generate a specific immune response for each Chlamydia species and high levels of distinct IgA, IgG, IgM antibody classes.The goal of serology is the diagnostic value of results, therefore the correct choice of the best screening and confirmation test is of extreme relevance due to the clinical impact of results for the therapeutical approach and management of acute and chronic infections. In conclusion, a quantitative specific anti-Chlamydia IgG and IgA antibody detection is a useful method to improve the follow up of complicated chronic clinical sequelae.

  1. Mixed infections with Chlamydia and porcine epidemic diarrhea virus - a new in vitro model of chlamydial persistence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borel, Nicole; Dumrese, Claudia; Ziegler, Urs; Schifferli, Andrea; Kaiser, Carmen; Pospischil, Andreas

    2010-07-27

    Chlamydiae induce persistent infections, which have been associated with a wide range of chronic diseases in humans and animals. Mixed infections with Chlamydia and porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV) may result in generation of persistent chlamydial infections. To test this hypothesis, an in vitro model of dual infection with cell culture-adapted PEDV and Chlamydia abortus or Chlamydia pecorum in Vero cells was established. Infected cultures were investigated by immunofluorescence (IF), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and re-infection experiments. By IF, Chlamydia-infected cells showed normal inclusions after 39 hpi. Dual infections with Chlamydia abortus revealed a heterogenous mix of inclusion types including small inclusions consisting of aberrant bodies (ABs), medium-sized inclusions consisting of ABs and reticulate bodies and normal inclusions. Only aberrant inclusions were observable in dual infection experiments with Chlamydia pecorum and PEDV. TEM examinations of mixed infections with Chlamydia abortus and Chlamydia pecorum revealed aberrant chlamydial inclusions containing reticulate-like, pleomorphic ABs, which were up to 2 microm in diameter. No re-differentiation into elementary bodies (EBs) was detected. In re-infection experiments, co-infected cells produced fewer EBs than monoinfected cells. In the present study we confirm that PEDV co-infection alters the developmental cycle of member species of the family Chlamydiaceae, in a similar manner to other well-described persistence induction methods. Interestingly, this effect appears to be partially species-specific as Chlamydia pecorum appears more sensitive to PEDV co-infection than Chlamydia abortus, as evidenced by TEM and IF observations of a homogenous population of aberrant inclusions in PEDV - Chlamydia pecorum co-infections.

  2. Mixed infections with Chlamydia and porcine epidemic diarrhea virus - a new in vitro model of chlamydial persistence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaiser Carmen

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Chlamydiae induce persistent infections, which have been associated with a wide range of chronic diseases in humans and animals. Mixed infections with Chlamydia and porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV may result in generation of persistent chlamydial infections. To test this hypothesis, an in vitro model of dual infection with cell culture-adapted PEDV and Chlamydia abortus or Chlamydia pecorum in Vero cells was established. Results Infected cultures were investigated by immunofluorescence (IF, transmission electron microscopy (TEM and re-infection experiments. By IF, Chlamydia-infected cells showed normal inclusions after 39 hpi. Dual infections with Chlamydia abortus revealed a heterogenous mix of inclusion types including small inclusions consisting of aberrant bodies (ABs, medium-sized inclusions consisting of ABs and reticulate bodies and normal inclusions. Only aberrant inclusions were observable in dual infection experiments with Chlamydia pecorum and PEDV. TEM examinations of mixed infections with Chlamydia abortus and Chlamydia pecorum revealed aberrant chlamydial inclusions containing reticulate-like, pleomorphic ABs, which were up to 2 μm in diameter. No re-differentiation into elementary bodies (EBs was detected. In re-infection experiments, co-infected cells produced fewer EBs than monoinfected cells. Conclusions In the present study we confirm that PEDV co-infection alters the developmental cycle of member species of the family Chlamydiaceae, in a similar manner to other well-described persistence induction methods. Interestingly, this effect appears to be partially species-specific as Chlamydia pecorum appears more sensitive to PEDV co-infection than Chlamydia abortus, as evidenced by TEM and IF observations of a homogenous population of aberrant inclusions in PEDV - Chlamydia pecorum co-infections.

  3. Concurrent sexual partners-A predictor of Chlamydia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Marianne Johansson; Olesen, Frede; Maindal, Helle Terkildsen

    2013-01-01

    , but the significance of this compared with other well-known predictors has only been briefly described. Aim: The aim is to examine if concurrent partners isan independent predictor for C. trachomatis infection in young Danes aged 15-29 years. Methods: Detailed sexual behavior data were collected via a web......:These preliminary results suggest that concurrent sexual partners is an important predictor for C.trachomatis infections among young Danes aged 15-29. A more concise conclusion will be presented at the Ph.D day......Background:Chlamydia trachomatis is the most common sexually transmitted bacterial infection among young Danes and the spread is highly dependent on the population’s sexual behavior. Previous studies have found concurrent partnerships to be a possible predictor for C. trachomatis...

  4. The Netherlands Chlamydia cohort study (NECCST) protocol to assess the risk of late complications following Chlamydia trachomatis infection in women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoenderboom, B M; van Oeffelen, A A M; van Benthem, B H B; van Bergen, J E A M; Dukers-Muijrers, N H T M; Götz, H M; Hoebe, C J P A; Hogewoning, A A; van der Klis, F R M; van Baarle, D; Land, J A; van der Sande, M A B; van Veen, M G; de Vries, F; Morré, S A; van den Broek, I V F

    2017-04-11

    Chlamydia trachomatis (CT), the most common bacterial sexually transmitted infection (STI) among young women, can result in serious sequelae. Although the course of infection is often asymptomatic, CT may cause pelvic inflammatory disease (PID), leading to severe complications, such as prolonged time to pregnancy, ectopic pregnancy, and tubal factor subfertility. The risk of and risk factors for complications following CT-infection have not been assessed in a long-term prospective cohort study, the preferred design to define infections and complications adequately. In the Netherlands Chlamydia Cohort Study (NECCST), a cohort of women of reproductive age with and without a history of CT-infection is followed over a minimum of ten years to investigate (CT-related) reproductive tract complications. This study is a follow-up of the Chlamydia Screening Implementation (CSI) study, executed between 2008 and 2011 in the Netherlands. For NECCST, female CSI participants who consented to be approached for follow-up studies (n = 14,685) are invited, and prospectively followed until 2022. Four data collection moments are foreseen every two consecutive years. Questionnaire data and blood samples for CT-Immunoglobulin G (IgG) measurement are obtained as well as host DNA to determine specific genetic biomarkers related to susceptibility and severity of infection. CT-history will be based on CSI test outcomes, self-reported infections and CT-IgG presence. Information on (time to) pregnancies and the potential long-term complications (i.e. PID, ectopic pregnancy and (tubal factor) subfertility), will be acquired by questionnaires. Reported subfertility will be verified in medical registers. Occurrence of these late complications and prolonged time to pregnancy, as a proxy for reduced fertility due to a previous CT-infection, or other risk factors, will be investigated using longitudinal statistical procedures. In the proposed study, the occurrence of late complications following

  5. Functional and Biochemical Analysis of Chlamydia trachomatis MurC, an Enzyme Displaying UDP-N-Acetylmuramate:Amino Acid Ligase Activity

    OpenAIRE

    Hesse, Lars; Bostock, Julieanne; Dementin, Sebastien; Blanot, Didier; Mengin-Lecreulx, Dominique; Chopra, Ian

    2003-01-01

    Chlamydiae are unusual obligate intracellular bacteria that cause serious infections in humans. Chlamydiae contain genes that appear to encode products with peptidoglycan biosynthetic activity. The organisms are also susceptible to antibiotics that inhibit peptidoglycan synthesis. However, chlamydiae do not synthesize detectable peptidoglycan. The paradox created by these observations is known as the chlamydial anomaly. The MurC enzyme of chlamydiae, which is synthesized as a bifunctional Mur...

  6. Attitudes to Chlamydia screening elicited using the social networking site Facebook for subject recruitment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Navera; Jayasinghe, Yasmin; Wark, John D; Fenner, Yeshe; Moore, Elya E; Tabrizi, Sepehr N; Fletcher, Ashley; Garland, Suzanne M

    2013-07-01

    Chlamydia (Chlamydia trachomatis) is the commonest bacterial sexually transmissible infection worldwide and contributes to significant morbidity in females. We examined potential barriers and facilitating factors for screening in young Victorian women, using the social networking site, Facebook to recruit participants. This was part of a larger study on young women's health that assessed the feasibility of using social networking sites for recruitment. An advertisement was placed on Facebook between May and September 2010, and was visible to eligible women. Women who clicked on the advertisement and expressed their interest in participating were invited to complete a questionnaire either at a study site or online. In total, 278 participants completed the survey, with 76% reporting willingness to participate in chlamydia screening by recruitment via an online system. Overall, 73% of participants indicated they were comfortable providing a urine sample collected at home for chlamydia screening, with older participants less comfortable with this method (P=0.02, odds ratio (OR)=0.09, 95% confidence interval (CI)=0.01-0.7). Participants expressed comfort with their Pap smear and chlamydia screening being performed together (92.7%), especially those who were aware of human papillomavirus (P<0.01, OR=2.5, 95% CI=1.3-4.7). This study demonstrated willingness by young Victorian women using Facebook to participate in screening for chlamydia. There was strong acceptance of self-collected sampling, and of combined chlamydia and cervical cytology screening. Facebook may therefore be a feasible way for improving screening coverage at a population level.

  7. Chlamydia sequelae cost estimates used in current economic evaluations: does one-size-fit-all?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ong, Koh Jun; Soldan, Kate; Jit, Mark; Dunbar, J Kevin; Woodhall, Sarah C

    2017-02-01

    Current evidence suggests that chlamydia screening programmes can be cost-effective, conditional on assumptions within mathematical models. We explored differences in cost estimates used in published economic evaluations of chlamydia screening from seven countries (four papers each from UK and the Netherlands, two each from Sweden and Australia, and one each from Ireland, Canada and Denmark). From these studies, we extracted management cost estimates for seven major chlamydia sequelae. In order to compare the influence of different sequelae considered in each paper and their corresponding management costs on the total cost per case of untreated chlamydia, we applied reported unit sequelae management costs considered in each paper to a set of untreated infection to sequela progression probabilities. All costs were adjusted to 2013/2014 Great British Pound (GBP) values. Sequelae management costs ranged from £171 to £3635 (pelvic inflammatory disease); £953 to £3615 (ectopic pregnancy); £546 to £6752 (tubal factor infertility); £159 to £3341 (chronic pelvic pain); £22 to £1008 (epididymitis); £11 to £1459 (neonatal conjunctivitis) and £433 to £3992 (neonatal pneumonia). Total cost of sequelae per case of untreated chlamydia ranged from £37 to £412. There was substantial variation in cost per case of chlamydia sequelae used in published chlamydia screening economic evaluations, which likely arose from different assumptions about disease management pathways and the country perspectives taken. In light of this, when interpreting these studies, the reader should be satisfied that the cost estimates used sufficiently reflect the perspective taken and current disease management for their respective context. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  8. Young women's decisions to accept chlamydia screening: influences of stigma and doctor-patient interactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O'Connell Emer

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background An understanding of the factors that encourage young women to accept, and discourage them from accepting, STI (sexually transmitted infection testing is needed to underpin opportunistic screening programs for the STI Chlamydia trachomatis (opportunistic screening involves healthcare professionals offering chlamydia tests to people while they are attending health services for reasons that are usually unrelated to their sexual health. We conducted a qualitative study to identify and explore: how young women would feel about being offered opportunistic tests for chlamydia?; how young women would like to be offered screening, and who they wanted to be offered screening by?; and what factors would influence young women's partner notification preferences for chlamydia (who they would notify in the event of a positive diagnosis of chlamydia, how they would want to do this. Methods Semi-structured interviews with 35 young women between eighteen and twenty nine years of age. The study was conducted in the Dublin and Galway regions of the Republic of Ireland. Young adults were recruited from General Practice (GP practices, Third Level College health services, Family Planning clinics and specialist STI treatment services. Results Respondents were worried that their identities would become stigmatised if they accepted screening. Younger respondents and those from lower socio-economic backgrounds had the greatest stigma-related concerns. Most respondents indicated that they would accept screening if it was offered to them, however; accepting screening was seen as a correct, responsible action to engage in. Respondents wanted to be offered screening by younger female healthcare professionals. Respondents were willing to inform their current partners about positive chlamydia diagnoses, but were more ambivalent about informing their previous partners. Conclusions If an effort is not put into reducing young women's stigma-related concerns the

  9. Extragenital Infections Caused by Chlamydia trachomatis and Neisseria gonorrhoeae: A Review of the Literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philip A. Chan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In the United States, sexually transmitted diseases due to Chlamydia trachomatis and Neisseria gonorrhoeae continue to be a major public health burden. Screening of extragenital sites including the oropharynx and rectum is an emerging practice based on recent studies highlighting the prevalence of infection at these sites. We reviewed studies reporting the prevalence of extragenital infections in women, men who have sex with men (MSM, and men who have sex only with women (MSW, including distribution by anatomical site. Among women, prevalence was found to be 0.6–35.8% for rectal gonorrhea (median reported prevalence 1.9%, 0–29.6% for pharyngeal gonorrhea (median 2.1%, 2.0–77.3% for rectal chlamydia (median 8.7%, and 0.2–3.2% for pharyngeal chlamydia (median 1.7%. Among MSM, prevalence was found to be 0.2–24.0% for rectal gonorrhea (median 5.9%, 0.5–16.5% for pharyngeal gonorrhea (median 4.6%, 2.1–23.0% for rectal chlamydia (median 8.9%, and 0–3.6% for pharyngeal chlamydia (median 1.7%. Among MSW, the prevalence was found to be 0–5.7% for rectal gonorrhea (median 3.4%, 0.4–15.5% for pharyngeal gonorrhea (median 2.2%, 0–11.8% for rectal chlamydia (median 7.7%, and 0–22.0% for pharyngeal chlamydia (median 1.6%. Extragenital infections are often asymptomatic and found in the absence of reported risk behaviors, such as receptive anal and oral intercourse. We discuss current clinical recommendations and future directions for research.

  10. Home-based chlamydia testing of young people attending a music festival--who will pee and post?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sacks-Davis, Rachel; Gold, Judy; Aitken, Campbell K; Hellard, Margaret E

    2010-06-28

    Chlamydia is most common among young people, but only a small proportion of Australian young people are tested annually. Home-based chlamydia testing has been piloted in several countries to increase testing rates, but uptake has been low. We aimed to identify predictors of uptake of home-based chlamydia testing to inform future testing programs. We offered home-based chlamydia testing kits to participants in a sexual behaviour cross-sectional survey conducted at a music festival in Melbourne, Australia. Those who consented received a testing kit and were asked to return their urine or vaginal swab sample via post. Nine hundred and two sexually active music festival attendees aged 16-29 completed the survey; 313 (35%) opted to receive chlamydia testing kits, and 67 of 313 (21%) returned a specimen for testing. One participant was infected with chlamydia (1% prevalence). Independent predictors of consenting to receive a testing kit included older age, knowing that chlamydia can make women infertile, reporting more than three lifetime sexual partners and inconsistent condom use. Independent predictors of returning a sample to the laboratory included knowing that chlamydia can be asymptomatic, not having had an STI test in the past six months and not living with parents. A low proportion of participants returned their chlamydia test, suggesting that this model is not ideal for reaching young people. Home-based chlamydia testing is most attractive to those who report engaging in sexual risk behaviours and are aware of the often asymptomatic nature and potential sequelae of chlamydia infection.

  11. Home-based chlamydia testing of young people attending a music festival - who will pee and post?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Background Chlamydia is most common among young people, but only a small proportion of Australian young people are tested annually. Home-based chlamydia testing has been piloted in several countries to increase testing rates, but uptake has been low. We aimed to identify predictors of uptake of home-based chlamydia testing to inform future testing programs. Methods We offered home-based chlamydia testing kits to participants in a sexual behaviour cross-sectional survey conducted at a music festival in Melbourne, Australia. Those who consented received a testing kit and were asked to return their urine or vaginal swab sample via post. Results Nine hundred and two sexually active music festival attendees aged 16-29 completed the survey; 313 (35%) opted to receive chlamydia testing kits, and 67 of 313 (21%) returned a specimen for testing. One participant was infected with chlamydia (1% prevalence). Independent predictors of consenting to receive a testing kit included older age, knowing that chlamydia can make women infertile, reporting more than three lifetime sexual partners and inconsistent condom use. Independent predictors of returning a sample to the laboratory included knowing that chlamydia can be asymptomatic, not having had an STI test in the past six months and not living with parents. Conclusions A low proportion of participants returned their chlamydia test, suggesting that this model is not ideal for reaching young people. Home-based chlamydia testing is most attractive to those who report engaging in sexual risk behaviours and are aware of the often asymptomatic nature and potential sequelae of chlamydia infection. PMID:20584287

  12. Chlamydia trachomatis Antibody Testing in Vaginal Mucosal Material versus Blood Samples of Women Attending a Fertility Clinic and an STI Clinic

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Broek, I.V.F.; Land, J.A.; van Bergen, J.E.A.M.; Morré, S.A.; van der Sande, M.A.B.

    2014-01-01

    Background. Chlamydia infections often follow an asymptomatic course but may damage the reproductive tract. Chlamydia antibodies in serum are used as markers for past infections and can relate to tubal pathology and infertility. This "proof of principle" study aimed to assess whether Chlamydia

  13. Chlamydia trachomatis Pgp3 Antibody Population Seroprevalence before and during an Era of Widespread Opportunistic Chlamydia Screening in England (1994-2012.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah C Woodhall

    Full Text Available Opportunistic chlamydia screening of <25 year-olds was nationally-implemented in England in 2008 but its impact on chlamydia transmission is poorly understood. We undertook a population-based seroprevalence study to explore the impact of screening on cumulative incidence of chlamydia, as measured by C.trachomatis-specific antibody.Anonymised sera from participants in the nationally-representative Health Surveys for England (HSE were tested for C.trachomatis antibodies using two novel Pgp3 enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs as a marker of past infection. Determinants of being seropositive were explored using logistic regression among 16-44 year-old women and men in 2010 and 2012 (years when sexual behaviour questions were included in the survey (n = 1,402 women; 1,119 men. Seroprevalence trends among 16-24 year-old women (n = 3,361 were investigated over ten time points from 1994-2012.In HSE2010/2012, Pgp3 seroprevalence among 16-44 year-olds was 24.4% (95%CI 22.0-27.1 in women and 13.9% (11.8-16.2 in men. Seroprevalence increased with age (up to 33.5% [27.5-40.2] in 30-34 year-old women, 18.7% [13.4-25.6] in 35-39 year-old men; years since first sex; number of lifetime sexual partners; and younger age at first sex. 76.7% of seropositive 16-24 year-olds had never been diagnosed with chlamydia. Among 16-24 year-old women, a non-significant decline in seroprevalence was observed from 2008-2012 (prevalence ratio per year: 0.94 [0.84-1.05].Our application of Pgp3 ELISAs demonstrates a high lifetime risk of chlamydia infection among women and a large proportion of undiagnosed infections. A decrease in age-specific cumulative incidence following national implementation of opportunistic chlamydia screening has not yet been demonstrated. We propose these assays be used to assess impact of chlamydia control programmes.

  14. Promoting chlamydia screening with posters and leaflets in general practice--a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freeman, Elaine; Howell-Jones, Rebecca; Oliver, Isabel; Randall, Sarah; Ford-Young, William; Beckwith, Philippa; McNulty, Cliodna

    2009-10-12

    General practice staff are reluctant to discuss sexual health opportunistically in all consultations. Health promotion materials may help alleviate this barrier. Chlamydia screening promotion posters and leaflets, produced by the English National Chlamydia Screening Programme (NCSP), have been available to general practices, through local chlamydia screening offices, since its launch. In this study we explored the attitudes of general practice staff to these screening promotional materials, how they used them, and explored other promotional strategies to encourage chlamydia screening. Twenty-five general practices with a range of screening rates, were purposively selected from six NCSP areas in England. In focus groups doctors, nurses, administrative staff and receptionists were encouraged to discuss candidly their experiences about their use and opinions of posters, leaflets and advertising to promote chlamydia screening. Researchers observed whether posters and leaflets were on display in reception and/or waiting areas. Data were collected and analysed concurrently using a stepwise framework analytical approach. Although two-thirds of screening practices reported that they displayed posters and leaflets, they were not prominently displayed in most practices. Only a minority of practices reported actively using screening promotional materials on an ongoing basis. Most staff in all practices were not following up the advertising in posters and leaflets by routinely offering opportunistic screening to their target population. Some staff in many practices thought posters and leaflets would cause offence or embarrassment to their patients. Distribution of chlamydia leaflets by receptionists was thought to be inappropriate by some practices, as they thought patients would be offended when being offered a leaflet in a public area. Practice staff suggested the development of pocket-sized leaflets. The NCSP should consider developing a range of more discrete but eye

  15. Promoting chlamydia screening with posters and leaflets in general practice - a qualitative study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freeman, Elaine; Howell-Jones, Rebecca; Oliver, Isabel; Randall, Sarah; Ford-Young, William; Beckwith, Philippa; McNulty, Cliodna

    2009-01-01

    Background General practice staff are reluctant to discuss sexual health opportunistically in all consultations. Health promotion materials may help alleviate this barrier. Chlamydia screening promotion posters and leaflets, produced by the English National Chlamydia Screening Programme (NCSP), have been available to general practices, through local chlamydia screening offices, since its launch. In this study we explored the attitudes of general practice staff to these screening promotional materials, how they used them, and explored other promotional strategies to encourage chlamydia screening. Methods Twenty-five general practices with a range of screening rates, were purposively selected from six NCSP areas in England. In focus groups doctors, nurses, administrative staff and receptionists were encouraged to discuss candidly their experiences about their use and opinions of posters, leaflets and advertising to promote chlamydia screening. Researchers observed whether posters and leaflets were on display in reception and/or waiting areas. Data were collected and analysed concurrently using a stepwise framework analytical approach. Results Although two-thirds of screening practices reported that they displayed posters and leaflets, they were not prominently displayed in most practices. Only a minority of practices reported actively using screening promotional materials on an ongoing basis. Most staff in all practices were not following up the advertising in posters and leaflets by routinely offering opportunistic screening to their target population. Some staff in many practices thought posters and leaflets would cause offence or embarrassment to their patients. Distribution of chlamydia leaflets by receptionists was thought to be inappropriate by some practices, as they thought patients would be offended when being offered a leaflet in a public area. Practice staff suggested the development of pocket-sized leaflets. Conclusion The NCSP should consider developing

  16. Promoting chlamydia screening with posters and leaflets in general practice - a qualitative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ford-Young William

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background General practice staff are reluctant to discuss sexual health opportunistically in all consultations. Health promotion materials may help alleviate this barrier. Chlamydia screening promotion posters and leaflets, produced by the English National Chlamydia Screening Programme (NCSP, have been available to general practices, through local chlamydia screening offices, since its launch. In this study we explored the attitudes of general practice staff to these screening promotional materials, how they used them, and explored other promotional strategies to encourage chlamydia screening. Methods Twenty-five general practices with a range of screening rates, were purposively selected from six NCSP areas in England. In focus groups doctors, nurses, administrative staff and receptionists were encouraged to discuss candidly their experiences about their use and opinions of posters, leaflets and advertising to promote chlamydia screening. Researchers observed whether posters and leaflets were on display in reception and/or waiting areas. Data were collected and analysed concurrently using a stepwise framework analytical approach. Results Although two-thirds of screening practices reported that they displayed posters and leaflets, they were not prominently displayed in most practices. Only a minority of practices reported actively using screening promotional materials on an ongoing basis. Most staff in all practices were not following up the advertising in posters and leaflets by routinely offering opportunistic screening to their target population. Some staff in many practices thought posters and leaflets would cause offence or embarrassment to their patients. Distribution of chlamydia leaflets by receptionists was thought to be inappropriate by some practices, as they thought patients would be offended when being offered a leaflet in a public area. Practice staff suggested the development of pocket-sized leaflets. Conclusion The NCSP

  17. Disappointing performance of literature-derived selective screening criteria for asymptomatic Chlamydia trachomatis infection in an inner-city population

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Valkengoed, I G; Boeke, A J; Morré, S A; van den Brule, A J; Meijer, C J; Devillé, W; Bouter, L M

    2000-01-01

    BACKGROUND: In an inner-city population with a low prevalence of Chlamydia trachomatis infection, selective screening may be indicated to increase the efficiency of screening. GOAL: To evaluate the performance of sets of selective screening criteria for asymptomatic Chlamydia trachomatis infection

  18. Chlamydia induces anchorage independence in 3T3 cells and detrimental cytological defects in an infection model.

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    Andrea E Knowlton

    Full Text Available Chlamydia are gram negative, obligate intracellular bacterial organisms with different species causing a multitude of infections in both humans and animals. Chlamydia trachomatis is the causative agent of the sexually transmitted infection (STI Chlamydia, the most commonly acquired bacterial STI in the United States. Chlamydial infections have also been epidemiologically linked to cervical cancer in women co-infected with the human papillomavirus (HPV. We have previously shown chlamydial infection results in centrosome amplification and multipolar spindle formation leading to chromosomal instability. Many studies indicate that centrosome abnormalities, spindle defects, and chromosome segregation errors can lead to cell transformation. We hypothesize that the presence of these defects within infected dividing cells identifies a possible mechanism for Chlamydia as a cofactor in cervical cancer formation. Here we demonstrate that infection with Chlamydia trachomatis is able to transform 3T3 cells in soft agar resulting in anchorage independence and increased colony formation. Additionally, we show for the first time Chlamydia infects actively replicating cells in vivo. Infection of mice with Chlamydia results in significantly increased cell proliferation within the cervix, and in evidence of cervical dysplasia. Confocal examination of these infected tissues also revealed elements of chlamydial induced chromosome instability. These results contribute to a growing body of data implicating a role for Chlamydia in cervical cancer development and suggest a possible molecular mechanism for this effect.

  19. Can Chlamydia abortus be transmitted by embryo transfer in goats?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oseikria, M; Pellerin, J L; Rodolakis, A; Vorimore, F; Laroucau, K; Bruyas, J F; Roux, C; Michaud, S; Larrat, M; Fieni, F

    2016-10-01

    The objectives of this study were to determine (i) whether Chlamydia abortus would adhere to or penetrate the intact zona pellucida (ZP-intact) of early in vivo-derived caprine embryos, after in vitro infection; and (ii) the efficacy of the International Embryo Transfer Society (IETS) washing protocol for bovine embryos. Fifty-two ZP-intact embryos (8-16 cells), obtained from 14 donors were used in this experiment. The embryos were randomly divided into 12 batches. Nine batches (ZP-intact) of five embryos were incubated in a medium containing 4 × 10(7)Chlamydia/mL of AB7 strain. After incubation for 18 hours at 37 °C in an atmosphere of 5% CO2, the embryos were washed in batches in 10 successive baths of a phosphate buffer saline and 5% fetal calf serum solution in accordance with IETS guidelines. In parallel, three batches of ZP-intact embryos were used as controls by being subjected to similar procedures but without exposure to C. abortus. The 10 wash baths were collected separately and centrifuged for 1 hour at 13,000 × g. The washed embryos and the pellets of the 10 centrifuged wash baths were frozen at -20 °C before examination for evidence of C. abortus using polymerase chain reaction. C. abortus DNA was found in all of the infected batches of ZP-intact embryos (9/9) after 10 successive washes. It was also detected in the 10th wash fluid for seven batches of embryos, whereas for the two other batches, the last positive wash bath was the eighth and the ninth, respectively. In contrast, none of the embryos or their washing fluids in the control batches were DNA positive. These results report that C. abortus adheres to and/or penetrates the ZP of in vivo caprine embryos after in vitro infection, and that the standard washing protocol recommended by the IETS for bovine embryos, failed to remove it. The persistence of these bacteria after washing makes the embryo a potential means of transmission of the bacterium during embryo transfer from

  20. Chlamydia trachomatis serotype A infections in the Amazon region of Brazil: prevalence, entry and dissemination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marluísa de Oliveira Guimarães Ishak

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Chlamydia infection is associated with debilitating human diseases including trachoma, pneumonia, coronary heart disease and urogenital diseases. Serotypes of C. trachomatis show a fair correlation with the group of diseases they cause, and their distribution follows a well-described geographic pattern. Serotype A, a trachoma-associated strain, is known for its limited dissemination in the Middle East and Northern Africa. However, knowledge on the spread of bacteria from the genus Chlamydia as well as the distribution of serotypes in Brazil is quite limited. METHODS: Blood samples of 1,710 individuals from ten human population groups in the Amazon region of Brazil were examined for antibodies to Chlamydia using indirect immunofluorescence and microimmunofluorescence assays. RESULTS: The prevalence of antibodies to Chlamydia ranged from 23.9% (Wayana-Apalai to 90.7% (Awa-Guaja with a mean prevalence of 50.2%. Seroreactivity was detected to C. pneumoniae and to all serotypes of C. trachomatis tested; furthermore, we report clear evidence of the as-yet-undescribed occurrence of serotype A of C. trachomatis. CONCLUSIONS: Specific seroreactivity not only accounts for the large extent of dissemination of C. trachomatis in the Amazon region of Brazil but also shows an expanded area of occurrence of serotype A outside the epidemiological settings previously described. Furthermore, these data suggest possible routes of Chlamydia introduction into the Amazon region from the massive human migration that occurred during the 1,700s.

  1. Ironing Out the Unconventional Mechanisms of Iron Acquisition and Gene Regulation in Chlamydia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nick D. Pokorzynski

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The obligate intracellular pathogen Chlamydia trachomatis, along with its close species relatives, is known to be strictly dependent upon the availability of iron. Deprivation of iron in vitro induces an aberrant morphological phenotype termed “persistence.” This persistent phenotype develops in response to various immunological and nutritional insults and may contribute to the development of sub-acute Chlamydia-associated chronic diseases in susceptible populations. Given the importance of iron to Chlamydia, relatively little is understood about its acquisition and its role in gene regulation in comparison to other iron-dependent bacteria. Analysis of the genome sequences of a variety of chlamydial species hinted at the involvement of unconventional mechanisms, being that Chlamydia lack many conventional systems of iron homeostasis that are highly conserved in other bacteria. Herein we detail past and current research regarding chlamydial iron biology in an attempt to provide context to the rapid progress of the field in recent years. We aim to highlight recent discoveries and innovations that illuminate the strategies involved in chlamydial iron homeostasis, including the vesicular mode of acquiring iron from the intracellular environment, and the identification of a putative iron-dependent transcriptional regulator that is synthesized as a fusion with a ABC-type transporter subunit. These recent findings, along with the noted absence of iron-related homologs, indicate that Chlamydia have evolved atypical approaches to the problem of iron homeostasis, reinvigorating research into the iron biology of this pathogen.

  2. Antigenic specificity and morphologic characteristics of Chlamydia trachomatis, strain SFPD, isolated from hamsters with proliferative ileitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, J G; Stills, H F; Paster, B J; Dewhirst, F E; Yan, L; Palley, L; Prostak, K

    1993-10-01

    Profound diarrhea associated with proliferating intestinal cells containing intraepithelial campylobacter-like organisms (ICLO) occurs in a variety of mammalian hosts, particularly swine and hamsters. Recently, intracellular bacteria were isolated from proliferative intestinal tissue of hamsters and propagated in intestine cell line 407. Oral inoculation of hamsters with cell culture lysates containing these organisms reproduced the disease in susceptible hamsters. In the present study, an intracellular bacterium from the INT 407 cell line was shown by a variety of techniques to be a member of the genus Chlamydia and has been designated Chlamydia sp. strain SFPD. McCoy cells infected with Chlamydia sp. strain SFPD demonstrated bright fluorescent-stained intracytoplasmic inclusions when examined with fluorescein-labeled species-specific C. trachomatis monoclonal antibodies. The organism also reacted to fluorescein-labeled polyclonal but not monoclonal ICLO "omega" antisera. Ultrastructural examination of the Chlamydia sp. strain SFPD from McCoy cells revealed electrondense elementary bodies and a less electron-dense reticulate-like body that was circular; both features are consistent in morphology to developmental forms of Chlamydia and do not conform to ICLO morphology. Molecular studies, 16S ribosomal sequence analysis, and sequencing of the outer membrane protein confirmed that the isolate is a C. trachomatis closely related to the mouse pneumonitis strain of C. trachomatis.

  3. Pattern of Sexually Transmitted Diseases in and Around Udaipur

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    Nirmal Kumar Bansal

    1988-01-01

    Full Text Available The patients who attended the STD clinic of our hospital during the last 10 years were studied retrospectively to work out the pattern of major sexually transmitted diseases viz. -syphilis, ionorrhoea, chancroid, lymphogranuloma vencreum and donovinosis. The total number of patients was 1093, The relative incidence of chancroid was found. higher (37.78% than syphilis (32.47%, gonorrhoea (24 79% mixed infections (3.38%, donovanosis (1.18% and lymphogranuloma venereum (0.36%.

  4. Genital Chlamydia trachomatis infektion hos abortsøgende. Undersøgelses- og behandlingsstrategi for at mindske infektionssequelae

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Jette Led; Thranov, I R; Hoff, G E

    1992-01-01

    Among women applying for termination of pregnancy, 5-17% are infected with Chlamydia trachomatis. The prevalence is higher among women under 20 years of age (12-30%), in nulliparae and when Neisseria gonorrhoeae are found simultaneously. If women applying for termination of pregnancy with Chlamydia...... infection are not treated, 10-60% will develop pelvic infection after abortion. Salpingitis caused by Chlamydia runs a milder clinical course than salpingitis caused by gonococci or other etiology but salpingitis due to Chlamydia is regarded as one of the most important causes of tubal infertility...... and extrauterine pregnancy. The symptoms may be discharge and dysuria or objective findings such as cervicitis and pathological findings in wet smears of the cervical secretion. The majority of women applying for termination of pregnancy with Chlamydia infection have no symptoms. Only few investigations have...

  5. Cost-effectiveness of Chlamydia antibody tests in subfertile women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiddelers, A A A; Land, J A; Voss, G; Kessels, A G H; Severens, J L

    2005-02-01

    For the evaluation of tubal function, Chlamydia antibody testing (CAT) has been introduced as a screening test. We compared six CAT screening strategies (five CAT tests and one combination of tests), with respect to their cost-effectiveness, by using IVF pregnancy rate as outcome measure. A decision analytic model was developed based on a source population of 1715 subfertile women. The model incorporates hysterosalpingography (HSG), laparoscopy and IVF. To calculate IVF pregnancy rates, costs, effects, cost-effectiveness and incremental costs per effect of the six different CAT screening strategies were determined. pELISA Medac turned out to be the most cost-effective CAT screening strategy (15 075 per IVF pregnancy), followed by MIF Anilabsystems (15 108). A combination of tests (pELISA Medac and MIF Anilabsystems; 15 127) did not improve the cost-effectiveness of the single strategies. Sensitivity analyses showed that the results are robust for changes in the baseline values of the model parameters. Only small differences were found between the screening strategies regarding the cost-effectiveness, although pELISA Medac was the most cost-effective strategy. Before introducing a particular CAT test into clinical practice, one should consider the effects and consequences of the entire screening strategy, instead of only the diagnostic accuracy of the test used.

  6. Flavonoid Naringenin: A Potential Immunomodulator for Chlamydia trachomatis Inflammation

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    Abebayehu N. Yilma

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Chlamydia trachomatis, the agent of bacterial sexually transmitted infections, can manifest itself as either acute cervicitis, pelvic inflammatory disease, or a chronic asymptomatic infection. Inflammation induced by C. trachomatis contributes greatly to the pathogenesis of disease. Here we evaluated the anti-inflammatory capacity of naringenin, a polyphenolic compound, to modulate inflammatory mediators produced by mouse J774 macrophages infected with live C. trachomatis. Infected macrophages produced a broad spectrum of inflammatory cytokines (GM-CSF, TNF, IL-1β, IL-1α, IL-6, IL-12p70, and IL-10 and chemokines (CCL4, CCL5, CXCL1, CXCL5, and CXCL10 which were downregulated by naringenin in a dose-dependent manner. Enhanced protein and mRNA gene transcript expressions of TLR2 and TLR4 in addition to the CD86 costimulatory molecule on infected macrophages were modulated by naringenin. Pathway-specific inhibition studies disclosed that p38 mitogen-activated-protein kinase (MAPK is involved in the production of inflammatory mediators by infected macrophages. Notably, naringenin inhibited the ability of C. trachomatis to phosphorylate p38 in macrophages, suggesting a potential mechanism of its attenuation of concomitantly produced inflammatory mediators. Our data demonstrates that naringenin is an immunomodulator of inflammation triggered by C. trachomatis, which possibly may be mediated upstream by modulation of TLR2, TLR4, and CD86 receptors on infected macrophages and downstream via the p38 MAPK pathway.

  7. Trachoma: protective and pathogenic ocular immune responses to Chlamydia trachomatis.

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    Victor H Hu

    Full Text Available Trachoma, caused by Chlamydia trachomatis (Ct, is the leading infectious blinding disease worldwide. Chronic conjunctival inflammation develops in childhood and leads to eyelid scarring and blindness in adulthood. The immune response to Ct provides only partial protection against re-infection, which can be frequent. Moreover, the immune response is central to the development of scarring pathology, leading to loss of vision. Here we review the current literature on both protective and pathological immune responses in trachoma. The resolution of Ct infection in animal models is IFNγ-dependent, involving Th1 cells, but whether this is the case in human ocular infection still needs to be confirmed. An increasing number of studies indicate that innate immune responses arising from the epithelium and other innate immune cells, along with changes in matrix metalloproteinase activity, are important in the development of tissue damage and scarring. Current trachoma control measures, which are centred on repeated mass antibiotic treatment of populations, are logistically challenging and have the potential to drive antimicrobial resistance. A trachoma vaccine would offer significant advantages. However, limited understanding of the mechanisms of both protective immunity and immunopathology to Ct remain barriers to vaccine development.

  8. Chlamydia abortus in Cows Oviducts, Occasional Event or Causal Connection?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Appino, S; Vincenti, L; Rota, A; Pellegrini, S; Chieppa, M N; Cadoni, V; Pregel, P

    2015-06-01

    Fifty-seven genital tracts of regularly slaughtered culled Piedmontese cows, aged 7.4 ± 4.3 years (mean ± SD), range: 2.6-15.6 years, were grossly and microscopically examined. DNA extracted from oviducts was subjected to PCR to evaluate the presence of Chlamydia spp. The 15 PCR-positive oviducts were subjected to Sanger sequencing and showed the presence of Chamydia abortus, with an identity range between 99 and 100%. Nine of the PCR-positive samples belonged to the 24 animals with a normal macroscopic appearance of the whole genital tract (percentage of positive oviducts in normal genital tracts 9/24 = 37.5%), while six belonged to the 33 genital tracts with lesions in one or more organs (percentage of positive oviducts in pathological genital tracts 6/33 = 18.1%); of these, a single animal had salpingitis. The detection of C. abortus in bovine oviducts is of particular interest because it has never been previously investigated or reported. © 2015 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  9. Longitudinal prevalence and faecal shedding of Chlamydia pecorum in sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Rongchang; Jacobson, Caroline; Gardner, Graham; Carmichael, Ian; Campbell, Angus J D; Ryan, Una

    2014-09-01

    The prevalence and faecal shedding of Chlamydia spp. in sheep in Australia has not been well described. Two species-specific quantitative PCRs (qPCRs) targeting the chlamydial outer membrane protein cell surface antigen gene (ompA) were validated and used to determine the prevalence and faecal shedding of C. abortus and C. pecorum from faecal samples of lambs at three sampling times (weaning, post-weaning and pre-slaughter) from eight farms in South Australia, New South Wales, Victoria and Western Australia. A total of 3412 faecal samples were collected and screened from approximately 1189 lambs across the four states. C. abortus was not detected in any of the samples screened. The overall prevalence of C. pecorum was 1027/3412 (30.1%) and median bacterial concentrations at weaning, post-weaning and pre-slaughter were 1.8 × 10(7), 1.2 × 10(7) and 9.6 × 10(5)/g faeces, respectively. A subset of C. pecorum positive samples from each farm, (n = 48) was sequenced to confirm their identity. The present study demonstrates that C. pecorum is prevalent in Australian sheep, highlighting a need for further research on the impact of this bacterium on production. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Effects of vaginal lactobacilli in Chlamydia trachomatis infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mastromarino, Paola; Di Pietro, Marisa; Schiavoni, Giovanna; Nardis, Chiara; Gentile, Massimo; Sessa, Rosa

    2014-07-01

    Increasing evidence indicates that abnormal vaginal flora lacking lactobacilli facilitates the acquisition of several sexually transmitted diseases including Chlamydia trachomatis. C. trachomatis, the most common bacterial agent of genital infections worldwide, can progress from the lower to upper reproductive tract and induce severe sequelae. The ability of C. trachomatis to develop into a persistent form has been suggested as key pathogenetic mechanism underlying chronic infections and sequelae. The aim of our study was to investigate the C. trachomatis interaction with vaginal microbiota analyzing the effects of Lactobacillus strains (L. brevis and L. salivarius) on the different phases of C. trachomatis developmental cycle. In addition, the effect of lactobacilli on persistent chlamydial forms induced by HSV-2 coinfection has also been evaluated. Our results demonstrated significant inhibition of C. trachomatis multiplication by vaginal lactobacilli. L. brevis was significantly more effective than L. salivarius (pinfection cycle suggesting that the ability of lactobacilli to protect from infection is strain-dependent. Lactobacilli had an adverse effect on elementary chlamydial bodies (pvaginal microbiota can reduce the risk of acquiring C. trachomatis infection and counteract the development of persistent chlamydial forms. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  11. Natural Products for the Treatment of Trachoma and Chlamydia trachomatis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael G. Potroz

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The neglected tropical disease (NTD trachoma is currently the leading cause of eye disease in the world, and the pathogenic bacteria causing this condition, Chlamydia trachomatis, is also the most common sexually transmitted pathogenic bacterium. Although the serovars of this bacterial species typically vary between ocular and genital infections there is a clear connection between genital C. trachomatis infections and the development of trachoma in infants, such that the solutions to these infections are closely related. It is the unique life cycle of the C. trachomatis bacteria which primarily leads to chronic infections and challenges in treatment using conventional antibiotics. This life cycle involves stages of infective elementary bodies (EBs and reproductive reticulate bodies (RBs. Most antibiotics only target the reproductive RBs and this often leads to the need for prolonged therapy which facilitates the development of drug resistant pathogens. It is through combining several compounds to obtain multiple antimicrobial mechanisms that we are most likely to develop a reliable means to address all these issues. Traditional and ethnobotanical medicine provides valuable resources for the development of novel formulations and treatment regimes based on synergistic and multi-compound therapy. In this review we intend to summarize the existing literature on the application of natural compounds for controlling trachoma and inhibiting chlamydial bacteria and explore the potential for the development of new treatment modalities.

  12. Lead Discovery Strategies for Identification of Chlamydia pneumoniae Inhibitors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leena Hanski

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Throughout its known history, the gram-negative bacterium Chlamydia pneumoniae has remained a challenging target for antibacterial chemotherapy and drug discovery. Owing to its well-known propensity for persistence and recent reports on antimicrobial resistence within closely related species, new approaches for targeting this ubiquitous human pathogen are urgently needed. In this review, we describe the strategies that have been successfully applied for the identification of nonconventional antichlamydial agents, including target-based and ligand-based virtual screening, ethnopharmacological approach and pharmacophore-based design of antimicrobial peptide-mimicking compounds. Among the antichlamydial agents identified via these strategies, most translational work has been carried out with plant phenolics. Thus, currently available data on their properties as antichlamydial agents are described, highlighting their potential mechanisms of action. In this context, the role of mitogen-activated protein kinase activation in the intracellular growth and survival of C. pneumoniae is discussed. Owing to the complex and often complementary pathways applied by C. pneumoniae in the different stages of its life cycle, multitargeted therapy approaches are expected to provide better tools for antichlamydial therapy than agents with a single molecular target.

  13. Chlamydia trachomatis prevalence in North-West Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grio, R; Bello, L; Smirne, C; D'Addato, F; Latino, M A; Corvetto, L; De Intinis, G; Spagnolo, E; Maffei, S; Leotta, E

    2004-10-01

    Chlamydia (C.) trachomatis infection is the most common sexually transmitted disease (STD) among sexually active adolescents and young adults in Europe. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of C. trachomatis among sexually active women in Piedmont, Italy and the correlation between some risk factors and C. trachomatis infection. In our study 31,419 sexually active women aged 12-55 were screened for C. trachomatis by Abbott's ligase chain reaction (LCR) using cervical swabs during the period 1997-2001 at St. Anna Obstetric-Gynecological Hospital, Turin. All the patients answered a specific questionnaire. In our analysis the prevalence of C. trachomatis infection was found to be 1.23%, and the average age among the infected patients was 36.98 years. Statistical analysis was performed using the chi squared test; a peducation (pcitizenship (p<0.001). No statistically significant differences were found among the contraceptive methods used, whether an hormonal or a barrier type; a marked increment of the risk was observed when no contraception was used. Frequent microbiological examinations are desirable for patients whose anamnesis shows an augmented risk of contracting sexually transmitted infections in order to avoid long term complications from misdiagnosed or asymptomatic pathologies, as often happens with C. trachomatis.

  14. Lead Discovery Strategies for Identification of Chlamydia pneumoniae Inhibitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanski, Leena; Vuorela, Pia

    2016-11-28

    Throughout its known history, the gram-negative bacterium Chlamydia pneumoniae has remained a challenging target for antibacterial chemotherapy and drug discovery. Owing to its well-known propensity for persistence and recent reports on antimicrobial resistence within closely related species, new approaches for targeting this ubiquitous human pathogen are urgently needed. In this review, we describe the strategies that have been successfully applied for the identification of nonconventional antichlamydial agents, including target-based and ligand-based virtual screening, ethnopharmacological approach and pharmacophore-based design of antimicrobial peptide-mimicking compounds. Among the antichlamydial agents identified via these strategies, most translational work has been carried out with plant phenolics. Thus, currently available data on their properties as antichlamydial agents are described, highlighting their potential mechanisms of action. In this context, the role of mitogen-activated protein kinase activation in the intracellular growth and survival of C . pneumoniae is discussed. Owing to the complex and often complementary pathways applied by C. pneumoniae in the different stages of its life cycle, multitargeted therapy approaches are expected to provide better tools for antichlamydial therapy than agents with a single molecular target.

  15. Primary health care providers surveyed commonly misinterpret 'first void urine' for chlamydia screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lusk, M Josephine; Uddin, Ruby; Ferson, Mark; Rawlinson, William; Konecny, Pam

    2009-03-01

    An open question survey of general practitioners (GP) and hospital emergency department (ED) doctors revealed that the term 'FVU' (first void urine) used for urine chlamydia testing, is ambiguous, potentially leading to incorrect urine sample collection and barriers to effective screening. The results of this survey indicate that only 4.3% (95% confidence interval [CI] 0.5-14.5%) of GP and 6.9% (95% CI 0.9-22.8%) of ED doctors respectively, correctly interpreted the meaning of FVU. The majority of clinicians surveyed misunderstood 'FVU' to require the first urine void of the day, accounting for 68.1% (95% CI 52.9-80.9%) of GP responses and 37.9% (95% CI 20.7-57.7%) of ED doctors responses. This highlights the need for clarification and standardisation of terminology used in urine chlamydia screening for health care providers, in order to optimise strategies for diagnosis and control of the ongoing chlamydia epidemic.

  16. Readiness of pharmacists and consumers for pharmacy-based chlamydia screening in Australia and Switzerland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnet, Isabelle; Gudka, Sajni; Salter, Sandra; Hersberger, Kurt E; Clifford, Rhonda

    2018-06-01

    To assess chlamydia knowledge, willingness to undertake pharmacy-based chlamydia testing, and facilitators and barriers to such testing in consumers and community pharmacists, in Australia (AUS) and Switzerland (CH). Statements of interest were retrieved from literature and assembled into a 12-item online survey (English and German versions). Survey was disseminated through Facebook, pharmacies' publicly available emails and professional websites (March 2015). Consumers and pharmacists (AUS: n cons  = 198, n pharm  = 162; CH: n cons  = 209, n pharm  = 223) were predominantly female (>65%). Mean chlamydia knowledge scores (maximum of 8) were higher in Australia in consumers (AUS: 6.8 ± 1.5 vs CH: 4.2 ± 2.4; p business. Copyright © 2018 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Orchitis and Epididymitis in Koalas (Phascolarctos cinereus) Infected With Chlamydia pecorum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, S D; Deif, H H; McKinnon, A; Theilemann, P; Griffith, J E; Higgins, D P

    2015-11-01

    Although Chlamydia causes disease of the urethra and prostate of male koalas, its impact on the testis and epididymis has not been examined. This study describes chronic-active and granulomatous orchitis and epididymitis with interstitial fibrosis associated with infection by Chlamydia pecorum in 2 of 18 adult male koalas being euthanized at a koala hospital, 8 of which also had chlamydial prostatitis. By immunohistochemistry and transmission electron microscopy, chlamydial inclusions were demonstrated within Sertoli cells directly associated with mild inflammation surrounding intact seminiferous and epididymal tubules, marked pyogranulomatous inflammation around disrupted tubules, replacement of tubules by interstitial fibrosis, and aspermia. The presence of C. pecorum but not Chlamydia pneumoniae was detected by quantitative polymerase chain reaction of formalin-fixed tissues of the left and right testes and right epididymis in 1 animal. This is the first report of orchitis and epididymitis in a koala infected with C. pecorum. © The Author(s) 2015.

  18. Chlamydia pneumoniae acute liver infection affects hepatic cholesterol and triglyceride metabolism in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marangoni, Antonella; Fiorino, Erika; Gilardi, Federica; Aldini, Rita; Scotti, Elena; Nardini, Paola; Foschi, Claudio; Donati, Manuela; Montagnani, Marco; Cevenini, Monica; Franco, Placido; Roda, Aldo; Crestani, Maurizio; Cevenini, Roberto

    2015-08-01

    Chlamydia pneumoniae has been linked to atherosclerosis, strictly associated with hyperlipidemia. The liver plays a central role in the regulation of lipid metabolism. Since in animal models C. pneumoniae can be found at hepatic level, this study aims to elucidate whether C. pneumoniae infection accelerates atherosclerosis by affecting lipid metabolism. Thirty Balb/c mice were challenged intra-peritoneally with C. pneumoniae elementary bodies and thirty with Chlamydia trachomatis, serovar D. Thirty mice were injected with sucrose-phosphate-glutamate buffer, as negative controls. Seven days after infection, liver samples were examined both for presence of chlamydia and expression of genes involved in inflammation and lipid metabolism. C. pneumoniae was isolated from 26 liver homogenates, whereas C. trachomatis was never re-cultivated (P triglycerides levels compared both with negative controls (P metabolism. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. EXPERIENCE OF DESOXIRIBONUCLEATE SODIUM IMMUNOMODULATOR APPLICATION IN TREATMENT FOR REACTIVE ARTHRITIS OF CHLAMYDIA AETIOLOGY AMONG CHILDREN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.A. Balykova

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Researchers compared efficacy of the conventional therapy (oilment with non steriod anti-inflammatory medication, diclofena sodium and azithromycin among children with reactive arthritis of Chlamydia etiology and treatment with introduction of gluccosaminilmuramildi peptide and desoxiribonucleate sodium immunomodulators. The article shows that application of immunomodulators in combination with the conventional therapy provided for the decrease of the articular syndrome intensity, reduced the need of the patients in local corticosteroids and conduced to the reduction of the lab process activity indices. Further more, they noticed reduced recurrence of the antibodies to Chlamydias and their titers in the blood serum, while general intensity of the antiinflammatory effects from the combined therapy, which included glucosaminilmuramildipeptide and desoxiribonucleate sodium immunomodulators along with the antibiotic, proved to be comparable.Key words: children, reactive arthritis, chlamydia infection, immunomodulators.

  20. Fierce competition between Toxoplasma and Chlamydia for host cell structures in dually infected cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romano, Julia D; de Beaumont, Catherine; Carrasco, Jose A; Ehrenman, Karen; Bavoil, Patrik M; Coppens, Isabelle

    2013-02-01

    The prokaryote Chlamydia trachomatis and the protozoan Toxoplasma gondii, two obligate intracellular pathogens of humans, have evolved a similar modus operandi to colonize their host cell and salvage nutrients from organelles. In order to gain fundamental knowledge on the pathogenicity of these microorganisms, we have established a cell culture model whereby single fibroblasts are coinfected by C. trachomatis and T. gondii. We previously reported that the two pathogens compete for the same nutrient pools in coinfected cells and that Toxoplasma holds a significant competitive advantage over Chlamydia. Here we have expanded our coinfection studies by examining the respective abilities of Chlamydia and Toxoplasma to co-opt the host cytoskeleton and recruit organelles. We demonstrate that the two pathogen-containing vacuoles migrate independently to the host perinuclear region and rearrange the host microtubular network around each vacuole. However, Toxoplasma outcompetes Chlamydia to the host microtubule-organizing center to the detriment of the bacterium, which then shifts to a stress-induced persistent state. Solely in cells preinfected with Chlamydia, the centrosomes become associated with the chlamydial inclusion, while the Toxoplasma parasitophorous vacuole displays growth defects. Both pathogens fragment the host Golgi apparatus and recruit Golgi elements to retrieve sphingolipids. This study demonstrates that the productive infection by both Chlamydia and Toxoplasma depends on the capability of each pathogen to successfully adhere to a finely tuned developmental program that aims to remodel the host cell for the pathogen's benefit. In particular, this investigation emphasizes the essentiality of host organelle interception by intravacuolar pathogens to facilitate access to nutrients.

  1. Prevalência de anticorpos para chlamydia trachomatis em grupos populacionais do Brasil, Inglaterra e Portugal

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    Marluísa de Oliveira Guimarães Ishak

    1988-02-01

    Full Text Available A prevalência de anticorpos IgG, grupo-específico para Chlamydia, em populações do Brasil, Inglaterra e Portugal foi determinada através do teste de imunofluorescência indireta, tendo-se como antígeno a cepa SA2 (f. Foram considerados positivos os soros com títulos de IgG >1:32. Dentre as populações brasileiras, a prevalência de anticorpos para Chlamydia foi maior em Serra Norte (76,2%, p < 0,01 do que nas das populações de Belém (53,6% e dos Índios Xicrins (51,3%. Entre os pacientes do Departamento de Medicina Genito-Urinária do University College Hospital (UCH e do quadro do mesmo Hospital, a prevalência de anticorpos anti-Chlamydia foi de 62% e 53,1%, respectivamente. Anticorpos anti-Chlamydia foram detectados em 54% e 66% na Inglaterra e em 56% e 68% em Portugal, nas pacientes do sexo feminino que freqüentavam Clínicas de Pré-Natal e de Infertilidade, respectivamente, Os resultados encontrados mostram uma alta exposição das populações testadas, à Chlamydia, principalmente do grupo de baixo nível sócio-econômico de Serra Norte, Brasil. A evidência de infecção por Chlamydia é da mesma ordem, tanto no Brasil, quanto na Inglaterra e Portugal.

  2. Evaluation of patients with dry eye disease for conjunctival Chlamydia trachomatis and Ureaplasma urealyticum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdelfattah, Maha Mohssen; Khattab, Rania Abdelmonem; Mahran, Magda H; Elborgy, Ebrahim S

    2016-01-01

    To determine the possibility of the development of dry eye disease (DED) as a result of persistent infection with Chlamydia trachomatis and Ureaplasma urealyticum in the conjunctiva of patients. This study was conducted on 58 patients of age range 20-50y, diagnosed with DED confirmed by Schirmer I test and tear breakup time. The non-dry eye control group included 27 subjects of the same age. Ocular specimens were collected as conjunctival scrapings and swabs divided into three groups: the first used for bacterial culture, the second and third taken to detect Chlamydia trachomatis and Ureaplasma urealyticum by direct fluorescent antibody (DFA) assay and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) method. Chlamydia trachomatis was detected in 65.5% and 76% of DED patients by DFA and PCR methods respectively. Ureaplasma urealyticum was found in 44.8% of DED infected patients using the PCR method. Both organisms were identified in only 37.9% of DED patients found to be infected. Control subjects had a 22% detection rate of Chlamydia trachomatis by DFA assay versus a 7% detection rate by PCR; while Ureaplasma urealyticum was detected in 3.7% of the controls by PCR method. The conjunctival culture revealed that gram positive microorganisms represented 75% of isolates with coagulase negative Staphylococci the most common (50%) followed by Staphylococcus aureus (20%), whereas gram negative microorganisms occurred in 25% of cases, isolating Moraxella spp. as the most frequent organism. Our results tend to point out that Chlamydia trachomatis and Ureaplasma urealyticum were detected in a moderate percentage of patients with DED, and could be a fair possibility for its development. PCR is more reliable in detecting Chlamydia trachomatis than DFA technique. The presence of isolated conjunctival bacterial microflora can be of some potential value.

  3. Overexpression and surface localization of the Chlamydia trachomatis major outer membrane protein in Escherichia coli

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koehler, JF; Birkelund, Svend; Stephens, RS

    1992-01-01

    The Chlamydia trachomatis major outer membrane protein (MOMP) is the quantitatively predominant surface protein which has important functional, structural and antigenic properties. We have cloned and overexpressed the MOMP in Escherichia coli. The MOMP is surface exposed in C. trachomatis....... The induction of MOMP expression had a rapidly lethal effect on the L2rMOMP E. coli clone. Although no genetic system exists for Chlamydia, development of a stable, inducible E. coli clone which overexpresses the chlamydial MOMP permits a study of the biological properties of the MOMP, including...

  4. CHLAMYDIA PNEUMONIAE INFECTION AND CARDIAC RISK FACTORS IN PATIENTS WITH MYOCARDIAL INFECTION

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    Zohreh Azarkar

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Evidences support the possible involvement of microorganisms such as Chlamydia pneumonia in the pathogenesis of ischemic heart diseases through a chronic inflammatory process. The aim of this study was to determine the relation between Chlamydia pneumoniae seropositivity with acute myocardial infarction and its related risk factors.    METHODS: In this case-control study, 88 patients admitted in CCU with a diagnosis of acute coronary syndrome, without a history of chronic diseases including cancers were selected as cases and 49 surgical patients without an evidence of cardiovascular disease according to clinical examinations and ECG were selected as controls. Demographic characteristics and background risk factors were obtained using a questionnaire by expert nurses. Venous blood sample was obtained from participants for measuring the anti Chlamydia IgG and IgM antibodies using ELISA method. The prevalence of antibodies was compared in both groups and its relation with coronary syndrome was evaluated.    RESULTS: 88 and 49 patients were enrolled in case and control groups, respectively. Mean age of patients and the controls was 14 ± 59.7 and 13 ± 56.9 years, respectively (P = 0.26. Anti Chlamydia IgG seropositivity rate was 63(71.9% and 23(46.9% in case and controlcontrol groups, respectively (P < 0.01; OR: 2.85; CI 95%: 1.38 - 5.9. Anti Chlamydia IgM was positive in 1 patient and 1 control. Anti Chlamydia IgG seropositivity rate was higher in patients older than 50 years old than those younger than 50 years old (OR: 2.83; CI 95%: 1.31 -1.14. There was a significant relation between BMI, smoking and Anti Chlamydia IgG seropositivity.    CONCLUSION: Considering the relation between anti Chlamydia antibody IgG seropositivity with BMI and myocardial infarction, it seems that appropriate diagnosis and treatment of these prone patients can be benefical.

  5. Host-pathogen interactions in specific pathogen-free chickens following aerogenous infection with Chlamydia psittaci and Chlamydia abortus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalmar, Isabelle; Berndt, Angela; Yin, Lizi; Chiers, Koen; Sachse, Konrad; Vanrompay, Daisy

    2015-03-15

    Although Chlamydia (C.) psittaci infections are recognized as an important factor causing economic losses and impairing animal welfare in poultry production, the specific mechanisms leading to severe clinical outcomes are poorly understood. In the present study, we comparatively investigated pathology and host immune response, as well as systemic dissemination and expression of essential chlamydial genes in the course of experimental aerogeneous infection with C. psittaci and the closely related C. abortus, respectively, in specific pathogen-free chicks. Clinical signs appeared sooner and were more severe in the C. psittaci-infected group. Compared to C. abortus infection, more intense systemic dissemination of C. psittaci correlated with higher and faster infiltration of immune cells, as well as more macroscopic lesions and epithelial pathology, such as hyperplasia and erosion. In thoracic air sac tissue, mRNA expression of immunologically relevant factors, such as IFN-γ, IL-1β, IL-6, IL-17, IL-22, LITAF and iNOS was significantly stronger up-regulated in C. psittaci- than in C. abortus-infected birds between 3 and 14 days post-infection. Likewise, transcription rates of the chlamydial genes groEL, cpaf and ftsW were consistently higher in C. psittaci during the acute phase. These findings illustrate that the stronger replication of C. psittaci in its natural host also evoked a more intense immune response than in the case of C. abortus infection. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Chlamydia positivity in New Orleans public high schools, 1996-2005: implications for clinical and public health practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nsuami, M Jacques; Nsa, Musheni; Brennan, Christine; Cammarata, Catherine L; Martin, David H; Taylor, Stephanie N

    2013-01-01

    To describe the trends in chlamydia positivity among New Orleans high school students tested in a schoolwide screening between 1996 and 2005, and to determine factors associated with chlamydia positivity among students during the 10-year period. Between school years 1995-1996 and 2004-2005, students in New Orleans public high schools were tested for chlamydia using nucleic acid amplification tests (NAAT) in urine specimens (LCx assay until 1999-2000; BD assay from 2000-2001 to 2004-2005). For each year, we calculated chlamydia positivity by dividing the number of students testing positive by the total number of students tested. Data were analyzed separately by gender. Logistic regressions were performed to determine independent predictors of chlamydia positivity during the 10-year period. Between 1996 and 2005, the average chlamydia positivity was 7.0% (95% confidence interval 6.6-7.4) in boys and 13.1% (95% confidence interval 12.6-13.7) in girls (P New Orleans school-age adolescent population. Any benefit of screening on individuals tested was likely to be mitigated by participants' uninterrupted social interactions with the dynamic forces that sustain the sexual transmission of chlamydia in the population. Copyright © 2013 Academic Pediatric Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Serological and nested PCR survey to determine the occurrence of Chlamydia infections in the Polish cattle population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szymańska-Czerwińska, Monika; Niemczuk, Krzysztof; Galińska, Elżbieta Monika

    2013-01-01

    Chlamydia spp. is an obligate intracellular agent that causes chlamydiosis in animals and humans. The aim of the presented study was to investigate the prevalence of Chlamydia infection in the Polish cattle population, both asymptomatic and having reproductive disorders. The study was performed on 4,475 serum samples collected from 16 Polish provinces at the turn of 2009-2011. The samples (3,419 from asymptomatic cattle and 1,056 from cattle with reproductive disorders) were tested by complement fixation test (CFT). Moreover, 160 and 201 samples of biological materials from both groups of cattle, respectively, were tested by nested PCR. The results obtained for two tested groups were compared by χ2 (ch-squared) test, both individually for each region (province), and generally for the whole country. The CFT results showed that the seroprevalence of Chlamydia spp. infections in the asymptomatic cattle population was 4.15%, while in the cattle with reproductive disorders--7.20%. There was a significant statistical difference between compared groups for whole country, but there were no significant differences for individual provinces. The results of PCR showed that Chlamydia spp. was present in both asymptomatic cattle and cattle having reproductive disorders. The nested PCR study confirmed the presence of Chlamydia abortus and Chlamydia suis in the tested samples. The presented study indicates that infections with Chlamydia spp. are present among Polish cattle, but the percentage of infected animals is not high.

  8. Emendation of the family Chlamydiaceae: proposal of a single genus, Chlamydia, to include all currently recognized species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sachse, Konrad; Bavoil, Patrik M; Kaltenboeck, Bernhard; Stephens, Richard S; Kuo, Cho-Chou; Rosselló-Móra, Ramon; Horn, Matthias

    2015-03-01

    The family Chlamydiaceae (order Chlamydiales, phylum Chlamydiae) comprises important, obligate intracellular bacterial pathogens of humans and animals. Subdivision of the family into the two genera Chlamydia and Chlamydophila has been discussed controversially during the past decade. Here, we have revisited the current classification in the light of recent genomic data and in the context of the unique biological properties of these microorganisms. We conclude that neither generally used 16S rRNA sequence identity cut-off values nor parameters based on genomic similarity consistently separate the two genera. Notably, no easily recognizable phenotype such as host preference or tissue tropism is available that would support a subdivision. In addition, the genus Chlamydophila is currently not well accepted and not used by a majority of research groups in the field. Therefore, we propose the classification of all 11 currently recognized Chlamydiaceae species in a single genus, the genus Chlamydia. Finally, we provide emended descriptions of the family Chlamydiaceae, the genus Chlamydia, as well as the species Chlamydia abortus, Chlamydia caviae and Chlamydia felis. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  9. Comprehensive in silico prediction and analysis of chlamydial outer membrane proteins reflects evolution and life style of the Chlamydiae

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    Myers Garry

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Chlamydiae are obligate intracellular bacteria comprising some of the most important bacterial pathogens of animals and humans. Although chlamydial outer membrane proteins play a key role for attachment to and entry into host cells, only few have been described so far. We developed a comprehensive, multiphasic in silico approach, including the calculation of clusters of orthologues, to predict outer membrane proteins using conservative criteria. We tested this approach using Escherichia coli (positive control and Bacillus subtilis (negative control, and applied it to five chlamydial species; Chlamydia trachomatis, Chlamydia muridarum, Chlamydia (a.k.a. Chlamydophila pneumoniae, Chlamydia (a.k.a. Chlamydophila caviae, and Protochlamydia amoebophila. Results In total, 312 chlamydial outer membrane proteins and lipoproteins in 88 orthologous clusters were identified, including 238 proteins not previously recognized to be located in the outer membrane. Analysis of their taxonomic distribution revealed an evolutionary conservation among Chlamydiae, Verrucomicrobia, Lentisphaerae and Planctomycetes as well as lifestyle-dependent conservation of the chlamydial outer membrane protein composition. Conclusion This analysis suggested a correlation between the outer membrane protein composition and the host range of chlamydiae and revealed a common set of outer membrane proteins shared by these intracellular bacteria. The collection of predicted chlamydial outer membrane proteins is available at the online database pCOMP http://www.microbial-ecology.net/pcomp and might provide future guidance in the quest for anti-chlamydial vaccines.

  10. Differences in Treatment of Chlamydia trachomatis by Ambulatory Care Setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearson, William S; Gift, Thomas L; Leichliter, Jami S; Jenkins, Wiley D

    2015-12-01

    Chlamydia trachomatis (CT) is the most commonly reported sexually transmitted infection (STI) in the US and timely, correct treatment can reduce CT transmission and sequelae. Emergency departments (ED) are an important location for diagnosing STIs. This study compared recommended treatment of CT in EDs to treatment in physician offices. Five years of data (2006-2010) were analyzed from the National Ambulatory Medical Care Survey, and the National Hospital Ambulatory Medical Care Surveys (NHAMCS), including the Outpatient survey (NHAMCS-OPD) and Emergency Department survey (NHAMCS-ED). All visits with a CT diagnosis and those with a diagnosis of unspecified venereal disease were selected for analysis. Differences in receipt of recommended treatments were compared between visits to physician offices and emergency departments using Chi square tests and logistic regression models. During the 5 year period, approximately 3.2 million ambulatory care visits had diagnosed CT or an unspecified venereal disease. A greater proportion of visits to EDs received the recommended treatment for CT compared to visits to physician offices (66.1 vs. 44.9 %, p < .01). When controlling for patients' age, sex and race/ethnicity, those presenting to the ED with CT were more likely to receive the recommended antibiotic treatment than patients presenting to a physician's office (OR 2.16; 95 % CI 1.04-4.48). This effect was attenuated when further controlling for patients' expected source of payment. These analyses demonstrate differences in the treatment of CT by ambulatory care setting as well as opportunities for increasing use of recommended treatments for diagnosed cases of this important STI.

  11. The Association Between Chlamydia pneumoniae Infection and Ischemic Stroke

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    Eini

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Background Chlamydia pneumoniae has been linked with increased risk of cardiovascular diseases; however, data on stroke and cerebrovascular accidents are sparse. Objectives The aim of this study was to determine the association between C. pneumoniae infection and ischemic stroke. Patients and Methods In a case-control study, 141 patients, admitted with ischemic stroke, were compared with gender and age-matched control subjects (n = 141. Using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay kit, the presence of C. pneumoniae IgG and IgA in the patients’ sera was determined. The data were analyzed by SPSS software (version 15 and were compared between the two groups using T-test and chi square test. Results The mean ages of the case and control groups were 68.97 ± 12.29 and 66.95 ± 6.68 years old, respectively. The difference between these two groups was not statistically significant (P = 0.102. The seroprevalence of C. pneumoniae-specific IgG were 78.7% in the patients with stroke and 52.5% in the control group. The difference between the two groups was statistically significant (P = 0.0001. The seroprevalence of C. pneumoniae-specific IgA were 41.1% in the stroke and 15.6% in the control group. The difference between the two groups was statistically significant (P = 0.0001. Conclusions The results supported the hypothesis that serological evidence of C. pneumoniae infection may be associated with an increased risk of ischemic stroke and cerebrovascular accident.

  12. [The influence of Chlamydia pneumoniae infection on acute coronary syndromes].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gajek, Jacek; Choroszy-Król, Irena; Zyśko, Dorota; Teryks-Wołyniec, Dorota; Halawa, Bogumił

    2003-07-01

    Chlamydia pneumoniae is one of the infectious factors the role of which is considered in the process of atherosclerosis and its complications. Of the study was to assess the incidence of Ch. pneumoniae infection in the patients with acute coronary events. The study was carried out in 36 patients, mean age 61.2 +/- 13.4 years, 27 men and 9 women hospitalised in our Department with the diagnosis of previous or recent acute myocardial infarction. The control group consisted of 19 subjects, aged 61.1 +/- 14.3 years, 10 men and 9 women hospitalised due to other reasons. In all studied patients during the first 24 hours venous blood was taken for the assessment of fibrinogen and C-reactive protein (CRP) concentrations and titres of IgA and IgG anti-Ch. pneumoniae antibodies, and pharyngeal swabs were done for Ch. pneumoniae assessment. Positive swab tests were found in 19% of the patients, positive IgG titres in 80% and IgA in 64% of the patients. In the control group the corresponding values were 11, 79, 42%, respectively. In the patients with positive IgG titres, negative IgA titre result was observed in 21% and in the control group in 53% (p < 0.05). The CRP level was significantly higher in the studied patients than in the control group (24.2 vs 4.2 mg/l; p < 0.05). 1. The high percentage of positive serologic tests and rare positive results of pharyngeal swabs indicate a frequent contact with Ch. pneumoniae in human population. 2. Ch. pneumoniae infection exerts no significant influence on the unspecific markers of inflammation. 3. The higher frequency of seroconversion-positive IgG and negative IgA titres--in the control group indicates the role of prolonged or acute Ch. pneumoniae infection in the development or progression of coronary atherosclerosis and its complications.

  13. Qualitative interviews with healthcare staff in four European countries to inform adaptation of an intervention to increase chlamydia testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNulty, Cliodna; Ricketts, Ellie J; Fredlund, Hans; Uusküla, Anneli; Town, Katy; Rugman, Claire; Tisler-Sala, Anna; Mani, Alix; Dunais, Brigitte; Folkard, Kate; Allison, Rosalie; Touboul, Pia

    2017-09-25

    To determine the needs of primary healthcare general practice (GP) staff, stakeholders and trainers to inform the adaptation of a locally successful complex intervention (Chlamydia Intervention Randomised Trial (CIRT)) aimed at increasing chlamydia testing within primary healthcare within South West England to three EU countries (Estonia, France and Sweden) and throughout England. Qualitative interviews. European primary healthcare in England, France, Sweden and Estonia with a range of chlamydia screening provision in 2013. 45 GP staff, 13 trainers and 18 stakeholders. The iterative interview schedule explored participants' personal attitudes, subjective norms and perceived behavioural controls around provision of chlamydia testing, sexual health services and training in general practice. Researchers used a common thematic analysis. Findings were similar across all countries. Most participants agreed that chlamydia testing and sexual health services should be offered in general practice. There was no culture of GP staff routinely offering opportunistic chlamydia testing or sexual health advice, and due to other priorities, participants reported this would be challenging. All participants indicated that the CIRT workshop covering chlamydia testing and sexual health would be useful if practice based, included all practice staff and action planning, and was adequately resourced. Participants suggested minor adaptations to CIRT to suit their country's health services. A common complex intervention can be adapted for use across Europe, despite varied sexual health provision. The intervention (ChlamydiA Testing Training in Europe (CATTE)) should comprise: a staff workshop covering sexual health and chlamydia testing rates and procedures, action planning and patient materials and staff reminders via computer prompts, emails or newsletters, with testing feedback through practice champions. CATTE materials are available at: www.STItraining.eu. © Article author(s) (or their

  14. Chlamydia prevalence trends among women and men entering the National Job Training Program from 1990 through 2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Learner, Emily R; Torrone, Elizabeth A; Fine, Jason P; Pence, Brian W; Powers, Kimberly A; Miller, William C

    2018-01-26

    Evaluating chlamydia prevalence trends from sentinel surveillance is important for understanding population disease burden over time. However, prevalence trend estimates from surveillance data may be misleading if they do not account for changes in risk profiles of individuals who are screened (case mix) and changing performance of the screening tests used. We analyzed chlamydia screening data from a sentinel surveillance population of 389,555 young women (1990-2012) and 303,699 young men (2003-2012) entering the US National Job Training Program. This period follows the introduction of national chlamydia screening programs designed to prevent transmission and reduce population disease burden. After ruling out bias due to case mix, we used an expectation-maximization based maximum likelihood approach to account for measurement error from changing screening tests, and generated minimally-biased long-term chlamydia prevalence trend estimates among youth and young adults in this sentinel surveillance population. Adjusted chlamydia prevalence among women was high throughout the study period, but fell from 20% in 1990 to 12% in 2003, and remained between 12% and 14% through 2012. Adjusted prevalence among men was steady throughout the study period at approximately 7%. For both women and men, adjusted prevalence was highest among Black and American Indian youth and young adults, and in the Southern and Midwestern regions of the US throughout the study period. Our minimally-biased trend estimates provide support for an initial decrease in chlamydia prevalence among women soon after the introduction of national chlamydia screening programs. Constant chlamydia prevalence in more recent years suggests that screening may not be sufficient to further reduce chlamydia prevalence among high-risk youth and young adults.

  15. IL-4-secreting eosinophils promote endometrial stromal cell proliferation and prevent Chlamydia-induced upper genital tract damage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vicetti Miguel, Rodolfo D; Quispe Calla, Nirk E; Dixon, Darlene; Foster, Robert A; Gambotto, Andrea; Pavelko, Stephen D; Hall-Stoodley, Luanne; Cherpes, Thomas L

    2017-08-15

    Genital Chlamydia trachomatis infections in women typically are asymptomatic and do not cause permanent upper genital tract (UGT) damage. Consistent with this presentation, type 2 innate and T H 2 adaptive immune responses associated with dampened inflammation and tissue repair are elicited in the UGT of Chlamydia -infected women. Primary C. trachomatis infection of mice also causes no genital pathology, but unlike women, does not generate Chlamydia -specific T H 2 immunity. Herein, we explored the significance of type 2 innate immunity for restricting UGT tissue damage in Chlamydia -infected mice, and in initial studies intravaginally infected wild-type, IL-10 -/- , IL-4 -/- , and IL-4Rα -/- mice with low-dose C. trachomatis inoculums. Whereas Chlamydia was comparably cleared in all groups, IL-4 -/- and IL-4Rα -/- mice displayed endometrial damage not seen in wild-type or IL-10 -/- mice. Congruent with the aberrant tissue repair in mice with deficient IL-4 signaling, we found that IL-4Rα and STAT6 signaling mediated IL-4-induced endometrial stromal cell (ESC) proliferation ex vivo, and that genital administration of an IL-4-expressing adenoviral vector greatly increased in vivo ESC proliferation. Studies with IL-4-IRES-eGFP (4get) reporter mice showed eosinophils were the main IL-4-producing endometrial leukocyte (constitutively and during Chlamydia infection), whereas studies with eosinophil-deficient mice identified this innate immune cell as essential for endometrial repair during Chlamydia infection. Together, our studies reveal IL-4-producing eosinophils stimulate ESC proliferation and prevent Chlamydia -induced endometrial damage. Based on these results, it seems possible that the robust type 2 immunity elicited by Chlamydia infection of human genital tissue may analogously promote repair processes that reduce phenotypic disease expression.

  16. The distribution of chlamydia, gonorrhoea and syphilis cases across states and counties in the USA, 2007.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chesson, Harrell W; Sternberg, Maya; Leichliter, Jami S; Aral, Sevgi O

    2010-12-01

    To examine the distribution of chlamydia, gonorrhoea and syphilis in the USA through the use of Lorenz curves and Gini coefficients. The distribution of three sexually transmitted diseases (STD; chlamydia, gonorrhoea and primary and secondary syphilis) was examined across states and counties in the USA in 2007, based on reported case numbers. Gini coefficients, which can range from 0 (equality in STD rates across geographical units) to 1 (complete inequality such that all STD occur in one geographical unit) were calculated. Overall, chlamydia was the most evenly distributed and syphilis was the most concentrated of the three STD examined. The Gini coefficients for chlamydia, gonorrhoea and syphilis were 0.121, 0.255 and 0.334, respectively, when examined across states, and 0.319, 0.494 and 0.630, respectively, when examined across counties. Differences in Gini coefficients were observed when the STD distributions were examined by sex, race/ethnicity and age group. The use of Lorenz curves and Gini coefficients can help to assess inequalities in the distribution of STD, to gauge the suitability of geographically targeted interventions, and to help in determining the epidemic phase of STD. Having a better understanding of the disparities in the distribution of STD across states and counties by sex, race/ethnicity and age group might help in understanding why disparities in STD rates exist across different groups and in developing interventions to address these disparities.

  17. Systematic screening for Chlamydia trachomatis : Estimating cost-effectiveness using dynamic modeling and Dutch data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Vries, R.; Van Bergen, J.E.A.M.; de Jong-van den Berg, Lolkje; Postma, Maarten

    2006-01-01

    To estimate the cost-effectiveness of a systematic one-off Chlamydia trachomatis (CT) screening program including partner treatment for Dutch young adults. Data on infection prevalence, participation rates, and sexual behavior were obtained from a large pilot study conducted in The Netherlands.

  18. Systematic screening for Chlamydia trachomatis: estimating cost-effectiveness using dynamic modeling and Dutch data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Vries, Robin; van Bergen, Jan E. A. M.; de Jong-van den Berg, Lolkje T. W.; Postma, Maarten J.

    2006-01-01

    To estimate the cost-effectiveness of a systematic one-off Chlamydia trachomatis (CT) screening program including partner treatment for Dutch young adults. Data on infection prevalence, participation rates, and sexual behavior were obtained from a large pilot study conducted in The Netherlands.

  19. Association of Chlamydia serology with HIV in Nigerian women *1H ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    HASSAN PC

    Nigerian Journal of Basic and Applied Science (December, 2016), 24(2): 15-22 ... 2Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Ahmadu Bello University Teaching Hospital, Zaria. [*Corresponding author: E-mail: ... genus Chlamydia which includes organisms previously ..... evaluation of tubal-factor infertility (Persson,. 2002 ...

  20. Beliefs about chlamydia testing amongst young people living in relatively deprived areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Booth, A R; Harris, P R; Goyder, E; Norman, P

    2013-06-01

    This study uses the theory of planned behaviour (TPB) as a framework to investigate salient beliefs about chlamydia testing, amongst young people living in relatively deprived areas. These beliefs may form targets for intervention to increase testing in this high-risk population. Participants recruited from colleges in deprived areas of a UK city, completed open-ended questions designed to elicit salient beliefs. Responses were content analysed and categorized as describing behavioural, normative or control beliefs. Beliefs were elicited from 128 respondents (51% male; median age = 17). The commonest behavioural belief, which could have a positive or negative impact on screening intentions, was that testing provides information about health status. Partners were referred to most commonly amongst the normative beliefs. Practical aspects and concerns about social implications of testing were common control beliefs. References to several negative emotions emerged throughout. This study indicates that raising awareness of chlamydia as a serious sexual health problem may not be the best way to increase the uptake of testing in a high-risk population. Promoting chlamydia testing as potentially providing reassurance may be an alternative. It may also be important to reduce perceptions of social disapproval as well as negative emotion regarding chlamydia testing.

  1. Isolation of chlamydia in irradiated and non-irradiated McCoy cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, L.; Harper, I.A.

    1975-01-01

    Specimens from eye and genital tract were cultured in parallel in irradiated and non-irradiated McCoy cells and the frequency of isolation of chlamydia using these culture methods was compared. There was a significant difference between the frequencies of isolation; irradiated McCoy cells produced a greater number of positive results. (author)

  2. Chlamydia trachomatis contains a protein similar to the Legionella pneumophila mip gene product

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lundemose, AG; Birkelund, Svend; Fey, SJ

    1991-01-01

    A 27kDa Chlamydia trachomatis L2 protein was characterized by the use of monoclonal antibodies and by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis. The protein was shown to be located in the membrane of reticulate bodies as well as elementary bodies. Its synthesis could be detected from 10 hours post-infe...... potentiator (mip) gene of Legionella pneumophila....

  3. Chlamydia trachomatis antibody detection in home-collected blood samples for use in epidemiological studies.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoenderboom, B M; van Ess, E F; van den Broek, I V F; van Loo, I H M; Hoebe, C J P A; Ouburg, S; Morré, S A

    Capillary blood collected in serum tubes was subjected to centrifugation delay while stored at room temperature. Chlamydia trachomatis (CT) IgG concentrations in aliquoted serum of these blood samples remained stable for seven days after collection. CT IgG concentrations can reliably be measured in

  4. Perceptions of Self-Testing for Chlamydia: Understanding and Predicting Self-Test Use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell, Rachael; Pattison, Helen M; Marriott, John F

    2016-05-10

    Self-testing technology allows people to test themselves for chlamydia without professional support. This may result in reassurance and wider access to chlamydia testing, but anxiety could occur on receipt of positive results. This study aimed to identify factors important in understanding self-testing for chlamydia outside formal screening contexts, to explore the potential impacts of self-testing on individuals, and to identify theoretical constructs to form a Framework for future research and intervention development. Eighteen university students participated in semi-structured interviews; eleven had self-tested for chlamydia. Data were analysed thematically usingaFrameworkapproach. Perceivedbenefitsofself-testingincludeditsbeingconvenient, anonymousandnotrequiringphysicalexamination. Therewasconcernabouttestaccuracyandsome participants lacked confidence in using vulvo-vaginal swabs. While some participants expressed concern about the absence of professional support, all said they would seek help on receiving a positive result. Factors identified in Protection Motivation Theory and the Theory of Planned Behaviour, such as response efficacy and self-efficacy, were found to be highly salient to participants in thinking about self-testing. These exploratory findings suggest that self-testing independentlyofformalhealthcaresystemsmaynomorenegativelyimpactpeoplethanbeingtested by health care professionals. Participants' perceptions about self-testing behaviour were consistent with psychological theories. Findings suggest that interventions which increase confidence in using self-tests and that provide reassurance of test accuracy may increase self-test intentions.

  5. Perceptions of Self-Testing for Chlamydia: Understanding and Predicting Self-Test Use

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachael Powell

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Self-testing technology allows people to test themselves for chlamydia without professional support. This may result in reassurance and wider access to chlamydia testing, but anxiety could occur on receipt of positive results. This study aimed to identify factors important in understanding self-testing for chlamydia outside formal screening contexts, to explore the potential impacts of self-testing on individuals, and to identify theoretical constructs to form a Framework for future research and intervention development. Methods: Eighteen university students participated in semi-structured interviews; eleven had self-tested for chlamydia. Data were analysed thematically usingaFrameworkapproach. Results: Perceivedbenefitsofself-testingincludeditsbeingconvenient, anonymousandnotrequiringphysicalexamination. Therewasconcernabouttestaccuracyandsome participants lacked confidence in using vulvo-vaginal swabs. While some participants expressed concern about the absence of professional support, all said they would seek help on receiving a positive result. Factors identified in Protection Motivation Theory and the Theory of Planned Behaviour, such as response efficacy and self-efficacy, were found to be highly salient to participants in thinking about self-testing. Conclusions: These exploratory findings suggest that self-testing independentlyofformalhealthcaresystemsmaynomorenegativelyimpactpeoplethanbeingtested by health care professionals. Participants’ perceptions about self-testing behaviour were consistent with psychological theories. Findings suggest that interventions which increase confidence in using self-tests and that provide reassurance of test accuracy may increase self-test intentions.

  6. Sen debut af neonatal pneumoni forårsaget af Chlamydia trachomatis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Birgitte Johanne; Hermansen, Mette Nortman

    2013-01-01

    A newborn colonized with Chlamydia trachomatis will often show symptoms of conjunctivitis and/or pneumonia. We report a case of interstitial pneumonia caused by C. trachomatis in a 2-month-old boy admitted with RSV. We point to the importance of C. trachomatis in the differential diagnostics...

  7. Low prevalence of the new variant of Chlamydia trachomatis in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, J.S.; Westh, Henrik T.

    2008-01-01

    We estimated the prevalence of the new variant of Chlamydia trachomatis in Denmark. Fifty consecutive C trachomatis urine samples from each of the 14 regional microbiology laboratories were initially tested and re-analysed with a real-time C trachomatis PCR assay targeting the 16S rRNA gene...

  8. IL-10 polymorphism and cell-mediated immune response to Chlamydia trachomatis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Öhman, H.; Tiitinen, A; Halttunen, M.

    2006-01-01

    Chlamydia trachomatis infection induces an inflammatory response that is crucial in resolving acute infection but may also play a key role in the pathogenesis of C trachomatis associated infertility. The immune response is linked to cytokine secretion pattern which is influenced by the host genetic...

  9. An optimal method of iron starvation of the obligate intracellular pathogen, Chlamydia trachomatis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher C. Thompson

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Iron is an essential cofactor in a number of critical biochemical reactions, and as such, its acquisition, storage, and metabolism is highly regulated in most organisms. The obligate intracellular bacterium, Chlamydia trachomatis experiences a developmental arrest when iron within the host is depleted. The nature of the iron starvation response in Chlamydia is relatively uncharacterized because of the likely inefficient method of iron depletion, which currently relies on the compound deferoxamine mesylate (DFO. Inefficient induction of the iron starvation response precludes the identification of iron-regulated genes. This report evaluated DFO with another iron chelator, 2,2’-bipyridyl (Bpdl and presented a systematic comparison of the two across a range of criteria in a single-treatment time-of-infection regimen. We demonstrate that the membrane permeable Bpdl was superior to DFO in the inhibition of chlamydia development, the induction of aberrant morphology, and the induction of an iron starvation transcriptional response in both host and bacteria. Furthermore, iron starvation using Bpdl identified the periplasmic iron binding protein-encoding ytgA gene as iron- responsive. Overall, the data present a compelling argument for the use of Bpdl, rather than DFO, in future iron starvation studies of chlamydia and other intracellular bacteria.

  10. Interleukin-1 is the initiator of Fallopian tube destruction during Chlamydia trachomatis infection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hvid, Malene; Baczynska, Agata; Deleuran, Bent

    2007-01-01

    Chlamydia trachomatis infection is associated with severe Fallopian tube tissue damage leading to tubal infertility and ectopic pregnancy. To explore the molecular mechanisms behind infection an ex vivo model was established from human Fallopian tubes and examined by scanning electron microscopy...

  11. Analysis of proteins in Chlamydia trachomatis L2 outer membrane complex, COMC

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Birkelund, Svend; Morgan-Fisher, Marie; Timmerman, Evy

    2009-01-01

    The protein composition and N-terminal sequences of proteins in the outer membrane of Chlamydia trachomatis L2 were analysed following isolation of N-terminal peptides using combined fractional diagonal chromatography and identification by liquid chromatography tandem MS. Acetylation of primary a...

  12. Isolation of Chlamydia abortus from a laboratory worker diagnosed with atypical pneumonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortega, Nieves; Caro, M Rosa; Gallego, M Carmen; Murcia-Belmonte, Antonio; Álvarez, Daniel; Del Río, Laura; Cuello, Francisco; Buendía, Antonio J; Salinas, Jesús

    2015-01-01

    Identifying the aetiological agent of atypical pneumonia in human can sometimes be a tedious process, especially in cases where Mycoplasma pneumoniae, Legionella species and Chlamydia pneumoniae are ruled out. In such cases, a correct anamnesis of the patient is basic to clarify which pathogens might have produced the infection. For this reason, health professionals including veterinarians and laboratory personnel working with zoonotic pathogens should keep their doctors informed. A human case of atypical pneumonia linked to Chlamydia abortus is reported. A 47-year-old male, a veterinarian researcher into chlamydiae, developed respiratory symptoms, breathing problems and high fever. Serological analyses ruled out the involvement of several respiratory pathogens, such as M. pneumoniae, Legionella pneumophila, Rickettsia conorii and C. pneumoniae, and Chlamydia abortus was identified as the possible aetiological agent of the infection. The isolation of C. abortus from the patient's sputum and subsequent molecular analysis confirmed the presence of this microorganism. As far as we know, although C. abortus has not been previously described as capable of causing pneumonia in humans, this is the first reported case of atypical pneumonia in which C. abortus is thought to have played an aetiological role.

  13. Seroprevalence and risk factors of Chlamydia abortus infection in free-ranging white yaks in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Si-Yuan; Huang, Si-Yang; Yin, Ming-Yang; Tan, Qi-Dong; Liu, Guang-Xue; Zhou, Dong-Hui; Zhu, Xing-Quan; Zhou, Ji-Zhang; Qian, Ai-Dong

    2015-01-20

    Chlamydia is gram-negative obligate bacteria which causes a wide variety of diseases in humans and animals. To date, there are a few reports about the seroprevalence of Chlamydia and the risk factors associated with Chlamydia infection in yaks in the world. In this study, 974 blood samples were collected from white yaks (Bos grunniens) in Tianzhu Tibetan Autonomous County, Gansu province, northwest China from June 2013 to April 2014. Antibodies against Chlamydia abortus were examined by the indirect hemagglutination (IHA) test, and 158 of 974 (16.22%) white yaks were seropositive for C. abortus antibodies at the cut-off of 1:16. The risk factors associated with seroprevalence were evaluated by a multivariate logistic regression analysis. Region, gender and age of white yak were left out of the final model, due to its insignificance in the logistic regression analysis (P > 0.05). However, season was considered as a major risk factor associated with C. abortus infection in white yaks. To our knowledge, this is the first survey of C. abortus seroprevalence in white yaks in China, which extends the host range for C. abortus and has important implications for public health and the local Tibetan economy.

  14. Processing of Chlamydia abortus polymorphic membrane protein 18D during the chlamydial developmental cycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheelhouse, Nick M; Sait, Michelle; Aitchison, Kevin; Livingstone, Morag; Wright, Frank; McLean, Kevin; Inglis, Neil F; Smith, David G E; Longbottom, David

    2012-01-01

    Chlamydia possess a unique family of autotransporter proteins known as the Polymorphic membrane proteins (Pmps). While the total number of pmp genes varies between Chlamydia species, all encode a single pmpD gene. In both Chlamydia trachomatis (C. trachomatis) and C. pneumoniae, the PmpD protein is proteolytically cleaved on the cell surface. The current study was carried out to determine the cleavage patterns of the PmpD protein in the animal pathogen C. abortus (termed Pmp18D). Using antibodies directed against different regions of Pmp18D, proteomic techniques revealed that the mature protein was cleaved on the cell surface, resulting in a100 kDa N-terminal product and a 60 kDa carboxy-terminal protein. The N-terminal protein was further processed into 84, 76 and 73 kDa products. Clustering analysis resolved PmpD proteins into three distinct clades with C. abortus Pmp18D, being most similar to those originating from C. psittaci, C. felis and C. caviae. This study indicates that C. abortus Pmp18D is proteolytically processed at the cell surface similar to the proteins of C. trachomatis and C. pneumoniae. However, patterns of cleavage are species-specific, with low sequence conservation of PmpD across the genus. The absence of conserved domains indicates that the function of the PmpD molecule in chlamydia remains to be elucidated.

  15. Identification of Chlamydiae and Mycoplasma species in ruminants with ocular infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, S; Chahota, R; Bhardwaj, B; Malik, P; Verma, S; Sharma, M

    2015-02-01

    Infectious keratoconjunctivitis (IKC) is a highly contagious ocular inflammatory condition, which is often reported in domestic small and large ruminants. Multiple infectious aetiologies are reported to be involved, but information about the role of certain fastidious bacterial pathogens such as chlamydiae and mycoplasmas is limited in India. Hence, this study was performed to determine the role of these pathogens and their identification by molecular approach. A total of 53 samples from 31 ovine, 14 caprine and eight bovine having clinical symptoms were collected and tested using species-specific PCR tests for chlamydiae and mycoplasmas followed by nucleotide sequence analysis. The results showed 77.41, 14.29 and 25% samples were chlamydiae positive in ovine, caprine and bovine, respectively, whereas 41.93, 14.29 and 37.5% prevalence of mycoplasma infection was detected in ovine, caprine and bovines, respectively. Chlamydophila abortus, Chlamydophila psittaci, Mycoplasma arginini and Mycoplasma hyorhinis were detected from tested samples. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first time these species are identified in IKC cases from India. Coinfection of both chlamydial and mycoplasmal species was detected in eight IKC cases of ovine which suggest synergistic roles played by both chlamydiae and mycoplasma in IKC samples. © 2014 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  16. Parachlamydia spp. and Related Chlamydia-like Organisms and Bovine Abortion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borel, Nicole; Ruhl, Silke; Casson, Nicola; Kaiser, Carmen; Pospischil, Andreas

    2007-01-01

    Chlamydophila abortus and Waddlia chondrophila cause abortion in ruminants. We investigated the role of Parachlamydia acanthamoebae in bovine abortion. Results of immunohistochemical analyses were positive in 30 (70%) of 43 placentas from which Chlamydia-like DNA was amplified, which supports the role of Parachlamydia spp. in bovine abortion. PMID:18258043

  17. 'Show me the money': financial incentives increase chlamydia screening rates among tertiary students: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Currie, Marian J; Schmidt, Matthias; Davis, Belinda K; Baynes, Anne M; O'Keefe, Elissa J; Bavinton, Tim P; McNiven, Michelle; Martin, Sarah J; Bowden, Francis J

    2010-03-01

    We hypothesise that text-messaging and financial incentives would increase tertiary student participation in chlamydia screening. A cross-sectional study was conducted over two phases on eight tertiary campuses during 2007. During Phase 1 (6 months) study activities were advertised through student organisations and media. Education and screening were offered during a range of student activities. During Phase 2 (4 days) education and screening were offered via text messages. Non-financial incentives were offered during Phase 1 and a $10 cash incentive was offered during Phase 2. Rates of specimens provided by students and the direct costs incurred during each phase were compared. 2786 students attended the 31 activities conducted in Phase 1. Of these, 627 students (22.5%) provided urine specimens for chlamydia testing. During Phase 2, the dissemination of 866 text messages resulted in urine specimens from 392 students (45.3%). Costs per test were AUD $175.11 in Phase 1 and AUD $27.13 in Phase 2. Compared with more labour intensive (and therefore more expensive) screening activities conducted over a 6-month period, offering a small financial incentive to tertiary students through text messaging over a 4-day period significantly increased participation in on-campus chlamydia screening. This model could readily be applied to other populations to increase participation in chlamydia screening.

  18. Processing of Chlamydia abortus polymorphic membrane protein 18D during the chlamydial developmental cycle.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nick M Wheelhouse

    Full Text Available Chlamydia possess a unique family of autotransporter proteins known as the Polymorphic membrane proteins (Pmps. While the total number of pmp genes varies between Chlamydia species, all encode a single pmpD gene. In both Chlamydia trachomatis (C. trachomatis and C. pneumoniae, the PmpD protein is proteolytically cleaved on the cell surface. The current study was carried out to determine the cleavage patterns of the PmpD protein in the animal pathogen C. abortus (termed Pmp18D.Using antibodies directed against different regions of Pmp18D, proteomic techniques revealed that the mature protein was cleaved on the cell surface, resulting in a100 kDa N-terminal product and a 60 kDa carboxy-terminal protein. The N-terminal protein was further processed into 84, 76 and 73 kDa products. Clustering analysis resolved PmpD proteins into three distinct clades with C. abortus Pmp18D, being most similar to those originating from C. psittaci, C. felis and C. caviae.This study indicates that C. abortus Pmp18D is proteolytically processed at the cell surface similar to the proteins of C. trachomatis and C. pneumoniae. However, patterns of cleavage are species-specific, with low sequence conservation of PmpD across the genus. The absence of conserved domains indicates that the function of the PmpD molecule in chlamydia remains to be elucidated.

  19. The occurrence of Chlamydia spp. in pigs with and without clinical disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Englund Stina

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Within the genera Chlamydia, the development of refined diagnostic techniques has allowed the identification of four species that are capable of infecting pigs. The epidemiology, clinical, and zoonotic impacts of these species are however largely unknown. The study aimed to investigate the presence of Chlamydia spp. in the intestines of growing pigs and in conjunctival swabs from finisher pigs, and relate the findings to clinical signs. Results By histology, 20 of 48 pigs had intestinal lesions that may be consistent with chlamydial infection. By PCR, forty-six of the pigs were positive whereas two samples were inhibited. Sequencing of 19 DNA extracts identified these as Chlamydia suis. By immunohistochemistry, 32 of 44 samples were positive and a significant relationship was detected between macroscopically visible intestinal lesions and a high degree of infection. By real-time PCR, a significant difference was detected between pigs with and without conjunctivitis when a Ct value of 36 was employed but not when a Ct value of 38 was employed. Conclusions Chlamydia suis was demonstrated in most samples and overall, no correlation to clinical signs was detected. However, a correlation was noted between samples with a high degree of infection and the presence of clinical signs. It is possible, that the intensive pig production systems studied might predispose for the transmission and maintenance of the infection thus increasing the infectious load and the risk for disease in the pig.

  20. Chlamydia species in free-living Cattle Egret (Bubulcus ibis and Hoopoe (Upupa epops in Egypt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jakeen K. El-Jakee

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Little information is available on the presence of chlamydia infection in wildlife. This study was conducted to assess the occurrence of chlamydiae in asymptomatic birds from two species of wild birds (Cattle Egret and Hoopoe in Egypt. In the present study Chlamydiaceae was analyzed using Giemsa stain, Giménez stain, fluorescent antibody test (FAT and PCR. The results of these techniques were compared with CFT for detecting Chlamydia psittaci antibodies among the examined birds. The results reveal that 96.4%, 81.8%, 89.1%, 80.0% and 58.2% of the examined samples were positive for chlamydiosis using PCR, Giemsa stain, Giménez stain, FA, and CFT respectively among Hoopoe. The percentages were 90.6%, 77.4%, 83.0%, 75.5% and 66.0% respectively for the previous tests among Cattle Egret birds. The results suggest that Cattle Egret and Hoopoe may be reservoir of Chlamydiaceae species and thus shed the organisms in their excreta. The shedding of chlamydiae by free living birds in Egypt may expose humans that come in contact with these birds to zoonotic risks.

  1. Influence of volume of sample processed on detection of Chlamydia trachomatis in urogenital samples by PCR

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goessens, W H; Kluytmans, J A; den Toom, N; van Rijsoort-Vos, T H; Niesters, B G; Stolz, E; Verbrugh, H A; Quint, W G

    In the present study, it was demonstrated that the sensitivity of the PCR for the detection of Chlamydia trachomatis is influenced by the volume of the clinical sample which is processed in the PCR. An adequate sensitivity for PCR was established by processing at least 4%, i.e., 80 microliters, of

  2. Follow-up, treatment, and reinfection rates among asymptomatic Chlamydia trachomatis cases in general practice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Valkengoed, Irene G.M.; Morré, Servaas A.; Van Den Brule, Adriaan J.C.; Meijer, Chris J.L.M.; Bouter, Lex M.; Van Eijk, Jacques Th M.; Boeke, A. Joan P.

    2002-01-01

    Background: Adequate treatment and follow-up of patients is essential to the success of a screening programme for Chlamydia trachomatis. There has been a lack of data on follow-up, confirmation of infections, and reinfection rates among asymptomatic patients in general practice. Aim: To study the

  3. Follow-up, treatment, and reinfection rates among asymptomatic Chlamydia trachomatis cases in general practice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Valkengoed, Irene G.M.; Morré, Servaas A.; Van Den Brule, Adriaan J.C.; Meijer, Chris J.L.M.; Bouter, Lex M.; Van Eijk, Jacques Th M.; Boeke, A. Joan P.

    2002-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Adequate treatment and follow-up of patients is essential to the success of a screening programme for Chlamydia trachomatis. There has been a lack of data on follow-up, confirmation of infections, and reinfection rates among asymptomatic patients in general practice. AIM: 7b study the

  4. Follow-up, treatment, and reinfection rates among asymptomatic chlamydia trachomatis cases in general practice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Valkengoed, Irene G. M.; Morré, Servaas A.; van den Brule, Adriaan J. C.; Meijer, Chris J. L. M.; Bouter, Lex M.; van Eijk, Jacques Th M.; Boeke, A. Joan P.

    2002-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Adequate treatment and follow-up of patients is essential to the success of a screening programme for Chlamydia trachomatis. There has been a lack of data on follow-up, confirmation of infections, and reinfection rates among asymptomatic patients in general practice. AIM: 7b study the

  5. Reproducibility Problems with the Abbott Laboratories LCx Assay for Chlamydia trachomatis and Neisseria gonorrhoeae

    OpenAIRE

    Gronowski, Ann M.; Copper, Susan; Baorto, David; Murray, Patrick R.

    2000-01-01

    This study demonstrates that significant reproducibility problems can occur during routine use of the Abbott Laboratories LCx assay for Chlamydia trachomatis and Neisseria gonorrhoeae. These problems can go undetected by the quality control procedures outlined in the manufacturer's package insert. We outline here procedures for detecting and preventing contamination and reproducibility problems.

  6. A novel guinea pig model of Chlamydia trachomatis genital tract infection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Jonge, M.I.; Keizer, S.A.; El Moussaoui, H.M.; van Dorsten, L.; Azzawi, R.; van Zuilekom, H.I.; Peters, P.P.; van Opzeeland, F.J.; Dijk, L..; Nieuwland, R.; Roosenboom-Theunissen, H.W.; Vrijenhoek, M.P.; Debyser, I.; Verwey, P.J.; van Duijnhoven, W.G.; van den Bosch, J.F.; Nuijten, P.J.

    2011-01-01

    Genital Chlamydia trachomatis infections often result in pelvic inflammatory disease and sequelae including infertility and ectopic pregnancies. In addition to the already established murine models, the development of other animal models is necessary to study the safety and efficacy of prototype

  7. Diversification and Distribution of Ruminant Chlamydia abortus Clones Assessed by MLST and MLVA

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Siarkou, Victoria I.; Vorimore, Fabien; Vicari, Nadia; Magnino, Simone; Rodolakis, Annie; Pannekoek, Yvonne; Sachse, Konrad; Longbottom, David; Laroucau, Karine

    2015-01-01

    Chlamydia abortus, an obligate intracellular bacterium, is the most common infectious cause of abortion in small ruminants worldwide and has zoonotic potential. We applied multilocus sequence typing (MLST) together with multiple-locus variable-number tandem repeat analysis (MLVA) to genotype 94

  8. Chlamydia pneumoniae hides inside apoptotic neutrophils to silently infect and propagate in macrophages.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Rupp

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Intracellular pathogens have developed elaborate strategies for silent infection of preferred host cells. Chlamydia pneumoniae is a common pathogen in acute infections of the respiratory tract (e.g. pneumonia and associated with chronic lung sequelae in adults and children. Within the lung, alveolar macrophages and polymorph nuclear neutrophils (PMN are the first line of defense against bacteria, but also preferred host phagocytes of chlamydiae. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We could show that C. pneumoniae easily infect and hide inside neutrophil granulocytes until these cells become apoptotic and are subsequently taken up by macrophages. C. pneumoniae infection of macrophages via apoptotic PMN results in enhanced replicative activity of chlamydiae when compared to direct infection of macrophages, which results in persistence of the pathogen. Inhibition of the apoptotic recognition of C. pneumoniae infected PMN using PS- masking Annexin A5 significantly lowered the transmission of chlamydial infection to macrophages. Transfer of apoptotic C. pneumoniae infected PMN to macrophages resulted in an increased TGF-ss production, whereas direct infection of macrophages with chlamydiae was characterized by an enhanced TNF-alpha response. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Taken together, our data suggest that C. pneumoniae uses neutrophil granulocytes to be silently taken up by long-lived macrophages, which allows for efficient propagation and immune protection within the human host.

  9. Chlamydia trachomatis and genital human papillomavirus infections in female university students in Honduras.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tabora, N.; Zelaya, A.; Bakkers, J.; Melchers, W.J.; Ferrera, A.

    2005-01-01

    Sexually transmitted infections are a serious health problem in Honduras. Human papillomavirus (HPV) and Chlamydia trachomatis are major causes of sexually transmitted diseases. To determine the prevalence of C. trachomatis and HPV in young women, 100 female university students in Honduras were

  10. Cost-effectiveness of partner pharmacotherapy in screening women for asymptomatic infection with Chlamydia Trachomatis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Postma, Maarten; Welte, R; van den Hoek, J A; van Doornum, G J; Jager, H C; Coutinho, R A

    2001-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To assess the cost-effectiveness of pharmacotherapy for male partners in screening women for asymptomatic infection with Chlamydia trachomatis (CT). METHODS AND DATA: A pharmacoeconomic decision analysis model was constructed for the health outcomes of a CT screening program, such as

  11. Chlamydia pecorum in Joint Tissue and Synovial Fluid of a Koala ( Phascolarctos cinereus) with Arthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burnard, Delaney; Gillett, Amber; Polkinghorne, Adam

    2018-03-02

    A small number of koalas ( Phascolarctos cinereus) presented to wildlife hospitals in Queensland, Australia, with signs of arthritis in one or more joints. Molecular analysis identified Chlamydia pecorum in the tarsal tissue and synovial fluid of an affected joint of a koala, suggesting that in addition to livestock, C. pecorum has the potential to cause arthritis in the koala.

  12. Isolation of Chlamydia trachomatis or Ureaplasma urealyticum from the synovial fluid of patients with Reiter's syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavlica Ljiljana

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. The aim of this study was to contribute to the insight of the role of the infectious agent in ethiopathogenesis of the Reiter’s syndrome development, which could directly influence the choise of treatment of these patients. Methods. Eighteen patients with urogenital form of the Reiter’s syndrome and 16 controls (6 with rheumatoid arthritis and 10 with pigmented villonodular synovitis were included in the study. In all patients standard laboratory analyses of the blood, urine and stool were made; antibody titer to Chlamydia trachomatis and Ureaplasma urealyticum was determined in synovial fluid and serum; isolation of Chlamydia trachomatis and Ureaplasma urealyticum in urethral, cervical and conjunctival swabs, as well as in prostatic and synovial fluid, was also made. HLA typing was done, too. Chlamydia was isolated in the McCoy cell culture treated with cycloheximide while Ureaplasma was identified according to its biochemical properties grown on cell-free liquid medium. Results. Chlamydia trachomatis was isolated from the synovial fluid of 4 patients with Reiter's syndrome 22.2%, while Ureaplasma urealyticum was isolated in 7 of them (38.9%. These microorganisms were not found in any synovial fluid of the control group patients. Conclusion. Presence of these bacteria in the inflamed joint might be an important factor in etiopathogenesis of this disease, and it supports the hypothesis that arthritis in Reiter's syndrome is probably of the infectious origin.

  13. Prevalence of Chlamydia trachomatis infection among women in a Middle Eastern community

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    Ghazal-Aswad Saad

    2004-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Common vaginal infections that manifest in women are usually easily diagnosed. However, Chlamydia infection is often asymptomatic, leading to infertility before it is detected. If it occurs in pregnancy, it could lead to significant neonatal morbidity. It may also play a role with other viral infections for e.g. Human Papilloma Virus in the development of cervical cancer. The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence of Chlamydia infection in women undergoing screening for cervical abnormalities as a part of a research project in primary and secondary care institutions in the United Arab Emirates. Methods In this cross sectional study married women attending primary and secondary care participating in a large nationwide cervical abnormalities screening survey were offered Chlamydia testing using a commercially available test kit. This kit uses a rapid immunoassay for the direct detection of Chlamydia trachomatis antigen in endocervical swab specimens. As this study was performed in a traditional Islamic country, unmarried women were excluded from testing, as the management of any positive cases would create legal and social problems. All married women consenting to take part in the study were included irrespective of age. Results Of 1039 women approached over a period of eight months 919 (88.5% agreed to participate. The number of women in the 16 to 19 years was small (0.01% and 30% were aged over 40 years. The prevalence of Chlamydia infection in this study was 2.6% (95% confidence interval 1.2–3.3%, which was marginally higher in women screened in secondary care (p = 0.05. Conclusion This is one of the few reports on the prevalence of Chlamydia infection in women from the Middle East. Due to cultural and social constraints this study excluded a large proportion of women aged less than 19 years of age. Hence no direct comparisons on prevalence could be made with studies from the West, which all included

  14. Detection of Chlamydia Trachomatis Infection in Female Partners of Infertile Couples

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    Seyed Mehdi Kalantar

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The prevalence of infertility is about 10-15% among the couples overally. Several factors can affect fertility ability of men and women. Chlamydia is a non-motile gram negative obligatory interacellular pathogenic organism. It can cause infections in females as cervicitis, urethritis, endometritis, pelvic inflammatory disease also prostatitis and epidydidimitis in male as well. The aim of this survey is to mention the frequency of infection with Chlamydia in infertile female who were treated in Yazd Research & Clinical Center for Infertility.Materials and Methods: A questionnaire containing some demographic information and clinical features related to the infection was completed for each infertile woman. Specimen of vaginal discharge was collected by well trained nurses using sterile cotton swap from 91 women. Elisa test was done on blood serum. DNA extraction for Chlamydia was carried out using low salt method and PCR was done using MOMP and plasmid primers. DNA sequencing was performed on two PCR products using Chromas LITE ver.2.01 and analyzed by BLAST.Results: Of 91 blood samples collected in this survey, none of them was positive by ELISA. Also there was no positive PCR result. Four PCR products showed a questionable band which was not in the range of Chlamydia. The products underwent DNA sequencing and there were not any finding related to any other micro-organism.Conclusion: However, it is well known that Chlamydia as an infection plays a role in infertility. Nevertheless, there was not evidence of this organism in these infertile patients. It is necessary to design such a survey in larger populations of infertile patients especially on infertile women with tubal infertility and their husbands as well.

  15. Identification and Partial Characterization of Potential FtsL and FtsQ Homologs of Chlamydia

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    Scot P Ouellette

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Chlamydia is amongst the rare bacteria that lack the critical cell division protein FtsZ. By annotation, Chlamydia also lacks several other essential cell division proteins including the FtsLBQ complex that links the early (e.g. FtsZ and late (e.g. FtsI/Pbp3 components of the division machinery. Here, we report chlamydial FtsL and FtsQ homologs. Ct271 aligned well with E. coli FtsL and shared sequence homology with it, including a predicted leucine-zipper like motif. Based on in silico modeling, we show that Ct764 has structural homology to FtsQ in spite of little sequence similarity. Importantly, ct271/ftsL and ct764/ftsQ are present within all sequenced chlamydial genomes and are expressed during the replicative phase of the chlamydial developmental cycle, two key characteristics for a chlamydial cell division gene. GFP-Ct764 localized to the division septum of dividing transformed chlamydiae, and, importantly, over-expression inhibited chlamydial development. Using a bacterial two-hybrid approach, we show that Ct764 interacted with other components of the chlamydial division apparatus. However, Ct764 was not capable of complementing an E. coli FtsQ depletion strain in spite of its ability to interact with many of the same division proteins as E. coli FtsQ, suggesting that chlamydial FtsQ may function differently. We previously proposed that Chlamydia uses MreB and other rod-shape determining proteins as an alternative system for organizing the division site and its apparatus. Chlamydial FtsL and FtsQ homologs expand the number of identified chlamydial cell division proteins and suggest that Chlamydia has likely kept the late components of the division machinery while substituting the Mre system for the early components.

  16. Transmission Behaviors and Prevalence of Chlamydia and Gonorrhea Among Adult Film Performers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Javanbakht, Marjan; Dillavou, M Claire; Rigg, Robert W; Kerndt, Peter R; Gorbach, Pamina M

    2017-03-01

    Adult film work involves multiple sex partners, unprotected intercourse and frequent oral/rectal contact. Data on sexual networks and sexual behaviors of adult film performers (AFP) are limited. From August 2012 to May 2013, AFPs in Los Angeles, CA, seeking care at 2 clinics that provide sexually transmitted infections (STIs) testing to performers were offered urogenital, pharyngeal, and rectal chlamydia/gonorrhea testing. Participants were 18 years or older and performed in at least 1 adult film scene within the past year. A Web-based survey was used to collect sexual behavior information. A total of 360 AFPs were enrolled; 75% (n = 271) were women, and the median age was 25 years (interquartile range, 22-31 years). Most reported a main partner (73%), 23% reported non-film transactional partners, and only 6% reported always using condoms on-set. Overall, 24% (n = 86) tested positive for chlamydia or gonorrhea; 15% for chlamydia (n = 54) and 11% for gonorrhea (n = 41). Prevalence of chlamydia/gonorrhea varied by time as a performer (median, year 2 vs year 3; P = 0.06), and days of adult film-work in the past 30 days (median, 6 days vs 4 days; P = 0.02). In multivariable analyses, age (adjusted odds ratio, 0.90; 95% confidence interval, 0.85-0.96) and type of scene (adjusted odds ratio for double vaginal = 2.89; 95% confidence interval, 1.29-6.48) were associated with chlamydia/gonorrhea positivity. Adult film performers had a high prevalence of STIs and reported low levels of condom use in the context of most sexual partnerships. Targeted intervention strategies-both in and outside the workplace-are needed to limit the spread of STIs.

  17. Effects of population based screening for Chlamydia infections in the Netherlands limited by declining participation rates.

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    Boris V Schmid

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: A large trial to investigate the effectiveness of population based screening for chlamydia infections was conducted in the Netherlands in 2008-2012. The trial was register based and consisted of four rounds of screening of women and men in the age groups 16-29 years in three regions in the Netherlands. Data were collected on participation rates and positivity rates per round. A modeling study was conducted to project screening effects for various screening strategies into the future. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We used a stochastic network simulation model incorporating partnership formation and dissolution, aging and a sexual life course perspective. Trends in baseline rates of chlamydia testing and treatment were used to describe the epidemiological situation before the start of the screening program. Data on participation rates was used to describe screening uptake in rural and urban areas. Simulations were used to project the effectiveness of screening on chlamydia prevalence for a time period of 10 years. In addition, we tested alternative screening strategies, such as including only women, targeting different age groups, and biennial screening. Screening reduced prevalence by about 1% in the first two screening rounds and leveled off after that. Extrapolating observed participation rates into the future indicated very low participation in the long run. Alternative strategies only marginally changed the effectiveness of screening. Higher participation rates as originally foreseen in the program would have succeeded in reducing chlamydia prevalence to very low levels in the long run. CONCLUSIONS: Decreasing participation rates over time profoundly impact the effectiveness of population based screening for chlamydia infections. Using data from several consecutive rounds of screening in a simulation model enabled us to assess the future effectiveness of screening on prevalence. If participation rates cannot be kept at a sufficient level

  18. Relationship between Chlamydia pneumonia and helicobacter pylori with atherosclerosis

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    ali Pooria

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Pooria A1, Maasoomi M2, Rafiee E3, Rezaee M4, Sabzi F5, Hossain Zadegan H6, Salehi M7, Mozaffari P8 1. Assistant Professor, Department of Surgery, Faculty of Medicine, Lorestan University of Medical Sciences 2. Professor, Department of Surgery, Faculty of Medicine, Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences, 3. Assistant Professor, Faculty of Medicine, Lorestan University of Medical Sciences, Department of Pathology 4. Associate Professor, Department of Surgery, Faculty of Medicine, Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences 5. Assistant Professor, Department of Statistics, Faculty of Health, Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences 6. Assistant Professor, Department of Microbiology, Faculty of Medicine, Lorestan University of Medical Sciences 7. Bsc in Nursing, Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences 8. Instructor, Department of Nursing, Faculty of Nursing and midwifery, Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences Abstract Background: Atherosclerosis is the most common cause of deaths in the developed countries and causes one million mortalities per year in the USA. Smoking, hypertension, diabetes, obesity, hyperlipidemia, stress, and low activity are known to be the causes of atherosclerosis. The objective of this study is to confirm the relationship between chlamydia pneumonia (Cpn, as well as helicobacter pylori (Hp and atherosclerosis. Materials and methods: In this analytical case-control study two groups of patients were studied. The first group including 30 patients over 30 years old with coronary artery disease were operated using coronary artery bypass graft. The control group included 30 persons assessed with angiography and having normal coronary arteries. The data were collected and analyzed using statistical methods. Results: The two groups were similar in terms of IgA and IgG anti-Cpn, and IgG anti- Hp but they were statistically different concerning IgA anti-Hp which had more positive cases in the case group in comparison with the

  19. Inhibitory activity of the isoflavone biochanin a on intracellular bacteria of genus Chlamydia and initial development of a buccal formulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hanski, Leena; Genina, Natalja; Uvell, Hanna

    2014-01-01

    Given the established role of Chlamydia spp. as causative agents of both acute and chronic diseases, search for new antimicrobial agents against these intracellular bacteria is required to promote human health. Isoflavones are naturally occurring phytoestrogens, antioxidants and efflux pump...

  20. Social capital, poverty, and income inequality as predictors of gonorrhoea, syphilis, chlamydia and AIDS case rates in the United States

    OpenAIRE

    Holtgrave, D; Crosby, R

    2003-01-01

    Objective: This study examined the state level association between social capital, poverty, income inequality, and four infectious diseases that have important public health implications given their long term sequelae: gonorrhoea, syphilis, chlamydia, and AIDS.

  1. High-Resolution Typing Reveals Distinct Chlamydia trachomatis Strains in an At-Risk Population in Nanjing, China

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bom, Reinier J. M.; van den Hoek, Anneke; Wang, Qianqiu; Long, Fuquan; de Vries, Henry J. C.; Bruisten, Sylvia M.

    2013-01-01

    We investigated Chlamydia trachomatis strains from Nanjing, China, and whether these strains differed from Amsterdam, the Netherlands. C. trachomatis type was determined with multilocus sequence typing. Most strains were specific to Nanjing, but some clustered with strains from Amsterdam. This

  2. The Characterization Of The Kinetics Of Chlamydia Muridarum Infection In Defined Regions Of The Murine Genital Tract

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Eskildsen, Ilea

    2008-01-01

    ..., and disease pathogenesis. A mouse model of genital Chlamydia muridarum infection is generally employed in such studies, with most studies relying upon the enumeration of bacterial numbers from vaginal swab material to assess...

  3. Risk factors associated with Chlamydia and gonorrhea infection among female sex workers in two Mexico-U.S. border cities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loza, Oralia; Strathdee, Steffanie A.; Martinez, Gustavo A.; Lozada, Remedios; Ojeda, Victoria D.; Staines-Orozco, Hugo; Patterson, Thomas L.

    2011-01-01

    Female sex workers (FSWs) aged ≥18 years without known HIV infection living in Tijuana and Ciudad Juarez who had recent unprotected sex with clients underwent interviews and testing for Chlamydia and gonorrhea using nucleic acid amplification. Correlates of each infection were identified with logistic regression. Among 798 FSWs, prevalence of Chlamydia and gonorrhea was 13.0% and 6.4%. Factors independently associated with Chlamydia were being younger, working in Tijuana versus Ciudad Juarez, and recent methamphetamine injection. Factors independently associated with gonorrhea were working in Tijuana versus Ciudad Juarez, using illegal drugs before or during sex, and having a recent male partner who injects drugs. Chlamydia and gonorrhea infection were more closely associated with FSWs’ drug use behaviors and that of their sexual partners than with sexual behaviors. Prevention should focus on subgroups of FSWs and their partners who use methamphetamine and who inject drugs. PMID:20852194

  4. Chlamydia detection during the menstrual cycle: a cross-sectional study of women attending a sexual health service.

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    Dana S Forcey

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: We investigated the detection of chlamydia at different stages of the menstrual cycle. METHODS: Electronic medical records for women attending Melbourne Sexual Health Centre between March 2011 and 31(st December 2012, who were tested for chlamydia by nucleic acid amplification of high vaginal, cervical, or urinary samples, and who recorded a date of last normal menstrual period (LNMP between 0-28 days were included in the analysis. Logistic regression was used to calculate adjusted odds ratio (aOR and 95% confidence intervals (CI for the association of chlamydia with menstrual cycle adjusted by demographics and behavioural variables. Chlamydia and beta globin load were determined on those with stored samples. RESULTS: Of the 10,017 consultations that included a test for chlamydia and a valid LNMP, there were 417 in which chlamydia was detected. The proportion of samples with chlamydia was greater in the luteal phase (4.8%, 184/3831 than in the follicular phase (3.4%, 233/6816 both in the crude (OR 1.29 95%CI 1.1-1.6, p = 0.01 and adjusted odds ratio (aOR 1.4 (95%CI 1.1-1.8, p = 0.004. Among women using hormonal contraception, there was no significant association with the luteal phase of the menstrual cycle (aOR 1.3, 95%CI 0.9, 1.8, p = 0.18. Among women not using hormonal contraception, there was a significant association with the luteal phase (aOR 1.6, (95% CI 1.1-2.3, p = 0.007. The chlamydia load was not significantly different in the 329 positive stored samples in weeks 3 and 4 vs weeks 1 and 2 for any site (P>0.12. CONCLUSIONS: The higher detection of chlamydia detection in the luteal phase of the menstrual cycle in only those not taking hormonal contraception suggest that hormonal factors influence chlamydia detection. The absence of a significantly highly chlamydia load in women during the luteal phase raises questions about the mechanism.

  5. Mass media as a population-level intervention tool for Chlamydia trachomatis screening: report of a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, M Kim; Grimley, Diane M; Merchant, Jeanne S; Brown, Pernell R; Cecil, Heather; Hook, Edward W

    2002-07-01

    To determine the feasibility and affect of mass media use in a population-level intervention for chlamydia screening promotion. A population-level chlamydia intervention protocol was field tested. The intervention, targeting 15-25-year-old individuals, was designed to: (a) increase awareness of personal risk for chlamydial infection; (b) facilitate dissemination of chlamydia knowledge by use of a telephone hot line; and (c) promote care-seeking behavior (report for a chlamydia screening program). The intervention activities included: (a) mail outreach, (b) a television and radio campaign, (c) a prerecorded Check-It-Out chlamydia hot line, (d) a staffed chlamydia Options information line, and (e) a free confidential urine ligase chain reaction (LCR) test for chlamydia. Mass mailings were scheduled at intervals, starting two-weeks before the beginning of the television advertisement. The 30-second television advertisement was aired on local television stations 130 times in a 6-week period. The outcome measures were quantity and characteristics of incoming calls to the automated hot line and staffed chlamydia information phone line in response to the chlamydia campaign, and response to the urine screening program. Descriptive and bivariate analyses were used to evaluate the outcomes. The hot line was called 642 times during the monitoring period (November 1, 1999 to March 8, 2000), the majority (92%) during the 6 weeks of television advertisement, with an average of 99 calls per week, compared with an average of 9 calls per week after the commercial ended. Each bulk mailing was accompanied by a boost in the incoming hot line calls. The research staff triaged 133 calls to the "Options" phone line, 81% in the 6 weeks of the TV ad. The mean age of the 133 callers was 23.9 +/- 7.7 years (range 14-49 years). A majority called for screening information; 67% of callers were females and 84% of female callers were under age 26 years. Five percent of callers identified

  6. Large-scale testing of women in Copenhagen has not reduced the prevalence of Chlamydia trachomatis infections

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Westh, Henrik Torkil; Kolmos, H J

    2003-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To examine the impact of a stable, large-scale enzyme immunoassay (EIA) Chlamydia trachomatis testing situation in Copenhagen, and to estimate the impact of introducing a genomic-based assay with higher sensitivity and specificity. METHODS: Over a five-year study period, 25 305-28 505...... and negative predictive values of the Chlamydia test result, new screening strategies for both men and women in younger age groups will be necessary if chlamydial infections are to be curtailed....

  7. Topical tenofovir protects against vaginal simian HIV infection in macaques coinfected with Chlamydia trachomatis and Trichomonas vaginalis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makarova, Natalia; Henning, Tara; Taylor, Andrew; Dinh, Chuong; Lipscomb, Jonathan; Aubert, Rachael; Hanson, Debra; Phillips, Christi; Papp, John; Mitchell, James; McNicholl, Janet; Garcia-Lerma, Gerardo J; Heneine, Walid; Kersh, Ellen; Dobard, Charles

    2017-03-27

    Chlamydia trachomatis and Trichomonas vaginalis, two prevalent sexually transmitted infections, are known to increase HIV risk in women and could potentially diminish preexposure prophylaxis efficacy, particularly for topical interventions that rely on local protection. We investigated in macaques whether coinfection with Chlamydia trachomatis/Trichomonas vaginalis reduces protection by vaginal tenofovir (TFV) gel. Vaginal TFV gel dosing previously shown to provide 100 or 74% protection when applied either 30 min or 3 days before simian HIV(SHIV) challenge was assessed in pigtailed macaques coinfected with Chlamydia trachomatis/Trichomonas vaginalis and challenged twice weekly with SHIV162p3 for up to 10 weeks (two menstrual cycles). Three groups of six macaques received either placebo or 1% TFV gel 30 min or 3 days before each SHIV challenge. We additionally assessed TFV and TFV diphosphate concentrations in plasma and vaginal tissues in Chlamydia trachomatis/Trichomonas vaginalis coinfected (n = 4) and uninfected (n = 4) macaques. Chlamydia trachomatis/Trichomonas vaginalis coinfections were maintained during the SHIV challenge period. All macaques that received placebo gel were SHIV infected after a median of seven challenges (one menstrual cycle). In contrast, no infections were observed in macaques treated with TFV gel 30 min before SHIV challenge (P vaginal lymphocytes were significantly higher in Chlamydia trachomatis/Trichomonas vaginalis coinfected compared with Chlamydia trachomatis/Trichomonas vaginalis uninfected macaques. Our findings in this model suggest that Chlamydia trachomatis/Trichomonas vaginalis coinfection may have little or no impact on the efficacy of highly effective topical TFV modalities and highlight a significant modulation of TFV pharmacokinetics.

  8. Delivery of chlamydia screening to young women requesting emergency hormonal contraception at pharmacies in Manchester, UK: a prospective study

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    O'Brien Karen

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background More women are requesting Emergency Hormonal Contraception (EHC at pharmacies where screening for Chlamydia trachomatis is not routinely offered. The objective of this study was to assess the uptake of free postal chlamydia screening by women under 25 years who requested EHC at pharmacies in Manchester, UK. Methods Six Primary Care Trusts (PCTs that had contracted with pharmacies to provide free EHC, requested the largest EHC providers (≥ 40 doses annually to also offer these clients a coded chlamydia home testing kit. Pharmacies kept records of the ages and numbers of women who accepted or refused chlamydia kits. Women sent urine samples directly to the laboratory for testing and positive cases were notified. Audit data on EHC coverage was obtained from PCTs to assess the proportion of clients eligible for screening and to verify the uptake rate. Results 33 pharmacies participated. Audit data for 131 pharmacy months indicated that only 24.8% (675/2718 of women provided EHC were also offered chlamydia screening. Based on tracking forms provided by pharmacies for the whole of the study, 1348/2904 EHC clients (46.4% who had been offered screening accepted a screening kit. 264 (17.6% of those who accepted a kit returned a sample, of whom 24 (9.1% were chlamydia-positive. There was an increase in chlamydia positivity with age (OR: 1.2 per year; 1.04 to 1.44; p = 0.015. Conclusion Chlamydia screening for EHC pharmacy clients is warranted but failure of pharmacists to target all EHC clients represented a missed opportunity for treating a well defined high-risk group.

  9. Seroevidence of Chlamydia Trachomatis Antibody in Infertile Women in University of Benin Teaching Hospital (Ubth Benin City, Nigeria

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    Ibadin, K. O.

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The role of Chlamydia trachomatis in the pathogenesis of Pelvic inflammatory disease and majority of cases of salpinigitis are well acknowledged in women. A total of 213 sera from infertile women were tested for antibodies to Chlamydia trachomatis by using an indirect solid phases enzyme Immuno absorbent commercial ELISA test. Women with confirmed Hysterosalpinographic report suggesting tubal occlusion (tubal factor infertility had 92 (43.2% followed by 63 (29.6% infertile women with infertile male partner and 58 (27.2% were having unexplained infertility. Out of the tubal factor (TF infertile women 40 (18.8% were seropositive for Chlamydia trachomatis antibodies, as against 19 (8.9% in the group of women with normal patent tubes and 10 (4.6% women with infertile male partner. In this study there was a statistical significant correlation between the infertile women with tubal factor infertility in relation to seroevidence of Chlamydia trachomatis infection with p<0.05. There was no age bias in the serodetection of Chlamydia trachomatis antibodies. The seropositivity of Chlamydia trachomatis is an indication that the organism may be an independent risk factor in the development of an inflammatory process leading to scaring of the uterine tubes in women and thereby causing infertility.

  10. Clinical and microscopic signs of cervicitis and urethritis: correlation with Chlamydia trachomatis infection in female STI patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berntsson, Matilda; Tunbäck, Petra

    2013-03-27

    Chlamydia trachomatis is among the most prevalent genital infections and is an important cause of tubal factor infertility. The majority of infected females are asymptomatic. Evidence on the reliability of signs of inflammation used to predict chlamydia in female patients is inconsistent. This study examined associations between criteria routinely used in many Scandinavian sexually transmitted infection (STI) clinics and a positive chlamydia test in a high-prevalence population. Clinical and microscopic signs of cervicitis and urethritis were recorded in 99 women attending due to chlamydia infection in a sexual partner. Mucopurulent cervical discharge, easily induced bleeding from the cervix, and more polymorpho-nuclear cells than epithelial cells in vaginal wet smear all correlated significantly with a positive Chlamydia trachomatis test (odds ratios: 3.4, 4.0 and 4.8, respectively). Increased numbers of polymorphonuclear leucocytes (>30 and ≥ 5 respectively) in stained cervical and urethral smears were not significantly correlated with chlamydia infection. Hence, routine collection of cervical and urethral smears in female STI patients is questionable.

  11. Comparison of Levels of Antibodies against Chlamydia Trachomatis in Infertile Women Due to Tubal Factors and Fertile Women

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    F Ghalmbor

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Chlamydia trachomatis infection is a common pathogen in sexual transmitted disease, but most of female patients with this infection are asymptomatic. Sequealae include pelvic inflammatory disease, infertility and ectopic pregnancy. The aim of the study was to determine the association between Chlamydia trachomatis and tubal factor infertility, if significant. Methods: This prospective, case -control study was done in April 2005-April2006. The study group consisted of 125 patients with tubal factor infertility and the control group included 125 fertile women. The level of antibodies to Chlamydia trachomatis was determined in both groups by ELIZA method. Results: Antibody to Chlamydia trachomatis was present in 29 women in the study group (23.2% and in15 women in the control group ( 12%, respectively, (P< 0.005. The mean level of antibody in both groups was 0.76 and 0.49, respectively (P<0.0005. Conclusion: The study showed that the level of antibody against Chlamydia is significantly more in tubal factor infertile women. We therefore suggest the screening of Chlamydia antibody testing is necessary for tubal factor infertility workup.

  12. Knowledge of Chlamydia trachomatis among men and women approached to participate in community-based screening, Scotland, UK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hart Graham J

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Poor awareness and knowledge of Chlamydia trachomatis could be a barrier to uptake of screening. This study aimed to determine the level of awareness and knowledge of chlamydia among young people who were being approached in a variety of community settings and offered opportunistic screening. Methods Men and women aged 16-24 years were approached in education, health and fitness, and workplace settings and invited to complete a self-administered questionnaire then provide a urine sample for chlamydia testing. Follow-up semi-structured interviews with 24 respondents were carried out after test results were received. Results 363 questionnaires were completed (43.5% from men. Whilst awareness of chlamydia was high, knowledge decreased as questions became increasingly focussed so that around half of respondents were unaware of the asymptomatic nature of chlamydia infections. Men's knowledge of symptoms was consistently lower than women's, with most men failing to identify unusual discharge as a symptom in men (men 58.3%, female 45.8%, p = 0.019; fewer men knew unusual discharge was a symptom among women (men 65.3% female 21.4%, p Conclusions Despite scientific gains in understanding chlamydia infection, public understanding remains limited. Greater efforts are required to translate scientific evidence to the public. An improvement in knowledge may maximise gains from interventions to improve detection.

  13. Knowledge of Chlamydia trachomatis among men and women approached to participate in community-based screening, Scotland, UK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorimer, Karen; Hart, Graham J

    2010-12-30

    Poor awareness and knowledge of Chlamydia trachomatis could be a barrier to uptake of screening. This study aimed to determine the level of awareness and knowledge of chlamydia among young people who were being approached in a variety of community settings and offered opportunistic screening. Men and women aged 16-24 years were approached in education, health and fitness, and workplace settings and invited to complete a self-administered questionnaire then provide a urine sample for chlamydia testing. Follow-up semi-structured interviews with 24 respondents were carried out after test results were received. 363 questionnaires were completed (43.5% from men). Whilst awareness of chlamydia was high, knowledge decreased as questions became increasingly focussed so that around half of respondents were unaware of the asymptomatic nature of chlamydia infections. Men's knowledge of symptoms was consistently lower than women's, with most men failing to identify unusual discharge as a symptom in men (men 58.3%, female 45.8%, p = 0.019); fewer men knew unusual discharge was a symptom among women (men 65.3% female 21.4%, p participation in the study. Despite scientific gains in understanding chlamydia infection, public understanding remains limited. Greater efforts are required to translate scientific evidence to the public. An improvement in knowledge may maximise gains from interventions to improve detection.

  14. Striking ethnic variations in the epidemiology of Chlamydia trachomatis in Haifa District, Israel, throughout the years 2001-2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kridin, Khalaf; Khamaisi, Mogher; Rishpon, Shmuel; Grifat, Rami

    2017-12-01

    Our objectives were to examine trends in the incidence of chlamydia over an extended period and compare the epidemiology of the infection between two distinct ethnic groups in Israel: Jews and Arabs. We examined the incidence rate of Chlamydia trachomatis infection among residents of Haifa District, northern Israel from 2001 to 2015, by reviewing archives of the Department of Epidemiology, Ministry of Health. Notified cases were stratified by age group, gender, and ethnic group. The overall incidence rate of Chlamydia was 10.8 cases per 100,000 population per year. The annual rate increased dramatically from 5.1 per 100,000 population in 2001, to an all-time high of 18.5 cases per 100,000 population in 2015 (P < 0.001), representing an increase of 362.7%. The most affected age group was 25-34 years of age. The estimated rate among Jewish inhabitants was ninefold higher than among Arabs. Only 3% recurrent episodes of Chlamydia were registered. The prevalence of HIV positivity among Chlamydia-infected patients was similar to that of the general population. In conclusion, Chlamydia in Haifa has been continuously increasing since 2001 and the infection is much more prevalent among patients of Jewish ethnicity, mainly due to more hazardous sexual practices in this population.

  15. Serological association of Chlamydia pneumoniae infection with age-related macular degeneration: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xueyu Chen

    Full Text Available We investigated the serological association of Chlamydia pneumoniae infection with age-related macular degeneration (AMD.A systematic review and meta-analysis was performed. PubMed, Embase, Web of Science and the Association of Research in Vision and Ophthalmology abstracts were searched to identify studies investigating the serological association of Chlamydia pneumoniae infection with age-related macular degeneration. The quality of original studies was assessed using the Newcastle-Ottawa scale. Heterogeneity was explored with meta-regression. The odds ratios (ORs and standardized mean differences (SMD of Chlamydia pneumoniae infection between AMD patients and controls were pooled.In total, 9 studies met the inclusion criteria using the Newcastle-Ottawa scale scores ranging from 4 to 9. There was heterogeneity among studies due to a difference in the study designs and measurement of exposure to Chlamydia pneumoniae infection. The overall OR of Chlamydia pneumoniae infection with AMD was 1.11 (95% confidence interval: 0.78-1.57, P = 0.56. The overall SMD of antibody titer between AMD and control was 0.43 (95% confidence interval: -0.12 to 0.99, P = 0.13.Evidence from the current published literature suggested no statistically significant association between Chlamydia pneumoniae infection and AMD.

  16. Serological association of Chlamydia pneumoniae infection with age-related macular degeneration: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xueyu; Jhanji, Vishal; Chen, Chupeng; Chen, Haoyu

    2014-01-01

    We investigated the serological association of Chlamydia pneumoniae infection with age-related macular degeneration (AMD). A systematic review and meta-analysis was performed. PubMed, Embase, Web of Science and the Association of Research in Vision and Ophthalmology abstracts were searched to identify studies investigating the serological association of Chlamydia pneumoniae infection with age-related macular degeneration. The quality of original studies was assessed using the Newcastle-Ottawa scale. Heterogeneity was explored with meta-regression. The odds ratios (ORs) and standardized mean differences (SMD) of Chlamydia pneumoniae infection between AMD patients and controls were pooled. In total, 9 studies met the inclusion criteria using the Newcastle-Ottawa scale scores ranging from 4 to 9. There was heterogeneity among studies due to a difference in the study designs and measurement of exposure to Chlamydia pneumoniae infection. The overall OR of Chlamydia pneumoniae infection with AMD was 1.11 (95% confidence interval: 0.78-1.57, P = 0.56). The overall SMD of antibody titer between AMD and control was 0.43 (95% confidence interval: -0.12 to 0.99, P = 0.13). Evidence from the current published literature suggested no statistically significant association between Chlamydia pneumoniae infection and AMD.

  17. Giant scrotal elephantiasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuepper, Daniel

    2005-02-01

    How much can a man carry? Penoscrotal elephantiasis is a debilitating syndrome. This is a case report of a patient with giant genital elephantiasis secondary to long-standing lymphogranuloma venereum infection in Ethiopia. Complete surgical resection of the pathologic tissue and penile reconstruction was undertaken with good cosmetic and functional results.

  18. Worldwide Report: Epidemiology. No. 326

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-08-02

    for this disease. Chancroid accounted for 24,9 percent, non-gonnococcal urethritis for 11,3 percent, lymphogranuloma venereum for 8,2 percent and...second major change was the decrease in chancroid and the possibility that education programmes contributed should not be overlooked. [Text] [Harare

  19. Rationale and design of REACT: a randomised controlled trial assessing the effectiveness of home-collection to increase chlamydia retesting and detect repeat positive tests

    OpenAIRE

    Smith, Kirsty S; Hocking, Jane S; Chen, Marcus; Fairley, Christopher K; McNulty, Anna; Read, Phillip; Bradshaw, Catriona S; Tabrizi, Sepehr N; Wand, Handan; Saville, Marion; Rawlinson, William; Garland, Suzanne M; Donovan, Basil; Kaldor, John M; Guy, Rebecca

    2014-01-01

    Background Repeat infection with Chlamydia trachomatis is common and increases the risk of sequelae in women and HIV seroconversion in men who have sex with men (MSM). Despite guidelines recommending chlamydia retesting three months after treatment, retesting rates are low. We are conducting the first randomised controlled trial to assess the effectiveness of home collection combined with short message service (SMS) reminders on chlamydia retesting and reinfection rates in three risk groups. ...

  20. An online study combining the constructs from the theory of planned behaviour and protection motivation theory in predicting intention to test for chlamydia in two testing contexts

    OpenAIRE

    Powell, R. L.; Pattison, H. M.; Francis, J.

    2016-01-01

    Chlamydia is a common sexually-transmitted infection that has potentially serious consequences unless detected and treated early. The health service in the UK offers clinic-based testing for chlamydia but uptake is low. Identifying the predictors of testing behaviours may inform interventions to increase uptake. Self-tests for chlamydia may facilitate testing and treatment in people who avoid clinic-based testing. Self-testing and being tested by a health care professional (HCP) involve two c...

  1. Monitoring county-level chlamydia incidence in Texas, 2004 – 2005: application of empirical Bayesian smoothing and Exploratory Spatial Data Analysis (ESDA methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Owens Chantelle J

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Chlamydia continues to be the most prevalent disease in the United States. Effective spatial monitoring of chlamydia incidence is important for successful implementation of control and prevention programs. The objective of this study is to apply Bayesian smoothing and exploratory spatial data analysis (ESDA methods to monitor Texas county-level chlamydia incidence rates by examining spatiotemporal patterns. We used county-level data on chlamydia incidence (for all ages, gender and races from the National Electronic Telecommunications System for Surveillance (NETSS for 2004 and 2005. Results Bayesian-smoothed chlamydia incidence rates were spatially dependent both in levels and in relative changes. Erath county had significantly (p 300 cases per 100,000 residents than its contiguous neighbors (195 or less in both years. Gaines county experienced the highest relative increase in smoothed rates (173% – 139 to 379. The relative change in smoothed chlamydia rates in Newton county was significantly (p Conclusion Bayesian smoothing and ESDA methods can assist programs in using chlamydia surveillance data to identify outliers, as well as relevant changes in chlamydia incidence in specific geographic units. Secondly, it may also indirectly help in assessing existing differences and changes in chlamydia surveillance systems over time.

  2. The prevalence and identity of Chlamydia-specific IgE in children with asthma and other chronic respiratory symptoms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patel Katir K

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Recent studies have confirmed the presence of viable Chlamydia in the bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL fluid of pediatric patients with airway hyperresponsiveness. While specific IgG and IgM responses to C. pneumoniae are well described, the response and potential contribution of Ag-specific IgE are not known. The current study sought to determine if infection with Chlamydia triggers the production of pathogen-specific IgE in children with chronic respiratory diseases which might contribute to inflammation and pathology. Methods We obtained BAL fluid and serum from pediatric respiratory disease patients who were generally unresponsive to corticosteroid treatment as well as sera from age-matched control patients who saw their doctor for wellness checkups. Chlamydia-specific IgE was isolated from BAL and serum samples and their specificity determined by Western blot techniques. The presence of Chlamydia was confirmed by species-specific PCR and BAL culture assays. Results Chlamydial DNA was detected in the BAL fluid of 134/197 (68% patients. Total IgE increased with age until 15 years old and then decreased. Chlamydia-specific IgE was detected in the serum and/or BAL of 107/197 (54% patients suffering from chronic respiratory disease, but in none of the 35 healthy control sera (p p = 0.0001 tested positive for Chlamydia-specific IgE. Asthmatic patients had significantly higher IgE levels compared to non-asthmatics (p = 0.0001. Patients who were positive for Chlamydia DNA or culture had significantly higher levels of serum IgE compared to negative patients (p = 0.0071 and p = 0.0001 respectively. Only 6 chlamydial antigens induced Chlamydia-specific IgE and patients with C. pneumoniae-specific IgE had significantly greater levels of total IgE compared to C. pneumoniae-specific IgE negative ones (p = 0.0001. Conclusions IgE antibodies play a central role in allergic inflammation; therefore production of Chlamydia

  3. Detection of Chlamydia pneumoniae in a collection of captive snakes and response to treatment with marbofloxacin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rüegg, S R; Regenscheit, N; Origgi, F C; Kaiser, C; Borel, N

    2015-09-01

    In a collection of 58 snakes comprising predominantly Eurasian vipers in Switzerland, five snakes died unexpectedly during hibernation from 2009 to 2012. In one snake, organisms resembling chlamydiae were detected by immunohistochemistry in multiple histiocytic granulomas. Real-time quantitative PCR and microarray analysis were used to determine the presence of Chlamydia pneumoniae in tissue samples and cloacal/choanal swabs from snakes in the collection; 8/53 (15.1%) of the remaining snakes were positive. Although one infected snake had suppurative periglossitis, infection with C. pneumoniae did not appear to be associated with specific clinical signs in snakes. Of seven snakes treated with 5 mg/kg marbofloxacin IM once daily, five became PCR negative for C. pneumoniae following treatment, whereas one animal remained positive and one snake was lost to follow-up. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. CORRELATIONS BETWEEN CONTEMPORARY METHODS IN THE DIAGNOSIS OF CHLAMYDIA TRACHOMATIS UROGENITAL INFECTIONS.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilko Bakardzhiev

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The subject of this study were 486 outpatients between the ages of 17 and 62, diagnosed with urethritis, epidydimitis, prostatitis, cervicitis, endocervicitis, pelvic inflammatory disease and sterility. The following tests were used to make the diagnosis of Chlamydia trachomatis: Enzyme Immunoassay (EIA, Enzyme-Linked Fluorescent Assay (ELFA, Polymerase Chain Reaction DNA amplification for Chlamydia Trachomatis, Neisseria Gonorrhoeae, Mycoplasma Genitalium and Ureaplasma Urealyiticum. Comparison PCR and EIA showed statistically significant difference between the positive results obtained by the two methods (p0,1. EIA is a method that gives a higher percentage of nonspecific positive reactions, while the results obtained from ELFA are much closer to the ones obtained by PCR. According to contemporary evidence based medicine, the developmet of unified standard methods for diagnosis and evaluation is of vital importance, not only for the patient and the treating physician but also concerns for the healthcare system, the general public and the pharmaceutical companies as well.

  5. Effects of screening and partner notification on Chlamydia positivity in the United States: a modeling study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kretzschmar, Mirjam; Satterwhite, Catherine; Leichliter, Jami; Berman, Stuart

    2012-05-01

    Model impact of increasing screening and partner notification (PN) on chlamydia positivity. We used a stochastic simulation model describing pair formation and dissolution in an age-structured heterosexual population. The model accounts for steady, casual, and concurrent partnerships and a highly sexually active core group. The model used existing sexual behavior data from the United States and was validated using chlamydia positivity data from Region X (Alaska, Idaho, Oregon, Washington). A screening program with a coverage rate of 20% was implemented among women aged 15 to 24 years. After 10 years, we increased screening coverage to 35%, 50%, and 65% and partner treatment rates from 20% to 40% and 55%. Finally, we included male screening (aged 15-24, screening coverage: 20% and 35%, partner treatment: 25% and 40%). We analyzed the effects on chlamydia positivity in women and the frequency of reinfection 6 months after treatment. The model described the decline in positivity observed from 1988 to 1997 in Region X, given screening coverage of 20% and a 25% partner treatment rate. Increasing screening coverage from 35% to 65% resulted in incremental decreases in positivity as did increasing the PN rate; a 23% reduction in positivity was achieved by either increasing screening by 3-fold or PN by 2-fold. Adding male screening to the program had less impact than increasing screening coverage or PN among women. Increased PN and treatment reduced reinfection rates considerably. Increasing efforts in PN may contribute at least as much to control of chlamydia infection as increasing screening coverage rates.

  6. Efficacy of interventions to increase the uptake of chlamydia screening in primary care: a systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donovan Basil

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background As most genital chlamydia infections are asymptomatic, screening is the main way to detect and cases for treatment. We undertook a systematic review of studies assessing the efficacy of interventions for increasing the uptake of chlamydia screening in primary care. Methods We reviewed studies which compared chlamydia screening in the presence and the absence of an intervention. The primary endpoints were screening rate or total tests. Results We identified 16 intervention strategies; 11 were randomised controlled trials and five observational studies, 10 targeted females only, five both males and females, and one males only. Of the 15 interventions among females, six were associated with significant increases in screening rates at the 0.05 level including a multifaceted quality improvement program that involved provision of a urine jar to patients at registration (44% in intervention clinics vs. 16% in the control clinic; linking screening to routine Pap smears (6.9% vs. 4.5%, computer alerts for doctors (12.2% vs. 10.6%; education workshops for clinic staff; internet-based continuing medical education (15.5% vs. 12.4%; and free sexual health consultations (16.8% vs. 13.2%. Of the six interventions targeting males, two found significant increases including the multifaceted quality improvement program in which urine jars were provided to patients at registration (45% vs. 15%; and the offering by doctors of a test to all presenting young male clients, prior to consultation (29 vs. 4%. Conclusions Interventions that promoted the universal offer of a chlamydia test in young people had the greatest impact on increasing screening in primary care.

  7. In vitro activities of doxycycline and enrofloxacin against European Chlamydia psittaci strains from turkeys.

    OpenAIRE

    Butaye, P; Ducatelle, R; De Backer, P; Vermeersch, H; Remon, J P; Haesebrouck, F

    1997-01-01

    The in vitro susceptibility of 14 European Chlamydia psittaci strains from turkeys to the antibiotics doxycycline and enrofloxacin was tested. For doxycycline the MIC ranged from 0.05 to 0.2 microg/ml, with an average of 0.1 microg/ml. For enrofloxacin the MIC was 0.25 microg/ml. Acquired resistance was not detected against doxycycline and enrofloxacin.

  8. Chlamydia trachomatis Serovar Distribution and Neisseria gonorrhoeae Coinfection in Male Patients with Urethritis in Greece▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papadogeorgakis, Helen; Pittaras, Theodore E.; Papaparaskevas, Joseph; Pitiriga, Vassiliki; Katsambas, Andreas; Tsakris, Athanassios

    2010-01-01

    The distribution of Chlamydia trachomatis serovars and Neisseria gonorrhoeae coinfection was studied in a group of 100 C. trachomatis-positive males with urethritis in Greece. The serovar distribution revealed that apart from the predominant worldwide types E and F, the relatively uncommon type G is also prevalent. Gonococcal coinfection was frequent (30%) and was associated with genovariant Ja (75%, P = 0.008). PMID:20357220

  9. Inhibition of Wnt Signaling Pathways Impairs Chlamydia trachomatis Infection in Endometrial Epithelial Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kintner, Jennifer; Moore, Cheryl G; Whittimore, Judy D; Butler, Megan; Hall, Jennifer V

    2017-01-01

    Chlamydia trachomatis infections represent the predominant cause of bacterial sexually transmitted infections. As an obligate intracellular bacterium, C. trachomatis is dependent on the host cell for survival, propagation, and transmission. Thus, factors that affect the host cell, including nutrition, cell cycle, and environmental signals, have the potential to impact chlamydial development. Previous studies have demonstrated that activation of Wnt/β-catenin signaling benefits C. trachomatis infections in fallopian tube epithelia. In cervical epithelial cells chlamydiae sequester β-catenin within the inclusion. These data indicate that chlamydiae interact with the Wnt signaling pathway in both the upper and lower female genital tract (FGT). However, hormonal activation of canonical and non-canonical Wnt signaling pathways is an essential component of cyclic remodeling in another prominent area of the FGT, the endometrium. Given this information, we hypothesized that Wnt signaling would impact chlamydial infection in endometrial epithelial cells. To investigate this hypothesis, we analyzed the effect of Wnt inhibition on chlamydial inclusion development and elementary body (EB) production in two endometrial cell lines, Ishikawa (IK) and Hec-1B, in nonpolarized cell culture and in a polarized endometrial epithelial (IK)/stromal (SHT-290) cell co-culture model. Inhibition of Wnt by the small molecule inhibitor (IWP2) significantly decreased inclusion size in IK and IK/SHT-290 cultures ( p Wnt inhibition caused chlamydiae to become aberrant in morphology. EB formation was also impaired in IK, Hec-1B and IK/SHT-290 cultures regardless of whether Wnt inhibition occurred throughout, in the middle (24 hpi) or late (36 hpi) during the development cycle. Overall, these data lead us to conclude that Wnt signaling in the endometrium is a key host pathway for the proper development of C. trachomatis .

  10. Resolution of Chlamydia trachomatis Infection Is Associated with a Distinct T Cell Response Profile

    OpenAIRE

    Picard, Michele D.; Bodmer, Jean-Luc; Gierahn, Todd M.; Lee, Alexander; Price, Jessica; Cohane, Kenya; Clemens, Veronica; DeVault, Victoria L.; Gurok, Galina; Kohberger, Robert; Higgins, Darren E.; Siber, George R.; Flechtner, Jessica Baker; Geisler, William M.

    2015-01-01

    Chlamydia trachomatis is the causative agent of the most frequently reported bacterial sexually transmitted infection, the total burden of which is underestimated due to the asymptomatic nature of the infection. Untreated C. trachomatis infections can cause significant morbidities, including pelvic inflammatory disease and tubal factor infertility (TFI). The human immune response against C. trachomatis, an obligate intracellular bacterium, is poorly characterized but is thought to rely on cel...

  11. The trans-Golgi SNARE syntaxin 10 is required for optimal development of Chlamydia trachomatis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea L Lucas

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Chlamydia trachomatis, an obligate intracellular pathogen, grows inside of a vacuole, termed the inclusion. Within the inclusion, the organisms differentiate from the infectious elementary body (EB into the reticulate body (RB. The RB communicates with the host cell through the inclusion membrane to obtain the nutrients necessary to divide, thus expanding the chlamydial population. At late time points within the developmental cycle, the RBs respond to unknown molecular signals to redifferentiate into infectious EBs to perpetuate the infection cycle. One strategy for Chlamydia to obtain necessary nutrients and metabolites from the host is to intercept host vesicular trafficking pathways. In this study we demonstrate that a trans-Golgi soluble N-ethylmaleimide–sensitive factor attachment protein (SNARE, syntaxin 10, and/or syntaxin10-associated Golgi elements colocalize with the chlamydial inclusion. We hypothesized that Chlamydia utilizes the molecular machinery of syntaxin 10 at the inclusion membrane to intercept specific vesicular trafficking pathways in order to create and maintain an optimal intra-inclusion environment. To test this hypothesis, we used siRNA knockdown of syntaxin 10 to examine the impact of the loss of syntaxin 10 on chlamydial growth and development. Our results demonstrate that loss of syntaxin 10 leads to defects in normal chlamydial maturation including: variable inclusion size with fewer chlamydial organisms per inclusion, fewer infectious progeny, and delayed or halted RB-EB differentiation. These defects in chlamydial development correlate with an overabundance of NBD-lipid retained by inclusions cultured in syntaxin 10 knockdown cells. Overall, loss of syntaxin 10 at the inclusion membrane negatively affects Chlamydia. Understanding host machinery involved in maintaining an optimal inclusion environment to support chlamydial growth and development is critical towards understanding the molecular signals involved in

  12. Dendrimer-conjugated peptide vaccine enhances clearance of Chlamydia trachomatis genital infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganda, Ingrid S; Zhong, Qian; Hali, Mirabela; Albuquerque, Ricardo L C; Padilha, Francine F; da Rocha, Sandro R P; Whittum-Hudson, Judith A

    2017-07-15

    Peptide-based vaccines have emerged in recent years as promising candidates in the prevention of infectious diseases. However, there are many challenges to maintaining in vivo peptide stability and enhancement of peptide immunogenicity to generate protective immunity which enhances clearance of infections. Here, a dendrimer-based carrier system is proposed for peptide-based vaccine delivery, and shows its anti-microbial feasibility in a mouse model of Chlamydia trachomatis. Chlamydiae are the most prevalent sexually transmitted bacteria worldwide, and also the causal agent of trachoma, the leading cause of preventable infectious blindness. In spite of the prevalence of this infectious agent and the many previous vaccine-related studies, there is no vaccine commercially available. The carrier system proposed consists of generation 4, hydroxyl-terminated, polyamidoamine (PAMAM) dendrimers (G4OH), to which a peptide mimic of a chlamydial glycolipid antigen-Peptide 4 (Pep4, AFPQFRSATLLL) was conjugated through an ester bond. The ester bond between G4OH and Pep4 is expected to break down mainly in the intracellular environment for antigen presentation. Pep4 conjugated to dendrimer induced Chlamydia-specific serum antibodies after subcutaneous immunizations. Further, this new vaccine formulation significantly protected immunized animals from vaginal challenge with infectious Chlamydia trachomatis, and it reduced infectious loads and tissue (genital tract) damage. Pep4 conjugated to G4OH or only mixed with peptide provided enhanced protection compared to Pep4 and adjuvant (i.e. alum), suggesting a potential adjuvant effect of the PAMAM dendrimer. Combined, these results demonstrate that hydroxyl-terminated PAMAM dendrimer is a promising polymeric nanocarrier platform for the delivery of peptide vaccines and this approach has potential to be expanded to other infectious intracellular bacteria and viruses of public health significance. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All

  13. Diversification and Distribution of Ruminant Chlamydia abortus Clones Assessed by MLST and MLVA

    OpenAIRE

    Siarkou, Victoria I.; Vorimore, Fabien; Vicari, Nadia; Magnino, Simone; Rodolakis, Annie; Pannekoek, Yvonne; Sachse, Konrad; Longbottom, David; Laroucau, Karine

    2015-01-01

    Chlamydia abortus, an obligate intracellular bacterium, is the most common infectious cause of abortion in small ruminants worldwide and has zoonotic potential. We applied multilocus sequence typing (MLST) together with multiple-locus variable-number tandem repeat analysis (MLVA) to genotype 94 ruminant C. abortus strains, field isolates and samples collected from 1950 to 2011 in diverse geographic locations, with the aim of delineating C. abortus lineages and clones. MLST revealed the previo...

  14. Isolation of Chlamydia abortus from a laboratory worker diagnosed with atypical pneumonia

    OpenAIRE

    Ortega, Nieves; Caro, M. Rosa; Gallego, M. Carmen; Murcia-Belmonte, Antonio; ?lvarez, Daniel; del R?o, Laura; Cuello, Francisco; Buend?a, Antonio J.; Salinas, Jes?s

    2016-01-01

    Background Identifying the aetiological agent of atypical pneumonia in human can sometimes be a tedious process, especially in cases where Mycoplasma pneumoniae, Legionella species and Chlamydia pneumoniae are ruled out. In such cases, a correct anamnesis of the patient is basic to clarify which pathogens might have produced the infection. For this reason, health professionals including veterinarians and laboratory personnel working with zoonotic pathogens should keep their doctors informed. ...

  15. A Protective Vaccine against Chlamydia Genital Infection Using Vault Nanoparticles without an Added Adjuvant

    OpenAIRE

    Janina Jiang; Guangchao Liu; Valerie A. Kickhoefer; Leonard H. Rome; Lin-Xi Li; Stephen J. McSorley; Kathleen A. Kelly

    2017-01-01

    Chlamydia trachomatis genital infection is the most common sexually transmitted bacterial disease, causing a significant burden to females due to reproductive dysfunction. Intensive screening and antibiotic treatment are unable to completely prevent female reproductive dysfunction, thus, efforts have become focused on developing a vaccine. A major impediment is identifying a safe and effective adjuvant which induces cluster of differentiation 4 (CD4) cells with attributes capable of halting g...

  16. Current crisis or artifact of surveillance: insights into rebound chlamydia rates from dynamic modelling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vickers David M

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background After initially falling in the face of intensified control efforts, reported rates of sexually transmitted chlamydia in many developed countries are rising. Recent hypotheses for this phenomenon have broadly focused on improved case finding or an increase in the prevalence. Because of many complex interactions behind the spread of infectious diseases, dynamic models of infection transmission are an effective means to guide learning, and assess quantitative conjectures of epidemiological processes. The objective of this paper is to bring a unique and robust perspective to observed chlamydial patterns through analyzing surveillance data with mathematical models of infection transmission. Methods This study integrated 25-year testing volume data from the Canadian province of Saskatchewan with one susceptible-infected-treated-susceptible and three susceptible-infected-treated-removed compartmental models. Calibration of model parameters to fit observed 25-year case notification data, after being combined with testing records, placed constraints on model behaviour and allowed for an approximation of chlamydia prevalence to be estimated. Model predictions were compared to observed case notification trends, and extensive sensitivity analyses were performed to confirm the robustness of model results. Results Model predictions accurately mirrored historic chlamydial trends including an observed rebound in the mid 1990s. For all models examined, the results repeatedly highlighted that increased testing volumes, rather than changes in the sensitivity and specificity of testing technologies, sexual behaviour, or truncated immunological responses brought about by treatment can, explain the increase in observed chlamydia case notifications. Conclusions Our results highlight the significant impact testing volume can have on observed incidence rates, and that simple explanations for these observed increases appear to have been dismissed in

  17. Lactobacilli inactivate Chlamydia trachomatis through lactic acid but not H2O2.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zheng Gong

    Full Text Available Lactobacillus species dominate the microbiome in the lower genital tract of most reproductive-age women. Producing lactic acid and H2O2, lactobacilli are believed to play an important role in prevention of colonization by and growth of pathogens. However, to date, there have been no reported studies characterizing how lactobacilli interact with Chlamydia trachomatis, a leading sexually transmitted bacterium. In this report, we demonstrate inactivation of C. trachomatis infectivity by culture media conditioned by Lactobacillus crispatus, L. gasseri and L. jensenii, known to be dominating organisms in the human vaginal microbiome. Lactobacillus still cultures produced lactic acid, leading to time- and concentration-dependent killing of C. trachomatis. Neutralization of the acidic media completely reversed chlamydia killing. Addition of lactic acid into Lactobacillus-unconditioned growth medium recapitulated the chlamydiacidal activity of conditioned media. The H2O2 concentrations in the still cultures were found to be comparable to those reported for the cervicovaginal fluid, but insufficient to inactivate chlamydiae. Aeration of Lactobacillus cultures by shaking markedly induced H2O2 production, but strongly inhibited Lactobacillus growth and lactic acid production, and thus severely affected acidification, leading to significantly reduced chlamydiacidal efficiency. These observations indicate lactobacilli inactivate chlamydiae primarily through maintaining acidity in a relatively hypoxic environment in the vaginal lumen with limited H2O2, which is consistent with the notion that women with higher vaginal pH are more prone to sexually transmitted C. trachomatis infection. In addition to lactic acid, formic acid and acetic acid also exhibited potent chlamydiacidal activities. Taken together, our findings imply that lowering the vaginal pH through engineering of the vaginal microbiome and other means will make women less susceptible to C

  18. Microarray-based genomic surveying of gene polymorphisms in Chlamydia trachomatis

    OpenAIRE

    Brunelle, Brian W; Nicholson, Tracy L; Stephens, Richard S

    2004-01-01

    By comparing two fully sequenced genomes of Chlamydia trachomatis using competitive hybridization on DNA microarrays, a logarithmic correlation was demonstrated between the signal ratio of the arrays and the 75-99% range of nucleotide identities of the genes. Variable genes within 14 uncharacterized strains of C. trachomatis were identified by array analysis and verified by DNA sequencing. These genes may be crucial for understanding chlamydial virulence and pathogenesis.

  19. Chlamydia trachomatis and Neisseria gonorrhoeae in asymptomatic family planning patients in rural New Mexico.

    OpenAIRE

    Bell, T A; Ebenezer, M R

    1989-01-01

    We tested 98 asymptomatic women seen in state-funded contraception clinics in rural New Mexico. A fluorescein-conjugated monoclonal antibody stain revealed Chlamydia trachomatis infection in 25% of asymptomatic unmarried women and 3% of married women (P = .03). Neisseria gonorrhoeae was detected in only one woman. As in urban clinics providing contraception, the prevalence of gonorrhea is rare in rural New Mexico, but chlamydial infections are common in young unmarried women.

  20. Growth in serum-free medium improves isolation of Chlamydia pneumoniae.

    OpenAIRE

    Maass, M; Essig, A; Marre, R; Henkel, W

    1993-01-01

    Infectivity titers were determined for eight Chlamydia pneumoniae strains simultaneously grown in serum-free and serum-supplemented cell culture media. Use of serum-free medium resulted in a 10- to 50-fold increase in the susceptibility of HL cells to chlamydial infection. Comparative primary isolation of a wild-type strain also produced higher inclusion counts in a serum-free environment. Serum-free cultivation is recommended to increase the efficiency of C. pneumoniae isolation from clinica...

  1. Comparative genomics of koala, cattle and sheep strains of Chlamydia pecorum.

    OpenAIRE

    Bachmann, N.L.; Fraser, T.A.; Bertelli, C.; Jelocnik, M.; Gillett, A.; Funnell, O.; Flanagan, C.; Myers, G.S.; Timms, P.; Polkinghorne, A.

    2014-01-01

    Background Chlamydia pecorum is an important pathogen of domesticated livestock including sheep, cattle and pigs. This pathogen is also a key factor in the decline of the koala in Australia. We sequenced the genomes of three koala C. pecorum strains, isolated from the urogenital tracts and conjunctiva of diseased koalas. The genome of the C. pecorum VR629 (IPA) strain, isolated from a sheep with polyarthritis, was also sequenced. Results Comparisons of the draft C. pecorum genomes against the...

  2. Cytological and histopathological abnormalities of the cervix in genital Chlamydia trachomatis infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cevenini, R; Costa, S; Rumpianesi, F; Donati, M; Guerra, B; Diana, R; Antonini, M P

    1981-10-01

    Since genital infection with Chlamydia trachomatis may be associated with cervical abnormalities 160 patients with grandular ectopia attending a gynaecological outpatient clinic were examined for antibodies against C trachomatis, the presence of C trachomatis infection, and cytological and histopathological abnormalities of the cervix.A significantly higher incidence of histological dysplasia was found in women with glandular ectopia who had antichlamydial antibodies than in those without.

  3. Zoonotic transmission of Chlamydia psittaci in a chicken and turkey hatchery

    OpenAIRE

    Dickx, Veerle; Vanrompay, Daisy

    2011-01-01

    Chlamydia psittaci is an obligately intracellular Gram-negative bacterium causing respiratory disease (chlamydiosis) or asymptomatic carriage in birds. C. psittaci is a zoonotic agent causing psittacosis or parrot fever in humans. Vertical and/or horizontal transmission via eggs might have serious repercussions on the C. psittaci infection status of poultry flocks and thus on zoonotic risk for all workers along the poultry supply chain. We therefore studied the presence of C. psittaci in a ha...

  4. Prevalence of genital Chlamydia trachomatis in Iran: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmadi, Mohammad Hossein; Mirsalehian, Akbar; Bahador, Abbas

    2015-09-01

    To determine the overall prevalence of Chlamydia trachomatis in Iranian males and females and to find out the effect of this bacterium on fertility potential and its association with urogenital symptoms. We searched both English and Persian electronic databases using keywords 'Chlamydia', 'Chlamydia trachomatis', 'prevalence', 'incidence', 'frequency', 'epidemiology' and 'Iran'. Finally, after some exclusion, 34 studies from different regions of Iran were included in our study, and a meta-analysis was performed to determine pooled prevalence estimates for each group. C. trachomatis prevalence for women and men was high and ranged from 0 to 32.7% and 0 to 23.3%, respectively (95% CI). The pooled prevalence of the bacterium in the female population was 12.3% (95% CI: 10.6-14.2%) and in men was 10.9% (95% CI: 7.6-15.4%). A high level of heterogeneity was seen for both men (I(2)  = 77.4%; P females analysis of symptomatic/infertile group with asymptomatic/fertile group in females, the overall OR was above 1 and the overall P-value was below zero. This bacterium may play a role in female infertility or be associated with clinical manifestations; thus, planning national programmes for adequate diagnosis of genital infections caused by this pathogen is necessary. Furthermore, screening strategies, particularly for asymptomatic individuals, and treatment of infected people can reduce consequent complications.

  5. Molecular detection of Chlamydia Trachomatis and Mycoplasma Hominis in endometriosis lesions

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    F. Azizvakili

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Retrograde of menstrual blood into the peritoneal cavity is one of the accepted theories for initiation of endometriosis although indicated that other factors are involved in pathogenesis. Investigation of infectious agents is important in this regard. Objective: To investigate the presence of bacterial infections; Chlamydia trachomatis and Mycoplasma Hominis as risk factors in endometriosis lesions. Methods: This case-control study was conducted in Sarem Hospital in 2014. DNA was extracted from 90 paraffin-embedded blocks included 40 endometriosis tissue samples, 23 samples of endometrial tissue from the same patients and 27 samples of endometrial tissue of the patients without endometriosis, and molecular analysis were performed using polymerase chain reaction. Results were analyzed by Fisher Exact Test and McNemar Test. Findings: Chlamydia trachomatis infection was seen in 11 (27.5% endometriosis tissue, 3 (13% normal tissue from patients and 10 (37% in patient without endometriosis. Mycoplasma hominis was diagnosed in 11 (27.5% endometriosis tissue, 7 (30.4% of normal tissue from patients and one patient without endometriosis (3.7%. These differences show significant relations between infection with Mycoplasma hominis and endometriosis. Conclusion: The findings of this study did not show significant association between Chlamydia trachomatis infections and endometriosis. However; it seems Mycoplasma hominis infection can increase the risk of endometriosis incidence.

  6. Severe Tryptophan Starvation Blocks Onset of Conventional Persistence and Reduces Reactivation of Chlamydia trachomatis▿

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    Leonhardt, Ralf M.; Lee, Seung-Joon; Kavathas, Paula B.; Cresswell, Peter

    2007-01-01

    The intracellular survival of the bacterial pathogen Chlamydia trachomatis depends on protein synthesis by the microbe soon after internalization. Pharmacologic inhibition of bacterial translation inhibits early trafficking of the parasitophorous vacuole (inclusion) to the microtubule-organizing center (MTOC) and promotes its fusion with lysosomes, which is normally blocked by Chlamydia. Depletion of cellular tryptophan pools by gamma interferon-inducible indoleamine-2,3-dioxygenase (IDO) is believed to be the major innate immune mechanism controlling C. trachomatis infection in human cells, an action to which the bacteria can respond by converting into a nonreplicating but highly reactivatable persistent state. However, whether severe IDO-mediated tryptophan starvation can be sufficient to fully arrest the chlamydial life cycle and thereby counteract the onset of persistence is unknown. Here we demonstrate that at low exogenous tryptophan concentrations a substantial fraction of C. trachomatis bacteria fail to traffic to the MTOC or to switch into the conventional persistent state in gamma interferon-induced human cells. The organisms stay scattered in the cell periphery, do not retain infectivity, and display only low transcriptional activity. Importantly, the rate at which these aberrant Chlamydia bacteria become reactivated upon replenishment of cellular tryptophan pools is substantially lower. Thus, severe tryptophan depletion in cells with high IDO activity affects chlamydial development more rigorously than previously described. PMID:17724071

  7. Microbiological study of neonatal conjunctivitis with special reference to chlamydia trachomatis.

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    Mohile Mukula

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To study the microbial agents, chiefly Chlamydia trachomatis and other bacteria, in neonatal conjunctivitis. METHODS: Conjunctival specimens from 70 newborns with conjunctivitis were subjected to bacterial culture and sensitivity testing, monoclonal antibody based C. trachomatis antigen detection test and species-specific Chlamydia antibody detection in the sera of babies and their mothers, by micro-immunofluorescence assay. RESULTS: Bacteria were isolated from 35 (50% babies; the majority (20, 57.14% were Staphylococcus epidermidis. C. trachomatis antigen was detected in conjunctival smears of 17 (24% babies, and 6 (35.29% of them were positive for other bacteria. Six babies and their mothers tested positive for C. trachomatis Ig G antibodies. At follow-up after 14 weeks, 6 (35.29% of the Chlamydia antigen-positive babies were found to have developed recurrent conjunctivitis. CONCLUSION: C. trachomatis is responsible for almost a quarter of all cases of neonatal conjunctivitis, with recurrences in 35% of cases. Bacteria could be isolated from 50% of the patients though the exact role of Staphylococcus epidermidis, isolated from 28.65% of the neonatal conjunctivitis cases, remains unclear.

  8. Penicillin G-Induced Chlamydial Stress Response in a Porcine Strain of Chlamydia pecorum

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    Cory Ann Leonard

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Chlamydia pecorum causes asymptomatic infection and pathology in ruminants, pigs, and koalas. We characterized the antichlamydial effect of the beta lactam penicillin G on Chlamydia pecorum strain 1710S (porcine abortion isolate. Penicillin-exposed and mock-exposed infected host cells showed equivalent inclusions numbers. Penicillin-exposed inclusions contained aberrant bacterial forms and exhibited reduced infectivity, while mock-exposed inclusions contained normal bacterial forms and exhibited robust infectivity. Infectious bacteria production increased upon discontinuation of penicillin exposure, compared to continued exposure. Chlamydia-induced cell death occurred in mock-exposed controls; cell survival was improved in penicillin-exposed infected groups. Similar results were obtained both in the presence and in the absence of the eukaryotic protein translation inhibitor cycloheximide and at different times of initiation of penicillin exposure. These data demonstrate that penicillin G induces the chlamydial stress response (persistence and is not bactericidal, for this chlamydial species/strain in vitro, regardless of host cell de novo protein synthesis.

  9. Acute Glomerulonephritis in a Child with Chlamydia pneumoniae Infection: A Case Report

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    Giovanna Vitaliti

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Infectious diseases seem to be an important and independent risk factor for renal failure, but the underlying mechanism of renal involvement during some kinds of infectious diseases is still unclear, even if the literature data report immunomediated and/or autoimmune mechanisms to explain the pathogenic relationship between the two diseases. In paediatric patients, Chlamydia pneumoniae is a rare cause of renal complications and it may manifest in several ways, mainly involving the respiratory system, even if also renal and glomerulalr complications, have been described. Case Diagnosis/Treatment. Herein we report a case of a 3-year-old child who developed an acute glomerulonephritis that was chronologically, clinically, and biologically related to a previous Chlamydia pneumoniae infection. On our knowledge, in the literature it is the youngest patient with renal involvement during course of Chlamydia pneumoniae infection ever reported. Conclusions. The present case supports the hypothesis of a rather close causal relationship between this infective agent and renal and glomerular symptoms occurred in this child, during an acute episode of respiratory disease.

  10. The Chlamydia type III secretion system C-ring engages a chaperone-effector protein complex.

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    Kris E Spaeth

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available In Gram-negative bacterial pathogens, specialized chaperones bind to secreted effector proteins and maintain them in a partially unfolded form competent for translocation by type III secretion systems/injectisomes. How diverse sets of effector-chaperone complexes are recognized by injectisomes is unclear. Here we describe a new mechanism of effector-chaperone recognition by the Chlamydia injectisome, a unique and ancestral line of these evolutionarily conserved secretion systems. By yeast two-hybrid analysis we identified networks of Chlamydia-specific proteins that interacted with the basal structure of the injectisome, including two hubs of protein-protein interactions that linked known secreted effector proteins to CdsQ, the putative cytoplasmic C-ring component of the secretion apparatus. One of these protein-interaction hubs is defined by Ct260/Mcsc (Multiple cargo secretion chaperone. Mcsc binds to and stabilizes at least two secreted hydrophobic proteins, Cap1 and Ct618, that localize to the membrane of the pathogenic vacuole ("inclusion". The resulting complexes bind to CdsQ, suggesting that in Chlamydia, the C-ring of the injectisome mediates the recognition of a subset of inclusion membrane proteins in complex with their chaperone. The selective recognition of inclusion membrane proteins by chaperones may provide a mechanism to co-ordinate the translocation of subsets of inclusion membrane proteins at different stages in infection.

  11. Laser therapy in women genital Chlamydia trachomatis infection complicated with PID and infertility

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    Brinzan, Daniela; Paiusan, Lucian; Smeu, Claudia-Ramona

    2018-04-01

    Genital Chlamydia Trachomatis infection is one of the most common sexually transmitted infections with more than 50 million new cases occurred globally every year. Underdiagnosed and untreated, it can generate long term severe complications including PID, infertility, ectopic pregnancy and chronic pelvic pain. Among 20 patients diagnosed with PID and infertility in our medical office during one year, we selected a study group of 10 patients with genital Chlamydia Trachomatis infection. The diagnostic methods used were anamnesis, clinical examination, Pap smear, bacteriological and serological tests, ultra sound examination. The group of patients selected was monitored for one year. The treatment took into account general measures for both partners and specific measures (antibiotic treatment and focused laser therapy). The initial group was split in two, group A treated only with antibiotics and group B treated with both antibiotics and laser therapy. All the 5 patients of group B presented an improvement of the clinical manifestations and 3 of them ended up with pregnancy. On the other hand, in group B, only one patient manifested total disappearance of pains and the infertility persisted for all. It is noteworthy that the association of laser therapy in the treatment of Chlamydia Trachomatis infection has brought significant improvement in the inflammatory processes of internal genitalia (PID) and in the fertility of the couple.

  12. CHLAMYFAST-OIA TEST IN THE GENITAL CHLAMYDIA MALE INFECTION DIAGNOSIS

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    Anka Vasic

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available The genital infections caused by Chlamydia trachomatis (Ch. trachomatis, Mycoplasma hominis (M. hominis and Ureaplasma urealyticum (U. urealyticum represent, in the countries with developed industry, those diseases which are most often sexually transmissible. Chronic infections provoked by the mentioned causes are considered to be the risk factors for sterility.The aim of this paper is to examine the importance and specific characteristics of the CHLAMYFAST-OIA test in the Chlamydia genital infection diagnosis. This study includes 400 male patients with urethritis symptoms. The CHLAMYFAST-optical immunologic test has been used to determine the presence of the Ch. trachomatis in the genital tract of 360 males (Mycoplasma, International, France. The genital microplasmas, that is M. hominis and U. urealyticum, have been detected with the use of MYCOFAST-test (Mycroplasm International, France. The presence of the genital microplasmas has been studied in 129 patients.Chlamydia genital infection has been determined in 128 males (35,55%. The genital infection caused by M. hominis has been determined in a largely lower number of patients (3; 2,32%, as well as the infection caused by U. urealyticum (in 8 patients; 6,20%. Mixed infections have been detected in 8 patients. In 6 men (4,64% there has been detected a mixed infection caused by genital microplasmas. The mixed infection provoked by Ch. Trachomatis and M. hominis, and the one caused by Ch. trachomatis and U. urealyticum, has been proven only in one patient respectively.

  13. Hospitalisations for pelvic inflammatory disease temporally related to a diagnosis of Chlamydia or gonorrhoea: a retrospective cohort study.

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    Joanne Reekie

    Full Text Available The presence and severity of pelvic inflammatory disease (PID symptoms are thought to vary by microbiological etiology but there is limited empirical evidence. We sought to estimate and compare the rates of hospitalisation for PID temporally related to diagnoses of gonorrhoea and chlamydia.All women, aged 15-45 years in the Australian state of New South Wales (NSW, with a diagnosis of chlamydia or gonorrhoea between 01/07/2000 and 31/12/2008 were followed by record linkage for up to one year after their chlamydia or gonorrhoea diagnosis for hospitalisations for PID. Standardised incidence ratios compared the incidence of PID hospitalisations to the age-equivalent NSW population.A total of 38,193 women had a chlamydia diagnosis, of which 483 were hospitalised for PID; incidence rate (IR 13.9 per 1000 person-years of follow-up (PYFU (95%CI 12.6-15.1. In contrast, 1015 had a gonorrhoea diagnosis, of which 45 were hospitalised for PID (IR 50.8 per 1000 PYFU, 95%CI 36.0-65.6. The annual incidence of PID hospitalisation temporally related to a chlamydia or gonorrhoea diagnosis was 27.0 (95%CI 24.4-29.8 and 96.6 (95%CI 64.7-138.8 times greater, respectively, than the age-equivalent NSW female population. Younger age, socio-economic disadvantage, having a diagnosis prior to 2005 and having a prior birth were also associated with being hospitalised for PID.Chlamydia and gonorrhoea are both associated with large increases in the risk of PID hospitalisation. Our data suggest the risk of PID hospitalisation is much higher for gonorrhoea than chlamydia; however, further research is needed to confirm this finding.

  14. Dysbiosis of the Vaginal Microbiota and Higher Vaginal Kynurenine/Tryptophan Ratio Reveals an Association with Chlamydia trachomatis Genital Infections

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    Noa Ziklo

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The natural course of Chlamydia trachomatis urogenital tract infections varies between individuals. While protective immunity can occur, some women can become reinfected, contributing to the development of severe pathology. While the reasons for these differences are unknown, an individual's response to induced interferon-γ (IFN-γ is suggested to be critical. IFN-γ induction of the enzyme indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase, which depletes tryptophan, may be the key. One hypothesis suggests that indole-producing bacteria in the vaginal microbiota can provide a substrate for the Chlamydia to synthesize tryptophan, rescuing the Chlamydia from host IFN-γ attack. We studied a cohort of 25 women who were either, Chlamydia negative, Chlamydia positive with a single infection, or Chlamydia positive with repeated infection, to test our hypothesis. We characterized their vaginal microbiota, cytokine response, as well as their tryptophan, kynurenine and indole concentrations directly in vaginal secretions. We found that C. trachomatis urogenital tract infections either initial or repeat infections, were associated with elevated vaginal kynurenine/tryptophan ratios, primarily as a result of elevated kynurenine levels. In addition, vaginal microbiota of community state type (CST IV showed significantly lower vaginal tryptophan levels compared to CST I and III, which might be related to a higher abundance of indole producers found within this group. Furthermore, we found a higher abundance of indole producers in women who cleared their Chlamydia infection post antibiotic treatment. This study demonstrates for the first time in vivo, the association between high vaginal kynurenine/tryptophan ratios and C. trachomatis infections. In addition, tryptophan depletion was associated with vaginal microbiota of CST IV.

  15. MRI as a Novel In Vivo Approach for Assessing Structural Changes of Chlamydia Pathology in a Mouse Model.

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    Catherine D G Hines

    Full Text Available Chlamydia trachomatis is among the most prevalent of sexually transmitted diseases. While Chlamydia infection is a reportable event and screening has increased over time, enhanced surveillance has not resulted in a reduction in the rate of infections, and Chlamydia infections frequently recur. The development of a preventative vaccine for Chlamydia may be the only effective approach for reducing infection and the frequency of pathological outcomes. Current vaccine research efforts involve time consuming and/or invasive approaches for assessment of disease state, and MRI presents a clinically translatable method for assessing infection and related pathology both quickly and non-invasively. Longitudinal T2-weighted MRI was performed over 63 days on both control or Chlamydia muridarum challenged mice, either with or without elementary body (EB immunization, and gross necropsy was performed on day 65. A scoring system was developed to assess the number of regions affected by Chlamydia pathology and was used to document pathology over time and at necropsy. The scoring system documented increasing incidence of pathology in the unimmunized and challenged mice (significantly greater compared to the control and EB immunized-challenged groups by 21 days post-challenge. No differences between the unchallenged and EB immunized-challenged mice were observed. MRI scores at Day 63 were consistently higher than gross necropsy scores at Day 65, although two of the three groups of mice showed no significant differences between the two techniques. In this work we describe the application of MRI in mice for the potential evaluation of disease pathology and sequelae caused by C. muridarum infection and this technique's potential for evaluation of vaccines for Chlamydia.

  16. Internet-based recruitment system for HIV and STI screening for men who have sex with men in Estonia, 2013: analysis of preliminary outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruutel, K; Lohmus, L; Janes, J

    2015-04-16

    The aim of the current project was to develop an Internet-based recruitment system for HIV and sexually transmitted infection (STI) screening for men who have sex with men (MSM) in Estonia in order to collect biological samples during behavioural studies. In 2013, an Internet-based HIV risk-behaviour survey was conducted among MSM living in Estonia. After completing the questionnaire, all participants were offered anonymous and free-of-charge STI testing. They could either order a urine sample kit by post to screen for chlamydia infections (including lymphogranuloma venereum (LGV)), trichomoniasis, gonorrhoea and Mycoplasma genitalium infections, or visit a laboratory for HIV, hepatitis A virus, hepatitis B virus,hepatitis C virus and syphilis screening. Of 301 participants who completed the questionnaire, 265 (88%),reported that they were MSM. Of these 265 MSM,68 (26%) underwent various types of testing. In the multiple regression analysis, Russian as the first language,previous HIV testing and living in a city or town increased the odds of testing during the study. Linking Internet-based behavioural data collection with biological sample collection is a promising approach. As there are no specific STI services for MSM in Estonia,this system could also be used as an additional option for anonymous and free-of-charge STI screening.

  17. Genital elephantiasis and sexually transmitted infections - revisited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Somesh; Ajith, C; Kanwar, Amrinder J; Sehgal, Virendra N; Kumar, Bhushan; Mete, Uttam

    2006-03-01

    Genital elephantiasis is an important medical problem in the tropics. It usually affects young and productive age group, and is associated with physical disability and extreme mental anguish. The majority of cases are due to filariasis; however, a small but significant proportion of patients develop genital elephantiasis due to bacterial sexually transmitted infections (STIs), mainly lymphogranuloma venereum (LGV) and donovanosis. STI-related genital elephantiasis should be differentiated from elephantiasis due to other causes, including filariasis, tuberculosis, haematological malignancies, iatrogenic, or dermatological diseases. Laboratory investigations like microscopy of tissue smear and nucleic acid amplification test for donovanosis, and serology and polymerase chain reaction for LGV may help in the diagnosis, but in endemic areas, in the absence of laboratory facilities, diagnosis largely depends on clinical characteristics. The causative agent of LGV, Chlamydia trachomatis serovar L1-L3, is a lymphotropic organism which leads to the development of thrombolymphangitis and perilymphangitis, and lymphadenitis. Long-standing oedema, fibrosis and lymphogranulomatous infiltration result in the final picture of elephantiasis. Elephantiasis in donovanosis is mainly due to constriction of the lymphatics which are trapped in the chronic granulomatous inflammatory response generated by the causative agent, Calymmatobacterium (Klebsiella) granulomatis. The LGV-associated genital elephantiasis should be treated with a prolonged course of doxycycline given orally, while donovanosis should be treated with azithromycin or trimethoprim-sulphamethoxazole combination given for a minimum of three weeks. Genital elephantiasis is not completely reversible with medical therapy alone and often needs to be reduced surgically.

  18. Sexually Transmitted Infections: Experience in a Multidisciplinary Clinic in a Tertiary Hospital (2010-2013).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno-Ribera, N; Fuertes-de Vega, I; Blanco-Arévalo, J L; Bosch-Mestres, J; González-Cordón, A; Estrach-Panella, T; García-de Olalla, P; Alsina-Gibert, M

    2016-04-01

    The number of consultations for sexually transmitted infections (STIs) is increasing in Spain. The aim of this study was to describe and analyze the epidemiological, behavioral, clinical, and microbiological characteristics of patients registered at the STI unit of a tertiary hospital. This was a retrospective, single-center descriptive study carried out between 2010 and 2013 in a multidisciplinary unit specialized in STIs, situated in a tertiary hospital. Epidemiological, clinical, and behavioral data were gathered using a face-to-face interview and a standardized questionnaire. Samples were collected for microbiology analysis. The study included 546 patients: 96% were men, 41% had human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection, and 56% were men who have sex with men. The reasons for consultation were the following: urethritis; genital, anal, or perianal ulcers; proctitis; oral ulcers; sexual contact with a person with a known STI; and high-risk sexual contact. The most common microbiological diagnoses were Neisseria gonorrhoeae in urethritis, Treponema pallidum in genital and anal or perianal ulcers, and Chlamydia trachomatis lymphogranuloma venereum serovars in proctitis. The highest prevalences of the main STIs studied occurred in homosexual men with HIV infection. This study confirms the increase in the incidence of STIs in recent years and the epidemiological characteristics of the HIV/STI epidemic in Spain. Copyright © 2015 AEDV. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  19. A Functional Core of IncA Is Required for Chlamydia trachomatis Inclusion Fusion.

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    Weber, Mary M; Noriea, Nicholas F; Bauler, Laura D; Lam, Jennifer L; Sager, Janet; Wesolowski, Jordan; Paumet, Fabienne; Hackstadt, Ted

    2016-04-01

    Chlamydia trachomatis is an obligate intracellular pathogen that is the etiological agent of a variety of human diseases, including blinding trachoma and sexually transmitted infections. Chlamydiae replicate within a membrane-bound compartment, termed an inclusion, which they extensively modify by the insertion of type III secreted proteins called Inc proteins. IncA is an inclusion membrane protein that encodes two coiled-coil domains that are homologous to eukaryotic SNARE (soluble N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive factor attachment receptor) motifs. Recent biochemical evidence suggests that a functional core, composed of SNARE-like domain 1 (SLD-1) and part of SNARE-like domain 2 (SLD-2), is required for the characteristic homotypic fusion of C. trachomatis inclusions in multiply infected cells. To verify the importance of IncA in homotypic fusion in Chlamydia, we generated an incA::bla mutant. Insertional inactivation of incA resulted in the formation of nonfusogenic inclusions, a phenotype that was completely rescued by complementation with full-length IncA. Rescue of homotypic inclusion fusion was dependent on the presence of the functional core consisting of SLD-1 and part of SLD-2. Collectively, these results confirm in vitro membrane fusion assays identifying functional domains of IncA and expand the genetic tools available for identification of chlamydia with a method for complementation of site-specific mutants. Chlamydia trachomatis replicates within a parasitophorous vacuole termed an inclusion. The chlamydial inclusions are nonfusogenic with vesicles in the endocytic pathway but, in multiply infected cells, fuse with each other to form a single large inclusion. This homotypic fusion is dependent upon the presence of a chlamydial inclusion membrane-localized protein, IncA. Specificity of membrane fusion in eukaryotic cells is regulated by SNARE (soluble N-ethylmaleimide sensitive factor attachment receptor) proteins on the cytosolic face of vesicles and target

  20. Better than nothing? Patient-delivered partner therapy and partner notification for chlamydia: the views of Australian general practitioners

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    Bowden Francis J

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Genital chlamydia is the most commonly notified sexually transmissible infection (STI in Australia and worldwide and can have serious reproductive health outcomes. Partner notification, testing and treatment are important facets of chlamydia control. Traditional methods of partner notification are not reaching enough partners to effectively control transmission of chlamydia. Patient-delivered partner therapy (PDPT has been shown to improve the treatment of sexual partners. In Australia, General Practitioners (GPs are responsible for the bulk of chlamydia testing, diagnosis, treatment and follow up. This study aimed to determine the views and practices of Australian general practitioners (GPs in relation to partner notification and PDPT for chlamydia and explored GPs' perceptions of their patients' barriers to notifying partners of a chlamydia diagnosis. Methods In-depth, semi-structured telephone interviews were conducted with 40 general practitioners (GPs from rural, regional and urban Australia from November 2006 to March 2007. Topics covered: GPs' current practice and views about partner notification, perceived barriers and useful supports, previous use of and views regarding PDPT. Transcripts were imported into NVivo7 and subjected to thematic analysis. Data saturation was reached after 32 interviews had been completed. Results Perceived barriers to patients telling partners (patient referral included: stigma; age and cultural background; casual or long-term relationship, ongoing relationship or not. Barriers to GPs undertaking partner notification (provider referral included: lack of time and staff; lack of contact details; uncertainty about the legality of contacting partners and whether this constitutes breach of patient confidentiality; and feeling both personally uncomfortable and inadequately trained to contact someone who is not their patient. GPs were divided on the use of PDPT - many felt concerned that it is not

  1. Additional gonorrhea and Chlamydia infections found with rapid follow-up screening in men who have sex with men with an indication for HIV postexposure prophylaxis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Vrieze, Nynke H. N.; van Rooijen, Martijn S.; van de Loeff, Maarten Schim; de Vries, Henry J. C.

    2014-01-01

    Sexually transmitted infection was found in 16.5% of the men who have sex with men with a postexposure prophylaxis indication. Chlamydia and gonorrhea screening was repeated after 14 days. Among those who were initially sexually transmitted infection negative, 4.1% had chlamydia or gonorrhea. In

  2. Chlamydia muridarum Alters the Immune Environment of the Murine Genital Tract to be More Permissive for Infection with Neisseria gonorrhoeae in a Novel Coinfection Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-05

    1 2.0 Gonorrhea and Chlamydia ........................................................................................ 2 2.1...39 4.1 Experimental Models of Gonorrhea ...acquisition of several STIs, including gonorrhea and chlamydia (82). Additionally, the signs and symptoms of these STIs are usually more common and

  3. Identifying Relationships between High-Risk Sexual Behaviors and Screening Positive for Chlamydia and Gonorrhea in School-Wide Screening Events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salerno, Jennifer; Darling-Fisher, Cindy; Hawkins, Nicole M.; Fraker, Elizabeth

    2013-01-01

    Background: This article describes a school-wide sexually transmitted infection (STI) screening to identify adolescent high-risk sexual behaviors, STI history/incidence, and presence of chlamydia and gonorrhea, and examines relationships between high-risk behaviors and screening positive for chlamydia and gonorrhea in an alternative high school…

  4. BLAST screening of chlamydial genomes to identify signature proteins that are unique for the Chlamydiales, Chlamydiaceae, Chlamydophila and Chlamydia groups of species

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    Gupta Radhey S

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Chlamydiae species are of much importance from a clinical viewpoint. Their diversity both in terms of their numbers as well as clinical involvement are presently believed to be significantly underestimated. The obligate intracellular nature of chlamydiae has also limited their genetic and biochemical studies. Thus, it is of importance to develop additional means for their identification and characterization. Results We have carried out analyses of available chlamydiae genomes to identify sets of unique proteins that are either specific for all Chlamydiales genomes, or different Chlamydiaceae family members, or members of the Chlamydia and Chlamydophila genera, or those unique to Protochlamydia amoebophila, but which are not found in any other bacteria. In total, 59 Chlamydiales-specific proteins, 79 Chlamydiaceae-specific proteins, 20 proteins each that are specific for both Chlamydia and Chlamydophila and 445 ORFs that are Protochlamydia-specific were identified. Additionally, 33 cases of possible gene loss or lateral gene transfer were also detected. Conclusion The identified chlamydiae-lineage specific proteins, many of which are highly conserved, provide novel biomarkers that should prove of much value in the diagnosis of these bacteria and in exploration of their prevalence and diversity. These conserved protein sequences (CPSs also provide novel therapeutic targets for drugs that are specific for these bacteria. Lastly, functional studies on these chlamydiae or chlamydiae subgroup-specific proteins should lead to important insights into lineage-specific adaptations with regards to development, infectivity and pathogenicity.

  5. Chlamydia screening is not cost-effective at low participation rates: evidence from a repeated register-based implementation study in The Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Wit, G. Ardine; Over, Eelco A. B.; Schmid, Boris V.; van Bergen, Jan E. A. M.; van den Broek, Ingrid V. F.; van der Sande, Marianne A. B.; Welte, Robert; Op de Coul, Eline L. M.; Kretzschmar, Mirjam E.

    2015-01-01

    In three pilot regions of The Netherlands, all 16-29 year olds were invited to participate in three annual rounds of Chlamydia screening. The aim of the present study is to evaluate the cost-effectiveness of repeated Chlamydia screening, based on empirical data. A mathematical model was employed to

  6. Chlamydia co-opts the rod shape-determining proteins MreB and Pbp2 for cell division.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouellette, Scot P; Karimova, Gouzel; Subtil, Agathe; Ladant, Daniel

    2012-07-01

    Chlamydiae are obligate intracellular bacterial pathogens that have extensively reduced their genome in adapting to the intracellular environment. The chlamydial genome contains only three annotated cell division genes and lacks ftsZ. How this obligate intracellular pathogen divides is uncharacterized. Chlamydiae contain two high-molecular-weight (HMW) penicillin binding proteins (Pbp) implicated in peptidoglycan synthesis, Pbp2 and Pbp3/FtsI. We show here, using HMW Pbp-specific penicillin derivatives, that both Pbp2 and Pbp3 are essential for chlamydial cell division. Ultrastructural analyses of antibiotic-treated cultures revealed distinct phenotypes: Pbp2 inhibition induced internal cell bodies within a single outer membrane whereas Pbp3 inhibition induced elongated phenotypes with little internal division. Each HMW Pbp interacts with the Chlamydia cell division protein FtsK. Chlamydiae are coccoid yet contain MreB, a rod shape-determining protein linked to Pbp2 in bacilli. Using MreB-specific antibiotics, we show that MreB is essential for chlamydial growth and division. Importantly, co-treatment with MreB-specific and Pbp-specific antibiotics resulted in the MreB-inhibited phenotype, placing MreB upstream of Pbp function in chlamydial cell division. Finally, we showed that MreB also interacts with FtsK. We propose that, in Chlamydia, MreB acts as a central co-ordinator at the division site to substitute for the lack of FtsZ in this bacterium. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  7. Identification of Phylogenetic Position in the Chlamydiaceae Family for Chlamydia Strains Released from Monkeys and Humans with Chlamydial Pathology

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    Alexander Karaulov

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Based on the results of the comparative analysis concerning relatedness and evolutional difference of the 16S–23S nucleotide sequences of the middle ribosomal cluster and 23S rRNA I domain, and based on identification of phylogenetic position for Chlamydophila pneumoniae and Chlamydia trichomatis strains released from monkeys, relatedness of the above stated isolates with similar strains released from humans and with strains having nucleotide sequences presented in the GenBank electronic database has been detected for the first time ever. Position of these isolates in the Chlamydiaceae family phylogenetic tree has been identified. The evolutional position of the investigated original Chlamydia and Chlamydophila strains close to analogous strains from the Gen-Bank electronic database has been demonstrated. Differences in the 16S–23S nucleotide sequence of the middle ribosomal cluster and 23S rRNA I domain of plasmid and nonplasmid Chlamydia trachomatis strains released from humans and monkeys relative to different genotype groups (group B-B, Ba, D, Da, E, L1, L2, L2a; intermediate group-F, G, Ga have been revealed for the first time ever. Abnormality in incA chromosomal gene expression resulting in Chlamydia life development cycle disorder, and decrease of Chlamydia virulence can be related to probable changes in the nucleotide sequence of the gene under consideration

  8. Development and validation of a real-time PCR for Chlamydia suis diagnosis in swine and humans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristien De Puysseleyr

    Full Text Available Pigs are the natural host for Chlamydia suis, a pathogen which is phylogenetically highly related to the human pathogen C. trachomatis. Chlamydia suis infections are generally treated with tetracyclines. In 1998, tetracyline resistant C. suis strains emerged on U.S. pig farms and they are currently present in the Belgian, Cypriote, German, Israeli, Italian and Swiss pig industry. Infections with tetracycline resistant C. suis strains are mainly associated with severe reproductive failure leading to marked economical loss. We developed a sensitive and specific TaqMan probe-based C. suis real-time PCR for examining clinical samples of both pigs and humans. The analytical sensitivity of the real-time PCR is 10 rDNA copies/reaction without cross-amplifying DNA of other Chlamydia species. The PCR was successfully validated using conjunctival, pharyngeal and stool samples of slaughterhouse employees, as well as porcine samples from two farms with evidence of reproductive failure and one farm without clinical disease. Chlamydia suis was only detected in diseased pigs and in the eyes of humans. Positive humans had no clinical complaints. PCR results were confirmed by culture in McCoy cells. In addition, Chlamydia suis isolates were also examined by the tet(C PCR, designed for demonstrating the tetracycline resistance gene tet(C. The tet(C gene was only present in porcine C. suis isolates.

  9. Double trouble: modelling the impact of low risk perception and high-risk sexual behaviour on chlamydia transmission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Wees, Daphne A; den Daas, Chantal; Kretzschmar, Mirjam E E; Heijne, Janneke C M

    2018-04-01

    Risk perception plays an important role in testing behaviour for sexually transmitted infections, but is rarely included in mathematical models exploring the impact of testing. We explored the impact of incorporating sexual behaviour (SB), risk perception (RP) and differential testing uptake in SB-RP groups on prevalence, using chlamydia as an example. We developed a pair model with a susceptible-infected-susceptible structure representing heterosexuals aged 16-26 years. The effect of testing on chlamydia prevalence was compared between a model with only SB (SB model) and a model with SB and RP (SB-RP model). In the SB-RP model, a scenario without differential testing uptake in SB-RP groups was compared to scenarios with differential testing uptake in SB-RP groups. Introducing testing into the SB-RP model resulted in a slightly smaller reduction in chlamydia prevalence (-38.0%) as compared to the SB model (-40.4%). In the SB-RP model, the scenario without differential testing uptake in SB-RP groups overestimated the reduction in chlamydia prevalence (with 4.8%), especially in the group with high SB and low RP (19.8%). We conclude that mathematical models incorporating RP and differential testing uptake in SB-RP groups improve the impact assessment of testing and treatment on chlamydia prevalence. © 2018 The Author(s).

  10. Frequency of Chlamydia trachomatis among male patients with urethritis in northeast of Iran detected by polymerase chain reaction

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    Kiarash Ghazvini

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Planning for appropriate preventive measures against Chlamydia trachomatis, a common cause of sexually transmitted disease, requires knowledge of prevalence of infection so that interventions can be targeted in a cost-effective manner. This study was performed on 178 male patients presenting with urethritis in the Mashhad province to determine the prevalence of chlamydial infection in Northeast Iran. A cotton swab and first voided urine specimen were collected according to standard procedures. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR tests were used for the detection of C. trachomatis in the specimens collected and the results were analyzed using SPSS program. Results showed that 10.6% of male patients in this group were infected with C. trachomatis. This study provides strong evidence that prevalence of Chlamydia in the Northeast Iran is high and suggests that Chlamydia screening as a routine part of STD investigations is highly necessary in this area.

  11. The Proteome of the Isolated Chlamydia trachomatis Containing Vacuole Reveals a Complex Trafficking Platform Enriched for Retromer Components.

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    Lukas Aeberhard

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Chlamydia trachomatis is an important human pathogen that replicates inside the infected host cell in a unique vacuole, the inclusion. The formation of this intracellular bacterial niche is essential for productive Chlamydia infections. Despite its importance for Chlamydia biology, a holistic view on the protein composition of the inclusion, including its membrane, is currently missing. Here we describe the host cell-derived proteome of isolated C. trachomatis inclusions by quantitative proteomics. Computational analysis indicated that the inclusion is a complex intracellular trafficking platform that interacts with host cells' antero- and retrograde trafficking pathways. Furthermore, the inclusion is highly enriched for sorting nexins of the SNX-BAR retromer, a complex essential for retrograde trafficking. Functional studies showed that in particular, SNX5 controls the C. trachomatis infection and that retrograde trafficking is essential for infectious progeny formation. In summary, these findings suggest that C. trachomatis hijacks retrograde pathways for effective infection.

  12. In vitro activity of a partially purified and characterized bark extract of Castanea sativa Mill. (ENC®) against Chlamydia spp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papa, Valentina; Ginocchietti, Laura; Budriesi, Roberta; Micucci, Matteo; Costa, Roberta; Biondi, Roberta; Cevenini, Roberto; Chiarini, Alberto; Aldini, Rita; Donati, Manuela; Pollini, Gian Matteo; Cenacchi, Giovanna

    2017-01-01

    Castanea sativa Mill (ENC®), containing tannins against 33 Chlamydia strains, was compared to SMAP-29 with inhibitory effect against C. trachomatis and C. pneumoniae. The ENC® activity against Chlamydia spp. was evaluated determining the lowest concentration to achieve more than half reduction of intact chlamydial inclusions versus controls. ENC® reduced all Chlamydia strains tested at 1 µg/mL, while SMAP-29 induced reductions of C. trachomatis and C. pneumoniae infectivity at 10 µg/mL. A great reduction of C. trachomatis, C. pneumoniae, and C. abortus infectivity was achieved with a 10 µg/mL ENC® concentration, whereas their infectivity was almost inhibited at 100 µg/mL ENC® concentration.

  13. Candidatus Syngnamydia venezia, a novel member of the phylum Chlamydiae from the broad nosed pipefish, Syngnathus typhle.

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    Alexander Fehr

    Full Text Available Chlamydia are obligate intracellular bacteria and important pathogens of humans and animals. Chlamydia-related bacteria are also major fish pathogens, infecting epithelial cells of the gills and skin to cause the disease epitheliocystis. Given the wide distribution, ancient origins and spectacular diversity of bony fishes, this group offers a rich resource for the identification and isolation of novel Chlamydia. The broad-nosed pipefish (Syngnathus typhle is a widely distributed and genetically diverse temperate fish species, susceptible to epitheliocystis across much of its range. We describe here a new bacterial species, Candidatus Syngnamydia venezia; epitheliocystis agent of S. typhle and close relative to other chlamydial pathogens which are known to infect diverse hosts ranging from invertebrates to humans.

  14. Chlamydia trachomatis antigens in enteroendocrine cells and macrophages of the small bowel in patients with severe irritable bowel syndrome

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    Sandström Gunnar

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Inflammation and immune activation have repeatedly been suggested as pathogentic factors in irritable bowel syndrome (IBS. The driving force for immune activation in IBS remains unknown. The aim of our study was to find out if the obligate intracellular pathogen Chlamydia could be involved in the pathogenesis of IBS. Methods We studied 65 patients (61 females with IBS and 42 (29 females healthy controls in which IBS had been excluded. Full thickness biopsies from the jejunum and mucosa biopsies from the duodenum and the jejunum were stained with a monoclonal antibody to Chlamydia lipopolysaccharide (LPS and species-specific monoclonal antibodies to C. trachomatis and C. pneumoniae. We used polyclonal antibodies to chromogranin A, CD68, CD11c, and CD117 to identify enteroendocrine cells, macrophages, dendritic, and mast cells, respectively. Results Chlamydia LPS was present in 89% of patients with IBS, but in only 14% of healthy controls (p C. trachomatis major outer membrane protein (MOMP. Staining for C. pneumoniae was negative in both patients and controls. Chlamydia LPS was detected in enteroendocrine cells of the mucosa in 90% of positive biopsies and in subepithelial macrophages in 69% of biopsies. Biopsies taken at different time points in 19 patients revealed persistence of Chlamydia LPS up to 11 years. The odds ratio for the association of Chlamydia LPS with presence of IBS (43.1; 95% CI: 13.2-140.7 is much higher than any previously described pathogenetic marker in IBS. Conclusions We found C. trachomatis antigens in enteroendocrine cells and macrophages in the small bowel mucosa of patients with IBS. Further studies are required to clarify if the presence of such antigens has a role in the pathogenesis of IBS.

  15. Detection of Chlamydia trachomatis in endocervical smears of sexually active women in Manaus-AM, Brazil, by PCR

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    Cristina Santos

    Full Text Available Chlamydia trachomatis is now one of the most prevalent bacteria found in classic sexually transmissible diseases (STD, and as such, constitutes a serious public health problem. We examined the prevalence of Chlamydia trachomatis, by polymerase chain reaction (PCR, in 121 sexually active women who sought treatment for STD in the Alfredo da Matta Institute of Dermatology and Venerology and the Institute of Tropical Medicine of Amazonas in Manaus, Brazil. These women were examined by a specific PCR for the chlamydial plasmid, and the nature of the amplicon was determined by restriction analysis and DNA sequencing. The PCR diagnosis revealed a prevalence of 20.7% infected women.

  16. Chlamydia trachomatis and chlamydial heat shock protein 60-specific antibody and cell-mediated responses predict tubal factor infertility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tiitinen, A.; Surcel, H.-M.; Halttunen, M.

    2006-01-01

    60)-specific immunoglobulin G (IgG) antibodies were analysed using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) kits. Proliferative reactivity of peripheral blood mononuclear cells was studied in vitro against Chlamydia elementary body (EB) and recombinant CHSP60 antigens. RESULTS: C. trachomatis......BACKGROUND: To evaluate the role of Chlamydia trachomatis-induced humoral and cell-mediated immune (CMI) responses in predicting tubal factor infertility (TFI). METHODS: Blood samples were taken from 88 women with TFI and 163 control women. C. trachomatis and chlamydial heat shock protein 60 (CHSP...

  17. Chlamydia trachomatis and risk of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grade 3 or worse in women with persistent human papillomavirus infection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Kirsten E; Thomsen, Louise T; Schmiedel, Sven

    2014-01-01

    Some studies suggest that Chlamydia trachomatis (CT) enhances cervical carcinogenesis; however, a possible confounding effect of persistent human papillomavirus (HPV) infection was not addressed. We examined the potential role of CT infection in the development of subsequent cervical intraepithel...... intraepithelial neoplasia grade 3 or worse (CIN3+) in women with prevalent HPV infection and in a subgroup of women with persistent HPV infection.......Some studies suggest that Chlamydia trachomatis (CT) enhances cervical carcinogenesis; however, a possible confounding effect of persistent human papillomavirus (HPV) infection was not addressed. We examined the potential role of CT infection in the development of subsequent cervical...

  18. Intrauterine inoculation of minipigs with Chlamydia trachomatis during diestrus establishes a longer lasting infection compared to vaginal inoculation during estrus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lorenzen, Emma; Follmann, Frank; Secher, Jan O

    2017-01-01

    Advanced animal models, such as minipigs, are needed for the development of a globally requested human Chlamydia vaccine. Previous studies have shown that vaginal inoculation of sexually mature Göttingen minipigs with Chlamydia trachomatis resulted in an infection lasting only 3-5 days. The aim...... resulted in a longer lasting infection (at least 10 days) compared to estrus (3-5 days). Furthermore, we found a significant C. trachomatis specific IFN-γ response in pigs inoculated during estrus correlating with the accelerated clearance of infection in these pigs. These findings suggest...

  19. Custo-efetividade do rastreamento da infecção por Chlamydia trachomatis em mulheres brasileiras

    OpenAIRE

    Elisa Tomazzini Andrade

    2012-01-01

    Resumo: Introdução: A importância da infecção por Chlamydia trachomatis não está relacionada apenas à sua elevada frequência, mas principalmente pelas graves repercussões no aparelho genital feminino. Apenas 30% das pacientes infectadas apresentam sintomas e só 40% terão sinais que possam evidenciar sua presença. Cerca de 70% dos casos de infecção por Chlamydia trachomatis são assintomáticos e acabam não sendo diagnosticados, havendo, portanto a necessidade de programa de rastreamento para di...

  20. Detection of Chlamydia trachomatis in endocervical smears of sexually active women in Manaus-AM, Brazil, by PCR

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    Santos Cristina

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Chlamydia trachomatis is now one of the most prevalent bacteria found in classic sexually transmissible diseases (STD, and as such, constitutes a serious public health problem. We examined the prevalence of Chlamydia trachomatis, by polymerase chain reaction (PCR, in 121 sexually active women who sought treatment for STD in the Alfredo da Matta Institute of Dermatology and Venerology and the Institute of Tropical Medicine of Amazonas in Manaus, Brazil. These women were examined by a specific PCR for the chlamydial plasmid, and the nature of the amplicon was determined by restriction analysis and DNA sequencing. The PCR diagnosis revealed a prevalence of 20.7% infected women.