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Sample records for lymphocyte subset counts

  1. Leukocyte counts and lymphocyte subsets in relation to pregnancy and HIV infection in Malawian women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandala, Wilson L; Gondwe, Esther N; Molyneux, Malcolm E; MacLennan, Jenny M; MacLennan, Calman A

    2017-09-01

    We investigated leukocyte and lymphocyte subsets in HIV-infected or HIV-uninfected, pregnant or non-pregnant Malawian women to explore whether HIV infection and pregnancy may act synergistically to impair cellular immunity. We recruited 54 pregnant and 48 non-pregnant HIV-uninfected women and 24 pregnant and 20 non-pregnant HIV-infected Malawian women. We compared peripheral blood leukocyte and lymphocyte subsets between women in the four groups. Parturient HIV-infected and HIV-uninfected women had more neutrophils (each PHIV-uninfected parturient women had fewer CD4 + and γδ T cells, B and NK cells (each Ppregnancy. Malawian women at parturition have an increased total white cell count due to neutrophilia and an HIV-unrelated pan-lymphopenia. © 2017 The Author. American Journal of Reproductive Immunology Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Clinical significance of determination of changes of serum TNF-α levels, peripheral B lymphocyte count and T lymphocyte subsets distribution pattern in patients with pregnancy induced hypertension syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao Wenjuan

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To explore the changes of serum TNF-α levels, peripheral B cell count and T subsets distribution pattern in patients with pregnancy induced hypertension syndrome. Methods: Serum TNF-α levels (with RIA), peripheral B cell count as well as T subsets (with monoclonal technique) were examined in 34 patients with pregnancy induced hypertension syndrome and 35 controls. Results: The serum TNF-α levels and B lymphocytes count were significantly higher than those in controls (P 3 , CD 4 , CD4/CD8 ratio were significantly lower than those in controls (P<0.01). Conclusion: Pregnancy induced hY- pertension syndrome is a kind of autoimmune diseases with abnormal immunoregulation. (authors)

  3. Clinical significance of measurement of changes of serum IL-2, SIL-2R, TNF-α levels, B lymphocyte count and T subsets distribution type after treatment in patients with vitiligo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xie Chuntao

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To study the changes of serum IL-2, SIL-2R, TNF-α levels B lymphocytes count and T lyonphocyte subsets distribation type after treatment in patients with vitiligo. Methods: Serum IL-2, TNF-α (with RIA), SIL-2R (with ELISA) levels, B lymphocytes count and T subsets (with monoclonal antibody technique) were examined in 40 patients with vitiligo both before and after treatment as well as in 35 controls. Results: Before treatment, serum SIL-2R, TNF-α levels and B lymphocytes count were significantly higher than those in controls (P<0.01), while the serum IL-2, CD3, CD4 levels CD4/CD8 ratio were significantly lower(P<0.01). After treatment for 6 months, the data were greatly corrected but remanied significantly different from those in controls (P<0.05). Conclusion: Vitiligo is a kind of auto-immune diseases with abnormal immuno-regulation. (authors)

  4. T lymphocyte subsets in prostate cancer subjects in south eastern ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Humoral and cellular mechanisms play roles in immune response to foreign antigens. The present study was designed to determine the T lymphocyte subsets (CD4 + T cells, CD8 + T cells and CD4/CD8 ratio) in the prostate cancer subjects and control subjects. CD4 + T cells (`l/count) and CD8 + T cells (`l/count) were ...

  5. Lymphocytic subsets and low-dose exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tuschl, H.; Kovac, R.; Eybl, E.

    1993-03-01

    The present investigations proved the differential radiosensitivity of lymphocytic subpopulations: From in vivo and in vitro irradiations it may be followed that the most sensitive subset are CD8 positive suppressor T cells. CD4/CD8 ratios are increased both in peripheral blood and after mitogen stimulation of lymphocytes of exposed persons. The decrease in B cells is pronounced only at higher radiation doses. Though the rate of DNA synthesis after mitogen stimulation was reduced in some exposed persons, that was no general phenomenon. Especially after tritium exposure, the observed lymphopenia correlated with an increased stimulation by PHA and an increased rate of DNA synthesis in some probands. Thus the present investigations indicate that - despite an inhibition of some immune parameters by radioexposure - the body is able to maintain its immunological homoeostasis. (authors)

  6. Lymphocytic subsets in occupationally exposed persons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tuschl, H.; Kovac, R.; Wottawa, A.

    1989-04-01

    The percentage of CD2, CD4, CD8 and NK cells of peripheral blood was investigated in persons occupationally exposed to very low doses of ionizing radiation. Investigations were carried out by monoclonal antibodies and flow-cytometry. While significant effects of age and smoking habits on the relative number of CD8 cells and CD4/CD8 ratios could be established, no influence of the very low radiation exposure on the profile of lymphocytic cells in blood was found, except a very slight effect on the relative number of total T cells (= CD2 cells). 7tabs., 2figs., 16refs. (Author)

  7. Range-reference determination of lymphocyte subsets in Moroccan

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    Centre de Transfusion Sanguine, Hôpital Militaire d'Instruction Med V Rabat, Morocco. 3. Service ... The percentage of CD3-CD56+ subsets was affected by smoking (p < 0.01). Our analysis .... lymphocyte subpopulations in non-smokers and.

  8. T-lymphocyte subsets, thymic size and breastfeeding in infancy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jeppesen, Dorthe Lisbeth; Hasselbalch, Helle; Lisse, Ida M

    2004-01-01

    We followed the changes in concentration of T-lymphocyte subsets (CD4+ and CD8+ cells) in peripheral blood and thymus size during infancy. Previous studies have found increased thymus size in breastfed infants. The present study analyzed the association between breastfeeding and the number of CD4...

  9. Metal ion levels and lymphocyte counts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Penny, Jeannette Ø; Varmarken, Jens-Erik; Ovesen, Ole

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Wear particles from metal-on-metal arthroplasties are under suspicion for adverse effects both locally and systemically, and the DePuy ASR Hip Resurfacing System (RHA) has above-average failure rates. We compared lymphocyte counts in RHA and total hip arthroplasty (THA) an....../ppb. INTERPRETATION: Circulating T-lymphocyte levels may decline after surgery, regardless of implant type. Metal ions-particularly cobalt-may have a general depressive effect on T- and B-lymphocyte levels. Registered with ClinicalTrials.gov under # NCT01113762.......BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Wear particles from metal-on-metal arthroplasties are under suspicion for adverse effects both locally and systemically, and the DePuy ASR Hip Resurfacing System (RHA) has above-average failure rates. We compared lymphocyte counts in RHA and total hip arthroplasty (THA....... RESULTS: The T-lymphocyte counts for both implant types declined over the 2-year period. This decline was statistically significant for CD3(+)CD8(+) in the THA group, with a regression coefficient of -0.04 × 10(9)cells/year (95% CI: -0.08 to -0.01). Regression analysis indicated a depressive effect...

  10. Psychological stress during exercise: lymphocyte subset redistribution in firefighters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Chun-Jung; Webb, Heather E; Garten, Ryan S; Kamimori, Gary H; Acevedo, Edmund O

    2010-10-05

    The purpose of this study examined the changes in heart rate (HR), catecholamines (NE, EPI) and percentages of blood lymphocyte subsets (CD3+ T cells, CD3+CD4+ helper T cells, CD3+CD8+ cytotoxic T cells, CD3- CD56+ NK cells, CD4/CD8 ratio, CD19+ B cells, and total lymphocytes [NK cells+T cells+B cells]) in firefighters exposed to a computerized firefighting strategies and tactics decision-making challenge while participating in moderate intensity exercise. Furthermore, this study also examined the possible relationships between catecholamines (NE and EPI) and blood lymphocyte subsets following combined mental and physical challenge. Ten professional male firefighters participated in two counterbalanced exercise conditions on a cycle ergometer: (1) 37min of cycle ergometry at 60% VO(2max) (exercise alone condition; EAC) and (2) 37min of cycle ergometry at 60% VO(2max) along with 20min of a computerized firefighting strategies and tactics decision-making challenge (firefighting strategies condition; FSC). FSC elicited significantly greater HR, NE, and EPI when compared to EAC. Both EAC and FSC elicited increases in CD3- CD56+ NK cells. The percentages of CD3+ T cells, CD3+CD4+ helper T cells, CD4/CD8 ratio, CD19+ B cells, and total lymphocytes were lower immediately following both conditions. Following dual challenge NE AUC was negatively correlated with percentage of CD19+ B cells immediately post challenge, and HR was negatively associated with the percent change in the CD4/CD8 ratio from pre to post challenge. These elevations in NE and heart rate simultaneously in response to the dual challenge suggest greater sympathetic activation that in turn would possibly explain the alteration in the distribution of lymphocyte subsets. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  11. Lymphocyte subsets and response to PHA among atomic bomb survivors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakao, Susumu; Noguchi, Kyouichi; Eida, Kazuyuki; Tashiro, Kazunori; Hayashida, Ken

    1986-01-01

    In an effort to elucidate the effect of radiation exposure on immune competence in man, the number of lymphocytes, lymphocyte subsets, and the percentage of phytohemagglutinin (PHA)-induced transformation of lymphocytes were determined in 66 cancer patients, 25 of whom were exposed to atomic radiation at ≤ 2,000 m from ground zero and 41 others were not exposed. The number of lymphocytes was decreased with increasing age at exposure. The percentage of OKT3-positive cells tended to be lower in exposed patients who were in their twenties at the time of exposure than the non-exposed patients. Among patients in their teens and twenties at the time of exposure, there was a tendency toward decreased percentage of OKT4-positive cells (T4) and increased percentage of OKT8-positive cells (T8). The T4/T8 ratio was reduced. Patients who were in their first decade of life at the time of exposure tended to have decreased OKIa 1-positive cells, and increased Leulla-positive cells. Patients exposed in their twenties and thirties had slightly decreased percentage of PHA-induced transformation of lymphocytes. (Namekawa, K.)

  12. Peripheral lymphocyte subset variation predicts prostate cancer carbon ion radiotherapy outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Ze-Liang; Li, Bing-Xin; Wu, Xian-Wei; Li, Ping; Zhang, Qing; Wei, Xun-Bin; Fu, Shen

    2016-01-01

    The immune system plays a complementary role in the cytotoxic activity of radiotherapy. Here, we examined changes in immune cell subsets after heavy ion therapy for prostate cancer. The lymphocyte counts were compared with acute radiotherapy-related toxicity, defined according to the Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events, and short-term local efficacy, defined based on prostate-specific antigen concentrations. Confirmed prostate cancer patients who had not received previous radiotherapy were administered carbon ion radiotherapy (CIR) in daily fractions of 2.74 GyE with a total dose of 63-66 GyE. Lymphocyte subset counts were investigated before, during and after radiotherapy, and at a 1 month follow-up. Most notable among our findings, the CD4/CD8 ratio and CD19+ cell counts were consistently higher in patients with a complete response (CR) or partial response (PR) to CIR than in those classified in the stable disease (SD) group (P<0.05 for both). But CD3+ and CD8+ cell counts were lower in the CR and PR groups than in the SD group. These results indicate that variations in peripheral lymphocyte subpopulations are predictive of outcome after CIR for prostate cancer. PMID:27029063

  13. Radioiodine-induced changes in lymphocyte subsets in patients with differentiated thyroid carcinoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tofani, A.; Sciuto, R.; Cioffi, R.P.; Pasqualoni, R.; Rea, S.; Festa, A.; Maini, C.L. [Department of Nuclear Medicine, Regina Elena Cancer Institute, Rome (Italy); Gandolfo, G.M.; Arista, M.C. [Department of Clinical Pathology, Regina Elena Cancer Institute, Rome (Italy)

    1999-08-01

    This study evaluated changes in lymphocyte subsets in patients with thyroid carcinoma who received iodine-131 for diagnostic and therapeutic purposes. Twenty thyroid cancer patients were entered in the study after total thyroidectomy: ten patients (group A) underwent whole-body scintigraphy with 185 MBq of {sup 131}I and the other ten (group B) received 3700 MBq of {sup 131}I therapy. All patients were in a hypothyroid state at the time of administration of {sup 131}I and started l-thyroxine 150 {mu}g/day 3 days after {sup 131}I administration. Free and bound triiodothyronine and thyroxine, thyroid-stimulating hormone, thyroglobulin, thyroglobulin antibodies, thyroid peroxidase/microsomal antibodies, white blood cell, lymphocyte counts and lymphocyte subsets were serially determined at baseline and at days 2, 7, 15, 30 and 60 after {sup 131}I administration. Twenty healthy age- and sex-matched individuals were used as a reference population for lymphocyte subset values. In group A only a reduction in NK cells at days 7 (P=0.043) and 15 (P=0.037) was observed. In group B, patients showed a delayed reduction in the total lymphocyte count at days 15, 30 and 60 (P=0.008, 0.004 and 0.018, respectively), and a decrease in B cells throughout the study (at days 7, 15, 30 and 60: P=0.006, 0.0017, 0.0017 and 0.0017 respectively). A transient decrease in NK cells was observed at days 15 (P=0.025) and 30 (P=0.008). Among T cells, the helper phenotype (CD4+) was mainly affected, resulting in a reduction in the CD4+/CD8+ ratio at day 60 (P=0.046). Comparing the two groups, the numbers of B lymphocytes at day 30 (P=0.023) and NK cells at days 2 (P=0.037) and 30 (P=0.023) were significantly lower in group B. Neither group showed any clinical sign of immunosuppression during the follow-up period. In patients with thyroid cancer the sensitivity of lymphocytes to the effects of {sup 131}I administered for diagnostic or therapeutic purposes depends upon lymphocyte phenotype and {sup

  14. Selective effects of alpha interferon on human T-lymphocyte subsets during mixed lymphocyte cultures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hokland, M; Hokland, P; Heron, I

    1983-01-01

    Mixed lymphocyte reaction (MLR) cultures of human lymphocyte subsets with or without the addition of physiological doses of human alpha interferon (IFN-alpha) were compared with respect to surface marker phenotypes and proliferative capacities of the responder cells. A selective depression on the T...... T4 cells and decreased numbers of T4 cells harvested from IFN MLRs (days 5-6 of culture). In contrast, it was shown that the T8 (cytotoxic/suppressor) subset in MLRs was either not affected or slightly stimulated by the addition of IFN. The depression of the T4 cells by IFN was accompanied...... by a decrease in the number of activated T cells expressing Ia antigens. On the other hand, IFN MLRs contained greater numbers of cells expressing the T10 differentiation antigen. In experiments with purified T-cell subsets the IFN effect was exerted directly on the T4 cells and not mediated by either T8...

  15. Cytokine profile and lymphocyte subsets in type 2 diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C.O. Francisco

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2D is a metabolic disease with inflammation as an important pathogenic background. However, the pattern of immune cell subsets and the cytokine profile associated with development of T2D are unclear. The objective of this study was to evaluate different components of the immune system in T2D patients' peripheral blood by quantifying the frequency of lymphocyte subsets and intracellular pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokine production by T cells. Clinical data and blood samples were collected from 22 men (51.6±6.3 years old with T2D and 20 nonsmoking men (49.4±7.6 years old who were matched for age and sex as control subjects. Glycated hemoglobin, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein concentrations, and the lipid profile were measured by a commercially available automated system. Frequencies of lymphocyte subsets in peripheral blood and intracellular production of interleukin (IL-4, IL-10, IL-17, tumor necrosis factor-α, and interferon-γ cytokines by CD3+ T cells were assessed by flow cytometry. No differences were observed in the frequency of CD19+ B cells, CD3+CD8+ and CD3+CD4+ T cells, CD16+56+ NK cells, and CD4+CD25+Foxp3+ T regulatory cells in patients with T2D compared with controls. The numbers of IL-10- and IL-17-producing CD3+ T cells were significantly higher in patients with T2D than in controls (P<0.05. The frequency of interferon-γ-producing CD3+ T cells was positively correlated with body mass index (r=0.59; P=0.01. In conclusion, this study shows increased numbers of circulating IL-10- and IL-17-producing CD3+ T cells in patients with T2D, suggesting that these cytokines are involved in the immune pathology of this disease.

  16. Changes in the host lymphocyte subsets during chemical carcinogenesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brodt, P.; Lala, P.K.

    1983-01-01

    Changes in small lymphocyte subsets in the lymphoid organs of young C3H mice were studied following i.m. injection of a carcinogenic dose of 3-methylcholanthrene (mc). Using monoclonal anti-Lyt antibodies and a sandwich radiolabeling method with 125 I-labeled rabbit anti-mouse Immunoglobulin, the lymphocyte subpopulations in the thymus, spleen, and draining lymph node were examined by radioautography. During the fifth week following the administration of the carcinogen a sharp decrease in the level of Ly-1,2+ small lymphocyte population in the thymus was noted which coincided with a considerable increase (10-fold) in the Ly-2+. During the same period, a similar increase in the Ly-2+ population was also observed in the draining. The high levels of Ly-2+ cells lasted for more than 4 weeks in the thymus while, in the draining node, they lasted for 2 weeks and dropped to normal levels (0 to 2%) simultaneously with the appearance of tumor cells identified in histological preparations. These systemic increases coincided with the appearance of macroscopic tumor nodules. The mixed lymphocyte reaction response of the draining node cells, but not of the spleen, was suppressed during the period of increased level of Ly-2+ cells. Furthermore, during this period, s.c. transplantation of a syngeneic mammary tumor in the same leg resulted in enhanced local growth as well as metastatic spread of the tumor to the lungs in mc treated mice. These findings suggest that a localized immunosuppression associated with the rise in the Ly-2+ cells may be of functional significance during carcinogen-induced tumor development

  17. T-lymphocyte subsets, thymic size and breastfeeding in infancy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jeppesen, Dorthe Lisbeth; Hasselbalch, Helle; Lisse, Ida M

    2004-01-01

    We followed the changes in concentration of T-lymphocyte subsets (CD4+ and CD8+ cells) in peripheral blood and thymus size during infancy. Previous studies have found increased thymus size in breastfed infants. The present study analyzed the association between breastfeeding and the number of CD4......+ and CD8+ cells. Two different populations of infants between birth and 1 year of age were examined. Study Group I: infants with a variable duration of breastfeeding. Study Group II: long-term breastfed infants. In both groups a correlation was found between CD8+ cells and the thymic index at 10 months...... to 10 months of age; and a positive correlation between the number of breastfeedings per day at 8 months of age, and an increase in CD4+ cells from 8 to 10 months of age (p Breastfeeding might have both a current and long...

  18. Effect of Smoking on Peripheral Blood Lymphocyte Subsets of Patients With Chronic Renal Failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Düvenci Birben, Özlem; Akçay, Şule; Sezer, Siren; Şirvan, Şale; Haberal, Mehmet

    2016-11-01

    Smoking is known to suppress the immune system. It is also known that chronic renal failure affects the immune system. However, the number of studies investigating the effects of chronic renal failure and smoking together is limited. In our study, we examined whether smoking affects the diminished response of the immune system in patients with chronic renal failure. We compared peripheral blood lymphocyte subsets in smoking and nonsmoking patients with chronic renal failure. We also used the Fagerström Test for Nicotine Dependence to evaluate its correlation with the lymphocyte subset count in patients who are current smokers. Our study included 126 patients with chronic renal failure. According to their smoking habits, patients were divided into 2 groups: smokers and nonsmokers. The average age of patients who were smokers was 53.2 ± 1.5 years, with average age of nonsmokers being 59.2 ± 2.2 years. The average duration of smoking in smokers was 30.7 ± 2.7 packyears. We found that the percentage of cluster of differentiation 16-56 cells (natural killer cells) and lymphocyte percentage were significantly lower among smokers in our study (P chronic renal failure, similar to that shown in healthy smokers. According to our findings, patients with chronic renal failure, where infection is the primary reason for mortality and morbidity, must be questioned for smoking and referred to smoking cessation clinics. Because of its immunosuppressive effects, smoking behaviors must be solved preoperatively in transplant candidates.

  19. Multicentre evaluation of stable reference whole blood for enumeration of lymphocyte subsets by flow cytometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Cherry; Belgrave, Danielle; Janossy, George; Bradley, Nicholas J; Stebbings, Richard; Gaines-Das, Rose; Thorpe, Robin; Sawle, Alex; Arroz, Maria Jorge; Brando, Bruno; Gratama, Jan Willem; Orfao de Matos, Alberto; Papa, Stephano; Papamichail, Michael; Lenkei, Rodica; Rothe, Gregor; Barnett, David

    2005-06-22

    BACKGROUND: Clinical indications for lymphocyte subset enumeration by flow cytometry include monitoring of disease progression and timing of therapeutic intervention in infection with human immunodeficiency virus. Until recently international standardisation has not been possible due to a lack of suitable stable reference material. METHODS: This study consisted of two trials of a stabilised whole blood preparation. Eleven participants were sent two standard protocols for staining plus gating strategy and asked to report absolute counts for lymphocyte subsets. RESULTS: No significant difference was detected between the two methods when results from the two assays and all partners were pooled. Significant differences in results from the different partners were observed. However, representative mean counts were obtained for geometric means, geometric coefficient of variation, and 95% confidence interval for CD3 910 cells/mul, 9%, and 888 to 933, respectively), CD4 (495 cells/mul, 12%, and 483 to 507), and CD8 (408 cells/mul, 13%, and 393 to 422). CONCLUSION: We have introduced a stabilised blood preparation and a well-characterized biological standard. The availability of this reference material greatly simplifies the validation of new techniques for CD4(+) T-cell enumeration and the expansion of external quality assurance programmes for clinical laboratories, including those that operate in resource-restricted environments. (c) 2005 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  20. T-lymphocyte subsets in West African children: impact of age, sex, and season

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lisse, I M; Aaby, P; Whittle, H

    1997-01-01

    method to determine T-lymphocyte subsets. RESULTS: We found differences by age, sex, and season, whereas there were no significant differences by birth order, twinning, or ethnic group. The CD4+ percentage declined from birth to age 2 years, at which time it started to increase to higher levels at age 4......OBJECTIVE: There has been no reference material for T-lymphocyte subsets for normal children in developing countries. We therefore used T-lymphocyte subset determinations among children in three different studies in Guinea-Bissau to construct age-related reference material and to examine possible...... determinants of T-lymphocyte subset levels. METHODS: A total of 803 healthy West African children younger than 6 years were included in the three community studies of T-lymphocyte subsets among twins and singletons, after measles infection and after measles immunization. We used the immunoalkaline phosphatase...

  1. Langerhans cells and subsets of lymphocytes in the nasal mucosa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hellquist-Dahl, B; Olsen, K E; Irander, K

    1991-01-01

    Langerhans cells and different lymphocytes were studied in the nasal mucosa of 39 woodwork teachers and a control group of 14 healthy subjects. Ten of the woodwork teachers were sensitized as determined by skin prick test. A panel of different monoclonal antibodies was applied on the frozen nasal...... mucosal specimens. Intraepithelial CD1-positive dendritic cells were found in all specimens. However, there was no difference between the number of these Langerhans cells found in the study group and the number found in the controls. In every specimen the intraepithelial lymphocyte population...... was dominated by T lymphocytes, and there were relatively few B cells. Similarly the ratio between CD4- and CD8-positive lymphocytes in the study group and the controls was the same. In all specimens there was a dominance of T suppressor/cytotoxic cells compared with T helper/inducer cells. The study confirms...

  2. Changes in lymphocyte subsets during pregnancy and post-partum in cases of beginning eclampsia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kühnert, M; Schmidt, S

    2000-01-01

    The goal of the present retrospective study was to examine the peripheral blood lymphocytes for expression of phenotypic and activation markers concerning the development of hypertension in pregnancy. 16 women (aged 25-43 years; mean 35.1) developing hypertension in the third trimester (week 25-34) have had blood samples taken in the first (post-partum, The control group consisted of 16 age-matched pregnant healthy women, who underwent the same regime. All blood samples were taken in the morning, stored at room temperature and stained within 6 hours and measured within 24 hours. Kruskal-Wallis analysis of variance between both groups was done with multiple comparison according to Dunn. Comparing both groups, the total white cell count was significantly increased in all pregnancies and post-partum. In case of hypertension in pregnancy the cell numbers of suppressor/cytotoxic (CD 8+) and CD 56(+)-activated T cells showed a significant increase in the first trimester (< 14 weeks) [p < 0.05] and decreased thereafter to normal values. In the second trimester (week 14-23) helper/inducer lymphocytes and CD 56+/CD 3+ lymphocytes decreased in case of pre-ecclampsia and cytotoxic lymphocytes elevated [p < 0.05]. In the third trimester (week 24-35) there was no difference in both study groups and in late pregnancy (week 36-termination) there were only small differences without statistical significance. Within 1 week postnatal the value of Il-2 receptor T lymphocytes decreased in the group of pre-eclampsia in comparison to normal pregnancies [p < 0.05]. Regarding the major changes in activated T cells in both study groups no specific pattern of lymphocyte subsets in case of pre-eclampsia could be found in comparison to healthy pregnant women. Further investigations should focus on functional activation and/or suppression of the cellular immune system. Perhaps this could lead to a screening test for pre-eclampsia in future, which is non-invasive for the patient and economic for

  3. Changes in total and differential white cell counts, total lymphocyte ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Published reports on the possible changes in the various immune cell populations, especially the total lymphocyte and CD4 cell counts, during the menstrual cycle in Nigerian female subjects are relatively scarce. Aim: To determine possible changes in the total and differential white blood cell [WBC] counts, ...

  4. Total lymphocyte count and subpopulation lymphocyte counts in relation to dietary intake and nutritional status of peritoneal dialysis patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grzegorzewska, Alicja E; Leander, Magdalena

    2005-01-01

    Dietary deficiency causes abnormalities in circulating lymphocyte counts. For the present paper, we evaluated correlations between total and subpopulation lymphocyte counts (TLC, SLCs) and parameters of nutrition in peritoneal dialysis (PD) patients. Studies were carried out in 55 patients treated with PD for 22.2 +/- 11.4 months. Parameters of nutritional status included total body mass, lean body mass (LBM), body mass index (BMI), and laboratory indices [total protein, albumin, iron, ferritin, and total iron binding capacity (TIBC)]. The SLCs were evaluated using flow cytometry. Positive correlations were seen between TLC and dietary intake of niacin; TLC and CD8 and CD16+56 counts and energy delivered from protein; CD4 count and beta-carotene and monounsaturated fatty acids 17:1 intake; and CD19 count and potassium, copper, vitamin A, and beta-carotene intake. Anorexia negatively influenced CD19 count. Serum albumin showed correlations with CD4 and CD19 counts, and LBM with CD19 count. A higher CD19 count was connected with a higher red blood cell count, hemoglobin, and hematocrit. Correlations were observed between TIBC and TLC and CD3 and CD8 counts, and between serum Fe and TLC and CD3 and CD4 counts. Patients with a higher CD19 count showed a better clinical-laboratory score, especially less weakness. Patients with a higher CD4 count had less expressed insomnia. Quantities of ingested vitamins and minerals influence lymphocyte counts in the peripheral blood of PD patients. Evaluation of TLC and SLCs is helpful in monitoring the effectiveness of nutrition in these patients.

  5. A community study of T lymphocyte subsets and malaria parasitaemia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lisse, I M; Aaby, P; Whittle, H

    1994-01-01

    malaria). Compared with children with no parasitaemia or asymptomatic parasitaemia, children with acute malaria had lymphopenia and significantly lower total CD4 and CD8 cell counts, but there was no significant difference in white blood cell count percentages of CD4 and CD8 cells, or the CD4/CD8 ratio....... Children with parasitaemia but without fever had a significantly lower percentage of CD4 cells than children without parasites (P = 0.031), but did not differ in any other haematological index. Controlling for other factors, the CD4 cell percentage was inversely correlated with the density of malaria...

  6. CD4T Lymphocyte subsets and disease manifestation in children ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... in children with and without HIV born to HIV-1 infected mothers. ... ELISA for HIV-1 antibody in serum/plasma was used to confirm HIV-infection status for children ... At every visit blood was collected for total white cell count, haemoglobin and ...

  7. Lymphocyte subset contents in cerebrospinal fluid of children with viral encephalitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    An-Ran Xu

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To study the lymphocyte subset contents in cerebrospinal fluid of children with viral encephalitis and their correlation with disease. Methods: Children with viral encephalitis were selected as VE group, children excluded of central nervous system infection by lumbar puncture or children without central nervous system diseases but receiving surgery with spinal anesthesia were selected as control group, and then cerebrospinal fluid and serum were collected to detect lymphocyte subset contents, nerve injury molecule contents as well as inflammatory response indicators and oxidative stress response indicators. Results: CD3+, CD3+CD4+, CD4/CD8 and CD16+CD56+ in cerebrospinal fluid of VE group were lower than those of control group, and both CD3+CD8+ and CD19+ were higher than those of control group; CD3+, CD3+CD4+, CD4/CD8 and CD16+CD56+ in cerebrospinal fluid of children with abnormal MRI were lower than those of children with normal MRI, and both CD3+CD8+ and CD19+ were higher than those of children with normal MRI; NSE, MBP, S-100 and NPT contents in cerebrospinal fluid and serum of VE group were significantly higher than those of control group and had good correlation with lymphocyte subset contents; MMP9, TNF-α and IL-6 contents in cerebrospinal fluid of VE group were significantly higher than those of control group, and SOD and GSH-Px contents were significantly lower than those of control group and had good correlation with lymphocyte subset contents. Conclusions: CD4+/CD8+T lymphocyte ratio and NK cell content decrease, and B lymphocyte content increases in cerebrospinal fluid of children with viral encephalitis, and lymphocyte subset contents have inhibitory effect on MRI manifestation, degree of inflammatory response and oxidative stress response.

  8. Flow Cytometry Study of Lymphocyte Subsets in Malnourished and Well-Nourished Children with Bacterial Infections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nájera, Oralia; González, Cristina; Toledo, Guadalupe; López, Laura; Ortiz, Rocío

    2004-01-01

    Protein-energy malnutrition is the primary cause of immune deficiency in children across the world. It has been related to changes in peripheral T-lymphocyte subsets. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effects of infection and malnutrition on the proportion of peripheral-lymphocyte subsets in well-nourished non-bacterium-infected (WN), well-nourished bacterium-infected (WNI), and malnourished bacterium-infected (MNI) children by flow cytometry. A prospectively monitored cohort of 15 MNI, 12 WNI, and 17 WN children was studied. All the children were 3 years old or younger and had only bacterial infections. Results showed a significant decrease in the proportion of T CD3+ (P < 0.05 for relative and P < 0.03 for absolute values), CD4+ (P < 0.01 for relative and absolute values), and CD8+ (P < 0.05 for relative values) lymphocyte subsets in WNI children compared to the results seen with WN children. Additionally, B lymphocytes in MNI children showed significant lower values (CD20+ P < 0.02 for relative and P < 0.05 for absolute values) in relation to the results seen with WNI children. These results suggest that the decreased proportions of T-lymphocyte subsets observed in WNI children were associated with infection diseases and that the incapacity to increase the proportion of B lymphocyte was associated with malnutrition. This low proportion of B lymphocytes may be associated with the mechanisms involved in the immunodeficiency of malnourished children. PMID:15138185

  9. Distinct patterns of novel gene mutations in poor-prognostic stereotyped subsets of chronic lymphocytic leukemia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Strefford, J C; Sutton, L-A; Baliakas, P

    2013-01-01

    Recent studies have revealed recurrent mutations of the NOTCH1, SF3B1 and BIRC3 genes in chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL), especially among aggressive, chemorefractory cases. Nevertheless, it is currently unknown whether their presence may differ in subsets of patients carrying stereotyped B...

  10. Reference ranges for lymphocyte subsets in healthy adult male Oman is

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Jabri, Ali A.; Al-Shukaili, Ahmed K.; Al-Rashdi, Zowaina T.; Ganguly, Shyam S.

    2008-01-01

    Objective was to determine the reference ranges of lymphocyte subsets in serologically HIV-seronegative healthy male adults in Oman. A cohort, of 118 healthy male blood donors ranging in age from 18-51 years, was included in the study. The average was 25 years. Blood samples collected into tubes containing ethylene-diamine-tetra acetic acid were investigated for lymphocyte subsets using flow cytometer. This study was conducted in the Immunology Laboratory of Sultan Qaboos University, College of Medicine and Health Sciences, Muscat, Oman during the year 2006. For the 118 males investigated, the mean percentage and absolute values of the lymphocyte subsets were as follows: Cd3: 68.53+-7.5%, 1701+-489 cells/ul; CD8: 25.8+-5.9%, 638+-225 cells/ul; CD19: 13.7+-4.7%, 349+-158 cells/ul, CD56: 12.2+-6.7%, 308+-204 cells/ul. The ratio of CD4/CD8 was 1.6. Immunophenotyping has been used to establish reference values of lymphocyte subsets in normal healthy adult males in Oman. The Omani male reference values obtained in this study show wide variations compared with kits values previously used as reference. (author)

  11. Psychosocial factors and T lymphocyte counts in Brazilian peacekeepers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Angela M Monteiro da; Speranza, Francisco A B; Ishii, Solange Kiyoko; Hirata, Raphael; Mattos-Guaraldi, Ana Luíza; Milagres, Lucimar Gonçalves

    2015-02-01

    To investigate the associations between psychosocial factors and peripheral blood CD4 and CD8 T lymphocyte numbers in Brazilian peacekeepers. Venous blood was collected from 759 peacekeepers who had just returned from a peace mission in Haiti. Among the 759 soldiers, 642 individuals completed the psychosocial measures. CD4 and CD8 T lymphocyte counts were measured by flow cytometry using a commercially available kit. Psychosocial factors, including military peace force stressors, clinical stress, anxiety and depression, were recorded. As a reference for T lymphocyte numbers, we measured T lymphocyte counts in 75 blood donors from the Instituto de Biologia do Exército, Rio de Janeiro. The median numbers of CD4 and CD8 T lymphocytes in the blood donors were 819 cells/µl and 496 cells/µl, respectively, with a CD4:CD8 ratio of 1.6. Significantly (p<0.05) lower CD4 T cell counts (759 cells/µl) were recorded for peacekeepers, with similar CD8 levels (548 cells/µl) and smaller CD4:CD8 ratios (1.3, p<0.001) compared to blood donors. These differences were due to a group of 14 military personnel with CD4 and CD8 medians of 308 and 266 cells/µl, respectively. Only one (7.1%) of these 14 individuals was diagnosed with clinical stress compared with 13.5% of the individuals with normal levels of CD4 T lymphocytes. One individual out of 628 (0.16%) had a Lipp's Stress Symptom Inventory score of 3, indicating near exhaustion. The prevalence of psychological disorders was low and there were no associations with CD4 or CD8 T cell numbers.

  12. Study on serum TNF-α level, B-cell count and T-cell subsets distribution in peripheral blood in patients with rheumatoid arthritis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shi Buqing

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To study the changes of serum TNF-α levels, B-cell count and T-cell subsets distribution in peripheral blood in patients with rheumatoid arthritis. Methods: Serum TNF-α levels (with RIA), B cell as well as T cell subsets distribution type (with monoclonal antibody technique) were examined in 37 patients with rheumatoid arthritis and 30 controls. Results Serum TNF-α levels and B lymphocytes count were significantly higher in the patients than those in controls (P 3 , CD 4 and CD 4 /CD 8 were obviously lower (P<0.01). Conclusion: Rheumatoid arthritis is an autoimmune disease with abnormal immunoregulation. (authors)

  13. Acute and long-term changes in T-lymphocyte subsets in response to clinical and subclinical measles. A community study from rural Senegal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lisse, I; Samb, B; Whittle, H

    1998-01-01

    To investigate the possibility of long-term suppression of T-lymphocyte subsets, we examined children exposed to measles at home during an epidemic in rural Senegal, at time of exposure and 1 and 6 months later. The measles case fatality ratio was 1%. Subclinical measles was common among vaccinated...... children exposed to measles (45%). Both clinical and subclinical cases of measles showed a significant rise in absolute CD4 count in the incubation period. In the prodromal phase and the first week after the rash, the lymphocyte percentage, the white blood cell count and the absolute CD4 cell numbers were...... significantly reduced. There was no persistent decrease of absolute CD4 or CD8 numbers at 1 or 6 months after exposure. Measles infection was followed by significant changes in the subset composition, both CD4 and CD8 percentages being significantly higher in the second month after measles than among non...

  14. Distribution of cyclophilin B-binding sites in the subsets of human peripheral blood lymphocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denys, A; Allain, F; Foxwell, B; Spik, G

    1997-08-01

    Cyclophilin B (CyPB) is a cyclosporin A (CsA)-binding protein, mainly associated with the secretory pathway and released in biological fluids. We have recently demonstrated that both free CyPB and CyPB-CsA complex specifically bind to peripheral blood T lymphocytes and are internalized. These results suggest that CyPB might promote the targeting of the drug into sensitive cells. Peripheral blood lymphocytes are subdivided in several populations according to their biological functions and sensitivity to CsA. We have investigated the binding of CyPB to these different subsets using a CyPB derivatized by fluorescein through its single cysteine which retains its binding properties. We have confirmed that only T cells were involved in the interaction with CyPB. The ligand binding was found to be heterogeneously distributed on the different T-cell subsets and surface-bound CyPB was mainly associated with the CD4-positive cells. No significant difference was noted between the CD45RA and CD45RO subsets, demonstrating that CyPB-binding sites were equally distributed between native and memory T cells. CD3 stimulation of T lymphocytes led to a decrease in the CyPB-binding capacity, that may be explained by a down-regulation of the CyPB-receptor expression upon T-cell activation. Finally, we demonstrated that CyPB-receptor-positive cells, isolated on CyPB sulphydryl-coupled affinity matrices, are more sensitive to CyPB-complexed CsA than mixed peripheral blood lymphocytes, suggesting that CyPB potentiates CsA activity through the binding of the complex. Taken together, our results demonstrate that CyPB-binding sites are mainly associated with resting cells of the helper T lymphocyte, and that CyPB might modulate the distribution of CsA through the drug targeting to sensitive cells.

  15. Lymphocyte subsets in human immunodeficiency virus-unexposed Brazilian individuals from birth to adulthood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Isabel de Moraes-Pinto

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Ethnic origin, genetics, gender and environmental factors have been shown to influence some immunologic indices, so that development of reference values for populations of different backgrounds may be necessary. We have determined the distribution of lymphocyte subsets in healthy Brazilian individuals from birth to adulthood. Lymphocyte subsets were determined using four-colour cytometry in a cross-sectional study of 463 human immunodeficiency virus-unexposed children and adults from birth through 49 years of age. Lymphocyte subsets varied according to age, as previously observed in other studies. However, total CD4+ T cell numbers were lower than what was described in the Pediatric AIDS Clinical Trials Group P1009 (PACTG P1009, which assessed an American population of predominantly African and Hispanic backgrounds until the 12-18 year age range, when values were comparable. Naïve percentages and absolute values of CD8+ T cells, as assessed by CD45RA expression, were also lower than the PACTG P1009 data for all analysed age ranges. CD38 expression on both CD4+ and CD8+ T cells was lower than the PACTG P1009 values, with a widening gap between the two studies at older age ranges. Different patterns of cell differentiation seem to occur in different settings and may have characteristic expression within each population.

  16. Exercise Training, Lymphocyte Subsets and Their Cytokines Production: Experience of an Italian Professional Football Team and Their Impact on Allergy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefano R. Del Giacco

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. In recent years, numerous articles have attempted to shed light on our understanding of the pathophysiological mechanisms of exercise-induced immunologic changes and their impact on allergy and asthma. It is known that lymphocyte subclasses, cytokines, and chemokines show modifications after exercise, but outcomes can be affected by the type of exercise as well as by its intensity and duration. Interesting data have been presented in many recent studies on mouse models, but few studies on humans have been performed to check the long-term effects of exercise over a whole championship season. Methods. This study evaluated lymphocyte subsets and their intracellular IL-2, IL-4, TNF-α, and IFN-γ production in professional football (soccer players, at three stages of the season, to evaluate if alterations occur, particularly in relation to their allergic status. Results and Conclusion. Despite significant mid-season alterations, no significant lymphocyte subclasses count modifications, except for NKs that were significantly higher, were observed at the end. IL-2 and IL-4 producing cells showed a significant decrease (P=0.018 and P=0.001, but in a steady fashion for IL-4, confirming the murine data about the potential beneficial effects of aerobic exercise for allergic asthma.

  17. Exercise Training, Lymphocyte Subsets and Their Cytokines Production: Experience of an Italian Professional Football Team and Their Impact on Allergy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background. In recent years, numerous articles have attempted to shed light on our understanding of the pathophysiological mechanisms of exercise-induced immunologic changes and their impact on allergy and asthma. It is known that lymphocyte subclasses, cytokines, and chemokines show modifications after exercise, but outcomes can be affected by the type of exercise as well as by its intensity and duration. Interesting data have been presented in many recent studies on mouse models, but few studies on humans have been performed to check the long-term effects of exercise over a whole championship season. Methods. This study evaluated lymphocyte subsets and their intracellular IL-2, IL-4, TNF-α, and IFN-γ production in professional football (soccer) players, at three stages of the season, to evaluate if alterations occur, particularly in relation to their allergic status. Results and Conclusion. Despite significant mid-season alterations, no significant lymphocyte subclasses count modifications, except for NKs that were significantly higher, were observed at the end. IL-2 and IL-4 producing cells showed a significant decrease (P = 0.018 and P = 0.001, but in a steady fashion for IL-4), confirming the murine data about the potential beneficial effects of aerobic exercise for allergic asthma. PMID:25050349

  18. Nodal tumor response according to the count of peripheral blood lymphocyte subpopulations during preoperative chemoradiotherapy in locally advanced rectal cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heo, Jae Sung; Oh, Young Tae; Noh, O Kyu; Chun, Mi Son; Park, Jun Eun; Cho, Sung Ran [Ajou University School of Medicine, Suwon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-12-15

    The objective of this prospective study was to evaluate the relationship between the circulating lymphocyte subpopulation counts during preoperative chemoradiotherapy (CRT) and tumor response in locally advanced rectal cancer. From August 2015 to June 2016, 10 patients treated with preoperative CRT followed by surgery were enrolled. Patients received conventional fractionated radiotherapy (50.4 Gy) with fluorouracil-based chemotherapy. Surgical resection was performed at 4 to 8 weeks after the completion of preoperative CRT. The absolute blood lymphocyte subpopulation was obtained prior to and after 4 weeks of CRT. We analyzed the association between a tumor response and change in the lymphocyte subpopulation during CRT. Among 10 patients, 2 (20%) had evidence of pathologic complete response. In 8 patients with clinically node positive, 4 (50%) had nodal tumor response. All lymphocyte subpopulation counts at 4 weeks after CRT were significantly lower than those observed during pretreatment (p < 0.01). A high decrease in natural killer (NK) cell, count during CRT (baseline cell count - cell count at 4 weeks) was associated with node down staging (p = 0.034). Our results suggest that the change of lymphocyte subset to preoperative CRT may be a predictive factor for tumor response in rectal cancer.

  19. Phenotypic complexity of T regulatory subsets in patients with B-chronic lymphocytic leukemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biancotto, Angélique; Dagur, Pradeep K; Fuchs, John C; Wiestner, Adrian; Bagwell, C Bruce; McCoy, J Philip

    2012-02-01

    Increased numbers of T regulatory (T(reg)) cells are found in B-chronic lymphocytic leukemia, but the nature and function of these T(regs) remains unclear. Detailed characterization of the T(regs) in chronic lymphocytic leukemia has not been performed and the degree of heterogeneity of among these cells has not been studied to date. Using 15-color flow cytometry we show that T(reg) cells, defined using CD4, CD25, and forkhead box P3 (FOXP3), can be divided into multiple complex subsets based on markers used for naïve, memory, and effector delineation as well as markers of T(reg) activation. Furthermore FOXP3(+) cells can be identified among CD4(+)CD25(-) as well as CD8(+)CD4(-) populations in increased proportions in patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia compared with healthy donors. Significantly different frequencies of naïve and effector T(regs) populations are found in healthy donor controls compared with donors with chronic lymphocytic leukemia. A population of CCR7(+)CD39(+) T(regs) was significantly associated with chronic lymphocytic leukemia. This population demonstrated slightly reduced suppressive activity compared with total T(regs) or T(regs) of healthy donors. These data suggest that FOXP3-expressing cells, particularly in patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia are much more complex for T(reg) sub-populations and transitions than previously reported. These findings demonstrate the complexity of regulation of T-cell responses in chronic lymphocytic leukemia and illustrate the use of high-dimensional analysis of cellular phenotypes in facilitating understanding of the intricacies of cellular immune responses and their dysregulation in cancer.

  20. The influences of age on T lymphocyte subsets in C57BL/6 mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Xie

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to evaluate the age related changes of T lymphocyte subsets in C57BL/6 mice and immune function. Multi-color immunofluorescence techniques that were used to analyse relative numbers of T lymphocyte subsets include CD4+, CD8+, naive and memory CD4+ and CD8+, CD8+CD28+ T cells in peripheral blood of C57BL/6 mice from different age groups (Group I: 2 months old; Group II: 7 months old; Group III: 21 months old; Splenocytes isolated from different group mice were stimulated with Con A to evaluate the proliferative ability. Compared with group I, group II had a significant reduction in the percentage of CD4+, naive CD4+ and CD8+ T cells and an increase in the percentage of CD8+ T cells, while group III had a significant reduction in the percentage of CD4+, naive CD4+ and CD8+ T cells and increase in the percentage of CD8+, memory CD4+ and CD8+ T cells in peripheral blood. Compared with group II, group III had a significant reduction in the percentage of naive CD8+ T cells and increase in the percentage of memory CD4+ and CD8+, CD8+CD28+ T cells in peripheral blood. The T lymphocyte proliferation in vitro showed that groups II and III had a lower proliferative capacity than group I, between groups II and III, there was not a significant difference. We provide relative values for the T lymphocyte subsets in the different age groups of C57BL/6 mice. The immune system began aging at 7 months old in C57BL/6 mice under a specific pathogen free environment.

  1. Effects of low dose radiation on regulatory function between lymphocyte subsets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tian Hailin; Su Liaoyuan; Du Zeji; Zou Huawei; Wang Aiqing

    1997-01-01

    Four kinds of McAbs (anti CD 4 , CD 8 , CD 19 and CD 57 ) were used to separate CD 4 , CD 8 , CD 19 (B) and CD 57 (NK) lymphocyte subsets from human peripheral blood by 'Panning-direct' method. First the natural killing activity of each subsets and the regulatory functions between CD 57 and other subsets were studied. Then the effects of low dose radiation on the function of CD 57 cells and the regulatory functions between CD 57 and other subsets were studied. The results showed that the NK activity was found in all of the four subsets, with CD 57 cell having the strongest activity. When CD 4 and CD 57 cells were co-cultured, the total NK activity was higher than that of the sum of these two single subsets, i.e. there was synergistic effect between CD 4 and CD 57 cells. When CD 8 or CD 19 cells were co-cultured separately with CD 57 cells, no synergistic effect was found. Irradiation by gamma rays at doses of 50 cGy and 80 cGy was able to stimulate the function of CD 57 cells. After Cd 4 or CD 57 cells were irradiated, the total NK activity of their co-culture increased significantly. This phenomenon was not found in other subsets. This suggested that low dose radiation can enhance the synergistic action between CD 4 and CD 57 cells. So at least four subsets (CD 4 , CD 8 , CD 19 , CD 57 ) contribute to the total NK activity of peripheral blood mononuclear cells. (15 refs., 4 tabs.)

  2. Correlation between total lymphocyte count, hemoglobin, hematocrit and CD4 count in HIV patients in Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emuchay, Charles Iheanyichi; Okeniyi, Shemaiah Olufemi; Okeniyi, Joshua Olusegun

    2014-04-01

    The expensive and technology limited setting of CD4 count testing is a major setback to the initiation of HAART in a resource limited country like Nigeria. Simple and inexpensive tools such as Hemoglobin (Hb) measurement and Total Lymphocyte Count (TLC) are recommended as substitute marker. In order to assess the correlations of these parameters with CD4 count, 100 "apparently healthy" male volunteers tested HIV positive aged ≥ 20 years but ≤ 40 years were recruited and from whom Hb, Hct, TLC and CD4 count were obtained. The correlation coefficients, R, the Nash-Sutcliffe Coefficient of Efficiency (CoE) and the p-values of the ANOVA model of Hb, Hct and TLC with CD4 count were assessed. The assessments show that there is no significant relationship of any of these parameters with CD4 count and the correlation coefficients are very weak. This study shows that Hb, Hct and TLC cannot be substitute for CD4 count as this might lead to certain individuals' deprivation of required treatment.

  3. Is total lymphocyte count related to nutritional markers in hospitalized older adults?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vânia Aparecida LEANDRO-MERHI

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT BACKGROUND Older patients are commonly malnourished during hospital stay, and a high prevalence of malnutrition is found in hospitalized patients aged more than 65 years. OBJECTIVE To investigate whether total lymphocyte count is related to other nutritional markers in hospitalized older adults. METHODS Hospitalized older adults (N=131 were recruited for a cross-sectional study. Their nutritional status was assessed by the Nutritional Risk Screening (NRS, anthropometry, and total lymphocyte count. The statistical analyses included the chi-square test, Fisher's exact test, and Mann-Whitney test. Spearman's linear correlation coefficient determined whether total lymphocyte count was correlated with the nutritional markers. Multiple linear regression determined the parameters associated with lymphocyte count. The significance level was set at 5%. RESULTS According to the NRS, 41.2% of the patients were at nutritional risk, and 36% had mild or moderate depletion according to total lymphocyte count. Total lymphocyte count was weakly correlated with mid-upper arm circumference (r=0.20507; triceps skinfold thickness (r=0.29036, and length of hospital stay (r= -0.21518. Total lymphocyte count in different NRS categories differed significantly: older adults who were not at nutritional risk had higher mean and median total lymphocyte count ( P =0.0245. Multiple regression analysis showed that higher lymphocyte counts were associated with higher triceps skinfold thicknesses and no nutritional risk according to the NRS. CONCLUSION Total lymphocyte count was correlated with mid-upper arm circumference, triceps skinfold thickness, and nutritional risk according to the NRS. In multiple regression the combined factors that remained associated with lymphocyte count were NRS and triceps skinfold thickness. Therefore, total lymphocyte count may be considered a nutritional marker. Other studies should confirm these findings.

  4. Lymphocyte subsets are influenced by positivity levels in healthy subjects before and after mild acute stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caprara, Gian Vittorio; Nisini, Roberto; Castellani, Valeria; Vittorio, Pasquali; Alessandri, Guido; Vincenzo, Ziparo; Claudia, Ferlito; Valentina, Germano; Andrea, Picchianti Diamanti; Biondo, Michela Ileen; Milanetti, Francesca; Salerno, Gerardo; Vincenzo, Visco; Mario, Pietrosanti; Aniballi, Eros; Simonetta, Salemi; Angela, Santoni; D'Amelio, Raffaele

    2017-08-01

    In the current study, the possible association of positivity (POS), recently defined as general disposition to view life under positive outlook, with immune markers and post-stress modifications, was analyzed. Circulating lymphocyte subsets and serum cytokine levels were evaluated before and after a standard mild acute stress test, in 41 healthy students, previously selected by a questionnaire for their level of POS (high [POS-H] and low [POS-L]). The CD3 + and CD4 + cell frequency was higher in the POS-H students before and after acute stress. CD4 + subpopulation analysis revealed baseline higher terminally differentiated frequency in the POS-H, whereas higher effector memory frequency was present in the POS-L students. Moreover, the frequency of post-stress B cells was higher in the POS-H students. The mild-stress test was associated to an increase of the IL-10 mean values, while mean values of the other cytokines tested did not change significantly. It is tempting to speculate that IL-10 may work as biomarker of response to acute mild stress and that POS-H may be associated to a better capacity of the immune system to contrast the disturbing effects of mild acute stress. Yet further studies on lymphocyte subset absolute number and function of larger and different populations are needed to definitively prove these preliminary observations. Copyright © 2017 European Federation of Immunological Societies. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Circulating Lymphocyte Subsets 
in Patients with Lung Cancer and Their Prognostic Value

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun LUO

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Background and objective Lung cancer is one of the most common malignancies. The aim of this study is to investigate the relationship between the change of lymphocyte subsets in the peripheral blood of lung cancer patients and the survival rate. Methods Flow cytometry was used to measure the percentages of lymphocyte subsets (CD3+, CD4+, CD8+, CD4+/CD8+, CD19+, CD25+, CD44+, and NK cells in peripheral blood obtained from 221 patients with primary lung cancer without any treatment and from 96 healthy blood donors as the control group. The result was combined with clinical and follow-up data and statistical analysis was conducted. Results The levels of CD3+ and CD8+ in the patient group are significantly lower compared with the control group, whereas the levels of CD4+/CD8+, CD19+, CD25+, CD44+, and NK cells are significantly higher (P<0.05. CD8+ is significantly higher in the small cell lung cancer (SCLC group compared with the non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC group. However, CD4+ and CD4+/CD8+ are lower in SCLC (P<0.05. There were no significant differences in different stages and differentiation (P>0.05 in the NSCLC group. The level of CD3+ was significantly higher compared with the pre-chemotherapy group, but NK cell, CD19+, and CD44+ were distinctly lower in the post-chemotherapy group (P<0.05. More survival opportunities will be obtained for patients with no increase in CD44+ after chemotherapy (P=0.021, but the other three indices have no obvious influence on survival. Conclusion Widespread changes of lymphocyte occur in the peripheral blood of patients with lung cancer. There is a significant correlation between the change of CD44+ and the prognosis after chemotherapy.

  6. Studies on the stimulating effect of low dose irradiation on lymphocyte subsets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Du Zeji; Su Liaoyuan

    1994-01-01

    In the study, three kinds of monoclonal antibody were used to separate subsets of lymphocyte, and then the functional changes of the separated subsets after low dose irradiation (LDI) were studied. McAb CD4, CD8 and B were used to obtain CD 4 + , CD8 + and B cells respectively with 'Panning' method, the cells were irradiated with X-ray machine (200 kV, 10 mA) for 0, 0.02, 0.05, 0.1, 0.2, 0.5 Gy. 3 H-TdR incorporation was used to reflect functional changes of subsets after LDI. The results indicated that (1) three kinds of subsets could be stimulated by LDI (within 0.2 Gy). The peak effect for CD 4 + and B cells was induced by 0.1 Gy irradiation for CD8 + cell, the peak effect dose was 0.05 Gy; (2) between 0.02 Gy and 0.2 Gy, for same dose, the stimulating effect of CD4 + was higher than that of CD8 + . This result has an important significance in demonstrating the immune mechanism of radiation hormesis. The past viewpoint suggested that immune hormesis was caused by the damage of radiosensitive T cell (Ts) after LDI. Recently, some authors proved that no change of the ratio of Ts to T H existed after LDI. In the study presented, It is found that the values of 3 H-TdR incorporation in CD4 + was bigger than that in CD8 + after LDI. Obvious stimulating effect could still be observed after 0.2 Gy irradiation, it indicated that subsets separated by McAb could have a wide stimulating dose range for LDI

  7. Aging of immune system: Immune signature from peripheral blood lymphocyte subsets in 1068 healthy adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Ling; Jing, Xie; Qiu, Zhifeng; Cao, Wei; Jiao, Yang; Routy, Jean-Pierre; Li, Taisheng

    2016-05-01

    Aging is a major risk factor for several conditions including neurodegenerative, cardiovascular diseases and cancer. Functional impairments in cellular pathways controlling genomic stability, and immune control have been identified. Biomarker of immune senescence is needed to improve vaccine response and to develop therapy to improve immune control. To identify phenotypic signature of circulating immune cells with aging, we enrolled 1068 Chinese healthy volunteers ranging from 18 to 80 years old. The decreased naïve CD4+ and CD8+ T cells, increased memory CD4+ or CD8+ T cells, loss of CD28 expression on T cells and reverse trend of CD38 and HLA-DR, were significant for aging of immune system. Conversely, the absolute counts and percentage of NK cells and CD19+B cells maintained stable in aging individuals. The Chinese reference ranges of absolute counts and percentage of peripheral lymphocyte in this study might be useful for future clinical evaluation.

  8. Change of T, B lymphocyte subsets and Th1/Th2 indexes of patients with recurrent spontaneous abortion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shi-Hua Zhou

    2016-01-01

    Objective:To analyze and investigate the change state of T, B lymphocyte subsets and Th1/Th2 indexes of patients with recurrent spontaneous abortion. Methods: A total of 92 patients with recurrent spontaneous abortion in our hospital from June 2013 to July 2015 were selected as the observation group and 92 women with health delivery history at the same time were selected as the control group,then the peripheral blood T, B lymphocyte subsets and Th1/Th2 indexes of two groups were detected and compared and the peripheral blood T, B lymphocyte subsets and Th1/Th2 indexes of patients with different gestational age at abortion and abortion times were compared too. Results:The peripheral blood T, B lymphocyte subsets and Th1/Th2 indexes of observation group and control group all had obvious differences,and those blood indexes levels' differences of patients with different gestational age at abortion and abortion times were obvious too, all P<0.05 and the differences were significant. Conclusions: The T, B lymphocyte subsets and Th1/Th2 indexes of patients with recurrent spontaneous abortion show abnormal state and the differences of detection results of patients with different gestational age at abortion and abortion times are relatively obvious,so those indexes should be monitored and improved intentinonally.

  9. Modeling the Effect of the Selective S1P1 Receptor Modulator Ponesimod on Subsets of Blood Lymphocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lott, Dominik; Krause, Andreas; Seemayer, Christian A; Strasser, Daniel S; Dingemanse, Jasper; Lehr, Thorsten

    2017-03-01

    This analysis aimed at describing the effect of the selective sphingosine-1-phosphate receptor 1 modulator ponesimod on lymphocyte subsets in peripheral blood. As the involvement of different lymphocyte subsets varies among different autoimmune diseases, characterizing the effect of ponesimod on these may be beneficial in better understanding treatment effects. Three phase 1 clinical studies in healthy human subjects were pooled. Non-linear mixed-effects modeling techniques were used to study the effect of ponesimod on lymphocyte subsets such as B cells, T helper cells, T cytotoxic cells, and natural killer cells in a qualitative and quantitative manner. Indirect-response I max models including circadian variation best described the effect of ponesimod on lymphocyte subsets. B cells and T helper cells were shown to be more affected compared to T cytotoxic cells with respect to the maximum possible reduction (100% for B and T helper cells, 95% for T cytotoxic cells) and the concentration required to reach half the maximum effect. Inter-individual variability was found to be larger for T cytotoxic compared to T helper, and B cells. These first models for ponesimod on the level of lymphocyte subsets offer a valuable tool for the analysis and interpretation of results from ponesimod trials in autoimmune diseases.

  10. Total lymphocyte count as a substitute to cd4 count in management of hiv infected individuals in resource limited society

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Daud, M.Y.; Qazi, R.A.

    2015-01-01

    Pakistan is a resource limited society and gold standard parameters to monitor HIV disease activity are very costly. The objective of the study was to evaluate total lymphocyte count (TLC) as a surrogate to CD4 count to monitor disease activity in HIV/AIDS in resource limited society. Methods: This cross sectional study was carried out at HIV/AIDS treatment centre, Pakistan Institute of Medical Sciences (PIMS), Islamabad. A total of seven hundred and seventy four (774) HIV positive patients were enrolled in this study, and their CD4 count and total lymphocyte count were checked to find any correlation between the two by using Spearman ranked correlation coefficient. Results: The mean CD4 count was (434.30 ± 269.23), with minimum CD4 count of (9.00), and maximum of (1974.00). The mean total lymphocyte count (TLC) was (6764.0052 ± 2364.02) with minimum TLC (1200.00) and maximum TLC was (20200.00). Using the Pearson's correlation (r) there was a significant and positive correlation between TLC and CD4 count. (r2=0.127 and p=0.000) at 0.01 level. Conclusion: Our study showed a significant positive correlation between CD4 count and total lymphocyte count (TLC), so TLC can be used as a marker of disease activity in HIV infected patients. (author)

  11. Varied effects of thoracic irradiation on peripheral lymphocyte subsets in lung cancer patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakayama, Yasuhiro; Makino, Shigeki; Fukuda, Yasuki; Min, Kyong-Yob; Ikemoto, Toshiyuki; Shimizu, Akira; Ohsawa, Nakaaki

    1995-01-01

    To investigate the influence of thoracic irradiation on immunological competence in patients with lung cancer, we examined the changes in peripheral blood lymphocyte subsets in 15 patients before and after radiation therapy by two-color flow cytometry techniques. After radiation therapy, the percentage and the absolute number of CD4+CD45RA+ cells (naive T cells) and CD56+and/orCD16+ cells (NK cells) decreased. The percentage of CD4+ human leukocyte antigen-DR(HLA-DR)+ cells (activated CD4T cells) and CD8+HLA-DR+ cells (activated CD8T cells) increased, although the absolute number did not change significantly. Naive T cells may be more selectively damaged than memory T cells by thoracic irradiation, through their recirculation behavior. The reduction of natural killer (NK) cells is disadvantageous for anti-tumor immunity. The percentage of HLA-DR positive T lymphocytes was significantly increased, and thus the possibility of HLA-DR enhancement by irradiation cannot be excluded. Therefore, thoracic irradiation has numerous varied effects on the immunological system of lung cancer patients. (author)

  12. Different spectra of recurrent gene mutations in subsets of chronic lymphocytic leukemia harboring stereotyped B-cell receptors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sutton, Lesley-Ann; Young, Emma; Baliakas, Panagiotis

    2016-01-01

    We report on markedly different frequencies of genetic lesions within subsets of chronic lymphocytic leukemia patients carrying mutated or unmutated stereotyped B-cell receptor immunoglobulins in the largest cohort (n=565) studied for this purpose. By combining data on recurrent gene mutations...... subsets implies that the mechanisms underlying clinical aggressiveness are not uniform, but rather support the existence of distinct genetic pathways of clonal evolution governed by a particular stereotyped B-cell receptor selecting a certain molecular lesion(s)....

  13. Boron Affects Immune Function Through Modulation of Splenic T Lymphocyte Subsets, Cytokine Secretion, and Lymphocyte Proliferation and Apoptosis in Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Erhui; Li, Shenghe; Ren, Man; Hu, Qianqian; Gu, Youfang; Li, Kui

    2017-08-01

    This study demonstrated the mechanisms of boron effects in a rat model and provided a scientific basis for the rational of boron use. These findings were achieved by investigating the effects of boron (10, 20, 40, 80, 160, 320, and 640 mg/L in drinking water or 1.5, 3, 6, 12, 24, 48, and 96 mg/kg BW) on rat serum immunoglobulins (IgGs), splenic cytokines, lymphocyte subsets, as well as on lymphocyte proliferation and apoptosis. Addition of 20 (3) and 40 (6) mg/L (mg/kg BW) of boron to drinking water significantly increased rat serum IgG concentrations, splenic IFN-γ and IL-4 expression as well as the number of splenic CD3 + , CD4 + and proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) + cells. Supplementation of drinking water with 40 mg/L (6 mg/kg BW) boron also markedly increased splenic IL-2 expression and the CD4 + /CD8 + cell ratio and reduced splenic CD8 + cell number. Supplementation with 80 mg/L (12 mg/kg BW) boron significantly increased CD3 + and PCNA + cell numbers (P boron markedly reduced the serum IgG concentrations; splenic IL-2 and IL-10 expression; the number of CD3 + , CD4 + and PCNA + cells; and increased the number of splenic CD8 + and caspase-3 + cells and promoted caspase-3 expression in CD3 + cells. In conclusion, these findings suggest that the supplementation of rat drinking water with 20(3) and 40(6) mg/L (mg/kg BW) boron can markedly enhance humoral and cellular immune functions, while boron concentrations above 320 mg/L (48 mg/kg BW) can have an inhibitory effect or even toxicity on immune functions. These results exhibit a U-shaped response characteristic of low and high doses of boron supplementation on immune function and imply that proper boron supplementation in food for humans and animals could be used as an immunity regulator.

  14. T-lymphocyte subsets in HIV-infected and high-risk HIV-uninfected adolescents - Retention of naive T lymphocytes in HIV-infected adolescents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Douglas, SD; Rudy, B; Muenz, L; Starr, SE; Campbell, DE; Wilson, C; Holland, C; Crowley-Nowick, P; Vermund, SH

    Background: The capacity of the immune system of adolescents to generate and repopulate naive and memory cell populations under conditions of normal homeostasis and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection is largely unknown. Objective: To assess lymphocyte subsets in HIV-infected and high-risk

  15. Lymphocyte subset abnormalities in multitransfused HIV-negative haemophilia A patients are not due to chronic hepatitis C virus infection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meijer, K; van der Meer, J; Smit, JW; Verspiek, SPJ; Haagsma, EB; Smid, WM

    Several abnormalities of immune parameters have been described in HIV-negative haemophiliacs, including changes in numbers of T4 and T8 cells, T4/T8 ratio and numbers of activated T cells, To assess the contribution of hepatitis C to these abnormalities, we compared lymphocyte subsets in 20

  16. Effect of low dose irradiation on subsets of T-lymphocyte of peripheral blood, spleen and tumor tissue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zou Huawei; Su Liaoyuan; Tian Hailin

    1998-01-01

    Purpose: In order to understand the mechanism of the stimulation effects of low dose radiation (LDR), the author observed the immune changes of T-lymphocyte subsets. Meteria and methods: Whole body of BALB/C bring-tumor mice were exposed to the doses of 5, 10, 20 and 50 cGy γ-rays. The changes of T-lymphocyte subsets in peripheral blood, spleen and tumor-infiltrating lymphocyte (TIL) were studied with flow cytometry (FCM). Results: the ratio of L 3 T 4 + /Lyt 2 + remarkable increased in the peripheral blood and spleen (p 3 T 4 + /Lyt 2 + further decreased in the TIL group of mice exposed 10 cGy (p 2 + molecules, were concentrated in the tumor tissues and they carried out the killing function to the tumor cells

  17. Long term observation on absolute lymphocyte counts in the adult health study sample, Hiroshima and Nagasaki

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oesterle, S.N.; Norman, J.E. Jr.

    1980-01-01

    Total peripheral blood lymphocytes were evaluated by age and exposure status in the Adult Health Study population during three examination cycles between 1958 and 1972. No radiation effect was observed, but a significant drop in the absolute lymphocyte counts of those aged 70 years and over and a corresponding maximum for persons aged 50 - 59 was observed. (author)

  18. Changes in lymphocyte subsets due to local irradiation of a portion of the maxilla in mice. A study of minor population lymphocytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamashita, Chiho; Satoh, Daigo; Yosue, Takashi

    2001-01-01

    In the present study we investigates the influence of the local irradiation of a portion of the maxilla on the numbers of lymphocyte subsets in peripheral blood and spleen, specifically minor population lymphocytes (γδT cells and NKT cells). Male C57BL/6 mice at 15 weeks of age were used for the experiments. In the irradiation group, a portion of the maxilla was exposed to X-ray (2.0 Gy/min, 10 Gy) and we analyzed lymphocytes using flow cytometry (anti-CD3, CD4, CD8, TCRαβ, TCRγδ and NK1.1 monoclonal antibodies), and compared the outcome to that obtained from the non-irradiation groups. The following results were obtained: In peripheral blood, CD4 + SP T cells, CD8 + SP T cells, αβ T cells, γδ T cells and NK cells decreased significantly on the first day and third day after irradiation. NKT cells decreased significantly on the third day after irradiation. In spleen, CD4 + SP T cells, CD8 + SP T cells, αβ T cells and γδ T cells decreased significantly on the first day after irradiation. NK cells and NKT cells did not change significantly after irradiation. The above results indicate that the changes in lymphocytes have a direct relationship to radiosensitivity, and the origin and distribution in lymphocyte subsets. (author)

  19. Changes in lymphocyte subsets due to local irradiation of a portion of the maxilla in mice. A study of minor population lymphocytes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamashita, Chiho; Satoh, Daigo; Yosue, Takashi [Nippon Dental Univ., Tokyo (Japan). School of Dentistry

    2001-03-01

    In the present study we investigates the influence of the local irradiation of a portion of the maxilla on the numbers of lymphocyte subsets in peripheral blood and spleen, specifically minor population lymphocytes ({gamma}{delta}T cells and NKT cells). Male C57BL/6 mice at 15 weeks of age were used for the experiments. In the irradiation group, a portion of the maxilla was exposed to X-ray (2.0 Gy/min, 10 Gy) and we analyzed lymphocytes using flow cytometry (anti-CD3, CD4, CD8, TCR{alpha}{beta}, TCR{gamma}{delta} and NK1.1 monoclonal antibodies), and compared the outcome to that obtained from the non-irradiation groups. The following results were obtained: In peripheral blood, CD4{sup +}SP T cells, CD8{sup +}SP T cells, {alpha}{beta} T cells, {gamma}{delta} T cells and NK cells decreased significantly on the first day and third day after irradiation. NKT cells decreased significantly on the third day after irradiation. In spleen, CD4{sup +}SP T cells, CD8{sup +}SP T cells, {alpha}{beta} T cells and {gamma}{delta} T cells decreased significantly on the first day after irradiation. NK cells and NKT cells did not change significantly after irradiation. The above results indicate that the changes in lymphocytes have a direct relationship to radiosensitivity, and the origin and distribution in lymphocyte subsets. (author)

  20. CD4 T lymphocyte counts in patients undergoing splenectomy during living donor liver transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Natsuda, Koji; Eguchi, Susumu; Takatsuki, Mistuhisa; Soyama, Akihiko; Hidaka, Masaaki; Hara, Takanobu; Kugiyama, Tota; Baimakhanov, Zhassulan; Ono, Shinichiro; Kitasato, Amane; Fujita, Fumihiko; Kanetaka, Kengo; Kuroki, Tamotsu

    2016-02-01

    The role of splenectomy in increasing the CD4-positive T lymphocyte counts (hereafter: CD4 counts) and the CD4 to CD8 ratio have not yet been fully investigated, especially in the case of HIV-positive patients undergoing liver transplantation (LT). The change in the total lymphocyte counts of 32 patients who underwent one-stage splenectomy with living donor (LD) LT with (n=13) or without rituximab (RTX, n=19) therapy were examined to validate our cohort of ABO-incompatible LDLT with RTX. Subsequently, perioperative changes in CD4 counts and the CD 4 to CD8 ratio were measured in 13 patients who underwent ABO-incompatible LDLT/RTX with splenectomy. (1) The administration of RTX did not significantly affect the total lymphocyte counts of patients after LDLT/splenectomy in any of the observation periods. (2) The CD4 counts were significantly higher at 2years after LDLT in comparison to the perioperative CD4 counts but not within the 3-month period (p=0.039). The CD4/CD8 ratio gradually decreased after LDLT/splenectomy under RTX treatment. An immediate increase in the CD4 counts therefore cannot be expected after LDLT with splenectomy. The total lymphocyte and CD4 counts were rather stable in the peritransplant period even in ABO incompatible LDLT with RTX. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Early interferon-γ production in human lymphocyte subsets in response to nontyphoidal Salmonella demonstrates inherent capacity in innate cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tonney S Nyirenda

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Nontyphoidal Salmonellae frequently cause life-threatening bacteremia in sub-Saharan Africa. Young children and HIV-infected adults are particularly susceptible. High case-fatality rates and increasing antibiotic resistance require new approaches to the management of this disease. Impaired cellular immunity caused by defects in the T helper 1 pathway lead to intracellular disease with Salmonella that can be countered by IFNγ administration. This report identifies the lymphocyte subsets that produce IFNγ early in Salmonella infection.Intracellular cytokine staining was used to identify IFNγ production in blood lymphocyte subsets of ten healthy adults with antibodies to Salmonella (as evidence of immunity to Salmonella, in response to stimulation with live and heat-killed preparations of the D23580 invasive African isolate of Salmonella Typhimurium. The absolute number of IFNγ-producing cells in innate, innate-like and adaptive lymphocyte subpopulations was determined.Early IFNγ production was found in the innate/innate-like lymphocyte subsets: γδ-T cells, NK cells and NK-like T cells. Significantly higher percentages of such cells produced IFNγ compared to adaptive αβ-T cells (Student's t test, P<0.001 and ≤0.02 for each innate subset compared, respectively, with CD4(+- and CD8(+-T cells. The absolute numbers of IFNγ-producing cells showed similar differences. The proportion of IFNγ-producing γδ-T cells, but not other lymphocytes, was significantly higher when stimulated with live compared with heat-killed bacteria (P<0.0001.Our findings indicate an inherent capacity of innate/innate-like lymphocyte subsets to produce IFNγ early in the response to Salmonella infection. This may serve to control intracellular infection and reduce the threat of extracellular spread of disease with bacteremia which becomes life-threatening in the absence of protective antibody. These innate cells may also help mitigate against the effect on IFN

  2. Silenced B-Cell Receptor Response To Autoantigen In A Poor-Prognostic Subset Of Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bergh, Ann-Charlotte; Evaldsson, Chamilly; Pedersen, Lone Bredo

    2014-01-01

    Chronic lymphocytic leukemia B cells express auto/xeno antigen-reactive antibodies that bind to self-epitopes and resemble natural IgM antibodies in their repertoire. One of the antigenic structures recognized is oxidation-induced malonedialdehyde that is present on low-density lipoprotein......-cell receptor unresponsiveness to cognate self-antigen on its own in poor-prognostic subset #1 chronic lymphocytic leukemia, indicating that these cells proliferate by other mechanisms that may override B-cell receptor silencing brought about in a context of self-tolerance/anergy. These novel findings have...

  3. T-lymphocyte subset dynamics in well-treated HIV-infected men during a bout of exhausting exercise

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dirksen, Carsten; Hansen, Birgitte R; Kolte, Lilian

    2015-01-01

    In healthy individuals the substantial lymphocytosis during a bout of exhausting exercise constitutes primarily mature T cells from the peripheral lymphoid organs but naïve T cells are also recruited. This study investigated whether the defective CD4 + T-lymphocyte count in peripheral blood during...

  4. Influence of DC-CIK in advanced colorectal cancer patients on T lymphocyte subsets and cytokines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rong Wang

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To explore the effects of dendritic cells (DC-cytokine induced killer cells (CIK treatment on T lymphocyte subsets and cytokines in patients with advanced colorectal cancer. Methods: A total of 84 cases patients with advanced colorectal cancer were divided into two groups according to random number table method, each 42 cases, both two groups were given FOLFOX scheme chemotherapy, on the basis, the observation group were given supplementary DC-CIK treatment, compared the T lymphocy te subgroup: CD3+, CD4+, CD8+, CD4+/CD8+, Th1 cytokines, interleukin-2 (IL-2 and interferon gamma-γ (FN-γ, Th2 cytokines: interleukin 6 (IL-6, interleukin 4 (IL-4 of the two groups before and after treatment. Results: Compared with before treatment, the CD3+, CD4+, CD8+, CD4+/CD8+, Th1 cytokines IL-2 and IFN-γ in observation group were significantly higher than after treatment , the CD3+, CD4+, CD8+, CD4+/CD8+, Th1 cytokines IL-2 and IFN-γ in control group were significantly lower than after treatment, and the differences were all statistically significant; The CD3+, CD4+, CD8+, CD4+/CD8+, Th1 cytokines IL-2 and IFN-γ in observation group after treatment were significantly higher than those in control group after treatment with statistical difference; CD8+, Th2 cytokines IL-4, IL-6 in two groups had no statistical significance before and after treatment. Conclusion: Chemotherapy can cause the immune function restrained in patients with advanced colorectal cancer, and DC-CIK supplementary therapy can significantly improve the immune function, enhance the anti tumor immune responses.

  5. Analysis on the change of T lymphocyte subsets and NK cells in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yao Yanhua; Chen Zhiwei; Deng Yingsu; Gu Guohao; Gao Chun; Yu Yunxia

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the relationship between the peripheral blood lymphocyte subsets, disease activity and renal impairment in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). Methods: T lymphocyte subsets and NK cells from the peripheral blood of 78 patients who suffered SLE were measured, and then the relationship between disease activity, renal symptoms and the states of cellular immunology were analysed. Results: CD 8 + and CD 3 + cells were significantly decreased in the peripheral blood from those patients with active stage of SLE compared to remission phase, while the CD 4 + cells and CD 4 + /CD 8 + ratio did not. And NK cells, but not CD 3 + , CD 8 + cells or CD 4 + /CD 8 + and CD 8 + cells may correlate the the disease activity of SLE patients, but CD 4 + and ratio CD 4 + CD 8 + can not reflect disease activity. While the reduction of NK cells may have relationship with renal suffering. (authors)

  6. Clinical significance of the changes of distribution of peripheral blood lymphocyte subsets in patients after splenectomy for acute injury

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou Guozhong

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To study the short-term effect of splenectomy on immuno-function as expressed by changes of peripheral lymphocyte subsets distribution in patients with acute injury. Methods: Peripheral blood lymphocyte subsets distribution types were studied with flow-cytometry in 74 patients before and 1 week after splenectomy for acute injury. Results: The percentage of CD 3 , CD 4 T cells were significantly higher (P 16-56 (NK), CD 19 B cells were significantly lower (P 8 T cell and CD 4 /CD 8 ratio were not significantly (P>0.05). Conclusion: There were significant changes of immunofunction right after splenectomy for acute injury, with enhancement of cellular immunofunction and depression of humoral immunofunction. (authors)

  7. The relationship of different respiratory virus infection with pediatric asthma attack as well as cytokine and lymphocyte subset levels

    OpenAIRE

    Hua Miao; Xiao-Rong Liu

    2017-01-01

    Objective: To study the relationship of different respiratory virus infection with pediatric asthma attack as well as cytokine and lymphocyte subset levels. Methods: A total of 85 children who were diagnosed with bronchial asthma in our hospital between May 2013 and March 2016 were selected as asthma group and further divided into asthma-RSV group, asthma-AV group, asthma-PIV group, asthma-IFV group and pure asthma group according to the condition of respiratory virus infection...

  8. Baseline CD4 lymphocyte count among HIV patients in Kano ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    kemrilib

    macrophages), the devastating effect of HIV on the immune system is not surprising. Given that HIV induced immunodeficiency is largely due to infection and gradual depletion of. CD4+ T-helper cells, CD4 count has become a useful indicator of immune function in infected patients. Hence CD4 count along with viral load ...

  9. Lymphocyte subset analyses in healthy adults vaccinated with yellow fever 17DD virus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Paula dos Santos

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available In this study the kinetics of humoral and cellular immune responses in first-time vaccinees and re-vaccinees with the yellow fever 17DD vaccine virus was analyzed. Flow cytometric analyses were used to determine percentual values of T and B cells in parallel to the yellow fever neutralizing antibody production. All lymphocyte subsets analyzed were augmented around the 30th post vaccination day, both for first-time vaccinees and re-vaccinees. CD3+ T cells increased from 30.8% (SE ± 4% to 61.15% (SE ± 4.2%, CD4+ T cells from 22.4% (SE ± 3.6% to 39.17% (SE ± 2% with 43% of these cells corresponding to CD4+CD45RO+ T cells, CD8+ T cells from 15.2% (SE ± 2.9% to 27% (SE ± 3% with 70% corresponding to CD8+CD45RO+ T cells in first-time vaccinees. In re-vaccinees, the CD3+ T cells increased from 50.7% (SE ± 3% to 80% (SE ± 2.3%, CD4+ T cells from 24.9% (SE ± 1.4% to 40% (SE ± 3% presenting a percentage of 95% CD4+CD45RO+ T cells, CD8+ T cells from 19.7% (SE ± 1.8% to 25% (SE ± 2%. Among CD8+CD38+ T cells there could be observed an increase from 15 to 41.6% in first-time vaccinees and 20.7 to 62.6% in re-vaccinees. Regarding neutralizing antibodies, the re-vaccinees presented high titers even before re-vaccination. The levels of neutralizing antibodies of first-time vaccinees were similar to those presented by re-vaccinees at day 30 after vaccination, indicating the success of primary vaccination. Our data provide a basis for further studies on immunological behavior of the YF 17DD vaccine.

  10. Characterization of lymphocyte subsets over a 24-hour period in Pineal-Associated Lymphoid Tissue (PALT in the chicken

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McNulty John A

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Homeostatic trafficking of lymphocytes in the brain has important relevance to the understanding of CNS disease processes. The pineal gland of the chicken contains large accumulations of lymphocytes that suggest an important role related to homeostatic circadian neuro-immune interactions. The purpose of this initial study was to characterize the lymphocyte subsets in the pineal gland and quantitate the distribution and frequency of lymphocyte phenotypes at two time points over the 24-hour light:dark cycle. Results PALT comprised approximately 10% of the total pineal area. Image analysis of immunocytochemically stained sections showed that the majority of lymphocytes were CD3+ (80% with the remaining 20% comprising B-cells and monocytes (Bu-1+, which tended to distribute along the periphery of the PALT. T-cell subsets in PALT included CD4+ (75–80%, CD8+ (20–25%, TCRαβ/Vβ1+ (60%, and TCRγδ+ (15%. All of the T-cell phenotypes were commonly found within the interfollicular septa and follicles of the pineal gland. However, the ratios of CD8+/CD4+ and TCRγδ+/TCRαβ/Vβ1+ within the pineal tissue were each 1:1, in contrast to the PALT where the ratios of CD8+/CD4+ and TCRγδ+/TCRαβ/Vβ1+ each approximated 1:4. Bu-1+ cells were only rarely seen in the pineal interstitial spaces, but ramified Bu-1+ microglia/macrophages were common in the pineal follicles. Effects of the 24-h light:dark cycle on these lymphocyte-pineal interactions were suggested by an increase in the area of PALT, a decline in the density of TCRαβ/Vβ1+ cells, and a decline in the area density of Bu-1+ microglia at the light:dark interphase (1900 h compared to the dark:light interphase (0700 h. Conclusion The degree of lymphocyte infiltration in the pineal suggests novel mechanisms of neuro-immune interactions in this part of the brain. Our results further suggest that these interactions have a temporal component related to the 24-hour light

  11. [Effect of G-CSF in vitro Stimulation on Distribution of Peripheral Lymphocyte Subsets in the Healthy Persons].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Sha-Sha; Fang, Shu; Zhu, Cheng-Ying; Wang, Li-Li; Gao, Chun-Ji

    2018-02-01

    To investigate the effect of granulocyte-colony stimulating factor (G-CSF) in vitro stimulation on the distribution of lymphocyte subset in healthy human. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMNCs) were collected from 8 healthy volunteers by density gradient centrifugation on Ficoll-Paque TM . In vitro 200 ng/ml G-CSF or 200 ng/ml G-CSF plus 10 µg/ml ConA directly act on PBMNCs, then the colleted cells were cultivated for 3 days. Lymphocyte subsets were stained with the corresponding fluoresce labeled antibodies and detected by flow cytometry. The levels of T cells in G-CSF group and G-CSF+ConA group were both higher than that in the control group (PCSF on T cell subsets indicated that the levels of CD4 + T cells and CD8 + T cells in G-CSF group were both significantly higher than those in control group (PCSF and control group. Compared with the control group, the level of CD4 + T cells, CD8 + T cells and Treg cells in G-CSF+ConA group significantly increased (PCSF receptor (G-CSFR) expression showed that G-CSFR expression on T cells in G-CSF+ConA group dramatically increased, as compared with control group (PCSF stimulation. ConA can enhance the level of T cells and induce G-CSFR expression on T cells.

  12. Remarkably similar antigen receptors among a subset of patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghiotto, Fabio; Fais, Franco; Valetto, Angelo; Albesiano, Emilia; Hashimoto, Shiori; Dono, Mariella; Ikematsu, Hideyuki; Allen, Steven L.; Kolitz, Jonathan; Rai, Kanti R.; Nardini, Marco; Tramontano, Anna; Ferrarini, Manlio; Chiorazzi, Nicholas

    2004-01-01

    Studies of B cell antigen receptors (BCRs) expressed by leukemic lymphocytes from patients with B cell chronic lymphocytic leukemia (B-CLL) suggest that B lymphocytes with some level of BCR structural restriction become transformed. While analyzing rearranged VHDJH and VLJL genes of 25 non–IgM-producing B-CLL cases, we found five IgG+ cases that display strikingly similar BCRs (use of the same H- and L-chain V gene segments with unique, shared heavy chain third complementarity-determining region [HCDR3] and light chain third complementarity-determining region [LCDR3] motifs). These H- and L-chain characteristics were not identified in other B-CLL cases or in normal B lymphocytes whose sequences are available in the public databases. Three-dimensional modeling studies suggest that these BCRs could bind the same antigenic epitope. The structural features of the B-CLL BCRs resemble those of mAb’s reactive with carbohydrate determinants of bacterial capsules or viral coats and with certain autoantigens. These findings suggest that the B lymphocytes that gave rise to these IgG+ B-CLL cells were selected for this unique BCR structure. This selection could have occurred because the precursors of the B-CLL cells were chosen for their antigen-binding capabilities by antigen(s) of restricted nature and structure, or because the precursors derived from a B cell subpopulation with limited BCR heterogeneity, or both. PMID:15057307

  13. Distribution of lymphocyte subsets in the small intestine lymphoid tissue of 1-month-old lambs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corpa, J M; Juste, R A; García Marín, J F; Reyes, L E; González, J; Pérez, V

    2001-04-01

    Distribution of lymphocyte subpopulations along the small intestine lymphoid tissue has been examined in 1-month-old lambs using flow cytometric and immunohistochemical techniques. Monoclonal antibodies against CD4, CD8, gamma delta, CD45R and B receptors have been employed in samples from continuous ileal Peyer's patch (IPP), discrete jejunal Peyer's patches (JPP), ileocaecal valve lymphoid tissue (ICVPP), mesenteric lymph node (MLN) and intra-epithelial (IEL) and lamina propria (LPL) lymphocytes. Histological studies were also done. Differences in the lymphocyte distribution have been observed between some of the regions examined, especially between IPP and JPP for most of the markers. A remarkable feature was the existence of morphological and lymphocyte distribution differences between ICVPP and IPP, locations that had been traditionally considered as similar. The antibody against CD45R receptor used in this study, that was supposed to mark B cells and some T cells, detected cell populations located in the dome of the follicles in all the samples, whereas the centre was negative. Lymphocytes positive to the B marker employed were located mainly in the centre, suggesting that both antibodies would mark B cells in different maturation status.

  14. Changes in lymphocyte and macrophage subsets due to morphine and ethanol treatment during a retrovirus infection causing murine AIDS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Watson, R.R.; Prabhala, R.H.; Darban, H.R.; Yahya, M.D.; Smith, T.L.

    1988-01-01

    The number of lymphocytes of various subsets were not significantly changed by the ethanol exposure except those showing activation markers which were reduced. The percentage of peripheral blood cells showing markers for macrophage functions and their activation were significantly reduced after binge use of ethanol. Ethanol retarded suppression of cells by retroviral infection. However by 25 weeks of infection there was a 8.6% survival in the ethanol fed mice infected with retrovirus which was much less than virally infected controls. Morphine treatment also increased the percentage of cells with markers for macrophages and activated macrophages in virally infected mice, while suppressing them in uninfected mice. The second and third morphine injection series suppressed lymphocyte T-helper and T-suppressor cells, but not total T cells. However, suppression by morphine was significantly less during retroviral disease than suppression caused by the virus only. At 25 weeks of infection 44.8% of morphine treated, infected mice survived.

  15. LYMPHOCYTE SUBSETS AND CYTOKINES IN BLOOD AND CEREBROSPINAL FLUID IN CHILDREN WITH VIRAL AND BACTERIAL MENINGITIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. A. Alekseeva

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction of flow cytometry caused an increase in the investigation of liquor lymphocyte pool phenotype in the case of different brain disorders, including viral and bacterial meningitis, however this type of research in children has been relatively rare. Phenotype and lymphocyte functions are under cytokine control system, therefore detection of interconnections between lymphocyte pool subpopulation composition and cytokine level in blood and liquor of the patients concerns a great interest. The purpose of this research was to study lymphocyte subpopulation composition and the level of cytokines IL-1β, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, IFNα, IFNγ and IL-4, and also IgG in liquor and blood of children with viral and bacterial meningitis. There was performed blood and liquor investigation in 46 children aged from 1 to 16 years old with viral (n = 35 and bacterial (n = 11 meningitis. Immunophenotyping of blood and liquor cells was performed by the method of flow cytometry with the use of monoclonal antibodies to CD3, CD4, CD8, CD19, CD16, CD56, CD25 and CD95. The content of cytokines was detected in ELISA, and that of IgG — by the method of quantitative immunoturbodimetry. During an acute period of viral meningitis there was detected a decrease in NK portion and activated CD25+ cells in the blood of patients accompanied by the increase in B-lymphocytes number, along with cytokine IFNγ, IL-8 and IL-10 serum level rise. There was determined T-lymphocytes accumulation in liquor with the prevalence of CD4+ Т-cells and, to a lesser degree, CD25+ and CD95+ cells, NK and B-lymphocytes. Intrathecally there was noted the predominance of IL-6 response accompanied by the growth of IL-8 and IL-10 concentration as well. During an acute period of bacterial meningitis there was noted a decrease in percentage of CD3+, CD4+, CD8+ Т-lymphocytes, NK, CD25+ and CD95+ cells, along with, on the contrary, sharp increase in B-cells pool, simultaneously with

  16. Effect of serial-day exposure to nitrogen dioxide on airway and blood leukocytes and lymphocyte subsets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Solomon, C.; Chen, L.L.; Erle, D.J.; Balmes, J.R. [Univ. of California, Lung Biology Center and Center for Occupational and Environmental Health, San Francisco, CA (United States); Christian, D.L.; Welch, B.S.; Dunham, E. [Univ. of California, Lung Biology Center, San Francisco, CA (United States); Kleinman, M.T. [Univ. of California, Dept. of Community and Environmental Medicine, Irvine, CA (United States)

    2000-07-01

    Nitrogen dioxide (NO{sub 2}) is a free radical-producing oxidant gas. Inhalation of NO2 could cause airway inflammation, and decrease immune function. This experiment tested the hypothesis that exposure to NO{sub 2} would: (1) increase leukocytes in bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL); and (2) change the distribution of lymphocyte subsets and activation in BAL and peripheral blood (PB). Using a counter-balanced, repeated-measures design, 15 healthy volunteers were exposed to filtered air (FA) or 2.0 parts per million NO{sub 2} for 4 h.day{sup -1} (4 x 30 min of exercise), for three consecutive days. Bronchoscopy was performed 18 h following each exposure set, and PB was drawn pre-exposure and pre-bronchoscopy. Flow cytometry was used to enumerate lymphocyte subsets and activation makers in BAL and PB. In the bronchial fraction, there was an increase in the percentage of neutrophils following NO2 exposure compared to FA (median (interquartile range): 10.6 (4.8. 17.2)% versus 5.3 (2.5-8.3)%; p=0.005). In the BAL, there was a decrease in the percentage of T-helper cells following NO{sub 2} exposure compared to FA (55.9 (40.8-62.7)% versus 61.6 (52.6-65.2)%; p=0.022). For PB, there were no between-condition differences in any leukocyte or lymphocyte subsets, or activation. In conclusion exposure to nitrogen dioxide results in bronchial inflammation and a minimal change in bronchoalveolar lavage T-helper cells, and no changes in peripheral blood cells. (au)

  17. Serum Copper Level Significantly Influences Platelet Count, Lymphocyte Count and Mean Cell Hemoglobin in Sickle Cell Anemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Okocha Chide

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background Changes in serum micro nutrients levels affect a number of critically important metabolic processes; these could potentially influence blood counts and ultimately disease presentation in patients with sickle cell anemia (SCA. Objectives To evaluate the influence of serum micro-nutrients levels; zinc, copper, selenium and magnesium on blood counts in steady state SCA patients. Methods A cross sectional study that involved 28 steady state adult SCA subjects. Seven milliliters (mls of blood was collected; 3 mls was for hemoglobin electrophoresis and full blood count determination while 4 mls was for measurement of serum micro nutrients levels, by the atomic absorption spectrophotometry. Correlation between serum micro-nutrient levels and blood counts was done by the Pearson’s linear regression. Ethical approval was obtained from the institutional review board and each participant gave informed consent. All data was analyzed by SPSS software version 20. Results There was a significant correlation between serum copper levels and mean cell hemoglobin (MCH, platelet and lymphocyte counts (r = 0.418; P = 0.02, r = -0.376; P = 0.04 and r = -0.383; P = 0.04, respectively. There were no significant correlations between serum levels of other micro nutrients (selenium, zinc and magnesium and blood counts. Conclusions Copper influences blood count in SCA patients probably by inducing red cell haemolysis, oxidant tissue damage and stimulating the immune system.

  18. Viral load, CD4+ T-lymphocyte counts and antibody titres in HIV-1 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Viral load, CD4+ T-lymphocyte counts and antibody titres in HIV-1 infected untreated children in Kenya; implication for immunodeficiency and AIDS progression. Washingtone Ochieng, Dorington Ogoyi, Francis J Mulaa, Simon Ogola, Rachel Musoke, Moses G Otsyula ...

  19. CD4 T-Lymphocytes cell counts in adults with human ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2010-02-08

    Feb 8, 2010 ... on one hand and Nigeria on the other hand to bring down this Hydra-headed monster called HIV/AIDS. Keywords: CD4+ T-lymphocyte cell count, HIV/AIDS infections, Tertiary health .... stigma toward HIV-infected persons and the fear of suffering discrimination in the society. Also, the hospital was recently ...

  20. The impact of maternal HIV infection on cord blood lymphocyte subsets and cytokine profile in exposed non-infected newborns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reis-Alves Suiellen C

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Children born to HIV+ mothers are exposed intra-utero to several drugs and cytokines that can modify the developing immune system, and influence the newborn's immune response to infections and vaccines. We analyzed the relation between the distribution of cord blood lymphocyte subsets and cytokine profile in term newborns of HIV+ mothers using HAART during pregnancy and compared them to normal newborns. Methods In a prospective, controlled study, 36 mother-child pairs from HIV+ mothers and 15 HIV-uninfected mothers were studied. Hematological features and cytokine profiles of mothers at 35 weeks of pregnancy were examined. Maternal and cord lymphocyte subsets as well as B-cell maturation in cord blood were analyzed by flow cytometry. The non-stimulated, as well as BCG- and PHA-stimulated production of IL2, IL4, IL7, IL10, IL12, IFN-γ and TNF-alpha in mononuclear cell cultures from mothers and infants were quantified using ELISA. Results After one year follow-up none of the exposed infants became seropositive for HIV. An increase in B lymphocytes, especially the CD19/CD5+ ones, was observed in cord blood of HIV-exposed newborns. Children of HIV+ hard drug using mothers had also an increase of immature B-cells. Cord blood mononuclear cells of HIV-exposed newborns produced less IL-4 and IL-7 and more IL-10 and IFN-γ in culture than those of uninfected mothers. Cytokine values in supernatants were similar in infants and their mothers except for IFN-γ and TNF-alpha that were higher in HIV+ mothers, especially in drug abusing ones. Cord blood CD19/CD5+ lymphocytes showed a positive correlation with cord IL-7 and IL-10. A higher maternal age and smoking was associated with a decrease of cord blood CD4+ cells. Conclusions in uninfected infants born to HIV+ women, several immunological abnormalities were found, related to the residual maternal immune changes induced by the HIV infection and those associated with antiretroviral

  1. Use of the lymphocyte count as a diagnostic screen in adults with suspected Epstein-Barr virus infectious mononucleosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biggs, Timothy C; Hayes, Stephen M; Bird, Jonathan H; Harries, Philip G; Salib, Rami J

    2013-10-01

    To evaluate the predictive diagnostic accuracy of the lymphocyte count in Epstein-Barr virus-related infectious mononucleosis (IM). Retrospective case note and blood results review within a university-affiliated teaching hospital. A retrospective review of 726 patients undergoing full blood count and Monospot testing was undertaken. Monospot testing outcomes were compared with the lymphocyte count, examining for significant statistical correlations. With a lymphocyte count of ≤4 × 10(9) /L, 99% of patients had an associated negative Monospot result (sensitivity of 84% and specificity of 94%). A group subanalysis of the population older than 18 years with a lymphocyte count ≤4 × 10(9) /L revealed that 100% were Monospot negative (sensitivity of 100% and specificity of 97%). A lymphocyte count of ≤4 × 10(9) /L correlated significantly with a negative Monospot result. A lymphocyte count of ≤4 × 10(9) /L appears to be a highly reliable predictor of a negative Monospot result, particularly in the population aged >18 years. Pediatric patients, and adults with strongly suggestive symptoms and signs of IM, should still undergo Monospot testing. However, in adults with more subtle symptoms and signs, representing the vast majority, Monospot testing should be restricted to those with a lymphocyte count >4 × 10(9) /L. NA Copyright © 2013 The American Laryngological, Rhinological and Otological Society, Inc.

  2. Effects of occupational exposure to carbon black on peripheral white blood cell counts and lymphocyte subsets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dai, Yufei; Niu, Yong; Duan, Huawei; Bassig, Bryan A; Ye, Meng; Zhang, Xiao; Meng, Tao; Bin, Ping; Jia, Xiaowei; Shen, Meili; Zhang, Rong; Hu, Wei; Yang, Xiaofa; Vermeulen, Roel; Silverman, Debra; Rothman, Nathaniel; Lan, Qing; Yu, Shanfa; Zheng, Yuxin

    2016-01-01

    The International Agency for Research on Cancer has classified carbon black (CB) as a possible (Group 2B) human carcinogen. Given that most CB manufacturing processes result in the emission of various types of chemicals, it is uncertain if the adverse health effects that have been observed in

  3. cd4 t-lymphocyte subsets in women with invasive cervical cancer

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2013-10-01

    Oct 1, 2013 ... Only nine (20%) of the 45 HIV+ women had CD4 cell count of 0-200. HIV+ women had lower CD4 ... that may have biological influence on the dependent variable. A P value ... Married. 206. 60. Widowed. 86. 25. Divorced/separated. 24. 7. Polygamous (344) ..... Guidelines for the performance of CD4+CD4.

  4. Long term impact of high titer Edmonston-Zagreb measles vaccine on T lymphocyte subsets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lisse, I M; Aaby, P; Knudsen, K

    1994-01-01

    Several trials of high titer measles vaccine (> 10(4.7) plaque-forming unit) have found female recipients of Edmonston-Zagreb (EZ) vaccine to have lower survival than female recipients of standard measles vaccine. Two trials with medium and high titer EZ vaccine from the age of 4 months were...... unlikely to explain the reduced survival which has been associated with high titer EZ measles vaccination. In the 2 years after the investigation of T cell subsets, there was no increased mortality for recipients of EZ vaccine. Hence it is unlikely that high titer vaccine has an persistent adverse effect...

  5. Changes of serum TSI, TGI and peripheral blood T lymphocyte subsets in patients with graves disease before and after therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou Jindong; Fang Peihua; Tang Te

    1994-01-01

    Thyroid stimulating immunoglobulin (TSI) and thyroid growing immunoglobulin (TGI) were measured and pan T cells (CD 3 ), helper/inducer T cells (CD 4 ) and suppressor/cytoxic T cells (CD 8 ) in peripheral blood were enumerated in 37 patients with Graves disease and 32 normal individuals. The results showed that the positive rates of TSI and TGI were 83.8% and 58.3% respectively in patients with Graves disease. The TSI activity was positively correlated with the level of serum TT 4 (P 3 + cells and CD 8 + cells were decreased (P 4 + /CD 8 + ratio increased (P 3 + and CD 8 + cells, and the CD 4 + /CD 8 + ratio were not changed obviously. Pathogenic roles and clinical significance of serum TSI, TGI and peripheral blood T lymphocyte subsets in Graves disease were also discussed

  6. Effect of edaravone on T lymphocyte subsets and oxidative stress level in patients with cardiogenic cerebral embolism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Guo

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To explore the effect of edaravone on T lymphocyte subsets and oxidative stress level in patients with cardiogenic cerebral embolism. Methods: A total of 100 patients with cardiogenic cerebral embolism who were admitted in our hospital from June, 2013 to June, 2015 were included in the study and randomized into the observation group and the control group. The patients in the observation group were given edaravone, while the patients in the control group were given the conventional treatments. CD4, CD8, GSH-Px, and ROS levels, the occurrence of adverse reactions, and the clinical efficacy after treatment in the two groups were observed and compared. Results: The comparison of CD4 and CD8 levels before treatment between the two groups was not statistically significant (P>0.05. After treatment, CD4 level was significantly elevated, while CD8 level was significantly reduced when compared with before treatment (P0.05. After treatment, GSH-Px level was significantly elevated, while ROS level was significantly reduced when compared with before treatment (P<0.05. The improvement of GSH-Px and ROS levels after treatment in the observation group was significantly superior to that in the control group (P<0.05. The occurrence rate of adverse reactions in the observation group was significantly lower than that in the control group, while the treatment effective rate was significantly higher than that in the control group (P<0.05. Conclusions: Edaravone in the treatment of cardiogenic cerebral embolism can effectively correct the imbalance of T lymphocyte subsets, and reduce the oxidative stress level, with less adverse reactions and significant therapeutic effect.

  7. MULTI-COLOUR CYTOMETRIC ANALYSIS. IDENTIFICATION OF T LYMPHOCYTES AND THEIR SUBSETS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. V. Khaidukov

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. T-lymphocytes play an important role in elimination of tumor cells, in reactions of a transplant against graft and graft versus host disease, in slow-type hypersensitivity, and other reactions directed for maintenance of homeostasis. Along with CD3, an antigen-specific T-cellular receptor (TCR is another common marker of T-cells. There are two types of TcR – αβ-TcR and γδ-TcR that differ in ontogenetic and functional properties. γδ-T-cells play a significant role in protection of organism against various types of infections, and determination of their amounts should be an integral part of the analysis of patients’ immune status. To these purposes, a multi-colour analysis shuld be used, applying the following combinations of monoclonal antibodies: CD3/CD4/CD8/CD45 and αβ-TcR/γδ-TcR/CD3/CD45. Multi-colour staining and multi-step gating allow of carrying out multiparametric analysis of peripheral blood with high accuracy and reliability. The proposed approach considerably facilitates interpretation of results obtained, and it allows of judging about immune system functioning in various pathological conditions.

  8. Incorporating Neutrophil-to-lymphocyte Ratio and Platelet-to-lymphocyte Ratio in Place of Neutrophil Count and Platelet Count Improves Prognostic Accuracy of the International Metastatic Renal Cell Carcinoma Database Consortium Model

    OpenAIRE

    Chrom, Pawel; Stec, Rafal; Bodnar, Lubomir; Szczylik, Cezary

    2017-01-01

    Purpose The study investigated whether a replacement of neutrophil count and platelet count by neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (NLR) and platelet-to-lymphocyte ratio (PLR) within the International Metastatic Renal Cell Carcinoma Database Consortium (IMDC) model would improve its prognostic accuracy. Materials and Methods This retrospective analysis included consecutive patients with metastatic renal cell carcinoma treated with first-line tyrosine kinase inhibitors. The IMDC and modified-IMDC m...

  9. Association between Chemotherapy-Response Assays and Subsets of Tumor-Infiltrating Lymphocytes in Gastric Cancer: A Pilot Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jee Youn; Son, Taeil; Cheong, Jae-Ho; Hyung, Woo Jin; Noh, Sung Hoon; Kim, Choong-Bai; Park, Chung-Gyu; Kim, Hyoung-Il

    2015-12-01

    The purpose of this pilot study was to evaluate the association between adenosine triphosphate-based chemotherapy response assays (ATP-CRAs) and subsets of tumor infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs) in gastric cancer. In total, 15 gastric cancer tissue samples were obtained from gastrectomies performed between February 2007 and January 2011. Chemotherapy response assays were performed on tumor cells from these samples using 11 chemotherapeutic agents, including etoposide, doxorubicin, epirubicin, mitomycin, 5-fluorouracil (5-FU), oxaliplatin, irinotecan, docetaxel, paclitaxel, methotrexate, and cisplatin. TILs in the tissue samples were evaluated using antibodies specific for CD3, CD4, CD8, Foxp3, and Granzyme B. The highest cancer cell death rates were induced by etoposide (44.8%), 5-FU (43.1%), and mitomycin (39.9%). Samples from 10 patients who were treated with 5-FU were divided into 5-FU-sensitive and -insensitive groups according to median cell death rate. No difference was observed in survival between the two groups (P=0.216). Only two patients were treated with a chemotherapeutic agent determined by an ATP-CRA and there was no significant difference in overall survival compared with that of patients treated with their physician's choice of chemotherapeutic agent (P=0.105). However, a high number of CD3 TILs was a favorable prognostic factor (P=0.008). Pearson's correlation analyses showed no association between cancer cell death rates in response to chemotherapeutic agents and subsets of TILs. Cancer cell death rates in response to specific chemotherapeutic agents were not significantly associated with the distribution of TIL subsets.

  10. The relationship of different respiratory virus infection with pediatric asthma attack as well as cytokine and lymphocyte subset levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hua Miao

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To study the relationship of different respiratory virus infection with pediatric asthma attack as well as cytokine and lymphocyte subset levels. Methods: A total of 85 children who were diagnosed with bronchial asthma in our hospital between May 2013 and March 2016 were selected as asthma group and further divided into asthma-RSV group, asthma-AV group, asthma-PIV group, asthma-IFV group and pure asthma group according to the condition of respiratory virus infection, and 70 healthy children who received physical examination in our hospital during the same period were selected as the control group. Spirometer was used to determine airway function parameters, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay kits were used to determine serum cytokine contents, and flow cytometry was used to determine peripheral blood lymphocyte subset contents. Results: FEV1/FVC, FEF25, FEF50 and FEF75 levels, serum IL-2, IFN-γ and TGF-β1 contents as well as peripheral blood Th1 and Treg cell contents of asthma groups were significantly lower than those of control group while serum IL-4, IL-5 and IL-17 contents as well as peripheral blood Th2 and Th17 cell contents were significantly higher than those of control group; FEV1/FVC, FEF25, FEF50 and FEF75 levels, serum IL-2, IFN-γ and TGF-β1 contents as well as peripheral blood Th1 and Treg cell contents of asthma-RSV group and asthma-IFV group were significantly lower than those of pure asthma group while serum IL-4, IL-5 and IL-17 contents as well as peripheral blood Th2 and Th17 cell contents were significantly higher than those of pure asthma group; these indexes of asthma-AV group and asthma-PIV group were not significantly different from those of pure asthma group. Conclusion: RSV and IFV infection can affect the airway function and the balance of CD4+T cell subsets to promote the development of asthma.

  11. Corrected Lymphocyte Percentages Reduce the Differences in Absolute CD4+ T Lymphocyte Counts between Dual-Platform and Single-Platform Flow Cytometric Approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noulsri, Egarit; Abudaya, Dinar; Lerdwana, Surada; Pattanapanyasat, Kovit

    2018-03-13

    To determine whether a corrected lymphocyte percentage could reduce bias in the absolute cluster of differentiation (CD)4+ T lymphocyte counts obtained via dual-platform (DP) vs standard single-platform (SP) flow cytometry. The correction factor (CF) for the lymphocyte percentages was calculated at 6 laboratories. The absolute CD4+ T lymphocyte counts in 300 blood specimens infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) were determined using the DP and SP methods. Applying the CFs revealed that 4 sites showed a decrease in the mean bias of absolute CD4+ T lymphocyte counts determined via DP vs standard SP (-109 vs -84 cells/μL, -80 vs -58 cells/μL, -52 vs -45 cells/μL, and -32 vs 1 cells/μL). However, 2 participating laboratories revealed an increase in the difference of the mean bias (-42 vs -49 cells/μL and -20 vs -69 cells/μL). Use of the corrected lymphocyte percentage shows potential for decreasing the difference in CD4 counts between DP and the standard SP method.

  12. The effect of penicillin administration in early life on murine gut microbiota and blood lymphocyte subsets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniluk, Jaroslaw; Daniluk, Urszula; Rusak, Malgorzata; Dabrowska, Milena; Reszec, Joanna; Garbowicz, Magdalena; Huminska, Kinga; Dabrowski, Andrzej

    2017-10-01

    Antibiotics have many beneficial effects but their uncontrolled use may lead to increased risk of serious diseases in the future. Our hypothesis is that an early antibiotic exposition may affect immune system by altering gut microbiota. Therefore, the aim of the study was to determine the effect of penicillin treatment on gut microorganisms and immune system of mice. 21-days old C57BL6/J/cmdb male mice were treated with low-dose of penicillin (study group) or water only (control group) for 4 weeks. Tissue and stool samples for histology or microbiome assessment and peripheral blood for CBC and flow cytometry evaluation were collected. We found high variability in microbiota composition at different taxonomic levels between littermate mice kept in the same conditions, independently of treatment regimen. Interestingly, low-dose of penicillin caused significant increase of Parabacteroides goldsteinii in stool and in colon tissue in comparison to control group (9.5% vs. 4.9%, p = 0.008 and 10.7% vs. 6.1%, p = 0.008, respectively). Moreover, mice treated with penicillin demonstrated significantly elevated percentage of B cells (median 10.5% vs 8.0%, p = 0.01) and decrease in the percentage of total CD4 + cell (median 75.4% vs 82.5%, p = 0.0039) with subsequent changes among subsets - increased percentage of regulatory T cells (Treg), T helper 1 (Th1) and T helper 2 (Th2) cells. Our study showed significant effect of penicillin on B and T cells in peripheral blood of young mice. This effect may be mediated through changes in gut microbiota represented by the expansion of Parabacteroides goldsteinii. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. The effect of dimethyl fumarate (Tecfidera™) on lymphocyte counts: A potential contributor to progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khatri, Bhupendra O; Garland, Jeffery; Berger, Joseph; Kramer, John; Sershon, Lisa; Olapo, Tayo; Sesing, Jean; Dukic, Mary; Rehn, Eileen

    2015-07-01

    Dimethyl fumarate (Tecfidera™) is an effective therapy for relapsing forms of multiple sclerosis (MS). Our study suggests that this drug may have immunosuppressive properties evidenced by significant sustained reduction in CD8 lymphocyte counts and, to a lesser extent, CD4 lymphocyte counts. This observation is relevant in light of the recent case of progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy in a patient receiving this drug. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  14. Neutrophil to lymphocyte with monocyte to lymphocyte ratio and white blood cell count in prediction of lung cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thang Thanh Phan

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Background Lung cancer is the most common cause of cancer deaths in both sexes, while it is very difficult for screenings and early detection. Aims This study aims to clarify the role of systematic inflammation markers, including white blood cell (WBC, neutrophil (NEU, monocyte (MONO, platelet (PLT, neutrophil to lymphocyte ratio (NLR, monocyte to lymphocyte ratio (MLR and platelet to lymphocyte ratio (PLR in prediction of lung cancer. Methods A case-control study was conducted on 1,315 primary lung cancer patients and 1,315 healthy adults with matched age and gender at Cho Ray hospital. NLR, MLR and PLR were calculated by using neutrophil, lymphocyte, monocyte and platelet count which were recalled from laboratory database. With 600 cases in the derivation set, the logistic regression with univariate analysis was used to identify the impacted marker, then developing the optimal prediction model for lung cancer by logistic regression with multivariate method. The diagnostic values of optimal model consisting of sensitivity (Sen, specificity (Spe, positive predictive value (PPV, negative predictive value (NPV and the area under the ROC curve (AUC value were extracted and verified on all data, in validation set. Results The median values of WBC, NEU, MONO, PLT, NLR, MLR and PLR in lung cancer were not significantly difference between histological subtypes and clinical stages (p > 0.05, but higher than the values in control group (p < 0.01. Multivariates analysis shows that NLR, MLR and WBC were three parameters that have the significant impact of the optimal prediction model (p < 0.01. The AUC value, sensitivity and specificity of the optimal model for lung cancer detection were 0.881, 73.5 per cent (95 per cent CI:70.3–76.6 and 87.7 per cent (95 per centCI:85.2–89.9, respectively. Whereas, the PPV and NPV values of prediction model were 85.7 per cent (95 per cent CI:82.8–88.2 and 76.8 (95 per centCI:73.9–79.5, respectively. Among three

  15. Association of asymptomatic oral candidal carriage, oral candidiasis and CD4 lymphocyte count in HIV-positive patients in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, X; Liu, H; Guo, Z; Luan, W

    2006-01-01

    To compare the prevalence of asymptomatic oral candidal carriage in healthy volunteers with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-positive patients in China, as well as to investigate the relationship between CD4+ lymphocyte count and oral candidal colonization or oral candidiasis. Oral candidal carriage and oral candidiasis were investigated in 101 patients with HIV-infection seen at Youan Hospital, Beijing, China. Two hundred and seventeen healthy volunteers were involved as a control. Culture from saliva was used to test for the presence of oral Candida. CD4+ lymphocyte count was measured by flow cytometry. All data were analyzed statistically by SAS. Asymptomatic oral candidal carriage rate (28.6%) in HIV-positive group was similar to that in the healthy group (18.0%; P = 0.07). No significant difference in CD4+ lymphocyte count was found between oral Candida carriers and non-carriers among HIV-positive subjects (P = 0.89). However, the frequency of oral candidiasis increased with the decrease in CD4+ lymphocyte count (P < 0.0001), and pseudomembranous candidiasis was predominant in HIV-positive patients with CD4+ <200 cells microl(-1) (66.7%). In HIV-positive subjects, asymptomatic oral candidal colonization is not related to CD4+ lymphocyte count of blood, and the carriage rate is similar to that in the healthy population. Oral candidiasis is more likely to be observed in HIV-positive patients who have a low CD4+ lymphocyte count.

  16. CP-25 Alleviates Experimental Sjögren's Syndrome Features in NOD/Ltj Mice and Modulates T Lymphocyte Subsets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Fang; Xu, Shixia; Zhang, Pengying; Chen, Xiaoyun; Wu, Yujing; Wang, Chun; Gao, Mei; Si, Min; Wang, Xinming; Heinrich, Korner; Wu, Huaxun; Wei, Wei

    2018-04-17

    Primary Sjögren's syndrome (pSS) is a chronic inflammatory autoimmune illness of the moisture-producing glands such as salivary glands that is characterized by various immune abnormalities. The aetiology of pSS remains unclear and there is no curative agent. In this study, we investigated the putative therapeutic effects on a NOD/Ltj mouse model of Sjögren's syndrome-like disorders of an ester derivative of paeoniflorin, paeoniflorin-6'O-benzene (termed CP-25). Our study showed that CP-25 alleviated effectively clinical manifestations in NOD/Ltj mice resulting, for example, in increased salivary flow and reduced histopathological scores. Furthermore, CP-25 decreased lymphocyte viability in NOD/Ltj mice and attenuated the infiltration of Th1 cells and Th2 cells into the salivary glands of NOD/Ltj mice. In the spleen on NOD/Ltj mice, CP-25 skewed the ratio of Th17 and regulatory T cells towards regulatory T cells. After treatment, concentrations of anti-La/SSB and IgG antibodies were reduced and the titre of the inflammatory cytokines IFN-γ, IL-4, IL-6 and IL-17A in the serum on NOD/Ltj mice was alleviated. Thus, we define CP-25 as a novel compound that is a potent therapeutic agent for pSS by modulating T lymphocyte subsets. Future studies will validate the use of CP-25 as a therapeutic strategy for the treatment of pSS. © 2018 Nordic Association for the Publication of BCPT (former Nordic Pharmacological Society).

  17. T-cell subset alterations and lymphocyte responsiveness to mitogens and antigen during severe primary infection with HIV: a case series of seven consecutive HIV seroconverters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, C; Dickmeiss, E; Gaub, J

    1990-01-01

    Seven consecutive patients who presented with a severe acute mononucleosis-like illness associated with HIV seroconversion were evaluated by T-cell subset enumerations and measurements of lymphocyte transformation responses to mitogens and antigen during both their primary illness and a 1-year...

  18. In vitro measles virus infection of human lymphocyte subsets demonstrates high susceptibility and permissiveness of both naive and memory B cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    B.M. Laksono (Brigitta); C. Grosserichter-Wagener (Christina); R.D. de Vries (Rory); Langeveld, S.A.G. (Simone A.G.); M.D. Brem (Maarten); J.J.M. van Dongen (Jacques); Katsikis, P.D. (Peter D.); M.P.G. Koopmans D.V.M. (Marion); M.C. van Zelm (Menno); R.L. de Swart (Rik)

    2018-01-01

    textabstractMeasles is characterized by a transient immune suppression, leading to an increased risk of opportunistic infections. Measles virus (MV) infection of immune cells is mediated by the cellular receptor CD150, expressed by subsets of lymphocytes, dendritic cells, macrophages, and

  19. Reactivity of inducer cell subsets and T8-cell activation during the human autologous mixed lymphocyte reaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romain, P L; Morimoto, C; Daley, J F; Palley, L S; Reinherz, E L; Schlossman, S F

    1984-01-01

    To characterize the responding T cells in the autologous mixed lymphocyte reaction (AMLR), T cells were fractionated into purified subpopulations employing monoclonal antibodies and a variety of separation techniques including fluorescence-activated cell sorting. It was found that isolated T4 cells, but not T8 cells, proliferated in response to autologous non-T cells. More importantly, within the T4 subset, the autoreactive population was greatly enriched in a fraction reactive with an autoantibody from patients with juvenile chronic arthritis (JRA) or the monoclonal antibody anti-TQ1. Although T8 cells themselves were unable to proliferate in the AMLR, they could be induced to respond in the presence of either T4 cells or exogenous IL-2 containing medium. This was demonstrated by direct measurement of tritiated thymidine uptake by T8 cells during the course of the AMLR as well as by analysis of their relative DNA content. Taken together, these data indicate that the AMLR represents a complex pattern of immune responsiveness distinct from that observed in response to soluble antigen or alloantigen. The precise function of this T-cell circuit remains to be determined.

  20. ROC-king onwards: intraepithelial lymphocyte counts, distribution & role in coeliac disease mucosal interpretation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rostami, Kamran; Marsh, Michael N; Johnson, Matt W; Mohaghegh, Hamid; Heal, Calvin; Holmes, Geoffrey; Ensari, Arzu; Aldulaimi, David; Bancel, Brigitte; Bassotti, Gabrio; Bateman, Adrian; Becheanu, Gabriel; Bozzola, Anna; Carroccio, Antonio; Catassi, Carlo; Ciacci, Carolina; Ciobanu, Alexandra; Danciu, Mihai; Derakhshan, Mohammad H; Elli, Luca; Ferrero, Stefano; Fiorentino, Michelangelo; Fiorino, Marilena; Ganji, Azita; Ghaffarzadehgan, Kamran; Going, James J; Ishaq, Sauid; Mandolesi, Alessandra; Mathews, Sherly; Maxim, Roxana; Mulder, Chris J; Neefjes-Borst, Andra; Robert, Marie; Russo, Ilaria; Rostami-Nejad, Mohammad; Sidoni, Angelo; Sotoudeh, Masoud; Villanacci, Vincenzo; Volta, Umberto; Zali, Mohammad R; Srivastava, Amitabh

    2017-12-01

    Counting intraepithelial lymphocytes (IEL) is central to the histological diagnosis of coeliac disease (CD), but no definitive 'normal' IEL range has ever been published. In this multicentre study, receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis was used to determine the optimal cut-off between normal and CD (Marsh III lesion) duodenal mucosa, based on IEL counts on >400 mucosal biopsy specimens. The study was designed at the International Meeting on Digestive Pathology, Bucharest 2015. Investigators from 19 centres, eight countries of three continents, recruited 198 patients with Marsh III histology and 203 controls and used one agreed protocol to count IEL/100 enterocytes in well-oriented duodenal biopsies. Demographic and serological data were also collected. The mean ages of CD and control groups were 45.5 (neonate to 82) and 38.3 (2-88) years. Mean IEL count was 54±18/100 enterocytes in CD and 13±8 in normal controls (p=0.0001). ROC analysis indicated an optimal cut-off point of 25 IEL/100 enterocytes, with 99% sensitivity, 92% specificity and 99.5% area under the curve. Other cut-offs between 20 and 40 IEL were less discriminatory. Additionally, there was a sufficiently high number of biopsies to explore IEL counts across the subclassification of the Marsh III lesion. Our ROC curve analyses demonstrate that for Marsh III lesions, a cut-off of 25 IEL/100 enterocytes optimises discrimination between normal control and CD biopsies. No differences in IEL counts were found between Marsh III a, b and c lesions. There was an indication of a continuously graded dose-response by IEL to environmental (gluten) antigenic influence. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  1. The pattern recognition molecule ficolin-1 exhibits differential binding to lymphocyte subsets, providing a novel link between innate and adaptive immunity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Genster, Ninette; Ma, Ying Jie; Munthe-Fog, Lea

    2014-01-01

    is unknown. Recognition of healthy host cells by a pattern recognition molecule constitutes a potential hazard to self cells and tissues, emphasizing the importance of further elucidating the reported self-recognition. In the current study we investigated the potential recognition of lymphocytes by ficolin-1...... and demonstrated that CD56(dim) NK-cells and both CD4(+) and CD8(+) subsets of activated T-cells were recognized by ficolin-1. In contrast we did not detect binding of ficolin-1 to CD56(bright) NK-cells, NKT-cells, resting T-cells or B-cells. Furthermore, we showed that the protein-lymphocyte interaction occurred...

  2. Effect of Yunpi Huoxue soup combined chemotherapy on T lymphocyte subsets and nutritional status in patients with advanced gastric cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pei Xiang

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To observe the effect of Yunpi Huoxue soup combined with chemotherapy on T lymphocyte subsets and nutritional status in patients with advanced gastric cancer. Methods: A total of 94 cases patients with advanced gastric cancer were randomly divided into the treatment group (49 cases and the control group (45 cases according to the results of the draw. The control group was given chemotherapy, the treatment group was given Yunpi Huoxue soup on the basis of the control group. Treated for 6 weeks, observed the changes of T cell subsets (CD3, CD4, CD8 and CD4/CD8 and nutrition indexes: total protein (TP, albumin (ALB, prealbumin (PA and transferrin (TRF in the two groups. Results: After treatment, CD3, CD4, CD8 and CD4/CD8 in the treatment group were (57.38±4.03, (31.63±4.26, (30.82±3.52 and (1.16±0.20 respectively, there were no significant differences compared with before treatment; After treatment, the levels of CD3, CD4, CD8 and CD4/CD8 in the control group were significantly lower than those before treatment, and the differences were statistically significant; After treatment, the levels of CD3, CD4, CD8 and CD4/CD8 in the treatment group were significant higher than those in the control group after treatment, and the differences were statistically significant. After treatment, TP, ALB, PA and TRF in the treatment group were(54.22±5.93 g/L, (32.47±4.97 g/L, (2.52±0.43 g/L and (1.66±0.40 g/L respectively, there were no significant differences compared with before treatment; After treatment, the levels of TP, ALB, PA and TRF in the control group were significantly lower than those before treatment; After treatment, the levels of TP, ALB, PA and TRF in the treatment group were significant higher than those in the control group after treatment, and the differences were statistically significant. Conclusion: When chemotherapy for patients with advanced gastric cancer, Yunpi Huoxue soup is helpful to maintain the immune function and

  3. Intratumoural and peripheral blood lymphocyte subsets in patients with metastatic renal cell carcinoma undergoing interleukin-2 based immunotherapy: association to objective response and survival

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Donskov, F; Bennedsgaard, K M; Von Der Maase, H

    2002-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to analyse lymphocyte subsets in consecutive peripheral blood samples and consecutive tumour tissue core needle biopsies performed before and during interleukin-2 based immunotherapy, and to correlate the findings with objective response and survival. Twenty...... response or survival. Within the tumour tissue at baseline, a significant positive correlation between CD4 (P=0.027), CD8 (P=0.028), CD57 (P=0.007) and objective response was demonstrated. After one month of immunotherapy, a significant positive correlation between intratumoral CD3 (P=0.026), CD8 (P=0...... of lymphocyte subsets in the tumour reduction in responding patients during interleukin-2 based immunotherapy. Confirmation of the results requires further studies including a larger number of patients....

  4. [The study on the changes of serum IL- 6, TNF-α and peripheral blood T lymphocyte subsets in the pregnant women during perinatal period].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Juan

    2011-03-01

    To study the change law of serum IL-6, TNF-α and peripheral blood T lymphocyte subsets in the pregnant women during perinatal period. 100 pregnant women in our hospital from November 2009 to October 2010 were selected as research object, and the serum IL-6, TNF-α and peripheral blood T lymphocyte subsets be-fore and at labor onset occurring, after delivery at the first and third day were analyzed and compared. According the study, the serum IL-6 and TNF-aat labor onset occurring were higher than those before labor onset and af-ter delivery at the first and third day , the CD3(+), CD4 (+), CD8(+) and CD4/CD8 decreased first and then increased, all P < 0. 05, there were significant differences. The changes of serum IL-6, TNF-α and peripheral blood T lymphocyte subsets in the pregnant women during perinatal period has a regular pattern, and it is worthy of.

  5. The relative prognostic value of plasma HIV RNA levels and CD4 lymphocyte counts in advanced HIV infection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cozzi-Lepri, A; Katzenstein, T L; Ullum, H

    1998-01-01

    . RESULTS: The plasma HIV RNA (median 101410 copies/ml; range (range 200-7200000) and the CD4 lymphocyte count (median 250 cells x 10(6)/l; range 1-1247) were negatively correlated (Pearson r = -0.53; P

  6. Correlation between the neutrophil-lymphocyte count ratio and bacterial infection in patient with human immunodeficiency virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kusnadi, D.; Liwang, M. N. I.; Katu, S.; Mubin, A. H.; Halim, R.

    2018-03-01

    Parameters for starting antibiotic therapy such as CRP andleukocytosis are considered non-specific. Previous studies have shown the Neutrophil-Lymphocyte Count Ratio (NLCR) can serve as the basis of bacterial infection, the level of infection, and the basis of antibiotic therapy. Compared with the Procalcitonin parameter, this NLCR is rapid, an inexpensive and requires no additional sampling. To determine the correlation between The Neutrophil-LymphocyteCount Ratio to bacterial infection in HIV patients. This study was a cross-sectional observational approach to HIV subject at Wahidin Sudirohusodo and Hasanuddin University Hospital. The subjects performed routine blood, microbiology test,and blood Procalcitonin levels tests. Then performed NLCR calculations based on routine blood results. The subjects then grouped the presence or absence of bacterial infection.In 146 study subjects, there were 78 (53.4%) with bacterial infections and 68 (46.6%) without bacterial infection as controls. Subjects with bacterial infections had higher total neutrophils (84.83) compared with non-bacterial infections. Subjects with bacterial infections had total lymphocytes with an average of 8.51 lower than non-bacterial infections. Subjects with bacterial infections had higher NLCR values with an average of 12.80. The Neutrophil-Lymphocyte Count Ratio can become a marker of bacterial infection in HIV patients.

  7. Circulating and in situ lymphocyte subsets and Langerhans cells in patients with compositae oleoresin dermatitis and increased ultraviolet A sensitivity during treatment with azathioprine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baadsgaard, O.

    1986-01-01

    Circulating and in situ lymphocyte subsets and Langerhans cells in four patients with compositae oleoresin dermatitis and increased ultraviolet A sensitivity before and during treatment with azathioprine were estimated. It was found that the number of Leu 6+ Langerhans cells decreased during therapy. This decrease was accompanied by a reduction in the number of Leu 2a+, Leu 3a+, Leu 4+, DR+, and Leu M2+ cells in the blood and a reduction in the number of Leu 2a+, Leu 3a+, Leu 4+, and DR+ cells in the skin. Concomitantly with the changes in the number of immunocompetent cells, the eczema cleared

  8. In Vitro Measles Virus Infection of Human Lymphocyte Subsets Demonstrates High Susceptibility and Permissiveness of both Naive and Memory B Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laksono, Brigitta M; Grosserichter-Wagener, Christina; de Vries, Rory D; Langeveld, Simone A G; Brem, Maarten D; van Dongen, Jacques J M; Katsikis, Peter D; Koopmans, Marion P G; van Zelm, Menno C; de Swart, Rik L

    2018-04-15

    Measles is characterized by a transient immune suppression, leading to an increased risk of opportunistic infections. Measles virus (MV) infection of immune cells is mediated by the cellular receptor CD150, expressed by subsets of lymphocytes, dendritic cells, macrophages, and thymocytes. Previous studies showed that human and nonhuman primate memory T cells express higher levels of CD150 than naive cells and are more susceptible to MV infection. However, limited information is available about the CD150 expression and relative susceptibility to MV infection of B-cell subsets. In this study, we assessed the susceptibility and permissiveness of naive and memory T- and B-cell subsets from human peripheral blood or tonsils to in vitro MV infection. Our study demonstrates that naive and memory B cells express CD150, but at lower frequencies than memory T cells. Nevertheless, both naive and memory B cells proved to be highly permissive to MV infection. Furthermore, we assessed the susceptibility and permissiveness of various functionally distinct T and B cells, such as helper T (T H ) cell subsets and IgG- and IgA-positive memory B cells, in peripheral blood and tonsils. We demonstrated that T H 1T H 17 cells and plasma and germinal center B cells were the subsets most susceptible and permissive to MV infection. Our study suggests that both naive and memory B cells, along with several other antigen-experienced lymphocytes, are important target cells of MV infection. Depletion of these cells potentially contributes to the pathogenesis of measles immune suppression. IMPORTANCE Measles is associated with immune suppression and is often complicated by bacterial pneumonia, otitis media, or gastroenteritis. Measles virus infects antigen-presenting cells and T and B cells, and depletion of these cells may contribute to lymphopenia and immune suppression. Measles has been associated with follicular exhaustion in lymphoid tissues in humans and nonhuman primates, emphasizing the

  9. Cloning, characterization, and antigen specificity of T-lymphocyte subsets extracted from gingival tissue of chronic adult periodontitis patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wassenaar, A.; Reinhardus, C.; Thepen, T.; Abraham-Inpijn, L.; Kievits, F.

    1995-01-01

    Chronic periodontitis is characterized by dense infiltrations of B and T lymphocytes within the gingival connective tissue. Distinct anaerobic gram-negative bacteria as well as autoimmunity to collagen have been reported to play a role in the etiology and the pathogenesis of this disease. Here we

  10. Changes of serum TSII and peripheral blood T lymphocytes subsets in patients with two groups of autoimmune hypothyroidism before and after treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fang Peihua; Zhou Jindong; Tang Te

    1994-01-01

    Serum thyroid stimulation inhibiting immunoglobulin (TSII) and thyroid growth inhibiting immunoglobulin (TGII) were measured and pan T cells (CD 3 ), helper/inducer T cells (CD 4 ) and suppressor/cytoxic T cells (CD 8 ) in peripheral blood were enumerated in 9 patients with primary myxedema, 14 patients with Hashimotos thyroiditis and 32 normal individuals. The results showed that TSII and TGII were present in sera of patients in this two groups of autoimmune hypothyroidism. With different positive rates the percentages of CD 8 + cell were decreased, whiles the CD 4 + /CD 8 + ratio were increased. TSII and TGII activities were not correlated with the CD 4 + /CD 8 + ratio. At the sixth week of treatment with thyroid tablets in 4 cases of 9 patients with primary myxedema and 7 cases of 14 patients with Hashimoto's thyroiditis, their thyroid function was recovered, but TSII and TGII activities were not significantly changed. Peripheral blood T lymphocyte subsets were not significantly varied in patients with primary myxedema, but the percentage of CD 8 + cells were significantly increased in patients with Hashimoto's thyroiditis. Pathogenic roles and clinical significance of serum TSII, TGII and peripheral blood T lymphocyte subsets in these two groups of autoimmune hypothyroidism were also discussed

  11. Mortality prediction to hospitalized patients with influenza pneumonia: PO2 /FiO2 combined lymphocyte count is the answer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Shu Jing; Li, Hui; Liu, Meng; Liu, Ying Mei; Zhou, Fei; Liu, Bo; Qu, Jiu Xin; Cao, Bin

    2017-05-01

    Community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) severity scores perform well in predicting mortality of CAP patients, but their applicability in influenza pneumonia is powerless. The aim of our research was to test the efficiency of PO 2 /FiO 2 and CAP severity scores in predicting mortality and intensive care unit (ICU) admission with influenza pneumonia patients. We reviewed all patients with positive influenza virus RNA detection in Beijing Chao-Yang Hospital during the 2009-2014 influenza seasons. Outpatients, inpatients with no pneumonia and incomplete data were excluded. We used receiver operating characteristic curves (ROCs) to verify the accuracy of severity scores or indices as mortality predictors in the study patients. Among 170 hospitalized patients with influenza pneumonia, 30 (17.6%) died. Among those who were classified as low-risk (predicted mortality 0.1%-2.1%) by pneumonia severity index (PSI) or confusion, urea, respiratory rate, blood pressure, age ≥65 year (CURB-65), the actual mortality ranged from 5.9 to 22.1%. Multivariate logistic regression indicated that hypoxia (PO 2 /FiO 2  ≤ 250) and lymphopenia (peripheral blood lymphocyte count pneumonia confirmed a similar pattern and PO 2 /FiO 2 combined lymphocyte count was also the best predictor for predicting ICU admission. In conclusion, we found that PO 2 /FiO 2 combined lymphocyte count is simple and reliable predictor of hospitalized patients with influenza pneumonia in predicting mortality and ICU admission. When PO 2 /FiO 2  ≤ 250 or peripheral blood lymphocyte count pneumonia. © 2015 The Authors. The Clinical Respiratory Journal published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Risk factors associated with low CD4+ lymphocyte count among HIV-positive pregnant women in Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abimiku, Alash'le; Villalba-Diebold, Pacha; Dadik, Jelpe; Okolo, Felicia; Mang, Edwina; Charurat, Man

    2009-09-01

    To determine the risk factors for CD4+ lymphocyte counts of 200 cells/mm(3) or lower in HIV-positive pregnant women in Nigeria. A cross-sectional data analysis from a prospective cohort of 515 HIV-positive women attending a prenatal clinic. Risk of a low CD4+ count was estimated using logistic regression analysis. CD4+ lymphocyte counts of 200 cells/mm(3) or lower (280+/-182 cells/mm(3)) were recorded in 187 (36.3%) out of 515 HIV-positive pregnant women included in the study. Low CD4+ count was associated with older age (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] 10.71; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.20-95.53), lack of condom use (aOR, 5.16; 95% CI, 1.12-23.8), history of genital ulcers (aOR, 1.78; 95% CI, 1.12-2.82), and history of vaginal discharge (aOR; 1.62; 1.06-2.48). Over 35% of the HIV-positive pregnant women had low CD4+ counts, indicating the need for treatment. The findings underscore the need to integrate prevention of mother-to-child transmission with HIV treatment and care, particularly services for sexually transmitted infections.

  13. Serum albumin and total lymphocyte count as predictors of outcome in hip fractures.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    O'Daly, Brendan J

    2012-02-01

    BACKGROUND & AIMS: Hip fractures are a significant cause of mortality and morbidity in the elderly. Malnutrition is a significant contributor to this, however no consensus exists as to the detection or management of this condition. We hypothesise that results of admission serum albumin and total lymphocyte count (TLC), as markers of Protein Energy Malnutrition (PEM) can help predict clinical outcome in hip fracture patients aged over 60 years. METHODS: This retrospective study evaluated the nutritional status of patients with hip fractures using albumin and TLC assays and analysed their prognostic relevance. Clinical outcome parameters studied were delay to operation, duration of in-patient stay, re-admission and in-patient, 3- and 12-month mortality. RESULTS: Four hundred and fifteen hip fracture patients were evaluated. Survival data were available for 377 patients at 12 months. In-hospital mortality for PEM patients was 9.8%, compared with 0% for patients without. Patients with PEM had a higher 12-month mortality compared to patients who had normal values of both laboratory parameters (Odds Ratio 4.6; 95% CI: 1.0-21.3). Serum albumin (Hazard Ratio 0.932, 95% CI: 0.9-1.0) and age (Hazard Ratio 1.04, 95% CI: 1.0-1.1) were found to be significant independent prognostic factors of mortality by Cox regression analysis. CONCLUSIONS: These results highlight the relevance of assessing the nutritional status of patients with hip fractures at the time of admission and emphasises the correlation between PEM and outcome in these patients.

  14. Determining eligibility for antiretroviral therapy in resource-limited settings using total lymphocyte counts, hemoglobin and body mass index

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Solberg Peter

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background CD4+ T lymphocyte (CD4 cell count testing is the standard method for determining eligibility for antiretroviral therapy (ART, but is not widely available in sub-Saharan Africa. Total lymphocyte counts (TLCs have not proven sufficiently accurate in identifying subjects with low CD4 counts. We developed clinical algorithms using TLCs, hemoglobin (Hb, and body mass index (BMI to identify patients who require ART. Methods We conducted a cross-sectional study of HIV-infected adults in Uganda, who presented for assessment for ART-eligibility with WHO clinical stages I, II or III. Two by two tables were constructed to examine TLC thresholds, which maximized sensitivity for CD4 cell counts ≤ 200 cells μL, while minimizing the number offered ART with counts > 350 cells μL. Hb and BMI values were then examined to try to improve model performance. Results 1787 subjects were available for analysis. Median CD4 cell counts and TLCs, were 239 cells/μL and 1830 cells/μL, respectively. Offering ART to all subjects with a TLCs ≤ 2250 cells/μL produced a sensitivity of 0.88 and a false positive ratio of 0.21. Algorithms that treated all patients with a TLC 3000 cells/μL, and used Hb and/or BMI values to determine eligibility for those with TLC values between 2000 and 3000 cells/μL, marginally improved accuracy. Conclusion TLCs appear useful in predicting who would be eligible for ART based on CD4 cell count criteria. Hb and BMI values may be useful in prioritizing patients for ART, but did not improve model accuracy.

  15. Predictors of change in CD4 lymphocyte count and weight among HIV infected patients on anti-retroviral treatment in Ethiopia: a retrospective longitudinal study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayalu A Reda

    Full Text Available Antiretroviral treatment (ART has been introduced in Ethiopia a decade ago and continues to be scaled up. However, there is dearth of literature on the impact of ART on changes in CD4 lymphocyte count and weight among patients on treatment.To determine the predictors of change in CD4 lymphocyte count and weight among HIV/AIDS infected patients taking antiretroviral treatment in eastern Ethiopia.A retrospective cohort study was conducted among HIV/AIDS patients taking ART from 2005 to 2010. A sample of 1540 HIV infected adult patients who started antiretroviral therapy in hospitals located in eastern Ethiopia were included in the study. The primary outcomes of interest were changes in CD4 count and weight. Descriptive statistics and multivariable regression analyses were performed to examine the outcomes among the cohort.Both the median CD4 lymphocyte counts and weight showed improvements in the follow up periods. The multivariate analysis shows that the duration of ART was an important predictor of improvements in CD4 lymphocyte count (beta 7.91; 95% CI 7.48-8.34; p 0.000 and weight (beta 0.15; 95% CI 0.13-0.18; p 0.000. Advanced WHO clinical stage, lower baseline CD4 cell count, and baseline hemoglobin levels were factors associated with decline in weight. Actively working patients had higher CD4 lymphocyte count and weight compared to those that were ambulatory (p<0.05.We detected a substantial increment in weight and CD4 lymphocyte count among the patients who were taking ART in eastern Ethiopia. Patients who are of older age, with low initial CD4 lymphocyte count, late stage of the WHO clinical stages and lower hemoglobin level may need special attention. The reasons for the improved findings on CD4 count and weight throughout the five years of follow up merit further investigation.

  16. Purine Nucleoside Phosphorylase (PNP) Activity of Lymphocytes and T Cell Subsets in Peripheral Blood in Thyroid Tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Dong Soo

    1992-01-01

    To elucidate alteration of purine nucleoside phosphorylase (PNP) activity of peripheral lymphocytes and helper/inducer and suppressor/cytototxic T cells in patients with thyroid tumors, the author examined PNP activity, and CD4 + and CD8 + cells of peripheral blood in 20 cases of simple goiter, 9 cases of thyroid adenoma and 20 cases of thyroid cancer as well as 11 cases of adult healthy subjects as control. Diagnoses were established on the basis of commonly accepted clinical and biochemical criteria in simple goiter and were confirmed histopathologically in thyroid adenoma and cancer. All blood was obtained from veins of the patients and control subjects in Pusan National University Hospital during the period of January to August, 1991. The results obtained were summarized as follows: 1) The PNP activity was significantly decreased or tended to be decreased in thyroid adenomas and cancers as compared with control subjects and simple goiters. 2) The percentage of CD8 cells was significantly decreased or tended to be decreased in thyroid cancers as compared with simple goiters, thyroid adenomas and control subjects. 3) The CD4/CD8 ratio was significantly increased or tended to be increased in thyroid cancer as compared with simple goiters, thyroid adenomas and control subjects. On the basis of the results, it can be suggested that the immunodysfunction in thyroid cancer may be due to decreased suppressor/cytotoxic T cells, and the estimation of PNP activity of peripheral lymphocyte is a helpful test in detecting the immune status in thyroid tumors.

  17. Changes of lymphocyte subsets after local irradiation for early stage breast cancer and seminoma testis: long-term increase of activated (HLA-DR+) T-cells and decrease of ''naive'' (CD4-CD45R) T lymphocytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Ruysscher, D.; Aerts, R.; Vantongelen, K.; Schueren, E. van der; Waer, M.; Vandeputte, M.

    1992-01-01

    Blood lymphocyte subsets of early breast cancer patients and of men with stage I seminoma of the testis were studied up to 6 years after radiotherapy. Similar results were obtained in the two patient groups. After a temporary decrease, the CD4-w29 or ''memory'' T cells recovered completely, while the CD4-45R or ''naive'' T cells remained decreased up to 6 years after irradiation. The number of CD8 T lymphocytes did not change during or after treatment. Because of the decrease of a subset of CD4 cells, and the unchanged values of CD8 cells, the CD4/CD8 ratio decreased significantly after irradiation, and remained lower than before treatment up to 5-6 years after radiotherapy. The number of both HLA-DR positive CD4 and HLA-DR positive CD8 T cells (''activated'' T cells) increased significantly after irradiation. The natural killer (NK) cells were not affected by treatment. The authors propose that recovery of the CD4 cells is limited to the CD4-w29 (''memory'') population because of thymic dysfunction in older humans. (Author)

  18. Cytokines and T-lymphocyte subsets in healthy post-menopausal women: estrogen retards bone loss without affecting the release of IL-1 or IL-1ra

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abrahamsen, Bo; Bendtzen, Klaus; Beck-Nielsen, H

    1997-01-01

    resorptive cytokines and have also been linked with bone metabolism and the development of osteoporosis. Cytokine secretion from whole blood cell cultures was compared between two randomized groups of healthy early post-menopausal women (mean age 52.5 yrs, N = 91) and lymphocyte subsets were quantitated....... There was no association between cytokine release and bone mass or loss assessed over 2 yrs. The only exception was a weak estrogen-independent correlation between basal IL-1ra secretion and bone loss (r = -0.21, p loss...... cells may be important in the pathophysiology of post-menopausal bone loss. The possibility that IL-1ra acts as an independent bone-sparing factor unrelated to estrogen withdrawal warrants further investigation. In conclusion, ERT maintains bone without affecting the release of the IL-1 family...

  19. Effect of radiotherapy on serum SCC, CEA, CRFRA21-1, TAG72, CA199 and lymphocyte subsets in patients with esophageal squamous cell carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sha Sha

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To study the effect of radiotherapy on serum SCC, CEA, CRFRA21-1, TAG72, CA199 and lymphocyte subsets in patients with esophageal squamous cell carcinoma. Methods: A total of 60 patients with esophageal squamous cell carcinoma in our hospital from January 2013 to January 2016 were selected as experiment group and 40 healthy subjects were selected as control group. Patients in experiment group were treated with 6MV X-ray radiation therapy. Serum SCC, CEA, CRFRA21-1, TAG72, CA199 and the cell percentage of peripheral blood CD4+, CD8+ were compared in control group and the experimental group before and after 1 month radiotherapy. Results: Before treatment, the levels of serum SCC, CEA and CRFRA21-1 in the experimental group were significantly higher than those in the control group (P0.05. Before treatment, the cell percentage of peripheral blood CD4+, CD8+ and the ratio of CD4+/CD8+ in experimental group was significantly lower than that of the control group, the percentage of peripheral blood CD8+ in the experimental group was significantly higher than that in the control group (P0.05, and in the experimental group, the proportion of CD4+ cells and the tatio of CD4+/CD8+ in peripheral blood was significantly lower than that of the control group, the proportion of CD8+ was significantly higher than that of the control group (P<0.05. Conclusions: Radiotherapy can significantly reduce the serum SCC, CEA, CRFRA21-1, TAG72 and CA199 levels of the patients with esophageal squamous cell carcinoma, but have less influence on the T lymphocyte subsets.

  20. Serum cytokines, T lymphocyte subsets and STAT3 function in patients with herpes zoster as well as the intervention effect of mouse nerve growth factor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yun Xu

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To assess the levels of serum cytokines, T lymphocyte subsets and STAT3 in patients with herpes zoster as well as the intervention effect of mouse nerve growth factor. Methods: A total of 102 patients with herpes zoster were selected as observation group and received mouse nerve growth factor intervention, and 100 cases of normal people who received physical examination in our hospital during the same period as the healthy control group. The levels of serum Th1/Th2 cytokines, IgG subclass and complements and T lymphocyte subsets as well as STAT3 function of observation group before and after treatment and healthy control group were detected. Results: Serum IL-2 and γ-IFN levels of observation group after treatment were higher than those before treatment while IL-4, IL-5, IL-10 and TNF-α毩 levels were lower than those before treatment (P<0.05; serum IgG1, IgG3, IgG4, C3 and C4 values of observation group after treatment were higher than those before treatment while IgG2 value was lower than that before treatment (P<0.05; CD3, CD4 and CD4/CD8 levels of observation group after treatment were higher than those before treatment while CD8 level was lower than that before treatment (P<0.05; STAT3, p-STAT3 and JAK2 expression levels of observation group after treatment were lower than those before treatment (P<0.05. Conclusions: There are abnormal immune system and STAT3 signaling pathway function in patients with herpes zoster, and mouse nerve growth factor intervention can restore multisystem balance and accelerate disease rehabilitation, and has positive clinical significance.

  1. Evaluation of chemokine receptors (CCRs expression on peripheral blood T-lymphocyte subsets in patients with thoracic aortic aneurysm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaushal Kishore Tiwari

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Background & Objectives: Mortality and morbidity from the complication of aortic aneurysm remain very high. Aortic size index, which classify thoracic aortic aneurysm patients in three risk groups for aortic rupture prediction. Recent data support that aortic wall remodeling is a dynamic process with active involvement of the chronic inflammation and immunological system. Aim of our study is to evaluate expression level of chemokine receptors known to be involved in the T-cells migration and to correlate them with aortic size index. Materials & Methods: Total 20 patients undergoing surgery for ascending aortic aneurysm and/or aortic valve surgery were enrolled. Aortic size index was calculated. Preoperatively blood samples collected. By flowcytometry and dual parameter dot plot technology percentage of positivity of CCR5 on these T-cell subsets were quantified. Results: Mean age of the patients was 67±5.93 years. Majority of patients had hypertension. Mean ascending aortic diameter was 42.1±8.14 mm. Mean Aortic size Index was 22.21±3.38 mm/m2. A statistical significance has observed between aortic size index and the expression of CCR5 on total CD4 positive T-cells (p-0.0949, and between aortic size index and CCR5 expression on the total CD3 positive T-cells (p-0.0293. Significant correlation observed between ASI and CCR5 expression on the CD8+/CD3+ T-cell subset (p-0.0183. Similarly, strong positive relationship between ASI and the expression of CCR5 on the cytotoxic CD28-/CD4+ T-cell subset (p-0.0055. Activated state of cytotoxic CD28-/CD4+ cell also correlated with aortic size index (p-0.0668.Conclusion: We conclude that T-cell mediated cytotoxic mechanism driven by CCR5 play an important role in the pathophysiology of the thoracic aortic aneurysm.JCMS Nepal. 2016;12(1:23-27.

  2. HIV-specific cytotoxic T lymphocyte precursors exist in a CD28-CD8+ T cell subset and increase with loss of CD4 T cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, D E; Yang, L; Luo, W; Wang, X; Rodgers, J R

    1999-06-18

    To determine whether the CD28-CD8+ T cells that develop during HIV infection contain HIV-specific cytotoxic precursor cells. CD8 subpopulations from six asymptomatic HIV-positive adults, with varying degrees of CD4 T cell loss, were sorted by flow cytometry and HIV-specific precursor cytotoxic T lymphocyte frequencies were measured. Three populations of CD8 T cells were tested: CD28+CD5-- T cells, CD28-CD57+ T cells (thought to be memory cells) and CD28-CD57- T cells (function unknown). Sorted CD8 subsets were stimulated with antigen presenting cells expressing HIV-1 Gag/Pol molecules. Cytotoxic T cell assays on Gag/Pol expressing 51Cr-labeled Epstein-Barr virus transformed autologous B cells lines or control targets were performed after 2 weeks. Specific lysis and precursor frequencies were calculated. Both CD28 positive and CD28-CD57+ populations contained appreciable numbers of precursors (9-1720 per 10(6) CD8+ T cells). However, the CD28-CD57- population had fewer precursors in five out of six people studied. More CD28 positive HIV-specific cytotoxic T lymphocyte precursors were found in patients with CD4:CD8 ratios > 1, whereas more CD28-CD57+ precursors were found in patients whose CD4:CD8 ratios were < 1 (r2, 0.68). Memory HIV-specific precursor cytotoxic T lymphocytes are found in both CD28 positive and CD28-CD8+ cells, however, a CD28-CD57- subpopulation had fewer. Because CD28-CD57+ cells are antigen-driven with limited diversity, the loss of CD28 on CD8 T cells during disease progression may reduce the response to new HIV mutations; this requires further testing.

  3. MHC Expression on Spleen Lymphocyte Subsets in Genetically Resistant and Susceptible Chickens Infected with Marek's Disease Virus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalgaard, Tina; Bøving, Mette K.; Handberg, Kurt

    2009-01-01

    cytometry for MHC surface expression. In the spleen, constitutive MHC class I surface expression was found to be highest in homozygous B19, lowest in homozygous B21, and intermediate in heterozygous B19/B21 animals. This was observed on CD4(+), CD8(+), and Bu-1(+) splenic lymphocytes. Chickens of all three...... genotypes were subjected to infection with MD virus (GA strain) and spleen samples from infected as well as MHC-matched negative controls were analyzed at 1, 4, and 8 wk post-infection (p.i.). It was observed that MDV induced an increase in MHC class I expression late in the infection. Thus, MHC class I...... was increased on the surface of CD4(+) cells from infected chickens of all genotypes at 4 and 8 wk p.i. compared with negative controls. Also, MHC class I expression was increased on CD8(+) cells from infected chickens of all genotypes at 4 and 8 wk p.i., except for the homozygous B19 animals, that showed...

  4. Rapid activation of spleen dendritic cell subsets following lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus infection of mice: analysis of the involvement of type 1 IFN.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montoya, Maria; Edwards, Matthew J; Reid, Delyth M; Borrow, Persephone

    2005-02-15

    In this study, we report the dynamic changes in activation and functions that occur in spleen dendritic cell (sDC) subsets following infection of mice with a natural murine pathogen, lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus (LCMV). Within 24 h postinfection (pi), sDCs acquired the ability to stimulate naive LCMV-specific CD8+ T cells ex vivo. Conventional (CD11chigh CD8+ and CD4+) sDC subsets rapidly up-regulated expression of costimulatory molecules and began to produce proinflammatory cytokines. Their tendency to undergo apoptosis ex vivo simultaneously increased, and in vivo the number of conventional DCs in the spleen decreased markedly, dropping approximately 2-fold by day 3 pi. Conversely, the number of plasmacytoid (CD11clowB220+) DCs in the spleen increased, so that they constituted almost 40% of sDCs by day 3 pi. Type 1 IFN production was up-regulated in plasmacytoid DCs by 24 h pi. Analysis of DC activation and maturation in mice unable to respond to type 1 IFNs implicated these cytokines in driving infection-associated phenotypic activation of conventional DCs and their enhanced tendency to undergo apoptosis, but also indicated the existence of type 1 IFN-independent pathways for the functional maturation of DCs during LCMV infection.

  5. Incorporating Neutrophil-to-lymphocyte Ratio and Platelet-to-lymphocyte Ratio in Place of Neutrophil Count and Platelet Count Improves Prognostic Accuracy of the International Metastatic Renal Cell Carcinoma Database Consortium Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chrom, Pawel; Stec, Rafal; Bodnar, Lubomir; Szczylik, Cezary

    2018-01-01

    The study investigated whether a replacement of neutrophil count and platelet count by neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (NLR) and platelet-to-lymphocyte ratio (PLR) within the International Metastatic Renal Cell Carcinoma Database Consortium (IMDC) model would improve its prognostic accuracy. This retrospective analysis included consecutive patients with metastatic renal cell carcinoma treated with first-line tyrosine kinase inhibitors. The IMDC and modified-IMDC models were compared using: concordance index (CI), bias-corrected concordance index (BCCI), calibration plots, the Grønnesby and Borgan test, Bayesian Information Criterion (BIC), generalized R 2 , Integrated Discrimination Improvement (IDI), and continuous Net Reclassification Index (cNRI) for individual risk factors and the three risk groups. Three hundred and twenty-one patients were eligible for analyses. The modified-IMDC model with NLR value of 3.6 and PLR value of 157 was selected for comparison with the IMDC model. Both models were well calibrated. All other measures favoured the modified-IMDC model over the IMDC model (CI, 0.706 vs. 0.677; BCCI, 0.699 vs. 0.671; BIC, 2,176.2 vs. 2,190.7; generalized R 2 , 0.238 vs. 0.202; IDI, 0.044; cNRI, 0.279 for individual risk factors; and CI, 0.669 vs. 0.641; BCCI, 0.669 vs. 0.641; BIC, 2,183.2 vs. 2,198.1; generalized R 2 , 0.163 vs. 0.123; IDI, 0.045; cNRI, 0.165 for the three risk groups). Incorporation of NLR and PLR in place of neutrophil count and platelet count improved prognostic accuracy of the IMDC model. These findings require external validation before introducing into clinical practice.

  6. Association of the Preoperative Neutrophil-to-ymphocyte Count Ratio and Platelet-to-Lymphocyte Count Ratio with Clinicopathological Characteristics in Patients with Papillary Thyroid Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sang Mi Kim

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundSeveral inflammatory biomarkers, especially a high preoperative neutrophil-to-lymphocyte count ratio (NLR and platelet-to-lymphocyte count ratio (PLR, are known to be indicator of poor prognosis in several cancers. However, very few studies have evaluated the significance of the NLR and PLR in papillary thyroid cancer (PTC. We evaluated the association of the preoperative NLR and PLR with clinicopathological characteristics in patients with PTC.MethodsThis study included 1,066 female patients who underwent total thyroidectomy for PTC. Patients were stratified into 4 quartiles by preoperative NLR and PLR. And the combination of preoperative NLR and PLR was calculated on the basis of data obtained value of tertile as follows: patients with both an elevated PLR and an elevated NLR were allocated a score of 2, and patients showing one or neither were allocated a score of 1 or 0, respectively.ResultsThe preoperative NLR and PLR were significantly lower in patients aged ≥45 years and in patients with Hashimoto's thyroiditis. The PLR was significantly higher in patients with tumor size >1 cm (P=0.021.When the patients were categorized into the aforementioned four groups, the group with the higher preoperative PLR was found to have a significantly increased incidence of lateral lymph node metastasis (LNM (P=0.018. However, there are no significant association between the combination of preoperative NLR and PLR and prognostic factors in PTC patients.ConclusionThese results suggest that a preoperative high PLR were significant associated with lateral LNM in female patients with PTC.

  7. Multiple intravenous injections of allogeneic equine mesenchymal stem cells do not induce a systemic inflammatory response but do alter lymphocyte subsets in healthy horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kol, Amir; Wood, Joshua A; Carrade Holt, Danielle D; Gillette, Jessica A; Bohannon-Worsley, Laurie K; Puchalski, Sarah M; Walker, Naomi J; Clark, Kaitlin C; Watson, Johanna L; Borjesson, Dori L

    2015-04-15

    Intravenous (IV) injection of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) is used to treat systemic human diseases and disorders but is not routinely used in equine therapy. In horses, MSCs are isolated primarily from adipose tissue (AT) or bone marrow (BM) and used for treatment of orthopedic injuries through one or more local injections. The objective of this study was to determine the safety and lymphocyte response to multiple allogeneic IV injections of either AT-derived MSCs (AT-MSCs) or BM-derived MSCs (BM-MSCs) to healthy horses. We injected three doses of 25 × 10(6) allogeneic MSCs from either AT or BM (a total of 75 × 10(6) MSCs per horse) into five and five, respectively, healthy horses. Horses were followed up for 35 days after the first MSC infusion. We evaluated host inflammatory and immune response, including total leukocyte numbers, serum cytokine concentration, and splenic lymphocyte subsets. Repeated injection of allogeneic AT-MSCs or BM-MSCs did not elicit any clinical adverse effects. Repeated BM-MSC injection resulted in increased blood CD8(+) T-cell numbers. Multiple BM-MSC injections also increased splenic regulatory T cell numbers compared with AT-MSC-injected horses but not controls. These data demonstrate that multiple IV injections of allogeneic MSCs are well tolerated by healthy horses. No clinical signs or clinico-pathologic measurements of organ toxicity or systemic inflammatory response were recorded. Increased numbers of circulating CD8(+) T cells after multiple IV injections of allogeneic BM-MSCs may indicate a mild allo-antigen-directed cytotoxic response. Safety and efficacy of allogeneic MSC IV infusions in sick horses remain to be determined.

  8. Serial CD4 and CD8 T-lymphocyte counts and associated mortality in an HIV-2-infected population in Guinea-Bissau

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lisse, I M; Poulsen, A G; Aaby, P

    1996-01-01

    In an urban community in Guinea-Bissau, we followed a cohort of human immunodeficiency virus type 2 (HIV-2) seropositive individuals (N = 47) and seronegative controls (N = 82). T-lymphocyte subset determinations were done in 1988, 1990, and 1992. Serial determinations of CD4 percentages, CD8 per...

  9. Clinical significance of measurement of changes of serum IL-2, SIL-2R levels, B lymphocyte number and T-cell subsets after chemotherapy in patients with malignant hydatidiform mole

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Guangcai

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To study the clinical significance of changes of serum IL-2, SIL-2R level, peripheral blood B lymphocyte number and T-cell subsets after chemotherapy in patients with malignant hydatidiform mole. Methods: Serum IL-2 ( with RIA), SIL-2R level (with ELISA) and peripheral blood B lymphocytes number as well as T subsets (with monoclonal antibody technique) were measured both before and after chemotherapy in 32 patients with malignant hydatidiform mole as well as in 35 controls. Results: Before chemotherapy serum SIL-2R level and B lymphocyte were significantly higher in the patients than those in controls (P<0.01), while the serum IL-2 level, CD3, CD4, CD4/CD8 were significantly lower (P<0.01). Six months after chemotherapy the levels changed markedly toward normal, but remained significantly different from those in controls (P<0.05). Conclusion: Abnormal immuno-regulation were present in patients with malignant mole. (authors)

  10. CD4CD8αα lymphocytes, a novel human regulatory T cell subset induced by colonic bacteria and deficient in patients with inflammatory bowel disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guillaume Sarrabayrouse

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available How the microbiota affects health and disease is a crucial question. In mice, gut Clostridium bacteria are potent inducers of colonic interleukin (IL-10-producing Foxp3 regulatory T cells (Treg, which play key roles in the prevention of colitis and in systemic immunity. In humans, although gut microbiota dysbiosis is associated with immune disorders, the underlying mechanism remains unknown. In contrast with mice, the contribution of Foxp3 Treg in colitis prevention has been questioned, suggesting that other compensatory regulatory cells or mechanisms may exist. Here we addressed the regulatory role of the CD4CD8 T cells whose presence had been reported in the intestinal mucosa and blood. Using colonic lamina propria lymphocytes (LPL and peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBL from healthy individuals, and those with colon cancer and irritable bowel disease (IBD, we demonstrated that CD4CD8αα (DP8α T lymphocytes expressed most of the regulatory markers and functions of Foxp3 Treg and secreted IL-10. Strikingly, DP8α LPL and PBL exhibited a highly skewed repertoire toward the recognition of Faecalibacterium prausnitzii, a major Clostridium species of the human gut microbiota, which is decreased in patients with IBD. Furthermore, the frequencies of DP8α PBL and colonic LPL were lower in patients with IBD than in healthy donors and in the healthy mucosa of patients with colon cancer, respectively. Moreover, PBL and LPL from most patients with active IBD failed to respond to F. prausnitzii in contrast to PBL and LPL from patients in remission and/or healthy donors. These data (i uncover a Clostridium-specific IL-10-secreting Treg subset present in the human colonic LP and blood, (ii identify F. prausnitzii as a major inducer of these Treg, (iii argue that these cells contribute to the control or prevention of colitis, opening new diagnostic and therapeutic strategies for IBD, and (iv provide new tools to address the systemic impact of both these Treg

  11. Early effects of treatment with radium and cobalt-60 gamma radiation on the proportions and absolute counts of T and B lymphocytes in peripheral blood of women with cervical carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pluzanska, A.; Robak, T.; Kuchowicz, W.; Bartuzel, T.; Studencki, E.; Zadrozna, O.; Mazurowa, A.

    1977-01-01

    In 20 women with cervical carcinoma the T and B lymphocyte counts were determined in peripheral blood. The determinations were carried out before starting treatment and immediately after radium therapy in a mean dose of 6573 mgh and then after full therapeutic dose of cobalt-60 radiation of 4000 R. For identification of T lymphocytes the rosette E test was used and lymphocytes B were identified by means of the EAC rosette test. Presence of immunoglobulins on lymphocytes B was determined as well. In women with cervical carcinoma the total lymphocyte count in 1 mm 3 of blood, the proportions and absolute counts of T and B lymphocytes were not different from those in healthy women. Immediately after radium therapy the lymphocyte count in peripheral blood fell which was due mainly to a fall of the total count and in the proportion of B lymphocytes. The proportion of lymphocytes T was unchanged and their quantitative fall was statistically not significant. After application of the total therapeutic dose of cobalt-60 radiation a further fall of lymphocyte count was observed, due to a fall of the absolute count of T and B lymphocytes. Their proportions were unchanged. (author)

  12. Expression patterns of signaling lymphocytic activation molecule family members in peripheral blood mononuclear cell subsets in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karampetsou, Maria P; Comte, Denis; Kis-Toth, Katalin; Kyttaris, Vasileios C; Tsokos, George C

    2017-01-01

    Genome-wide linkage analysis studies (GWAS) studies in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) identified the 1q23 region on human chromosome 1, containing the Signaling Lymphocytic Activation Molecule Family (SLAMF) cluster of genes, as a lupus susceptibility locus. The SLAMF molecules (SLAMF1-7) are immunoregulatory receptors expressed predominantly on hematopoietic cells. Activation of cells of the adaptive immune system is aberrant in SLE and dysregulated expression of certain SLAMF molecules has been reported. We examined the expression of SLAMF1-7 on peripheral blood T cells, B cells, monocytes, and their respective differentiated subsets, in patients with SLE and healthy controls in a systematic manner. SLAMF1 levels were increased on both T cell and B cells and their differentiated subpopulations in patients with SLE. SLAMF2 was increased on SLE CD4+ and CD8+ T cells. The frequency of SLAMF4+ and SLAMF7+ central memory and effector memory CD8+ T cells was reduced in SLE patients. Naïve CD4+ and CD8+ SLE T cells showed a slight increase in SLAMF3 levels. No differences were seen in the expression of SLAMF5 and SLAMF6 among SLE patients and healthy controls. Overall, the expression of various SLAMF receptors is dysregulated in SLE and may contribute to the immunopathogenesis of the disease.

  13. Diphtheria Antibodies and T lymphocyte Counts in Patients Infected with HIV-1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco A. B. Speranza

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available We assessed the IgG levels anti-diphtheria (D-Ab and T cell counts (CD4+ and CD8+ in HIV-1 infected subjects undergoing or not highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART. Approximately 70% of all HIV-1 patients were unprotected against diphtheria. There were no differences in D-Ab according to CD4 counts. Untreated patients had higher D-Ab (geometric mean of 0.62 IU/ml than HAART-patients (geometric mean of 0.39 IU/ml. The data indicated the necessity of keeping all HIV-1 patients up-to-date with their vaccination.

  14. Higher plasma CD4 lymphocyte count correlates with better cognitive function in human immunodeficiency virus-acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (HIV-AIDS) patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitri, F. I.; Rambe, A. S.; Fitri, A.

    2018-03-01

    Neurocognitive disorders in HIV-AIDS are still prevalent despite the use of antiretroviral therapy and seem to be under-recognized. Plasma lymphocyte CD4 count is a marker for general immunology status, but its association with cognitive function remains unclear. The aim of this study was to determine the correlation between plasma CD4 lymphocyte and cognitive function in HIV-AIDS patients.This was a cross-sectional study involving 48 HIV-AIDS patients. All subjects underwent physical, neurologic examination and Montreal Cognitive Assessment-Indonesian Version (MoCA-INA) to assess cognitive function and measurement of lymphocyte CD4 counts.This study included 48 subjects consisted of 29 males (60.4%) and 19 females (39.6%). The mean age was 39.17±11.21 years old. There was a significant correlation between CD4 lymphocyte counts and MoCA-INA score (r=0.347, p=0.016).Higher plasma CD4 lymphocyte count is correlated with better cognitive function in HIV-AIDS patients.

  15. HIV Seropositivity And CD4 T-Lymphocyte Counts Among Infants ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The CD4 cell count was estimated using the Dynamal ® Quant Kit (Dynal Biotechn, ASA, Oslo, Norway). Results: The overall HIV prevalence rate in this study was 23.2%. The distribution of HIV prevalence among different age group revealed a high prevalence rate among the under fives (24.1% for males and 26.4% for ...

  16. CD4+ T-Lymphocytes cell counts in adults with human ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objectives: To evaluate the CD4+ cell counts in adults with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infections presenting at the medical department of the Federal Medical Centre, Ido-Ekiti, Nigeria. Methods: This study was carried out at the medical department of the Federal Medical Centre (FMC), Ido-Ekiti, Nigeria, in the ...

  17. Prognostic value of preoperative absolute lymphocyte count in recurrent hepatocellular carcinoma following thermal ablation: a retrospective analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li X

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Xin Li, Zhiyu Han, Zhigang Cheng, Jie Yu, Xiaoling Yu, Ping Liang Department of Interventional Ultrasound, Chinese PLA General Hospital, Beijing, People's Republic of China Purpose: To investigate the prognostic value of preoperative absolute lymphocyte count (ALC in recurrent hepatocellular carcinoma (RHCC following thermal ablation. Materials and methods: We retrospectively analyzed the relationship between preoperative ALC and the clinicopathologic factors and long-term prognosis in 423 RHCC patients who underwent curative thermal ablation. Correlation analysis, receiver operating characteristic (ROC calculation, Kaplan–Meier curves, and multivariate regression were used for statistical analysis. Results: The median time to recurrence was 12 months for RHCC patients after thermal ablation. On multivariate Cox regression analysis, preoperative ALC was an independent risk factor for cancer recurrence, along with tumor differentiation and α-fetoprotein level. ALC ≥1.64×109/L defined by ROC calculation was associated with prolonged survival (area under the curve 0.741, P<0.001. Patients with ALC ≥1.64×109/L showed a mean survival of 20.2 months versus 11.6 months for patients with ALC <1.64×109/L (P<0.001. Patients were stratified into high and low groups according to ALC status. After excluding the basic parameters between groups, the 1- and 3-year recurrence rates in the high group were 20.9% and 29.5%, respectively, which were significantly lower than those of the low group (58.4% and 71.9%, respectively; P<0.001. The recurrence-free survival rates in the two groups analyzed by Kaplan–Meier curves were significantly different (P<0.001. Conclusion: Preoperative ALC is a powerful prognostic factor for RHCC recurrence after thermal ablation, which suggests that maintaining a high ALC in RHCC patients might improve cancer outcomes. Keywords: absolute lymphocyte count, recurrent hepatocellular carcinoma, thermal ablation, recurrence  

  18. The combination of platelet count and neutrophil lymphocyte ratio is a predictive factor in patients with esophageal squamous cell carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Ji-Feng; Huang, Ying; Chen, Qi-Xun

    2014-10-01

    The prognostic value of inflammation indexes in esophageal cancer was not established. In this study, therefore, both prognostic values of Glasgow prognostic score (GPS) and combination of platelet count and neutrophil lymphocyte ratio (COP-NLR) in patients with esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) were investigated and compared. This retrospective study included 375 patients who underwent esophagectomy for ESCC. The cancer-specific survival (CSS) was calculated by the Kaplan-Meier method, and the difference was assessed by the log-rank test. The GPS was calculated as follows: patients with elevated C-reactive protein (> 10 mg/l) and hypoalbuminemia (l) were assigned to GPS2. Patients with one or no abnormal value were assigned to GPS1 or GPS0, respectively. The COP-NLR was calculated as follows: patients with elevated platelet count (> 300 × 10(9)/l) and neutrophil lymphocyte ratio (> 3) were assigned to COP-NLR2. Patients with one or no abnormal value were assigned to COP-NLR1 or COP-NLR0, respectively. The 5-year CSS in patients with GPS0, 1, and 2 was 50.0%, 27.0%, and 12.5%, respectively (P GPS (P = .003) and COP-NLR (P = .003) were significant predictors in such patients. In addition, our study demonstrated a similar hazard ratio (HR) between COP-NLR and GPS (HR = 1.394 vs HR = 1.367). COP-NLR is an independent predictive factor in patients with ESCC. We conclude that COP-NLR predicts survival in ESCC similar to GPS.

  19. Flurbiprofen improves dysfunction of T-lymphocyte subsets and natural killer cells in cancer patients receiving post-operative morphine analgesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Jin-Chun; Sun, He-Liang; Zhang, Ming-Qiang; Liu, Xiao-Yu; Wang, Zhong- Yun; Yang, Jian-Jun

    2014-08-01

    Acute pain can lead to immune dysfunction, which can be partly ameliorated by successful pain management. Opioids, which are widely used for analgesia, can result in the deterioration of immune function. This study aimed to investigate the influence of morphine with or without flurbiprofen as post-operative analgesics on the immune systems of patients undergoing gastric cancer surgery. 60 patients undergoing gastric cancer surgery were equally randomized into two groups. They received post-operative patient-controlled intravenous (IV) analgesia using morphine either with or without flurbiprofen. Visual analogue scale (VAS) scores, Bruggemann comfort scale (BCS) scores, morphine consumption, time of first flatus, incidence of nausea/vomiting, and T-lymphocyte subsets (CD3⁺, CD4⁺, and CD8⁺) and natural killer cells (CD3⁻CD16⁺CD56⁺) were evaluated. No significant difference was observed in the VAS scores, BCS scores, and nausea/vomiting incidence between groups. Less morphine was consumed and the time of first flatus was earlier in patients receiving morphine with flurbiprofen than morphine alone. The expression of CD3⁺, CD4⁺, CD4⁺/CD8⁺, and CD3⁻CD16⁺CD56⁺ decreased at 2 hours after incision and, except for CD3⁻CD16⁺CD56⁺, returned to baseline at 120 hours after surgery. Moreover, the expression of CD3⁻CD16⁺CD56⁺ at 2 hours after incision and the expression of CD3⁺, CD4⁺, CD4⁺/CD8⁺, and CD3⁻CD16⁺CD56⁺ at 24 hours after surgery were higher in patients receiving morphine with flurbiprofen than morphine alone. The combination of morphine and flurbiprofen ameliorates the immune depression in Tlymphocyte subsets and natural killer cells and provides a similar analgesic efficacy to morphine alone in patients undergoing gastric cancer surgery.

  20. Lymphocyte counts and responses to PHA and PPD following radiation therapy for breast cancer in patients who develop recurrent disease and those who remain clinically disease-free

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blomgren, H.; Wasserman, J.; Wallgren, A.; Baral, E.; Petrini, B.; Idestroem, K.

    1980-01-01

    Peripheral blood lymphocyte counts and stimulations by PHA and PPD in vitro were examined before and up to four years after local pre- or post-operative radiation therapy of 99 patients with breast cancer. The patient material was divided into those who remained clinically disease-free during a follow up period of 4.5-7 years and those who relapsed. Radiation therapy reduced the lymphocyte counts and PPD response to the same levels in both groups of patients; there were no essential differences in their recoveries, with the exception of a somewhat delayed recovery of the PPD-response in the patients who relapsed. PHA responses of the lymphocytes were not decreased following radiation therapy. The data indicate that these radiation induced changes of the peripheral lymphocyte population were similar both in patients who relapsed and those who remained symptom free. A group of 47 women with breast cancer that was treated by surgery only was examined similarly as a comparison. Patients from this group who developed local recurrences had higher lymphocyte counts than those who remained disease-free; patients who developed distant metastases had somewhat decreased PHA responses

  1. Effect of irinotecan combined with cisplatin on serum CD105, OPN, SCCAg, CEA and T lymphocyte subsets in patients with cervical cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xin-Hui Wang

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To study the effect of irinotecan combined with cisplatin on serum CD105, OPN, SCCAg, CEA and T lymphocyte subsets in patients with cervical cancer. Methods: A total of 90 patients with cervical cancer in our hospital from May 2014 to May 2016 were enrolled in this study. The subjects were divided into the control group (n=45 and the treatment group (n=45 randomly. The control group were treated with radiotherapy, the treatment group were treated with irinotecan combined with cisplatin. The two groups were treated for 3 periods. The serum CD105, OPN, SCCAg, CEA levels and peripheral blood CD3 +, CD4 +/CD3 +, CD8 + cells of the two groups before and after treatment were compared. Results: There were no significantly differences of the serum CD105, OPN, SCCAg, CEA levels and peripheral blood CD3 +, CD4 +/ CD3 +, CD8 + cells of the two groups before treatment. The serum CD105, OPN, SCCAg and CEA levels of the two groups after treatment were significantly lower than before treatment, and that of the treatment group were significantly lower than the control group. The peripheral blood CD3 +, CD4 +/CD3 + cells of the two groups after treatment were significantly higher than before treatment, CD8 + cells of the two groups after treatment were significantly lower than before treatment, and that of the treatment group were significantly better than the control group. Conclusion: Irinotecan combined with cisplatin can significantly reduce the serum CD105, OPN, SCCAg, CEA levels, improve peripheral blood CD3 +, CD4 +/CD3 +, CD8 + levels of patients with cervical cancer, and it was worthy clinical application.

  2. Effect of taxanes combined with platinum chemotherapy on serum HE4, AFP, DDX4, CD133, CEA and T lymphocyte subsets in patients with epithelial ovarian cancer

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    Lu Wang

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To study the effect of taxanes combined with platinum chemotherapy on serum human epididymal protein 4 (HE4, 毩-fetoprotein (AFP, DEAD box polypeptide 4 (DDX4, cluster of differentiation 133 (CD133, carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA and T lymphocyte subsets in patients with epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC. Methods: A total of 80 EOC patients in our hospital from October 2014 to January 2016 were enrolled in this study. The subjects were divided into control group (n=40 and experiment group (n=40 randomly. Patients in control group were treated with platinum, the experiment group were treated with taxanes combined with platinum chemotherapy. With 21 days as a course of treatment, the two groups were treated for 4 courses. The clinical curative effect after treatment of the two groups was compared. The serum HE4, AFP, DDX4, CD133, CEA levels and peripheral blood CD3+, CD4+, CD8+ cells of the two groups before and after treatment were compared. Results: There were no significantly differences of the serum HE4, AFP, DDX4, CD133, CEA level and peripheral blood CD3+, CD4+, CD8+ cells of the two groups before treatment (P>0.05. The serum HE4, AFP, DDX4, CD133 and CEA level of the two groups after treatment were significantly lower than before treatment (P<0.05, and that of experiment were significantly lower than control group (P<0.05. The peripheral blood CD3+, CD4+ and CD8+ cells of the two groups after treatment were significantly lower than before treatment (P<0.05, and that of experiment were significantly higher than control group (P<0.05. Conclusions: Taxanes combined with platinum chemotherapy can significantly reduce the serum HE4, AFP, DDX4, CD133 and CEA levels, improve peripheral blood CD3+, CD4+ and CD8+ levels of patients with epithelial ovarian cancer, and it is worthy clinical application.

  3. Effect of rabdosia rubescens combined with new assistant chemotherapy on serum CA199, CEA, CA15-3 and T lymphocyte subsets in patients with breast cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lei Xi

    2018-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To study the effects of Rabdosia rubescens combined with neoadjuvant chemotherapy on serum CA199, CEA, CA15-3 levels and T lymphocyte subsets in patients with breast cancer. Methods: A total of 70 patients with breast cancer in our hospital were enrolled as the subjects of this study. The subjects were divided into control group (n=35 and treatment group (n=35 randomly. Patients in the control group were treated with new assistant chemotherapy, while those who were in the treatment group were treated with rabdosia rubescens combined with new assistant chemotherapy. The two groups of patients were treated for 3 periods. The serum CA199, CEA, CA15-3 levels and peripheral blood CD4+, CD8+, CD4+/CD8+ cells of the two groups before and after treatment were compared. Results: There were no significantly differences among the serum CA199, CEA, CA15-3 levels and peripheral blood CD4+, CD8+, CD4+/CD8+ cells of the two groups before treatment. The serum CA199, CEA and CA15-3 levels of the two groups after treatment were significantly lower than those before treatment, besides, the serum CA199, CEA and CA15-3 levels of the treatment group were significantly lower than those of the control group. The peripheral blood CD4+, CD4+/ CD8+ cells of the control group after treatment were significantly lower than before treatment, and the peripheral blood CD4+, CD4+/CD8+ cells of the treatment group after treatment were significantly higher than those of the control group. Conclusion: Rabdosia rubescens combined with new assistant chemotherapycan can significantly reduce the serum CA199, CEA and CA15-3 levels, and improve peripheral blood CD4+, CD8+, CD4+/CD8+ levels of patients with breast cancer. It is worthy of clinical application.

  4. Effect of Fuzhengyiai recipe on serum IGF-1, EGF, TK1, CRP, CA199 and CD4+ lymphocyte subsets in patients after traditional radical resection of colon cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hua-Fang Yin

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To study the effect of Fuzhengyiai recipe on serum IGF-1, EGF, TK1, CRP, CA199 and CD4+ lymphocyte subsets in patients after traditional radical resection of colon cancer. Methods: A total of 120 patients with colon cancer in our hospital from January 2013 to December 2015 were enrolled in this study. The subjects were divided into control group (n=60 and experiment group (n=60 randomly. The control group were treated with capecitabine and oxaliplatin on the basis of the traditional radical resection of colon cancer, the experiment group were treated with Fuzhengyiai recipe on the basis of the control group. 21 days for a period of treatment and the two groups were treated for 3 periods. The serum IGF-1, EGF, TK1, CRP, CA19-9 level and peripheral blood CD3+, CD4+, CD8+ and NK cells of the two groups before and after treatment were compared. Results: There were no significantly differences of the serum IGF-1, EGF, TK1,CRP, CA199 level and peripheral blood CD3+, CD4+, CD8+ and NK cells of the two groups before treatment. The serum IGF-1, EGF, TK1, CRP and CA19-9 level of the two groups after treatment were significantly lower than before treatment, and that of experiment were significantly lower than control group. The peripheral blood CD3+, CD4+, CD8+ and NK cells of the control group were significantly lower than before treatment, and that of experiment were significantly higher than control group. Conclusion: Fuzhengyiai recipe can significantly reduce the serum IGF-1, EGF, TK1, CRP and CA199 level of the patients after traditional radical resection of colon cancer, improve peripheral blood CD3+, CD4+, CD8+ and NK level, strengthen the immune function, and it was worthy of promotion and application in clinical practice for the future.

  5. Analysis of changes in the percentage of B (CD19) and T (CD3) lymphocytes, nk cells, subsets CD4, CD8 in differentiated thyroid cancer patients treated with iodine-131

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luo Quanyong; Yu Yongli; Chen Libo; Lu Hankui; Zhu Ruisen

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the changes in the percentage of B (CD19) and T (CD3) lymphocytes, NK cells, subsets CD4, CD8 in patients with differentiated thyroid carcinoma (DTC) who received iodine-131 for therapeutic purposes. Methods: In this study, 102 DTC patients were divided into three groups. Group A, 8 cases received 1850 MBq of iodine-131 for the remnant thyroid ablation. Group B, 43 cases received 3700 MBq of iodine-131 for the treatment of cervical lymph node metastasis. Group C, 51 cases received 7400 MBq of iodine-131 for remote metastasis. All patients were in a hypothyroid state at the time of administration of iodine-131 and resumed L-thyroxine (2μg/Kg/day) 5 days after iodine-131 administration. The percentage of B and T lymphocytes, NK cells, subsets CD4, CD8 in peripheral blood were serially analyzed at baseline and at days 7, 30 and 90 after iodine-131 administration using a Coulter EPICS XL cytometer. Ten healthy individuals were used as a control group for lymphocyte subset values. Results: Comparing the basal lymphocyte subset levels in groups A, B and C with the control group, only NK cells showed significantly higher levels in patients than in controls (P=0.043). In group A, only the percentage of NK cells (P=0.031) and B cells (P =0.024) were reduced at day 7. In group B, a decrease in the percentage of NK cells at days 7(P=0.005), 30 (P=0.021) was observed, while a significant decrease in the percentage of B cells was only observed at day 7(P=0.006). Among T cells, only CD4+ was obviously affected, resulting in a reduction in the CD4+/CD8+ ratio at day 30 (P=0.034). In group C, patients showed a decrease in the percentage of NK cells at days 7 (P=0.023), 30 (P=0.006). A decrease in the percentage of both B and T lymphocytes was observed at days 7(P=0.020, 0.018 respectively), 30(P=0.041, 0.025 respectively). Among T cells, a decrease in the percentage of CD4+ and an increase in the percentage of CD8+ were observed, resulting in a marked

  6. Leukocyte-subset counts in idiopathic parkinsonism provide clues to a pathogenic pathway involving small intestinal bacterial overgrowth. A surveillance study

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    Dobbs R

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Following Helicobacter pylori eradication in idiopathic parkinsonism (IP, hypokinesia improved but flexor-rigidity increased. Small intestinal bacterial-overgrowth (SIBO is a candidate driver of the rigidity: hydrogen-breath-test-positivity is common in IP and case histories suggest that Helicobacter keeps SIBO at bay. Methods In a surveillance study, we explore relationships of IP-facets to peripheral immune/inflammatory-activation, in light of presence/absence of Helicobacter infection (urea-breath- and/or stool-antigen-test: positivity confirmed by gastric-biopsy and hydrogen-breath-test status for SIBO (positivity: >20 ppm increment, 2 consecutive 15-min readings, within 2h of 25G lactulose. We question whether any relationships found between facets and blood leukocyte subset counts stand in patients free from anti-parkinsonian drugs, and are robust enough to defy fluctuations in performance consequent on short t½ therapy. Results Of 51 IP-probands, 36 had current or past Helicobacter infection on entry, 25 having undergone successful eradication (median 3.4 years before. Thirty-four were hydrogen-breath-test-positive initially, 42 at sometime (343 tests during surveillance (2.8 years. Hydrogen-breath-test-positivity was associated inversely with Helicobacter-positivity (OR 0.20 (95% CI 0.04, 0.99, p In 38 patients (untreated (17 or on stable long-t½ IP-medication, the higher the natural-killer count, the shorter stride, slower gait and greater flexor-rigidity (by mean 49 (14, 85 mm, 54 (3, 104 mm.s-1, 89 (2, 177 Nm.10-3, per 100 cells.μl-1 increment, p=0.007, 0.04 & 0.04 respectively, adjusted for patient characteristics. T-helper count was inversely associated with flexor-rigidity before (p=0.01 and after adjustment for natural-killer count (-36(-63, -10 Nm.10-3 per 100 cells.μl-1, p=0.007. Neutrophil count was inversely associated with tremor (visual analogue scale, p=0.01. Effect-sizes were independent of IP

  7. The Combination of Platelet Count and Neutrophil Lymphocyte Ratio Is a Predictive Factor in Patients with Esophageal Squamous Cell Carcinoma

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    Ji-Feng Feng

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The prognostic value of inflammation indexes in esophageal cancer was not established. In this study, therefore, both prognostic values of Glasgow prognostic score (GPS and combination of platelet count and neutrophil lymphocyte ratio (COP-NLR in patients with esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC were investigated and compared. METHODS: This retrospective study included 375 patients who underwent esophagectomy for ESCC. The cancer-specific survival (CSS was calculated by the Kaplan-Meier method, and the difference was assessed by the log-rank test. The GPS was calculated as follows: patients with elevated C-reactive protein (>10 mg/l and hypoalbuminemia (300 × 109/l and neutrophil lymphocyte ratio (>3 were assigned to COP-NLR2. Patients with one or no abnormal value were assigned to COP-NLR1 or COP-NLR0, respectively. RESULTS: The 5-year CSS in patients with GPS0, 1, and 2 was 50.0%, 27.0%, and 12.5%, respectively (P < .001. The 5-year CSS in patients with COP-NLR0, 1, and 2 was 51.8%, 27.0%, and 11.6%, respectively (P < .001. Multivariate analysis showed that both GPS (P = .003 and COP-NLR (P = .003 were significant predictors in such patients. In addition, our study demonstrated a similar hazard ratio (HR between COP-NLR and GPS (HR = 1.394 vs HR = 1.367. CONCLUSIONS: COP-NLR is an independent predictive factor in patients with ESCC. We conclude that COP-NLR predicts survival in ESCC similar to GPS.

  8. Long-term study of the impact of methotrexate on serum cytokines and lymphocyte subsets in patients with active rheumatoid arthritis: correlation with pharmacokinetic measures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kremer, Joel M; Lawrence, David A; Hamilton, Robert; McInnes, Iain B

    2016-01-01

    Objective To describe changes in immune parameters observed during long-term methotrexate (MTX) therapy in patients with active rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and explore correlations with simultaneously measured MTX pharmacokinetic (PKC) parameters. Design Prospective, open-label, long-term mechanism of action study. Setting University clinic. Methods MTX was initiated at a single weekly oral dose of 7.5 mg and dose adjusted for efficacy and toxicity for the duration of the study. Standard measures of disease activity were performed at baseline and every 6–36 months. Serum cytokine measurements in blood together with lymphocyte surface immunophenotypes and stimulated peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMC) cytokine production were assessed at each clinical evaluation. Results Cytokine concentrations exhibited multiple significant correlations with disease activity measures over time. The strongest correlations observed were for interleukin (IL)-6 (r=0.45, p<0.0001 for swollen joints and r=0.32, p=0.002 for tender joints) and IL-8 (r=0.25, p=0.01 for swollen joints). Significant decreases from baseline were observed in serum IL-1B, IL-6 and IL-8 concentrations. The most significant changes were observed for IL-6 (p<0.001). Significant increases from baseline were observed in IL-2 release from PBMCs ex vivo (p<0.01). In parallel, multiple statistically significant correlations were observed between MTX PKC measures and immune parameters. The change in swollen joint count correlated inversely with the change in area under the curve (AUC) for MTX (r=−0.63, p=0.007). Conclusions MTX therapy of patients with RA is accompanied by a variety of changes in serum cytokine expression, which in turn correlate strongly with clinical disease activity and MTX pharmacokinetics (PKCs). These data strongly support the notion that MTX mediates profound and functionally relevant effects on the immunological hierarchy in the RA lesion. PMID:27335660

  9. Correlation between Lymphocyte CD4 Count, Treatment Duration, Opportunistic Infection and Cognitive Function in Human Immunodeficiency Virus-Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (HIV-AIDS) Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitri, Fasihah Irfani; Rambe, Aldy Safruddin; Fitri, Aida

    2018-04-15

    Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection is an epidemic worldwide, despite the marked benefits of antiretroviral therapy (ARV) in reducing severe HIV-associated dementia. A milder form of neurocognitive disorders are still prevalent and remain a challenge. This study aimed to determine the correlation between plasma cluster of differentiation 4 (CD4) lymphocyte, duration of ARV treatment, opportunistic infections, and cognitive function in HIV-AIDS patients. A cross-sectional study involving 85 HIV-AIDS patients was conducted at Adam Malik General Hospital Medan, Indonesia. All subjects were subjected to physical, neurologic examination and Montreal Cognitive Assessment-Indonesian Version (MoCA-INA) to assess cognitive function and measurement of lymphocyte CD4 counts. Out of the 85 subjects evaluated, the proportion concerning sexes include 52 males (61.2 %) and 33 females (38.8%). The mean age was 38.53 ± 9.77 years old. There was a significant correlation between CD4 lymphocyte counts and MoCA-INA score (r = 0.271, p = 0.012), but there was no significant correlation between duration of ARV treatment and MoCA-INA score. There was also no difference in MoCA-INA score based on the presence of opportunistic infection. Lymphocyte CD4 count was independently correlated with cognitive function in HIV-AIDS patients.

  10. Can Serum Albumin Level and Total Lymphocyte Count be Surrogates for Malnutrition to Predict Wound Complications After Total Knee Arthroplasty?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morey, Vivek M; Song, Young Dong; Whang, Ji Sup; Kang, Yeon Gwi; Kim, Tae Kyun

    2016-06-01

    Although the serum albumin level and total lymphocyte count (TLC) have been reported as valid and reliable markers for defining malnutrition, their cutoff levels and predictive values for wound complications in patients undergoing total knee arthroplasty (TKA) remain questionable. A total of 3169 TKAs performed between April 2003 and December 2013 were retrospectively reviewed. We determined the prevalence of malnutrition on applying different definitions, with various cutoff values of serum albumin and TLC and analyzed the variations in outcome. The differences between groups with and without malnutrition in terms of functional outcome and complications were determined using Student's t test and analysis of variance. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was conducted to identify the independent risk factors. Among all the patients (N = 3169), the serum albumin level and TLC varied widely, with means of 4.1 g/dL and 2189 cells/mm(3), respectively. The prevalence of malnutrition (21%) as per the conventional definition (serum albumin level malnutrition was defined as serum albumin malnutrition for predicting wound complications after TKA. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Tumor features and correlation between lymphocyte count and biochemical parameters in patients with hepatitis B virus-associated primary liver cancer with Yin deficiency

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    YANG Zhiyun

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available ObjectiveTo investigate the tumor features and the correlation between lymphocyte count and biochemical parameters in patients with hepatitis B virus-associated primary liver cancer (PLC with yin deficiency. MethodsA total of 148 PLC patients who were treated in Beijing Ditan Hospital, Capital Medical University, from July 2013 to February 2015 were enrolled and divided into yin-deficiency PLC group (52 patients and non-yin-deficiency PLC group (96 patients. The patients′ general information and laboratory markers were collected, including oncological parameters (alpha-fetoprotein, carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA, and carbohydrate antigen 199 (CA19-9, virological parameter (HBsAg, gross type (nodular type, massive type, bulky type, and diffuse type, radiological features (main portal vein diameter, portal vein tumor thrombus, and extrahepatic metastasis, biochemical parameters (Model for End-Stage Liver Disease (MELD score, white blood cell, red blood cell, platelet (PLT, alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, total bilirubin (TBil, gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase, alkaline phosphatase, albumin, cholinesterase, prothrombin time (PT, and prothrombin time activity (PTA, and lymphocyte count. The t-test was applied for comparison of normally distributed continuous data between groups, and the Pearson correlation analysis was applied for correlation analysis. The Mann-Whitney U test was applied for comparison of non-normally distributed continuous data between groups, and the Spearman correlation analysis was applied for correlation analysis. The chi-square test was applied for comparison of categorical data between groups. ResultsHBsAg showed a significant difference between the two groups (χ2=5.658, P=0.017. Compared with the non-yin-deficiency PLC group, the yin-deficiency PLC group had significantly increased CEA and CA19-9 (U=-2.200 and -2.194, both P<0.05, significantly increased MELD score, TBil, and PT (t=2.2, U=-2.0, U=-2

  12. White blood cell counts and neutrophil to lymphocyte ratio in the diagnosis of testicular cancer: a simple secondary serum tumor marker.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuksel, Ozgur Haki; Verit, Ayhan; Sahin, Aytac; Urkmez, Ahmet; Uruc, Fatih

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate white blood cell counts and neutrophil to lymphocyte ratio (NLR) as markers of systemic inflammation in the diagnosis of localized testicular cancer as a malignancy with initially low volume. Thirty-six patients with localized testicular cancer with a mean age of 34.22±14.89 years and 36 healthy controls with a mean age of 26.67±2.89 years were enrolled in the study. White blood cell counts and NLR were calculated from complete blood cell counts. White blood cell counts and NLR were statistically significantly higher in patients with testicular cancer compared with the control group (ptesticular cancer besides the well-known accurate serum tumor markers as AFP (alpha fetoprotein), hCG (human chorionic gonadotropin) and LDH (lactate dehydrogenase).

  13. The association between cigarette smoking, virologic suppression, and CD4+ lymphocyte count in HIV-Infected Russian women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Jennifer L; Winhusen, Theresa; DiClemente, Ralph J; Sales, Jessica M; Rose, Eve S; Safonova, Polina; Levina, Olga; Belyakov, Nikolay; Rassokhin, Vadim V

    2017-09-01

    Cigarette smoking among people living with HIV/AIDS is associated with significant morbidity and mortality, but findings regarding the association between cigarette smoking and HIV viral load and CD4+ lymphocyte counts have been inconsistent. This study characterized the prevalence of cigarette smoking among HIV-infected Russian women and examined the association between smoking frequency and quantity and HIV viral load and CD4+ lymphocyte counts. HIV-infected Russian women (N = 250; M age = 30.0) in St. Petersburg, Russia, completed an audio computer-assisted self-interview survey assessing cigarette use, antiretroviral medication adherence, and provided blood samples assayed for HIV viral load and CD4+ lymphocyte counts. The majority (60.4%) reported cigarette smoking in the past month; 49.0% of recent smokers were classified as moderate or heavy smokers, defined as smoking ≥10 cigarettes daily. Viral load status did not differ between infrequent smokers and regular smokers. However, moderate/heavy smokers (relative to light smokers) were more likely to have a detectable viral load (AOR = 2.3, 95% CI: 1.1, 5.1). There were no significant differences in CD4+ lymphocyte counts by smoking frequency or quantity of cigarettes smoked. Results highlight the need for additional research to examine the association between cigarette smoking and virologic suppression and markers of HIV disease progression. Adverse health consequences of cigarette smoking coupled with a potential link between heavy smoking and poor virologic suppression highlight the need for assessment of cigarette use and provision of evidence-based smoking-cessation interventions within HIV medical care.

  14. Regulatory effects of resveratrol on glucose metabolism and T-lymphocyte subsets in the development of high-fat diet-induced obesity in C57BL/6 mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Bin; Sun, Jin; Li, Longnan; Zheng, Jing; Shi, Yonghui; Le, Guowei

    2014-07-25

    High-fat diet (HFD)-induced obesity is often associated with immune dysfunction. Resveratrol (trans-3,5,4'-trihydroxystilbene), which has well-founded immunity-related beneficial properties, was used to elucidate the regulatory effect on glucose metabolism and T-lymphocyte subsets in the development of HFD-induced obesity. Resveratrol, being associated with decreases of plasma leptin and plasma lipids and the release of oxidative stress, significantly decreased the body weight and fat masses in HF mice after 26 weeks of feeding. Furthermore, resveratrol decreased the fasting blood glucose and fasting plasma insulin and increased the CD3(+)CD4(+)/CD3(+)CD8(+) subsets percentages and the regulatory T cells (Tregs) production after 13 and 26 weeks of feeding. The results indicate that resveratrol, as an effective supplement for HFD, maintained glucose homeostasis by activating the PI3K and SIRT1 signaling pathways. Moreover, resveratrol activated the Nrf2 signaling pathway-mediated antioxidant enzyme expression to alleviate inflammation by protecting against oxidative damage and T-lymphocyte subset-related chronic inflammatory response in the development of HFD-induced obesity.

  15. Seroprevalence of Epstein-Barr virus among HIV positive patients moreover and its association with CD4 positive lymphocyte count.

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    Alireza Abdollahi

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Opportunistic infections are the leading cause of hospitalization and morbidity in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV positive patients and are the most common cause of death between them. We aimed to measure IgG antibody against EBV viral capsid antigen (EBV-VCA IgG to determine the seroprevalence of this infection in HIV-positive population. A case-control study between September 2011 and October 2012 was conducted in a teaching hospital enrolling 114 HIV-positive patients as case group and 114 healthy individuals as control with similar age and sex. Enzyme-linked immunosurbant assay (ELISA technique was used for determination of EBV-VAC IgG in obtained samples. Of 114 serum samples obtained from HIV-positive patients, 103 (90.4% samples were found positive for EBV-VCA IgG antibody. There was no significant difference in seroprevalence of EBV VCA IgG antibody between patients received antiretroviral therapy and naive patients (91.5% vs. 87.5%, P>0.05. There was no statistically significant difference in EBV-VCA IgG seroprevalence between three groups of CD4+ in HIV positive group. In conclusion current study showed that seroprevalence of EBV in HIV-positive patients is higher than HIV-negative healthy participants; however, administration of HAART and CD4+ lymphocyte count did not reveal a significant effect in seroprevalence of EBV. Due to the significance of this virus in mortality and morbidity and causing certain malignancies in patients with AIDS, these patients are strongly recommended to be tested for this virus.

  16. Lymphocytosis (High Lymphocyte Count)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... com/test-catalog/Clinical+and+Interpretive/9109. Accessed May 19, 2016. Kaushansky K, et al. Lymphocytosis and lymphocytopenia. In: Williams Hematology. 9th ed. New York, N.Y.: The McGraw-Hill ...

  17. Porcine gamma delta T Lymphocytes Can Be Categorized into Two Functionally and Developmentally Distinct Subsets according to Expression of CD2 and Level of TCR

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Štěpánová, Kateřina; Šinkora, Marek

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 190, č. 5 (2013), s. 2111-2120 ISSN 0022-1767 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP502/12/0110 Institutional support: RVO:61388971 Keywords : INTESTINAL INTRAEPITHELIAL LYMPHOCYTES * B-CELL DEVELOPMENT * IMMUNE-SYSTEM Subject RIV: EC - Immunology Impact factor: 5.362, year: 2013

  18. Different anti-CD21 antibodies can be used to discriminate developmentally and functionally different subsets of B lymphocytes in circulation of pigs

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Šinkora, Marek; Štěpánová, Kateřina; Šinkorová, Jana

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 39, č. 4 (2013), s. 409-418 ISSN 0145-305X R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP502/10/0038; GA MŠk ME09089 Institutional support: RVO:61388971 Keywords : Porcine immune system * Cell surface molecules * Lymphocyte subpopulations Subject RIV: EC - Immunology Impact factor: 3.705, year: 2013

  19. Pretreatment combination of platelet counts and neutrophil–lymphocyte ratio predicts survival of nasopharyngeal cancer patients receiving intensity-modulated radiotherapy

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    Lin YH

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Yu-Hsuan Lin,1 Kuo-Ping Chang,2 Yaoh-Shiang Lin,2,3 Ting-Shou Chang2–4 1Department of Otolaryngology, Head and Neck Surgery, National Cheng Kung University Hospital, College of Medicine, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan, 2Department of Otolaryngology, Head and Neck Surgery, Kaohsiung Veterans General Hospital, Kaohsiung, 3Department of Otolaryngology, Head and Neck Surgery, National Defense Medical Center, Taipei, 4Institute of Public Health, College of Medicine, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan, Taiwan, Republic of China Background: Increased cancer-related inflammation has been associated with unfavorable clinical outcomes. The combination of platelet count and neutrophil–lymphocyte ratio (COP-NLR has related outcomes in several cancers, except for nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC. This study evaluated the prognostic value of COP-NLR in predicting outcome in NPC patients treated with intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT.Materials and methods: We analyzed the data collected from 232 NPC patients. Pretreatment total platelet counts, neutrophil–lymphocyte ratio (NLR, and COP-NLR score were evaluated as potential predictors. Optimal cutoff values for NLR and platelets were determined using receiver operating curve. Patients with both elevated NLR (>3 and platelet counts (>300×109/L were assigned a COP-NLR score of 2; those with one elevated or no elevated value were assigned a COP-NLR a score of 1 or 0. Cox proportional hazards model was used to test the association of these factors and relevant 3-year survivals.Results: Patients (COP-NLR scores 1 and 2=85; score 0=147 were followed up for 55.19 months. Univariate analysis showed no association between pretreatment NLR >2.23 and platelet counts >290.5×109/L and worse outcomes. Multivariate analysis revealed that those with COP-NLR scores of 0 had better 3-year disease-specific survival (P=0.02, overall survival (P=0.024, locoregional relapse-free survival (P=0.004, and distant

  20. Interleukin 2 (IL 2) up-regulates its own receptor on a subset of human unprimed peripheral blood lymphocytes and triggers their proliferation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harel-Bellan, A.; Bertoglio, J.; Quillet, A.; Marchiol, C.; Wakasugi, H.; Mishall, Z.; Fradelizi, D.

    1986-01-01

    Several reports indicate that human peripheral blood lymphoctyes (PBL) seeded in culture with purified or recombinant interleukin 2 (IL 2) immediately after separation from the blood display a substantial level of proliferation at day 5 or 6, even in the absence of any activating signal. The spontaneously IL 2 proliferating cells are large lymphocytes, and they co-purify on a Percoll gradient in the large granular lymphocytes (third (LGL) fraction) together with the natural killer (NK) activity. When LGL were separated into NKH1 (an NK-specific surface marker)-positive and NKH1-negative cells by fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS), proliferating cells were mainly found in the NKH1-negative fraction. On the contrary, when cells from Percoll fraction 3 were separated into OKT3-negative and positive cells, the majority of the proliferating cells was found in the OKT3-positive cells. These results indicate that spontaneously IL 2 proliferating (SIP) cells most probably belong to the T cell lineage, but are distinct from NK cells. Additional analysis of Il 2 receptor induced in culture with IL 2 was performed by [ 125 I]anti-TAC binding and by [ 3 H]Il 2 binding. Scatchard analysis of [ 3 H]IL 2 binding, in the range of concentrations leading to the detection of high-affinity binding sites, showed an affinity constant similar to that of conventional phytohemagglutinin blasts. The results indicate that SIP cells are preactivated cells circulating in the blood. They are large cells and represent a very small proportion of circulating lymphocytes (0.3%). They express a subliminar amount of IL 2 receptor. Cultivated in the presence of IL 2, IL 2 receptor expression is enhanced to a detectable level, and the SIP cells begin to proliferate. These SIP cells could be activated T cells in the course of a current immune response or memory T cells present in every normal individual

  1. Growth of Theileria annulata and Theileria parva macroschizont-infected bovine cells in immunodeficient mice: effect of irradiation and tumour load on lymphocyte subsets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fell, A.H.; Preston, P.M. (Edinburgh Univ. (United Kingdom))

    1992-07-01

    Bovine cells infected with macroschizonts of the protozoan parasites Theileria annulata and Theileria parva formed solid tumours when injected into irradiated Balb/c and irradiated Balb/c nude mice. T. annulata tumours grew more vigorously than T. parva tumours, when initiated with similar doses of infected cells in mice exposed to the same doses of gamma-irradiation. In irradiated Balb/c mice, tumours of both species of parasites began to regress 2-3 weeks after injection of cells but grew without regression in irradiated Balb/c nude mice. Haemorrhage and necrosis of tumours, induced by macrophages and neutrophils, were seen in both mouse strains but were insufficient to cause regression in Balb/c nude mice. Theileria-infected bovine cells failed to establish in C57 beige mice, which lack functional natural killer (NK) cells. Flow cytometry, using monoclonal antibodies to murine leukocyte/lymphocyte antigens, showed that the radiation dose required to allow establishment of T. annulata tumours in Balb/c mice caused a severe depletion of splenic lymphocytes. B cells, helper T and cytotoxic T cells showed differing levels of susceptibility to irradiation. (Author).

  2. Growth of Theileria annulata and Theileria parva macroschizont-infected bovine cells in immunodeficient mice: effect of irradiation and tumour load on lymphocyte subsets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fell, A.H.; Preston, P.M.

    1992-01-01

    Bovine cells infected with macroschizonts of the protozoan parasites Theileria annulata and Theileria parva formed solid tumours when injected into irradiated Balb/c and irradiated Balb/c nude mice. T. annulata tumours grew more vigorously than T. parva tumours, when initiated with similar doses of infected cells in mice exposed to the same doses of gamma-irradiation. In irradiated Balb/c mice, tumours of both species of parasites began to regress 2-3 weeks after injection of cells but grew without regression in irradiated Balb/c nude mice. Haemorrhage and necrosis of tumours, induced by macrophages and neutrophils, were seen in both mouse strains but were insufficient to cause regression in Balb/c nude mice. Theileria-infected bovine cells failed to establish in C57 beige mice, which lack functional natural killer (NK) cells. Flow cytometry, using monoclonal antibodies to murine leukocyte/lymphocyte antigens, showed that the radiation dose required to allow establishment of T. annulata tumours in Balb/c mice caused a severe depletion of splenic lymphocytes. B cells, helper T and cytotoxic T cells showed differing levels of susceptibility to irradiation. (Author)

  3. Radiological clinical correlation of pulmonary and extrapulmonary tuberculosis with CD4 T lymphocyte counts in patients with V.I.H. in the San Juan de Dios Hospital during the period 2004 to the first half of 2009

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Campos Fallas, Christian

    2010-01-01

    The association between radiographic presentation of tuberculosis (TB), pulmonary and extrapulmonary, and the count of CD4 T lymphocytes in patients infected with Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV), are investigated. The order has been to achieve a diagnosis and isolation early of coinfected patients. A retrospective analysis was performed of the clinical history, chest radiograph, CD4 T lymphocyte count of 25 HIV-infected patients with documented pulmonary or extrapulmonary tuberculosis diagnosis. 18 patients diagnosed (72%) with radiologic atypical skipper, 14 of them with significant immunosuppression (TB patients with CD4 T count <200 / mm 3 ), while only 6 (24%) with radiologic typical skipper of TB was associated with negative sputum smears (p=0.06). In HIV patients with CD4 T lymphocyte counts T <200 / mm 3 , no respiratory symptoms and atypical radiographic pattern, may be suspected active TB, even with negative sputum smears. (Author) [es

  4. Abortive lytic Epstein–Barr virus replication in tonsil-B lymphocytes in infectious mononucleosis and a subset of the chronic fatigue syndrome

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    Lerner AM

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available A Martin Lerner,1 Safedin Beqaj21Department of Medicine, Oakland University William Beaumont School of Medicine, Rochester, MI, USA; 2Pathology Inc, Torrance, CA, USAAbstract: A systematic 2001–2007 review of 142 chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS patients identified 106 CFS patients with elevated serum IgG antibodies to the herpesviruses Epstein–Barr virus (EBV, cytomegalovirus, or human herpesvirus (HHV 6 in single or multiple infections, with no other co-infections detected. We named these 106 patients group-A CFS. Eighty-six of these 106 group-A CFS patients (81% had elevated EBV early antibody, early antigen (diffuse, serum titers. A small group of six patients in the group-A EBV subset of CFS, additionally, had repetitive elevated-serum titers of antibody to the early lytic replication-encoded proteins, EBV dUTPase, and EBV DNA polymerase. The presence of these serum antibodies to EBV dUTPase and EBV DNA polymerase indicated EBV abortive lytic replication in these 6 CFS patients. None of 20 random control people (age- and sex-matched, with blood drawn at a commercial laboratory had elevated serum titers of antibody to EBV dUTPase or EBV DNA polymerase (P < 0.01. This finding needs verification in a larger group of EBV CFS subset patients, but if corroborated, it may represent a molecular marker for diagnosing the EBV subset of CFS. We review evidence that EBV abortive lytic replication with unassembled viral proteins in the blood may be the same in infectious mononucleosis (IM and a subset of CFS. EBV-abortive lytic replication in tonsil plasma cells is dominant in IM. No complete lytic virion is in the blood of IM or CFS patients. Complications of CFS and IM include cardiomyopathy and encephalopathy. Circulating abortive lytic-encoded EBV proteins (eg, EBV dUTPase, EBV DNA polymerase, and others may be common to IM and CFS. The intensity and duration of the circulating EBV-encoded proteins might differentiate the IM and EBV subsets of CFS

  5. Old beagle dogs have lower faecal concentrations of some fermentation products and lower peripheral lymphocyte counts than young adult beagles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomes, Márcia de Oliveira Sampaio; Beraldo, Mariana Casteleti; Putarov, Thaila Cristina; Brunetto, Márcio Antônio; Zaine, Leandro; Glória, Maria Beatriz Abreu; Carciofi, Aulus Cavalieri

    2011-10-01

    The effects of age on microbiota composition, gut fermentation end-product formation and peripheral lymphocyte numbers were compared between old and young adult Beagle dogs fed four kibble diets differing in yeast cell wall contents. The experiment had a double 4 × 4 Latin square design, one with four mature dogs (4 years old) and the other with four old dogs (10 years old), with four replicates (diets) per dog. In each period a 15 d adaptation period preceded a 5 d total collection of faeces for the digestibility trial. On day 21, fresh faecal samples were collected for the determination of bacterial enumeration, pH, biogenic amine and short-chain fatty acid. Flow cytometry was used for immunophenotypic evaluation. Dogs were fed four kibble diets with similar composition with 0, 0.15, 0.30 and 0.45 % of yeast cell wall (as-fed), respectively. Data were evaluated using general linear models of Statistical Analysis Systems statistical software (P 0.15). Faecal concentrations of butyrate, histamine, agmatine and spermine were lower (P ≤ 0.05) and faecal pH was higher (P = 0.03) in older dogs than in mature adult dogs, suggesting an alteration in bacterial metabolic activity, or in the rate of intestinal absorption of these compounds. Concentrations of T-lymphocytes, T-cytotoxic lymphocytes and B-lymphocytes were also lower (P ≤ 0.01) in older dogs than in mature adult dogs. The study confirmed alterations in peripheral lymphocytes and revealed a reduced concentration of some fermentation end products in the colon of old dogs.

  6. Changes in lymphocyte subsets due to local irradiation of a portion of the maxilla in mice. A study of intracellular cytokine detection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Momoi, Yukiko; Shirakawa, Masayori; Satoh, Daigo; Yosue, Takashi

    2008-01-01

    It is critical for dentists who perform radiation therapy to comprehend immunity, because irradiation therapy may damage lymphocytes. After local irradiation to the maxillary area of mice, naive T cells and memory T cells in the spleen, and Th1/Th2 balance and Tc1/Tc2 balance were investigated by intracellular cytokine detection. Female BALB/c mice at 5 weeks of age were adopted for the experiments. In the irradiation groups, a portion of the maxilla was exposed to X-rays (2.0 Gy/min, 10 Gy). Then lymphocytes were analyzed using flow cytometry (anti-CD4, CD62L-selectin and CD45RB monoclonal antibodies). The percentage of Th1 cells, Th2 cells, Tc1 cells, and Tc2 cells and the ratio of Th1/Th2 and Tc1/Tc2 were analyzed by intracellular cytokine detection, and the findings were compared with those of non-irradiated groups. The observation was performed 1 day before irradiation and 1, 3, 7, and 14 days after irradiation. The absolute number of naive T cells was significantly lower 1 and 3 days after irradiation. However, the absolute number of memory T cells did not change significantly after irradiation. The percentage of Th1, Th2, Tc1, and Tc2 cells did not change significantly after irradiation, either. There were no significant differences in the Th1/Th2 ratio and Tc1/Tc2 ratio were observed after irradiation. It was suggested that after the local irradiation the absolute number of naive T cells decreased, that the effect on memory T cells was minimal, and that irradiation did not affect either the ratio of Th1/Th2 nor that of Tc1/Tc2. (author)

  7. Clinical significance of combined determination of serum TPO-Ab and TGA levels and T lymphocyte subsets in patients with autoimmune thyroid disease (AITD)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Jialin; Chen Daqiang; Li Ming; Xiao Yunzhen

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the possible relationship between serum thyroglobulin antibody, thyroid peroxidase antibody levels and the development of AITD. Methods: Thyroid peroxidase antibody (TPO-Ab) level was determined with electrochemilu-minescence assay, the thyroglobulin antibody (TGA) was detected by radiolmmunoassay and peripheral T-cells subsets were examined with monoclonal antibody technic in 87 patients with hyperthyroidism, 83 patients with hypothyroidism and 80 controls. Results: The thyroid peroxidase antibody and thyroglobulin antibody levels in AITD patients (including both hyper and hypothyroid patients) were significantly higher than those in the controls (P<0.01). Conclusion: It is proposed that increase of TPO-Ab and TGA is the cause of the development of AITD. (authors)

  8. Maintenance therapy of childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia revisited-Should drug doses be adjusted by white blood cell, neutrophil, or lymphocyte counts?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmiegelow, Kjeld; Nersting, Jacob; Nielsen, Stine Nygaard; Heyman, Mats; Wesenberg, Finn; Kristinsson, Jon; Vettenranta, Kim; Schrøeder, Henrik; Weinshilboum, Richard; Jensen, Katrine Lykke; Grell, Kathrine; Rosthoej, Susanne

    2016-12-01

    6-Mercaptopurine (6MP) and methotrexate (MTX) based maintenance therapy is a critical phase of childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia treatment. Wide interindividual variations in drug disposition warrant frequent doses adjustments, but there is a lack of international consensus on dose adjustment guidelines. To identify relapse predictors, we collected 28,255 data sets on drug doses and blood counts (median: 47/patient) and analyzed erythrocyte (Ery) levels of cytotoxic 6MP/MTX metabolites in 9,182 blood samples (median: 14 samples/patient) from 532 children on MTX/6MP maintenance therapy targeted to a white blood cell count (WBC) of 1.5-3.5 × 10 9 /l. After a median follow-up of 13.8 years for patients in remission, stepwise Cox regression analysis did not find age, average doses of 6MP and MTX, hemoglobin, absolute lymphocyte counts, thrombocyte counts, or Ery levels of 6-thioguanine nucleotides or MTX (including its polyglutamates) to be significant relapse predictors. The parameters significantly associated with risk of relapse (N = 83) were male sex (hazard ratio [HR] 2.0 [1.3-3.1], P = 0.003), WBC at diagnosis (HR = 1.04 per 10 × 10 9 /l rise [1.00-1.09], P = 0.048), the absolute neutrophil count (ANC; HR = 1.7 per 10 9 /l rise [1.3-2.4], P = 0.0007), and Ery thiopurine methyltransferase activity (HR = 2.7 per IU/ml rise [1.1-6.7], P = 0.03). WBC was significantly related to ANC (Spearman correlation coefficient, r s  = 0.77; P best hematological target for dose adjustments of maintenance therapy. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Peripheral blood and milk leukocytes subsets of lactating Sarda ewes

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    Piero Bonelli

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Leukocytes subpopulations in blood and milk of lactating Sarda ewes were investigated. Animals characterized by a SSC level <500×103cells/mL and a negative bacteriological examination were sampled in early, mid and late lactation. Milk differential cell count evidenced that macrophage represented the main population (42.8%±3.5 followed by lymphocytes (40.2%±3.4 and neutrophils (8,6%±2.1. Flow cytometry analysis showed that lymphocytes subsets in milk were quite different from blood. High CD8+ and low CD4+ lymphocytes percentages determined a CD4/CD8 ratio inversion in milk compared to blood (0.3%±0.03 vs 1.8%±0.08. CD8+ decreased while, conversely, CD4+ increased in late lactation. γδ T cells were more represented in milk (12.6%±1.3 than in blood (6.8%±0.3 and their proportions appeared similar throughout lactation in both compartments. IL-2 receptor was mainly expressed in milk on T cytotoxic lymphocytes. Data obtained in uninfected mammary glands could allow an early discrimination between physiological and pathological changes occurring in ewe milk. Further phenotypical and functional studies on milk leukocytes subsets might help to understand defense mechanisms of the ovine mammary gland against IMI.

  10. Caracterização imunofenotípica das subpopulações de linfócitos do lavado broncoalveolar de pacientes com silicose Phenotypic characterization of lymphocyte subsets in bronchoalveolar lavage of patients with silicosis

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    ÂNGELA FERREIRA

    2000-06-01

    dusts. The aim of this study was to characterize the lymphocyte subsets in bronchoalveolar lavage of patients with silicosis. Bronchoalveolar lavage was carried out in 26 workers with different forms of silicosis: simple form (n = 12, complicated (n = 13 and 1 patient with acute form of the disease. As a control group, 7 healthy individuals were included. Compared to the control group, silicotic patients showed intense pleocytosis constituted mainly by alveolar macrophages with slight lymphocytosis. Lymphocyte subsets present in the bronchoalveolar fluid (BAL of normal individuals were mature lymphocytes with phenotype CD2+TCRab (87.3% and only 2.9% were CD2+TCRgd. CD4/CD8 ratio was 1.8 with few (16% immature double negative T cells subsets (CD4-CD8-. In contrast, silicotic patients showed reduction of the more mature lymphocyte subset CD2+CD4+, CD2+CD8+ and a great increase (47% of immature (CD4-CD8- T cell subsets. No increase in the NK (CD56+ cell population was observed. Biochemical analysis of protein contents and determination of the Ig/albumin ratio characterized local immunoglobulin production within the pulmonary microenvironment. Furthermore, lack of increase of plasma cells, as well as the maintenance of the percentage of B lymphocyte population (CD19+ in the BAL of silicotic patients, favors the hypothesis that the cells responsible for Ig production are possibly located in the interstitial space. Altogether the results suggest development of lymphopoiesis and tertiary lymphoid tissue within the pulmonary microenvironment during the clinical course of silicosis.

  11. Thyroid dysfunction in human immunodeficiency virus-infected children and its correlation with CD4 + T lymphocyte count

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    Satyakumar Thongam

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Thyroid dysfunction has been reported in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-infected individuals including children. Some studies have reported that thyroid dysfunction may be a marker of severity or progression of HIV. Aims: The aim was to study thyroid function in HIV-infected children with and without highly active anti-retroviral therapy (HAART. Settings and Design: Cross-sectional study carried out at a teaching hospital with Anti-Retroviral Therapy Centre (Centre of Excellence of National AIDS Control Organization. Subjects and Methods: Thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH, total thyroxine (T4, and total tri-iodothyronine (T3 were analyzed in 60 pediatric HIV cases: 30 on HAART and 30 HAART naive. Correlation of T3, T4, and TSH with CD4 count was assessed. Statistical Analysis Used: Data reported as mean ± standard deviation and as the number of cases and percentages. Comparison between groups was done by independent sample t-test and χ2 -test. Spearman′s correlation coefficient is used to assess the association between thyroid dysfunction and CD4 count. Results: Thyroid function abnormality was seen in five out of 30 patients in both patients on HAART or without HAART therapy. Among patients on HAART, three had hypothyroidism, and two had biochemical feature of sick euthyroid syndrome. Among the HAART naive group, sub-clinical hypothyroisim was seen in four, and one had biochemical feature of sick euthyroid syndrome. None of the patients had clinical features of thyroid dysfunction. There is a highly significant correlation (P = 0.01 between TSH and CD4 count. Conclusions: Thyroid dysfunction is quite common among pediatric HIV cases. An inverse correlation is seen between TSH and CD4 count indicating trend for hypothyroidism as HIV disease progress.

  12. Correction of abnormal B-cell subset distribution by interleukin-6 receptor blockade in polymyalgia rheumatica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvajal Alegria, Guillermo; Devauchelle-Pensec, Valérie; Renaudineau, Yves; Saraux, Alain; Pers, Jacques-Olivier; Cornec, Divi

    2017-08-01

    The aim was to study lymphocyte subsets and circulating cytokines at diagnosis of PMR and after tocilizumab monotherapy. Eighteen untreated patients with PMR were included in a prospective study and received 3-monthly tocilizumab infusions without glucocorticoids. Lymphocyte subset distribution was assessed by flow cytometry and serum cytokines were assayed by a 34-cytokine array and ELISA, at baseline and during follow-up. Baseline data were also compared with age- and sex-matched controls. At baseline, total lymphocytes, T-cell subsets and NK cell counts were similar in patients and controls, but patients had significantly lower B-cell counts attributable to lower transitional, naïve and post-switch memory B-cell subsets. Circulating B-cell counts were positively correlated with the PMR activity score (PMR-AS) in untreated active patients at baseline, but subsequently increased to normal values while disease activity was controlled after tocilizumab therapy. Among serum cytokines, IL-6 showed the largest concentration difference between patients and controls, and the serum IL-6 concentration was correlated with baseline PMR-AS. The effects of tocilizumab on serum IL-6 concentration were heterogeneous, and the patients whose serum IL-6 decreased after tocilizumab therapy exhibited a significant increase in circulating B-cell counts. In patients with PMR, B-cell lymphopenia and abnormal B-cell subset distribution are associated with disease activity and IL-6 concentration, and both are corrected by the IL-6 antagonist tocilizumab. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Society for Rheumatology. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com

  13. Changes in helper and suppressor T lymphocytes following radiotherapy for breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Newman, G.H.; Rees, G.J.G.; Jones, R.S.J.; Grove, E.A.; Preece, A.W.

    1987-01-01

    Changes in total lymphocyte, T lymphocyte, T helper and T suppressor lymphocyte numbers were studied in 22 patients with breast cancer before and after radiotherapy. T lymphocyte subsets were measured using monoclonal antibodies and fluorescence microscopy. After treatment the total lymphocyte count fell significantly and was still reduced 9 months later, but the proportion of cells labelled as T lymphocytes was unchanged during this period. The helper-suppressor ratio, which was within the normal range before radiotherapy, was significantly reduced at 3 months and 9 months after. Following treatment both T helper and T suppressor cell numbers were significantly reduced. T helper cell numbers remained reduced throughout the study period but T suppressor cell numbers showed a recovery to normal values 9 months after radiotherapy. (author)

  14. Low serum albumin and total lymphocyte count as predictors of 30 day hospital readmission in patients 65 years of age or older

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    Robert Robinson

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Hospital readmission within 30 days of discharge is a target for health care cost savings through the medicare Value Based Purchasing initiative. Because of this focus, hospitals and health systems are investing considerable resources into the identification of patients at risk of hospital readmission and designing interventions to reduce the rate of hospital readmission. Malnutrition is a known risk factor for hospital readmission.Materials and Methods. All medical patients 65 years of age or older discharged from Memorial Medical Center from January 1, 2012 to March 31, 2012 who had a determination of serum albumin level and total lymphocyte count on hospital admission were studied retrospectively. Admission serum albumin levels and total lymphocyte counts were used to classify the nutritional status of all patients in the study. Patients with a serum albumin less than 3.5 grams/dL and/or a TLC less than 1,500 cells per mm3 were classified as having protein energy malnutrition. The primary outcome investigated in this study was hospital readmission for any reason within 30 days of discharge.Results. The study population included 1,683 hospital discharges with an average age of 79 years. The majority of the patients were female (55.9% and had a DRG weight of 1.22 (0.68. 219 patients (13% were readmitted within 30 days of hospital discharge. Protein energy malnutrition was common in this population. Low albumin was found in 973 (58% patients and a low TLC was found in 1,152 (68% patients. Low albumin and low TLC was found in 709 (42% of patients. Kaplan–Meier analysis shows any laboratory evidence of PEM is a significant (p < 0.001 predictor of hospital readmission. Low serum albumin (p < 0.001 and TLC (p = 0.018 show similar trends. Cox proportional-hazards regression analysis showed low serum albumin (Hazard Ratio 3.27, 95% CI [2.30–4.63] and higher DRG weight (Hazard Ratio 1.19, 95% CI [1.03–1.38] to be significant

  15. Prognostic Impact of Neutrophil/Lymphocyte Ratio, Platelet Count, CRP, and Albumin Levels in Metastatic Colorectal Cancer Patients Treated with FOLFIRI-Bevacizumab.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Artaç, Mehmet; Uysal, Mükremin; Karaağaç, Mustafa; Korkmaz, Levent; Er, Zehra; Güler, Tunç; Börüban, Melih Cem; Bozcuk, Hakan

    2017-06-01

    Metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC) is a lethal disease and fluorouracil-leucovorin-irinotecan (FOLFIRI) plus bevacizumab (bev) is a standard approach. Hence, there is a strong need for identifying new prognostic factors to show the efficacy of FOLFIRI-bev. This is a retrospective study including patients (n = 90) with mCRC from two centers in Turkey. Neutrophil/lymphocyte (N/L) ratio, platelet count, albumin, and C-reactive protein (CRP) were recorded before FOLFIRI-bev therapy. The efficacy of these factors on progression-free survival (PFS) was analyzed with Kaplan Meier and Cox regression analysis. And the cutoff value of N/L ratio was analyzed with ROC analysis. The median age was 56 years (range 21-80). Forty-seven percent of patients with N/L ratio >2.5 showed progressive disease versus 43 % in patients with N/L ratio ratio >2.5 versus 13.5 months for the patients with N/L ratio analysis, high baseline neutrophil count, LDH, N/L ratio, and CRP were all significantly associated with poor prognosis. At multivariate Cox regression analysis, CRP was confirmed to be a better independent prognostic factor. CRP variable was divided into above the upper limit of normal (ULN) and normal value. The median PFSs of the patients with normal and above ULN were 11.3 versus 5.8 months, respectively (p = 0.022). CRP and N/L ratio are potential predictors for advanced mCRC treated with FOLFIRI-bev.

  16. Normalization of lymphocyte count after high ablative dose of I-131 in a patient with chronic lymphoid leukemia and secondary papillary carcinoma of the thyroid: case report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thom, Anneliese Rosmarie Gertrud Fischer; Hamerschlak, Nelson; Osawa, Akemi; Santos, Fabio Pires de Souza; Pasqualin, Denise da Cunha; Wagner, Jairo; Yamaga, Lilian Yuri Itaya; Cunha, Marcelo Livorsi da; Campos Neto, Guilherme de Carvalho; Funari, Marcelo Buarque de Gusmao; Teles, Veronica Goes

    2014-01-01

    The authors report the case of a 70-year-old male patient with chronic lymphoid leukemia who presented subsequently a papillary carcinoma of the thyroid with metastases to regional lymph nodes. The patient was treated with surgical thyroidectomy with regional and cervical lymph node excision and radioiodine therapy (I-131). The protocolar control scintigraphy 4 days after the radioactive dose showed I-131 uptake in both axillae and even in the inguinal regions. PET/CT showed faint FDG-F-18 uptake in one lymph node of the left axilla. An ultrasound guided fine needle biopsy of this lymph node identified by I-131 SPECT/CT and FDG-F-18 PET/CT revealed lymphoma cells and was negative for thyroid tissue and thyroglobulin content. The sequential blood counts done routinely after radiation treatment showed a marked fall until return to normal values of leucocytes and lymphocytes (absolute and relative), which were still normal in the last control 19 months after the radioiodine administration. Chest computed tomography showed a decrease in size of axillary and paraaortic lymph nodes. By immunohistochemistry, cells of the lymphoid B lineage decreased from 52% before radioiodine therapy to 5% after the procedure. The authors speculate about a possible sodium iodide symporter expression by the cells of this lymphoma, similar to some other non-thyroid tumors, such as breast cancer cells. (author)

  17. Pharmacometric Analysis of the Relationship Between Absolute Lymphocyte Count and Expanded Disability Status Scale and Relapse Rate, Efficacy End Points, in Multiple Sclerosis Trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novakovic, A M; Thorsted, A; Schindler, E; Jönsson, S; Munafo, A; Karlsson, M O

    2018-05-10

    The aim of this work was to assess the relationship between the absolute lymphocyte count (ALC), and disability (as measured by the Expanded Disability Status Scale [EDSS]) and occurrence of relapses, 2 efficacy endpoints, respectively, in patients with remitting-relasping multiple sclerosis. Data for ALC, EDSS, and relapse rate were available from 1319 patients receiving placebo and/or cladribine tablets. Pharmacodynamic models were developed to characterize the time course of the endpoints. ALC-related measures were then evaluated as predictors of the efficacy endpoints. EDSS data were best fitted by a model where the logit-linear disease progression is affected by the dynamics of ALC change from baseline. Relapse rate data were best described by the Weibull hazard function, and the ALC change from baseline was also found to be a significant predictor of time to relapse. Presented models have shown that once cladribine exposure driven ALC-derived measures are included in the model, the need for drug effect components is of less importance (EDSS) or disappears (relapse rate). This simplifies the models and theoretically makes them mechanism specific rather than drug specific. Having a reliable mechanism-specific model would allow leveraging historical data across compounds, to support decision making in drug development and possibly shorten the time to market. © 2018, The American College of Clinical Pharmacology.

  18. Predictive value of pretreatment lymphocyte count in stage II colorectal cancer and in high-risk patients treated with adjuvant chemotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Lei; Zhu, Ji; Jia, Huixun; Huang, Liyong; Li, Dawei; Li, Qingguo; Li, Xinxiang

    2016-01-05

    Pretreatment lymphocyte count (LC) has been associated with prognosis and chemotherapy response in several cancers. The predictive value of LC for stage II colorectal cancer (CRC) and for high-risk patients treated with adjuvant chemotherapy (AC) has not been determined. A retrospective review of prospectively collected data from 1332 consecutive stage II CRC patients who underwent curative tumor resection was conducted. A pretreatment LC value risk, 459 (62.2%) of whom received AC. Patients with low LCs had significantly worse 5-year OS (74.6% vs. 90.2%, p risk patients with low LCs had the poorest DFS (p value or combined with high-risk status were both independent prognostic factors(p risk, AC-treated patients with high LCs had significantly longer DFS than untreated patients (HR, 0.594; 95% CI, 0.364-0.970; p = 0.035). There was no difference or trend for DFS or OS in patients with low LCs, regardless of the use of AC (DFS, p = 0.692; OS, p = 0.522). Low LC was also independently associated with poorer DFS in high-risk, AC-treated patients (HR, 1.885; 95% CI, 1.112-3.196; p = 0.019). Pretreatment LC is an independent prognostic factor for survival in stage II CRC. Furthermore, pretreatment LC reliably predicts chemotherapeutic efficacy in high-risk patients with stage II CRC.

  19. Relative frequency of immature CD34+/CD90+ subset in peripheral blood following mobilization correlates closely and inversely with the absolute count of harvested stem cells in multiple myeloma patients

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    Balint Bela

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. Stem cells (SCs guarantee complete/longterm bone marrow (BM repopulation after SC-transplants. The aim of the study was to evaluate absolute count of total SCs (determined by ISHAGE-sequential-gating protocol – SCish and relative frequency of immature CD34+/CD90+ (CD90+SCish subset in peripheral blood (PB as predictive factors of mobilization and apheresis product (AP quality. Methods. Mobilization included chemotherapy and granulocytegrowth- factor (G-CSF. Harvesting was performed by Spectra- Optia-IDL-system. The SCsish were determined as a constitutional part of CD34+ cells in the “stem-cell-region” using FC- 500 flow-cytometer. In this study, the original ISHAGEsequential- gating protocol was modified by introduction of anti-CD90-PE monoclonal-antibody into the analysis of CD90 expression on SCish (CD90+SCish. The results were presented as a percentage of SCish per nucleated-cell count, absolute SCish count in μL of the PB or the AP, percentage of the CD90+SCish expressed to SCish and absolute CD90+SCish count in μL of the PB or the AP. Results. The absolute count of total SCish and CD90+SCish was significantly higher (p = 0.0007 and p = 0.0266, respectively in the AP than in the PB samples. The CD90+SCish/total SCish indexes from PB were higher than indexes from the AP (p = 0.039. The relative frequency of CD90+SCish showed a highly significant inverse correlation with the absolute count of total SCish in both, the PB and AP (p = 0.0003 and p = 0.0013 respectively. The relative frequency of CD90+SCish from the PB also showed a significant (p = 0.0002 inverse relationship with total SCish count in the AP. Patients with less than 10% CD90+SCish in the PB had evidently higher (p = 0.0025 total SCish count in the AP. Conclusion. We speculate that lower CD90+SCish yield in the AP is not a consequence of an inferior collection efficacy, but most likely a result of several still not fully resolved immature SC

  20. Effect of endostar combined with paclitaxel liposome and radiotherapy simultaneously on serum CYFRA21-1, CEA, SCCA, CA125, IL-8 and T lymphocyte subsets in patients with advanced cervical cancer

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    Wen-Jing Yang

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To study the effect of endostar combined with paclitaxel liposome and radiotherapy simultaneously on serum CYFRA21-1, CEA, SCCA, CA125, IL-8 and T lymphocyte subsets in patients with advanced cervical cancer. Methods: A total of 72 patients with advanced cervical cancer in our hospital from January 2014 to February 2016 were enrolled in this study. The subjects were divided into control group (n=36 and experiment group (n=36 randomly. The control group were treated with radiotherapy, the experiment group were treated with endostar combined with paclitaxel liposome and radiotherapy simultaneously. 3 weeks for a period of treatment and the two groups were treated for 4 periods. The serum CYFRA21-1, CEA, SCCA, CA125, IL-8 levels and peripheral blood CD3+, CD4+ and CD8+ cells of the two groups before and after treatment were compared. Results: There were no significantly differences of the serum CYFRA21-1, CEA, SCCA, CA125, IL-8 levels and peripheral blood CD3+, CD4+ and CD8+ cells of the two groups before treatment. The serum CYFRA21-1, CEA, SCCA, CA125 and IL-8 levels of the two groups after treatment were significantly lower than before treatment, and that of experiment were significantly lower than control group. The peripheral blood CD3+, CD4+ cells of the two groups after treatment were significantly lower than before treatment, CD8+ cells of the two groups after treatment were significantly higher than before treatment, and that of experiment group were significantly better than control group. Conclusion: Endostar combined with paclitaxel liposome and radiotherapy simultaneously can significantly reduce the serum CYFRA21-1, CEA, SCCA, CA125 and IL-8 levels, improve peripheral blood CD3+, CD4+ and CD8+ levels of patients with advanced cervical cancer, and it was worthy clinical application.

  1. Oral manifestations of human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome and their correlation to cluster of differentiation lymphocyte count in population of North-East India in highly active antiretroviral therapy era

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    Sarat Kumar Nayak

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The human immunodeficiency virus (HIV infection which manifests as acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS is a disease involving the defects of the T-lymphocyte arm of the immune system. Certain laboratory parameters such as the cluster of differentiation (CD4 count and clinical parameters have long been used as markers of disease progression. In industrialized countries, many studies show a highly correlation between the incidence of oral lesions and immunosuppression and hence, can be used as a marker of immunosuppression. This might not be applicable to a developing country like India. In this study, efforts have been made to supplement the present knowledge on various aspects of oral manifestations in HIV patients in the Indian subcontinent. Aims: To correlate the oral manifestations in HIV/AIDS patients to the level of circulating CD4+ T-lymphocyte count and their effect in anti-retroviral therapy (ART. Subjects and Methods: A total of 104 HIV positive patients were examined for oral lesions. The CD4 count estimated on the same day by fluorescent activated cell sort count machine was then correlated with various oral lesions. Results: Oral manifestations appeared when CD4 count decreased below 500 cells/mm3. Moreover, oral lesions found at different stages showed very strong correlation to their respective CD4 count. Furthermore, there was considerable decline in the incidence of oral manifestations in patients undergoing highly active ART. Conclusions: Oral manifestations are highly predictive markers of severe immune deterioration and disease progression in HIV patients.

  2. Some hematological parameters and the prognostic values of CD4, CD8 and total lymphocyte counts and CD4/CD8 cell count ratio in healthy HIV sero-negative, healthy HIV sero-positive and AIDS subjects in Port Harcourt, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blessing Didia

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The present study attempts to determine normal values of CD4, CD8, CD4/CD8 ratio, total WBC and differential counts, hematocrit and total lymphocyte count (TLC in healthy HIV sero-negative and sero-positive subjects, and to assess the prognostic significance of these parameters in these subjects as compared to AIDS subjects.METHODS: A total of 300 subjects (147 M, 153 F aged between 17 and 71 years were recruited into the study. Subjects were separated according to sex and divided into three groups: Group A: healthy HIV sero-negative subjects; Group B: healthy HIV sero-positive newly diagnosed ART-naïve subjects; and Group C: AIDS subjects. CD4 and CD8 counts were determined by flow cytometry; hematocrit was determined using Hawksley micro-capillary tubes; total WBC and differential counts were determined manually with the improved Neubauer counting chamber; and TLC was obtained by multiplying the percentage of lymphocytes by the total WBC count.RESULTS: For male subjects, significant differences were found in CD4 count, CD4/CD8 count ratio, hematocrit, total WBC and TLC, whereas for female subjects, significant differences were found only in CD4 and CD4/CD8 count ratio in the three groups of subjects. In both sexes, however, these parameters were found to be highest in healthy HIV sero-negative subjects and lowest in AIDS subjects, with HIV sero-positive subjects having intermediate values. CONCLUSION: The results confirm previous reports that the CD4 count and CD4/CD8 count ratio are fairly reliable indicators of the progression of HIV infection. In addition, the results also apparently suggest that the prognostic value of CD8 count is limited and that of TLC possibly sex-dependent. The results could be of importance in our environment since previous reports have been relatively scarce.

  3. Short-term effects of regional irradiation on lymphocytes, T lymphocytes and eosinophils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chazarin, C.; Roche, H.; Bugat, R.; Pris, F.

    1983-01-01

    Twenty-three cancer patients treated only by regional irradiation were studied. Radiotherapy was delivered to the pelvis in 14 patients and to the mediastinum in 9. T lymphocytes were evaluated with the Jondal technique. Before treatment, lymphocyte counts were identical in patients and control. Decreases in total lymphocytes and T lymphocytes became significant in both groups after 40 Gy. Significant rises in eosinophil counts were found only after abdominal irradiation and seemed unrelated to variations in lymphocyte counts [fr

  4. Peripheral lymphocyte subpopulations in recurrent aphthous ulceration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, A; Klausen, B; Hougen, H P

    1991-01-01

    Peripheral lymphocyte subsets--T-helper (CD4+), T-suppressor/cytotoxic (CD8+), and naive/virgin T cells/natural killer cells (CD45RA)--were studied quantitatively in 30 patients with recurrent aphthous ulceration (RAU) and 29 sex- and age-matched RAU-free control donors. The CD4+ percentage...... was significantly lower in the patients than in the control group (P less than 0.0001), whereas CD8+ and CD4/CD8 ratio figures did not differ significantly between patients and controls. The CD45RA+ counts were significantly higher in the patient group (P less than 0.01). The study supports previous investigations...

  5. Reference range for T lymphocytes populations in blood donors from two different regions in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.J.L. Torres

    Full Text Available This study defined the normal variation range for different subsets of T-lymphocyte cells count in two different Brazilian regions. We analysed the T-lymphocytes subpopulations (CD3+, CD4+, CD8+ in blood donors of two Brazilian cities, located in North (Belem, capital state of Para, indian background and Northeast (Salvador, capital state od Bahia, African background regions of Brazil. Results were compared according to gender, stress level (sleep time lower than 8 hours/day, smoking, and alcohol intake. Lymphocytes subpopulations were measured by flow cytometry. Five hundred twenty-six blood donors from two Brazilians cities participated in the study: 450 samples from Bahia and 76 samples from Pará. Most (60% were men, 59% reported alcohol intake, 12% were smokers, and 80% slept at least 8 h/day. Donors from Bahia presented with significantly higher counts for all parameters, compared with Para. Women had higher lymphocytes levels, in both states, but only CD4+ cells count was significantly higher than men's values. Smokers had higher CD4+ counts, but sleep time had effect on lymphocytes levels only for Para's donors (higher CD3+ and CD4+ counts. That state had also, a higher proportion of donors reporting sleep time <8 h/day. The values for CD3, CD4 and CD8+ cells count were significantly higher in blood donors from Bahia than among those from Pará. Female gender, alcohol intake, stress level, and smoking were associated with higher lymphocyte counts. The use of a single reference range for normal lymphocytes count is not appropriate for a country with such diversity, like Brazil is.

  6. Dermatoses em pacientes infectados pelo HIV com a contagem de linfócitos CD4 Dermatological disease among HIV-infected patients with CD4-lymphocyte count

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lessandra Michelim

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Correlacionar a prevalência das doenças dermatológicas entre pacientes infectados pelo HIV com a contagem de linfócitos CD4. MÉTODOS: Estudo de série de casos realizado na região de Caxias do Sul, Estado do Rio Grande do Sul. Os dados foram coletados por meio da revisão de prontuários de pacientes com infecção pelo HIV internados em hospital público (198 pacientes, período de março de 1998 a junho de 2002 ou atendidos no ambulatório central universitário (40 pacientes, período de março a junho de 2002. As variáveis analisadas foram: idade, sexo, contagem de linfócitos CD4, carga viral e doenças dermatológicas apresentadas pelo paciente. Os testes estatísticos utilizados foram o Teste t de Student, o de Spearman e o do qui-quadrado. RESULTADOS: A freqüência de doença dermatológica foi de 67,2% entre os pacientes hospitalizados e de 75,0% entre os pacientes ambulatoriais. Candidíase oral foi a doença dermatológica mais prevalente. Na população hospitalar, a média de células CD4 foi menor entre os pacientes com doença dermatológica dos sem doença dermatológica (142,34 células/mm³ vs 512,35 células/mm³, respectivamente; p=0,018. O mesmo fenômeno foi observado na população ambulatorial (138,88 células/mm³ e 336,21 células/mm³, respectivamente; p=0,001. Verificou-se, em ambas as populações, uma correlação negativa entre a contagem de CD4 e o número total de doenças dermatológicas apresentadas pelo paciente (p=0,000, população hospitalar; p=0,000, população ambulatorial. CONCLUSÕES: As doenças dermatológicas são altamente prevalentes entre os pacientes infectados pelo HIV, sendo que a freqüência e o número dessas manifestações correlacionam-se bem com o status imunológico do paciente e com a progressão da doença.OBJECTIVE: To correlate the prevalence of dermatological diseases among HIV-infected patient with CD4-lymphocyte count. METHODS: A case series study was carried

  7. The effects of phototherapy on the numbers of circulating natural killer cells and T lymphocytes in psoriasis.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Tobin, A M

    2009-04-01

    The innate immune system is believed to be important in the pathogenesis of psoriasis and natural killer (NK) have been found in increased numbers in psoriatic plaques. Alterations in the numbers of NK cells in peripheral blood have been reported. We investigated the effect of phototherapy on levels of peripheral NK cells and lymphocytes in patients with psoriasis. In nine patients whom we followed before, during and after narrowband ultraviolet B (UVB) treatment there were no differences in the numbers of circulating lymphocytes, lymphocyte subsets or cells expressing NK markers and controls. Treatment with narrowband UVB did, however, significantly lower circulating CD4 counts which gradually recovered posttreatment.

  8. Laboratory-based performance evaluation of PIMA CD4+ T-lymphocyte count point-of-care by lay-counselors in Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeh, Clement; Rose, Charles E; Inzaule, Seth; Desai, Mitesh A; Otieno, Fredrick; Humwa, Felix; Akoth, Benta; Omolo, Paul; Chen, Robert T; Kebede, Yenew; Samandari, Taraz

    2017-09-01

    CD4+ T-lymphocyte count testing at the point-of-care (POC) may improve linkage to care of persons diagnosed with HIV-1 infection, but the accuracy of POC devices when operated by lay-counselors in the era of task-shifting is unknown. We examined the accuracy of Alere's Pima™ POC device on both capillary and venous blood when performed by lay-counselors and laboratory technicians. In Phase I, we compared the perfomance of POC against FACSCalibur™ for 280 venous specimens by laboratory technicians. In Phase II we compared POC performance by lay-counselors versus laboratory technicians using 147 paired capillary and venous specimens, and compared these to FACSCalibur™. Statistical analyses included Bland-Altman analyses, concordance correlation coefficient, sensitivity, and specificity at treatment eligibility thresholds of 200, 350, and 500cells/μl. Phase I: POC sensitivity and specificity were 93.0% and 84.1% at 500cells/μl, respectively. Phase II: Good agreement was observed for venous POC results from both lay-counselors (concordance correlation coefficient (CCC)=0.873, bias -86.4cells/μl) and laboratory technicians (CCC=0.920, bias -65.7cells/μl). Capillary POC had good correlation: lay-counselors (CCC=0.902, bias -71.2cells/μl), laboratory technicians (CCC=0.918, bias -63.0cells/μl). Misclassification at the 500 cells/μl threshold for venous blood was 13.6% and 10.2% for lay-counselors and laboratory technicians and 12.2% for capillary blood in both groups. POC tended to under-classify the CD4 values with increasingly negative bias at higher CD4 values. Pima™ results were comparable to FACSCalibur™ for both venous and capillary specimens when operated by lay-counselors. POC CD4 testing has the potential to improve linkage to HIV care without burdening laboratory technicians in resource-limited settings. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  9. Peripheral Blood Lymphocyte Depletion After Hepatic Arterial {sup 90}Yttrium Microsphere Therapy for Hepatocellular Carcinoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carr, Brian I., E-mail: brianicarr@hotmail.com [Department of Surgery, University of Pittsburgh Medical Center, Pittsburgh, PA and Department of Nutrition and Exptl Biology, Saverio De Bellis Medical Research Institute, Castellana Grotte, Bari (Italy); Metes, Diana M. [Department of Surgery, University of Pittsburgh Medical Center, Pittsburgh, PA and Department of Nutrition and Exptl Biology, Saverio De Bellis Medical Research Institute, Castellana Grotte, Bari (Italy)

    2012-03-01

    Purpose: The short- and long-term effects of {sup 90}Yttrium microspheres therapy for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) on peripheral blood lymphocytes are unknown and were therefore examined. Methods and Materials: Ninety-two HCC patients were enrolled in a {sup 90}Yttrium therapy study and routine blood counts were examined as part of standard clinical monitoring. Results: We found an early, profound, and prolonged lymphopenia. In a subsequent cohort of 25 additional HCC patients, prospective flow cytometric immune-monitoring analysis was performed to identify specific changes on distinct lymphocyte subsets (i.e., CD3, CD4, CD8 T, and CD19 B lymphocytes) and NK cells absolute numbers, in addition to the granulocytes and platelets subsets. We found that the pretreatment lymphocyte subset absolute numbers (with the exception of NK cells) had a tendency to be lower compared with healthy control values, but no significant differences were detected between groups. Posttherapy follow-up revealed that overall, all lymphocyte subsets, except for NK cells, were significantly (>50% from pretherapy values), promptly (as early as 24 h) and persistently (up to 30 months) depleted post-{sup 90}Yttrium microspheres therapy. In contrast, granulocytes increased rapidly (24 h) to compensate for lymphocyte depletion, and remained increased at 1-year after therapy. We further stratified patients into two groups, according to survival at 1 year. We found that lack of recovery of CD19, CD3, CD8, and especially CD4 T cells was linked to poor patient survival. No fungal or bacterial infections were noted during the 30-month follow-up period. Conclusions: The results show that lymphocytes (and not granulocytes, platelets, or NK cells) are sensitive to hepatic arterial {sup 90}Yttrium without associated clinical toxicity, and lack of lymphocyte recovery (possibly leading to dysregulation of adaptive cellular immunity) posttherapy indicates poor survival.

  10. Long term lymphocyte reconstitution after alemtuzumab treatment of multiple sclerosis

    KAUST Repository

    Hill-Cawthorne, Grant A.; Button, Tom; Tuohy, Orla C.; Jones, Joanne L.; May, Karen; Somerfield, Jennifer; Green, Alison J E; Giovannoni, Gavin; Compston, Alastair D.; Fahey, Michael T.; Coles, Alasdair J.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Alemtuzumab is a lymphocyte depleting monoclonal antibody that has demonstrated superior efficacy over interferon β-1a for relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (MS), and is currently under investigation in phase 3 trials. One unresolved issue is the duration and significance of the lymphopenia induced. The long term effects on lymphocyte reconstitution of a single course, and the consequences that this has on disability, morbidity, mortality and autoimmunity, were examined. Methods: The lymphocyte reconstitution (n=36; 384 person years) and crude safety data (n=37; 447 person years) are reported for the first patients with progressive MS to receive alemtuzumab (1991-1997). Reconstitution time was expressed as a geometric mean or, when a non-negligible number of individuals failed to recover, as a median using survival analysis. Results: Geometric mean recovery time (GMRT) of total lymphocyte counts to the lower limit of the normal range (LLN; ≥1.0×10 9 cells/l) was 12.7 months (95% CI 8.8 to 18.2 months). For B cells, GMRT to LLN (≥0.1×10 9/l) was 7.1 months (95% CI 5.3 to 9.5); median recovery times for CD8 (LLN ≥0.2×10 9 cells/l) and CD4 lymphocytes (LLN ≥0.4×10 9 cells/l) were 20 months and 35 months, respectively. However, CD8 and CD4 counts recovered to baseline levels in only 30% and 21% of patients, respectively. No infective safety concerns arose during 447 person years of follow-up. Conclusions: Lymphocyte counts recovered to LLN after a single course of alemtuzumab in approximately 8 months (B cells) and 3 years (T cell subsets), but usually did not recover to baseline values. However, this long lasting lymphopenia in patients with a previously normal immune system was not associated with an increased risk of serious opportunistic infection.

  11. Long term lymphocyte reconstitution after alemtuzumab treatment of multiple sclerosis

    KAUST Repository

    Hill-Cawthorne, Grant A.

    2011-11-05

    Background: Alemtuzumab is a lymphocyte depleting monoclonal antibody that has demonstrated superior efficacy over interferon β-1a for relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (MS), and is currently under investigation in phase 3 trials. One unresolved issue is the duration and significance of the lymphopenia induced. The long term effects on lymphocyte reconstitution of a single course, and the consequences that this has on disability, morbidity, mortality and autoimmunity, were examined. Methods: The lymphocyte reconstitution (n=36; 384 person years) and crude safety data (n=37; 447 person years) are reported for the first patients with progressive MS to receive alemtuzumab (1991-1997). Reconstitution time was expressed as a geometric mean or, when a non-negligible number of individuals failed to recover, as a median using survival analysis. Results: Geometric mean recovery time (GMRT) of total lymphocyte counts to the lower limit of the normal range (LLN; ≥1.0×10 9 cells/l) was 12.7 months (95% CI 8.8 to 18.2 months). For B cells, GMRT to LLN (≥0.1×10 9/l) was 7.1 months (95% CI 5.3 to 9.5); median recovery times for CD8 (LLN ≥0.2×10 9 cells/l) and CD4 lymphocytes (LLN ≥0.4×10 9 cells/l) were 20 months and 35 months, respectively. However, CD8 and CD4 counts recovered to baseline levels in only 30% and 21% of patients, respectively. No infective safety concerns arose during 447 person years of follow-up. Conclusions: Lymphocyte counts recovered to LLN after a single course of alemtuzumab in approximately 8 months (B cells) and 3 years (T cell subsets), but usually did not recover to baseline values. However, this long lasting lymphopenia in patients with a previously normal immune system was not associated with an increased risk of serious opportunistic infection.

  12. CD4 lymphocyte counts and serum p24 antigen of no diagnostic value in monitoring HIV-infected patients with pulmonary symptoms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Orholm, M; Nielsen, T L; Nielsen, Jens Ole

    1990-01-01

    The diagnostic value of the CD4 cell counts and the HIV p24 antigen were evaluated in a consecutive series of 105 HIV-infected patients experiencing 128 episodes of pulmonary symptoms which required bronchoscopy. One-third of patients with opportunistic infection (OI) had CD4 counts greater than 0....... In conclusion, the CD4 cell counts and the presence of p24 antigen in serum had a very limited predictive value for the presence of OI in HIV-infected patients with pulmonary symptoms....

  13. CD4 lymphocyte counts and serum p24 antigen of no diagnostic value in monitoring HIV-infected patients with pulmonary symptoms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Orholm, M; Nielsen, T L; Nielsen, Jens Ole

    1990-01-01

    The diagnostic value of the CD4 cell counts and the HIV p24 antigen were evaluated in a consecutive series of 105 HIV-infected patients experiencing 128 episodes of pulmonary symptoms which required bronchoscopy. One-third of patients with opportunistic infection (OI) had CD4 counts greater than ....... In conclusion, the CD4 cell counts and the presence of p24 antigen in serum had a very limited predictive value for the presence of OI in HIV-infected patients with pulmonary symptoms.......The diagnostic value of the CD4 cell counts and the HIV p24 antigen were evaluated in a consecutive series of 105 HIV-infected patients experiencing 128 episodes of pulmonary symptoms which required bronchoscopy. One-third of patients with opportunistic infection (OI) had CD4 counts greater than 0.......200 x 10(9)/l, and 60% of patients without OI had CD4 counts less than 0.200 x 10(9)/l; 47 and 42% of patients with and without OI, respectively, had detectable p24 antigen in serum. Only 36% of the patients with OI presented the combination of CD4 cells less than 0.200 x 10(9)/l and p24 in serum...

  14. Evaluation of the potential immunotoxicity of 3-monochloro-1,2-propanediol in Balb/c mice I. Effect on antibody forming cell, mitogen-stimulated lymphocyte proliferation, splenic subset, and natural killer cell activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Jong Kwon; Byun, Jung A.; Park, Seung Hee; Kim, Hyung Soo; Park, Jae Hyun; Eom, Juno H.; Oh, Hye Young

    2004-01-01

    3-Monochloro-1,2-propanediol (MCPD) is a well-known by-product of acid-hydrolyzed soy sauce during its manufacturing process. MCPD has been reported genotoxic in vitro, and reproductive toxicity and carcinogenicity in rats. However, no previous studies have investigated MCPD-induced alterations in the immune system. In the present study, MCPD was administered by gavage for 14 days at 0, 25, 50, and 100 mg/kg per day to female Balb/c mice. The antibody-mediated immune response to sheep red blood cells (SRBC) was assessed using the antibody-forming cell (AFC) assay, and splenic cell phenotypes were quantified by flow cytometry. Hematological and histopathological changes were assessed. Mitogen-stimulated spleen lymphocyte proliferation and natural killer (NK) cell activity were evaluated. The T-lymphocyte blastogenesis by concanavalin A (Con A) or anti-CD3 and B-lymphocyte blastogenesis by lipopolysaccharide (LPS) were not significantly changed. There were no significant changes in the hematological and histopathological findings of MCPD-treated mice. However, the significant decrease in thymus weight was observed in 100 mg dose group, even though that did not change body weight gain. The cellularities of spleen and thymus were significantly reduced in high-dose group. Exposure to high dose of MCPD decreased the AFC response to SRBC in mice. There was a significant decrease in NK cell activity of mice treated with high dose of MCPD. These results indicate that MCPD could modulate the immune function in Balb/c mice

  15. Comparisons of CVID and IgGSD: Referring Physicians, Autoimmune Conditions, Pneumovax Reactivity, Immunoglobulin Levels, Blood Lymphocyte Subsets, and HLA-A and -B Typing in 432 Adult Index Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James C. Barton

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Common variable immunodeficiency (CVID and immunoglobulin (Ig G subclass deficiency (IgGSD are heterogeneous disorders characterized by respiratory tract infections, selective Ig isotype deficiencies, and impaired antibody responses to polysaccharide antigens. Using univariable analyses, we compared observations in 34 CVID and 398 IgGSD adult index patients (81.9% women referred to a hematology/oncology practice. Similarities included specialties of referring physicians, mean ages, proportions of women, reactivity to Pneumovax, median serum IgG3 and IgG4 levels, median blood CD56+/CD16+ lymphocyte levels, positivity for HLA-A and -B types, and frequencies of selected HLA-A, -B haplotypes. Dissimilarities included greater prevalence of autoimmune conditions, lower median IgG, IgA, and IgM, and lower median CD19+, CD3+/CD4+, and CD3+/CD8+ blood lymphocytes in CVID patients. Prevalence of Sjögren’s syndrome and hypothyroidism was significantly greater in CVID patients. Combined subnormal IgG1/IgG3 occurred in 59% and 29% of CVID and IgGSD patients, respectively. Isolated subnormal IgG3 occurred in 121 IgGSD patients (88% women. Logistic regression on CVID (versus IgGSD revealed a significant positive association with autoimmune conditions and significant negative associations with IgG1, IgG3, and IgA and CD56+/CD16+ lymphocyte levels, but the odds ratio was increased for autoimmune conditions alone (6.9 (95% CI 1.3, 35.5.

  16. Comparisons of CVID and IgGSD: referring physicians, autoimmune conditions, pneumovax reactivity, immunoglobulin levels, blood lymphocyte subsets, and HLA-A and -B typing in 432 adult index patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barton, James C; Bertoli, Luigi F; Barton, J Clayborn

    2014-01-01

    Common variable immunodeficiency (CVID) and immunoglobulin (Ig) G subclass deficiency (IgGSD) are heterogeneous disorders characterized by respiratory tract infections, selective Ig isotype deficiencies, and impaired antibody responses to polysaccharide antigens. Using univariable analyses, we compared observations in 34 CVID and 398 IgGSD adult index patients (81.9% women) referred to a hematology/oncology practice. Similarities included specialties of referring physicians, mean ages, proportions of women, reactivity to Pneumovax, median serum IgG3 and IgG4 levels, median blood CD56+/CD16+ lymphocyte levels, positivity for HLA-A and -B types, and frequencies of selected HLA-A, -B haplotypes. Dissimilarities included greater prevalence of autoimmune conditions, lower median IgG, IgA, and IgM, and lower median CD19+, CD3+/CD4+, and CD3+/CD8+ blood lymphocytes in CVID patients. Prevalence of Sjögren's syndrome and hypothyroidism was significantly greater in CVID patients. Combined subnormal IgG1/IgG3 occurred in 59% and 29% of CVID and IgGSD patients, respectively. Isolated subnormal IgG3 occurred in 121 IgGSD patients (88% women). Logistic regression on CVID (versus IgGSD) revealed a significant positive association with autoimmune conditions and significant negative associations with IgG1, IgG3, and IgA and CD56+/CD16+ lymphocyte levels, but the odds ratio was increased for autoimmune conditions alone (6.9 (95% CI 1.3, 35.5)).

  17. Systemic and lung protein changes in sarcoidosis. Lymphocyte counts, gallium uptake values, and serum angiotensin-converting enzyme levels may reflect different aspects of disease activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Check, I.J.; Kidd, M.R.; Staton, G.W. Jr.

    1986-01-01

    BAL lymphocyte percentages, quantitated gallium-67 lung uptake, and SACE levels have all been proposed as measures of disease activity in sarcoidosis. We analyzed 32 paired sera and BAL fluids from sarcoidosis patients by high-resolution agarose electrophoresis to look for protein changes characteristic of systemic or local inflammation and compared the results with those from the above tests. Nine patients (group 1) had serum inflammatory protein changes and increased total protein, albumin, beta 1-globulin (transferrin), and gamma-globulin levels in fluid recovered by BAL. Thirteen patients (group 2) had normal protein levels in sera but abnormal protein levels in BAL specimens. Ten patients (group 3) had normal protein levels in sera and in BAL specimens. Patients in groups 1 and 2 had a disproportionate increase in beta 1-globulin (transferrin) and gamma-globulin levels in their BAL specimens. The BAL lymphocyte percentage changes paralleled the BAL protein level changes, suggesting relationships among the immunoregulatory role of these cells, increased local immunoglobulin synthesis, and the pathogenesis of altered alveolar permeability. Gallium-67 uptake was highest in patients with serum inflammatory protein changes. Thus, systemic inflammation may facilitate pulmonary gallium-67 uptake, possibly by changes in BAL fluid or serum transferrin saturation and/or kinetics. SACE levels showed no relationship to changes in the levels of serum or BAL proteins. These data suggest that the various proposed measures of disease activity reflect different aspects of inflammation in sarcoidosis

  18. Measurement of exercise-induced oxidative stress in lymphocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, James E; Bosch, Jos A; Aldred, Sarah

    2011-10-01

    Vigorous exercise is associated with oxidative stress, a state that involves modifications to bodily molecules due to release of pro-oxidant species. Assessment of such modifications provides non-specific measures of oxidative stress in human tissues and blood, including circulating lymphocytes. Lymphocytes are a very heterogeneous group of white blood cells, consisting of subtypes that have different functions in immunity. Importantly, exercise drastically changes the lymphocyte composition in blood by increasing the numbers of some subsets, while leaving other cells unaffected. This fact may imply that observed changes in oxidative stress markers are confounded by changes in lymphocyte composition. For example, lymphocyte subsets may differ in exposure to oxidative stress because of subset differences in cell division and the acquisition of cytotoxic effector functions. The aim of the present review is to raise awareness of interpretational issues related to the assessment of oxidative stress in lymphocytes with exercise and to address the relevance of lymphocyte subset phenotyping in these contexts.

  19. Molecular cloning of Ly-1, a membrane glycoprotein of mouse T lymphocytes and a subset of B cells: molecular homology to its human counterpart Leu-1/T1 (CD5)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, H.J.S.; Jones, N.H.; Strominger, J.L.; Herzenberg, L.A.

    1987-01-01

    The authors report the isolation of cDNA clones of the mouse lymphocyte differentiation antigen Ly-1. One of these cDNA clones was confirmed to be full-length by DNA sequencing and by expression of Ly-1 by L cells transfected with this clone. Analysis of the predicted amino acid sequence indicated that the Ly-1 polypeptide is synthesized with a 23 amino acid leader and that the mature protein consists of an amino-terminal region of 347 amino acids, a transmembrane sequence of 30 residues, and a carboxyl-terminal region of 94 amino acids. The amino-terminal region appears to be divided into two subregions by a threonine- and proline-rich sequence of 23 amino acids that is highly conserved between Ly-1 and its human homologue Leu-1 (CD5) in position and amino acid composition. The first amino-terminal subregion of 111 amino acids is predicted to be arranged in a β-pleated sheet structure of six strands. The entire amino-terminal region is rich in cysteine, with all of its 22 cysteine residues conserved between Ly-1 and Leu-1. The carboxyl-terminal region has no cysteins. Ly-1 and Leu-1 are 63% identical, with a gradient of identical residues from 43% for the first amino-terminal to 58% for the second amino-terminal subregion and 90% for the carboxyl-terminal region. The predicted secondary structure of the first amino-terminal subregion and identities of certain conserved residues among most members of the immunoglobulin gene superfamily suggest that Ly-1 and Leu-1 are distant members of this family

  20. Effect of /sup 32/P treatment for polycythaemia vera on blood lymphocyte subpopulations and their functions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petrini, B.; Wasserman, J.; Stedingk, L.V.; Blomgren, H.; Svedmyr, E.; Schnell, P.O.

    1987-01-01

    The influence of /sup 32/P treatment on the blood lymphocyte population was examined in 16 patiens with polycythaemia vera who had not previously been treated with cytotoxic drugs or irradiation. Before treatment the lymphocyte counts were within the normal range but the expression of certain membrane structures, as detected by monoclonal antibodies directed against total T cells (CD 3 and 5), helper/inducer (CD 4) and suppressor/cytotoxic T cells (CD 8), were slightly reduced. In addition, mitogenic responses of the lymphocytes to PHA and PWM-induced Ig secretion were severely impaired. Following a single oral dose of /sup 32/P (150-305 MBq), which was shown to normalize the production of erythrocytes and/or platelets, the blood lymphocyte counts were reduced by approximately 40% 12 wk after treatment. Subset analysis showed that the proportion of B cells, as identified by monoclonal antibodies (CD 20), was reduced to the highest relative extent. On the other hand, lymphocytes expressing the above T cell markers were somewhat increased. /sup 32/P treatment sharply increased PHA reactivity but it further reduced PWM-induced Ig secretion. The latter observation was in line with the finding that serum concentrations of Ig were reduced following treatment.

  1. Unsupervised Feature Subset Selection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søndberg-Madsen, Nicolaj; Thomsen, C.; Pena, Jose

    2003-01-01

    This paper studies filter and hybrid filter-wrapper feature subset selection for unsupervised learning (data clustering). We constrain the search for the best feature subset by scoring the dependence of every feature on the rest of the features, conjecturing that these scores discriminate some ir...... irrelevant features. We report experimental results on artificial and real data for unsupervised learning of naive Bayes models. Both the filter and hybrid approaches perform satisfactorily....

  2. Role of Circulating Lymphocytes in Patients with Sepsis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raul de Pablo

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Sepsis is a systemic inflammatory response syndrome due to infection. The incidence rate is estimated to be up to 19 million cases worldwide per year and the number of cases is rising. Infection triggers a complex and prolonged host response, in which both the innate and adaptive immune response are involved. The disturbance of immune system cells plays a key role in the induction of abnormal levels of immunoregulatory molecules. Furthermore, the involvement of effector immune system cells also impairs the host response to the infective agents and tissue damage. Recently, postmortem studies of patients who died of sepsis have provided important insights into why septic patients die and showed an extensive depletion of CD4 and CD8 lymphocytes and they found that circulating blood cells showed similar findings. Thus, the knowledge of the characterization of circulating lymphocyte abnormalities is relevant for the understanding of the sepsis pathophysiology. In addition, monitoring the immune response in sepsis, including circulating lymphocyte subsets count, appears to be potential biomarker for predicting the clinical outcome of the patient. This paper analyzes the lymphocyte involvement and dysfunction found in patients with sepsis and new opportunities to prevent sepsis and guide therapeutic intervention have been revealed.

  3. Prognostic Significance of Combination of Preoperative Platelet Count and Neutrophil-Lymphocyte Ratio (COP-NLR in Patients with Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer: Based on a Large Cohort Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hua Zhang

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the prognostic significance of the combination of the preoperative platelet count and neutrophil-lymphocyte ratio (COP-NLR for predicting postoperative survival of patients undergoing complete resection for non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC.The preoperative COP-NLR was calculated on the basis of data obtained.Patients with both an increased platelet count (>30.0 × 104 mm(-3 and an elevated NLR (>2.3 were assigned a score of 2, and patients with one or neither were assigned as a score of 1 or 0, respectively.A total of 1238 NSCLC patients were enrolled in this analysis. Multivariate analysis using the 15 clinicolaboratory variables selected by univariate analyses demonstrated that the preoperative COP-NLR was an independent prognostic factor for DFS (HR: 1.834, 95%CI: 1.536 to 2.200, P<0.001 and OS (HR: 1.810, 95%CI: 1.587 to 2.056, P<0.001. In sub-analyses by tumor stage (I, II, IIIA, a significant association was found between DFS and OS and level of COP-NLR in each subgroup (P<0.001, P=0.002, P<0.001 for DFS, respectively; P<0.001, P=0.001, P<0.001 for OS. When the subgroup of patients with high-risk COP-NLR (score of 2 was analyzed, no benefit of adjuvant chemotherapy could be found (P=0.237 for DFS and P=0.165 for OS.The preoperative COP-NLR is able to predict the prognosis of patients with NSCLC and divide these patients into three independent groups before surgery. Our results also demonstrate that high-risk patients based on the COP-NLR do not benefit from adjuvant chemotherapy. Independent validation of our findings is warranted.

  4. Decrease of CD4+ T lymphocytes in patients with H1N1 in early stage and its clinical significances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zuo Lingyun; Zhao Wei; Zhao Hong; Yu Haiying; Sun Weiwei

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To observe the change of CD4 + T Lymphocytes in patients with H1N1 at early stage and figure out its clinical significances on the progress and therapeutic selection of H1N1. Methods: The absolute counts of T lymphocyte subset from the peripheral blood samples of 48 H1N1 patients in first ten days' duration were detected by flow cytometry, and the serial chest CT examinations were performed. Results: In all 48 clinical cases, 28 cases were in normal range of CD4 + lymphocyte absolute count, whose pulmonary lesions were limited and illness condition stayed in the stability, they didn't need steroid. In the other 20 cases with low level of CD4 + , 4 cases' illness presented the progressive development and needed to be treated with steroid and 16 cases with lightly decreased CD4 + level which had a stable condition without treatment with steroid. The result of Pearson correlation analysis showed that there were negative correlations between absolute count of CD4 + cells and pulmonary lesions (r=-0.299, P + cell absolute count of H1N1 patients at early stage indicates the worse condition of pulmonary lesions. The patients with remarkable decrease of CD4 + lymphocytes are in need of treatment with steroid. (authors)

  5. Subset selection in regression

    CERN Document Server

    Miller, Alan

    2002-01-01

    Originally published in 1990, the first edition of Subset Selection in Regression filled a significant gap in the literature, and its critical and popular success has continued for more than a decade. Thoroughly revised to reflect progress in theory, methods, and computing power, the second edition promises to continue that tradition. The author has thoroughly updated each chapter, incorporated new material on recent developments, and included more examples and references. New in the Second Edition:A separate chapter on Bayesian methodsComplete revision of the chapter on estimationA major example from the field of near infrared spectroscopyMore emphasis on cross-validationGreater focus on bootstrappingStochastic algorithms for finding good subsets from large numbers of predictors when an exhaustive search is not feasible Software available on the Internet for implementing many of the algorithms presentedMore examplesSubset Selection in Regression, Second Edition remains dedicated to the techniques for fitting...

  6. Altered Distribution of Peripheral Blood Maturation-Associated B-Cell Subsets in Chronic Alcoholism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almeida, Julia; Polvorosa, Maria Angeles; Gonzalez-Quintela, Arturo; Madruga, Ignacio; Marcos, Miguel; Pérez-Nieto, Maria Angeles; Hernandez-Cerceño, Maria Luisa; Orfao, Alberto; Laso, Francisco Javier

    2015-08-01

    Although decreased counts of peripheral blood (PB) B cells-associated with an apparently contradictory polyclonal hypergammaglobulinemia-have been reported in chronic alcoholism, no information exists about the specific subsets of circulating B cells altered and their relationship with antibody production. Here, we analyzed for the first time the distribution of multiple maturation-associated subpopulations of PB B cells in alcoholism and its potential relationship with the onset of liver disease. PB samples from 35 male patients-20 had alcoholic hepatitis (AH) and 15 chronic alcoholism without liver disease (AWLD)-were studied, in parallel to 19 male healthy donors (controls). The distribution of PB B-cell subsets (immature/regulatory, naïve, CD27(-) and CD27(+) memory B lymphocytes, and circulating plasmablasts of distinct immunoglobulin-Ig-isotypes) was analyzed by flow cytometry. Patients with AH showed significantly decreased numbers of total PB B lymphocytes (vs. controls and AWLD), at the expense of immature, memory, and, to a lesser extent, also naïve B cells. AWLD showed reduced numbers of immature and naïve B cells (vs. controls), but higher PB counts of plasmablasts (vs. the other 2 groups). Although PB memory B cells were reduced among the patients, the percentage of surface (s)IgA(+) cells (particularly CD27(-) /sIgA(+) cells) was increased in AH, whereas both sIgG(+) and sIgA(+) memory B cells were significantly overrepresented in AWLD versus healthy donors. Regarding circulating plasmablasts, patients with AH only showed significantly reduced counts of sIgG(+) cells versus controls. In contrast, the proportion of both sIgA(+) and sIgG(+) plasmablasts-from all plasmablasts-was reduced in AH and increased in AWLD (vs. the other 2 groups). AH and AWLD patients display a significantly reduced PB B-cell count, at the expense of decreased numbers of recently produced immature/regulatory B cells and naïve B cells, together with an increase in Ig

  7. The Subset Sum game.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darmann, Andreas; Nicosia, Gaia; Pferschy, Ulrich; Schauer, Joachim

    2014-03-16

    In this work we address a game theoretic variant of the Subset Sum problem, in which two decision makers (agents/players) compete for the usage of a common resource represented by a knapsack capacity. Each agent owns a set of integer weighted items and wants to maximize the total weight of its own items included in the knapsack. The solution is built as follows: Each agent, in turn, selects one of its items (not previously selected) and includes it in the knapsack if there is enough capacity. The process ends when the remaining capacity is too small for including any item left. We look at the problem from a single agent point of view and show that finding an optimal sequence of items to select is an [Formula: see text]-hard problem. Therefore we propose two natural heuristic strategies and analyze their worst-case performance when (1) the opponent is able to play optimally and (2) the opponent adopts a greedy strategy. From a centralized perspective we observe that some known results on the approximation of the classical Subset Sum can be effectively adapted to the multi-agent version of the problem.

  8. RBC count

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... by kidney disease) RBC destruction ( hemolysis ) due to transfusion, blood vessel injury, or other cause Leukemia Malnutrition Bone ... slight risk any time the skin is broken) Alternative Names Erythrocyte count; Red blood cell count; Anemia - RBC count Images Blood test ...

  9. 24-hour immunologic assessment of CD4+ and CD8+ lymphocytes in renal transplant recipients receiving chronic methylprednisolone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tornatore, K M; Reed, K; Venuto, R

    1995-11-01

    .6 to 113.5 ng.h/ml with 48% of patients exhibiting morning cortisol concentrations greater than 60 ng/ml. No correlation was noted between daily methylprednisolone exposure and the extent of lymphocyte decline. Lymphocyte response patterns are not clinically recognized in renal transplant recipients, as a means of monitoring immunosuppression. The absolute CD4+ and CD8+ lymphocyte count and the timing of these sample collections post-steroid administration, may have clinical relevance when serially assessed as is done in other immunologic diseases. Prospective evaluation of lymphocyte subset patterns and correlation with susceptibility to overimmunosuppressive (i.e. opportunistic infections) is necessary to help determine if these complications can be minimized by more individualized steroid dose modification.

  10. Prediction based on mean subset

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Øjelund, Henrik; Brown, P. J.; Madsen, Henrik

    2002-01-01

    , it is found that the proposed mean subset method has superior prediction performance than prediction based on the best subset method, and in some settings also better than the ridge regression and lasso methods. The conclusions drawn from the Monte Carlo study is corroborated in an example in which prediction......Shrinkage methods have traditionally been applied in prediction problems. In this article we develop a shrinkage method (mean subset) that forms an average of regression coefficients from individual subsets of the explanatory variables. A Bayesian approach is taken to derive an expression of how...... the coefficient vectors from each subset should be weighted. It is not computationally feasible to calculate the mean subset coefficient vector for larger problems, and thus we suggest an algorithm to find an approximation to the mean subset coefficient vector. In a comprehensive Monte Carlo simulation study...

  11. Counting carbohydrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carb counting; Carbohydrate-controlled diet; Diabetic diet; Diabetes-counting carbohydrates ... Many foods contain carbohydrates (carbs), including: Fruit and fruit juice Cereal, bread, pasta, and rice Milk and milk products, soy milk Beans, legumes, ...

  12. Lymphocyte-platelet crosstalk in Graves' disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuznik, Boris I; Vitkovsky, Yuri A; Gvozdeva, Olga V; Solpov, Alexey V; Magen, Eli

    2014-03-01

    Platelets can modulate lymphocytes' role in the pathophysiology of thyroid autoimmune diseases. The present study was performed to clarify the status of platelet-lymphocyte subpopulations aggregation in circulating blood in patients with Graves' disease (GD). One hundred and fifty patients with GD (GD group) and 45 hyperthyroid patients with toxic multinodular goiter (TMG group) were recruited in the study. Control group consisted 150 healthy subjects. Immunophenotyping of lymphocytes was performed by flow cytometry. Detection of lymphocyte-platelet aggregates (LPAs) was done using light microscope after Ficoll-gradient centrifugation. The group of GD patients exhibited reduced CD8 lymphocyte and higher CD19 cell counts compared with TMG group and healthy controls. A greater number of activated CD3, HLA-DR+ lymphocytes were observed in GD than in TMG group and control group. GD group was characterized by lower blood platelet count (232 ± 89 × 10 cells/µL) than TMG group (251 ± 97 × 10 cells/µL; P TMG group (116 ± 67/µL, P < 0.005) and control group (104 ± 58 /µL; P < 0.001). GD is associated with higher levels of activated lymphocytes and lymphocyte-platelet aggregates.

  13. Lymphocytic Pleural Effusion in Acute Melioidosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuo-Mou Chung

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available An endemic outbreak of melioidosis developed in southern Taiwan following a flood caused by a typhoon in July 2005. A total of 27 patients were diagnosed with the acute and indigenous form of pulmonary melioidosis. Parapneumonic pleural effusions were noted on chest X-rays in six patients. Thoracentesis was done in three patients and all revealed lymphocyte predominance in differential cell count. Burkholderia pseudomallei was isolated in the pleural effusion in one of them. All three patients survived after antibiotic treatment. Lymphocytic pleural effusion is generally seen in tuberculosis or malignancy. However, our findings suggest that melioidosis should be considered in the differential diagnosis of lymphocytic pleural effusion.

  14. Total lymphoid irradiation in multiple sclerosis: blood lymphocytes and clinical course

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cook, S.D.; Devereux, C.; Troiano, R.; Zito, G.; Hafstein, M.; Lavenhar, M.; Hernandez, E.; Dowling, P.C.

    1987-01-01

    We have found a significant relationship between blood lymphocyte count and prognosis in 45 patients receiving either total lymphoid irradiation or sham irradiation for chronic progressive multiple sclerosis. Patients with sustained lymphocyte counts less than 900 mm-3 for prolonged periods after treatment showed less rapid progression over the ensuing 3 years than did patients with multiple sclerosis who had lymphocyte counts above this level (p less than 0.01). Our results suggest that a simple laboratory test, the absolute blood lymphocyte count, may serve as a valuable barometer for monitoring the amount of immunosuppressive therapy needed to prevent progression in patients with multiple sclerosis, and possibly other autoimmune diseases

  15. Counting cormorants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bregnballe, Thomas; Carss, David N; Lorentsen, Svein-Håkon

    2013-01-01

    This chapter focuses on Cormorant population counts for both summer (i.e. breeding) and winter (i.e. migration, winter roosts) seasons. It also explains differences in the data collected from undertaking ‘day’ versus ‘roost’ counts, gives some definitions of the term ‘numbers’, and presents two...

  16. Changes of the blood lymphocyte subpopulations and their functions following /sup 131/I treatment for nodular goitre and /sup 32/P treatment for polycythemia vera

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wasserman, J.; Petrini, B.; Stedingk, L.-V. von; Blomgren, H.; Svedmyr, E.; Schnell, P.-O.; Lundell, G.

    1988-01-01

    The blood lymphocyte population was examined in 34 patients treated with /sup 131/I for toxic or atoxic nodular goitre. One to three doses of 300-550 MBq of /sup 131/I were administered at 1-week intervals. Results, with the exception of mitogen reactivity, were largely similar to those occurring following external radiation therapy for cancer. It is suggested that blood lymphocytes passing through the continuously irradiated gland are damaged mainly by ..beta..-rays. The effect of /sup 32/P treatment on the blood lymphocyte population was examined in 16 patients with polycythemia vera. Following a single oral dose of /sup 32/P(150-305 MBq), which normalized the production of erythrocytes andor platelets, blood lymphocyte counts were reduced by approximately 40% 12 weeks after treatment. Examination of subsets demonstrated the proportion of B-cells was decreased by the highest relative extent, but lymphocytes expressing the T cell markers were increased. /sup 32/P treatment markedly increased PHA reactivity but further reduced PWM-induced Ig secreation, in agreement with the finding that serum concentrations of Ig were reduced after treatment. (U.K.)

  17. Changes of the blood lymphocyte subpopulations and their functions following 131I treatment for nodular goitre and 32P treatment for polycythemia vera

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wasserman, Jerzy; Petrini, Bjorn; Stedingk, L.-V. von; Blomgren, Henric; Svedmyr, Erik; Schnell, P.-O.; Lundell, G.

    1988-01-01

    The blood lymphocyte population was examined in 34 patients treated with 131 I for toxic or atoxic nodular goitre. One to three doses of 300-550 MBq of 131 I were administered at 1-week intervals. Results, with the exception of mitogen reactivity, were largely similar to those occurring following external radiation therapy for cancer. It is suggested that blood lymphocytes passing through the continuously irradiated gland are damaged mainly by β-rays. The effect of 32 P treatment on the blood lymphocyte population was examined in 16 patients with polycythemia vera. Following a single oral dose of 32 P(150-305 MBq), which normalized the production of erythrocytes and/or platelets, blood lymphocyte counts were reduced by approximately 40% 12 weeks after treatment. Examination of subsets demonstrated the proportion of B-cells was decreased by the highest relative extent, but lymphocytes expressing the T cell markers were increased. 32 P treatment markedly increased PHA reactivity but further reduced PWM-induced Ig secreation, in agreement with the finding that serum concentrations of Ig were reduced after treatment. (U.K.)

  18. Tower counts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woody, Carol Ann; Johnson, D.H.; Shrier, Brianna M.; O'Neal, Jennifer S.; Knutzen, John A.; Augerot, Xanthippe; O'Neal, Thomas A.; Pearsons, Todd N.

    2007-01-01

    Counting towers provide an accurate, low-cost, low-maintenance, low-technology, and easily mobilized escapement estimation program compared to other methods (e.g., weirs, hydroacoustics, mark-recapture, and aerial surveys) (Thompson 1962; Siebel 1967; Cousens et al. 1982; Symons and Waldichuk 1984; Anderson 2000; Alaska Department of Fish and Game 2003). Counting tower data has been found to be consistent with that of digital video counts (Edwards 2005). Counting towers do not interfere with natural fish migration patterns, nor are fish handled or stressed; however, their use is generally limited to clear rivers that meet specific site selection criteria. The data provided by counting tower sampling allow fishery managers to determine reproductive population size, estimate total return (escapement + catch) and its uncertainty, evaluate population productivity and trends, set harvest rates, determine spawning escapement goals, and forecast future returns (Alaska Department of Fish and Game 1974-2000 and 1975-2004). The number of spawning fish is determined by subtracting subsistence, sport-caught fish, and prespawn mortality from the total estimated escapement. The methods outlined in this protocol for tower counts can be used to provide reasonable estimates ( plus or minus 6%-10%) of reproductive salmon population size and run timing in clear rivers. 

  19. Changes of the blood lymphocyte population following sup 32 P treatment for polycythemia vera

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blomgren, H.; Svedmyr, E. (Radiumhemmet Karolinska Hospital, Stockholm (Sweden)); Petrini, B.; Wasserman, J.; Stedingk, L.-V. von (The Stockholm County Council, Central Microbiological Laboratory, Stockholm (Sweden))

    1990-01-01

    Orally administrated NA{sub 2} {sup 32}PO{sub 4} mainly accumulates in bone marrow where it emits {beta}-particles which may damage cells. Previously, we showed that {sup 32}P treatment for polycythemia vera (PVC) increased the phytohemagglutinin reactivity and proportions of T cells in the blood. Now we have examined the effects of {sup 32}P treatment for PCV on natural killer (NK) and B-lymphocyte subsets which are considered to undergo their maturation in bone marrow. A mean isotope dose of 240 MBq given to 14 patients reduced the peripheral lymphocyte counts to 60% at 6 weeks. B cells and NK cells were reduced to the highest relative extent followed by HNK-1 cells and T cells. Although the proportion of NK cells was reduced to 50% there was no concomitant reduction of NK activity against K562 cells. Pokeweed mitogen-triggered secretion of IgM was significantly reduced, but not that of IgG or IgA. It is suggested that lymphocytes which mature in bone marrow may be affected to the highest extent by {sup 32}P treatment in PCV. (author).

  20. Quantification of newly produced B and T lymphocytes in untreated chronic lymphocytic leukemia patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caimi Luigi

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The immune defects occurring in chronic lymphocytic leukemia are responsible for the frequent occurrence of infections and autoimmune phenomena, and may be involved in the initiation and maintenance of the malignant clone. Here, we evaluated the quantitative defects of newly produced B and T lymphocytes. Methods The output of B and T lymphocytes from the production and maturation sites was analyzed in chronic lymphocytic leukemia patients and healthy controls by quantifying kappa-deleting recombination excision circles (KRECs and T-cell receptor excision circles (TRECs by a Real-Time PCR assay that simultaneously detects both targets. T-lymphocyte subsets were analyzed by six-color flow cytometric analysis. Data comparison was performed by two-sided Mann-Whitney test. Results KRECs level was reduced in untreated chronic lymphocytic leukemia patients studied at the very early stage of the disease, whereas the release of TRECs+ cells was preserved. Furthermore, the observed increase of CD4+ lymphocytes could be ascribed to the accumulation of CD4+ cells with effector memory phenotype. Conclusions The decreased number of newly produced B lymphocytes in these patients is likely related to a homeostatic mechanism by which the immune system balances the abnormal B-cell expansion. This feature may precede the profound defect of humoral immunity characterizing the later stages of the disease.

  1. Efficient Secure Multiparty Subset Computation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sufang Zhou

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Secure subset problem is important in secure multiparty computation, which is a vital field in cryptography. Most of the existing protocols for this problem can only keep the elements of one set private, while leaking the elements of the other set. In other words, they cannot solve the secure subset problem perfectly. While a few studies have addressed actual secure subsets, these protocols were mainly based on the oblivious polynomial evaluations with inefficient computation. In this study, we first design an efficient secure subset protocol for sets whose elements are drawn from a known set based on a new encoding method and homomorphic encryption scheme. If the elements of the sets are taken from a large domain, the existing protocol is inefficient. Using the Bloom filter and homomorphic encryption scheme, we further present an efficient protocol with linear computational complexity in the cardinality of the large set, and this is considered to be practical for inputs consisting of a large number of data. However, the second protocol that we design may yield a false positive. This probability can be rapidly decreased by reexecuting the protocol with different hash functions. Furthermore, we present the experimental performance analyses of these protocols.

  2. Role of distinct CD4(+) T helper subset in pathogenesis of oral lichen planus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hui; Zhang, Dunfang; Han, Qi; Zhao, Xin; Zeng, Xin; Xu, Yi; Sun, Zheng; Chen, Qianming

    2016-07-01

    Oral lichen planus (OLP) is one of the most common chronic inflammatory oral mucosal diseases with T-cell-mediated immune pathogenesis. In subepithelial and lamina propria of OLP local lesions, the presence of CD4(+) T helper (CD4(+) Th) cells appeared as the major lymphocytes. These CD4(+) T lymphocytes can differentiate into distinct Th cell types such as Th1, Th2, Treg, Th17, Th22, Th9, and Tfh within the context of certain cytokines environment. Growing evidence indicated that Th1/Th2 imbalance may greatly participate into the cytokine network of OLP immunopathology. In addition, Th1/Th2 imbalance can be regulated by the Treg subset and also greatly influenced by the emerging novel CD4(+) Th subset Th17. Furthermore, the presence of novel subsets Th22, Th9 and Tfh in OLP patients is yet to be clarified. All these Th subsets and their specific cytokines may play a critical role in determining the character, extent and duration of immune responses in OLP pathogenesis. Therefore, we review the roles of distinct CD4(+) Th subsets and their signature cytokines in determining disease severity and susceptibility of OLP and also reveal the novel therapeutic strategies based on T lymphocytes subsets in OLP treatment. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Subtype assignment of CLL based on B-cell subset associated gene signatures from normal bone marrow – A proof of concept study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørgaard, Caroline Holm; Jakobsen, Lasse Hjort; Gentles, Andrew J.

    2018-01-01

    . Our hypothesis is that by segregating CLL according to BAGS, we can identify subtypes with prognostic implications in support of pathogenetic value of BAGS. Microarray-based gene-expression samples from eight independent CLL cohorts (1,024 untreated patients) were BAGS-stratified into pre-BI, pre...... subtype resistance towards rituximab and cyclophosphamide varied for rituximab, whereas all subtypes were sensitive to cyclophosphamide. This study supports our hypothesis that BAGS-subtyping may be of tangible prognostic and pathogenetic value for CLL patients.......Diagnostic and prognostic evaluation of chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) involves blood cell counts, immunophenotyping, IgVH mutation status, and cytogenetic analyses. We generated B-cell associated gene-signatures (BAGS) based on six naturally occurring B-cell subsets within normal bone marrow...

  4. Radiological clinical correlation of pulmonary and extrapulmonary tuberculosis with CD4 T lymphocyte counts in patients with V.I.H. in the San Juan de Dios Hospital during the period 2004 to the first half of 2009; Correlacion clinico radiologica de la tuberculosis pulmonar y extrapulmonar con el conteo de linfocitos T CD4 en pacientes con V.I.H. en el Hospital San Juan de Dios durante el periodo 2004 hasta el primer semestre de 2009

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Campos Fallas, Christian

    2010-07-01

    The association between radiographic presentation of tuberculosis (TB), pulmonary and extrapulmonary, and the count of CD4 T lymphocytes in patients infected with Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV), are investigated. The order has been to achieve a diagnosis and isolation early of coinfected patients. A retrospective analysis was performed of the clinical history, chest radiograph, CD4 T lymphocyte count of 25 HIV-infected patients with documented pulmonary or extrapulmonary tuberculosis diagnosis. 18 patients diagnosed (72%) with radiologic atypical skipper, 14 of them with significant immunosuppression (TB patients with CD4 T count <200 / mm {sup 3}), while only 6 (24%) with radiologic typical skipper of TB was associated with negative sputum smears (p=0.06). In HIV patients with CD4 T lymphocyte counts T <200 / mm {sup 3}, no respiratory symptoms and atypical radiographic pattern, may be suspected active TB, even with negative sputum smears. (Author) [Spanish] La asociacion entre la presentacion radiografica de tuberculosis (TB), pulmonar y extrapulmonar, y el conteo de linfocitos T CD4 en pacientes con infeccion por Virus de Inmuno Deficiencia Humana (VIH), son investigados. El fin ha sido lograr un diagnostico y aislamiento temprano de pacientes coinfectados. Un analisis retrospectivo fue realizado de la historia clinica, radiografia de torax, conteo de Linfocitos T CD4, de 25 pacientes con infeccion por VIH con diagnostico documentado de tuberculosis pulmonar o extrapulmonar. 18 pacientes diagnosticados (72%) con patron radiologico atipico, 14 de ellos con inmunosupresion significativa (pacientes con TB con conteo de Linfocitos T CD4 <200/mm{sup 3}), mientras que solo 6 (24%) con patron radiologico tipico de TB fue asociado con baciloscopias negativas, (p=0.06). En pacientes con VIH con conteos de Linfocitos T CD4 <200/mm{sup 3}, no sintomaticos respiratorios y con patron radiologico atipico, puede ser sospechado TB activa, aun con baciloscopias negativas

  5. Pattern of CD4 T‑lymphocyte Values in Cancer Patients on Cytotoxic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Assessment of patients prior to cytotoxic chemotherapy usually includes absolute neutrophils count. Other cellular markers of susceptibility to infection as well as immunocompetence include the T Helper lymphocyte count. In cancer patients, decrease in these lymphocytes has been observed to be associated ...

  6. Survival and PHA-stimulation of #betta#-irradiated human peripheral blood T lymphocyte subpopulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schwartz, J.L.; Darr, D.C.; Daulden, M.E.

    1983-01-01

    Human peripheral blood T lymphocyte subpopulations were identified and isolated on the basis of their ability to bind IgG (T-G), IgM (T-M), or neither immunoglobulin class (T-null). Lymphocytes were exposed to 0, 0.5, 1.0, 2.5 or 5.0 Gy of 60 Co #betta#-rays either as a T-cell suspension or as separated T cell subsets. Survival curves, determined 5 days after irradiation, revealed that each subset has radiosensitive and radioresistant portions, and that the T-G cell is the most sensitive subset. Mitotic indices of 48-h cultures showed that the response of unirradiated T lymphocytes to PHA varied greatly among the subsets, the highest indices being obtained for the T-M and the lowest for the T-G cells. With the possible exception of the T-G cells, the subsets are realtively resistant to mitotic effects of #betta#-rays. T-G cells suppress the PHA-induced mitotic response of the other T lymphocyte subsets, and this suppressor effect is radiosensitive, being abolished by 1.0 Gy. It is concluded that lymphocytes exposed to >= 1 Gy of #betta#-rays will have very few dividing B lymphocytes or T-G cells. This together with radiation-induced loss of T-G suppressor action means that the predominant lymphocyte types in mitosis after >=1 Gy are the radioresistant T-M and T-null cells. (orig.)

  7. Chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... is used for painful and enlarged lymph nodes. Blood transfusions or platelet transfusions may be required if blood ... unexplained fatigue, bruising, excessive sweating, or weight loss. Alternative ... Leukemia - chronic lymphocytic (CLL); Blood cancer - chronic lymphocytic leukemia; Bone marrow cancer - chronic ...

  8. Effects of iridoid-anthocyanin extract of Cornus mas L. on hematological parameters, population and proliferation of lymphocytes during experimental infection of mice with Trichinella spiralis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piekarska, Jolanta; Szczypka, Marianna; Kucharska, Alicja Z; Gorczykowski, Michał

    2018-05-01

    The influence of iridoid-anthocyanin aqueous extract of cornelian cherry fruits (CM) on hematological parameters, lymphocyte subsets and proliferation during Trichinella spiralis infection in mice was investigated. CM (100 mg/kg) was administered orally to T. spiralis-infected mice six times within a period encompassing three days prior to the infection and three days after the infection (dai). CM increased the percentage of CD3 + , CD4 + cells and CD4 + /CD8 + ratio and decreased total count of CD8 + and CD19 + splenocytes (5 th dai). An increase in total count of CD4 + , CD3 + , CD19 + splenocytes was observed (21 st dai). CM elevated the percentage of CD4 + cells (7 th dai) and CD4 + /CD8 + ratio (21 st dai) in MLN. CM increased (14 th dai) and then reduced (21 st dai) the percentage of CD8 + MLN lymphocytes and decreased total count of MLN CD8 + cells (21 st dai) and B cells (14 th dai). An activation of lymphocyte proliferation in spleen and simultaneous decrease in MLN on 5 th dai was observed. An increase in red blood cells parameters (5 th dai) and in leukocyte count (7 th dai) was found. A rise in platelet count was noticed both on 5 th and 7 th dai. Moreover, the number of adult T. spiralis on 5 th dai in mice receiving CM extract was lower than in the control mice. These results suggested that iridoid-anthocyanin aqueous extract of CM stimulated murine immune response during T. spiralis infection. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Counting probe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsumoto, Haruya; Kaya, Nobuyuki; Yuasa, Kazuhiro; Hayashi, Tomoaki

    1976-01-01

    Electron counting method has been devised and experimented for the purpose of measuring electron temperature and density, the most fundamental quantities to represent plasma conditions. Electron counting is a method to count the electrons in plasma directly by equipping a probe with the secondary electron multiplier. It has three advantages of adjustable sensitivity, high sensitivity of the secondary electron multiplier, and directional property. Sensitivity adjustment is performed by changing the size of collecting hole (pin hole) on the incident front of the multiplier. The probe is usable as a direct reading thermometer of electron temperature because it requires to collect very small amount of electrons, thus it doesn't disturb the surrounding plasma, and the narrow sweep width of the probe voltage is enough. Therefore it can measure anisotropy more sensitively than a Langmuir probe, and it can be used for very low density plasma. Though many problems remain on anisotropy, computer simulation has been carried out. Also it is planned to provide a Helmholtz coil in the vacuum chamber to eliminate the effect of earth magnetic field. In practical experiments, the measurement with a Langmuir probe and an emission probe mounted to the movable structure, the comparison with the results obtained in reverse magnetic field by using a Helmholtz coil, and the measurement of ionic sound wave are scheduled. (Wakatsuki, Y.)

  10. Stereotyped B-cell receptors in one-third of chronic lymphocytic leukemia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agathangelidis, Andreas; Darzentas, Nikos; Hadzidimitriou, Anastasia

    2012-01-01

    Mounting evidence indicates that grouping of chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) into distinct subsets with stereotyped BCRs is functionally and prognostically relevant. However, several issues need revisiting, including the criteria for identification of BCR stereotypy and its actual frequency...

  11. Radiation effects on lymphocytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roser, B.

    1976-01-01

    This review of the ontogeny of lymphocyte populations concentrates on sites of production, rates of production, and the factors governing the differentiation and longevity of the various lymphocyte pools. The physiology of the lymphocyte pools is described with particular emphasis on recirculation from blood to lymph through lymphoid tissues. The separate routes of recirculation of both thymus-derived and nonthymus-derived lymphocytes and the possible anatomical sites and mechanisms of lymphocyte cooperation are discussed. Radiation effects on lymphocyte populations are divided into two sections. First, the effects of whole-body irradiation on the total lymphocyte pools are discussed including the differential effects of irradiation on T lymphocytes, B lymphocytes, lymphoblasts, and plasma cells. The differential sensitivity of various types of immune response is correlated, where possible, with the differential sensitivity of the lymphocyte types involved. Second, experimental attempts to selectively deplete discrete subpopulations of the total lymphocyte pools, e.g., recirculating cells, are briefly discussed with particular emphasis on studies on the effects of the localization of radionuclides in lymphoid tissue

  12. Safety and immunogenicity of H1/IC31®, an adjuvanted TB subunit vaccine, in HIV-infected adults with CD4+ lymphocyte counts greater than 350 cells/mm3: a phase II, multi-centre, double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klaus Reither

    Full Text Available Novel tuberculosis vaccines should be safe, immunogenic, and effective in various population groups, including HIV-infected individuals. In this phase II multi-centre, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial, the safety and immunogenicity of the novel H1/IC31 vaccine, a fusion protein of Ag85B-ESAT-6 (H1 formulated with the adjuvant IC31, was evaluated in HIV-infected adults.HIV-infected adults with CD4+ T cell counts >350/mm3 and without evidence of active tuberculosis were enrolled and followed until day 182. H1/IC31 vaccine or placebo was randomly allocated in a 5:1 ratio. The vaccine was administered intramuscularly at day 0 and 56. Safety assessment was based on medical history, clinical examinations, and blood and urine testing. Immunogenicity was determined by a short-term whole blood intracellular cytokine staining assay.47 of the 48 randomised participants completed both vaccinations. In total, 459 mild or moderate and 2 severe adverse events were reported. There were three serious adverse events in two vaccinees classified as not related to the investigational product. Local injection site reactions were more common in H1/IC31 versus placebo recipients (65.0% vs. 12.5%, p = 0.015. Solicited systemic and unsolicited adverse events were similar by study arm. The baseline CD4+ T cell count and HIV viral load were similar by study arm and remained constant over time. The H1/IC31 vaccine induced a persistent Th1-immune response with predominately TNF-α and IL-2 co-expressing CD4+ T cells, as well as polyfunctional IFN-γ, TNF-α and IL-2 expressing CD4+ T cells.H1/IC31 was well tolerated and safe in HIV-infected adults with a CD4+ Lymphocyte count greater than 350 cells/mm3. The vaccine did not have an effect on CD4+ T cell count or HIV-1 viral load. H1/IC31 induced a specific and durable Th1 immune response.Pan African Clinical Trials Registry (PACTR PACTR201105000289276.

  13. Counting Possibilia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfredo Tomasetta

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Timothy Williamson supports the thesis that every possible entity necessarily exists and so he needs to explain how a possible son of Wittgenstein’s, for example, exists in our world:he exists as a merely possible object (MPO, a pure locus of potential. Williamson presents a short argument for the existence of MPOs: how many knives can be made by fitting together two blades and two handles? Four: at the most two are concrete objects, the others being merely possible knives and merely possible objects. This paper defends the idea that one can avoid reference and ontological commitment to MPOs. My proposal is that MPOs can be dispensed with by using the notion of rules of knife-making. I first present a solution according to which we count lists of instructions - selected by the rules - describing physical combinations between components. This account, however, has its own difficulties and I eventually suggest that one can find a way out by admitting possible worlds, entities which are more commonly accepted - at least by philosophers - than MPOs. I maintain that, in answering Williamson’s questions, we count classes of physically possible worlds in which the same instance of a general rule is applied.

  14. MODIS/Aqua Atmosphere Aeronet Subsetting Product

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The MODIS/Aqua Atmosphere Aeronet Subsetting Product (MYDARNSS) consists of MODIS Atmosphere and Ancillary Products subsets that are generated over a number of...

  15. On subset selection from Logistic populations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Laan, van der P.

    1990-01-01

    Some distributional results are derived for subset selection from Logistic populations, differing only in their location parameter. The probability of correct selection is determined. Exact and numerical results concerning the expected subset size are presented.

  16. Absolute counts of peripheral blood leukocyte subpopulations in intraabdominal sepsis and pneumonia-derived sepsis: a pilot study Absolute counts of peripheral blood leukocyte subpopulations in intraabdominal sepsis and pneumonia-derived sepsis: a pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grazyna Anna Hoser

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The leading pathophysiological changes during sepsis include systemic abnormalities in the immune
    response. Due to the general character of these disturbances, sepsis is usually studied as a homogenous clinical
    condition. We aimed to compare the immune response in intraabdominal sepsis (IAS and pneumonia-derived
    sepsis (PDS. The following cell populations were examined: white blood cell count (WBC, monocytes, lymphocytes:
    CD3+, CD4+ and CD8+ T cells, B cells, and NK cells. In both studied groups (i.e. IAS and PDS, the
    WBC was elevated. However, it was significantly higher in the IAS group than in the PDS group. The difference
    was due to a lower granulocyte count, as well as a lower monocyte count in PDS. We found no significant
    correlation between the total lymphocyte number and CD3+CD8+ T cells in either form of sepsis. Similarly, we
    observed no correlation between the total lymphocyte number and the NK cells subset in IAS. However, the
    numbers of CD3+CD8+ and NK cells correlated similarly in both types of sepsis. Both studied types of sepsis
    induced profound lymphocytopenia, with marked loss of CD8+ T cells and the NK cells. However, the similar
    relation between them, which was independent of the infection type, suggests that the NK and CD3+CD8+ cells
    have shared mechanisms of regulation. The primary site of infection has an impact on the global immune reaction.
    These alternations include especially myeloid cells: granulocytes and monocytes which disappear from peripheral
    blood during PDS, but increase in IAS.
    The leading pathophysiological changes during sepsis include systemic abnormalities in the immune
    response. Due to the general character of these disturbances, sepsis is usually studied as a homogenous clinical
    condition. We aimed to compare the immune response in intraabdominal sepsis (IAS and pneumonia-derived
    sepsis (PDS. The following cell

  17. Normalization of lymphocyte count after high ablative dose of I-131 in a patient with chronic lymphoid leukemia and secondary papillary carcinoma of the thyroid: case report; Normalizacao da contagem de linfocitos apos dose ablativa de I-131 em um paciente com leucemia linfoide cronica e carcinoma papilifero da tireoide: relato de caso

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thom, Anneliese Rosmarie Gertrud Fischer; Hamerschlak, Nelson; Osawa, Akemi; Santos, Fabio Pires de Souza; Pasqualin, Denise da Cunha; Wagner, Jairo; Yamaga, Lilian Yuri Itaya; Cunha, Marcelo Livorsi da; Campos Neto, Guilherme de Carvalho; Funari, Marcelo Buarque de Gusmao, E-mail: afthom@einstein.br [Hospital Israelita Albert Einstein, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Teles, Veronica Goes [Sociedade Brasileira de Diabetes, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2014-07-01

    The authors report the case of a 70-year-old male patient with chronic lymphoid leukemia who presented subsequently a papillary carcinoma of the thyroid with metastases to regional lymph nodes. The patient was treated with surgical thyroidectomy with regional and cervical lymph node excision and radioiodine therapy (I-131). The protocolar control scintigraphy 4 days after the radioactive dose showed I-131 uptake in both axillae and even in the inguinal regions. PET/CT showed faint FDG-F-18 uptake in one lymph node of the left axilla. An ultrasound guided fine needle biopsy of this lymph node identified by I-131 SPECT/CT and FDG-F-18 PET/CT revealed lymphoma cells and was negative for thyroid tissue and thyroglobulin content. The sequential blood counts done routinely after radiation treatment showed a marked fall until return to normal values of leucocytes and lymphocytes (absolute and relative), which were still normal in the last control 19 months after the radioiodine administration. Chest computed tomography showed a decrease in size of axillary and paraaortic lymph nodes. By immunohistochemistry, cells of the lymphoid B lineage decreased from 52% before radioiodine therapy to 5% after the procedure. The authors speculate about a possible sodium iodide symporter expression by the cells of this lymphoma, similar to some other non-thyroid tumors, such as breast cancer cells. (author)

  18. Biodistribution of radiolabeled lymphocytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fawwaz, R.A.; Oluwole, S.; Wang, T.S.; Kuromoto, N.; Iga, C.; Hardy, M.A.; Alderson, P.O.

    1985-01-01

    Factors that might affect the biodistribution and clinical utility of radiolabeled lymphocytes were evaluated in experimental animals. Indium-111 (In-111) labeled lymphocytes obtained from peripheral blood, lymph node, or spleen were found in significant amounts in the lymphoid tissues of Lewis rats as early as 3 hours after infusion. A progressive increase in nodal activity with concomitant fall of activity in other organs followed, indicating active recirculation of the lymphocytes. In vitro irradiation of the In-111 labeled lymphocytes resulted in no detectable lymphocyte recirculation and/or reduced localization in lymphoid tissue. Splenectomized animals and those sensitized to an organ allograft before cell infusion showed increased activity in their bone marrow. These results suggest that the source of the injected cells, cell irradiation dose level and host sensitization should be considered when radiolabeled lymphocytes are being prepared for use in clinical diagnosis and therapy

  19. Early changes within the lymphocyte population are associated with the development of multiple organ dysfunction syndrome in trauma patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manson, Joanna; Cole, Elaine; De'Ath, Henry D; Vulliamy, Paul; Meier, Ute; Pennington, Dan; Brohi, Karim

    2016-06-07

    Early survival following severe injury has been improved with refined resuscitation strategies. Multiple organ dysfunction syndrome (MODS) is common among this fragile group of patients leading to prolonged hospital stay and late mortality. MODS after trauma is widely attributed to dysregulated inflammation but the precise mechanics of this response and its influence on organ injury are incompletely understood. This study was conducted to investigate the relationship between early lymphocyte responses and the development of MODS during admission. During a 24-month period, trauma patients were recruited from an urban major trauma centre to an ongoing, observational cohort study. Admission blood samples were obtained within 2 h of injury and before in-hospital intervention, including blood transfusion. The study population was predominantly male with a blunt mechanism of injury. Lymphocyte subset populations including T helper, cytotoxic T cells, NK cells and γδ T cells were identified using flow cytometry. Early cytokine release and lymphocyte count during the first 7 days of admission were also examined. This study demonstrated that trauma patients who developed MODS had an increased population of NK dim cells (MODS vs no MODS: 22 % vs 13 %, p < 0.01) and reduced γδ-low T cells (MODS vs no MODS: 0.02 (0.01-0.03) vs 0.09 (0.06-0.12) × 10^9/L, p < 0.01) at admission. Critically injured patients who developed MODS (n = 27) had higher interferon gamma (IFN-γ) concentrations at admission, compared with patients of matched injury severity and shock (n = 60) who did not develop MODS (MODS vs no MODS: 4.1 (1.8-9.0) vs 1.0 (0.6-1.8) pg/ml, p = 0.01). Lymphopenia was observed within 24 h of injury and was persistent in those who developed MODS. Patients with a lymphocyte count of 0.5 × 10(9)/L or less at 48 h, had a 45 % mortality rate. This study provides evidence of lymphocyte activation within 2 h of injury, as demonstrated by

  20. Effect of therapeutic doses of enrofloxacin on circulating lymphocyte subpopulations in pigs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pomorska-Mól Małgorzata

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Twenty pigs of similar genetics (PIC were used. Pigs were randomly divided into two groups: experimental (ENRO, n = 10 and control (C, n = 10. From day 0 to day 4, pigs from ENRO group received enrofloxacin at the recommended therapeutic dose. Pigs from C group received PBS instead of enrofloxacin. Blood samples were collected on days 0 (before antibiotic administration, 2, 4 (during antibiotic therapy, 9, and 13 of the study (after enrofloxacin administration. Haematological examination and flow cytometry were used to establish the relative and absolute counts of various leukocyte subsets. Lymphocyte subpopulations were measured by fluorochrom-labelled antibodies according to following definitions: CD3+ (T cells, CD21+ (B cells, CD4+CD8- (helper T cells, Th, CD4-CD8+ (cytolytic T cells, CLT, CD4+CD8+ (cytolytic and memory T cells. The present study revealed the modulating effect of enrofloxacin on the composition of circulating lymphocytes in pigs. Concentration and percentage of CD8+ cells decreased significantly after treatment with enrofloxacin and as a result the absolute CD4/CD8 ratio increased significantly as compared to control group (P < 0.05.These findings should prompt further studies on the practical significance of the results obtained in terms of clinical implications. In view of the results, it cannot be excluded that enrofloxacin may also have immunomodulatory effects on host response to infection.

  1. Spontaneous Apoptosis, Oxidative Status and Immunophenotype Markers in Blood Lymphocytes of AIDS Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriele A. Losa

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC from 251 HIV‐positive drug abusers of known clinical stage and from 40 healthy donors were tested for conventional immunologic markers (CD3, CD4, CD8, CD19, CD14, CD16/CD56, CD45 and HLA‐DR. Additional cell parameters and the occurrence of spontaneous apoptosis (programmed cell death were investigated on freshly isolated PBMC by flow cytometric measurement of either annexin‐V bound to plasma membrane phosphatidylserine or propidium iodide uptake. The activity of γ‐glutamyltransferase (γ‐GT, an ectoenzyme contributing to the synthesis of the intracellular antioxidant glutathione (GSH and involved in early apoptosis, was also determined in these cells. Immunocompetent T‐cell counts were lower in HIV+ patients, with the exception of CD8+ and HLA‐DR+ lymphocytes. The external binding of annexin‐V was significantly higher in HIV+ PBMC and occurred in both CD8+ and CD4+ T‐lymphocyte subsets. The activity of γ‐GT, was significantly lower in the PBMC from HIV+ patients, indicating that the redox status of PBMC may be affected in HIV+ individuals. Finally, the most dominant features characterising patients receiving antiretroviral therapy were greater long‐term stability in the distribution of various cell parameters excepted the level of apoptosis.

  2. Categorical counting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fetterman, J Gregor; Killeen, P Richard

    2010-09-01

    Pigeons pecked on three keys, responses to one of which could be reinforced after a few pecks, to a second key after a somewhat larger number of pecks, and to a third key after the maximum pecking requirement. The values of the pecking requirements and the proportion of trials ending with reinforcement were varied. Transits among the keys were an orderly function of peck number, and showed approximately proportional changes with changes in the pecking requirements, consistent with Weber's law. Standard deviations of the switch points between successive keys increased more slowly within a condition than across conditions. Changes in reinforcement probability produced changes in the location of the psychometric functions that were consistent with models of timing. Analyses of the number of pecks emitted and the duration of the pecking sequences demonstrated that peck number was the primary determinant of choice, but that passage of time also played some role. We capture the basic results with a standard model of counting, which we qualify to account for the secondary experiments. Copyright 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. The effect of the cytoskeletal inhibitors on the splenic lymphocyte traffic and homing in rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Huibin

    1989-01-01

    The rat splenic lymphocyte traffic and homing in vivo and the effect of cytoskeletal inhibitors on this process were investigated using the technique of γ-counting of 51 Cr-labelled lymphocytes. The results suggests that:(1) After 2 of intravenous injection, the 51 Cr-labelled lymphocytes from donor rat spleen mainly home to recipient rat spleen, liver, lungs, mesenteric lymph modes (MLN) and gut-associated lymphoid tissues. (2) A significant inhibiting effect on the ability of preferential homing of splenic lymphocytes treated with sodium azide, cytochalasin B or colchicine shows that microtubles and microfilaments play an important role in the lymphocyte traffic and homing

  4. [Corrected count].

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-11-27

    The data of the 1991 census indicated that the population count of Brazil fell short of a former estimate by 3 million people. The population reached 150 million people with an annual increase of 2%, while projections in the previous decade expected an increase of 2.48% to 153 million people. This reduction indicates more widespread use of family planning (FP) and control of fertility among families of lower social status as more information is being provided to them. However, the Ministry of Health ordered an investigation of foreign family planning organizations because it was suspected that women were forced to undergo tubal ligation during vaccination campaigns. A strange alliance of left wing politicians and the Roman Catholic Church alleges a conspiracy of international FP organizations receiving foreign funds. The FP strategies of Bemfam and Pro-Pater offer women who have little alternative the opportunity to undergo tubal ligation or to receive oral contraceptives to control fertility. The ongoing government program of distributing booklets on FP is feeble and is not backed up by an education campaign. Charges of foreign interference are leveled while the government hypocritically ignores the grave problem of 4 million abortions a year. The population is expected to continue to grow until the year 2040 and then to stabilize at a low growth rate of .4%. In 1980, the number of children per woman was 4.4 whereas the 1991 census figures indicate this has dropped to 3.5. The excess population is associated with poverty and a forsaken caste in the interior. The population actually has decreased in the interior and in cities with 15,000 people. The phenomenon of the drop of fertility associated with rural exodus is contrasted with cities and villages where the population is 20% less than expected.

  5. Immunophenotypic lymphocyte profiles in human african trypanosomiasis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caroline Boda

    Full Text Available Human African trypanosomiasis (HAT is a deadly vector-born disease caused by an extracellular parasite, the trypanosome. Little is known about the cellular immune responses elicited by this parasite in humans. We used multiparameter flow cytometry to characterize leukocyte immunophenotypes in the blood and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF of 33 HAT patients and 27 healthy controls identified during a screening campaign in Angola and Gabon. We evaluated the subsets and activation markers of B and T lymphocytes. Patients had a higher percentage of CD19+ B lymphocytes and activated B lymphocytes in the blood than did controls, but lacked activated CD4+ T lymphocytes (CD25+. Patients displayed no increase in the percentage of activated CD8+ T cells (HLA-DR+, CD69+ or CD25+, but memory CD8 T-cell levels (CD8+CD45RA2 were significantly lower in patients than in controls, as were effector CD8 T-cell levels (CD8+CD45RA+CD62L2. No relationship was found between these blood immunophenotypes and disease severity (stage 1 vs 2. However, CD19+ B-cell levels in the CSF increased with disease severity. The patterns of T and B cell activation in HAT patients suggest that immunomodulatory mechanisms may operate during infection. Determinations of CD19+ B-cell levels in the CSF could improve disease staging.

  6. Subset Selection by Local Convex Approximation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Øjelund, Henrik; Sadegh, Payman; Madsen, Henrik

    1999-01-01

    This paper concerns selection of the optimal subset of variables in a lenear regression setting. The posed problem is combinatiorial and the globally best subset can only be found in exponential time. We define a cost function for the subset selection problem by adding the penalty term to the usual...... of the subset selection problem so as to guarantee positive definiteness of the Hessian term, hence avoiding numerical instability. The backward Elemination type algorithm attempts to improve the results upon termination of the modified Newton-Raphson search by sing the current solution as an initial guess...

  7. Aberrant T Cell Signaling and Subsets in Systemic Lupus Erythematosus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takayuki Katsuyama

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE is a chronic multi-organ debilitating autoimmune disease, which mainly afflicts women in the reproductive years. A complex interaction of genetics, environmental factors and hormones result in the breakdown of immune tolerance to “self” leading to damage and destruction of multiple organs, such as the skin, joints, kidneys, heart and brain. Both innate and adaptive immune systems are critically involved in the misguided immune response against self-antigens. Dendritic cells, neutrophils, and innate lymphoid cells are important in initiating antigen presentation and propagating inflammation at lymphoid and peripheral tissue sites. Autoantibodies produced by B lymphocytes and immune complex deposition in vital organs contribute to tissue damage. T lymphocytes are increasingly being recognized as key contributors to disease pathogenesis. CD4 T follicular helper cells enable autoantibody production, inflammatory Th17 subsets promote inflammation, while defects in regulatory T cells lead to unchecked immune responses. A better understanding of the molecular defects including signaling events and gene regulation underlying the dysfunctional T cells in SLE is necessary to pave the path for better management, therapy, and perhaps prevention of this complex disease. In this review, we focus on the aberrations in T cell signaling in SLE and highlight therapeutic advances in this field.

  8. Aberrant T Cell Signaling and Subsets in Systemic Lupus Erythematosus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katsuyama, Takayuki; Tsokos, George C.; Moulton, Vaishali R.

    2018-01-01

    Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is a chronic multi-organ debilitating autoimmune disease, which mainly afflicts women in the reproductive years. A complex interaction of genetics, environmental factors and hormones result in the breakdown of immune tolerance to “self” leading to damage and destruction of multiple organs, such as the skin, joints, kidneys, heart and brain. Both innate and adaptive immune systems are critically involved in the misguided immune response against self-antigens. Dendritic cells, neutrophils, and innate lymphoid cells are important in initiating antigen presentation and propagating inflammation at lymphoid and peripheral tissue sites. Autoantibodies produced by B lymphocytes and immune complex deposition in vital organs contribute to tissue damage. T lymphocytes are increasingly being recognized as key contributors to disease pathogenesis. CD4 T follicular helper cells enable autoantibody production, inflammatory Th17 subsets promote inflammation, while defects in regulatory T cells lead to unchecked immune responses. A better understanding of the molecular defects including signaling events and gene regulation underlying the dysfunctional T cells in SLE is necessary to pave the path for better management, therapy, and perhaps prevention of this complex disease. In this review, we focus on the aberrations in T cell signaling in SLE and highlight therapeutic advances in this field. PMID:29868033

  9. Effect of antiretroviral drugs on maternal CD4 lymphocyte counts, HIV-1 RNA levels, and anthropometric parameters of their neonates Efeito das drogas anti-retrovirais sobre os valores dos linfócitos TCD4, RNA do HIV-1 e parâmetros antropométricos de neonatos de gestantes portadoras do HIV-1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrícia El Beitune

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To study the effect of antiretroviral drugs administered during pregnancy on CD4 lymphocyte counts and HIV-1 RNA levels of pregnant women and on the anthropometric parameters of their neonates. METHODS: A prospective study was conducted on 57 pregnant women and their neonates divided into 3 groups: ZDV Group, HIV-infected mothers taking zidovudine (n = 20; triple therapy (TT Group, mothers taking zidovudine + lamivudine + nelfinavir (n = 25, and Control Group, normal women (n = 12. CD4 lymphocyte counts and HIV-1 RNA levels of pregnant women were analyzed during two periods of pregnancy. The perinatal prognosis took into account preterm rates, birth weight, intrauterine growth restriction, perinatal death, and vertical transmission of HIV-1. Data were analyzed statistically using the nonparametric chi-square, Mann-Whitney, Friedman, Kruskal-Wallis, and Wilcoxon matched pairs tests, with the level of significance set at P OBJETIVOS: Estudar o efeito das drogas anti-retrovirais sobre a quantificação dos linfócitos TCD4 e RNA do HIV-1 de gestantes portadoras do HIV-1 e parâmetros antropométricos de seus neonatos. MÉTODOS: Estudo prospectivo avaliando 57 gestantes e seus neonatos em três grupos: Grupo AZT, gestantes portadoras do HIV utilizando zidovudina (n=20; Grupo TT, mães utilizando zidovudina+lamivudina+nelfinavir (n=25, e Grupo Controle, mulheres saudáveis (n=12. A quantificação dos linfócitos TCD4 e RNA do HIV-1 de gestantes portadoras do HIV foi analisada em dois períodos durante a gestação. O prognóstico perinatal levou em consideração as taxas de pré-termos, restrição de crescimento intra-útero, mortalidade perinatal e transmissão vertical do HIV-1. Os dados foram analisados utilizando-se testes não paramétricos de qui-quadrado, Mann-Whitney, Friedman, Kruskal-Wallys e Wilcoxon para amostras pareadas, considerando-se significativos valores associados a p<0,05. RESULTADOS: Observou-se homogeneidade entre

  10. Non-suppressive regulatory T cell subset expansion in pulmonary arterial hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sada, Yoshiharu; Dohi, Yoshihiro; Uga, Sayuri; Higashi, Akifumi; Kinoshita, Hiroki; Kihara, Yasuki

    2016-08-01

    Regulatory T cells (Tregs) have been reported to play a pivotal role in the vascular remodeling of pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH). Recent studies have revealed that Tregs are heterogeneous and can be characterized by three phenotypically and functionally different subsets. In this study, we investigated the roles of Treg subsets in the pathogenesis of PAH in eight patients with PAH and 14 healthy controls. Tregs and their subsets in peripheral blood samples were analyzed by flow cytometry. Treg subsets were defined as CD4(+)CD45RA(+)FoxP3(low) resting Tregs (rTregs), CD4(+)CD45RA(-)FoxP3(high) activated Tregs (aTregs), and CD4(+)CD45RA(-)FoxP3(low) non-suppressive Tregs (non-Tregs). The proportion of Tregs among CD4(+) T cells was significantly higher in PAH patients than in controls (6.54 ± 1.10 vs. 3.81 ± 0.28 %, p < 0.05). Of the three subsets, the proportion of non-Tregs was significantly elevated in PAH patients compared with controls (4.06 ± 0.40 vs. 2.79 ± 0.14 %, p < 0.01), whereas those of rTregs and aTregs were not different between the two groups. Moreover, the expression levels of cytotoxic T lymphocyte antigen 4, a functional cell surface molecule, in aTregs (p < 0.05) and non-Tregs (p < 0.05) were significantly higher in PAH patients compared with controls. These results suggested the non-Treg subset was expanded and functionally activated in peripheral lymphocytes obtained from IPAH patients. We hypothesize that immunoreactions involving the specific activation of the non-Treg subset might play a role in the vascular remodeling of PAH.

  11. Analysis of T Cell Subsets in Adult Primary/Idiopathic Minimal Change Disease: A Pilot Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Salcido-Ochoa

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. To characterise infiltrating T cells in kidneys and circulating lymphocyte subsets of adult patients with primary/idiopathic minimal change disease. Methods. In a cohort of 9 adult patients with primary/idiopathic minimal change recruited consecutively at disease onset, we characterized (1 infiltrating immune cells in the kidneys using immunohistochemistry and (2 circulating lymphocyte subsets using flow cytometry. As an exploratory analysis, association of the numbers and percentages of both kidney-infiltrating immune cells and the circulating lymphocyte subsets with kidney outcomes including deterioration of kidney function and proteinuria, as well as time to complete clinical remission up to 48 months of follow-up, was investigated. Results. In the recruited patients with primary/idiopathic minimal change disease, we observed (a a dominance of infiltrating T helper 17 cells and cytotoxic cells, comprising cytotoxic T cells and natural killer cells, over Foxp3+ Treg cells in the renal interstitium; (b an increase in the circulating total CD8+ T cells in peripheral blood; and (c an association of some of these parameters with kidney function and proteinuria. Conclusions. In primary/idiopathic minimal change disease, a relative numerical dominance of effector over regulatory T cells can be observed in kidney tissue and peripheral blood. However, larger confirmatory studies are necessary.

  12. Predictive role of neutrophil-to-lymphocyte and platelet-to-lymphocyte ratios for diagnosis of acute appendicitis during pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatih Mehmet Yazar

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Acute appendicitis (AA is not uncommon during pregnancy but can be difficult to diagnose. This study evaluated the neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (NLR and platelet-to-lymphocyte ratio (PLR in addition to conventional diagnostic indicators of the disease to diagnose AA during pregnancy. Age, gestational age, white blood cell (WBC count, Alvarado scores, C-reactive protein (CRP, lymphocyte count, NLR and PLR were compared among 28 pregnant women who underwent surgery for AA, 35 pregnant women wrongly suspected as having AA, 29 healthy pregnant women, and 30 nonpregnant healthy women. Mean WBC counts and CRP levels were higher in women with proven AA than in those of control groups (all p < 0.05. Among all the groups, the median NLR and PLR were significantly different in women with proven AA (all p < 0.05. Receiver operating characteristic analysis was used to determine cut-off values for WBC count, CRP, lymphocyte count, NLR and PLR, and multiple logistic regression analysis showed that NLR and PLR used with routine methods could diagnose AA with 90.5% accuracy. Used in addition to routine diagnostic methods, NLR and PLR increased the accuracy of the diagnosis of AA in pregnant women.

  13. Fate of lymphocytes after withdrawal of tofacitinib treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piscianz, Elisa; Valencic, Erica; Cuzzoni, Eva; De Iudicibus, Sara; De Lorenzo, Elisa; Decorti, Giuliana; Tommasini, Alberto

    2014-01-01

    Tofacitinib (Tofa) is an inhibitor of Janus Kinase 3, developed for the treatment of autoimmune diseases and for the prevention of transplant rejection. Due to its selective action on proliferating cells, Tofa can offer a way to block T cell activation, without toxic effects on resting cells. However, few studies have investigated the effects of Tofa on lymphocyte activation in vitro. Our aim was to study the action of Tofa on different lymphocyte subsets after in vitro stimulation and to track the behaviour of treated cells after interruption of the treatment. Peripheral blood lymphocytes were stimulated in vitro with mitogen and treated with two concentrations of Tofa. After a first period in culture, cells were washed and further incubated for an additional time. Lymphocyte subsets, activation phenotype and proliferation were assessed at the different time frames. As expected, Tofa was able to reduce the activation and proliferation of lymphocytes in the first four days of treatment. In addition the drug led to a relative decrease of Natural Killer, B cells and CD8 T cells compared to CD4 T cells. However, treated cells were still viable after the first period in culture and begun to proliferate, strikingly, in a dose dependent manner when the drug was removed from the environment by replacing the culture medium. This novel data does not necessarily predict a similar behaviour in vivo, but can warn about the clinical use of this drug when a discontinuation of treatment with Tofa is considered for any reason.

  14. Fate of lymphocytes after withdrawal of tofacitinib treatment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisa Piscianz

    Full Text Available Tofacitinib (Tofa is an inhibitor of Janus Kinase 3, developed for the treatment of autoimmune diseases and for the prevention of transplant rejection. Due to its selective action on proliferating cells, Tofa can offer a way to block T cell activation, without toxic effects on resting cells. However, few studies have investigated the effects of Tofa on lymphocyte activation in vitro. Our aim was to study the action of Tofa on different lymphocyte subsets after in vitro stimulation and to track the behaviour of treated cells after interruption of the treatment. Peripheral blood lymphocytes were stimulated in vitro with mitogen and treated with two concentrations of Tofa. After a first period in culture, cells were washed and further incubated for an additional time. Lymphocyte subsets, activation phenotype and proliferation were assessed at the different time frames. As expected, Tofa was able to reduce the activation and proliferation of lymphocytes in the first four days of treatment. In addition the drug led to a relative decrease of Natural Killer, B cells and CD8 T cells compared to CD4 T cells. However, treated cells were still viable after the first period in culture and begun to proliferate, strikingly, in a dose dependent manner when the drug was removed from the environment by replacing the culture medium. This novel data does not necessarily predict a similar behaviour in vivo, but can warn about the clinical use of this drug when a discontinuation of treatment with Tofa is considered for any reason.

  15. Subpopulation of lymphocytes in patients with cancer of the head and neck

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshida, Atsuhiro; Tomita, Kinai; Toda, Norikazu; Sekine, Kiyoshi; Mizugoe, Takanori

    1978-01-01

    On 31 patients with cancer of the head and neck, lymphocyte count and T- and B-cell levels were determined, and their changes following radiotherapy and the effect of picibanil on their changes were examined. 1) Lymphocyte count and T-cell count decreased remarkably following radiotherapy. B-cell count changed a little. Changes in lymphocyte count seemed chiefly to be due to changes in T-cell. 2) At 3 weeks after radiotherapy, lymphocyte count and T-cell count remained to be low in the patients who were not given picibanil, but those counts tended to increase in the patients who were given picibanil. The effect of picibanil was statistically significant in the experienced cases except those of maxillary cancer. 3) At 3 weeks after radiotherapy, T-cell count was significantly low in those who were not given picibanil and had unfavourable prognosis. 4) With 5 times repeated intramuscular injections of picibanil (0.2 KE), T-cell % and T-cell count increased in some cases. (Ueda, J.)

  16. Two small lymphocyte subpopulations in human peripheral blood. I. Purification and surface marker profiles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hokland, M; Hokland, P; Heron, I

    1978-01-01

    By means of simple rosette sedimentation methods two subsets from human peripheral blood lymphocytes have been isolated: (1) (E, Fc)- and (2) (E, Ig)-. The first subset was obtained by centrifuging suspensions of macrophage-depleted PBL in which E and EA rosettes had been allowed to form simultan......By means of simple rosette sedimentation methods two subsets from human peripheral blood lymphocytes have been isolated: (1) (E, Fc)- and (2) (E, Ig)-. The first subset was obtained by centrifuging suspensions of macrophage-depleted PBL in which E and EA rosettes had been allowed to form...... simultaneously. The dominant marker of these E- Fc- cells was surface Ig, and during 4 days of culture this population did not alter its surface markers. Subset 2 was obtained in two ways following rosette centrifugation with AET-treated SRBC and rabbit anti-human Ig-coated autologous RBC. This 'Null cell...

  17. Variable and subset selection in PLS regression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høskuldsson, Agnar

    2001-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to present some useful methods for introductory analysis of variables and subsets in relation to PLS regression. We present here methods that are efficient in finding the appropriate variables or subset to use in the PLS regression. The general conclusion...... is that variable selection is important for successful analysis of chemometric data. An important aspect of the results presented is that lack of variable selection can spoil the PLS regression, and that cross-validation measures using a test set can show larger variation, when we use different subsets of X, than...

  18. Lymphocyte maintenance during healthy aging requires no substantial alterations in cellular turnover.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westera, Liset; van Hoeven, Vera; Drylewicz, Julia; Spierenburg, Gerrit; van Velzen, Jeroen F; de Boer, Rob J; Tesselaar, Kiki; Borghans, José A M

    2015-04-01

    In healthy humans, lymphocyte populations are maintained at a relatively constant size throughout life, reflecting a balance between lymphocyte production and loss. Given the profound immunological changes that occur during healthy aging, including a significant decline in T-cell production by the thymus, lymphocyte maintenance in the elderly is generally thought to require homeostatic alterations in lymphocyte dynamics. Surprisingly, using in vivo (2) H2 O labeling, we find similar dynamics of most lymphocyte subsets between young adult and elderly healthy individuals. As the contribution of thymic output to T-cell production is only minor from young adulthood onward, compensatory increases in peripheral T-cell division rates are not required to maintain the T-cell pool, despite a tenfold decline in thymic output. These fundamental insights will aid the interpretation of further research into aging and clinical conditions related to disturbed lymphocyte dynamics. © 2015 The Authors. Aging Cell published by the Anatomical Society and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Oligonol Supplementation Affects Leukocyte and Immune Cell Counts after Heat Loading in Humans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeong Beom Lee

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Oligonol is a low-molecular-weight form of polyphenol and has antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activity, making it a potential promoter of immunity. This study investigates the effects of oligonol supplementation on leukocyte and immune cell counts after heat loading in 19 healthy male volunteers. The participants took a daily dose of 200 mg oligonol or a placebo for 1 week. After a 2-week washout period, the subjects were switched to the other study arm. After each supplement, half-body immersion into hot water was made, and blood was collected. Then, complete and differential blood counts were performed. Flow cytometry was used to enumerate and phenotype lymphocyte subsets. Serum concentrations of interleukin (IL-1β and IL-6 in blood samples were analyzed. Lymphocyte subpopulation variables included counts of total T cells, B cells, and natural killer (NK cells. Oligonol intake attenuated elevations in IL-1β (an 11.1-fold change vs. a 13.9-fold change immediately after heating; a 12.0-fold change vs. a 12.6-fold change 1h after heating and IL-6 (an 8.6-fold change vs. a 9.9-fold change immediately after heating; a 9.1-fold change vs. a 10.5-fold change 1h after heating immediately and 1 h after heating in comparison to those in the placebo group. Oligonol supplementation led to significantly higher numbers of leukocytes (a 30.0% change vs. a 21.5% change immediately after heating; a 13.5% change vs. a 3.5% change 1h after heating and lymphocytes (a 47.3% change vs. a 39.3% change immediately after heating; a 19.08% change vs. a 2.1% change 1h after heating relative to those in the placebo group. Oligonol intake led to larger increases in T cells, B cells, and NK cells at rest (p < 0.05, p < 0.05, and p < 0.001, respectively and immediately after heating (p < 0.001 in comparison to those in the placebo group. In addition, levels of T cells (p < 0.001 and B cells (p < 0.001 were significantly higher 1 h after heating in comparison to those in

  20. Platelet indices and neutrophil to lymphocyte ratio in adults with ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: A study was performed in adults with acute appendicitis and matched controls to assess the utility of the platelet indices and neutrophil to lymphocyte ratio, as a diagnostic adjunct. Methods: Data were retrospectively collected from a complete blood count test of 155 adult patients (72 men and 83 women) with ...

  1. Development of a synchronous subset of AADL

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Filali, Mamoun; Lawall, Julia

    2010-01-01

    We study the definition and the mapping of an AADL subset: the so called synchronous subset. We show that the data port protocol used for delayed and immediate connections between periodic threads can be interpreted in a  synchronous way. In this paper, we formalize this interpretation and study ...... the development of its mapping such that the original synchronous semantics is preserved. For that purpose, we use refinements through the Event B method....

  2. Effect of postirradiation anoxia on radiosensitivity of lymphocytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schrek, R.

    1976-01-01

    Radiosensitivity was measured by viable-lymphocyte counts and by uridine uptake. The viability of the lymphocytes was based on morphologic characteristics visualized by phase contrast microscopy of the cells in a special slide chamber. Low doses of x rays (10 to 1000 R) and incubation at 37 0 C killed lymphocytes in interphase with the production of pyknotic nuclei (nuclear death), and large doses (6000 R) produced nuclei with clear nucleoplasm (cytoplasmic death). Nuclear, but not cytoplasmic, death was inhibited by incubation of the irradiated cells at 27 0 C. Postirradiation anoxia had no effect on development of the nuclear and cytoplasmic death of lymphocytes irradiated with 100 to 6000 R. Anoxia had no effect on the early response of lymphocytes to phytohemagglutinin (PHA) [increase in ribonucleic acid (RNA) and protein synthesis] but inhibited completely the late effects [increase in deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) synthesis and transformation into lymphoblastoid cells]. The PHA caused relative radioresistance of lymphocytes under aerobic conditions and, to a lesser extent, under anaerobic conditions. The slight radioresistance induced by PHA in anoxic lymphocytes apparently did not depend on an increase in DNA synthesis or on the transformation to lymphoblastoid cells

  3. Chemokines, lymphocytes, and HIV

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farber J.M.

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available Chemokines are members of a family of more than 30 human cytokines whose best-described activities are as chemotactic factors for leukocytes and that are presumed to be important in leukocyte recruitment and trafficking. While many chemokines can act on lymphocytes, the roles of chemokines and their receptors in lymphocyte biology are poorly understood. The recent discoveries that chemokines can suppress infection by HIV-1 and that chemokine receptors serve, along with CD4, as obligate co-receptors for HIV-1 entry have lent urgency to studies on the relationships between chemokines and lymphocytes. My laboratory has characterized Mig and Crg-2/IP-10, chemokines that are induced by IFN-g and that specifically target lymphocytes, particularly activated T cells. We have demonstrated that the genes for these chemokines are widely expressed during experimental infections in mice with protozoan and viral pathogens, but that the patterns of mig and crg-2 expression differed, suggesting non-redundant roles in vivo. Our related studies to identify new chemokine receptors from activated lymphocytes resulted in the cloning of STRL22 and STRL33. We and others have shown that STRL22 is a receptor for the CC chemokine MIP-3a, and STRL22 has been re-named CCR6. Although STRL33 remains an orphan receptor, we have shown that it can function as a co-receptor for HIV-1 envelope glycoproteins, and that it is active with a broader range of HIV-1 envelope glycoproteins than the major co-receptors described to date. The ability of STRL33 to function with a wide variety of envelope glycoproteins may become particularly important if therapies are instituted to block other specific co-receptors. We presume that investigations into the roles of chemokines and their receptors in lymphocyte biology will provide information important for understanding the pathogenesis of AIDS and for manipulating immune and inflammatory responses for clinical benefit

  4. Elevated Neutrophil Lymphocyte Ratio in Recurrent Optic Neuritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hande Guclu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To demonstrate the relation between optic neuritis (ON and systemic inflammation markers as neutrophil lymphocyte ratio (N/L ratio, platelet count, mean platelet volume (MPV, and red cell distribution width (RDW and furthermore to evaluate the utilization of these markers to predict the frequency of the ON episodes. Methods. Forty-two patients with acute ON and forty healthy subjects were enrolled into the study. The medical records were reviewed for age, sex, hemoglobin (Hb, Haematocrit (Htc, RDW, platelet count, MPV, white blood cell count (WBC, neutrophil and lymphocyte count, and neutrophil lymphocyte ratio (N/L ratio. Results. The mean N/L ratio, platelet counts, and RDW were significantly higher in ON group (p=0.000, p=0.048, and p=0.002. There was a significant relation between N/L ratio and number of episodes (r=0.492, p=0.001. There was a statistically significant difference for MPV between one episode group and recurrent ON group (p=0.035. Conclusions. Simple and inexpensive laboratory methods could help us show systemic inflammation and monitor ON patients. Higher N/L ratio can be a useful marker for predicting recurrent attacks.

  5. Impact of chronic and acute academic stress on lymphocyte subsets and monocyte function.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viktoriya Maydych

    Full Text Available This study investigated the effects of a temporally confined naturalistic stressor (academic stress on immune functions. Furthermore, moderating influences of a number of psychological variables were assessed. Five blood samples were obtained from 20 students during an observation period of 8 weeks, starting 4.5 weeks before an exam period up to 1 week following the last exam. The analysis of 45 immune parameters revealed several time-dependent changes attributable to examination stress. We observed a reduction in the absolute numbers of natural killer (NK cells and monocytes in peripheral blood and a shift towards more immature and naïve cells within NK and T cell populations. In addition, IL-6 and TNF-α production by LPS-stimulated monocytes was increased. Psychological variables were grouped by means of factor analyses into two factors. One factor, which was interpreted as an indication of chronic stress, moderated the relationships between academic stress and percentages of mature CD57+ NK cells. This chronic stress factor was also associated with an increase in memory and a decrease in naïve CD8 T cells and increased serum levels of IL-17. The present study identifies important potential psychological mediators of stress-induced changes in specific immunological parameters.

  6. Systematic and Cell Type-Specific Telomere Length Changes in Subsets of Lymphocytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jue Lin

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Telomeres, the protective DNA-protein complexes at the ends of linear chromosomes, are important for genome stability. Leukocyte or peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMC telomere length is a potential biomarker for human aging that integrates genetic, environmental, and lifestyle factors and is associated with mortality and risks for major diseases. However, only a limited number of studies have examined longitudinal changes of telomere length and few have reported data on sorted circulating immune cells. We examined the average telomere length (TL in CD4+, CD8+CD28+, and CD8+CD28− T cells, B cells, and PBMCs, cross-sectionally and longitudinally, in a cohort of premenopausal women. We report that TL changes over 18 months were correlated among these three T cell types within the same participant. Additionally, PBMC TL change was also correlated with those of all three T cell types, and B cells. The rate of shortening for B cells was significantly greater than for the three T cell types. CD8+CD28− cells, despite having the shortest TL, showed significantly more rapid attrition when compared to CD8+CD28+ T cells. These results suggest systematically coordinated, yet cell type-specific responses to factors and pathways contribute to telomere length regulation.

  7. Flow cytometric analysis of lymphocyte subset in patients with neutropenia among atomic bomb survivors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Imamura, Nobutaka; Kimura, Akiro [Hiroshima Univ. (Japan). Research Inst. for Radiation Biology and Medicine

    1998-12-01

    In 51 patients (atomic bomb survivors 50, unexposed persons 1) who have had neutropenia for two years or more under indistinct cause, cell surface antigen was analyzed by flow cytometry. Twenty-nine cases of survivors were diagnosed as NK cell leukemia or NK cell cytosis because analysis data showed CD3(-), CD56(+) and CD57(+/-). Six cases were diagnosed as NK like T cell hypercytosis because analysis data showed CD3(+), CD56(+/-) and CD57(+). As for 15 cases, CD56(+) cell number was in range of 15.96{+-}5.35 of a normal person, and no relation with NK cell was recognized. But, CD4/CD8 ratio was higher than 2.1, and gain of T helper cell was recognized. One unexposed persons was diagnosed as chronic NK cell leukemia because analysis data showed CD3(-), CD56(+) and CD57(+). Anti-neutrophil antibody wasn't recognized. Cytotoxic activity for K562 and Raji cell line showed high value compared with that of a normal person. Epstein Barr virus wasn't detected. (K.H.)

  8. Long term impact of high titer Edmonston-Zagreb measles vaccine on T lymphocyte subsets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lisse, I M; Aaby, P; Knudsen, K

    1994-01-01

    Several trials of high titer measles vaccine (> 10(4.7) plaque-forming unit) have found female recipients of Edmonston-Zagreb (EZ) vaccine to have lower survival than female recipients of standard measles vaccine. Two trials with medium and high titer EZ vaccine from the age of 4 months were...

  9. Occupational exposure to diesel engine exhaust and alterations in lymphocyte subsets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lan, Qing; Vermeulen, Roel; Dai, Yufei; Ren, Dianzhi; Hu, Wei; Duan, Huawei; Niu, Yong; Xu, Jun; Fu, Wei; Meliefste, Kees; Zhou, Baosen; Yang, Jufang; Ye, Meng; Jia, Xiaowei; Meng, Tao; Bin, Ping; Kim, Christopher; Bassig, Bryan A; Hosgood, H Dean; Silverman, Debra; Zheng, Yuxin; Rothman, Nathaniel

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The International Agency for Research on Cancer recently classified diesel engine exhaust (DEE) as a Group I carcinogen based largely on its association with lung cancer. However, the exposure-response relationship is still a subject of debate and the underlying mechanism by which DEE

  10. Determining random counts in liquid scintillation counting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horrocks, D.L.

    1979-01-01

    During measurements involving coincidence counting techniques, errors can arise due to the detection of chance or random coincidences in the multiple detectors used. A method and the electronic circuits necessary are here described for eliminating this source of error in liquid scintillation detectors used in coincidence counting. (UK)

  11. Band Subset Selection for Hyperspectral Image Classification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chunyan Yu

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper develops a new approach to band subset selection (BSS for hyperspectral image classification (HSIC which selects multiple bands simultaneously as a band subset, referred to as simultaneous multiple band selection (SMMBS, rather than one band at a time sequentially, referred to as sequential multiple band selection (SQMBS, as most traditional band selection methods do. In doing so, a criterion is particularly developed for BSS that can be used for HSIC. It is a linearly constrained minimum variance (LCMV derived from adaptive beamforming in array signal processing which can be used to model misclassification errors as the minimum variance. To avoid an exhaustive search for all possible band subsets, two numerical algorithms, referred to as sequential (SQ and successive (SC algorithms are also developed for LCMV-based SMMBS, called SQ LCMV-BSS and SC LCMV-BSS. Experimental results demonstrate that LCMV-based BSS has advantages over SQMBS.

  12. Acute Lymphocytic Leukemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... that may increase the risk of acute lymphocytic leukemia include: Previous cancer treatment. Children and adults who've had certain types of chemotherapy and radiation therapy for other kinds of cancer may have an increased ... leukemia. Exposure to radiation. People exposed to very high ...

  13. A Typical Immune T/B Subset Profile Characterizes Bicuspid Aortic Valve: In an Old Status?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmela R. Balistreri

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Bicuspid valve disease is associated with the development of thoracic aortic aneurysm. The molecular mechanisms underlying this association still need to be clarified. Here, we evaluated the circulating levels of T and B lymphocyte subsets associated with the development of vascular diseases in patients with bicuspid aortic valve or tricuspid aortic valve with and without thoracic aortic aneurysm. We unveiled that the circulating levels of the MAIT, CD4+IL−17A+, and NKT T cell subsets were significantly reduced in bicuspid valve disease cases, when compared to tricuspid aortic valve cases in either the presence or the absence of thoracic aortic aneurysm. Among patients with tricuspid aortic valve, these cells were higher in those also affected by thoracic aortic aneurysm. Similar data were obtained by examining CD19+ B cells, naïve B cells (IgD+CD27−, memory unswitched B cells (IgD+CD27+, memory switched B cells (IgD−CD27+, and double-negative B cells (DN (IgD−CD27−. These cells resulted to be lower in subjects with bicuspid valve disease with respect to patients with tricuspid aortic valve. In whole, our data indicate that patients with bicuspid valve disease show a quantitative reduction of T and B lymphocyte cell subsets. Future studies are encouraged to understand the molecular mechanisms underlying this observation and its pathophysiological significance.

  14. Changes in T-cell subsets after radiation therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, S.J.; Rafla, S.; Youssef, E.; Selim, H.; Salloum, N.; Chuang, J.Y.

    1988-01-01

    The T-cell subsets of 129 patients with cancer were counted before and after radiation therapy. The cells were labeled with monoclonal antibodies that were specific for each type of T cell. Significant changes after therapy were decreases in the proportion of T-helper/inducer cells, pan-T cells, and in the ratio of T-helper/inducer to T-suppressor/cytotoxic cells. There was an increase in the percentage of T-suppressor/cytotoxic cells. When the site of the primary cancer was considered, genitourinary cancer and cancer of the head and neck both showed a decreased percentage of T-helper/inducer cells and a reduced ratio of T-helper/inducer to T-suppressor/cytotoxic cells. The percentage of pan-T cells in head and neck cancer and the ratio of T-helper/inducer to T-suppressor/cytotoxic cells in breast cancer were decreased. The percentage of T-helper cells was particularly decreased by radiation therapy in advanced stages of cancer, in higher grade tumors, and in larger tumors. The absolute numbers of various T-cell subsets were decreased in all groups

  15. Effects of exogenous and endogenous IL-2 on irradiated human peripheral blood lymphocytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Lansheng; Wang Ninghai; Luan Meiling

    1993-08-01

    Human peripheral blood lymphocytes were irradiated with 1 to 40 Gy of γ-ray, and then cultured with PHA to prepare supernatant containing IL-2 for observation of kinetics of endogenous IL-2 production and reversion of lymphocyte proliferation after adding a highly purified IL-2. IL-2 activity was determined by the ability to sustain IL-2 dependent cell line (CTLL), lymphocyte proliferation was determined by 3 H-TdR incorporation and T lymphocyte subsets by monoclonal antibodies. The experimental results showed that lymphocytes exposed to 60 Co synthesized less DNA than nonirradiated lymphocytes. The inhibitory effect can partially reversed by purified IL-2 at the γ-ray dose range of 1 to 10 Gy, while irradiation with 2.5 Gy resulted in a reduction of T cells and T subsets, and increase in CD + 4 /CD + 8 ratio. The ratio of subsets recovered after adding IL-2. The kinetics of IL-2 production showed that the endogenous IL-2 production rose markedly with increasing dose of irradiation at the range of 1 to 10 Gy, and the peak of IL-2 production was at the γ-ray dose of 10 Gy

  16. Effects of noise exposure on catalase activity of growing lymphocytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syed Kashif Nawaz

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Oxidative stress due to noise was estimated at cell level using model of growing lymphocytes. Lymphocytes were isolated and cultured using conventional methodology. Cell culture of each group was exposed to sound of frequency 1 KHz during incubation. Three groups were defined on the basis of exposure of sound with specific range of intensity and duration of exposure. Group A and Group B were exposed to sound with intensity 110 dBA for four hours per day and for eight hours per day respectively. Control group was exposed to sound less than 85 dBA. Viable cell count was performed using trypan blue. Catalase activity of each group was estimated using ELISA kit.Viable cell count of Group A and Group B was almost same but significantly less than that of control group. Catalase activity of lymphocytes in Group B was significantly low as compared to Group A and controls (p=0.003,p< 0.05. There was no significant difference between catalase activity of Group A and control group.Exposure of sound with frequency 1 KHz and intensity 110 dBA for 4 hours and eight hours per day may induce oxidative stress in growing lymphocytes causing the difference in viable cell count. However the catalase activity depends on duration of exposure. In case of noise exposure of 8 hours per day, it declines significantly as compared to noise exposure of 4 hours per day.

  17. Association of psychological stress response of fatigue with white blood cell count in male daytime workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishitani, Naoko; Sakakibara, Hisataka

    2014-01-01

    Relationships between work-related psychological and physical stress responses and counts of white blood cells (WBCs), neutrophils, and lymphocytes were investigated in 101 daytime workers. Counts of WBCs and neutrophils were positively associated with smoking and inversely correlated with high density lipoprotein (HDL)-cholesterol levels. Additionally, general fatigue score as measured by the profile of mood state was positively correlated with WBC and neutrophil counts whereas lymphocyte counts was not significantly associated with fatigue score. Multiple regression analysis showed that WBC count was significantly related to general fatigue, age, and HDL-cholesterol levels. Neutrophil count was significantly related to HDL-cholesterol levels and fatigue score. Among various psychological stress response variables, general fatigue may be a key determinant of low-grade inflammation as represented by increases of WBC and neutrophil counts.

  18. Distributional and efficiency results for subset selection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Laan, van der P.

    1996-01-01

    Assume k (??k \\geq 2) populations are given. The associated independent random variables have continuous distribution functions with an unknown location parameter. The statistical selec??tion goal is to select a non??empty subset which contains the best population,?? that is the pop??ulation with

  19. Invariant subsets under compact quantum group actions

    OpenAIRE

    Huang, Huichi

    2012-01-01

    We investigate compact quantum group actions on unital $C^*$-algebras by analyzing invariant subsets and invariant states. In particular, we come up with the concept of compact quantum group orbits and use it to show that countable compact metrizable spaces with infinitely many points are not quantum homogeneous spaces.

  20. Subset specification of central serotonergic neurons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marten P Smidt

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The last decade the serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine; 5-HT system has received enormous attention due to its role in regulation of behavior, exemplified by the discovery that increased 5-HT tone in the central nervous system is able to alleviate affective disorders. Here, we review the developmental processes, with a special emphasis on subset specification, leading to the formation of the 5-HT system in the brain. Molecular classification of 5-HT neuronal groups leads to the definition of two independent rostral groups positioned in rhombomere 1 and 2/3 and a caudal group in rhombomere 5-8. In addition, more disperse refinement of these subsets is present as shown by the selective expression of the 5-HT1A autoreceptor, indicating functional diversity between 5-HT subsets. The functional significance of the molecular coding differences is not well known and the molecular basis of described specific connectivity patterns remain to be elucidated. Recent developments in genetic lineage tracing models will provide these data and form a major step-up towards the full understanding of the importance of developmental programming and function of 5-HT neuronal subsets.

  1. Ibrutinib-induced lymphocytosis in patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Herman, S E M; Niemann, C U; Farooqui, M

    2014-01-01

    Ibrutinib and other targeted inhibitors of B-cell receptor signaling achieve impressive clinical results for patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL). A treatment-induced rise in absolute lymphocyte count (ALC) has emerged as a class effect of kinase inhibitors in CLL and warrants further...... investigation. Here we report correlative studies in 64 patients with CLL treated with ibrutinib. We quantified tumor burden in blood, lymph nodes (LNs), spleen and bone marrow, assessed phenotypic changes of circulating cells and measured whole-blood viscosity. With just one dose of ibrutinib, the average...

  2. Clean Hands Count

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Like this video? Sign in to make your opinion count. Sign in 131 2 Don't like this video? Sign in to make your opinion count. Sign in 3 Loading... Loading... Transcript The ...

  3. The Big Pumpkin Count.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coplestone-Loomis, Lenny

    1981-01-01

    Pumpkin seeds are counted after students convert pumpkins to jack-o-lanterns. Among the activities involved, pupils learn to count by 10s, make estimates, and to construct a visual representation of 1,000. (MP)

  4. Association of peripheral NK cell counts with Helios+ IFN-γ- Tregs in patients with good long-term renal allograft function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trojan, K; Zhu, L; Aly, M; Weimer, R; Bulut, N; Morath, C; Opelz, G; Daniel, V

    2017-06-01

    Little is known about a possible interaction of natural killer (NK) cells with regulatory T cells (T reg ) in long-term stable kidney transplant recipients. Absolute counts of lymphocyte and T reg subsets were studied in whole blood samples of 136 long-term stable renal transplant recipients and 52 healthy controls using eight-colour fluorescence flow cytometry. Patients were 1946 ± 2201 days (153-10 268 days) post-transplant and showed a serum creatinine of 1·7 ± 0·7 mg/dl. Renal transplant recipients investigated > 1·5 years post-transplant showed higher total NK cell counts than recipients studied express the phenotype Helios + interferon (IFN)-γ - and appear to have stable FoxP3 expression and originate from the thymus. Furthermore, high total NK cells were associated with T reg that co-express the phenotypes interleukin (IL)-10 - transforming growth factor (TGF)-β + (P = 0·013), CD183 + CD62L - (P = 0·003), CD183 + CD62 + (P = 0·001), CD183 - CD62L + (P = 0·002), CD252 - CD152 + (P term good allograft function and the statistical association of these two lymphocyte subsets with each other suggest a direct or indirect (via DC) interaction of these cell subpopulations that contributes to good long-term allograft acceptance. Moreover, we speculate that regulatory NK cells are formed late post-transplant that are able to inhibit graft-reactive effector cells. © 2017 British Society for Immunology.

  5. A comparison of the neutrophil-lymphocyte, platelet-lymphocyte and monocyte-lymphocyte ratios in schizophrenia and bipolar disorder patients - a retrospective file review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Özdin, Selçuk; Sarisoy, Gökhan; Böke, Ömer

    2017-10-01

    Neutrophil-lymphocyte ratio (NLR), platelet-lymphocyte ratio (PLR) and monocyte-lymphocyte ratio (MLR) have recently been used as indicators of inflammation. Higher MLR and PLR values have been determined in the euthymic and manic periods in patients with bipolar disorder compared to a control group. High NLR values were determined in the only study investigating this ratio in schizophrenia patients. The purpose of this study was to compare NLR, PLR and MLR values and complete blood count elements in patients receiving treatment and hospitalized due to schizophrenic psychotic episode and bipolar disorder manic episode. All patients meeting the inclusion criteria among subjects receiving treatment and hospitalized due to schizophrenia-psychotic episode and bipolar affective disorder-manic episode at the Ondokuz Mayıs University Medical Faculty Psychiatry Department, Turkey, in 2012-2016 were included in our study. A total of 157 healthy donors were included as a control group. White blood cell (WBC), neutrophil, lymphocyte, platelet and monocyte numbers were noted retrospectively from complete blood counts at time of admission, and NLR, PLR and MLR were calculated from these. NLR, PLR and MLR values and platelet numbers in this study were higher and lymphocyte numbers were lower in bipolar disorder patients compared to the controls. Elevation in NLR, MLR and PLR values and neutrophil numbers and lower lymphocyte numbers were determined in schizophrenia patients compared to the controls. Higher NLR and MLR values were found in schizophrenia patients compared to bipolar disorder. Findings of our study supported the inflammation hypothesis for schizophrenia and bipolar disorder.

  6. Detection of cardiac transplant rejection with radiolabeled lymphocytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bergmann, S.R.; Lerch, R.A.; Carlson, E.M.; Saffitz, J.E.; Sobel, B.E.

    1982-01-01

    To determine whether rejections of cardiac transplants could be detected specifically and non-invasively by lymphocytes labeled with indium-111 (111In), we studied 36 allogeneic and 14 isogeneic heterotopic cardiac transplants in rats. Allogeneic grafts accumulated autologous 111In-lymphocytes, detectable scintigraphically 24 hours after i.v. injection of the labeled cells. At the time of peak histologic rejection, the allogeneic grafts accumulated 92. +/- 4.8 times more activity than the native hearts (determined by well counting). The tissue-to-blood ratio in the rejecting transplants was 3.7 +/- 2.2; total uptake by the graft was 2.9 +/- 2.1% of the injected dose. Autoradiography confirmed that graft radioactivity was associated with labeled lymphocytes. In contrast, isogeneic grafts showed no signs of rejection and did not accumulate radioactivity. Because conventionally isolated and labeled lymphocytes are often contaminated with platelets, we prepared both 111In-platelets and purified 111In-lymphocytes for use in additional experiments. Allogeneic grafts accumulated platelets and purified lymphocytes independently. Thus, deposition of immunologically active cells in the rejecting graft representing specific pathophysiologic events can be detected. The results suggest that rejection of cardiac transplants can be detected noninvasively, potentially facilitating objective early clinical detection of rejection and titration of antirejection therapy

  7. Molecular Mechanisms of Particle Ration Induced Apoptosis in Lymphocyte

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Yufang

    Space radiation, composed of high-energy charged nuclei (HZE particles) and protons, has been previously shown to severely impact immune homeostasis in mice. To determine the molecular mechanisms that mediate acute lymphocyte depletion following exposure to HZE particle radiation mice were exposed to particle radiation beams at Brookhaven National Laboratory. We found that mice given whole body 5 6Fe particle irradiation (1GeV /n) had dose-dependent losses in total lymphocyte numbers in the spleen and thymus (using 200, 100 and 50 cGy), with thymocytes being more sensitive than splenocytes. All phenotypic subsets were reduced in number. In general, T cells and B cells were equally sensitive, while CD8+ T cells were more senstive than CD4+ T cells. In the thymus, immature CD4+CD8+ double-positive thymocytes were exquisitely sensitive to radiation-induced losses, single-positive CD4 or CD8 cells were less sensitive, and the least mature double negative cells were resistant. Irradiation of mice deficient in genes encoding essential apoptosis-inducing proteins revealed that the mechanism of lymphocyte depletion is independent of Fas ligand and TRAIL (TNF-ralated apoptosis-inducing ligand), in contrast to γ-radiation-induced lymphocyte losses which require the Fas-FasL pathway. Using inhibitors in vitro, lymphocyte apoptosis induced by HZE particle radiation was found to be caspase dependent, and not involve nitric oxide or oxygen free radicals.

  8. Circulating TFH subset distribution is strongly affected in lupus patients with an active disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carole Le Coz

    Full Text Available Follicular helper T cells (TFH represent a distinct subset of CD4(+ T cells specialized in providing help to B lymphocytes, which may play a central role in autoimmune diseases having a major B cell component such as systemic lupus erythematosus. Recently, TFH subsets that share common phenotypic and functional characteristics with TFH cells from germinal centers, have been described in the peripheral blood from healthy individuals. The aim of this study was to analyze the distribution of such populations in lupus patients. Circulating TFH cell subsets were defined by multicolor flow cytometry as TFH17 (CXCR3(-CCR6(+, TFH1 (CXCR3 (+ CCR6(- or TFH2 (CXCR3(-CCR6(- cells among CXCR5 (+ CD45RA(-CD4(+ T cells in the peripheral blood of 23 SLE patients and 23 sex and age-matched healthy controls. IL-21 receptor expression by B cells was analyzed by flow cytometry and the serum levels of IL-21 and Igs were determined by ELISA tests. We found that the TFH2 cell subset frequency is strongly and significantly increased in lupus patients with an active disease (SLEDAI score>8, while the TFH1 cell subset percentage is greatly decreased. The TFH2 and TFH1 cell subset frequency alteration is associated with the presence of high Ig levels and autoantibodies in patient's sera. Moreover, the TFH2 cell subset enhancement correlates with an increased frequency of double negative memory B cells (CD27(-IgD(-CD19(+ cells expressing the IL-21R. Finally, we found that IgE levels in lupus patients' sera correlate with disease activity and seem to be associated with high TFH2 cell subset frequency. In conclusion, our study describes for the first time the distribution of circulating TFH cell subsets in lupus patients. Interestingly, we found an increased frequency of TFH2 cells, which correlates with disease activity. Our results suggest that this subset might play a key role in lupus pathogenesis.

  9. Radiation counting statistics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suh, M. Y.; Jee, K. Y.; Park, K. K.; Park, Y. J.; Kim, W. H

    1999-08-01

    This report is intended to describe the statistical methods necessary to design and conduct radiation counting experiments and evaluate the data from the experiment. The methods are described for the evaluation of the stability of a counting system and the estimation of the precision of counting data by application of probability distribution models. The methods for the determination of the uncertainty of the results calculated from the number of counts, as well as various statistical methods for the reduction of counting error are also described. (Author). 11 refs., 8 tabs., 8 figs.

  10. Radiation counting statistics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suh, M. Y.; Jee, K. Y.; Park, K. K. [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea)

    1999-08-01

    This report is intended to describe the statistical methods necessary to design and conduct radiation counting experiments and evaluate the data from the experiments. The methods are described for the evaluation of the stability of a counting system and the estimation of the precision of counting data by application of probability distribution models. The methods for the determination of the uncertainty of the results calculated from the number of counts, as well as various statistical methods for the reduction of counting error are also described. 11 refs., 6 figs., 8 tabs. (Author)

  11. Radiation counting statistics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suh, M. Y.; Jee, K. Y.; Park, K. K.; Park, Y. J.; Kim, W. H.

    1999-08-01

    This report is intended to describe the statistical methods necessary to design and conduct radiation counting experiments and evaluate the data from the experiment. The methods are described for the evaluation of the stability of a counting system and the estimation of the precision of counting data by application of probability distribution models. The methods for the determination of the uncertainty of the results calculated from the number of counts, as well as various statistical methods for the reduction of counting error are also described. (Author). 11 refs., 8 tabs., 8 figs

  12. The CD8⁺ memory stem T cell (T(SCM)) subset is associated with improved prognosis in chronic HIV-1 infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribeiro, Susan P; Milush, Jeffrey M; Cunha-Neto, Edecio; Kallas, Esper G; Kalil, Jorge; Somsouk, Ma; Hunt, Peter W; Deeks, Steven G; Nixon, Douglas F; SenGupta, Devi

    2014-12-01

    Memory stem T cells (T(SCM)) constitute a long-lived, self-renewing lymphocyte population essential for the maintenance of functional immunity. The hallmarks of HIV-1 pathogenesis are CD4(+) T cell depletion and abnormal cellular activation. We investigated the impact of HIV-1 infection on the T(SCM) compartment, as well as any protective role these cells may have in disease progression, by characterizing this subset in a cohort of 113 subjects with various degrees of viral control on and off highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART). We observed that the frequency of CD8(+) T(SCM) was decreased in all individuals with chronic, untreated HIV-1 infection and that HAART had a restorative effect on this subset. In contrast, natural controllers of HIV-1 had the highest absolute number of CD4(+) T(SCM) cells among all of the infected groups. The frequency of CD4(+) T(SCM) predicted higher CD8(+) T(SCM) frequencies, consistent with a role for the CD4(+) subset in helping to maintain CD8(+) memory T cells. In addition, T(SCM) appeared to be progenitors for effector T cells (TEM), as these two compartments were inversely correlated. Increased frequencies of CD8(+) T(SCM) predicted lower viral loads, higher CD4(+) counts, and less CD8(+) T cell activation. Finally, we found that T(SCM) express the mucosal homing integrin α4β7 and can be identified in gut-associated lymphoid tissue (GALT). The frequency of mucosal CD4(+) T(SCM) was inversely correlated with that in the blood, potentially reflecting the ability of these self-renewing cells to migrate to a crucial site of ongoing viral replication and CD4(+) T cell depletion. HIV-1 infection leads to profound impairment of the immune system. T(SCM) constitute a recently identified lymphocyte subset with stem cell-like qualities, including the ability to generate other memory T cell subtypes, and are therefore likely to play an important role in controlling viral infection. We investigated the relationship between the size

  13. Quantitative trait loci for CD4:CD8 lymphocyte ratio are associated with risk of type 1 diabetes and HIV-1 immune control

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ferreira, Manuel A. R.; Mangino, Massimo; Brumme, Chanson J.; Zhao, Zhen Zhen; Medland, Sarah E.; Wright, Margaret J.; Nyholt, Dale R.; Gordon, Scott; Campbell, Megan; McEvoy, Brian P.; Henders, Anjali; Evans, David M.; Lanchbury, Jerry S.; Pereyra, Florencia; Walker, Bruce D.; Haas, David W.; Soranzo, Nicole; Spector, Tim D.; de Bakker, Paul I. W.; Frazer, Ian H.; Montgomery, Grant W.; Martin, Nicholas G.; Agan, Brian; Agarwal, Shanu; Allen, Brady; Altidor, Sherly; Altschuler, Eric; Ambardar, Sujata; Anastos, Kathryn; Anderson, Ben; Andrady, Ushan; Angell, Teresa; Appelbaum, Jonathan; Arnold, Kathy; Arroyo, Julio; Arthur, Ernie; Barbaro, Daniel; Barrett, Tom; Barrie, William; Barthel, Vincent; Bartlett, Mary E.; Barton, Simon; Basden, Pat; Basgoz, Nesli; Bellos, Nicholas; Berger, Judith; Bernard, Annette; Bernard, Nicole; Blair, Donald; Schuitemaker, Hanneke

    2010-01-01

    Abnormal expansion or depletion of particular lymphocyte subsets is associated with clinical manifestations such as HIV progression to AIDS and autoimmune disease. We sought to identify genetic predictors of lymphocyte levels and reasoned that these may play a role in immune-related diseases. We

  14. Differential adipokine receptor expression on circulating leukocyte subsets in lean and obese children.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Genoveva Keustermans

    Full Text Available Childhood obesity prevalence has increased worldwide and is an important risk factor for type 2 diabetes (T2D and cardiovascular disease (CVD. The production of inflammatory adipokines by obese adipose tissue contributes to the development of T2D and CVD. While levels of circulating adipokines such as adiponectin and leptin have been established in obese children and adults, the expression of adiponectin and leptin receptors on circulating immune cells can modulate adipokine signalling, but has not been studied so far. Here, we aim to establish the expression of adiponectin and leptin receptors on circulating immune cells in obese children pre and post-lifestyle intervention compared to normal weight control children.13 obese children before and after a 1-year lifestyle intervention were compared with an age and sex-matched normal weight control group of 15 children. Next to routine clinical and biochemical parameters, circulating adipokines were measured, and flow cytometric analysis of adiponectin receptor 1 and 2 (AdipoR1, AdipoR2 and leptin receptor expression on peripheral blood mononuclear cell subsets was performed.Obese children exhibited typical clinical and biochemical characteristics compared to controls, including a higher BMI-SD, blood pressure and circulating leptin levels, combined with a lower insulin sensitivity index (QUICKI. The 1-year lifestyle intervention resulted in stabilization of their BMI-SD. Overall, circulating leukocyte subsets showed distinct adipokine receptor expression profiles. While monocytes expressed high levels of all adipokine receptors, NK and iNKT cells predominantly expressed AdipoR2, and B-lymphocytes and CD4+ and CD8+ T-lymphocyte subsets expressed AdipoR2 as well as leptin receptor. Strikingly though, leukocyte subset numbers and adipokine receptor expression profiles were largely similar in obese children and controls. Obese children showed higher naïve B-cell numbers, and pre-intervention also

  15. MAJOR AND LYMPHOCYTE POPULATIONS OF HUMAN PERIPHERAL BLOOD LYMPHOCYTES AND THEIR REFERENCE VALUES, AS ASSAYED BY MULTI-COLOUR CYTOMETRY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. V. Khaidukov

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. Determination of lymphocyte subpopulations and their phenotypes is an important diagnostic feature, in order to elucidate some disturbances connected with immune system functioning. However, insufficient data are obtained when analyzing only major populations of peripheral lymphocytes. In order to perform clinical diagnostics, the data about minor lymphocytic populations and activated cellular pools seem to be more pertinent.Studies of peripheral blood cell subpopulations of healthy donors performed in different Russian regions allowed to assess quantitative distribution intervals for both major and minor immune cell subpopulations in humans. The results obtained, as compared with data from literature, provide an evidence for similar reference intervals for main immune cell subpopulations in healthy donors, independent on their habitation area.Present work has resulted into development of algorithms for cytometric studies and generation of certain panels of monoclonal antibodies enabling evaluation of all main lymphocyte subpopulations, as well as their minor subsets participating in emerging immune response. The distribution intervals have been estimated for such minor subpopulations, as B1- and B2-lymphocytes, memory B-cells, γδ- and αβT-cells, regulatory and naїve T-cells, cytotoxic and secretory NK-cell polupations.The results of present study, while been performed with peripheral blood of healthy donors, may provide a basis of reference values when studying subpopulation profile of immune cells.

  16. Binding of peanut lectin to germinal-centre cells: a marker for B-cell subsets of follicular lymphoma?

    OpenAIRE

    Rose, M. L.; Habeshaw, J. A.; Kennedy, R.; Sloane, J.; Wiltshaw, E.; Davies, A. J.

    1981-01-01

    The binding of horseradish-peroxidase-labelled peanut lectin (HRP-PNL) to cryostat sections of tonsil, lymphoma lymph nodes, reactive lymph nodes and miscellaneous tumours demonstrated that PNL binds selectively to lymphocytes in germinal centres. Lymph nodes from 21 patients with non-Hodgkin's lymphomas were phenotyped as cell suspensions for PNL binding, and the following surface markers: E rosetting, C3d, SIg, OK markers of T-cell subsets, Ig heavy-chain and light-chain classes. There was ...

  17. Selecting Optimal Subset of Security Controls

    OpenAIRE

    Yevseyeva, I.; Basto-Fernandes, V.; Michael, Emmerich, T. M.; Moorsel, van, A.

    2015-01-01

    Open Access journal Choosing an optimal investment in information security is an issue most companies face these days. Which security controls to buy to protect the IT system of a company in the best way? Selecting a subset of security controls among many available ones can be seen as a resource allocation problem that should take into account conflicting objectives and constraints of the problem. In particular, the security of the system should be improved without hindering productivity, ...

  18. Whole blood microculture assay of human lymphocyte function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pauly, J L; Han, T

    1976-11-01

    A whole blood microculture assay is described for measuring lymphocyte reactivity to mitogenic and antigenic stimulants. This assay employs heparinized whole blood, serum-free culture medium, microtiter plates, and a Multiple Automated Sample Harvester (MASH). When this assay is compared to other leukocyte assays, its major advantages include (1) the utilization of fewer lymphocytes per microculture, thuus reducing the amount of blood required per test while increasing the number of test agents and replicate cultures which can be employed in any given experiment; (2) the conservation of mitogens, antigens, drugs, enzymes, hormones, lymphokines, and other test agents, some of which are either expensive of difficult to prepare in large quantities; (3) the elimination of lymphocyte isolation and purification procedures which may disrupt the relative proportion of T cells, B cells and antigen-processing cells; and (4) the application of an automated harvester which simplifies and expedites procedures required for processing cells for liquid scintillation counting.

  19. Curcumin and Cholecalciferol in Treating Patients With Previously Untreated Stage 0-II Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia or Small Lymphocytic Lymphoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-01-26

    Contiguous Stage II Small Lymphocytic Lymphoma; Noncontiguous Stage II Small Lymphocytic Lymphoma; Stage 0 Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia; Stage I Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia; Stage I Small Lymphocytic Lymphoma; Stage II Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia

  20. Hierarchical modeling for rare event detection and cell subset alignment across flow cytometry samples.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew Cron

    Full Text Available Flow cytometry is the prototypical assay for multi-parameter single cell analysis, and is essential in vaccine and biomarker research for the enumeration of antigen-specific lymphocytes that are often found in extremely low frequencies (0.1% or less. Standard analysis of flow cytometry data relies on visual identification of cell subsets by experts, a process that is subjective and often difficult to reproduce. An alternative and more objective approach is the use of statistical models to identify cell subsets of interest in an automated fashion. Two specific challenges for automated analysis are to detect extremely low frequency event subsets without biasing the estimate by pre-processing enrichment, and the ability to align cell subsets across multiple data samples for comparative analysis. In this manuscript, we develop hierarchical modeling extensions to the Dirichlet Process Gaussian Mixture Model (DPGMM approach we have previously described for cell subset identification, and show that the hierarchical DPGMM (HDPGMM naturally generates an aligned data model that captures both commonalities and variations across multiple samples. HDPGMM also increases the sensitivity to extremely low frequency events by sharing information across multiple samples analyzed simultaneously. We validate the accuracy and reproducibility of HDPGMM estimates of antigen-specific T cells on clinically relevant reference peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMC samples with known frequencies of antigen-specific T cells. These cell samples take advantage of retrovirally TCR-transduced T cells spiked into autologous PBMC samples to give a defined number of antigen-specific T cells detectable by HLA-peptide multimer binding. We provide open source software that can take advantage of both multiple processors and GPU-acceleration to perform the numerically-demanding computations. We show that hierarchical modeling is a useful probabilistic approach that can provide a

  1. Use of pliable bags in liquid scintillation counting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simonnet, G.; Jacquet, M.A.; Sharif, A.; Engler, R.

    1981-01-01

    Pliable plastic bags have been used to replace glass or plastic vials for liquid scintillation counting. The two major advantages of this method are the lower cost of the plastic bags and the fact that, per sample, the radioactive waste is significantly reduced. The following parameters have been checked: the impermeability of the bags to various scintillator mixtures and the fact that neither the irregular shape of the bags nor their position in the counting chamber had any effect on the results of the counting. The latter was also constant with time, at least over a period of 10 days. The technique has been used to count the radioactivity of 3 H-DNA precipitates prepared from bacteria and lymphocytes and deposited on filters impregnated with only 200 μl scintillator. It is a method that can be applied to the counting of any samples deposited on filters and insoluble in scintillator. (author)

  2. Chronic lymphocytic leukemia cells display p53-dependent drug-induced Puma upregulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mackus, W. J. M.; Kater, A. P.; Grummels, A.; Evers, L. M.; Hooijbrink, B.; Kramer, M. H. H.; Castro, J. E.; Kipps, T. J.; van Lier, R. A. W.; van Oers, M. H. J.; Eldering, E.

    2005-01-01

    We investigated the apoptosis gene expression profile of chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) cells in relation to (1) normal peripheral and tonsillar B-cell subsets, (2) IgV(H) mutation status, and (3) effects of cytotoxic drugs. In accord with their noncycling, antiapoptotic status in vivo, CLL

  3. Not all IGHV3-21 chronic lymphocytic leukemias are equal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baliakas, Panagiotis; Agathangelidis, Andreas; Hadzidimitriou, Anastasia

    2015-01-01

    An unresolved issue in chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) is whether IGHV3-21 gene usage, in general, or the expression of stereotyped B-cell receptor immunoglobulin defining subset #2 (IGHV3-21/IGLV3-21), in particular, determines outcome for IGHV3-21-utilizing cases. We reappraised this issue...

  4. Not all IGHV3-21 chronic lymphocytic leukemias are equal: Prognostic considerations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P. Baliakas (P.); A. Agathangelidis (Andreas); A. Hadzidimitriou (A.); L.-A. Sutton (L.); E. Minga (Evangelia); A. Tsanousa (Athina); L. Scarfó (L.); Z. Davis (Zadie); X.-J. Yan (Xiao-Jie); T. Shanafelt (Tait); K. Plevova (K.); Y. Sandberg (Yorick); F.J. Vojdeman (Fie Juhl); M. Boudjogra (Myriam); T. Tzenou (T.); M. Chatzouli (Maria); C.C. Chu (Charles C.); S. Veronese (Silvio); A. Gardiner (Anne); A. Mansouri (Ahmed); O. Smedby; L.B. Pedersen (Lone Bredo); D. Moreno (Denis); K. van Lom (Kirsten); V. Giudicelli (Veronique); H.S. Francova (Hana Skuhrova); F. Nguyen-Khac (Florence); P. Panagiotidis (P.); G. Juliusson (Gunnar); L. Angelis (Lefteris); C. Anagnostopoulos (Constantinos); M.-P. Lefranc (Marie-Paule); M. Facco (Monica); L. Trentin (Livio); M. Catherwood (M.); M. Montillo (Marco); C.H. Geisler (Christian); A.W. Langerak (Anton); D. Pospisilova (Dagmar); N. Chiorazzi (Nicholas); D.G. Oscier (David Graham); D.F. Jelinek (Diane F.); N. Darzentas (Nikos); C. Belessi (C.); F. Davi (Frédéric); P. Ghia (Paolo); R. Rosenquist (R.); K. Stamatopoulos (Kostas)

    2015-01-01

    textabstractAn unresolved issue in chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) is whether IGHV3-21 gene usage, in general, or the expression of stereotyped B-cell receptor immunoglobulin defining subset #2 (IGHV3-21/IGLV3-21), in particular, determines outcome for IGHV3-21-utilizing cases. We reappraised

  5. Radiosensitivities of sensitized lymphocytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taniguchi, Kazuto

    1979-01-01

    Immunization of mice with cell antigens such as allogeneic tumor cells or xenogeneic erythrocytes raises a variety of immune reactions mediated by T lymphocytes: i.e. delayed type hypersensitivity (DTH), cytotoxicity, and antibody production. The radiosensitivities of these reactions were examined in mice exposed to 600 R x-irradiation a few hours before or after immunization. 1) DTH to xenogeneic erythrocytes, as demonstrated by footpad reaction, was not suppressed by irradiation 3 h before or after immunization. DTH to allogeneic tumor cells, as demonstrated by a migration inhibition test, hardly developed in mice that had been irradiated before or after immunization. It may have belonged to distinct types of delayed reactions which were mediated by distinct subpopulations of T lymphocytes. 2) Cytotoxicity against allogeneic cells and xenogeneic erythrocytes showed almost the same radiosensitivity. It was scarcely detected in mice that had been irradiated before immunization. However, a low but definite degree of cytotoxicity was detected in mice that had been irradiated only a few hours after immunization. Solubilized allogeneic cells instead of native cells were used as immunizing antigens. It was also possible for precursor cells with cytotoxicity to acquire a radioresistant nature by immunization of solubilized antigens, but native cells were required as stimulation for radioresistant precursor cells to differentiated into nature cytotoxic effector cells. 3) Antibody production against xenogeneic erythrocytes or allogeneic cells was almost completely depleted in mice that had been irradiated before or after immunization. It is possible that antibody production essentially requires cell division and clonal expansion of B lymphocytes. (Bell, E.)

  6. Monitoring of cardiac antirejection therapy with 111In lymphocytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lerch, R.A.; Bergmann, S.R.; Carlson, E.M.; Saffitz, J.E.; Sobel, B.E.

    1982-01-01

    To determine whether lymphocytes labeled with 111 In permit noninvasive assessment of antirejection therapy, we performed 40 allogeneic heterotopic cardiac transplants in rats. Antirejection therapy with azathioprine (30 mg/kg) and sodium salicylate (200 mg/kg) prolonged contractile function of the graft from 7.5 +/- 1.5 (s.d.) days in controls to 19.4 +/- 3.7 days in treated animals. Six to seven days after transplantation, autologous lymphocytes labeled with 111 In were injected intravenously in seven untreated and eight treated rats. Scintigraphy and organ counting were performed 24 hr after administration of labeled cells. At sacrifice all grafts in untreated rats exhibited contractile failure, whereas grafts in all treated rats were beating well. Transplants in untreated recipients exhibited marked accumulation of 111 In lymphocytes detectable scintigraphically, with ratios of 7.7 +/- 1.9 for the activity in the transplant over that in the native heart (HT/HO), as obtained by well counting. In contrast, accumulation was not scintigraphically detectable in transplants of treated rats, with HT/HO ratios of 2.6 +/- 1.8 (p less than 0.005). The results suggested that imaging with 111 In-labeled lymphocytes will permit noninvasive assessment of antirejection therapy

  7. Chronic lymphocytic leukaemia: An immunobiology approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kostareli Efterpi

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available B cell chronic lymphocytic leukaemia (CLL is the most common adult leukaemia that follows an extremely variable clinical course. Several important prognostic parameters defining pathogenic and clinical subgroups of CLL have been identified and validated recently. The biological significance of immunoglobulin (Ig heavy chain variable region gene (IgHV mutational status and associated ZAP-70 over-expression, CD38 and chromosomal aberrations have enabled to identify patients at high risk for early disease progression and inferior survival. Moreover, studies of the B cell antigen receptor (BCR structure and receptor signaling have been most helpful in revealing some new aspects of the biology of this disease. In particular, the analysis of IG genes has revealed that the expressed IgHV/IgKV/IgLV gene repertoires of CLL cells differ from those of normal B cells. A further unique feature of the CLL IG repertoire is the existence of subsets of cases with "stereotyped" BCRs. Accumulating molecular and phenotypic data support the notion that CLL development and evolution is not a simple scholastic event and strongly indicates a role for antigen in driving the cell of origin for at least some subsets of CLL cases.

  8. The Relationship Between 14C Urea Breath Test Results and Neutrophil/Lymphocyte and Platelet/Lymphocyte Ratios

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ertan Şahin

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Neutrophil/lymphocyte ratio (NLR and platelet/lymphocyte ratio (PLR are used as inflammatory markers in several diseases. However, there are little data regarding the diagnostic ability of NLR and PLR in Helicobacter pylori. We aimed to assess the association between the 14C urea breath test (14C-UBT results and NLR and PLR in H. pylori diagnosis. Methods: Results of 89 patients were retrospectively analysed in this study. According to the 14C-UBT results, patients were divided into two groups: H. pylori (+ and H. pylori (- (control group. Haematological parameters, including hemoglobine, white blood cell (WBC count, neutrophil count, lymphocyte count, NLR, platelet count, and PLR were compared between the two groups. Results: The mean total WBC count, neutrophil count, NLR and PLR in H. pylori (+ patients were significantly higher than in the control group (p<0.001 for all these parameters. In the receiver operating characteristic curve analysis, the cut-off value for NLR and PLR for the presence of H. pylori was calculated as ≥2.39 [sensitivity: 67.3%, specificity: 79.4%, area under the curve (AUC: 0.747 (0.637-0.856, p<0.0001] and ≥133.3 [sensitivity: 61.8%, specificity: 55.9%, AUC: 0.572 (0.447-0.697, p<0.05], respectively. Conclusion: The present study shows that NLR and PLR are associated with H. pylori positivity based on 14C-UBT, and they can be used as an additional biomarker for supporting the 14C-UBT results.

  9. Prediction of Pseudoexfoliation Syndrome and Pseudoexfoliation Glaucoma by Using Neutrophil to Lymphocyte Ratio and Platelet to Lymphocyte Ratio.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozgonul, Cem; Sertoglu, Erdim; Mumcuoglu, Tarkan; Ozge, Gokhan; Gokce, Gokcen

    2016-12-01

    To assess the levels of neutrophil to lymphocyte ratio (NLR) and platelet to lymphocyte ratio (PLR) in patients with pseudoexfoliation syndrome (PEX) and to compare the NLR and PLR results of patients with PEX, PEX glaucoma (PXG), and healthy controls. In total, 34 patients with PEX, 29 patients with PXG, and 42 healthy subjects were enrolled in this retrospective study. Complete ophthalmologic examination and complete blood count measurements were performed of all subjects. Complete blood counts were performed within 2 h of blood collection. There was a significant difference in NLR between PEX and control groups (p = 0.012) and PXG and control groups (p = 0.003). Also, a significant difference was found in PLR values between control and PXG groups (p = 0.024). Our study for the first time provides evidence that PLR and NLR may be useful for predicting the prognosis of PEX patients and progression to PXG.

  10. Determination of blood cell subtype concentrations from frozen whole blood samples using TruCount beads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langenskiöld, Cecilia; Mellgren, Karin; Abrahamsson, Jonas; Bemark, Mats

    2016-06-24

    In many studies it would be advantageous if blood samples could be collected and analyzed using flow cytometry at a later stage. Ideally, sample collection should involve little hands-on time, allow for long-term storage, and minimally influence the samples. Here we establish a flow cytometry antibody panel that can be used to determine granulocytes, monocytes, and lymphocyte subset concentrations in fresh and frozen whole blood using TruCount technology. The panel can be used on fresh whole-blood samples as well as whole-blood samples that have been frozen after mixing with 10% DMSO. Concentrations in frozen and fresh sample is highly correlated both when frozen within 4 h and the day after collection (r ≥ 0.98), and the estimated concentration in frozen samples was between 91 and 94% of that in fresh samples for all cell types. Using this method whole-blood samples can be frozen using a simple preparation method, and stored long-term before accurate determination of cell concentration. This allows for standardized analysis of the samples at a reference laboratory in multi-center studies. © 2016 International Clinical Cytometry Society. © 2016 International Clinical Cytometry Society.

  11. Small intestine in lymphocytic and collagenous colitis: mucosal morphology, permeability, and secretory immunity to gliadin.

    OpenAIRE

    Moayyedi, P; O'Mahony, S; Jackson, P; Lynch, D A; Dixon, M F; Axon, A T

    1997-01-01

    There is a recognised association between the "microscopic" forms of colitis and coeliac disease. There are a variety of subtle small intestinal changes in patients with "latent" gluten sensitivity, namely high intraepithelial lymphocyte (IEL) counts, abnormal mucosal permeability, and high levels of secretory IgA and IgM antibody to gliadin. These changes have hitherto not been investigated in microscopic colitis. Nine patients (four collagenous, five lymphocytic colitis) with normal villous...

  12. Neutrophil-to-lymphocyte and platelet-to-lymphocyte ratios: are they useful for predicting gestational diabetes mellitus during pregnancy?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sargın MA

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Mehmet Akif Sargın, Murat Yassa, Bilge Dogan Taymur, Ayhan Celik, Emrah Ergun, Niyazi Tug Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Fatih Sultan Mehmet Research and Training Hospital, Istanbul, Turkey Objective: We aimed to investigate whether the neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (NLR and platelet-to-lymphocyte ratio (PLR could be utilized to screen for gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM.Subjects and methods: NLR and PLR were assessed by retrospective analysis of 762 healthy and pregnant women with GDM. The patients were stratified into four groups, as follows: GDM (n=144, impaired glucose tolerance (n=76, only screen positive (n=238, and control (n=304.Results: The leukocyte, neutrophil, and lymphocyte counts were significantly higher in the study groups compared with the control group (P=0.001; P<0.01. There were no statistically significant differences between the groups with respect to the NLR and PLR (P>0.05.Conclusion: We do not recommend that blood NLR and PLR can be used to screen for GDM. However, increase in the leukocyte count is an important marker for GDM as it provides evidence of subclinical inflammation. Keywords: inflammation, lymphocytes, neutrophils, platelets, pregnancy

  13. T-cell chronic lymphocytic leukemia in a double yellow-headed Amazon parrot (Amazona ochrocephala oratrix).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osofsky, Anna; Hawkins, Michelle G; Foreman, Oded; Kent, Michael S; Vernau, William; Lowenstine, Linda J

    2011-12-01

    An adult, male double yellow-headed Amazon parrot (Amazona ochrocephala oratrix) was diagnosed with chronic lymphocytic leukemia based on results of a complete blood cell count and cytologic examination of a bone marrow aspirate. Treatment with oral chlorambucil was attempted, but no response was evident after 40 days. The bird was euthanatized, and the diagnosis of chronic lymphocytic leukemia was confirmed on gross and microscopic examination of tissues. Neoplastic lymphocytes were found in the bone marrow, liver, kidney, testes, and blood vessels. Based on CD3-positive immunocytochemical and immunohistochemical immunophenotyping, the chronic lymphocytic leukemia was determined to be of T-cell origin.

  14. Platelet Count and Plateletcrit

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    strated that neonates with late onset sepsis (bacteremia after 3 days of age) had a dramatic increase in MPV and. PDW18. We hypothesize that as the MPV and PDW increase and platelet count and PCT decrease in sick children, intui- tively, the ratio of MPV to PCT; MPV to Platelet count,. PDW to PCT, PDW to platelet ...

  15. EcoCount

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Phillip P. Allen

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Techniques that analyze biological remains from sediment sequences for environmental reconstructions are well established and widely used. Yet, identifying, counting, and recording biological evidence such as pollen grains remain a highly skilled, demanding, and time-consuming task. Standard procedure requires the classification and recording of between 300 and 500 pollen grains from each representative sample. Recording the data from a pollen count requires significant effort and focused resources from the palynologist. However, when an adaptation to the recording procedure is utilized, efficiency and time economy improve. We describe EcoCount, which represents a development in environmental data recording procedure. EcoCount is a voice activated fully customizable digital count sheet that allows the investigator to continuously interact with a field of view during the data recording. Continuous viewing allows the palynologist the opportunity to remain engaged with the essential task, identification, for longer, making pollen counting more efficient and economical. EcoCount is a versatile software package that can be used to record a variety of environmental evidence and can be installed onto different computer platforms, making the adoption by users and laboratories simple and inexpensive. The user-friendly format of EcoCount allows any novice to be competent and functional in a very short time.

  16. Clean Hands Count

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... starting stop Loading... Watch Queue Queue __count__/__total__ It’s YouTube. Uninterrupted. Loading... Want music and videos with ... ads? Get YouTube Red. Working... Not now Try it free Find out why Close Clean Hands Count ...

  17. Counting It Twice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schattschneider, Doris

    1991-01-01

    Provided are examples from many domains of mathematics that illustrate the Fubini Principle in its discrete version: the value of a summation over a rectangular array is independent of the order of summation. Included are: counting using partitions as in proof by pictures, combinatorial arguments, indirect counting as in the inclusion-exclusion…

  18. Differential white cell count by centrifugal microfluidics.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sommer, Gregory Jon; Tentori, Augusto M.; Schaff, Ulrich Y.

    2010-07-01

    We present a method for counting white blood cells that is uniquely compatible with centrifugation based microfluidics. Blood is deposited on top of one or more layers of density media within a microfluidic disk. Spinning the disk causes the cell populations within whole blood to settle through the media, reaching an equilibrium based on the density of each cell type. Separation and fluorescence measurement of cell types stained with a DNA dye is demonstrated using this technique. The integrated signal from bands of fluorescent microspheres is shown to be proportional to their initial concentration in suspension. Among the current generation of medical diagnostics are devices based on the principle of centrifuging a CD sized disk functionalized with microfluidics. These portable 'lab on a disk' devices are capable of conducting multiple assays directly from a blood sample, embodied by platforms developed by Gyros, Samsung, and Abaxis. [1,2] However, no centrifugal platform to date includes a differential white blood cell count, which is an important metric complimentary to diagnostic assays. Measuring the differential white blood cell count (the relative fraction of granulocytes, lymphocytes, and monocytes) is a standard medical diagnostic technique useful for identifying sepsis, leukemia, AIDS, radiation exposure, and a host of other conditions that affect the immune system. Several methods exist for measuring the relative white blood cell count including flow cytometry, electrical impedance, and visual identification from a stained drop of blood under a microscope. However, none of these methods is easily incorporated into a centrifugal microfluidic diagnostic platform.

  19. Measurement of in vivo HGPRT-deficient mutant cell frequency using a modified method for cloning human peripheral blood T-lymphocytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hakoda, Masayuki; Akiyama, Mitoshi; Kyoizumi, Seishi; Kobuke, Kyoko; Awa, A.A.

    1987-07-01

    Approximately 80 % of human peripheral blood T-lymphocytes could be cloned in the presence of crude Interleukin-2, phytohemagglutinin, and X-irradiated autologous lymphocytes and Raji B-cells. This modified cloning method was used to measure the in vivo frequency of HGPRT-deficient mutant T-lymphocytes. Repeated experiments using blood from the same individuals revealed that the frequency of mutant cells was almost constant for each individual even though the cloning efficiency of lymphocytes varied somewhat from experiment to experiment. Approximately 80 % of both wild-type unselected and 6-thioguanine-resistant colonies had helper/inducer and about 20 % had suppressor/cytotoxic T-lymphocyte markers. No difference was observed in the distribution of lymphocyte subsets between wild and mutant lymphocyte colonies. (author)

  20. T cell subset distribution in HIV-1 infected patients after 12 years of treatment induced viraemic suppression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rönsholt, Frederikke F; Ullum, Henrik; Katzenstein, Terese L

    2012-01-01

    healthy controls. METHODS:: Several different subsets of naïve, memory and activated T cells were analyzed in fresh whole blood by 6-color flowcytometry and ultra sensitive quantification of HIV RNA was performed. RESULTS:: HIV-infected patients (HIV+) had lower absolute and relative CD4 T cell counts...

  1. The effect of smoking on neutrophil/lymphocyte and platelet/lymphocyte ratio and platelet ındices: a retrospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tulgar, Y K; Cakar, S; Tulgar, S; Dalkilic, O; Cakiroglu, B; Uyanik, B S

    2016-07-01

    Smoking commonly leads to death. Although the neutrophil/lymphocyte Ratio, platelet/lymphocyte ratio and platelet indices have been shown to be important for the diagnosis, prognosis and severity of some diseases, the smoking status of patients in these studies has not been well defined. In this study, we compared ratios derived from complete blood count and platelet indices to smoking status and length in smokers and non-smokers. The data of healthy males and females aged between 18-60 years who presented to our institute for a routine check-up were collected, and subjects were divided in two groups - smokers and non-smokers. The presence of medical history or laboratory results which could affect inflammatory response, formed our exclusion criteria. All complete blood count results were noted and persons' smoking habits were calculated as pack/years. White blood cell, neutrophil, basophil and eosinophil counts; mean corpuscular volume, red cell distribution width and neutrophil/lymphocyte ratio were significantly higher in smokers when compared to non-smokers (psmokers were grouped according to smoking habits; positive linear correlations were detected between pack/year and Neutrophil/lymphocyte ratio and also pack/year and plateletcrit in smokers (paffected and platelet distribution width is increased in smokers. If smokers are not excluded from studies evaluating neutrophil/lymphocyte ratio and platelet distribution width, the relationship between smoking status as well as pack/year must be determined and reported.

  2. SPECIFICITIES OF THE SUBSET PROFILE OF PERIPHERAL BLOOD IN PATIENTS WITH GLIOBLASTOMA: PATHOGENETIC AND CLINICAL ASSESSMENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. A. Chumakov

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. In glioblastoma (GB, it is necessary to take into consideration GB-associated secondary immunodeficiency (SID, so-called syndrome of tumor-associated SID (STASID. Cell subsets having effector and regulatory functions, play an important role in developing STASID, and their proportions in patients with different forms of GB can be of pathogenetic importance and have clinical value for treatment and rehabilitation scheduling as well. The most pathogenically and clinically important features of cell subsets profile of peripheral blood were analyzed in patients with different clinical and morphological types of GB. The patients were divided into three groups, i.e., groups I and II were formed by patients with STASID (marked and slightly marked SID, accordingly; group III – patients with SIDTAS (tumor-associated autoimmune syndrome, associated with SID. Marked suppression of cell immunity is typical of group I - imbalance in T-lymphocytes, in a number of specific subsets, and in subsets clusters, as well as disproportions in the immunoregulatory indexes. In group II, the subset profiles of blood were slightly different from the norm. In patients with SIDTAS, activation of cell immunity was evident, forming SID with signs of autoimmune syndrome, affecting effector and regulatory chains of immunity, and influencing the severity and forecast of the disease. Specific features of the immune status in patients with GB identified can be resulted from different clinicalmorphological types of the tumor; the latter are to be considered in differential diagnostics of clinical course of GB and in scheduling of clinical-immunological efficient anti-tumor pharmacotherapy in pre- and postoperative periods.

  3. Core Hunter 3: flexible core subset selection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Beukelaer, Herman; Davenport, Guy F; Fack, Veerle

    2018-05-31

    Core collections provide genebank curators and plant breeders a way to reduce size of their collections and populations, while minimizing impact on genetic diversity and allele frequency. Many methods have been proposed to generate core collections, often using distance metrics to quantify the similarity of two accessions, based on genetic marker data or phenotypic traits. Core Hunter is a multi-purpose core subset selection tool that uses local search algorithms to generate subsets relying on one or more metrics, including several distance metrics and allelic richness. In version 3 of Core Hunter (CH3) we have incorporated two new, improved methods for summarizing distances to quantify diversity or representativeness of the core collection. A comparison of CH3 and Core Hunter 2 (CH2) showed that these new metrics can be effectively optimized with less complex algorithms, as compared to those used in CH2. CH3 is more effective at maximizing the improved diversity metric than CH2, still ensures a high average and minimum distance, and is faster for large datasets. Using CH3, a simple stochastic hill-climber is able to find highly diverse core collections, and the more advanced parallel tempering algorithm further increases the quality of the core and further reduces variability across independent samples. We also evaluate the ability of CH3 to simultaneously maximize diversity, and either representativeness or allelic richness, and compare the results with those of the GDOpt and SimEli methods. CH3 can sample equally representative cores as GDOpt, which was specifically designed for this purpose, and is able to construct cores that are simultaneously more diverse, and either are more representative or have higher allelic richness, than those obtained by SimEli. In version 3, Core Hunter has been updated to include two new core subset selection metrics that construct cores for representativeness or diversity, with improved performance. It combines and outperforms the

  4. Diversity, Function and Transcriptional Regulation of Gut Innate Lymphocytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucille eRankin

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The innate immune system plays a critical early role in host defense against viruses, bacteria and tumour cells. Until recently, natural killer (NK cells and lymphoid tissue inducer (LTi cells were the primary members of the innate lymphocyte family: NK cells form the front-line interface between the external environment and the adaptive immune system, while LTi cells are essential for secondary lymphoid tissue formation. More recently, it has become apparent that the composition of this family is much more diverse than previously appreciated and newly recognized populations play distinct and essential functions in tissue protection. Despite the importance of these cells, the developmental relationships between different innate lymphocyte populations (ILCs remain unclear. Here we review recent advances in our understanding of the development of different innate immune cell subsets, the transcriptional programs that might be involved in driving fate decisions during development, and their relationship to NK cells.

  5. Lymphocyte signaling: beyond knockouts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saveliev, Alexander; Tybulewicz, Victor L J

    2009-04-01

    The analysis of lymphocyte signaling was greatly enhanced by the advent of gene targeting, which allows the selective inactivation of a single gene. Although this gene 'knockout' approach is often informative, in many cases, the phenotype resulting from gene ablation might not provide a complete picture of the function of the corresponding protein. If a protein has multiple functions within a single or several signaling pathways, or stabilizes other proteins in a complex, the phenotypic consequences of a gene knockout may manifest as a combination of several different perturbations. In these cases, gene targeting to 'knock in' subtle point mutations might provide more accurate insight into protein function. However, to be informative, such mutations must be carefully based on structural and biophysical data.

  6. MRI of lymphocytic hypophysitis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feng Feng; Li Mingli; Li Xiaozhen; Meng Chunling; Jin zhengyu

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To describe the MR findings in patients with lymphocytic hypophysitis (LyH), and to discuss MR diagnostic value and limit in this disease entity and its differentiation with pituitary adenoma. Methods: Five pathologically proven cases of LyH were recruited in this study. The main complaints of the patients were polydipsia, polyuria, and headache. The preoperative MR images and clinical manifestations were analyzed retrospectively. Results: MR findings of the 5 patients with LyH included enlargement of pituitary gland, stalk thickening, disappearance of high signal of neurohypophysis on T 1 WI, and marked Gadolinium enhancement of the lesions. Homogeneous enhancement was found in 2 cases, while heterogeneous enhancement was in 3 cases. Involvement of the cavernous sinus and dura mater on dorsum sella and clivus were found in 2 patients. Conclusion: The diagnosis of LyH should be suggested when the enlarged pituitary gland is associated with central diabetes insipidus, and with/without dysfunction of adenohypophysis. (authors)

  7. B Lymphocytes in Rheumatoid Arthritis and the Effects of Anti-TNF-α Agents on B Lymphocytes: A Review of the Literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pala, Ozlem; Diaz, Alain; Blomberg, Bonnie B; Frasca, Daniela

    2018-05-22

    The aim of this article was to review published research related to B lymphocytes in rheumatoid arthritis, their role in the pathogenesis of the disease, the effects of tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α inhibitors on B lymphocytes, the risk for infection, and responses to vaccines. A PubMed search was conducted to review recent advances related to B lymphocytes and the effects of anti-TNF-α on B lymphocytes in rheumatoid arthritis. B lymphocytes play an important role in the pathogenesis of rheumatoid arthritis. In this review, we summarize the major mechanisms by which B lymphocytes play a pathologic role in the development and propagation of the disease, as B lymphocytes are recruited to the synovial fluid, where they contribute to local inflammation through the secretion of pro-inflammatory mediators (cytokines, chemokines, micro-RNAs) and present antigens to T cells. We discuss the effects of TNF-α, either direct or indirect, on B lymphocytes expressing receptors for this cytokine. We also show that total B-cell numbers have been reported to be reduced in the blood of patients with rheumatoid arthritis versus healthy controls, but are significantly increased up to normal levels in patients undergoing anti-TNF-α therapy. As for B-cell subsets, controversial results have been reported, with studies showing decreased frequencies of total memory B cells (and memory subsets) and others showing no differences in patients versus healthy controls. Studies investigating the effects of anti-TNF-α therapy have also given controversial results, with therapy found to increase (or not) the frequency of memory B lymphocytes, in patients with rheumatoid arthritis versus healthy controls. Those highly variable results could have been due to differences in patient characteristics and limited numbers of subjects. Finally, we summarize the effects of blocking TNF-α with anti-TNF-α agents on possible infections that patients with rheumatoid arthritis may contract, as well as on

  8. TCR tuning of T cell subsets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Jae-Ho; Sprent, Jonathan

    2018-05-01

    After selection in the thymus, the post-thymic T cell compartments comprise heterogenous subsets of naive and memory T cells that make continuous T cell receptor (TCR) contact with self-ligands bound to major histocompatibility complex (MHC) molecules. T cell recognition of self-MHC ligands elicits covert TCR signaling and is particularly important for controlling survival of naive T cells. Such tonic TCR signaling is tightly controlled and maintains the cells in a quiescent state to avoid autoimmunity. Here, we review how naive and memory T cells are differentially tuned and wired for TCR sensitivity to self and foreign ligands. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Subset simulation for structural reliability sensitivity analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song Shufang; Lu Zhenzhou; Qiao Hongwei

    2009-01-01

    Based on two procedures for efficiently generating conditional samples, i.e. Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) simulation and importance sampling (IS), two reliability sensitivity (RS) algorithms are presented. On the basis of reliability analysis of Subset simulation (Subsim), the RS of the failure probability with respect to the distribution parameter of the basic variable is transformed as a set of RS of conditional failure probabilities with respect to the distribution parameter of the basic variable. By use of the conditional samples generated by MCMC simulation and IS, procedures are established to estimate the RS of the conditional failure probabilities. The formulae of the RS estimator, its variance and its coefficient of variation are derived in detail. The results of the illustrations show high efficiency and high precision of the presented algorithms, and it is suitable for highly nonlinear limit state equation and structural system with single and multiple failure modes

  10. Maximum parsimony on subsets of taxa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Mareike; Thatte, Bhalchandra D

    2009-09-21

    In this paper we investigate mathematical questions concerning the reliability (reconstruction accuracy) of Fitch's maximum parsimony algorithm for reconstructing the ancestral state given a phylogenetic tree and a character. In particular, we consider the question whether the maximum parsimony method applied to a subset of taxa can reconstruct the ancestral state of the root more accurately than when applied to all taxa, and we give an example showing that this indeed is possible. A surprising feature of our example is that ignoring a taxon closer to the root improves the reliability of the method. On the other hand, in the case of the two-state symmetric substitution model, we answer affirmatively a conjecture of Li, Steel and Zhang which states that under a molecular clock the probability that the state at a single taxon is a correct guess of the ancestral state is a lower bound on the reconstruction accuracy of Fitch's method applied to all taxa.

  11. Nonspecific activation of murine lymphocytes. IV. Proliferation of a distinct, late maturing lymphocyte subpopulation induced by 2-mercaptoethanol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goodman, M.G.; Fidler, J.M.; Weigle, W.O.

    1978-01-01

    The lymphocyte subpopulations that are activated by 2-ME, LPS, poly IC, and PPD were studied in terms of their maturational characteristics. Attempts to stimulate hepatic and splenic lymphoid cells from mice of different ages with these mitogens demonstrated a well ordered sequence for the emergency of mitogen responsiveness in C3H mice: reactivity to LPS and Poly IC was observed early in maturation and was followed by that to PPD, and finally by the development of responsiveness to 2-ME. The same sequence appeared when the mitogen responsiveness of lethally irradiated, fetal liver-reconstituted syngeneic adult recipients was examined. The mitogenic action of 2-ME was dissociated from its ability to enhance lymphocyte reactivity to other mitogens in mice too young to respond to 2-ME as a mitogen. Experiments in which additivity of responses was assayed by adding mitogens to culture singly or conjointly indicated that LPS and Poly IC activate nearly identical B lymphocyte subpopulations, whereas PPD stimulates a subset of cells distinct from that which is responsive to the former two mitogens. The mitogen responsiveness of CBA/N mice, relative to normal CBA/WEHI mice, was shown to decrease as a function of the maturity of the subpopulation of lymphocytes activated. The CBA/N mouse was shown to be unresponsive to stimulation by 2-ME

  12. Bilateral lymphocytic alveolitis: a common reaction after unilateral thoracic irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, C.; Romero, S.; Arriero, J.M.; Hernandez, L.; Sanchez-Paya, J.; Massuti, B.

    1999-01-01

    The main aim of the present study was to assess the early diagnostic value of bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) in radiation-induced lung injury in patients with breast carcinoma. Twenty-six females receiving postoperative radiotherapy for breast cancer were evaluated before and 0, 15, 30, 60 , and 180 days after radiotherapy. History, physical examination, chest radiographs, and pulmonary function tests were obtained. BAL, including lymphocyte subsets analysis, was limited to the second evaluation after radiotherapy. A group of 21 healthy females were used as control. Findings after radiotherapy in asymptomatic patients were compared with findings in a group of patients with radiation pneumonitis. Irradiated patients showed a significantly (p<0.01) greater percentage (29.5±15.7%) of BAL lymphocytes than controls (6.2±3.3%). No statistical differences existed in BAL findings between the irradiated and unirradiated sides of the chest. Percentages of BAL lymphocytes did not differ significantly between patients who developed subsequent pneumonitis (24.5±13.5%) and those who did not develop pneumonitis (32.8±16.5%). Patients with pneumonitis at the time of BAL had significantly higher (p<0.05) alveolar CD4 subset cells (24.8±10.2%) than asymptomatic patients (15.2±8.9%). Maximal reductions in total lung capacity (p<0.01), and residual volume (p<0.05) occurred 60 days after irradiation. The early lymphocytic alveolitis induced by unilateral thoracic radiotherapy in most patients with breast cancer is always bilateral and does not predict the subsequent development of radiological evidence of pneumonitis. (au)

  13. Bilateral lymphocytic alveolitis: a common reaction after unilateral thoracic irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martin, C.; Romero, S.; Arriero, J.M.; Hernandez, L. [Hospital General Universitario, Servicios de Neumologia, Alicante (Spain); Sanchez-Paya, J. [Hospital General Universitario, Epidemiologia, Alicante (Spain); Massuti, B. [Hospital General Universitario, Oncologia, Alicante (Spain)

    1999-04-01

    The main aim of the present study was to assess the early diagnostic value of bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) in radiation-induced lung injury in patients with breast carcinoma. Twenty-six females receiving postoperative radiotherapy for breast cancer were evaluated before and 0, 15, 30, 60 , and 180 days after radiotherapy. History, physical examination, chest radiographs, and pulmonary function tests were obtained. BAL, including lymphocyte subsets analysis, was limited to the second evaluation after radiotherapy. A group of 21 healthy females were used as control. Findings after radiotherapy in asymptomatic patients were compared with findings in a group of patients with radiation pneumonitis. Irradiated patients showed a significantly (p<0.01) greater percentage (29.5{+-}15.7%) of BAL lymphocytes than controls (6.2{+-}3.3%). No statistical differences existed in BAL findings between the irradiated and unirradiated sides of the chest. Percentages of BAL lymphocytes did not differ significantly between patients who developed subsequent pneumonitis (24.5{+-}13.5%) and those who did not develop pneumonitis (32.8{+-}16.5%). Patients with pneumonitis at the time of BAL had significantly higher (p<0.05) alveolar CD4 subset cells (24.8{+-}10.2%) than asymptomatic patients (15.2{+-}8.9%). Maximal reductions in total lung capacity (p<0.01), and residual volume (p<0.05) occurred 60 days after irradiation. The early lymphocytic alveolitis induced by unilateral thoracic radiotherapy in most patients with breast cancer is always bilateral and does not predict the subsequent development of radiological evidence of pneumonitis. (au) 38 refs.

  14. Clean Hands Count

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Clean Hands Count Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) Loading... Unsubscribe from Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC)? Cancel Unsubscribe Working... Subscribe Subscribed Unsubscribe 65K ...

  15. Clean Hands Count

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Clean Hands Count Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) Loading... Unsubscribe from Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC)? Cancel Unsubscribe Working... Subscribe Subscribed Unsubscribe 66K ...

  16. Housing Inventory Count

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Housing and Urban Development — This report displays the data communities reported to HUD about the nature of their dedicated homeless inventory, referred to as their Housing Inventory Count (HIC)....

  17. Scintillation counting apparatus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noakes, J.E.

    1978-01-01

    Apparatus is described for the accurate measurement of radiation by means of scintillation counters and in particular for the liquid scintillation counting of both soft beta radiation and gamma radiation. Full constructional and operating details are given. (UK)

  18. Allegheny County Traffic Counts

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — Traffic sensors at over 1,200 locations in Allegheny County collect vehicle counts for the Pennsylvania Department of Transportation. Data included in the Health...

  19. Counting Knights and Knaves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levin,Oscar; Roberts, Gerri M.

    2013-01-01

    To understand better some of the classic knights and knaves puzzles, we count them. Doing so reveals a surprising connection between puzzles and solutions, and highlights some beautiful combinatorial identities.

  20. Clean Hands Count

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... why Close Clean Hands Count Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) Loading... Unsubscribe from Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC)? Cancel Unsubscribe Working... Subscribe Subscribed ...

  1. Clean Hands Count

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... stop Loading... Watch Queue Queue __count__/__total__ It’s YouTube. Uninterrupted. Loading... Want music and videos with zero ads? Get YouTube Red. Working... Not now Try it free Find ...

  2. Cytogenetic effects of tritium incorporated into DNA of human lymphocytes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beno, M [Inst. of Preventive and Clinical Medicine, 83301 Bratislava (Slovakia)

    1996-12-31

    In the reported in vitro experiments the numbers of chromosomal aberrations (CA) in correlation to the physical dose as assessed by determining the specific radioactivity of DNA have been followed in vitro human lymphocytes from adult donors. Lymphocytes from healthy adult donors of age from 20 to 59 of both sexes (24 males and 20 females) were isolated from blood by centrifugation. After washing the cells were irradiated from tritium incorporated during in vitro incubation in phytohemagglutinin containing medium with tritium labelled thymidine. Slides for standard CA counting have been done from every sample 48 hours after the begin cultivation. The CA were counted in at least 200 metaphases on each slide. Parallel samples of lymphocytes served for preparation smears for autoradiography to determine the labeling index. Other parallel samples were used for the determination of tritium concentration in DNA by the diphenylamine method, as well as determination of the specific radioactivity in lymphocyte DNA by scintillation counting. The dose absorbed in DNA was estimated using the conversion factor implicating that 37 kBq of tritium uniformly distributed per gram of tissue of unit density delivers a dose rate of 121.4 {sup m}i{sup G}y/hour. The contamination of cells by precursors of nucleic acids - like tritiated thymidine - causes an uneven distribution of doses in the cell population. A proportion of the population of cells remains unlabelled. The dose-response curve is flat showing signs of loss of heavily damaged cells and signs of repair of damage. Both these signs are based on the nature of biological processes which lead to internal contamination of cells and to expression of effects in terms of numbers of CA. (J.K.) 5 figs., 4 refs.

  3. The Kruskal Count

    OpenAIRE

    Lagarias, Jeffrey C.; Rains, Eric; Vanderbei, Robert J.

    2001-01-01

    The Kruskal Count is a card trick invented by Martin J. Kruskal in which a magician "guesses" a card selected by a subject according to a certain counting procedure. With high probability the magician can correctly "guess" the card. The success of the trick is based on a mathematical principle related to coupling methods for Markov chains. This paper analyzes in detail two simplified variants of the trick and estimates the probability of success. The model predictions are compared with simula...

  4. Combined influence of adjuvant therapy and interval after surgery on peripheral CD4+ T lymphocytes in patients with esophageal squamous cell carcinoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    LING, YANG; FAN, LIEYING; DONG, CHUNLEI; ZHU, JING; LIU, YONGPING; NI, YAN; ZHU, CHANGTAI; ZHANG, CHANGSONG

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate possible differences in cellular immunity between chemo- and/or radiotherapy groups during a long interval after surgery in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) patients. Cellular immunity was assessed as peripheral lymphocyte subsets in response to chemotherapy (CT), radiotherapy (RT) and CT+RT by flow cytometric analysis. There were 139 blood samples obtained at different time points relative to surgery from 73 patients with ESCC. The changes in the absolute and relative proportions of lymphocyte phenotypes were significant among the adjuvant therapy groups. There were significant differences in the absolute counts of CD4+ and CD8+ T cells among the interval groups, and a lower CD4/CD8 ratio was found in patients following a prolonged interval. RT alone had a profound effect on the absolute counts of CD3+, CD4+ and CD8+ T cells compared with the other groups. CD4+ T cells exhibited a decreasing trend during a long interval, leading to a prolonged T-cell imbalance after surgery. Univariate analysis revealed that the interaction of the type of adjuvant therapy and the interval after surgery was correlated only with the percentage of CD4+ T cells. The percentage of CD4+ T cells can be used as an indicator of the cellular immunity after surgery in ESCC patients. However, natural killer cells consistently remained suppressed in ESCC patients following adjuvant therapy after surgery. These findings confirm an interaction between adjuvant therapy and the interval after surgery on peripheral CD4+ T cells, and implies that adjuvant therapy may have selective influence on the cellular immunity of ESCC patients after surgery. PMID:23136603

  5. Radiosensitivity of lymphocytes in vitro

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Albrecht, S.

    1979-01-01

    The radiation-induced impairment of human T-lymphocytes was studied after in vitro exposure to 25.8 - 825.6 mC/kg (100 - 3200 R) of 60 Co γ-radiation by ascertaining the change in lymphocyte response to phytohaemagglutin stimulation. Following methods were used: (1) measurement of 3 H-thymidine uptake, (2) E-rosette test, and (3) morphological examination of transformed T-cells. The results revealed a dose-dependent decline in T-cell number which was still somewhat more marked with lymphocytes purified over Ficoll-Isopaque prior to irradiation. (author)

  6. Laboratorial diagnosis of lymphocytic meningitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sérgio Monteiro de Almeida

    Full Text Available Meningitis is the main infectious central nervous system (CNS syndrome. Viruses or bacteria can cause acute meningitis of infectious etiology. The term "Aseptic Meningitis" denotes a clinical syndrome with a predominance of lymphocytes in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF, with no common bacterial agents identified in the CSF. Viral meningitis is considered the main cause of lymphocyte meningitis. There are other etiologies of an infectious nature. CSF examination is essential to establish the diagnosis and to identify the etiological agent of lymphocytic meningitis. We examined CSF characteristics and the differential diagnosis of the main types of meningitis.

  7. CD4+ lymphocytes control gut epithelial apoptosis and mediate survival in sepsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stromberg, Paul E; Woolsey, Cheryl A; Clark, Andrew T; Clark, Jessica A; Turnbull, Isaiah R; McConnell, Kevin W; Chang, Katherine C; Chung, Chun-Shiang; Ayala, Alfred; Buchman, Timothy G; Hotchkiss, Richard S; Coopersmith, Craig M

    2009-06-01

    Lymphocytes help determine whether gut epithelial cells proliferate or differentiate but are not known to affect whether they live or die. Here, we report that lymphocytes play a controlling role in mediating gut epithelial apoptosis in sepsis but not under basal conditions. Gut epithelial apoptosis is similar in unmanipulated Rag-1(-/-) and wild-type (WT) mice. However, Rag-1(-/-) animals have a 5-fold augmentation in gut epithelial apoptosis following cecal ligation and puncture (CLP) compared to septic WT mice. Reconstitution of lymphocytes in Rag-1(-/-) mice via adoptive transfer decreases intestinal apoptosis to levels seen in WT animals. Subset analysis indicates that CD4(+) but not CD8(+), gammadelta, or B cells are responsible for the antiapoptotic effect of lymphocytes on the gut epithelium. Gut-specific overexpression of Bcl-2 in transgenic mice decreases mortality following CLP. This survival benefit is lymphocyte dependent since gut-specific overexpression of Bcl-2 fails to alter survival when the transgene is overexpressed in Rag-1(-/-) mice. Further, adoptively transferring lymphocytes to Rag-1(-/-) mice that simultaneously overexpress gut-specific Bcl-2 results in improved mortality following sepsis. Thus, sepsis unmasks CD4(+) lymphocyte control of gut apoptosis that is not present under homeostatic conditions, which acts as a key determinant of both cellular survival and host mortality.

  8. Prevalence and characteristics of central nervous system involvement by chronic lymphocytic leukemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strati, Paolo; Uhm, Joon H; Kaufmann, Timothy J; Nabhan, Chadi; Parikh, Sameer A; Hanson, Curtis A; Chaffee, Kari G; Call, Timothy G; Shanafelt, Tait D

    2016-04-01

    Abroad array of conditions can lead to neurological symptoms in chronic lymphocytic leukemia patients and distinguishing between clinically significant involvement of the central nervous system by chronic lymphocytic leukemia and symptoms due to other etiologies can be challenging. Between January 1999 and November 2014, 172 (4%) of the 4174 patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia followed at our center had a magnetic resonance imaging of the central nervous system and/or a lumbar puncture to evaluate neurological symptoms. After comprehensive evaluation, the etiology of neurological symptoms was: central nervous system chronic lymphocytic leukemia in 18 patients (10% evaluated by imaging and/or lumbar puncture, 0.4% overall cohort); central nervous system Richter Syndrome in 15 (9% evaluated, 0.3% overall); infection in 40 (23% evaluated, 1% overall); autoimmune/inflammatory conditions in 28 (16% evaluated, 0.7% overall); other cancer in 8 (5% evaluated, 0.2% overall); and another etiology in 63 (37% evaluated, 1.5% overall). Although the sensitivity of cerebrospinal fluid analysis to detect central nervous system disease was 89%, the specificity was only 42% due to the frequent presence of leukemic cells in the cerebrospinal fluid in other conditions. No parameter on cerebrospinal fluid analysis (e.g. total nucleated cells, total lymphocyte count, chronic lymphocytic leukemia cell percentage) were able to offer a reliable discrimination between patients whose neurological symptoms were due to clinically significant central nervous system involvement by chronic lymphocytic leukemia and another etiology. Median overall survival among patients with clinically significant central nervous system chronic lymphocytic leukemia and Richter syndrome was 12 and 11 months, respectively. In conclusion, clinically significant central nervous system involvement by chronic lymphocytic leukemia is a rare condition, and neurological symptoms in patients with chronic lymphocytic

  9. Early lymphocyte recovery as a predictor of outcome, including relapse, after hematopoieticstem cell transplantation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliane Morando

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Despite advances in the treatment of acute leukemia, many patients need to undergo hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. Recent studies show that early lymphocyte recovery may be a predictor of relapse and survival in these patients. OBJECTIVE: To analyze the influence of lymphocyte recovery on Days +30 and +100 post-transplant on the occurrence of relapse and survival. METHODS: A descriptive, retrospective study was performed of 137 under 21-year-old patients who were submitted to hematopoietic stem cell transplantation for acute leukemia between 1995 and 2008. A lymphocyte count 0.3 x 10(9/L were considered adequate. Lymphocyte recovery was also analyzed on Day +100 with < 0.75 x 10(9/Land < 0.75 x 10(9/L being considered inadequate and adequate lymphocyte recovery, respectively. RESULTS: There was no significant difference in the occurrence of relapse between patients with inadequate and adequate lymphocyte recovery on Day +30 post-transplant. However, the transplant-related mortality was significantly higher in patients with inadequate recovery on Day +30. Patients with inadequate lymphocyte recovery on Day +30 had worse overall survival and relapse-free survival than patients with adequate recovery. There was no significant difference in the occurrence of infections and acute or chronic graft-versus-host disease. Patients with inadequate lymphocyte recovery on Day +100 had worse overall survival and relapse-free survival and a higher cumulative incidence of relapse. CONCLUSION: The evaluation of lymphocyte recovery on Day +30 is not a good predictor of relapse after transplant however patients with inadequate lymphocyte recovery had worse overall survival and relapse-free survival. Inadequate lymphocyte recovery on Day +100 is correlated with higher cumulative relapse as well as lower overall survival and relapse-free survival.

  10. Age-dependent alterations of monocyte subsets and monocyte-related chemokine pathways in healthy adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trautwein Christian

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Recent experimental approaches have unraveled essential migratory and functional differences of monocyte subpopulations in mice. In order to possibly translate these findings into human physiology and pathophysiology, human monocyte subsets need to be carefully revisited in health and disease. In analogy to murine studies, we hypothesized that human monocyte subsets dynamically change during ageing, potentially influencing their functionality and contributing to immunosenescence. Results Circulating monocyte subsets, surface marker and chemokine receptor expression were analyzed in 181 healthy volunteers (median age 42, range 18-88. Unlike the unaffected total leukocyte or total monocyte counts, non-classical CD14+CD16+ monocytes significantly increased with age, but displayed reduced HLA-DR and CX3CR1 surface expression in the elderly. Classical CD14++CD16- monocyte counts did not vary dependent on age. Serum MCP-1 (CCL2, but not MIP1α (CCL3, MIP1β (CCL4 or fractalkine (CX3CL1 concentrations increased with age. Monocyte-derived macrophages from old or young individuals did not differ with respect to cytokine release in vitro at steady state or upon LPS stimulation. Conclusions Our study demonstrates dynamic changes of circulating monocytes during ageing in humans. The expansion of the non-classical CD14+CD16+ subtype, alterations of surface protein and chemokine receptor expression as well as circulating monocyte-related chemokines possibly contribute to the preserved functionality of the monocyte pool throughout adulthood.

  11. Arachidonic acid metabolites in normal and autoimmune mice do not influence lymphocyte-high endothelial venule interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manolios, N; Bakiera, B; Geczy, C L; Schrieber, L

    1991-02-01

    In peripheral lymphoid organs the number of lymphocytes and the proportion of functional lymphocyte subsets are regulated by multiple factors including the control of lymphocyte migration by selective lymphocyte-high endothelial venule (HEV) interactions. In this study, prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) levels from normal and autoimmune mouse lymph node cells were measured. The contribution of eicosanoids to lymphocyte-HEV interactions in normal (CBA/T6) and autoimmune (MRL/n) mice was examined. There was no association between PGE2 production in normal or autoimmune mice and the age of onset of disease activity in the latter strains. Arachidonic acid metabolites, in particular PGE2 and leukotriene B4 (LTB4), did not have any effects on lymphocyte-HEV binding. Likewise, lymphocytes treated in vivo and/or in vitro with arachidonic acid metabolite inhibitors (acetyl salicylic acid, indomethacin, BW755C) did not alter lymphocyte-HEV binding interactions in both normal and autoimmune mice. No clinical significance could be attributed to lymph node PGE2 production and the age of onset of autoimmune disease. In summary, these findings cast doubt on the role of arachidonic acid metabolites in lymphocyte-HEV binding interactions.

  12. Alteration in CD8+ T cell subsets in enterovirus-infected patients: An alarming factor for type 1 diabetes mellitus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omid Zargari Samani

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Type 1 diabetes is a multi-factorial disease that can develop due to the combination of genetic and environmental factors. Viruses, particularly enteroviruses, are major environmental candidates in the pathogenesis of type 1 diabetes, even though the mechanisms of pathogenicity of these viruses and their effects on the immune system have not been understood very well yet. Previous studies show that any imbalance in the population of different lymphocyte subsets could develop autoimmune diseases. Our theory is that enteroviral infection causes an impairment in the distribution of lymphocyte subtypes and consequently results in the diabetes onset in some individuals. Therefore, in this project, we evaluated the distribution of T CD8+ lymphocytes and their subsets in type 1 diabetes patients. This study was conducted to investigate the relationship between enteroviral infection and type 1 diabetes mellitus in an Iranian population, and suggestion a predicting approach for susceptible subjects. Keywords: Type 1 diabetes mellitus, Enterovirus, CD8+T, Flow cytometry, GAD65

  13. Isolation of Human Skin Dendritic Cell Subsets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunawan, Merry; Jardine, Laura; Haniffa, Muzlifah

    2016-01-01

    Dendritic cells (DCs) are specialized leukocytes with antigen-processing and antigen-presenting functions. DCs can be divided into distinct subsets by anatomical location, phenotype and function. In human, the two most accessible tissues to study leukocytes are peripheral blood and skin. DCs are rare in human peripheral blood (skin covering an average total surface area of 1.8 m(2) has approximately tenfold more DCs than the average 5 L of total blood volume (Wang et al., J Invest Dermatol 134:965-974, 2014). DCs migrate spontaneously from skin explants cultured ex vivo, which provide an easy method of cell isolation (Larsen et al., J Exp Med 172:1483-1493, 1990; Lenz et al., J Clin Invest 92:2587-2596, 1993; Nestle et al., J Immunol 151:6535-6545, 1993). These factors led to the extensive use of skin DCs as the "prototype" migratory DCs in human studies. In this chapter, we detail the protocols to isolate DCs and resident macrophages from human skin. We also provide a multiparameter flow cytometry gating strategy to identify human skin DCs and to distinguish them from macrophages.

  14. Stages of Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of the lymph system . Having relatives who are Russian Jews or Eastern European Jews. Signs and symptoms ... information about clinical trials is also available. To Learn More About Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia For more information ...

  15. Rapid modifications of peripheral T-cell subsets that express CD127 in macaques treated with recombinant IL-7.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dereuddre-Bosquet, Nathalie; Vaslin, Bruno; Delache, Benoit; Brochard, Patricia; Clayette, Pascal; Aubenque, Céline; Morre, Michel; Assouline, Brigitte; Le Grand, Roger

    2007-08-01

    Interleukin-7 (IL-7) is a key regulator of thymopoiesis and T-cell homeostasis, which increases blood T-cell number by enhancing thymic output of naive cells and peripheral proliferation. We explored the effects of unglycosylated recombinant simian IL-7 (rsIL-7) administration on peripheral T-cell subpopulations in healthy macaques. RsIL-7 was well tolerated. Mean half-life ranged between 9.3 and 13.9 hours. Blood CD3(+)CD4(+) and CD3(+)CD8(+) lymphocyte counts decreased rapidly after each rsIL-7 administration, the duration of these effects being dependent on the frequency of administration. At treatment completion, the increased of CD3(+) lymphocytes was marked at 100 microg/kg every 2 days. CD3(+) lymphocytes that harbour the alpha chain of IL-7 receptor (CD127) and CD3(+)CD8(+) lymphocytes that expressed the proliferation marker Ki-67 exhibited a similar initial profile. The expression of the anti-apoptotic marker Bcl-2 increased in CD3(+) lymphocytes during the treatment and post-treatment period in a dose/frequency dependent manner. RsIL-7 was well tolerated in macaques and induces rapid modifications of T-cells that express CD127.

  16. Low White Blood Cell Count

    Science.gov (United States)

    Symptoms Low white blood cell count By Mayo Clinic Staff A low white blood cell count (leukopenia) is a decrease ... of white blood cell (neutrophil). The definition of low white blood cell count varies from one medical ...

  17. A [3H]- thymidine paper strip method for stimulation of lymphocytes. 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schuett, C.; Goecke, H.; Schulze, H.A.; Westphal, H.J.; Glawe, H.J.

    1979-01-01

    Only 1 - 2 ml of heparinized peripheral blood are necessary for nitrogen and antigen testing, resp. Disturbing influences by the erythrocytes of the whole blood could not be observed neither in processing the blood cell culture nor in paper strip counting. However, the leukocyte/erythrocyte ratio influenced the blastogenesis in vitro. Provided the lymphocyte count remains constant, the storage of the whole blood is possible for 24 hours at 4 0 C

  18. Lymphocytes Contribute to the Pathophysiology of Neonatal Brain Injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arshed Nazmi

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundPeriventricular leukomalacia (PVL is the most common form of preterm brain injury affecting the cerebral white matter. This type of injury involves a multiphase process and is induced by many factors, including hypoxia–ischemia (HI and infection. Previous studies have suggested that lymphocytes play a significant role in the pathogenesis of brain injury, and the aim of this study was to determine the contribution of lymphocyte subsets to preterm brain injury.MethodsImmunohistochemistry on brain sections from neonatal mice was performed to evaluate the extent of brain injury in wild-type and T cell and B cell-deficient neonatal mice (Rag1−/− mice using a mouse model of HI-induced preterm brain injury. Flow cytometry was performed to determine the presence of different types of immune cells in mouse brains following HI. In addition, immunostaining for CD3 T cells and CD20 B cells was performed on postmortem preterm human infant brains with PVL.ResultsMature lymphocyte-deficient Rag1−/− mice showed protection from white matter loss compared to wild type mice as indicated by myelin basic protein immunostaining of mouse brains. CD3+ T cells and CD20+ B cells were observed in the postmortem preterm infant brains with PVL. Flow cytometry analysis of mouse brains after HI-induced injury showed increased frequency of CD3+ T, αβT and B cells at 7 days after HI in the ipsilateral (injured hemisphere compared to the contralateral (control, uninjured hemisphere.ConclusionLymphocytes were found in the injured brain after injury in both mice and humans, and lack of mature lymphocytes protected neonatal mice from HI-induced brain white matter injury. This finding provides insight into the pathology of perinatal brain injury and suggests new avenues for the development of therapeutic strategies.

  19. The CD4/CD8 ratio of tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes at the tumor-host interface has prognostic value in triple-negative breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Kai; Shen, Tiansheng; Siegal, Gene P; Wei, Shi

    2017-11-01

    Compelling evidence has demonstrated the prognostic value of tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs), especially in triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC). However, only a limited number of studies to investigate the importance of the subsets of T cells in TILs have been carried out, less so the significance of the location of these TILs. In this study, we explored in a cohort of 42 consecutive TNBC cases the prognostic significance of TIL subsets at the tumor-host interface (within 1 high-power field [0.5 mm] of the invasive front) and compared them with TILs within the intratumoral stroma. Given the reported importance of TILs in HER2-overexpressing breast cancer, a subset of such tumors was also included for comparison. The range was wide in both locations; nevertheless, the mean CD4 + and CD8 + T cell count was significantly higher at the tumor-host interface than that found within the intratumoral stroma (both P<.0001). The number of CD4 + or CD8 + T cells at either location was not significantly associated with distant relapse-free or overall survival. However, the CD4/CD8 ratio at the tumor-host interface was significantly associated with both relapse-free survival (hazard ratio 0.2, P=.002) and overall survival (hazard ratio 0.13, P=.002), whereas this association was not seen for the CD4/CD8 ratio within the intratumoral stroma. As expected, both tumor size and nodal status were significantly associated with survival outcomes. The findings further support the contention that TILs, as markers of regional immune escape, are of prognostic importance in TNBC progression and that the CD4/CD8 ratio of TILs at the tumor-host interface plays a distinctive role, thus appearing to be of clinical relevance. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Enteric parasitic infections in HIV-infected patients with low CD4 counts in Toto, Nigeria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abaver, D.T.; Nwobegahay, J.M.; Goon, D.T.; Khoza, L.B

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: Enteric parasites are a major cause of diarrhoea in HIV/AIDS patients with low CD4 counts. Parasitic infections in HIV-infected individuals can reduce their quality of life and life span, especially those who are severely immunosuppressed with a CD4 T-lymphocyte count 0.05). Conclusions: Low CD4 counts in HIV-infected patients can lead to enteric infections. This information strengthens the importance of monitoring CD4 counts and intestinal parasites. Routine CD4 testing will greatly improve the prognosis of HIV positive patients. (author)

  1. Alpha scintillation radon counting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lucas, H.F. Jr.

    1977-01-01

    Radon counting chambers which utilize the alpha-scintillation properties of silver activated zinc sulfide are simple to construct, have a high efficiency, and, with proper design, may be relatively insensitive to variations in the pressure or purity of the counter filling. Chambers which were constructed from glass, metal, or plastic in a wide variety of shapes and sizes were evaluated for the accuracy and the precision of the radon counting. The principles affecting the alpha-scintillation radon counting chamber design and an analytic system suitable for a large scale study of the 222 Rn and 226 Ra content of either air or other environmental samples are described. Particular note is taken of those factors which affect the accuracy and the precision of the method for monitoring radioactivity around uranium mines

  2. Principles of correlation counting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mueller, J.W.

    1975-01-01

    A review is given of the various applications which have been made of correlation techniques in the field of nuclear physics, in particular for absolute counting. Whereas in most cases the usual coincidence method will be preferable for its simplicity, correlation counting may be the only possible approach in such cases where the two radiations of the cascade cannot be well separated or when there is a longliving intermediate state. The measurement of half-lives and of count rates of spurious pulses is also briefly discussed. The various experimental situations lead to different ways the correlation method is best applied (covariance technique with one or with two detectors, application of correlation functions, etc.). Formulae are given for some simple model cases, neglecting dead-time corrections

  3. Interpretation of galaxy counts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tinsely, B.M.

    1980-01-01

    New models are presented for the interpretation of recent counts of galaxies to 24th magnitude, and predictions are shown to 28th magnitude for future comparison with data from the Space Telescope. The results supersede earlier, more schematic models by the author. Tyson and Jarvis found in their counts a ''local'' density enhancement at 17th magnitude, on comparison with the earlier models; the excess is no longer significant when a more realistic mixture of galaxy colors is used. Bruzual and Kron's conclusion that Kron's counts show evidence for evolution at faint magnitudes is confirmed, and it is predicted that some 23d magnitude galaxies have redshifts greater than unity. These may include spheroidal systems, elliptical galaxies, and the bulges of early-type spirals and S0's, seen during their primeval rapid star formation

  4. Immunophenotyping of peripheral blood lymphocytes in children and adolescents with Hashimoto`s 1 thyroiditis from the areas contaminated as aa result of the Chernobyl accident

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Molostvov, G.S. [Research Inst. of Radiation Medicine, Minsk (Belarus)

    1996-12-31

    m6o-color immunophenotyping of lymphocyte subsets using a lysed whole blood method was performed in 46 children and adolescents with Hashimoto`s thyroiditis (HT) from contaminated areas and in 18 children with HT from `pure` areas of Belarus. 46 healthy children of matched age and sex distribution were used as control group. Analysis of lymphocyte subsets in children with HT living in contaminated areas showed a considerable decrease in the levels of total lymphocytes, CD8+T cells (T-suppressors), total B cells, and CD5+B cells together with an activation of NK and CD56+, CD8+CD57+T cells (T-killers not restricted by HLA antigens). The study of cellular immunity in children with different doses of incorporated radionuclids revealed that prolonged influence of very small doses of ionizing radiation resulted in significant changes in lymphocyte subsets; interestingly, B cell subsets were the most sensitive to such influence while radiosensitivity of T-killers and NK was the lowest. These changes were the greatest in children with HT with the highest dose of incorporated radionuclides. Significant correlation between the levels of main lymphocyte subsets and the doses of accumulated radionuclids observed in this study also indicated that their relation was dose-dependent.(orig.)

  5. Evidence for significant influence of host immunity on changes in differential blood count during malaria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berens-Riha, Nicole; Kroidl, Inge; Schunk, Mirjam; Alberer, Martin; Beissner, Marcus; Pritsch, Michael; Kroidl, Arne; Fröschl, Günter; Hanus, Ingrid; Bretzel, Gisela; von Sonnenburg, Frank; Nothdurft, Hans Dieter; Löscher, Thomas; Herbinger, Karl-Heinz

    2014-04-23

    Malaria has been shown to change blood counts. Recently, a few studies have investigated the alteration of the peripheral blood monocyte-to-lymphocyte count ratio (MLCR) and the neutrophil-to-lymphocyte count ratio (NLCR) during infection with Plasmodium falciparum. Based on these findings this study investigates the predictive values of blood count alterations during malaria across different sub-populations. Cases and controls admitted to the Department of Infectious Diseases and Tropical Medicine from January 2000 through December 2010 were included in this comparative analysis. Blood count values and other variables at admission controlled for age, gender and immune status were statistically investigated. The study population comprised 210 malaria patients, infected with P. falciparum (68%), Plasmodium vivax (21%), Plasmodium ovale (7%) and Plasmodium malariae (4%), and 210 controls. A positive correlation of parasite density with NLCR and neutrophil counts, and a negative correlation of parasite density with thrombocyte, leucocyte and lymphocyte counts were found. An interaction with semi-immunity was observed; ratios were significantly different in semi-immune compared to non-immune patients (P value of the ratios was fair but limited. However, these changes were less pronounced in patients with semi-immunity. The ratios might constitute easily applicable surrogate biomarkers for immunity.

  6. Application of a new ultra-microculture system. II. Stimulation of human B lymphocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulmer, A J; Gruber, M; Flad, H D

    1988-07-22

    An ultra-microtechnique for culturing human B-lymphocytes in glass capillary tubes using a volume of 2 microliter is described. The advantage of this ultra-microculture system is that only a small number of lymphocytes and minute amounts of culture medium (or test factors) are required. Optimal culture conditions for the formation of Ig-secreting plaque-forming cells (PFC) after stimulation of mononuclear cells with pokeweed mitogen are given. Furthermore it is shown that immunoglobulin secreted into culture supernatants by purified B cells in the presence of T cell subsets can be measured in a microELISA.

  7. Depletion of T lymphocytes is correlated with response to temozolomide in melanoma patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iversen, Trine Zeeberg; Brimnes, Marie Klinge; Nikolajsen, Kirsten

    2013-01-01

    Therapeutic strategies to deplete lymphocytes, especially regulatory T cells, in cancer patients have been proposed to increase the benefits of (immuno)chemotherapy. In this study, we explored the influence of temozolomide (TMZ) on different T-cell populations and addressed if the depletion of CD4......(+) T cells would be associated to the clinical benefits of TMZ. Patients were treated with TMZ (150 mg/m(2) daily, every two weeks on a four-week schedule) until disease progression. Changes in T-lymphocyte subsets were characterized by flow cytometry. All patients enrolled in this study had...

  8. Computerized radioautographic grain counting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McKanna, J.A.; Casagrande, V.A.

    1985-01-01

    In recent years, radiolabeling techniques have become fundamental assays in physiology and biochemistry experiments. They also have assumed increasingly important roles in morphologic studies. Characteristically, radioautographic analysis of structure has been qualitative rather than quantitative, however, microcomputers have opened the door to several methods for quantifying grain counts and density. The overall goal of this chapter is to describe grain counting using the Bioquant, an image analysis package based originally on the Apple II+, and now available for several popular microcomputers. The authors discuss their image analysis procedures by applying them to a study of development in the central nervous system

  9. Rainflow counting revisited

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soeker, H [Deutsches Windenergie-Institut (Germany)

    1996-09-01

    As state of the art method the rainflow counting technique is presently applied everywhere in fatigue analysis. However, the author feels that the potential of the technique is not fully recognized in wind energy industries as it is used, most of the times, as a mere data reduction technique disregarding some of the inherent information of the rainflow counting results. The ideas described in the following aim at exploitation of this information and making it available for use in the design and verification process. (au)

  10. Chromosomal aberrations in Cynomolgus peripheral lymphocytes during and after fractionated whole-body γ-irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guedeney, G.; Malarbet, J.L.; Doloy, M.T.

    1989-01-01

    Cynomolgus monkeys (Macaca fascicularis) were exposed to fractionated whole-body γ-irradiation at high and low dose rates for 4 or 5 weeks. The time-dependence of chromosomal aberrations was studied in relation to the number of lymphocytes during irradiation and after exposure for periods of up to about 600 days for chromosomal aberrations and 200 days for lymphocyte counts. Additivity of the daily effects on the number of chromosomal aberrations was observed during the exposures. Immediately after the end of the exposures the number of chromosomal aberrations decreased to reach low values. The disappearance of chromosomal aberrations seemed to be related to recovery of the lymphocyte counts. The data presented here emphasize the different kinetic patterns of chromosomal aberrations after fractionated and acute irradiation. (author)

  11. The comparison of thrombocytosis and platelet-lymphocyte ratio as potential prognostic markers in colorectal cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baranyai, Zsolt; Krzystanek, Marcin; Josa, Valeria

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to analyse the preoperative platelet count and the platelet-lymphocyte ratio (PLR) in patients with colorectal cancer (CRC) of different stages and with hepatic metastasis of CRC (mCRC) and to compare these factors as potential prognostic markers. Clinicopathologi...

  12. Clean Hands Count

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    Full Text Available ... Queue __count__/__total__ It’s YouTube. Uninterrupted. Loading... Want music and videos with zero ads? Get YouTube Red. ... 824 views 1:36 Wash 'Em - Hand Hygiene Music Video - Duration: 5:46. Jefferson Health 409,492 ...

  13. Clean Hands Count

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  14. Clean Hands Count

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  16. Clean Hands Count

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  17. Clean Hands Count

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  18. Clean Hands Count

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  19. Clean Hands Count

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  20. Clean Hands Count

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  1. Clean Hands Count

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  2. Clean Hands Count

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  3. Detection and counting systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abreu, M.A.N. de

    1976-01-01

    Detection devices based on gaseous ionization are analysed, such as: electroscopes ionization chambers, proportional counters and Geiger-Mueller counters. Scintillation methods are also commented. A revision of the basic concepts in electronics is done and the main equipment for counting is detailed. In the study of gama spectrometry, scintillation and semiconductor detectors are analysed [pt

  4. Clean Hands Count

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  5. Clean Hands Count

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    Full Text Available ... Queue __count__/__total__ It’s YouTube. Uninterrupted. Loading... Want music and videos with zero ads? Get YouTube Red. ... 285 views 1:36 Wash 'Em - Hand Hygiene Music Video - Duration: 5:46. Jefferson Health 410,052 ...

  6. Clean Hands Count

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    Full Text Available ... Queue __count__/__total__ It’s YouTube. Uninterrupted. Loading... Want music and videos with zero ads? Get YouTube Red. ... 033 views 1:36 Wash 'Em - Hand Hygiene Music Video - Duration: 5:46. Jefferson Health 410,052 ...

  7. Reticulocyte Count Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... htm. (2004 Summer). Immature Reticulocyte Fraction(IRF). The Pathology Center Newsletter v9(1). [On-line information]. Available ... Company, Philadelphia, PA [18th Edition]. Levin, M. (2007 March 8, Updated). Reticulocyte Count. MedlinePlus Medical Encyclopedia [On- ...

  8. Clean Hands Count

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    Full Text Available ... is starting stop Loading... Watch Queue Queue __count__/__total__ It’s YouTube. Uninterrupted. Loading... Want music and videos ... empower patients to play a role in their care by asking or reminding healthcare providers to clean ...

  9. Radiation intensity counting system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peterson, R.J.

    1982-01-01

    A method is described of excluding the natural dead time of the radiation detector (or eg Geiger-Mueller counter) in a ratemeter counting circuit, thus eliminating the need for dead time corrections. Using a pulse generator an artificial dead time is introduced which is longer than the natural dead time of the detector. (U.K.)

  10. Clean Hands Count

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  11. Calorie count - fast food

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... GO About MedlinePlus Site Map FAQs Customer Support Health Topics Drugs & Supplements Videos & Tools Español You Are Here: Home → Medical Encyclopedia → Calorie count - fast food URL of this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/ ...

  12. Fast counting electronics for neutron coincidence counting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swansen, J.E.

    1987-01-01

    This patent describes a high speed circuit for accurate neutron coincidence counting comprising: neutron detecting means for providing an above-threshold signal upon neutron detection; amplifying means inputted by the neutron detecting means for providing a pulse output having a pulse width of about 0.5 microseconds upon the input of each above threshold signal; digital processing means inputted by the pulse output of the amplifying means for generating a pulse responsive to each input pulse from the amplifying means and having a pulse width of about 50 nanoseconds effective for processing an expected neutron event rate of about 1 Mpps: pulse stretching means inputted by the digital processing means for producing a pulse having a pulse width of several milliseconds for each pulse received form the digital processing means; visual indicating means inputted by the pulse stretching means for producing a visual output for each pulse received from the digital processing means; and derandomizing means effective to receive the 50 ns neutron event pulses from the digital processing means for storage at a rate up to the neutron event rate of 1 Mpps and having first counter means for storing the input neutron event pulses

  13. Enteroantigen (eAg)-binding B lymphocytes in the mouse - phenotype, distribution, function and eAg-specific antibody secretion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Venning, Freja Albjerg; Trempenau, Mette Louise; Schmidt, Esben

    2013-01-01

    Studies reporting beneficial effects of B lymphocytes in autoimmune diseases have been accumulating and a regulatory role for certain B cell subsets is hence getting more and more recognition. Recently, B cells were shown to exhibit a regulatory effect in a T cell transfer model of colitis. Here, B...

  14. Chromosome aberrations of the peripheral lymphocytes in rabbits exposed to single and fractionated whole-body x-irradiations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tamura, Hiroaki; Sakurai, Masaharu; Sugahara, Tsutomu.

    1978-01-01

    The changes in the frequency of peripheral lymphocytes with chromosome aberrations were observed during or after irradiation of rabbits exposed to fractionated or single whole-body irradiations. In rabbits given daily fractionated whole-body irradiations the incidence of the aberrations showed a linear increase in the first week; however, the incidence decreased thereafter though exposures were repeated. The lymphocyte count tended to decrease as the number of irradiations increased. In rabbits exposed to a single dose of 250 R or 500 R the incidence of aberrations rapidly decreased over a period of 10 days following irradiation, and then showed a little change thereafter. The lymphocyte count in the peripheral blood reached a nadir 2 - 5 days after irradiation, and then started to increase gradually. It was speculated that there are two types of lymphocytes, long-lived and short-lived, in the peripheral blood of rabbits, both of which are PHA-committed. (auth.)

  15. Imaging B lymphocytes in autoimmune inflammatory diseases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iodice, V.; Lauri, C.; Capriotti, G.; Lagana', B.; Germano, V.; D’Amelio, R.; Picchianti Diamanti, A.

    2014-01-01

    B cells arise from stem cells precursor and develop through a tightly regulated and selective process that lead to the generation of different B cell populations such as transitional, mature, memory and plasma cells. These B cell subsets can be identified using flow cytometry by the expression of specific surface antigens. The growing knowledge of the pivotal role played by B cells in the development and progression of autoimmune diseases combined with the advances in monoclonal antibody technology, led in the last years to the generation of different biological agents targeting B cells. In this context, nuclear medicine can offer the possibility to use a panel of biologic radiopharmaceuticals for molecular imaging of inflammatory diseases. Radiopharmaceuticals bind to their targets with high affinity and specificity and have an excellent imaging diagnostic potential for the evaluation of disease activity, selection and monitoring of immune therapies. Several molecules have been radiolabelled for the imaging of T lymphocytes whereas, by now, the anti CD20 rituximab is the only biological therapy targeting B cells that demonstrated to be efficiently radiolabelled and used to detect inflammation in autoimmune patients

  16. Identification of swine influenza virus epitopes and analysis of multiple specificities expressed by cytotoxic T cell subsets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Lasse Eggers; Breum, Solvej Østergaard; Riber, Ulla

    2014-01-01

    Background: Major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I peptide binding and presentation are essential for antigen-specific activation of cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs) and swine MHC class I molecules, also termed swine leukocyte antigens (SLA), thus play a crucial role in the process that leads...... to elimination of viruses such as swine influenza virus (SwIV). This study describes the identification of SLA-presented peptide epitopes that are targets for a swine CTL response, and further analyses multiple specificities expressed by SwIV activated CTL subsets. Findings: Four SwIV derived peptides were...

  17. Clinical significance of the changes of serum levels of superoxide dismutase (SOD), endothelin (ET) and T cell subsets distribution type after treatment in patients with coronary heart disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Lin; Zhu Xuejun; Liu Sheguo

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To explore the changes in serum SOD, ET levels and T-lymphocyte subsets distribution type after treatment in patients with coronary heart disease. Methods: The levels of serum SOD, ET were detected with RIA and T-lymphocyte subsets distribution type was detected with monoclonal antibody method in 42 cases of coronary heart disease both before and after a course of treatment and 35 controls. Results: before treatment, the levels of serum ET were significantly higher than those in controls (P 4 /CD 8 ratio were significantly lower than those in controls (P 0.05). Conclusion: Detection of serum SOD, ET and CD 4 /CD 8 ratio is valuable for the diagnosis and outcome prediction in patients with coronary heart disease. (authors)

  18. T lymphocytes and normal tissue responses to radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schaue, Dörthe; McBride, William H.

    2012-01-01

    There is compelling evidence that lymphocytes are a recurring feature in radiation damaged normal tissues, but assessing their functional significance has proven difficult. Contradictory roles have been postulated in both tissue pathogenesis and protection, although these are not necessarily mutually exclusive as the immune system can display what may seem to be opposing faces at any one time. While the exact role of T lymphocytes in irradiated normal tissue responses may still be obscure, their accumulation after tissue damage suggests they may be critical targets for radiotherapeutic intervention and worthy of further study. This is accentuated by recent findings that pathologically damaged “self,” such as occurs after exposure to ionizing radiation, can generate danger signals with the ability to activate pathways similar to those that activate adoptive immunity to pathogens. In addition, the demonstration of T cell subsets with their recognition radars tuned to “self” moieties has revolutionized our ideas on how all immune responses are controlled and regulated. New concepts of autoimmunity have resulted based on the dissociation of immune functions between different subsets of immune cells. It is becoming axiomatic that the immune system has the power to regulate radiation-induced tissue damage, from failure of regeneration to fibrosis, to acute and chronic late effects, and even to carcinogenesis. Our understanding of the interplay between T lymphocytes and radiation-damaged tissue may still be rudimentary but this is a good time to re-examine their potential roles, their radiobiological and microenvironmental influences, and the possibilities for therapeutic manipulation. This review will discuss the yin and yang of T cell responses within the context of radiation exposures, how they might drive or protect against normal tissue side effects and what we may be able do about it.

  19. Measurement of T-lymphocyte responses in whole-blood cultures using newly synthesized DNA and ATP.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sottong, P R; Rosebrock, J A; Britz, J A; Kramer, T R

    2000-03-01

    The proliferative response is most frequently determined by estimating the amount of [(3)H]thymidine incorporated into newly synthesized DNA. The [(3)H]thymidine procedure requires the use of radioisotopes as well as lengthy periods of incubation (>72 h). An alternative method of assessing T-lymphocyte activation in whole-blood cultures involves the measurement of the nucleotide ATP instead of [(3)H]thymidine incorporation. In addition, the Luminetics assay of T-cell activation measures specific T-lymphocyte subset responses through the use of paramagnetic particles coated with monoclonal antibodies against CD antigens. This assay permits rapid (24 h) analysis of lymphocyte subset activation responses to mitogens and recall antigens in small amounts of blood.

  20. The role of T cell subsets and cytokines in the regulation of intracellular bacterial infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oliveira S.C.

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available Cellular immune responses are a critical part of the host's defense against intracellular bacterial infections. Immunity to Brucella abortus crucially depends on antigen-specific T cell-mediated activation of macrophages, which are the major effectors of cell-mediated killing of this organism. T lymphocytes that proliferate in response to B. abortus were characterized for phenotype and cytokine activity. Human, murine, and bovine T lymphocytes exhibited a type 1 cytokine profile, suggesting an analogous immune response in these different hosts. In vivo protection afforded by a particular cell type is dependent on the antigen presented and the mechanism of antigen presentation. Studies using MHC class I and class II knockout mice infected with B. abortus have demonstrated that protective immunity to brucellosis is especially dependent on CD8+ T cells. To target MHC class I presentation we transfected ex vivo a murine macrophage cell line with B. abortus genes and adoptively transferred them to BALB/c mice. These transgenic macrophage clones induced partial protection in mice against experimental brucellosis. Knowing the cells required for protection, vaccines can be designed to activate the protective T cell subset. Lastly, as a new strategy for priming a specific class I-restricted T cell response in vivo, we used genetic immunization by particle bombardment-mediated gene transfer

  1. PHYSIOLOGICAL AND LEUKOCYTE SUBSET RESPONSES TO EXERCISE AND COLD EXPOSURE IN COLD-ACCLIMATIZED SKATERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Kim

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available We investigated physiological responses and changes in circulating immune cells following exercise in cold and thermoneutral conditions. Participants were short track skaters (n=9 who were acclimatized to cold conditions, and inline skaters (n=10 who were not acclimatized. All skaters were young, and skating at a recreational level three days per week for at least one year. Using a cross-over design, study variables were measured during 60 min of submaximal cycling (65% ·VO2max in cold (ambient temperature: 5±1°C, relative humidity: 41±9% and thermoneutral conditions (ambient temperature: 21±1°C, relative humidity: 35±5%. Heart rate, blood lactate and tympanic temperature were measured at rest, during exercise and recovery. Plasma cortisol, calprotectin and circulating blood cell numbers were measured before and after 60 min of cold or thermoneutral conditions, and during recovery from exercise. Heart rate was lower in both groups during exercise in cold versus thermoneutral conditions (P<0.05. The increase in total leukocytes during recovery was primarily due to an increase in neutrophils in both groups. The cold-acclimatized group activated neutrophils after exercise in cold exposure, whereas the non-acclimatized group activated lymphocyte and cortisol after exercise in cold exposure. Lymphocyte subsets significantly changed in both groups over time during recovery as compared to rest. Immediately after exercise in both groups, CD16+ and CD69+ cells were elevated compared to rest or before exercise in both conditions. Acclimatization to exercise in the cold does not appear to influence exercise-induced immune changes in cold conditions, with the possible exception of neutrophils, lymphocytes and cortisol concentration.

  2. [An analysis of immunophenotyping of peripheral lymphocytes in adult patients with infectious mononucleosis and chronic active Epstein-Barr virus infection].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, J; Wang, H L; Qiu, Z F; Li, T S

    2016-06-01

    To determine the immunophenotypic features of peripheral lymphocytes in adult patients with Epstein-Barr virus(EBV)-associated infectious mononucleosis(IM) and chronic active EBV infection (CAEBV). Eighteen IM patients, 12 CAEBV patients and 18 healthy donors were included. Lymphocyte subsets including CD3(-)CD19(+) B cells, CD3(-)CD16/56(+) NK cells, CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cells in peripheral blood were measured by flow cytometry. The expression of activation markers (HLA-DR and CD38) on CD8(+) T cells and CD28 expression on T cells were also determined. Kruskal-Wallis H and Mann-Whitney U tests were used to compare variables among groups. IM patients had dramatically increased CD8(+) T cell counts than healthy donors (5.22×10(9)/L vs 0.54×10(9)/L, P<0.001). B cell counts moderately reduced in patients with IM than in healthy donors. No difference was found in absolute CD4(+) T cell and NK cell counts between IM and healthy donors. The levels of HLA-DR and CD38 on CD8(+) T cells significantly increased in IM patients compared with those in healthy controls. The intensity of CD28 on CD8(+) T cells significantly decreased, which was not seen on CD4(+) T cells. The median cell counts of B, NK, CD4(+) T and CD8(+) T subsets in CAEBV patients were 0.02×10(9)/L, 0.06×10(9)/L, 0.26×10(9)/L and 0.21×10(9)/L respectively, which were significantly lower than those in healthy donors (0.22×10(9)/L, 0.38×10(9)/L, 0.78×10(9)/L, 0.54×10(9)/L)and IM patients (0.12×10(9)/L, 0.40×10(9)/L, 0.91×10(9)/L, 5.22×10(9)/L). The positive rates of HLA-DR and CD38 on CD8(+) T cells in CAEBV patients were higher than those in healthy controls, but lower than those in IM patients. The immunophenotypic pattern in adult patients with IM is characterized by a dramatic increase of extensively activated CD8(+) T cells, a moderate reduction of CD19(+) B cells and no significant change of CD4(+) T cells and CD16/56(+) NK cells. CAEBV is featured by an immunosuppression status as

  3. Length of hospitalization is associated with selected biomarkers (albumin and lymphocytes) and with co-morbidities: study on 4000 patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pontiroli, Antonio E; Loreggian, Lara; Rovati, Marco P L; De Patto, Elena; Folini, Laura; Raveglia, Federico; De Simone, Matilde; Baisi, Alessandro; Cioffi, Ugo

    2017-01-01

    Low albumin levels and low lymphocyte counts are intra hospital conditions that exert a negative influence on prognosis, healing and length of hospitalization. The study aimed to analyze the correlation between low blood levels of albumin, low lymphocytes, and length of stay. The secondary aim was to identify other co-morbidities associated with prolonged hospital stay. Retrospective pilot study was conducted by analyzing anamnestic and biochemical data, related to 4038 patients admitted to ten wards of Hospital San Paolo (Milan), collected from July 1 st 2012 to December 31 st 2012. A statistical analysis was carried out using the Correlation method, Multivariate Analysis and Regression. Lymphocyte count and co-morbidities were evaluated in the whole cohort, albumin levels in 1437 patients. In the whole sample, low albumin levels and low lymphocyte counts were directly correlated to longer hospitalizations. The stratification of the results by department and diagnosis suggests that there is a higher correlation in certain subpopulations, and albumin shows a greater correlation with length of stay than lymphocytes. Also advanced age, high platelets, type of diagnosis, male gender and emergency admission led to longer hospitalizations. A routine check of albumin, lymphocytes and a spectrum of significant variables can provide precious information which can eventually lead to a shorter hospital stay. Knowledge of the general health status of a patient and the possibility to estimate his/her length of hospital stay are essential information for Clinical Governance, and for the improvement of internal services of hospitals on a large scale.

  4. Identification of a novel stereotypic IGHV4-59/IGHJ5-encoded B-cell receptor subset expressed by various B-cell lymphomas with high affinity rheumatoid factor activity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bende, Richard J.; Janssen, Jerry; Wormhoudt, Thera A. M.; Wagner, Koen; Guikema, Jeroen E. J.; van Noesel, Carel J. M.

    2016-01-01

    Subsets of mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) lymphoma, splenic marginal zone B-cell lymphoma (MZBCL) and chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) have been identified that express near-identical B-cell receptors (BCRs), strongly suggesting selection by restricted antigenic epitopes. We here report

  5. NKT cell subsets as key participants in liver physiology and pathology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bandyopadhyay, Keya; Marrero, Idania; Kumar, Vipin

    2016-01-01

    Natural killer T (NKT) cells are innate-like lymphocytes that generally recognize lipid antigens and are enriched in microvascular compartments of the liver. NKT cells can be activated by self- or microbial-lipid antigens and by signaling through toll-like receptors. Following activation, NKT cells rapidly secrete pro-inflammatory or anti-inflammatory cytokines and chemokines, and thereby determine the milieu for subsequent immunity or tolerance. It is becoming clear that two different subsets of NKT cells—type I and type II—have different modes of antigen recognition and have opposing roles in inflammatory liver diseases. Here we focus mainly on the roles of both NKT cell subsets in the maintenance of immune tolerance and inflammatory diseases in liver. Furthermore, how the differential activation of type I and type II NKT cells influences other innate cells and adaptive immune cells to result in important consequences for tissue integrity is discussed. It is crucial that better reagents, including CD1d tetramers, be used in clinical studies to define the roles of NKT cells in liver diseases in patients. PMID:26972772

  6. NKp46 identifies an NKT cell subset susceptible to leukemic transformation in mouse and human

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Jianhua; Mitsui, Takeki; Wei, Min; Mao, Hsiaoyin; Butchar, Jonathan P.; Shah, Mithun Vinod; Zhang, Jianying; Mishra, Anjali; Alvarez-Breckenridge, Christopher; Liu, Xingluo; Liu, Shujun; Yokohama, Akihiko; Trotta, Rossana; Marcucci, Guido; Benson, Don M.; Loughran, Thomas P.; Tridandapani, Susheela; Caligiuri, Michael A.

    2011-01-01

    IL-15 may have a role in the development of T cell large granular lymphocyte (T-LGL) or NKT leukemias. However, the mechanisms of action and the identity of the cell subset that undergoes leukemic transformation remain elusive. Here we show that in both mice and humans, NKp46 expression marks a minute population of WT NKT cells with higher activity and potency to become leukemic. Virtually 100% of T-LGL leukemias in IL-15 transgenic mice expressed NKp46, as did a majority of human T-LGL leukemias. The minute NKp46+ NKT population, but not the NKp46– NKT population, was selectively expanded by overexpression of endogenous IL-15. Importantly, IL-15 transgenic NKp46– NKT cells did not become NKp46+ in vivo, suggesting that NKp46+ T-LGL leukemia cells were the malignant counterpart of the minute WT NKp46+ NKT population. Mechanistically, NKp46+ NKT cells possessed higher responsiveness to IL-15 in vitro and in vivo compared with that of their NKp46– NKT counterparts. Furthermore, interruption of IL-15 signaling using a neutralizing antibody could prevent LGL leukemia in IL-15 transgenic mice. Collectively, our data demonstrate that NKp46 identifies a functionally distinct NKT subset in mice and humans that appears to be directly susceptible to leukemic transformation when IL-15 is overexpressed. Thus, IL-15 signaling and NKp46 may be useful targets in the treatment of patients with T-LGL or NKT leukemia. PMID:21364281

  7. NKT cell subsets as key participants in liver physiology and pathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bandyopadhyay, Keya; Marrero, Idania; Kumar, Vipin

    2016-05-01

    Natural killer T (NKT) cells are innate-like lymphocytes that generally recognize lipid antigens and are enriched in microvascular compartments of the liver. NKT cells can be activated by self- or microbial-lipid antigens and by signaling through toll-like receptors. Following activation, NKT cells rapidly secrete pro-inflammatory or anti-inflammatory cytokines and chemokines, and thereby determine the milieu for subsequent immunity or tolerance. It is becoming clear that two different subsets of NKT cells-type I and type II-have different modes of antigen recognition and have opposing roles in inflammatory liver diseases. Here we focus mainly on the roles of both NKT cell subsets in the maintenance of immune tolerance and inflammatory diseases in liver. Furthermore, how the differential activation of type I and type II NKT cells influences other innate cells and adaptive immune cells to result in important consequences for tissue integrity is discussed. It is crucial that better reagents, including CD1d tetramers, be used in clinical studies to define the roles of NKT cells in liver diseases in patients.

  8. Alterations on peripheral B cell subsets following an acute uncomplicated clinical malaria infection in children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ng'ang'a Zipporah W

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The effects of Plasmodium falciparum on B-cell homeostasis have not been well characterized. This study investigated whether an episode of acute malaria in young children results in changes in the peripheral B cell phenotype. Methods Using flow-cytofluorimetric analysis, the B cell phenotypes found in the peripheral blood of children aged 2–5 years were characterized during an episode of acute uncomplicated clinical malaria and four weeks post-recovery and in healthy age-matched controls. Results There was a significant decrease in CD19+ B lymphocytes during acute malaria. Characterization of the CD19+ B cell subsets in the peripheral blood based on expression of IgD and CD38 revealed a significant decrease in the numbers of naive 1 CD38-IgD+ B cells while there was an increase in CD38+IgD- memory 3 B cells during acute malaria. Further analysis of the peripheral B cell phenotype also identified an expansion of transitional CD10+CD19+ B cells in children following an episode of acute malaria with up to 25% of total CD19+ B cell pool residing in this subset. Conclusion Children experiencing an episode of acute uncomplicated clinical malaria experienced profound disturbances in B cell homeostasis.

  9. The efficiency of subset selection of an almost best treatment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Laan, van der P.

    1991-01-01

    A generalized goal using subset selection is discussed for the location parameter case. This goal is to select a non-empty subset from a set of k (k \\geq 2) treatments that contains at least one \\epsilon-best treatment with confidence level P*. For a set of treatments an \\epsilon-best treatment is

  10. Indirect Positive Evidence in the Acquisition of a Subset Grammar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, Misha; Goad, Heather

    2017-01-01

    This article proposes that second language learners can use indirect positive evidence (IPE) to acquire a phonological grammar that is a subset of their L1 grammar. IPE is evidence from errors in the learner's L1 made by native speakers of the learner's L2. It has been assumed that subset grammars may be acquired using direct or indirect negative…

  11. ';Best' Practices for Aggregating Subset Results from Archived Datasets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baskin, W. E.; Perez, J.

    2013-12-01

    In response to the exponential growth in science data analysis and visualization capabilities Data Centers have been developing new delivery mechanisms to package and deliver large volumes of aggregated subsets of archived data. New standards are evolving to help data providers and application programmers deal with growing needs of the science community. These standards evolve from the best practices gleaned from new products and capabilities. The NASA Atmospheric Sciences Data Center (ASDC) has developed and deployed production provider-specific search and subset web applications for the CALIPSO, CERES, TES, and MOPITT missions. This presentation explores several use cases that leverage aggregated subset results and examines the standards and formats ASDC developers applied to the delivered files as well as the implementation strategies for subsetting and processing the aggregated products. The following topics will be addressed: - Applications of NetCDF CF conventions to aggregated level 2 satellite subsets - Data-Provider-Specific format requirements vs. generalized standards - Organization of the file structure of aggregated NetCDF subset output - Global Attributes of individual subsetted files vs. aggregated results - Specific applications and framework used for subsetting and delivering derivative data files

  12. [The lymphocyte transformation test in dermatology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zinn, K; Braun-Falco, O

    1976-03-01

    At first, immunologie and methodic basies of the lymphocyte transformation test are discussed. Then the results gained by this test in several dermatologic diseases are summarized. Finally, practice of the lymphocyte transformation test is critically reviewed.

  13. Mindfulness meditation training effects on CD4+ T lymphocytes in HIV-1 infected adults: A small randomized controlled trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Creswell, J. David; Myers, Hector F.; Cole, Steven W.; Irwin, Michael R.

    2009-01-01

    Mindfulness meditation training has stress reduction benefits in various patient populations, but its effects on biological markers of HIV-1 progression are unknown. The present study tested the efficacy of an 8-week Mindfulness-based stress reduction (MBSR) meditation program compared to a 1-day control seminar on CD4+ T lymphocyte counts in stressed HIV infected adults. A single-blind randomized controlled trial was conducted with enrollment and follow-up occurring between November 2005 and December 2007. A diverse community sample of 48 HIV-1 infected adults was randomized and entered treatment in either an 8-week MBSR or a 1-day control stress reduction education seminar. The primary outcome was circulating counts of CD4+ T lymphocytes. Participants in the 1-day control seminar showed declines in CD4+ T lymphocyte counts whereas counts among participants in the 8-week MBSR program were unchanged from baseline to post-intervention (time × treatment condition interaction, p = .02). This effect was independent of antiretroviral (ARV) medication use. Additional analyses indicated that treatment adherence to the mindfulness meditation program, as measured by class attendance, mediated the effects of mindfulness meditation training on buffering CD4+ T lymphocyte declines. These findings provide an initial indication that mindfulness meditation training can buffer CD4+ T lymphocyte declines in HIV-1 infected adults. PMID:18678242

  14. Assessment of radiation induced apoptosis in lymphocyte subpopulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perez, M. del R.; Dubner, Diana L.; Michelin, Severino; Gisone, Pablo A.; Barboza, Marcos

    2001-01-01

    Apoptosis is the main form of radioinduced cell death. The lymphocytes, highly radiosensitive cells, dead in interphase by apoptosis even after very low doses. It has been demonstrated that the various peripheral blood lymphocyte (PBL) types display clear differences in their radiosensitivity . The purpose of this work was the characterization of radioinduced apoptosis in total PBL and in helper and cytotoxic T-lymphocytes. Blood samples were irradiated with a gamma source with doses between 0,5 and 4 Gy, dose-rate 0,8 Gy/min. Apoptosis was evaluated at different times post irradiation (p.i.) by conventional and fluorescence microscopy. Fragmentation of DNA was determined by electrophoresis in agarose gels. Apoptosis was quantified flow cytometrically by light scatter gram and determining the percent of fixed cells stained with propidium iodide that exhibited a reduced DNA content. FITC-labelled Annexin V was used to bind cell membrane phosphatidylserine which is aberrantly exposed during apoptosis. As an additional approach for the evaluation of apoptosis we measured the mitochondrial transmembrane potential by using the cationic dye 3,3 dihexyl oxacarbocyanine iodide (DiOC 6 ). Chromatin condensation and apoptotic bodies were microscopically observed and internucleosomal fragmentation was revealed in electrophoresis gels. Apoptotic cell fraction displayed a dose-dependent increase with a higher radiosensitivity for CD8 T-lymphocytes. These results suggest that quantification of PBL apoptosis could be an useful biological indicator in accidental overexposures and could also provide an useful predictive test for individual radiosensitivity. The higher radiosensitivity revealed by CD8 subset could allow a better discrimination of this phenomenon. (author)

  15. The majority of lymphocytes in the bone marrow. Thymus and extrathymic T cells in the liver are generated in situ from their own preexisting precursors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shimizu, Takao; Sugahara, Satoshi; Oya, Hiroshi; Maruyama, Satoshi; Minagawa, Masahiro; Bannai, Makoto; Hatakeyama, Katsuyoshi; Abo, Toru

    1999-01-01

    Parabiotic pairs of B6.Ly5.1 and B6.Ly5.2 mice were used to investigate how lymphocytes in various organs and various lymphocyte subsets mixed with partner cells. The origin of partner cells was determined by using anti-Ly5.1 mAb in conjunction with immunofluorescence tests. Parabiosis was also produced after the irradiation of B6.Ly5.2 mice at various doses to prepare an immunosuppressive partner. Irrespective of irradiation, lymphocytes and other hematopoietic cells in the bone marrow and lymphocytes in the thymus showed a low mixture of partner cells in comparison with those of all other organs tested. On the other hand, lymphocytes in the blood, spleen, and lymph nodes became a half-and-half mixture of their own cells and partner cell by 14 days after parabiosis. Among lymphocyte subsets, intermediate CD3 cells (i.e., CD3 int cells) and NKT cells (i.e., NK1.1 + subset of CD3 int cells) in the liver also showed a low mixture of partner cells. The present results raise the possibility that lymphocytes in the bone marrow and thymus, and extrathymic T cells in the liver might be in situ generated from their own preexisting precursor cells. Another observation was that, after irradiation, partner cells showed accelerated mixture even if they showed a low mixture under non-irradiated conditions. However, only lymphocyte subsets with the same phenotype as those of preexisting cells entered the corresponding sites. (author)

  16. The majority of lymphocytes in the bone marrow. Thymus and extrathymic T cells in the liver are generated in situ from their own preexisting precursors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shimizu, Takao; Sugahara, Satoshi; Oya, Hiroshi; Maruyama, Satoshi; Minagawa, Masahiro; Bannai, Makoto; Hatakeyama, Katsuyoshi; Abo, Toru [Niigata Univ. (Japan). School of Medicine

    1999-06-01

    Parabiotic pairs of B6.Ly5.1 and B6.Ly5.2 mice were used to investigate how lymphocytes in various organs and various lymphocyte subsets mixed with partner cells. The origin of partner cells was determined by using anti-Ly5.1 mAb in conjunction with immunofluorescence tests. Parabiosis was also produced after the irradiation of B6.Ly5.2 mice at various doses to prepare an immunosuppressive partner. Irrespective of irradiation, lymphocytes and other hematopoietic cells in the bone marrow and lymphocytes in the thymus showed a low mixture of partner cells in comparison with those of all other organs tested. On the other hand, lymphocytes in the blood, spleen, and lymph nodes became a half-and-half mixture of their own cells and partner cell by 14 days after parabiosis. Among lymphocyte subsets, intermediate CD3 cells (i.e., CD3{sup int} cells) and NKT cells (i.e., NK1.1{sup +} subset of CD3{sup int} cells) in the liver also showed a low mixture of partner cells. The present results raise the possibility that lymphocytes in the bone marrow and thymus, and extrathymic T cells in the liver might be in situ generated from their own preexisting precursor cells. Another observation was that, after irradiation, partner cells showed accelerated mixture even if they showed a low mixture under non-irradiated conditions. However, only lymphocyte subsets with the same phenotype as those of preexisting cells entered the corresponding sites. (author)

  17. Lymphocyte receptors for pertussis toxin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clark, C.G.; Armstrong, G.D. (Univ. of Alberta, Edmonton (Canada))

    1990-12-01

    We have investigated human T-lymphocyte receptors for pertussis toxin by affinity isolation and photoaffinity labeling procedures. T lymphocytes were obtained from peripheral human blood, surface iodinated, and solubilized in Triton X-100. The iodinated mixture was then passed through pertussis toxin-agarose, and the fractions were analyzed by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Autoradiography of the fixed, dried gels revealed several bands in the pertussis toxin-bound fraction that were not observed in fractions obtained from histone or fetuin-agarose. Further investigations employed a photoaffinity labeling reagent, sulfosuccinimidyl 2-(p-azido-salicylamido)-1,3'-dithiopropionate, to identify pertussis toxin receptors in freshly isolated peripheral blood monocytic cells, T lymphocytes, and Jurkat cells. In all three cell systems, the pertussis toxin affinity probe specifically labeled a single protein species with an apparent molecular weight of 70,000 that was not observed when the procedure was performed in the presence of excess unmodified pertussis toxin. A protein comparable in molecular weight to the one detected by the photoaffinity labeling technique was also observed among the species that bound to pertussis toxin-agarose. The results suggest that pertussis toxin may bind to a 70,000-Da receptor in human T lymphocytes.

  18. Relationship of blood and milk cell counts with mastitic pathogens in Murrah buffaloes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Singh

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available The present study was undertaken to see the effect of mastitic pathogens on the blood and milk counts of Murrah buffaloes. Milk and blood samples were collected from 9 mastitic Murrah buffaloes. The total leucocyte Counts (TLC and Differential leucocyte counts (DLC in blood were within normal range and there was a non-significant change in blood counts irrespective of different mastitic pathogens. Normal milk quarter samples had significantly (P<0.01 less Somatic cell counts (SCC. Lymphocytes were significantly higher in normal milk samples, whereas infected samples had a significant increase (P<0.01 in milk neutrophils. S. aureus infected buffaloes had maximum milk SCC, followed by E. coli and S. agalactiae. Influx of neutrophils in the buffalo mammary gland was maximum for S. agalactiae, followed by E.cli and S. aureus. The study indicated that level of mastitis had no affect on blood counts but it influenced the milk SCC of normal quarters.

  19. A microculture technique for rat lymphocyte transformation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindsay, V J; Allardyce, R A

    1979-01-01

    We report the development of an economical microculture technique suitable for measuring rat lymphocyte response to mitogens and in mixed lymphocyte reactions. The effects of varying culture conditions, i.e. source of serum, addition and concentration of 2-mercaptoethanol, mitogen concentrations, culture incubation times, absorption of serum, lymphocyte numbers and microtitre plate well shape are described.

  20. Radiosensitivity of lymphocytes among Filipinos: final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Medina, F.I.S.; Gregorio, J.S.; Aguilar, C.P.; Poblete, E.E.

    1996-01-01

    This report is about the studies on the radiosensitivity of Filipino lymphocytes to radiation that can elucidate on the potential of blood chromosomes as biological dosimeters. The objective of this study is to determine the radiosensitivity of lymphocytes among Filipinos and to establish the radiation-induced chromosome anomaly standard curve in lymphocytes for radiological dosimetry. 47 refs., 9 figs., 1 tab

  1. Beta-adrenergic receptors of lymphocytes in children with allergic respiratory diseases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bittera, I.; Gyurkovits, K.; Falkay, G.; Eck, E.; Koltai, M.

    1988-01-01

    The beta-adrenergic receptor binding sites on peripheral lymphocytes in children with bronchial asthma (n = 16) and seasonal allergic rhinitis (n = 8) were examined in comparison with normal controls (n = 18) by means of 124 I-cyanopindolol. The number of beta-adrenergic receptors was significantly lower in the asthmatic group (858 +/- 460/lymphocyte) than in the controls (1564 +/- 983/lymphocyte). The value (1891 +/- 1502/lymphocyte in children with allergic rhinitis was slightly higher than that in healthy controls. Of the 24 patients suffering from allergic diseases of the lower or upper airways, the bronchial histamine provocation test was performed in 21; 16 gave positive results, while 5 were negative. No difference in beta-adrenergic receptor count was found between the histamine-positive and negative patients. Neither was there any correlation between the number of beta-adrenergic receptors and the high (16/24) and low (8/24) serum IgE concentrations found in allergic patients. The significant decrease in beta-adrenergic receptor count in asthmatic children lends support to Szentivanyi's concept. Further qualitative and quantitative analysis of lymphocyte beta-adrenergic receptors may provide an individual approach to the treatment of bronchial asthma with beta-sympathomimetic drugs

  2. Effect of pyrimethamine and sulphadoxine on human lymphocyte proliferation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bygbjerg, I C; Odum, Niels; Theander, T G

    1986-01-01

    The in vitro effect of pyrimethamine (PYR) on human blood mononuclear cells stimulated with phytohaemagglutinin (PHA), pokeweed mitogen (PWM) and purified protein derivative of tuberculin (PPD) was studied by 14C-thymidine incorporation, by cell counting and by total DNA estimation. PYR in concen......The in vitro effect of pyrimethamine (PYR) on human blood mononuclear cells stimulated with phytohaemagglutinin (PHA), pokeweed mitogen (PWM) and purified protein derivative of tuberculin (PPD) was studied by 14C-thymidine incorporation, by cell counting and by total DNA estimation. PYR...... in concentrations 10 times higher than serum values obtained in clinical practice inhibited lymphocyte proliferation irreversibly. PYR in concentrations corresponding to clinical practice quickly and irreversibly suppressed the proliferation of PWM-stimulated cells, and more slowly the proliferation of PPD...

  3. CalCOFI Egg Counts

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Fish egg counts and standardized counts for eggs captured in CalCOFI icthyoplankton nets (primarily vertical [Calvet or Pairovet], oblique [bongo or ring nets], and...

  4. Leukocytic Response and Peripheral Venous Blood Lymphocyte Apoptosis as a Marker of Tissue Ischemia in Acute Massive Blood Loss

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. V. Borovkova

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to estimate the level of peripheral venous blood lymphocyte apoptosis and intraoperative hypoxia in victims with acute massive blood loss. Subjects and methods. Twenty-two patients with open and close chest and abdominal traumas complicated by acute massive blood loss were examined. All the patients were emergently operated on to stop bleeding. Tissue metabolism was evaluated from gases, acid-base parameters, and plasma lactate, glucose, potassium, and sodium levels. Apoptosis of mononuclear cells was studied and dead leukocytes were counted using flow cytometry. Results. Preoperatively, the victims were found to have venous hypoxemia, hyperlactatemia, hyperglycemia, moderate leukocytosis, and higher dead leukocyte counts. There were also raised counts of lymphocytes coming into the process of apoptosis. A significant relationship was found between monocyte counts and hypoxia values. At the end of surgery, oxygen balance values became stable and exerted an effect on the count of leukocytes, the relative level of granulocytes, the relative and absolute counts of dead and damaged leukocytes, and the concentration of lymphocytes in the victims’ venous blood during the early stages of apoptosis, as evidenced by nonlinear regression models. Conclusion. The indicators of immunocompetent cell apoptosis and the count of venous blood dead leukocytes along with lactate levels and venous hypoxemia parameters reflect the degree of tissue hypoxia and may be used as specific markers.

  5. Prognostic meaning of neutrophil to lymphocyte ratio (NLR) and lymphocyte to monocyte ration (LMR) in newly diagnosed Hodgkin lymphoma patients treated upfront with a PET-2 based strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romano, Alessandra; Parrinello, Nunziatina Laura; Vetro, Calogero; Chiarenza, Annalisa; Cerchione, Claudio; Ippolito, Massimo; Palumbo, Giuseppe Alberto; Di Raimondo, Francesco

    2018-06-01

    Recent reports identify NLR (the ratio between absolute neutrophils counts, ANC, and absolute lymphocyte count, ALC), as predictor of progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS) in cancer patients. We retrospectively tested NLR and LMR (the ratio between absolute lymphocyte and monocyte counts) in newly diagnosed Hodgkin lymphoma (HL) patients treated upfront with a PET-2 risk-adapted strategy. NLR and LMR were calculated using records obtained from the complete blood count (CBC) from 180 newly diagnosed HL patients. PFS was evaluated accordingly to Kaplan-Meier method. Higher NLR was associated to advanced stage, increased absolute counts of neutrophils and reduced count of lymphocytes, and markers of systemic inflammation. After a median follow-up of 68 months, PFS at 60 months was 86.6% versus 70.1%, respectively, in patients with NLR ≥ 6 or NLR PET-2 scan (p PET-2 was an independent predictor of PFS in multivariate analysis. Advanced-stage patients (N = 119) were treated according to a PET-2 risk-adapted protocol, with an early switch to BEACOPP regimen in case of PET-2 positivity. Despite this strategy, patients with positive PET-2 still had an inferior outcome, with PFS at 60 months of 84.7% versus 40.1% (negative and positive PET-2 patients, respectively, p PET-2 status and to a lesser extend NLR in advanced stage, while LMR maintained its significance in early stage. By focusing on PET-2 negative patients, we found that patients with NLR ≥ 6.0 or LMR PET-2 scan, NLR and LMR can result in a meaningful prognostic system that needs to be further validated in prospective series including patients treated upfront with PET-2 adapted-risk therapy.

  6. Counting statistics in radioactivity measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, J.

    1975-01-01

    The application of statistical methods to radioactivity measurement problems is analyzed in several chapters devoted successively to: the statistical nature of radioactivity counts; the application to radioactive counting of two theoretical probability distributions, Poisson's distribution law and the Laplace-Gauss law; true counting laws; corrections related to the nature of the apparatus; statistical techniques in gamma spectrometry [fr

  7. Do your syringes count?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brewster, K.

    2002-01-01

    Full text: This study was designed to investigate anecdotal evidence that residual Sestamibi (MIBI) activity vaned in certain situations. For rest studies different brands of syringes were tested to see if the residuals varied. The period of time MIBI doses remained in the syringe between dispensing and injection was also considered as a possible source of increased residual counts. Stress Mibi syringe residual activities were measured to assess if the method of stress test affected residual activity. MIBI was reconstituted using 13 Gbq of Technetium in 3mls of normal saline then boiled for 10 minutes. Doses were dispensed according to department protocol and injected via cannula. Residual syringes were collected for three syringe types. In each case the barrel and plunger were measured separately. As the syringe is flushed during the exercise stress test and not the pharmacological stress test the chosen method was recorded. No relationship was demonstrated between the time MIBI remained in a syringe prior to injection and residual activity. Residual activity was not affected by method of stress test used. Actual injected activity can be calculated if the amount of activity remaining in the syringe post injection is known. Imaging time can be adjusted for residual activity to optimise count statistics. Preliminary results in this study indicate there is no difference in residual activity between syringe brands.Copyright (2002) The Australian and New Zealand Society of Nuclear Medicine Inc

  8. Association of Low B Cell Count and IgG Levels With Infection, and Poor Vaccine Response With All-Cause Mortality in an Immunosuppressed Vasculitis Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    David Morgan, Matthew; Richter, Alex; Al-Ali, Samer; Flint, Julia; Yiannakis, Constantina; Drayson, Mark; Goldblatt, David; Harper, Lorraine

    2016-06-01

    Patients with systemic vasculitis (SV) have an increased risk of all-cause mortality, often due to infection, compared to the healthy population. We investigated whether humoral response to vaccination and biomarkers of immune dysfunction were associated with infection and death. Patients with SV in remission were vaccinated with pneumococcal 7-valent conjugate, Haemophilus influenzae type b, and meningococcal group C conjugate vaccine and meningococcal polysaccharide groups A, C, Y, and W135 vaccines. Total IgG and antibody titers against specific antigens and lymphocyte subset analysis were performed before vaccination. Postvaccination antibody titers were measured at 4 weeks and 2 years, from which an antibody response score was calculated. Infections and death following vaccination were collected prospectively following vaccination. A total of 92 patients were safely vaccinated with no increase in disease relapse, median followup 4.6 years (interquartile range [IQR] 3.6-4.8 years). Eighteen patients died at a median of 2 years and the overall infection rate was 0.4 (IQR 0.2-1.3) infections/patient/year. Reduced serum IgG, B cell count, and CD4+ cell counts predicted poor vaccine response and infection but not death. The response rates to individual vaccine antigens was highly variable, with a median response rate of 46% (IQR 39-58%) of patients responding to each individual antigen. Vaccine response, age, and reduced renal function were independent predictors of all-cause mortality in multivariate analysis. Total IgG and B cell counts predict infection and response to vaccination. Vaccination in patients with SV in remission is safe and the response predicts all-cause mortality. Vaccine response is a surrogate marker of immune system health. © 2016, American College of Rheumatology.

  9. Association between neutrophil/lymphocyte ratio and coronary collateral circulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mustafa Oylumlu

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To investigate relation between neutrophil/lymphocyte ratio and coronary collateral flow.Material and methods: Eighty-two patients admittedDicle University Medical Faculty Hospital Cardiology Departmentwith diagnosis of coronary artery disease anddetected significant stenosis or occlusion at least one ofthe coronary arteries, were included to study. Age, sex,presence of diabetes mellitus and hypertension, acute/stable coronary disease, body mass index, neutrophil/lymphocyte ratio, white blood count, Rentrop scores andnumber of diseased vessel were recorded.Results: Well-developed coronary collateral circulationwas found in 33 of the patients. Forty-nine patients hadpoor coronary collateral circulation. Mean age, sex, bodymass index, presence of diabetes mellitus and hypertensionwere similar in two groups. Mean neutrophil/lymphocyteratio was lower in well-developed coronary collateralcirculation group than poor coronary collateral circulationgroup, but there was no significant differences (2.78 vs2.89, p=0.12.Conclusions: There was no association between neutron/hil lymphocyte ratio and coronary collateral circulationaccording to our data. J Clin Exp Invest 2012; 3(1:29-32

  10. On Maximal Non-Disjoint Families of Subsets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu. A. Zuev

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper studies maximal non-disjoint families of subsets of a finite set. Non-disjointness means that any two subsets of a family have a nonempty intersection. The maximality is expressed by the fact that adding a new subset to the family cannot increase its power without violating a non-disjointness condition. Studying the properties of such families is an important section of the extreme theory of sets. Along with purely combinatorial interest, the problems considered here play an important role in informatics, anti-noise coding, and cryptography.In 1961 this problem saw the light of day in the Erdos, Ko and Rado paper, which established a maximum power of the non-disjoint family of subsets of equal power. In 1974 the Erdos and Claytman publication estimated the number of maximal non-disjoint families of subsets without involving the equality of their power. These authors failed to establish an asymptotics of the logarithm of the number of such families when the power of a basic finite set tends to infinity. However, they suggested such an asymptotics as a hypothesis. A.D. Korshunov in two publications in 2003 and 2005 established the asymptotics for the number of non-disjoint families of the subsets of arbitrary powers without maximality condition of these families.The basis for the approach used in the paper to study the families of subsets is their description in the language of Boolean functions. A one-to-one correspondence between a family of subsets and a Boolean function is established by the fact that the characteristic vectors of subsets of a family are considered to be the unit sets of a Boolean function. The main theoretical result of the paper is that the maximal non-disjoint families are in one-to-one correspondence with the monotonic self-dual Boolean functions. When estimating the number of maximal non-disjoint families, this allowed us to use the result of A.A. Sapozhenko, who established the asymptotics of the number of the

  11. Effect of radiation therapy on the mitogenic response of in vitro irradiated human lymphocytes to phytohaemagglutinin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baral, E.; Blomgren, H.; Einhorn, N.; Lax, I.; Juhlin, I.

    1977-01-01

    Irradiation of human peripheral lymphocytes in vitro reduces their capacity to be triggered to DNA-synthesis by PHA in a two-dose shaped fashion suggesting the presence of one relatively radiationsensitive and one relatively resistant cell population. Intracavitary and external radiation therapy for carcinoma of the uterus and vagina, which reduced the lymphocyte counts by approximately 66 per cent, did not significantly change the ratio of these subpopulations, indicating that PHA-reactive cells cannot be grouped into radiation sensitive and resistant subpopulations

  12. Effect of irradiation on human T-cell proliferation: low dose irradiation stimulates mitogen-induced proliferation and function of the suppressor/cytotoxic T-cell subset

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gualde, N.; Goodwin, J.S.

    1984-01-01

    Unfractionated human T cells exposed to 10-50 rad of X irradiation incorporated less [ 3 H]thymidine than nonirradiated T cells when subsequently cultured with PHA or Con A. The cytotoxic/suppressor T-cell subset, isolated as either OKT8(+) or OKT4(-) cells, demonstrated significantly enhanced [ 3 H]thymidine incorporation in PHA- or Con A-stimulated cultures after exposure to 10-50 rad, compared to unirradiated cells, while the proliferation of the OKT4(+) helper/inducer subset was inhibited by low dose irradiation. It has been previously reported that approximately 30% of the cytotoxic/suppressor subset also stains with OKM1. When the cytotoxic/suppressor subset was further subdivided into OKT4(-), OKM1(+), and OKT4(-), OKM1(-) cells, proliferation of the OKT4(-), OKM1(+) population was inhibited by exposure to 25 rad while proliferation of the OKT4(-), OKM1(-) population was stimulated. The increase in proliferation of the cytotoxic/suppressor T-cell subset after low dose irradiation is paralleled by an increase in suppressor activity of these cells. T cells exposed to 25 rad and then cultured with Con A for 48 hr caused greater inhibition of IgG production when added to fresh autologous lymphocytes stimulated by pokeweed mitogen than did unirradiated cells. Thus, low dose irradiation enhances both the proliferation and function of the human suppressor T-cell subset

  13. Induction of mitotic micronuclei by X-ray contrast media in human peripheral lymphocytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parvez, Z.; Moncada, R.; Kormano, M.; Satokari, K.; Eklund, R.

    1987-01-01

    In vitro and in vivo cytogenetic effects of X-ray contrast media (CM) were determined by scoring micronuclei (MN) in 72-h cultures of human peripheral lymphocytes. Both ionic (sodium meglumine diatrizoate, methylglucamine diatrizoate, and sodium meglumine ioxaglate and nonionic CM (iosimide, iopromide, iohexol and iotrolan) were able to induce MN in lymphocytes. Based upon their calculated percent probabilities for MN induction, these agents could be ranked in their decreasing order of probability, as iosimide > sodium meglumine ioxaglate > iohexol > sodium meglumine diatrizoate > iopromide > methylglucamine diatrizoate > iotrolan. Stepwise logistic regression analysis of the data indicated that the frequency of MN in CM-exposed lymphocyte cultures was significantly higher than the frequency of MN in control cultures (P < 0.001). In clinical studies where 14 patients were injected with an ionic CM methylglucamine diatrizoate, lymphocyte cultures from 10 patients showed higher frequencies of MN. The differences between pre- and post-CM counts of MN were significant in a Mann-Whitney U test (P < 0.05). The effect of X-irradiation on MN formation in lymphocytes was separately determined and was found to be insignificant. These results indicate that irrespective of ionic and osmolality differences, X-ray contrast agents are capable of producing chromosomal damage in peripheral lymphocytes. Further studies are required to establish molecular mechanisms in the observed cytogenetic effects of CM in cell cultures. (Auth.)

  14. GENERATION OF CYTOTOXIC LYMPHOCYTES IN MIXED LYMPHOCYTE REACTIONS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forman, James; Möller, Göran

    1973-01-01

    Generation of cytotoxic effector cells by a unidirectional mixed lymphocyte reaction (MLR) in the mouse H-2 system was studied using labeled YAC (H-2a) leukemia cells as targets. The responding effector cell displayed a specific cytotoxic effect against target cells of the same H-2 genotype as the stimulating cell population. Killing of syngeneic H-2 cells was not observed, even when the labeled target cells were "innocent bystanders" in cultures where specific target cells were reintroduced. Similar results were found with spleen cells taken from mice sensitized in vivo 7 days earlier. The effector cell was not an adherent cell and was not activated by supernatants from MLR. The supernatants were not cytotoxic by themselves. When concanavalin A or phytohemagglutinin was added to the cytotoxic test system, target and effector cells were agglutinated. Under these conditions, killing of H-2a target cells was observed in mixed cultures where H-2a lymphocytes were also the effector cells. These findings indicate that specifically activated, probably thymus-derived lymphocytes, can kill nonspecifically once they have been activated and providing there is close contact between effector and target cells. Thus, specificity of T cell killing appears to be restricted to recognition and subsequent binding to the targets, the actual effector phase being nonspecific. PMID:4269560

  15. CD8+ T lymphocyte expansion, proliferation and activation in dengue fever.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andréia Manso de Matos

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Dengue fever induces a robust immune response, including massive T cell activation. The level of T cell activation may, however, be associated with more severe disease. In this study, we explored the level of CD8+ T lymphocyte activation in the first six days after onset of symptoms during a DENV2 outbreak in early 2010 on the coast of São Paulo State, Brazil. Using flow cytometry we detected a progressive increase in the percentage of CD8+ T cells in 74 dengue fever cases. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells from 30 cases were thawed and evaluated using expanded phenotyping. The expansion of the CD8+ T cells was coupled with increased Ki67 expression. Cell activation was observed later in the course of disease, as determined by the expression of the activation markers CD38 and HLA-DR. This increased CD8+ T lymphocyte activation was observed in all memory subsets, but was more pronounced in the effector memory subset, as defined by higher CD38 expression. Our results show that most CD8+ T cell subsets are expanded during DENV2 infection and that the effector memory subset is the predominantly affected sub population.

  16. Occupational exposure to trichloroethylene is associated with a decline in lymphocyte subsets and soluble CD27 and CD30 markers.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lan, Q.; Zhang, L.; Tang, X.; Shen, M.; Smith, M.T.; Qiu, C.; Ge, Y.; Ji, Z.; Xiong, J.; He, J.; Reiss, B.; Hao, Z.; Liu, S.; Xie, Y.; Guo, W.; Purdue, M.P.; Galvan, N.; Xin, K.X.; Hu, W.; Beane Freeman, L.E.; Blair, A.; Li, L.; Rothman, N.; Vermeulen, R.; Huang, H.

    2010-01-01

    Occupational cohort and case-control studies suggest that trichloroethylene (TCE) exposure may be associated with non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) but findings are not consistent. There is a need for mechanistic studies to evaluate the biologic plausibility of this association. We carried out a

  17. Association of High Density Lipoprotein with Platelet to Lymphocyte and Neutrophil to Lymphocyte Ratios in Coronary Artery Disease Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jayesh H. Prajapati

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. We aimed to evaluate a relationship between platelet-lymphocyte ratio (PLR and neutrophil-lymphocyte ratio (NLR with high density lipoprotein (HDL cholesterol levels in coronary artery disease (CAD patients. Methods. A total of 354 patients with angiographically confirmed coronary blockages were enrolled in the study. Hematological indices and lipid profiling data of all the patients were collected. Results. We have observed significant association between HDL and PLR (P=0.008 and NLR (P=0.009; however no significant relationship was obtained with HDL and isolated platelet (P=0.488, neutrophil (P=0.407, and lymphocyte (P=0.952 counts in CAD patients. The association was subjected to gender specific variation as in males PLR (P=0.024 and NLR (P=0.03 were highly elevated in low HDL patients, whereas in females the elevation could not reach the statistically significant level. The PLR (217.47 versus 190.3; P=0.01 and NLR (6.33 versus 5.10; P=0.01 were significantly higher among the patients with acute coronary syndrome. In young patients the PLR (P=0.007 and NLR (P=0.001 were inversely associated with HDL, whereas in older population only NLR (P=0.05 had showed a significant association. Conclusion. We conclude that PLR and NLR are significantly elevated in CAD patients having low HDL levels.

  18. Comprehensive Ocean - Atmosphere Data Set (COADS) LMRF Arctic Subset

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Comprehensive Ocean - Atmosphere Data Set (COADS) LMRF Arctic subset contains marine surface weather reports for the region north of 65 degrees N from ships,...

  19. Subset Statistics in the linear IV regression model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kleibergen, F.R.

    2005-01-01

    We show that the limiting distributions of subset generalizations of the weak instrument robust instrumental variable statistics are boundedly similar when the remaining structural parameters are estimated using maximum likelihood. They are bounded from above by the limiting distributions which

  20. B-lymphocytes as key players in chemical-induced asthma.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanessa De Vooght

    Full Text Available T-lymphocytes and B-lymphocytes are key players in allergic asthma, with B-lymphocytes producing antigen-specific immunoglobulins E (IgE. We used a mouse model of chemical-induced asthma and transferred B-lymphocytes from sensitized animals into naïve wild type mice, B-lymphocyte knock-out (B-KO mice or severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID mice. On days 1 and 8, BALB/c mice were dermally sensitized with 0.3% toluene diisocyanate (TDI (20 µl/ear. On day 15, mice were euthanized and the auricular lymph nodes isolated. B-lymphocytes (CD19(+ were separated from the whole cell suspension and 175,000 cells were injected in the tail vein of naïve wild type, B-KO or SCID mice. Three days later, the mice received a single oropharyngeal challenge with 0.01% TDI (20 µl or vehicle (acetone/olive oil (AOO (controls. Airway reactivity to methacholine and total and differential cell counts in the bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL fluid were measured 24 hours after challenge. B-lymphocytes of AOO or TDI-sensitized mice were characterized for the expression of surface markers and production of cytokines. We found that transfer of B-cells obtained from mice dermally sensitized to toluene diisocyanate (TDI into naïve wild type mice, B-KO mice or SCID mice led, within three days, to an acute asthma-like phenotype after an airway challenge with TDI. This response was specific and independent of IgE. These B-lymphocytes showed antigen presenting capacities (CD80/CD86 and CD40 and consisted of B effector (Be2- (IL-4 and Be1-lymphocytes (IFN-γ. The transferred B-lymphocytes were visualized near large airways, 24 hours after TDI challenge. Thus, B-lymphocytes can provoke an asthmatic response without the action of T-lymphocytes and without major involvement of IgE.

  1. Effect of radiotherapy on lymphocyte subpopulations in patients with carcinoma of the breast and uterine cervix

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guha Thakurta, S.; De, M.; Roy Chowdhury, J.

    1983-01-01

    Immune competence was evaluated in 43 patients of carcinoma breast, 77 patients of cancer cervix, as compared to 30 normal healthy women. The study also included 25 women from the two carcinoma groups, who had undergone radiotherapy. A reduction in the white blood cell count, absolute lymphocyte count, active T-cell count and absolute T-cell count were observed in patients with carcinoma of the breast and cervix prior to irradiation. Radiation therapy resulted in a striking reduction of all the three parameters in both the carcinoma groups. Substantial recovery was observed within a year after cessation of therapy. Increased number of peripheral B lymphocytes was observed in carcinoma of the breast as well as the cervix prior to irradiation. At completion of radiation, the number decreased markedly in both groups of patients. Gradual recovery took place within a year. The reduction in lymphocyte numbers and its subpopulations could not be attributed to thymic irradiation, since patients receiving pelvic and mediastinal (including thymic) radiotherapy showed similar changes. (author)

  2. Modal Logics with Counting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Areces, Carlos; Hoffmann, Guillaume; Denis, Alexandre

    We present a modal language that includes explicit operators to count the number of elements that a model might include in the extension of a formula, and we discuss how this logic has been previously investigated under different guises. We show that the language is related to graded modalities and to hybrid logics. We illustrate a possible application of the language to the treatment of plural objects and queries in natural language. We investigate the expressive power of this logic via bisimulations, discuss the complexity of its satisfiability problem, define a new reasoning task that retrieves the cardinality bound of the extension of a given input formula, and provide an algorithm to solve it.

  3. Digital coincidence counting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buckman, S.M.; Ius, D.

    1996-01-01

    This paper reports on the development of a digital coincidence-counting system which comprises a custom-built data acquisition card and associated PC software. The system has been designed to digitise the pulse-trains from two radiation detectors at a rate of 20 MSamples/s with 12-bit resolution. Through hardware compression of the data, the system can continuously record both individual pulse-shapes and the time intervals between pulses. Software-based circuits are used to process the stored pulse trains. These circuits are constructed simply by linking together icons representing various components such as coincidence mixers, time delays, single-channel analysers, deadtimes and scalers. This system enables a pair of pulse trains to be processed repeatedly using any number of different methods. Some preliminary results are presented in order to demonstrate the versatility and efficiency of this new method. (orig.)

  4. Digital coincidence counting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckman, S. M.; Ius, D.

    1996-02-01

    This paper reports on the development of a digital coincidence-counting system which comprises a custom-built data acquisition card and associated PC software. The system has been designed to digitise the pulse-trains from two radiation detectors at a rate of 20 MSamples/s with 12-bit resolution. Through hardware compression of the data, the system can continuously record both individual pulse-shapes and the time intervals between pulses. Software-based circuits are used to process the stored pulse trains. These circuits are constructed simply by linking together icons representing various components such as coincidence mixers, time delays, single-channel analysers, deadtimes and scalers. This system enables a pair of pulse trains to be processed repeatedly using any number of different methods. Some preliminary results are presented in order to demonstrate the versatility and efficiency of this new method.

  5. A Quantum Approach to Subset-Sum and Similar Problems

    OpenAIRE

    Daskin, Ammar

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, we study the subset-sum problem by using a quantum heuristic approach similar to the verification circuit of quantum Arthur-Merlin games. Under described certain assumptions, we show that the exact solution of the subset sum problem my be obtained in polynomial time and the exponential speed-up over the classical algorithms may be possible. We give a numerical example and discuss the complexity of the approach and its further application to the knapsack problem.

  6. Diagnostic Accuracy of Preoperative Neutrophil-to-Lymphocyte and Platelet-to-Lymphocyte Ratios in Detecting Occult Papillary Thyroid Microcarcinomas in Benign Multinodular Goitres

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dimitrios K. Manatakis

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To investigate the diagnostic accuracy of neutrophil-to-lymphocyte (NLR and platelet-to-lymphocyte (PLR ratios in detecting occult papillary thyroid microcarcinomas in benign, multinodular goitres. Methods. 397 total thyroidectomy patients were identified from the institutional thyroid surgery database between 2007 and 2016 (94 males, 303 females, mean age 53 ± 14.5 years. NLR and PLR were calculated as the absolute neutrophil and absolute platelet counts divided by the absolute lymphocyte count, respectively, based on the preoperative complete blood cell count. Results. NLR was significantly higher in carcinomas and microcarcinomas compared to benign pathology (p=0.026, whereas a direct association could not be established for PLR. Both NLR and PLR scored low in all parameters of diagnostic accuracy, with overall accuracy ranging between 45 and 50%. Conclusions. As surrogate indices of the systemic inflammatory response, NLR and PLR are inexpensive and universally available from routine blood tests. Although we found higher NLR values in cases of malignancy, NLR and PLR cannot effectively predict the presence of occult papillary microcarcinomas in otherwise benign, multinodular goitres.

  7. Bayesian approach in MN low dose of radiation counting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Serna Berna, A.; Alcaraz, M.; Acevedo, C.; Navarro, J. L.; Alcanzar, M. D.; Canteras, M.

    2006-01-01

    The Micronucleus assay in lymphocytes is a well established technique for the assessment of genetic damage induced by ionizing radiation. Due to the presence of a natural background of MN the net MN is obtained by subtracting this value to the gross value. When very low doses of radiation are given the induced MN is close even lower than the predetermined background value. Furthermore, the damage distribution induced by the radiation follows a Poisson probability distribution. These two facts pose a difficult task to obtain the net counting rate in the exposed situations. It is possible to overcome this problem using a bayesian approach, in which the selection of a priori distributions for the background and net counting rate plays an important role. In the present work we make a detailed analysed using bayesian theory to infer the net counting rate in two different situations: a) when the background is known for an individual sample, using exact value value for the background and Jeffreys prior for the net counting rate, and b) when the background is not known and we make use of a population background distribution as background prior function and constant prior for the net counting rate. (Author)

  8. Immunoregulatory and antioxidant performance of alpha-tocopherol and selenium on human lymphocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Chung-Yung Jetty; Wan, Jennifer Man-Fan

    2002-05-01

    The role of alpha-tocopherol (alpha-toco) and selenium (Se) on human lymphocyte oxidative stress and T-cells proliferation were studied by flow cytometry. We measured the hydrogen peroxide and glutathione levels in cultured human T-lymphocytes and the proliferation of their subsets: T-helper/inducer, T-suppressor/cytotoxic, and natural killer and interleukin-2 receptors upon stimulation by the mitogens phytohemaglutinin (PHA) and lipopolysaccharide (LPS). The results indicate that early stimulation by mitogens is affected by the glutathione and hydrogen peroxide status of the T-lymphocytes. The addition of 100 microM or 500 microM alpha-toco or 0.5 microM Se alone shows weak antioxidant and immunostimulant properties. When combined, an enhanced antioxidant and immunoregulatory effect was observed. The present findings indicate that alpha-toco and Se have interactive effects as oxygen radical scavengers, thus promoting human lymphocyte response to antigens. This suggests that micronutrient status is an important factor in considering when interpreting the results of in vitro assays of lymphocyte function.

  9. Stochastic subset selection for learning with kernel machines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhinelander, Jason; Liu, Xiaoping P

    2012-06-01

    Kernel machines have gained much popularity in applications of machine learning. Support vector machines (SVMs) are a subset of kernel machines and generalize well for classification, regression, and anomaly detection tasks. The training procedure for traditional SVMs involves solving a quadratic programming (QP) problem. The QP problem scales super linearly in computational effort with the number of training samples and is often used for the offline batch processing of data. Kernel machines operate by retaining a subset of observed data during training. The data vectors contained within this subset are referred to as support vectors (SVs). The work presented in this paper introduces a subset selection method for the use of kernel machines in online, changing environments. Our algorithm works by using a stochastic indexing technique when selecting a subset of SVs when computing the kernel expansion. The work described here is novel because it separates the selection of kernel basis functions from the training algorithm used. The subset selection algorithm presented here can be used in conjunction with any online training technique. It is important for online kernel machines to be computationally efficient due to the real-time requirements of online environments. Our algorithm is an important contribution because it scales linearly with the number of training samples and is compatible with current training techniques. Our algorithm outperforms standard techniques in terms of computational efficiency and provides increased recognition accuracy in our experiments. We provide results from experiments using both simulated and real-world data sets to verify our algorithm.

  10. Varied sensitivity to therapy of HIV-1 strains in CD4+ lymphocyte sub-populations upon ART initiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paxton William A

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although antiretroviral therapy (ART has proven its success against HIV-1, the long lifespan of infected cells and viral latency prevent eradication. In this study we analyzed the sensitivity to ART of HIV-1 strains in naïve, central memory and effector memory CD4+ lymphocyte subsets. Methods From five patients cellular HIV-1 infection levels were quantified before and after initiation of therapy (2-5 weeks. Through sequencing the C2V3 region of the HIV-1 gp120 envelope, we studied the effect of short-term therapy on virus variants derived from naïve, central memory and effector memory CD4+ lymphocyte subsets. Results During short-term ART, HIV-1 infection levels declined in all lymphocyte subsets but not as much as RNA levels in serum. Virus diversity in the naïve and central memory lymphocyte populations remained unchanged, whilst diversity decreased in serum and the effector memory lymphocytes. ART differentially affected the virus populations co-circulating in one individual harboring a dual HIV-1 infection. Changes in V3 charge were found in all individuals after ART initiation with increases within the effector memory subset and decreases found in the naïve cell population. Conclusions During early ART virus diversity is affected mainly in the serum and effector memory cell compartments. Differential alterations in V3 charge were observed between effector memory and naïve populations. While certain cell populations can be targeted preferentially during early ART, some virus strains demonstrate varied sensitivity to therapy, as shown from studying two strains within a dual HIV-1 infected individual.

  11. Changes in intestinal intraepithelial lymphocytes due to local irradiation of a portion of the maxilla in mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Satoh, Daigo; Tamazawa, Ken; Yosue, Takashi; Sakai, Yasuo; Suzuki, Masayuki [Nihon Univ., Tokyo (Japan). School of Dentistry; Arai, Chiaki; Inagaki, Hiroyuki

    2000-05-01

    We have been investigating the changes of lymphocyte subsets in the immune organs after head and neck irradiation. The present study investigated the influence due to local irradiation (10 Gy) of a portion of the maxilla on intestinal intraepithelial lymphocytes (i-IEL) in mice. We analyzed the percentage of subpopulations in i-IEL following irradiation using two-color fluorometry (anti-TCR{alpha}{beta}, TCR{gamma}{delta}, CD4 and CD8 monoclonal antibodies), and the outcome was compared with that obtained from non-irradiation groups. The result was that the percentage of {alpha}{beta}T cells, {gamma}{delta}T cells, CD4{sup +}SPT cells and CD8{sup +}SPT cells did not show any significant change and the fact differed from that in spleen and thymus where the percentage of these subpopulations was significantly changed. Although spleen and thymus reflect damaged lymphocytes that had circulated through the irradiation field, the result indicates that the balance among i-IEL subsets does not change after irradiation. The reason that equilibrium of i-IEL subsets remains stable seems related to localization of the small intestine and radioresistance. It was also indicated that the effect on the oral epithelium in the irradiation field reflects the percentages of i-IEL subsets. (author)

  12. The effects of radioiodine therapy on peripheral blood lymphocyte subpopulations in patients with Graves' disease. Preliminary report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turowska, M.D.; Rogowski, F.; Turowski, D.; Wysocka, J.

    2002-01-01

    Treatment of Graves' disease patients with radioactive iodide ( 131 I) is becoming the standard therapy in an increasing group of cases but can induce alterations in immune response, like increasing levels of thyroid autoantibodies, and, in part, exacerbation of ophthalmopathy. The aim of this study was to assess the changes in peripheral blood (PB) lymphocyte subpopulations after 131 I treatment of patients with Graves' disease. The study was carried out in a group of 30 patients with Graves' disease (23 f; 7 m) 49.5±10.0 years of age, 26 with different subjective ocular signs like gritty sensation, increased lacrimation, orbital pain, and exophthalmos. PB lymphocyte subsets were analysed by cytofluorometry, serum concentration of TSH and fT4 were evaluated before and 6 weeks after radioiodine treatment. After 131 I treatment a significant increase in CD3+, CD4+, CD3+HLA-DR+ and a decrease in CD19+ percentages of lymphocyte subsets were found in comparison with the initial evaluation. No significant changes in percentage of CD8+ and NK (CD3-CD16+ CD56+) cells were observed during this study. A significant increase in TSH and a slight decrease in fT4 concentration concentration took place in the 6th week after 131 I application. The patients without subjective improvement of ocular signs during the therapy initially had a percentage of CD3+, CD8+ lymphocytes which was significantly lower compared with those with regression of ocular signs observed after 131 I treatment. The changes in PB lymphocyte subsets caused by 131 I treatment of Graves' disease confirm the involvement of acquired cellular immunity after radiation damage of the thyroid gland. The decreased initial percentage of CD8+ and CD3+ lymphocytes could help make a prediction of ocular symptoms persisting after radioiodine treatment in some patients with ophthalmopathy. (author)

  13. Counting statistics in low level radioactivity measurements fluctuating counting efficiency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pazdur, M.F.

    1976-01-01

    A divergence between the probability distribution of the number of nuclear disintegrations and the number of observed counts, caused by counting efficiency fluctuation, is discussed. The negative binominal distribution is proposed to describe the probability distribution of the number of counts, instead of Poisson distribution, which is assumed to hold for the number of nuclear disintegrations only. From actual measurements the r.m.s. amplitude of counting efficiency fluctuation is estimated. Some consequences of counting efficiency fluctuation are investigated and the corresponding formulae are derived: (1) for detection limit as a function of the number of partial measurements and the relative amplitude of counting efficiency fluctuation, and (2) for optimum allocation of the number of partial measurements between sample and background. (author)

  14. REGULATORY T-CELLS IN CHRONIC LYMPHOCYTIC LEUKEMIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanni D'arena

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Regulatory T-cells (Tregs constitute a small subset of cells that are actively involved in maintaining self-tolerance, in immune homeostasis and in antitumor immunity. They are thought to play a significant role in the progression of cancer and are generally increased in patient with chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL. Their number correlates with more aggressive disease status and is predictive of the time to treatment, as well. Moreover, it is now clear that dysregulation in Tregs cell frequency and/or function may result in a plethora of autoimmune diseases, including multiple sclerosis, type 1 diabetes mellitus, myasthenia gravis, systemic lupus erythematosis, autoimmune lymphoproliferative disorders, rheumatoid arthritis, and psoriasis. Efforts are made aiming to develop approaches to deplete Tregs or inhibit their function in either cancer and autoimmune disorders.

  15. Effect of radiotherapy on lymphocyte populations in lung cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gava, A.; Coghetto, F.; Marazzato, G.; Fantin, P.L.; Patrese, P.; Moro, L.; De Angeli, S.

    1988-01-01

    The authors report on the results of the immune monitoring of a study population of 31 patients with lung cancer who were treated with radiotherapy. Asynthetic thymic pentapeptide, Thymopentin, was employed-whose effect was evaluated on the immunological parameters analyzed. After radiotherapy, a considerable and homogeneous decrement was observed in several lymphocytic subset (less sensible in activated T-cells), together with a progressive decrement in the helper/suppressor ratio, in the long run. Monocytes and null cells showed more radioresistance. Thymopentin had no influence on the tested immunological parameters up tp 6 months after radiotherapy; later on, a slightly more balanced helper/suppressor ratio could be noticed in the surviving patients who had benn treated with Thymopentin

  16. [Effects of radiotherapy on lymphocyte populations in lung cancer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gava, A; Moro, L; De Angeli, S; Coghetto, F; Marazzato, G; Fantin, P; Patrese, P

    1988-11-01

    The authors report on the results of the immune monitoring of a study population of 31 patients with lung cancer who were treated with radiotherapy. A synthetic thymic pentapeptide, thymopentin, was employed whose effect was evaluated on the immunological parameters analyzed. After radiotherapy, a considerable and homogeneous decrement was observed in several lymphocytic subsets (less sensible in activated T-cells), together with a progressive decrement in the helper/suppressor ratio, in the long run. Monocytes and null cells showed more radioresistance. Thymopentin had no influence on the tested immunological parameters up to 6 months after radiotherapy; later on, a slightly more balanced helper/suppressor ratio could be noticed in the surviving patients who had been treated with thymopentin.

  17. T cells in chronic lymphocytic leukemia display dysregulated expression of immune checkpoints and activation markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palma, Marzia; Gentilcore, Giusy; Heimersson, Kia; Mozaffari, Fariba; Näsman-Glaser, Barbro; Young, Emma; Rosenquist, Richard; Hansson, Lotta; Österborg, Anders; Mellstedt, Håkan

    2017-03-01

    Chronic lymphocytic leukemia is characterized by impaired immune functions largely due to profound T-cell defects. T-cell functions also depend on co-signaling receptors, inhibitory or stimulatory, known as immune checkpoints, including cytotoxic T-lymphocyte-associated antigen-4 (CTLA-4) and programmed death-1 (PD-1). Here we analyzed the T-cell phenotype focusing on immune checkpoints and activation markers in chronic lymphocytic leukemia patients (n=80) with different clinical characteristics and compared them to healthy controls. In general, patients had higher absolute numbers of CD3 + cells and the CD8 + subset was particularly expanded in previously treated patients. Progressive patients had higher numbers of CD4 + and CD8 + cells expressing PD-1 compared to healthy controls, which was more pronounced in previously treated patients ( P =0.0003 and P =0.001, respectively). A significant increase in antigen-experienced T cells was observed in patients within both the CD4 + and CD8 + subsets, with a significantly higher PD-1 expression. Higher numbers of CD4 + and CD8 + cells with intracellular CTLA-4 were observed in patients, as well as high numbers of proliferating (Ki67 + ) and activated (CD69 + ) CD4 + and CD8 + cells, more pronounced in patients with active disease. The numbers of Th1, Th2, Th17 and regulatory T cells were substantially increased in patients compared to controls ( P leukemia T cells display increased expression of immune checkpoints, abnormal subset distribution, and a higher proportion of proliferating cells compared to healthy T cells. Disease activity and previous treatment shape the T-cell profile of chronic lymphocytic leukemia patients in different ways. Copyright© Ferrata Storti Foundation.

  18. Factors affecting the autologous mixed lymphocyte reaction in kidney transplantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fuller, L.; Flaa, C.; Jaffe, D.; Strauss, J.; Kyriakides, G.K.; Miller, J.

    1983-01-01

    In long-term well adapted kidney transplant recipients we have found a close correlation between the T helper (TH):T suppressor/cytotoxic (TS/C) subset ratios and the presence of T cells that respond in the autologous mixed lymphocyte reaction (AMLR). In 21 recipients with T cell E rosette levels ranging between 53 and 86% and TH:TS/C ratios between 0.15 to 2.10, ratios of greater than 0.8 correlated with AMLR responses (13/13), and ratios of less than 0.8 with AMLR nonreactivity (7/7). By contrast, the allogeneic MLR showed no apparent correlation with the TH:TS/C ratios or with the AMLR pre- or postoperatively. It was found that the AMLR in 22 of 23 normal individuals was markedly inhibited by autologous T cells obtained from peripheral blood lymphocytes, exposed to 3,000 rad (Tx) and added as a third component to the cultures. In contrast, 13 of 13 kidney transplant recipients failed to exhibit this Tx AMLR inhibitory cell population. The ''naturally occurring'' T inhibitory cells, fractionated by an affinity column chromatography procedure into x-irradiated TH and TS/C subsets, inhibited the AMLR to the same extent as unseparated Tx cells. In cell interchange studies performed in four of five HLA identical donor-recipient pairs the Tx cells of the (normal) donor inhibited the recipient AMLR (immunosuppressed), but recipient Tx cells failed to inhibit the donor AMLR. Finally T cells, primed in AMLR and allogeneic MLR for 10 d were tested for AMLR or allogeneic MLR inhibitory activity. Allogeneic MLR primed x-irradiated cells, inhibited both the AMLR and allogeneic MLR while AMLR x-irradiated primed cells inhibited neither reaction. The Tx AMLR inhibitor found in normal peripheral blood, appears to be a cell that is highly sensitive to the effects of biologic or pharmacologic immunosuppressive agents

  19. Impaired Subset Progression and Polyfunctionality of T Cells in Mice Exposed to Methamphetamine during Chronic LCMV Infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sriram, Uma; Hill, Beth L; Cenna, Jonathan M; Gofman, Larisa; Fernandes, Nicole C; Haldar, Bijayesh; Potula, Raghava

    2016-01-01

    Methamphetamine (METH) is a widely used psychostimulant that severely impacts the host's innate and adaptive immune systems and has profound immunological implications. T cells play a critical role in orchestrating immune responses. We have shown recently how chronic exposure to METH affects T cell activation using a murine model of lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus (LCMV) infection. Using the TriCOM (trinary state combinations) feature of GemStone™ to study the polyfunctionality of T cells, we have analyzed how METH affected the cytokine production pattern over the course of chronic LCMV infection. Furthermore, we have studied in detail the effects of METH on splenic T cell functions, such as cytokine production and degranulation, and how they regulate each other. We used the Probability State Modeling (PSM) program to visualize the differentiation of effector/memory T cell subsets during LCMV infection and analyze the effects of METH on T cell subset progression. We recently demonstrated that METH increased PD-1 expression on T cells during viral infection. In this study, we further analyzed the impact of PD-1 expression on T cell functional markers as well as its expression in the effector/memory subsets. Overall, our study indicates that analyzing polyfunctionality of T cells can provide additional insight into T cell effector functions. Analysis of T cell heterogeneity is important to highlight changes in the evolution of memory/effector functions during chronic viral infections. Our study also highlights the impact of METH on PD-1 expression and its consequences on T cell responses.

  20. T-lymphocyte dependency of B-lymphocyte blastogenic response to phytomitogens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han, T.; Dadey, B.

    1978-01-01

    Human peripheral blood T and B lymphocytes were separated by a method based on the stable rosette formation of T lymphocytes with neuraminidase-treated sheep erythrocytes, followed by centrifugation over a Ficoll-Hypaque gradient. Monocytes were isolated from the T-depleted B lymphocyte preparation by allowing the monocytes to ingest iron particles and by subsequent centrifugation over a Ficoll-Hypaque gradient. The T lymphocytes responded extremely well to PHA and very well to PWM, while the B lymphocytes were unresponsive to either PHA or PWM. However, when the B lymphocytes were cultured together with irradiated autologous or allogeneic T lymphocytes (1 : 1,1:2 or 1 : 4 ratio), both PHA and PWM became mitogenic to B lymphocytes. Irradiated T lymphocytes alone did not respond to either PHA or PWM, indicating that the 3 H-thymidine incorporation seen in the mixed-cell culture was due to the activation of unirradiated B lymphocytes. The B lymphocytes failed to respond to these phytomitogens in the presence of lower concentrations of irradiated T lymphocytes. The monocytes were found to be incapable of helping the B lymphocytes to respond to PHA or PWM. (author)

  1. Subpopulations of lymphocytes and their bearing on the radiation dose-response of the human lymphocyte (cell survival, mitogenic stimulation and chromosome aberration frequency)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schwartz, J.L.

    1979-01-01

    To determine whether in the lymphocyte the frequency of chromosome aberrations might be influenced by a differential radiation response of the varying types of cells, as well as interactions among them, subpopulations were separated on the basis of differences in cell surface receptors. The subpopulations, namely, T and B lymphocytes and three T subsets, T-M, T-G, T-null, were found to differ in radiosensitivity as measured by survival in culture and mitotic index after PHA stimulation. All the populations studied are represented to varying degrees among the mitotic cells of unirradiated samples 48 hours after PHA stimulation. At increasing doses of 6 Co gamma rays (50, 100, 250, 500 rads), however, their proportions change both as a direct result of irradiation, such as cell killing, and as an indirect effect, such as the reduction in suppressor cell action

  2. Let's Make Data Count

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budden, A. E.; Abrams, S.; Chodacki, J.; Cruse, P.; Fenner, M.; Jones, M. B.; Lowenberg, D.; Rueda, L.; Vieglais, D.

    2017-12-01

    The impact of research has traditionally been measured by citations to journal publications and used extensively for evaluation and assessment in academia, but this process misses the impact and reach of data and software as first-class scientific products. For traditional publications, Article-Level Metrics (ALM) capture the multitude of ways in which research is disseminated and used, such as references and citations within social media and other journal articles. Here we present on the extension of usage and citation metrics collection to include other artifacts of research, namely datasets. The Make Data Count (MDC) project will enable measuring the impact of research data in a manner similar to what is currently done with publications. Data-level metrics (DLM) are a multidimensional suite of indicators measuring the broad reach and use of data as legitimate research outputs. By making data metrics openly available for reuse in a number of different ways, the MDC project represents an important first step on the path towards the full integration of data metrics into the research data management ecosystem. By assuring researchers that their contributions to scholarly progress represented by data corpora are acknowledged, data level metrics provide a foundation for streamlining the advancement of knowledge by actively promoting desirable best practices regarding research data management, publication, and sharing.

  3. LAWRENCE RADIATION LABORATORY COUNTING HANDBOOK

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Group, Nuclear Instrumentation

    1966-10-01

    The Counting Handbook is a compilation of operational techniques and performance specifications on counting equipment in use at the Lawrence Radiation Laboratory, Berkeley. Counting notes have been written from the viewpoint of the user rather than that of the designer or maintenance man. The only maintenance instructions that have been included are those that can easily be performed by the experimenter to assure that the equipment is operating properly.

  4. Opinion: Interactions of innate and adaptive lymphocytes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gasteiger, Georg; Rudensky, Alexander Y.

    2015-01-01

    Innate lymphocytes, including natural killer (NK) cells and the recently discovered innate lymphoid cells (ILCs) have crucial roles during infection, tissue injury and inflammation. Innate signals regulate the activation and homeostasis of innate lymphocytes. Less well understood is the contribution of the adaptive immune system to the orchestration of innate lymphocyte responses. We review our current understanding of the interactions between adaptive and innate lymphocytes, and propose a model in which adaptive T cells function as antigen-specific sensors for the activation of innate lymphocytes to amplify and instruct local immune responses. We highlight the potential role of regulatory and helper T cells in these processes and discuss major questions in the emerging area of crosstalk between adaptive and innate lymphocytes. PMID:25132095

  5. SUMS Counts-Related Projects

    Data.gov (United States)

    Social Security Administration — Staging Instance for all SUMs Counts related projects including: Redeterminations/Limited Issue, Continuing Disability Resolution, CDR Performance Measures, Initial...

  6. [Lower lymphocyte response in severe cases of acute bronchiolitis due to respiratory syncytial virus].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos-Fernández, José Miguel; Moreno-Pérez, David; Antúnez-Fernández, Cristina; Milano-Manso, Guillermo; Cordón-Martínez, Ana María; Urda-Cardona, Antonio

    2017-08-14

    Acute bronchiolitis (AB) of the infant has a serious outcome in 6-16% of the hospital admitted cases. Its pathogenesis and evolution is related to the response of the T lymphocytes. The objective of the present study is to determine if the lower systemic lymphocytic response is related to a worse outcome of AB in hospitalised infants. Retrospective observational-analytical study of cases-controls nested in a cohort of patients admitted due to RSV-AB between the period from October 2010 to March 2015. Those with a full blood count in the first 48hours of respiratory distress were included. Infants with underlying disease, bacterial superinfection, and premature infants <32 weeks of gestation were excluded. The main dichotomous variable was PICU admission. Other variables were: gender, age, post-menstrual age, gestational and post-natal tobacco exposure, admission month, type of lactation, and days of onset of respiratory distress. Lymphocyte counts were categorised by quartiles. Bivariate analysis was performed with the main variable and then by logistic regression to analyse confounding factors. The study included 252 infants, of whom 6.6% (17) required PICU admission. The difference in mean±SD of lymphocytes for patients admitted to and not admitted to PICU was 4,044±1755 and 5,035±1786, respectively (Student-t test, P<.05). An association was found between PICU admission and lymphocyte count <3700/ml (Chi-squared, P=.019; OR: 3.2) and it was found to be maintained in the logistic regression, regardless of age and all other studied factors (Wald 4.191 P=.041, OR: 3.8). A relationship was found between lymphocytosis <3700/ml in the first days of respiratory distress and a worse outcome in previously healthy infants <12 months and gestational age greater than 32 weeks with RSV-AB. Copyright © 2017. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U.

  7. Characterization of αβ and γδ T cell subsets expressing IL-17A in ruminants and swine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elnaggar, Mahmoud M; Abdellrazeq, Gaber S; Dassanayake, Rohana P; Fry, Lindsay M; Hulubei, Victoria; Davis, William C

    2018-08-01

    As part of our ongoing program to expand immunological reagents available for research in cattle, we developed a monoclonal antibody (mAb) to bovine interleukin-17A (IL-17A), a multifunctional cytokine centrally involved in regulating innate and adaptive immune responses. Initial comparative studies demonstrated the mAb recognizes a conserved epitope expressed on orthologues of IL-17A in sheep, goats and pigs. Comparative flow cytometric analyses of lymphocyte subsets stimulated with phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA) and ionomycin revealed differences in expression of IL-17A by CD4, CD8, and γδ T cells across ruminants and swine species. Results in cattle showed the largest proportion of IL-17A + cells were CD4 + followed by γδ and CD8 + T cells. Further analysis revealed the IL-17A + γδ T cell subset was comprised of WC1.1 + , WC1.2 + , and WC1 - subsets. Analysis of the IL-17A + CD8 + T cell subset revealed it was comprised of αβ and γδ T cell subsets. Results in sheep and goats revealed IL-17A is expressed mainly by CD4 + and CD8 + T cells, with little expression by γδ T cells. Analysis of IL-17A + CD8 + T cells showed the majority were CD8 + αβ in sheep, whereas they were CD8 + γδ in goats. The majority of the sheep and goat IL-17A + γδ T cells were WC1 + . Results obtained in swine showed expression of IL-17A by CD4, CD8, and γδ T cell subsets were similar to results reported in other studies. Comparison of expression of IL-17A with IFN-γ revealed subsets co-expressed IL-17A and IFN-γ in cattle, sheep, and goats. The new mAb expands opportunities for immunology research in ruminants and swine. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Effects of definitive and salvage radiotherapy on the distribution of lymphocyte subpopulations in prostate cancer patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sage, Eva K.; Gehrmann, Mathias; Sedelmayr, Michael; Schmid, Thomas E.; Combs, Stephanie E.; Multhoff, Gabriele; Geinitz, Hans; Duma, Marciana N.

    2017-01-01

    Radiotherapy (RT) is an established treatment for patients with primary and recurrent prostate cancer. Herein, the effects of definitive and salvage RT on the composition of lymphocyte subpopulations were investigated in patients with prostate cancer to study potential immune effects. A total of 33 prostate cancer patients were treated with definitive (n = 10) or salvage RT (n = 23) after biochemical relapse. The absolute number of lymphocytes and the distribution of lymphocyte subpopulations were analyzed by multiparameter flow cytometry before RT, at the end of RT, and in the follow-up period. Absolute lymphocyte counts decreased significantly after RT in both patient groups and a significant drop was observed in the percentage of B cells directly after RT from 10.1 ± 1.3 to 6.0 ± 0.7% in patients with definitive RT and from 9.2 ± 0.8 to 5.8 ± 0.7% in patients with salvage RT. In contrast, the percentages of T and natural killer (NK) cells remained unaltered directly after RT in both patient groups. However, 1 year after RT, the percentage of CD3 + T cells was significantly lower in patients with definitive and salvage RT. The percentage of regulatory T cells was slightly upregulated in primary prostate cancer patients after definitive RT, but not after salvage RT. Definitive and salvage RT exert similar effects on the composition of lymphocyte subpopulations in prostate cancer patients. Total lymphocyte counts are lower in both patient groups compared to healthy controls and further decreased after RT. B cells are more sensitive to definitive and salvage RT than T and NK cells. (orig.) [de

  9. Compton suppression gamma-counting: The effect of count rate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millard, H.T.

    1984-01-01

    Past research has shown that anti-coincidence shielded Ge(Li) spectrometers enhanced the signal-to-background ratios for gamma-photopeaks, which are situated on high Compton backgrounds. Ordinarily, an anti- or non-coincidence spectrum (A) and a coincidence spectrum (C) are collected simultaneously with these systems. To be useful in neutron activation analysis (NAA), the fractions of the photopeak counts routed to the two spectra must be constant from sample to sample to variations must be corrected quantitatively. Most Compton suppression counting has been done at low count rate, but in NAA applications, count rates may be much higher. To operate over the wider dynamic range, the effect of count rate on the ratio of the photopeak counts in the two spectra (A/C) was studied. It was found that as the count rate increases, A/C decreases for gammas not coincident with other gammas from the same decay. For gammas coincident with other gammas, A/C increases to a maximum and then decreases. These results suggest that calibration curves are required to correct photopeak areas so quantitative data can be obtained at higher count rates. ?? 1984.

  10. Damage of lymphocytes by ionizing irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rose, H.; Moldenhauer, H.; Kehrberg, G.

    1985-01-01

    After a short review, how lymphocytes of the peripheral blood are influenced by radiotherapy, the damage of lymphocytes by whole-body irradiation is pointed out in animal experiments and after in vitro irradiation. The special sensibility of B-cells and their homogeneity in fields of radiobiology are opposed to the heterogeneity of T-cells. The radiosensibility of cytotoxic lymphocytes, suppressor cells, and helper cells are discussed. It appears, that within these functional criteria, there is a different radiosensibility, too. (author)

  11. Neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio, calprotectin and YKL-40 in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Allan Klitgaard; Holmgaard, Dennis Back; Mygind, Lone Hagens

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is characterized by chronic inflammation and progressive decline in pulmonary function. Neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (NLR), YKL-40 and calprotectin are biomarkers of inflammation and predict mortality in patients with different inflammatory...... diseases. We aimed to investigate the correlation between levels of these three biomarkers and neutrophil granulocyte and lymphocyte count in patients with moderate to very severe COPD stratified by use of systemic glucocorticoids. Furthermore, we studied the ability of these biomarkers to predict all......- and multivariate Cox regression analyses with hazard ratios (HR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI). RESULTS: Plasma calprotectin was positively correlated with neutrophil granulocyte count and NLR. No significant association was found between plasma YKL-40 and the cellular biomarkers, irrespective...

  12. Type II NKT cells: a distinct CD1d-restricted immune regulatory NKT cell subset.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dasgupta, Suryasarathi; Kumar, Vipin

    2016-08-01

    Type II natural killer T cells (NKT) are a subset of the innate-like CD1d-restricted lymphocytes that are reactive to lipid antigens. Unlike the type I NKT cells, which express a semi-invariant TCR, type II NKT cells express a broader TCR repertoire. Additionally, other features, such as their predominance over type I cells in humans versus mice, the nature of their ligands, CD1d/lipid/TCR binding, and modulation of immune responses, distinguish type II NKT cells from type I NKT cells. Interestingly, it is the self-lipid-reactivity of type II NKT cells that has helped define their physiological role in health and in disease. The discovery of sulfatide as one of the major antigens for CD1d-restricted type II NKT cells in mice has been instrumental in the characterization of these cells, including the TCR repertoire, the crystal structure of the CD1d/lipid/TCR complex, and their function. Subsequently, several other glycolipids and phospholipids from both endogenous and microbial sources have been shown to activate type II NKT cells. The activation of a specific subset of type II NKT cells following administration with sulfatide or lysophosphatidylcholine (LPC) leads to engagement of a dominant immunoregulatory pathway associated with the inactivation of type I NKT cells, conventional dendritic cells, and inhibition of the proinflammatory Th1/Th17 cells. Thus, type II NKT cells have been shown to be immunosuppressive in autoimmune diseases, inflammatory liver diseases, and in cancer. Knowing their relatively higher prevalence in human than type I NKT cells, understanding their biology is imperative for health and disease.

  13. Radiation sensitivity of human malignant lymphocytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seshadri, R.; Matthews, C.; Morley, A.A.

    1985-01-01

    A simple and rapid in vitro technique to assess the sensitivity of human malignant lymphocytes to roentgen irradiation is described. A variety of established malignant lymphocyte cell lines were cloned in microwells and clone survival was used as the end-point. The survival of the clonogenic malignant lymphocyte down to a fraction of approximately 0.001 could be measured accurately. Except for a T-cell line, the radiation sensitivities of the cell lines were similar to that of normal T-lymphocytes. (orig.)

  14. Autoimmune hepatitis in association with lymphocytic colitis.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Cronin, Edmond M

    2012-02-03

    Autoimmune hepatitis is a rare, chronic inflammatory disorder which has been associated with a number of other auto-immune conditions. However, there are no reports in the medical literature of an association with microscopic (lymphocytic) colitis. We report the case of a 53-year-old woman with several autoimmune conditions, including lymphocytic colitis, who presented with an acute hepatitis. On the basis of the clinical features, serology, and histopathology, we diagnosed autoimmune hepatitis. To our knowledge, this is the first report of autoimmune hepatitis in association with lymphocytic colitis, and lends support to the theory of an autoimmune etiology for lymphocytic colitis.

  15. Linear embeddings of finite-dimensional subsets of Banach spaces into Euclidean spaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robinson, James C

    2009-01-01

    This paper treats the embedding of finite-dimensional subsets of a Banach space B into finite-dimensional Euclidean spaces. When the Hausdorff dimension of X − X is finite, d H (X − X) k are injective on X. The proof motivates the definition of the 'dual thickness exponent', which is the key to proving that a prevalent set of such linear maps have Hölder continuous inverse when the box-counting dimension of X is finite and k > 2d B (X). A related argument shows that if the Assouad dimension of X − X is finite and k > d A (X − X), a prevalent set of such maps are bi-Lipschitz with logarithmic corrections. This provides a new result for compact homogeneous metric spaces via the Kuratowksi embedding of (X, d) into L ∞ (X)

  16. Subset-sum phase transitions and data compression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merhav, Neri

    2011-09-01

    We propose a rigorous analysis approach for the subset-sum problem in the context of lossless data compression, where the phase transition of the subset-sum problem is directly related to the passage between ambiguous and non-ambiguous decompression, for a compression scheme that is based on specifying the sequence composition. The proposed analysis lends itself to straightforward extensions in several directions of interest, including non-binary alphabets, incorporation of side information at the decoder (Slepian-Wolf coding), and coding schemes based on multiple subset sums. It is also demonstrated that the proposed technique can be used to analyze the critical behavior in a more involved situation where the sequence composition is not specified by the encoder.

  17. Probabilistic quantum cloning of a subset of linearly dependent states

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rui, Pinshu; Zhang, Wen; Liao, Yanlin; Zhang, Ziyun

    2018-02-01

    It is well known that a quantum state, secretly chosen from a certain set, can be probabilistically cloned with positive cloning efficiencies if and only if all the states in the set are linearly independent. In this paper, we focus on probabilistic quantum cloning of a subset of linearly dependent states. We show that a linearly-independent subset of linearly-dependent quantum states {| Ψ 1⟩,| Ψ 2⟩,…,| Ψ n ⟩} can be probabilistically cloned if and only if any state in the subset cannot be expressed as a linear superposition of the other states in the set {| Ψ 1⟩,| Ψ 2⟩,…,| Ψ n ⟩}. The optimal cloning efficiencies are also investigated.

  18. Lymphocytes on sounding rocket flights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cogoli-Greuter, M; Pippia, P; Sciola, L; Cogoli, A

    1994-05-01

    Cell-cell interactions and the formation of cell aggregates are important events in the mitogen-induced lymphocyte activation. The fact that the formation of cell aggregates is only slightly reduced in microgravity suggests that cells are moving and interacting also in space, but direct evidence was still lacking. Here we report on two experiments carried out on a flight of the sounding rocket MAXUS 1B, launched in November 1992 from the base of Esrange in Sweden. The rocket reached the altitude of 716 km and provided 12.5 min of microgravity conditions.

  19. Investigating evolutionary conservation of dendritic cell subset identity and functions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thien-Phong eVu Manh

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Dendritic cells (DC were initially defined as mononuclear phagocytes with a dendritic morphology and an exquisite efficiency for naïve T cell activation. DC encompass several subsets initially identified by their expression of specific cell surface molecules and later shown to excel in distinct functions and to develop under the instruction of different transcription factors or cytokines. Very few cell surface molecules are expressed in a specific manner on any immune cell type. Hence, to identify cell types, the sole use of a small number of cell surface markers in classical flow cytometry can be deceiving. Moreover, the markers currently used to define mononuclear phagocyte subsets vary depending on the tissue and animal species studied and even between laboratories. This has led to confusion in the definition of DC subset identity and in their attribution of specific functions. There is a strong need to identify a rigorous and consensus way to define mononuclear phagocyte subsets, with precise guidelines potentially applicable throughout tissues and species. We will discuss the advantages, drawbacks and complementarities of different methodologies: cell surface phenotyping, ontogeny, functional characterization and molecular profiling. We will advocate that gene expression profiling is a very rigorous, largely unbiased and accessible method to define the identity of mononuclear phagocyte subsets, which strengthens and refines surface phenotyping. It is uniquely powerful to yield new, experimentally testable, hypotheses on the ontogeny or functions of mononuclear phagocyte subsets, their molecular regulation and their evolutionary conservation. We propose defining cell populations based on a combination of cell surface phenotyping, expression analysis of hallmark genes and robust functional assays, in order to reach a consensus and integrate faster the huge but scattered knowledge accumulated by different laboratories on different cell types

  20. Fish Lymphocytes: An Evolutionary Equivalent of Mammalian Innate-Like Lymphocytes?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuseppe Scapigliati

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Lymphocytes are the responsible of adaptive responses, as they are classically described, but evidence shows that subpopulations of mammalian lymphocytes may behave as innate-like cells, engaging non-self rapidly and without antigen presentation. The innate-like lymphocytes of mammals have been mainly identified as γδT cells and B1-B cells, exert their activities principally in mucosal tissues, may be involved in human pathologies and their functions and tissue(s of origin are not fully understood. Due to similarities in the morphology and immunobiology of immune system between fish and mammals, and to the uniqueness of having free-living larval stages where the development can be precisely monitored and engineered, teleost fish are proposed as an experimental model to investigate human immunity. However, the homology between fish lymphocytes and mammalian innate-like lymphocytes is an issue poorly considered in comparative immunology. Increasing experimental evidence suggests that fish lymphocytes could have developmental, morphological, and functional features in common with innate-like lymphocytes of mammals. Despite such similarities, information on possible links between conventional fish lymphocytes and mammalian innate-like lymphocytes is missing. The aim of this review is to summarize and describe available findings about the similarities between fish lymphocytes and mammalian innate-like lymphocytes, supporting the hypothesis that mammalian γδT cells and B1-B cells could be evolutionarily related to fish lymphocytes.

  1. Discrimination of human cytotoxic lymphocytes from regulatory and B-lymphocytes by orthogonal light scattering

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Terstappen, Leonardus Wendelinus Mathias Marie; de Grooth, B.G.; ten Napel, C.H.H.; van Berkel, W.; Greve, Jan

    1986-01-01

    Light scattering properties of human lymphocyte subpopulations selected by immunofluorescence were studied with a flow cytometer. Regulatory and B-lymphocytes showed a low orthogonal light scatter signal, whereas cytotoxic lymphocytes identified with leu-7, leu-11 and leu-15 revealed a large

  2. On the size of the subset partial order

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elmasry, Amr Ahmed Abd Elmoneim

    2012-01-01

    Given a family of k sets with cardinalities S 1,S 2,⋯, S k and N=Σ k i=1S i, we show that the size of the partial order graph induced by the subset relation (called the subset graph) is O(Σ si≤B 2si+N/lgN·Σ si>Blg(s i/B)), 2 where B=lg(N/lg 2N). This implies a simpler proof to the O(N 2/lg 2N...

  3. Blood Monocyte Subsets and Selected Cardiovascular Risk Markers in Rheumatoid Arthritis of Short Duration in relation to Disease Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ewa Klimek

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. To evaluate blood monocyte subsets and functional monocyte properties in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA of short duration in the context of cardiovascular (CV risk and disease activity. Methods. We studied conventional markers of CV risk, intima media thickness (IMT, and blood monocyte subsets in 27 patients aged 41 ± 10 years with RA of short duration (median 12 months and 22 healthy controls. The RA subjects were divided into low (DAS28: 2.6–5.1 and high (DAS28 > 5.1 disease activity. Results. RA patients exhibited increased levels of intermediate (CD14++CD16+ monocytes with decreased CD45RA expression compared to controls, increased counts of classical (CD14++CD16− monocytes, and decreased percentages of nonclassical (CD14+CD16++ monocytes. Patients with high disease activity had lower HLA DR expression on classical monocytes compared to low disease activity patients. There were no differences in monocyte subsets between subjects with DAS > 5.1 and DAS ≤ 5.1. There were no significant intergroup differences in IMT and the majority of classical CV risk factors. Conclusions. Patients with RA of short duration show alteration in peripheral blood monocyte subsets despite the fact that there is no evidence of subclinical atherosclerosis. Disease activity assessed with DAS28 was associated with impaired functional properties but not with a shift in monocyte subpopulations.

  4. Stress-Induced In Vivo Recruitment of Human Cytotoxic Natural Killer Cells Favors Subsets with Distinct Receptor Profiles and Associates with Increased Epinephrine Levels.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marc B Bigler

    Full Text Available Acute stress drives a 'high-alert' response in the immune system. Psychoactive drugs induce distinct stress hormone profiles, offering a sought-after opportunity to dissect the in vivo immunological effects of acute stress in humans.3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA, methylphenidate (MPH, or both, were administered to healthy volunteers in a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled crossover-study. Lymphocyte subset frequencies, natural killer (NK cell immune-phenotypes, and changes in effector function were assessed, and linked to stress hormone levels and expression of CD62L, CX3CR1, CD18, and stress hormone receptors on NK cells.MDMA/MPH > MDMA > MPH robustly induced an epinephrine-dominant stress response. Immunologically, rapid redistribution of peripheral blood lymphocyte-subsets towards phenotypically mature NK cells occurred. NK cytotoxicity was unaltered, but they expressed slightly reduced levels of the activating receptor NKG2D. Preferential circulation of mature NK cells was associated with high epinephrine receptor expression among this subset, as well as expression of integrin ligands previously linked to epinephrine-induced endothelial detachment.The acute epinephrine-induced stress response was characterized by rapid accumulation of mature and functional NK cells in the peripheral circulation. This is in line with studies using other acute stressors and supports the role of the acute stress response in rapidly mobilizing the innate immune system to counteract incoming threats.

  5. Track counting in radon dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fesenbeck, Ingo; Koehler, Bernd; Reichert, Klaus-Martin

    2013-01-01

    The newly developed, computer-controlled track counting system is capable of imaging and analyzing the entire area of nuclear track detectors. The high optical resolution allows a new analysis approach for the process of automated counting using digital image processing technologies. This way, higher exposed detectors can be evaluated reliably by an automated process as well. (orig.)

  6. Galaxy number counts: Pt. 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Metcalfe, N.; Shanks, T.; Fong, R.; Jones, L.R.

    1991-01-01

    Using the Prime Focus CCD Camera at the Isaac Newton Telescope we have determined the form of the B and R galaxy number-magnitude count relations in 12 independent fields for 21 m ccd m and 19 m ccd m 5. The average galaxy count relations lie in the middle of the wide range previously encompassed by photographic data. The field-to-field variation of the counts is small enough to define the faint (B m 5) galaxy count to ±10 per cent and this variation is consistent with that expected from galaxy clustering considerations. Our new data confirm that the B, and also the R, galaxy counts show evidence for strong galaxy luminosity evolution, and that the majority of the evolving galaxies are of moderately blue colour. (author)

  7. Hanford whole body counting manual

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palmer, H.E.; Brim, C.P.; Rieksts, G.A.; Rhoads, M.C.

    1987-05-01

    This document, a reprint of the Whole Body Counting Manual, was compiled to train personnel, document operation procedures, and outline quality assurance procedures. The current manual contains information on: the location, availability, and scope of services of Hanford's whole body counting facilities; the administrative aspect of the whole body counting operation; Hanford's whole body counting facilities; the step-by-step procedure involved in the different types of in vivo measurements; the detectors, preamplifiers and amplifiers, and spectroscopy equipment; the quality assurance aspect of equipment calibration and recordkeeping; data processing, record storage, results verification, report preparation, count summaries, and unit cost accounting; and the topics of minimum detectable amount and measurement accuracy and precision. 12 refs., 13 tabs

  8. Stimulating effects of vitamin A on PHA- and LPS-activated lymphocytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Fengju; Su Liaoyuan

    1993-03-01

    A method of 3 H-TdR incorporation in lymphocytes activated by PHA was applied. The incubation with vitamin A at a concentration of 5 μg/ml for 16 hours was followed by the incorporation, the counts per minute (cpm) of radioactivity in lymphocytes increased significantly. When the concentration was greater than 25 μg/ml or the incubation at concentration of 10 μg/ml for 72 hours, the incorporation value of 3 H-TdR was remarkably decreased. The lymphocytes irradiated by 60 Co gamma rays at different doses were incubated in vitro with vitamin A of 5 μg/ml concentration for 16 hours, the cpm from 3 H-TdR incorporation in DNA was higher than that in control group with no vitamin A. Tests on 10 cancer patients showed that after one course of treatment with radiotherapy (75 ∼ 184 Gy), the incorporation value of 3 H-TdR was decreased significantly. After adding more 5 μg/ml concentration of vitamin A, the incorporation value of 3 H-TdR was remarkably greater than in the control group. These results indicated that vitamin A at adequate level is able to enhance the effect of transformation of PHA-activated lymphocytes, but the incorporation in LPS-activated B lymphocytes enhanced by vitamin A was not observed

  9. Sandwich radioimmunolabeling for the study of surface properties of bone marrow lymphocytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshida, Y.; Uchino, H.; Kuribayashi, K.; Shimizu, S.; Konda, S.

    1980-01-01

    A modification of sandwich radioautographic method was applied to the study of surface immunoglobulin and/or specific antigens on small lymphocytes in mouse and human bone marrow. After incubation of marrow cell suspensions at 37 0 C, cells were reacted at 0 0 C for 30 min with graded dilutions of rabbit anti-mouse or anti-human immunoglobulin followed by further reaction with a sheep anti-rabbit immunoglobulin labeled with 125 I. Detectable surface immunoglobulin was demonstrated in approximately one-third of mouse marrow lymphocytes and 20-25% of human marrow lymphocytes. The densities of surface immunoglobulin as assessed by grain counts on individual labeled lymphocytes tended to be lower in the marrow than in spleen or peripheral blood. When the same rabbit antiserum was used to compare the sensitivity of the sandwich method with that of the direct radioautography, the former was found sufficiently sensitive to give a plateau level of labeling without seriously increasing background grains. The advantages of the method are discussed with reference to studies on T and B cell specific antigens on human bone marrow lymphocytes. (Auth.)

  10. Canine lymphocyte activating factor (LAF)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shifrine, M.; Whaley, C.B.; Wilson, F.D.; Taylor, N.J.

    1979-01-01

    The immune response of an animal is the sum of the result of the interaction of various cells mainly through soluble mediators. It is not enough to look at specific cell populations, it is also necessary to study the interactions between purified cell population. The effect of one subpopulation on another is via soluble mediators. We have been studying one (of several) such mediators in its relation to radiation effects on the immune response. Lymphocyte activating factor (LAF) is defined functionally as a potentiator of the response of thymocytes to phytohemagglutinin (PHA) or concanavalin (con-A). It can also elicit response of unstimulated subpopulations separated from the thymus. It is a product of adherent populations, presumably macrophages. It has been shown to be produced by human, rabbit, and mouse cells, but has not been reported in the dog. It also was shown to be present in higher concentrations in irradiated mice than in comparable unirradiated mice. We have shown that LAF is produced by plastic-adherent populations derived from peripheral blood. Currently we are working to determine the lymphocyte subpopulations with which LAF interacts

  11. In vitro immunomodulatory potential of Artemisia indica Willd. in chicken lymphocytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pushpa Ruwali

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Evaluation of the in vitro immunomodulatory potential of Artemisia indica Willd. methanolic extract in chicken lymphocyte culture system through lymphocyte (B and T cells proliferation assay, after standardizing the maximum non-cytotoxic dose (MNCD in chicken lymphocytes. Materials and Methods: Fresh aerial parts of A. indica Willd. (family: Asteraceae specimens were collected (altitude 1560 m, gotten authenticated, processed, dried, and Soxhlet extracted to yield methanolic extract (AME. Chicken splenocytes were isolated from spleens collected from healthy birds; lymphocytes were separated by density gradient centrifugation, percentage cell viability determined and final cell count adjusted to 107 cells/ml in RPMI-1640 medium. MNCD of AME in chicken lymphocytes was determined through 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-y1-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide dye reduction assay. Immunomodulatory potential of AME was evaluated through lymphocytes proliferation or B and T cells blastogenesis assay in the presence of appropriate mitogens, namely, lipopolysaccharide (LPS and concanavalin A (Con A, respectively. Results: Maximum concentration of AME exhibiting 100% cell viability (MNCD was 200 μg/ml and was selected for further in vitro analysis. The in vitro exposure of chicken lymphocytes to 200 μg/ml dose of AME, resulted in significant (p<0.05 upregulation of 11.76% in B cell proliferation in the presence of B cell mitogen (LPS and a significant (p<0.05 increase of 12.018% T cells proliferation in the presence of the mitogen (Con A, as compared to the control. Conclusion: The significant upregulation in the proliferation of two major cell types modulating the immune system is an indication of the immunostimulatory potential of the plant. It would be worthwhile to further evaluate A. indica on relevant immunomodulatory aspects, especially the in vivo studies in a poultry system.

  12. In vitro immunomodulatory potential of Artemisia indica Willd. in chicken lymphocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruwali, Pushpa; Ambwani, Tanuj Kumar; Gautam, Pankaj

    2018-01-01

    Evaluation of the in vitro immunomodulatory potential of Artemisia indica Willd. methanolic extract in chicken lymphocyte culture system through lymphocyte (B and T cells) proliferation assay, after standardizing the maximum non-cytotoxic dose (MNCD) in chicken lymphocytes. Fresh aerial parts of A. indica Willd. (family: Asteraceae) specimens were collected (altitude 1560 m), gotten authenticated, processed, dried, and Soxhlet extracted to yield methanolic extract (AME). Chicken splenocytes were isolated from spleens collected from healthy birds; lymphocytes were separated by density gradient centrifugation, percentage cell viability determined and final cell count adjusted to 10 7 cells/ml in RPMI-1640 medium. MNCD of AME in chicken lymphocytes was determined through 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-y1)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide dye reduction assay. Immunomodulatory potential of AME was evaluated through lymphocytes proliferation or B and T cells blastogenesis assay in the presence of appropriate mitogens, namely, lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and concanavalin A (Con A), respectively. Maximum concentration of AME exhibiting 100% cell viability (MNCD) was 200 μg/ml and was selected for further in vitro analysis. The in vitro exposure of chicken lymphocytes to 200 µg/ml dose of AME, resulted in significant (p<0.05) upregulation of 11.76% in B cell proliferation in the presence of B cell mitogen (LPS) and a significant (p<0.05) increase of 12.018% T cells proliferation in the presence of the mitogen (Con A), as compared to the control. The significant upregulation in the proliferation of two major cell types modulating the immune system is an indication of the immunostimulatory potential of the plant. It would be worthwhile to further evaluate A. indica on relevant immunomodulatory aspects, especially the in vivo studies in a poultry system.

  13. Increased Peripheral Blood Pro-Inflammatory/Cytotoxic Lymphocytes in Children with Bronchiectasis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G Hodge

    Full Text Available Bronchiectasis (BE in children is common in some communities including Indigenous children in Australia. Relatively little is known about the nature of systemic inflammation in these children, especially the contribution of specific pro-inflammatory and cytotoxic lymphocyte subsets: T-cells, natural killer (NK cells and NKT-like cells. We have shown that these cells produce increased cytotoxic (granzyme b and perforin and inflammatory (IFNγ and TNFα mediators in several adult chronic lung diseases and hypothesised that similar changes would be evident in children with BE.Intracellular cytotoxic mediators perforin and granzyme b and pro-inflammatory cytokines were measured in T cell subsets, NKT-like and NK cells from blood and bronchoalveolar samples from 12 children with BE and 10 aged-matched control children using flow cytometry.There was a significant increase in the percentage of CD8+ T cells and T and NKT-like subsets expressing perforin/granzyme and IFNγ and TNFα in blood in BE compared with controls. There was a further increase in the percentage of pro-inflammatory cytotoxic T cells in Indigenous compared with non-Indigenous children. There was no change in any of these mediators in BAL.Childhood bronchiectasis is associated with increased systemic pro-inflammatory/cytotoxic lymphocytes in the peripheral blood. Future studies need to examine the extent to which elevated levels of pro-inflammatory cytotoxic cells predict future co-morbidities.

  14. Subset selection for an epsilon-best population : efficiency results

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Laan, van der P.

    1991-01-01

    An almost best or an \\epsilon-best population is defined as a population with location parameter on a distance not larger than \\epsilon (\\geq 0) from the best population (with largest value of the location parameter). For the subset selection tables with the relative efficiency of selecting an

  15. The role of lymphocytes in radiotherapy-induced adverse late effects in the lung

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florian Wirsdörfer

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Radiation-induced pneumonitis and fibrosis are dose-limiting side effects of thoracic irradiation. Thoracic irradiation triggers acute and chronic environmental lung changes that are shaped by the damage response of resident cells, by the resulting reaction of the immune system, and by repair processes. Although considerable progress has been made during the last decade in defining involved effector cells and soluble mediators, the network of pathophysiological events and the cellular cross-talk linking acute tissue damage to chronic inflammation and fibrosis still require further definition. Infiltration of cells from the innate and adaptive immune systems is a common response of normal tissues to ionizing radiation. Herein lymphocytes represent a versatile and wide-ranged group of cells of the adaptive immune system that can react under specific conditions in various ways and participate in modulating the lung environment by adopting pro-inflammatory, anti-inflammatory or even pro- or anti-fibrotic phenotypes. The present review provides an overview on published data about the role of lymphocytes in radiation-induced lung disease and related damage-associated pulmonary diseases with a focus on T-lymphocytes and B-lymphocytes. We also discuss the suspected dual role of specific lymphocyte subsets during the pneumonitic phase and fibrotic phase that is shaped by the environmental conditions and the interaction and the intercellular cross-talk between cells from the innate and adaptive immune systems and (damaged resident epithelial cells and stromal cells (e.g. endothelial cells, mesenchymal stem cells (MSC, fibroblasts. Finally, we highlight potential therapeutic targets suited to counteract pathological lymphocyte responses to prevent or treat radiation-induced lung disease.

  16. The Danish National Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia Registry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    da Cunha-Bang, Caspar; Geisler, Christian Hartmann; Enggaard, Lisbeth

    2016-01-01

    AIM: In 2008, the Danish National Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia Registry was founded within the Danish National Hematology Database. The primary aim of the registry is to assure quality of diagnosis and care of patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) in Denmark. Secondarily, to evaluate...

  17. Evaluation of bias and variance in low-count OSEM list mode reconstruction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jian, Y; Carson, R E; Planeta, B

    2015-01-01

    Statistical algorithms have been widely used in PET image reconstruction. The maximum likelihood expectation maximization reconstruction has been shown to produce bias in applications where images are reconstructed from a relatively small number of counts. In this study, image bias and variability in low-count OSEM reconstruction are investigated on images reconstructed with MOLAR (motion-compensation OSEM list-mode algorithm for resolution-recovery reconstruction) platform. A human brain ([ 11 C]AFM) and a NEMA phantom are used in the simulation and real experiments respectively, for the HRRT and Biograph mCT. Image reconstructions were repeated with different combinations of subsets and iterations. Regions of interest were defined on low-activity and high-activity regions to evaluate the bias and noise at matched effective iteration numbers (iterations × subsets). Minimal negative biases and no positive biases were found at moderate count levels and less than 5% negative bias was found using extremely low levels of counts (0.2 M NEC). At any given count level, other factors, such as subset numbers and frame-based scatter correction may introduce small biases (1–5%) in the reconstructed images. The observed bias was substantially lower than that reported in the literature, perhaps due to the use of point spread function and/or other implementation methods in MOLAR. (paper)

  18. Effects of neonatal surgical castration and immunocastration in male pigs on blood T lymphocytes and health markers

    OpenAIRE

    Leclercq, Caroline; Prunier, Armelle; Merlot, Elodie

    2014-01-01

    Surgical castration in pig husbandry is criticized for welfare reasons. Thus, it is necessary to evaluate alternative ways of rearing male pigs, such as entire or immunocastrated animals. Immunocastration is a vaccination directed against gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) to suppress the production of sexual hormones. This study aimed at investigating the effects of these two methods of castration in comparison with intact male pigs on blood T-lymphocyte subsets and function, the immunogl...

  19. The relation of neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio, platelet-to-lymphocyte ratio, and mean platelet volume with the presence and severity of Behçet's syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sevil Alan

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Behçet's syndrome (BS is associated with chronic inflammation and endothelial dysfunction. Although there have been extensive investigations on neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (NLR, platelet-to-lymphocyte ratio (PLR, and mean platelet volume (MPV in many diseases, their roles in BS is unclear. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate NLR, PLR, and MPV levels in BS patients and explore their clinical significance. The study included 254 patients with BS and 173 healthy individuals. Age, sex, age of onset, duration of disease, smoking, Behçet activity score, total white blood counts, neutrophil, platelet, and T lymphocyte counts of the patients were recorded. White blood cell (WBC, neutrophil, platelet, NLR, and PLR were significantly higher in patients with BS when compared with healthy controls (all p  0.05. In the BS group, PLR and MPV were significantly different among the three severity groups (p = 0.037 and p = 0.016, respectively. We showed that any laboratory markers were not associated with joint, eye, central nervous system, large vessel, or gastrointestinal involvement in BS. NLR was shown to be an independent factor for BS by multivariate analysis. We suggest that NLR can be considered to be a diagnostic criterion of BS given the support of the findings from larger prospective studies.

  20. In vivo counting of uranium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palmer, H.E.

    1985-03-01

    A state-of-the-art radiation detector system consisting of six individually mounted intrinsic germanium planar detectors, each 20 cm 2 by 13 mm thick, mounted together such that the angle of the whole system can be changed to match the slope of the chest of the person being counted, is described. The sensitivity of the system for counting uranium and plutonium in vivo and the precedures used in calibrating the system are also described. Some results of counts done on uranium mill workers are presented. 15 figs., 2 tabs