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Sample records for lymphocytes expressing intracellular

  1. Intracellular calcium mobilization in human lymphocytes in the presence of synthetic IgG Fc peptides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Plummer, J.M.; Panahi, Y.P.; McClurg, M.R.; Hahn, G.S.; Naemura, J.R.

    1986-01-01

    Certain synthetic peptides derived from the Fc region of human IgG can suppress the mixed lymphocyte response. These peptides were tested for the ability to induce intracellular calcium mobilization in human lymphocytes using fura-2/calcium fluorescence. T cells were isolated by rosetting and were > 90% OKT3 positive. Lymphocytes were incubated with the acetoxymethyl ester of fura-2 (10 μM) for 60 minutes at 37 0 C. Fluorescence intensity changes at 505 nm were monitored at an excitation lambda of 340 nm. Fura-2 was not cytotoxic compared to quin-2 since fura-2 loaded mononuclear cells incorporated 3 H-thymidine when stimulated by PHA, succinyl Con A, PWM or LPS-STM whereas quin-2 loaded cells showed a dose dependent inhibition of proliferation. Those synthetic peptides (5 to 400 μg/ml) that suppressed the MLR induced a dose dependent increase in intracellular calcium in mononuclear cells, lymphocytes, non-T cells and T cells. The fura-2 calcium fluorescence time course response was similar for peptide, PHA and succinyl Con A. These results suggest that these immunoregulatory peptides suppress 3 H-thymidine incorporation at a point after intracellular calcium mobilization and that fura-2 has advantages over quin-2 in measuring intracellular calcium levels in lymphocytes

  2. Cytokine gene expression of peripheral blood lymphocytes ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2009-03-20

    Mar 20, 2009 ... Key words: Lipopolysaccharide, lymphocytes, TLRs, cytokines. INTRODUCTION. Lipopolysaccharide (LPS), a predominant glycolipid in the outer membranes of Gam-negative bacteria, stimulates monocyte, macrophages, and neutrophils and increase expression of cell adhesion molecules (Trent et al., ...

  3. 3-Methylcholanthrene inhibits lymphocyte proliferation and increases intracellular calcium levels in common carp (Cyprinus carpio L)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reynaud, S.; Duchiron, C.; Deschaux, P.

    2003-01-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are an important class of environmental pollutants that are known to be carcinogenic and immunotoxic. Many authors have focused on macrophage activities in fish exposed to PAHs. However, fewer studies have reported decrease in specific immunity in such fish. We investigated the intracellular mechanisms by which the 3-methylcholanthrene (3-MC) decreased lymphocyte proliferation in carp. T- and B-lymphocyte proliferation induced by Concanavalin A (Con A) and lipopolysaccharide (LPS) were inhibited by 3-MC (0.5-50 μM). 3-MC also produced a rapid and a sustained increase in intracellular calcium concentration ([Ca 2+ ] i ) (2 h minimum). However, the cytochrome P450 1A and Ah receptor inhibitor, α-naphtoflavone (a-NF), also inhibited lymphocyte proliferation and did not reverse the effects of 3-MC. Moreover, since a-NF and 3-MC increased [Ca 2+ ] i and inhibited lymphocyte proliferation it was possible that calcium release played a role in 3-MC-inhibited lymphocyte proliferation. The rise in [Ca 2+ ] i induced by 3-MC was potentiated by the inhibitor of the endoplasmic reticulum calcium ATPases, thapsigargin. Treating cells with 3-MC decreased calcium mobilization caused by thapsigargin. These results suggest that 3-MC acts on the endoplasmic reticulum, perhaps directly on calcium ATPases, to increase intracellular calcium levels in carp leucocytes

  4. Association of serine protease with the rise of intracellular calcium in cytotoxic T lymphocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koo, G C; Luk, Y; Talento, A; Wu, J; Sirotina, A; Fischer, P A; Blake, J T; Nguyen, M P; Parsons, W; Poe, M

    1996-12-15

    The precise role of the granular enzyme A (granzyme A), a serine protease, in the lytic process of cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTL) is not clear. We have recently constructed a CTL line transfected with the antisense gene of granzyme A (a-GrA). These a-GrA CTL had lower GrA activity as well as decreased lytic activities, as measured by 51Cr and by DNA degradation assays. Furthermore, at low effector:target ratio (1:8) in prolonged lytic assays, they could not lyse targets as rapidly as the control CTL. When we examined their ability to exocytose BLT (CBZ-L-lys-thiobenzyl)-esterase in the presence of anti-CD3 antibody, the a-GrA CTL exocytosed poorly compared to the parental CTL or control transfectant with a CAT gene. Most strikingly, a-GrA cells could not release intracellular stores of Ca2+ in response to anti-CD3 induction, although the Ca2+ flux was normal when they were stimulated with ionomycin. When the parental CTL was treated with a specific benzyllactam inhibitor of BLT-esterase or N-tosyl-L-phenylalanylchloromethyl ketone, the Ca2+ flux induced by anti-CD3 was also suppressed. We propose that granzyme A is involved in the signal transduction pathway that causes the rise of the intracellular calcium.

  5. Temporal protein expression pattern in intracellular signalling ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Supplementary figure 1. Protein expression dynamics observed in Experiment, Synchronous and. Asynchronous simulation. .... molecular basis for T cell suppression by IL-10: CD28-asso- ciated IL-10 receptor inhibits CD28 tyrosine ...

  6. Hydroxyhydroquinone, a by-product of coffee bean roasting, increases intracellular Ca2+ concentration in rat thymic lymphocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamae, Risa; Nojima, Shoko; Akiyoshi, Kenji; Setsu, Shoki; Honda, Sari; Masuda, Toshiya; Oyama, Yasuo

    2017-04-01

    Hydroxyhydroquinone (HHQ) is generated during coffee bean roasting. A cup of coffee contains 0.1-1.7 mg of HHQ. The actions of HHQ on mammalian DNA were examined because HHQ is a metabolite of benzene, which causes leukemia. Currently, information on the cellular actions of HHQ is limited. We examined the effects of sublethal levels of HHQ on the concentration of intracellular Ca 2+ in rat thymic lymphocytes by using a flow cytometric technique with fluorescent probes. HHQ at 10 μM or more significantly elevated intracellular Ca 2+ levels by increasing the membrane permeability of divalent cations, resulting in hyperpolarization via the activation of Ca 2+ -dependent K + channels. HHQ-induced changes in the intracellular Ca 2+ concentration and membrane potential may affect the cell functions of lymphocytes. HHQ-reduced coffee may be preferable in order to avoid the possible adverse effects of HHQ. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Epithelial Cell Gene Expression Induced by Intracellular Staphylococcus aureus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xianglu Li

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available HEp-2 cell monolayers were cocultured with intracellular Staphylococcus aureus, and changes in gene expression were profiled using DNA microarrays. Intracellular S. aureus affected genes involved in cellular stress responses, signal transduction, inflammation, apoptosis, fibrosis, and cholesterol biosynthesis. Transcription of stress response and signal transduction-related genes including atf3, sgk, map2k1, map2k3, arhb, and arhe was increased. In addition, elevated transcription of proinflammatory genes was observed for tnfa, il1b, il6, il8, cxcl1, ccl20, cox2, and pai1. Genes involved in proapoptosis and fibrosis were also affected at transcriptional level by intracellular S. aureus. Notably, intracellular S. aureus induced strong transcriptional down-regulation of several cholesterol biosynthesis genes. These results suggest that epithelial cells respond to intracellular S. aureus by inducing genes affecting immunity and in repairing damage caused by the organism, and are consistent with the possibility that the organism exploits an intracellular environment to subvert host immunity and promote colonization.

  8. Fas expression on peripheral blood lymphocytes in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) : relation to lymphocyte activation and disease activity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bijl, M; Horst, G; Limburg, PC; Kallenberg, CGM

    2001-01-01

    Levels of apoptotic lymphocytes have been found to be increased in SLE and persistence of apoptotic cells has been associated with autoantibody production, Increased lymphocyte Fas (CD95) expression due to lymphocyte activation may account for increased Susceptibility to Fas-mediated apoptosis in

  9. Downregulation of transferrin receptor surface expression by intracellular antibody

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peng Jilin; Wu Sha; Zhao Xiaoping; Wang Min; Li Wenhan; Shen Xin; Liu Jing; Lei Ping; Zhu Huifen; Shen Guanxin

    2007-01-01

    To deplete cellular iron uptake, and consequently inhibit the proliferation of tumor cells, we attempt to block surface expression of transferrin receptor (TfR) by intracellular antibody technology. We constructed two expression plasmids (scFv-HAK and scFv-HA) coding for intracellular single-chain antibody against TfR with or without endoplasmic reticulum (ER) retention signal, respectively. Then they were transfected tumor cells MCF-7 by liposome. Applying RT-PCR, Western blotting, immunofluorescence microscopy and immunoelectron microscope experiments, we insure that scFv-HAK intrabody was successfully expressed and retained in ER contrasted to the secreted expression of scFv-HA. Flow cytometric analysis confirmed that the TfR surface expression was markedly decreased approximately 83.4 ± 2.5% in scFv-HAK transfected cells, while there was not significantly decrease in scFv-HA transfected cells. Further cell growth and apoptosis characteristics were evaluated by cell cycle analysis, nuclei staining and MTT assay. Results indicated that expression of scFv-HAK can dramatically induce cell cycle G1 phase arrest and apoptosis of tumor cells, and consequently significantly suppress proliferation of tumor cells compared with other control groups. For First time this study demonstrates the potential usage of anti-TfR scFv-intrabody as a growth inhibitor of TfR overexpressing tumors

  10. T cells in chronic lymphocytic leukemia display dysregulated expression of immune checkpoints and activation markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palma, Marzia; Gentilcore, Giusy; Heimersson, Kia; Mozaffari, Fariba; Näsman-Glaser, Barbro; Young, Emma; Rosenquist, Richard; Hansson, Lotta; Österborg, Anders; Mellstedt, Håkan

    2017-03-01

    Chronic lymphocytic leukemia is characterized by impaired immune functions largely due to profound T-cell defects. T-cell functions also depend on co-signaling receptors, inhibitory or stimulatory, known as immune checkpoints, including cytotoxic T-lymphocyte-associated antigen-4 (CTLA-4) and programmed death-1 (PD-1). Here we analyzed the T-cell phenotype focusing on immune checkpoints and activation markers in chronic lymphocytic leukemia patients (n=80) with different clinical characteristics and compared them to healthy controls. In general, patients had higher absolute numbers of CD3 + cells and the CD8 + subset was particularly expanded in previously treated patients. Progressive patients had higher numbers of CD4 + and CD8 + cells expressing PD-1 compared to healthy controls, which was more pronounced in previously treated patients ( P =0.0003 and P =0.001, respectively). A significant increase in antigen-experienced T cells was observed in patients within both the CD4 + and CD8 + subsets, with a significantly higher PD-1 expression. Higher numbers of CD4 + and CD8 + cells with intracellular CTLA-4 were observed in patients, as well as high numbers of proliferating (Ki67 + ) and activated (CD69 + ) CD4 + and CD8 + cells, more pronounced in patients with active disease. The numbers of Th1, Th2, Th17 and regulatory T cells were substantially increased in patients compared to controls ( P leukemia T cells display increased expression of immune checkpoints, abnormal subset distribution, and a higher proportion of proliferating cells compared to healthy T cells. Disease activity and previous treatment shape the T-cell profile of chronic lymphocytic leukemia patients in different ways. Copyright© Ferrata Storti Foundation.

  11. Methylation status regulates lipoprotein lipase expression in chronic lymphocytic leukemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abreu, Cecilia; Moreno, Pilar; Palacios, Florencia; Borge, Mercedes; Morande, Pablo; Landoni, Ana Inés; Gabus, Raul; Dighiero, Guillermo; Giordano, Mirta; Gamberale, Romina; Oppezzo, Pablo

    2013-08-01

    Among different prognostic factors in chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL), we previously demonstrated that lipoprotein lipase (LPL) is associated with an unmutated immunoglobulin profile and clinical poor outcome. Despite the usefulness of LPL for CLL prognosis, its functional role and the molecular mechanism regulating its expression are still open questions. Interaction of CLL B-cells with the tissue microenvironment favors disease progression by promoting malignant B-cell growth. Since tissue methylation can be altered by environmental factors, we investigated the methylation status of the LPL gene and the possibility that overexpression could be associated with microenvironment signals. Our results show that a demethylated state of the LPL gene is responsible for its anomalous expression in unmutated CLL cases and that this expression is dependent on microenvironment signals. Overall, this work proposes that an epigenetic mechanism, triggered by the microenvironment, regulates LPL expression in CLL disease.

  12. Lymphocyte integrin expression differences between SIRS and sepsis patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heffernan, D S; Monaghan, S F; Ayala, Alfred

    2017-11-01

    Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome (SIRS) and sepsis remain leading causes of death. Despite many similarities, the two entities are very distinct clinically and immunologically. T-Lymphocytes play a key pivotal role in the pathogenesis and ultimately outcome following both SIRS and sepsis. Integrins are essential in the trafficking and migration of lymphocytes. They also serve vital roles in efficient wound healing and clearance of infections. Here, we investigate whether integrin expression, specifically β1 (CD29) and β2 (CD18), are disrupted in SIRS and sepsis, and assess differences in integrin expression between these two critically ill clinical categories. T-Lymphocytes were isolated from whole blood collected from ICU patients exhibiting SIRS or sepsis. Samples were analyzed for CD18 (β2) and CD29 (β1) on CD3 + T cells through flow cytometry. Septic patients were stratified into either exclusively abdominal or non-abdominal sources of sepsis. CD18 was almost ubiquitously expressed on CD3 + T cells irrespective of clinical condition. However, CD29 (β1 integrin) was lowest in SIRS patients (20.4% of CD3 + T cells) when compared with either septic patients (35.5%) or healthy volunteers (54.1%). Furthermore, there was evidence of compartmentalization in septic patients, where abdominal sources had a greater percentage of CD3 + CD29 + T cells (41.7%) when compared with those with non-abdominal sources (29.5%). Distinct differences in T-cell integrin expression exists between patients in SIRS versus sepsis, as well as relative to the source of sepsis. Further work is needed to understand cause and effect relative to the progression from SIRS into sepsis.

  13. AID protein expression in chronic lymphocytic leukemia/small lymphocytic lymphoma is associated with poor prognosis and complex genetic alterations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leuenberger, Mona; Frigerio, Simona; Wild, Peter J; Noetzli, Franziska; Korol, Dimitri; Zimmermann, Dieter R; Gengler, Carole; Probst-Hensch, Nicole M; Moch, Holger; Tinguely, Marianne

    2010-02-01

    The biological behavior of chronic lymphocytic leukemia and small lymphocytic lymphoma is unpredictable. Nonetheless, non-mutated IgV(H) gene rearrangement, ATM (11q22-23) and p53 (17p13) deletion are recognized as unfavorable prognosticators in chronic lymphocytic leukemia. The mRNA expression of activation-induced cytidine deaminase (AID), an enzyme indispensable for somatic hypermutation processes, was claimed to be predictive of non-mutated chronic lymphocytic leukemia cells in blood. Here, we evaluated AID protein expression compared with known molecular and immunohistochemical prognostic indicators in 71 chronic lymphocytic leukemia/small lymphocytic lymphoma patients using a tissue microarray approach. We found AID heterogeneously expressed in tumor cells as shown by colocalization analysis for CD5 and CD23. Ki-67 positive paraimmunoblasts of the proliferation centers displayed the highest expression. This observation is reflected by a significant association of AID positivity with a high proliferation rate (P=0.012). ATM deletion was detected in 10% (6/63) of patients and p53 deletion in 19% (13/67) of patients. Moreover, both ATM (P=0.002) and p53 deletion (P=0.004) were significantly associated with AID. IgV(H) gene mutation was seen in 45% (27/60) of patients. Twenty-five percent (17/69) of patients with AID-positive chronic lymphocytic leukemia/small lymphocytic lymphoma displayed a shorter survival than AID-negative chronic lymphocytic leukemia/small lymphocytic lymphoma patients (61 vs 130 months, P=0.001). Although there was a trend, we could not show an association with the IgV(H) gene mutation status. Taken together, our study shows that AID expression is an indicator of an unfavorable prognosis in chronic lymphocytic leukemia/small lymphocytic lymphoma patients, although it is not a surrogate marker for the IgV(H) status. Furthermore, the microenvironment of proliferation centers seems to influence AID regulation and might be an initiating factor

  14. Recycling endosomes in human cytotoxic T lymphocytes constitute an auxiliary intracellular trafficking pathway for newly synthesized perforin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lesteberg, Kelsey E.; Orange, Jordan S.; Makedonas, George

    2018-01-01

    Background Although cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs) store perforin within cytoplasmic secretory granules for immediate use, perforin is synthesized anew within hours of TCR stimulation. Previously, we observed new perforin protein at an immunologic synapse independent of secretory lysosomes; herein we aimed to determine how new perforin transits to the synapse if not via lytic granules. Results We analyzed antigen-specific human CTLs via imaging flow cytometry and high-resolution confocal microscopy, with attention to intracellular trafficking components and new perforin. The recycling endosome compartments identified by rab8, rab11a, rab4, and rab37 co-localized with new perforin, as well as the SNAREs vti1b and VAMP4. After ablating the function of the recycling endosome pathway, we observed a relative accumulation of new perforin in rab8 vesicles. Conclusions The recycling endosome pathway may serve as an auxiliary intracellular route for the delivery of new perforin to an immunologic synapse in order to perpetuate a cytotoxic response. PMID:28822075

  15. Expression, processing and transcriptional regulation of granulysin in short-term activated human lymphocytes

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    Groscurth Peter

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Granulysin, a cytotoxic protein expressed in human natural killer cells and activated T lymphocytes, exhibits cytolytic activity against a variety of intracellular microbes. Expression and transcription have been partially characterised in vitro and four transcripts (NKG5, 519, 520, and 522 were identified. However, only a single protein product of 15 kDa was found, which is subsequently processed to an active 9 kDa protein. Results In this study we investigated generation of granulysin in lymphokine activated killer (LAK cells and antigen (Listeria specific T-cells. Semiquantitative RT-PCR revealed NKG5 to be the most prominent transcript. It was found to be up-regulated in a time-dependent manner in LAK cells and antigen specific T-cells and their subsets. Two isoforms of 519 mRNA were up-regulated under IL-2 and antigen stimulation. Moreover, two novel transcripts, without any known function, comprising solely parts of the 5 prime region of the primary transcript, were detected. A significant increase of granulysin expressing LAK cells as well as antigen specific T-cells was shown by fluorescence microscopy. On the subset level, increase in CD4+ granulysin expressing cells was found only under antigen stimulation. Immunoblotting showed the 15 kDa form of granulysin to be present in the first week of stimulation either with IL-2 or with bacterial antigen. Substantial processing to the 9 kDa form was detected during the first week in LAK cells and in the second week in antigen specific T-cells. Conclusion This first comprehensive study of granulysin gene regulation in primary cultured human lymphocytes shows that the regulation of granulysin synthesis in response to IL-2 or bacterial antigen stimulation occurs at several levels: RNA expression, extensive alternative splicing and posttranslational processing.

  16. Intraepithelial lymphocytes express junctional molecules in murine small intestine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inagaki-Ohara, Kyoko; Sawaguchi, Akira; Suganuma, Tatsuo; Matsuzaki, Goro; Nawa, Yukifumi

    2005-01-01

    Intestinal intraepithelial lymphocytes (IEL) that reside at basolateral site regulate the proliferation and differentiation of epithelial cells (EC) for providing a first line of host defense in intestine. However, it remains unknown how IEL interact and communicate with EC. Here, we show that IEL express junctional molecules like EC. We identified mRNA expression of the junctional molecules in IEL such as zonula occludens (ZO)-1, occludin and junctional adhesion molecule (JAM) (tight junction), β-catenin and E-cadherin (adherens junction), and connexin26 (gap junction). IEL constitutively expressed occludin and E-cadherin at protein level, while other T cells in the thymus, spleen, liver, mesenteric lymph node, and Peyer's patches did not. γδ IEL showed higher level of these expressions than αβ IEL. The expression of occludin was augmented by anti-CD3 Ab stimulation. These results suggest the possibility of a novel role of IEL concerning epithelial barrier and communication between IEL and EC

  17. Expression of adhesion and activation molecules on lymphocytes during open-heart surgery with cardiopulmonary bypass

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toft, P; Tønnesen, Else Kirstine; Zülow, I

    1997-01-01

    Open-heart surgery with cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) and abdominal surgery are associated with lymphocytopenia. We measured a panel of adhesion and activation molecules on lymphocytes to clarify possible association of CPB with increased expression of these molecules. Eight patients undergoing open...... open-heart and abdominal surgery. The proportion of CD11a/CD18-positive lymphocytes rose from 67.6 +/- 8% to 86.4 +/- 3% after aortic declamping (p ... was associated with increased expression of the adhesion molecule CD11a/CD18 on lymphocytes, while the expression of activation molecules on lymphocytes was unchanged....

  18. HFE mRNA expression is responsive to intracellular and extracellular iron loading: short communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehta, Kosha J; Farnaud, Sebastien; Patel, Vinood B

    2017-10-01

    In liver hepatocytes, the HFE gene regulates cellular and systemic iron homeostasis by modulating cellular iron-uptake and producing the iron-hormone hepcidin in response to systemic iron elevation. However, the mechanism of iron-sensing in hepatocytes remain enigmatic. Therefore, to study the effect of iron on HFE and hepcidin (HAMP) expressions under distinct extracellular and intracellular iron-loading, we examined the effect of holotransferrin treatment (1, 2, 5 and 8 g/L for 6 h) on intracellular iron levels, and mRNA expressions of HFE and HAMP in wild-type HepG2 and previously characterized iron-loaded recombinant-TfR1 HepG2 cells. Gene expression was analyzed by real-time PCR and intracellular iron was measured by ferrozine assay. Data showed that in the wild-type cells, where intracellular iron content remained unchanged, HFE expression remained unaltered at low holotransferrin treatments but was upregulated upon 5 g/L (p HFE and HAMP expressions were elevated only at low 1 g/L treatment (p HFE (p HFE mRNA was independently elevated by extracellular and intracellular iron-excess. Thus, it may be involved in sensing both, extracellular and intracellular iron. Repression of HAMP expression under simultaneous intracellular and extracellular iron-loading resembles non-hereditary iron-excess pathologies.

  19. Spaceflight effects on T lymphocyte distribution, function and gene expression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gridley, Daila S.; Slater, James M.; Luo-Owen, Xian; Rizvi, Asma; Chapes, Stephen K.; Stodieck, Louis S.; Ferguson, Virginia L.; Pecaut, Michael J.

    2009-01-01

    The immune system is highly sensitive to stressors present during spaceflight. The major emphasis of this study was on the T lymphocytes in C57BL/6NTac mice after return from a 13-day space shuttle mission (STS-118). Spleens and thymuses from flight animals (FLT) and ground controls similarly housed in animal enclosure modules (AEM) were evaluated within 3–6 h after landing. Phytohemagglutinin-induced splenocyte DNA synthesis was significantly reduced in FLT mice when based on both counts per minute and stimulation indexes (P < 0.05). Flow cytometry showed that CD3+ T and CD19+ B cell counts were low in spleens from the FLT group, whereas the number of NK1.1+ natural killer (NK) cells was increased (P < 0.01 for all three populations vs. AEM). The numerical changes resulted in a low percentage of T cells and high percentage of NK cells in FLT animals (P < 0.05). After activation of spleen cells with anti-CD3 monoclonal antibody, interleukin-2 (IL-2) was decreased, but IL-10, interferon-γ, and macrophage inflammatory protein-1α were increased in FLT mice (P < 0.05). Analysis of cancer-related genes in the thymus showed that the expression of 30 of 84 genes was significantly affected by flight (P < 0.05). Genes that differed from AEM controls by at least 1.5-fold were Birc5, Figf, Grb2, and Tert (upregulated) and Fos, Ifnb1, Itgb3, Mmp9, Myc, Pdgfb, S100a4, Thbs, and Tnf (downregulated). Collectively, the data show that T cell distribution, function, and gene expression are significantly modified shortly after return from the spaceflight environment. PMID:18988762

  20. microRNA expression profiles in human peripheral blood lymphocytes cultured in modeled microgravity

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — In the present study we analyzed miRNA and mRNA expression profiles in human peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBLs) incubated in microgravity condition simulated by a...

  1. Gene expression profiling of human peripheral blood lymphocytes cultured in modeled microgravity

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — In the present study we analyzed miRNA and mRNA expression profiles in human peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBLs) incubated in microgravity condition simulated by a...

  2. Epstein - Barr virus expression in Hodgkin's disease: Correlation withhistologic subtypes and T and B lymphocyte distribution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mourad, W.; Bazerbashi, S.; Alsohaibani, Mohamed O.; Saddik, M.

    1998-01-01

    The pathogenesis of Hodgkin's disease is linked to Epstein-Barr virus(EBV). Some histologic subtypes show a high level of viral expression. Theseinclude mixed cellularity (MCHD) and nodular sclerosis (NSHD) subtypes. GradeII NSHD is a more aggressive variant of HD. Lymphocyte predominant (LPHD) isa B cell lymphoproliferative disorder that has not been associated with EBVexpression. Infiltrating lymphocytes in HD are predominantly T lymphocytes,with minor component of B lymphocytes. In the current study, EBV expressionwas tested in cases of HD in relation to histologic subtypes. An attempt wasmade at correlating EBV expression with T and B lymphocyte distribution inlymph nodes involved by HD. Formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissue from 62cases of HD were tested for EBV and mRNA expression, using the EBER-1 probeand in situ hybridization. T and B lymphocyte distribution and their ratioswere evaluated using antibodies to T and B lymphocytes (UCHL-1 [CD45RO] andCD20, respectively), and the immunoperoxidase technique. The cases were seenin 38 male and 24 female patients, with an age range of 3 to 72 years (median25 years). There were 30 cases of grade I and 15 cases of grade II NSHD, 9cases of MCHD and 8 cases of LPHD. EBV mRNA expression was seen in 29 cases(46%). This expression was seen in 8 cases of grade I NSHD (26%), 13 cases ofgrade II NSHD (86%) and 8 cases of MCHD (88%). None of the cases of LPHDshowed viral expression. T to B lymphocytes ratios in EBV-positive casesranged from 1/6 to 8/1 and ranged from 2/1 to 20/1 in EBV-negative cases(P=0.06). Nine of the 29 positive cases (31%) showed equal T/B lymphocyteratios (n=4), or predominance of B lymphocytes (n=5). None of theEBV-negative cases showed predominance of B lymphocytes. Our study confirmedpreviously reported findings of the prevalence of EBV expression in MCHD andNSHD. Our findings also suggest that EBV expression may be more commonly seenin aggressive forms of HD. Decreased number of T lymphocytes in

  3. Expression of a single, viral oncoprotein in skin epithelium is sufficient to recruit lymphocytes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Allison Choyce

    Full Text Available Established cancers are frequently associated with a lymphocytic infiltrate that fails to clear the tumour mass. In contrast, the importance of recruited lymphocytes during premalignancy is less well understood. In a mouse model of premalignant skin epithelium, transgenic mice that express the human papillomavirus type 16 (HPV16 E7 oncoprotein under a keratin 14 promoter (K14E7 mice display epidermal hyperplasia and have a predominant infiltrate of lymphocytes consisting of both CD4 and CD8 T cells. Activated, but not naïve T cells, were shown to preferentially traffic to hyperplastic skin with an increased frequency of proliferative CD8+ T cells and CD4+ T cells expressing CCR6 within the tissue. Disruption of the interaction between E7 protein and retinoblastoma tumour suppressor protein (pRb led to reduced epithelial hyperplasia and T cell infiltrate. Finally, while K14E7 donor skin grafts are readily accepted onto syngeneic, non-transgenic recipients, these same skin grafts lacking skin-resident lymphocytes were rejected. Our data suggests that expression of a single oncoprotein in the epidermis is sufficient for lymphocyte trafficking (including immunosuppressive lymphocytes to premalignant skin.

  4. Arctigenin from Arctium lappa inhibits interleukin-2 and interferon gene expression in primary human T lymphocytes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background Arctium lappa (Niubang), a Chinese herbal medicine, is used to treat tissue inflammation. This study investigates the effects of arctigenin (AC), isolated from A. lappa, on anti-CD3/CD28 Ab-stimulated cell proliferation and cytokine gene expression in primary human T lymphocytes. Methods Cell proliferation was determined with enzyme immunoassays and the tritiated thymidine uptake method. Cytokine production and gene expression were analyzed with reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. Results AC inhibited primary human T lymphocytes proliferation activated by anti-CD3/CD28 Ab. Cell viability test indicated that the inhibitory effects of AC on primary human T lymphocyte proliferation were not due to direct cytotoxicity. AC suppressed interleukin-2 (IL-2) and interferon-γ (IFN-γ) production in a concentration-dependent manner. Furthermore, AC decreased the IL-2 and IFN-γ gene expression in primary human T lymphocytes induced by anti-CD3/CD28 Ab. Reporter gene analyses revealed that AC decreased NF-AT-mediated reporter gene expression. Conclusion AC inhibited T lymphocyte proliferation and decreased the gene expression of IL-2, IFN-γ and NF-AT. PMID:21435270

  5. Arctigenin from Arctium lappa inhibits interleukin-2 and interferon gene expression in primary human T lymphocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Wei-Jern; Chang, Chu-Ting; Wang, Guei-Jane; Lee, Tzong-Huei; Chang, Shwu-Fen; Lu, Shao-Chun; Kuo, Yuh-Chi

    2011-03-25

    Arctium lappa (Niubang), a Chinese herbal medicine, is used to treat tissue inflammation. This study investigates the effects of arctigenin (AC), isolated from A. lappa, on anti-CD3/CD28 Ab-stimulated cell proliferation and cytokine gene expression in primary human T lymphocytes. Cell proliferation was determined with enzyme immunoassays and the tritiated thymidine uptake method. Cytokine production and gene expression were analyzed with reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. AC inhibited primary human T lymphocytes proliferation activated by anti-CD3/CD28 Ab. Cell viability test indicated that the inhibitory effects of AC on primary human T lymphocyte proliferation were not due to direct cytotoxicity. AC suppressed interleukin-2 (IL-2) and interferon-γ (IFN-γ) production in a concentration-dependent manner. Furthermore, AC decreased the IL-2 and IFN-γ gene expression in primary human T lymphocytes induced by anti-CD3/CD28 Ab. Reporter gene analyses revealed that AC decreased NF-AT-mediated reporter gene expression. AC inhibited T lymphocyte proliferation and decreased the gene expression of IL-2, IFN-γ and NF-AT.

  6. Arctigenin from Arctium lappa inhibits interleukin-2 and interferon gene expression in primary human T lymphocytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chang Shwu-Fen

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Arctium lappa (Niubang, a Chinese herbal medicine, is used to treat tissue inflammation. This study investigates the effects of arctigenin (AC, isolated from A. lappa, on anti-CD3/CD28 Ab-stimulated cell proliferation and cytokine gene expression in primary human T lymphocytes. Methods Cell proliferation was determined with enzyme immunoassays and the tritiated thymidine uptake method. Cytokine production and gene expression were analyzed with reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. Results AC inhibited primary human T lymphocytes proliferation activated by anti-CD3/CD28 Ab. Cell viability test indicated that the inhibitory effects of AC on primary human T lymphocyte proliferation were not due to direct cytotoxicity. AC suppressed interleukin-2 (IL-2 and interferon-γ (IFN-γ production in a concentration-dependent manner. Furthermore, AC decreased the IL-2 and IFN-γ gene expression in primary human T lymphocytes induced by anti-CD3/CD28 Ab. Reporter gene analyses revealed that AC decreased NF-AT-mediated reporter gene expression. Conclusion AC inhibited T lymphocyte proliferation and decreased the gene expression of IL-2, IFN-γ and NF-AT.

  7. Curcumin blocks interleukin (IL)-2 signaling in T-lymphocytes by inhibiting IL-2 synthesis, CD25 expression, and IL-2 receptor signaling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Forward, Nicholas A.; Conrad, David M. [Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Dalhousie University, Halifax, Nova Scotia (Canada); Power Coombs, Melanie R.; Doucette, Carolyn D. [Department of Pathology, Dalhousie University, Halifax, Nova Scotia (Canada); Furlong, Suzanne J. [Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Dalhousie University, Halifax, Nova Scotia (Canada); Lin, Tong-Jun [Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Dalhousie University, Halifax, Nova Scotia (Canada); Department of Pediatrics, Dalhousie University, Halifax, Nova Scotia (Canada); Hoskin, David W., E-mail: d.w.hoskin@dal.ca [Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Dalhousie University, Halifax, Nova Scotia (Canada); Department of Pathology, Dalhousie University, Halifax, Nova Scotia (Canada); Department of Surgery, Dalhousie University, Halifax, Nova Scotia (Canada)

    2011-04-22

    Highlights: {yields} Curcumin inhibits CD4{sup +} T-lymphocyte proliferation. {yields} Curcumin inhibits interleukin-2 (IL-2) synthesis and CD25 expression by CD4{sup +} T-lymphocytes. {yields} Curcumin interferes with IL-2 receptor signaling by inhibiting JAK3 and STAT5 phosphorylation. {yields} IL-2-dependent regulatory T-lymphocyte function and Foxp3 expression is downregulated by curcumin. -- Abstract: Curcumin (diferulomethane) is the principal curcuminoid in the spice tumeric and a potent inhibitor of activation-induced T-lymphocyte proliferation; however, the molecular basis of this immunosuppressive effect has not been well studied. Here we show that micromolar concentrations of curcumin inhibited DNA synthesis by mouse CD4{sup +} T-lymphocytes, as well as interleukin-2 (IL-2) and CD25 ({alpha} chain of the high affinity IL-2 receptor) expression in response to antibody-mediated cross-linking of CD3 and CD28. Curcumin acted downstream of protein kinase C activation and intracellular Ca{sup 2+} release to inhibit I{kappa}B phosphorylation, which is required for nuclear translocation of the transcription factor NF{kappa}B. In addition, IL-2-dependent DNA synthesis by mouse CTLL-2 cells, but not constitutive CD25 expression, was impaired in the presence of curcumin, which demonstrated an inhibitory effect on IL-2 receptor (IL-2R) signaling. IL-2-induced phosphorylation of STAT5A and JAK3, but not JAK1, was diminished in the presence of curcumin, indicating inhibition of critical proximal events in IL-2R signaling. In line with the inhibitory action of curcumin on IL-2R signaling, pretreatment of CD4{sup +}CD25{sup +} regulatory T-cells with curcumin downregulated suppressor function, as well as forkhead box p3 (Foxp3) expression. We conclude that curcumin inhibits IL-2 signaling by reducing available IL-2 and high affinity IL-2R, as well as interfering with IL-2R signaling.

  8. Curcumin blocks interleukin (IL)-2 signaling in T-lymphocytes by inhibiting IL-2 synthesis, CD25 expression, and IL-2 receptor signaling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Forward, Nicholas A.; Conrad, David M.; Power Coombs, Melanie R.; Doucette, Carolyn D.; Furlong, Suzanne J.; Lin, Tong-Jun; Hoskin, David W.

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → Curcumin inhibits CD4 + T-lymphocyte proliferation. → Curcumin inhibits interleukin-2 (IL-2) synthesis and CD25 expression by CD4 + T-lymphocytes. → Curcumin interferes with IL-2 receptor signaling by inhibiting JAK3 and STAT5 phosphorylation. → IL-2-dependent regulatory T-lymphocyte function and Foxp3 expression is downregulated by curcumin. -- Abstract: Curcumin (diferulomethane) is the principal curcuminoid in the spice tumeric and a potent inhibitor of activation-induced T-lymphocyte proliferation; however, the molecular basis of this immunosuppressive effect has not been well studied. Here we show that micromolar concentrations of curcumin inhibited DNA synthesis by mouse CD4 + T-lymphocytes, as well as interleukin-2 (IL-2) and CD25 (α chain of the high affinity IL-2 receptor) expression in response to antibody-mediated cross-linking of CD3 and CD28. Curcumin acted downstream of protein kinase C activation and intracellular Ca 2+ release to inhibit IκB phosphorylation, which is required for nuclear translocation of the transcription factor NFκB. In addition, IL-2-dependent DNA synthesis by mouse CTLL-2 cells, but not constitutive CD25 expression, was impaired in the presence of curcumin, which demonstrated an inhibitory effect on IL-2 receptor (IL-2R) signaling. IL-2-induced phosphorylation of STAT5A and JAK3, but not JAK1, was diminished in the presence of curcumin, indicating inhibition of critical proximal events in IL-2R signaling. In line with the inhibitory action of curcumin on IL-2R signaling, pretreatment of CD4 + CD25 + regulatory T-cells with curcumin downregulated suppressor function, as well as forkhead box p3 (Foxp3) expression. We conclude that curcumin inhibits IL-2 signaling by reducing available IL-2 and high affinity IL-2R, as well as interfering with IL-2R signaling.

  9. Lymphocytes from wasted mice express enhanced spontaneous and {gamma}-ray-induced apoptosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Woloschak, G.E. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States)]|[Loyola Univ. Medical Center, Maywood, IL (United States); Chang-Liu, Chin-Mei [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); Chung, Jen; Libertin, C.R. [Loyola Univ. Medical Center, Maywood, IL (United States)

    1993-09-01

    Mice bearing the autosomal recessive mutation wasted (wst/wst) display a disease pattern including faulty repair of DNA damage in lymphocytes after radiation exposure, neurologic abnormalities, and immunodeficiency. Many of the features of this mouse model have suggested a premature or increased spontaneous frequency of apoptosis in thymocytes; past work has shown an inability to establish cultured T cell lines, an abnormally high death rate of stimulated T cells in culture, and an increased sensitivity of T cells to the killing effects of ionizing radiations in wst/wst mice relative to controls. The experiments reported here were designed to examine splenic and thymic lymphocytes from wasted and control mice for signs of early apoptosis. Our results revealed enhanced expression of Rp-8 mRNA (associated with apoptosis) in thymic lymphocytes and reduced expression in splenic lymphocytes of wst/wst mice relative to controls; expression of Rp-2 and Td-30 mRNA (induced during apoptosis) were not detectable in spleen or thymus. Higher spontaneous DNA fragmentation was observed in wasted mice than in controls; however, {gamma}-ray-induced DNA fragmentation peaked at a lower dose and occurred to a greater extent in wasted mice relative to controls. These results provide evidence for high spontaneous and {gamma}-ray-induced apoptosis in T cells of wasted mice as a mechanism underlying the observed lymphocyte and DNA repair abnormalities.

  10. Influence of artificial carbon nanotubes on expression of Rb gene and viability of lymphocytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhornik, E.V.

    2010-01-01

    Nanotechnologies that received the development last decades are the most perspective field of modern engineering and medicine. Alongside with the strong advantages nanoparticles can render negative influence on living cells and organisms. In connection with increasing use of nanotechnologies there is the necessity of studying the potential toxicity related to influence of nanoparticles. The changes in expression of Rb gene of human lymphocytes after short-term action of multiwalled carbon nanotubes at 100 mg/ml concentration was investigated to assess the potential risks of using the artificial nanotubes, and also the vitality of blood lymphocytes after their incubation with artificial nanotubes. The increase in the expression of Rb gene in time-dependent manner and the influence of nanoparticles on survival rate of lymphocytes in comparison with control samples were shown. (authors)

  11. Efficient expression of SRK intracellular domain by a modeling-based protein engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murase, Kohji; Hirano, Yoshinori; Takayama, Seiji; Hakoshima, Toshio

    2017-03-01

    S-locus protein kinase (SRK) is a receptor kinase that plays a critical role in self-recognition in the Brassicaceae self-incompatibility (SI) response. SRK is activated by binding of its ligand S-locus protein 11 (SP11) and subsequently induced phosphorylation of the intracellular kinase domain. However, a detailed activation mechanism of SRK is still largely unknown because of the difficulty in stably expressing SRK recombinant proteins. Here, we performed modeling-based protein engineering of the SRK kinase domain for stable expression in Escherichia coli. The engineered SRK intracellular domain was expressed about 54-fold higher production than wild type SRK, without loss of the kinase activity, suggesting it could be useful for further biochemical and structural studies. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Effects of smoking on activation markers, Fas expression and apoptosis of peripheral blood lymphocytes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bijl, Marc; Limburg, Piet; Kallenberg, Cees; Horst, G.

    Background Smoking influences numbers and function of peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBL) by a process that is badly understood. We conducted this study to evaluate whether the immune impairment of smoking might be related to changes in the expression or functionality of Fas, a cell surface molecule

  13. GATA-3 EXPRESSION IN PERIPHERAL BLOOD LYMPHOCYTES OF PATIENTS WITH BRONCHIAL ASTHMA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. N. Mineev

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study is to establish the features of expression of GATA-3 in peripheral lymphocytes from bronchial asthma patients (BA. Material and methods. 10 healthy controls, 15 patients with allergic (atopic and 15 persons with non-allergic BA were examined. A transcription factor GATA-3 expressed in peripheral lymphocytes was analyzed by Western blot after the lymphocytes were lysed. Preparation of cell lysates, and Western blotting were performed by means of a standard procedure (Amersham. An antibody against GATA-3 (Abcam, UK was used. Levels of the protein were analyzed versus β-actin levels using anti-actin antibody (Sigma Aldrich, USA. Results. Expression of GATA-3 was significantly increased in lymphocytes of patients with allergic BA as compared to healthy persons and non-allergic BA patients. The level of GATA-3 negatively correlated with the degree of airflow obstruction and positively correlated with dosage of parenteral steroids administered. Conclusion. GATA-3 may play a key role in the pathophysiology of BA. One may suggest that increased expression of GATA-3 transcription factor in atopic BA underlie high levels of Th2-cytokines production in allergic disease

  14. Low dose radiation induced protein and its effect on expression of CD25 molecule in lymphocytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu Duicai; Su Liaoyuan

    2001-01-01

    Objective: To find the substantial basis for effects of low dose radiation, on development, extraction, and the biogical activity of the low-dose radiation-induced proteins, and the effects of LDR induced proteins on CD25 molecule expression of human lymphocytes. Methods: 1. Healthy Kumning male mice exposed to radiation of 226 Ra γ-rays at 5, 10 and 15 cGy respectively. The mice were killed 2 hours after exposure, the spleen cells were broken with ultrasonic energy and then ultra-centrifugalized at low temperature (4 degree C). The LDR-induced proteins were obtained in the supernatant solution. Then the changes of CD25 molecule was measured by flow cytometry (FCM) with immunofluorescence technique, which was used to reflect the effect of LDR induced proteins on CD25 molecule expression of human lymphocytes. Results: LDR induced proteins were obtained from spleen cells in mice exposed to 5-15 cGy whole body radiation. Conclusion: The expression of CD25 molecule of lymphocytes was increased significantly after use of LDR induced proteins. LDR induced proteins can enhance expression of CD25 molecule of lymphocytes slightly

  15. Expression of adhesion and activation molecules on lymphocytes during open-heart surgery with cardiopulmonary bypass

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toft, P; Tønnesen, Else Kirstine; Zülow, I

    1997-01-01

    Open-heart surgery with cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) and abdominal surgery are associated with lymphocytopenia. We measured a panel of adhesion and activation molecules on lymphocytes to clarify possible association of CPB with increased expression of these molecules. Eight patients undergoing open...

  16. A comparative immunohistochemical and immunophenotypical study on lymphocytes expression in patients affected by oral lichen planus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorenzini, Guido; Viviano, Massimo; Chisci, Elettra; Chisci, Glauco; Picciotti, Maria

    2013-09-01

    Oral lichen planus (OLP) is an immune-mediated mucocutaneous disease of uncertain aetiology. OLP has many manifestations: reticular, erosive, atrophic, plaque like, papular, bullous, with unique etiopathogenetic working. The purpose of this study is to find a link between different clinical types of lichen and the alterations of lymphocytes on peripheral blood and oral mucosa. A total of 21 patients were enrolled in this study. The mean age of patients was 53.82 years, between 31 and 78 years. OLP Diagnosis was afterwards confirmed by histopathology. Selected patients underwent to clinical evaluation, lesion characterization, incisional biopsy, samples histological analysis, peripheral blood collection. Blood specimens were submitted to cell count determination with differential, characterization of populations and circulating lymphocyte subpopulations using monoclonal antibodies in flow cytometry. Referring to the clinical presentation of lesions, patients were divided in two groups: red lesions (RL) and white lesions (WL) and compared with an age-matched control group. The results of the immunophenotypic study showed correlation between WL and the expression of CD19 lymphocytes (r = 0.693, P = 0.0005). The results of immunohistochemical study performed on histological specimens showed a significant correlation between RL group and expression of all lymphocyte tested (CD3 r = 0.722 P = 0.0002, CD4 r = 0.579 P = 0.0060, CD56 r = 0.513 P = 0.0173, CD8 r = 0.548 P = 0.0102). We assume there is the responsibility of the expression of lymphocytes, not only type but also as quantity, in determining RL or WL manifestation of OLP. Circulating lymphocytes may have a role, too. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Characterization of a novel human scavenger receptor cysteine-rich molecule SCART1 expressed by lymphocytes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm, D.; Fink, D. R.; Steffensen, M. A.

    2013-01-01

    a member of the SRCR superfamily, mSCART1, which primarily is expressed on a large subset of γδ T cells in mice. Here we report the cloning and characterization of human SCART1 (hSCART1) mainly expressed by CD4(+) and CD8(+) T lymphocytes. The hSCART1 gene maps to chromosome 10, region q26.3, a region...... domain. Shorter splice forms have also been isolated. Quantitative real-time PCR analysis on human blood-fractions has shown that hSCART1 is expressed primarily by CD4(+) and CD8(+) T lymphocytes with either αβ or γδ T cell receptors, and real-time PCR on 22 different human tissues showed high expression...... that the protein plays a role in the immune system, perhaps as a co-receptor on αβ and γδ T cells....

  18. Expression of adhesion and activation molecules on lymphocytes during open-heart surgery with cardiopulmonary bypass

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toft, P; Tønnesen, Else Kirstine; Zülow, I

    1997-01-01

    Open-heart surgery with cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) and abdominal surgery are associated with lymphocytopenia. We measured a panel of adhesion and activation molecules on lymphocytes to clarify possible association of CPB with increased expression of these molecules. Eight patients undergoing open-heart...... open-heart and abdominal surgery. The proportion of CD11a/CD18-positive lymphocytes rose from 67.6 +/- 8% to 86.4 +/- 3% after aortic declamping (p open-heart as well as abdominal operations. Thus CPB...

  19. Changes in lymphocyte subsets due to local irradiation of a portion of the maxilla in mice. A study of intracellular cytokine detection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Momoi, Yukiko; Shirakawa, Masayori; Satoh, Daigo; Yosue, Takashi

    2008-01-01

    It is critical for dentists who perform radiation therapy to comprehend immunity, because irradiation therapy may damage lymphocytes. After local irradiation to the maxillary area of mice, naive T cells and memory T cells in the spleen, and Th1/Th2 balance and Tc1/Tc2 balance were investigated by intracellular cytokine detection. Female BALB/c mice at 5 weeks of age were adopted for the experiments. In the irradiation groups, a portion of the maxilla was exposed to X-rays (2.0 Gy/min, 10 Gy). Then lymphocytes were analyzed using flow cytometry (anti-CD4, CD62L-selectin and CD45RB monoclonal antibodies). The percentage of Th1 cells, Th2 cells, Tc1 cells, and Tc2 cells and the ratio of Th1/Th2 and Tc1/Tc2 were analyzed by intracellular cytokine detection, and the findings were compared with those of non-irradiated groups. The observation was performed 1 day before irradiation and 1, 3, 7, and 14 days after irradiation. The absolute number of naive T cells was significantly lower 1 and 3 days after irradiation. However, the absolute number of memory T cells did not change significantly after irradiation. The percentage of Th1, Th2, Tc1, and Tc2 cells did not change significantly after irradiation, either. There were no significant differences in the Th1/Th2 ratio and Tc1/Tc2 ratio were observed after irradiation. It was suggested that after the local irradiation the absolute number of naive T cells decreased, that the effect on memory T cells was minimal, and that irradiation did not affect either the ratio of Th1/Th2 nor that of Tc1/Tc2. (author)

  20. Inorganic arsenic represses interleukin-17A expression in human activated Th17 lymphocytes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morzadec, Claudie; Macoch, Mélinda; Robineau, Marc; Sparfel, Lydie [UMR INSERM U1085, Institut de Recherche sur la Santé, l' Environnement et le Travail (IRSET), Université de Rennes 1, 2 avenue du Professeur Léon Bernard, 35043 Rennes (France); Fardel, Olivier [UMR INSERM U1085, Institut de Recherche sur la Santé, l' Environnement et le Travail (IRSET), Université de Rennes 1, 2 avenue du Professeur Léon Bernard, 35043 Rennes (France); Pôle Biologie, Centre Hospitalier Universitaire (CHU) Rennes, 2 rue Henri Le Guilloux, 35033 Rennes (France); Vernhet, Laurent, E-mail: laurent.vernhet@univ-rennes1.fr [UMR INSERM U1085, Institut de Recherche sur la Santé, l' Environnement et le Travail (IRSET), Université de Rennes 1, 2 avenue du Professeur Léon Bernard, 35043 Rennes (France)

    2012-08-01

    Trivalent inorganic arsenic [As(III)] is an efficient anticancer agent used to treat patients suffering from acute promyelocytic leukemia. Recently, experimental studies have clearly demonstrated that this metalloid can also cure lymphoproliferative and/or pro-inflammatory syndromes in different murine models of chronic immune-mediated diseases. T helper (Th) 1 and Th17 lymphocytes play a central role in development of these diseases, in mice and humans, especially by secreting the potent pro-inflammatory cytokine interferon-γ and IL-17A, respectively. As(III) impairs basic functions of human T cells but its ability to modulate secretion of pro-inflammatory cytokines by differentiated Th lymphocytes is unknown. In the present study, we demonstrate that As(III), used at concentrations clinically achievable in plasma of patients, has no effect on the secretion of interferon-γ from Th1 cells but almost totally blocks the expression and the release of IL-17A from human Th17 lymphocytes co-stimulated for five days with anti-CD3 and anti-CD28 antibodies, in the presence of differentiating cytokines. In addition, As(III) specifically reduces mRNA levels of the retinoic-related orphan receptor (ROR)C gene which encodes RORγt, a key transcription factor controlling optimal IL-17 expression in fully differentiated Th17 cells. The metalloid also blocks initial expression of IL-17 gene induced by the co-stimulation, probably in part by impairing activation of the JNK/c-Jun pathway. In conclusion, our results demonstrate that As(III) represses expression of the major pro-inflammatory cytokine IL-17A produced by human Th17 lymphocytes, thus strengthening the idea that As(III) may be useful to treat inflammatory immune-mediated diseases in humans. -- Highlights: ► Arsenic inhibits secretion of IL-17A from human naïve and memory Th17 lymphocytes. ► Arsenic represses early expression of IL-17A gene in human activated T lymphocytes. ► Arsenic interferes with activation of

  1. PTK2 expression and immunochemotherapy outcome in chronic lymphocytic leukemia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Weisser, Martin; Yeh, Ru-Fang; Duchateau-Nguyen, Guillemette

    2014-01-01

    with improved outcomes for CLL patients treated with R-FC vs FC. PTK2 expression may be a useful biomarker for patient selection in future trials. These trials were registered at www.clinicaltrials.gov as #NCT00090051 (REACH) and #NCT00281918 (CLL8)....... assessed genome-wide expression of 300 pretreatment specimens from a subset of 552 patients in REACH, a study of FC or R-FC in relapsed CLL. An independent test set was derived from 282 pretreatment specimens from CLL8, a study of FC or R-FC in treatment-naïve patients. Genes specific for benefit from R-FC...... were determined by assessing treatment-gene interactions in Cox proportional hazards models. REACH patients with higher pretreatment protein tyrosine kinase 2 (PTK2) messenger RNA levels derived greater benefit from R-FC, with significant improvements in progression-free survival, independent of known...

  2. Differential expression gene profiling in human lymphocyte after 6 h irradiated

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Jianguo; Qin Xiujun; Zhang Wei; Xu Chaoqi; Li Weibin; Dang Xuhong; Zuo Yahui

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To provide the evidence of health damage for the staff irradiated from the gene level. Methods: The study analyzed the differential transcriptional profile of normal human lymphocyte and human lymphocyte irradiated with 0.1 Gy, 0.2 Gy, 0.5 Gy, 1.0 Gy by whole genome chip after 6 h irradiated. Results: The results showed that there were 1177 differentially expressed genes with 0.1 Gy after 6 h irradiation, and there were 1922 differentially expressed genes with 0.2 Gy after 6 h irradiation, and there were 492 differentially expressed genes with 0.5 Gy after 6 h irradiation, 2615 differentially expressed genes with 1.0 Gy after 6 h irradiation, 114 differentially expressed genes in 4 dose points after 6 h irradiation. RT-PCR results indicated that the relative quantity's result of EGR1, HLA-DMB and TAIAP1 was consistent with gene chip data. Conclusion: The study found many significant different genes in human lymphocyte with different doses after 6 h irradiation, which will provide a basis for the further radiation-different-genes and the mechanism of radiation damage. (authors)

  3. Cryptochrome-1 expression: a new prognostic marker in B-cell chronic lymphocytic leukemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewintre, Eloisa Jantus; Martín, Cristina Reinoso; Ballesteros, Carlos García; Montaner, David; Rivera, Rosa Farrás; Mayans, José Ramón; García-Conde, Javier

    2009-02-01

    Chronic lymphocytic leukemia is an adult-onset leukemia with a heterogeneous clinical behavior. When chronic lymphocytic leukemia cases were divided on the basis of IgV(H) mutational status, widely differing clinical courses were revealed. Since IgV(H) sequencing is difficult to perform in a routine diagnostic laboratory, finding a surrogate for IgV(H) mutational status seems an important priority. In the present study, we proposed the use of Cryptochrome-1 as a new prognostic marker in early-stage chronic lymphocytic leukemia. Seventy patients (Binet stage A, without treatment) were included in the study. We correlated Cryptochrome-1 mRNA with well established prognostic markers such as IgV(H) mutations, ZAP70, LPL or CD38 expression and chromosomal abnormalities. High Cryptochrome-1 expression correlated with IgV(H) unmutated samples. In addition, Cryptochrome-1 was a valuable predictor of disease progression in early-stage chronic lymphocytic leukemia, therefore it can be introduced in clinical practice with the advantage of a simplified method of quantification.

  4. Determination of Six Transmembrane Protein of Prostate 2 Gene Expression and Intracellular Localization in Prostate Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bora İrer

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: In this study, we aimed to determine the relationship between the RNA and protein expression profile of six transmembrane protein of prostate 2 (STAMP2 gene and androgen and the intracellular localization of STAMP2. Materials and Methods: RNA and protein were obtained from androgen treated lymph node carcinoma of the prostate (LNCaP cells, untreated LNCaP cells, DU145 cells with no androgen receptor, and STAMP2 transfected COS-7 cells. The expression profile of STAMP2 gene and the effect of androgenes on the expression was shown in RNA and protein levels by using Northern and Western blotting methods. In addition, intracellular localization of the naturally synthesized STAMP2 protein and the transfected STAMP2 protein in COS-7 cells after androgen administration in both LNCaP cells was determined by immunofluorescence microscopy. Results: We found that the RNA and protein expression of STAMP2 gene in LNCaP cells are regulated by androgenes, the power of expression is increased with the duration of androgen treatment and there is no STAMP2 expression in DU145 cells which has no androgen receptor. As a result of the immunofluorescence microscopy study we observed that STAMP2 protein was localized at golgi complex and cell membrane. Conclusion: In conclusion, we have demonstrated that STAMP2 may play an important role in the pathogenesis of the prostate cancer and in the androgen-dependent androgen-independent staging of prostate cancer. In addition, STAMP2 protein, which is localized in the intracellular golgi complex and cell membrane, may be a new target molecule for prostate cancer diagnosis and treatment.

  5. Elevated D8/17 expression on B lymphocytes, a marker of rheumatic fever, measured with flow cytometry in tic disorder patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoekstra, PJ; Bijzet, J; Limburg, PC; Steenhuis, MP; Troost, PW; Oosterhoff, MD; Korf, J; Kallenberg, CGM; Minderaa, RB

    Objective: Elevated D8/17 expression on B lymphocytes is a known susceptibility marker of rheumatic fever. Previous studies have reported higher than usual D8/ 17 expression on B lymphocytes of patients with tic disorders. The purpose of this study was to assess D8/17 expression on B lymphocytes of

  6. Intracellular expression of toll-like receptor 4 in neuroblastoma cells and their unresponsiveness to lipopolysaccharide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mori Isamu

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Recently it has been reported that, toll-like receptors (TLRs are expressed on a series of tumor cells, such as colon cancer, breast cancer, prostate cancer, melanoma and lung cancer. Although some cancer cells like melanoma cells are known to respond to lipopolysaccharide (LPS via TLR4, not all cancer cells are positive for TLR4. There is little information on the expression and function of TLR4 in neuroblastoma cells. In this study, we investigated the expression of TLR4 in human neuroblastoma NB-1 cell line. Methods Expression and localization of TLR4 were detected by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR and flow cytometric analysis, respectively. Activation of nuclear factor (NF-κB by LPS was detected by degradation of IκB-α and NF-κB luciferase assay. Activation and expression of mitogen-activated protein (MAP kinase and interferon regulatory factor (IRF-3 was detected by immunoblot analysis. Results Human NB-1 neuroblastoma cells expressed intracellular form of TLR4, but not the cell surface form. Further, NB-1 cells express CD14, MD2 and MyD88, which are required for LPS response. However, LPS did not significantly induce NF-κB activation in NB-1 cells although it slightly degraded IκB-α. NB-1 cells expressed no IRF-3, which plays a pivotal role on the MyD88-independent pathway of LPS signaling. Collectively, NB-1 cells are capable to avoid their response to LPS. Conclusion Although human NB-1 neuroblastoma cells possessed all the molecules required for LPS response, they did not respond to LPS. It might be responsible for intracellular expression of TLR4 or lack of IRF-3.

  7. Intracellular expression of toll-like receptor 4 in neuroblastoma cells and their unresponsiveness to lipopolysaccharide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hassan, Ferdaus; Islam, Shamima; Tumurkhuu, Gantsetseg; Naiki, Yoshikazu; Koide, Naoki; Mori, Isamu; Yoshida, Tomoaki; Yokochi, Takashi

    2006-01-01

    Recently it has been reported that, toll-like receptors (TLRs) are expressed on a series of tumor cells, such as colon cancer, breast cancer, prostate cancer, melanoma and lung cancer. Although some cancer cells like melanoma cells are known to respond to lipopolysaccharide (LPS) via TLR4, not all cancer cells are positive for TLR4. There is little information on the expression and function of TLR4 in neuroblastoma cells. In this study, we investigated the expression of TLR4 in human neuroblastoma NB-1 cell line. Expression and localization of TLR4 were detected by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and flow cytometric analysis, respectively. Activation of nuclear factor (NF)-κB by LPS was detected by degradation of IκB-α and NF-κB luciferase assay. Activation and expression of mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase and interferon regulatory factor (IRF)-3 was detected by immunoblot analysis. Human NB-1 neuroblastoma cells expressed intracellular form of TLR4, but not the cell surface form. Further, NB-1 cells express CD14, MD2 and MyD88, which are required for LPS response. However, LPS did not significantly induce NF-κB activation in NB-1 cells although it slightly degraded IκB-α. NB-1 cells expressed no IRF-3, which plays a pivotal role on the MyD88-independent pathway of LPS signaling. Collectively, NB-1 cells are capable to avoid their response to LPS. Although human NB-1 neuroblastoma cells possessed all the molecules required for LPS response, they did not respond to LPS. It might be responsible for intracellular expression of TLR4 or lack of IRF-3

  8. RNAi reduces expression and intracellular retention of mutant cartilage oligomeric matrix protein.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen L Posey

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Mutations in cartilage oligomeric matrix protein (COMP, a large extracellular glycoprotein expressed in musculoskeletal tissues, cause two skeletal dysplasias, pseudoachondroplasia and multiple epiphyseal dysplasia. These mutations lead to massive intracellular retention of COMP, chondrocyte death and loss of growth plate chondrocytes that are necessary for linear growth. In contrast, COMP null mice have only minor growth plate abnormalities, normal growth and longevity. This suggests that reducing mutant and wild-type COMP expression in chondrocytes may prevent the toxic cellular phenotype causing the skeletal dysplasias. We tested this hypothesis using RNA interference to reduce steady state levels of COMP mRNA. A panel of shRNAs directed against COMP was tested. One shRNA (3B reduced endogenous and recombinant COMP mRNA dramatically, regardless of expression levels. The activity of the shRNA against COMP mRNA was maintained for up to 10 weeks. We also demonstrate that this treatment reduced ER stress. Moreover, we show that reducing steady state levels of COMP mRNA alleviates intracellular retention of other extracellular matrix proteins associated with the pseudoachondroplasia cellular pathology. These findings are a proof of principle and the foundation for the development of a therapeutic intervention based on reduction of COMP expression.

  9. Search for microRNAs expressed by intracellular bacterial pathogens in infected mammalian cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furuse, Yuki; Finethy, Ryan; Saka, Hector A; Xet-Mull, Ana M; Sisk, Dana M; Smith, Kristen L Jurcic; Lee, Sunhee; Coers, Jörn; Valdivia, Raphael H; Tobin, David M; Cullen, Bryan R

    2014-01-01

    MicroRNAs are expressed by all multicellular organisms and play a critical role as post-transcriptional regulators of gene expression. Moreover, different microRNA species are known to influence the progression of a range of different diseases, including cancer and microbial infections. A number of different human viruses also encode microRNAs that can attenuate cellular innate immune responses and promote viral replication, and a fungal pathogen that infects plants has recently been shown to express microRNAs in infected cells that repress host cell immune responses and promote fungal pathogenesis. Here, we have used deep sequencing of total expressed small RNAs, as well as small RNAs associated with the cellular RNA-induced silencing complex RISC, to search for microRNAs that are potentially expressed by intracellular bacterial pathogens and translocated into infected animal cells. In the case of Legionella and Chlamydia and the two mycobacterial species M. smegmatis and M. tuberculosis, we failed to detect any bacterial small RNAs that had the characteristics expected for authentic microRNAs, although large numbers of small RNAs of bacterial origin could be recovered. However, a third mycobacterial species, M. marinum, did express an ∼ 23-nt small RNA that was bound by RISC and derived from an RNA stem-loop with the characteristics expected for a pre-microRNA. While intracellular expression of this candidate bacterial microRNA was too low to effectively repress target mRNA species in infected cultured cells in vitro, artificial overexpression of this potential bacterial pre-microRNA did result in the efficient repression of a target mRNA. This bacterial small RNA therefore represents the first candidate microRNA of bacterial origin.

  10. Search for microRNAs expressed by intracellular bacterial pathogens in infected mammalian cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuki Furuse

    Full Text Available MicroRNAs are expressed by all multicellular organisms and play a critical role as post-transcriptional regulators of gene expression. Moreover, different microRNA species are known to influence the progression of a range of different diseases, including cancer and microbial infections. A number of different human viruses also encode microRNAs that can attenuate cellular innate immune responses and promote viral replication, and a fungal pathogen that infects plants has recently been shown to express microRNAs in infected cells that repress host cell immune responses and promote fungal pathogenesis. Here, we have used deep sequencing of total expressed small RNAs, as well as small RNAs associated with the cellular RNA-induced silencing complex RISC, to search for microRNAs that are potentially expressed by intracellular bacterial pathogens and translocated into infected animal cells. In the case of Legionella and Chlamydia and the two mycobacterial species M. smegmatis and M. tuberculosis, we failed to detect any bacterial small RNAs that had the characteristics expected for authentic microRNAs, although large numbers of small RNAs of bacterial origin could be recovered. However, a third mycobacterial species, M. marinum, did express an ∼ 23-nt small RNA that was bound by RISC and derived from an RNA stem-loop with the characteristics expected for a pre-microRNA. While intracellular expression of this candidate bacterial microRNA was too low to effectively repress target mRNA species in infected cultured cells in vitro, artificial overexpression of this potential bacterial pre-microRNA did result in the efficient repression of a target mRNA. This bacterial small RNA therefore represents the first candidate microRNA of bacterial origin.

  11. Study on ?H2AX Expression of Lymphocytes as a Biomarker In Radiation Biodosimetry

    OpenAIRE

    Pan, Yan; Gao, Gang; Ruan, Jian Lei; Liu, Jian Xiang

    2016-01-01

    Flow cytometry analysis was used to detect the changes of ?H2AX protein expression in human peripheral blood lymphocytes. In the dose-effect study, the expression of ?H2AX was detected 1 h after irradiation with 60Co ?-rays at doses of 0, 0.5, 1, 2, 4, and 6 Gy. Blood was cultivated for 0, 1, 2, 4, 6, 12, and 24 h after 4 Gy 60Co ?-rays irradiation for the time-effect study. At the same time, the blood was divided into four treatment groups (ultraviolet [UV] irradiation, 60Co ?-rays irradiati...

  12. In vitro stimulation of rabbit T lymphocytes by cells expressing herpes simplex antigens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapoor, A K; Ling, N R; Nash, A A; Bachan, A; Wildy, P

    1982-04-01

    Lymphocyte stimulation responses to herpes antigens were studied using virus-infected X-irradiated cells. Rabbits were immunized with herpes simplex virus type 1 (strain HFEM) grown in RK 13 cells. For in vitro stimulation assay BHK21 cells were X-irradiated (15 000 rad) and infected with a high m.o.i. of a temperature-sensitive (ts) mutant (N102) of HFEM strain at the non-permissive temperature (38.5 degrees C) of virus. Virus antigens were expressed on the infected cells and there was no leakage of infectious virus into the medium at 38.5 degrees C. T lymphocytes from rabbits immunized with herpes simplex virus were specifically activated by herpesvirus-infected X-irradiated cells; lymph node cells from rabbits immunized with RK13 cells and from non-immune rabbits showed no proliferative response.

  13. Inflammation and ER Stress Downregulate BDH2 Expression and Dysregulate Intracellular Iron in Macrophages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susu M. Zughaier

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Macrophages play a very important role in host defense and in iron homeostasis by engulfing senescent red blood cells and recycling iron. Hepcidin is the master iron regulating hormone that limits dietary iron absorption from the gut and limits iron egress from macrophages. Upon infection macrophages retain iron to limit its bioavailability which limits bacterial growth. Recently, a short chain butyrate dehydrogenase type 2 (BDH2 protein was reported to contain an iron responsive element and to mediate cellular iron trafficking by catalyzing the synthesis of the mammalian siderophore that binds labile iron; therefore, BDH2 plays a crucial role in intracellular iron homeostasis. However, BDH2 expression and regulation in macrophages have not yet been described. Here we show that LPS-induced inflammation combined with ER stress led to massive BDH2 downregulation, increased the expression of ER stress markers, upregulated hepcidin expression, downregulated ferroportin expression, caused iron retention in macrophages, and dysregulated cytokine release from macrophages. We also show that ER stress combined with inflammation synergistically upregulated the expression of the iron carrier protein NGAL and the stress-inducible heme degrading enzyme heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1 leading to iron liberation. This is the first report to show that inflammation and ER stress downregulate the expression of BDH2 in human THP-1 macrophages.

  14. Study of p53 protein expression levels from irradiated peripheral blood lymphocytes for biodosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cavalcanti, M.B.; Fernandes, T.S.; Melo, J.A.; Neves, M.A.B.; Machado, C.G.F

    2005-01-01

    Biodosimetry can be defined as the investigation of radioinduced biological effects in order to correlate them with the absorbed dose. Scoring of unstable chromosomal aberrations and micronuclei, from in vitro irradiated peripheral blood lymphocytes, is commonly used for biodosimetry based on cytogenetic analysis. However, this method of analysis is time-consuming, which may represent a pitfall when fast investigation of a possible exposure to ionizing radiation (IR) is needed. The interaction of IR with the living cell can cause injuries in the DNA molecules. However, normal cells possess mechanisms of repair that are capable to correct those damages. During the repair process of the DNA various proteins are expressed. Among these proteins, p53 plays an important role. This protein is a transcription factor that helps in the maintenance of the genomic integrity. p53 protein is found into the cytoplasm in reduced concentrations and has a short average life. However, expression of p53 protein can be induced by DNA harmful radioinduced, which increases the concentration and the average life of this protein, making possible its detection. Thus, the correlation between the increasing of p53 expression and the irradiation may constitute a fast and reliable method of individual monitoring in cases of accidental or suspected exposures to IR. In this context, the objective of this research was to evaluate the p53 protein expression levels from lymphocytes of the human peripheral blood after in vitro irradiation. For this, samples of peripheral blood from healthy individuals were irradiated with known doses. Lymphocytes were separated on ficoll gradient by centrifugation and re-suspended at 1x 10 6 /mL in RPMI medium enriched with fetal calf serum. Hence, lymphocytes were incubated in 5% CO 2 at 37 deg C prior to the methodology of flow cytometry, using intranuclear antigens for the quantification of p53. In this report, the methodology performed and the results obtained

  15. Study of p53 protein expression levels from irradiated peripheral blood lymphocytes for biodosimetry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cavalcanti, M.B.; Fernandes, T.S. [Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (UFPE), Recife, PE (Brazil). Dept. de Energia Nuclear; Amaral, A. [Universite Paris XII (UPXII) (France); Melo, J.A. [Centro de Radioterapia de Pernambuco (CERAPE), PE (Brazil); Neves, M.A.B.; Machado, C.G.F, E-mail: maribrayner@yahoo.com.br [Fundacao de Hematologia e Hemoterapia de Pernambuco, PE (Brazil)

    2005-07-01

    Biodosimetry can be defined as the investigation of radioinduced biological effects in order to correlate them with the absorbed dose. Scoring of unstable chromosomal aberrations and micronuclei, from in vitro irradiated peripheral blood lymphocytes, is commonly used for biodosimetry based on cytogenetic analysis. However, this method of analysis is time-consuming, which may represent a pitfall when fast investigation of a possible exposure to ionizing radiation (IR) is needed. The interaction of IR with the living cell can cause injuries in the DNA molecules. However, normal cells possess mechanisms of repair that are capable to correct those damages. During the repair process of the DNA various proteins are expressed. Among these proteins, p53 plays an important role. This protein is a transcription factor that helps in the maintenance of the genomic integrity. p53 protein is found into the cytoplasm in reduced concentrations and has a short average life. However, expression of p53 protein can be induced by DNA harmful radioinduced, which increases the concentration and the average life of this protein, making possible its detection. Thus, the correlation between the increasing of p53 expression and the irradiation may constitute a fast and reliable method of individual monitoring in cases of accidental or suspected exposures to IR. In this context, the objective of this research was to evaluate the p53 protein expression levels from lymphocytes of the human peripheral blood after in vitro irradiation. For this, samples of peripheral blood from healthy individuals were irradiated with known doses. Lymphocytes were separated on ficoll gradient by centrifugation and re-suspended at 1x 10{sub 6}/mL in RPMI medium enriched with fetal calf serum. Hence, lymphocytes were incubated in 5% CO{sub 2} at 37 deg C prior to the methodology of flow cytometry, using intranuclear antigens for the quantification of p53. In this report, the methodology performed and the results

  16. Effect of low dose irradiation on expression of membrane molecules of T lymphocytes in cord blood

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Chang'an; Yang Guang; Jia Tingzhen

    2001-01-01

    The membrane molecules expression of T lymphocytes of cord blood after low dose irradiation (LDI) was investigated. Freshly isolated lymphocytes from cord blood were irradiated with 62 mGy γ-ray. At different time (4 h, 12 h, 24 h) after irradiation the changes of TCR + , CD3 + , CD4 + , CD8 + cells were examined by flow cytometry with direct immunofluorescence, respectively. The experimental results showed that the proportion of CD3 + , TCR + /CD3 + , CD4 + , CD8 + cells increased significantly after LDI, with the most obvious enhancement noted in the 24 h experimental group. The ratio of CD4 to CD8 showed no significant changes. It is suggested that expedition of the maturation, activation and signal transduction of T lymphocytes from cord blood can be induced by irradiation of 62 mGy γ-ray. So the reconstruction of immune functions after cord blood transplantation can be accelerated, enhancing the graft versus leukemia (GVL) effect and preventing the tumor from relapsing

  17. Regulation of interferon receptor expression in human blood lymphocytes in vitro and during interferon therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lau, A.S.; Hannigan, G.E.; Freedman, M.H.; Williams, B.R.

    1986-01-01

    Interferons (IFN) elicit antiviral and antineoplastic activities by binding to specific receptors on the cell surface. The binding characteristics of IFN to human lymphocytes were studied using IFN alpha 2 labeled with 125 I to high specific activity. The specific binding curves generated were analyzed by the LIGAND program of Munson and Rodbard to determine receptor numbers. The number of receptors in peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBL) and tonsillar B-lymphocytes (TBL) from normal individuals were 505 +/- 293 (n = 10) and 393 +/- 147 (n = 3) respectively. When these cells were preincubated in vitro with unlabeled IFN alpha 2, the receptor number decreased to 82 +/- 45 and 61 +/- 16 respectively. Receptor binding activities recovered gradually over a period of 72 h when the cells were incubated in IFN-free medium. This recovery of receptors could be blocked by the addition of actinomycin D to the incubation medium. A similar decrease in receptor expression was observed in vivo in PBL from patients being treated daily with 5 X 10(6) units/m2 per d of IFN alpha 2 by subcutaneous injection, for acute lymphoblastic leukemia or papilloma virus infections. Receptor numbers in PBL in vivo were further reduced concurrent with the progression of IFN therapy. Thus, the reduction in IFN receptor expression observed in vitro can be demonstrated in vivo. These studies indicate that monitoring IFN receptor expression in vivo can provide information regarding the availability of IFN receptors at the cell surface for the mediation of IFN actions during the course of IFN therapy

  18. IL-17-Expressing CD4+ and CD8+ T Lymphocytes in Human Toxoplasmosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jéssica Líver Alves Silva

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to measure the synthesis of Th1 and Th2 cytokines by mononuclear cells after culture with live T. gondii and identified Th17 (CD4+ and Tc17 (CD8+ cells in toxoplasma-seronegative and toxoplasma-seropositive parturient and nonpregnant women. Cytometric bead arrays were used to measure cytokine levels (IL-2, TNF-α, IFN-γ, IL-4, IL-5, and IL-10; immunophenotyping was used to characterize Th17 and Tc17 cells, and the cells were stained with antibodies against CD4+ and CD8+ T cells expressing IL-17. The addition of tachyzoites to cell cultures induced the synthesis of IL-5, IL-10, and TNF-α by cells from seronegative parturient women and of IL-5 and IL-10 by cells from seropositive, nonpregnant women. We observed a lower level of IL-17-expressing CD4+ and CD8+ T lymphocytes in cultures of cells from seronegative and seropositive parturient and nonpregnant women that were stimulated with tachyzoites, whereas analysis of the CD4+ and CD8+ T cell populations showed a higher level of CD4+ T cells compared with CD8+ T cells. These results suggest that the cytokine pattern and IL-17-expressing CD4+ and CD8+ T lymphocytes may have important roles in the inflammatory response to T. gondii, thus contributing to the maintenance of pregnancy and control of parasite invasion and replication.

  19. Cell Adhesion Molecule and Lymphocyte Activation Marker Expression during Experimental Vaginal Candidiasis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wormley, Floyd L.; Chaiban, Joseph; Fidel, Paul L.

    2001-01-01

    Cell-mediated immunity by Th1-type CD4+ T cells is the predominant host defense mechanism against mucosal candidiasis. However, studies using an estrogen-dependent murine model of vaginal candidiasis have demonstrated little to no change in resident vaginal T cells during infection and no systemic T-cell infiltration despite the presence of Candida-specific systemic Th1-type responses in infected mice. The present study was designed to further investigate these observations by characterizing T-cell activation and cell adhesion molecule expression during primary and secondary C. albicans vaginal infections. While flow cytometry analysis of activation markers showed some evidence for activation of CD3+ draining lymph node and/or vaginal lymphocytes during both primary and secondary vaginal Candida infection, CD3+ cells expressing the homing receptors and integrins α4β7, αM290β7, and α4β1 in draining lymph nodes of mice with primary and secondary infections were reduced compared to results for uninfected mice. At the local level, few vaginal lymphocytes expressed integrins, with only minor changes observed during both primary and secondary infections. On the other hand, immunohistochemical analysis of vaginal cell adhesion molecule expression showed increases in mucosal addressin cell adhesion molecule 1 and vascular cell adhesion molecule 1 expression during both primary and secondary infections. Altogether, these data suggest that although the vaginal tissue is permissive to cellular infiltration during a vaginal Candida infection, the reduced numbers of systemic cells expressing the reciprocal cellular adhesion molecules may preempt cellular infiltration, thereby limiting Candida-specific T-cell responses against infection. PMID:11447188

  20. Increase in intracellular PGE2 induces apoptosis in Bax-expressing colon cancer cell

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lalier, Lisenn; Pedelaborde, François; Braud, Christophe; Menanteau, Jean; M Vallette, François; Olivier, Christophe

    2011-01-01

    NSAIDs exhibit protective properties towards some cancers, especially colon cancer. Yet, it is not clear how they play their protective role. PGE 2 is generally shown as the only target of the NSAIDs anticancerous activity. However, PGE 2 known targets become more and more manifold, considering both the molecular pathways involved and the target cells in the tumour. The role of PGE 2 in tumour progression thus appears complex and multipurpose. To gain understanding into the role of PGE 2 in colon cancer, we focused on the activity of PGE 2 in apoptosis in colon cancer cell lines. We observed that an increase in intracellular PGE 2 induced an apoptotic cell death, which was dependent on the expression of the proapoptotic protein Bax. This increase was induced by increasing PGE 2 intracellular concentration, either by PGE 2 microinjection or by the pharmacological inhibition of PGE 2 exportation and enzymatic degradation. We present here a new sight onto PGE 2 in colon cancer cells opening the way to a new prospective therapeutic strategy in cancer, alternative to NSAIDs

  1. Salmonella modulation of host cell gene expression promotes its intracellular growth.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastian Hannemann

    Full Text Available Salmonella Typhimurium has evolved a complex functional interface with its host cell largely determined by two type III secretion systems (T3SS, which through the delivery of bacterial effector proteins modulate a variety of cellular processes. We show here that Salmonella Typhimurium infection of epithelial cells results in a profound transcriptional reprogramming that changes over time. This response is triggered by Salmonella T3SS effector proteins, which stimulate unique signal transduction pathways leading to STAT3 activation. We found that the Salmonella-stimulated changes in host cell gene expression are required for the formation of its specialized vesicular compartment that is permissive for its intracellular replication. This study uncovers a cell-autonomous process required for Salmonella pathogenesis potentially opening up new avenues for the development of anti-infective strategies that target relevant host pathways.

  2. Salmonella modulation of host cell gene expression promotes its intracellular growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hannemann, Sebastian; Gao, Beile; Galán, Jorge E

    2013-01-01

    Salmonella Typhimurium has evolved a complex functional interface with its host cell largely determined by two type III secretion systems (T3SS), which through the delivery of bacterial effector proteins modulate a variety of cellular processes. We show here that Salmonella Typhimurium infection of epithelial cells results in a profound transcriptional reprogramming that changes over time. This response is triggered by Salmonella T3SS effector proteins, which stimulate unique signal transduction pathways leading to STAT3 activation. We found that the Salmonella-stimulated changes in host cell gene expression are required for the formation of its specialized vesicular compartment that is permissive for its intracellular replication. This study uncovers a cell-autonomous process required for Salmonella pathogenesis potentially opening up new avenues for the development of anti-infective strategies that target relevant host pathways.

  3. Cellular prion protein expression is not regulated by the Alzheimer's amyloid precursor protein intracellular domain.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victoria Lewis

    Full Text Available There is increasing evidence of molecular and cellular links between Alzheimer's disease (AD and prion diseases. The cellular prion protein, PrP(C, modulates the post-translational processing of the AD amyloid precursor protein (APP, through its inhibition of the β-secretase BACE1, and oligomers of amyloid-β bind to PrP(C which may mediate amyloid-β neurotoxicity. In addition, the APP intracellular domain (AICD, which acts as a transcriptional regulator, has been reported to control the expression of PrP(C. Through the use of transgenic mice, cell culture models and manipulation of APP expression and processing, this study aimed to clarify the role of AICD in regulating PrP(C. Over-expression of the three major isoforms of human APP (APP(695, APP(751 and APP(770 in cultured neuronal and non-neuronal cells had no effect on the level of endogenous PrP(C. Furthermore, analysis of brain tissue from transgenic mice over-expressing either wild type or familial AD associated mutant human APP revealed unaltered PrP(C levels. Knockdown of endogenous APP expression in cells by siRNA or inhibition of γ-secretase activity also had no effect on PrP(C levels. Overall, we did not detect any significant difference in the expression of PrP(C in any of the cell or animal-based paradigms considered, indicating that the control of cellular PrP(C levels by AICD is not as straightforward as previously suggested.

  4. MicroRNA expression profiling identifies activated B cell status in chronic lymphocytic leukemia cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuqiang Li

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL is thought to be a disease of resting lymphocytes. However, recent data suggest that CLL cells may more closely resemble activated B cells. Using microRNA (miRNA expression profiling of highly-enriched CLL cells from 38 patients and 9 untransformed B cells from normal donors before acute CpG activation and 5 matched B cells after acute CpG activation, we demonstrate an activated B cell status for CLL. Gene set enrichment analysis (GSEA identified statistically-significant similarities in miRNA expression between activated B cells and CLL cells including upregulation of miR-34a, miR-155, and miR-342-3p and downregulation of miR-103, miR-181a and miR-181b. Additionally, decreased levels of two CLL signature miRNAs miR-29c and miR-223 are associated with ZAP70(+ and IgV(H unmutated status and with shorter time to first therapy. These data indicate an activated B cell status for CLL cells and suggest that the direction of change of individual miRNAs may predict clinical course in CLL.

  5. Differential expression of the human thymosin-β4 gene in lymphocytes, macrophages, and granulocytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gondo, H.; Kudo, J.; White, J.W.; Barr, C.; Selvanayagam, P.; Saunders, G.F.

    1987-01-01

    A cDNA clone encoding human thymosin-β 4 was isolated from a cDNA library prepared from peripheral blood leukocytes of a patient with acute lymphocytic leukemia. This clone contained the entire coding sequence of 43 amino acid residues of thymosin-β 4 and had an initiation codon and two termination codons. The amino acid and nucleotide sequences in the coding region were well conserved between rat and human. No signal peptide was found in the deduced protein sequence. Human thymosin-β 4 mRNA, approximately 830 nucleotides in length, was about 30 nucleotides larger than rat thymosin-β 4 mRNA. Expression of the human thymosin-β 4 gene in various primary myeloid and lymphoid malignant cells and in a few human hemopoietic cell lines was studied. Northern blot analyses of different neoplastic B lymphocytes revealed that steady state levels of thymosin-β 4 mRNA varied as a function of differentiation stage. Thymosin-β 4 mRNA levels were decreased in myeloma cells as are class II human leukocyte antigen, Fc receptor, and complement receptor, suggesting a relationship between thymosin-β 4 and the immune response. Treatment of THP-1 cells, a human monocytic cell line, with recombinant human interferon-γ reduced the levels of thymosin-β 4 mRNA. The pattern of thymosin-β 4 gene expression suggests that it may play a fundamental role in the host defense mechanism

  6. GFP expression by intracellular gene delivery of GFP-coding fragments using nanocrystal quantum dots

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoshino, Akiyoshi; Manabe, Noriyoshi; Fujioka, Kouki; Hanada, Sanshiro; Yamamoto, Kenji; Yasuhara, Masato; Kondo, Akihiko

    2008-01-01

    Gene therapy is an attractive approach to supplement a deficient gene function. Although there has been some success with specific gene delivery using various methods including viral vectors and liposomes, most of these methods have a limited efficiency or also carry a risk for oncogenesis. We herein report that quantum dots (QDs) conjugated with nuclear localizing signal peptides (NLSP) successfully introduced gene-fragments with promoter elements, which promoted the expression of the enhanced green fluorescent protein (eGFP) gene in mammalian cells. The expression of eGFP protein was observed when the QD/gene-construct was added to the culture media. The gene-expression efficiency varied depending on multiple factors around QDs, such as (1) the reading direction of the gene-fragments, (2) the quantity of gene-fragments attached on the surface of the QD-constructs, (3) the surface electronic charges varied according to the structure of the QD/gene-constructs, and (4) the particle size of QD/gene complex varied according to the structure and amounts of gene-fragments. Using this QD/gene-construct system, eGFP protein could be detected 28 days after the gene-introduction whereas the fluorescence of QDs had disappeared. This system therefore provides another method for the intracellular delivery of gene-fragments without using either viral vectors or specific liposomes.

  7. Phloroglucinol functions as an intracellular and intercellular chemical messenger influencing gene expression in Pseudomonas protegens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clifford, Jennifer C; Buchanan, Alex; Vining, Oliver; Kidarsa, Teresa A; Chang, Jeff H; McPhail, Kerry L; Loper, Joyce E

    2016-10-01

    Bacteria can be both highly communicative and highly competitive in natural habitats and antibiotics are thought to play a role in both of these processes. The soil bacterium Pseudomonas protegens Pf-5 produces a spectrum of antibiotics, two of which, pyoluteorin and 2,4-diacetylphloroglucinol (DAPG), function in intracellular and intercellular communication, both as autoinducers of their own production. Here, we demonstrate that phloroglucinol, an intermediate in DAPG biosynthesis, can serve as an intercellular signal influencing the expression of pyoluteorin biosynthesis genes, the production of pyoluteorin, and inhibition of Pythium ultimum, a phytopathogenic oomycete sensitive to pyoluteorin. Through analysis of RNAseq data sets, we show that phloroglucinol had broad effects on the transcriptome of Pf-5, significantly altering the transcription of more than two hundred genes. The effects of nanomolar versus micromolar concentrations of phloroglucinol differed both quantitatively and qualitatively, influencing the expression of distinct sets of genes or having opposite effects on transcript abundance of certain genes. Therefore, our results support the concept of hormesis, a phenomenon associated with signalling molecules that elicit distinct responses at different concentrations. Phloroglucinol is the first example of an intermediate of antibiotic biosynthesis that functions as a chemical messenger influencing gene expression in P. protegens. © 2015 Society for Applied Microbiology and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Propionic acid secreted from propionibacteria induces NKG2D ligand expression on human-activated T lymphocytes and cancer cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andresen, Lars; Hansen, Karen Aagaard; Jensen, Helle

    2009-01-01

    We found that propionic acid secreted from propionibacteria induces expression of the NKG2D ligands MICA/B on activated T lymphocytes and different cancer cells, without affecting MICA/B expression on resting peripheral blood cells. Growth supernatant from propionibacteria or propionate alone cou...

  9. Transcriptomic epidemiology of smoking: the effect of smoking on gene expression in lymphocytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Almasy Laura

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This investigation offers insights into system-wide pathological processes induced in response to cigarette smoke exposure by determining its influences at the gene expression level. Methods We obtained genome-wide quantitative transcriptional profiles from 1,240 individuals from the San Antonio Family Heart Study, including 297 current smokers. Using lymphocyte samples, we identified 20,413 transcripts with significantly detectable expression levels, including both known and predicted genes. Correlation between smoking and gene expression levels was determined using a regression model that allows for residual genetic effects. Results With a conservative false-discovery rate of 5% we identified 323 unique genes (342 transcripts whose expression levels were significantly correlated with smoking behavior. These genes showed significant over-representation within a range of functional categories that correspond well with known smoking-related pathologies, including immune response, cell death, cancer, natural killer cell signaling and xenobiotic metabolism. Conclusions Our results indicate that not only individual genes but entire networks of gene interaction are influenced by cigarette smoking. This is the largest in vivo transcriptomic epidemiological study of smoking to date and reveals the significant and comprehensive influence of cigarette smoke, as an environmental variable, on the expression of genes. The central importance of this manuscript is to provide a summary of the relationships between gene expression and smoking in this exceptionally large cross-sectional data set.

  10. Reduced intracellular c-di-GMP content increases expression of quorum sensing-regulated genes in Pseudomonas aeruginosa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chua, Song Lin; Liu, Yang; Li, Yingying

    2017-01-01

    Cyclic-di-GMP (c-di-GMP) is an intracellular secondary messenger which controls the biofilm life cycle in many bacterial species. High intracellular c-di-GMP content enhances biofilm formation via the reduction of motility and production of biofilm matrix, while low c-di-GMP content in biofilm...... cells leads to increased motility and biofilm dispersal. While the effect of high c-di-GMP levels on bacterial lifestyles is well studied, the physiology of cells at low c-di-GMP levels remains unclear. Here, we showed that Pseudomonas aeruginosa cells with high and low intracellular c-di-GMP contents...... possessed distinct transcriptome profiles. There were 535 genes being upregulated and 432 genes downregulated in cells with low c-di-GMP, as compared to cells with high c-di-GMP. Interestingly, both rhl and pqs quorum-sensing (QS) operons were expressed at higher levels in cells with low intracellular c-di-GMP...

  11. [Increased expressions of peripheral PD-1+ lymphocytes and CD4+CD25+FOXP3+ T cells in gastric adenocarcinoma patients].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hao; Li, Songyan; Hu, Shidong; Zou, Guijun; Hu, Zilong; Wei, Huahua; Wang, Yufeng; Du, Xiaohui

    2017-01-01

    Objective To detect the frequencies of peripheral programmed death-1 + (PD-1 + ) lymphocytes and CD4 + CD25 + FOXP3 + regulatory T cells in patients with gastric adenocarcinoma. Methods The study enrolled 29 patients with gastric adenocarcinoma and 29 age- and sex-matched healthy controls. Frequencies of PD-1 + lymphocytes and CD4 + CD25 + FOXP3 + regulatory T cells were detected using flow cytometry. Results The number of PD-1 + lymphocytes and CD4 + CD25 + FOXP3 + regulatory T cells in peripheral blood was higher in patients with gastric adenocarcinoma than that in the control group. Moreover, linear correlation analysis indicated a positive correlation between PD-1 expression and frequency of CD4 + CD25 + FOXP3 + regulatory T cells in peripheral blood of the patients. Conclusion Gastric adenocarcinoma patients present with increased PD-1 + lymphocytes and CD4 + CD25 + FOXP3 + regulatory T cells in the peripheral blood.

  12. PIST regulates the intracellular trafficking and plasma membrane expression of Cadherin 23

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oshima Kazuo

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The atypical cadherin protein cadherin 23 (CDH23 is crucial for proper function of retinal photoreceptors and inner ear hair cells. As we obtain more and more information about the specific roles of cadherin 23 in photoreceptors and hair cells, the regulatory mechanisms responsible for the transport of this protein to the plasma membrane are largely unknown. Results PIST, a Golgi-associated, PDZ domain-containing protein, interacted with cadherin 23 via the PDZ domain of PIST and the C-terminal PDZ domain-binding interface (PBI of cadherin 23. By binding to cadherin 23, PIST retained cadherin 23 in the trans-Golgi network of cultured cells. The retention was released when either of the two known cadherin 23-binding proteins MAGI-1 and harmonin was co-expressed. Similar to MAGI-1 and harmonin, PIST was detected in mouse inner ear sensory hair cells. Conclusions PIST binds cadherin 23 via its PDZ domain and retains cadherin 23 in trans-Golgi network. MAGI-1 and harmonin can compete with PIST for binding cadherin 23 and release cadherin 23 from PIST's retention. Our finding suggests that PIST, MAGI-1 and harmonin collaborate in intracellular trafficking of cadherin 23 and regulate the plasma membrane expression of cadherin 23.

  13. Unique transcriptome signatures and GM-CSF expression in lymphocytes from patients with spondyloarthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Mossawi, M H; Chen, L; Fang, H; Ridley, A; de Wit, J; Yager, N; Hammitzsch, A; Pulyakhina, I; Fairfax, B P; Simone, D; Yi, Yao; Bandyopadhyay, S; Doig, K; Gundle, R; Kendrick, B; Powrie, F; Knight, J C; Bowness, P

    2017-11-15

    Spondyloarthritis encompasses a group of common inflammatory diseases thought to be driven by IL-17A-secreting type-17 lymphocytes. Here we show increased numbers of GM-CSF-producing CD4 and CD8 lymphocytes in the blood and joints of patients with spondyloarthritis, and increased numbers of IL-17A + GM-CSF + double-producing CD4, CD8, γδ and NK cells. GM-CSF production in CD4 T cells occurs both independently and in combination with classical Th1 and Th17 cytokines. Type 3 innate lymphoid cells producing predominantly GM-CSF are expanded in synovial tissues from patients with spondyloarthritis. GM-CSF + CD4 + cells, isolated using a triple cytokine capture approach, have a specific transcriptional signature. Both GM-CSF + and IL-17A + GM-CSF + double-producing CD4 T cells express increased levels of GPR65, a proton-sensing receptor associated with spondyloarthritis in genome-wide association studies and pathogenicity in murine inflammatory disease models. Silencing GPR65 in primary CD4 T cells reduces GM-CSF production. GM-CSF and GPR65 may thus serve as targets for therapeutic intervention of spondyloarthritis.

  14. T lymphocyte activation and cytokine expression in periapical granulomas and radicular cysts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ihan Hren, N; Ihan, A

    2009-02-01

    Radicular cysts (RCs) are periapical lesions resulting in jaw bone destruction. The inflammatory dental periapical granuloma (PG) is considered to be the origin of RC formation; however the mechanism of RC development remains unclear. Cell suspension from the surgically extirpated tissue of 27 RCs and 25 PGs was obtained. Bacteriological analysis of the PG tissue samples was performed in order to define two major groups of PG according to the prevailing causative bacterial infection: the streptococcal PG (PG-S, n=10) and the anaerobe PG (PG-A, n=9) group. The inflammatory response of tissue infiltrating lymphocytes was assessed by following T lymphocyte activation (HLA-DR expression) as well as interferon gamma (IFN-gamma) and interleukin 4 (IL-4) production which were evaluated by the flow cytometry. In comparison to RC both types of PG contained a higher proportion of activated T cells (HLA-DR) and lower proportion of IL-4 producing cells. PG-A tissue contained increased percentage of CD3 cells and increased percentage of T helper 1 (Th1) cells in comparison with PG-S. In RC the IFN-gamma production is higher than in streptococcal PG-S but similar as in PG-A. Tissue infiltration by Th2 cells and IL-4 production is likely to play an etiopathogenic role in RC formation.

  15. Hydroxychloroquine inhibits CD154 expression in CD4+ T lymphocytes of systemic lupus erythematosus through NFAT, but not STAT5, signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Shu-Fen; Chang, Chia-Bin; Hsu, Jui-Mei; Lu, Ming-Chi; Lai, Ning-Sheng; Li, Chin; Tung, Chien-Hsueh

    2017-08-09

    Overexpression of membranous CD154 in T lymphocytes has been found previously in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). Because hydroxychloroquine (HCQ) has been used frequently in the treatment of lupus, we sought to identify the effects of HCQ on CD154 and a possibly regulatory mechanism. CD4 + T cells were isolated from the blood of lupus patients. After stimulation with ionomycin or IL-15 and various concentrations of HCQ, expression of membranous CD154 and NFAT and STAT5 signaling were assessed. HCQ treatment had significant dose-dependent suppressive effects on membranous CD154 expression in ionomycin-activated T cells from lupus patients. Furthermore, HCQ inhibited intracellular sustained calcium storage release, and attenuated the nuclear translocation of NFATc2 and the expression of NFATc1. However, CD154 expressed through IL-15-mediated STAT5 signaling was not inhibited by HCQ treatment. HCQ inhibited NFAT signaling in activated T cells and blocked the expression of membranous CD154, but not STAT5 signaling. These findings provide a mechanistic insight into SLE in HCQ treatment.

  16. Expression of Cellular Isoform of Prion Protein on the Surface of Peripheral Blood Lymphocytes Among Women Exposed to Low Doses of Ionizing Radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klucinski, P.; Martirosian, G.; Mazur, B.; Kaufman, J.; Hrycek, A.; Masluch, E.; Cieslik, P.

    2007-01-01

    Ionizing radiation affect the expression of adhesive and co-stimulation molecules in lymphocytes. The objective of this study was to determinate the effect of low doses of ionizing radiation on the expression of prion protein PrPc on the surface peripheral blood lymphocytes in the women operating X-ray equipment. In female workers and persons of the control group the PrPc expression on CD3 (T-lymphocytes), Cd4 (T-helper), CD8 (T-cytotoxic) and CD19 (B- lymphocytes), were tested. We conclude that in women operating X-ray equipment the relationship between low doses of ionizing radiation and expression of PrPc on lymphocytes does exist concerning CD3, CD4 and CD lymphocytes. (author)

  17. Ryanodine receptors, a family of intracellular calcium ion channels, are expressed throughout early vertebrate development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wu Houdini HT

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Calcium signals ([Ca2+]i direct many aspects of embryo development but their regulation is not well characterised. Ryanodine receptors (RyRs are a family of intracellular Ca2+ release channels that control the flux of Ca2+ from internal stores into the cytosol. RyRs are primarily known for their role in excitation-contraction coupling in adult striated muscle and ryr gene mutations are implicated in several human diseases. Current evidence suggests that RyRs do not have a major role to play prior to organogenesis but regulate tissue differentiation. Findings The sequences of the five zebrafish ryr genes were confirmed, their evolutionary relationship established and the primary sequences compared to other vertebrates, including humans. RyRs are differentially expressed in slow (ryr1a, fast (ryr3 and both types (ryr1b of developing skeletal muscle. There are two ryr2 genes (ryr2a and ryr2b which are expressed exclusively in developing CNS and cardiac tissue, respectively. In addition, ryr3 and ryr2a mRNA is detectable in the initial stages of development, prior to embryonic axis formation. Conclusions Our work reveals that zebrafish ryr genes are differentially expressed throughout the developing embryo from cleavage onwards. The data suggests that RyR-regulated Ca2+ signals are associated with several aspects of embryonic development, from organogenesis through to the differentiation of the musculoskeletal, cardiovascular and nervous system. These studies will facilitate further work to explore the developmental function of RyRs in each of these tissue types.

  18. Expression of Lymphocyte-derived Growth Hormone (GH) and GH-releasing Hormone Receptors in Aging Rats

    OpenAIRE

    Weigent, Douglas A.

    2013-01-01

    In the present study, we show that higher levels of lymphocyte GH are expressed in spleen cells from aging animals compared to young animals. Further, leukocytes from primary and secondary immune tissues and splenic T and B cells from aging rats all express higher levels of GHRH receptors compared to younger animals. Bone marrow and splenic T cells express the highest levels of GHRH receptor in aging animals. Spleen cells from aging animals showed no significant change in proliferation or GH ...

  19. Prognostic Value of Lipoprotein Lipase Expression Among Egyptian B-Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia Patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    SAAD, A.A.; EL-SHENNAWY, D.; HAMED, A.I.; EL-FEKY, M.A.; ISMAIL, M.A.; EL-HAGRACY, R.S.

    2008-01-01

    Background: B-cell chronic lymphocytic leukemia (B-CLL) is a heterogeneous disease with a highly variable clinical course. Some patients may survive for years without need for therapy while others, although they had early treatment, the outcome is unsatisfactory. The motive to find more reliable prognostic factors apart from stage, age, tumor volume and immunoglobulin heavy chain mutations is of clinical interest. Material and Methods: The study was carried out on 25 CLL patients attending Hematology Clinic at Ain Shams University Hospitals. Peripheral blood sample was taken from each patient for surface CD38 and cytoplasmic zeta-chain-associated protein tyrosine kinase (ZAP-70) by flow cytometry and lipoprotein lipase (LPL) expression by real time PCR. Results: We demonstrated statistically significant association between high level of LPL expression and significantly high LDH level, poor cytogenetic risk, ZAP- 70 expression and response to therapy ( p =0.01, 0.02, 0.04 and 0.001 respectively). Conclusion: LPL expression can serve as a new surrogate prognostic factor for CLL patients and can be used to detect patients who need early treatment

  20. Expression of the chemokine receptor CXCR4 on lymphocytes of leprosy patients

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    V.A. Mendonça

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Leprosy is caused by Mycobacterium leprae, which induces chronic granulomatous infection of the skin and peripheral nerves. The disease ranges from the tuberculoid to the lepromatous forms, depending on the cellular immune response of the host. Chemokines are thought to be involved in the immunopathogenesis of leprosy, but few studies have investigated the expression of chemokine receptors on leukocytes of leprosy patients. In the present study, we evaluated 21 leprosy patients (M/F: 16/5 with a new diagnosis from the Dermatology Outpatient Clinic of the University Hospital, Federal University of Minas Gerais. The control group was composed of 20 healthy members (M/F: 15/5 of the community recruited by means of announcements. The expression of CCR2, CCR3, CCR5, and CXCR4 was investigated by flow cytometry on the surface of peripheral blood lymphocytes. There was a decrease in percentage of CD3+CXCR4+ and CD4+CXCR4+ lymphocytes in the peripheral blood of leprosy patients (median [range], 17.6 [2.7-41.9] and 65.3 [3.9-91.9], respectively compared to the control group (median [range], 43.0 [3.7-61.3] and 77.2 [43.6-93.5], respectively. The percentage of CD4+CXCR4+ was significantly lower in patients with the tuberculoid form (median [range], 45.7 [0.0-83.1] of the disease, but not in lepromatous patients (median [range], 81.5 [44.9-91.9]. The CXCR4 chemokine receptor may play a role in leprosy immunopathogenesis, probably directing cell migration to tissue lesions in tuberculoid leprosy patients.

  1. MicroRNA-125b-5p suppresses Brucella abortus intracellular survival via control of A20 expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ning; Wang, Lin; Sun, Changjiang; Yang, Li; Sun, Wanchun; Peng, Qisheng

    2016-07-29

    Brucella may establish chronic infection by regulating the expression of miRNAs. However, the role of miRNAs in modulating the intracellular growth of Brucella remains unclear. In this study, we show that Brucella. abortus infection leads to downregulation of miR-125b-5p in macrophages. We establish that miR-125b-5p targets A20, an inhibitor of the NF-kB activation. Additionally, expression of miR-125b-5p decreases A20 expression in B. abortus-infected macrophages and leads to NF-kB activation and increased production of TNFα. Furthermore, B. abortus survival is attenuated in the presence of miR-125b-5p. These results uncover a role for miR-125b-5p in the regulation of B. abortus intracellular survival via the control of A20 expression.

  2. Using gene co-expression network analysis to predict biomarkers for chronic lymphocytic leukemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Borlawsky Tara B

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL is the most common adult leukemia. It is a highly heterogeneous disease, and can be divided roughly into indolent and progressive stages based on classic clinical markers. Immunoglobin heavy chain variable region (IgVH mutational status was found to be associated with patient survival outcome, and biomarkers linked to the IgVH status has been a focus in the CLL prognosis research field. However, biomarkers highly correlated with IgVH mutational status which can accurately predict the survival outcome are yet to be discovered. Results In this paper, we investigate the use of gene co-expression network analysis to identify potential biomarkers for CLL. Specifically we focused on the co-expression network involving ZAP70, a well characterized biomarker for CLL. We selected 23 microarray datasets corresponding to multiple types of cancer from the Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO and used the frequent network mining algorithm CODENSE to identify highly connected gene co-expression networks spanning the entire genome, then evaluated the genes in the co-expression network in which ZAP70 is involved. We then applied a set of feature selection methods to further select genes which are capable of predicting IgVH mutation status from the ZAP70 co-expression network. Conclusions We have identified a set of genes that are potential CLL prognostic biomarkers IL2RB, CD8A, CD247, LAG3 and KLRK1, which can predict CLL patient IgVH mutational status with high accuracies. Their prognostic capabilities were cross-validated by applying these biomarker candidates to classify patients into different outcome groups using a CLL microarray datasets with clinical information.

  3. Reduced frequency of T lymphocytes expressing CTLA-4 in frontotemporal dementia compared to Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Rodrigo Ribeiro; Torres, Karen C; Lima, Giselle S; Fiamoncini, Carolina M; Mapa, Filipe C; Pereira, Patricia A; Rezende, Vitor B; Martins, Luiza C; Bicalho, Maria A; Moraes, Edgar N; Reis, Helton J; Teixeira, Antonio L; Romano-Silva, Marco A

    2014-01-03

    Studies suggest that inflammation is involved in the neurodegenerative cascade of dementias. Immunological mechanisms may be part of the pathophysiological process in frontotemporal dementia (FTD), but up till now only vague evidence of such mechanisms has been presented. The B7- CD28/CTLA-4 pathway is an important immunological signaling pathway involved in modulation of T cell activation. The aim of this study was to compare the expression of molecules associated with co-stimulatory signaling in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) of FTD to Alzheimer disease (AD) and control groups. Our results confirm the previous demonstrated increased expression of CD80 in CD14+ Alzheimer patients T cells but show, for the first time, a reduction in the expression of CTLA-4 in CD4+ FTD cells. As CTLA-4 is the most potent negative regulators of T-cell activation we speculated that peripheral T lymphocytes in FTD are more activated and this could be involved in the neurodegeneration observed in this dementia. © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Nitric oxide selectively decreases interferon-gamma expression by activated human T lymphocytes via a cGMP-independent mechanism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roozendaal, R; Vellenga, E; Postma, DS; De Monchy, JGR; Kauffman, HF

    1999-01-01

    The role of exogenous nitric oxide (NO) on the expression of interleukin (IL)-2, IL-4, IL-5 and interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma) by freshly isolated human T lymphocytes was investigated. The presence of NO, generated from any of the NO-donor compounds, S-nitroso-N-acetyl-D,L-penicillamine (NAP),

  5. Identification of internal control genes for quantitative expression analysis by real-time PCR in bovine peripheral lymphocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spalenza, Veronica; Girolami, Flavia; Bevilacqua, Claudia; Riondato, Fulvio; Rasero, Roberto; Nebbia, Carlo; Sacchi, Paola; Martin, Patrice

    2011-09-01

    Gene expression studies in blood cells, particularly lymphocytes, are useful for monitoring potential exposure to toxicants or environmental pollutants in humans and livestock species. Quantitative PCR is the method of choice for obtaining accurate quantification of mRNA transcripts although variations in the amount of starting material, enzymatic efficiency, and the presence of inhibitors can lead to evaluation errors. As a result, normalization of data is of crucial importance. The most common approach is the use of endogenous reference genes as an internal control, whose expression should ideally not vary among individuals and under different experimental conditions. The accurate selection of reference genes is therefore an important step in interpreting quantitative PCR studies. Since no systematic investigation in bovine lymphocytes has been performed, the aim of the present study was to assess the expression stability of seven candidate reference genes in circulating lymphocytes collected from 15 dairy cows. Following the characterization by flow cytometric analysis of the cell populations obtained from blood through a density gradient procedure, three popular softwares were used to evaluate the gene expression data. The results showed that two genes are sufficient for normalization of quantitative PCR studies in cattle lymphocytes and that YWAHZ, S24 and PPIA are the most stable genes. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Interleukin-15 differentially enhances the expression of interferon-gamma and interleukin-4 in activated human (CD4(+))T lymphocytes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Borger, P; Kauffman, HF; Postma, DS; Esselink, MT; Vellenga, E

    In this study interleukin (IL)-15 was examined for its ability to modulate the expression of interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma) and IL-4 in activated human T lymphocytes. The effect of IL-15 was compared with IL-2 and IL-7, cytokines all known to use the IL-2 receptor gamma(C) chain. The results

  7. Milk-induced eczema is associated with the expansion of T cells expressing cutaneous lymphocyte antigen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abernathy-Carver, K J; Sampson, H A; Picker, L J; Leung, D Y

    1995-02-01

    The extravasation of T cells at sites of inflammation is critically dependent on the activity of homing receptors (HR) involved in endothelial cell recognition and binding. Two such HR (the cutaneous lymphocyte antigen [CLA] and L-selectin) have been shown to be selectively involved in T cell migration to skin and peripheral lymph nodes, respectively. This study was designed to assess the relationship between the organ specificity of an allergic reaction to food and the expression of HR on T cells activated in vitro by the relevant food allergen. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells were isolated from seven milk allergic children with a history of eczema when exposed to milk. All patients had a positive prick skin test and double-blind placebo-controlled food challenge to milk. 10 children with either allergic eosinophilic gastroenteritis or milk-induced enterocolitis and 8 nonatopic adults served as controls. Five-parameter flow cytometry using monoclonal antibodies was used for detection of the specific HR on freshly isolated T cells versus T cell blasts induced by a 6-d incubation with casein, as compared with Candida albicans. After in vitro stimulation with casein, but not C. albicans, patients with milk allergy and atopic dermatitis had a significantly greater percentage of CLA+ T cells (P < 0.01) than controls with milk-induced enterocolitis, allergic eosinophilic gastroenteritis, or nonatopic healthy controls. In contrast, the percentage of L-selectin-expressing T cells did not differ significantly between these groups. These data suggest that after casein stimulation allergic patients with milk-induced skin disease have an expanded population of CLA+ T cells, as compared with nonatopics or allergic patients without skin involvement. We postulate that heterogeneity in the regulation of HR expression on antigen-specific T cells may play a role in determining sites of involvement in tissue-directed allergic responses.

  8. Activation/proliferation and apoptosis of bystander goat lymphocytes induced by a macrophage-tropic chimeric caprine arthritis encephalitis virus expressing SIV Nef

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bouzar, Baya Amel; Rea, Angela; Hoc-Villet, Stephanie; Garnier, Celine; Guiguen, Francois; Jin Yuhuai; Narayan, Opendra; Chebloune, Yahia

    2007-01-01

    Caprine arthritis encephalitis virus (CAEV) is the natural lentivirus of goats, well known for its tropism for macrophages and its inability to cause infection in lymphocytes. The viral genome lacks nef, tat, vpu and vpx coding sequences. To test the hypothesis that when nef is expressed by the viral genome, the virus became toxic for lymphocytes during replication in macrophages, we inserted the SIVsmm PBj14 nef coding sequences into the genome of CAEV thereby generating CAEV-nef. This recombinant virus is not infectious for lymphocytes but is fully replication competent in goat macrophages in which it constitutively expresses the SIV Nef. We found that goat lymphocytes cocultured with CAEV-nef-infected macrophages became activated, showing increased expression of the interleukin-2 receptor (IL-2R). Activation correlated with increased proliferation of the cells. Interestingly, a dual effect in terms of apoptosis regulation was observed in exposed goat lymphocytes. Nef was found first to induce a protection of lymphocytes from apoptosis during the first few days following exposure to infected macrophages, but later it induced increased apoptosis in the activated lymphocytes. This new recombinant virus provides a model to study the functions of Nef in the context of infection of macrophages, but in absence of infection of T lymphocytes and brings new insights into the biological effects of Nef on lymphocytes

  9. The Effects of Aloe vera Cream on the Expression of CD4+ and CD8+ Lymphocytes in Skin Wound Healing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prakoso, Yos Adi; Kurniasih

    2018-01-01

    The aim of this study is to explore the effect of topical application of Aloe vera on skin wound healing. Thirty-six male Sprague-Dawley rats weighing 150-200 grams were divided into four groups. All groups were anesthetized, shaved, and exposed to round full-thickness punch biopsy on the back: group I (control); group II (treated with 1% Aloe vera cream); group III (treated with 2% Aloe vera cream); and group IV (treated with madecassol®). The treatments were given once a day. Macroscopic and microscopic examination were observed at 5, 10, and 15 days after skin biopsy. Skin specimens were prepared for histopathological study using H&E stain and IHC stain against CD4 + and CD8 + lymphocytes. All the data were analyzed using SPSS16. The result showed that topical application of 1% and 2% Aloe vera cream significantly reduced the percentage of the wound, leucocytes infiltration, angiogenesis, and expression of CD8 + lymphocytes and increased the epidermal thickness and the expression of CD4 + lymphocytes ( p ≤ 0,05). There was no significant difference in the number of fibroblasts in all groups. Topical application of 1% and 2% Aloe vera cream has wound healing potential via their ability to increase the ratio of CD4 + /CD8 + lymphocytes in the wound area.

  10. E-cadherin gene re-expression in chronic lymphocytic leukemia cells by HDAC inhibitors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jordaan, Gwen; Liao, Wei; Sharma, Sanjai

    2013-01-01

    The tumor suppressor gene E-cadherin gene is frequently silenced in chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) cells and results in wnt-pathway activation. We analyzed the role of histone epigenetic modifications in E-cadherin gene silencing. CLL specimens were treated with histone deacetylase inhibitor (HDACi) MS-275 and analyzed for E-cadherin expression with western blot and RT-PCR analysis. The downstream effects of HDACi treated leukemic cells were studied by analyzing the effect on wnt-pathway signaling. HDACi induced alterations in E-cadherin splicing were investigated by transcript specific real time PCR analysis. Treatment of CLL specimens with histone deacetylase inhibitors (HDACi) treatment resulted in an increase of the E-cadherin RNA transcript (5 to 119 fold increase, n=10) in eight out of ten CLL specimens indicating that this gene is down regulated by histone hypoacetylation in a majority of CLL specimens. The E-cadherin re-expression in CLL specimens was noted by western blot analysis as well. Besides epigenetic silencing another mechanism of E-cadherin inactivation is aberrant exon 11 splicing resulting in an alternatively spliced transcript that lacks exon 11 and is degraded by the non-sense mediated decay (NMD) pathway. Our chromatin immunoprecipitation experiments show that HDACi increased the acetylation of histones H3 and H4 in the E-cadherin promoter region. This also affected the E-cadherin exon 11 splicing pattern as HDACi treated CLL specimens preferentially expressed the correctly spliced transcript and not the exon 11 skipped aberrant transcript. The re-expressed E- cadherin binds to β-catenin with inhibition of the active wnt-beta-catenin pathway in these cells. This resulted in a down regulation of two wnt target genes, LEF and cyclinD1 and the wnt pathway reporter. The E-cadherin gene is epigenetically modified and hypoacetylated in CLL leukemic cells. Treatment of CLL specimens with HDACi MS-275 activates transcription from this silent

  11. Lymphocyte gene expression signatures from patients and mouse models of hereditary hemochromatosis reveal a function of HFE as a negative regulator of CD8+ T-lymphocyte activation and differentiation in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Mónica; Cruz, Eugénia; Oliveira, Susana; Benes, Vladimir; Ivacevic, Tomi; Silva, Maria João; Vieira, Inês; Dias, Francisco; Fonseca, Sónia; Gonçalves, Marta; Lima, Margarida; Leitão, Catarina; Muckenthaler, Martina U; Pinto, Jorge; Porto, Graça

    2015-01-01

    Abnormally low CD8+ T-lymphocyte numbers is characteristic of some patients with hereditary hemochromatosis (HH), a MHC-linked disorder of iron overload. Both environmental and genetic components are known to influence CD8+ T-lymphocyte homeostasis but the role of the HH associated protein HFE is still insufficiently understood. Genome-wide expression profiling was performed in peripheral blood CD8+ T lymphocytes from HH patients selected according to CD8+ T-lymphocyte numbers and from Hfe-/- mice maintained either under normal or high iron diet conditions. In addition, T-lymphocyte apoptosis and cell cycle progression were analyzed by flow cytometry in HH patients. HH patients with low CD8+ T-lymphocyte numbers show a differential expression of genes related to lymphocyte differentiation and maturation namely CCR7, LEF1, ACTN1, NAA50, P2RY8 and FOSL2, whose expression correlates with the relative proportions of naïve, central and effector memory subsets. In addition, expression levels of LEF1 and P2RY8 in memory cells as well as the proportions of CD8+ T cells in G2/M cell cycle phase are significantly different in HH patients compared to controls. Hfe-/- mice do not show alterations in CD8+ T-lymphocyte numbers but differential gene response patterns. We found an increased expression of S100a8 and S100a9 that is most pronounced in high iron diet conditions. Similarly, CD8+ T lymphocytes from HH patients display higher S100a9 expression both at the mRNA and protein level. Altogether, our results support a role for HFE as a negative regulator of CD8+ T-lymphocyte activation. While the activation markers S100a8 and S100a9 are strongly increased in CD8+ T cells from both, Hfe-/- mice and HH patients, a differential profile of genes related to differentiation/maturation of CD8+ T memory cells is evident in HH patients only. This supports the notion that HFE contributes, at least in part, to the generation of low peripheral blood CD8+ T lymphocytes in HH.

  12. Correlation of in vitro lymphocyte radiosensitivity and gene expression with late normal tissue reactions following curative radiotherapy for breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Finnon, Paul; Kabacik, Sylwia; MacKay, Alan; Raffy, Claudine; A’Hern, Roger; Owen, Roger; Badie, Christophe; Yarnold, John; Bouffler, Simon

    2012-01-01

    Background and purpose: Identification of mechanisms of late normal tissue responses to curative radiotherapy that discriminate individuals with marked or mild responses would aid response prediction. This study aimed to identify differences in gene expression, apoptosis, residual DNA double strand breaks and chromosomal damage after in vitro irradiation of lymphocytes in a series of patients with marked (31 cases) or mild (28 controls) late adverse reaction to adjuvant breast radiotherapy. Materials and methods: Gene expression arrays, residual γH2AX, apoptosis, G2 chromosomal radiosensitivity and G0 micronucleus assay were used to compare case and control lymphocyte radiation responses. Results: Five hundred and thirty genes were up-regulated and 819 down-regulated by ionising radiation. Irradiated samples were identified with an overall cross-validated error rate of 3.4%. Prediction analyses to classify cases and controls using unirradiated (0 Gy), irradiated (4 Gy) or radiation response (4–0 Gy) expression profiles correctly identified samples with, respectively, 25%, 22% or 18.5% error rates. Significant inter-sample variation was observed for all cellular endpoints but cases and controls could not be distinguished. Conclusions: Variation in lymphocyte radiosensitivity does not necessarily correlate with normal tissue response to radiotherapy. Gene expression analysis can predict of radiation exposure and may in the future help prediction of normal tissue radiosensitivity.

  13. miRNA analysis in B-cell chronic lymphocytic leukaemia : proliferation centres characterized by low miR-150 and high BIC/milk-155 expression

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wang, M.; Tan, L. P.; Dijkstra, M. K.; van Lom, K.; Robertus, J-L; Harms, G.; Blokzijl, T.; Kooistra, K.; van t'Veer, M. B.; Rosati, S.; Visser, L.; Jongen-Lavrencic, M.; Kluin, P. M.; van den Berg, Anke

    Several miRNAs have been reported to be associated with immunoglobulin heavy chain (IgH) mutation and ZAP-70 expression status in blood samples of B-cell chronic lymphocytic leukaemia/small lymphocytic lymphoma (B-CLL/SLL). In the bone marrow and lymphoid tissues, proliferation centres (PCs)

  14. Intracellular and Extracellular Expression of Bacillus thuringiensis Crystal Protein Cry5B in Lactococcus lactis for Use as an Anthelminthic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durmaz, Evelyn; Hu, Yan; Aroian, Raffi V.

    2015-01-01

    The Bacillus thuringiensis crystal (Cry) protein Cry5B (140 kDa) and a truncated version of the protein, tCry5B (79 kDa), are lethal to nematodes. Genes encoding the two proteins were separately cloned into a high-copy-number vector with a strong constitutive promoter (pTRK593) in Lactococcus lactis for potential oral delivery against parasitic nematode infections. Western blots using a Cry5B-specific antibody revealed that constitutively expressed Cry5B and tCry5B were present in both cells and supernatants. To increase production, cry5B was cloned into the high-copy-number plasmid pMSP3535H3, carrying a nisin-inducible promoter. Immunoblotting revealed that 3 h after nisin induction, intracellular Cry5B was strongly induced at 200 ng/ml nisin, without adversely affecting cell viability or cell membrane integrity. Both Cry5B genes were also cloned into plasmid pTRK1061, carrying a promoter and encoding a transcriptional activator that invoke low-level expression of prophage holin and lysin genes in Lactococcus lysogens, resulting in a leaky phenotype. Cry5B and tCry5B were actively expressed in the lysogenic strain L. lactis KP1 and released into cell supernatants without affecting culture growth. Lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) assays indicated that Cry5B, but not LDH, leaked from the bacteria. Lastly, using intracellular lysates from L. lactis cultures expressing both Cry5B and tCry5B, in vivo challenges of Caenorhabditis elegans worms demonstrated that the Cry proteins were biologically active. Taken together, these results indicate that active Cry5B proteins can be expressed intracellularly in and released extracellularly from L. lactis, showing potential for future use as an anthelminthic that could be delivered orally in a food-grade microbe. PMID:26682852

  15. Modification of T-cells activation markers expression of peripheral T lymphocytes of people, who dwell in radiation polluted zone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baeva, E.V.; Sokolenko, V.L.; Bazyka, D.A.

    1998-01-01

    Effect of ionizing radiation low doses on the expression of activation surface markers of T-cells in residents of contaminated areas resulted from the Chernobyl accident is studied. Increase in the number of T-lymphocytes with CD4 + CD25 + and CD4 + HLA-DR + membrane phenotypes in peripheral blood is observed. Appearance of non mature CD4 + CD8 + phenotype T-cells inclined to the apoptosis development in population circulation is accentuated [ru

  16. ER-mitochondria contacts control surface glycan expression and sensitivity to killer lymphocytes in glioma stem-like cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bassoy, Esen Yonca; Kasahara, Atsuko; Chiusolo, Valentina; Jacquemin, Guillaume; Boydell, Emma; Zamorano, Sebastian; Riccadonna, Cristina; Pellegatta, Serena; Hulo, Nicolas; Dutoit, Valérie; Derouazi, Madiha; Dietrich, Pierre Yves; Walker, Paul R; Martinvalet, Denis

    2017-06-01

    Glioblastoma is a highly heterogeneous aggressive primary brain tumor, with the glioma stem-like cells (GSC) being more sensitive to cytotoxic lymphocyte-mediated killing than glioma differentiated cells (GDC). However, the mechanism behind this higher sensitivity is unclear. Here, we found that the mitochondrial morphology of GSCs modulates the ER-mitochondria contacts that regulate the surface expression of sialylated glycans and their recognition by cytotoxic T lymphocytes and natural killer cells. GSCs displayed diminished ER-mitochondria contacts compared to GDCs. Forced ER-mitochondria contacts in GSCs increased their cell surface expression of sialylated glycans and reduced their susceptibility to cytotoxic lymphocytes. Therefore, mitochondrial morphology and dynamism dictate the ER-mitochondria contacts in order to regulate the surface expression of certain glycans and thus play a role in GSC recognition and elimination by immune effector cells. Targeting the mitochondrial morphology, dynamism, and contacts with the ER could be an innovative strategy to deplete the cancer stem cell compartment to successfully treat glioblastoma. © 2017 The Authors.

  17. Umbilical Cord Tissue-Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells Induce T Lymphocyte Apoptosis and Cell Cycle Arrest by Expression of Indoleamine 2, 3-Dioxygenase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiuying Li

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available It has been reported that human mesenchymal stem cells are able to inhibit T lymphocyte activation; however, the discrepancy among different sources of MSCs is not well documented. In this study, we have compared the MSCs from bone marrow (BM, adipose tissue (AT, placenta (PL, and umbilical cord (UC to determine which one displayed the most efficient immunosuppressive effects on phytohemagglutinin-induced T cell proliferation. Among them we found that hUC-MSC has the strongest effects on inhibiting T cell proliferation and is chosen to do the further study. We observed that T lymphocyte spontaneously released abundant IFN-γ. And IFN-γ secreted by T lymphocyte could induce the expression of indoleamine 2, 3-dioxygenase (IDO in hUC-MSCs. IDO was previously reported to induce T lymphocyte apoptosis and cell cycle arrest in S phase. When cocultured with hUC-MSCs, T lymphocyte expression of caspase 3 was significantly increased, while Bcl2 and CDK4 mRNA expression decreased dramatically. Addition of 1-methyl tryptophan (1-MT, an IDO inhibitor, restored T lymphocyte proliferation, reduced apoptosis, and induced resumption of the cell cycle. In addition, the changes in caspase 3, CDK4, and Bcl2 expression were reversed by 1-MT. These findings demonstrate that hUC-MSCs induce T lymphocyte apoptosis and cell cycle arrest by expressing abundant IDO and provide an explanation for some of the immunomodulatory effects of MSCs.

  18. [The Influence of UV-Light on the Sub-Populational Composition and Expression of Membrane Markers of Lymphocytes of Donor Blood].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Artyukhov, V G; Basharina, O V; Zemchenkova, O V; Ryazantsev, S V

    2016-01-01

    The influence of UV-light (240-390 nm) at dozes of 151 and 755 J/m2 on the content of membrane markers of lymphocytes using the method of flow cytometry was investigated. It was demonstrated that during incubation of UV-irradiated lymphocytes the change of their populational and sub-populational composition occurs. Expression of complexes of CD3, CD 19,.CD8, CD 16, CD25 and CD95 increased. This increase was caused mainly by de novo synthesis. UV-light had immunostimulating effect on CD8+ T-lymphocyte population. Together with the increase of cytotoxic cells and NK-cells, activation of lymphocytes (increased amount of CD25+ and CD95+ cells) took place. Amount of cells undergone apoptosis or necrosis increased proportionally to the dosage. These changes were more expressed during incubation of lymphocytes in nutrition medium without autological blood serum, e.g. under deficiency of growth factors and antioxidants.

  19. USP2 Regulates the Intracellular Localization of PER1 and Circadian Gene Expression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yang, Yaoming; Duguay, David; Fahrenkrug, Jan

    2014-01-01

    . Although Per1 mRNA expression rhythm remained intact in the Usp2 KO MEFs, the expression profiles of other core clock genes were altered. This was also true for the expression of clock-controlled genes (e.g., Dbp, Tef, Hlf, E4bp4). A similar phase advance of PER1 nuclear localization rhythm and alteration...

  20. Tyrosine phosphorylation of AAV2 vectors and its consequences on viral intracellular trafficking and transgene expression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Li; Li, Baozheng; Jayandharan, Giridhararao; Mah, Cathryn S.; Govindasamy, Lakshmanan; Agbandje-McKenna, Mavis; Herzog, Roland W.; Weigel-Van Aken, Kirsten A.; Hobbs, Jacqueline A.; Zolotukhin, Sergei; Muzyczka, Nicholas; Srivastava, Arun

    2008-01-01

    We have documented that epidermal growth factor receptor protein tyrosine kinase (EGFR-PTK) signaling negatively affects intracellular trafficking and transduction efficiency of recombinant adeno-associated virus 2 (AAV2) vectors. Specifically, inhibition of EGFR-PTK signaling leads to decreased ubiquitination of AAV2 capsid proteins, which in turn, facilitates viral nuclear transport by limiting proteasome-mediated degradation of AAV2 vectors. In the present studies, we observed that AAV capsids can indeed be phosphorylated at tyrosine residues by EGFR-PTK in in vitro phosphorylation assays and that phosphorylated AAV capsids retain their structural integrity. However, although phosphorylated AAV vectors enter cells as efficiently as their unphosphorylated counterparts, their transduction efficiency is significantly reduced. This reduction is not due to impaired viral second-strand DNA synthesis since transduction efficiency of both single-stranded AAV (ssAAV) and self-complementary AAV (scAAV) vectors is decreased by ~68% and ~74%, respectively. We also observed that intracellular trafficking of tyrosine-phosphorylated AAV vectors from cytoplasm to nucleus is significantly decreased, which leads to ubiquitination of AAV capsids followed by proteasome-mediated degradation, although downstream consequences of capsid ubiquitination may also be affected by tyrosine-phosphorylation. These studies provide new insights into the role of tyrosine-phosphorylation of AAV capsids in various steps in the virus life cycle, which has implications in the optimal use of recombinant AAV vectors in human gene therapy. PMID:18834608

  1. Ehrlichia chaffeensis TRP120 Activates Canonical Notch Signaling To Downregulate TLR2/4 Expression and Promote Intracellular Survival

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taslima T. Lina

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Ehrlichia chaffeensis preferentially targets mononuclear phagocytes and survives through a strategy of subverting innate immune defenses, but the mechanisms are unknown. We have shown E. chaffeensis type 1 secreted tandem repeat protein (TRP effectors are involved in diverse molecular pathogen-host interactions, such as the TRP120 interaction with the Notch receptor-cleaving metalloprotease ADAM17. In the present study, we demonstrate E. chaffeensis, via the TRP120 effector, activates the canonical Notch signaling pathway to promote intracellular survival. We found that nuclear translocation of the transcriptionally active Notch intracellular domain (NICD occurs in response to E. chaffeensis or recombinant TRP120, resulting in upregulation of Notch signaling pathway components and target genes notch1, adam17, hes, and hey. Significant differences in canonical Notch signaling gene expression levels (>40% were observed during early and late stages of infection, indicating activation of the Notch pathway. We linked Notch pathway activation specifically to the TRP120 effector, which directly interacts with the Notch metalloprotease ADAM17. Using pharmacological inhibitors and small interfering RNAs (siRNAs against γ-secretase enzyme, Notch transcription factor complex, Notch1, and ADAM17, we demonstrated that Notch signaling is required for ehrlichial survival. We studied the downstream effects and found that E. chaffeensis TRP120-mediated activation of the Notch pathway causes inhibition of the extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2 and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK pathways required for PU.1 and subsequent Toll-like receptor 2/4 (TLR2/4 expression. This investigation reveals a novel mechanism whereby E. chaffeensis exploits the Notch pathway to evade the host innate immune response for intracellular survival.

  2. A Generic Protocol for Intracellular Expression of Recombinant Proteins in Bacillus subtilis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phan, Trang; Huynh, Phuong; Truong, Tuom; Nguyen, Hoang

    2017-01-01

    Bacillus subtilis (B. subtilis) is a potential and attractive host for the production of recombinant proteins. Different expression systems for B. subtilis have been developed recently, and various target proteins have been recombinantly synthesized and purified using this host. In this chapter, we introduce a generic protocol to express a recombinant protein in B. subtilis. It includes protocols for (1) using our typical expression vector (plasmid pHT254) to introduce a target gene, (2) transformation of the target vector into B. subtilis, and (3) evaluation of the actual expression of a recombinant protein.

  3. Eukaryotic translation initiation factor 3 subunit e controls intracellular calcium homeostasis by regulation of cav1.2 surface expression.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pawel Buda

    Full Text Available Inappropriate surface expression of voltage-gated Ca(2+channels (CaV in pancreatic ß-cells may contribute to the development of type 2 diabetes. First, failure to increase intracellular Ca(2+ concentrations at the sites of exocytosis impedes insulin release. Furthermore, excessive Ca(2+ influx may trigger cytotoxic effects. The regulation of surface expression of CaV channels in the pancreatic β-cells remains unknown. Here, we used real-time 3D confocal and TIRFM imaging, immunocytochemistry, cellular fractionation, immunoprecipitation and electrophysiology to study trafficking of L-type CaV1.2 channels upon β-cell stimulation. We found decreased surface expression of CaV1.2 and a corresponding reduction in L-type whole-cell Ca(2+ currents in insulin-secreting INS-1 832/13 cells upon protracted (15-30 min stimulation. This internalization occurs by clathrin-dependent endocytosis and could be prevented by microtubule or dynamin inhibitors. eIF3e (Eukaryotic translation initiation factor 3 subunit E is part of the protein translation initiation complex, but its effect on translation are modest and effects in ion channel trafficking have been suggested. The factor interacted with CaV1.2 and regulated CaV1.2 traffic bidirectionally. eIF3e silencing impaired CaV1.2 internalization, which resulted in an increased intracellular Ca(2+ load upon stimulation. These findings provide a mechanism for regulation of L-type CaV channel surface expression with consequences for β-cell calcium homeostasis, which will affect pancreatic β-cell function and insulin production.

  4. Expression of blood serum proteins and lymphocyte differentiation clusters after chronic occupational exposure to ionizing radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rybkina, Valentina L.; Azizova, Tamara V.; Adamova, Galina V.; Teplyakova, Olga V.; Osovets, Sergey V.; Bannikova, Maria V. [Southern Urals Biophysics Institute, Ozyorsk, Chelyabinsk Region (Russian Federation); Scherthan, Harry; Meineke, Viktor; Doerr, Harald [University of Ulm, Bundeswehr Institute of Radiobiology, Munich (Germany); Zurochka, Alexander V. [Immunology Institute, Yekaterinburg (Russian Federation)

    2014-11-15

    This study aimed to assess effects of chronic occupational exposure on immune status in Mayak workers chronically exposed to ionizing radiation (IR). The study cohort consists of 77 workers occupationally exposed to external gamma-rays at total dose from 0.5 to 3.0 Gy (14 individuals) and workers with combined exposure (external gamma-rays at total dose range 0.7-5.1 Gy and internal alpha-radiation from incorporated plutonium with a body burden of 0.3-16.4 kBq). The control group consists of 43 age- and sex-matched individuals who never were exposed to IR, never involved in any cleanup operations following radiation accidents and never resided at contaminated areas. Enzyme-linked immunoassay and flow cytometry were used to determine the relative concentration of lymphocytes and proteins. The concentrations of T-lymphocytes, interleukin-8 and immunoglobulins G were decreased in external gamma-exposed workers relative to control. Relative concentrations of NKT-lymphocytes, concentrations of transforming growth factor-β, interferon gamma, immunoglobulins A, immunoglobulins M and matrix proteinase-9 were higher in this group as compared with control. Relative concentrations of T-lymphocytes and concentration of interleukin-8 were decreased, while both the relative and absolute concentration of natural killers, concentration of immunoglobulins A and M and matrix proteinase-9 were increased in workers with combined exposure as compared to control. An inverse linear relation was revealed between absolute concentration of T-lymphocytes, relative and absolute concentration of T-helpers cells, concentration of interferon gamma and total absorbed dose from external gamma-rays in exposed workers. For workers with incorporated plutonium, there was an inverse linear relation of absolute concentration of T-helpers as well as direct linear relation of relative concentration of NKT-lymphocytes to total absorbed red bone marrow dose from internal alpha-radiation. In all, chronic

  5. Expression of blood serum proteins and lymphocyte differentiation clusters after chronic occupational exposure to ionizing radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rybkina, Valentina L.; Azizova, Tamara V.; Adamova, Galina V.; Teplyakova, Olga V.; Osovets, Sergey V.; Bannikova, Maria V.; Scherthan, Harry; Meineke, Viktor; Doerr, Harald; Zurochka, Alexander V.

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed to assess effects of chronic occupational exposure on immune status in Mayak workers chronically exposed to ionizing radiation (IR). The study cohort consists of 77 workers occupationally exposed to external gamma-rays at total dose from 0.5 to 3.0 Gy (14 individuals) and workers with combined exposure (external gamma-rays at total dose range 0.7-5.1 Gy and internal alpha-radiation from incorporated plutonium with a body burden of 0.3-16.4 kBq). The control group consists of 43 age- and sex-matched individuals who never were exposed to IR, never involved in any cleanup operations following radiation accidents and never resided at contaminated areas. Enzyme-linked immunoassay and flow cytometry were used to determine the relative concentration of lymphocytes and proteins. The concentrations of T-lymphocytes, interleukin-8 and immunoglobulins G were decreased in external gamma-exposed workers relative to control. Relative concentrations of NKT-lymphocytes, concentrations of transforming growth factor-β, interferon gamma, immunoglobulins A, immunoglobulins M and matrix proteinase-9 were higher in this group as compared with control. Relative concentrations of T-lymphocytes and concentration of interleukin-8 were decreased, while both the relative and absolute concentration of natural killers, concentration of immunoglobulins A and M and matrix proteinase-9 were increased in workers with combined exposure as compared to control. An inverse linear relation was revealed between absolute concentration of T-lymphocytes, relative and absolute concentration of T-helpers cells, concentration of interferon gamma and total absorbed dose from external gamma-rays in exposed workers. For workers with incorporated plutonium, there was an inverse linear relation of absolute concentration of T-helpers as well as direct linear relation of relative concentration of NKT-lymphocytes to total absorbed red bone marrow dose from internal alpha-radiation. In all, chronic

  6. Characterization, expression profiles, intracellular distribution and association analysis of porcine PNAS-4 gene with production traits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Heng

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In a previous screen to identify differentially expressed genes associated with embryonic development, the porcine PNAS-4 gene had been found. Considering differentially expressed genes in early stages of muscle development are potential candidate genes to improve meat quality and production efficiency, we determined how porcine PNAS-4 gene regulates meat production. Therefore, this gene has been sequenced, expression analyzed and associated with meat production traits. Results We cloned the full-length cDNA of porcine PNAS-4 gene encoding a protein of 194 amino acids which was expressed in the Golgi complex. This gene was mapped to chromosome 10, q11–16, in a region of conserved synteny with human chromosome 1 where the human homologous gene was localized. Real-time PCR revealed that PNAS-4 mRNA was widely expressed with highest expression levels in skeletal muscle followed by lymph, liver and other tissues, and showed a down-regulated expression pattern during prenatal development while a up-regulated expression pattern after weaning. Association analysis revealed that allele C of SNP A1813C was prevalent in Chinese indigenous breeds whereas A was dominant allele in Landrace and Large White, and the pigs with homozygous CC had a higher fat content than those of the pigs with other genotypes (P Conclusion Porcine PNAS-4 protein tagged with green fluorescent protein accumulated in the Golgi complex, and its mRNA showed a widespread expression across many tissues and organs in pigs. It may be an important factor affecting the meat production efficiency, because its down-regulated expression pattern during early embryogenesis suggests involvement in increase of muscle fiber number. In addition, the SNP A1813C associated with fat traits might be a genetic marker for molecular-assisted selection in animal breeding.

  7. Lck is a relevant target in chronic lymphocytic leukaemia cells whose expression variance is unrelated to disease outcome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Till, Kathleen J; Allen, John C; Talab, Fatima; Lin, Ke; Allsup, David; Cawkwell, Lynn; Bentley, Alison; Ringshausen, Ingo; Duckworth, Andrew D; Pettitt, Andrew R; Kalakonda, Nagesh; Slupsky, Joseph R

    2017-12-01

    Pathogenesis of chronic lymphocytic leukaemia (CLL) is contingent upon antigen receptor (BCR) expressed by malignant cells of this disease. Studies on somatic hypermutation of the antigen binding region, receptor expression levels and signal capacity have all linked BCR on CLL cells to disease prognosis. Our previous work showed that the src-family kinase Lck is a targetable mediator of BCR signalling in CLL cells, and that variance in Lck expression associated with ability of BCR to induce signal upon engagement. This latter finding makes Lck similar to ZAP70, another T-cell kinase whose aberrant expression in CLL cells also associates with BCR signalling capacity, but also different because ZAP70 is not easily pharmacologically targetable. Here we describe a robust method of measuring Lck expression in CLL cells using flow cytometry. However, unlike ZAP70 whose expression in CLL cells predicts prognosis, we find Lck expression and disease outcome in CLL are unrelated despite observations that its inhibition produces effects that biologically resemble the egress phenotype taken on by CLL cells treated with idelalisib. Taken together, our findings provide insight into the pathobiology of CLL to suggest a more complex relationship between expression of molecules within the BCR signalling pathway and disease outcome.

  8. Intracellular Calreticulin Regulates Multiple Steps in Fibrillar Collagen Expression, Trafficking, and Processing into the Extracellular Matrix*

    OpenAIRE

    Van Duyn Graham, Lauren; Sweetwyne, Mariya T.; Pallero, Manuel A.; Murphy-Ullrich, Joanne E.

    2009-01-01

    Calreticulin (CRT), a chaperone and Ca2+ regulator, enhances wound healing, and its expression correlates with fibrosis in animal models, suggesting that CRT regulates production of the extracellular matrix. However, direct regulation of collagen matrix by CRT has not been previously demonstrated. We investigated the role of CRT in the regulation of fibrillar collagen expression, secretion, processing, and deposition in the extracellular matrix by fibroblasts. Mouse embryonic fibroblasts defi...

  9. pTRA - A reporter system for monitoring the intracellular dynamics of gene expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Sabine G; Ziegler, Martin; Löwe, Hannes; Kremling, Andreas; Pflüger-Grau, Katharina

    2018-01-01

    The presence of standardised tools and methods to measure and represent accurately biological parts and functions is a prerequisite for successful metabolic engineering and crucial to understand and predict the behaviour of synthetic genetic circuits. Many synthetic gene networks are based on transcriptional circuits, thus information on transcriptional and translational activity is important for understanding and fine-tuning the synthetic function. To this end, we have developed a toolkit to analyse systematically the transcriptional and translational activity of a specific synthetic part in vivo. It is based on the plasmid pTRA and allows the assignment of specific transcriptional and translational outputs to the gene(s) of interest (GOI) and to compare different genetic setups. By this, the optimal combination of transcriptional strength and translational activity can be identified. The design is tested in a case study using the gene encoding the fluorescent mCherry protein as GOI. We show the intracellular dynamics of mRNA and protein formation and discuss the potential and shortcomings of the pTRA plasmid.

  10. MicroRNA-26a-mediated regulation of interleukin-2 expression in transformed avian lymphocyte lines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smith Lorraine P

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Micro(miRNAs are a class of small non-coding RNAs that play critical roles in the induction of various cancers, including lymphomas induced by oncogenic viruses. While some of the miRNAs are oncogenic, miRNAs such as miR-26a are consistently downregulated in a number of cancers, demonstrating their potential tumor suppressor functions. Global miRNA expression profiles of a number of virus-transformed avian lymphoma cell lines have shown downregulation of gga-miR-26a expression, irrespective of molecular mechanisms of transformation or the viral aetiology. The neoplastic transformation of lymphocytes by many viruses accompanies high levels of proliferative responses, mostly mediated through cytokines such as IL-2. Chicken IL-2 can modulate T-cell proliferation and cytotoxicity in vitro and in vivo and dysregulation of IL-2 expression is observed in diseases such as leukaemia. Results The expression levels of gga-miR-26a in chicken lymphoma cells transformed by 3 distinct avian oncogenic viruses, viz Marek's disease virus (MDV, avian leukosis virus (ALV and Reticuloendotheliosis virus (REV were consistently downregulated compared to the levels in the normal lymphocytes. This downregulation of miR-26a regardless of the viral etiology and molecular mechanisms of transformation was consistent with the tumor suppressor role of this miRNA. Notwithstanding this well-established role in cancer, we demonstrate the additional role of this miRNA in directly targeting chicken IL-2 through reporter and biochemical assays. The downregulation of miR-26a can relieve the suppressive effect of this miRNA on IL-2 expression. Conclusions We show that miR-26a is globally downregulated in a number of avian lymphoma cells irrespective of the mechanisms of transformation, reiterating the highly conserved tumor suppressor function of this miRNA. However, with the potential for directly targeting chicken IL-2, the downregulation of miR-26a in these

  11. Immunohistochemical Analysis of PD-L1 Expression in Canine Malignant Cancers and PD-1 Expression on Lymphocytes in Canine Oral Melanoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maekawa, Naoya; Konnai, Satoru; Okagawa, Tomohiro; Nishimori, Asami; Ikebuchi, Ryoyo; Izumi, Yusuke; Takagi, Satoshi; Kagawa, Yumiko; Nakajima, Chie; Suzuki, Yasuhiko; Kato, Yukinari; Murata, Shiro; Ohashi, Kazuhiko

    2016-01-01

    Spontaneous cancers are common diseases in dogs. Among these, some malignant cancers such as oral melanoma, osteosarcoma, hemangiosarcoma, and mast cell tumor are often recognized as clinical problems because, despite their high frequencies, current treatments for these cancers may not always achieve satisfying outcomes. The absence of effective systemic therapies against these cancers leads researchers to investigate novel therapeutic modalities, including immunotherapy. Programmed death 1 (PD-1) is a costimulatory receptor with immunosuppressive function. When it binds its ligands, PD-ligand 1 (PD-L1) or PD-L2, PD-1 on T cells negatively regulates activating signals from the T cell receptor, resulting in the inhibition of the effector function of cytotoxic T lymphocytes. Aberrant PD-L1 expression has been reported in many human cancers and is considered an immune escape mechanism for cancers. In clinical trials, anti-PD-1 or anti-PD-L1 antibodies induced tumor regression for several malignancies, including advanced melanoma, non-small cell lung carcinoma, and renal cell carcinoma. In this study, to assess the potential of the PD-1/PD-L1 axis as a novel therapeutic target for canine cancer immunotherapy, immunohistochemical analysis of PD-L1 expression in various malignant cancers of dogs was performed. Here, we show that dog oral melanoma, osteosarcoma, hemangiosarcoma, mast cell tumor, mammary adenocarcinoma, and prostate adenocarcinoma expressed PD-L1, whereas some other types of cancer did not. In addition, PD-1 was highly expressed on tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes obtained from oral melanoma, showing that lymphocytes in this cancer type might have been functionally exhausted. These results strongly encourage the clinical application of PD-1/PD-L1 inhibitors as novel therapeutic agents against these cancers in dogs.

  12. Immunohistochemical Analysis of PD-L1 Expression in Canine Malignant Cancers and PD-1 Expression on Lymphocytes in Canine Oral Melanoma.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naoya Maekawa

    Full Text Available Spontaneous cancers are common diseases in dogs. Among these, some malignant cancers such as oral melanoma, osteosarcoma, hemangiosarcoma, and mast cell tumor are often recognized as clinical problems because, despite their high frequencies, current treatments for these cancers may not always achieve satisfying outcomes. The absence of effective systemic therapies against these cancers leads researchers to investigate novel therapeutic modalities, including immunotherapy. Programmed death 1 (PD-1 is a costimulatory receptor with immunosuppressive function. When it binds its ligands, PD-ligand 1 (PD-L1 or PD-L2, PD-1 on T cells negatively regulates activating signals from the T cell receptor, resulting in the inhibition of the effector function of cytotoxic T lymphocytes. Aberrant PD-L1 expression has been reported in many human cancers and is considered an immune escape mechanism for cancers. In clinical trials, anti-PD-1 or anti-PD-L1 antibodies induced tumor regression for several malignancies, including advanced melanoma, non-small cell lung carcinoma, and renal cell carcinoma. In this study, to assess the potential of the PD-1/PD-L1 axis as a novel therapeutic target for canine cancer immunotherapy, immunohistochemical analysis of PD-L1 expression in various malignant cancers of dogs was performed. Here, we show that dog oral melanoma, osteosarcoma, hemangiosarcoma, mast cell tumor, mammary adenocarcinoma, and prostate adenocarcinoma expressed PD-L1, whereas some other types of cancer did not. In addition, PD-1 was highly expressed on tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes obtained from oral melanoma, showing that lymphocytes in this cancer type might have been functionally exhausted. These results strongly encourage the clinical application of PD-1/PD-L1 inhibitors as novel therapeutic agents against these cancers in dogs.

  13. Decreased intracellular [Ca2+ ] coincides with reduced expression of Dhprα1s, RyR1, and diaphragmatic dysfunction in a rat model of sepsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Meng-Meng; Hao, Li-Ying; Guo, Feng; Zhong, Bin; Zhong, Xiao-Mei; Yuan, Jing; Hao, Yi-Fei; Zhao, Shuang; Sun, Xue-Fei; Lei, Ming; Jiao, Guang-Yu

    2017-12-01

    Sepsis can cause decreased diaphragmatic contractility. Intracellular calcium as a second messenger is central to diaphragmatic contractility. However, changes in intracellular calcium concentration ([Ca 2+ ]) and the distribution and co-localization of relevant calcium channels [dihydropyridine receptors, (DHPRα1s) and ryanodine receptors (RyR1)] remain unclear during sepsis. In this study we investigated the effect of changed intracellular [Ca 2+ ] and expression and distribution of DHPRα1s and RyR1 on diaphragm function during sepsis. We measured diaphragm contractility and isolated diaphragm muscle cells in a rat model of sepsis. The distribution and co-localization of DHPRα1s and RyR1 were determined using immunohistochemistry and immunofluorescence, whereas intracellular [Ca 2+ ] was measured by confocal microscopy and fluorescence spectrophotometry. Septic rat diaphragm contractility, expression of DHPRα1s and RyR1, and intracellular [Ca 2+ ] were significantly decreased in the rat sepsis model compared with controls. Decreased intracellular [Ca 2+ ] coincides with diaphragmatic contractility and decreased expression of DHPRα1s and RyR1 in sepsis. Muscle Nerve 56: 1128-1136, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Cathelicidin LL-37 Affects Surface and Intracellular Toll-Like Receptor Expression in Tissue Mast Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Justyna Agier

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Undoubtedly, mast cells take part in host defense against microorganisms as they are numerous at the portal of infection, they release many proinflammatory and antimicrobial mediators, and they express pattern recognition receptors, such as TLRs. These receptors play a key role in recognition and binding molecules associated with microorganisms and molecules associated with damage. Cathelicidins exhibit direct antimicrobial activities against a broad spectrum of microbes by perturbing their cell membranes. Accumulating evidence suggests a role for these molecules in supporting cell activation. We examined the impact of human cathelicidin LL-37 on tissue mast cell TLR expression and distribution. Depending on context, we show that LL-37 stimulation resulted in minor to major effects on TLR2, TLR3, TLR4, TLR5, TLR7, and TLR9 expression. Confocal microscopy analysis showed that, upon stimulation, TLRs may translocate from the cell interior to the surface and conversely. FPR2 and EGFR inhibitors reduced the increase in expression of selected receptors. We also established that LL-37 acts as a powerful inducer of CCL3 and ROS generation. These results showed that in response to LL-37, mast cells enhance the capability to detect invading pathogens by modulation of TLR expression in what may be involved FPR2 or EGFR molecules.

  15. Fibrates upregulate TRB3 in lymphocytes independent of PPAR alpha by augmenting CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein beta (C/EBP beta) expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selim, Erin; Frkanec, Julie T; Cunard, Robyn

    2007-02-01

    Fibrates, which function by binding and activating peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha (PPARalpha), have been used successfully to treat hyperlipidemia and atherosclerosis. Increasing evidence suggests that in addition to their lipid lowering activities these medications also function as immunosuppressive agents. Tribbles is a Drosophila protein that slows cell cycle progression, and its mammalian homolog, TRB3 interferes with insulin-induced activation of AKT. In these studies we demonstrate that fibrates upregulate TRB3 expression in mitogen-activated lymphocytes. Interestingly, in lymphocytes fibrates augment TRB3 expression in both PPARalpha wildtype and knockout mice, suggesting that upregulation of this protein occurs in a PPARalpha-independent manner. Fibrates activate a proximal TRB3 promoter construct and mutation or partial deletion of a potential PPAR response element does not alter the ability of fibrates to drive TRB3 expression. Subsequent studies reveal that fibrates upregulate C/EBPbeta and CHOP in lymphocytes and mutation of potential C/EBPbeta and CHOP consensus sequences abrogates the ability of fibrates to upregulate TRB3 promoter activity. Accordingly, fibrates enhance the recruitment of C/EBPbeta and CHOP to the proximal TRB3 promoter. Finally, TRB3 expression in lymphocytes induces G2 cell cycle delay and cellular depletion. These studies outline a novel PPARalpha-independent mechanism of action of fibrates and document for the first time the expression of TRB3 in activated lymphocytes.

  16. Gene expression and inducibility of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor-dependent pathway in cultured bovine blood lymphocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girolami, Flavia; Spalenza, Veronica; Carletti, Monica; Perona, Giovanni; Sacchi, Paola; Rasero, Roberto; Nebbia, Carlo

    2011-10-10

    The exposure to dioxin-like (DL) compounds, an important class of persistent environmental pollutants, results in the altered expression of target genes. This occurs through the binding to the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR), the subsequent dimerization with the AhR nuclear translocator (ARNT), and the binding of the complex to DNA responsive elements. A number of genes are up-regulated, including, among others, the AhR repressor (AHRR) and several biotransformation enzymes, such as the members of CYP1 family and NAD(P)H-quinone oxidoreductase (NOQ1). The expression and the inducibility of the above genes were investigated in mitogen-stimulated cultured blood lymphocytes from cattle, which represent a notable source of DL-compound human exposure through dairy products and meat. As assessed by real-time PCR, all the examined genes except CYP1A2 and NQO1 were detected under basal conditions. Cell exposure to the DL-compounds PCB126 or PCB77 in the 10(-6)-10(-9)M concentration range resulted in a 2-4-fold induction of CYPIA1 and CYP1B1, which was antagonized by α-naphthoflavone or PCB153. This study demonstrates for the first time the presence and inducibility of the AhR pathway in easily accessible cells like bovine peripheral lymphocytes and prompts further investigations to verify whether similar changes could occur under in vivo conditions. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Intracellular APP Domain Regulates Serine-Palmitoyl-CoA Transferase Expression and Is Affected in Alzheimer's Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grimm, Marcus O. W.; Grösgen, Sven; Rothhaar, Tatjana L.; Burg, Verena K.; Hundsdörfer, Benjamin; Haupenthal, Viola J.; Friess, Petra; Müller, Ulrike; Fassbender, Klaus; Riemenschneider, Matthias; Grimm, Heike S.; Hartmann, Tobias

    2011-01-01

    Lipids play an important role as risk or protective factors in Alzheimer's disease (AD), a disease biochemically characterized by the accumulation of amyloid beta peptides (Aβ), released by proteolytic processing of the amyloid precursor protein (APP). Changes in sphingolipid metabolism have been associated to the development of AD. The key enzyme in sphingolipid de novo synthesis is serine-palmitoyl-CoA transferase (SPT). In the present study we identified a new physiological function of APP in sphingolipid synthesis. The APP intracellular domain (AICD) was found to decrease the expression of the SPT subunit SPTLC2, the catalytic subunit of the SPT heterodimer, resulting in that decreased SPT activity. AICD function was dependent on Fe65 and SPTLC2 levels are increased in APP knock-in mice missing a functional AICD domain. SPTLC2 levels are also increased in familial and sporadic AD postmortem brains, suggesting that SPT is involved in AD pathology. PMID:21660213

  18. Analysis of the Sarcocystis neurona microneme protein SnMIC10: protein characteristics and expression during intracellular development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoane, Jessica S; Carruthers, Vernon B; Striepen, Boris; Morrison, David P; Entzeroth, Rolf; Howe, Daniel K

    2003-07-01

    Sarcocystis neurona, an apicomplexan parasite, is the primary causative agent of equine protozoal myeloencephalitis. Like other members of the Apicomplexa, S. neurona zoites possess secretory organelles that contain proteins necessary for host cell invasion and intracellular survival. From a collection of S. neurona expressed sequence tags, we identified a sequence encoding a putative microneme protein based on similarity to Toxoplasma gondii MIC10 (TgMIC10). Pairwise sequence alignments of SnMIC10 to TgMIC10 and NcMIC10 from Neospora caninum revealed approximately 33% identity to both orthologues. The open reading frame of the S. neurona gene encodes a 255 amino acid protein with a predicted 39-residue signal peptide. Like TgMIC10 and NcMIC10, SnMIC10 is predicted to be hydrophilic, highly alpha-helical in structure, and devoid of identifiable adhesive domains. Antibodies raised against recombinant SnMIC10 recognised a protein band with an apparent molecular weight of 24 kDa in Western blots of S. neurona merozoites, consistent with the size predicted for SnMIC10. In vitro secretion assays demonstrated that this protein is secreted by extracellular merozoites in a temperature-dependent manner. Indirect immunofluorescence analysis of SnMIC10 showed a polar labelling pattern, which is consistent with the apical position of the micronemes, and immunoelectron microscopy provided definitive localisation of the protein to these secretory organelles. Further analysis of SnMIC10 in intracellular parasites revealed that expression of this protein is temporally regulated during endopolygeny, supporting the view that micronemes are only needed during host cell invasion. Collectively, the data indicate that SnMIC10 is a microneme protein that is part of the excreted/secreted antigen fraction of S. neurona. Identification and characterisation of additional S. neurona microneme antigens and comparisons to orthologues in other Apicomplexa could provide further insight into the

  19. Low dose decitabine treatment induces CD80 expression in cancer cells and stimulates tumor specific cytotoxic T lymphocyte responses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li-Xin Wang

    Full Text Available Lack of immunogenicity of cancer cells has been considered a major reason for their failure in induction of a tumor specific T cell response. In this paper, we present evidence that decitabine (DAC, a DNA methylation inhibitor that is currently used for the treatment of myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS, acute myeloid leukemia (AML and other malignant neoplasms, is capable of eliciting an anti-tumor cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL response in mouse EL4 tumor model. C57BL/6 mice with established EL4 tumors were treated with DAC (1.0 mg/kg body weight once daily for 5 days. We found that DAC treatment resulted in infiltration of IFN-γ producing T lymphocytes into tumors and caused tumor rejection. Depletion of CD8(+, but not CD4(+ T cells resumed tumor growth. DAC-induced CTL response appeared to be elicited by the induction of CD80 expression on tumor cells. Epigenetic evidence suggests that DAC induces CD80 expression in EL4 cells via demethylation of CpG dinucleotide sites in the promoter of CD80 gene. In addition, we also showed that a transient, low-dose DAC treatment can induce CD80 gene expression in a variety of human cancer cells. This study provides the first evidence that epigenetic modulation can induce the expression of a major T cell co-stimulatory molecule on cancer cells, which can overcome immune tolerance, and induce an efficient anti-tumor CTL response. The results have important implications in designing DAC-based cancer immunotherapy.

  20. Low Dose Decitabine Treatment Induces CD80 Expression in Cancer Cells and Stimulates Tumor Specific Cytotoxic T Lymphocyte Responses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Ji-Hao; Yao, Yu-Shi; Li, Yong-Hui; Xu, Yi-Han; Li, Jing-Xin; Gao, Xiao-Ning; Zhou, Min-Hang; Jiang, Meng-Meng; Gao, Li; Ding, Yi; Lu, Xue-Chun; Shi, Jin-Long; Luo, Xu-Feng; Wang, Jia; Wang, Li-Li; Qu, Chunfeng; Bai, Xue-Feng; Yu, Li

    2013-01-01

    Lack of immunogenicity of cancer cells has been considered a major reason for their failure in induction of a tumor specific T cell response. In this paper, we present evidence that decitabine (DAC), a DNA methylation inhibitor that is currently used for the treatment of myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS), acute myeloid leukemia (AML) and other malignant neoplasms, is capable of eliciting an anti-tumor cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL) response in mouse EL4 tumor model. C57BL/6 mice with established EL4 tumors were treated with DAC (1.0 mg/kg body weight) once daily for 5 days. We found that DAC treatment resulted in infiltration of IFN-γ producing T lymphocytes into tumors and caused tumor rejection. Depletion of CD8+, but not CD4+ T cells resumed tumor growth. DAC-induced CTL response appeared to be elicited by the induction of CD80 expression on tumor cells. Epigenetic evidence suggests that DAC induces CD80 expression in EL4 cells via demethylation of CpG dinucleotide sites in the promoter of CD80 gene. In addition, we also showed that a transient, low-dose DAC treatment can induce CD80 gene expression in a variety of human cancer cells. This study provides the first evidence that epigenetic modulation can induce the expression of a major T cell co-stimulatory molecule on cancer cells, which can overcome immune tolerance, and induce an efficient anti-tumor CTL response. The results have important implications in designing DAC-based cancer immunotherapy. PMID:23671644

  1. Low dose decitabine treatment induces CD80 expression in cancer cells and stimulates tumor specific cytotoxic T lymphocyte responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Li-Xin; Mei, Zhen-Yang; Zhou, Ji-Hao; Yao, Yu-Shi; Li, Yong-Hui; Xu, Yi-Han; Li, Jing-Xin; Gao, Xiao-Ning; Zhou, Min-Hang; Jiang, Meng-Meng; Gao, Li; Ding, Yi; Lu, Xue-Chun; Shi, Jin-Long; Luo, Xu-Feng; Wang, Jia; Wang, Li-Li; Qu, Chunfeng; Bai, Xue-Feng; Yu, Li

    2013-01-01

    Lack of immunogenicity of cancer cells has been considered a major reason for their failure in induction of a tumor specific T cell response. In this paper, we present evidence that decitabine (DAC), a DNA methylation inhibitor that is currently used for the treatment of myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS), acute myeloid leukemia (AML) and other malignant neoplasms, is capable of eliciting an anti-tumor cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL) response in mouse EL4 tumor model. C57BL/6 mice with established EL4 tumors were treated with DAC (1.0 mg/kg body weight) once daily for 5 days. We found that DAC treatment resulted in infiltration of IFN-γ producing T lymphocytes into tumors and caused tumor rejection. Depletion of CD8(+), but not CD4(+) T cells resumed tumor growth. DAC-induced CTL response appeared to be elicited by the induction of CD80 expression on tumor cells. Epigenetic evidence suggests that DAC induces CD80 expression in EL4 cells via demethylation of CpG dinucleotide sites in the promoter of CD80 gene. In addition, we also showed that a transient, low-dose DAC treatment can induce CD80 gene expression in a variety of human cancer cells. This study provides the first evidence that epigenetic modulation can induce the expression of a major T cell co-stimulatory molecule on cancer cells, which can overcome immune tolerance, and induce an efficient anti-tumor CTL response. The results have important implications in designing DAC-based cancer immunotherapy.

  2. Occupational Toluene Exposure Induces Cytochrome P450 2E1 mRNA Expression in Peripheral Lymphocytes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendoza-Cantú, Ania; Castorena-Torres, Fabiola; de León, Mario Bermúdez; Cisneros, Bulmaro; López-Carrillo, Lizbeth; Rojas-García, Aurora E.; Aguilar-Salinas, Alberto; Manno, Maurizio; Albores, Arnulfo

    2006-01-01

    Print workers are exposed to organic solvents, of which the systemic toxicant toluene is a main component. Toluene induces expression of cytochrome P450 2E1 (CYP2E1), an enzyme involved in its own metabolism and that of other protoxicants, including some procarcinogens. Therefore, we investigated the association between toluene exposure and the CYP2E1 response, as assessed by mRNA content in peripheral lymphocytes or the 6-hydroxychlorzoxazone (6OH-CHZ)/chlorzoxazone (CHZ) quotient (known as CHZ metabolic ratio) in plasma, and the role of genotype (5′-flanking region RsaI/PstI polymorphic sites) in 97 male print workers. The geometric mean (GM) of toluene concentration in the air was 52.80 ppm (10–760 ppm); 54% of the study participants were exposed to toluene concentrations that exceeded the maximum permissible exposure level (MPEL). The GM of urinary hippuric acid at the end of a work shift (0.041 g/g creatinine) was elevated relative to that before the shift (0.027 g/g creatinine; p < 0.05). The GM of the CHZ metabolic ratio was 0.33 (0–9.3), with 40% of the subjects having ratios below the GM. However, the average CYP2E1 mRNA level in peripheral lymphocytes was 1.07 (0.30–3.08), and CYP2E1 mRNA levels within subjects correlated with the toluene exposure ratio (environmental toluene concentration:urinary hippuric acid concentration) (p = 0.014). Genotype did not alter the association between the toluene exposure ratio and mRNA content. In summary, with further validation, CYP2E1 mRNA content in peripheral lymphocytes could be a sensitive and noninvasive biomarker for the continuous monitoring of toluene effects in exposed persons. PMID:16581535

  3. Using the geometric mean fluorescence intensity index method to measure ZAP-70 expression in patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wu YJ

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Yu-Jie Wu, Hui Wang, Jian-Hua Liang, Yi Miao, Lu Liu, Hai-Rong Qiu, Chun Qiao, Rong Wang, Jian-Yong Li Department of Hematology, First Affiliated Hospital of Nanjing Medical University, Jiangsu Province Hospital, Nanjing, People’s Republic of China Abstract: Expression of ζ-chain-associated protein kinase 70 kDa (ZAP-70 in chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL is associated with more aggressive disease and can help differentiate CLL from cases expressing mutated or unmutated immunoglobulin heavy chain variable region (IgHV genes. However, standardizing ZAP-70 expression by flow cytometric analysis has proved unsatisfactory. The key point is that ZAP-70 is weakly expressed with a continuous expression pattern rather than a clear discrimination between positive and negative CLL cells, which means that the resulting judgment is subjective. Thus, in this study, we aimed at assessing the reliability and repeatability of ZAP-70 expression using the geometric mean fluorescence intensity (geo MFI index method based on flow cytometry with 256-channel resolution in a series of 402 CLL patients and to compare ZAP-70 with other biological and clinical prognosticators. According to IgHV mutational status, we were able to confirm that the optimal cut-off point for the geo MFI index was 3.5 in the test set. In multivariate analyses that included the major clinical and biological prognostic markers for CLL, the prognostic impact of ZAP-70 expression appeared to have stronger discriminatory power when the geo MFI index method was applied. In addition, we found that ZAP-70-positive patients according to the geo MFI index method had shorter time to first treatment or overall survival (P=0.0002, P=0.0491. This is the first report showing that ZAP-70 expression can be evaluated by a new approach, the geo MFI index, which could be a useful prognostic method as it is more reliable, less subjective, and therefore better associated with improvement of CLL prognostication

  4. NDH expression marks major transitions in plant evolution and reveals coordinate intracellular gene loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruhlman, Tracey A; Chang, Wan-Jung; Chen, Jeremy J W; Huang, Yao-Ting; Chan, Ming-Tsair; Zhang, Jin; Liao, De-Chih; Blazier, John C; Jin, Xiaohua; Shih, Ming-Che; Jansen, Robert K; Lin, Choun-Sea

    2015-04-11

    Key innovations have facilitated novel niche utilization, such as the movement of the algal predecessors of land plants into terrestrial habitats where drastic fluctuations in light intensity, ultraviolet radiation and water limitation required a number of adaptations. The NDH (NADH dehydrogenase-like) complex of Viridiplantae plastids participates in adapting the photosynthetic response to environmental stress, suggesting its involvement in the transition to terrestrial habitats. Although relatively rare, the loss or pseudogenization of plastid NDH genes is widely distributed across diverse lineages of photoautotrophic seed plants and mutants/transgenics lacking NDH function demonstrate little difference from wild type under non-stressed conditions. This study analyzes large transcriptomic and genomic datasets to evaluate the persistence and loss of NDH expression across plants. Nuclear expression profiles showed accretion of the NDH gene complement at key transitions in land plant evolution, such as the transition to land and at the base of the angiosperm lineage. While detection of transcripts for a selection of non-NDH, photosynthesis related proteins was independent of the state of NDH, coordinate, lineage-specific loss of plastid NDH genes and expression of nuclear-encoded NDH subunits was documented in Pinaceae, gnetophytes, Orchidaceae and Geraniales confirming the independent and complete loss of NDH in these diverse seed plant taxa. The broad phylogenetic distribution of NDH loss and the subtle phenotypes of mutants suggest that the NDH complex is of limited biological significance in contemporary plants. While NDH activity appears dispensable under favorable conditions, there were likely sufficiently frequent episodes of abiotic stress affecting terrestrial habitats to allow the retention of NDH activity. These findings reveal genetic factors influencing plant/environment interactions in a changing climate through 450 million years of land plant

  5. Intracellular reprogramming of expression, glycosylation, and function of a plant-derived antiviral therapeutic monoclonal antibody.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeong-Hwan Lee

    Full Text Available Plant genetic engineering, which has led to the production of plant-derived monoclonal antibodies (mAb(Ps, provides a safe and economically effective alternative to conventional antibody expression methods. In this study, the expression levels and biological properties of the anti-rabies virus mAb(P SO57 with or without an endoplasmic reticulum (ER-retention peptide signal (Lys-Asp-Glu-Leu; KDEL in transgenic tobacco plants (Nicotiana tabacum were analyzed. The expression levels of mAb(P SO57 with KDEL (mAb(PK were significantly higher than those of mAb(P SO57 without KDEL (mAb(P regardless of the transcription level. The Fc domains of both purified mAb(P and mAb(PK and hybridoma-derived mAb (mAb(H had similar levels of binding activity to the FcγRI receptor (CD64. The mAb(PK had glycan profiles of both oligomannose (OM type (91.7% and Golgi type (8.3%, whereas the mAb(P had mainly Golgi type glycans (96.8% similar to those seen with mAb(H. Confocal analysis showed that the mAb(PK was co-localized to ER-tracker signal and cellular areas surrounding the nucleus indicating accumulation of the mAb(P with KDEL in the ER. Both mAb(P and mAb(PK disappeared with similar trends to mAb(H in BALB/c mice. In addition, mAb(PK was as effective as mAb(H at neutralizing the activity of the rabies virus CVS-11. These results suggest that the ER localization of the recombinant mAb(P by KDEL reprograms OM glycosylation and enhances the production of the functional antivirus therapeutic antibody in the plant.

  6. Human T cell lymphotropic virus type I genomic expression and impact on intracellular signaling pathways during neurodegenerative disease and leukemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, J; Wigdahl, B

    2000-01-01

    HTLV-I has been identified as the etiologic agent of neoplasia within the human peripheral blood T lymphocyte population, and a progressive neurologic disorder based primarily within the central nervous system. We have examined the role of HTLV-I in these two distinctly different clinical syndromes by examining the life cycle of the virus, with emphasis on the regulation of viral gene expression within relevant target cell populations. In particular, we have examined the impact of specific viral gene products, particularly Tax, on cellular metabolic function. Tax is a highly promiscuous and pleiotropic viral oncoprotein, and is the most important factor contributing to the initial stages of viral-mediated transformation of T cells after HTLV-I infection. Tax, which weakly binds to Tax response element 1 (TRE-1) in the viral long terminal repeat (LTR), can dramatically trans-activate viral gene expression by interacting with cellular transcription factors, such as activated transcription factors and cyclic AMP response element binding proteins (ATF/CREB), CREB binding protein (CBP/p300), and factors involved with the basic transcription apparatus. At the same time, Tax alters cellular gene expression by directly or indirectly interacting with a variety of cellular transcription factors, cell cycle control elements, and cellular signal transduction molecules ultimately resulting in dysregulated cell proliferation. The mechanisms associated with HTLV-I infection, leading to tropical spastic paraparesis (TSP) are not as clearly resolved. Possible explanations of viral-induced neurologic disease range from central nervous system (CNS) damage caused by direct viral invasion of the CNS to bystander CNS damage caused by the immune response to HTLV-I infection. It is interesting to note that it is very rare for an HTLV-I infected individual to develop both adult T cell leukemia (ATL) and TSP in his/her life time, suggesting that the mechanisms governing development of these

  7. Using the geometric mean fluorescence intensity index method to measure ZAP-70 expression in patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yu-Jie; Wang, Hui; Liang, Jian-Hua; Miao, Yi; Liu, Lu; Qiu, Hai-Rong; Qiao, Chun; Wang, Rong; Li, Jian-Yong

    2016-01-01

    Expression of ζ-chain-associated protein kinase 70 kDa (ZAP-70) in chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) is associated with more aggressive disease and can help differentiate CLL from cases expressing mutated or unmutated immunoglobulin heavy chain variable region (IgHV) genes. However, standardizing ZAP-70 expression by flow cytometric analysis has proved unsatisfactory. The key point is that ZAP-70 is weakly expressed with a continuous expression pattern rather than a clear discrimination between positive and negative CLL cells, which means that the resulting judgment is subjective. Thus, in this study, we aimed at assessing the reliability and repeatability of ZAP-70 expression using the geometric mean fluorescence intensity (geo MFI) index method based on flow cytometry with 256-channel resolution in a series of 402 CLL patients and to compare ZAP-70 with other biological and clinical prognosticators. According to IgHV mutational status, we were able to confirm that the optimal cut-off point for the geo MFI index was 3.5 in the test set. In multivariate analyses that included the major clinical and biological prognostic markers for CLL, the prognostic impact of ZAP-70 expression appeared to have stronger discriminatory power when the geo MFI index method was applied. In addition, we found that ZAP-70-positive patients according to the geo MFI index method had shorter time to first treatment or overall survival (P=0.0002, P=0.0491). This is the first report showing that ZAP-70 expression can be evaluated by a new approach, the geo MFI index, which could be a useful prognostic method as it is more reliable, less subjective, and therefore better associated with improvement of CLL prognostication and prediction of clinical course.

  8. Effect of low-dose irradiation on expression of mRNA and protein. Pt.1. Induction of thioredoxin as radioprotective protein in human lymphocytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoshi, Yuko; Tanooka, Hiroshi; Wakasugi, Hiro; Miyasaki, Kunihisa

    1997-01-01

    To elucidate the mechanism of hormetic effect by low-dose ionizing radiation, we studied the expression of the thioredoxin (TRX) gene in human lymphocytes after irradiation. TRX is a radioprotector and a key protein regulating cellular functions through redox reaction. The major results obtained were as follows; (1) The peaks of TRX mRNA expression and protein synthesis in human lymphocytes appeared 6-8 hr after irradiation with 25cGy. (2) At 6 hr after irradiation, the optimum dose for induction of TRX mRNA and TRX protein in human lymphocytes appeared to be 25-50cGy. (3) Induction of expression TRX mRNA had individual variations about twice. (4) Lymphocytes prepared from fresh venous blood showed the lowest TRX mRNA level in other cells such a Jurkat cells, lymphocytes stimulated for now with IL-2 and CD3 and the immortalized cell line 1G8. (5) The optimal dose and time course of induction of TRX by low-dose radiation suggest that TRX is related to the radio-adaptive response. (author)

  9. Dynamic T-lymphocyte chemokine receptor expression induced by interferon-beta therapy in multiple sclerosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krakauer, M; Sorensen, P S; Khademi, M

    2006-01-01

    chemokine receptor (CXCR)3 was unaltered. Conversely, at 9-12 h after the most recent IFN-beta injection, CCR4, CCR5 and CCR7 expressions were unaltered, while CXCR3 expression was reduced. CD4(+) T-cell surface expression of CCR4 was significantly lower in untreated MS patients compared with healthy...

  10. Peripheral T-lymphocytes express WNT7A and its restoration in leukemia-derived lymphoblasts inhibits cell proliferation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ochoa-Hernández, Alejandra B; Bravo-Cuellar, Alejandro; Jave-Suarez, Luis F; Barros-Núñez, Patricio; Aguilar-Lemarroy, Adriana; Ramos-Solano, Moisés; Meza-Canales, Ivan D; García-Castro, Beatriz; Rosales-Reynoso, Mónica A; Rosales-Aviña, Judith A; Barrera-Chairez, Esperanza; Ortíz-Lazareno, Pablo C; Hernández-Flores, Georgina

    2012-01-01

    WNT7a, a member of the Wnt ligand family implicated in several developmental processes, has also been reported to be dysregulated in some types of tumors; however, its function and implication in oncogenesis is poorly understood. Moreover, the expression of this gene and the role that it plays in the biology of blood cells remains unclear. In addition to determining the expression of the WNT7A gene in blood cells, in leukemia-derived cell lines, and in samples of patients with leukemia, the aim of this study was to seek the effect of this gene in proliferation. We analyzed peripheral blood mononuclear cells, sorted CD3 and CD19 cells, four leukemia-derived cell lines, and blood samples from 14 patients with Acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL), and 19 clinically healthy subjects. Reverse transcription followed by quantitative Real-time Polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) analysis were performed to determine relative WNT7A expression. Restoration of WNT7a was done employing a lentiviral system and by using a recombinant human protein. Cell proliferation was measured by addition of WST-1 to cell cultures. WNT7a is mainly produced by CD3 T-lymphocytes, its expression decreases upon activation, and it is severely reduced in leukemia-derived cell lines, as well as in the blood samples of patients with ALL when compared with healthy controls (p ≤0.001). By restoring WNT7A expression in leukemia-derived cells, we were able to demonstrate that WNT7a inhibits cell growth. A similar effect was observed when a recombinant human WNT7a protein was used. Interestingly, restoration of WNT7A expression in Jurkat cells did not activate the canonical Wnt/β-catenin pathway. To our knowledge, this is the first report evidencing quantitatively decreased WNT7A levels in leukemia-derived cells and that WNT7A restoration in T-lymphocytes inhibits cell proliferation. In addition, our results also support the possible function of WNT7A as a tumor suppressor gene as well as a therapeutic

  11. MHC Expression on Spleen Lymphocyte Subsets in Genetically Resistant and Susceptible Chickens Infected with Marek's Disease Virus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalgaard, Tina; Bøving, Mette K.; Handberg, Kurt

    2009-01-01

    cytometry for MHC surface expression. In the spleen, constitutive MHC class I surface expression was found to be highest in homozygous B19, lowest in homozygous B21, and intermediate in heterozygous B19/B21 animals. This was observed on CD4(+), CD8(+), and Bu-1(+) splenic lymphocytes. Chickens of all three...... genotypes were subjected to infection with MD virus (GA strain) and spleen samples from infected as well as MHC-matched negative controls were analyzed at 1, 4, and 8 wk post-infection (p.i.). It was observed that MDV induced an increase in MHC class I expression late in the infection. Thus, MHC class I...... was increased on the surface of CD4(+) cells from infected chickens of all genotypes at 4 and 8 wk p.i. compared with negative controls. Also, MHC class I expression was increased on CD8(+) cells from infected chickens of all genotypes at 4 and 8 wk p.i., except for the homozygous B19 animals, that showed...

  12. Modulation of macrophage Ia expression by lipopolysaccharide: Stem cell requirements, accessory lymphocyte involvement, and IA-inducing factor production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wentworth, P.A.; Ziegler, H.K.

    1989-01-01

    The mechanism of induction of murine macrophage Ia expression by lipopolysaccharide (LPS) was studied. Intraperitoneal injection of 1 microgram of LPS resulted in a 3- to 10-fold increase in the number of IA-positive peritoneal macrophages (flow cytometry and immunofluorescence) and a 6-to 16-fold increase by radioimmunoassay. The isolated lipid A moiety of LPS was a potent inducer of macrophage Ia expression. Ia induction required a functional myelopoietic system as indicated by the finding that the response to LPS was eliminated in irradiated (900 rads) mice and reinstated by reconstitution with bone marrow cells. Comparison of LPS-induced Ia expression in normal and LPS-primed mice revealed a faster secondary response to LPS. The memory response could be adoptively transferred to normal mice with nonadherent spleen cells prepared 60 days after LPS injection. Spleen cells prepared 5 days after LPS injection caused Ia induction in LPS-nonresponder mice; such induction was not observed in irradiated (900 rads) recipients. The cell responsible for this phenomenon was identified as a Thy-1+, immunoglobulin-negative nonadherent cell. The biosynthesis and expression of Ia were not increased by direct exposure of macrophages to LPS in vitro. Small amounts of LPS inhibited Ia induction by gamma interferon. LPS showed positive regulatory effects on Ia expression by delaying the loss of Ia expression on cultured macrophages and by stimulating the production of Ia-inducing factors. Supernatants from cultured spleen cells stimulated with LPS in vitro contained antiviral and Ia-inducing activity that was acid labile, indicating that the active factor is gamma interferon. We conclude that induction of Ia expression by LPS in vivo is a bone-marrow-dependent, radiation-sensitive process which involves the stimulation of a gamma interferon-producing accessory lymphocyte and a delay in Ia turnover

  13. Prognostic value of ZAP-70 expression in chronic lymphocytic leukemia as assessed by quantitative polymerase chain reaction and flow cytometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Rebecca L C; Cheung, Catherine; Banh, Raymond; Saal, Russell; Cross, Donna; Gill, Devinder; Self, Marlene; Klein, Kerenaftali; Mollee, Peter

    2014-03-01

    Chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) is a disorder in which the tempo of disease progression is highly variable, and prognostic markers that can be utilized at diagnosis are regarded as clinically important. Currently, there are several prognostic factors, such as immunoglobulin heavy chain (IgVH) mutational status, and ZAP-70 protein expression in neoplastic B-cells, that have demonstrated significant discriminative power in the prognostication of CLL. They are, however, largely unavailable in the routine diagnostic laboratory setting. In this study, we characterized the IgVH status and ZAP-70 expression by molecular techniques in a cohort of 108 patients with CLL, and correlated these results with three different methods of ZAP-70 expression by flow cytometry. We then assessed the results of these methods in terms of prognostic power as characterized by time to first treatment (TTFT). By comparing three different flow cytometry methods using receiver–operator curve (ROC) analysis, we identified that by utilizing a corrected mean fluorescence intensity (CorrMFI) algorithm for assessing ZAP-70 expression, there was good correlation with both IgVH mutational status, and ZAP-70 expression as assessed by qPCR. We were also able to show that ZAP-70 expression, as assessed by both qPCR and the CorrMFI method, was prognostic of TTFT. While confirmation in a larger patient cohort, with longer follow-up is required, we believe that the CorrMFI represents the most promising method currently available in a routine diagnostic setting for the assessment of ZAP-70 expression in CLL patients. © 2013 International Clinical Cytometry Society.

  14. Etanercept overcomes P-glycoprotein-induced drug resistance in lymphocytes of patients with intractable rheumatoid arthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsujimura, Shizuyo; Saito, Kazuyoshi; Nakayamada, Shingo; Tanaka, Yoshiya

    2010-04-01

    P-glycoprotein (P-gp) on activated lymphocytes is an adenosine triphosphate (ATP)-binding cassette transporter that causes drug resistance by exclusion of intracellular drugs in patients with active rheumatoid arthritis (RA). However, infliximab with methotrexate (MTX) can overcome P-gp-mediated drug resistance. We encounter patients who cannot continue infliximab or MTX. Here we tested how etanercept affected P-gp-mediated drug resistance in such intractable RA patients. Peripheral lymphocytes of 11 RA patients (3 switched from infliximab and 8 who could not be treated with MTX) were analyzed for P-gp expression by flow cytometry and for drug exclusion using radioisotope-labeled dexamethasone. Activated lymphocytes of RA patients overexpressed P-gp and coexpressed CD69. Incubation of these lymphocytes with dexamethasone in vitro reduced intracellular dexamethasone levels. Two-week etanercept therapy significantly reduced P-gp expression and eliminated such P-gp- and CD69-high-expressing subgroup. The reduction in P-gp resulted in recovery of intracellular dexamethasone levels in lymphocytes and improvement of disease activity, thus allowing tapering of corticosteroids. None of the patients experienced any severe adverse effects. Etanercept is useful for overcoming P-gp-mediated treatment resistance in intractable RA patients who have to discontinue infliximab or are intolerant to MTX.

  15. Expression of Fas and Bcl-2 and their relationship to apoptosis in spleen lymphocytes of mice irradiated with large dose 60Co γ-rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gao Linlu; Cui Yufang; Yang Hong; Xia Guowei; Peng Ruiyun; Gao Yabin; Wang Dewen

    2000-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the expressions of Fas and Bcl-2 and their significance in apoptosis of spleen lymphocyte of mice after large dose γ-ray irradiation. Methods: At 3,6,12,24 h, 3, 7, 14 and 28 d after 6-20 Gy γ-ray irradiation mice were sacrificed and their spleens were removed. The expressions of Fas and Bcl-2 oncoprotein were analysed by LSAB immunohistochemical method. Results: The expression of Fas was strongly positive at 6 h after irradiation, especially in 6-12 Gy groups. It become less obvious along with prolongation of time after irradiation and almost disappeared on d 7 after irradiation. The expression of Bcl-2 was nearly negative at 6 h after irradiation, especially in 12-20 Gy groups, and did not recover on d 28 after irradiation. Conclusion: After large dose γ-ray irradiation the expression of Fas in mouse spleen lymphocytes shows a better relationship to lymphocyte apoptosis; in other words, Fas can prompt apoptosis. On the other hand, the action of Bcl-2 is reduced or even disappeared. Both of them play an important role in spleen lymphocyte apoptosis after large dose of γ-irradiation

  16. Intracellular expression of IRF9 Stat fusion protein overcomes the defective Jak-Stat signaling and inhibits HCV RNA replication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Balart Luis A

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Interferon alpha (IFN-α binds to a cell surface receptor that activates the Jak-Stat signaling pathway. A critical component of this pathway is the translocation of interferon stimulated gene factor 3 (a complex of three proteins Stat1, Stat2 and IRF9 to the nucleus to activate antiviral genes. A stable sub-genomic replicon cell line resistant to IFN-α was developed in which the nuclear translocation of Stat1 and Stat2 proteins was prevented due to the lack of phosphorylation; whereas the nuclear translocation of IRF9 protein was not affected. In this study, we sought to overcome defective Jak-Stat signaling and to induce an antiviral state in the IFN-α resistant replicon cell line by developing a chimera IRF9 protein fused with the trans activating domain (TAD of either a Stat1 (IRF9-S1C or Stat2 (IRF9-S2C protein. We show here that intracellular expression of fusion proteins using the plasmid constructs of either IRF9-S1C or IRF9-S2C, in the IFN-α resistant cells, resulted in an increase in Interferon Stimulated Response Element (ISRE luciferase promoter activity and significantly induced HLA-1 surface expression. Moreover, we show that transient transfection of IRF9-S1C or IRF9-S2C plasmid constructs into IFN-α resistant replicon cells containing sub-genomic HCV1b and HCV2a viruses resulted in an inhibition of viral replication and viral protein expression independent of IFN-α treatment. The results of this study indicate that the recombinant fusion proteins of IRF9-S1C, IRF9-S2C alone, or in combination, have potent antiviral properties against the HCV in an IFN-α resistant cell line with a defective Jak-Stat signaling.

  17. Expression of calpain-calpastatin system (CCS) member proteins in human lymphocytes of young and elderly individuals; pilot baseline data for the CALPACENT project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikosik, Anna; Foerster, Jerzy; Jasiulewicz, Aleksandra; Frąckowiak, Joanna; Colonna-Romano, Giuseppina; Bulati, Matteo; Buffa, Silvio; Martorana, Adriana; Caruso, Calogero; Bryl, Ewa; Witkowski, Jacek M

    2013-07-08

    Ubiquitous system of regulatory, calcium-dependent, cytoplasmic proteases - calpains - and their endogenous inhibitor - calpastatin - is implicated in the proteolytic regulation of activation, proliferation, and apoptosis of many cell types. However, it has not been thoroughly studied in resting and activated human lymphocytes yet, especially in relation to the subjects' ageing process. The CALPACENT project is an international (Polish-Italian) project aiming at verifying the hypothesis of the role of calpains in the function of peripheral blood immune cells of Polish (Pomeranian) and Italian (Sicilian) centenarians, apparently relatively preserved in comparison to the general elderly population. In this preliminary report we aimed at establishing and comparing the baseline levels of expression of μ- and m-calpain and calpastatin in various, phenotypically defined, populations of human peripheral blood lymphocytes for healthy elderly Sicilians and Poles, as compared to these values observed in young cohort. We have found significant differences in the expression of both μ- and m-calpain as well as calpastatin between various populations of peripheral blood lymphocytes (CD4+, CD8+ and CD19+), both between the age groups compared and within them. Interestingly, significantly higher amounts of μ- and m-calpains but not of calpastatin could be demonstrated in the CD4+CD28- and CD8+CD28- lymphocytes of old subjects (but not in the cells of young individuals), as compared to their CD28+ counterparts. Finally, decreased expression of both calpains in the elderly T cells is not related to the accumulation of effector/memory (CD45RO+) cells in the latter, as the expression of both calpains does not differ significantly between the naïve and memory T cells, while is significantly lower for elderly lymphocytes if both populations are taken separately. Observed differences in the amounts of CCS member proteins between various populations of lymphocytes of young and elderly

  18. HLA-DR-expressing cells and T-lymphocytes in sural nerve biopsies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schrøder, H D; Olsson, T; Solders, G

    1988-01-01

    was confirmed. HLA-DR expression was found in all biopsies and thus was not restricted to any particular type of neuropathy. The HLA-DR expression appeared to correlate with severity and activity of the neuropathy. HLA-DR-expressing macrophages wrapping myelinated fibers were prominent in primary demyelinating......Thirty-five sural nerve biopsies were stained immunohistochemically for HLA-DR antigen. HLA-DR was expressed on nonmyelinating Schwann cells, macrophages, vascular endothelium, and perineurium. By means of double immunofluorescence staining the identity of the HLA-DR presenting structures...

  19. Cloning, sequence analysis, and expression of the large subunit of the human lymphocyte activation antigen 4F2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lumadue, J.A.; Glick, A.B.; Ruddle, F.H.

    1987-01-01

    Among the earliest expressed antigens on the surface of activated human lymphocytes is the surface antigen 4F2. The authors have used DNA-mediated gene transfer and fluorescence-activated cell sorting to obtain cell lines that contain the gene encoding the large subunit of the human 4F2 antigen in a mouse L-cell background. Human DNAs cloned from these cell lines were subsequently used as hybridization probes to isolate a full-length cDNA clone expressing 4F2. Sequence analysis of the coding region has revealed an amino acid sequence of 529 residues. Hydrophobicity plotting has predicted a probable structure for the protein that includes an external carboxyl terminus, an internal leader sequence, a single hydrophobic transmembrane domain, and two possible membrane-associated domains. The 4F2 cDNA detects a single 1.8-kilobase mRNA in T-cell and B-cell lines. RNA gel blot analysis of RNA derived from quiescent and serum-stimulated Swiss 3T3 fibroblasts reveals a cell-cycle modulation of 4F2 gene expression: the mRNA is present in quiescent fibroblasts but increases 8-fold 24-36 hr after stimulation, at the time of maximal DNA synthesis

  20. Cloning, sequence analysis, and expression of the large subunit of the human lymphocyte activation antigen 4F2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lumadue, J.A.; Glick, A.B.; Ruddle, F.H.

    1987-12-01

    Among the earliest expressed antigens on the surface of activated human lymphocytes is the surface antigen 4F2. The authors have used DNA-mediated gene transfer and fluorescence-activated cell sorting to obtain cell lines that contain the gene encoding the large subunit of the human 4F2 antigen in a mouse L-cell background. Human DNAs cloned from these cell lines were subsequently used as hybridization probes to isolate a full-length cDNA clone expressing 4F2. Sequence analysis of the coding region has revealed an amino acid sequence of 529 residues. Hydrophobicity plotting has predicted a probable structure for the protein that includes an external carboxyl terminus, an internal leader sequence, a single hydrophobic transmembrane domain, and two possible membrane-associated domains. The 4F2 cDNA detects a single 1.8-kilobase mRNA in T-cell and B-cell lines. RNA gel blot analysis of RNA derived from quiescent and serum-stimulated Swiss 3T3 fibroblasts reveals a cell-cycle modulation of 4F2 gene expression: the mRNA is present in quiescent fibroblasts but increases 8-fold 24-36 hr after stimulation, at the time of maximal DNA synthesis.

  1. HLA-E expression by gynecological cancers restrains tumor-infiltrating CD8(+) T lymphocytes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gooden, Marloes; Lampen, Margit; Jordanova, Ekaterina S.; Leffers, Ninke; Trimbos, J. Baptist; van der Burg, Sjoerd H.; Nijman, Hans; van Hall, Thorbald

    2011-01-01

    HLA-E is a nonclassical HLA class I molecule, which differs from classical HLA molecules by its nonpolymorphic, conserved nature. Expression and function of HLA-E in normal tissues and solid tumors is not fully understood. We investigated HLA-E protein expression on tissue sections of 420 ovarian

  2. Igs expressed by chronic lymphocytic leukemia B cells show limited binding-site structure variability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcatili, Paolo; Ghiotto, Fabio; Tenca, Claudya; Chailyan, Anna; Mazzarello, Andrea N; Yan, Xiao-Jie; Colombo, Monica; Albesiano, Emilia; Bagnara, Davide; Cutrona, Giovanna; Morabito, Fortunato; Bruno, Silvia; Ferrarini, Manlio; Chiorazzi, Nicholas; Tramontano, Anna; Fais, Franco

    2013-06-01

    Ag selection has been suggested to play a role in chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) pathogenesis, but no large-scale analysis has been performed so far on the structure of the Ag-binding sites (ABSs) of leukemic cell Igs. We sequenced both H and L chain V(D)J rearrangements from 366 CLL patients and modeled their three-dimensional structures. The resulting ABS structures were clustered into a small number of discrete sets, each containing ABSs with similar shapes and physicochemical properties. This structural classification correlates well with other known prognostic factors such as Ig mutation status and recurrent (stereotyped) receptors, but it shows a better prognostic value, at least in the case of one structural cluster for which clinical data were available. These findings suggest, for the first time, to our knowledge, on the basis of a structural analysis of the Ab-binding sites, that selection by a finite quota of antigenic structures operates on most CLL cases, whether mutated or unmutated.

  3. Igs Expressed by Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia B Cells Show Limited Binding-Site Structure Variability

    KAUST Repository

    Marcatili, P.

    2013-05-01

    Ag selection has been suggested to play a role in chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) pathogenesis, but no large-scale analysis has been performed so far on the structure of the Ag-binding sites (ABSs) of leukemic cell Igs. We sequenced both H and L chain V(D)J rearrangements from 366 CLL patients and modeled their three-dimensional structures. The resulting ABS structures were clustered into a small number of discrete sets, each containing ABSs with similar shapes and physicochemical properties. This structural classification correlates well with other known prognostic factors such as Ig mutation status and recurrent (stereotyped) receptors, but it shows a better prognostic value, at least in the case of one structural cluster for which clinical data were available. These findings suggest, for the first time, to our knowledge, on the basis of a structural analysis of the Ab-binding sites, that selection by a finite quota of antigenic structures operates on most CLL cases, whether mutated or unmutated. Copyright © 2013 by The American Association of Immunologists, Inc.

  4. Igs Expressed by Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia B Cells Show Limited Binding-Site Structure Variability

    KAUST Repository

    Marcatili, P.; Ghiotto, F.; Tenca, C.; Chailyan, A.; Mazzarello, A. N.; Yan, X.-J.; Colombo, M.; Albesiano, E.; Bagnara, D.; Cutrona, G.; Morabito, F.; Bruno, S.; Ferrarini, M.; Chiorazzi, N.; Tramontano, A.; Fais, F.

    2013-01-01

    Ag selection has been suggested to play a role in chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) pathogenesis, but no large-scale analysis has been performed so far on the structure of the Ag-binding sites (ABSs) of leukemic cell Igs. We sequenced both H and L chain V(D)J rearrangements from 366 CLL patients and modeled their three-dimensional structures. The resulting ABS structures were clustered into a small number of discrete sets, each containing ABSs with similar shapes and physicochemical properties. This structural classification correlates well with other known prognostic factors such as Ig mutation status and recurrent (stereotyped) receptors, but it shows a better prognostic value, at least in the case of one structural cluster for which clinical data were available. These findings suggest, for the first time, to our knowledge, on the basis of a structural analysis of the Ab-binding sites, that selection by a finite quota of antigenic structures operates on most CLL cases, whether mutated or unmutated. Copyright © 2013 by The American Association of Immunologists, Inc.

  5. Prognostic value of the CD4+/ CD8+ ratio of tumour infiltrating lymphocytes in colorectal cancer and HLA-DR expression on tumour cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Diederichsen, Axel Cosmus Pyndt; Hjelmborg, J v B; Christensen, Per B

    2003-01-01

    class II in 70 enzymatically dissociated colorectal cancers and the phenotype of tumour infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs) in 41 cases. There was no trend in 5-year survival between three levels (low, medium, high) of HLA-DR expression on the tumour cells. Patients with low CD4+/CD8+ ratios had a better...

  6. Biological Prognostic Markers in Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimíra Vroblová

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL is the most frequent leukemic disease of adults in the Western world. It is remarkable by an extraordinary heterogeneity of clinical course with overall survival ranging from several months to more than 15 years. Classical staging sytems by Rai and Binet, while readily available and useful for initial assessment of prognosis, are not able to determine individual patient’s ongoing clinical course of CLL at the time of diagnosis, especially in early stages. Therefore, newer biological prognostic parameters are currently being clinically evaluated. Mutational status of variable region of immunoglobulin heavy chain genes (IgVH, cytogenetic aberrations, and both intracellular ZAP- 70 and surface CD38 expression are recognized as parameters with established prognostic value. Molecules regulating the process of angiogenesis are also considered as promising markers. The purpose of this review is to summarize in detail the specific role of these prognostic factors in chronic lymphocytic leukemia.

  7. Two novel functions of hyaluronidase from Streptococcus agalactiae are enhanced intracellular survival and inhibition of proinflammatory cytokine expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhaofei; Guo, Changming; Xu, Yannan; Liu, Guangjin; Lu, Chengping; Liu, Yongjie

    2014-06-01

    Streptococcus agalactiae is the causative agent of septicemia and meningitis in fish. Previous studies have shown that hyaluronidase (Hyl) is an important virulence factor in many Gram-positive bacteria. To investigate the role of S. agalactiae Hyl during interaction with macrophages, we inactivated the gene encoding extracellular hyaluronidase, hylB, in a clinical Hyl(+) isolate. The isogenic hylb mutant (Δhylb) displayed reduced survival in macrophages compared to the wild type and stimulated a significantly higher release of proinflammatory cytokines, such as interleukin-1β (IL-1β), IL-6, and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), than the wild type in macrophages as well as in mice. Furthermore, only Hyl(+) strains could grow utilizing hyaluronic acid (HA) as the sole carbon source, suggesting that Hyl permits the organism to utilize host HA as an energy source. Fifty percent lethal dose (LD50) determinations in zebrafish demonstrated that the hylb mutant was highly attenuated relative to the wild-type strain. Experimental infection of BALB/c mice revealed that bacterial loads in the blood, spleen, and brain at 16 h postinfection were significantly reduced in the ΔhylB mutant compared to those in wild-type-infected mice. In conclusion, hyaluronidase has a strong influence on the intracellular survival of S. agalactiae and proinflammatory cytokine expression, suggesting that it plays a key role in S. agalactiae pathogenicity.

  8. Role of oxidative stress and intracellular calcium in nickel carbonate hydroxide-induced sister-chromatid exchange, and alterations in replication index and mitotic index in cultured human peripheral blood lymphocytes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    M' Bemba-Meka, Prosper [Universite de Montreal, Human Toxicology Research Group (TOXHUM), Department of Environmental and Occupational Health, Main Station, P.O. Box 6128, Montreal, QC (Canada); University of Louisville, Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Center for Genetics and Molecular Medicine, Louisville, KY (United States); Lemieux, Nicole [Universite de Montreal, Department of Pathology and Cellular Biology, Faculty of Medicine, Main Station, P.O. Box 6128, Montreal, QC (Canada); Chakrabarti, Saroj K. [Universite de Montreal, Human Toxicology Research Group (TOXHUM), Department of Environmental and Occupational Health, Main Station, P.O. Box 6128, Montreal, QC (Canada)

    2007-02-15

    Human peripheral lymphocytes from whole blood cultures were exposed to either soluble form of nickel carbonate hydroxide (NiCH) (0-60 {mu}M), or of nickel subsulfide (Ni{sub 3}S{sub 2}) (0-120 {mu}M), or of nickel oxide (NiO) (0-120 {mu}M), or nickel sulfate (NiSO{sub 4}) (0-120 {mu}M) for a short duration of 2 h. The treatments occurred 46 h after the beginning of the cultures. The cultures were harvested after a total incubation of 72 h, and sister-chromatid exchange (SCE), replication index (RI), and mitotic index (MI) were measured for each nickel compound. The soluble form of NiCH at 30 {mu}M but those of Ni{sub 3}S{sub 2} and NiO at 120 {mu}M produced significant increase in the SCE per cell compared to the control value, whereas NiSO{sub 4} failed to produce any such significant increase. Except NiSO{sub 4}, the soluble forms of NiCH, Ni{sub 3}S{sub 2}, and NiO produced significant cell-cycle delay (as measured by the inhibition of RI) as well as significant inhibition of the MI at respective similar concentrations as mentioned above. Pretreatment of human blood lymphocytes with catalase (H{sub 2}O{sub 2} scavenger), or superoxide dismutase (superoxide anion scavenger), or dimethylthiourea (hydroxyl radical scavenger), or deferoxamine (iron chelator), or N-acetylcysteine (general antioxidant) inhibited NiCH-induced SCE, and changes in RI and MI. This suggests the participation of oxidative stress involving H{sub 2}O{sub 2}, the superoxide anion radical, the hydroxyl radical, and iron in the NiCH-induced genotoxic responses. Cotreatment of NiCH with either verapamil (inhibitor of intracellular calcium ion ([Ca{sup 2+}]{sub i}) movement through plasma membranes), or dantrolene (inhibitor of [Ca{sup 2+}]{sub i} release from sarcoplasmic reticulum), or BAPTA (Ca{sup 2+} chelator) also inhibited the NiCH-induced responses. These results suggest that [Ca{sup 2+}]{sub i} is also implicated in the genotoxicity of NiCH. Overall these data indicate that various types

  9. Permanent, lowered HLA class I expression using lentivirus vectors with shRNA constructs: Averting cytotoxicity by alloreactive T lymphocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haga, K; Lemp, N A; Logg, C R; Nagashima, J; Faure-Kumar, E; Gomez, G G; Kruse, C A; Mendez, R; Stripecke, R; Kasahara, N; Kasahara, N A; Cicciarelli, J C

    2006-12-01

    Transplantation of many tissues requires histocompatibility matching of human leukocyte antigens (HLA) to prevent graft rejection, to reduce the level of immunosuppression needed to maintain graft survival, and to minimize the risk of graft-versus-host disease, particularly in the case of bone marrow transplantation. However, recent advances in fields of gene delivery and genetic regulation technologies have opened the possibility of engineering grafts that display reduced levels of HLA expression. Suppression of HLA expression could help to overcome the limitations imposed by extensive HLA polymorphisms that restrict the availability of suitable donors, necessitate the maintenance of large donor registries, and complicate the logistics of procuring and delivering matched tissues and organs to the recipient. Accordingly, we investigated whether knockdown of HLA by RNA interference (RNAi), a ubiquitous regulatory system that can efficiently and selectively inhibit the expression of specific gene products, would enable allogeneic cells to evade immune recognition. For efficient and stable delivery of short hairpin-type RNAi constructs (shRNA), we employed lentivirus-based gene transfer vectors, which provide a delivery system that can achieve integration into genomic DNA, thereby permanently modifying transduced graft cells. Our results show that lentivirus-mediated delivery of shRNA targeting pan-Class I and allele-specific HLA can achieve efficient and dose-dependent reduction in surface expression of HLA in human cells, associated with enhanced resistance to alloreactive T lymphocyte-mediated cytotoxicity, while avoiding MHC-non-restricted killing. We hypothesize that RNAi-induced silencing of HLA expression has the potential to create histocompatibility-enhanced, and, eventually, perhaps "universally" compatible cellular grafts.

  10. Mitogen-activated protein kinase phosphatase-1 expression in macrophages is controlled by lymphocytes during macrophage activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Chong; Yang, Xiqiang; Yao, Lan; Jiang, Liping; Liu, Wei; Li, Xin; Wang, Lijia

    2012-01-01

    The viewpoints on the control of innate immune cells by the adaptive immune system during sepsis remain controversial. Mitogen-activated protein kinase phosphatase-1 (MKP-1) is essential to the negative control of innate immunity and suppresses the activation of macrophages by inhibiting activated mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK). The purpose of the current study was to observe inflammatory response and macrophage activation in mice with severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID) with endotoxemia and to determine the role of MKP-1 in the control of macrophage activation by the adaptive immune system. Endotoxemia was induced in wild-type and SCID mice by an intraperitoneal injection of lipopolysaccharide (LPS), and all of the SCID mice died. SCID mice produced more inflammatory cytokines than BALB/c mice systemically and locally. TNF-α mRNA expression was higher and MKP-1 mRNA expression was lower in peritoneal macrophages (PMa) from SCID mice compared to PMa from wild-type mice after and even before LPS injection. Thioglycollate-stimulated PMa from wild-type mice were stimulated with LPS in vitro in the presence or absence of pan-T cells. The levels of TNF-α and IL-6 were higher in the supernatants from PMa cultured alone compared to PMa co-cultured with pan-T cells, and PMa MKP-1 mRNA and protein expression were higher when PMa were co-cultured with pan-T cells. Therefore, pan-T cells can up-regulate MKP-1 expression in macrophages and inhibit the secretion of inflammatory cytokines secretion by macrophages. In SCID mice, lymphocyte deficiency, especially T cell deficiency, causes insufficient MKP-1 expression in macrophages, which can be responsible for the severe inflammation and bad prognosis of septic SCID mice. MKP-1 plays an important role in the control of macrophage activation by the adaptive immune system.

  11. Expression of NMDA receptor subunits in human blood lymphocytes: A peripheral biomarker in online computer game addiction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadat-Shirazi, Mitra-Sadat; Vousooghi, Nasim; Alizadeh, Bentolhoda; Makki, Seyed Mohammad; Zarei, Seyed Zeinolabedin; Nazari, Shahrzad; Zarrindast, Mohammad Reza

    2018-05-23

    Background and aims Repeated performance of some behaviors such as playing computer games could result in addiction. The NMDA receptor is critically involved in the development of behavioral and drug addictions. It has been claimed that the expression level of neurotransmitter receptors in the brain may be reflected in peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBLs). Methods Here, using a real-time PCR method, we have investigated the mRNA expression of GluN2A, GluN2D, GluN3A, and GluN3B subunits of the NMDA receptor in PBLs of male online computer game addicts (n = 25) in comparison with normal subjects (n = 26). Results Expression levels of GluN2A, GluN2D, and GluN3B subunits were not statistically different between game addicts and the control group. However, the mRNA expression of the GluN3A subunit was downregulated in PBLs of game addicts. Discussion and conclusions Transcriptional levels of GluN2A and GluN2D subunits in online computer game addicts are similar to our previously reported data of opioid addiction and are not different from the control group. However, unlike our earlier finding of drug addiction, the mRNA expression levels of GluN3A and GluN3B subunits in PBLs of game addicts are reduced and unchanged, respectively, compared with control subjects. It seems that the downregulated state of the GluN3A subunit of NMDA receptor in online computer game addicts is a finding that deserves more studies in the future to see whether it can serve as a peripheral biomarker in addiction studies, where the researcher wants to rule out the confusing effects of abused drugs.

  12. High-level intracellular expression of heterologous proteins in Brevibacillus choshinensis SP3 under the control of a xylose inducible promoter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D’Urzo Nunzia

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In past years research has focused on the development of alternative Gram positive bacterial expression systems to produce industrially relevant proteins. Brevibacillus choshinensis is an easy to handle non-sporulating bacterium, lacking extracellular proteases, that has been already shown to provide a high level of recombinant protein expression. One major drawback, limiting the applicability of the Brevibacillus expression system, is the absence of expression vectors based on inducible promoters. Here we used the PxylA inducible promoter, commonly employed in other Bacillae expression systems, in Brevibacillus. Results Using GFP, α-amylase and TcdA-GT as model proteins, high level of intracellular protein expression (up to 250 mg/L for the GFP was achieved in Brevibacillus, using the pHis1522 vector carrying the B. megaterium xylose-inducible promoter (PxylA. The GFP expression yields were more than 25 fold higher than those reported for B. megaterium carrying the same vector. All the tested proteins show significant increment in their expression levels (2-10 folds than those obtained using the available plasmids based on the P2 constitutive promoter. Conclusion Combining the components of two different commercially available Gram positive expression systems, such as Brevibacillus (from Takara Bio and B. megaterium (from Mobitec, we demonstrate that vectors based on the B. megaterium PxylA xylose inducible promoter can be successfully used to induce high level of intracellular expression of heterologous proteins in Brevibacillus.

  13. IP3-dependent intracellular Ca2+ release is required for cAMP-induced c-fos expression in hippocampal neurons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Wenting; Tingare, Asmita; Ng, David Chi-Heng; Johnson, Hong W.; Schell, Michael J.; Lord, Rebecca L.; Chawla, Sangeeta

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► cAMP-induced c-fos expression in hippocampal neurons requires a submembraneous Ca 2+ pool. ► The submembraneous Ca 2+ pool derives from intracellular ER stores. ► Expression of IP 3 -metabolizing enzymes inhibits cAMP-induced c-fos expression. ► SRE-mediated and CRE-mediated gene expression is sensitive to IP 3 -metabolizing enzymes. ► Intracellular Ca 2+ release is required for cAMP-induced nuclear translocation of TORC1. -- Abstract: Ca 2+ and cAMP are widely used in concert by neurons to relay signals from the synapse to the nucleus, where synaptic activity modulates gene expression required for synaptic plasticity. Neurons utilize different transcriptional regulators to integrate information encoded in the spatiotemporal dynamics and magnitude of Ca 2+ and cAMP signals, including some that are Ca 2+ -responsive, some that are cAMP-responsive and some that detect coincident Ca 2+ and cAMP signals. Because Ca 2+ and cAMP can influence each other’s amplitude and spatiotemporal characteristics, we investigated how cAMP acts to regulate gene expression when increases in intracellular Ca 2+ are buffered. We show here that cAMP-mobilizing stimuli are unable to induce expression of the immediate early gene c-fos in hippocampal neurons in the presence of the intracellular Ca 2+ buffer BAPTA-AM. Expression of enzymes that attenuate intracellular IP 3 levels also inhibited cAMP-dependent c-fos induction. Synaptic activity induces c-fos transcription through two cis regulatory DNA elements – the CRE and the SRE. We show here that in response to cAMP both CRE-mediated and SRE-mediated induction of a luciferase reporter gene is attenuated by IP 3 metabolizing enzymes. Furthermore, cAMP-induced nuclear translocation of the CREB coactivator TORC1 was inhibited by depletion of intracellular Ca 2+ stores. Our data indicate that Ca 2+ release from IP 3 -sensitive pools is required for cAMP-induced transcription in hippocampal neurons.

  14. 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin decrease expression of aryl hydrocarbon receptor in peripheral lymphocyte of β-thalassemia major patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghatrehsamani, Mahdi; Soleimani, Masoud; Esfahani, Behjat Al-Sadat Moayedi; Hakemi, Mazdak Ganjalikhani; Shirzad, Hedayatollah; Eskandari, Nahid; Adib, Minoo

    2015-01-01

    β-thalassemia major is a hereditary disease with inefficient erythropoiesis. Level of inflammatory cytokine is elevated in these patients. In this study, we investigate the effect of aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) ligand, 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD), on the expression of inflammatory mediators in β-thalassemia major patient's lymphocytes. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells of patients and healthy participants was isolated and cultured in favor of lymphocytes increment. Based on the treatment, we divided the cell into four groups. The orders of group's treatments were no treatment, tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) treatment, TNF-α and TCDD treatment, TCDD treatment in Group 1-4, respectively. After cell culture, we extracted the cells RNA and converted them to cDNA. Real-time polymerase chain reaction was performed to assessment relative expression of caspase-1, NLRP3, and AhR. We compared all patient groups with equal healthy (control) groups. Results showed that expression of caspase-1 in patients (Groups 1 and 2) was significantly lower than healthy individuals (P 0.05). Expression of AhR in other groups of patients (3 and 4) was significantly lower than control groups (P < 0.05). Expression of caspase-1 in Group 4 was significantly larger than the control group (P < 0.001). We show here that chronic inflammation decrease caspase-1 expression and exposure of human lymphocytes to TCDD promote caspase-1 expression. Furthermore, activation of AhR with TCDD decreases AhR expression in lymphocytes of β-thalassemia major disease.

  15. Neurotrophin Expression in Lymphocytes: a Powerful Indicator of Degeneration in Parkinson's Disease, Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis and Ataxia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadanand, Anjana; Janardhanan, Anjali; Vanisree, A J; Pavai, Thamil

    2018-02-01

    Deregulated neurotrophin is an etiological factor in the pathology of neurodegenerative diseases (ND) that are clinically different entities but characterised by similar limb dysfunction. Earlier validation of peripheral biomarkers can provide significant translational benefit to ND patients. We analysed brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF)-tropomyosin possessing tyrosine-related kinase (Trk B) and its key downstream proteins which are implicated in ND such as Parkinson's disease (PD), amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and ataxia. Blood from ND patients with PD, ALS and Ataxia with movement dysfunctions were obtained to analyse mRNA and protein expressions of the above mentioned factors in lymphocytes. The mRNA and protein expression of BDNF-Trk B and its key downstream molecules showed a significant variation when compared to control and among NDs. The study intends to show that on identifying the variation of these key molecules in the blood samples of patients with ND can serve as early diagnostic candidates. Thus by intervening, the neurotrophins and their pathways can help in early diagnosis and optimising levels of diagnostic certainty.

  16. A mouse model for chronic lymphocytic leukemia based on expression of the SV40 large T antigen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    ter Brugge, Petra J; Ta, Van B T; de Bruijn, Marjolein J W

    2009-01-01

    The simian virus 40 (SV40) T antigen is a potent oncogene able to transform many cell types and has been implicated in leukemia and lymphoma. In this report, we have achieved sporadic SV40 T-antigen expression in mature B cells in mice, by insertion of a SV40 T antigen gene in opposite...... transcriptional orientation in the immunoglobulin (Ig) heavy (H) chain locus between the D and J(H) segments. SV40 T-antigen expression appeared to result from retention of the targeted germline allele and concomitant antisense transcription of SV40 large T in mature B cells, leading to chronic lymphocytic...... leukemia (CLL). Although B-cell development was unperturbed in young mice, aging mice showed accumulation of a monoclonal B-cell population in which the targeted IgH allele was in germline configuration and the wild-type IgH allele had a productive V(D)J recombination. These leukemic B cells were Ig...

  17. Relationship between p53 dysfunction, CD38 expression, and IgV(H) mutation in chronic lymphocytic leukemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Ke; Sherrington, Paul D; Dennis, Michael; Matrai, Zoltan; Cawley, John C; Pettitt, Andrew R

    2002-08-15

    Established adverse prognostic factors in chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) include CD38 expression, relative lack of IgV(H) mutation, and defects of the TP53 gene. However, disruption of the p53 pathway can occur through mechanisms other than TP53 mutation, and we have recently developed a simple screening test that detects p53 dysfunction due to mutation of the genes encoding either p53 or ATM, a kinase that regulates p53. The present study was conducted to examine the predictive value of this test and to establish the relationship between p53 dysfunction, CD38 expression, and IgV(H) mutation. CLL cells from 71 patients were examined for IgV(H) mutation, CD38 expression, and p53 dysfunction (detected as an impaired p53/p21 response to ionizing radiation). Survival data obtained from 69 patients were analyzed according to each of these parameters. Relative lack of IgV(H) mutation (less than 5%; n = 45), CD38 positivity (antigen expressed on more than 20% of malignant cells; n = 19), and p53 dysfunction (n = 19) were independently confirmed as adverse prognostic factors. Intriguingly, all p53-dysfunctional patients and all but one of the CD38(+) patients had less [corrected] than 5% IgV(H) mutation. Moreover, patients with p53 dysfunction and/or CD38 positivity (n = 31) accounted for the short survival of the less mutated group. These findings indicate that the poor outcome associated with having less than 5% IgV(H) mutation may be due to the overrepresentation of high-risk patients with p53 dysfunction and/or CD38 positivity within this group, and that CD38(-) patients with functionally intact p53 may have a prolonged survival regardless of the extent of IgV(H) mutation.

  18. Epstein–Barr Virus MicroRNAs are Expressed in Patients with Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia and Correlate with Overall Survival

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandra Ferrajoli

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Although numerous studies highlighted the role of Epstein–Barr Virus (EBV in B-cell transformation, the involvement of EBV proteins or genome in the development of the most frequent adult leukemia, chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL, has not yet been defined. We hypothesized that EBV microRNAs contribute to progression of CLL and demonstrated the presence of EBV miRNAs in B-cells, in paraffin-embedded bone marrow biopsies and in the plasma of patients with CLL by using three different methods (small RNA-sequencing, quantitative reverse transcription PCR [q-RT-PCR] and miRNAs in situ hybridization [miRNA-ISH]. We found that EBV miRNA BHRF1-1 expression levels were significantly higher in the plasma of patients with CLL compared with healthy individuals (p < 0 · 0001. Notably, BHRF1-1 as well as BART4 expression were detected in the plasma of either seronegative or seropositive (anti-EBNA-1 IgG and EBV DNA tested patients; similarly, miRNA-ISH stained positive in bone marrow specimens while LMP1 and EBER immunohistochemistry failed to detect viral proteins and RNA. We also found that BHRF1-1 plasma expression levels were positively associated with elevated beta-2-microglobulin levels and advanced Rai stages and observed a correlation between higher BHRF1-1 expression levels and shorter survival in two independent patients' cohorts. Furthermore, in the majority of CLL cases where BHRF1-1 was exogenously induced in primary malignant B cells the levels of TP53 were reduced. Our findings suggest that EBV may have a role in the process of disease progression in CLL and that miRNA RT-PCR and miRNAs ISH could represent additional methods to detect EBV miRNAs in patients with CLL.

  19. T-lymphocyte cytokine mRNA expression in cystic echinococcosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fauser, S; Kern, P

    1997-04-01

    In the present study we investigated cytokine mRNA expression by peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) from patients with cystic echinococcosis (CE) after stimulation with different antigens. By using reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) we could demonstrate that restimulation with crude Echinococcus granulosus antigen (Eg-Ag) induced or enhanced Th2 cytokine mRNA expression, especially IL-5 (by using antigen from sheep cyst fluid) in 23 out of 26 investigated CE patients and IL-10 (by using antigen from camel cyst fluid) in 10 out of 10 investigated CE patients. In contrast, IL-5 mRNA expression was absent in PBMC of healthy controls after Eg-Ag stimulation. To determine the specificity of this reaction we stimulated PBMC from 11 CE patients with crude Echinococcus multilocularis antigen (Em-Ag) and PBMC from 8 CE patients with Toxocara canis antigen (Tc-Ag). We found that the PBMC of patients showed a similar mRNA cytokine pattern on stimulation with Em-Ag when compared with Eg-Ag stimulation. The cytokine mRNA pattern on stimulation with Tc-Ag, however, resembled the cytokine mRNA pattern of unstimulated PBMC. Furthermore, the stimulation of PBMC with crude Mycobacterium tuberculosis antigen (H37Ra) and purified protein derivative (PPD) of M. tuberculosis revealed distinct IL-5 mRNA expression in all investigated CE patients, whereas in healthy controls IL-5 mRNA expression was very weak or totally absent. Thus, our results indicate an induction of Th2 cytokine mRNA expression in CE patients, which is frequently observed in parasite infections. Interestingly, this response persists after stimulation with tuberculosis antigens, which normally induce Th1 response.

  20. [mRNA expression of dopamine receptor D2 and dopamine transporter in peripheral blood lymphocytes before and after treatment in children with tic disorder].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Xiao-Yi; Wu, Min

    2016-04-01

    To investigate the mRNA expression of dopamine receptor D2 (DRD2) and dopamine transporter (DAT) in peripheral blood lymphocytes before and after treatment in children with tic disorder (TD). RT-PCR was used to measure the mRNA expression of DRD2 and DAT in peripheral blood lymphocytes before and after treatment in 60 children with TD. The correlations between mRNA expression of DRD2 and DAT and the severity of TD were analyzed. Sixty healthy children served as the control group. Before treatment, the children with TD had a significant increase in the mRNA expression of DRD2 and DAT compared with the control group (PTic Severity Scale (YGTSS) score (P<0.05). In the children with moderate TD, the mRNA expression of DAT was positively correlated with YGTSS score (P<0.05). In children with TD, the mRNA expression of DRD2 in peripheral blood lymphocytes can be used as one of the indicators for diagnosing TD, assessing the severity of TD, and evaluating clinical outcomes.

  1. Triptolide inhibits proliferation of Epstein–Barr virus-positive B lymphocytes by down-regulating expression of a viral protein LMP1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou, Heng; Guo, Wei; Long, Cong; Wang, Huan; Wang, Jingchao; Sun, Xiaoping

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Triptolide inhibits proliferation of EBV-positive lymphoma cells in vitro and in vivo. • Triptolide reduces expression of LMP1 by decreasing its transcription level. • Triptolide inhibits ED-L1 promoter activity. - Abstract: Epstein–Barr virus (EBV) infects various types of cells and mainly establishes latent infection in B lymphocytes. The viral latent membrane protein 1 (LMP1) plays important roles in transformation and proliferation of B lymphocytes infected with EBV. Triptolide is a compound of Tripterygium extracts, showing anti-inflammatory, immunosuppressive, and anti-cancer activities. In this study, it is determined whether triptolide inhibits proliferation of Epstein–Barr virus-positive B lymphocytes. The CCK-8 assays were performed to examine cell viabilities of EBV-positive B95-8 and P3HR-1 cells treated by triptolide. The mRNA and protein levels of LMP1 were examined by real time-PCR and Western blotting, respectively. The activities of two LMP1 promoters (ED-L1 and TR-L1) were determined by Dual luciferase reportor assay. The results showed that triptolide inhibited the cell viability of EBV-positive B lymphocytes, and the over-expression of LMP1 attenuated this inhibitory effect. Triptolide decreased the LMP1 expression and transcriptional levels in EBV-positive B cells. The activity of LMP1 promoter ED-L1 in type III latent infection was strongly suppressed by triptolide treatment. In addition, triptolide strongly reduced growth of B95-8 induced B lymphoma in BALB/c nude mice. These results suggest that triptolide decreases proliferation of EBV-induced B lymphocytes possibly by a mechanism related to down-regulation of the LMP1 expression

  2. Triptolide inhibits proliferation of Epstein–Barr virus-positive B lymphocytes by down-regulating expression of a viral protein LMP1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, Heng [Department of Pathogen Biology, School of Basic Medical Sciences, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430071 (China); Guo, Wei [Department of Pathology and Physiology, School of Basic Medical Sciences, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430071 (China); Long, Cong; Wang, Huan; Wang, Jingchao [Department of Pathogen Biology, School of Basic Medical Sciences, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430071 (China); Sun, Xiaoping, E-mail: xsun6@whu.edu.cn [Department of Pathogen Biology, School of Basic Medical Sciences, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430071 (China); State Key Laboratory of Virology, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430072 (China)

    2015-01-16

    Highlights: • Triptolide inhibits proliferation of EBV-positive lymphoma cells in vitro and in vivo. • Triptolide reduces expression of LMP1 by decreasing its transcription level. • Triptolide inhibits ED-L1 promoter activity. - Abstract: Epstein–Barr virus (EBV) infects various types of cells and mainly establishes latent infection in B lymphocytes. The viral latent membrane protein 1 (LMP1) plays important roles in transformation and proliferation of B lymphocytes infected with EBV. Triptolide is a compound of Tripterygium extracts, showing anti-inflammatory, immunosuppressive, and anti-cancer activities. In this study, it is determined whether triptolide inhibits proliferation of Epstein–Barr virus-positive B lymphocytes. The CCK-8 assays were performed to examine cell viabilities of EBV-positive B95-8 and P3HR-1 cells treated by triptolide. The mRNA and protein levels of LMP1 were examined by real time-PCR and Western blotting, respectively. The activities of two LMP1 promoters (ED-L1 and TR-L1) were determined by Dual luciferase reportor assay. The results showed that triptolide inhibited the cell viability of EBV-positive B lymphocytes, and the over-expression of LMP1 attenuated this inhibitory effect. Triptolide decreased the LMP1 expression and transcriptional levels in EBV-positive B cells. The activity of LMP1 promoter ED-L1 in type III latent infection was strongly suppressed by triptolide treatment. In addition, triptolide strongly reduced growth of B95-8 induced B lymphoma in BALB/c nude mice. These results suggest that triptolide decreases proliferation of EBV-induced B lymphocytes possibly by a mechanism related to down-regulation of the LMP1 expression.

  3. Expression of fusion IL2-B7.1(IgV+C) and effects on T lymphocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Linghong; Li, Yaochen; Yang, Ye; Li, Kangsheng

    2007-12-01

    The search for an effective immunotherapeutic treatment for tumors is an important area of cancer research. To prepare a more effective form of the bifunctional fusion protein IL2-B7.1(IgV+C) and analyze its effect on the stimulation of T lymphocyte proliferation, we used DNAStar 5.03 software to predict the structural diversity and biochemical character of IL2-B7.1(IgV+C). We then prepared fusion protein IL2-B7.1(IgV+C) by establishing its prokaryotic expression system, and tested its effect on the stimulation of T lymphocytes in vitro. The results indicated that IL2-B7.1(IgV+C) correctly formed a secondary structure in which both IL2 and B7.1(IgV+C) maintained their original hydrophilicity and epitopes. Western blot analysis revealed that IL2-B7.1(IgV+C) was efficiently expressed. Our analysis of CTLL-2 and T-cell proliferation showed that recombinant human (rh) IL2-B7.1(IgV+C) exerted the combined stimulating effects of both rhIL2 and rh B7.1(IgV+C) on cell proliferation, and that these effects could be blocked by adding either anti-IL2 or anti-B7.1 monoclonal antibodies. A >2-fold increase in [3H]TdR incorporation compared with that of cells treated with recombinant protein IL2, or B7.1(IgV+C) alone, revealed that rhIL2-B7.1(IgV+C) had dose-dependent synergetic effects on T-cell activation in the presence of anti-CD3 monoclonal antibody. We concluded that the augmented potency of rhIL2-B7.1(IgV+C) resulted in a stronger stimulation of T-cell proliferation than either rhB7.1(IgV+C) or rhIL2 alone.

  4. Novel primary thymic defect with T lymphocytes expressing gamma delta T cell receptor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Geisler, C; Pallesen, G; Platz, P

    1989-01-01

    Flow cytometric analysis of the peripheral blood mononuclear cells in a six year old girl with a primary cellular immune deficiency showed a normal fraction of CD3 positive T cells. Most (70%) of the CD3 positive cells, however, expressed the gamma delta and not the alpha beta T cell receptor....... Immunoprecipitation and sodium dodecyl sulphate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) showed that most of the gamma delta T cell receptors existed as disulphide-linked heterodimers. Proliferative responses to mitogens were severely reduced, but specific antibody responses after vaccination could be detected...... deficiency associated with a high proportion of T cells expressing the gamma delta T cell receptor has been described in nude mice, and it is suggested that the immune deficiency of this patient may represent a human analogue....

  5. Biological and clinical meaning of myeloid antigen expression in the acute lymphocytic leukemia in children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marsan Suarez, Vianed; Sanchez Segura, Miriam; Socarras Ferrer, Bertha B; Valle Perez, Lazaro O del

    2009-01-01

    In 238 children presenting with acute lymphoid leukemia (ALL) authors studied the possible association between the myeloid antigens expression with determined biologic and clinic features at disease onset. The cellular immunophenotyping was performed by ultraimmunocytochemical method. From the total of diagnosed ALLs, the 21,8% were LLA-Mi+. There was a lymphadenopathies predominance (71,2%), splenomegaly (65,4%) and hepatomegaly (57,7%) in patients with LLA-Mi+ and very significant differences (p =0,003, p = 0,0068, and p = 0,000, respectively. There was also alight predominance of mediastinum adenopathies, CNS infiltration and hemorrahagic manifestations in patients with LLA-Mi+, no statistically significant. Results showed that in our patients the myeloid antigen expression on the lymphoid blasts influenced on appearance of determined presentation of morphologic and clinical features in children

  6. Rapid gene expression changes in peripheral blood lymphocytes upon practice of a comprehensive yoga program.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Su Qu

    Full Text Available One of the most common integrative medicine (IM modalities is yoga and related practices. Previous work has shown that yoga may improve wellness in healthy people and have benefits for patients. However, the mechanisms of how yoga may positively affect the mind-body system are largely unknown. Here we have assessed possible rapid changes in global gene expression profiles in the peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs in healthy people that practiced either a comprehensive yoga program or a control regimen. The experimental sessions included gentle yoga postures, breathing exercises, and meditation (Sudarshan Kriya and Related Practices--SK&P compared with a control regimen of a nature walk and listening to relaxing music. We show that the SK&P program has a rapid and significantly greater effect on gene expression in PBMCs compared with the control regimen. These data suggest that yoga and related practices result in rapid gene expression alterations which may be the basis for their longer term cell biological and higher level health effects.

  7. Analysis of monoclonal antibodies reactive with molecules upregulated or expressed only on activated lymphocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, W C; Naessens, J; Brown, W C; Ellis, J A; Hamilton, M J; Cantor, G H; Barbosa, J I; Ferens, W; Bohach, G A

    1996-08-01

    Monoclonal antibodies potentially specific for antigens expressed or upregulated on activated leukocytes were selected for further analysis from the panel submitted to the third international workshop on ruminant leukocyte antigens. The kinetics of expression of these activation antigens on resting peripheral mononuclear cells (PBMC) and PBMC stimulated with concanavalin A or staphylococcal superantigen SECI for 4, 24 or 96 h were compared, as well as their appearance on various subsets of cells. For some of them, a molecular mass could be determined after immunoprecipitation from radio-labeled, lectin-stimulated cells. Based on the results from the clustering, kinetic studies and biochemical data, evidence was gathered for assigning two additional mAbs to cluster BoCD25 (IL-2 receptor) and two mAbs to cluster BoCD71 (transferrin receptor). Four mAbs recognized an early activation antigen predominantly expressed on gamma delta T cells in short-term cultures. A number of other activation antigens were further characterized.

  8. Cytosolic Hsp70/Hsc70 protein expression in lymphocytes exposed to low gamma-ray dose

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manzanares A, E.; Vega C, H.R.; Letechipia de Leon, C.; Guzman E, L.J.; Garcia T, M.

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of low gamma ray intensity upon Hsp70 expression in human Iymphocytes. The heat shock proteins (Hsp) family, are a group of proteins present in all living organism, therefore there are highly conserved and are related to adaptation and evolution. At cellular level these proteins acts as chaperones correcting denatured proteins. When a stress agent, such heavy metals, UV, heat, etc. is affecting a cell a response to this aggression is triggered only through over expression of Hsp. Several studies has been carried out in which the cellular effect are observed, mostly of these studies uses large doses, but very few studies are related with low doses. Blood of healthy volunteers was obtained and the Iymphocytes were isolated by ficoll- histopaque gradient. Experimental lots were irradiated in a 137 Cs gamma-ray. Hsp70 expression was found since 0.5 c Gy, indicating a threshold to very low doses of gamma rays. (Author)

  9. Expression of MDM2 in an acute lymphocytic leukemia mice model induced by γ-radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang Yuecheng; Cai Jianming; Han Ling; Gao Fu; Cui Jianguo; Gao Jianguo

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the role of the MDM 2 in the process of carcinogenesis induced by γ-rays and its molecular mechanisms. Methods: Animal model of radiation-induced leukemia was established by γ-irradiation. According to the histological and morphological results, mice tissues were divided into three groups: cancerization group, incancerization group and control group. Expression of MDM 2 protein and mRNA in thymus/bone marrow was detected with Western blot and in situ hybridization (ISH), respectively. The authors also examined the protein phosphorylation level of MDM 2 protein by immunoprecipitation (IP). PCR-SSCP was performed to detect gene mutation. Results: A mice leukemia model was successfully established as verified by pathological findings and confirmed by transplantation test in nude mice. The protein expression in thymus/bone marrow in irradiation groups was significantly higher than that in controls (P 2 was found to be hyper-phosphorylated in the cancerization group as compared with other groups. No gene mutation was detected by SSCP/silver-staining assay in the tumor samples. Conclusion: MDM 2 may be involved in the development and progression of leukemia induced by γ-irradiation. The over-expression but not gene mutation may be responsible for malignant transformation induced by radiation. Phosphorylation is at least partly attributed to activation of MDM 2

  10. Cytosolic Hsp70/Hsc70 protein expression in lymphocytes exposed to low gamma-ray dose

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Manzanares A, E.; Vega C, H.R.; Letechipia de Leon, C. [Unidades Academicas de Estudios Nucleares, UAZ, A.P. 336, 98000 Zacatecas (Mexico)]. E-mail: emanz@cantera.reduaz.mx; Guzman E, L.J. [Unidad Academica de Biologia Experimental, Guadalupe, Zacatecas (Mexico); Garcia T, M. [LIBRA, Centro I and D, Campus Miguel Delibes, Valladolid 47011 (Spain)

    2004-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of low gamma ray intensity upon Hsp70 expression in human Iymphocytes. The heat shock proteins (Hsp) family, are a group of proteins present in all living organism, therefore there are highly conserved and are related to adaptation and evolution. At cellular level these proteins acts as chaperones correcting denatured proteins. When a stress agent, such heavy metals, UV, heat, etc. is affecting a cell a response to this aggression is triggered only through over expression of Hsp. Several studies has been carried out in which the cellular effect are observed, mostly of these studies uses large doses, but very few studies are related with low doses. Blood of healthy volunteers was obtained and the Iymphocytes were isolated by ficoll- histopaque gradient. Experimental lots were irradiated in a {sup 137} Cs gamma-ray. Hsp70 expression was found since 0.5 c Gy, indicating a threshold to very low doses of gamma rays. (Author)

  11. Failure of lymphocyte-membrane HLA-A and -B expression in two siblings with combined immunodeficiency

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schuurman, R.K.B.; Rood, J.J. van; Vossen, J.M.; Schellekens, P.Th.A.; Feltkamp-Vroom, Th.M.; Doyer, E.; Gmelig Meyling, F.H.J.; Visser, H.K.A.

    1979-01-01

    A diagnosis of partial combined immunodeficiency was made in two Turkish siblings with a history of multiple pyogenic infections and persistent candidiasis. They demonstrated severe hypo-γ-globulinemia, with B-lymphocytes, but deficient plasma cell differentiation. T-Lymphocytes were decreased in

  12. Disruption of Intracellular ATP Generation and Tight Junction Protein Expression during the Course of Brain Edema Induced by Subacute Poisoning of 1,2-Dichloroethane

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaoyang Wang

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to explore changes in intracellular ATP generation and tight junction protein expression during the course of brain edema induced by subacute poisoning of 1,2-dichloroethane (1,2-DCE. Mice were exposed to 1.2 g/m3 1,2-DCE for 3.5 h per day for 1, 2, or 3 days, namely group A, B, and C. Na+-K+-ATPase and Ca2+-ATPase activity, ATP and lactic acid content, intracellular free Ca2+ concentration and ZO-1 and occludin expression in the brain were measured. Results of present study disclosed that Ca2+-ATPase activities in group B and C, and Na+/K+-ATPase activity in group C decreased, whereas intracellular free Ca2+ concentrations in group B and C increased significantly compared with control. Moreover, ATP content decreased, whereas lactic acid content increased significantly in group C compared with control. On the other hand, expressions of ZO-1 and occludin at both the protein and gene levels in group B and C decreased significantly compared with control. In conclusion, findings from this study suggest that calcium overload and depressed expression of tight junction associated proteins, such as ZO-1 and occludin might play an important role in the early phase of brain edema formation induced by subacute poisoning of 1,2-DCE.

  13. A new 500 kb haplotype associated with high CD8+ T-lymphocyte numbers predicts a less severe expression of hereditary hemochromatosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mascarenhas Cláudia

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Hereditary Hemochromatosis(HH is a common genetic disorder of iron overload where the large majority of patients are homozygous for one ancestral mutation in the HFE gene. In spite of this remarkable genetic homogeneity, the condition is clinically heterogeneous, varying from a severe disease to an asymptomatic phenotype with only abnormal biochemical parameters. The recent recognition of the variable penetrance of the HH mutation in different large population studies demands the need to search for new modifiers of its phenotypic expression. The present study follows previous observations that MHC class-I linked genetic markers, associated with the setting of CD8+ T-lymphocyte numbers, could be clinically relevant modifiers of the phenotypic expression in HH, and aimed to find new markers that could be used as more reliable prognostic variables. Methods Haplotype analysis, including seven genetic markers within a 1 Mb region around the microsatellite D6S105 was performed in a group of 56 previously characterized C282Y homozygous Portuguese patients. Parameters analyzed in this study were total body iron stores, clinical manifestations related with HH and immunological parameters (total lymphocyte numbers, CD4+ and CD8+ T-lymphocyte numbers. An independent group of 10 C282Y homozygous patients from Vancouver, Canada, were also included in this study and analyzed for the same parameters. Results A highly conserved ancestral haplotype defined by the SNP markers PGBD1-A, ZNF193-A, ZNF165-T (designated as A-A-T was found associated with both abnormally low CD8+ T-lymphocyte numbers and the development of a severe clinical expression of HH. In a small proportion of patients, another conserved haplotype defined by the SNP markers PGBD1-G, ZNF193-G, ZNF165-G (designated as G-G-G was found associated with high CD8+ T-lymphocyte numbers and a milder clinical expression. Remarkably, the two conserved haplotypes defined in Portuguese

  14. Expression of orphan G-protein coupled receptor GPR174 in CHO cells induced morphological changes and proliferation delay via increasing intracellular cAMP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sugita, Kazuya; Yamamura, Chiaki; Tabata, Ken-ichi [Laboratory of Pharmacoinformatics, Graduate School of Ritsumeikan University, Kusatsu, Shiga 525-8577 (Japan); Fujita, Norihisa, E-mail: nori@ph.ritsumei.ac.jp [Laboratory of Pharmacoinformatics, Graduate School of Ritsumeikan University, Kusatsu, Shiga 525-8577 (Japan); School of Pharmacy, Ristumeikan University, Kusatsu, Shiga 525-8577 (Japan)

    2013-01-04

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Expression of GPR174 in CHO cells induces morphological changes and proliferation delay. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer These are due to increase in intracellular cAMP concentration. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Lysophosphatidylserine was identified to stimulate GPR174 leading to activate ACase. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The potencies of fatty acid moiety on LysoPS were oleoyl Greater-Than-Or-Slanted-Equal-To stearoyl > palmitoyl. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We propose that GPR174 is a lysophosphatidylserine receptor. -- Abstract: We established cell lines that stably express orphan GPCR GPR174 using CHO cells, and studied physiological and pharmacological features of the receptor. GPR174-expressing cells showed cell-cell adhesion with localization of actin filaments to cell membrane, and revealed significant delay of cell proliferation. Since the morphological changes of GPR174-cells were very similar to mock CHO cells treated with cholera toxin, we measured the concentration of intracellular cAMP. The results showed the concentration was significantly elevated in GPR174-cells. By measuring intracellular cAMP concentration in GPR174-cells, we screened lipids and nucleotides to identify ligands for GPR174. We found that lysophosphatidylserine (LysoPS) stimulated increase in intracellular cAMP in a dose-dependent manner. Moreover, phosphorylation of Erk was elevated by LysoPS in GPR174 cells. These LysoPS responses were inhibited by NF449, an inhibitor of G{alpha}{sub s} protein. These results suggested that GPR174 was a putative LysoPS receptor conjugating with G{alpha}{sub s}, and its expression induced morphological changes in CHO cells by constitutively activating adenylyl cycles accompanied with cell conjunctions and delay of proliferation.

  15. Mechanical strain stimulates vasculogenesis and expression of angiogenesis guidance molecules of embryonic stem cells through elevation of intracellular calcium, reactive oxygen species and nitric oxide generation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharifpanah, Fatemeh; Behr, Sascha; Wartenberg, Maria; Sauer, Heinrich

    2016-12-01

    Differentiation of embryonic stem (ES) cells may be regulated by mechanical strain. Herein, signaling molecules underlying mechanical stimulation of vasculogenesis and expression of angiogenesis guidance cues were investigated in ES cell-derived embryoid bodies. Treatment of embryoid bodies with 10% static mechanical strain using a Flexercell strain system significantly increased CD31-positive vascular structures and the angiogenesis guidance molecules plexinB1, ephrin B2, neuropilin1 (NRP1), semaphorin 4D (sem4D) and robo4 as well as vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), fibroblast growth factor-2 (FGF-2) and platelet-derived growth factor-BB (PDGF-BB) as evaluated by Western blot and real time RT-PCR. In contrast ephrin type 4 receptor B (EphB4) expression was down-regulated upon mechanical strain, indicating an arterial-type differentiation. Robo1 protein expression was modestly increased with no change in mRNA expression. Mechanical strain increased intracellular calcium as well as reactive oxygen species (ROS) and nitric oxide (NO). Mechanical strain-induced vasculogenesis was abolished by the NOS inhibitor L-NAME, the NADPH oxidase inhibitor VAS2870, upon chelation of intracellular calcium by BAPTA as well as upon siRNA inactivation of ephrin B2, NRP1 and robo4. BAPTA blunted the strain-induced expression of angiogenic growth factors, the increase in NO and ROS as well as the expression of NRP1, sem4D and plexinB1, whereas ephrin B2, EphB4 as well as robo1 and robo4 expression were not impaired. Mechanical strain stimulates vasculogenesis of ES cells by the intracellular messengers ROS, NO and calcium as well as by upregulation of angiogenesis guidance molecules and the angiogenic growth factors VEGF, FGF-2 and PDGF-BB. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Forced LIGHT expression in prostate tumors overcomes Treg mediated immunosuppression and synergizes with a prostate tumor therapeutic vaccine by recruiting effector T lymphocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Lisa; Da Silva, Diane M; Verma, Bhavna; Gray, Andrew; Brand, Heike E; Skeate, Joseph G; Porras, Tania B; Kanodia, Shreya; Kast, W Martin

    2015-02-15

    LIGHT, a ligand for lymphotoxin-β receptor (LTβR) and herpes virus entry mediator, is predominantly expressed on activated immune cells and LTβR signaling leads to the recruitment of lymphocytes. The interaction between LIGHT and LTβR has been previously shown to activate immune cells and result in tumor regression in a virally-induced tumor model, but the role of LIGHT in tumor immunosuppression or in a prostate cancer setting, where self antigens exist, has not been explored. We hypothesized that forced expression of LIGHT in prostate tumors would shift the pattern of immune cell infiltration toward an anti-tumoral milieu, would inhibit T regulatory cells (Tregs) and would induce prostate cancer tumor associated antigen (TAA) specific T cells that would eradicate tumors. Real Time PCR was used to evaluate expression of forced LIGHT and other immunoregulatory genes in prostate tumors samples. For in vivo studies, adenovirus encoding murine LIGHT was injected intratumorally into TRAMP-C2 prostate cancer cell tumor bearing mice. Chemokine and cytokine concentrations were determined by multiplex ELISA. Flow cytometry was used to phenotype tumor infiltrating lymphocytes and expression of LIGHT on the tumor cell surface. Tumor-specific lymphocytes were quantified via ELISpot assay. Treg induction and Treg suppression assays determined Treg functionality after LIGHT treatment. LIGHT in combination with a therapeutic vaccine, PSCA TriVax, reduced tumor burden. LIGHT expression peaked within 48 hr of infection, recruited effector T cells that recognized mouse prostate stem cell antigen (PSCA) into the tumor microenvironment, and inhibited infiltration of Tregs. Tregs isolated from tumor draining lymph nodes had impaired suppressive capability after LIGHT treatment. Forced LIGHT treatment combined with PSCA TriVax therapeutic vaccination delays prostate cancer progression in mice by recruiting effector T lymphocytes to the tumor and inhibiting Treg mediated

  17. Adoptitive immunotherapy with genetically engineered T lymphocytes modified to express chimeric antigen receptors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. А. Pavlova

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Significant mortality due to oncological diseases as a whole, and oncohematological diseases in particular, motivates scientific and medical community to develop new treatment methods. One of the newest methods is adoptive cell therapy using patient’s own T-cells modified to express chimeric antigen receptors (CAR to tumor-specific antigens. Despite high cost and side effects of treatment, promising clinical trials even in patients with advanced disease allow to anticipate successful use of this method in clinical practice.The article includes a review of the main principles of this technique, published results of clinical studies of CAR T-cells with a focus on CD19 gene targeting, complications of this therapy, mechanisms of tumor resistance to CAR T-cells, and potential ways to overcome it.

  18. Effects of an illicit cocktail on serum immunoglobulins, lymphocyte proliferation and cytokine gene expression in the veal calf

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cantiello, Michela; Carletti, Monica; Cannizzo, Francesca T.; Nebbia, Carlo; Bellino, Claudio; Pie, Sandrine; Oswald, Isabelle P.; Bollo, Enrico; Dacasto, Mauro

    2007-01-01

    At the European Union level, the use of growth promoters (GPs) in cattle and other food-producing species is forbidden; nonetheless, the illicit use of anabolic hormones, β-agonists and corticosteroids, often administered in cocktails at lower concentrations to overcome control procedures, is still of public concern. The immune system (IS) is a multicomponent system that provide a coordinated response toward infectious diseases, not self-neoplasms and xenobiotics; in this respect, some GPs have been proved able to cause both morphological alterations in lymphoid organs and a modulating effect upon some immunological parameters. Therefore, in the present study the effects of an illicit cocktail upon the cattle IS functions were investigated by using some common endpoints adopted for the IS testing in humans. Twelve cross-bred male veal calves were divided in two experimental groups (n = 6); the first group was administered a cocktail of 17β-oestradiol (10 mg, 3 im injections at 17 days intervals), clenbuterol (20 μg kg -1 , per os for 40 days) and dexamethasone (4 mg per os for 6 days and, then, 5 mg for further 6 days) for a total of 55 days. The second one was used as control. Blood sampling were taken at T 0 and after 15 (T 1 ), 34 (T 2 ), 48 (T 3 ) days as well as the day before slaughtering (T 4 ). Immune endpoints considered were the thymus weight, the serum immunoglobulin G (IgG) and M (IgM) levels, the lymphocyte proliferation assay and the lymphocyte interleukins 1β and 8, tumour necrosis factor α and interferon γ (IFN-γ) gene expression levels. The administration of the illicit cocktail resulted in: (a) a reduction (P 1 , whereas in the second part of the study increasing levels (P 2 and T 4 for IgM and IgG, respectively) were recorded; (c) an overall reduction (P 1 ; in phytohaemagglutinin-stimulated cells, such a decrease was delayed up to T 2 (P 1 and T 2 . Taken together, present data suggest that GPs, even given in cocktails at sub

  19. Mutual enhancement of IL-2 and IL-7 on DNA vaccine immunogenicity mainly involves regulations on their receptor expression and receptor-expressing lymphocyte generation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yonghong; Liang, Shuang; Li, Xiujin; Wang, Liyue; Zhang, Jianlou; Xu, Jian; Huo, Shanshan; Cao, Xuebin; Zhong, Zhenyu; Zhong, Fei

    2015-07-09

    Our previous study showed that IL-2 and IL-7 could mutually enhance the immunogenicity of canine parvovirus VP2 DNA vaccine, although the underlying mechanism remained unknown. Here, we used the OVA gene as a DNA vaccine in a mouse model to test their enhancement on DNA vaccine immunogenicity and to explore the molecular mechanism. Results showed that both IL-2 and IL-7 genes significantly increased the immunogenicity of OVA DNA vaccine in mice. Co-administration of IL-2 and IL-7 genes with OVA DNA significantly increased OVA-specific antibody titers, T cell proliferation and IFN-γ production compared with IL-2 or IL-7 alone, confirming that IL-2 and IL-7 mutually enhanced DNA vaccine immunogenicity. Mechanistically, we have shown that IL-2 significantly stimulated generation of IL-7 receptor-expressing lymphocytes, and that IL-7 significantly induced IL-2 receptor expression. These results contribute to an explanation of the mechanism of the mutual effects of IL-2 and IL-7 on enhancing DNA vaccine immunogenicity and provided a basis for further investigation on their mutual effects on adjuvant activity and immune regulation. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Expression of the potential therapeutic target CXXC5 in primary acute myeloid leukemia cells - high expression is associated with adverse prognosis as well as altered intracellular signaling and transcriptional regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruserud, Øystein; Reikvam, Håkon; Fredly, Hanne; Skavland, Jørn; Hagen, Karen-Marie; van Hoang, Tuyen Thy; Brenner, Annette K; Kadi, Amir; Astori, Audrey; Gjertsen, Bjørn Tore; Pendino, Frederic

    2015-02-20

    The CXXC5 gene encodes a transcriptional activator with a zinc-finger domain, and high expression in human acute myeloid leukemia (AML) cells is associated with adverse prognosis. We now characterized the biological context of CXXC5 expression in primary human AML cells. The global gene expression profile of AML cells derived from 48 consecutive patients was analyzed; cells with high and low CXXC5 expression then showed major differences with regard to extracellular communication and intracellular signaling. We observed significant differences in the phosphorylation status of several intracellular signaling mediators (CREB, PDK1, SRC, STAT1, p38, STAT3, rpS6) that are important for PI3K-Akt-mTOR signaling and/or transcriptional regulation. High CXXC5 expression was also associated with high mRNA expression of several stem cell-associated transcriptional regulators, the strongest associations being with WT1, GATA2, RUNX1, LYL1, DNMT3, SPI1, and MYB. Finally, CXXC5 knockdown in human AML cell lines caused significantly increased expression of the potential tumor suppressor gene TSC22 and genes encoding the growth factor receptor KIT, the cytokine Angiopoietin 1 and the selenium-containing glycoprotein Selenoprotein P. Thus, high CXXC5 expression seems to affect several steps in human leukemogenesis, including intracellular events as well as extracellular communication.

  1. IGHV1-69-Encoded Antibodies Expressed in Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia React with Malondialdehyde-Acetaldehyde Adduct, an Immunodominant Oxidation-Specific Epitope

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Que, Xuchu; Widhopf Ii, George F; Amir, Shahzada

    2013-01-01

    The immunoglobulins expressed by chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) B cells are highly restricted, suggesting they are selected for binding either self or foreign antigen. Of the immunoglobulin heavy-chain variable (IGHV) genes expressed in CLL, IGHV1-69 is the most common, and often is expressed...... are products of enhanced lipid peroxidation and a major target of innate natural antibodies. Specifically, CLL69C bound immunodominant OSE adducts termed MAA (malondialdehyde-acetaldehyde-adducts), which are found on apoptotic cells, inflammatory tissues, and atherosclerotic lesions. It also reacted...

  2. 27-Hydroxycholesterol and 7alpha-hydroxycholesterol trigger a sequence of events leading to migration of CCR5-expressing Th1 lymphocytes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Sun-Mi, E-mail: lala1647@hanmail.net [Department of Pharmacology, Pusan National University, School of Medicine, Yangsan, Gyeongnam 626-870 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Bo-Young, E-mail: kimboyoung@pusan.ac.kr [Department of Pharmacology, Pusan National University, School of Medicine, Yangsan, Gyeongnam 626-870 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Sae-A, E-mail: saeah486@nate.com [Department of Pharmacology, Pusan National University, School of Medicine, Yangsan, Gyeongnam 626-870 (Korea, Republic of); Eo, Seong-Kug, E-mail: vetvirus@chonbuk.ac.kr [Laboratory of Microbiology, College of Veterinary Medicine and Bio-Safety Research Institute, Chonbuk National University, Jeonju, Jeonbuk 561-756 (Korea, Republic of); Yun, Yungdae, E-mail: yunyung@ewha.ac.kr [Department of Life Science, Ewha Womans University, Seoul 120-750 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Chi-Dae, E-mail: chidkim@pusan.ac.kr [Department of Pharmacology, Pusan National University, School of Medicine, Yangsan, Gyeongnam 626-870 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Koanhoi, E-mail: koanhoi@pusan.ac.kr [Department of Pharmacology, Pusan National University, School of Medicine, Yangsan, Gyeongnam 626-870 (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-02-01

    Th1 lymphocytes are predominant in atherosclerotic lesions. However, mechanisms involved in the Th1 predominance are unknown. We have investigated the possibility of Th1 lymphocyte recruitment in a cholesterol-rich milieu. A high cholesterol diet resulted in enhanced expression of CCR5 ligands, including CCL3 and CCL4, but not of proatherogenic CXCR3 ligands, in atherosclerotic arteries of ApoE{sup −/−} mice. 27-Hydroxycholesterol and 7α-hydroxycholesterol, cholesterol oxides (oxysterols) detected in abundance in atherosclerotic lesions, greatly induced the transcription of CCL3 and CCL4 genes in addition to enhancing secretion of corresponding proteins by THP-1 monocytic cells. However, an identical or even higher concentration of cholesterol, 7β-hydroxycholesterol, and 7-ketocholsterol did not influence expression of these chemokines. Conditioned media containing the CCR5 ligands secreted from THP-1 cells induced migration of Jurkat T cells expressing CCR5, a characteristic chemokine receptor of Th1 cells, but not of Jurkat T cells that do not express CCR5. The migration of CCR5-expressing Jurkat T cells was abrogated in the presence of a CCR5-neutralizing antibody. 27-Hydroxycholesterol and 7α-hydroxycholesterol enhanced phosphorylation of Akt. Pharmacological inhibitors of phosphoinositide-3-kinase/Akt pathways blocked transcription as well as secretion of CCL3 and CCL4 in conjunction with attenuated migration of CCR5-expressing Jurkat T cells. This is the first report on the involvement of cholesterol oxides in migration of distinct subtype of T cells. We propose that 27-hydroxycholesterol and 7α-hydroxycholesterol can trigger a sequence of events that leads to recruitment of Th1 lymphocytes and phosphoinositide-3-kinase/Akt pathways play a major role in the process. - Graphical abstract: Th1 lymphocytes are predominant in atherosclerotic lesions. However, mechanisms involved in the Th1 predominance are unknown. We have investigated the possibility of

  3. 27-Hydroxycholesterol and 7alpha-hydroxycholesterol trigger a sequence of events leading to migration of CCR5-expressing Th1 lymphocytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Sun-Mi; Kim, Bo-Young; Lee, Sae-A; Eo, Seong-Kug; Yun, Yungdae; Kim, Chi-Dae; Kim, Koanhoi

    2014-01-01

    Th1 lymphocytes are predominant in atherosclerotic lesions. However, mechanisms involved in the Th1 predominance are unknown. We have investigated the possibility of Th1 lymphocyte recruitment in a cholesterol-rich milieu. A high cholesterol diet resulted in enhanced expression of CCR5 ligands, including CCL3 and CCL4, but not of proatherogenic CXCR3 ligands, in atherosclerotic arteries of ApoE −/− mice. 27-Hydroxycholesterol and 7α-hydroxycholesterol, cholesterol oxides (oxysterols) detected in abundance in atherosclerotic lesions, greatly induced the transcription of CCL3 and CCL4 genes in addition to enhancing secretion of corresponding proteins by THP-1 monocytic cells. However, an identical or even higher concentration of cholesterol, 7β-hydroxycholesterol, and 7-ketocholsterol did not influence expression of these chemokines. Conditioned media containing the CCR5 ligands secreted from THP-1 cells induced migration of Jurkat T cells expressing CCR5, a characteristic chemokine receptor of Th1 cells, but not of Jurkat T cells that do not express CCR5. The migration of CCR5-expressing Jurkat T cells was abrogated in the presence of a CCR5-neutralizing antibody. 27-Hydroxycholesterol and 7α-hydroxycholesterol enhanced phosphorylation of Akt. Pharmacological inhibitors of phosphoinositide-3-kinase/Akt pathways blocked transcription as well as secretion of CCL3 and CCL4 in conjunction with attenuated migration of CCR5-expressing Jurkat T cells. This is the first report on the involvement of cholesterol oxides in migration of distinct subtype of T cells. We propose that 27-hydroxycholesterol and 7α-hydroxycholesterol can trigger a sequence of events that leads to recruitment of Th1 lymphocytes and phosphoinositide-3-kinase/Akt pathways play a major role in the process. - Graphical abstract: Th1 lymphocytes are predominant in atherosclerotic lesions. However, mechanisms involved in the Th1 predominance are unknown. We have investigated the possibility of Th1

  4. Chronic lymphocytic leukemia: assessing pathogenesis and prognosis by modern molecular cytogenetic studies and microRNAs expression

    OpenAIRE

    Saccenti, Elena

    2014-01-01

    Chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) is a B-cell clonal lymphoprolipherative disorder characterized by the accumulation of small lymphocytes in the peripheral blood, bone marrow and lymph nodes deriving from the transformation of CD5+ B-cell. Despite a homogeneous immunophenotype consisting of CD19+, CD20+, CD5+ and CD23+, CLL is clinically heterogeneous. Several adverse prognostic features have been identified including stage, CD38 positivity, the unmutated configuration of the ...

  5. Expression of Bax in yeast affects not only the mitochondria but also vacuolar integrity and intracellular protein traffic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dimitrova, Irina; Toby, Garabet G; Tili, Esmerina

    2004-01-01

    -transferase (BI-GST) leads to aggregation, but not fusion of the mitochondria. In addition, Bax affects the integrity of yeast vacuoles, resulting in the disintegration and eventual loss of the organelles, and the disruption of intracellular protein traffic. While Bcl-2 coexpression only partially corrects...

  6. Expression of intracellular interferon-alpha confers antiviral properties in transfected bovine fetal fibroblasts and does not affect the full development of SCNT embryos.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dawei Yu

    Full Text Available Foot-and-mouth disease, one of the most significant diseases of dairy herds, has substantial effects on farm economics, and currently, disease control measures are limited. In this study, we constructed a vector with a human interferon-α (hIFN-α (without secretory signal sequence gene cassette containing the immediate early promoter of human cytomegalovirus. Stably transfected bovine fetal fibroblasts were obtained by G418 selection, and hIFN-α transgenic embryos were produced by somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT. Forty-six transgenic embryos were transplanted into surrogate cows, and five cows (10.9% became pregnant. Two male cloned calves were born. Expression of hIFN-α was detected in transfected bovine fetal fibroblasts, transgenic SCNT embryos, and different tissues from a transgenic SCNT calf at two days old. In transfected bovine fetal fibroblasts, expression of intracellular IFN-α induced resistance to vesicular stomatitis virus infection, increased apoptosis, and induced the expression of double-stranded RNA-activated protein kinase gene (PKR and the 2'-5'-oligoadenylate synthetase gene (2'-5' OAS, which are IFN-inducible genes with antiviral activity. Analysis by qRT-PCR showed that the mRNA expression levels of PKR, 2'-5' OAS, and P53 were significantly increased in wild-type bovine fetal fibroblasts stimulated with extracellular recombinant human IFN-α-2b, showing that intracellular IFN-α induces biological functions similar to extracellular IFN-α. In conclusion, expression of intracellular hIFN-α conferred antiviral properties in transfected bovine fetal fibroblasts and did not significantly affect the full development of SCNT embryos. Thus, IFN-α transgenic technology may provide a revolutionary way to achieve elite breeding of livestock.

  7. Zinc oxide nanoparticles decrease the expression and activity of plasma membrane calcium ATPase, disrupt the intracellular calcium homeostasis in rat retinal ganglion cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Dadong; Bi, Hongsheng; Wang, Daoguang; Wu, Qiuxin

    2013-08-01

    Zinc oxide nanoparticle is one of the most important materials with diverse applications. However, it has been reported that zinc oxide nanoparticles are toxic to organisms, and that oxidative stress is often hypothesized to be an important factor in cytotoxicity mediated by zinc oxide nanoparticles. Nevertheless, the mechanism of toxicity of zinc oxide nanoparticles has not been completely understood. In this study, we investigated the cytotoxic effect of zinc oxide nanoparticles and the possible molecular mechanism involved in calcium homeostasis mediated by plasma membrane calcium ATPase in rat retinal ganglion cells. Real-time cell electronic sensing assay showed that zinc oxide nanoparticles could exert cytotoxic effect on rat retinal ganglion cells in a concentration-dependent manner; flow cytometric analysis indicated that zinc oxide nanoparticles could lead to cell damage by inducing the overproduction of reactive oxygen species. Furthermore, zinc oxide nanoparticles could also apparently decrease the expression level and their activity of plasma membrane calcium ATPase, which finally disrupt the intracellular calcium homeostasis and result in cell death. Taken together, zinc oxide nanoparticles could apparently decrease the plasma membrane calcium ATPase expression, inhibit their activity, cause the elevated intracellular calcium ion level and disrupt the intracellular calcium homeostasis. Further, the disrupted calcium homeostasis will trigger mitochondrial dysfunction, generate excessive reactive oxygen species, and finally initiate cell death. Thus, the disrupted calcium homeostasis is involved in the zinc oxide nanoparticle-induced rat retinal ganglion cell death. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Melatonin may play a role in modulation of bax and bcl-2 expression levels to protect rat peripheral blood lymphocytes from gamma irradiation-induced apoptosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohseni, Mehran; Mihandoost, Ehsan; Shirazi, Alireza; Sepehrizadeh, Zargham; Bazzaz, Javad Tavakkoly; Ghazi-khansari, Mahmoud

    2012-01-01

    The close relationship between free radicals effects and apoptosis process has been proved. Melatonin has been reported as a direct free radical scavenger. We investigated the capability of melatonin in the modification of radiation-induced apoptosis and apoptosis-associated upstream regulators expression in rat peripheral blood lymphocytes. Rats were irradiated with a single whole body Cobalt 60-gamma radiation dose of 8 Gy at a dose rate of 101 cGy/min with or without melatonin pretreatments at different concentrations of 10 and 100 mg/kg body weight. The rats were divided into eight groups of control, irradiation-only, vehicle-only, vehicle plus irradiation, 10 mg/kg melatonin alone, 10 mg/kg melatonin plus irradiation, 100 mg/kg melatonin alone and 100 mg/kg melatonin plus irradiation. Rats were given an intraperitoneal (IP) injection of melatonin or the same volume of vehicle alone 1 h prior to irradiation. Blood samples were taken 4, 24, 48 and 72 h after irradiation for evaluation of flow cytometric analysis of apoptotic lymphocytes using Annexin V/PI assay and measurement of bax and bcl-2 expression using quantitative real-time PCR (RT 2 qPCR). Irradiation-only and vehicle plus irradiation showed an increase in the percentage of apoptotic lymphocytes significantly different from control group (P < 0.01), while melatonin pretreatments in a dose-dependent manner reduced it as compared with the irradiation-only and vehicle plus irradiation groups (P < 0.01) in all time points. This reduced apoptosis by melatonin was related to the downregulation of bax, upregulation of bcl-2, and therefore reduction of bax/bcl-2 ratio. Our results suggest that melatonin in these doses may provide modulation of bax and bcl-2 expression as well as bax/bcl-2 ratio to protect rat peripheral blood lymphocytes from gamma irradiation-induced apoptosis.

  9. Melatonin may play a role in modulation of bax and bcl-2 expression levels to protect rat peripheral blood lymphocytes from gamma irradiation-induced apoptosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mohseni, Mehran [Department of Radiology and Medical Physics, Faculty of Paramedicine, Kashan University of Medical Sciences, Kashan (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Mihandoost, Ehsan, E-mail: mihandoost.e@gmail.com [Department of Medical Radiation Engineering, Science and Research Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Shirazi, Alireza [Department of Medical Physics and Biomedical Engineering, Faculty of Medicine, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Sepehrizadeh, Zargham [Department of Pharmaceutical Biotechnology, Faculty of Pharmacy, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Bazzaz, Javad Tavakkoly [Department of Medical Genetics, Faculty of Medicine, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Ghazi-khansari, Mahmoud [Department of Pharmacology, Faculty of Medicine, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2012-10-15

    The close relationship between free radicals effects and apoptosis process has been proved. Melatonin has been reported as a direct free radical scavenger. We investigated the capability of melatonin in the modification of radiation-induced apoptosis and apoptosis-associated upstream regulators expression in rat peripheral blood lymphocytes. Rats were irradiated with a single whole body Cobalt 60-gamma radiation dose of 8 Gy at a dose rate of 101 cGy/min with or without melatonin pretreatments at different concentrations of 10 and 100 mg/kg body weight. The rats were divided into eight groups of control, irradiation-only, vehicle-only, vehicle plus irradiation, 10 mg/kg melatonin alone, 10 mg/kg melatonin plus irradiation, 100 mg/kg melatonin alone and 100 mg/kg melatonin plus irradiation. Rats were given an intraperitoneal (IP) injection of melatonin or the same volume of vehicle alone 1 h prior to irradiation. Blood samples were taken 4, 24, 48 and 72 h after irradiation for evaluation of flow cytometric analysis of apoptotic lymphocytes using Annexin V/PI assay and measurement of bax and bcl-2 expression using quantitative real-time PCR (RT{sup 2}qPCR). Irradiation-only and vehicle plus irradiation showed an increase in the percentage of apoptotic lymphocytes significantly different from control group (P < 0.01), while melatonin pretreatments in a dose-dependent manner reduced it as compared with the irradiation-only and vehicle plus irradiation groups (P < 0.01) in all time points. This reduced apoptosis by melatonin was related to the downregulation of bax, upregulation of bcl-2, and therefore reduction of bax/bcl-2 ratio. Our results suggest that melatonin in these doses may provide modulation of bax and bcl-2 expression as well as bax/bcl-2 ratio to protect rat peripheral blood lymphocytes from gamma irradiation-induced apoptosis.

  10. Inhibitory effects of telmisartan on culture and proliferation of and Kv1.3 potassium channel expression in peripheral blood CD4+ T lymphocytes from Xinjiang Kazakh patients with hypertension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sha-Sha Huang

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Activation of T lymphocytes, for which potassium channels are essential, is involved in the development of hypertension. In this study, we explored the inhibitory effects of telmisartan on the culture and proliferation of and Kv1.3 potassium channel expression in peripheral blood CD4+ T lymphocytes derived from Xinjiang Kazakh patients with hypertension. Methods: CD4+ T-cell samples from hypertensive Kazakh patients and healthy Kazakh people were divided into healthy control, case control, telmisartan, and 4-aminopytidine groups. Changes in the expression levels of interleukin (IL-6 and IL-17 in the blood of the healthy control and case control subjects were detected by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Peripheral blood CD4+ T lymphocytes were first activated and proliferated in vitro and then incubated for 0, 24, and 48 h under various treatment conditions. Thereafter, changes in CD4+ T-lymphocytic proliferation were determined using Cell Counting Kit-8 and microscope photography. Changes in messenger RNA (mRNA and protein expression of the Kv1.3 potassium channel in CD4+ T lymphocytes were detected using real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction and Western blots, respectively. Results: The IL-6 and IL-17 expression levels were significantly higher in the blood of the hypertensive Kazakh patients than in the healthy Kazakh people. Telmisartan inhibited T-lymphocytic proliferation, as well as the mRNA and protein expression of the Kv1.3 potassium channel in CD4+ T lymphocytes, and the inhibitory effects were time-dependent, with the strongest inhibition observed after 48 h and significantly weaker inhibition observed after 24 h of treatment. Conclusions: Telmisartan may potentially regulate hypertensive inflammatory responses by inhibiting T-lymphocytic proliferation and Kv1.3 potassium channel expression in CD4+ T lymphocytes.

  11. Chronic ethanol exposure induces SK-N-SH cell apoptosis by increasing N-methyl-D-aspartic acid receptor expression and intracellular calcium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hongbo; Wang, Xiaolong; Li, Yan; Yu, Hao; Wang, Changliang; Feng, Chunmei; Xu, Guohui; Chen, Jiajun; You, Jiabin; Wang, Pengfei; Wu, Xu; Zhao, Rui; Zhang, Guohua

    2018-04-01

    It has been identified that chronic ethanol exposure damages the nervous system, particularly neurons. There is scientific evidence suggesting that neuronal loss caused by chronic ethanol exposure has an association with neuron apoptosis and intracellular calcium oscillation is one of the primary inducers of apoptosis. Therefore, the present study aimed to investigate the inductive effects of intracellular calcium oscillation on apoptosis in SK-N-SH human neuroblastoma cells and the protective effects of the N-methyl-D-aspartic acid receptor (NMDAR) antagonist, memantine, on SK-N-SH cell apoptosis caused by chronic ethanol exposure. SK-N-SH cells were treated with 100 mM ethanol and memantine (4 µM) for 2 days. Protein expression of NR1 was downregulated by RNA interference (RNAi). Apoptosis was detected by Annexin V/propidium iodide (PI) double-staining and flow cytometry and cell viability was detected using an MTS kit. Fluorescence dual wavelength spectrophotometry was used to determine the intracellular calcium concentration and the levels of NR1 and caspase-3 were detected using western blotting. NR1 mRNA levels were also detected using qPCR. It was found that chronic ethanol exposure reduced neuronal cell viability and caused apoptosis of SK-N-SH cells, and the extent of damage in SK-N-SH cells was associated with ethanol exposure concentration and time. In addition, chronic ethanol exposure increased the concentration of intracellular calcium in SK-N-SH cells by inducing the expression of NMDAR, resulting in apoptosis, and memantine treatment reduced ethanol-induced cell apoptosis. The results of the present study indicate that the application of memantine may provide a novel strategy for the treatment of alcoholic dementia.

  12. Differential intracellular calcium influx, nitric oxide production, ICAM-1 and IL8 expression in primary bovine endothelial cells exposed to nonesterified fatty acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loaiza, Anitsi; Carretta, María D; Taubert, Anja; Hermosilla, Carlos; Hidalgo, María A; Burgos, Rafael A

    2016-02-25

    Nonesterified fatty acids (NEFAs) are involved in proinflammatory processes in cattle, including in the increased expression of adhesion molecules in endothelial cells. However, the mechanisms underlying these effects are still unknown. The aim of this study was to assess the effects of NEFAs on the intracellular calcium (Ca(2+) i) influx, nitric oxide production, and ICAM-1 and IL-8 expression in primary bovine umbilical vein endothelial cells (BUVECs). Myristic (MA), palmitic (PA), stearic (SA), oleic (OA) and linoleic acid (LA) rapidly increased Ca(2+) i. The calcium response to all tested NEFAs showed an extracellular calcium dependence and only the LA response was significantly inhibited until the intracellular calcium was chelated. The EC50 values for MA and LA were 125 μM and 37 μM, respectively, and the MA and LA effects were dependent on calcium release from the endoplasmic reticulum stores and on the L-type calcium channels. Only the calcium response to MA was significantly reduced by GW1100, a selective G-protein-coupled free fatty acid receptor (GPR40) antagonist. We also detected a functional FFAR1/GPR40 protein in BUVECs by using western blotting and the FFAR1/GPR40 agonist TAK-875. Only LA increased the cellular nitric oxide levels in a calcium-dependent manner. LA stimulation but not MA stimulation increased ICAM-1 and IL-8-expression in BUVECs. This effect was inhibited by GW1100, an antagonist of FFAR1/GPR40, but not by U-73122, a phospholipase C inhibitor. These findings strongly suggest that each individual NEFA stimulates endothelial cells in a different way, with clearly different effects on intracellular calcium mobilization, NO production, and IL-8 and ICAM-1 expression in primary BUVECs. These findings not only extend our understanding of NEFA-mediated diseases in ruminants, but also provide new insight into the different molecular mechanisms involved during endothelial cell activation by NEFAs.

  13. Chloroplast genes are expressed during intracellular symbiotic association of Vaucheria litorea plastids with the sea slug Elysia chlorotica.

    OpenAIRE

    Mujer, C V; Andrews, D L; Manhart, J R; Pierce, S K; Rumpho, M E

    1996-01-01

    The marine slug Elysia chlorotica (Gould) forms an intracellular symbiosis with photosynthetically active chloroplasts from the chromophytic alga Vaucheria litorea (C. Agardh). This symbiotic association was characterized over a period of 8 months during which E. chlorotica was deprived of V. litorea but provided with light and CO2. The fine structure of the symbiotic chloroplasts remained intact in E. chlorotica even after 8 months of starvation as revealed by electron microscopy. Southern b...

  14. Tyrosine-phosphorylation of AAV2 vectors and its consequences on viral intracellular trafficking and transgene expression

    OpenAIRE

    Zhong, Li; Li, Baozheng; Jayandharan, Giridhararao; Mah, Cathryn S.; Govindasamy, Lakshmanan; Agbandje-McKenna, Mavis; Herzog, Roland W.; Weigel-Van Aken, Kirsten A.; Hobbs, Jacqueline A.; Zolotukhin, Sergei; Muzyczka, Nicholas; Srivastava, Arun

    2008-01-01

    We have documented that epidermal growth factor receptor protein tyrosine kinase (EGFR-PTK) signaling negatively affects intracellular trafficking and transduction efficiency of recombinant adeno-associated virus 2 (AAV2) vectors. Specifically, inhibition of EGFR-PTK signaling leads to decreased ubiquitination of AAV2 capsid proteins, which in turn, facilitates viral nuclear transport by limiting proteasome-mediated degradation of AAV2 vectors. In the present studies, we observed that AAV cap...

  15. [Evaluation of percentage of lymphocytes B with expression of co-receptors CD 40, CD22 and CD72 in hypertrophied adenoid at children with otitis media with effusion].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wysocka, Jolanta; Zelazowska-Rutkowska, Beata; Ratomski, Karol; Skotnicka, Bozena; Hassmann-Poznańska, Elzbieta

    2009-01-01

    In hypertrophied adenoid lymphocytes B make up about 60% all lymphocytes. When the lymphocytes B come in interaction with antigens this membranes signal be passed through their receptor (BCR) to interior of cell. This signal affect modulation on gene expression, activation from which depends activation, anergy or apoptosis of lymphocyte B. Accompany BCR co-receptors regulate his functions influence stimulate or inhibitive. To the most important co-receptors stepping out on lymphocyte B belong: CD40, CD22, CD72. The aim of study was evaluation of lymphocytes B (CD19) with co-expression with CD72 and CD40 receptors in hypertrophied adenoid with at children with otitis media with effusion. An investigation was executed in hypertrophied adenoids with or without otitis media with effusion. By flow cytometry percentage of lymphocytes B with co-receptors CD 40, CD22 and CD72 in was analyzed. The percentages of CD19+CD72+ lymphocytes in the group of children with adenoid hypertrophy and exudative otitis media were lower as compared to the reference group. However, the percentages of CD19+CD22+, CD19+CD40+ in the study group was approximate to the reference group. The lower percentage of lymphocytes B CD72 + near approximate percentages of lymphocytes B CD40+ and BCD22+ at children with otitis media with effusion can be the cause of incorrect humoral response in hypertrophied adenoid at children. Maybe it is cause reduced spontaneous production IgA and IgG through lymphocyte at children with otitis media with effusion.

  16. Ontogenic development of kidney, thymus and spleen and phenotypic expression of CD3 and CD4 receptors on the lymphocytes of cobia (Rachycentroncanadum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MARTA C. KLOSTERHOFF

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT In the present study was evaluated the ontogenic of immunocompetent organs of cobia up to 53 days after hatching (dah through histology and immunohistochemistry techniques. The kidney was the first lymphohematopoietic organ to appear, at 1 dah, followed by the spleen at 5 dah and the thymus at 7 dah. The first CD3 receptors on the lymphocytes were observed in 27% of the thymic tissue at 7 dah and in 99% at 53 dah. The phenotypic expression of CD3 receptors was registered in 10% of the kidney at 8 dah and in 32% at 53 dah. CD4 receptors were observed in 5% and 63% of the thymic area at 7 and 53 dah, respectively. In the kidney, T4 lymphocytes were first observed at 13 dah in 9% of the organ and in 28% at 53 dah, defining the functional development of the specific system associated with immunological memory capacity.

  17. Ontogenic development of kidney, thymus and spleen and phenotypic expression of CD3 and CD4 receptors on the lymphocytes of cobia (Rachycentroncanadum).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klosterhoff, Marta C; Pereira Júnior, Joaber; Rodrigues, Ricardo V; Gusmão, Emeline P; Sampaio, Luís A; Tesser, Marcelo B; Romano, Luis A

    2015-01-01

    In the present study was evaluated the ontogenic of immunocompetent organs of cobia up to 53 days after hatching (dah) through histology and immunohistochemistry techniques. The kidney was the first lymphohematopoietic organ to appear, at 1 dah, followed by the spleen at 5 dah and the thymus at 7 dah. The first CD3 receptors on the lymphocytes were observed in 27% of the thymic tissue at 7 dah and in 99% at 53 dah. The phenotypic expression of CD3 receptors was registered in 10% of the kidney at 8 dah and in 32% at 53 dah. CD4 receptors were observed in 5% and 63% of the thymic area at 7 and 53 dah, respectively. In the kidney, T4 lymphocytes were first observed at 13 dah in 9% of the organ and in 28% at 53 dah, defining the functional development of the specific system associated with immunological memory capacity.

  18. Influence of docosahexaenoic acid in vitro on intracellular adriamycin concentration in lymphocytes and human adriamycin-sensitive and -resistant small-cell lung cancer cell lines, and on cytotoxicity in the tumor cell lines

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zijlstra, J G; de Vries, E G; Muskiet, F A; Martini, I A; Timmer-Bosscha, H; Mulder, N H

    1987-01-01

    An increase in the therapeutic effects of cancer chemotherapeutic agents and circumvention of drug resistance in cancer cells might result from an increase in the intracellular drug level. Alteration of the lipid domain of the cell membrane can result in a higher intracellular drug level. This

  19. Human T lymphotropic virus type-1 p30II alters cellular gene expression to selectively enhance signaling pathways that activate T lymphocytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feuer Gerold

    2004-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Human T-lymphotropic virus type-1 (HTLV-1 is a deltaretrovirus that causes adult T-cell leukemia/lymphoma and is implicated in a variety of lymphocyte-mediated disorders. HTLV-1 contains both regulatory and accessory genes in four pX open reading frames. pX ORF-II encodes two proteins, p13II and p30II, which are incompletely defined in the virus life cycle or HTLV-1 pathogenesis. Proviral clones of the virus with pX ORF-II mutations diminish the ability of the virus to maintain viral loads in vivo. Exogenous expression of p30II differentially modulates CREB and Tax-responsive element-mediated transcription through its interaction with CREB-binding protein/p300 and represses tax/rex RNA nuclear export. Results Herein, we further characterized the role of p30II in regulation of cellular gene expression, using stable p30II expression system employing lentiviral vectors to test cellular gene expression with Affymetrix U133A arrays, representing ~33,000 human genes. Reporter assays in Jurkat T cells and RT-PCR in Jurkat and primary CD4+ T-lymphocytes were used to confirm selected gene expression patterns. Our data reveals alterations of interrelated pathways of cell proliferation, T-cell signaling, apoptosis and cell cycle in p30II expressing Jurkat T cells. In all categories, p30II appeared to be an overall repressor of cellular gene expression, while selectively increasing the expression of certain key regulatory genes. Conclusions We are the first to demonstrate that p30II, while repressing the expression of many genes, selectively activates key gene pathways involved in T-cell signaling/activation. Collectively, our data suggests that this complex retrovirus, associated with lymphoproliferative diseases, relies upon accessory gene products to modify cellular environment to promote clonal expansion of the virus genome and thus maintain proviral loads in vivo.

  20. Noradrenaline represses PPAR (peroxisome-proliferator-activated receptor) gamma2 gene expression in brown adipocytes: intracellular signalling and effects on PPARgamma2 and PPARgamma1 protein levels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindgren, Eva M; Nielsen, Ronni; Petrovic, Natasa

    2004-01-01

    phases, with the highest mRNA levels being found at the time of transition between the phases. PPARgamma2 mRNA levels were downregulated by noradrenaline treatment (EC50, 0.1 microM) in both proliferative and differentiating cells, with a lagtime of 1 h and lasting up to 4 h, after which expression...... was thus to investigate the influence of noradrenaline on PPARgamma gene expression in brown adipocytes. In primary cultures of brown adipocytes, PPARgamma2 mRNA levels were 20-fold higher than PPARgamma1 mRNA levels. PPARgamma expression occurred during both the proliferation and the differentiation...... gradually recovered. The down-regulation was beta-adrenoceptor-induced and intracellularly mediated via cAMP and protein kinase A; the signalling pathway did not involve phosphoinositide 3-kinase, Src, p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase or extracellular-signal-regulated kinases 1 and 2. Treatment...

  1. Glutamine and alanine-induced differential expression of intracellular IL-6, IL-8, and TNF-α in LPS-stimulated monocytes in human whole-blood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raspé, C; Czeslick, E; Weimann, A; Schinke, C; Leimert, A; Kellner, P; Simm, A; Bucher, M; Sablotzki, A

    2013-04-01

    To investigate the effects of the commonly-used immunomodulators l-glutamine, l-alanine, and the combination of both l-alanyl-l-glutamine (Dipeptamin(®)) on intracellular expression of IL-6, IL-8, and TNF-α during endotoxemia, lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated human monocytes in a whole blood system were investigated by flow cytometry. Whole blood of twenty-seven healthy volunteers was stimulated with LPS and incubated with three different amino acid solutions (1. l-glutamine, 2. l-alanine, 3. l-alanyl-l-glutamine, each concentration 2 mM, 5 mM, incubation time 3 h). CD14(+) monocytes were phenotyped in whole-blood and intracellular expression of cytokines was assessed by flow cytometry. Our investigations showed for the first time in whole blood probes, imitating best physiologically present cellular interactions, that l-glutamine caused a dose-independent inhibitory effect on IL-6 and TNF-α production in human monocytes stimulated with LPS. However, l-alanine had contrary effects on IL-6 expression, significantly upregulating expression of IL-6 in LPS-treated monocytes. The impact of l-alanine on the expression of TNF-α was comparable with glutamine. Neither amino acid was able to affect IL-8 production in LPS-stimulated monocytes. The combination of both did not influence significantly IL-6 and IL-8 expression in monocytes during endotoxemia, however strongly reduced TNF-α production. For the regulation of TNF-α, l-glutamine, l-alanine and the combination of both show a congruent and exponentiated downregulating effect during endotoxemia, for the modulation of IL-6, l-glutamine and l-alanine featured opposite regulation leading to a canceling impact of each other when recombining both amino acids. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. [Transciptome among Mexicans: a large scale methodology to analyze the genetics expression profile of simultaneous samples in muscle, adipose tissue and lymphocytes obtained from the same individual].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bastarrachea, Raúl A; López-Alvarenga, Juan Carlos; Kent, Jack W; Laviada-Molina, Hugo A; Cerda-Flores, Ricardo M; Calderón-Garcidueñas, Ana Laura; Torres-Salazar, Amada; Torres-Salazar, Amanda; Nava-González, Edna J; Solis-Pérez, Elizabeth; Gallegos-Cabrales, Esther C; Cole, Shelley A; Comuzzie, Anthony G

    2008-01-01

    We describe the methodology used to analyze multiple transcripts using microarray techniques in simultaneous biopsies of muscle, adipose tissue and lymphocytes obtained from the same individual as part of the standard protocol of the Genetics of Metabolic Diseases in Mexico: GEMM Family Study. We recruited 4 healthy male subjects with BM1 20-41, who signed an informed consent letter. Subjects participated in a clinical examination that included anthropometric and body composition measurements, muscle biopsies (vastus lateralis) subcutaneous fat biopsies anda blood draw. All samples provided sufficient amplified RNA for microarray analysis. Total RNA was extracted from the biopsy samples and amplified for analysis. Of the 48,687 transcript targets queried, 39.4% were detectable in a least one of the studied tissues. Leptin was not detectable in lymphocytes, weakly expressed in muscle, but overexpressed and highly correlated with BMI in subcutaneous fat. Another example was GLUT4, which was detectable only in muscle and not correlated with BMI. Expression level concordance was 0.7 (p< 0.001) for the three tissues studied. We demonstrated the feasibility of carrying out simultaneous analysis of gene expression in multiple tissues, concordance of genetic expression in different tissues, and obtained confidence that this method corroborates the expected biological relationships among LEPand GLUT4. TheGEMM study will provide a broad and valuable overview on metabolic diseases, including obesity and type 2 diabetes.

  3. Flow cytometric analysis of p21 protein expression on irradiated human lymphocytes; Analise por citometria de fluxo da expressao da proteina p21 em linfocitos humanos irradiados

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos, N.F.G.; Amaral, A., E-mail: neyliane@gmail.com [Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (UFPE), Recife, PE (Brazil). Departamento de Energia Nuclear. Laboratorio de Modelagem e Biodosimetria Aplicada; Freitas-Silva, R. [Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (UFPE), Garanhuns, PE (Brazil). Departamento de Ciencias Naturais e Exatas; Pereira, V.R.A. [Fundacao Oswaldo Cruz (FIOCRUZ), Recife, PE (Brazil). Centro de Pesquisas Aggeu Magalhaes. Departamento de Imunologia. Lab. de Imunoparasitologia; Tasat, D.R. [Universidad Nacional de General San Martin, Buenos Aires (Argentina). Escuela de Ciencia y Tecnologia. Laboratorio de Biologia Celular del Pulmon

    2013-08-15

    Cell cycle blockage in G1 is a mechanism p21 protein-regulated and coupled to DNA damage response to permit genetic content analysis, damage repair and cell death. Analysis of proteins that participates of this response has progressed with new analytic tools, and data contributes to comprehension of radioinduced molecular events as well as to new approaches on practices that employ ionizing radiation. On this perspective, the aim of this research was to evaluate, by flow cytometry, p21 expression on irradiated human lymphocytes, maintained under different experimental conditions. Peripheral blood samples from 10 healthy subjects were irradiated with doses of 0 (non-irradiated), 1, 2 and 4 Gy. Lymphocytes were processed to analysis on ex vivo (no cultured) condition and after 24; 48 and 72 hours culture, with and without phytohemagglutinin stimulation. p21 protein expression levels were measured by flow cytometry, as percentage values. Results indicate that flow cytometric assay allows detection of changes on p21 expression, since it was detected significant increase on phytohemagglutinin-stimulated samples, for all times, against basal expression (ex vivo). However, it was not observed significant alterations on p21 protein radioinduced levels, for all doses, times and culture conditions analyzed. These results not indicate so p21 protein as bioindicator of ionizing radiation exposure. Nevertheless, data confirmation may to require analysis of a more numerous population. (author)

  4. Separate developmental programs for HLA-A and -B cell surface expression during differentiation from embryonic stem cells to lymphocytes, adipocytes and osteoblasts.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hardee J Sabir

    Full Text Available A major problem of allogeneic stem cell therapy is immunologically mediated graft rejection. HLA class I A, B, and Cw antigens are crucial factors, but little is known of their respective expression on stem cells and their progenies. We have recently shown that locus-specific expression (HLA-A, but not -B is seen on some multipotent stem cells, and this raises the question how this is in other stem cells and how it changes during differentiation. In this study, we have used flow cytometry to investigate the cell surface expression of HLA-A and -B on human embryonic stem cells (hESC, human hematopoietic stem cells (hHSC, human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSC and their fully-differentiated progenies such as lymphocytes, adipocytes and osteoblasts. hESC showed extremely low levels of HLA-A and no -B. In contrast, multipotent hMSC and hHSC generally expressed higher levels of HLA-A and clearly HLA-B though at lower levels. IFNγ induced HLA-A to very high levels on both hESC and hMSC and HLA-B on hMSC. Even on hESC, a low expression of HLA-B was achieved. Differentiation of hMSC to osteoblasts downregulated HLA-A expression (P = 0.017. Interestingly HLA class I on T lymphocytes differed between different compartments. Mature bone marrow CD4(+ and CD8(+ T cells expressed similar HLA-A and -B levels as hHSC, while in the peripheral blood they expressed significantly more HLA-B7 (P = 0.0007 and P = 0.004 for CD4(+ and CD8(+ T cells, respectively. Thus different HLA loci are differentially regulated during differentiation of stem cells.

  5. Expression of K2P5.1 potassium channels on CD4+ T lymphocytes correlates with disease activity in rheumatoid arthritis patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bittner, Stefan; Bobak, Nicole; Feuchtenberger, Martin; Herrmann, Alexander M; Göbel, Kerstin; Kinne, Raimund W; Hansen, Anker J; Budde, Thomas; Kleinschnitz, Christoph; Frey, Oliver; Tony, Hans-Peter; Wiendl, Heinz; Meuth, Sven G

    2011-02-11

    CD4+ T cells express K(2P)5.1 (TWIK-related acid-sensitive potassium channel 2 (TASK2); KCNK5), a member of the two-pore domain potassium channel family, which has been shown to influence T cell effector functions. Recently, it was shown that K(2P)5.1 is upregulated upon (autoimmune) T cell stimulation. The aim of this study was to correlate expression levels of K(2P)5.1 on T cells from patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) to disease activity in these patients. Expression levels of K(2P)5.1 were measured by RT-PCR in the peripheral blood of 58 patients with RA and correlated with disease activity parameters (C-reactive protein levels, erythrocyte sedimentation rates, disease activity score (DAS28) scores). Twenty patients undergoing therapy change were followed-up for six months. Additionally, synovial fluid and synovial biopsies were investigated for T lymphocytes expressing K(2P)5.1. K(2P)5.1 expression levels in CD4+ T cells show a strong correlation to DAS28 scores in RA patients. Similar correlations were found for serological inflammatory parameters (erythrocyte sedimentation rate, C-reactive protein). In addition, K(2P)5.1 expression levels of synovial fluid-derived T cells are higher compared to peripheral blood T cells. Prospective data in individual patients show a parallel behaviour of K(2P)5.1 expression to disease activity parameters during a longitudinal follow-up for six months. Disease activity in RA patients correlates strongly with K(2P)5.1 expression levels in CD4+ T lymphocytes in the peripheral blood in cross-sectional as well as in longitudinal observations. Further studies are needed to investigate the exact pathophysiological mechanisms and to evaluate the possible use of K(2P)5.1 as a potential biomarker for disease activity and differential diagnosis.

  6. Alloreactive cytotoxic T lymphocytes from aged mice express increased lysis of autologous and third-party target cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kruisbeek, A.M.; Steinmeier, F.A.

    1980-01-01

    Much data support the notion that with increasing age a decline in T cell effector function occurs. In the present study, qualitative rather than quantitative age-related changes in vitro alloreactive cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL) responses were observed. The level of specific alloreactive CTL

  7. [Herbs for calming liver and suppressing yang in treatment of hyperthyroidism with hyperactive liver yang: herbal effects on lymphocyte protein expression].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiangping; Yin, Tao; Zhong, Guangwei; Li, Wei; Luo, Yanhong; Xiang, Lingli; Liu, Zhehao

    2011-07-01

    To observe the herbal effects on hyperthyroidism patients with syndrome of hyperactivity of liver-Yang by method for calming the liver and suppressing Yang and investigate its effects on the lymphocyte protein expression. This approach may lay a foundation for the further investigation of the curative mechanisms of calming the liver and suppressing Yang treatment. A total of 48 hyperthyroidism patients with syndrome of hyperactivity of liver-Yang were randomly divided into treatment group and control group. The treatment group was treated by method for calming the liver and suppressing Yang in accordance with traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) and the control group with thiamazole tablets for three periods of treatment The therapeutic effects, the score of TCM symptom, electrocardiogram (P wave), thyroid hormones and ultrasound were observed in both groups before and after the treatment. The side effects in the treatment course were observed in both groups. The level of differential protein expression was analyzed by two-dimensional electrphoresis and matrix assisted laser desorption/ionizaton time-of-flight mass spectrometry. The treatment group has the effect on stepping down the heart rate, cutting down the P wave amplitude changes, regulating the level of thyroid hormones and decreasing the volume of thyromegaly. There are not statistically significant between the treatment group and control group. However, the treatment group has obviously better effect on regulating TCM symptom and decreasing the side reaction than the control group (Peffective between the treatment group and control group. The average spots in lymphocyte for normal people, before and after treating hyperthyroidism patients with syndrome of hyperactivity of liver-Yang were (429 +/- 31), (452 +/- 28) and (437 +/- 36) spots respectively. Eight down-regulated protein expressions and 11 up-regulated protein expressions were obtained in the hyperthyroidism patients with syndrome of hyperactivity

  8. Tyrosine-phosphorylation of AAV2 vectors and its consequences on viral intracellular trafficking and transgene expression

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhong Li; Li Baozheng; Jayandharan, Giridhararao; Mah, Cathryn S.; Govindasamy, Lakshmanan; Agbandje-McKenna, Mavis; Herzog, Roland W.

    2008-01-01

    We have documented that epidermal growth factor receptor protein tyrosine kinase (EGFR-PTK) signaling negatively affects intracellular trafficking and transduction efficiency of recombinant adeno-associated virus 2 (AAV2) vectors. Specifically, inhibition of EGFR-PTK signaling leads to decreased ubiquitination of AAV2 capsid proteins, which in turn, facilitates viral nuclear transport by limiting proteasome-mediated degradation of AAV2 vectors. In the present studies, we observed that AAV capsids can indeed be phosphorylated at tyrosine residues by EGFR-PTK in in vitro phosphorylation assays and that phosphorylated AAV capsids retain their structural integrity. However, although phosphorylated AAV vectors enter cells as efficiently as their unphosphorylated counterparts, their transduction efficiency is significantly reduced. This reduction is not due to impaired viral second-strand DNA synthesis since transduction efficiency of both single-stranded AAV (ssAAV) and self-complementary AAV (scAAV) vectors is decreased by ∼ 68% and ∼ 74%, respectively. We also observed that intracellular trafficking of tyrosine-phosphorylated AAV vectors from cytoplasm to nucleus is significantly decreased, which results from ubiquitination of AAV capsids followed by proteasome-mediated degradation, although downstream consequences of capsid ubiquitination may also be affected by tyrosine-phosphorylation. These studies provide new insights into the role of tyrosine-phosphorylation of AAV capsids in various steps in the virus life cycle, which has implications in the optimal use of recombinant AAV vectors in human gene therapy

  9. Osmotic Control of opuA Expression in Bacillus subtilis and Its Modulation in Response to Intracellular Glycine Betaine and Proline Pools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffmann, Tamara; Wensing, Annette; Brosius, Margot; Steil, Leif; Völker, Uwe

    2013-01-01

    Glycine betaine is an effective osmoprotectant for Bacillus subtilis. Its import into osmotically stressed cells led to the buildup of large pools, whose size was sensitively determined by the degree of the osmotic stress imposed. The amassing of glycine betaine caused repression of the formation of an osmostress-adaptive pool of proline, the only osmoprotectant that B. subtilis can synthesize de novo. The ABC transporter OpuA is the main glycine betaine uptake system of B. subtilis. Expression of opuA was upregulated in response to both sudden and sustained increases in the external osmolarity. Nonionic osmolytes exerted a stronger inducing effect on transcription than ionic osmolytes, and this was reflected in the development of corresponding OpuA-mediated glycine betaine pools. Primer extension analysis and site-directed mutagenesis pinpointed the osmotically controlled opuA promoter. Deviations from the consensus sequence of SigA-type promoters serve to keep the transcriptional activity of the opuA promoter low in the absence of osmotic stress. opuA expression was downregulated in a finely tuned manner in response to increases in the intracellular glycine betaine pool, regardless of whether this osmoprotectant was imported or was newly synthesized from choline. Such an effect was also exerted by carnitine, an effective osmoprotectant for B. subtilis that is not a substrate for the OpuA transporter. opuA expression was upregulated in a B. subtilis mutant that was unable to synthesize proline in response to osmotic stress. Collectively, our data suggest that the intracellular solute pool is a key determinant for the osmotic control of opuA expression. PMID:23175650

  10. Utility of LRF/Pokemon and NOTCH1 protein expression in the distinction between nodular lymphocyte-predominant Hodgkin lymphoma and classical Hodgkin lymphoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohn, Olga; Maeda, Takahiro; Filatov, Alexander; Lunardi, Andrea; Pandolfi, Pier Paolo; Teruya-Feldstein, Julie

    2014-02-01

    Classical Hodgkin lymphoma (CHL) and nodular lymphocyte-predominant Hodgkin lymphoma (NLPHL) are considered separate entities with different prognosis and treatment. However, morphologic features can be similar and immunohistochemical studies are essential in the distinction; thus, determination of additional biomarkers is of utmost importance. LRF/Pokemon is a proto-oncogene, an interacting partner co-expressed with BCL6 in germinal centers and highly expressed in diffuse large B-cell lymphoma and follicular lymphoma. Conversely, loss of the LRF gene in mouse hematopoietic stem cells results in complete block of early B cell development with concomitant Notch de-repression, indicating its critical role in B versus T cell fate decision at the hematopoietic stem cell stage. For the first time, we show that LRF/Pokemon is predominantly expressed in NLPHL cases as is BCL6 with low to absent NOTCH1 protein expression; while Hodgkin Reed-Sternberg (HRS) cells in CHL show low to absent BCL6 and LRF/Pokemon expression with higher NOTCH1 expression. We illustrate a potential functional interaction between LRF and BCL6 in NLPHL pathogenesis, and differential expression of LRF/Pokemon and NOTCH1 proteins in CHL thus showing differential expression, making for an additional diagnostic marker and therapeutic target.

  11. Utility of LRF/Pokemon and NOTCH1 Protein Expression in the Distinction of Nodular Lymphocyte-Predominant Hodgkin Lymphoma and Classical Hodgkin Lymphoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohn, Olga; Maeda, Takahiro; Filatov, Alexander; Lunardi, Andrea; Pandolfi, Pier Paolo; Teruya-Feldstein, Julie

    2014-01-01

    Classical Hodgkin lymphoma (CHL) and nodular lymphocyte-predominant Hodgkin lymphoma (NLPHL) are considered separate entities with different prognosis and treatment. However, morphologic features can be similar and immunohistochemical studies are essential in the distinction; thus, determination of additional biomarkers is of utmost importance. LRF/Pokemon is a protooncogene, an interacting partner co-expressed with BCL6 in germinal centers and highly expressed in diffuse large B-cell lymphoma and follicular lymphoma. Conversely, loss of the LRF gene in mouse hematopoietic stem cells results in complete block of early B cell development with concomitant Notch derepression, indicating its critical role in B versus T cell fate decision at the hematopoietic stem cell stage. For the first time, we show that LRF/Pokemon is predominantly expressed in NLPHL cases as is BCL6 with low to absent NOTCH1 protein expression; while Hodgkin Reed-Sternberg (HRS) cells in CHL show low to absent BCL6 and LRF/Pokemon expression with higher NOTCH1 expression. We illustrate a potential functional interaction between LRF and BCL6 in NLPHL pathogenesis, and differential expression of LRF/Pokemon and NOTCH1 proteins in CHL thus showing differential expression, making for an additional diagnostic marker and therapeutic target. PMID:24326827

  12. ERP, a new member of the ets transcription factor/oncoprotein family: cloning, characterization, and differential expression during B-lymphocyte development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez, M; Oettgen, P; Akbarali, Y; Dendorfer, U; Libermann, T A

    1994-05-01

    The ets gene family encodes a group of proteins which function as transcription factors under physiological conditions and, if aberrantly expressed, can cause cellular transformation. We have recently identified two regulatory elements in the murine immunoglobulin heavy-chain (IgH) enhancer, pi and microB, which exhibit striking similarity to binding sites for ets-related proteins. To identify ets-related transcriptional regulators expressed in pre-B lymphocytes that may interact with either the pi or the microB site, we have used a PCR approach with degenerate oligonucleotides encoding conserved sequences in all members of the ets family. We have cloned the gene for a new ets-related transcription factor, ERP (ets-related protein), from the murine pre-B cell line BASC 6C2 and from mouse lung tissue. The ERP protein contains a region of high homology with the ETS DNA-binding domain common to all members of the ets transcription factor/oncoprotein family. Three additional smaller regions show homology to the ELK-1 and SAP-1 genes, a subgroup of the ets gene family that interacts with the serum response factor. Full-length ERP expresses only negligible DNA-binding activity by itself. Removal of the carboxy terminus enables ERP to interact with a variety of ets-binding sites including the E74 site, the IgH enhancer pi site, and the lck promoter ets site, suggesting a carboxy-terminal negative regulatory domain. At least three ERP-related transcripts are expressed in a variety of tissues. However, within the B-cell lineage, ERP is highly expressed primarily at early stages of B-lymphocyte development, and expression declines drastically upon B-cell maturation, correlating with the enhancer activity of the IgH pi site. These data suggest that ERP might play a role in B-cell development and in IgH gene regulation.

  13. Increased Fas and Bcl-2 Expression on Peripheral Blood T and B Lymphocytes from Juvenile-Onset Systemic Lupus Erythematosus, but not from Juvenile Rheumatoid Arthritis and Juvenile Dermatomyositis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernadete L. Liphaus

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Defective regulation of apoptosis may play a role in the development of autoimmune diseases. Fas and Bcl-2 proteins are involved in the control of apoptosis. The aims of this study were to determine the expression of Fas antigen and Bcl-2 protein on peripheral blood T and B lymphocytes from patients with juvenile-onset systemic lupus erythematosus (JSLE, juvenile rheumatoid arthritis (JRA and juvenile dermatomyositis (JDM. Thirty-eight patients with JSLE, 19 patients with JRA, 10 patients with JDM and 25 healthy controls entered the study. Freshly isolated peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC were stained for lymphocyte markers CD3, CD4, CD8, CD19 and for Fas and Bcl-2 molecules. Expressions were measured by three-color flow cytometry. Statistical analysis was performed using Kruskal–Wallis test. Percentages of freshly isolated T lymphocytes positively stained for Fas protein from JSLE patients were significantly increased compared to healthy controls, patients with JRA and patients with JDM. Percentages of B lymphocytes positive for Fas from JSLE patients were higher than healthy controls and JRA patients. In addition, Fas expression on T cells from patients with JRA was increased compared to JDM patients. Otherwise, Fas expression on T and B cells from JRA and JDM patients were similar to healthy controls. MFI of Bcl-2 positive T lymphocytes from JSLE patients were significantly increased compared to healthy controls and JRA patients. MFI of Bcl-2 protein on B lymphocytes from JSLE patients was similar to healthy controls and patients with JRA and JDM. Bcl-2 expression did not differ between JRA and JDM patients and healthy controls. In conclusion, increased expression of Fas and Bcl-2 proteins observed in circulating T and B lymphocytes from patients with JSLE, but not from patients with JRA and JDM, suggests that abnormalities of apoptosis may be related to the pathogenesis of JSLE and probably are not a result of chronic inflammation.

  14. Differential expression of candidate virus receptors in human T lymphocytes prone or resistant to infection with patient-derived hepatitis C virus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed A Sarhan

    Full Text Available Accumulated evidence implies that hepatitis C virus (HCV infects not only the liver but also the immune system. A lymphocyte-specific CD5 molecule was recently identified as essential for infection of T cells with native, patient-derived HCV. To assess whether the proposed hepatocyte receptors may also contribute to HCV lymphotropism, expression of scavenger receptor-class B type 1 (SR-B1, claudin-1 (CLDN-1, claudin-6 (CLDN-6, occludin (OCLN, CD5 and CD81 was examined by real-time RT-PCR and the respective proteins quantified by immunoblotting in HCV-prone and resistant T cell lines, peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC, primary T cells and their subsets, and compared to hepatoma Huh7.5 and HepG2 cells. SR-B1 protein was found in T and hepatoma cell lines but not in PBMC or primary T lymphocytes, CLDN-1 in HCV-resistant PM1 T cell line and hepatoma cells only, while CLDN-6 equally in the cells investigated. OCLN protein occurred in HCV-susceptible Molt4 and Jurkat T cells and its traces in primary T cells, but not in PBMC. CD5 was displayed by HCV-prone T cell lines, primary T cells and PBMC, but not by non-susceptible T and hepatoma cell lines, while CD81 in all cell types except HepG2. Knocking-down OCLN in virus-prone T cell line inhibited HCV infection, while de novo infection downregulated OCLN and CD81, and upregulated CD5 without modifying SR-B1 expression. Overall, while no association between SR-B1, CLDN-1 or CLDN-6 and the susceptibility to HCV was found, CD5 and CD81 expression coincided with virus lymphotropism and that of OCLN with permissiveness of T cell lines but unlikely primary T cells. This study narrowed the range of factors potentially utilized by HCV to infect T lymphocytes amongst those uncovered using laboratory HCV and Huh7.5 cells. Together with the demonstrated role for CD5 in HCV lymphotropism, the findings indicate that virus utilizes different molecules to enter hepatocytes and lymphocytes.

  15. Peripheral blood B lymphocytes derived from patients with idiopathic pulmonary arterial hypertension express a different RNA pattern compared with healthy controls: a cross sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huber Lars C

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Idiopathic pulmonary arterial hypertension (IPAH is a progressive and still incurable disease. Research of IPAH-pathogenesis is complicated by the lack of a direct access to the involved tissue, the human pulmonary vasculature. Various auto-antibodies have been described in the blood of patients with IPAH. The purpose of the present work was therefore to comparatively analyze peripheral blood B lymphocyte RNA expression characteristics in IPAH and healthy controls. Methods Patients were diagnosed having IPAH according to WHO (mean pulmonary arterial pressure ≥ 25 mmHg, pulmonary capillary occlusion pressure ≤ 15 mmHg, absence of another explaining disease. Peripheral blood B-lymphocytes of patients and controls were immediately separated by density gradient centrifugation and magnetic beads for CD19. RNA was thereafter extracted and analyzed by the use of a high sensitivity gene chip (Affymetrix HG-U133-Plus2 able to analyze 47000 transcripts and variants of human genes. The array data were analyzed by two different softwares, and up-and down-regulations were defined as at least 1.3 fold with standard deviations smaller than fold-changes. Results Highly purified B-cells of 5 patients with IPAH (mean pulmonary artery pressure 51 ± 13 mmHg and 5 controls were analyzed. Using the two different analyzing methods we found 225 respectively 128 transcripts which were up-regulated (1.3–30.7 fold in IPAH compared with healthy controls. Combining both methods, there were 33 overlapping up-regulated transcripts and no down-regulated B-cell transcripts. Conclusion Patients with IPAH have a distinct RNA expression profile of their peripheral blood B-lymphocytes compared to healthy controls with some clearly up-regulated genes. Our finding suggests that in IPAH patients B cells are activated.

  16. Altered cell cycle-related gene expression in brain and lymphocytes from a transgenic mouse model of Alzheimer's disease [amyloid precursor protein/presenilin 1 (PS1)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esteras, Noemí; Bartolomé, Fernando; Alquézar, Carolina; Antequera, Desireé; Muñoz, Úrsula; Carro, Eva; Martín-Requero, Ángeles

    2012-09-01

    Cumulative evidence indicates that aberrant re-expression of many cell cycle-related proteins and inappropriate neuronal cell cycle control are critical events in Alzheimer's disease (AD) pathogenesis. Evidence of cell cycle activation in post-mitotic neurons has also been observed in murine models of AD, despite the fact that most of these mice do not show massive loss of neuronal bodies. Dysfunction of the cell cycle appears to affect cells other than neurons, as peripheral cells, such as lymphocytes and fibroblasts from patients with AD, show an altered response to mitogenic stimulation. We sought to determine whether cell cycle disturbances are present simultaneously in both brain and peripheral cells from the amyloid precursor protein (APP)/presenilin 1 (PS1) mouse model of AD, in order to validate the use of peripheral cells from patients not only to study cell cycle abnormalities as a pathogenic feature of AD, but also as a means to test novel therapeutic approaches. By using cell cycle pathway-specific RT(2)Profiler™ PCR Arrays, we detected changes in a number of cell cycle-related genes in brain as well as in lymphocytes from APP/PS1 mice. Moreover, we found enhanced 5'-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine incorporation into DNA in lymphocytes from APP/PS1 mice, and increased expression of the cell proliferation marker proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA), and the cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK) inhibitor Cdkn2a, as detected by immunohistochemistry in cortical neurons of the APP/PS1 mice. Taken together, the cell cycle-related changes in brain and blood cells reported here support the mitosis failure hypothesis in AD and validate the use of peripheral cells as surrogate tissue to study the molecular basis of AD pathogenesis. © 2012 The Authors. European Journal of Neuroscience © 2012 Federation of European Neuroscience Societies and Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  17. Altered expression of signalling lymphocyte activation molecule receptors in T-cells from lupus nephritis patients-a potential biomarker of disease activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stratigou, Victoria; Doyle, Anne F; Carlucci, Francesco; Stephens, Lauren; Foschi, Valentina; Castelli, Marco; McKenna, Nicola; Cook, H Terence; Lightstone, Liz; Cairns, Thomas D; Pickering, Matthew C; Botto, Marina

    2017-07-01

    The aim was to investigate whether the signalling lymphocyte activation molecule (SLAM) signalling pathways contribute to LN and whether SLAM receptors could be valuable biomarkers of disease activity. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells from 30National Research Ethics Service SLE patients with biopsy-proven LN were analysed by flow cytometry. Clinical measures of disease activity were assessed. The expression of the SLAM family receptors on T-cell subpopulations [CD4, CD8 and double negative (DN) T cells] was measured and compared between lupus patients with active renal disease and those in remission. The frequency of CD8 T cells expressing SLAMF3, SLAMF5 and SLAMF7 was significantly lower in LN patients who were in remission. In contrast, these subsets were similar in patients with active renal disease and in healthy individuals. Patients with active nephritis had an increased percentage of circulating monocytes, consistent with a potential role played by these cells in glomerular inflammation. Changes in the frequency of DN T cells positive for SLAMF2, SLAMF4 and SLAMF7 were observed in lupus patients irrespective of the disease activity. We detected alterations in the cellular expression of the SLAM family receptors, but these changes were less obvious and did not reveal any specific pattern. The percentage of DN T cells expressing SLAMF6 could predict the clinical response to B-cell depletion in patients with LN. Our study demonstrates altered expression of the SLAM family receptors in SLE T lymphocytes. This is consistent with the importance of the SLAM-associated pathways in lupus pathogenesis. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Society for Rheumatology.

  18. Increased Expression and Modulated Regulatory Activity of Coinhibitory Receptors PD-1, TIGIT, and TIM-3 in Lymphocytes From Patients With Systemic Sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleury, Michelle; Belkina, Anna C; Proctor, Elizabeth A; Zammitti, Christopher; Simms, Robert W; Lauffenburger, Douglas A; Snyder-Cappione, Jennifer E; Lafyatis, Robert; Dooms, Hans

    2018-04-01

    Immune dysfunction is an important component of the disease process underlying systemic sclerosis (SSc), but the mechanisms contributing to altered immune cell function in SSc remain poorly defined. This study was undertaken to measure the expression and function of the coinhibitory receptors (co-IRs) programmed cell death 1 (PD-1), T cell immunoglobulin and ITIM domain (TIGIT), T cell immunoglobulin and mucin domain 3 (TIM-3), and lymphocyte activation gene 3 (LAG-3) in lymphocyte subsets from the peripheral blood of patients with SSc. Co-IR expression levels on subsets of immune cells were analyzed using a 16-color flow cytometry panel. The functional role of co-IRs was determined by measuring cytokine production after in vitro stimulation of SSc and healthy control peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) in the presence of co-IR-blocking antibodies. Supernatants from cultures of stimulated PBMCs were added to SSc fibroblasts, and their impact on fibroblast gene expression was measured. Mathematical modeling was used to reveal differences between co-IR functions in SSc patients and healthy controls. Levels of the co-IRs PD-1 and TIGIT were increased, and each was coexpressed, in distinct T cell subsets from SSc patients compared to healthy controls. Levels of TIM-3 were increased in SSc natural killer cells. PD-1, TIGIT, and TIM-3 antibody blockade revealed patient-specific roles of each of these co-IRs in modulating activation-induced T cell cytokine production. In contrast to healthy subjects, blockade of TIGIT and TIM-3, but not PD-1, failed to reverse inhibited cytokine production in SSc patients, indicating that enhanced T cell exhaustion is present in SSc. Finally, cytokines secreted in anti-TIM-3-treated PBMC cultures distinctly changed the gene expression profile in SSc fibroblasts. The altered expression and regulatory capacity of co-IRs in SSc lymphocytes may contribute to disease pathophysiology by modulating the cytokine-mediated cross-talk of

  19. T cell expression of IL-18R and DR3 is essential for non-cognate stimulation of Th1 cells and optimal clearance of intracellular bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pham, Oanh H; O'Donnell, Hope; Al-Shamkhani, Aymen; Kerrinnes, Tobias; Tsolis, Renée M; McSorley, Stephen J

    2017-08-01

    Th1 cells can be activated by TCR-independent stimuli, but the importance of this pathway in vivo and the precise mechanisms involved require further investigation. Here, we used a simple model of non-cognate Th1 cell stimulation in Salmonella-infected mice to examine these issues. CD4 Th1 cell expression of both IL-18R and DR3 was required for optimal IFN-γ induction in response to non-cognate stimulation, while IL-15R expression was dispensable. Interestingly, effector Th1 cells generated by immunization rather than live infection had lower non-cognate activity despite comparable IL-18R and DR3 expression. Mice lacking T cell intrinsic expression of MyD88, an important adapter molecule in non-cognate T cell stimulation, exhibited higher bacterial burdens upon infection with Salmonella, Chlamydia or Brucella, suggesting that non-cognate Th1 stimulation is a critical element of efficient bacterial clearance. Thus, IL-18R and DR3 are critical players in non-cognate stimulation of Th1 cells and this response plays an important role in protection against intracellular bacteria.

  20. The expression of cholesterol metabolism genes in monocytes from HIV-infected subjects suggests intracellular cholesterol accumulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feeney, Eoin R; McAuley, Nuala; O'Halloran, Jane A; Rock, Clare; Low, Justin; Satchell, Claudette S; Lambert, John S; Sheehan, Gerald J; Mallon, Patrick W G

    2013-02-15

    Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection is associated with increased cardiovascular risk and reduced high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-c). In vitro, HIV impairs monocyte-macrophage cholesterol efflux, a major determinant of circulating HDL-c, by increasing ABCA1 degradation, with compensatory upregulation of ABCA1 messenger RNA (mRNA). We examined expression of genes involved in cholesterol uptake, metabolism, and efflux in monocytes from 22 HIV-positive subjects on antiretroviral therapy (ART-Treated), 30 untreated HIV-positive subjects (ART-Naive), and 22 HIV-negative controls (HIV-Neg). HDL-c was lower and expression of ABCA1 mRNA was higher in ART-Naive subjects than in both ART-Treated and HIV-Neg subjects (both P ART-Treated and ART-Naive subjects than in HIV-Neg controls. In vivo, increased monocyte ABCA1 expression in untreated HIV-infected patients and normalization of ABCA1 expression with virological suppression by ART supports direct HIV-induced impairment of cholesterol efflux previously demonstrated in vitro. However, decreased expression of cholesterol sensing, uptake, and synthesis genes in both untreated and treated HIV infection suggests that both HIV and ART affect monocyte cholesterol metabolism in a pattern consistent with accumulation of intramonocyte cholesterol.

  1. Heterologous expression of Streptococcus mutans Cnm in Lactococcus lactis promotes intracellular invasion, adhesion to human cardiac tissues and virulence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freires, Irlan A; Avilés-Reyes, Alejandro; Kitten, Todd; Simpson-Haidaris, P J; Swartz, Michael; Knight, Peter A; Rosalen, Pedro L; Lemos, José A; Abranches, Jacqueline

    2017-01-02

    In S. mutans, the expression of the surface glycoprotein Cnm mediates binding to extracellular matrix proteins, endothelial cell invasion and virulence in the Galleria mellonella invertebrate model. To further characterize Cnm as a virulence factor, the cnm gene from S. mutans strain OMZ175 was expressed in the non-pathogenic Lactococcus lactis NZ9800 using a nisin-inducible system. Despite the absence of the machinery necessary for Cnm glycosylation, Western blot and immunofluorescence microscopy analyses demonstrated that Cnm was effectively expressed and translocated to the cell wall of L. lactis. Similar to S. mutans, expression of Cnm in L. lactis enabled robust binding to collagen and laminin, invasion of human coronary artery endothelial cells and increased virulence in G. mellonella. Using an ex vivo human heart tissue colonization model, we showed that Cnm-positive strains of either S. mutans or L. lactis outcompete their Cnm-negative counterparts for tissue colonization. Finally, Cnm expression facilitated L. lactis adhesion and colonization in a rabbit model of infective endocarditis. Collectively, our results provide unequivocal evidence that binding to extracellular matrices mediated by Cnm is an important virulence attribute of S. mutans and confirm the usefulness of the L. lactis heterologous system for further characterization of bacterial virulence factors.

  2. PI3K activation is associated with intracellular sodium/iodide symporter protein expression in breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knostman, Katherine AB; McCubrey, James A; Morrison, Carl D; Zhang, Zhaoxia; Capen, Charles C; Jhiang, Sissy M

    2007-01-01

    The sodium/iodide symporter (NIS) is a membrane glycoprotein mediating active iodide uptake in the thyroid gland and is the molecular basis for radioiodide imaging and therapeutic ablation of thyroid carcinomas. NIS is expressed in the lactating mammary gland and in many human breast tumors, raising interest in similar use for diagnosis and treatment. However, few human breast tumors have clinically evident iodide uptake ability. We previously identified PI3K signaling as important in NIS upregulation in transgenic mouse models of breast cancer, and the PI3K pathway is commonly activated in human breast cancer. NIS expression, subcellular localization, and function were analyzed in MCF-7 human breast cancer cells and MCF-7 cells stably or transiently expressing PI3K p110alpha subunit using Western blot of whole cell lysate, cell surface biotinylation Western blot and immunofluorescence, and radioiodide uptake assay, respectively. NIS localization was determined in a human breast cancer tissue microarray using immunohistochemical staining (IHC) and was correlated with pre-existing pAkt IHC data. Statistical analysis consisted of Student's t-test (in vitro studies) or Fisher's Exact Test (in vivo correlational studies). In this study, we demonstrate that PI3K activation in MCF-7 human mammary carcinoma cells leads to expression of underglycosylated NIS lacking cell surface trafficking necessary for iodide uptake ability. PI3K activation also appears to interfere with cell surface trafficking of exogenous NIS as well as all-trans retinoic acid-induced endogenous NIS. A correlation between NIS expression and upregulation of PI3K signaling was found in a human breast cancer tissue microarray. Thus, the PI3K pathway likely plays a major role in the discordance between NIS expression and iodide uptake in breast cancer patients. Further study is warranted to realize the application of NIS-mediated radioiodide ablation in breast cancer

  3. MS4A1 dysregulation in asbestos-related lung squamous cell carcinoma is due to CD20 stromal lymphocyte expression.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Casey M Wright

    Full Text Available Asbestos-related lung cancer accounts for 4-12% of lung cancers worldwide. We have previously identified ADAM28 as a putative oncogene involved in asbestos-related lung adenocarcinoma (ARLC-AC. We hypothesised that similarly gene expression profiling of asbestos-related lung squamous cell carcinomas (ARLC-SCC may identify candidate oncogenes for ARLC-SCC. We undertook a microarray gene expression study in 56 subjects; 26 ARLC-SCC (defined as lung asbestos body (AB counts >20AB/gram wet weight (gww and 30 non-asbestos related lung squamous cell carcinoma (NARLC-SCC; no detectable lung asbestos bodies; 0AB/gww. Microarray and bioinformatics analysis identified six candidate genes differentially expressed between ARLC-SCC and NARLC-SCC based on statistical significance (p2-fold. Two genes MS4A1 and CARD18, were technically replicated by qRT-PCR and showed consistent directional changes. As we also found MS4A1 to be overexpressed in ARLC-ACs, we selected this gene for biological validation in independent test sets (one internal, and one external dataset (2 primary tumor sets. MS4A1 RNA expression dysregulation was validated in the external dataset but not in our internal dataset, likely due to the small sample size in the test set as immunohistochemical (IHC staining for MS4A1 (CD20 showed that protein expression localized predominantly to stromal lymphocytes rather than tumor cells in ARLC-SCC. We conclude that differential expression of MS4A1 in this comparative gene expression study of ARLC-SCC versus NARLC-SCC is a stromal signal of uncertain significance, and an example of the rationale for tumor cell enrichment in preparation for gene expression studies where the aim is to identify markers of particular tumor phenotypes. Finally, our study failed to identify any strong gene candidates whose expression serves as a marker of asbestos etiology. Future research is required to determine the role of stromal lymphocyte MS4A1 dysregulation in

  4. Complex expression patterns of lymphocyte-specific genes during the development of cartilaginous fish implicate unique lymphoid tissues in generating an immune repertoire

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miracle, A. L.; Anderson, M. K.; Litman, R. T.; Walsh, C. J.; Luer, C. A.; Rothenberg, E. V.; Litman, G. W.

    2001-01-01

    Cartilaginous fish express canonical B and T cell recognition genes, but their lymphoid organs and lymphocyte development have been poorly defined. Here, the expression of Ig, TCR, recombination-activating gene (Rag)-1 and terminal deoxynucleosidase (TdT) genes has been used to identify roles of various lymphoid tissues throughout development in the cartilaginous fish, Raja eglanteria (clearnose skate). In embryogenesis, Ig and TCR genes are sharply up-regulated at 8 weeks of development. At this stage TCR and TdT expression is limited to the thymus; later, TCR gene expression appears in peripheral sites in hatchlings and adults, suggesting that the thymus is a source of T cells as in mammals. B cell gene expression indicates more complex roles for the spleen and two special organs of cartilaginous fish-the Leydig and epigonal (gonad-associated) organs. In the adult, the Leydig organ is the site of the highest IgM and IgX expression. However, the spleen is the first site of IgM expression, while IgX is expressed first in gonad, liver, Leydig and even thymus. Distinctive spatiotemporal patterns of Ig light chain gene expression also are seen. A subset of Ig genes is pre-rearranged in the germline of the cartilaginous fish, making expression possible without rearrangement. To assess whether this allows differential developmental regulation, IgM and IgX heavy chain cDNA sequences from specific tissues and developmental stages have been compared with known germline-joined genomic sequences. Both non-productively rearranged genes and germline-joined genes are transcribed in the embryo and hatchling, but not in the adult.

  5. Intracellular expression of reactive oxygen species-generating NADPH oxidase NOX4 in normal and cancer thyroid tissues

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weyemi, Urbain; Caillou, Bernard; Talbot, Monique; Ameziane-El-Hassani, Rabii; Lacroix, Ludovic; Lagent-Chevallier, Odile; Al Ghuzlan, Abir; Roos, Dirk; Bidart, Jean-Michel; Virion, Alain; Schlumberger, Martin; Dupuy, Corinne

    2010-01-01

    NADPH oxidase 4 (NOX4) belongs to the NOX family that generates reactive oxygen species (ROS). Function and tissue distribution of NOX4 have not yet been entirely clarified. To date, in the thyroid gland, only DUOX1/2 NOX systems have been described. NOX4 mRNA expression, as shown by real-time PCR,

  6. Effect of cell density and HLA-DR incompatibility on T-cell proliferation and forkhead box P3 expression in human mixed lymphocyte reaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, E Y; Han, S; Yang, B; Morris, G P; Bui, J D

    2015-04-01

    The proliferation rates of human T cells in vitro are affected by some factors such as initial T-cell number, dose of stimulating cells, and duration of culture. The transcription factor forkhead box P3 (FoxP3) has been used to identify regulatory T cells in humans and is thought to correlate with tolerance to allogeneic organ transplant. Thus, it is important to optimize conditions to expand FoxP3 cell proliferation to improve engraftment of allogeneic organ transplants. We studied proliferative responses and FoxP3 expression in divided T cells with the use of flow cytometric analysis of Ki-67 in culture of different concentrations of responding cells (6 × 10(6), 4 × 10(6), 2 × 10(6), 1 × 10(6), and 0.5 × 10(6)cells/mL), different types of stimulating cells (lymphocytes and low density cells), and different numbers of HLA mismatches. The proportion of CD3(+) cells, CD4(+)CD25(+) cells, and CD4(+)CD25(+)FoxP3(+) cells among mononuclear cells were highest at initial cell concentration of 2 × 10(6) responder cells/mL with lymphocytes as stimulators at day-5 mixed lymphocyte reaction (MLR). They were highest at a concentration of 4 × 10(6) responder cells/mL with low density cells as stimulators. The recovery (%), proportion of CD3(+) cells, CD4(+)CD25(+) cells, and CD4(+)CD25(+)FoxP3(+) cells with 2 HLA-DR incompatibility were significantly higher than those of 1 HLA-DR incompatibility at day-5 MLR. Initial cell concentration and HLA-DR incompatibility can affect the generation of FoxP3+ T cells in human MLR. These factors could be considered for efficient generation of Tregs for clinical trials in the future. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Chemokines, lymphocytes, and HIV

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farber J.M.

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available Chemokines are members of a family of more than 30 human cytokines whose best-described activities are as chemotactic factors for leukocytes and that are presumed to be important in leukocyte recruitment and trafficking. While many chemokines can act on lymphocytes, the roles of chemokines and their receptors in lymphocyte biology are poorly understood. The recent discoveries that chemokines can suppress infection by HIV-1 and that chemokine receptors serve, along with CD4, as obligate co-receptors for HIV-1 entry have lent urgency to studies on the relationships between chemokines and lymphocytes. My laboratory has characterized Mig and Crg-2/IP-10, chemokines that are induced by IFN-g and that specifically target lymphocytes, particularly activated T cells. We have demonstrated that the genes for these chemokines are widely expressed during experimental infections in mice with protozoan and viral pathogens, but that the patterns of mig and crg-2 expression differed, suggesting non-redundant roles in vivo. Our related studies to identify new chemokine receptors from activated lymphocytes resulted in the cloning of STRL22 and STRL33. We and others have shown that STRL22 is a receptor for the CC chemokine MIP-3a, and STRL22 has been re-named CCR6. Although STRL33 remains an orphan receptor, we have shown that it can function as a co-receptor for HIV-1 envelope glycoproteins, and that it is active with a broader range of HIV-1 envelope glycoproteins than the major co-receptors described to date. The ability of STRL33 to function with a wide variety of envelope glycoproteins may become particularly important if therapies are instituted to block other specific co-receptors. We presume that investigations into the roles of chemokines and their receptors in lymphocyte biology will provide information important for understanding the pathogenesis of AIDS and for manipulating immune and inflammatory responses for clinical benefit

  8. Ryanodine Receptor Calcium Leak in Circulating B-Lymphocytes as a Biomarker in Heart Failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kushnir, Alexander; Santulli, Gaetano; Reiken, Steven R; Coromilas, Ellie; Godfrey, Sarah J; Brunjes, Danielle L; Colombo, Paolo C; Yuzefpolskaya, Melana; Sokol, Seth I; Kitsis, Richard N; Marks, Andrew R

    2018-03-28

    Background -Advances in congestive heart failure (CHF) management depend on biomarkers for monitoring disease progression and therapeutic response. During systole, intracellular Ca2 + is released from the sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) into the cytoplasm through type 2 ryanodine receptor/Ca2 + release channels (RyR2). In CHF, chronically elevated circulating catecholamine levels cause pathologic remodeling of RyR2 resulting in diastolic SR Ca2 + leak, and decreased myocardial contractility. Similarly, skeletal muscle contraction requires SR Ca2 + release through type-1 ryanodine receptors (RyR1), and chronically elevated catecholamine levels in CHF cause RyR1 mediated SR Ca2 + leak, contributing to myopathy and weakness. Circulating B-lymphocytes express RyR1 and catecholamine responsive signaling cascades, making them a potential surrogate for defects in intracellular Ca2 + handling due to leaky RyR channels in CHF. Methods -Whole blood was collected from patients with CHF, CHF status-post left-ventricular assist devices (LVAD), and controls. Blood was also collected from mice with ischemic CHF, ischemic CHF + S107 (a drug that specifically reduces RyR channel Ca2 + leak), and WT controls. Channel macromolecular complex was assessed by immunostaining RyR1 immunoprecipitated from lymphocyte enriched preparations. RyR1 Ca2 + leak was assessed using flow cytometry to measure Ca2 + fluorescence in B-lymphocytes, in the absence and presence of RyR1 agonists that empty RyR1 Ca2 + stores within the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). Results -Circulating B-lymphocytes from humans and mice with CHF exhibited remodeled RyR1 and decreased ER Ca2 + stores, consistent with chronic intracellular Ca2 + leak. This Ca2 + leak correlated with circulating catecholamine levels. The intracellular Ca2 + leak was significantly reduced in mice treated with the Rycal S107. CHF patients treated with LVAD exhibited a heterogeneous response. Conclusions -In CHF, B-lymphocytes exhibit remodeled leaky

  9. Parathyroid hormone inhibition of Na{sup +}/H{sup +} exchanger 3 transcription: Intracellular signaling pathways and transcription factor expression

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neri, Elida Adalgisa; Bezerra, Camila Nogueira Alves, E-mail: camilab@icb.usp.br; Queiroz-Leite, Gabriella Duarte; Polidoro, Juliano Zequini; Rebouças, Nancy Amaral

    2015-06-12

    The main transport mechanism of reabsorption of sodium bicarbonate and fluid in the renal proximal tubules involves Na{sup +}/H{sup +} exchanger 3 (NHE3), which is acutely and chronically downregulated by parathyroid hormone (PTH). Although PTH is known to exert an inhibitory effect on NHE3 expression and transcription, the molecular mechanisms involved remain unclear. Here, we demonstrated that, in opossum kidney proximal tubule (OKP) cells, PTH-induced inhibition of Nhe3 gene promoter occurs even in the core promoter that controls expression of the reporter gene. We found that inhibition of the protein kinase A (PKA) and Janus kinase/signal transducer and activator of transcription (JAK/STAT) pathways transformed PTH from an inhibitor of promoter activity into an activator of that same activity, as did point mutations in the EGR1, Sp1, and Sp3 binding consensus elements in the promoter. In nuclear extracts of PTH-treated OKP cells, we also observed increased expression of EGR1 mRNA and of some Sp3 isoforms. Electrophoretic mobility shift assay showed a supershift of the −61 to −42-bp probe with an anti-EGR1 antibody in PTH-treated cells, suggesting that EGR1 binding is relevant for the inhibitory activity of PTH. We conclude that PTH-induced inhibition of NHE3 transcription is related to higher EGR1 expression; to EGR1 binding to the proximal and core promoters; and to PKA and JAK/STAT pathway activation. This mechanism might be responsible, at least in part, for lower NHE3 expression and sodium reabsorption in renal proximal tubules in the presence of high PTH levels. - Highlights: • PTH regulation of Nhe3 promoter depends on EGR1 binding. • EGR1, PKA and JAK/STAT are involved in PTH inhibition of the Nhe3 promoter. • PTH alters expression of EGR1 and Sp3. • PTH inhibits the Nhe3 promoter by regulating PKA and JAK/STAT signaling.

  10. Chloroplast genes are expressed during intracellular symbiotic association of Vaucheria litorea plastids with the sea slug Elysia chlorotica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mujer, C V; Andrews, D L; Manhart, J R; Pierce, S K; Rumpho, M E

    1996-10-29

    The marine slug Elysia chlorotica (Gould) forms an intracellular symbiosis with photosynthetically active chloroplasts from the chromophytic alga Vaucheria litorea (C. Agardh). This symbiotic association was characterized over a period of 8 months during which E. chlorotica was deprived of V. litorea but provided with light and CO2. The fine structure of the symbiotic chloroplasts remained intact in E. chlorotica even after 8 months of starvation as revealed by electron microscopy. Southern blot analysis of total DNA from E. chlorotica indicated that algal genes, i.e., rbcL, rbcS, psaB, psbA, and 16S rRNA are present in the animal. These genes are typically localized to the plastid genome in higher plants and algae except rbcS, which is nuclear-encoded in higher plants and green (chlorophyll a/b) algae. Our analysis suggests, however, that similar to the few other chromophytes (chlorophyll a/c) examined, rbcS is chloroplast encoded in V. litorea. Levels of psbA transcripts remained constant in E. chlorotica starved for 2 and 3 months and then gradually declined over the next 5 months corresponding with senescence of the animal in culture and in nature. The RNA synthesis inhibitor 6-methylpurine reduced the accumulation of psbA transcripts confirming active transcription. In contrast to psbA, levels of 16S rRNA transcripts remained constant throughout the starvation period. The levels of the photosystem II proteins, D1 and CP43, were high at 2 and 4 months of starvation and remained constant at a lower steady-state level after 6 months. In contrast, D2 protein levels, although high at 2 and 4 months, were very low at all other periods of starvation. At 8 months, de novo synthesis of several thylakoid membrane-enriched proteins, including D1, still occurred. To our knowledge, these results represent the first molecular evidence for active transcription and translation of algal chloroplast genes in an animal host and are discussed in relation to the endosymbiotic

  11. Switch from perforin-expressing to perforin-deficient CD8(+) T cells accounts for two distinct types of effector cytotoxic T lymphocytes in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meiraz, Avihai; Garber, Orit Gal; Harari, Shaul; Hassin, David; Berke, Gideon

    2009-09-01

    Although CD8(+) cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTL) exhibit both Fas ligand (FasL) -based and perforin-based lytic activities, the accepted hallmark of a fully active CTL remains its perforin killing machinery. Yet the origin, rationale for possessing both a slow-acting (FasL) and a fast-acting (perforin) killing mechanism has remained enigmatic. Here we have investigated perforin expression in CTL directly involved in acute tumour (i.e. leukaemias EL4 and L1210) allograft rejection occurring within the peritoneal cavity. We show that at the height of the immune response, the majority of conjugate-forming CD8(+) CTL express high levels of perforin messenger RNA and protein, and kill essentially via perforin. Later however, coinciding with complete rejection, fully cytocidal CTL emerge which exhibit a stark decrease in perforin and now kill preferentially via constitutively expressed FasL. Although late in emergence, and persistent, these powerful CTL are neither effector-memory nor memory CTL. This finding has implications for the monitoring of anti-transplant responses in clinical settings, based on assessing perforin expression in graft infiltrating CD8(+) T cells. The results show that as the immune response progresses in vivo, targeted cellular suicide mainly prunes high perforin-expressing CD8(+) cells, resulting in the gradual switch in effector CTL, from mostly perforin-based to largely Fas/FasL-based killers. Hence, two kinds of CD8(+) CTL have two killing strategies.

  12. Switch from perforin-expressing to perforin-deficient CD8+ T cells accounts for two distinct types of effector cytotoxic T lymphocytes in vivo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meiraz, Avihai; Garber, Orit Gal; Harari, Shaul; Hassin, David; Berke, Gideon

    2009-01-01

    Although CD8+ cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTL) exhibit both Fas ligand (FasL) -based and perforin-based lytic activities, the accepted hallmark of a fully active CTL remains its perforin killing machinery. Yet the origin, rationale for possessing both a slow-acting (FasL) and a fast-acting (perforin) killing mechanism has remained enigmatic. Here we have investigated perforin expression in CTL directly involved in acute tumour (i.e. leukaemias EL4 and L1210) allograft rejection occurring within the peritoneal cavity. We show that at the height of the immune response, the majority of conjugate-forming CD8+ CTL express high levels of perforin messenger RNA and protein, and kill essentially via perforin. Later however, coinciding with complete rejection, fully cytocidal CTL emerge which exhibit a stark decrease in perforin and now kill preferentially via constitutively expressed FasL. Although late in emergence, and persistent, these powerful CTL are neither effector-memory nor memory CTL. This finding has implications for the monitoring of anti-transplant responses in clinical settings, based on assessing perforin expression in graft infiltrating CD8+ T cells. The results show that as the immune response progresses in vivo, targeted cellular suicide mainly prunes high perforin-expressing CD8+ cells, resulting in the gradual switch in effector CTL, from mostly perforin-based to largely Fas/FasL-based killers. Hence, two kinds of CD8+ CTL have two killing strategies. PMID:19689737

  13. CD25, CD28 and CD38 expression in peripheral blood lymphocytes as a tool to predict acute rejection after liver transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boleslawski, Emmanuel; BenOthman, Samia; Grabar, Sophie; Correia, Leonor; Podevin, Philippe; Chouzenoux, Sandrine; Soubrane, Olivier; Calmus, Yvon; Conti, Filomena

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine whether the expression of CD25, CD28 and CD38 (which reflects the degree of T-cell activation) by peripheral blood mononuclear cells constitutes a useful means of measuring the immune status of liver transplant recipients. Fifty-two patients enrolled in a prospective randomized study comparing cyclosporine and tacrolimus as the principal immunosuppressive drugs were monitored prospectively. The expression of CD25, CD28 and CD38 was analyzed on CD3-, CD4- and CD8-positive cells from whole blood using flow cytometry. The prognostic value of baseline and day 14 measurements regarding acute rejection was examined using Kaplan-Meier estimates for univariate analyses and the Cox model for multivariate analyses. The mean frequencies of CD28 and CD38-expressing T cells were significantly higher in patients with acute rejection (p = 0.01 and p = 0.001, respectively), whereas the frequency CD25-expressing T cells did not differ significantly. Under univariate analysis, baseline CD25 levels, the type of calcineurin inhibitor, as well as the CD28 and CD38 frequencies obtained at day 14 were associated with the subsequent development of acute rejection. Under multivariate analysis, only CD28 and CD38 frequencies obtained at day 14 were independently associated with acute rejection. The evaluation of CD28 and CD38 expression in peripheral blood lymphocytes is a simple marker that could be used routinely in clinical practice to assess the level of immunosuppression.

  14. Expression patterns of signaling lymphocytic activation molecule family members in peripheral blood mononuclear cell subsets in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karampetsou, Maria P; Comte, Denis; Kis-Toth, Katalin; Kyttaris, Vasileios C; Tsokos, George C

    2017-01-01

    Genome-wide linkage analysis studies (GWAS) studies in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) identified the 1q23 region on human chromosome 1, containing the Signaling Lymphocytic Activation Molecule Family (SLAMF) cluster of genes, as a lupus susceptibility locus. The SLAMF molecules (SLAMF1-7) are immunoregulatory receptors expressed predominantly on hematopoietic cells. Activation of cells of the adaptive immune system is aberrant in SLE and dysregulated expression of certain SLAMF molecules has been reported. We examined the expression of SLAMF1-7 on peripheral blood T cells, B cells, monocytes, and their respective differentiated subsets, in patients with SLE and healthy controls in a systematic manner. SLAMF1 levels were increased on both T cell and B cells and their differentiated subpopulations in patients with SLE. SLAMF2 was increased on SLE CD4+ and CD8+ T cells. The frequency of SLAMF4+ and SLAMF7+ central memory and effector memory CD8+ T cells was reduced in SLE patients. Naïve CD4+ and CD8+ SLE T cells showed a slight increase in SLAMF3 levels. No differences were seen in the expression of SLAMF5 and SLAMF6 among SLE patients and healthy controls. Overall, the expression of various SLAMF receptors is dysregulated in SLE and may contribute to the immunopathogenesis of the disease.

  15. Type 1 Diabetes Prone NOD Mice Have Diminished Cxcr1 mRNA Expression in Polymorphonuclear Neutrophils and CD4+ T Lymphocytes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karine Haurogné

    Full Text Available In humans, CXCR1 and CXCR2 are two homologous proteins that bind ELR+ chemokines. Both receptors play fundamental roles in neutrophil functions such as migration and reactive oxygen species production. Mouse Cxcr1 and Cxcr2 genes are located in an insulin-dependent diabetes genetic susceptibility locus. The non obese diabetic (NOD mouse is a spontaneous well-described animal model for insulin-dependent type 1 diabetes. In this disease, insulin deficiency results from the destruction of insulin-producing beta cells by autoreactive T lymphocytes. This slow-progressing disease is dependent on both environmental and genetic factors. Here, we report descriptive data about the Cxcr1 gene in NOD mice. We demonstrate decreased expression of mRNA for Cxcr1 in neutrophils and CD4+ lymphocytes isolated from NOD mice compared to other strains, related to reduced NOD Cxcr1 gene promoter activity. Looking for Cxcr1 protein, we next analyze the membrane proteome of murine neutrophils by mass spectrometry. Although Cxcr2 protein is clearly found in murine neutrophils, we did not find evidence of Cxcr1 peptides using this method. Nevertheless, in view of recently-published experimental data obtained in NOD mice, we argue for possible Cxcr1 involvement in type 1 diabetes pathogenesis.

  16. Silencing the expression of Cbl-b enhances the immune activation of T lymphocytes against RM-1 prostate cancer cells in vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shu-Kui Zhou

    2014-12-01

    Conclusion: Silencing Cbl-b significantly enhanced T lymphocyte function and T lymphocyte cytotoxicity activity against a model prostate cancer cell line in vitro. This study suggests a potentially novel immunotherapeutic strategy against prostate cancer.

  17. Cloning and expression of a widely expressed receptor tyrosine phosphatase

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sap, J; D'Eustachio, P; Givol, D

    1990-01-01

    We describe the identification of a widely expressed receptor-type (transmembrane) protein tyrosine phosphatase (PTPase; EC 3.1.3.48). Screening of a mouse brain cDNA library under low-stringency conditions with a probe encompassing the intracellular (phosphatase) domain of the CD45 lymphocyte...... antigen yielded cDNA clones coding for a 794-amino acid transmembrane protein [hereafter referred to as receptor protein tyrosine phosphatase alpha (R-PTP-alpha)] with an intracellular domain displaying clear homology to the catalytic domains of CD45 and LAR (45% and 53%, respectively). The 142-amino acid...

  18. The Fas counterattack in vivo: apoptotic depletion of tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes associated with Fas ligand expression by human esophageal carcinoma.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Bennett, M W

    2012-02-03

    Various cancer cell lines express Fas ligand (FasL) and can kill lymphoid cells by Fas-mediated apoptosis in vitro. FasL expression has been demonstrated in several human malignancies in vivo. We sought to determine whether human esophageal carcinomas express FasL, and whether FasL expression is associated with increased apoptosis of tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TIL) in vivo, thereby contributing to the immune privilege of the tumor. Using in situ hybridization and immunohistochemistry, respectively, FasL mRNA and protein were colocalized to neoplastic esophageal epithelial cells in all esophageal carcinomas (squamous, n = 6; adenocarcinoma, n = 2). The Extent of FasL expression was variable, with both FasL-positive and FasL-negative neoplastic regions occurring within tumors. TIL were detected by immunohistochemical staining for the leukocyte common Ag, CD45. FasL expression was associated with a mean fourfold depletion of TIL when compared with FasL-negative areas within the same tumors (range 1.6- to 12-fold, n = 6,p < 0.05). Cell death of TIL was detected by dual staining of CD45 (immunohistochemistry) and DNA strand breaks (TUNEL, terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP nick end labeling). There was a mean twofold increase in detectable cell death among TIL in FasL-positive areas compared with FasL-negative areas (range 1.6- to 2.4-fold, n = 6, p < 0.05). In conclusion, we demonstrate a statistically significant, quantitative reduction of TIL concomitant with significantly increased TIL apoptosis within FasL-expressing areas of esophageal tumors. Our findings suggest Fas-mediated apoptotic depletion of TIL in response to FasL expression by esophageal cancers, and provide the first direct, quantitative evidence to support the Fas counterattack as a mechanism of immune privilege in vivo in human cancer.

  19. Intracellular Wnt/Beta-Catenin Signaling Underlying 17beta-Estradiol-Induced Matrix Metalloproteinase 9 Expression in Human Endometriosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ling; Xiong, Wenqian; Xiong, Yao; Liu, Hengwei; Li, Na; Du, Yu; Liu, Yi

    2016-03-01

    Extracellular matrix remodeling is necessary for ectopic endometrium implantation. Many studies have shown an increased expression of matrix metalloproteinase 9 (MMP9) in the ectopic endometrium of endometriosis. However, the signaling pathways and cellular effects related to this process remain incompletely elucidated. The objective of our study was to investigate the association between MMP9 and the Wnt signaling pathway under the regulation of 17beta-estradiol (E2) in endometrial stromal cells. We found that MMP9 was elevated in tissues from women with endometriosis compared with normal women. Furthermore, MMP9 and beta-catenin increased concurrently in a time- and dose-dependent manner after E2 treatment. To clarify the relationship between MMP9 and beta-catenin, we performed luciferase promoter reporter and chromatin immunoprecipitation assays. A beta-catenin/TCF3/LEF1 complex bound to a specific site on the MMP9 promoter that promoted MMP9 gene and protein expression. The promotion of MMP9 by the Wnt signaling pathway under the regulation of E2 may contribute to the pathophysiology of this disease. © 2016 by the Society for the Study of Reproduction, Inc.

  20. Separate Developmental Programs for HLA-A and -B Cell Surface Expression during Differentiation from Embryonic Stem Cells to Lymphocytes, Adipocytes and Osteoblasts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sabir, Hardee J; Nehlin, Jan O; Qanie, Diyako

    2013-01-01

    -A, but not -B) is seen on some multipotent stem cells, and this raises the question how this is in other stem cells and how it changes during differentiation. In this study, we have used flow cytometry to investigate the cell surface expression of HLA-A and -B on human embryonic stem cells (hESC), human...... hematopoietic stem cells (hHSC), human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSC) and their fully-differentiated progenies such as lymphocytes, adipocytes and osteoblasts. hESC showed extremely low levels of HLA-A and no -B. In contrast, multipotent hMSC and hHSC generally expressed higher levels of HLA-A and clearly HLA......A major problem of allogeneic stem cell therapy is immunologically mediated graft rejection. HLA class I A, B, and Cw antigens are crucial factors, but little is known of their respective expression on stem cells and their progenies. We have recently shown that locus-specific expression (HLA...

  1. Over-Expression of Dopamine D2 Receptor and Inwardly Rectifying Potassium Channel Genes in Drug-Naive Schizophrenic Peripheral Blood Lymphocytes as Potential Diagnostic Markers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ágnes Zvara

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Schizophrenia is one of the most common neuropsychiatric disorders affecting nearly 1% of the human population. Current diagnosis of schizophrenia is based on complex clinical symptoms. The use of easily detectable peripheral molecular markers could substantially help the diagnosis of psychiatric disorders. Recent studies showed that peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBL express subtypes of D1 and D2 subclasses of dopamine receptors. Recently, dopamine receptor D3 (DRD3 was found to be over-expressed in schizophrenic PBL and proposed to be a diagnostic and follow-up marker for schizophrenia. In this study we screened PBL of 13 drug-naive/drug-free schizophrenic patients to identify additional markers of schizophrenia. One of the benefits of our study is the use of blood samples of non-medicated, drug-naive patients. This excludes the possibility that changes detected in gene expression levels might be attributed to the medication rather than to the disorder itself. Among others, genes for dopamine receptor D2 (DRD2 and the inwardly rectifying potassium channel (Kir2.3 were found to be over-expressed in microarray analysis. Increased mRNA levels were confirmed by quantitative real-time PCR (QRT-PCR using the SybrGreen method and dual labeled TaqMan probes. The use of both molecular markers allows a more rapid and precise prediction of schizophrenia and might help find the optimal medication for schizophrenic patients.

  2. Prognostic significance of signal transducer and activator of transcription 5 and 5b expression in Epstein-Barr virus-positive patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diamantopoulos, Panagiotis T; Sofotasiou, Maria; Georgoussi, Zafiroula; Giannakopoulou, Nefeli; Papadopoulou, Vasiliki; Galanopoulos, Athanasios; Kontandreopoulou, Elina; Zervakis, Panagiotis; Pallaki, Paschalina; Kalala, Fani; Kyrtsonis, Marie-Christine; Dimitrakopoulou, Aglaia; Vassilakopoulos, Theodoros; Angelopoulou, Maria; Spanakis, Nikolaos; Viniou, Nora-Athina

    2016-09-01

    Signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT) proteins have been intensively studied in hematologic malignancies, and the efficacy of agents against STATs in lymphomas is already under research. We investigated the expression of total STAT5 and STAT5b in peripheral blood samples of patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) in correlation with the presence of Epstein-Barr Virus (EBV) and its major oncoprotein (latent membrane protein 1, LMP1). The EBV load was measured in the peripheral blood by real-time PCR for the BXLF1 gene and the levels of LMP1 by PCR and ELISA. Western blotting was performed for total STAT5 and STAT5b in protein extracts. STAT5b was only expressed in patients (not in healthy subjects) and STAT5 but particularly STAT5b expression was correlated with the presence of the virus (77.3% vs. 51.2%, P = 0.006 for STAT5b) and to the expression of LMP1 (58.3% vs. 21.6%, P = 0.011 for STAT5b). Moreover, the expression of STAT5b and the presence of EBV and LMP1 were strongly negatively correlated with the overall survival of the patients (log-rank test P = 0.011, 0.015, 0.006, respectively). Double positive (for EBV and STAT5b) patients had the lowest overall survival (log-rank test P = 0.013). This is the first report of a survival disadvantage of EBV+ patients with CLL, and the first time that STAT5b expression is correlated with survival. The correlation of STAT5 expression with the presence of the virus, along with our survival correlations defines a subgroup of patients with CLL that may benefit from anti-STAT agents. © 2016 The Authors. Cancer Medicine published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Chronic Hippocampal Expression of Notch Intracellular Domain Induces Vascular Thickening, Reduces Glucose Availability, and Exacerbates Spatial Memory Deficits in a Rat Model of Early Alzheimer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galeano, Pablo; Leal, María C; Ferrari, Carina C; Dalmasso, María C; Martino Adami, Pamela V; Farías, María I; Casabona, Juan C; Puntel, Mariana; Do Carmo, Sonia; Smal, Clara; Arán, Martín; Castaño, Eduardo M; Pitossi, Fernando J; Cuello, A Claudio; Morelli, Laura

    2018-03-26

    The specific roles of Notch in progressive adulthood neurodegenerative disorders have begun to be unraveled in recent years. A number of independent studies have shown significant increases of Notch expression in brains from patients at later stages of sporadic Alzheimer's disease (AD). However, the impact of Notch canonical signaling activation in the pathophysiology of AD is still elusive. To further investigate this issue, 2-month-old wild-type (WT) and hemizygous McGill-R-Thy1-APP rats (Tg(+/-)) were injected in CA1 with lentiviral particles (LVP) expressing the transcriptionally active fragment of Notch, known as Notch Intracellular Domain (NICD), (LVP-NICD), or control lentivirus particles (LVP-C). The Tg(+/-) rat model captures presymptomatic aspects of the AD pathology, including intraneuronal amyloid beta (Aβ) accumulation and early cognitive deficits. Seven months after LVP administration, Morris water maze test was performed, and brains isolated for biochemical and histological analysis. Our results showed a learning impairment and a worsening of spatial memory in LVP-NICD- as compared to LVP-C-injected Tg(+/-) rats. In addition, immuno histochemistry, ELISA multiplex, Western blot, RT-qPCR, and 1 H-NMR spectrometry of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) indicated that chronic expression of NICD promoted hippocampal vessel thickening with accumulation of Aβ in brain microvasculature, alteration of blood-brain barrier (BBB) permeability, and a decrease of CSF glucose levels. These findings suggest that, in the presence of early Aβ pathology, expression of NICD may contribute to the development of microvascular abnormalities, altering glucose transport at the BBB with impact on early decline of spatial learning and memory.

  4. Increased Expression of Cytotoxic T-Lymphocyte-Associated Protein 4 by T Cells, Induced by B7 in Sera, Reduces Adaptive Immunity in Patients With Acute Liver Failure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Khamri, Wafa; Abeles, Robin D; Hou, Tie Zheng

    2017-01-01

    , hepatic sinusoidal endothelial cells, and biliary epithelial cells from healthy or diseased liver tissues. We also measured levels of soluble B7 serum samples from patients and controls, and mice with acetaminophen-induced liver injury using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays. RESULTS: Peripheral blood...... mice with acetaminophen-induced liver injury contained high levels of soluble B7 compared to sera from mice without liver injury. Plasma exchange reduced circulating levels of soluble B7 in patients with ALF and expression of CTLA4 on T cells. CONCLUSIONS: Peripheral CD4+ T cells from patients with ALF......BACKGROUND & AIMS: Patients with acute liver failure (ALF) have defects in innate immune responses to microbes (immune paresis) and are susceptible to sepsis. Cytotoxic T-lymphocyte-associated protein 4 (CTLA4), which interacts with the membrane receptor B7 (also called CD80 and CD86...

  5. Frequency of mutant T lymphocytes defective in the expression of the T-cell antigen receptor gene among radiation-exposed people

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kyoizumi, Seishi; Umeki, Shigeko; Akiyama, Mitoshi

    1991-06-01

    The frequency of mutant T lymphocytes defective in T-cell receptor gene (α or β) expression was measured using the two-color flow cytometric technique. Results for a total of 203 atomic bomb survivors, 78 of whom were proximally exposed (DS86 doses of ≥ 1.5 Gy) and 125 of whom were distally exposed (DS86 doses of 228 Th formerly used for radiodiagnosis. In addition, thyroid disease patients treated with 131 I showed a dose-related increase of mutant frequency. It was suggested that the present T-cell receptor mutation assay has a unique characteristic as a biological dosimeter for the measurement of recent exposures to genotoxic agents. (author)

  6. Expression of the alaE gene is positively regulated by the global regulator Lrp in response to intracellular accumulation of l-alanine in Escherichia coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ihara, Kohei; Sato, Kazuki; Hori, Hatsuhiro; Makino, Yumiko; Shigenobu, Shuji; Ando, Tasuke; Isogai, Emiko; Yoneyama, Hiroshi

    2017-04-01

    The alaE gene in Escherichia coli encodes an l-alanine exporter that catalyzes the active export of l-alanine using proton electrochemical potential. In our previous study, alaE expression was shown to increase in the presence of l-alanyl-l-alanine (Ala-Ala). In this study, the global regulator leucine-responsive regulatory protein (Lrp) was identified as an activator of the alaE gene. A promoter less β-galactosidase gene was fused to an alaE upstream region (240 nucleotides). Cells that were lacZ-deficient and harbored this reporter plasmid showed significant induction of β-galactosidase activity (approximately 17-fold) in the presence of 6 mM l-alanine, l-leucine, and Ala-Ala. However, a reporter plasmid possessing a smaller alaE upstream region (180 nucleotides) yielded transformants with strikingly low enzyme activity under the same conditions. In contrast, lrp-deficient cells showed almost no β-galactosidase induction, indicating that Lrp positively regulates alaE expression. We next performed an electrophoretic mobility shift assay (EMSA) and a DNase I footprinting assay using purified hexahistidine-tagged Lrp (Lrp-His). Consequently, we found that Lrp-His binds to the alaE upstream region spanning nucleotide -161 to -83 with a physiologically relevant affinity (apparent K D , 288.7 ± 83.8 nM). Furthermore, the binding affinity of Lrp-His toward its cis-element was increased by l-alanine and l-leucine, but not by Ala-Ala and d-alanine. Based on these results, we concluded that the gene expression of the alaE is regulated by Lrp in response to intracellular levels of l-alanine, which eventually leads to intracellular homeostasis of l-alanine concentrations. Copyright © 2016 The Society for Biotechnology, Japan. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Immunomodulatory effect of an isolated fraction from Tinospora crispa on intracellular expression of INF-γ, IL-6 and IL-8

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background Immunomodulators are substances that modify immune system response to a threat. Immunomodulators modulate and potentiate the immune system, keeping it highly prepared for any threat. The immunomodulatory effect of the traditional medicine Tinospora crispa is investigated in this work. Methods T. crispa ethanol extract was fractionated by using different solvents. The ethanol extract and effective isolated fraction were used to investigate the potential immunomodulatory effect of different T. crispa doses ranging from 25 μg/mL to 1000 μg/mL on RAW 246.7 cells by detecting intracellular INF-γ, IL-6, and IL-8 expressions. The antioxidant activity of T. crispa was evaluated through FRAP and DPPH. The total phenolic and total flavonoid contents were also quantified. Results Results show that T. crispa extract has higher antioxidant potential than ascorbic acid. The FRAP value of T. crispa extract is 11011.11 ± 1145.42 μmol Fe+2/g, and its DPPH inhibition percentage is 55.79 ± 7.9, with 22 μg/mL IC50. The results also reveal that the total phenolic content of T. crispa extract is 213.16- ± 1.31 mg GAE/g dry stem weight, and the total flavonoid content is 62.07- ± 39.76 mg QE/g dry stem weight. T. crispa crude extract and its isolated fraction significantly stimulate RAW264.7 cell viability (P ≤ 0.05) and intracellular INF-γ, IL-6, and IL-8 expressions. The results of LC-MS show that four of the active compounds detected in the T. crispa isolated fraction are cordioside, quercetin, eicosenoic acid (paullinic acid), and boldine. Conclusions The results of this study obviously indicate that T. crispa has immunomodulatory effects through the stimulation of INF-γ, IL-6, and IL-8 expressions. LC-MS phytochemical analysis showed that the T. crispa fraction has cordioside, quercetin, eicosenoic acid (paullinic acid), and boldine, which may be responsible for the immunostimulator effect of T. crispa. PMID:24969238

  8. [Effect of hydrostatic pressure on intracellular free calcium concentration and transient receptor potential vanilloid expression in human bladder smooth muscle cells].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Zhenwei; Wang, Kunjie; Chen, Lin; Wei, Tangqiang; Luo, Deyi; Li, Shengfu

    2012-04-01

    To explore the effect of hydrostatic pressure on intracellular free calcium concentration ([Ca2+]i) and the gene expression of transient receptor potential vanilloid (TRPV) in cultured human bladder smooth muscle cells (hb-SMCs), and to preliminarily probe into the possible molecular mechanism of hb-SMCs proliferation stimulated by hydrostatic pressure. The passage 6-7 hb-SMCs were loaded with Ca2+ indicator Fluo-3/AM. When the hb-SMCs were under 0 cm H2O (1cm H2O = 0.098 kPa) (group A) or 200 cm H2O hydrostatic pressure for 30 minutes (group B) and then removing the 200 cm H2O hydrostatic pressure (group C), the [Ca2+]i was measured respectively by inverted laser scanning confocal microscope. When the hb-SMCs were given the 200 cm H2O hydrostatic pressure for 0 hour, 2 hours, 6 hours, 12 hours, and 24 hours, the mRNA expressions of TRPV1, TRPV2, and TRPV4 were detected by RT-PCR technique. The [Ca2+]i of group A, group B, and group C were (100.808 +/- 1.724), (122.008 +/- 1.575), and (99.918 +/- 0.887) U, respectively; group B was significantly higher than groups A and C (P pressure (t = 0.919, P = 0.394). The TRPV1, TRPV2, and TRPV4 genes expressed in hb-SMCs under 200 cm H2O hydrostatic pressure at 0 hour, 2 hours, 6 hours, 12 hours, and 24 hours, but the expressions had no obvious changes with time. There was no significant difference in the expressions of TRPV1, TRPV2, and TRPV4 among 3 groups (P > 0.05). The [Ca2+]i of hb-SMCs increases significantly under high hydrostatic pressure. As possible genes in stretch-activated cation channel, the TRPV1, TRPV2, and TRPV4 express in hb-SMCs under 200 cm H2O hydrostatic pressure. It is possible that the mechanical pressure regulates the [Ca2+]i of hb-SMCs by opening the stretch-activated cation channel rather than up-regulating its expression.

  9. Vascular endothelial growth factor up-regulates the expression of intracellular adhesion molecule-1 in retinal endothelial cells via reactive oxygen species, but not nitric oxide

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Xiao-ling; WEN Liang; CHEN Yan-jiong; ZHU Yi

    2009-01-01

    Background The vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is involved in the initiation of retinal vascular leakage and nonperfusion in diabetes. The intracellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) is the key mediator of the effect of VEGFs on retinal leukostasis. Although the VEGF is expressed in an early-stage diabetic retina, whether it directly up-regulates ICAM-1 in retinal endothelial cells (ECs) is unknown. In this study, we provided a new mechanism to explain that VEGF does up-regulate the expression of ICAM-1 in retinal ECs.Methods Bovine retinal ECs (BRECs) were isolated and cultured. Immunohistochemical staining was performed to identify BRECs. The cultured cells were divided into corresponding groups. Then, VEGF (100 ng/ml) and other inhibitors were used to treat the cells. Cell lysate and the cultured supernatant were collected, and then, the protein level of ICAM-1 and phosphorylation of the endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) were detected using Western blotting. Griess reaction was used to detect nitric oxide (NO).Results Western blotting showed that the VEGF up-regulated the expression of ICAM-1 protein and increased phosphorylation of the eNOS in retinal ECs. Neither the block of NO nor protein kinase C (PKC) altered the expression of ICAM-1 or the phosphorylation of eNOS. The result of the Western blotting also showed that inhibition of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) or reactive oxygen species (ROS) significantly reduced the expression of ICAM-1. Inhibition of PI3K also reduced phosphorylation of eNOS. Griess reaction showed that VEGF significantly increased during NO production. When eNOS was blocked by L-NAME or PI3K was blocked by LY294002, the basal level of NO production and the increment of NO caused by VEGF could be significantly decreased.Conclusion ROS-NO coupling in the retinal endothelium may be a new mechanism that could help to explain why VEGF induces ICAM-1 expression and the resulting leukostasis in diabetic retinopathy.

  10. Retinoic acid induction of CD1d expression primes chronic lymphocytic leukemia B cells for killing by CD8+ invariant natural killer T cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghnewa, Yasmeen G; O'Reilly, Vincent P; Vandenberghe, Elisabeth; Browne, Paul V; McElligott, Anthony M; Doherty, Derek G

    2017-10-01

    Invariant natural killer T (iNKT) cells are cytotoxic T cells that respond to glycolipid antigens presented by CD1d. Therapeutic activation of iNKT cells with α-galactosylceramide (α-GalCer) can prevent and reverse tumor growth in mice and clinical trials involving α-GalCer-stimulated iNKT cells are ongoing in humans. B cells express CD1d, however, we show that CD1d expression is reduced on B cells from patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL). B cells from CLL patients pulsed with α-GalCer failed to stimulate cytolytic degranulation by iNKT cell lines, but could present the more potent glycolipid analogue, 7DW8-5. Retinoic acid receptor-α (RAR-α) agonists induced CD1d expression by CLL B cells, restoring their ability to present α-GalCer to CD8α + iNKT cells, resulting in cytolytic degranulation. Thus, RAR-α agonists can augment the anti-tumor activities of iNKT cells against CLL cells in vitro. Their inclusion in iNKT cell-based therapies may benefit patients with CLL. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Abundant tax protein expression in CD4+ T cells infected with human T-cell lymphotropic virus type I (HTLV-I) is prevented by cytotoxic T lymphocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanon, E; Hall, S; Taylor, G P; Saito, M; Davis, R; Tanaka, Y; Usuku, K; Osame, M; Weber, J N; Bangham, C R

    2000-02-15

    The role of the cellular immune response in human T-cell leukemia virus type I (HTLV-I) infection is not fully understood. A persistently activated cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL) response to HTLV-I is found in the majority of infected individuals. However, it remains unclear whether this CTL response is protective or causes tissue damage. In addition, several observations paradoxically suggest that HTLV-I is transcriptionally silent in most infected cells and, therefore, not detectable by virus-specific CTLs. With the use of a new flow cytometric procedure, we show here that a high proportion of naturally infected CD4+ peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) (between 10% and 80%) are capable of expressing Tax, the immunodominant target antigen recognized by virus-specific CTLs. Furthermore, we provide direct evidence that autologous CD8+ T cells rapidly kill CD4+ cells naturally infected with HTLV-I and expressing Tax in vitro by a perforin-dependent mechanism. Consistent with these observations, we observed a significant negative correlation between the frequency of Tax(11-19)-specific CD8+ T cells and the percentage of CD4+ T cells in peripheral blood of patients infected with HTLV-I. Those results are in accordance with the view that virus-specific CTLs participate in a highly efficient immune surveillance mechanism that persistently destroys Tax-expressing HTLV-I-infected CD4+ T cells in vivo. (Blood. 2000;95:1386-1392)

  12. Expression of cytoplasmic CD3 epsilon proteins in activated human adult natural killer (NK) cells and CD3 gamma, delta, epsilon complexes in fetal NK cells. Implications for the relationship of NK and T lymphocytes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lanier, L. L.; Chang, C.; Spits, H.; Phillips, J. H.

    1992-01-01

    NK cells have been defined as CD3-, CD16+, and/or CD56+ lymphocytes that mediate MHC-unrestricted cytotoxicity against certain tumors and virus-infected cells. Although CD3 epsilon transcripts have been detected in some NK clones, it has generally been thought that NK cells do not express CD3

  13. CXC chemokine receptor 4 expression and stromal cell-derived factor-1alpha-induced chemotaxis in CD4+ T lymphocytes are regulated by interleukin-4 and interleukin-10

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jinquan, T; Quan, S; Jacobi, H H

    2000-01-01

    -10. IL-4 and IL-10 up- or down-regulated CXCR4 mRNA expression in CD4+ T lymphocytes, respectively, as detected by real-time quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Scatchard analysis revealed a type of CXCR4 with affinity (Kd approximately 6.3 nM), and approximately 70....... The regulation of CXCR4 expression in CD4+ T lymphocytes by IL-4 and IL-10 could be blocked by a selective inhibitor of protein kinase (staurosporine) or by a selective inhibitor of cAMP- and cGMP-dependent protein kinase (H-8), indicating that these cytokines regulate CXCR4 on CD4+ T lymphocytes via both c......AMP and cGMP signalling pathways. The fact that cyclosporin A or ionomycin were able to independently change the CXCR4 expression and block the effects of IL-4 and IL-10 on CXCR4 expression implied that the capacity of IL-4 and IL-10 to regulate CXCR4 on CD4+ T lymphocytes is not linked to calcium...

  14. Complement receptor expression and activation of the complement cascade on B lymphocytes from patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marquart, H V; Svendsen, A; Rasmussen, J M

    1995-01-01

    It has previously been reported that the expression of the complement receptors, CR1 on erythrocytes and blood leucocytes and CR2 on B cells, is reduced in patients with SLE, and that the reduced expression of CR1 on erythrocytes is related to disease activity. We have earlier demonstrated...... that normal B cells are capable of activating the alternative pathway (AP) of complement in a CR2-dependent fashion. In this study we have investigated whether disturbances in this activity may be related to the altered phenotype of SLE B cells. Flow cytometry was used to measure expression of complement...

  15. Dose-effect of ionizing radiation-induced PIG3 gene expression alteration in human lymphoblastoid AHH-1 cells and human peripheral blood lymphocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Qing-Jie; Zhang, De-Qin; Zhang, Qing-Zhao; Feng, Jiang-Bin; Lu, Xue; Wang, Xin-Ru; Li, Kun-Peng; Chen, De-Qing; Mu, Xiao-Feng; Li, Shuang; Gao, Ling

    2015-01-01

    To identify new ionizing radiation (IR)-sensitive genes and observe the dose-effect of gene expression alteration (GEA) induced by IR. Microarray was used to screen the differentially expressed genes in human lymphoblastoid cells (AHH-1) using three doses of (60)Co γ-rays (0.5-8 Gy at 1 Gy/min). Given that p53-inducible gene 3 (PIG3) was consistently upregulated, the GEA of PIG3 in AHH-1 cells and human peripheral blood lymphocytes (HPBL) induced by γ-rays (1 Gy/min) was measured at messenger RNA (mRNA) and protein levels. The GEA of PIG3 in AHH-1 cells exposed to neutron radiation (californium-252, 0.073 Gy/min) was also quantified. PIG3 was one of the seven differentially expressed genes found in the microarray analysis. The PIG3 mRNA and protein levels in AHH-1 cells were significantly increased from 1-10 Gy of γ-rays 8-72 h or 8-168 h after exposure, respectively. The enhancement was also observed in AHH-1 cells from 0.4-1.6 Gy of neutrons 48 h post-irradiation. The PIG3 mRNA levels (mRNA copy numbers) in HPBL were significantly increased from 1-8 Gy of γ-rays within 4-24 h post-irradiation, but the highest increase in signal-to-noise responsiveness is approximately two-fold, which was less than that of AHH-1 (approximately 20-fold). IR can upregulate the PIG3 gene expression in AHH-1 and HPBL in the early phase after exposure; however, the IR induced expression levels of PIG3 are greater in AHH-1 than HPBL.

  16. Allergen-stimulated T lymphocytes from allergic patients induce vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1) expression and IL-6 production by endothelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delneste, Y; Jeannin, P; Gosset, P; Lassalle, P; Cardot, E; Tillie-Leblond, I; Joseph, M; Pestel, J; Tonnel, A B

    1995-01-01

    Adhesion of inflammatory cells to endothelium is a critical step for their transvascular migration to inflammatory sites. To evaluate the relationship between T lymphocytes (TL) and vascular endothelium, supernatants from allergen-stimulated TL obtained from patients sensitive to Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus (Dpt) versus healthy subjects were added to endothelial cell (EC) cultures. TL were stimulated by autologous-activated antigen-presenting cells (APC) previously fixed in paraformaldehyde to prevent monokine secretion. Two parameters were measured: the expression of adhesion molecule and the production of IL-6. Related allergen-stimulated TL supernatants from allergic patients induced an increase of VCAM-1 and intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) expression when supernatants of the control groups (TL exposed to an unrelated allergen or not stimulated or TL obtained from healthy subjects) did not. E-selectin expression was not modulated whatever the supernatant added to EC culture. IL-6 production by EC was significantly enhanced after activation with related allergen-stimulated TL supernatants from allergics compared with control supernatants. Induction of VCAM-1 expression was inhibited by adding neutralizing antibodies against IL-4, whereas IL-6 production and ICAM-1 expression were inhibited by anti-interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma) antibodies. Enhanced production of IL-4 and IFN-gamma was detected in related allergen-stimulated TL supernatants from allergic subjects compared with the different supernatants. These data suggest that allergen-specific TL present in the peripheral blood of allergic patients are of Th1 and Th2 subtypes. Their stimulation in allergic patients may lead to the activation of endothelial cells and thereby participate in leucocyte recruitment towards the inflammatory site. PMID:7542574

  17. Interleukin 21 Controls mRNA and MicroRNA Expression in CD40-Activated Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia Cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Loris De Cecco

    Full Text Available Several factors support CLL cell survival in the microenvironment. Under different experimental conditions, IL21 can either induce apoptosis or promote CLL cell survival. To investigate mechanisms involved in the effects of IL21, we studied the ability of IL21 to modulate gene and miRNA expressions in CD40-activated CLL cells. IL21 was a major regulator of chemokine production in CLL cells and it modulated the expression of genes involved in cell movement, metabolism, survival and apoptosis. In particular, IL21 down-regulated the expression of the chemokine genes CCL4, CCL3, CCL3L1, CCL17, and CCL2, while it up-regulated the Th1-related CXCL9 and CXCL10. In addition, IL21 down-regulated the expression of genes encoding signaling molecules, such as CD40, DDR1 and PIK3CD. IL21 modulated a similar set of genes in CLL and normal B-cells (e.g. chemokine genes, whereas other genes, including MYC, TNF, E2F1, EGR2 and GAS-6, were regulated only in CLL cells. An integrated analysis of the miRNome and gene expression indicated that several miRNAs were under IL21 control and these could, in turn, influence the expression of potential target genes. We focused on hsa-miR-663b predicted to down-regulate several relevant genes. Transfection of hsa-miR-663b or its specific antagonist showed that this miRNA regulated CCL17, DDR1, PIK3CD and CD40 gene expression. Our data indicated that IL21 modulates the expression of genes mediating the crosstalk between CLL cells and their microenvironment and miRNAs may take part in this process.

  18. Myostatin expression, lymphocyte population, and potential cytokine production correlate with predisposition to high-fat diet induced obesity in mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeri-Anne Lyons

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available A strong relationship exists between increased inflammatory cytokines and muscle insulin resistance in obesity. This study focused on identifying a relationship between metabolic propensity and myostatin expression in muscle and spleen cells in response to high-fat diet intake. Using a comparative approach, we analyzed the effects of high-fat diet intake on myostatin and follistatin expression, spleen cell composition, and potential cytokine expression in high-fat diet induced obesity (HFDIO resistant (SWR/J and susceptible (C57BL/6 mice models. Results demonstrated overall increased myostatin expression in muscle following high-fat diet intake in HFDIO-susceptible mice, while myostatin expression levels decreased initially in muscle from high-fat diet fed resistant mice. In HFDIO-resistant mice, myostatin expression decreased in spleen, while myostatin increased in spleen tissue from HFDIO-susceptible mice. Proinflammatory cytokine (IL-17, IL-1β, and IFNγ potential increased in splenocytes from HFDIO-susceptible mice. In comparison, C57BL/6 mice fed a high-fat diet exhibited higher frequencies of CD4(+/CD44(hi and CD8(+/CD44(hi cells in the spleen compared to control fed mice. Together, these results suggest that susceptibility to high-fat diet induced obesity could be influenced by local myostatin activity in a tissue-specific manner and that splenocytes exhibit differential cytokine production in a strain-dependent manner. This study sets the stage for future investigations into the interactions between growth, inflammation, and metabolism.

  19. Transcriptome Analysis of the Intracellular Facultative Pathogen Piscirickettsia salmonis: Expression of Putative Groups of Genes Associated with Virulence and Iron Metabolism.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alvaro Machuca

    Full Text Available The intracellular facultative bacteria Piscirickettsia salmonis is one of the most important pathogens of the Chilean aquaculture. However, there is a lack of information regarding the whole genomic transcriptional response according to different extracellular environments. We used next generation sequencing (NGS of RNA (RNA-seq to study the whole transcriptome of an isolate of P. salmonis (FAVET-INBIOGEN using a cell line culture and a modified cell-free liquid medium, with or without iron supplementation. This was done in order to obtain information about the factors there are involved in virulence and iron acquisition. First, the isolate was grown in the Sf21 cell line; then, the bacteria were cultured into a cell-free liquid medium supplemented or not with iron. We identified in the transcriptome, genes associated with type IV secretion systems, genes related to flagellar structure assembly, several proteases and sigma factors, and genes related to the development of drug resistance. Additionally, we identified for the first time several iron-metabolism associated genes including at least two iron uptake pathways (ferrous iron and ferric iron uptake that are actually expressed in the different conditions analyzed. We further describe putative genes that are related with the use and storage of iron in the bacteria, which have not been previously described. Several sets of genes related to virulence were expressed in both the cell line and cell-free culture media (for example those related to flagellar structure; such as basal body, MS-ring, C-ring, proximal and distal rod, and filament, which may play roles in other basic processes rather than been restricted to virulence.

  20. Hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) expression in plant cell culture: Kinetics of antigen accumulation in batch culture and its intracellular form.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Mark L; Mason, Hugh S; Shuler, Michael L

    2002-12-30

    The production of edible vaccines in transgenic plants and plant cell culture may be improved through a better understanding of antigen processing and assembly. The hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) was chosen for study because it undergoes substantial and complex post-translational modifications, which are necessary for its immunogenicity. This antigen was expressed in soybean (Glycine max L. Merr. cv Williams 82) and tobacco NT1 (Nicotiana tabacum L.) cell suspension cultures, and HBsAg production in batch culture was characterized. The plant-derived antigen consisted predominantly of disulfide cross-linked HBsAg protein (p24(s)) dimers, which were all membrane associated. Similar to yeast, the plant-expressed HBsAg was retained intracellularly. The maximal HBsAg titers were obtained with soybean suspension cultures (20-22 mg/L) with titers in tobacco cultures being approximately 10-fold lower. For soybean cells, electron microscopy and immunolocalization demonstrated that all the HBsAg was localized to the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and provoked dilation and proliferation of the ER network. Sucrose gradient analysis of crude extracts showed that HBsAg had a complex size distribution uncharacteristic of the antigen's normal structure of uniform 22-nm virus-like particles. The extent of authentic epitope formation was assessed by comparing total p24(s) synthesized to that reactive by polyclonal and monoclonal immunoassays. Depending on culture age, between 40% and 100% of total p24(s) was polyclonal antibody reactive whereas between 6% and 37% was recognized by a commercial monoclonal antibody assay. Possible strategies to increase HBsAg production and improve post-translational processing are discussed. Copyright 2002 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Increased dopamine DRD4 receptor mRNA expression in lymphocytes of musicians and autistic individuals: bridging the music-autism connection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emanuele, Enzo; Boso, Marianna; Cassola, Francesco; Broglia, Davide; Bonoldi, Ilaria; Mancini, Lara; Marini, Mara; Politi, Pierluigi

    2010-01-01

    People with autistic spectrum disorder (ASD) are affected by a long-life disabling condition, characterized by communication deficits, severe impairments in social functioning, and stereotyped behaviors. Although ASD individuals display several problems in interactions, it has been reported that they may show a peculiar interest in music. Previous studies have suggested a pivotal role for the dopaminergic system in the psychobiology of reward, including the pleasure of music. In the present study, we sought to investigate dopamine DRD3 and DRD4 receptor expression in peripheral blood lymphocytes of adult healthy musicians and age- and gender-matched patients with ASD against the background hypothesis that the dopaminergic system may contribute a biological cause to the reward dimensions of the musical experience in both healthy and autistic individuals. ANOVA showed significant differences in DRD4 mRNA expression between the groups (P = 0.008). Post-hoc analysis showed significant differences between the control group and both musicians (P dopamine DRD4 receptor, music and autism, possibly via mechanisms involving the reward system and the appraisal of emotions.

  2. Expression of human poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase 1 in Saccharomyces cerevisiae: Effect on survival, homologous recombination and identification of genes involved in intracellular localization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    La Ferla, Marco; Mercatanti, Alberto; Rocchi, Giulia; Lodovichi, Samuele; Cervelli, Tiziana; Pignata, Luca [Yeast Genetics and Genomics, Institute of Clinical Physiology, National Council of Research (CNR), via Moruzzi 1, 56122 Pisa (Italy); Caligo, Maria Adelaide [Section of Genetic Oncology, University Hospital and University of Pisa, via Roma 57, 56125 Pisa (Italy); Galli, Alvaro, E-mail: alvaro.galli@ifc.cnr.it [Yeast Genetics and Genomics, Institute of Clinical Physiology, National Council of Research (CNR), via Moruzzi 1, 56122 Pisa (Italy)

    2015-04-15

    Highlights: • The human poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase 1 (PARP-1) gene affects growth and UV-induced homologous recombination in yeast. • PARP-1 chemical inhibition impacts yeast growth and UV-induced recombination. • A genome-wide screen identifies 99 yeast genes that suppress the growth defect inferred by PARP-1. • Bioinformatics analysis identifies 41 human orthologues that may have a role in PARP-1 intracellular localization. • The findings suggest that PARP-1 nuclear localization may affect the response to PARP inhibitors in cancer therapy. - Abstract: The poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase 1 (PARP-1) actively participates in a series of functions within the cell that include: mitosis, intracellular signaling, cell cycle regulation, transcription and DNA damage repair. Therefore, inhibition of PARP1 has a great potential for use in cancer therapy. As resistance to PARP inhibitors is starting to be observed in patients, thus the function of PARP-1 needs to be studied in depth in order to find new therapeutic targets. To gain more information on the PARP-1 activity, we expressed PARP-1 in yeast and investigated its effect on cell growth and UV induced homologous recombination. To identify candidate genes affecting PARP-1 activity and cellular localization, we also developed a yeast genome wide genetic screen. We found that PARP-1 strongly inhibited yeast growth, but when yeast was exposed to the PARP-1 inhibitor 6(5-H) phenantridinone (PHE), it recovered from the growth suppression. Moreover, we showed that PARP-1 produced PAR products in yeast and we demonstrated that PARP-1 reduced UV-induced homologous recombination. By genome wide screening, we identified 99 mutants that suppressed PARP-1 growth inhibition. Orthologues of human genes were found for 41 of these yeast genes. We determined whether the PARP-1 protein level was altered in strains which are deleted for the transcription regulator GAL3, the histone H1 gene HHO1, the HUL4 gene, the

  3. CX3CR1 is expressed by human B lymphocytes and mediates [corrected] CX3CL1 driven chemotaxis of tonsil centrocytes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Corcione

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Fractalkine/CX(3CL1, a surface chemokine, binds to CX(3CR1 expressed by different lymphocyte subsets. Since CX(3CL1 has been detected in the germinal centres of secondary lymphoid tissue, in this study we have investigated CX(3CR1 expression and function in human naïve, germinal centre and memory B cells isolated from tonsil or peripheral blood. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We demonstrate unambiguously that highly purified human B cells from tonsil and peripheral blood expressed CX(3CR1 at mRNA and protein levels as assessed by quantitative PCR, flow cytometry and competition binding assays. In particular, naïve, germinal centre and memory B cells expressed CX(3CR1 but only germinal centre B cells were attracted by soluble CX(3CL1 in a transwell assay. CX(3CL1 signalling in germinal centre B cells involved PI3K, Erk1/2, p38, and Src phosphorylation, as assessed by Western blot experiments. CX(3CR1(+ germinal centre B cells were devoid of centroblasts and enriched for centrocytes that migrated to soluble CX(3CL1. ELISA assay showed that soluble CX(3CL1 was secreted constitutively by follicular dendritic cells and T follicular helper cells, two cell populations homing in the germinal centre light zone as centrocytes. At variance with that observed in humans, soluble CX(3CL1 did not attract spleen B cells from wild type mice. OVA immunized CX(3CR1(-/- or CX(3CL1(-/- mice showed significantly decreased specific IgG production compared to wild type mice. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: We propose a model whereby human follicular dendritic cells and T follicular helper cells release in the light zone of germinal centre soluble CX(3CL1 that attracts centrocytes. The functional implications of these results warrant further investigation.

  4. The selenium metabolite methylselenol regulates the expression of ligands that trigger immune activation through the lymphocyte receptor NKG2D

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hagemann-Jensen, Michael Henrik; Uhlenbrock, Franziska Katharina; Kehlet, Stephanie

    2014-01-01

    For decades Selenium (Se) research has been focused on the identification of active metabolites, which are crucial for Se chemoprevention of cancer. In this context, the metabolite methylselenol (CH3SeH) is known for its action to selectively kill transformed cells through mechanisms that include...... ligands. A balanced cell-surface expression of NKG2D ligands is considered as an innate barrier against tumor development. Our work therefore indicates that the application of selenium compounds, which are metabolized to CH3SeH, could improve NKG2D-based immune therapy.......: Increased formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), induction of DNA damage, triggering of apoptosis and the inhibition of angiogenesis. Here, we revealed that CH3SeH modulates cell surface expression of NKG2D ligands. The expression of NKG2D ligands is induced by stress-associated pathways, which occur...

  5. FEATURES OF METABOLIC INDEXES OF BLOOD LYMPHOCYTES IN THE PATIENTS WITH EPIDURAL FIBROSIS FOLLOWING LUMBAR MICRODISCECTOMY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. V. Isaeva

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. A complex immunologic examination of fifty patients with clinically significant postoperative fibrosis has been performed. Immunogram indexes were determined, and activities of basic oxidation-reduction enzymes were investigated in blood lymphocytes. What concerned immune status of the patients under study, some peculiar features have been revealed, with respect to cellular and humoral compartments, i.e., relative increase in CD3+ population, a shift to CD4+ cells in the ratio of lymphocyte subpopulations, higher indexes of immune regulation and phagocytosis, increased IgG level, and lower content of IgA, as compared to appropriate controls. Metabolic parameters of lymphocytes reflect their functional activation, being expressed as an enhanced ability for intracellular synthetic processes, elevated functional activity of lymphocytes, and increased immune response. The general pattern of changes in immune status and metabolic indexes of lymphocytes allow us to assume participation of autoimmune component in progression of epidural fibrosis. The data obtained may be used in combined diagnostics and correction of this disorder. (Med. Immunol., vol. 10, N 6, pp 589-592.

  6. SOCS5 is expressed in primary B and T lymphoid cells but is dispensable for lymphocyte production and function

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brender, Christine; Columbus, Ruth; Metcalf, Donald

    2004-01-01

    the importance of SOCS5 in T helper cell responses. Unexpectedly, SOCS5-deficient CD4 T cells showed no abnormalities in Th1/Th2 differentiation and Socs5(-/-) mice showed normal resistance to infection with Leishmania major. Therefore, although SOCS5 is expressed in primary B and T cells, it appears...

  7. High expression of PI3K core complex genes is associated with poor prognosis in chronic lymphocytic leukemia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Louise; Kielsgaard Kristensen, Thomas; Abildgaard, Niels

    2015-01-01

    included in the study. All three genes were observed to be independent markers of prognosis in CLL with high expression being associated with more aggressive disease. With this clear association with outcome in CLL, these genes thereby represent promising candidates for future functional studies...

  8. Variation of ATM protein expression in response to irradiation of lymphocytes in lung cancer patients and controls

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lou Jianlin; He Jiliang; Jin Lifen; Zheng Wei; Chen Zhijian; Chen Shijie; Xu Shijie

    2006-01-01

    The aim of this research work was to study the cellular response to ionizing radiation (IR) and its relationship with the ATM protein expression levels in lung cancer patients. Heparinized blood samples were collected from 22 controls and 22 lung cancer patients. Each sample was divided into two parts: non-irradiated sample and irradiated sample, which was exposed to 3 Gy X-ray. The spontaneous and IR-induced genetic damage in both lung cancer patients and controls was measured with comet assay and micronucleus (MN) assay, and the ATM protein expression levels of non-irradiated samples in lung cancer patients and controls were detected by Western blotting. The results indicated that the baseline values of average mean tail moment (MTM) and micronucleus rate (MNR) in lung cancer patients were 0.86 and 11.41 per mille , respectively, which was significantly higher than those (0.64 and 6.77 per mille ) of controls (P < 0.05 for MTM, P < 0.01 for MNR). The IR-induced average MTM and MNR in lung cancer patients were 1.23 and 77.64 per mille , respectively, which was also significantly higher than those (0.71 and 66.05 per mille ) of controls (P < 0.05 for MTM, P < 0.01 for MNR). The results of Western blotting showed that the ATM protein expression levels in lung cancer patients and controls were 0.64 and 1.71, respectively, and there was significant (P < 0.01) difference between lung cancer patients and controls. In present investigation, it was found that the genetic instability measured with comet assay and MN assay in lung cancer patients were significantly higher than those in controls, on the contrary, ATM protein expression level in lung cancer patients were significantly lower than that in controls. However, no good correlation was found either between ATM protein expression and IR-induced MTM or between ATM protein expression and IR-induced MNR in lung cancer patients

  9. Expression of activation-induced cytidine deaminase gene in B lymphocytes of patients with common variable immunodeficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abolhassani, Hassan; Farrokhi, Amir Salek; Pourhamdi, Shabnam; Mohammadinejad, Payam; Sadeghi, Bamdad; Moazzeni, Seyed-Mohammad; Aghamohammadi, Asghar

    2013-08-01

    Common variable immunodeficiency (CVID) is a heterogeneous disorder characterized by reduced serum level of IgG, IgA or IgM and recurrent bacterial infections. Class switch recombination (CSR) as a critical process in immunoglobulin production is defective in a group of CVID patients. Activation-induced cytidine deaminase (AID) protein is an important molecule involving CSR process. The aim of this study was to investigate the AID gene mRNA production in a group of CVID patients indicating possible role of this molecule in this disorder. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) of 29 CVID patients and 21 healthy controls were isolated and stimulated by CD40L and IL-4 to induce AID gene expression. After 5 days AID gene mRNA production was investigated by real time polymerase chain reaction. AID gene was expressed in all of the studied patients. However the mean density of extracted AID mRNA showed higher level in CVID patients (230.95±103.04 ng/ml) rather than controls (210.00±44.72 ng/ml; P=0.5). CVID cases with lower level of AID had decreased total level of IgE (P=0.04) and stimulated IgE production (P=0.02); while cases with increased level of AID presented higher level of IgA (P=0.04) and numbers of B cells (P=0.02) and autoimmune disease (P=0.02). Different levels of AID gene expression may have important roles in dysregulation of immune system and final clinical presentation in CVID patients. Therefore investigating the expression of AID gene can help in classifying CVID patients.

  10. Insecticide resistance and intracellular proteases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkins, Richard M

    2017-12-01

    Pesticide resistance is an example of evolution in action with mechanisms of resistance arising from mutations or increased expression of intrinsic genes. Intracellular proteases have a key role in maintaining healthy cells and in responding to stressors such as pesticides. Insecticide-resistant insects have constitutively elevated intracellular protease activity compared to corresponding susceptible strains. This increase was shown for some cases originally through biochemical enzyme studies and subsequently putatively by transcriptomics and proteomics methods. Upregulation and expression of proteases have been characterised in resistant strains of some insect species, including mosquitoes. This increase in proteolysis results in more degradation products (amino acids) of intracellular proteins. These may be utilised in the resistant strain to better protect the cell from stress. There are changes in insect intracellular proteases shortly after insecticide exposure, suggesting a role in stress response. The use of protease and proteasome inhibitors or peptide mimetics as synergists with improved application techniques and through protease gene knockdown using RNA interference (possibly expressed in crop plants) may be potential pest management strategies, in situations where elevated intracellular proteases are relevant. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  11. Increasing a Robust Antigen-Specific Cytotoxic T Lymphocyte Response by FMDV DNA Vaccination with IL-9 Expressing Construct

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiang Zou

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Various chemokines and cytokines as adjuvants can be used to improve efficacy of DNA vaccination. In this study, we sought to investigate if a DNA construct expressing IL-9 (designed as proV-IL9 as a molecular adjuvant enhance antigen specific immune responses elicited by the pcD-VP1 DNA vaccination. Mice immunized with pcD-VP1 combined with proV-IL9 developed a strong humoral response. In addition, the coinoculation induced significant higher level of antigen-specific cell proliferation and cytotoxic response. This agreed well with higher expression level of IFN-γ and perforin in CD8+ T cells, but not with IL-17 in these T cells. The results indicate that IL-9 induces the development of IFN-γ-producing CD8+ T cells (Tc1, but not the IL-17-producing CD8+ T cells (Tc17. Up-regulated expressions of BCL-2 and BCL-XL were exhibited in these Tc1 cells, suggesting that IL-9 may trigger antiapoptosis mechanism in these cells. Together, these results demonstrated that IL-9 used as molecular adjuvant could enhance the immunogenicity of DNA vaccination, in augmenting humoral and cellular responses and particularly promoting Tc1 activations. Thus, the IL-9 may be utilized as a potent Tc1 adjuvant for DNA vaccines.

  12. Cytokine gene expression profile distinguishes CD4+/CD57+T cells of the nodular lymphocyte predominance type of Hodgkin's lymphoma from their tonsillar counterparts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Atayar, Cigdem; Poppema, Sibrand; Visser, Lydia; van den Berg, Anke

    Little is known about the cytokine profile of nodular lymphocyte predominance Hodgkin's lymphoma (NLPHL) and the significance of the characteristic rosetting CD4(+)/CD57(+) T cells. We analysed the T lymphocyte populations isolated from lymph node suspensions from five patients with NLPHL, two with

  13. Evaluation of chemokine receptors (CCRs expression on peripheral blood T-lymphocyte subsets in patients with thoracic aortic aneurysm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaushal Kishore Tiwari

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Background & Objectives: Mortality and morbidity from the complication of aortic aneurysm remain very high. Aortic size index, which classify thoracic aortic aneurysm patients in three risk groups for aortic rupture prediction. Recent data support that aortic wall remodeling is a dynamic process with active involvement of the chronic inflammation and immunological system. Aim of our study is to evaluate expression level of chemokine receptors known to be involved in the T-cells migration and to correlate them with aortic size index. Materials & Methods: Total 20 patients undergoing surgery for ascending aortic aneurysm and/or aortic valve surgery were enrolled. Aortic size index was calculated. Preoperatively blood samples collected. By flowcytometry and dual parameter dot plot technology percentage of positivity of CCR5 on these T-cell subsets were quantified. Results: Mean age of the patients was 67±5.93 years. Majority of patients had hypertension. Mean ascending aortic diameter was 42.1±8.14 mm. Mean Aortic size Index was 22.21±3.38 mm/m2. A statistical significance has observed between aortic size index and the expression of CCR5 on total CD4 positive T-cells (p-0.0949, and between aortic size index and CCR5 expression on the total CD3 positive T-cells (p-0.0293. Significant correlation observed between ASI and CCR5 expression on the CD8+/CD3+ T-cell subset (p-0.0183. Similarly, strong positive relationship between ASI and the expression of CCR5 on the cytotoxic CD28-/CD4+ T-cell subset (p-0.0055. Activated state of cytotoxic CD28-/CD4+ cell also correlated with aortic size index (p-0.0668.Conclusion: We conclude that T-cell mediated cytotoxic mechanism driven by CCR5 play an important role in the pathophysiology of the thoracic aortic aneurysm.JCMS Nepal. 2016;12(1:23-27.

  14. BCR ligation induced by IgM stimulation results in gene expression and functional changes only in IgV H unmutated chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guarini, Anna; Chiaretti, Sabina; Tavolaro, Simona; Maggio, Roberta; Peragine, Nadia; Citarella, Franca; Ricciardi, Maria Rosaria; Santangelo, Simona; Marinelli, Marilisa; De Propris, Maria Stefania; Messina, Monica; Mauro, Francesca Romana; Del Giudice, Ilaria; Foà, Robert

    2008-08-01

    Chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) patients exhibit a variable clinical course. To investigate the association between clinicobiologic features and responsiveness of CLL cells to anti-IgM stimulation, we evaluated gene expression changes and modifications in cell-cycle distribution, proliferation, and apoptosis of IgV(H) mutated (M) and unmutated (UM) samples upon BCR cross-linking. Unsupervised analysis highlighted a different response profile to BCR stimulation between UM and M samples. Supervised analysis identified several genes modulated exclusively in the UM cases upon BCR cross-linking. Functional gene groups, including signal transduction, transcription, cell-cycle regulation, and cytoskeleton organization, were up-regulated upon stimulation in UM cases. Cell-cycle and proliferation analyses confirmed that IgM cross-linking induced a significant progression into the G(1) phase and a moderate increase of proliferative activity exclusively in UM patients. Moreover, we observed only a small reduction in the percentage of subG(0/1) cells, without changes in apoptosis, in UM cases; contrariwise, a significant increase of apoptotic levels was observed in stimulated cells from M cases. These results document that a differential genotypic and functional response to BCR ligation between IgV(H) M and UM cases is operational in CLL, indicating that response to antigenic stimulation plays a pivotal role in disease progression.

  15. Analysis of miRNA and mRNA Expression Profiles Highlights Alterations in Ionizing Radiation Response of Human Lymphocytes under Modeled Microgravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casara, Silvia; Sales, Gabriele; Lanfranchi, Gerolamo; Celotti, Lucia; Mognato, Maddalena

    2012-01-01

    Background Ionizing radiation (IR) can be extremely harmful for human cells since an improper DNA-damage response (DDR) to IR can contribute to carcinogenesis initiation. Perturbations in DDR pathway can originate from alteration in the functionality of the microRNA-mediated gene regulation, being microRNAs (miRNAs) small noncoding RNA that act as post-transcriptional regulators of gene expression. In this study we gained insight into the role of miRNAs in the regulation of DDR to IR under microgravity, a condition of weightlessness experienced by astronauts during space missions, which could have a synergistic action on cells, increasing the risk of radiation exposure. Methodology/Principal Findings We analyzed miRNA expression profile of human peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBL) incubated for 4 and 24 h in normal gravity (1 g) and in modeled microgravity (MMG) during the repair time after irradiation with 0.2 and 2Gy of γ-rays. Our results show that MMG alters miRNA expression signature of irradiated PBL by decreasing the number of radio-responsive miRNAs. Moreover, let-7i*, miR-7, miR-7-1*, miR-27a, miR-144, miR-200a, miR-598, miR-650 are deregulated by the combined action of radiation and MMG. Integrated analyses of miRNA and mRNA expression profiles, carried out on PBL of the same donors, identified significant miRNA-mRNA anti-correlations of DDR pathway. Gene Ontology analysis reports that the biological category of “Response to DNA damage” is enriched when PBL are incubated in 1 g but not in MMG. Moreover, some anti-correlated genes of p53-pathway show a different expression level between 1 g and MMG. Functional validation assays using luciferase reporter constructs confirmed miRNA-mRNA interactions derived from target prediction analyses. Conclusions/Significance On the whole, by integrating the transcriptome and microRNome, we provide evidence that modeled microgravity can affects the DNA-damage response to IR in human PBL. PMID:22347458

  16. Molecular characterization of CD9 and CD63, two tetraspanin family members expressed in trout B lymphocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro, Rosario; Abós, Beatriz; González, Lucia; Aquilino, Carolina; Pignatelli, Jaime; Tafalla, Carolina

    2015-07-01

    Tetraspanins are a family of membrane-organizing proteins, characterized by the presence of four highly conserved transmembrane regions that mediate diverse physiological functions. In the current study, we have identified two novel tetraspanin members in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss), homologs to mammalian CD9 and CD63. Both genes were expressed in muscle, skin, gills, hindgut, gonad, liver, spleen, head kidney, thymus and peripheral blood leukocytes. Throughout the early life cycle stages, CD9 mRNA levels significantly increased after first feeding, whereas CD63 transcription remained constant during all the developmental stages analyzed. In response to an experimental bath infection with viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus (VHSV), CD9 transcription was down-regulated in the gills, while CD63 mRNA levels were down-regulated in the head kidney. Instead, when the virus was intraperitoneally injected, the transcription of both genes was significantly up-regulated in peritoneal cells at several days post-infection. Additionally, both genes were transcriptionally up-regulated in the muscle of trout injected with a VHSV DNA vaccine. To gain insight on the relation of these tetraspanins with B cell activity we determined their constitutive expression in naive IgM(+) populations from different sources and observed that both molecules were being transcribed by IgM(+) cells in different tissues. Furthermore, CD9 transcription was significantly down-regulated in splenic IgM(+) cells in response to in vitro VHSV exposure. Our results provide insights on the potential role of these tetraspanins on teleost B cell and antiviral immunity. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Ectopic expression of X-linked lymphocyte-regulated protein pM1 renders tumor cells resistant to antitumor immunity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Tae Heung; Noh, Kyung Hee; Kim, Jin Hee; Bae, Hyun Cheol; Lin, Ken Y; Monie, Archana; Pai, Sara I; Hung, Chien-Fu; Wu, T-C; Kim, Tae Woo

    2010-04-15

    Tumor immune escape is a major obstacle in cancer immunotherapy, but the mechanisms involved remain poorly understood. We have previously developed an immune evasion tumor model using an in vivo immune selection strategy and revealed Akt-mediated immune resistance to antitumor immunity induced by various cancer immunotherapeutic agents. In the current study, we used microarray gene analysis to identify an Akt-activating candidate molecule overexpressed in immune-resistant tumors compared with parental tumors. X-linked lymphocyte-regulated protein pM1 (XLR) gene was the most upregulated in immune-resistant tumors compared with parental tumor cells. Furthermore, the retroviral transduction of XLR in parental tumor cells led to activation of Akt, resulting in upregulation of antiapoptotic proteins and the induction of immune resistance phenotype in parental tumor cells. In addition, we found that transduction of parental tumor cells with other homologous genes from the mouse XLR family, such as synaptonemal complex protein 3 (SCP3) and XLR-related, meiosis-regulated protein (XMR) and its human counterpart of SCP3 (hSCP3), also led to activation of Akt, resulting in the upregulation of antiapoptotic proteins and induction of immune resistance phenotype. Importantly, characterization of a panel of human cervical cancers revealed relatively higher expression levels of hSCP3 in human cervical cancer tissue compared with normal cervical tissue. Thus, our data indicate that ectopic expression of XLR and its homologues in tumor cells represents a potentially important mechanism for tumor immune evasion and serves as a promising molecular target for cancer immunotherapy. (c) 2010 AACR.

  18. Baseline β-catenin, programmed death-ligand 1 expression and tumour-infiltrating lymphocytes predict response and poor prognosis in BRAF inhibitor-treated melanoma patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massi, Daniela; Romano, Emanuela; Rulli, Eliana; Merelli, Barbara; Nassini, Romina; De Logu, Francesco; Bieche, Ivan; Baroni, Gianna; Cattaneo, Laura; Xue, Gongda; Mandalà, Mario

    2017-06-01

    The activation of oncogenic Wnt/β-catenin pathway in melanoma contributes to a lack of T-cell infiltration. Whether baseline β-catenin expression in the context of tumour-infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs) and programmed death ligand-1 (PD-L1) overexpression correlates with prognosis of metastatic melanoma patients (MMPs) treated with mitogen-activated protein kinase, MAPK inhibitor (MAPKi) monotherapy, however, has not been fully clarified. Sixty-four pre-treatment formalin-fixed and paraffin embedded melanoma samples from MMP treated with a BRAF inhibitor (n = 39) or BRAF and MEK inhibitors (n = 25) were assessed for presence of β-catenin, PD-L1, cluster of differentiation (CD)8, CD103 and forkhead box protein P3 (FOXP3) expression by immunohistochemistry, and results were correlated with clinical outcome. Quantitative assessment of mRNA transcripts associated with Wnt/β-catenin pathway and immune response was performed in 51 patients. We found an inverse correlation between tumoural β-catenin expression and the level of CD8, CD103 or forkhead box protein P3 (FOXP3) positivity in the tumour microenvironment (TME). By multivariate analysis, PD-L1 <5% (odds ratio, OR 0.12, 95% confidence interval, CI 0.03-0.53, p = 0.005) and the presence of CD8+ T cells (OR 18.27, 95%CI 2.54-131.52, p = 0.004) were significantly associated with a higher probability of response to MAPKi monotherapy. Responding patients showed a significantly increased expression of mRNA transcripts associated with adaptive immunity and antigen presentation. By multivariate analysis, progression-free survival (PFS) (hazards ratio (HR) = 0.25 95%CI 0.10-0.61, p = 0.002) and overall survival (OS) (HR = 0.24 95%CI 0.09-0.67, p = 0.006) were longer in patients with high density of CD8+ T cells and β-catenin <10% than those without CD8+ T cells infiltration and β-catenin ≥10%. Our findings provide evidence that in the context of MAPKi monotherapy, immune subsets in the (TME) and

  19. Immunomodulatory Activity of Ganoderma atrum Polysaccharide on Purified T Lymphocytes through Ca2+/CaN and Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase Pathway Based on RNA Sequencing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiang, Quan-Dan; Yu, Qiang; Wang, Hui; Zhao, Ming-Ming; Liu, Shi-Yu; Nie, Shao-Ping; Xie, Ming-Yong

    2017-07-05

    Our previous study has demonstrated that Ganoderma atrum polysaccharide (PSG-1) has immunomodulatory activity on spleen lymphocytes. However, how PSG-1 exerts its effect on purified lymphocytes is still obscure. Thus, this study aimed to investigate the immunomodulatory activity of PSG-1 on purified T lymphocytes and further elucidate the underlying mechanism based on RNA sequencing (RNA-seq). Our results showed that PSG-1 promoted T lymphocytes proliferation and increased the production of IL-2, IFN-γ, and IL-12. Meanwhile, RNA-seq analysis found 394 differentially expressed genes. KEGG pathway analysis identified 20 significant canonical pathways and seven biological functions. Furthermore, PSG-1 elevated intracellular Ca 2+ concentration and calcineurin (CaN) activity and raised the p-ERK, p-JNK, and p-p38 expression levels. T lymphocytes proliferation and the production of IL-2, IFN-γ, and IL-12 were decreased by the inhibitors of calcium channel and mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs). These results indicated that PSG-1 possesses immunomodulatory activity on purified T lymphocytes, in which Ca 2+ /CaN and MAPK pathways play essential roles.

  20. Direct and indirect effects of retinoic acid on human Th2 cytokine and chemokine expression by human T lymphocytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deep-Dixit Vishwa

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Vitamin A (VA deficiency induces a type 1 cytokine response and exogenously provided retinoids can induce a type 2 cytokine response both in vitro and in vivo. The precise mechanism(s involved in this phenotypic switch are inconsistent and have been poorly characterized in humans. In an effort to determine if retinoids are capable of inducing Th2 cytokine responses in human T cell cultures, we stimulated human PBMCs with immobilized anti-CD3 mAb in the presence or absence of all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA or 9-cis-RA. Results Stimulation of human PBMCs and purified T cells with ATRA and 9-cis-RA increased mRNA and protein levels of IL-4, IL-5, and IL-13 and decreased levels of IFN-γ, IL-2, IL-12p70 and TNF-α upon activation with anti-CD3 and/or anti-CD28 mAbs. These effects were dose-dependent and evident as early as 12 hr post stimulation. Real time RT-PCR analysis revealed a dampened expression of the Th1-associated gene, T-bet, and a time-dependent increase in the mRNA for the Th2-associated genes, GATA-3, c-MAF and STAT6, upon treatment with ATRA. Besides Th1 and Th2 cytokines, a number of additional proinflammatory and regulatory cytokines including several chemokines were also differentially regulated by ATRA treatment. Conclusion These data provide strong evidence for multiple inductive roles for retinoids in the development of human type-2 cytokine responses.

  1. Expression of human poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase 1 in Saccharomyces cerevisiae: Effect on survival, homologous recombination and identification of genes involved in intracellular localization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    La Ferla, Marco; Mercatanti, Alberto; Rocchi, Giulia; Lodovichi, Samuele; Cervelli, Tiziana; Pignata, Luca; Caligo, Maria Adelaide; Galli, Alvaro

    2015-04-01

    The poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase 1 (PARP-1) actively participates in a series of functions within the cell that include: mitosis, intracellular signaling, cell cycle regulation, transcription and DNA damage repair. Therefore, inhibition of PARP1 has a great potential for use in cancer therapy. As resistance to PARP inhibitors is starting to be observed in patients, thus the function of PARP-1 needs to be studied in depth in order to find new therapeutic targets. To gain more information on the PARP-1 activity, we expressed PARP-1 in yeast and investigated its effect on cell growth and UV induced homologous recombination. To identify candidate genes affecting PARP-1 activity and cellular localization, we also developed a yeast genome wide genetic screen. We found that PARP-1 strongly inhibited yeast growth, but when yeast was exposed to the PARP-1 inhibitor 6(5-H) phenantridinone (PHE), it recovered from the growth suppression. Moreover, we showed that PARP-1 produced PAR products in yeast and we demonstrated that PARP-1 reduced UV-induced homologous recombination. By genome wide screening, we identified 99 mutants that suppressed PARP-1 growth inhibition. Orthologues of human genes were found for 41 of these yeast genes. We determined whether the PARP-1 protein level was altered in strains which are deleted for the transcription regulator GAL3, the histone H1 gene HHO1, the HUL4 gene, the deubiquitination enzyme gene OTU1, the nuclear pore protein POM152 and the SNT1 that encodes for the Set3C subunit of the histone deacetylase complex. In these strains the PARP-1 level was roughly the same as in the wild type. PARP-1 localized in the nucleus more in the snt1Δ than in the wild type strain; after UV radiation, PARP-1 localized in the nucleus more in hho1 and pom152 deletion strains than in the wild type indicating that these functions may have a role on regulating PARP-1 level and activity in the nucleus. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Antigen storage compartments in mature dendritic cells facilitate prolonged cytotoxic T lymphocyte cross-priming capacity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Montfoort, Nadine; Camps, Marcel G; Khan, Selina; Filippov, Dmitri V; Weterings, Jimmy J; Griffith, Janice M; Geuze, Hans J; van Hall, Thorbald; Verbeek, J Sjef; Melief, Cornelis J; Ossendorp, Ferry

    2009-04-21

    Dendritic cells (DCs) are crucial for priming of naive CD8(+) T lymphocytes to exogenous antigens, so-called "cross-priming." We report that exogenous protein antigen can be conserved for several days in mature DCs, coinciding with strong cytotoxic T lymphocyte cross-priming potency in vivo. After MHC class I peptide elution, protein antigen-derived peptide presentation is efficiently restored, indicating the presence of an intracellular antigen depot. We characterized this depot as a lysosome-like organelle, distinct from MHC class II compartments and recently described early endosomal compartments that allow acute antigen presentation in MHC class I. The storage compartments we report here facilitate continuous supply of MHC class I ligands. This mechanism ensures sustained cross-presentation by DCs, despite the short-lived expression of MHC class I-peptide complexes at the cell surface.

  3. Hsp27, Hsp70 and mismatch repair proteins hMLH1 and hMSH2 expression in peripheral blood lymphocytes from healthy subjects and cancer patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nadin, Silvina Beatriz; Vargas-Roig, Laura M; Drago, Gisela; Ibarra, Jorge; Ciocca, Daniel R

    2007-07-08

    Mismatch repair (MMR) deficiency and higher expression levels of heat shock proteins (Hsps) have been implicated with drug resistance to topoisomerase II poisons (doxorubicin) and to platinum compounds (cisplatin). This study was designed to determine individual influences of doxorubicin and cisplatin treatment on the expression of Hsp27, Hsp70, hMLH1 and hMSH2 proteins and in the DNA damage status in peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBLs). In addition, we studied whether these proteins and the DNA damage correlated with the survival of cancer patients. PBLs from 10 healthy donors and 25 cancer patients (before and after three cycles of chemotherapy) were exposed to in vitro treatments: C (control), HS (heat shock at 42 degrees C), Do or Pt (doxorubicin or cisplatin alone), and HS+Do or HS+Pt (heat shock+doxorubicin or heat shock+cisplatin). PBLs were collected at time 0 (T0: immediately after drug treatment) and after 24h of repair (T24). Hsp27, Hsp70, hMLH1 and hMSH2 were studied by immunocytochemistry and the DNA damage by alkaline comet assay. Immunofluorescence studies and confocal microscopy revealed that hMLH1 and hMSH2 colocalized with Hsp27 and Hsp72 (inducible form of Hsp70). hMLH1 and hMSH2 were significantly induced by Pt and HS+Pt at T24 in cancer patients, but only modestly influenced by Do. Cancer patients presented higher basal expression of total and nuclear Hsp27 and Hsp70 than controls, and these proteins were also increased by HS, Do and HS+Do. The Hsp70 induction by Pt and HS+Pt was noted in cancer patients, especially nuclear Hsp70. In cancer patients, basal DNA damage was slightly higher than in healthy persons; and after Pt and HS+Pt treatments, DNA migration and number of apoptotic cells were higher than controls. Hsps accomplished a cytoprotective function in pre-chemotherapy PBLs (HS before Do or Pt), but not in post-chemotherapy samples. In Pt-treated patients the ratio N/C (nuclear/cytoplasmic) of Hsp27 was related to disease free survival

  4. Mechanism of lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus entry into cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borrow, P; Oldstone, M B

    1994-01-01

    The path that the arenavirus lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus (LCMV) uses to enter rodent fibroblastic cell lines was dissected by infectivity and inhibition studies and immunoelectron microscopy. Lysosomotropic weak bases (chloroquine and ammonium chloride) and carboxylic ionophores (monensin and nigericin) inhibited virus entry, assessed as virus nucleoprotein expression at early times post-infection, indicating that the entry process involved a pH-dependent fusion step in intracellular vesicles. That entry occurred in vesicles rather than by direct fusion of virions with the plasma membrane was confirmed by immunoelectron microscopy. The vesicles involved were large (150-300 nm diameter), smooth-walled, and not associated with clathrin. Unlike classical phagocytosis, virus uptake in these vesicles was a microfilament-independent process, as it was not blocked by cytochalasins. LCMV entry into rodent fibroblast cell lines thus involves viropexis in large smooth-walled vesicles, followed by a pH-dependent fusion event inside the cell.

  5. Biophysical analysis of the dose-dependent overdispersion and the restricted linear energy transfer dependence expressed in dicentric chromosome data from alpha-irradiated human lymphocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greinert, R; Harder, D

    1997-06-01

    Experimental data for the induction of dicentric chromosomes in phytohemagglutinin (PHA)-stimulated human T lymphocytes by 241Am alpha-particles obtained by Schmid et al. have been analyzed in the light of biophysical theory. As usual in experiments with alpha-particles, the relative variance of the intercellular distribution of the number of aberrations per cell exceeds unity, and the multiplicity of the aberrations per particle traversal through the cell is understood as the basic effect causing this overdispersion. However, the clearly expressed dose dependence of the relative variance differs from the dose-independent relative variance predicted by the multiplicity effect alone. Since such dose dependence is often observed in experiments with alpha-particles, protons, and high-energy neutrons, the interpretation of the overdispersion needs to be supplemented. In a new, more general statistical model, the distribution function of the number of aberrations is interpreted as resulting from the convolution of a Poisson distribution for the spontaneous aberrations with the overdispersed distributions for the aberrations caused by intratrack or intertrack lesion interaction, and the fluctuation of the cross-sectional area of the cellular chromatin must also be considered. Using a suitable mathematical formulation of the resulting dose-dependent over-dispersion, the mean number lambda 1 of the aberrations produced by a single particle traversal through the cell nucleus and the mean number lambda 2 of the aberrations per pairwise approach between two alpha-particle tracks could be estimated. Coefficient alpha of the dose-proportional yield component, when compared between 241Am alpha-particle irradiation and 137Cs gamma-ray exposure, is found to increase approximately in proportion to dose-mean restricted linear energy transfer, which indicates an underlying pairwise molecular lesion interaction on the nanometer scale.

  6. B Lymphocyte Stimulator (BLyS is expressed in human adipocytes in vivo and is related to obesity but not to insulin resistance.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nike Müller

    Full Text Available Inflammation and metabolism have been shown to be evolutionary linked and increasing evidence exists that pro-inflammatory factors are involved in the pathogenesis of obesity and type 2 diabetes. Until now, most data suggest that within adipose tissue these factors are secreted by cells of the innate immune system, e. g. macrophages. In the present study we demonstrate that B lymphocyte stimulator (BLyS is increased in human obesity. In contrast to several pro-inflammatory factors, we found the source of BLyS in human adipose tissue to be the adipocytes rather than immune cells. In grade 3 obese human subjects, expression of BLyS in vivo in adipose tissue is significantly increased (p<0.001. Furthermore, BLyS serum levels are elevated in grade 3 human obesity (862.5+222.0 pg/ml vs. 543.7+60.7 pg/ml in lean controls, p<0.001 and are positively correlated to the BMI (r = 0.43, p<0.0002. In the present study, bariatric surgery significantly altered serum BLyS concentrations. In contrast, weight loss due to a very-low-calorie-formula-diet (800 kcal/d had no such effect. To examine metabolic activity of BLyS, in a translational research approach, insulin sensitivity was measured in human subjects in vivo before and after treatment with the human recombinant anti-BLyS antibody belimumab. Since BLyS is known to promote B-cell proliferation and immunoglobulin secretion, the present data suggest that adipocytes of grade 3 obese human subjects are able to activate the adaptive immune system, suggesting that in metabolic inflammation in humans both, innate and adaptive immunity, are of pathophysiological relevance.

  7. The V-ATPase is expressed in the choroid plexus and mediates cAMP-induced intracellular pH alterations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Henriette L; Păunescu, Teodor G; Matchkov, Vladimir

    2017-01-01

    fraction in the luminal microvillus area. The vesicles did not translocate to the luminal membrane in two in vivo models of hypocapnia-induced alkalosis. The Na(+)-independent intracellular pH (pHi) recovery from acidification was studied in freshly isolated clusters of CPECs. At extracellular pH (pHo) 7...

  8. Replication-defective lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus vectors expressing guinea pig cytomegalovirus gB and pp65 homologs are protective against congenital guinea pig cytomegalovirus infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardin, Rhonda D; Bravo, Fernando J; Pullum, Derek A; Orlinger, Klaus; Watson, Elizabeth M; Aspoeck, Andreas; Fuhrmann, Gerhard; Guirakhoo, Farshad; Monath, Thomas; Bernstein, David I

    2016-04-12

    Congenital cytomegalovirus infection can be life-threatening and often results in significant developmental deficits and/or hearing loss. Thus, there is a critical need for an effective anti-CMV vaccine. To determine the efficacy of replication-defective lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus (rLCMV) vectors expressing the guinea pig CMV (GPCMV) antigens, gB and pp65, in the guinea pig model of congenital CMV infection. Female Hartley strain guinea pigs were divided into three groups: Buffer control group (n = 9), rLCMV-gB group (n = 11), and rLCMV-pp65 (n = 11). The vaccines were administered three times IM at 1.54 × 10(6)FFU per dose at 21-day intervals. At two weeks after vaccination, the female guinea pigs underwent breeding. Pregnant guinea pigs were challenged SQ at ∼ 45-55 days of gestation with 1 × 10(5)PFU of GPCMV. Viremia in the dams, pup survival, weights of pups at delivery, and viral load in both dam and pup tissues were determined. Pup survival was significantly increased in the LCMV-gB vaccine group. There was 23% pup mortality in the gB vaccine group (p = 0.044) and 26% pup mortality in the pp65 vaccine group (p = 0.054) compared to 49% control pup mortality. The gB vaccine induced high levels of gB binding and detectable neutralizing antibodies, reduced dam viremia, and significantly reduced viral load in dam tissues compared to control dams (p < 0.03). Reduced viral load and transmission in pups born to gB-vaccinated dams was observed compared to pups from pp65-vaccinated or control dams. The rLCMV-gB vaccine significantly improved pup survival and also increased pup weights and gestation time. The gB vaccine was also more effective at decreasing viral load in dams and pups and limiting congenital transmission. Thus, rLCMV vectors that express CMV antigens may be an effective vaccine strategy for congenital CMV infection. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. A novel intracellular pool of LFA-1 is critical for asymmetric CD8+ T cell activation and differentiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capece, Tara; Walling, Brandon L; Lim, Kihong; Kim, Kyun-Do; Bae, Seyeon; Chung, Hung-Li; Topham, David J; Kim, Minsoo

    2017-11-06

    The integrin lymphocyte function-associated antigen 1 (LFA-1; CD11a/CD18) is a key T cell adhesion receptor that mediates stable interactions with antigen-presenting cell (APC), as well as chemokine-mediated migration. Using our newly generated CD11a-mYFP knock-in mice, we discovered that naive CD8 + T cells reserve a significant intracellular pool of LFA-1 in the uropod during migration. Intracellular LFA-1 quickly translocated to the cell surface with antigenic stimulus. Importantly, the redistribution of intracellular LFA-1 at the contact with APC was maintained during cell division and led to an unequal inheritance of LFA-1 in divided T cells. The daughter CD8 + T cells with disparate LFA-1 expression showed different patterns of migration on ICAM-1, APC interactions, and tissue retention, as well as altered effector functions. In addition, we identified Rab27 as an important regulator of the intracellular LFA-1 translocation. Collectively, our data demonstrate that an intracellular pool of LFA-1 in naive CD8 + T cells plays a key role in T cell activation and differentiation. © 2017 Capece et al.

  10. AKT/SGK-sensitive phosphorylation of GSK3 in the regulation of L-selectin and perforin expression as well as activation induced cell death of T-lymphocytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhavsar, Shefalee K.; Merches, Katja; Bobbala, Diwakar; Lang, Florian

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Akt/SGK dependent phosphorylation of GSK3α,β regulates T lymphocytes. ► T cells from mice expressing Akt/SGK insensitive GSK3α,β (gsk3 KI ) release less IL-2. ► CD4 + cells from gsk3 KI mice express less CD62L. ► CD8 + cells from gsk3 KI mice are relatively resistant to activation induced cell death. ► Perforin expression is enhanced in gsk3 KI T cells. -- Abstract: Survival and function of T-lymphocytes critically depends on phosphoinositide (PI) 3 kinase. PI3 kinase signaling includes the PKB/Akt and SGK dependent phosphorylation and thus inhibition of glycogen synthase kinase GSK3α,β. Lithium, a known unspecific GSK3 inhibitor protects against experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis. The present study explored, whether Akt/SGK-dependent regulation of GSK3 activity is a determinant of T cell survival and function. Experiments were performed in mutant mice in which Akt/SGK-dependent GSK3α,β inhibition was disrupted by replacement of the serine residue in the respective SGK/Akt-phosphorylation consensus sequence by alanine (gsk3 KI ). T cells from gsk3 KI mice were compared to T cells from corresponding wild type mice (gsk3 WT ). As a result, in gsk3 KI CD4 + cells surface CD62L (L-selectin) was significantly less abundant than in gsk3 WT CD4 + cells. Upon activation in vitro T cells from gsk3 KI mice reacted with enhanced perforin production and reduced activation induced cell death. Cytokine production was rather reduced in gsk3 KI T cells, suggesting that GSK3 induces effector function in CD8 + T cells. In conclusion, PKB/Akt and SGK sensitive phosphorylation of GSK3α,β is a potent regulator of perforin expression and activation induced cell death in T lymphocytes.

  11. Chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... is used for painful and enlarged lymph nodes. Blood transfusions or platelet transfusions may be required if blood ... unexplained fatigue, bruising, excessive sweating, or weight loss. Alternative ... Leukemia - chronic lymphocytic (CLL); Blood cancer - chronic lymphocytic leukemia; Bone marrow cancer - chronic ...

  12. Inactivation of TP53 correlates with disease progression and low miR-34a expression in previously treated chronic lymphocytic leukemia patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dufour, Annika; Palermo, Giuseppe; Zellmeier, Evelyn

    2013-01-01

    In chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) patients, disruptions of the TP53 tumor suppressor pathway by 17p13 deletion (del17p), somatic TP53 mutations, or downregulation of microRNA-34a have been associated with a poor prognosis. So far, the impact of the various TP53 defects has not been evaluated ...

  13. Porcine gamma delta T Lymphocytes Can Be Categorized into Two Functionally and Developmentally Distinct Subsets according to Expression of CD2 and Level of TCR

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Štěpánová, Kateřina; Šinkora, Marek

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 190, č. 5 (2013), s. 2111-2120 ISSN 0022-1767 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP502/12/0110 Institutional support: RVO:61388971 Keywords : INTESTINAL INTRAEPITHELIAL LYMPHOCYTES * B-CELL DEVELOPMENT * IMMUNE-SYSTEM Subject RIV: EC - Immunology Impact factor: 5.362, year: 2013

  14. Polycyclic’ Aromatic Hydrocarbon Induced Intracellular Signaling and Lymphocyte Apoptosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schneider, Alexander M.

    The aryl hydrocarbon (dioxin) receptor (AhR) is a transcription factor possessing high affinity to potent environmental pollutants, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) and related halogenated hydrocarbons (e.g. dioxins). Numerous research attribute toxicity of these compounds to the receptor...

  15. The Effect of a combination of 12% spirulina and 20% chitosan on macrophage, PMN, and lymphocyte cell expressions in post extraction wound

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nike Hendrijantini

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Tooth extraction is the ultimate treatment option for defective teeth followed by the need for dentures. Inflammation is one phase of the healing process that should be minimized in order to preserve alveolar bone for denture support. Macrophage, PMN and lymphocyte cells are indicators of acute inflammation. Spirulina and chitosan are natural compounds with the potential to be anti-inflammatory agents. Purpose: This research aimed to determine macrophage, PMN and lymphocyte cells of animal models treated with a combination of 12% spirulina and 20% chitosan on the 1st, 2nd and 3rd post-extraction day. Methods: Animal models were randomly divided into control (K and treatment (P groups. Each group was further divided into three subgroups (KI, KII, KIII and PI, PII, PIII. The post-extraction sockets of the control group animals were then filled with CMC Na 3%. Meanwhile, the post-extraction sockets of the treatment group members were filled with a combination of 12% spirulina and 20% chitosan. Subsequently, the number of PMN, macrophage and lymphocyte cells was analyzed by means of HE analysis on the 1st., 2nd. and 3rd. days. Statistical analysis was then performed using a T-test. Results: There was a decrease in PMN cells and an increase in macrophage and lymphocyte cells on Days 1, 2, and 3. Conclusion: It can be concluded that a combination of 12% spirulina and 20% chitosan can not only decrease PMN cells, but can also increase macrophage and lymphocyte cells on Days 1, 2 and 3 after tooth extraction.

  16. Increased NBCn1 expression, Na+/ HCO 3 ? co-transport and intracellular pH in human vascular smooth muscle cells with a risk allele for hypertension

    OpenAIRE

    Ng, Fu Liang; Boedtkjer, Ebbe; Witkowska, Kate; Ren, Meixia; Zhang, Ruoxin; Tucker, Arthur; Aalkj?r, Christian; Caulfield, Mark J.; Ye, Shu

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Genome-wide association studies have revealed an association between variation at the SLC4A7 locus and blood pressure. SLC4A7 encodes the electroneutral Na+/ HCO 3 ? co-transporter NBCn1 which regulates intracellular pH (pH i ). We conducted a functional study of variants at this locus in primary cultures of vascular smooth muscle and endothelial cells. In both cell types, we found genotype-dependent differences for rs13082711 in DNA-nuclear protein interactions, where the risk allel...

  17. SV-BR-1-GM, a Clinically Effective GM-CSF-Secreting Breast Cancer Cell Line, Expresses an Immune Signature and Directly Activates CD4+ T Lymphocytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Markus D. Lacher

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Targeted cancer immunotherapy with irradiated, granulocyte–macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF-secreting, allogeneic cancer cell lines has been an effective approach to reduce tumor burden in several patients. It is generally assumed that to be effective, these cell lines need to express immunogenic antigens coexpressed in patient tumor cells, and antigen-presenting cells need to take up such antigens then present them to patient T cells. We have previously reported that, in a phase I pilot study (ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00095862, a subject with stage IV breast cancer experienced substantial regression of breast, lung, and brain lesions following inoculation with clinical formulations of SV-BR-1-GM, a GM-CSF-secreting breast tumor cell line. To identify diagnostic features permitting the prospective identification of patients likely to benefit from SV-BR-1-GM, we conducted a molecular analysis of the SV-BR-1-GM cell line and of patient-derived blood, as well as a tumor specimen. Compared to normal human breast cells, SV-BR-1-GM cells overexpress genes encoding tumor-associated antigens (TAAs such as PRAME, a cancer/testis antigen. Curiously, despite its presumptive breast epithelial origin, the cell line expresses major histocompatibility complex (MHC class II genes (HLA-DRA, HLA-DRB3, HLA-DMA, HLA-DMB, in addition to several other factors known to play immunostimulatory roles. These factors include MHC class I components (B2M, HLA-A, HLA-B, ADA (encoding adenosine deaminase, ADGRE5 (CD97, CD58 (LFA3, CD74 (encoding invariant chain and CLIP, CD83, CXCL8 (IL8, CXCL16, HLA-F, IL6, IL18, and KITLG. Moreover, both SV-BR-1-GM cells and the responding study subject carried an HLA-DRB3*02:02 allele, raising the question of whether SV-BR-1-GM cells can directly present endogenous antigens to T cells, thereby inducing a tumor-directed immune response. In support of this, SV-BR-1-GM cells (which also carry the HLA-DRB3*01:01 allele treated with

  18. Anaplasma phagocytophilum-Related Defects in CD8, NKT, and NK Lymphocyte Cytotoxicity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana G. Scorpio

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Human granulocytic anaplasmosis, caused by the tick-transmitted Anaplasma phagocytophilum, is not controlled by innate immunity, and induces a proinflammatory disease state with innate immune cell activation. In A. phagocytophilum murine infection models, hepatic injury occurs with production of IFNγ thought to be derived from NK, NKT cells, and CD8 T lymphocytes. Specific A. phagocytophilum ligands that drive inflammation and disease are not known, but suggest a clinical and pathophysiologic basis strikingly like macrophage activation syndrome (MAS and hemophagocytic syndrome (HPS. We studied in vivo responses of NK, NKT, and CD8 T lymphocytes from infected animals for correlates of lymphocyte-mediated cytotoxicity and examined in vitro interactions with A. phagocytophilum-loaded antigen-presenting cells (APCs. Murine splenocytes were examined and found deficient in cytotoxicity as determined by CD107a expression in vitro for specific CTL effector subsets as determined by flow cytometry. Moreover, A. phagocytophilum-loaded APCs did not lead to IFNγ production among CTLs in vitro. These findings support the concept of impaired cytotoxicity with A. phagocytophilum presentation by APCs that express MHC class I and that interact with innate and adaptive immune cells with or after infection. The findings strengthen the concept of an enhanced proinflammatory phenotype, such as MAS and HPS disease states as the basis of disease and severity with A. phagocytophilum infection, and perhaps by other obligate intracellular bacteria.

  19. Metformin inhibits cell cycle progression of B-cell chronic lymphocytic leukemia cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruno, Silvia; Ledda, Bernardetta; Tenca, Claudya; Ravera, Silvia; Orengo, Anna Maria; Mazzarello, Andrea Nicola; Pesenti, Elisa; Casciaro, Salvatore; Racchi, Omar; Ghiotto, Fabio; Marini, Cecilia; Sambuceti, Gianmario; DeCensi, Andrea; Fais, Franco

    2015-09-08

    B-cell chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) was believed to result from clonal accumulation of resting apoptosis-resistant malignant B lymphocytes. However, it became increasingly clear that CLL cells undergo, during their life, iterative cycles of re-activation and subsequent clonal expansion. Drugs interfering with CLL cell cycle entry would be greatly beneficial in the treatment of this disease. 1, 1-Dimethylbiguanide hydrochloride (metformin), the most widely prescribed oral hypoglycemic agent, inexpensive and well tolerated, has recently received increased attention for its potential antitumor activity. We wondered whether metformin has apoptotic and anti-proliferative activity on leukemic cells derived from CLL patients. Metformin was administered in vitro either to quiescent cells or during CLL cell activation stimuli, provided by classical co-culturing with CD40L-expressing fibroblasts. At doses that were totally ineffective on normal lymphocytes, metformin induced apoptosis of quiescent CLL cells and inhibition of cell cycle entry when CLL were stimulated by CD40-CD40L ligation. This cytostatic effect was accompanied by decreased expression of survival- and proliferation-associated proteins, inhibition of signaling pathways involved in CLL disease progression and decreased intracellular glucose available for glycolysis. In drug combination experiments, metformin lowered the apoptotic threshold and potentiated the cytotoxic effects of classical and novel antitumor molecules. Our results indicate that, while CLL cells after stimulation are in the process of building their full survival and cycling armamentarium, the presence of metformin affects this process.

  20. Expression of intra- and extracellular granzymes in patients with typhoid fever.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Jong, Hanna K; Garcia-Laorden, Maria Isabel; Hoogendijk, Arie J; Parry, Christopher M; Maude, Rapeephan R; Dondorp, Arjen M; Faiz, Mohammed Abul; van der Poll, Tom; Wiersinga, Willem Joost

    2017-07-01

    Typhoid fever, caused by the intracellular pathogen Salmonella (S.) enterica serovar Typhi, remains a major cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Granzymes are serine proteases promoting cytotoxic lymphocytes mediated eradication of intracellular pathogens via the induction of cell death and which can also play a role in inflammation. We aimed to characterize the expression of extracellular and intracellular granzymes in patients with typhoid fever and whether the extracellular levels of granzyme correlated with IFN-γ release. We analyzed soluble protein levels of extracellular granzyme A and B in healthy volunteers and patients with confirmed S. Typhi infection on admission and day of discharge, and investigated whether this correlated with interferon (IFN)-γ release, a cytokine significantly expressed in typhoid fever. The intracellular expression of granzyme A, B and K in subsets of lymphocytic cells was determined using flow cytometry. Patients demonstrated a marked increase of extracellular granzyme A and B in acute phase plasma and a correlation of both granzymes with IFN-γ release. In patients, lower plasma levels of granzyme B, but not granzyme A, were found at day of discharge compared to admission, indicating an association of granzyme B with stage of disease. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells of typhoid fever patients had a higher percentage of lymphocytic cells expressing intracellular granzyme A and granzyme B, but not granzyme K, compared to controls. The marked increase observed in extra- and intracellular levels of granzyme expression in patients with typhoid fever, and the correlation with stage of disease, suggests a role for granzymes in the host response to this disease.

  1. Radiation effects on lymphocytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roser, B.

    1976-01-01

    This review of the ontogeny of lymphocyte populations concentrates on sites of production, rates of production, and the factors governing the differentiation and longevity of the various lymphocyte pools. The physiology of the lymphocyte pools is described with particular emphasis on recirculation from blood to lymph through lymphoid tissues. The separate routes of recirculation of both thymus-derived and nonthymus-derived lymphocytes and the possible anatomical sites and mechanisms of lymphocyte cooperation are discussed. Radiation effects on lymphocyte populations are divided into two sections. First, the effects of whole-body irradiation on the total lymphocyte pools are discussed including the differential effects of irradiation on T lymphocytes, B lymphocytes, lymphoblasts, and plasma cells. The differential sensitivity of various types of immune response is correlated, where possible, with the differential sensitivity of the lymphocyte types involved. Second, experimental attempts to selectively deplete discrete subpopulations of the total lymphocyte pools, e.g., recirculating cells, are briefly discussed with particular emphasis on studies on the effects of the localization of radionuclides in lymphoid tissue

  2. Histone deacetylase 2 is decreased in peripheral blood pro-inflammatory CD8+ T and NKT-like lymphocytes following lung transplant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodge, Greg; Hodge, Sandra; Holmes-Liew, Chien-Li; Reynolds, Paul N; Holmes, Mark

    2017-02-01

    Immunosuppression therapy following lung transplantation fails to prevent chronic rejection in many patients, which is associated with lack of suppression of cytotoxic mediators and pro-inflammatory cytokines in peripheral blood T and natural killer T (NKT)-like cells. Histone acetyltransferases (HATs) and histone deacetylases (HDACs) upregulate/downregulate pro-inflammatory gene expression, respectively; however, differences in the activity of these enzymes following lung transplant are unknown. We hypothesized decreased HDAC2 expression and increased HAT expression in pro-inflammatory lymphocytes following lung transplant. Blood was collected from 18 stable lung transplant patients and 10 healthy age-matched controls. Intracellular pro-inflammatory cytokines and HAT/HDAC2 expression were determined in lymphocyte subsets following culture using flow cytometry. A loss of HDAC2 in cluster of differentiation (CD) 8+ T and NKT-like cells in transplant patients compared with controls was noted (CD8+ T: 28 ± 10 (45 ± 10), CD8+NKT-like: 30 ± 13 (54 ± 16) (mean ± SD transplant) (control)). Loss of HDAC2 was associated with an increased percentage of CD8+ T and NKT-like cells expressing perforin, granzyme b, interferon gamma (IFN-γ) and TNF-α (no change in HAT expression in any lymphocyte subset). There was a negative correlation between loss of HDAC2 expression by CD8+ T cells with cumulative dose of prednisolone and time post-transplant. Treatment with 10 mg/L theophylline + 1 µmol/L prednisolone or 2.5 ng/mL cyclosporine A synergistically upregulated HDAC2 and inhibited IFN-γ and TNF-α production by CD8+ T and NKT-like lymphocytes. HDAC2 is decreased in CD8+ T and NKT-like pro-inflammatory lymphocytes following lung transplant. Treatment options that increase HDAC2 may improve graft survival. © 2016 Asian Pacific Society of Respirology.

  3. Relationship of {sup 99m}Tc-HYNIC annexin V uptake to microvessel density, FasL and MMP-9 expression, and the number of tumour-infiltrating lymphocytes in head and neck carcinoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vermeersch, Hubert; Loose, David [Department of Head and Neck Surgery, University Hospital Ghent (Belgium); Mervillie, Kris; Cuvelier, Claude [Department of Pathology, University Hospital Ghent (Belgium); Lahorte, Christophe; Slegers, Guido [Department of Radiopharmacy, Ghent University (Belgium); Dierck, Rudi Andre; Van de Wiele, Christophe [Division of Nuclear Medicine, University Hospital Ghent, De Pintelaan 185B, 9000, Ghent (Belgium); Steinmetz, Neil [Theseus Imaging Corporation, Cambridge, Massachusetts (United States)

    2004-07-01

    This study reports on the relationship between quantitative {sup 99m}Tc-HYNIC radiolabelled annexin V tumour uptake measurements, Fas ligand (FasL) expression, matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) expression, microvessel density (MVD) and the number of tumour-infiltrating lymphocytes in squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck (SCCHN) patients. Twenty-eight patients (24 men and 4 women; mean age 59 years, range 43-83 years) suffering from a primary (n, number of patients=22) or locally recurrent (n=6) SCCHN were studied. All patients underwent a spiral CT scan, allowing estimation of lesion size in three dimensions, and {sup 99m}Tc-HYNIC annexin V scintigraphy within 1 week of each other. Biopsies or resection of the suspected primary tumour or local recurrence for histopathological analysis were performed on all patients within a period of 10 days following {sup 99m}Tc-HYNIC annexin V scintigraphy. The percentage uptake of the injected dose of {sup 99m}Tc-HYNIC annexin V in visible tumour lesions on scintigrams divided by the tumour volume, derived from CT, was related to MVD and to histological score (HSCORE) values for MMP-9 and FasL expression as well as to the number of tumour-infiltrating lymphocytes (CD45 staining). Median percentage absolute tumour uptake of the injected dose/cm{sup 3} tumour volume derived from tomographic images was 0.0001% (SD 0.0001%) at 5-6 h p.i. (range: 0.000007-0.0003%). Mean HSCORE for MMP-9 tumour staining was 2.1 (SD 0.84). Mean HSCORE for FasL tumour staining was 2.49 (SD 0.92). At the sites of tumour containing the highest number of vessels, the mean MVD was 20 vessels/field at the hot spot (range 1-73). The median number of tumour-infiltrating lymphocytes was 500 (range 100-5,000). The percentage absolute tumour uptake of the injected dose/cm{sup 3} tumour volume derived from tomographic images correlated linearly with FasL HSCORES(r=0.47, P=0.02). No correlation was found between the percentage absolute tumour uptake of the

  4. Relationship of 99mTc-HYNIC annexin V uptake to microvessel density, FasL and MMP-9 expression, and the number of tumour-infiltrating lymphocytes in head and neck carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vermeersch, Hubert; Loose, David; Mervillie, Kris; Cuvelier, Claude; Lahorte, Christophe; Slegers, Guido; Dierck, Rudi Andre; Van de Wiele, Christophe; Steinmetz, Neil

    2004-01-01

    This study reports on the relationship between quantitative 99m Tc-HYNIC radiolabelled annexin V tumour uptake measurements, Fas ligand (FasL) expression, matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) expression, microvessel density (MVD) and the number of tumour-infiltrating lymphocytes in squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck (SCCHN) patients. Twenty-eight patients (24 men and 4 women; mean age 59 years, range 43-83 years) suffering from a primary (n, number of patients=22) or locally recurrent (n=6) SCCHN were studied. All patients underwent a spiral CT scan, allowing estimation of lesion size in three dimensions, and 99m Tc-HYNIC annexin V scintigraphy within 1 week of each other. Biopsies or resection of the suspected primary tumour or local recurrence for histopathological analysis were performed on all patients within a period of 10 days following 99m Tc-HYNIC annexin V scintigraphy. The percentage uptake of the injected dose of 99m Tc-HYNIC annexin V in visible tumour lesions on scintigrams divided by the tumour volume, derived from CT, was related to MVD and to histological score (HSCORE) values for MMP-9 and FasL expression as well as to the number of tumour-infiltrating lymphocytes (CD45 staining). Median percentage absolute tumour uptake of the injected dose/cm 3 tumour volume derived from tomographic images was 0.0001% (SD 0.0001%) at 5-6 h p.i. (range: 0.000007-0.0003%). Mean HSCORE for MMP-9 tumour staining was 2.1 (SD 0.84). Mean HSCORE for FasL tumour staining was 2.49 (SD 0.92). At the sites of tumour containing the highest number of vessels, the mean MVD was 20 vessels/field at the hot spot (range 1-73). The median number of tumour-infiltrating lymphocytes was 500 (range 100-5,000). The percentage absolute tumour uptake of the injected dose/cm 3 tumour volume derived from tomographic images correlated linearly with FasL HSCORES(r=0.47, P=0.02). No correlation was found between the percentage absolute tumour uptake of the injected dose/cm 3 tumour

  5. High levels of CD8-positive lymphocytes expressing CD45R0, granzyme B, and Ki-67 in lymph nodes of HIV-infected individuals are not associated with increased mortality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Espersen, C; Pakkenberg, B; Harder, Eva

    2001-01-01

    -seropositive patients and seven HIV-negative patients. Eleven of the HIV-positive patients died within 78 months of biopsy time and 10 patients were alive on July 1, 1998. Double immunohistochemical staining procedures were developed to identify CD8(+) cells expressing CD45R0, granzyme B, and Ki-67. A stereological...... method was used to count the different cell types in the lymph nodes. There were no significant differences in the total cell (nucleated) and CD3(+) cell concentrations between the three groups. However, there were significantly higher concentrations of CD3(+)CD8(+), CD8(+)CD45R0(+), and CD8(+)Ki-67...... of biopsy time, were among the patients with the lowest concentrations of CD8(+)granzyme B(+) and CD8(+)Ki-67(+) lymphocytes. This finding allowed us to conclude that CD8(+) lymphocytes expressing high levels of CD45R0, granzyme B, and Ki-67 in lymph nodes of HIV patients are not related to increased...

  6. Biodistribution of radiolabeled lymphocytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fawwaz, R.A.; Oluwole, S.; Wang, T.S.; Kuromoto, N.; Iga, C.; Hardy, M.A.; Alderson, P.O.

    1985-01-01

    Factors that might affect the biodistribution and clinical utility of radiolabeled lymphocytes were evaluated in experimental animals. Indium-111 (In-111) labeled lymphocytes obtained from peripheral blood, lymph node, or spleen were found in significant amounts in the lymphoid tissues of Lewis rats as early as 3 hours after infusion. A progressive increase in nodal activity with concomitant fall of activity in other organs followed, indicating active recirculation of the lymphocytes. In vitro irradiation of the In-111 labeled lymphocytes resulted in no detectable lymphocyte recirculation and/or reduced localization in lymphoid tissue. Splenectomized animals and those sensitized to an organ allograft before cell infusion showed increased activity in their bone marrow. These results suggest that the source of the injected cells, cell irradiation dose level and host sensitization should be considered when radiolabeled lymphocytes are being prepared for use in clinical diagnosis and therapy

  7. Activation of cytotoxic lymphocytes in patients with scrub typhus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Fost, Maaike; Chierakul, Wirongrong; Pimda, Kriangsak; Dondorp, Arjen M.; White, Nicholas J.; van der Poll, Tom

    2005-01-01

    Thai patients with scrub typhus caused by the intracellular pathogen Orientia tsutsugamushi displayed elevated plasma concentrations of granzymes A and B, interferon-gamma (IFN)-gamma-inducible protein 10, and monokine induced by IFN-gamma. These data suggest that activation of cytotoxic lymphocytes

  8. Effects of de-alcoholised wines with different polyphenol content on DNA oxidative damage, gene expression of peripheral lymphocytes, and haemorheology: an intervention study in post-menopausal women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giovannelli, Lisa; Pitozzi, Vanessa; Luceri, Cristina; Giannini, Lucia; Toti, Simona; Salvini, Simonetta; Sera, Francesco; Souquet, Jean-Marc; Cheynier, Veronique; Sofi, Francesco; Mannini, Lucia; Gori, Anna Maria; Abbate, Rosanna; Palli, Domenico; Dolara, Piero

    2011-02-01

    Epidemiological studies suggest that a moderate consumption of wine is associated with a reduced risk of cardiovascular diseases and with a reduced mortality for all causes, possibly due to increased antioxidant defences. The present intervention study was undertaken to evaluate the in vivo effects of wine polyphenols on gene expression in humans, along with their supposed antioxidant activity. Blood haemorheology and platelet function were also evaluated. In order to avoid interferences from alcohol, we used de-alcoholised wine (DAW) with different polyphenol content. A randomised cross-over trial of high-proanthocyanidin (PA) red DAW (500 mL/die, PA dose = 7 mg/kg b.w.) vs. low-PA rosé DAW (500 mL/die, PA dose = 0.45 mg/kg) was conducted in 21 post-menopausal women in Florence, Italy. Oxidative DNA damage by the comet assay and gene expression by microarray was measured in peripheral blood lymphocytes, collected during the study period. Blood samples were also collected for the evaluation of haematological, haemostatic, haemorheological, and inflammatory parameters. The results of the present study provide evidence that consumption of substantial amounts of de-alcoholised wine for 1 month does not exert a protective activity towards oxidative DNA damage, nor modifies significantly the gene expression profile of peripheral lymphocytes, whereas it shows blood-fluidifying actions, expressed as a significant decrease in blood viscosity. However, this effect does not correlate with the dosage of polyphenols of the de-alcoholised wine. More intervention studies are needed to provide further evidence of the health-protective effects of wine proanthocyanidins.

  9. AKT/SGK-sensitive phosphorylation of GSK3 in the regulation of L-selectin and perforin expression as well as activation induced cell death of T-lymphocytes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bhavsar, Shefalee K.; Merches, Katja; Bobbala, Diwakar [Department of Physiology, University of Tuebingen (Germany); Lang, Florian, E-mail: florian.lang@uni-tuebingen.de [Department of Physiology, University of Tuebingen (Germany)

    2012-08-17

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Akt/SGK dependent phosphorylation of GSK3{alpha},{beta} regulates T lymphocytes. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer T cells from mice expressing Akt/SGK insensitive GSK3{alpha},{beta} (gsk3{sup KI}) release less IL-2. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer CD4{sup +} cells from gsk3{sup KI} mice express less CD62L. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer CD8{sup +} cells from gsk3{sup KI} mice are relatively resistant to activation induced cell death. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Perforin expression is enhanced in gsk3{sup KI} T cells. -- Abstract: Survival and function of T-lymphocytes critically depends on phosphoinositide (PI) 3 kinase. PI3 kinase signaling includes the PKB/Akt and SGK dependent phosphorylation and thus inhibition of glycogen synthase kinase GSK3{alpha},{beta}. Lithium, a known unspecific GSK3 inhibitor protects against experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis. The present study explored, whether Akt/SGK-dependent regulation of GSK3 activity is a determinant of T cell survival and function. Experiments were performed in mutant mice in which Akt/SGK-dependent GSK3{alpha},{beta} inhibition was disrupted by replacement of the serine residue in the respective SGK/Akt-phosphorylation consensus sequence by alanine (gsk3{sup KI}). T cells from gsk3{sup KI} mice were compared to T cells from corresponding wild type mice (gsk3{sup WT}). As a result, in gsk3{sup KI} CD4{sup +} cells surface CD62L (L-selectin) was significantly less abundant than in gsk3{sup WT} CD4{sup +} cells. Upon activation in vitro T cells from gsk3{sup KI} mice reacted with enhanced perforin production and reduced activation induced cell death. Cytokine production was rather reduced in gsk3{sup KI} T cells, suggesting that GSK3 induces effector function in CD8{sup +} T cells. In conclusion, PKB/Akt and SGK sensitive phosphorylation of GSK3{alpha},{beta} is a potent regulator of perforin expression and activation induced cell death in T lymphocytes.

  10. Genetically enhanced T lymphocytes and the intensive care unit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tat, Tiberiu; Li, Huming; Constantinescu, Catalin-Sorin; Onaciu, Anca; Chira, Sergiu; Osan, Ciprian; Pasca, Sergiu; Petrushev, Bobe; Moisoiu, Vlad; Micu, Wilhelm-Thomas; Berce, Cristian; Tranca, Sebastian; Dima, Delia; Berindan-Neagoe, Ioana; Shen, Jianliang; Tomuleasa, Ciprian; Qian, Liren

    2018-01-01

    Chimeric antigen receptor-modified T cells (CAR-T cells) and donor lymphocyte infusion (DLI) are important protocols in lymphocyte engineering. CAR-T cells have emerged as a new modality for cancer immunotherapy due to their potential efficacy against hematological malignancies. These genetically modified receptors contain an antigen-binding moiety, a hinge region, a transmembrane domain, and an intracellular costimulatory domain resulting in lymphocyte T cell activation subsequent to antigen binding. In present-day medicine, four generations of CAR-T cells are described depending on the intracellular signaling domain number of T cell receptors. DLI represents a form of adoptive therapy used after hematopoietic stem cell transplant for its anti-tumor and anti-infectious properties. This article covers the current status of CAR-T cells and DLI research in the intensive care unit (ICU) patient, including the efficacy, toxicity, side effects and treatment. PMID:29662667

  11. Pathogenic mechanisms of intracellular bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niller, Hans Helmut; Masa, Roland; Venkei, Annamária; Mészáros, Sándor; Minarovits, Janos

    2017-06-01

    We wished to overview recent data on a subset of epigenetic changes elicited by intracellular bacteria in human cells. Reprogramming the gene expression pattern of various host cells may facilitate bacterial growth, survival, and spread. DNA-(cytosine C5)-methyltransferases of Mycoplasma hyorhinis targeting cytosine-phosphate-guanine (CpG) dinucleotides and a Mycobacterium tuberculosis methyltransferase targeting non-CpG sites methylated the host cell DNA and altered the pattern of gene expression. Gene silencing by CpG methylation and histone deacetylation, mediated by cellular enzymes, also occurred in M. tuberculosis-infected macrophages. M. tuberculosis elicited cell type-specific epigenetic changes: it caused increased DNA methylation in macrophages, but induced demethylation, deposition of euchromatic histone marks and activation of immune-related genes in dendritic cells. A secreted transposase of Acinetobacter baumannii silenced a cellular gene, whereas Mycobacterium leprae altered the epigenotype, phenotype, and fate of infected Schwann cells. The 'keystone pathogen' oral bacterium Porphyromonas gingivalis induced local DNA methylation and increased the level of histone acetylation in host cells. These epigenetic changes at the biofilm-gingiva interface may contribute to the development of periodontitis. Epigenetic regulators produced by intracellular bacteria alter the epigenotype and gene expression pattern of host cells and play an important role in pathogenesis.

  12. Repression of tax expression is associated both with resistance of human T-cell leukemia virus type 1-infected T cells to killing by tax-specific cytotoxic T lymphocytes and with impaired tumorigenicity in a rat model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nomura, Machiko; Ohashi, Takashi; Nishikawa, Keiko; Nishitsuji, Hironori; Kurihara, Kiyoshi; Hasegawa, Atsuhiko; Furuta, Rika A; Fujisawa, Jun-ichi; Tanaka, Yuetsu; Hanabuchi, Shino; Harashima, Nanae; Masuda, Takao; Kannagi, Mari

    2004-04-01

    Human T-cell leukemia virus type 1 (HTLV-1) causes adult T-cell leukemia (ATL). Although the viral transactivation factor, Tax, has been known to have apparent transforming ability, the exact function of Tax in ATL development is still not clear. To understand the role of Tax in ATL development, we introduced short-interfering RNAs (siRNAs) against Tax in a rat HTLV-1-infected T-cell line. Our results demonstrated that expression of siRNA targeting Tax successfully downregulated Tax expression. Repression of Tax expression was associated with resistance of the HTLV-1-infected T cells to Tax-specific cytotoxic-T-lymphocyte killing. This may be due to the direct effect of decreased Tax expression, because the Tax siRNA did not alter the expression of MHC-I, CD80, or CD86. Furthermore, T cells with Tax downregulation appeared to lose the ability to develop tumors in T-cell-deficient nude rats, in which the parental HTLV-1-infected cells induce ATL-like lymphoproliferative disease. These results indicated the importance of Tax both for activating host immune response against the virus and for maintaining the growth ability of infected cells in vivo. Our results provide insights into the mechanisms how the host immune system can survey and inhibit the growth of HTLV-1-infected cells during the long latent period before the onset of ATL.

  13. Chemoimmunotherapy for Relapsed/Refractory and Progressive 17p13 Deleted Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia (CLL) Combining Pentostatin, Alemtuzumab, and Low Dose Rituximab is Effective and Tolerable and Limits Loss of CD20 Expression by Circulating CLL Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zent, Clive S.; Taylor, Ronald P.; Lindorfer, Margaret A.; Beum, Paul V.; LaPlant, Betsy; Wu, Wenting; Call, Timothy G.; Bowen, Deborah A.; Conte, Michael J.; Frederick, Lori A.; Link, Brian K.; Blackwell, Sue E.; Veeramani, Suresh; Baig, Nisar A.; Viswanatha, David S.; Weiner, George J.; Witzig, Thomas E.

    2014-01-01

    Chronic lymphocytic leukemia/small lymphocytic lymphoma (CLL) patients with purine analogue refractory disease or TP53 dysfunction still have limited treatment options and poor survival. Alemtuzumab containing chemoimmunotherapy regimens can be effective but frequently cause serious infections. We report a phase II trial testing the efficacy and tolerability of a short duration regimen combining pentostatin, alemtuzumab, and low dose high frequency rituximab (PAR) designed to decrease the risk of treatment associated infections and limit loss of CD20 expression by CLL cells. The study enrolled 39 patients with progressive CLL that was either relapsed/refractory (n=36) or previously untreated with 17p13 deletion (17p13-)(n=3). Thirteen (33%) patients had both 17p13- and TP53 mutations predicted to be dysfunctional and eight patients had purine analogue refractory CLL without TP53 dysfunction. Twenty-six (67%) patients completed therapy with only five (13%) patients having treatment limiting toxicity, and no treatment related deaths. Twenty-two (56%) patients responded to treatment with 11 (28%) complete responses (four with incomplete bone marrow recovery). Median progression free survival was 7.2 months, time to next treatment 9.1 months, and overall survival 34.1 months. The majority of deaths (82%) were caused by progressive disease including transformed diffuse large B cell lymphoma (n=6). Correlative studies showed that low dose rituximab activates complement and NK cells without a profound and sustained decrease in expression of CD20 by circulating CLL cells. We conclude that PAR is a tolerable and effective therapy for CLL and that low dose rituximab therapy can activate innate immune cytotoxic mechanisms without substantially decreasing CD20 expression. PMID:24723493

  14. Chemoimmunotherapy for relapsed/refractory and progressive 17p13-deleted chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) combining pentostatin, alemtuzumab, and low-dose rituximab is effective and tolerable and limits loss of CD20 expression by circulating CLL cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zent, Clive S; Taylor, Ronald P; Lindorfer, Margaret A; Beum, Paul V; LaPlant, Betsy; Wu, Wenting; Call, Timothy G; Bowen, Deborah A; Conte, Michael J; Frederick, Lori A; Link, Brian K; Blackwell, Sue E; Veeramani, Suresh; Baig, Nisar A; Viswanatha, David S; Weiner, George J; Witzig, Thomas E

    2014-07-01

    Chronic lymphocytic leukemia/small lymphocytic lymphoma (CLL) patients with purine analog refractory disease or TP53 dysfunction still have limited treatment options and poor survival. Alemtuzumab-containing chemoimmunotherapy regimens can be effective but frequently cause serious infections. We report a Phase II trial testing the efficacy and tolerability of a short-duration regimen combining pentostatin, alemtuzumab, and low-dose high-frequency rituximab designed to decrease the risk of treatment-associated infections and to limit the loss of CD20 expression by CLL cells. The study enrolled 39 patients with progressive CLL that was either relapsed/refractory (n = 36) or previously untreated with 17p13 deletion (17p13-) (n = 3). Thirteen (33%) patients had both 17p13- and TP53 mutations predicted to be dysfunctional, and eight patients had purine analog refractory CLL without TP53 dysfunction. Twenty-six (67%) patients completed therapy, with only five (13%) patients having treatment-limiting toxicity and no treatment-related deaths. Twenty-two (56%) patients responded to treatment, with 11 (28%) complete responses (four with incomplete bone marrow recovery). Median progression-free survival was 7.2 months, time to next treatment was 9.1 months, and overall survival was 34.1 months. The majority of deaths (82%) were caused by progressive disease, including transformed diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (n = 6). Correlative studies showed that low-dose rituximab activates complement and natural killer cells without a profound and sustained decrease in expression of CD20 by circulating CLL cells. We conclude that pentostatin, alemtuzumab, and low-dose high-frequency rituximab is a tolerable and effective therapy for CLL and that low-dose rituximab therapy can activate innate immune cytotoxic mechanisms without substantially decreasing CD20 expression. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Classical and alternative activation and metalloproteinase expression occurs in foam cell macrophages in male and female ApoE null mice in the absence of T- and B-lymphocytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elaine Mo Hayes

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Rupture of advanced atherosclerotic plaques accounts for most life-threatening myocardial infarctions. Classical (M1 and alternative (M2 macrophage activation could promote atherosclerotic plaque progression and rupture by increasing production of proteases, including matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs. Lymphocyte-derived cytokines may be essential for generating M1 and M2 phenotypes in plaques, although this has not been rigorously tested until now.Methods and Results: We validated the expression of M1 markers (iNOS and COX-2 and M2 markers (arginase-1, Ym-1 and CD206 and then measured MMP mRNA levels in mouse macrophages during classical and alternative activation in vitro. We then compared mRNA expression of these genes ex vivo in foam cells from subcutaneous granulomas in fat-fed immune-competent ApoE knockout and immune-compromised ApoE/Rag-1 double knockout mice, which lack all T and B cells. Furthermore, we performed immunohistochemistry in subcutaneous granulomas and in aortic root and brachiocephalic artery atherosclerotic plaques to measure the extent of M1/M2 marker and MMP protein expression in vivo. Classical activation of mouse macrophages with bacterial lipopolysaccharide in vitro increased MMPs-13, -14 and -25 but decreased MMP-19 and TIMP-2 mRNA expressions. Alternative activation with IL-4 increased MMP-19 expression. Foam cells in subcutaneous granulomas expressed all M1/M2 markers and MMPs at ex vivo mRNA and in vivo protein levels, irrespective of Rag-1 genotype. There were also similar percentages of foam cell macrophages carrying M1/M2 markers and MMPs in atherosclerotic plaques from ApoE knockout and ApoE/Rag-1 double knockout mice. Conclusions: Classical and alternative activation leads to distinct MMP expression patterns in mouse macrophages in vitro. M1 and M2 polarization in vivo occurs in the absence of T and B lymphocytes in either granuloma or plaque foam cell macrophages.

  16. GLUT4 expression in human muscle fibres is not correlated with intracellular triglyceride (TG) content. Is TG a maker or a marker of insulin resistance?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gaster, M; Ottosen, P D; Vach, W

    2003-01-01

    diabetic subjects, and young lean controls. TG density was significantly higher in slow compared to fast fibres in all studied subjects (pslow twitch fibres of obese diabetic subjects compared to obese (p...We have recently reported a progressive decline in the expression of glucose transporter isoform 4 (GLUT4) from control subjects through obese non-diabetics to obese type 2 diabetic subjects, indicating that the reduced GLUT4 in slow twitch fibres could be secondary to obesity. In this study we...... densities in slow and fast fibres did not correlate with the corresponding GLUT4 density in the same fibres in our study groups (p>0.05). Plasma TG and FFA did not correlate with GLUT4 expression in slow or fast fibres (p>0.05). In conclusion, TG content was increased in diabetic slow fibres with a reduced...

  17. Relationship between in vitro chromosomal radiosensitivity of peripheral blood lymphocytes and the expression of normal tissue damage following radiotherapy for breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barber, J.B.P.; Burrill, W.; Spreadborough, A.R.; Levine, E.; Warren, C.; Scott, D.; Kiltie, A.E.; Roberts, S.A.

    2000-01-01

    There is a need for rapid and reliable tests for the prediction of normal tissue responses to radiotherapy, as this could lead to individualization of patient radiotherapy schedules and thus improvements in the therapeutic ratio. Because the use of cultured fibroblasts is too slow to be practicable in a clinical setting, we evaluated the predictive role of assays of lymphocyte chromosomal radiosensitivity in patients having radiotherapy for breast cancer. Radiosensitivity was assessed using a macronucleus (MN) assay at high dose rate (HDR) and low dose rate (LDR) on lymphocytes irradiated in the G 0 phase of the cell cycle (Scott D, Barber JB, Levine EL, Burril W, Roberts SA. Radiation-induced micronucleus induction in lymphocytes identifies a frequency of radiosensitive cases among breast cancer patients: a test for predisposition? Br. J. Cancer 1998;77;614-620) and an assay of G 2 phase chromatid radiosensitivity ('G 2 assay') (Scott D, Spreadborough A, Levine E, Roberts SA. Genetic predisposition in breast cancer. Lancet 1994; 344: 1444). In a study of acute reactions, blood samples were taken from breast cancer patients before the start of radiotherapy, and the skin reaction documented. 116 patients were tested with the HDR MN assay, 73 with the LDR MN assay and 123 with the G 2 assay. In a study of late reactions, samples were taken from a series of breast cancer patients 8-14 years after radiotherapy and the patients assessed for the severity of late effects according to the 'LENT SOMA' scales. 47 were tested with the HDR assay, 26 with the LDR assay and 19 with the G 2 assay. For each clinical endpoint, patients were classified as being normal reactors or 'highly radiosensitive patients' (HR patients (Burnet NG. Johansen J, Turesson I, Nyman J. Describing patients' normal tissue reactions: Concerning the possibility of individualising radiotherapy dose prescriptions based on potential predictive assays of normal tissue radiosensitivity. Int. J. Cancer 1998

  18. The effect of NO-donors on chloride efflux, intracellular Ca(2+) concentration and mRNA expression of CFTR and ENaC in cystic fibrosis airway epithelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliynyk, Igor; Hussain, Rashida; Amin, Ahmad; Johannesson, Marie; Roomans, Godfried M

    2013-06-01

    Since previous studies showed that the endogenous bronchodilator, S-nitrosglutathione (GSNO), caused a marked increase in CFTR-mediated chloride (Cl(-)) efflux and improved the trafficking of CFTR to the plasma membrane, and that also the nitric oxide (NO)-donor GEA3162 had a similar, but smaller, effect on Cl(-) efflux, it was investigated whether the NO-donor properties of GSNO were relevant for its effect on Cl(-) efflux from airway epithelial cells. Hence, the effect of a number of other NO-donors, sodium nitroprusside (SNP), S-nitroso-N-acetyl-DL-penicillamine (SNAP), diethylenetriamine/nitric oxide adduct (DETA-NO), and diethylenetriamine/nitric oxide adduct (DEA-NONOate) on Cl(-) efflux from CFBE (∆F508/∆F508-CFTR) airway epithelial cells was tested. Cl(-) efflux was determined using the fluorescent N-(ethoxycarbonylmethyl)-6-methoxyquinoliniu bromide (MQAE)-technique. Possible changes in the intracellular Ca(2+) concentration were tested by the fluorescent fluo-4 method in a confocal microscope system. Like previously with GSNO, after 4 h incubation with the NO-donor, an increased Cl(-) efflux was found (in the order SNAP>DETA-NO>SNP). The effect of DEA-NONOate on Cl(-) efflux was not significant, and the compound may have (unspecific) deleterious effects on the cells. Again, as with GSNO, after a short (5 min) incubation, SNP had no significant effect on Cl(-) efflux. None of the NO-donors that had a significant effect on Cl(-) efflux caused significant changes in the intracellular Ca(2+) concentration. After 4 h preincubation, SNP caused a significant increase in the mRNA expression of CFTR. SNAP and DEA-NONOate decreased the mRNA expression of all ENaC subunits significantly. DETA-NO caused a significant decrease only in α-ENaC expression. After a short preincubation, none of the NO-donors had a significant effect, neither on the expression of CFTR, nor on that of the ENaC subunits in the presence and absence of L-cysteine. It can be concluded that

  19. Characterization of Leptin Intracellular Trafficking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E Walum

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Leptin is produced by adipose tissue, and its concentration in plasma is related to the amount of fat in the body. The leptin receptor (OBR is a member of the class I cytokine receptor family and several different isoforms, produced by alternative mRNA splicing are found in many tissues, including the hypothalamus. The two predominant isoforms includes a long form (OBRl with an intracellular domain of 303 amino acids and a shorter form (OBRs with an intracellular domain of 34 amino acids. Since OBRl is mainly expressed in the hypotalamus, it has been suggested to be the main signalling form. The peripheral production of leptin by adipocyte tissue and its effects as a signal of satiety in the central nervous system imply that leptin gains access to regions of the brain regulating in energy balance by crossing the blood-brain barrier. In an attempt to characterize the intracellular transport of leptin, we have followed binding internalization and degradation of leptin in HEK293 cells. We have also monitored the intracellular transport pathway of fluorescent conjugated leptin in HEK293 cells. Phenylarsine oxide, a general inhibitor of endocytosis, as well as incubation at mild hypertonic conditions, prevented the uptake of leptin, confirming a receptor-mediated internalization process. When internalized, 125I-leptin was rapidly accumulated inside the cells and reached a maximum after 10 min. After 70 minutes about 40-50% of total counts in each time point were found in the medium as TCA-soluble material. Leptin sorting, at the level of early endosomes, did not seem to involve recycling endosomes, since FITC-leptin was sorted from Cy3- transferrin containing compartments at 37°C. At 45 minutes of continuos internalization, FITC-leptin appeared mainly accumulated in late endocytic structures colocalizing with internalized rhodamine coupled epidermial growth factor (EGF and the lysosomal marker protein lamp-1. The transport of leptin was also shown

  20. ZAP-70 expression in B-cell chronic lymphocytic leukemia: evaluation by external (isotypic) or internal (T/NK cells) controls and correlation with IgV(H) mutations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zucchetto, Antonella; Bomben, Riccardo; Bo, Michele Dal; Nanni, Paola; Bulian, Pietro; Rossi, Francesca Maria; Del Principe, Maria Ilaria; Santini, Simone; Del Poeta, Giovanni; Degan, Massimo; Gattei, Valter

    2006-07-15

    Expression of T cell specific zeta-associated protein 70 (ZAP-70) by B-cell chronic lymphocytic leukemia (B-CLL) cells, as investigated by flow cytometry, has both prognostic relevance and predictive power as surrogate for immunoglobulin heavy chain variable region (IgV(H)) mutations, although a standardization of the cytometric protocol is still lacking. Flow cytometric analyses for ZAP-70 were performed in peripheral blood samples from 145 B-CLL (124 with IgV(H) mutations) by a standard three-color protocol. Identification of ZAP-70(+) cell population was based on an external negative control, i.e., the isotypic control (ISO method) or an internal positive control, i.e., the population of residual normal T/NK cells (TNK method). A comparison between these two approaches was performed. While 86/145 cases were concordant as for ZAP-70 expression according to the two methods (ISO(+)TNK(+) or ISO(-)TNK(-)), 59/145 cases had discordant ZAP-70 expression, mainly (56/59) showing a ISO(+)TNK(-) profile. These latter cases express higher levels of ZAP-70 in their normal T cell component. Moreover, discordant ISO(+)TNK(-) cases had a IgV(H) gene mutation profile similar to that of concordantly positive cases and different from ZAP-70 concordantly negative B-CLL. Analysis of ZAP-70 expression by B-CLL cells by using the ISO method allows to overcome the variability in the expression of ZAP-70 by residual T cells and yields a better correlation with IgV(H) gene mutations. A receiver operating characteristic analysis suggests to employ a higher cut-off than the commonly used 20%. A parallel evaluation of the prognostic value of ZAP-70 expression, as determined according to the ISO and TNK methods, is still needed. (c) 2006 International Society for Analytical Cytology.

  1. Common nonmutational NOTCH1 activation in chronic lymphocytic leukemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fabbri, Giulia; Holmes, Antony B; Viganotti, Mara; Scuoppo, Claudio; Belver, Laura; Herranz, Daniel; Yan, Xiao-Jie; Kieso, Yasmine; Rossi, Davide; Gaidano, Gianluca; Chiorazzi, Nicholas; Ferrando, Adolfo A; Dalla-Favera, Riccardo

    2017-04-04

    Activating mutations of NOTCH1 (a well-known oncogene in T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia) are present in ∼4-13% of chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) cases, where they are associated with disease progression and chemorefractoriness. However, the specific role of NOTCH1 in leukemogenesis remains to be established. Here, we report that the active intracellular portion of NOTCH1 (ICN1) is detectable in ∼50% of peripheral blood CLL cases lacking gene mutations. We identify a "NOTCH1 gene-expression signature" in CLL cells, and show that this signature is significantly enriched in primary CLL cases expressing ICN1, independent of NOTCH1 mutation. NOTCH1 target genes include key regulators of B-cell proliferation, survival, and signal transduction. In particular, we show that NOTCH1 transactivates MYC via binding to B-cell-specific regulatory elements, thus implicating this oncogene in CLL development. These results significantly extend the role of NOTCH1 in CLL pathogenesis, and have direct implications for specific therapeutic targeting.

  2. SHARPIN Regulates Uropod Detachment in Migrating Lymphocytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeroen Pouwels

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available SHARPIN-deficient mice display a multiorgan chronic inflammatory phenotype suggestive of altered leukocyte migration. We therefore studied the role of SHARPIN in lymphocyte adhesion, polarization, and migration. We found that SHARPIN localizes to the trailing edges (uropods of both mouse and human chemokine-activated lymphocytes migrating on intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1, which is one of the major endothelial ligands for migrating leukocytes. SHARPIN-deficient cells adhere better to ICAM-1 and show highly elongated tails when migrating. The increased tail lifetime in SHARPIN-deficient lymphocytes decreases the migration velocity. The adhesion, migration, and uropod defects in SHARPIN-deficient lymphocytes were rescued by reintroducing SHARPIN into the cells. Mechanistically, we show that SHARPIN interacts directly with lymphocyte-function-associated antigen-1 (LFA-1, a leukocyte counterreceptor for ICAM-1, and inhibits the expression of intermediate and high-affinity forms of LFA-1. Thus, SHARPIN controls lymphocyte migration by endogenously maintaining LFA-1 inactive to allow adjustable detachment of the uropods in polarized cells.

  3. Telomerase levels control the lifespan of human T lymphocytes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roth, Alexander; Yssel, Hans; Pene, Jerome; Chavez, Elizabeth A.; Schertzer, Mike; Lansdorp, Peter M.; Spits, Hergen; Luiten, Rosalie M.

    2003-01-01

    The loss of telomeric DNA with each cell division contributes to the limited replicative lifespan of human T lymphocytes. Although telomerase is transiently expressed in T lymphocytes upon activation, it is insufficient to confer immortality. We have previously shown that immortalization of human

  4. Broad T-cell receptor repertoire in T-lymphocytes derived from human induced pluripotent stem cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chia-Wei Chang

    Full Text Available Human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs have enormous potential for the treatment of inherited and acquired disorders. Recently, antigen-specific T lymphocytes derived from hiPSCs have been reported. However, T lymphocyte populations with broad T cell receptor (TCR diversity have not been generated. We report that hiPSCs derived from skin biopsy are capable of producing T lymphocyte populations with a broad TCR repertoire. In vitro T cell differentiation follows a similar developmental program as observed in vivo, indicated by sequential expression of CD7, intracellular CD3 and surface CD3. The γδ TCR locus is rearranged first and is followed by rearrangement of the αβ locus. Both γδ and αβ T cells display a diverse TCR repertoire. Upon activation, the cells express CD25, CD69, cytokines (TNF-α, IFN-γ, IL-2 and cytolytic proteins (Perforin and Granzyme-B. These results suggest that most, if not all, mechanisms required to generate functional T cells with a broad TCR repertoire are intact in our in vitro differentiation protocol. These data provide a foundation for production of patient-specific T cells for the treatment of acquired or inherited immune disorders and for cancer immunotherapy.

  5. Detection and Quantization of the Expression of Two mu-Opioid Receptor Splice Variants mRNA (hMOR-1A and hMOR-1O in Peripheral Blood Lymphocytes of Long-Term Abstinent Former Opioid Addicts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N Vousooghi, Pharm

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available

    Background and Objectives

    The mu-Opioid receptor (MOR exerts a critical role on effects of opiodis. The objective of this study is to find a peripheral bio-marker in addiction studies through quantization of the expression of two MOR splice variants mRNA (hMOR-1A and hMOR-1O in peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBLs of long-term abstinent former opioids addicts.

    Methods

    In this case-control study, case and control people were male and divided in two groups: people who gave up addiction to opioids (case and healthy individuals without history of addiction (control. The mRNA expression in PBLs of participants was detected and measured by real-time Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR using SYBR Green Dye.

    Results

    The hMOR-1A mRNA expression in PBLs of abstinent group was significantly reduced and reached to 0.33 of the control group (p<0.001. Similar results were obtained for the other splice variant with the mRNA expression of hMOR-1O in PBLs of abstinent group reaching to 0.38 of that of the control group (p < 0.001.

    Conclusion

    mRNA expression deficiency of two mu-opioid receptor splice variants, hMOR-1A and nMOR-1O, seams to be a risk factor making individuals vulnerable to drug addiction. Based on this analysis measuring the amount of mRNA expression of these two splice variants in PBLs can serve as a peripheral bio-marker for detecting people at risk.

  6. Risk of type 1 diabetes progression in islet autoantibody-positive children can be further stratified using expression patterns of multiple genes implicated in peripheral blood lymphocyte activation and function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Yulan; Sharma, Ashok; Bai, Shan; Davis, Colleen; Liu, Haitao; Hopkins, Diane; Barriga, Kathy; Rewers, Marian; She, Jin-Xiong

    2014-07-01

    There is tremendous scientific and clinical value to further improving the predictive power of autoantibodies because autoantibody-positive (AbP) children have heterogeneous rates of progression to clinical diabetes. This study explored the potential of gene expression profiles as biomarkers for risk stratification among 104 AbP subjects from the Diabetes Autoimmunity Study in the Young (DAISY) using a discovery data set based on microarray and a validation data set based on real-time RT-PCR. The microarray data identified 454 candidate genes with expression levels associated with various type 1 diabetes (T1D) progression rates. RT-PCR analyses of the top-27 candidate genes confirmed 5 genes (BACH2, IGLL3, EIF3A, CDC20, and TXNDC5) associated with differential progression and implicated in lymphocyte activation and function. Multivariate analyses of these five genes in the discovery and validation data sets identified and confirmed four multigene models (BI, ICE, BICE, and BITE, with each letter representing a gene) that consistently stratify high- and low-risk subsets of AbP subjects with hazard ratios >6 (P < 0.01). The results suggest that these genes may be involved in T1D pathogenesis and potentially serve as excellent gene expression biomarkers to predict the risk of progression to clinical diabetes for AbP subjects. © 2014 by the American Diabetes Association.

  7. An improved flow cytometric method using FACS lysing solution for measurement of ZAP-70 expression in B-cell chronic lymphocytic leukemia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bekkema, Roelof; Tadema, Afke; Daenen, Simon M. G. J.; Kluin-Nelemans, Hanneke C.; Mulder, Andre B.

    Background: B-cell expression of ZAP-70, normally expressed in T and NK cells, correlates with poor prognosis in B-CLL. Poor discrimination between ZAP-70 positive and negative cells hampers routine application of flow cytometry. We examined the usefulness of FACS Lysing Solution. Methods: ZAP-70

  8. Genetic immunization against cervical carcinoma : induction of cytotoxic T lymphocyte activity with a recombinant alphavirus vector expressing human papillomavirus type 16 E6 and E7

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Daemen, T; Pries, F; Bungener, L; Kraak, M; Regts, J; Wilschut, J

    infection of genital epithelial cells with human papillomavirus (HPV) types 16 and 18 is closely associated with the development of cervical carcinoma. The transforming potential of these high-risk HPVs depends on the expression of the E6 and E7 early viral gene products. Since the expression of E6

  9. A study for proposal of use of regulatory T cells as a prognostic marker and establishing an optimal threshold level for their expression in chronic lymphocytic leukemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dasgupta, Alakananda; Mahapatra, Manoranjan; Saxena, Renu

    2015-06-01

    Although regulatory T cells (Tregs) have been extensively studied in chronic lymphocytic leukemia, there is no uniform guideline or consensus regarding their use as a prognostic marker. This study describes the methodology used to develop an optimal threshold level for Tregs in these patients. Treg levels were assessed in the peripheral blood of 130 patients and 150 controls. Treg frequencies were linked to established prognostic markers as well as overall survival and time to first treatment. The cut-offs for Treg positivity were assessed by receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis. A cut-off of 5.7% for Treg cell percentage and of 35 cells/μL for absolute Treg cell count were determined as optimal in patients with CLL along with a median Treg percentage of 15.5% used to separate patients with low- and high-risk disease. The experiments presented here will possibly aid in the use of Treg frequencies as a potential prognostic marker in CLL.

  10. Cloning, expression, purification, crystallization and preliminary X-ray diffraction analysis of intracellular growth locus E (IglE) protein from Francisella tularensis subsp. novicida

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robb, Craig S.; Nano, Francis E.; Boraston, Alisdair B.

    2010-01-01

    The F. tularensis protein IglE from the FPI, which is a component of the type VI-like secretion system, has been crystallized and preliminary X-ray data have been collected. Tularaemia is an uncommon but potentially dangerous zoonotic disease caused by the bacterium Francisella tularensis. As few as ten bacterial cells are sufficient to cause disease in a healthy human, making this one of the most infectious disease agents known. The virulence of this organism is dependent upon a genetic locus known as the Francisella pathogenicity island (FPI), which encodes components of a secretion system that is related to the type VI secretion system. Here, the cloning, expression, purification and preliminary X-ray diffraction statistics of the FPI-encoded protein IglE are presented. This putative lipoprotein is required for intra-macrophage growth and is thought to be a constituent of the periplasmic portion of the type VI-like protein complex that is responsible for the secretion of critical virulence factors in Francisella

  11. GABA, a natural immunomodulator of T lymphocytes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjurstöm, Helen; Wang, Junyang; Ericsson, Ida

    2008-01-01

    gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) is the main neuroinhibitory transmitter in the brain. Here we show that GABA in the extracellular space may affect the fate of pathogenic T lymphocytes entering the brain. We examined in encephalitogenic T cells if they expressed functional GABA channels that could...

  12. Signaling through CD5 activates a pathway involving phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase, Vav, and Rac1 in human mature T lymphocytes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gringhuis, SI; de Leij, LFMH; Coffer, PJ; Vellenga, E

    CD5 acts as a coreceptor on T lymphocytes and plays an important role in T-cell signaling and T-cell-B-cell interactions. Costimulation of T lymphocytes with anti-CD5 antibodies results in an increase of the intracellular Ca2+ levels, and subsequently in the activation of Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent

  13. Signaling through CD5 Activates a Pathway Involving Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinase, Vav, and Rac1 in Human Mature T Lymphocytes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gringhuis, S.I. (Sonja); Leij, L.F.M. (Lou) de; Coffer, P.J.; Vellenga, Edo

    1997-01-01

    CD5 acts as a coreceptor on T lymphocytes and plays an important role in T-cell signaling and T-cell-B-cell interactions. Costimulation of T lymphocytes with anti-CD5 antibodies results in an increase of the intracellular Ca21 levels, and subsequently in the activation of Ca21/calmodulin-dependent

  14. Impact of the New Generation Reconstituted Surfactant CHF5633 on Human CD4+ Lymphocytes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Markus Fehrholz

    Full Text Available Natural surfactant preparations, commonly isolated from porcine or bovine lungs, are used to treat respiratory distress syndrome in preterm infants. Besides biophysical effectiveness, several studies have documented additional immunomodulatory properties. Within the near future, synthetic surfactant preparations may be a promising alternative. CHF5633 is a new generation reconstituted synthetic surfactant preparation with defined composition, containing dipalmitoyl-phosphatidylcholine, palmitoyl-oleoyl-phosphatidylglycerol and synthetic analogs of surfactant protein (SP- B and SP-C. While its biophysical effectiveness has been demonstrated in vitro and in vivo, possible immunomodulatory abilities are currently unknown.The aim of the current study was to define a potential impact of CHF5633 and its single components on pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokine responses in human CD4+ lymphocytes.Purified human CD4+ T cells were activated using anti CD3/CD28 antibodies and exposed to CHF5633, its components, or to the well-known animal-derived surfactant Poractant alfa (Curosurf®. Proliferative response and cell viability were assessed using flow cytometry and a methylthiazolyldiphenyltetrazolium bromide colorimetric assay. The mRNA expression of IFNγ, IL-2, IL-17A, IL-22, IL-4, and IL-10 was measured by quantitative PCR, while intracellular protein expression was assessed by means of flow cytometry.Neither CHF5633 nor any of its phospholipid components with or without SP-B or SP-C analogs had any influence on proliferative ability and viability of CD4+ lymphocytes under the given conditions. IFNγ, IL-2, IL-17A, IL-22, IL-4, and IL-10 mRNA as well as IFNγ, IL-2, IL-4 and IL-10 protein levels were unaffected in both non-activated and activated CD4+ lymphocytes after exposure to CHF5633 or its constituents compared to non-exposed controls. However, in comparison to Curosurf®, expression levels of anti-inflammatory IL-4 and IL-10 mRNA were

  15. Monocyte-lymphocyte fusion induced by the HIV-1 envelope generates functional heterokaryons with an activated monocyte-like phenotype

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martínez-Méndez, David; Rivera-Toledo, Evelyn; Ortega, Enrique; Licona-Limón, Ileana; Huerta, Leonor, E-mail: leonorhh@biomedicas.unam.mx

    2017-03-01

    Enveloped viruses induce cell-cell fusion when infected cells expressing viral envelope proteins interact with target cells, or through the contact of cell-free viral particles with adjoining target cells. CD4{sup +} T lymphocytes and cells from the monocyte-macrophage lineage express receptors for HIV envelope protein. We have previously reported that lymphoid Jurkat T cells expressing the HIV-1 envelope protein (Env) can fuse with THP-1 monocytic cells, forming heterokaryons with a predominantly myeloid phenotype. This study shows that the expression of monocytic markers in heterokaryons is stable, whereas the expression of lymphoid markers is mostly lost. Like THP-1 cells, heterokaryons exhibited FcγR-dependent phagocytic activity and showed an enhanced expression of the activation marker ICAM-1 upon stimulation with PMA. In addition, heterokaryons showed morphological changes compatible with maturation, and high expression of the differentiation marker CD11b in the absence of differentiation-inducing agents. No morphological change nor increase in CD11b expression were observed when an HIV-fusion inhibitor blocked fusion, or when THP-1 cells were cocultured with Jurkat cells expressing a non-fusogenic Env protein, showing that differentiation was not induced merely by cell-cell interaction but required cell-cell fusion. Inhibition of TLR2/TLR4 signaling by a TIRAP inhibitor greatly reduced the expression of CD11b in heterokaryons. Thus, lymphocyte-monocyte heterokaryons induced by HIV-1 Env are stable and functional, and fusion prompts a phenotype characteristic of activated monocytes via intracellular TLR2/TLR4 signaling. - Highlights: • Jurkat T cells expressing the HIV-1 envelope fuse with THP-1 monocytes. • Heterokaryons display a dominant myeloid phenotype and monocyte function. • Heterokaryons exhibit activation features in the absence of activation agents. • Activation is not due to cell-cell interaction but requires cell-cell fusion. • The

  16. Monocyte-lymphocyte fusion induced by the HIV-1 envelope generates functional heterokaryons with an activated monocyte-like phenotype

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martínez-Méndez, David; Rivera-Toledo, Evelyn; Ortega, Enrique; Licona-Limón, Ileana; Huerta, Leonor

    2017-01-01

    Enveloped viruses induce cell-cell fusion when infected cells expressing viral envelope proteins interact with target cells, or through the contact of cell-free viral particles with adjoining target cells. CD4"+ T lymphocytes and cells from the monocyte-macrophage lineage express receptors for HIV envelope protein. We have previously reported that lymphoid Jurkat T cells expressing the HIV-1 envelope protein (Env) can fuse with THP-1 monocytic cells, forming heterokaryons with a predominantly myeloid phenotype. This study shows that the expression of monocytic markers in heterokaryons is stable, whereas the expression of lymphoid markers is mostly lost. Like THP-1 cells, heterokaryons exhibited FcγR-dependent phagocytic activity and showed an enhanced expression of the activation marker ICAM-1 upon stimulation with PMA. In addition, heterokaryons showed morphological changes compatible with maturation, and high expression of the differentiation marker CD11b in the absence of differentiation-inducing agents. No morphological change nor increase in CD11b expression were observed when an HIV-fusion inhibitor blocked fusion, or when THP-1 cells were cocultured with Jurkat cells expressing a non-fusogenic Env protein, showing that differentiation was not induced merely by cell-cell interaction but required cell-cell fusion. Inhibition of TLR2/TLR4 signaling by a TIRAP inhibitor greatly reduced the expression of CD11b in heterokaryons. Thus, lymphocyte-monocyte heterokaryons induced by HIV-1 Env are stable and functional, and fusion prompts a phenotype characteristic of activated monocytes via intracellular TLR2/TLR4 signaling. - Highlights: • Jurkat T cells expressing the HIV-1 envelope fuse with THP-1 monocytes. • Heterokaryons display a dominant myeloid phenotype and monocyte function. • Heterokaryons exhibit activation features in the absence of activation agents. • Activation is not due to cell-cell interaction but requires cell-cell fusion. • The

  17. Major histocompatibility complex class I molecule expression is normal on peripheral blood lymphocytes from patients with insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus.

    OpenAIRE

    Hao, W; Gladstone, P; Engardt, S; Greenbaum, C; Palmer, J P

    1996-01-01

    Recent work from one laboratory has shown, in both nonobese diabetic mice and humans, an association between insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM) and quantitative difference in MHC class I molecule expression. This reported decrease in MHC class I molecule expression is very controversial in the nonobese diabetic mouse model of IDDM, but to our knowledge, it has not been evaluated by another group in human IDDM. To evaluate this question, we studied 30 patients with IDDM and 30 age- and...

  18. Expression profiles of the immune genes CD4, CD8β, IFNγ, IL-4, IL-6 and IL-10 in mitogen-stimulated koala lymphocytes (Phascolarctos cinereus by qRT-PCR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iona E. Maher

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Investigation of the immune response of the koala (Phascolarctos cinereus is needed urgently, but has been limited by scarcity of species-specific reagents and methods for this unique and divergent marsupial. Infectious disease is an important threat to wild populations of koalas; the most widespread and important of these is Chlamydial disease, caused by Chlamydia pecorum and Chlamydia pneumoniae. In addition, koala retrovirus (KoRV, which is of 100% prevalence in northern Australia, has been proposed as an important agent of immune suppression that could explain the koala’s susceptibility to disease. The correct balance of T regulatory, T helper 1 (Th1 and Th2 lymphocyte responses are important to an individual’s susceptibility or resistance to chlamydial infection. The ability to study chlamydial or KoRV pathogenesis, effects of environmental stressors on immunity, and the response of koalas to vaccines under development, by examining the koala’s adaptive response to natural infection or in-vitro stimulation, has been limited to date by a paucity of species- specific reagents. In this study we have used cytokine sequences from four marsupial genomes to identify mRNA sequences for key T regulatory, Th1 and Th2 cytokines interleukin 4 (IL-4, interleukin 6 (IL-6, interleukin 10 (IL-10 and interferon gamma (IFNγ along with CD4 and CD8β. The koala sequences used for primer design showed >58% homology with grey short-tailed opossum, >71% with tammar wallaby and 78% with Tasmanian devil amino acid sequences. We report the development of real-time RT-PCR assays to measure the expression of these genes in unstimulated cells and after three common mitogen stimulation protocols (phorbol myristate acetate/ionomycin, phorbol myristate acetate/phytohemagglutinin and concanavalin A. Phorbol myristate acetate/ionomycin was found to be the most effective mitogen to up-regulate the production of IL-4, IL-10 and IFNγ. IL-6 production was not

  19. Expression profiles of the immune genes CD4, CD8β, IFNγ, IL-4, IL-6 and IL-10 in mitogen-stimulated koala lymphocytes (Phascolarctos cinereus) by qRT-PCR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maher, Iona E; Griffith, Joanna E; Lau, Quintin; Reeves, Thomas; Higgins, Damien P

    2014-01-01

    Investigation of the immune response of the koala (Phascolarctos cinereus) is needed urgently, but has been limited by scarcity of species-specific reagents and methods for this unique and divergent marsupial. Infectious disease is an important threat to wild populations of koalas; the most widespread and important of these is Chlamydial disease, caused by Chlamydia pecorum and Chlamydia pneumoniae. In addition, koala retrovirus (KoRV), which is of 100% prevalence in northern Australia, has been proposed as an important agent of immune suppression that could explain the koala's susceptibility to disease. The correct balance of T regulatory, T helper 1 (Th1) and Th2 lymphocyte responses are important to an individual's susceptibility or resistance to chlamydial infection. The ability to study chlamydial or KoRV pathogenesis, effects of environmental stressors on immunity, and the response of koalas to vaccines under development, by examining the koala's adaptive response to natural infection or in-vitro stimulation, has been limited to date by a paucity of species- specific reagents. In this study we have used cytokine sequences from four marsupial genomes to identify mRNA sequences for key T regulatory, Th1 and Th2 cytokines interleukin 4 (IL-4), interleukin 6 (IL-6), interleukin 10 (IL-10) and interferon gamma (IFNγ) along with CD4 and CD8β. The koala sequences used for primer design showed >58% homology with grey short-tailed opossum, >71% with tammar wallaby and 78% with Tasmanian devil amino acid sequences. We report the development of real-time RT-PCR assays to measure the expression of these genes in unstimulated cells and after three common mitogen stimulation protocols (phorbol myristate acetate/ionomycin, phorbol myristate acetate/phytohemagglutinin and concanavalin A). Phorbol myristate acetate/ionomycin was found to be the most effective mitogen to up-regulate the production of IL-4, IL-10 and IFNγ. IL-6 production was not consistently up-regulated by

  20. CHARACTERIZATION OF TWO MONOCLONAL ANTIBODIES WHICH RECOGNIZE DIFFERENT SUBPOPULATIONS OF CHICKEN T LYMPHOCYTES

    OpenAIRE

    KONDO, Takashi; HATTORI, Masakazu; KODAMA, Hiroshi; ONUMA, Misao; MIKAMI, Takeshi

    1990-01-01

    Distribution among peripheral T lymphocyte subpopulations and biochemical properties of the chicken lymphocyte surface antigens defined by monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) Lc-4 and Lc-6 were examined. Two-color immunofluorescence analysis revealed that Lc-4 and Lc-6 antigens were expressed on mutually exclusive subpopulations of peripheral T lymphocytes but not on B lymphocytes. Lc-4 mAb precipitated a polypeptide with apparent molecular mass of 35 and 65 kilodalton under reducing and non-reducin...

  1. Cloning and expression of canine CD25 for validation of an anti-human CD25 antibody to compare T regulatory lymphocytes in healthy dogs and dogs with osteosarcoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rissetto, K C; Rindt, H; Selting, K A; Villamil, J A; Henry, C J; Reinero, C R

    2010-05-15

    T regulatory cells (Tregs) are a unique subset of T helper cells that serve to modify/inhibit effector cells of the immune system and thus are essential to prevent autoimmunity. Overzealous Treg activity may contribute to impaired immune responses to cancer. Tregs can be phenotypically identified by proteins expressed on the cell surface (CD4 and CD25) and inside the cell (forkhead box3 (FoxP3)), although in dogs, no anti-canine CD25 antibody exists. We hypothesized that a mouse anti-human CD25 antibody definitively recognizes the canine protein and can be used to identify Tregs in dogs. We describe cloning and transfection of the canine CD25 gene into human HeLa cells with subsequent expression of the canine protein on the cell surface detected using an anti-human CD25 antibody in a flow cytometric assay. Validation of this antibody was used to identify CD4+CD25+FoxP3+ Tregs in 39 healthy dogs and 16 dogs with osteosarcoma (OSA). Results were expressed in five different ways and showed significantly fewer %CD4+CD25+ T lymphocytes expressing FoxP3 in blood of older dogs (>/=7 years) compared with the other two age groups (<2 and 2-6 years) (p<0.001) and fewer %CD4+CD25+FoxP3+ Tregs in the tumor draining lymph nodes of OSA patients compared to the unrelated lymph node (p=0.049). However, there was no significant difference in % Tregs in the peripheral blood or lymph nodes between the control dogs and those with OSA. While the CD25 antibody can be successfully used in a flow cytometric assay to identify Tregs, this study does not support clinical utility of phenotypic recognition of Tregs in dogs with OSA. Copyright 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Tumoral immune-infiltrate (IF), PD-L1 expression and role of CD8/TIA-1 lymphocytes in localized osteosarcoma patients treated within protocol ISG-OS1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmerini, Emanuela; Agostinelli, Claudio; Picci, Piero; Pileri, Stefano; Marafioti, Teresa; Lollini, Pier-Luigi; Scotlandi, Katia; Longhi, Alessandra; Benassi, Maria Serena; Ferrari, Stefano

    2017-12-19

    We hypothesized that immune-infiltrates were associated with superior survival, and examined a primary osteosarcoma tissue microarrays (TMAs) to test this hypothesis. 129 patients (pts) with localized osteosarcoma treated within protocol ISG-OS1 were included in the study. Clinical characteristics, expression of CD8, CD3, FOXP3, CD20, CD68/CD163 (tumor associated macrophage, TAM), Tia-1 (cytotoxic T cell), CD303 (plasmacytoid dendritic cells: pDC), Arginase-1 (myeloid derived suppressor cells: MDSC), PD-1 on immune-cells (IC), and PD-L1 on tumoral cells (TC) and IC were analysed and correlated with outcome. Most of the cases presented tumor infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs) (CD3+ 90%; CD8+ 86%). Tia-1 was detected in 73% of the samples. PD-L1 expression was found in 14% patients in IC and 0% in TC; 22% showed PD-1 expression in IC.With a median follow-up of 8 years (range 1-13), the 5-year overall survival (5-year OS) was 74% (95% CI 64-85). Univariate analysis showed better 5-year OS for: a) pts with a good histologic response to neoadjuvant chemotherapy (p = 0.0001); b) pts with CD8/Tia1 tumoral infiltrates (p = 0.002); c) pts with normal alkaline phosphatas (sALP) (p = 0.04). After multivariate analysis, histologic response (p = 0.007) and CD8/Tia1 infiltration (p = 0.01) were independently correlated with survival. In the subset of pts with CD8+ infiltrate, worse (p 0.02) OS was observed for PD-L1(IC)+ cases. Our findings support the hypothesis that CD8/Tia1 infiltrate in tumor microenvironment at diagnosis confers superior survival for pts with localized osteosarcoma, while PD-L1 expression is associated with worse survival.

  3. Mycobacterium intracellulare Pleurisy Identified on Liquid Cultures of the Pleural Fluid and Pleural Biopsy

    OpenAIRE

    Lim, Jong Gu; O, Sei Won; Lee, Ki Dong; Suk, Dong Keun; Jung, Tae Young; Shim, Tae Sun; Chon, Gyu Rak

    2013-01-01

    Pleural effusion is a rare complication in non-tuberculous mycobacterial infection. We report a case of Mycobacterium intracellulare pleuritis with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis in a 69-year-old man presenting with dyspnea. Pleural effusion revealed lymphocyte dominant exudate. M. intracellulare was identified using a polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism method and liquid cultures of pleural effusion and pleural biopsy. After combination therapy for M. intracellu...

  4. Treatment with 5-Aza-2'-Deoxycytidine Induces Expression of NY-ESO-1 and Facilitates Cytotoxic T Lymphocyte-Mediated Tumor Cell Killing.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnes S Klar

    Full Text Available NY-ESO-1 belongs to the cancer/testis antigen (CTA family and represents an attractive target for cancer immunotherapy. Its expression is induced in a variety of solid tumors via DNA demethylation of the promoter of CpG islands. However, NY-ESO-1 expression is usually very low or absent in some tumors such as breast cancer or multiple myeloma. Therefore, we established an optimized in vitro treatment protocol for up-regulation of NY-ESO-1 expression by tumor cells using the hypomethylating agent 5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine (DAC.We demonstrated de novo induction of NY-ESO-1 in MCF7 breast cancer cells and significantly increased expression in U266 multiple myeloma cells. This effect was time- and dose-dependent with the highest expression of NY-ESO-1 mRNA achieved by the incubation of 10 μM DAC for 72 hours. NY-ESO-1 activation was also confirmed at the protein level as shown by Western blot, flow cytometry, and immunofluorescence staining. The detection and quantification of single NY-ESO-1 peptides presented at the tumor cell surface in the context of HLA-A*0201 molecules revealed an increase of 100% and 50% for MCF7 and U266 cells, respectively. Moreover, the enhanced expression of NY-ESO-1 derived peptides at the cell surface was accompanied by an increased specific lysis of MCF7 and U266 cells by HLA-A*0201/NY-ESO-1(157-165 peptide specific chimeric antigen receptor (CAR CD8+ T cells. In addition, the killing activity of CAR T cells correlated with the secretion of higher IFN-gamma levels.These results indicate that NY-ESO-1 directed immunotherapy with specific CAR T cells might benefit from concomitant DAC treatment.

  5. Expression of intra- and extracellular granzymes in patients with typhoid fever

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Jong, Hanna K.; Garcia-Laorden, Maria Isabel; Hoogendijk, Arie J.; Parry, Christopher M.; Maude, Rapeephan R.; Dondorp, Arjen M.; Faiz, Mohammed Abul; van der Poll, Tom; Wiersinga, Willem Joost

    2017-01-01

    Background Typhoid fever, caused by the intracellular pathogen Salmonella (S.) enterica serovar Typhi, remains a major cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Granzymes are serine proteases promoting cytotoxic lymphocytes mediated eradication of intracellular pathogens via the induction of cell

  6. Heat Shock Protein HSP27 Secretion by Ovarian Cancer Cells Is Linked to Intracellular Expression Levels, Occurs Independently of the Endoplasmic Reticulum Pathway and HSP27’s Phosphorylation Status, and Is Mediated by Exosome Liberation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthias B. Stope

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The heat shock protein HSP27 has been correlated in ovarian cancer (OC patients with aggressiveness and chemoresistance and, therefore, represents a promising potential biomarker for OC diagnosis, prognosis, and treatment response. Notably, secretion of soluble HSP27 has been described by a few cell types and may take place as well in OC cells. Therefore, we studied HSP27 secretion mechanisms under diverse cellular conditions in an OC cell model system. Secretion of HSP27 was characterized after overexpression of HSP27 by transfected plasmids and after heat shock. Intra- and extracellular HSP27 amounts were assessed by Western blotting and ELISA. Protein secretion was blocked by brefeldin A and the impact of the HSP27 phosphorylation status was analyzed overexpressing HSP27 phosphomutants. The present study demonstrated that HSP27 secretion by OVCAR-3 and SK-OV-3 cells depends on intracellular HSP27 concentrations. Moreover, HSP27 secretion is independent of the endoplasmic reticulum secretory pathway and HSP27 phosphorylation. Notably, analysis of OC cell-born exosomes not only confirmed the concentration-dependent correlation of HSP27 expression and secretion but also demonstrated a concentration-dependent incorporation of HSP27 protein into exosomes. Thus, secreted HSP27 may become more important as an extracellular factor which controls the tumor microenvironment and might be a noninvasive biomarker.

  7. Divergent frequencies of IGF-I receptor-expressing blood lymphocytes in monozygotic twin pairs discordant for Graves' disease: evidence for a phenotypic signature ascribable to nongenetic factors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Douglas, Raymond S; Brix, Thomas H; Hwang, Catherine J

    2009-01-01

    CONTEXT: Graves' disease (GD) is an autoimmune process of the thyroid and orbital connective tissues. The fraction of T and B cells expressing IGF-I receptor (IGF-IR) is increased in GD. It is a potentially important autoantigen in GD. Susceptibility to GD arises from both genetic and acquired...

  8. Co-Culturing of Multipotent Mesenchymal Stromal Cells with Autological and Allogenic Lymphocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapranov, N M; Davydova, Yu O; Gal'tseva, I V; Petinati, N A; Bakshinskaitė, M V; Drize, N I; Kuz'mina, L A; Parovichnikova, E N; Savchenko, V G

    2018-03-01

    We studied the effect of autologous and allogeneic lymphocytes on multipotent mesenchymal stromal cells in co-culture. It is shown that changes in multipotent mesenchymal stromal cells and in lymphocytes did not depend on the source of lymphocytes. Contact with lymphocytes triggers expression of HLA-DR molecules on multipotent mesenchymal stromal cells and these cells lose their immune privilege. In multipotent mesenchymal stromal cells, the relative level of expression of factors involved in immunomodulation (IDO1, PTGES, and IL-6) and expression of adhesion molecule ICAM1 increased, while expression of genes involved in the differentiation of multipotent mesenchymal stromal cells remained unchanged. Priming of multipotent mesenchymal stromal cells with IFN did not affect these changes. In turn, lymphocytes underwent activation, expression of HLA-DR increased, subpopulation composition of lymphocytes changed towards the increase in the content of naïve T cells. These findings are important for cell therapy.

  9. Cytokine expression before and after aspirin desensitization therapy in aspirin-exacerbated respiratory disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aktas, Ayse; Kurt, Emel; Gulbas, Zafer

    2013-12-01

    Aspirin exacerbated respiratory disease (AERD) is induced by acetylsalicylic acid (ASA) and/or nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs (NSAIDs). Effects of desensitization on many mediators have been examined previously, but few studies addressed the influence of desensitization on T lymphocytes and T lymphocyte-derived cytokines. This study was performed to examine peripheral blood lymphocyte (PBL) cytokine expression in aspirin-sensitive patients who have asthma before and after aspirin desensitization. In this study, the release of interleukin-2 (IL-2), interleukin-4 (IL-4), and interferon-gamma (IFN-γ) by CD4+ T lymphocytes prior to aspirin desensitization were also measured at intracellular levels, and expression of these cytokines after 1 month aspirin desensitization was evaluated. Twelve patients with AERD were included in the study. Two different control groups were formed, one consisted of 15 healthy people and second 12 aspirin tolerant asthmatic (ATA) patients using aspirin. A blood sample was collected prior to desensitization, and the tests were repeated by taking a second blood sample 1 month after the 4-day desensitization treatment. The proportion of lymphocytes secreting IFN-γ in the study group was 15.61 ± 4.40 % before desensitization and 15.08 ± 5.89 % after desensitization. The rate of IFN-γ secreting CD4+ T lymphocytes was 20.51 ± 4.41 % in the normal control group and 16.07 ± 5.7 % in the ATA group (p = 0.021). The ratio of CD4+ T lymphocyte secreting IFN-γ was reduced in patients with AERD before desensitization compared to normal control group (p = 0.040). The levels of IL-2, IL-4, and the subsets of lymphocyte were not different before and after desensitization compared to control groups.

  10. Expresión de L-selectina en linfocitos T y neutrófilos de niños infectados con HIV L-selectin expression on T lymphocytes and neutrophils in HIV infected children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaddi Eduardo

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available La capacidad de los leucocitos de abandonar la circulación y migrar hacia los tejidos es un paso crítico de la respuesta inmune. La L-selectina, selectina leucocitaria (CD62L, media la unión de linfocitos a las vénulas endoteliales altas de los ganglios linfáticos periféricos, y también participa en la adhesión de linfocitos, neutrófilos y monocitos al endotelio vascular activado en los sitios de inflamación. En este trabajo se estudiaron los niveles de expresión de L-selectina sobre los linfocitos T y polimorfonucleares neutrófilos en 25 niños HIV(+ sin tratamiento antirretroviral y 25 niños sanos HIV(-, evaluando además su comportamiento en 10 de los pacientes, luego de 6 meses de iniciada la terapéutica específica para el HIV. El número de linfocitos TCD3+, CD4+ y CD8+ que expresan CD62L se encontró significativamente disminuido en los niños HIV(+ con respecto al grupo control. El porcentaje de neutrófilos que expresan CD62L se encontró significativamente disminuido en los pacientes con mayor compromiso inmunológico. Se observó una correlación positiva entre los niveles de LTCD4+ y el porcentaje de neutrófilos que expresan CD62L. Luego de 6 meses de tratamiento antirretroviral no hubo cambios significativos en los niveles de expresión de CD62L sobre LTCD4+ y LTCD8+. La reducción en los niveles de expresión de L-selectina en estos tipos celulares sugiere que durante la infección por HIV las funciones leucocitarias tales como la migración y el asentamiento linfocitario son anormales, contribuyendo al progresivo deterioro inmune.The ability of leukocytes to leave the circulation and migrate into tissues is a critical feature of the immune response. L-selectin (CD62L, the leukocyte selectin, mediates the binding of lymphocytes to high endothelial venules of peripheral lymph nodes and is also involved in lymphocyte, neutrophil and monocyte attachment to vascular endothelium at sites of inflammation. In this study L

  11. Temporal protein expression pattern in intracellular signalling ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2015-09-28

    Sep 28, 2015 ... targets for the treatment of various T-cells, immune-related diseases. We hope ... signifies the alternative routes of signal propagation. The molecules kept in ...... growth factor, mitogens for vascular cells and fibroblasts: dif- ferential ..... tumor necrosis factor contributes to CD8(+) T cell survival in the transition ...

  12. Expression of XRCC5 in peripheral blood lymphocytes is upregulated in subjects from a heavily polluted region in the Czech Republic

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Rössner ml., Pavel; Uhlířová, Kateřina; Beskid, Olena; Rössnerová, Andrea; Švecová, Vlasta; Šrám, Radim

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 713, 1-2 (2011), s. 76-82 ISSN 0027-5107 R&D Projects: GA MŽP(CZ) SP/1B3/8/08; GA MŠk 2B08005 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50390512 Keywords : oxidative stress * chromosomal aberrations * gene expression Subject RIV: DN - Health Impact of the Environment Quality Impact factor: 2.850, year: 2011

  13. Association of suboptimal health status with psychosocial stress, plasma cortisol and mRNA expression of glucocorticoid receptor α/β in lymphocyte.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Yu-Xiang; Dong, Jing; Liu, You-Qin; Zhang, Jie; Song, Man-Shu; He, Yan; Wang, Wei

    2015-01-01

    Suboptimal health status (SHS) has become a new public health challenge in China. This study investigated whether high SHS is associated with psychosocial stress, changes in cortisol level and/or glucocorticoid receptor (GR) isoform expression. Three-hundred eighty-six workers employed in three companies in Beijing were recruited. The SHS score was derived from data collection in the SHS questionnaire (SHSQ-25). The short standard version of the Copenhagen Psychosocial Questionnaire (COPSOQ) was used to assess job-related psychosocial stress. The mean value of the five scales of COPSOQ and distribution of plasma cortisol and mRNA expression of GRα/GRβ between the high level of SHS group and the low level of SHS group were compared using a general linear model procedure. Multiple linear regression analysis was used to analyze the effect of psychosocial stress on SHS. We identified three factors that were predictive of SHS, including "demands at work", "interpersonal relations and leadership" and "insecurity at work". Significantly higher levels of plasma cortisol and GRβ/GRα mRNA ratio were observed among the high SHS group. High level of SHS is associated with decreased mRNA expression of GRα. This study confirmed the association between chronic psychosocial stress and SHS, indicating that improving the psychosocial work environment may reduce SHS and then prevent chronic diseases effectively.

  14. Critical role of γ4 chain in the expression of functional Vγ4Vδ1 T cell receptor of gastric tumour-infiltrating γδT lymphocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Y; Tang, F; Li, Z; Cui, L; He, W

    2012-01-01

    Vγ4Vδ1 T cell receptor (TCRγ4δ1)-expressing γδT cells were the most dominant subset in gastric tumour-infiltrating γδT cells (γδTIL) we recently analyzed. To study the essential roles of γ and δ chains in assembly and function of TCRγ4δ1, we sequenced and constructed them into lentiviral vectors for the reconstitution of TCRγ4δ1 using different modalities of transduction. We were able to efficiently reconstitute TCRγ4δ1 with functional activities when both γ4 and δ1 chains are coexpressed in TCR-negative J.RT3-T3.5 cells. However, the expression of δ1 chain is greatly diminished when γ4 expression is absent, suggesting that the coexpressing γ4 is critical in maintaining the folding and stability of δ1 product. To functionally study the reconstituted TCRγ4δ1, we examined the cytolytic activity of TCRγ4δ1-reconstituted J.RT3-T3.5 cells and cytokine secretion and found the receptors are fully functional, but their functionality also requires the presence of γ4. Our results demonstrated that γ4 is critical for the stability of δ1 and the function of TCRγ4δ1. © 2011 The Authors. Scandinavian Journal of Immunology © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  15. In vivo Exposure Effects of 99mTc-methoxyisobutylisonitrile on the FDXR and XPA Genes Expression in Human Peripheral Blood Lymphocytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Taghi Bahreyni-Toossi

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective(s: In recent years, the application of radiopharmaceuticals in nuclear medicine has increased substantially. Following the diagnostic procedures performed in nuclear medicine departments, such as myocardial perfusion imaging, patients generally receive considerable doses of radiation. Normally, radiation-induced DNA damages are expected following exposure to a low-dose ionizing radiation. In order to detect molecular changes, high-sensitivity techniques must be utilized. The aim of this study was to assess the effect of a low-dose (below 10 mSv gamma ray on gene expression using quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR. Methods: Blood samples were obtained from 20 volunteer patients who underwent myocardial perfusion imaging. They were given various doses of Technetium99-m methoxyisobutylisonitrile (99mTc-MIBI. After that, peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMNs were derived, and then total RNA was extracted and reverse-transcribed to cDNA. Finally, the expression levels of xeroderma pigmentosum complementation group-A (XPA and ferredoxin reductase (FDXR genes were determinded through qRT-PCR technique using SYBR Green. Results: XPA and FDXR expression levels were obtained following a very low-dose ionizing radiation. A significant up-regulation of both genes was observed, and the gene expression level of each individual patient was different. If differences in the administered activity and radiosensitivity are taken into account, the observed differences could be justified. Furthermore, gender and age did not play a significant role in the expression levels of the genes under study. Conclusion: The up-regulation of FDXR after irradiation revealed the high-sensitivity level of this gene; therefore, it could be used as an appropriate biomarker for biological dosimetry. On the other hand, the up-regulation of XPA is an indication of DNA repair following radiation exposure. According to linear no-threshold model (LNT

  16. CD151 supports VCAM-1-mediated lymphocyte adhesion to liver endothelium and is upregulated in chronic liver disease and hepatocellular carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wadkin, James C R; Patten, Daniel A; Kamarajah, Sivesh K; Shepherd, Emma L; Novitskaya, Vera; Berditchevski, Fedor; Adams, David H; Weston, Chris J; Shetty, Shishir

    2017-08-01

    CD151, a member of the tetraspanin family of receptors, is a lateral organizer and modulator of activity of several families of transmembrane proteins. It has been implicated in the development and progression of several cancers, but its role in chronic inflammatory disease is less well understood. Here we show that CD151 is upregulated by distinct microenvironmental signals in a range of chronic inflammatory liver diseases and in primary liver cancer, in which it supports lymphocyte recruitment. CD151 was highly expressed in endothelial cells of the hepatic sinusoids and neovessels developing in fibrotic septa and tumor margins. Primary cultures of human hepatic sinusoidal endothelial cells (HSECs) expressed CD151 at the cell membrane and in intracellular vesicles. CD151 was upregulated by VEGF and HepG2 conditioned media but not by proinflammatory cytokines. Confocal microscopy confirmed that CD151 colocalized with the endothelial adhesion molecule/immunoglobulin superfamily member, VCAM-1. Functional flow-based adhesion assays with primary human lymphocytes and HSECs demonstrated a 40% reduction of lymphocyte adhesion with CD151 blockade. Inhibition of lymphocyte adhesion was similar between VCAM-1 blockade and a combination of CD151/VCAM-1 blockade, suggesting a collaborative role between the two receptors. These studies demonstrate that CD151 is upregulated within the liver during chronic inflammation, where it supports lymphocyte recruitment via liver endothelium. We propose that CD151 regulates the activity of VCAM-1 during lymphocyte recruitment to the human liver and could be a novel anti-inflammatory target in chronic liver disease and hepatocellular cancer prevention. NEW & NOTEWORTHY Chronic hepatitis is characterized by lymphocyte accumulation in liver tissue, which drives fibrosis and carcinogenesis. Here, we demonstrate for the first time that the tetraspanin CD151 supports lymphocyte adhesion to liver endothelium. We show that CD151 is upregulated

  17. Coexpresión de CD4 y CD8 en linfocitos de sangre periférica en pacientes positivos para VIH Peripheral blood lymphocyte CD4 and CD8 co-expression in HIV positive patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto Gómez

    2008-12-01

    acute prolymphocytic T cell leukemia or adult T cell leukemias, and it does not represent more than 3-5% of peripheral T lymphocytes in non-leukemic patients. The aim of this work was to define the frequency of CD4+CD8+ lymphocytes among all the patient samples received at a reference laboratory in Colombia during 2007. Design: A total of 1,883 different samples were typed for T cell subpopulations in 2007, and the corresponding results were reviewed. Additionally, 142 samples received and typed in January 2008 were tabulated in order to establish reference values. Materials and methods: Whole blood samples were labeled with fluorescent monoclonal antibodies using the Cyto-Stat® triCHROME™ CD8-FITC/CD4-RD1/CD3-PC5 reagent and thereafter processed in an Epics XL-MCL cytometer. Results: The review of all of the patients analysed in 2007 revealed the existence of 2 individuals (0.11% in which we found high levels of CD4+CD8+ membrane co-expression. Conclusions: The finding of this rare lymphocytic phenotype in peripheral blood of non-leukemic patients should alert the laboratories that in typing CD4+ lymphocytes alone and not evaluating CD3 and CD8 markers, they might be overestimating the real percentages of CD4+CD8-cells on some patients, as well as underestimating an uncommon lymphocyte subpopulation that has been characterized as functionally distinct in a variety of infections and experimental models.

  18. Comparing of Cu/Zn SOD Gene Expression of Lymphocyte Cell and Malondialdehyde Level in Active Men and Women after Physical Training

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bakhtiar Tartibian

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: The purpose of this study is to compare Cu/Zn SOD mRNA and MDA level as a result of a session incremental exercise in active women and men. Materials and Methods: This research is a quasi-experimental study with repeated measurements in which 14 active female and 13 male subjects with age range 22-24 participated voluntarily. Then, blood was taken from brachial vein of the subjects in three stages before and after GXT (Graded exercise test and 3 hours after that and SYBER Green PCR Master mix reagent Kit and Real time-PCR were used to measure Cu/Zn SOD mRNA and spectrophotometer was used to measure MDA level.Results: MDA levels increased significantly in men during the recovery stage and after the exercise (p1=0.012 and p2 =0.014, but it did not increase significantly in active women. Also, MDA difference between the two genders was not reported significant in any of the exercise stages. Cu/Zn SOD gene expression did not increase significantly in either sex.Conclusion: The risk of injury from free radicals is more probable in active men than active women and vigorous physical activity does not significantly increase the Cu/Zn SOD gene expression.

  19. Acute Lymphocytic Leukemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... that may increase the risk of acute lymphocytic leukemia include: Previous cancer treatment. Children and adults who've had certain types of chemotherapy and radiation therapy for other kinds of cancer may have an increased ... leukemia. Exposure to radiation. People exposed to very high ...

  20. Mycobacterium intracellulare Pleurisy Identified on Liquid Cultures of the Pleural Fluid and Pleural Biopsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Jong Gu; O, Sei Won; Lee, Ki Dong; Suk, Dong Keun; Jung, Tae Young; Shim, Tae Sun; Chon, Gyu Rak

    2013-03-01

    Pleural effusion is a rare complication in non-tuberculous mycobacterial infection. We report a case of Mycobacterium intracellulare pleuritis with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis in a 69-year-old man presenting with dyspnea. Pleural effusion revealed lymphocyte dominant exudate. M. intracellulare was identified using a polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism method and liquid cultures of pleural effusion and pleural biopsy. After combination therapy for M. intracellulare pulmonary disease, the patient was clinically well at a 1-month follow-up.

  1. Increased Peripheral Blood Pro-Inflammatory/Cytotoxic Lymphocytes in Children with Bronchiectasis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G Hodge

    Full Text Available Bronchiectasis (BE in children is common in some communities including Indigenous children in Australia. Relatively little is known about the nature of systemic inflammation in these children, especially the contribution of specific pro-inflammatory and cytotoxic lymphocyte subsets: T-cells, natural killer (NK cells and NKT-like cells. We have shown that these cells produce increased cytotoxic (granzyme b and perforin and inflammatory (IFNγ and TNFα mediators in several adult chronic lung diseases and hypothesised that similar changes would be evident in children with BE.Intracellular cytotoxic mediators perforin and granzyme b and pro-inflammatory cytokines were measured in T cell subsets, NKT-like and NK cells from blood and bronchoalveolar samples from 12 children with BE and 10 aged-matched control children using flow cytometry.There was a significant increase in the percentage of CD8+ T cells and T and NKT-like subsets expressing perforin/granzyme and IFNγ and TNFα in blood in BE compared with controls. There was a further increase in the percentage of pro-inflammatory cytotoxic T cells in Indigenous compared with non-Indigenous children. There was no change in any of these mediators in BAL.Childhood bronchiectasis is associated with increased systemic pro-inflammatory/cytotoxic lymphocytes in the peripheral blood. Future studies need to examine the extent to which elevated levels of pro-inflammatory cytotoxic cells predict future co-morbidities.

  2. Nuclear trafficking of the HIV-1 pre-integration complex depends on the ADAM10 intracellular domain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Endsley, Mark A.; Somasunderam, Anoma D.; Li, Guangyu; Oezguen, Numan; Thiviyanathan, Varatharasa; Murray, James L.; Rubin, Donald H.; Hodge, Thomas W.

    2014-01-01

    Previously, we showed that ADAM10 is necessary for HIV-1 replication in primary human macrophages and immortalized cell lines. Silencing ADAM10 expression interrupted the HIV-1 life cycle prior to nuclear translocation of viral cDNA. Furthermore, our data indicated that HIV-1 replication depends on the expression of ADAM15 and γ-secretase, which proteolytically processes ADAM10. Silencing ADAM15 or γ-secretase expression inhibits HIV-1 replication between reverse transcription and nuclear entry. Here, we show that ADAM10 expression also supports replication in CD4 + T lymphocytes. The intracellular domain (ICD) of ADAM10 associates with the HIV-1 pre-integration complex (PIC) in the cytoplasm and immunoprecipitates and co-localizes with HIV-1 integrase, a key component of PIC. Taken together, our data support a model whereby ADAM15/γ-secretase processing of ADAM10 releases the ICD, which then incorporates into HIV-1 PIC to facilitate nuclear trafficking. Thus, these studies suggest ADAM10 as a novel therapeutic target for inhibiting HIV-1 prior to nuclear entry. - Highlights: • Nuclear trafficking of the HIV-1 pre-integration complex depends on ADAM10. • ADAM10 associates with HIV-1 integrase in the pre-integration complex. • HIV-1 replication depends on the expression of ADAM15 and γ-secretase. • Silencing ADAM15 or γ-secretase expression inhibits nuclear import of viral cDNA. • ADAM10 is important for HIV-1 replication in human macrophages and CD4 + T lymphocytes

  3. Nuclear trafficking of the HIV-1 pre-integration complex depends on the ADAM10 intracellular domain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Endsley, Mark A., E-mail: maendsle@utmb.edu [Department Internal Medicine, Division of Infectious Diseases, University of Texas Medical Branch, 301 University Blvd, Galveston, TX 77555 (United States); Somasunderam, Anoma D., E-mail: asomasun@utmb.edu [Department Internal Medicine, Division of Infectious Diseases, University of Texas Medical Branch, 301 University Blvd, Galveston, TX 77555 (United States); Li, Guangyu, E-mail: LIG001@mail.etsu.edu [Department of Internal Medicine, Quillen College of Medicine, East Tennessee State University, Johnson City, TN 37614 (United States); Oezguen, Numan, E-mail: numan.oezguen@bcm.edu [Department of Pathology and Immunology, Microbiome Center, Texas Children' s Hospital, Houston, TX 77030 (United States); Thiviyanathan, Varatharasa, E-mail: Varatharasa.Thiviyanathan@uth.tmc.edu [Institute of Molecular Medicine, University of Texas Health Science Center, Houston, TX 77030 (United States); Murray, James L., E-mail: jmurray100@yahoo.com [GeneTAG Technology, Inc., 3155 Northwoods Place, Norcross, GA 30071 (United States); Rubin, Donald H., E-mail: don.h.rubin@vanderbilt.edu [Research Medicine, VA Tennessee Valley Healthcare System, 1310 24th Ave. South, Nashville, TN 37212 (United States); Departments of Medicine, Pathology, Microbiology and Immunology, Vanderbilt University School of Medicine, 1161 21st Ave South, Nashville, TN 37232 (United States); Hodge, Thomas W., E-mail: twhodge3@gmail.com [Pre-clinical and Antiviral Research, Tamir Biotechnology, Inc., 12625 High Bluff Dr., Suite 113, San Diego, CA 92130 (United States); and others

    2014-04-15

    Previously, we showed that ADAM10 is necessary for HIV-1 replication in primary human macrophages and immortalized cell lines. Silencing ADAM10 expression interrupted the HIV-1 life cycle prior to nuclear translocation of viral cDNA. Furthermore, our data indicated that HIV-1 replication depends on the expression of ADAM15 and γ-secretase, which proteolytically processes ADAM10. Silencing ADAM15 or γ-secretase expression inhibits HIV-1 replication between reverse transcription and nuclear entry. Here, we show that ADAM10 expression also supports replication in CD4{sup +} T lymphocytes. The intracellular domain (ICD) of ADAM10 associates with the HIV-1 pre-integration complex (PIC) in the cytoplasm and immunoprecipitates and co-localizes with HIV-1 integrase, a key component of PIC. Taken together, our data support a model whereby ADAM15/γ-secretase processing of ADAM10 releases the ICD, which then incorporates into HIV-1 PIC to facilitate nuclear trafficking. Thus, these studies suggest ADAM10 as a novel therapeutic target for inhibiting HIV-1 prior to nuclear entry. - Highlights: • Nuclear trafficking of the HIV-1 pre-integration complex depends on ADAM10. • ADAM10 associates with HIV-1 integrase in the pre-integration complex. • HIV-1 replication depends on the expression of ADAM15 and γ-secretase. • Silencing ADAM15 or γ-secretase expression inhibits nuclear import of viral cDNA. • ADAM10 is important for HIV-1 replication in human macrophages and CD4{sup +} T lymphocytes.

  4. Increased Expression of Cytotoxic T-Lymphocyte-Associated Protein 4 by T Cells, Induced by B7 in Sera, Reduces Adaptive Immunity in Patients With Acute Liver Failure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Khamri, Wafa; Abeles, Robin D; Hou, Tie Zheng

    2017-01-01

    , hepatic sinusoidal endothelial cells, and biliary epithelial cells from healthy or diseased liver tissues. We also measured levels of soluble B7 serum samples from patients and controls, and mice with acetaminophen-induced liver injury using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays. RESULTS: Peripheral blood...... were found to have increased concentrations of soluble B7 compared to sera from controls. Necrotic human primary hepatocytes exposed to acetaminophen, but not hepatic sinusoidal endothelial cells and biliary epithelial cells from patients with ALF, secreted high levels of soluble B7. Sera from mice...... with acetaminophen-induced liver injury contained high levels of soluble B7 compared to sera from mice without liver injury. Plasma exchange reduced circulating levels of soluble B7 in patients with ALF and expression of CTLA4 on T cells. CONCLUSIONS: Peripheral CD4+T cells from patients with ALF have increased...

  5. Development of an Immunoperoxidase Monolayer Assay for the Detection of Antibodies against Peste des Petits Ruminants Virus Based on BHK-21 Cell Line Stably Expressing the Goat Signaling Lymphocyte Activation Molecule.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jialin Zhang

    Full Text Available From 2013 to 2015, peste des petits ruminants (PPR broke out in more than half of the provinces of China; thus, the application and development of diagnostic methods are very important for the control of PPR. Here, an immunoperoxidase monolayer assay (IPMA was developed to detect antibodies against PPR. However, during IPMA development, we found that Vero cells were not the appropriate choice because staining results were not easily observed. Therefore, we first established a baby hamster kidney-goat signaling lymphocyte activation molecule (BHK-SLAM cell line that could stably express goat SLAM for at least 20 generations. Compared with Vero cells, the PPR-mediated cytopathic effect occurred earlier in BHK-SLAM cells, and large syncytia appeared after virus infection. Based on this cell line and recombinant PPR virus expressing the green fluorescent protein (GFP (rPPRV-GFP, an IPMA for PPR diagnosis was developed. One hundred and ninety-eight PPR serum samples from goats or sheep were tested by the IPMA and virus neutralization test (VNT. Compared with the VNT, the sensitivity and specificity of the IPMA were 91% and 100%, respectively, and the coincidence rate of the two methods was 95.5%. The IPMA assay could be completed in 4 h, compared with more than 6 d for the VNT using rPPRV-GFP, and it is easily performed, as the staining results can be observed under a microscope. Additionally, unlike the VNT, the IPMA does not require antigen purification, which will reduce its cost. In conclusion, the established IPMA will be an alternative method that replaces the VNT for detecting antibodies against PPRV in the field.

  6. Lymphocyte mediators of delayed hypersensitivity; the early phase cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lefford, M J; McGregor, D D [Trudeau Inst., Saranac Lake, N.Y. (USA)

    1978-04-01

    Inbred rats were immunized with living Bacillus Calmette-Guerin (BCG) and lymphocytes which mediate tuberculin DTH and anti-tuberculosis immunity were found 10 days later in the draining lymph nodes, thoracic duct, blood, spleen, and acute peritoneal exudates. The lymphocytes that mediated DTH incorporated /sup 3/HT in vitro, were large in size, sensitive to vinblastine but relatively resistant to irradiation, and had a short effective lifespan in syngeneic recipients. These properties characterize the cells as short-lived, nonrecirculating immunoblasts. In some experimental situations it was possible to dissociate the expression of DTH and immunity following the transfer of sensitized lymphocytes.

  7. Response of human lymphocytes to low gamma ray doses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vega Carrillo, HR; Banuelos Valenzuela, R; Manzanares Acuna, E; Sanchez-Rodriguez, S.H

    2001-01-01

    Radiation and non-radiation workers lymphocytes were exposed to a low strength gamma-ray field to determine heat shock protein expression in function of radiation dose. Protein identification was carried out using mAb raised against Hsp25, Hsp60, Hsp70 and Hsp90; from these, only Hsp70 protein was detected before and after lymphocyte irradiation. In all cases, an increasing trend of relative amounts of Hsp70 in function to irradiation time was observed. After 70.5 mGy gamma-ray dose, radiation worker's lymphocytes expressed more Hsp70 protein, than non-radiation workers' lymphocytes, indicating a larger tolerance to gamma rays (gamma tolerance), due to an adaptation process developed by their labor condition (Au)

  8. Intracellular Events and Cell Fate in Filovirus Infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Ryabchikova

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Marburg and Ebola viruses cause a severe hemorrhagic disease in humans with high fatality rates. Early target cells of filoviruses are monocytes, macrophages, and dendritic cells. The infection spreads to the liver, spleen and later other organs by blood and lymph flow. A hallmark of filovirus infection is the depletion of non-infected lymphocytes; however, the molecular mechanisms leading to the observed bystander lymphocyte apoptosis are poorly understood. Also, there is limited knowledge about the fate of infected cells in filovirus disease. In this review we will explore what is known about the intracellular events leading to virus amplification and cell damage in filovirus infection. Furthermore, we will discuss how cellular dysfunction and cell death may correlate with disease pathogenesis.

  9. Lymphocyte Proliferation Response in Patients with Acute and Chronic Brucellosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khadijeh Khosravi

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background: Brucella is an intracellular bacterium that causes chronic infection in humans and domestic animals. The underlying mechanisms that cause prolonged illness are complex and not fully understood. Immune responses may have an important role in the chronicity of infection. Here, we evaluated the lymphocyte proliferation responses in patients with chronic and acute brucellosis. Materials and Methods: This descriptive - analytical study was performed on 22 patients with acute brucellosis, 21 patients with chronic brucellosis and 21 healthy people with the similar age, sex and genetic background as control group. Peripheral lymphocytes were isolated using Ficoll and the cellular proliferation was quantified in presence of antigen and phytohemaglutinin-A by MTT method. Results: The brucella antigen-specific stimulation index in patients with chronic brucellosis was significantly lower than the acute brucellosis patients (p=0.001. Also, stimulating the lymphocytes with phytohemaglutinin-A has shown that proliferative response in patients with chronic brucellosis was lower than the other groups (p=0.04. Conclusion: The results indicated that chronic brucellosis inhibits lymphocyte proliferation. This inhibition of lymphocyte proliferation may be due to the induction of anergy.

  10. Bare lymphocyte syndrome: imaging findings in an adult

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bernaerts, A.; Vandevenne, J.E.; De Schepper, A.M.; Lambert, J.; De Clerck, L.S.

    2001-01-01

    Bare lymphocyte syndrome (BLS) is a rare primary immune disorder characterized by defective expression of human leukocyte antigen (HLA) on lymphocytes, often resulting in extensive and recurrent multi-organ infections. We describe a previously undiagnosed case of an adult woman who presented with radiological findings of severe bronchiectases, near-total granulomatous destruction of facial bones, and osteomyelitis. Diagnosis of BLS should be considered when evaluating children with unexplained bronchiectases or adults with long history of chronic multi-organ infections. (orig.)

  11. Polarized Th2 like cells, in the absence of Th0 cells, are responsible for lymphocyte produced IL-4 in high IgE-producer schistosomiasis patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soares-Silveira Alda

    2002-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Human resistance to re-infection with S. mansoni is correlated with high levels of anti-soluble adult worm antigens (SWAP IgE. Although it has been shown that IL-4 and IL-5 are crucial in establishing IgE responses in vitro, the active in vivo production of these cytokines by T cells, and the degree of polarization of Th2 vs. Th0 in human schistosomiasis is not known. To address this question, we determined the frequency of IL-4 and IFN-γ or IL-5 and IL-2 producing lymphocytes from schistosomiasis patients with high or low levels of IgE anti-SWAP. Results Our analysis showed that high and low IgE-producers responded equally to schistosomiasis antigens as determined by proliferation. Moreover, patients from both groups displayed similar percentages of circulating lymphocytes. However, high IgE-producers had an increased percentage of activated CD4+ T cells as compared to the low IgE-producers. Moreover, intracellular cytokine analysis, after short-term stimulation with anti-CD3/CD28 mAbs, showed that IgE high-producers display an increase in the percentage of T lymphocytes expressing IL-4 and IL-5 as compared to IgE low-responders. A coordinate control of the frequency of IL-4 and IL-5 producing lymphocytes in IgE high, but not IgE low-responders, was observed. Conclusions High IgE phenotype human schistosomiasis patients exhibit a coordinate regulation of IL-4 and IL-5 producing cells and the lymphocyte derived IL-4 comes from true polarized Th2 like cells, in the absence of measurable Th0 cells as measured by co-production of IL-4 and IFN-γ.

  12. Intracellular localization of Arabidopsis sulfurtransferases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauer, Michael; Dietrich, Christof; Nowak, Katharina; Sierralta, Walter D; Papenbrock, Jutta

    2004-06-01

    Sulfurtransferases (Str) comprise a group of enzymes widely distributed in archaea, eubacteria, and eukaryota which catalyze the transfer of a sulfur atom from suitable sulfur donors to nucleophilic sulfur acceptors. In all organisms analyzed to date, small gene families encoding Str proteins have been identified. The gene products were localized to different compartments of the cells. Our interest concerns the localization of Str proteins encoded in the nuclear genome of Arabidopsis. Computer-based prediction methods revealed localization in different compartments of the cell for six putative AtStrs. Several methods were used to determine the localization of the AtStr proteins experimentally. For AtStr1, a mitochondrial localization was demonstrated by immunodetection in the proteome of isolated mitochondria resolved by one- and two-dimensional gel electrophoresis and subsequent blotting. The respective mature AtStr1 protein was identified by mass spectrometry sequencing. The same result was obtained by transient expression of fusion constructs with the green fluorescent protein in Arabidopsis protoplasts, whereas AtStr2 was exclusively localized to the cytoplasm by this method. Three members of the single-domain AtStr were localized in the chloroplasts as demonstrated by transient expression of green fluorescent protein fusions in protoplasts and stomata, whereas the single-domain AtStr18 was shown to be cytoplasmic. The remarkable subcellular distribution of AtStr15 was additionally analyzed by transmission electron immunomicroscopy using a monospecific antibody against green fluorescent protein, indicating an attachment to the thylakoid membrane. The knowledge of the intracellular localization of the members of this multiprotein family will help elucidate their specific functions in the organism.

  13. Dynamics of gradient formation by intracellular shuttling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berezhkovskii, Alexander M. [Mathematical and Statistical Computing Laboratory, Division of Computational Bioscience, Center for Information Technology, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland 20892 (United States); Shvartsman, Stanislav Y. [Department of Chemical and Biological Engineering and Lewis-Sigler Institute for Integrative Genomics, Princeton University, Princeton, New Jersey 08544 (United States)

    2015-08-21

    A number of important cellular functions rely on the formation of intracellular protein concentration gradients. Experimental studies discovered a number of mechanisms for the formation of such gradients. One of the mechanisms relies on the intracellular shuttling of a protein that interconverts between the two states with different diffusivities, under the action of two enzymes, one of which is localized to the plasma membrane, whereas the second is uniformly distributed in the cytoplasm. Recent work reported an analytical solution for the steady state gradient in this mechanism, obtained in the framework of a one-dimensional reaction-diffusion model. Here, we study the dynamics in this model and derive analytical expressions for the Laplace transforms of the time-dependent concentration profiles in terms of elementary transcendental functions. Inverting these transforms numerically, one can obtain time-dependent concentration profiles of the two forms of the protein.

  14. Curcumin and Cholecalciferol in Treating Patients With Previously Untreated Stage 0-II Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia or Small Lymphocytic Lymphoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-01-26

    Contiguous Stage II Small Lymphocytic Lymphoma; Noncontiguous Stage II Small Lymphocytic Lymphoma; Stage 0 Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia; Stage I Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia; Stage I Small Lymphocytic Lymphoma; Stage II Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia

  15. Lymphocyte electrotaxis in vitro and in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Francis; Baldessari, Fabio; Gyenge, Christina Crenguta; Sato, Tohru; Chambers, Robert D; Santiago, Juan G; Butcher, Eugene C

    2008-08-15

    Electric fields are generated in vivo in a variety of physiologic and pathologic settings, including penetrating injury to epithelial barriers. An applied electric field with strength within the physiologic range can induce directional cell migration (i.e., electrotaxis) of epithelial cells, endothelial cells, fibroblasts, and neutrophils suggesting a potential role in cell positioning during wound healing. In the present study, we investigated the ability of lymphocytes to respond to applied direct current (DC) electric fields. Using a modified Transwell assay and a simple microfluidic device, we show that human PBLs migrate toward the cathode in physiologically relevant DC electric fields. Additionally, electrical stimulation activates intracellular kinase signaling pathways shared with chemotactic stimuli. Finally, video microscopic tracing of GFP-tagged immunocytes in the skin of mouse ears reveals that motile cutaneous T cells actively migrate toward the cathode of an applied DC electric field. Lymphocyte positioning within tissues can thus be manipulated by externally applied electric fields, and may be influenced by endogenous electrical potential gradients as well.

  16. Cytotoxic T-Lymphocyte Antigen-2 alpha participates in axial ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Cytotoxic T-lymphocyte antigen-2 alpha (CTLA-2α) has been discovered and expressed in mouse activated T-cells and mast cells. Structurally, it is homologous to the proregion of mouse cathepsin L, a lysosomal cystein proteinase. Expressed recombinant CTLA-2α is shown to exhibit selective inhibition to cathepsin L and ...

  17. Oral coinfection can stress peripheral lymphocyte to inflammatory activity in leprosy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Carolina Fragoso Motta

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: This study evaluated the intracellular profile of interleukin-2 (IL-2, interleukin-4 (IL-4, interleukin-10 (IL-10 and interferon-γ (IFN-γ in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs from leprosy patients based on oral infections presence to determine whether these coinfections could be associated with pro-inflammatory activity in leprosy. METHODS: Leprosy patients regardless of clinical form and specific leprosy treatment (n=38 were divided into two groups: Group I - leprosy patients with oral infections (n=19, and Group II - leprosy patients without oral infections (n=19. Non-leprosy patients presenting oral infections were assigned to the control Group (n=10. Intracellular IL-2, IL-4, IL-10 and IFN-γ production was evaluated by flow cytometry (FACS before and 7 days after controlling the oral infection in the Group I, before and 7 days after dental prophylaxis in the Group II, and during oral infection process in control Group. RESULTS: Low percentages of CD3+ lymphocytes bearing IL-2, IL-10 and IFN-γ were observed in the Group I and Group II at baseline and 7 days after therapy or prophylaxis compared to controls. Group I showed reduced percentages of IL-4 at baseline and 7 days after therapy compared to controls, or at baseline of Group II, and the Group II showed reduced percentages of CD3+ cells bearing IL-4 compared to control. An increase of the percentages of CD3+cells bearing IL-4 was observed in the Group I after the oral infections treatment. CONCLUSIONS: The occurrence of oral infections favors the intracellular cytokines expression and, probably, the inflammatory reaction operating as a stimulatory signal triggering the leprosy reactions.

  18. CD4dullCD8bright double-positive T-lymphocytes have a phenotype of granzyme Bpos CD8pos memory T-lymphocytes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rentenaar, R. J.; Wever, P. C.; van Diepen, F. N.; Schellekens, P. T.; Wertheim, P. M.; ten Berge, I. J.

    1999-01-01

    BACKGROUND: T-lymphocytes that co-express CD4 and CD8 antigens may be found in small percentages in the peripheral blood of healthy individuals, and have a CD4brightCD8dull phenotype. CD4dullCD8bright T-lymphocytes have been found only in temporal association with some viral infections. METHODS:

  19. Radiosensitivities of sensitized lymphocytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taniguchi, Kazuto

    1979-01-01

    Immunization of mice with cell antigens such as allogeneic tumor cells or xenogeneic erythrocytes raises a variety of immune reactions mediated by T lymphocytes: i.e. delayed type hypersensitivity (DTH), cytotoxicity, and antibody production. The radiosensitivities of these reactions were examined in mice exposed to 600 R x-irradiation a few hours before or after immunization. 1) DTH to xenogeneic erythrocytes, as demonstrated by footpad reaction, was not suppressed by irradiation 3 h before or after immunization. DTH to allogeneic tumor cells, as demonstrated by a migration inhibition test, hardly developed in mice that had been irradiated before or after immunization. It may have belonged to distinct types of delayed reactions which were mediated by distinct subpopulations of T lymphocytes. 2) Cytotoxicity against allogeneic cells and xenogeneic erythrocytes showed almost the same radiosensitivity. It was scarcely detected in mice that had been irradiated before immunization. However, a low but definite degree of cytotoxicity was detected in mice that had been irradiated only a few hours after immunization. Solubilized allogeneic cells instead of native cells were used as immunizing antigens. It was also possible for precursor cells with cytotoxicity to acquire a radioresistant nature by immunization of solubilized antigens, but native cells were required as stimulation for radioresistant precursor cells to differentiated into nature cytotoxic effector cells. 3) Antibody production against xenogeneic erythrocytes or allogeneic cells was almost completely depleted in mice that had been irradiated before or after immunization. It is possible that antibody production essentially requires cell division and clonal expansion of B lymphocytes. (Bell, E.)

  20. Stochastic models of intracellular transport

    KAUST Repository

    Bressloff, Paul C.; Newby, Jay M.

    2013-01-01

    mechanisms for intracellular transport: passive diffusion and motor-driven active transport. Diffusive transport can be formulated in terms of the motion of an overdamped Brownian particle. On the other hand, active transport requires chemical energy, usually

  1. Molecular expression of peripheral lymphocytes of the patients after organ transplantation%器官移植患者外周血淋巴细胞分子表达

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    许秀芳; 辛毅; 张颖; 黄益民; 顾云; 李娜; 周玉杰; 张兆光

    2012-01-01

    AIM:To investigate the time course of the gene expression after the organ transplantation, and try to identify the relationship of the gene and protein changes with the pathological progression and the immune rejection. METHODS: We systematically observed the gene expression of CD4, CD8, P56, P59 by real-time PCR. The time courses of gene expression were analyzed by Fluorescent Differential Display after the organ transplantation. At the same time points, the clinical outcomes of the patients were followed up so that we could identify the relationship of the gene expression and the immune rejection. RESULTS: Immunosuppressive drugs could not prevent the transplantation rejection completely. P59 gene and tyrosine phosphatase genes started to express positively within 24 h after organ transplantation. Between 24+48 h, PKC-8 and CD4 gene expression levels increased. The expressions of PKC-6, MHC-II, serine/threonine kinase, tyrosine phosphatase, serine/threonine kinase 15, clotting factor VIII, interferon gamma-inducible protein 16 and HLA-DR-H increased by three times compared to pre-transplantation in patients with kidney and heart transplantations. The expression of P59 gene remained stable within 24 h after transplantation, and then decreased to the lowest level at day 10. P56 and CD8 levels were down-regulated within 72 h, and then up-regulated to the first peak at day 5. The expression of CD4 was also inhibited within 24 h, and then increased to the first peak at 48 h. CONCLUSION: The monitoring on the expressions of the proteins and genes on the peripheral lymphocytes may help to early find the clinical immune rejection after organ transplantation and judge the efficiency of the anti-rejection drugs.%目的:比较移植后患者外周血淋巴细胞不同基因表达时相与病理改变时相,探讨外周血淋巴细胞分子的表达与排斥反应的关系.方法:通过对9例脏器移植的观察,系统比较了移植器官的实时荧光定量PCR检测

  2. Intracellular calcium homeostasis and signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brini, Marisa; Calì, Tito; Ottolini, Denis; Carafoli, Ernesto

    2013-01-01

    Ca(2+) is a universal carrier of biological information: it controls cell life from its origin at fertilization to its end in the process of programmed cell death. Ca(2+) is a conventional diffusible second messenger released inside cells by the interaction of first messengers with plasma membrane receptors. However, it can also penetrate directly into cells to deliver information without the intermediation of first or second messengers. Even more distinctively, Ca(2+) can act as a first messenger, by interacting with a plasma membrane receptor to set in motion intracellular signaling pathways that involve Ca(2+) itself. Perhaps the most distinctive property of the Ca(2+) signal is its ambivalence: while essential to the correct functioning of cells, Ca(2+) becomes an agent that mediates cell distress, or even (toxic) cell death, if its concentration and movements inside cells are not carefully tuned. Ca(2+) is controlled by reversible complexation to specific proteins, which could be pure Ca(2+) buffers, or which, in addition to buffering Ca(2+), also decode its signal to pass it on to targets. The most important actors in the buffering of cell Ca(2+) are proteins that transport it across the plasma membrane and the membrane of the organelles: some have high Ca(2+) affinity and low transport capacity (e.g., Ca(2+) pumps), others have opposite properties (e.g., the Ca(2+) uptake system of mitochondria). Between the initial event of fertilization, and the terminal event of programmed cell death, the Ca(2+) signal regulates the most important activities of the cell, from the expression of genes, to heart and muscle contraction and other motility processes, to diverse metabolic pathways involved in the generation of cell fuels.

  3. Intracellular Cadmium Isotope Fractionation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horner, T. J.; Lee, R. B.; Henderson, G. M.; Rickaby, R. E.

    2011-12-01

    Recent stable isotope studies into the biological utilization of transition metals (e.g. Cu, Fe, Zn, Cd) suggest several stepwise cellular processes can fractionate isotopes in both culture and nature. However, the determination of fractionation factors is often unsatisfactory, as significant variability can exist - even between different organisms with the same cellular functions. Thus, it has not been possible to adequately understand the source and mechanisms of metal isotopic fractionation. In order to address this problem, we investigated the biological fractionation of Cd isotopes within genetically-modified bacteria (E. coli). There is currently only one known biological use or requirement of Cd, a Cd/Zn carbonic anhydrase (CdCA, from the marine diatom T. weissfloggii), which we introduce into the E. coli genome. We have also developed a cleaning procedure that allows for the treating of bacteria so as to study the isotopic composition of different cellular components. We find that whole cells always exhibit a preference for uptake of the lighter isotopes of Cd. Notably, whole cells appear to have a similar Cd isotopic composition regardless of the expression of CdCA within the E. coli. However, isotopic fractionation can occur within the genetically modified E. coli during Cd use, such that Cd bound in CdCA can display a distinct isotopic composition compared to the cell as a whole. Thus, the externally observed fractionation is independent of the internal uses of Cd, with the largest Cd isotope fractionation occurring during cross-membrane transport. A general implication of these experiments is that trace metal isotopic fractionation most likely reflects metal transport into biological cells (either actively or passively), rather than relating to expression of specific physiological function and genetic expression of different metalloenzymes.

  4. Selective effects of alpha interferon on human T-lymphocyte subsets during mixed lymphocyte cultures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hokland, M; Hokland, P; Heron, I

    1983-01-01

    Mixed lymphocyte reaction (MLR) cultures of human lymphocyte subsets with or without the addition of physiological doses of human alpha interferon (IFN-alpha) were compared with respect to surface marker phenotypes and proliferative capacities of the responder cells. A selective depression on the T...... T4 cells and decreased numbers of T4 cells harvested from IFN MLRs (days 5-6 of culture). In contrast, it was shown that the T8 (cytotoxic/suppressor) subset in MLRs was either not affected or slightly stimulated by the addition of IFN. The depression of the T4 cells by IFN was accompanied...... by a decrease in the number of activated T cells expressing Ia antigens. On the other hand, IFN MLRs contained greater numbers of cells expressing the T10 differentiation antigen. In experiments with purified T-cell subsets the IFN effect was exerted directly on the T4 cells and not mediated by either T8...

  5. The expression of CD25, CD11b, SWC1, SWC7, MHC-II, and family of CD45 molecules can be used to characterize different stages of gamma delta T lymphocytes in pigs

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Štěpánová, Kateřina; Šinkora, Marek

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 36, č. 4 (2012), s. 728-740 ISSN 0145-305X R&D Projects: GA ČR GA524/07/0087 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50200510 Keywords : Porcine immune system * Cell surface molecules * Lymphocyte subpopulations Subject RIV: EC - Immunology Impact factor: 3.238, year: 2012

  6. Lymphocyte signaling: beyond knockouts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saveliev, Alexander; Tybulewicz, Victor L J

    2009-04-01

    The analysis of lymphocyte signaling was greatly enhanced by the advent of gene targeting, which allows the selective inactivation of a single gene. Although this gene 'knockout' approach is often informative, in many cases, the phenotype resulting from gene ablation might not provide a complete picture of the function of the corresponding protein. If a protein has multiple functions within a single or several signaling pathways, or stabilizes other proteins in a complex, the phenotypic consequences of a gene knockout may manifest as a combination of several different perturbations. In these cases, gene targeting to 'knock in' subtle point mutations might provide more accurate insight into protein function. However, to be informative, such mutations must be carefully based on structural and biophysical data.

  7. MRI of lymphocytic hypophysitis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feng Feng; Li Mingli; Li Xiaozhen; Meng Chunling; Jin zhengyu

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To describe the MR findings in patients with lymphocytic hypophysitis (LyH), and to discuss MR diagnostic value and limit in this disease entity and its differentiation with pituitary adenoma. Methods: Five pathologically proven cases of LyH were recruited in this study. The main complaints of the patients were polydipsia, polyuria, and headache. The preoperative MR images and clinical manifestations were analyzed retrospectively. Results: MR findings of the 5 patients with LyH included enlargement of pituitary gland, stalk thickening, disappearance of high signal of neurohypophysis on T 1 WI, and marked Gadolinium enhancement of the lesions. Homogeneous enhancement was found in 2 cases, while heterogeneous enhancement was in 3 cases. Involvement of the cavernous sinus and dura mater on dorsum sella and clivus were found in 2 patients. Conclusion: The diagnosis of LyH should be suggested when the enlarged pituitary gland is associated with central diabetes insipidus, and with/without dysfunction of adenohypophysis. (authors)

  8. Analysis of cytotoxic effects of chlorhexidine gluconate as antiseptic agent on human blood lymphocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salimi, Ahmad; Alami, Bahare; Pourahmad, Jalal

    2017-08-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the cytotoxicity of chlorhexidine gluconate (CHG) on human blood lymphocytes as a useful ex vivo model for accelerated human toxicity studies. Using biochemical and flow cytometry assessments, we demonstrated that addition of CHG at 1 μM concentration to human blood lymphocytes induced cytotoxicity following 6 h. The CHG-induced cytotoxicity on human blood lymphocytes was associated with intracellular reactive oxygen species generation, mitochondrial membrane potential collapse, lysosomal membrane injury, lipid peroxidation, and depletion of glutathione. According to our results, CHG triggers oxidative stress and organelles damages in lymphocytes which are important cells in defense against foreign agents. Finally our findings suggest that using of antioxidants and mitochondrial/lysosomal protective agents could be of benefit for the people in the exposure with CHG. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. PKCθ is required for the activation of human T lymphocytes induced by CD43 engagement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rio, Roxana del; Rincon, Mercedes; Layseca-Espinosa, Esther; Fierro, Nora A.; Rosenstein, Yvonne; Pedraza-Alva, Gustavo

    2004-01-01

    The turnover of phosphoinositides leading to PKC activation constitutes one of the principal axes of intracellular signaling. In T lymphocytes, the enhanced and prolonged PKC activation resulting from the engagement of the TcR and co-receptor molecules ensures a productive T cell response. The CD43 co-receptor promotes activation and proliferation, by inducing IL-2 secretion and CD69 expression. CD43 engagement has been shown to promote phosphoinositide turnover and DAG production. Moreover, PKC activation was found to be required for the activation of the MAP kinase pathway in response to CD43 ligation. Here we show that CD43 engagement led to the membrane translocation and enzymatic activity of specific PKC isoenzymes: cPKC (α/β), nPKC (ε and θ), aPKC (ζ) and PKCμ. We also show that activation of PKCθ resulting from CD43 ligation induced CD69 expression through an ERK-dependent pathway leading to AP-1, NF-κB activation and an ERK independent pathway promoting NFAT activation. Together, these data suggest that PKCθ plays a critical role in the co-stimulatory functions of CD43 in human T cells

  10. Radiolabeled Humanized Anti-CD3 Monoclonal Antibody Visilizumab for Imaging Human T-Lymphocytes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Malviya, Gaurav; D'Alessandria, Calogero; Bonanno, Elena; Vexler, Vladimir; Massari, Roberto; Trotta, Carlo; Scopinaro, Francesco; Dierckx, Rudi; Signore, Alberto

    2009-01-01

    Visilizumab is an IgG(2) humanized monoclonal antibody (mAb) characterized by non-Fc gamma R binding and specific to the CD3 antigen, expressed on more than 95% of circulating resting T-lymphocytes and on activated T-lymphocytes homing in inflamed tissues. We hypothesized that the use of a

  11. Effect of thapsigargin on cytoplasmic Ca2+ and proliferation of human lymphocytes in relation to AIDS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scharff, O; Foder, B; Thastrup, Ole

    1988-01-01

    The tumor-promoting sesquiterpene lactone, thapsigargin, induced a dose-dependent increase of the cytoplasmic Ca2+ concentration ([ Ca2+]i) in human lymphocytes from a resting level between 100 and 150 nM up to about 1 microM. Half-maximum response was found at about 1 nM of thapsigargin, full...... of the lymphocytes, which was much higher than that caused by the PHA treatment, even in AIDS lymphocytes. Moreover, the thapsigargin/PMA treatment stimulated the expression of the IL-2 receptors on both normal and AIDS lymphocytes, similar to the effect of PHA. It is concluded that thapsigargin exerts its effects...

  12. Radiosensitivity of lymphocytes in vitro

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Albrecht, S.

    1979-01-01

    The radiation-induced impairment of human T-lymphocytes was studied after in vitro exposure to 25.8 - 825.6 mC/kg (100 - 3200 R) of 60 Co γ-radiation by ascertaining the change in lymphocyte response to phytohaemagglutin stimulation. Following methods were used: (1) measurement of 3 H-thymidine uptake, (2) E-rosette test, and (3) morphological examination of transformed T-cells. The results revealed a dose-dependent decline in T-cell number which was still somewhat more marked with lymphocytes purified over Ficoll-Isopaque prior to irradiation. (author)

  13. Laboratorial diagnosis of lymphocytic meningitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sérgio Monteiro de Almeida

    Full Text Available Meningitis is the main infectious central nervous system (CNS syndrome. Viruses or bacteria can cause acute meningitis of infectious etiology. The term "Aseptic Meningitis" denotes a clinical syndrome with a predominance of lymphocytes in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF, with no common bacterial agents identified in the CSF. Viral meningitis is considered the main cause of lymphocyte meningitis. There are other etiologies of an infectious nature. CSF examination is essential to establish the diagnosis and to identify the etiological agent of lymphocytic meningitis. We examined CSF characteristics and the differential diagnosis of the main types of meningitis.

  14. The interaction of antimicrobial peptides with the membrane and intracellular targets of Staphylococcus aureus investigated by ATP leakage, DNA-binding analysis, and the expression of a LexA-controlled gene, recA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gottschalk, Sanne; Thomsen, Line Elnif

    2017-01-01

    The analysis of how antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) interact with bacterial membranes and intracellular targets is important for our understanding of how these molecules affect bacteria. Increased knowledge may aid the design of AMPs that work on their target bacterium without inducing bacterial...... resistance. Here, we describe different methods to investigate the mode of action of peptides against the Gram-positive bacterium Staphylococcus aureus. ATP leakage analysis can be used to evaluate the ability of AMPs to perturb bacteria. DNA-binding and SOS response induction can be analyzed to investigate...

  15. Lymphocytic gastritis--prospective study of its relationship with varioliform gastritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haot, J; Jouret, A; Willette, M; Gossuin, A; Mainguet, P

    1990-01-01

    Lymphocytic gastritis is a new histopathological entity characterised by a dense lymphocytic infiltration of surface and pit gastric epithelium. Previous retrospective work has suggested that lymphocytic gastritis is related to an endoscopic form of gastropathy comprising enlarged folds, nodules and erosions, commonly denoted as varioliform gastritis. In the present prospective study, the relationship is clearly shown; nearly 82% (54/66) of the varioliform gastritis observed in four different endoscopy units correspond histologically to lymphocytic gastritis. The correlation is even better if cases showing strictly antral localisation are excluded (53/55) - that is, more than 96%. The histological concept of lymphocytic gastritis seems, however, to extend beyond varioliform gastritis as of 67 cases of lymphocytic gastritis diagnosed during the period under study, one third had no particular endoscopic expression. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 PMID:2323590

  16. Apoptosis Signaling Is Altered in CD4+CD25+FoxP3+ T Regulatory Lymphocytes in Pre-Eclampsia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Oleszczuk

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of our study was to estimate the surface expressions of CD95 (APO-1/Fas antigen and the intracellular expressions of anti-apoptotic protein Bcl-2 and pro-apoptotic protein Bax in CD4+CD25+FoxP3+ T regulatory lymphocytes (Tregs as well as the percentage of CD8+CD28+ T cytotoxic cells in peripheral blood of patients with pre-eclampsia in comparison with healthy pregnant women in the third trimester of physiological pregnancy. Twenty-four women with pre-eclampsia and 20 normal third trimester pregnant women were included in the study. The lymphocytes were isolated from peripheral blood samples and labeled with monoclonal antibodies. The expressions of surface antigens and intracellular proteins were estimated using flow cytometry. The population of CD4+CD25+FoxP3+ Treg cells was significantly lower in peripheral blood of patients with pre-eclampsia when compared to normal third trimester pregnant women. The percentages of CD4+CD25+FoxP3+ Treg cells that express Bcl-2 protein were significantly lower in peripheral blood of patients with pre-eclampsia when compared to healthy pregnant women, whereas the percentages of CD4+CD25+FoxP3+ Treg cells with the expressions of Bax protein did not differ in both groups. Moreover, the mean fluorescence intensity (MFI of Bcl-2 protein in CD4+CD25+FoxP3+ Treg cells was significantly lower and MFI of Bax protein significantly higher in pre-eclampsia when compared to the control group. The percentage of CD8+CD28+ T cells did not differ in both studied groups but MFI of CD28 antigen on T CD8+ cells was significantly higher in pre-eclampsia when compared to the control group. The obtained results suggest that the deficit of CD4+CD25+FoxP3+ Treg

  17. Stages of Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of the lymph system . Having relatives who are Russian Jews or Eastern European Jews. Signs and symptoms ... information about clinical trials is also available. To Learn More About Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia For more information ...

  18. Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia with Mutated IGHV4-34 Receptors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xochelli, Aliki; Baliakas, Panagiotis; Kavakiotis, Ioannis

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: We sought to investigate whether B cell receptor immunoglobulin (BcR IG) stereotypy is associated with particular clinicobiological features among chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) patients expressing mutated BcR IG (M-CLL) encoded by the IGHV4-34 gene, and also ascertain whether...

  19. A Thapsigargin-Resistant Intracellular Calcium Sequestering Compartment in Rat Brain

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-03-31

    have a major impact on neuronal intracellular signaling. Most of the ER in neurons and glia appears to accumulate calcium by energy driven ion pumps...secretion of exocrine, endocrine, and neurocrine products, regulation of glycogenolysis and gluconeogenesis , intracellular transport, secretion of fluids...the RyRs [140]. Furthermore, the intracellular expression of these receptor-channels in neuronal ER is also reciprocal with RyRs located primarily in

  20. Expression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang-Xia Wang

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The miR-15/107 family comprises a group of 10 paralogous microRNAs (miRNAs, sharing a 5′ AGCAGC sequence. These miRNAs have overlapping targets. In order to characterize the expression of miR-15/107 family miRNAs, we employed customized TaqMan Low-Density micro-fluid PCR-array to investigate the expression of miR-15/107 family members, and other selected miRNAs, in 11 human tissues obtained at autopsy including the cerebral cortex, frontal cortex, primary visual cortex, thalamus, heart, lung, liver, kidney, spleen, stomach and skeletal muscle. miR-103, miR-195 and miR-497 were expressed at similar levels across various tissues, whereas miR-107 is enriched in brain samples. We also examined the expression patterns of evolutionarily conserved miR-15/107 miRNAs in three distinct primary rat brain cell preparations (enriched for cortical neurons, astrocytes and microglia, respectively. In primary cultures of rat brain cells, several members of the miR-15/107 family are enriched in neurons compared to other cell types in the central nervous system (CNS. In addition to mature miRNAs, we also examined the expression of precursors (pri-miRNAs. Our data suggested a generally poor correlation between the expression of mature miRNAs and their precursors. In summary, we provide a detailed study of the tissue and cell type-specific expression profile of this highly expressed and phylogenetically conserved family of miRNA genes.

  1. [Activation of peripheral T lymphocytes in children with epilepsy and production of cytokines].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jie; Hu, Chongkang; Jiang, Xun

    2016-09-01

    Objective To study the state of peripheral T lymphocytes and cytokine levels in children with epilepsy. Methods Twenty children with epilepsy and 20 healthy age-matched children were recruited and their peripheral blood was collected. The activation of T lymphocytes was evaluated by detecting the expressions of CD25, CD69 and cytotoxic T lymphocyte-assicated antigen 4 (CTLA4). The function of T lymphocytes was evaluated by detecting the expressions of interferon γ (IFN-γ), tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α), IL-17A and IL-6. The activation of regulatory T cells (Tregs) was evaluated by detecting the expression of IL-10. Results Children with epilepsy had higher expressions of CD25, CD69 and CTLA-4 in T lymphocytes than the controls did. The expressions of IFN-γ, TNF-α, IL-17A and IL-6 in T lymphocytes of children with epilepsy were higher than those of the controls. Frequency of Tregs producing IL-10 was higher in children with epilepsy as compared with the controls. Conclusion Peripheral T lymphocytes of children with epilepsy are activated and produce cytokines.

  2. Intracellular localization of Na + /H + antiporter from Malus zumi ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this study, we examined the intracellular localization of the product of Na+/H+ antiporter gene (MzNHX1) cloned from Malus zumi. Analysis using yeast cells expressing a fusion protein of MzNHX1 and green fluorescent protein confirmed the localization of MzNHX1 on the tonoplast.

  3. Crosstalk between T lymphocytes and dendritic cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hivroz, Claire; Chemin, Karine; Tourret, Marie; Bohineust, Armelle

    2012-01-01

    Dendritic cells (DCs) are professional antigen-presenting cells (APCs) with the unique property of inducing priming and differentiation of naïve CD4+ and CD8+ T cells into helper and cytotoxic effectors. Their efficiency is due to their unique ability to process antigen, express costimulatory molecules, secrete cytokines, and migrate to tissues or lymphoid organs to prime T cells. DCs also play an important role in T-cell peripheral tolerance. There is ample evidence that the DC ability to present antigens is regulated by CD4+ helper T cells. Indeed, interactions between surface receptors and ligands expressed respectively by T cells and DCs, as well as T-cell-derived cytokines modify DC functions. This T-cell-induced modification of DCs has been called "education" or "licensing." This intimate crosstalk between DCs and T lymphocytes is key in establishing appropriate adaptive immune responses. It requires cognate interactions between T lymphocytes and DCs, which are organized in time and space by structures called immunological synapses. Here we discuss the particular aspects of immunological synapses formed between T cells and DCs and the role these organized interactions have in T-cell-DC crosstalk.

  4. Kinetics of human lymphocyte division and chromosomal radiosensitivity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bianchi, N O; Bianchi, M S; Larramendy, M [Instituto Multidisciplinario de Biologia Celular, La Plata (Argentinia)

    1979-12-01

    Human blood from normal donors was irradiated with 200 R during the G/sub 0/ phase, and the X-ray sensitivity of early and late dividing lymphocytes in culture was expressed as percentage of induced dicentrics. Cells in first or subsequent divisions were individualized by BrdU-Giemsa techniques. Lymphocytes in the first division at 40, 44 and 72 h after the start of culture had a lower sensitivity to radiation than lymphocytes making their first division at 48, 52 and 56 h. It was observed that: (a) the combination of radiation followed by BrdU did not increase the clastoyenic action of X-rays, (b)X-rays in the dose and duration used in our cultures did not increase the frequency of SCEs, and (c) minor changes in culture conditions probably influenced the frequency of SCEs.

  5. Organophosphorous pesticide metabolite (DEDTP) induces changes in the activation status of human lymphocytes by modulating the interleukin 2 receptor signal transduction pathway

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Esquivel-Senties, M.S.; Barrera, I.; Ortega, A.; Vega, L.

    2010-01-01

    Diethyldithiophosphate (DEDTP) is a metabolite formed by biotransformation of organophosphorous (OP) compounds that has a longer half-life than its parental compound. Here we evaluate the effects of DEDTP on human CD4+ T lymphocytes. In vitro exposure to DEDTP (1-50 μM) decreased [ 3 H]thymidine incorporation in resting cells and increased CD25 surface expression without altering cell viability. DEDTP treatment inhibited anti-CD3/anti-CD28 stimulation-induced CD4+ and CD8+ T cell proliferation determined by CFSE dilution. Decreased CD25 expression and intracellular IL-2 levels were correlated with this defect in cell proliferation. IL-2, IFN-γ and IL-10 secretion were also reduced while IL-4 secretion was not altered. Increased phosphorylation of SOCS3 and dephosphorylation of STAT5 were induced by DEDTP after as little as 5 min of exposure. In addition, DEDTP induced phosphorylation of ERK, JNK and p38 and NFAT nuclear translocation. These results suggest that DEDTP can modulate phosphorylation of intracellular proteins such as SOCS3, which functions as a negative regulator of cytokine signalling, and that DEDTP exposure may thus cause T cells to fail to respond to further antigen challenges.

  6. Stochastic models of intracellular transport

    KAUST Repository

    Bressloff, Paul C.

    2013-01-09

    The interior of a living cell is a crowded, heterogenuous, fluctuating environment. Hence, a major challenge in modeling intracellular transport is to analyze stochastic processes within complex environments. Broadly speaking, there are two basic mechanisms for intracellular transport: passive diffusion and motor-driven active transport. Diffusive transport can be formulated in terms of the motion of an overdamped Brownian particle. On the other hand, active transport requires chemical energy, usually in the form of adenosine triphosphate hydrolysis, and can be direction specific, allowing biomolecules to be transported long distances; this is particularly important in neurons due to their complex geometry. In this review a wide range of analytical methods and models of intracellular transport is presented. In the case of diffusive transport, narrow escape problems, diffusion to a small target, confined and single-file diffusion, homogenization theory, and fractional diffusion are considered. In the case of active transport, Brownian ratchets, random walk models, exclusion processes, random intermittent search processes, quasi-steady-state reduction methods, and mean-field approximations are considered. Applications include receptor trafficking, axonal transport, membrane diffusion, nuclear transport, protein-DNA interactions, virus trafficking, and the self-organization of subcellular structures. © 2013 American Physical Society.

  7. The Role of Lipid Metabolism in T Lymphocyte Differentiation and Survival

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duncan Howie

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The differentiation and effector functions of both the innate and adaptive immune system are inextricably linked to cellular metabolism. The features of metabolism which affect both arms of the immune system include metabolic substrate availability, expression of enzymes, transport proteins, and transcription factors which control catabolism of these substrates, and the ability to perform anabolic metabolism. The control of lipid metabolism is central to the appropriate differentiation and functions of T lymphocytes, and ultimately to the maintenance of immune tolerance. This review will focus on the role of fatty acid (FA metabolism in T cell differentiation, effector function, and survival. FAs are important sources of cellular energy, stored as triglycerides. They are also used as precursors to produce complex lipids such as cholesterol and membrane phospholipids. FA residues also become incorporated into hormones and signaling moieties. FAs signal via nuclear receptors and their channeling, between storage as triacyl glycerides or oxidation as fuel, may play a role in survival or death of the cell. In recent years, progress in the field of immunometabolism has highlighted diverse roles for FA metabolism in CD4 and CD8 T cell differentiation and function. This review will firstly describe the sensing and modulation of the environmental FAs and lipid intracellular signaling and will then explore the key role of lipid metabolism in regulating the balance between potentially damaging pro-inflammatory and anti-inflammatory regulatory responses. Finally the complex role of extracellular FAs in determining cell survival will be discussed.

  8. Nanobodies: Chemical Functionalization Strategies and Intracellular Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schumacher, Dominik; Helma, Jonas; Schneider, Anselm F. L.; Leonhardt, Heinrich

    2018-01-01

    Abstract Nanobodies can be seen as next‐generation tools for the recognition and modulation of antigens that are inaccessible to conventional antibodies. Due to their compact structure and high stability, nanobodies see frequent usage in basic research, and their chemical functionalization opens the way towards promising diagnostic and therapeutic applications. In this Review, central aspects of nanobody functionalization are presented, together with selected applications. While early conjugation strategies relied on the random modification of natural amino acids, more recent studies have focused on the site‐specific attachment of functional moieties. Such techniques include chemoenzymatic approaches, expressed protein ligation, and amber suppression in combination with bioorthogonal modification strategies. Recent applications range from sophisticated imaging and mass spectrometry to the delivery of nanobodies into living cells for the visualization and manipulation of intracellular antigens. PMID:28913971

  9. Nanobodies: Chemical Functionalization Strategies and Intracellular Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schumacher, Dominik; Helma, Jonas; Schneider, Anselm F L; Leonhardt, Heinrich; Hackenberger, Christian P R

    2018-02-23

    Nanobodies can be seen as next-generation tools for the recognition and modulation of antigens that are inaccessible to conventional antibodies. Due to their compact structure and high stability, nanobodies see frequent usage in basic research, and their chemical functionalization opens the way towards promising diagnostic and therapeutic applications. In this Review, central aspects of nanobody functionalization are presented, together with selected applications. While early conjugation strategies relied on the random modification of natural amino acids, more recent studies have focused on the site-specific attachment of functional moieties. Such techniques include chemoenzymatic approaches, expressed protein ligation, and amber suppression in combination with bioorthogonal modification strategies. Recent applications range from sophisticated imaging and mass spectrometry to the delivery of nanobodies into living cells for the visualization and manipulation of intracellular antigens. © 2017 The Authors. Published by Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA.

  10. Surveillance for Intracellular Antibody by Cytosolic Fc Receptor TRIM21

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William A. McEwan

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available TRIM21 has emerged as an atypical Fc receptor that is broadly conserved and widely expressed in the cytoplasm of mammalian cells. Viruses that traffic surface-bound antibodies into the cell during infection recruit TRIM21 via a high affinity interaction between Fc and TRIM21 PRYSPRY domain. Following binding of intracellular antibody, TRIM21 acts as both antiviral effector and sensor for innate immune signalling. These activities serve to reduce viral replication by orders of magnitude in vitro and contribute to host survival during in vivo infection. Neutralization occurs rapidly after detection and requires the activity of the ubiquitin-proteasome system. The microbial targets of this arm of intracellular immunity are still being identified: TRIM21 activity has been reported following infection by several non-enveloped viruses and intracellular bacteria. These findings extend the sphere of influence of antibodies to the intracellular domain and have broad implications for immunity. TRIM21 has been implicated in the chronic auto-immune condition systemic lupus erythematosus and is itself an auto-antigen in Sjögren’s syndrome. This review summarises our current understanding of TRIM21’s role as a cytosolic Fc receptor and briefly discusses pathological circumstances where intracellular antibodies have been described, or are hypothesized to occur, and may benefit from further investigations of the role of TRIM21.

  11. Conjugated Bilirubin Differentially Regulates CD4+ T Effector Cells and T Regulatory Cell Function through Outside-In and Inside-Out Mechanisms: The Effects of HAV Cell Surface Receptor and Intracellular Signaling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corral-Jara, Karla F.; Gómez-Leyva, Juan F.; Rosenstein, Yvonne; Jose-Abrego, Alexis; Roman, Sonia

    2016-01-01

    We recently reported an immune-modulatory role of conjugated bilirubin (CB) in hepatitis A virus (HAV) infection. During this infection the immune response relies on CD4+ T lymphocytes (TLs) and it may be affected by the interaction of HAV with its cellular receptor (HAVCR1/TIM-1) on T cell surface. How CB might affect T cell function during HAV infection remains to be elucidated. Herein, in vitro stimulation of CD4+ TLs from healthy donors with CB resulted in a decrease in the degree of intracellular tyrosine phosphorylation and an increase in the activity of T regulatory cells (Tregs) expressing HAVCR1/TIM-1. A comparison between CD4+ TLs from healthy donors and HAV-infected patients revealed changes in the TCR signaling pathway relative to changes in CB levels. The proportion of CD4+CD25+ TLs increased in patients with low CB serum levels and an increase in the percentage of Tregs expressing HAVCR1/TIM-1 was found in HAV-infected patients relative to controls. A low frequency of 157insMTTTVP insertion in the viral receptor gene HAVCR1/TIM-1 was found in patients and controls. Our data revealed that, during HAV infection, CB differentially regulates CD4+ TLs and Tregs functions by modulating intracellular pathways and by inducing changes in the proportion of Tregs expressing HAVCR1/TIM-1. PMID:27578921

  12. Distinct uptake mechanisms but similar intracellular processing of two different toll-like receptor ligand-peptide conjugates in dendritic cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Selina; Bijker, Martijn S; Weterings, Jimmy J; Tanke, Hans J; Adema, Gosse J; van Hall, Thorbald; Drijfhout, Jan W; Melief, Cornelis J M; Overkleeft, Hermen S; van der Marel, Gijsbert A; Filippov, Dmitri V; van der Burg, Sjoerd H; Ossendorp, Ferry

    2007-07-20

    Covalent conjugation of Toll-like receptor ligands (TLR-L) to synthetic antigenic peptides strongly improves antigen presentation in vitro and T lymphocyte priming in vivo. These molecularly well defined TLR-L-peptide conjugates, constitute an attractive vaccination modality, sharing the peptide antigen and a defined adjuvant in one single molecule. We have analyzed the intracellular trafficking and processing of two TLR-L conjugates in dendritic cells (DCs). Long synthetic peptides containing an ovalbumin cytotoxic T-cell epitope were chemically conjugated to two different TLR-Ls the TLR2 ligand, Pam(3)CysSK(4) (Pam) or the TLR9 ligand CpG. Rapid and enhanced uptake of both types of TLR-L-conjugated peptide occurred in DCs. Moreover, TLR-L conjugation greatly enhanced antigen presentation, a process that was dependent on endosomal acidification, proteasomal cleavage, and TAP translocation. The uptake of the CpG approximately conjugate was independent of endosomally-expressed TLR9 as reported previously. Unexpectedly, we found that Pam approximately conjugated peptides were likewise internalized independently of the expression of cell surface-expressed TLR2. Further characterization of the uptake mechanisms revealed that TLR2-L employed a different uptake route than TLR9-L. Inhibition of clathrin- or caveolin-dependent endocytosis greatly reduced uptake and antigen presentation of the Pam-conjugate. In contrast, internalization and antigen presentation of CpG approximately conjugates was independent of clathrin-coated pits but partly dependent on caveolae formation. Importantly, in contrast to the TLR-independent uptake of the conjugates, TLR expression and downstream TLR signaling was required for dendritic cell maturation and for priming of naïve CD8(+) T-cells. Together, our data show that targeting to two distinct TLRs requires distinct uptake mechanism but follows similar trafficking and intracellular processing pathways leading to optimal antigen

  13. Intracellular NAD(H) levels control motility and invasion of glioma cells.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Horssen, R. van; Willemse, M.P.; Haeger, A.; Attanasio, F.; Guneri, T.; Schwab, A.; Stock, C.M.; Buccione, R.; Fransen, J.A.M.; Wieringa, B.

    2013-01-01

    Oncogenic transformation involves reprogramming of cell metabolism, whereby steady-state levels of intracellular NAD(+) and NADH can undergo dramatic changes while ATP concentration is generally well maintained. Altered expression of nicotinamide phosphoribosyltransferase (NAMPT), the rate-limiting

  14. Propiece IL-1α facilitates the growth of acute T-lymphocytic leukemia cells through the activation of NF-κB and SP1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yinsheng; Yu, Xiao; Lin, Dandan; Lei, Lei; Hu, Bo; Cao, Fengzhang; Mei, Yu; Wu, Depei; Liu, Haiyan

    2017-02-28

    Interleukin 1α (IL-1α) is a pro-inflammatory cytokine that possesses multiple immune-regulatory functions. It is mainly expressed as the cell-associated form and not actively secreted in healthy tissues. The intracellular IL-1α has been shown to be a chromatin-associated cytokine and can affect transcription. There are spontaneous expressions of IL-1α in acute lymphocytic leukemia (ALL) blasts. However, the role of nuclear-localized IL-1α in ALL is not clear. Here we showed that overexpression of the nuclear form of IL-1α (propiece IL-1α) could promote proliferation and reduce apoptosis of T-ALL cells. It also increased the ALL cells' resistance to low serum concentration and cisplatin treatment. In vivo growth of the T-ALL cells overexpressing the propiece IL-1α were also enhanced compared to the control cells. Microarray analysis revealed many changes in gene expressions related to cell growth and stress, including a group of metallothionein genes. Moreover, the expressions of transcription factors, NFκB and specific protein 1 (SP1), were up-regulated by propiece IL-1α. Propiece IL-1α could bind to the promoter of SP1 and a binding sequence logo was identified. Therefore, nuclear expression of propiece IL-1α can facilitate the growth of T-ALL cells possibly through the activation of NFκB and SP1.

  15. [The lymphocyte transformation test in dermatology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zinn, K; Braun-Falco, O

    1976-03-01

    At first, immunologie and methodic basies of the lymphocyte transformation test are discussed. Then the results gained by this test in several dermatologic diseases are summarized. Finally, practice of the lymphocyte transformation test is critically reviewed.

  16. Professional memory CD4+ T lymphocytes preferentially reside and rest in the bone marrow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tokoyoda, Koji; Zehentmeier, Sandra; Hegazy, Ahmed N; Albrecht, Inka; Grün, Joachim R; Löhning, Max; Radbruch, Andreas

    2009-05-01

    CD4(+) T lymphocytes are key to immunological memory. Here we show that in the memory phase of specific immune responses, most of the memory CD4(+) T lymphocytes had relocated into the bone marrow (BM) within 3-8 weeks after their generation-a process involving integrin alpha2. Antigen-specific memory CD4(+) T lymphocytes highly expressed Ly-6C, unlike most splenic CD44(hi)CD62L(-) CD4(+) T lymphocytes. In adult mice, more than 80% of Ly-6C(hi)CD44(hi)CD62L(-) memory CD4(+) T lymphocytes were in the BM. In the BM, they associated to IL-7-expressing VCAM-1(+) stroma cells. Gene expression and proliferation were downregulated, indicating a resting state. Upon challenge with antigen, they rapidly expressed cytokines and CD154 and efficiently induced the production of high-affinity antibodies by B lymphocytes. Thus, in the memory phase of immunity, memory helper T cells are maintained in BM as resting but highly reactive cells in survival niches defined by IL-7-expressing stroma cells.

  17. Involvement of the lysophosphatidic acid-generating enzyme autotaxin in lymphocyte-endothelial cell interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakasaki, Tae; Tanaka, Toshiyuki; Okudaira, Shinichi; Hirosawa, Michi; Umemoto, Eiji; Otani, Kazuhiro; Jin, Soojung; Bai, Zhongbin; Hayasaka, Haruko; Fukui, Yoshinori; Aozasa, Katsuyuki; Fujita, Naoya; Tsuruo, Takashi; Ozono, Keiichi; Aoki, Junken; Miyasaka, Masayuki

    2008-11-01

    Autotaxin (ATX) is a secreted protein with lysophospholipase D activity that generates lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) from lysophosphatidylcholine. Here we report that functional ATX is selectively expressed in high endothelial venules (HEVs) of both lymph nodes and Peyer's patches. ATX expression was developmentally regulated and coincided with lymphocyte recruitment to the lymph nodes. In adults, ATX expression was independent of HEV-expressed chemokines such as CCL21 and CXCL13, innate immunity signals including those via TLR4 or MyD88, and of the extent of lymphocyte trafficking across the HEVs. ATX expression was induced in venules at sites of chronic inflammation. Receptors for the ATX enzyme product LPA were constitutively expressed in HEV endothelial cells (ECs). In vitro, LPA induced strong morphological changes in HEV ECs. Forced ATX expression caused cultured ECs to respond to lysophosphatidylcholine, up-regulating lymphocyte binding to the ECs in a LPA receptor-dependent manner under both static and flow conditions. Although in vivo depletion of circulating ATX did not affect lymphocyte trafficking into the lymph nodes, we surmise, based on the above data, that ATX expressed by HEVs acts on HEVs in situ to facilitate lymphocyte binding to ECs and that ATX in the general circulation does not play a major role in this process. Tissue-specific inactivation of ATX will verify this hypothesis in future studies of its mechanism of action.

  18. Production of C-reactive protein by human lymphocytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuta, A.E.; Baum, L.L.

    1986-01-01

    C-reactive protein (CRP) is a major acute phase serum protein in humans; it is detectable at very high concentrations during infection and tissue trauma. This protein is a pentame composed of five identical, 21,500 MW subunits. CRP is detectable on the surface of approximately 4% of normal peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBL). CRP binds its physiological ligands in a Ca ++ dependent manner; removal of Ca ++ does not alter the expression of CRP on the lymphocyte surface. Recently, investigators in this laboratory reported substantial inhibition of natural killer cell (NK) activity with anti-CRP antibodies. The following studies were undertaken to determine the origin of surface-CRP (S-CRP) found on normal PBL. Cells were incubated in methionine-free DMEM supplemented with 35 S-methionine. Cells were lysed and subjected to immunoprecipitation with anti-CRP and Staphylococcus aureus; immunoprecipitates were analyzed by SDS-PAGE and autoradiography. Data presented here suggested that lymphocytes, in particular, LGL produce small amounts of CRP and express it on their surface. Lymphocytes do not appear to secrete CRP since no CRP could be detected in culture supernatants. In addition, preliminary evidence indicates that peripheral blood monocytes produce no detectable CRP. Present studies utilizing Northern blot analysis are underway in order to detect CRP-mRNA

  19. Electron Microscopy of Intracellular Protozoa

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-12-20

    Classification) " ELECTRON MICROSCOPY OF INTRACELLULAR PROTOZOA 12. PERSONAL AUTHOR(S) Aikawa, Masamichi 13a. TYPE OF REPORT I13b. TIME COVERED 114...authors suggest that anti-CS protein antibody is important in reducing the prevalence of malaria with increasing age among persons in such areas and... Hygine 33, 220-226. 0Giudice, G.D., Engers, H.D., Tougne, C., Biro, S.S., Weiss, N., Verdini, A.S., Pessi, A., Degremont, A.A., Freyvogel, T.A., Lambert

  20. EXPRESS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ancelin, C.; Le, P.; DeSaint-Quentin, S.; Villatte, N.

    1987-01-01

    This paper presents EXPRESS, an expert system developed for the automation of reliability studies. The first part consists in the description of the method for static thermohydraulic systems. In this step, the authors define the knowledge representation based on the two inference engines - ALOUETTE and LCR developed by EDF. They explain all the process to construct a fault tree from a topological and functional description of the system. Numerous examples are exhibited in illustration of the method. This is followed by the lessons derived from the studies performed on some safety systems of the PALUEL nuclear plant. The development of the same approach for electric power systems is described, insisting on the difference resulting from the sequential nature of these systems. Finally, they show the main advantages identified during the studies

  1. Increased NBCn1 expression, Na+/HCO3 co-transport and intracellular pH in human vascular smooth muscle cells with a risk allele for hypertension

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ng, Fu Liang; Boedtkjer, Ebbe; Witkowska, Katarzyna

    2017-01-01

    cultures of vascular smooth muscle and endothelial cells. In both cell types, we found genotype-dependent differences for rs13082711 in DNA-nuclear protein interactions, where the risk allele is associated with increased SLC4A7 expression level, NBCn1 availability and function as reflected in elevated...

  2. Lymphocyte receptors for pertussis toxin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clark, C.G.; Armstrong, G.D. (Univ. of Alberta, Edmonton (Canada))

    1990-12-01

    We have investigated human T-lymphocyte receptors for pertussis toxin by affinity isolation and photoaffinity labeling procedures. T lymphocytes were obtained from peripheral human blood, surface iodinated, and solubilized in Triton X-100. The iodinated mixture was then passed through pertussis toxin-agarose, and the fractions were analyzed by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Autoradiography of the fixed, dried gels revealed several bands in the pertussis toxin-bound fraction that were not observed in fractions obtained from histone or fetuin-agarose. Further investigations employed a photoaffinity labeling reagent, sulfosuccinimidyl 2-(p-azido-salicylamido)-1,3'-dithiopropionate, to identify pertussis toxin receptors in freshly isolated peripheral blood monocytic cells, T lymphocytes, and Jurkat cells. In all three cell systems, the pertussis toxin affinity probe specifically labeled a single protein species with an apparent molecular weight of 70,000 that was not observed when the procedure was performed in the presence of excess unmodified pertussis toxin. A protein comparable in molecular weight to the one detected by the photoaffinity labeling technique was also observed among the species that bound to pertussis toxin-agarose. The results suggest that pertussis toxin may bind to a 70,000-Da receptor in human T lymphocytes.

  3. A PKA survival pathway inhibited by DPT-PKI, a new specific cell permeable PKA inhibitor, is induced by T. annulata in parasitized B-lymphocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guergnon, Julien; Dessauge, Frederic; Traincard, François; Cayla, Xavier; Rebollo, Angelita; Bost, Pierre Etienne; Langsley, Gordon; Garcia, Alphonse

    2006-08-01

    T. annulata, an intracellular pathogenic parasite of the Aplicomplexa protozoan family infects bovine B-lymphocytes and macrophages. Parasitized cells that become transformed survive and proliferate independently of exogenous growth factors. In the present study, we used the isogenic non parasitized BL3 and parasitized TBL3 B cell lines, as a model to evaluate the contribution of two-major PI3-K- and PKA-dependent anti-apoptotic pathways in the survival of T. annulata parasitized B lymphocytes. We found that T. annulata increases PKA activity, induces over-expression of the catalytic subunit and down-regulates the pro-survival phosphorylation state of Akt/PKB. Consistent with a role of PKA activation in survival, two pharmacological inhibitors H89 and KT5720 ablate PKA-dependent survival of parasitized cells. To specifically inhibit PKA pro-survival pathways we linked the DPTsh1 peptide shuttle sequence to PKI(5-24) and we generated DPT-PKI, a cell permeable PKI. DPT-PKI specifically inhibited PKA activity in bovine cell extracts and, as expected, also inhibited the PKA-dependent survival of T. annulata parasitized TBL3 cells. Thus, parasite-dependent constitutive activation of PKA in TBL3 cells generates an anti-apoptotic pathway that can protect T. annulata-infected B cells from apoptosis. These results also indicate that DPT-PKI could be a powerful tool to inhibit PKA pathways in other cell types.

  4. A microculture technique for rat lymphocyte transformation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindsay, V J; Allardyce, R A

    1979-01-01

    We report the development of an economical microculture technique suitable for measuring rat lymphocyte response to mitogens and in mixed lymphocyte reactions. The effects of varying culture conditions, i.e. source of serum, addition and concentration of 2-mercaptoethanol, mitogen concentrations, culture incubation times, absorption of serum, lymphocyte numbers and microtitre plate well shape are described.

  5. Radiosensitivity of lymphocytes among Filipinos: final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Medina, F.I.S.; Gregorio, J.S.; Aguilar, C.P.; Poblete, E.E.

    1996-01-01

    This report is about the studies on the radiosensitivity of Filipino lymphocytes to radiation that can elucidate on the potential of blood chromosomes as biological dosimeters. The objective of this study is to determine the radiosensitivity of lymphocytes among Filipinos and to establish the radiation-induced chromosome anomaly standard curve in lymphocytes for radiological dosimetry. 47 refs., 9 figs., 1 tab

  6. Long term lymphocyte reconstitution after alemtuzumab treatment of multiple sclerosis

    KAUST Repository

    Hill-Cawthorne, Grant A.; Button, Tom; Tuohy, Orla C.; Jones, Joanne L.; May, Karen; Somerfield, Jennifer; Green, Alison J E; Giovannoni, Gavin; Compston, Alastair D.; Fahey, Michael T.; Coles, Alasdair J.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Alemtuzumab is a lymphocyte depleting monoclonal antibody that has demonstrated superior efficacy over interferon β-1a for relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (MS), and is currently under investigation in phase 3 trials. One unresolved issue is the duration and significance of the lymphopenia induced. The long term effects on lymphocyte reconstitution of a single course, and the consequences that this has on disability, morbidity, mortality and autoimmunity, were examined. Methods: The lymphocyte reconstitution (n=36; 384 person years) and crude safety data (n=37; 447 person years) are reported for the first patients with progressive MS to receive alemtuzumab (1991-1997). Reconstitution time was expressed as a geometric mean or, when a non-negligible number of individuals failed to recover, as a median using survival analysis. Results: Geometric mean recovery time (GMRT) of total lymphocyte counts to the lower limit of the normal range (LLN; ≥1.0×10 9 cells/l) was 12.7 months (95% CI 8.8 to 18.2 months). For B cells, GMRT to LLN (≥0.1×10 9/l) was 7.1 months (95% CI 5.3 to 9.5); median recovery times for CD8 (LLN ≥0.2×10 9 cells/l) and CD4 lymphocytes (LLN ≥0.4×10 9 cells/l) were 20 months and 35 months, respectively. However, CD8 and CD4 counts recovered to baseline levels in only 30% and 21% of patients, respectively. No infective safety concerns arose during 447 person years of follow-up. Conclusions: Lymphocyte counts recovered to LLN after a single course of alemtuzumab in approximately 8 months (B cells) and 3 years (T cell subsets), but usually did not recover to baseline values. However, this long lasting lymphopenia in patients with a previously normal immune system was not associated with an increased risk of serious opportunistic infection.

  7. Long term lymphocyte reconstitution after alemtuzumab treatment of multiple sclerosis

    KAUST Repository

    Hill-Cawthorne, Grant A.

    2011-11-05

    Background: Alemtuzumab is a lymphocyte depleting monoclonal antibody that has demonstrated superior efficacy over interferon β-1a for relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (MS), and is currently under investigation in phase 3 trials. One unresolved issue is the duration and significance of the lymphopenia induced. The long term effects on lymphocyte reconstitution of a single course, and the consequences that this has on disability, morbidity, mortality and autoimmunity, were examined. Methods: The lymphocyte reconstitution (n=36; 384 person years) and crude safety data (n=37; 447 person years) are reported for the first patients with progressive MS to receive alemtuzumab (1991-1997). Reconstitution time was expressed as a geometric mean or, when a non-negligible number of individuals failed to recover, as a median using survival analysis. Results: Geometric mean recovery time (GMRT) of total lymphocyte counts to the lower limit of the normal range (LLN; ≥1.0×10 9 cells/l) was 12.7 months (95% CI 8.8 to 18.2 months). For B cells, GMRT to LLN (≥0.1×10 9/l) was 7.1 months (95% CI 5.3 to 9.5); median recovery times for CD8 (LLN ≥0.2×10 9 cells/l) and CD4 lymphocytes (LLN ≥0.4×10 9 cells/l) were 20 months and 35 months, respectively. However, CD8 and CD4 counts recovered to baseline levels in only 30% and 21% of patients, respectively. No infective safety concerns arose during 447 person years of follow-up. Conclusions: Lymphocyte counts recovered to LLN after a single course of alemtuzumab in approximately 8 months (B cells) and 3 years (T cell subsets), but usually did not recover to baseline values. However, this long lasting lymphopenia in patients with a previously normal immune system was not associated with an increased risk of serious opportunistic infection.

  8. Short-term effects of regional irradiation on lymphocytes, T lymphocytes and eosinophils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chazarin, C.; Roche, H.; Bugat, R.; Pris, F.

    1983-01-01

    Twenty-three cancer patients treated only by regional irradiation were studied. Radiotherapy was delivered to the pelvis in 14 patients and to the mediastinum in 9. T lymphocytes were evaluated with the Jondal technique. Before treatment, lymphocyte counts were identical in patients and control. Decreases in total lymphocytes and T lymphocytes became significant in both groups after 40 Gy. Significant rises in eosinophil counts were found only after abdominal irradiation and seemed unrelated to variations in lymphocyte counts [fr

  9. Tau, APP, NCT and BACE1 in lymphocytes through cognitively normal ageing and neuropathology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MARISOL HERRERA-RIVERO

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Although Alzheimer's disease is a brain disorder, a number of peripheral alterations have been found in these patients; however, little is known about how the key genes involved in the pathophysiology express in peripheral cells such as lymphocytes during normal compared to neuropathological ageing. We analysed the expression of tau, of the amyloid precursor protein, of nicastrin and of the β-site APP cleaving enzyme genes by RT-PCR in lymphocytes from a small group of late-onset Alzheimer's disease patients, from aged patients suffering from neuropsychological conditions different from Alzheimer's and from cognitively healthy subjects divided in four groups by age. We also investigated correlations between gene expression and levels of blood pressure, glucose, total cholesterol and triglycerides as risk factors for Alzheimer's. Results show no tau expression in lymphocytes, a lack of detection of nicastrin expression in Alzheimer's patients and correlations between the medical conditions studied and gene expression in lymphocytes. We believe nicastrin gene expression in lymphocytes should be considered of interest for further analyses in a wider population to investigate whether it might represent a potential biomarker to differentiate Alzheimer's from other neuropsychological disorders.

  10. [Limbic encephalitis with antibodies against intracellular antigens].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morita, Akihiko; Kamei, Satoshi

    2010-04-01

    Limbic encephalitis is a paraneoplastic syndrome that is often associated with small cell lung cancer (SCLC), breast cancer, testicular tumors, teratoma, Hodgkin's lymphoma and thymoma. The common clinical manifestations of limbic encephalitis are subacute onset, cognitive dysfunction, seizures and psychiatric symptoms. Paraneoplastic neurological disorders are considered to occur because of cytotoxic T cell responses and antibodies against target neuronal proteins that are usually expressed by an underlying tumor. The main intracellular antigens related to limbic encephalitis are Hu, Ma2, and less frequently CV2/CRMP5 and amphiphysin. The anti-Hu antibody, which is involved in cerebellar degeneration and extensive or multifocal encephalomyelitis such as limbic encephalitis is closely associated with a history of smoking and SCLC. The anti-Ma2 antibody is associated with encephalitis of the limbic system, hypothalamus and brain-stem. For this reason, some patients with limbic encephalitis have sleep disorders (including REM sleep abnormalities), severe hypokinesis and gaze palsy in addition to limbic dysfunction. In men aged less than 50 years, anti-Ma2 antibody encephalitis is almost always associated with testicular germ-cell tumors that are occasionally difficult to detect. In older men and women, the most common tumors are non-SCLC and breast cancer. Limbic encephalitis associated with cell-surface antigens (e.g., voltage-gated potassium channels, NMDA receptors) is mediated by antibodies and often improves after a reduction in the antibody titer and after tumor resection. Patients with antibodies against intracellular antigens, except for those with anti-Ma2 antibodies and testicular tumors, are less responsive. Early diagnosis and treatment with immunotherapy, tumor resection or both are important for improving or stabilizing the condition of limbic encephalitis.

  11. Expression of Fas (CD95/APO-1) ligand by human breast cancers: significance for tumor immune privilege.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    O'Connell, J

    2012-02-03

    Breast cancers have been shown to elicit tumor-specific immune responses. As in other types of cancer, the antitumor immune response fails to contain breast tumor growth, and a reduction in both the quantity and cytotoxic effectiveness of tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs) is associated with a poorer prognosis. Fas ligand (FasL) induces apoptotic death of activated lymphocytes that express its cell surface receptor, FasR (CD95\\/APO-1). FasL-mediated apoptosis of activated lymphocytes contributes to normal immune downregulation through its roles in tolerance acquisition, immune response termination, and maintenance of immune privilege in the eye, testis, and fetus. In this report, we demonstrate that breast carcinomas express FasL. Using in situ hybridization and immunohistochemistry, we show that breast tumors constitutively express FasL at both the mRNA and protein levels, respectively. FasL expression is prevalent in breast cancer: 100% of breast tumors (17 of 17) were found to express FasL, and expression occurred over more than 50% of the tumor area in all cases. By immunohistochemistry, FasR was found to be coexpressed with FasL throughout large areas of all the breast tumors. This suggests that the tumor cells had acquired intracellular defects in FasL-mediated apoptotic signaling. FasL and FasR expression were independent of tumor type or infiltrative capacity. FasL expressed by tumor cells has previously been shown to kill Fas-sensitive lymphoid cells in vitro and has been associated with apoptosis of TILs in vivo. We conclude that mammary carcinomas express FasL in vivo as a potential inhibitor of the antitumor immune response.

  12. Prognostic significance of neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio in biliary tract cancers: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Haowen; Lu, Wenping; Li, Bingmin; Li, Chonghui; Xu, Yinzhe; Dong, Jiahong

    2017-05-30

    Inflammation was considered to perform crucial roles in the development and metastasis of malignancies. A heightened neutrophil-lymphocyte ratio has been described to be associated with detrimental survivals in different malignancies. Debate remains over the impact of heightened neutrophil-lymphocyte ratio on survivals in biliary tract cancer. The review evaluated the prognostic value of neutrophil-lymphocyte ratio in biliary tract cancer. MEDLINE, the Cochrane Library, EMBASE, and the Chinese SinoMed were systematically searched for relevant articles. Associations between neutrophil-lymphocyte ratio and long-term outcomes were expressed as the hazard ratios and 95% confidence intervals. The odds ratio was utilized to assess the association between neutrophil-lymphocyte ratio and clinicopathological parameters. Fourteen studies consisting of 3217 patients were analyzed: 1278 (39.73%) in the high pretreatment neutrophil-lymphocyte ratio group and 1939 (60.27%) in the low pretreatment neutrophil-lymphocyte ratio one. The results proved that heightened pretreatment neutrophil-lymphocyte ratio was significantly associated with detrimental overall survival and relapse free survival for biliary tract cancer patients. In addition, elevated neutrophil-lymphocyte ratio was positively correlated with higher carbohydrate antigen 19-9 levels, advanced TNM staging and greater lymph node involvement. This meta-analysis marked that an increased pretreatment neutrophil-lymphocyte ratio was significantly linked with detrimental long-term outcomes and clinicopathological parameters for patients with biliary tract cancer.

  13. GENERATION OF CYTOTOXIC LYMPHOCYTES IN MIXED LYMPHOCYTE REACTIONS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forman, James; Möller, Göran

    1973-01-01

    Generation of cytotoxic effector cells by a unidirectional mixed lymphocyte reaction (MLR) in the mouse H-2 system was studied using labeled YAC (H-2a) leukemia cells as targets. The responding effector cell displayed a specific cytotoxic effect against target cells of the same H-2 genotype as the stimulating cell population. Killing of syngeneic H-2 cells was not observed, even when the labeled target cells were "innocent bystanders" in cultures where specific target cells were reintroduced. Similar results were found with spleen cells taken from mice sensitized in vivo 7 days earlier. The effector cell was not an adherent cell and was not activated by supernatants from MLR. The supernatants were not cytotoxic by themselves. When concanavalin A or phytohemagglutinin was added to the cytotoxic test system, target and effector cells were agglutinated. Under these conditions, killing of H-2a target cells was observed in mixed cultures where H-2a lymphocytes were also the effector cells. These findings indicate that specifically activated, probably thymus-derived lymphocytes, can kill nonspecifically once they have been activated and providing there is close contact between effector and target cells. Thus, specificity of T cell killing appears to be restricted to recognition and subsequent binding to the targets, the actual effector phase being nonspecific. PMID:4269560

  14. Arabidopsis GLUTATHIONE REDUCTASE1 plays a crucial role in leaf responses to intracellular hydrogen peroxide and in ensuring appropriate gene expression through both salicylic acid and jasmonic acid signaling pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mhamdi, Amna; Hager, Jutta; Chaouch, Sejir; Queval, Guillaume; Han, Yi; Taconnat, Ludivine; Saindrenan, Patrick; Gouia, Houda; Issakidis-Bourguet, Emmanuelle; Renou, Jean-Pierre; Noctor, Graham

    2010-07-01

    Glutathione is a major cellular thiol that is maintained in the reduced state by glutathione reductase (GR), which is encoded by two genes in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana; GR1 and GR2). This study addressed the role of GR1 in hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)) responses through a combined genetic, transcriptomic, and redox profiling approach. To identify the potential role of changes in glutathione status in H(2)O(2) signaling, gr1 mutants, which show a constitutive increase in oxidized glutathione (GSSG), were compared with a catalase-deficient background (cat2), in which GSSG accumulation is conditionally driven by H(2)O(2). Parallel transcriptomics analysis of gr1 and cat2 identified overlapping gene expression profiles that in both lines were dependent on growth daylength. Overlapping genes included phytohormone-associated genes, in particular implicating glutathione oxidation state in the regulation of jasmonic acid signaling. Direct analysis of H(2)O(2)-glutathione interactions in cat2 gr1 double mutants established that GR1-dependent glutathione status is required for multiple responses to increased H(2)O(2) availability, including limitation of lesion formation, accumulation of salicylic acid, induction of pathogenesis-related genes, and signaling through jasmonic acid pathways. Modulation of these responses in cat2 gr1 was linked to dramatic GSSG accumulation and modified expression of specific glutaredoxins and glutathione S-transferases, but there is little or no evidence of generalized oxidative stress or changes in thioredoxin-associated gene expression. We conclude that GR1 plays a crucial role in daylength-dependent redox signaling and that this function cannot be replaced by the second Arabidopsis GR gene or by thiol systems such as the thioredoxin system.

  15. Legionella pneumophila transcriptome during intracellular multiplication in human macrophages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastien P Faucher

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Legionella pneumophila is the causative agent of Legionnaires’ disease, an acute pulmonary infection. L. pneumophila is able to infect and multiply in both phagocytic protozoa, such as Acanthamoeba castellanii, and mammalian professional phagocytes. The best-known L. pneumophila virulence determinant is the Icm/Dot Type IVB secretion system (TFBSS, which is used to translocate more than 150 effector proteins to host cells. While the transcriptional response of Legionella to the intracellular environment of A. castellanii has been investigated, much less is known about the Legionella transcriptional response inside human macrophages. In this study, the transcriptome of L. pneumophila was monitored during exponential and post-exponential phase in rich AYE broth as well as during infection of human cultured macrophages. This was accomplished with microarrays and an RNA amplification procedure called SCOTS to detect small amounts of mRNA from low numbers of intracellular bacteria. Among the genes induced intracellularly are those involved in amino acid biosynthetic pathways leading to L-arginine, L-histidine and L-proline as well as many transport systems involved in amino acid and iron uptake. Gene involved in catabolism of glycerol is also induced during intracellular growth and could be used as a carbon source. The genes encoding the Icm/Dot system are not differentially expressed inside cells compared to control bacteria grown in rich broth, but the genes encoding several translocated effectors are strongly induced. Moreover, we used the transcriptome data to predict previously unrecognized Icm/Dot effector genes based on their expression pattern and confirmed translocation for three candidates. This study provides a comprehensive view of how L. pneumophila responds to the human macrophage intracellular environment.

  16. In vitro culture of skin-homing T lymphocytes from inflammatory skin diseases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bang, Karen; Lund, Marianne; Mogensen, Søren C

    2005-01-01

    We, in this study, describe how T lymphocytes in a skin biopsy can proliferate in vitro for up to 3 months by using T-cell growth factors - interleukin-2 (IL-2) and IL-4 yielding approximately 100-160 million T lymphocytes within 1 month. We established cell lines from three tuberculin skin tests......, four positive patch tests, 15 of 16 biopsies from atopic dermatitis (AD), 15 of 19 biopsies from mycosis fungoides (MF), 12 of 24 biopsies from psoriasis vulgaris, which was significantly less than AD (P lymphocytes (P ... to immediate halt of proliferation. Blood mononuclear cells from patients and biopsies from healthy persons never gave cell lines. All cells were T lymphocytes expressing CD45RO+, HLA-DR+ and CD150. The CD7 expression was significantly increased in cell lines from AD (P

  17. An alternative approach to studying the effects of ZnO nanoparticles in cultured human lymphocytes: combining electrochemistry and genotoxicity tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Branica, Gina; Mladinić, Marin; Omanović, Dario; Želježić, Davor

    2016-12-01

    Nanoparticle use has increased radically raising concern about possible adverse effects in humans. Zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnO NPs) are among the most common nanomaterials in consumer and medical products. Several studies indicate problems with their safe use. The aim of our study was to see at which levels ZnO NPs start to produce adverse cytogenetic effects in human lymphocytes as an early attempt toward establishing safety limits for ZnO NP exposure in humans. We assessed the genotoxic effects of low ZnO NP concentrations (1.0, 2.5, 5, and 7.5 μg mL-1) in lymphocyte cultures over 14 days of exposure. We also tested whether low and high-density lymphocytes differed in their ability to accumulate ZnO NPs in these experimental conditions. Primary DNA damage (measured with the alkaline comet assay) increased with nanoparticle concentration in unseparated and high density lymphocytes. The same happened with the fragmentation of TP53 (measured with the comet-FISH). Nanoparticle accumulation was significant only with the two highest concentrations, regardless of lymphocyte density. High-density lymphocytes had significantly more intracellular Zn2+ than light-density ones. Our results suggest that exposure to ZnO NPs in concentrations above 5 μg mL-1 increases cytogenetic damage and intracellular Zn2+ levels in lymphocytes.

  18. Analyses of the mechanism of lymphocytic apoptosis by radiation and its preventive factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamamoto, Shigeki; Aeba, Naomi

    1998-01-01

    Aiming to elucidate the mechanism of lymphocytic apoptosis caused by radiation, CD4 + cell line MOLT-5, which is highly sensitive to radiation was exposed to radiation in vitro and the roles of intracellular protease were investigated by biochemical techniques. Apoptotic cell death increased with time after exposure to radiation at 5 Gy. It was also found that the activities of intracellular proteases which mediate in cell death due to extracellular stimuli had risen before the cell death. Especially, CPP32-like protease activity increased before the appearance of morphological changes leading to cell death. Meanwhile, the intracellular elastase level which might increased as an increase of cell death caused by UV exposure was not changed in MOLT-4 cells exposed to radiation, but it was increased with its proliferation. The present study suggests that CPP32-like protease might be involved in the apoptotic death of CD4 + cell and MOLT-4 cell. (M.N.)

  19. Genomic and epigenomic heterogeneity in chronic lymphocytic leukemia

    OpenAIRE

    Guièze, Romain; Wu, Catherine J.

    2015-01-01

    Defining features of chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) are not only its immunophenotype of CD19+CD5+CD23+sIgdim expressing clonal mature B cells but also its highly variable clinical course. In recent years, advances in massively parallel sequencing technologies have led to rapid progress in our understanding of the CLL genome and epigenome. Overall, these studies have clearly demarcated not only the vast degree of genetic and epigenetic heterogeneity among individuals with CLL but also even...

  20. A mathematical model of T lymphocyte calcium dynamics derived from single transmembrane protein properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christine Dorothee Schmeitz

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Fate decision processes of T lymphocytes are crucial for health and disease. Whether a T lymphocyte is activated, divides, gets anergic or initiates apoptosis depends on extracellular triggers and intracellular signalling. Free cytosolic calcium dynamics plays an important role in this context. The relative contributions of store-derived calcium entry and calcium entry from extracellular space to T lymphocyte activation are still a matter of debate. Here we develop a quantitative mathematical model of T lymphocyte calcium dynamics in order to establish a tool which allows to disentangle cause-effect relationships between ion fluxes and observed calcium time courses. The model is based on single transmembrane protein characteristics which have been determined in independent experiments. This reduces the number of unknown parameters in the model to a minimum and ensures the predictive power of the model. Simulation results are subsequently used for an analysis of whole cell calcium dynamics measured under various experimental conditions. The model accounts for a variety of these conditions, which supports the suitability of the modelling approach. The simulation results suggest a model in which calcium dynamics dominantly relies on the opening of channels in calcium stores while calcium entry through calcium-release activated channels (CRAC is more associated with the maintenance of the T lymphocyte calcium levels and prevents the cell from calcium depletion. Our findings indicate that CRAC guarantees a long-term stable calcium level which is required for cell survival and sustained calcium enhancement.

  1. MR imaging of intracellular and extracellular deoxyhemoglobin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Janick, P.A.; Grossman, R.I.; Asakura, T.

    1989-01-01

    MR imaging was performed on varying concentrations of intracellular and extracellular deoxyhemoglobin as well as varying proportions of deoxyhemoglobin and oxyhemoglobin in vitro at 1.5T with use of standard spin-echo and gradient-refocused spin sequences. This study indicates that susceptibility-induced T2 shortening occurs over a broad range of intracellular deoxyhemoglobin concentrations (maximal at hematocrits between 20% and 45%), reflecting diffusional effects at the cellular level. T2* gradient-echo imaging enhances the observed hypointensity in images of intracellular deoxyhemoglobin. The characteristic MR appearance of acute hemotomas can be modeled by the behavior of intracellular and extracellular deoxyhemoglobin and oxyhemoglobin

  2. Immunotoxicity of environmentally relevant mixtures of polychlorinated aromatic hydrocarbons with methyl mercury on rat lymphocytes in vitro

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Omara, F.O.; Brochu, C.; Flipo, D.; Denizeau, F.; Fournier, M. [Univ. of Quebec, Montreal, Quebec (Canada)

    1997-03-01

    The immunosuppressive effects of methyl mercury (MHg), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), and dibenzofurans (PCDFs) are well established at higher exposure levels but unclear at low exposure levels. The authors exposed Fischer 344 rat splenocytes, thymocytes, and peripheral blood lymphocytes in vitro for 72 h to MHg of three PCDDs and two PCDFs PCB mixtures, or combinations of MHg/PCB/PCDD/PCDF mixtures Mitogenic responses of lymphocytes to concanavalin A, phytohemagglutinin, or lipopolysaccharide/dextran sulfate were determined by {sup 3}H-thymidine uptake; cytotoxicity and intracellular Ca{sup 2+} were determined by flow cytometry. Methylmercury mixtures with 2 {micro}g/ml MHg decreased the viability of splenocytes to 57 and 40% at 4 and 24 h, respectively. Basal intracellular calcium ion levels were unaffected by the treatments. Methylmercury suppressed the responses of lymphocytes to T and B cell mitogens. All combinations of MHg/PCB/PCDD/PCDF mixtures decreased mitogenic responses to levels similar to those to MHg alone. In contrast, PCB and PCDD/PCDF mixtures did not suppress but augmented responses of splenocytes and peripheral blood lymphocytes to T cell mitogens. Overall, no interactive toxicity was observed with MHg/PCB/PCDD/PCDF mixtures on cytotoxicity and lymphocyte mitogenic responses. Therefore, MHg may pose a greater threat than organochlorines to the mammalian immune system.

  3. The interferon response to intracellular DNA: why so many receptors?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unterholzner, Leonie

    2013-11-01

    The detection of intracellular DNA has emerged to be a key event in the innate immune response to viruses and intracellular bacteria, and during conditions of sterile inflammation and autoimmunity. One of the consequences of the detection of DNA as a 'stranger' and a 'danger' signal is the production of type I interferons and pro-inflammatory cytokines. Much work has been dedicated to the elucidation of the signalling cascades that activate this DNA-induced gene expression programme. However, while many proteins have been proposed to act as sensors for intracellular DNA in recent years, none has been met with universal acceptance, and a theory linking all the recent observations is, as yet, lacking. This review presents the evidence for the various interferon-inducing DNA receptors proposed to date, and examines the hypotheses that might explain why so many different receptors appear to be involved in the innate immune recognition of intracellular DNA. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  4. Antibody- and TRIM21-dependent intracellular restriction of Salmonella enterica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rakebrandt, Nikolas; Lentes, Sabine; Neumann, Heinz; James, Leo C; Neumann-Staubitz, Petra

    2014-11-01

    TRIM21 ('tripartite motif-containing protein 21', Ro52) is a ubiquitously expressed cytosolic Fc receptor, which has a potent role in protective immunity against nonenveloped viruses. TRIM21 mediates intracellular neutralisation of antibody-coated viruses, a process called ADIN (antibody-dependent intracellular neutralisation). Our results reveal a similar mechanism to fight bacterial infections. TRIM21 is recruited to the intracellular pathogen Salmonella enterica in epithelial cells early in infection. TRIM21 does not bind directly to S. enterica, but to antibodies opsonising it. Most importantly, bacterial restriction is dependent on TRIM21 as well as on the opsonisation state of the bacteria. Finally, Salmonella and TRIM21 colocalise with the autophagosomal marker LC3, and intracellular defence is enhanced in starved cells suggesting an involvement of the autophagocytic pathway. Our data extend the protective role of TRIM21 from viruses to bacteria and thereby strengthening the general role of ADIN in cellular immunity. © 2014 Federation of European Microbiological Societies. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Increased NTPDase Activity in Lymphocytes during Experimental Sepsis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertoncheli, Claudia de Mello; Zimmermann, Carine Eloise Prestes; Jaques, Jeandre Augusto dos Santos; Leal, Cláudio Alberto Martins; Ruchel, Jader Betsch; Rocha, Bruna Cipolatto; Pinheiro, Kelly de Vargas; Souza, Viviane do Carmo Gonçalves; Stainki, Daniel Roulim; Luz, Sônia Cristina Almeida; Schetinger, Maria Rosa Chitolina; Leal, Daniela Bitencourt Rosa

    2012-01-01

    We investigated in rats induced to sepsis the activity of ectonucleoside triphosphate diphosphohydrolase (NTPDase; CD39; E.C. 3.6.1.5), an enzyme involved in the modulation of immune responses. After 12 hours of surgery, lymphocytes were isolated from blood and NTPDase activity was determined. It was also performed the histology of kidney, liver, and lung. The results demonstrated an increase in the hydrolysis of adenosine-5′-triphosphate (ATP) (P 0.05). Histological analysis showed several morphological changes in the septic group, such as vascular congestion, necrosis, and infiltration of mononuclear cells. It is known that the intracellular milieu contains much more ATP nucleotides than the extracellular. In this context, the increased ATPasic activity was probably induced as a dynamic response to clean up the elevated ATP levels resulting from cellular death. PMID:22645477

  6. In-vitro responses of T lymphocytes to poly(butylene succinate) based biomaterials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toso, Montree; Patntirapong, Somying; Janvikul, Wanida; Singhatanadgit, Weerachai

    2017-04-01

    Polybutylene succinate (PBSu) and PBSu/β-tricalcium phosphate (TCP) composites are biocompatible and good candidates as bone graft materials. However, little is known about the responses of T lymphocytes to these biomaterials, which play an important role in the success of bone grafting. Activated T lymphocytes were cultured onto 32 mm diameter films (PBSu/TCP films), that had previously been placed in 6-well culture plates, for 8, 24 and 72 hours. A plastic-well culture plate was used as a control surface. The effects of PBSu-based biomaterials on T lymphocytes were examined by the using flow cytometry and reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction. These biomaterials were non-toxic to T lymphocytes, allowing their normal DNA synthesis and activation. All materials induced only transient activation of T lymphocytes, which existed no longer than 72 hours. Proportions of four main CD4/CD8 T lymphocyte subpopulations were not affected by these biomaterials. Moreover, PBSu and PBSu/TCP significantly suppressed the expression of IL-1β and IL-6 genes by 15-35% and 21-26%, respectively. In contrast, a PBSu/TCP composite (at PBSu:TCP=60:40) significantly stimulated the expression of IL-10 and IL-13 genes by 17% and 19%, respectively. PBSu and PBSu/TCP composites were non-toxic to T lymphocytes and did not induce unfavorable responses of T lymphocytes. The tested biomaterials down-regulated key proinflammatory cytokine genes and up-regulated anti-inflammatory cytokine genes in T lymphocytes. These suggest that the biomaterials studied are good candidates as bone graft materials.

  7. Functional and phenotypic changes in human lymphocytes after coincubation with Leishmania donovani in vitro

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hviid, L; Sørensen, A L; Kharazmi, A

    1990-01-01

    . Interleukin-1 production was unaffected, the levels of soluble interleukin-2 receptor in supernatants were not changed by the coincubation, and the addition of exogenous interleukin-2 failed to revert the suppressive effect of the parasites. In addition to the reduction in lymphocyte proliferation, phenotypic...... lymphocyte changes were observed. Cell surface expression of the CD3 antigen, which is part of the CD3-T-cell receptor complex, was significantly reduced with increasing parasite/peripheral blood mononuclear cell ratios; the reduction was general in the sense that the parasites caused a shift...... expression and the other, larger population with only a slight reduction in size and CD25 expression. In addition to the changes in expression of surface antigens, a general reduction in the size of PHA-stimulated lymphocytes after coincubation with the parasites was observed. The data presented thus suggest...

  8. Cytokine profile and lymphocyte subsets in type 2 diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C.O. Francisco

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2D is a metabolic disease with inflammation as an important pathogenic background. However, the pattern of immune cell subsets and the cytokine profile associated with development of T2D are unclear. The objective of this study was to evaluate different components of the immune system in T2D patients' peripheral blood by quantifying the frequency of lymphocyte subsets and intracellular pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokine production by T cells. Clinical data and blood samples were collected from 22 men (51.6±6.3 years old with T2D and 20 nonsmoking men (49.4±7.6 years old who were matched for age and sex as control subjects. Glycated hemoglobin, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein concentrations, and the lipid profile were measured by a commercially available automated system. Frequencies of lymphocyte subsets in peripheral blood and intracellular production of interleukin (IL-4, IL-10, IL-17, tumor necrosis factor-α, and interferon-γ cytokines by CD3+ T cells were assessed by flow cytometry. No differences were observed in the frequency of CD19+ B cells, CD3+CD8+ and CD3+CD4+ T cells, CD16+56+ NK cells, and CD4+CD25+Foxp3+ T regulatory cells in patients with T2D compared with controls. The numbers of IL-10- and IL-17-producing CD3+ T cells were significantly higher in patients with T2D than in controls (P<0.05. The frequency of interferon-γ-producing CD3+ T cells was positively correlated with body mass index (r=0.59; P=0.01. In conclusion, this study shows increased numbers of circulating IL-10- and IL-17-producing CD3+ T cells in patients with T2D, suggesting that these cytokines are involved in the immune pathology of this disease.

  9. T-lymphocyte dependency of B-lymphocyte blastogenic response to phytomitogens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han, T.; Dadey, B.

    1978-01-01

    Human peripheral blood T and B lymphocytes were separated by a method based on the stable rosette formation of T lymphocytes with neuraminidase-treated sheep erythrocytes, followed by centrifugation over a Ficoll-Hypaque gradient. Monocytes were isolated from the T-depleted B lymphocyte preparation by allowing the monocytes to ingest iron particles and by subsequent centrifugation over a Ficoll-Hypaque gradient. The T lymphocytes responded extremely well to PHA and very well to PWM, while the B lymphocytes were unresponsive to either PHA or PWM. However, when the B lymphocytes were cultured together with irradiated autologous or allogeneic T lymphocytes (1 : 1,1:2 or 1 : 4 ratio), both PHA and PWM became mitogenic to B lymphocytes. Irradiated T lymphocytes alone did not respond to either PHA or PWM, indicating that the 3 H-thymidine incorporation seen in the mixed-cell culture was due to the activation of unirradiated B lymphocytes. The B lymphocytes failed to respond to these phytomitogens in the presence of lower concentrations of irradiated T lymphocytes. The monocytes were found to be incapable of helping the B lymphocytes to respond to PHA or PWM. (author)

  10. Ibrutinib: A Review in Chronic Lymphocytic Leukaemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deeks, Emma D

    2017-02-01

    Ibrutinib (Imbruvica ® ) is an oral irreversible inhibitor of Bruton's tyrosine kinase, a B-cell receptor (BCR) signalling kinase expressed by various haematopoietic cells, B-cell lymphomas and leukaemias. The drug is indicated for the treatment of certain haematological malignancies, including chronic lymphocytic leukaemia (CLL)/small lymphocytic lymphoma (SLL), which are the focus of this review. In phase III CLL/SLL trials, ibrutinib monotherapy was more effective than chlorambucil in the first-line treatment of elderly patients (RESONATE-2) and more effective than ofatumumab in previously-treated adults (RESONATE). Likewise, a combination of ibrutinib, bendamustine and rituximab was more effective in previously-treated adults than bendamustine plus rituximab in a phase III placebo-controlled study (HELIOS). These ibrutinib regimens were associated with significantly better progression-free survival, overall response rates, and overall survival than the comparators (in protocol-specified or planned analyses), with ibrutinib therapy providing benefit regardless of adverse prognostic factors, such as del(17p)/TP53 mutation and del(11q). Ibrutinib has an acceptable tolerability profile, although certain adverse events (e.g. bleeding and atrial fibrillation) require consideration. Redistribution lymphocytosis can occur, but is not indicative of disease progression. Although longer-term data would be beneficial, ibrutinib is a welcome treatment option for patients with CLL, including those who have higher-risk disease or are less physically fit. Indeed, current EU and US guidelines recommend/prefer the drug for the first- and/or subsequent-line treatment of certain patients, including those with del(17p)/TP53 mutation.

  11. Dynamics of intracellular information decoding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kobayashi, Tetsuya J; Kamimura, Atsushi

    2011-01-01

    A variety of cellular functions are robust even to substantial intrinsic and extrinsic noise in intracellular reactions and the environment that could be strong enough to impair or limit them. In particular, of substantial importance is cellular decision-making in which a cell chooses a fate or behavior on the basis of information conveyed in noisy external signals. For robust decoding, the crucial step is filtering out the noise inevitably added during information transmission. As a minimal and optimal implementation of such an information decoding process, the autocatalytic phosphorylation and autocatalytic dephosphorylation (aPadP) cycle was recently proposed. Here, we analyze the dynamical properties of the aPadP cycle in detail. We describe the dynamical roles of the stationary and short-term responses in determining the efficiency of information decoding and clarify the optimality of the threshold value of the stationary response and its information-theoretical meaning. Furthermore, we investigate the robustness of the aPadP cycle against the receptor inactivation time and intrinsic noise. Finally, we discuss the relationship among information decoding with information-dependent actions, bet-hedging and network modularity

  12. Dynamics of intracellular information decoding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Tetsuya J; Kamimura, Atsushi

    2011-10-01

    A variety of cellular functions are robust even to substantial intrinsic and extrinsic noise in intracellular reactions and the environment that could be strong enough to impair or limit them. In particular, of substantial importance is cellular decision-making in which a cell chooses a fate or behavior on the basis of information conveyed in noisy external signals. For robust decoding, the crucial step is filtering out the noise inevitably added during information transmission. As a minimal and optimal implementation of such an information decoding process, the autocatalytic phosphorylation and autocatalytic dephosphorylation (aPadP) cycle was recently proposed. Here, we analyze the dynamical properties of the aPadP cycle in detail. We describe the dynamical roles of the stationary and short-term responses in determining the efficiency of information decoding and clarify the optimality of the threshold value of the stationary response and its information-theoretical meaning. Furthermore, we investigate the robustness of the aPadP cycle against the receptor inactivation time and intrinsic noise. Finally, we discuss the relationship among information decoding with information-dependent actions, bet-hedging and network modularity.

  13. Secretome of obligate intracellular Rickettsia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillespie, Joseph J.; Kaur, Simran J.; Rahman, M. Sayeedur; Rennoll-Bankert, Kristen; Sears, Khandra T.; Beier-Sexton, Magda; Azad, Abdu F.

    2014-01-01

    The genus Rickettsia (Alphaproteobacteria, Rickettsiales, Rickettsiaceae) is comprised of obligate intracellular parasites, with virulent species of interest both as causes of emerging infectious diseases and for their potential deployment as bioterrorism agents. Currently, there are no effective commercially available vaccines, with treatment limited primarily to tetracycline antibiotics, although others (e.g. josamycin, ciprofloxacin, chloramphenicol, and azithromycin) are also effective. Much of the recent research geared toward understanding mechanisms underlying rickettsial pathogenicity has centered on characterization of secreted proteins that directly engage eukaryotic cells. Herein, we review all aspects of the Rickettsia secretome, including six secretion systems, 19 characterized secretory proteins, and potential moonlighting proteins identified on surfaces of multiple Rickettsia species. Employing bioinformatics and phylogenomics, we present novel structural and functional insight on each secretion system. Unexpectedly, our investigation revealed that the majority of characterized secretory proteins have not been assigned to their cognate secretion pathways. Furthermore, for most secretion pathways, the requisite signal sequences mediating translocation are poorly understood. As a blueprint for all known routes of protein translocation into host cells, this resource will assist research aimed at uniting characterized secreted proteins with their apposite secretion pathways. Furthermore, our work will help in the identification of novel secreted proteins involved in rickettsial ‘life on the inside’. PMID:25168200

  14. HYPERTHERMIA, INTRACELLULAR FREE CALCIUM AND CALCIUM IONOPHORES

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    STEGE, GJJ; WIERENGA, PK; KAMPINGA, HH; KONINGS, AWT

    1993-01-01

    It is shown that heat-induced increase of intracellular calcium does not correlate with hyperthermic cell killing. Six different cell lines were investigated; in four (EAT, HeLa S3, L5178Y-R and L5178Y-S) heat treatments killing 90% of the cells did not affect the levels of intracellular free

  15. Endothelial remodelling and intracellular calcium machinery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moccia, F; Tanzi, F; Munaron, L

    2014-05-01

    Rather being an inert barrier between vessel lumen and surrounding tissues, vascular endothelium plays a key role in the maintenance of cardiovascular homeostasis. The de-endothelialization of blood vessels is regarded as the early event that results in the onset of severe vascular disorders, including atherosclerosis, acute myocardial infarction, brain stroke, and aortic aneurysm. Restoration of the endothelial lining may be accomplished by the activation of neighbouring endothelial cells (ECs) freed by contact inhibition and by circulating endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs). Intracellular Ca(2+) signalling is essential to promote wound healing: however, the molecular underpinnings of the Ca(2+) response to injury are yet to be fully elucidated. Similarly, the components of the Ca(2+) toolkit that drive EPC incorporation into denuded vessels are far from being fully elucidated. The present review will survey the current knowledge on the role of Ca(2+) signalling in endothelial repair and in EPC activation. We propose that endothelial regeneration might be boosted by intraluminal release of specific Ca(2+) channel agonists or by gene transfer strategies aiming to enhance the expression of the most suitable Ca(2+) channels at the wound site. In this view, connexin (Cx) channels/hemichannels and store-operated Ca(2+) entry (SOCE) stand amid the most proper routes to therapeutically induce the regrowth of denuded vessels. Cx stimulation might trigger the proliferative and migratory behaviour of ECs facing the lesion site, whereas activation of SOCE is likely to favour EPC homing to the wounded vessel.

  16. Opinion: Interactions of innate and adaptive lymphocytes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gasteiger, Georg; Rudensky, Alexander Y.

    2015-01-01

    Innate lymphocytes, including natural killer (NK) cells and the recently discovered innate lymphoid cells (ILCs) have crucial roles during infection, tissue injury and inflammation. Innate signals regulate the activation and homeostasis of innate lymphocytes. Less well understood is the contribution of the adaptive immune system to the orchestration of innate lymphocyte responses. We review our current understanding of the interactions between adaptive and innate lymphocytes, and propose a model in which adaptive T cells function as antigen-specific sensors for the activation of innate lymphocytes to amplify and instruct local immune responses. We highlight the potential role of regulatory and helper T cells in these processes and discuss major questions in the emerging area of crosstalk between adaptive and innate lymphocytes. PMID:25132095

  17. STAT3 induces transcription of the DNA methyltransferase 1 gene (DNMT1) in malignant T lymphocytes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Qian; Wang, Hong Y; Woetmann, Anders

    2006-01-01

    In this study, we demonstrated that STAT3, a well-characterized transcription factor expressed in continuously activated oncogenic form in the large spectrum of cancer types, induces in malignant T lymphocytes the expression of DNMT1, the key effector of epigenetic gene silencing. STAT3 binds in ...

  18. Detection of Intracellular Factor VIII Protein in Peripheral Blood Mononuclear Cells by Flow Cytometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gouri Shankar Pandey

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Flow cytometry is widely used in cancer research for diagnosis, detection of minimal residual disease, as well as immune monitoring and profiling following immunotherapy. Detection of specific host proteins for diagnosis predominantly uses quantitative PCR and western blotting assays. In this study, we optimized a flow cytometry-based detection assay for Factor VIII protein in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs. An indirect intracellular staining (ICS method was standardized using monoclonal antibodies to different domains of human Factor VIII protein. The FVIII protein expression level was estimated by calculating the mean and median fluorescence intensities (MFI values for each monoclonal antibody. ICS staining of transiently transfected cell lines supported the method's specificity. Intracellular FVIII protein expression was also detected by the monoclonal antibodies used in the study in PBMCs of five blood donors. In summary, our data suggest that intracellular FVIII detection in PBMCs of hemophilia A patients can be a rapid and reliable method to detect intracellular FVIII levels.

  19. Damage of lymphocytes by ionizing irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rose, H.; Moldenhauer, H.; Kehrberg, G.

    1985-01-01

    After a short review, how lymphocytes of the peripheral blood are influenced by radiotherapy, the damage of lymphocytes by whole-body irradiation is pointed out in animal experiments and after in vitro irradiation. The special sensibility of B-cells and their homogeneity in fields of radiobiology are opposed to the heterogeneity of T-cells. The radiosensibility of cytotoxic lymphocytes, suppressor cells, and helper cells are discussed. It appears, that within these functional criteria, there is a different radiosensibility, too. (author)

  20. Intracellular Localization of Arabidopsis Sulfurtransferases1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauer, Michael; Dietrich, Christof; Nowak, Katharina; Sierralta, Walter D.; Papenbrock, Jutta

    2004-01-01

    Sulfurtransferases (Str) comprise a group of enzymes widely distributed in archaea, eubacteria, and eukaryota which catalyze the transfer of a sulfur atom from suitable sulfur donors to nucleophilic sulfur acceptors. In all organisms analyzed to date, small gene families encoding Str proteins have been identified. The gene products were localized to different compartments of the cells. Our interest concerns the localization of Str proteins encoded in the nuclear genome of Arabidopsis. Computer-based prediction methods revealed localization in different compartments of the cell for six putative AtStrs. Several methods were used to determine the localization of the AtStr proteins experimentally. For AtStr1, a mitochondrial localization was demonstrated by immu