WorldWideScience

Sample records for lymphocyte cytokine production

  1. DMPD: Induction of proliferation and cytokine production in human T lymphocytes bylipopolysaccharide (LPS). [Dynamic Macrophage Pathway CSML Database

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 11090938 Induction of proliferation and cytokine production in human T lymphocytes ... (.png) (.svg) (.html) (.csml) Show Induction of proliferation and cytokine production in human T lymphocyte...and cytokine production in human T lymphocytes bylipopolysaccharide (LPS). Authors Ulmer AJ, Flad H, Rietsch

  2. Sulfasalazine and mesalamine modulate beryllium-specific lymphocyte proliferation and inflammatory cytokine production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobis, Dave R; Sawyer, Richard T; Gillespie, May M; Newman, Lee S; Maier, Lisa A; Day, Brian J

    2010-10-01

    Occupational exposure to beryllium (Be) results in Be sensitization (BeS) that can progress to pulmonary granulomatous inflammation associated with chronic Be disease (CBD). Be-specific lymphocytes are present in the blood of patients with BeS and in the blood and lungs of patients with CBD. Sulfasalazine and its active metabolite, mesalamine, are clinically used to ameliorate chronic inflammation associated with inflammatory bowel disease. We tested whether sulfasalazine or mesalamine could decrease Be-stimulated peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMC) proliferation in subjects with CBD and BeS and Be-induced cytokine production in CBD bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) cells. CBD (n = 25), BeS (n = 12) and healthy normal control (n = 6) subjects were enrolled and ex vivo proliferation and cytokine production were assessed in the presence of Be and sulfasalazine or mesalamine. Be-stimulated PBMC proliferation was inhibited by treatment with either sulfasalazine or mesalamine. Be-stimulated CBD BAL cell IFN-γ and TNF-α cytokine production was decreased by treatment with sulfasalazine or mesalamine. Our data suggest that both sulfasalazine and mesalamine interfere with Be-stimulated PBMC proliferation in CBD and BeS and dampens Be-stimulated CBD BAL cell proinflammatory cytokine production. These studies demonstrate that sulfasalazine and mesalamine can disrupt inflammatory pathways critical to the pathogenesis of chronic granulomatous inflammation in CBD, and may serve as novel therapy for human granulomatous lung diseases.

  3. Cytokine production of in vitro stimulated peripheral lymphocytes during the course of pregnancy and pseudopregnancy in the rat

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Faas, MM; Eenling, R; van der Schaaf, G; Moes, H; Heineman, MJ; Vos, P

    Problem Does maternal lymphocyte cytokine production after in vitro stimulation vary with the stage of pregnancy in the rat? Method of study Blood samples were taken during the estrus cycle in rats (n = 11). Thereafter, rats were rendered pregnant (n = 6) or pseudopregnant (n = 5) and blood samples

  4. Exercise Training, Lymphocyte Subsets and Their Cytokines Production: Experience of an Italian Professional Football Team and Their Impact on Allergy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background. In recent years, numerous articles have attempted to shed light on our understanding of the pathophysiological mechanisms of exercise-induced immunologic changes and their impact on allergy and asthma. It is known that lymphocyte subclasses, cytokines, and chemokines show modifications after exercise, but outcomes can be affected by the type of exercise as well as by its intensity and duration. Interesting data have been presented in many recent studies on mouse models, but few studies on humans have been performed to check the long-term effects of exercise over a whole championship season. Methods. This study evaluated lymphocyte subsets and their intracellular IL-2, IL-4, TNF-α, and IFN-γ production in professional football (soccer) players, at three stages of the season, to evaluate if alterations occur, particularly in relation to their allergic status. Results and Conclusion. Despite significant mid-season alterations, no significant lymphocyte subclasses count modifications, except for NKs that were significantly higher, were observed at the end. IL-2 and IL-4 producing cells showed a significant decrease (P = 0.018 and P = 0.001, but in a steady fashion for IL-4), confirming the murine data about the potential beneficial effects of aerobic exercise for allergic asthma. PMID:25050349

  5. Exercise Training, Lymphocyte Subsets and Their Cytokines Production: Experience of an Italian Professional Football Team and Their Impact on Allergy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefano R. Del Giacco

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. In recent years, numerous articles have attempted to shed light on our understanding of the pathophysiological mechanisms of exercise-induced immunologic changes and their impact on allergy and asthma. It is known that lymphocyte subclasses, cytokines, and chemokines show modifications after exercise, but outcomes can be affected by the type of exercise as well as by its intensity and duration. Interesting data have been presented in many recent studies on mouse models, but few studies on humans have been performed to check the long-term effects of exercise over a whole championship season. Methods. This study evaluated lymphocyte subsets and their intracellular IL-2, IL-4, TNF-α, and IFN-γ production in professional football (soccer players, at three stages of the season, to evaluate if alterations occur, particularly in relation to their allergic status. Results and Conclusion. Despite significant mid-season alterations, no significant lymphocyte subclasses count modifications, except for NKs that were significantly higher, were observed at the end. IL-2 and IL-4 producing cells showed a significant decrease (P=0.018 and P=0.001, but in a steady fashion for IL-4, confirming the murine data about the potential beneficial effects of aerobic exercise for allergic asthma.

  6. Treatment With Lenalidomide Modulates T-Cell Immunophenotype and Cytokine Production in Patients With Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Bang-Ning; Gao, Hui; Cohen, Evan N.; Badoux, Xavier; Wierda, William G.; Estrov, Zeev; Faderl, Stefan H.; Keating, Michael J.; Ferrajoli, Alessandra; Reuben, James M.

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND Lenalidomide, an immunomodulatory agent, has activity in lymphoproliferative disorders. The authors, therefore, evaluated its effects on T-cell immunophenotype and cytokine production in patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL). METHODS To study the immunomodulatory effects of lenalidomide in CLL, the authors recruited 24 patients with untreated CLL enrolled in a phase 2 clinical trial of lenalidomide and obtained peripheral blood specimens for immunologic studies consisting of enumeration of T cells and assessing their ability to synthesize cytokines after activation through T-cell receptor (TCR). RESULTS After 3 cycles of therapy, patients had a significant reduction in percentage (%) and absolute lymphocyte count (ALC) and an increase in percentage of T cells, percentage of activated CD8+ T cells producing IFN-γ, and percentage of regulatory T (TR) cells when compared with their respective levels before treatment. After 15 cycles of treatment, responder patients had significant reduction in percentage of lymphocytes and ALC, percentage of activated CD4+ T cells producing IL-2, IFN-γ, or TNF-α, and percentage of TR cells when compared with their perspective levels after 3 cycles of treatment. Furthermore, the numbers of activated CD4+ T cells producing IL-2, IFN-γ, or TNF-α, activated CD8+ T cells producing IFN-γ, and TR cells normalized to the range of healthy subjects. CONCLUSIONS Treatment with lenalidomide resulted in the normalization of functional T-cell subsets in responders, suggesting that lenalidomide may modulate cell-mediated immunity in patients with CLL. PMID:21858802

  7. Herbal medicine Gamgungtang down-regulates autoimmunity through induction of TH2 cytokine production by lymphocytes in experimental thyroiditis model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sa, Eun-Ho; Jin, Un-Ho; Kim, Dong-Soo; Kang, Bong-Seok; Ha, Ki-Tae; Kim, June-Ki; Park, Won-Hwan; Kim, Cheorl-Ho

    2007-02-12

    The crude herbal formulation, Gamgungtang (GGT), has been shown to protect animals against a wide range of spontaneously developing or induced autoimmune diseases. We have previously reported that GGT shows marked down-regulation of several experimental autoimmune diseases. Although very effective at preventing thyroid infiltrates in mice immunized with mouse deglycosylated thyroglobulin and complete Freund's adjuvant and in spontaneous models of thyroiditis, it completely failed to modify experimental autoimmune thyroiditis (EAT) induced in mice immunized with mouse thyroglobulin and lipopolysaccharide. In this study, in an effort to elucidate the mechanisms by which GGT suppresses EAT, and autoimmunity in general, we investigated the in vivo effects of this drug on the Th1/Th2 lymphocyte balance, which is important for the induction or inhibition of autoreactivity. Naive SJL/J mice were treated orally for 5 days with GGT (80 mg/(kg day)). Spleen cells were obtained at various time points during the treatment period and were stimulated in vitro with concanavalin A. Interleukins IL-4, IL-10 and IL-12, transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta) and interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma) cytokine production was evaluated at the protein levels of the cytokines in the medium and mRNA expressions. A significant upregulation of IL-4, IL-10 and TGF-beta was observed following treatment with GGT, which peaked at day 5 (IL-10) or day 10 (IL-4). On the other hand, IL-12 and IFN-gamma production were either unchanged or decreased. It seems therefore that GGT induces in vivo a shift towards Th2 lymphocytes which may be one of the mechanisms of down-regulation of the autoimmune reactivity in EAT. Our observations indicate that down-regulation of TH1 cytokines (especially IL-12) and enhancement of Th2 cytokine production may play an important role in the control of T-cell-mediated autoimmunity. These data may contribute to the design of new immunomodulating treatments for a group of

  8. Cytokine and immunoglobulin production by PWM-stimulated peripheral and tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes of undifferentiated nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bouzouita Kamel

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Undifferentiated Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma (NPC patients show a characteristic pattern of antibody responses to the Epstein-Barr virus (EBV which is regularly associated with this tumor. However, no EBV-specific cytotoxic activity is detectable by the standard chromium-release assay at both peripheral and intratumoral levels. The mechanisms underlying this discrepancy between the humoral and cellular immune responses in NPC are still unknown, but might be related to an imbalance in immunoregulatory interleukin production. In this report, we investigated the ability of peripheral (PBL and tumor- infiltrating (TIL lymphocytes of undifferentiated NPC patients to produce in vitro three interleukins (IL-2, IL-6, IL-10 and three immunoglobulin isotypes (IgM, IgG, IgA. Methods Lymphocytes from 17 patients and 17 controls were cultured in the presence of Pokeweed mitogen (PWM for 12 days and their culture supernatants were tested for interleukins and immunoglobulins by specific enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA. Data were analysed using Student's t-test and probability values below 5% were considered significant. Results The data obtained indicated that TIL of NPC patients produced significantly more IL-2 (p = 0,0002, IL-10 (p = 0,020, IgM (p= 0,0003 and IgG (p Conclusion Taken together, our data reinforce the possibility of an imbalance in immunoregulatory interleukin production in NPC patients. An increased ability to produce cytokines such as IL-10 may underlie the discrepancy between humoral and cellular immune responses characteristic of NPC.

  9. Up-regulation of T lymphocyte and antibody production by inflammatory cytokines released by macrophage exposure to multi-walled carbon nanotubes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grecco, Ana Carolina P; Paula, Rosemeire F O; Mizutani, Erica; Sartorelli, Juliana C; Milani, Ana M; Longhini, Ana Leda F; Oliveira, Elaine C; Pradella, Fernando; Silva, Vania D R; Moraes, Adriel S; Peterlevitz, Alfredo C; Farias, Alessandro S; Ceragioli, Helder J; Santos, Leonilda M B; Baranauskas, Vitor

    2011-07-01

    Our data demonstrate that multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) are internalized by macrophages, subsequently activating them to produce interleukin (IL)-12 (IL-12). This cytokine induced the proliferative response of T lymphocytes to a nonspecific mitogen and to ovalbumin (OVA). This increase in the proliferative response was accompanied by an increase in the expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines, such as interferon-gamma (IFNγ), tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNFα) and IL-6, in mice inoculated with MWCNTs, whether or not they had been immunized with OVA. A decrease in the expression of transforming growth factor-beta (TGFβ) was observed in the mice treated with MWCNTs, whereas the suppression of the expression of both TGFβ and IL-10 was observed in mice that had been both treated and immunized. The activation of the T lymphocyte response by the pro-inflammatory cytokines leads to an increase in antibody production to OVA, suggesting the important immunostimulatory effect of carbon nanotubes.

  10. Up-regulation of T lymphocyte and antibody production by inflammatory cytokines released by macrophage exposure to multi-walled carbon nanotubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grecco, Ana Carolina P.; Paula, Rosemeire F. O.; Mizutani, Erica; Sartorelli, Juliana C.; Milani, Ana M.; Longhini, Ana Leda F.; Oliveira, Elaine C.; Pradella, Fernando; Silva, Vania D. R.; Moraes, Adriel S.; Peterlevitz, Alfredo C.; Farias, Alessandro S.; Ceragioli, Helder J.; Santos, Leonilda M. B.; Baranauskas, Vitor

    2011-07-01

    Our data demonstrate that multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) are internalized by macrophages, subsequently activating them to produce interleukin (IL)-12 (IL-12). This cytokine induced the proliferative response of T lymphocytes to a nonspecific mitogen and to ovalbumin (OVA). This increase in the proliferative response was accompanied by an increase in the expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines, such as interferon-gamma (IFNγ), tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNFα) and IL-6, in mice inoculated with MWCNTs, whether or not they had been immunized with OVA. A decrease in the expression of transforming growth factor-beta (TGFβ) was observed in the mice treated with MWCNTs, whereas the suppression of the expression of both TGFβ and IL-10 was observed in mice that had been both treated and immunized. The activation of the T lymphocyte response by the pro-inflammatory cytokines leads to an increase in antibody production to OVA, suggesting the important immunostimulatory effect of carbon nanotubes.

  11. Perforin-deficient CD8+ T cells mediate fatal lymphocytic choriomeningitis despite impaired cytokine production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Storm, Pernille; Bartholdy, Christina; Sørensen, Maria Rathmann

    2006-01-01

    invariably succumb to i.c. infection with LCMV strain Armstrong, although a few days later than matched wild-type mice. Upon further investigation, we found that this delay correlates with the delayed recruitment of inflammatory cells to the central nervous system (CNS). However, CD8(+) effector T cells were......Intracerebral (i.c.) infection with lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus (LCMV) is one of the most studied models for virus-induced immunopathology, and based on results from perforin-deficient mice, it is currently assumed that fatal disease directly reflects perforin-mediated cell lysis. However......, recent studies have revealed additional functional defects within the effector T cells of LCMV-infected perforin-deficient mice, raising the possibility that perforin may not be directly involved in mediating lethal disease. For this reason, we decided to reevaluate the role of perforin in determining...

  12. Cytokine production and lymphocyte proliferation in patients with Nocardia brasiliensis actinomycetoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Méndez-Tovar, Luis J; Mondragón-González, Rafael; Vega-López, Francisco; Dockrell, Hazel M; Hay, Roderick; López-Martínez, Rubén; Manzano-Gayosso, Patricia; Hernández-Hernández, Francisca; Padilla-Desgarennes, Carmen; Bonifaz, Alexandro

    2004-11-01

    IFN-gamma, TNF-alpha, IL-4, IL-10 and IL-12 concentrations in the supernatant of peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMC) cultures and the in vitro proliferation of PBMC were studied in 25 patients with actinomycetoma caused by Nocardia brasiliensis and in 10 healthy controls from endemic zones. Cell cultures were stimulated by a N. brasiliensis crude cytoplasmic antigen (NB) and five semi-purified protein fractions (NB2, NB4, NB6, NB8, and NB10) separated by isoelectric. Phytohemagglutinin (PHA) and purified protein derivative (PPD) of Mycobacterium tuberculosis were used as control antigens. Skin tests were performed by injecting 0.1 ml of candidin and PPD intradermally (ID). Patients showed a poor response to tuberculin, while their response to candidin was more than two fold greater than that observed in the controls. Cell proliferation showed no statistically significant differences in either group. IFN-gamma production was higher in the healthy controls than in the patients, whereas TNF-alpha secretion was slightly higher in the patients' cultures. IL-4 was detected in the patients' cultures but not in the controls. IL-10 and IL-12 were present at low concentrations in both groups. These results suggest that patients with actinomycetoma show normal antigen recognition, but with low IFN-gamma production, and higher concentrations of IL-4, IL-10 and TNF-alpha in the patients' PBMC cultures, indicating that they probably have a Th2 type of immune response.

  13. Up-regulation of T lymphocyte and antibody production by inflammatory cytokines released by macrophage exposure to multi-walled carbon nanotubes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grecco, Ana Carolina P; Mizutani, Erica; Peterlevitz, Alfredo C; Ceragioli, Helder J; Baranauskas, Vitor [Faculdade de Engenharia Eletrica e Computacao, Universidade de Campinas, Campinas, SP (Brazil); Paula, Rosemeire F O; Sartorelli, Juliana C; Milani, Ana M; Longhini, Ana Leda F; Oliveira, Elaine C; Pradella, Fernando; Silva, Vania D R; Moraes, Adriel S; Farias, Alessandro S; Santos, Leonilda M B, E-mail: leonilda@unicamp.br [Laboratorio de Neuroimunologia, Departamento Genetica, Evolucao e Bioagentes, Instituto de Biologia, Universidade de Campinas, Campinas, SP (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    Our data demonstrate that multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) are internalized by macrophages, subsequently activating them to produce interleukin (IL)-12 (IL-12). This cytokine induced the proliferative response of T lymphocytes to a nonspecific mitogen and to ovalbumin (OVA). This increase in the proliferative response was accompanied by an increase in the expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines, such as interferon-gamma (IFN{gamma}), tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF{alpha}) and IL-6, in mice inoculated with MWCNTs, whether or not they had been immunized with OVA. A decrease in the expression of transforming growth factor-beta (TGF{beta}) was observed in the mice treated with MWCNTs, whereas the suppression of the expression of both TGF{beta} and IL-10 was observed in mice that had been both treated and immunized. The activation of the T lymphocyte response by the pro-inflammatory cytokines leads to an increase in antibody production to OVA, suggesting the important immunostimulatory effect of carbon nanotubes.

  14. Herbal formula Xian-Fang-Huo-Ming-Yin regulates differentiation of lymphocytes and production of pro-inflammatory cytokines in collagen-induced arthritis mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jinyu; Wei, Yi; Li, Xue; Zhu, Dashuai; Nie, Bo; Zhou, Jingwei; Lou, Lixia; Dong, Bin; Wu, Aiming; Che, Yongzhe; Chen, Meng; Zhu, Lingqun; Mu, Mingwei; Chai, Limin

    2017-01-05

    Xian-Fang-Huo-Ming-Yin (XFHM), a traditional herbal formula, has been used to treat sores and carbuncles for hundreds of years in Asia. Nowadays, its clinical effects in treatment of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) have been validated. In this study, we want to study its possible molecular mechanisms of regulating the differentiation of lymphocytes and production of pro-inflammatory cytokines in collagen-induced arthritis (CIA) mice for RA treatment. A high performance liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization/mass spectrometer (HPLC-ESI/MS(n)) system was used to analyze the constituents of XFHM granules. An arthritics mouse model was induced by collagen and leflunomide (LEF) was used as a positive control medicine. Pathological changes at the metatarsophalangeal joint were studied through Safranin O and immunohistochemical staining. The differentiation of T, B and NK cells was examined by flow cytometry and pro-inflammatory cytokines were assayed using an Inflammation Antibody Array assay. The expression of key molecules of the nuclear factor κB (NF-κB) and Janus kinase/signal transducers and activators of transcription (JAK/STAT) signaling pathways in spleen were studied by western-blot analysis. In our study. 21 different dominant chemical constituents were identified in XFHM. Treatment with XFHM suppressed the pathological changes in arthrosis of CIA. Additionally, XFHM down-regulated the proliferation and differentiation of CD3(+) T cells and CD3(-)CD19(+) B cells significantly. However, XFHM had no significant effect on CD3(-)NK1.1(+) NK cells. Further study showed that the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines had been suppressed by inhibiting the activation of NF-κB and JAK/STAT signaling. XFHM can regulate and maintain the immunologic balance of lymphocytic immunity and inhibit the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines, thus suppressing the pathological changes of RA. Therefore, XFHM may be used as an application of traditional medicine against RA

  15. Myostatin expression, lymphocyte population, and potential cytokine production correlate with predisposition to high-fat diet induced obesity in mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeri-Anne Lyons

    Full Text Available A strong relationship exists between increased inflammatory cytokines and muscle insulin resistance in obesity. This study focused on identifying a relationship between metabolic propensity and myostatin expression in muscle and spleen cells in response to high-fat diet intake. Using a comparative approach, we analyzed the effects of high-fat diet intake on myostatin and follistatin expression, spleen cell composition, and potential cytokine expression in high-fat diet induced obesity (HFDIO resistant (SWR/J and susceptible (C57BL/6 mice models. Results demonstrated overall increased myostatin expression in muscle following high-fat diet intake in HFDIO-susceptible mice, while myostatin expression levels decreased initially in muscle from high-fat diet fed resistant mice. In HFDIO-resistant mice, myostatin expression decreased in spleen, while myostatin increased in spleen tissue from HFDIO-susceptible mice. Proinflammatory cytokine (IL-17, IL-1β, and IFNγ potential increased in splenocytes from HFDIO-susceptible mice. In comparison, C57BL/6 mice fed a high-fat diet exhibited higher frequencies of CD4(+/CD44(hi and CD8(+/CD44(hi cells in the spleen compared to control fed mice. Together, these results suggest that susceptibility to high-fat diet induced obesity could be influenced by local myostatin activity in a tissue-specific manner and that splenocytes exhibit differential cytokine production in a strain-dependent manner. This study sets the stage for future investigations into the interactions between growth, inflammation, and metabolism.

  16. Chronic pain: cytokines, lymphocytes and chemokines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Miguel, Marcia; Kraychete, Durval Campos; Meyer Nascimento, Roberto Jose

    2014-01-01

    Chronic pain is a debilitating condition and, in most cases, difficult to treat. A prominent example of this is neuropathic pain. Understanding pathophysiological mechanisms of pain and, therefore, making this knowledge into an effective treatment is still a challenge to experts. Pain can now be considered as a neuro-immune disorder, since recent data indicate critical involvement of innate and adaptive immune responses following injury, and this interaction plays an important role in the onset and perpetuation of chronic pain. The aim of this article is to review the relationship between immune system and chronic pain, especially about neuropathic pain, and focusing on cytokines, chemokines and lymphocytes.

  17. Effect of cyclosporine, dexamethasone, and human CTLA4-Ig on production of cytokines in lymphocytes of clinically normal cats and cats undergoing renal transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aronson, Lillian R; Stumhofer, Jason S; Drobatz, Kenneth J; Hunter, Christopher A

    2011-04-01

    To evaluate effects of cyclosporine, dexamethasone, and the immunosuppressive agent human CTLA4-Ig on cytokine production by feline lymphocytes in vitro and to assess patterns of cytokine production for 5 immunosuppressed renal transplant recipient cats. 21 clinically normal cats and 5 immunosupressed renal transplant recipient cats. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells were isolated from clinically normal cats and stimulated with concanavalin A (Con A; 10 μg/mL) alone or Con A with cyclosporine (0.05 μg/mL), dexamethasone (1 × 10(-7)M), a combination of cyclosporine-dexamethasone, or human CTLA4-Ig (10 g/mL). Cells from transplant recipients were stimulated with Con A alone. An ELISA was performed to measure production of interferon (IFN)-γ, granulocyte macrophage-colony stimulating factor (GM-CSF), interleukin (IL)-2, IL-4, and IL-10. Proliferation of CD4+ and CD8+T cells from immunosuppressed cats were also evaluated. Pairwise comparisons were performed via a Wilcoxon signed rank test or Wilcoxon rank sum test. Cyclosporine, dexamethasone, cyclosporine-dexamethasone combination, and CTLA4-Ig caused a significant decrease in IL-2, IFN-γ, and GM-CSF production. Cyclosporine and cyclosporine-dexamethasone, but not human CTLA4-Ig, caused a significant decrease in IL-10 production. High basal concentrations of IL-2 and IL-10 were identified in transplant recipients, and IL-10 was significantly increased in stimulated cultures. In immunosuppressed cats, there was a decrease in frequency of responders and proliferative capacity of CD4+ and CD8+T cells. CTLA4-Ig successfully inhibited proinflammatory cytokines while sparing cytokines critical for allograft tolerance. These data may be useful for developing better strategies to prevent rejection while sparing other immune functions.

  18. Effects of polyphenols including curcuminoids, resveratrol, quercetin, pterostilbene, and hydroxypterostilbene on lymphocyte pro-inflammatory cytokine production of senior horses in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siard, Melissa H; McMurry, Kellie E; Adams, Amanda A

    2016-05-01

    quercetin and resveratrol. Flunixin meglumine and phenylbutazone were then evaluated within this range of optimal concentrations for the polyphenol compounds (160, 80, 40, 20 μM) to compare the polyphenols to NSAIDs at equivalent concentrations. The highest concentration at which viability did not significantly differ from the positive control was: 40 μM for flunixin meglumine and 160 μM for phenylbutazone. All five polyphenols and flunixin meglumine significantly decreased lymphocyte production of IFN-γ, while only hydroxypterostilbene, pterostilbene, quercetin, and resveratrol significantly reduced lymphocyte production of TNF-α compared to the positive control (p Polyphenols performed similarly to or more effectively than common NSAIDs in reducing lymphocyte production of inflammatory cytokines of the senior horse in vitro. This study therefore supports the further investigation of polyphenols to determine whether they may be effective anti-inflammatory treatments for chronic inflammation in the horse.

  19. Cytokine profile and lymphocyte subsets in type 2 diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C.O. Francisco

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2D is a metabolic disease with inflammation as an important pathogenic background. However, the pattern of immune cell subsets and the cytokine profile associated with development of T2D are unclear. The objective of this study was to evaluate different components of the immune system in T2D patients' peripheral blood by quantifying the frequency of lymphocyte subsets and intracellular pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokine production by T cells. Clinical data and blood samples were collected from 22 men (51.6±6.3 years old with T2D and 20 nonsmoking men (49.4±7.6 years old who were matched for age and sex as control subjects. Glycated hemoglobin, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein concentrations, and the lipid profile were measured by a commercially available automated system. Frequencies of lymphocyte subsets in peripheral blood and intracellular production of interleukin (IL-4, IL-10, IL-17, tumor necrosis factor-α, and interferon-γ cytokines by CD3+ T cells were assessed by flow cytometry. No differences were observed in the frequency of CD19+ B cells, CD3+CD8+ and CD3+CD4+ T cells, CD16+56+ NK cells, and CD4+CD25+Foxp3+ T regulatory cells in patients with T2D compared with controls. The numbers of IL-10- and IL-17-producing CD3+ T cells were significantly higher in patients with T2D than in controls (P<0.05. The frequency of interferon-γ-producing CD3+ T cells was positively correlated with body mass index (r=0.59; P=0.01. In conclusion, this study shows increased numbers of circulating IL-10- and IL-17-producing CD3+ T cells in patients with T2D, suggesting that these cytokines are involved in the immune pathology of this disease.

  20. Proliferative responses of blood mononuclear cells (BMNC) in a cohort of elderly humans: role of lymphocyte phenotype and cytokine production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bruunsgaard, H.; Pedersen, Agnes Nadelmann; Schroll, M.

    2000-01-01

    Age-related impaired T cell function is associated with increased mortality risk. The purpose of the present study was therefore to identify factors associated with the age-related decreased phytohaemagglutinin (PHA)-induced proliferative response of lymphocytes in a cohort of 174 81-year......-old humans and in 91 young controls. Decreased proliferation was associated with a reduced number of true naive CD4(+) cells (CD62L(+)CD45RO(-)). Furthermore, a low IL-2-stimulated proliferation was correlated with a decreased PHA response in the elderly cohort, whereas reciprocal interactions of IL-10......- and IL-2-producing cells were of importance in both elderly and young subjects. Accordingly, a minimum of true naive CD4(+) cells was required for a normal proliferative response to PHA, perhaps by providing sufficient IL-2 which is critical for growth of naive as well as memory cells....

  1. Toll-Like Receptor 7 Agonist Therapy with Imidazoquinoline Enhances Cancer Cell Death and Increases Lymphocytic Infiltration and Proinflammatory Cytokine Production in Established Tumors of a Renal Cell Carcinoma Mouse Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric C. Kauffman

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Imidazoquinolines are synthetic toll-like receptor 7 and 8 agonists and potent dendritic cell activators with established anticancer activity. Here we test the hypothesis that imidazoquinoline has in vivo efficacy within established renal cell carcinoma (RCC tumors. Immunocompetent mice bearing syngeneic RCC xenografts were treated with imidazoquinoline or placebo at two separate time points. Harvested tumors were assayed by TUNEL/caspase-3/Ki67 immunostains to evaluate cell death/apoptosis/proliferation, and CD3/B220/CD45 immunostains to evaluate T-cell lymphocyte/B-cell lymphocyte/pan-leukocyte tumor infiltration. ELISA measurement of tumor and serum levels of proinflammatory cytokines, IL-6 and MCP-1, was performed. A single imidazoquinoline dose significantly decreased RCC tumor growth by 50% and repeat dosing compounded the effect, without observed weight loss or other toxicity. Tumor immunostaining revealed significant increases in cell death and apoptosis without changes in cell proliferation, supporting induction of apoptosis as the primary mechanism of tumor growth suppression. Imidazoquinoline treatment also significantly enhanced peritumoral aggregation and intratumoral infiltration by T-cell lymphocytes, while increasing intratumoral (but not serum levels of proinflammatory cytokines. In conclusion, imidazoquinoline treatment enhances T-cell lymphocyte infiltration and proinflammatory cytokine production within established mouse RCC tumors, while suppressing tumor growth via induction of cancer cell apoptosis. These findings support a therapeutic role for imidazoquinoline in RCC.

  2. Effect of interleukin-33 on Th1/Th2 cytokine ratio in peripheral lymphocytes in asthmatic mice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    He Xinliang; Wu Wei; Lu Yan; Guo Yali; Hu Chaoliang; Huang Yuyun; Xu Yuzu

    2014-01-01

    Background Allergic asthma is a chronic airway inflammatory disease partly characterised by high concentration of T help 2 (Th2) cytokines in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF).There is no report on the relation of peripherally circulating blood lymphocytes and asthma.We explored the balance of Th2/Th1 cytokines in asthmatic mice.Exogenous recombinant interleukin (IL) 33 acted on mudne peripheral circulating blood lymphocytes,IL-5 cytokine was selected for assessing Th2 cytokines and interferon-gamma (IFN-y) for Th1 cytokines.Methods Female specific pathogen free BABL/c mice were sensitised by intraperitoneal injection of 20 μg of ovalbumin emulsified in 1 mg of aluminium hydroxide gel in a total volume of 200 μl,and challenged for 30 minutes in 7 consecutive days with an aerosol of 2 g ovalbumin in 100 ml of PBS.Then we collected BALF and isolated lymphocytes from the peripheral blood.The lymphocytes were divided into two groups:asthmatic group and normal group.Th1/Th2 cytokines was detected by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) kits.Results In the asthma group,we found numerous eosinophils and lymphocytes on the glass slides.We then confirmed that the optimal concentration of IL-33 was 10 ng/ml and time of IL-33 stimulating lymphocytes was 24 hours.In the asthma group,the production of IL-5 was significantly increased over normal group after stimulation with IL-33 (P <0.05)and the production of IFNy was supressed from IL-33 stimulated lymphocytes (P <0.05).Conclusion IL-33 acts on lymphocytes of peripheral blood increasing secretion of Th2 cytokines and inhibiting secretion of Th1 cytokines.

  3. Intracellular cytokine production by Th1/Th2 lymphocytes and monocytes of children with symptomatic transient hypogammaglobulinaemia of infancy (THI) and selective IgA deficiency (SIgAD)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kowalczyk, D; Baran, J; Webster, A D B; Zembala, M

    2002-01-01

    Intracellular expression of several cytokines was assessed in lymphocytes and monocytes of children with transient hypogammaglobulinaemia of infancy (THI) and selective IgA deficiency (SIgAD). THI was characterized by an increased frequency of CD3+/CD4+ lymphocytes expressing tumour necrosis factor α (TNF-α), TNF-β and interleukin 10 (IL-10), while in SIgAD elevated numbers of these cells containing TNF-α and interferon γ (IFN-γ) were observed. No changes in the number of CD4+ T cells expressing IL-4 in both diseases were noted. The proportion of CD33+ monocytes containing TNF-α both in THI and SIgAD was unchanged. The secretion of IL-12 by peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) of patients with THI and SIgAD was significantly elevated and associated with an increased frequency of IL-12 expressing monocytes in THI but not in SIgAD. IL-18 secretion was slightly, but not significantly, elevated in both diseases. Intracellular Th1 and Th2 type cytokines within CD3+/CD4+ lymphocytes were also determined in the normal blood donors that showed high or low production of IgG and IgA in vitro. In low producers of IgG an increased proportion of CD3+/CD4+ cells expressing TNF-α and IFN-γ was found, while in low IgA responders only elevated TNF-α positive CD3+/CD4+ cells were observed. These results suggest that THI and SIgAD may represent diseases with an excessive Th1 type response that is associated with an up-regulation of IL-12 secretion and, at least in THI, elevated numbers of monocytes expressing intracellular IL-12. Up-regulation of IL-12 may be the essential factor in the patomechanism(s) of these diseases as already described in common variable immunodeficiency (CVID). PMID:11966768

  4. CYTOKINE RECEPTORS OF BLOOD LYMPHOCYTES IN CHILDREN WITH BRONCHIAL ASTHMA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I.A. Gromov

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Blood lymphocyte membrane receptors to IFNγ, IL 2, IL 4, IL 5, IL 8 and IL 10 have been investigated to assess cytokine sensitivity variations in children with asthma. Thirty children aged 5–17 with remission of atopic bronchial asthma ranging from mild to moderate persistent formed the study group. Ten children without any atopic disorders formed the group of controls. The flow cytometry with direct reaction of monoclonal antibodies to the mentioned above cytokine receptors has been used. An increased expression of IL 2 (due to high affinity CD122 subunit and IL 5 receptors has been registered in children with asthma, and so a numbers of cells bearing IL 4 and IL 8 receptors that has trended to be higher. At the same time, there has been a decrease of IFNγ receptor expression an a trend to lower expression of IL 10 receptor in these children.Key words: bronchial asthma, children, interferon-γ, interleukins.

  5. Immunosuppressive effect of isopropanol: down-regulation of cytokine production results from the alteration of discrete transcriptional pathways in activated lymphocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Désy, Olivier; Carignan, Damien; Caruso, Manuel; de Campos-Lima, Pedro O

    2008-08-15

    Isopropanol (IPA) is widely used in household applications and constitutes a leading cause of acute alcohol intoxication second only to ethanol. Although the effects of ethanol on the immune system have been extensively studied, far fewer data are available on IPA. Given the structural similarity between the two molecules, we hypothesized that IPA could as well have immunomodulatory properties. We report here that acute IPA exposure is detrimental to human T lymphocyte and NK cell activity in vitro in concentrations as low as 0.08-0.16% (13-26 mM). IPA treatment did not affect receptor-mediated early signaling but had a reproducible and dose-dependent effect on the nuclear translocation of NFAT and AP-1. Furthermore, we show in a model of acute IPA intoxication that animals became immunosuppressed as judged by their reduced ability to release IL-2 and IFN-gamma in the serum in response to staphylococcal enterotoxin B. This effect was also associated to the down-regulation of TNF-alpha production and was sufficiently strong to rescue susceptible animals from enterotoxin-induced toxic shock. Our results suggest that IPA is potentially immunosuppressive to the adaptive and innate immune system and have broad significance given the exposure of the general population to this ubiquitous chemical.

  6. Variable transcription of pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines in phocine lymphocytes following canine distemper virus infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seibel, H; Siebert, U; Rosenberger, T; Baumgärtner, W

    2014-10-15

    Canine distemper virus (CDV) is a highly contagious viral pathogen. Domesticated dogs are the main reservoir of CDV. Although phocine distemper virus was responsible for the recent epidemics in seals in the North and Baltic Seas, most devastating epidemics in seals were also caused by CDV. To further study the pathogenesis of CDV infection in seals, it was the aim of the present study to investigate the mechanisms of CDV induced immunosuppression in seals by analyzing the gene transcription of different pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines in Concanavalin A (Con A) stimulated and non-stimulated phocine lymphocytes in vitro following infection with the CDV Onderstepoort (CDV-OND) strain. Phocine lymphocytes were isolated via density gradient centrifugation. The addition of 1 μg/ml Con A and virus was either performed simultaneously or lymphocytes were stimulated for 48 h with Con A prior to virus infection. Gene transcription of interleukin (IL)-6, IL-12 and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFα) as pro-inflammatory cytokines and IL-4, IL-10 and transforming growth factor beta (TGFβ) as anti-inflammatory cytokines were determined by using RT-qPCR. CDV-OND infection caused an initial increase of pro-inflammatory phocine cytokines mRNA 24h after infection, followed by a decrease in gene transcription after 48 h. A strong increase in the transcription of IL-4 and TGFβ was detected after 48 h when virus and mitogen were added simultaneously. An increased IL-10 production occurred only when stimulation and infection were performed simultaneously. Furthermore, an inhibition of IL-12 on IL-4 was noticed in phocine lymphocytes which were stimulated for 48 h prior to infection. In summary, the duration of the stimulation or the lymphocytes seem to have an important influence on the cytokine transcription and indicates that the outcome of CDV infection is dependent on various factors that might sensitize lymphocytes or make them more susceptible or reactive to CDV infection.

  7. Suppressed cytokine and immunoglobulin secretions by murine splenic lymphocytes infected in vitro with Toxoplasma gondii tachyzoites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guk, S M; Kook, J; Jeon, Y H; Choi, J H; Han, E T; Shin, E H; Chai, J Y

    2005-04-01

    Mechanisms of host immunosuppression after infection with Toxoplasma gondii are unclear. This study was performed to observe cytokine and immunoglobulin secretions by murine splenic lymphocytes infected in vitro with live, nonreplicating (irradiated) RH tachyzoites on stimulation with concanavalin A (Con A) or lipopolysaccharide (LPS). For lymphocyte cultivation, 3 groups were prepared: coculture with live nonirradiated tachyzoites separated by a transwell (group T), live irradiated tachyzoites without a transwell (group R), and no tachyzoites (group C). Compared with group T, groups R and C, on stimulation with Con A, revealed significantly (P lymphocytes with T. gondii tachyzoites could impair their capacity to produce cytokine and immunoglobulin secretions.

  8. Th1/Th2 cytokine production and reception features in Graves' disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T V Saprina

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Cytokines and their receptors belong to a significant role in the initiation and the subsequent course and outcome of autoimmune thyroid disease. Interleukin-2 (IL-2, interleukin-4 (IL-4 and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α-cytokines, which have a multifaceted impact on the various stages of the immune response: the development of inflammatory response, cell proliferation, antibody and acute phase proteins synthesis. Pre-existing pattern of development of autoimmune thyroiditis (Hashimoto's thyroiditis and Graves' disease (GD as a state with two opposite positions of the predominant profile of Th1/Th2-lymphocyte activation. The study evaluated the cytokine production by Th1- and Th2-lymphocytes in patients with GD, assessment of lymphocyte receptor system and identified lymphocytes subpopulation in patients with BG, and the impact on the functional state of thyroid gland. It was shown that the immunoregulatory cytokines as Th1(IL2- and Th2(IL-4-helper lymphocytes are involved in the immune mechanism of BG. The level of IL-2, IL4, and TNF-α, and the number complementary lymphocyte receptors were not significantly changed in euthyroid or hyperthyroid GD patient. Nevertheless, there are strong correla! tions between production of immunoregulatory cytokines (IL-2, IL-4 with the functional state of the thyroid gland and increase of its volume in GD patient, what confirms the “functional synergies” of these cytokines in autoimmune inflammation in the GD.

  9. Proinflammatory cytokines and their membrane-bound receptors are altered in the lymphocytes of schizophrenia patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandey, Ghanshyam N; Ren, Xinguo; Rizavi, Hooriyah S; Zhang, Hui

    2015-05-01

    Abnormalities of protein levels of proinflammatory cytokines and their soluble receptors have been reported in the plasma/serum of schizophrenia (SZ) patients. To examine if SZ is also associated with the abnormal gene expression of cytokines and their membrane-bound receptors, we studied mRNA expression of proinflammatory cytokines and their receptors in lymphocytes of SZ patients and normal control (NC) subjects. We determined the protein and mRNA expression of proinflammatory cytokines and mRNA expression of their receptors in lymphocytes from 30 SZ patients and 30 drug-free NC subjects. The subjects were diagnosed according to DSM-IV criteria. Protein levels of cytokines were determined by ELISA, and mRNA levels in lymphocytes were determined by the qPCR method. We found that the mRNA levels of IL-6, TNF-α, IL-1R1, TNFR1, and TNFR2, but not IL-1β, IL-1R2, IL-1RA, IL-6R, or GP130 were significantly increased in lymphocytes of SZ patients compared with NC subjects. We also found that the protein expression of IL-6 and TNF-α, but not IL-1β, was also significantly increased in SZ patients compared with NC subjects. These studies suggest that in addition to the reported abnormalities of proinflammatory cytokines and their soluble receptors in the plasma of SZ patients, an abnormal gene expression of these cytokines and their membrane-bound receptors may be involved in the pathogenesis of SZ.

  10. LYMPHOCYTE SUBSETS AND CYTOKINES IN BLOOD AND CEREBROSPINAL FLUID IN CHILDREN WITH VIRAL AND BACTERIAL MENINGITIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. A. Alekseeva

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction of flow cytometry caused an increase in the investigation of liquor lymphocyte pool phenotype in the case of different brain disorders, including viral and bacterial meningitis, however this type of research in children has been relatively rare. Phenotype and lymphocyte functions are under cytokine control system, therefore detection of interconnections between lymphocyte pool subpopulation composition and cytokine level in blood and liquor of the patients concerns a great interest. The purpose of this research was to study lymphocyte subpopulation composition and the level of cytokines IL-1β, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, IFNα, IFNγ and IL-4, and also IgG in liquor and blood of children with viral and bacterial meningitis. There was performed blood and liquor investigation in 46 children aged from 1 to 16 years old with viral (n = 35 and bacterial (n = 11 meningitis. Immunophenotyping of blood and liquor cells was performed by the method of flow cytometry with the use of monoclonal antibodies to CD3, CD4, CD8, CD19, CD16, CD56, CD25 and CD95. The content of cytokines was detected in ELISA, and that of IgG — by the method of quantitative immunoturbodimetry. During an acute period of viral meningitis there was detected a decrease in NK portion and activated CD25+ cells in the blood of patients accompanied by the increase in B-lymphocytes number, along with cytokine IFNγ, IL-8 and IL-10 serum level rise. There was determined T-lymphocytes accumulation in liquor with the prevalence of CD4+ Т-cells and, to a lesser degree, CD25+ and CD95+ cells, NK and B-lymphocytes. Intrathecally there was noted the predominance of IL-6 response accompanied by the growth of IL-8 and IL-10 concentration as well. During an acute period of bacterial meningitis there was noted a decrease in percentage of CD3+, CD4+, CD8+ Т-lymphocytes, NK, CD25+ and CD95+ cells, along with, on the contrary, sharp increase in B-cells pool, simultaneously with

  11. Addition of exogenous cytokines in mixed lymphocyte culture for selecting related donors for bone marrow transplantation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeane Eliete Laguila Visentainer

    Full Text Available CONTEXT: Mixed lymphocyte culturing has led to conflicting opinions regarding the selection of donors for bone marrow transplantation. The association between a positive mixed lymphocyte culture and the development of graft-versus-host disease (GVHD is unclear. The use of exogenous cytokines in mixed lymphocyte cultures could be an alternative for increasing the sensitivity of culture tests. OBJECTIVE: To increase the sensitivity of mixed lymphocyte cultures between donor and recipient human leukocyte antigen (HLA identical siblings, using exogenous cytokines, in order to predict post-transplantation GVHD and/or rejection. TYPE OF STUDY: Prospective study. SETTING: Bone Marrow Transplantation Unit, Universidade Estadual de Campinas. PARTICIPANTS: Seventeen patients with hematological malignancies and their respective donors selected for bone marrow transplantation procedures. PROCEDURES: Standard and modified mixed lymphocyte culturing by cytokine supplementation was carried out using donor and recipient cells typed for HLA. MAIN MEASUREMENTS: Autologous and allogenic responses in mixed lymphocyte cultures after the addition of IL-4 or IL-2. RESULTS: In comparison with the standard method, average responses in the modified mixed lymphocyte cultures increased by a factor of 2.0 using IL-4 (p < 0.001 and 6.4 using IL-2 (p < 0.001, for autologous donor culture responses. For donor-versus-recipient culture responses, the increase was by a factor of 1.9 using IL-4 (p < 0.001 and 4.1 using IL-2 (p < 0.001. For donor-versus-unrelated culture responses, no significant increase was observed using IL-4, and a mean response inhibition of 20% was observed using IL-2 (p < 0.001. Neither of the cytokines produced a significant difference in the unrelated control versus recipient cell responses. CONCLUSION: IL-4 supplementation was the best for increasing the mixed lymphocyte culture sensitivity. However, IL-4 also increased autologous responses, albeit less

  12. B cells responses and cytokine production are regulated by their immune microenvironment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vazquez, Monica I; Catalan-Dibene, Jovani; Zlotnik, Albert

    2015-08-01

    The adaptive immune system consists of two types of lymphocytes: T and B cells. These two lymphocytes originate from a common precursor, yet are fundamentally different with B cells mediating humoral immunity while T cells mediate cell mediated immunity. In cytokine production, naïve T cells produce multiple cytokines upon activation while naïve activated B cells do not. B cells are capable of producing cytokines, but their cytokine production depends on their differentiation state and activation conditions. Hence, unlike T cells that can produce a large amount of cytokines upon activation, B cells require specific differentiation and activation conditions to produce cytokines. Many cytokines act on B cells as well. Here, we discuss several cytokines and their effects on B cells including: Interleukins, IL-7, IL-4, IL-6, IL-10, and Interferons, IFN-α, IFN-β, IFN-γ. These cytokines play important roles in the development, survival, differentiation and/or proliferation of B cells. Certain chemokines also play important roles in B cell function, namely antibody production. As an example, we discuss CCL28, a chemokine that directs the migration of plasma cells to mucosal sites. We conclude with a brief overview of B cells as cytokine producers and their likely functional consequences on the immune response.

  13. The impact of maternal HIV infection on cord blood lymphocyte subsets and cytokine profile in exposed non-infected newborns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reis-Alves Suiellen C

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Children born to HIV+ mothers are exposed intra-utero to several drugs and cytokines that can modify the developing immune system, and influence the newborn's immune response to infections and vaccines. We analyzed the relation between the distribution of cord blood lymphocyte subsets and cytokine profile in term newborns of HIV+ mothers using HAART during pregnancy and compared them to normal newborns. Methods In a prospective, controlled study, 36 mother-child pairs from HIV+ mothers and 15 HIV-uninfected mothers were studied. Hematological features and cytokine profiles of mothers at 35 weeks of pregnancy were examined. Maternal and cord lymphocyte subsets as well as B-cell maturation in cord blood were analyzed by flow cytometry. The non-stimulated, as well as BCG- and PHA-stimulated production of IL2, IL4, IL7, IL10, IL12, IFN-γ and TNF-alpha in mononuclear cell cultures from mothers and infants were quantified using ELISA. Results After one year follow-up none of the exposed infants became seropositive for HIV. An increase in B lymphocytes, especially the CD19/CD5+ ones, was observed in cord blood of HIV-exposed newborns. Children of HIV+ hard drug using mothers had also an increase of immature B-cells. Cord blood mononuclear cells of HIV-exposed newborns produced less IL-4 and IL-7 and more IL-10 and IFN-γ in culture than those of uninfected mothers. Cytokine values in supernatants were similar in infants and their mothers except for IFN-γ and TNF-alpha that were higher in HIV+ mothers, especially in drug abusing ones. Cord blood CD19/CD5+ lymphocytes showed a positive correlation with cord IL-7 and IL-10. A higher maternal age and smoking was associated with a decrease of cord blood CD4+ cells. Conclusions in uninfected infants born to HIV+ women, several immunological abnormalities were found, related to the residual maternal immune changes induced by the HIV infection and those associated with antiretroviral

  14. IMMUNE AND CYTOKINE STATUS IN PATIENTS WITH CHRONIC LYMPHOCYTIC LEUKEMIA RECEIVING ALEMTUZUMAB

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. N Khorobrykh

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available In present work, we studied cytokine levels and performed analysis of some immunologic parameters in the patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL before and after treatment with monoclonal anti-CD52 antibody (alemtuzumab. In comparison with a control group, the CLL patients before alemtuzumab treatment showed a significant decrease in relative contents of CD3+ and CD4+ lymphocytes, CD4+/CD8+ T cells, diminished IFNγ and IL-4 levels, and a trend for TNFα increase. After ceasing the alemtuzumab treatment, the patients with CLL exhibited a significant decrease in absolute amounts of mature T-lymphocytes, CD4+, CD8+, CD20+ cells, as well as decreased relative contents of CD16+ lymphocytes. A sufficient post-treatment drop of serum IL-2 concentrations and a trend for serum TNFα and IFNγ decrease were also observed, as compared with pre-treatment values. The changes revealed may be connected with an additional immunosuppressive effect of alemtuzumab. The dynamics of cytokine levels and immunological parameters associated with alemtuzumab treatment is indicative for a weakening of cell-mediated immunity, thus resulting into a potential risk of infectious complications.

  15. The crude latex of Euphorbia tirucalli modulates the cytokine response of leukocytes, especially CD4+ T lymphocytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bethânia A. Avelar

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available The plants of the Euphorbiaceae family, especially those of the genus Euphorbia, are frequently used by Brazilian folk communities to treat a wide variety of infectious, tumoral and inflammatory illnesses. Among the species of this genus, Euphorbia tirucalli L. is widely used in some Brazilian regions, such as the Jequitinhonha River Valley. There is evidence that the latex produced by E. tirucalli has antiviral and antitumor activities, but little is known about the mechanisms involved in these effects. It is likely that the mechanism for such activities involves leukocyte activation and cytokine production. In this work, we aimed to evaluate the production of type 1 (TNF-α and IFN-γ and type 2 (IL-4 and IL-10 cytokines by circulating leukocyte subsets submitted to brief stimulation with the crude latex of E. tirucalli. Peripheral blood leukocytes of twenty healthy subjects were submitted to 4 h incubation with crude E. tirucalli latex diluted in dimethylsulfoxide. After the incubation period, the cells were stained with FITC-conjugated monoclonal antibodies specific to the cell surface receptors CD4, CD8 and CD14, and to PE-conjugated monoclonal antibodies specific to the cytokines TNF-α, IFN-γ, IL-4 and IL-10. The acquisition and analysis of data were performed by flow cytometry. The results showed a significant increase (p<0.05 in the percentage of CD4+ T lymphocytes positive for the type 1 cytokines TNF-α and IFN-γ. Neutrophils and CD8+ T lymphocytes showed a mixed profile of cytokine production, characterized by an increase in the percentage of cells expressing IFN-γ, TNF-α, and IL-10. The data indicate a predominant type 1 cytokine response. The findings presented suggest that the effect popularly attributed to E. tirucalli usage may be attributed to its effect on the production of TNF-α and IFN-γ. However, the relationship between the in vitro and in vivo effects of E. tirucalli needs to be investigated.

  16. Influence of DC-CIK in advanced colorectal cancer patients on T lymphocyte subsets and cytokines

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Rong Wang; Min Yi; Shi-Rong Yang; Li-Xia Chai; Mao Hua

    2016-01-01

    Objective:To explore the effects of dendritic cells (DC)-cytokine induced killer cells (CIK) treatment on T lymphocyte subsets and cytokines in patients with advanced colorectal cancer. Methods:A total of 84 cases patients with advanced colorectal cancer were divided into two groups according to random number table method, each 42 cases, both two groups were given FOLFOX scheme chemotherapy, on the basis, the observation group were given supplementary DC-CIK treatment, compared the T lymphocy te subgroup: CD3+, CD4+, CD8+, CD4+/CD8+, Th1 cytokines, interleukin-2 (IL-2) and interferon gamma-γ (FN-γ), Th2 cytokines:interleukin 6 (IL-6), interleukin 4 (IL-4) of the two groups before and after treatment. Results:Compared with before treatment, the CD3+, CD4+, CD8+, CD4+/CD8+, Th1 cytokines IL-2 and IFN-γin observation group were significantly higher than after treatment , the CD3+, CD4+, CD8+, CD4+/CD8+, Th1 cytokines IL-2 and IFN-γin control group were significantly lower than after treatment, and the differences were all statistically significant;The CD3+, CD4+, CD8+, CD4+/CD8+, Th1 cytokines IL-2 and IFN-γin observation group after treatment were significantly higher than those in control group after treatment with statistical difference;CD8+, Th2 cytokines IL-4, IL-6 in two groups had no statistical significance before and after treatment. Conclusion:Chemotherapy can cause the immune function restrained in patients with advanced colorectal cancer, and DC-CIK supplementary therapy can significantly improve the immune function, enhance the anti tumor immune responses.

  17. In vitro effects of fluticasone propionate on IL-13 production by mitogen-stimulated lymphocytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriele Di Lorenzo

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Corticosteroid administration produces multiple immunomodulatory effects, including down-regulation of cytokine production by CD4 T lymphocytes. Fluticasone propionate (FP (Glaxo Smith&Kline, Greenford, UK, a highly lipophilic topical corticosteroid, has been shown to be safe and effective in the treatment of asthma and of both seasonal and perennial rhinitis.

  18. Cytokine Pattern of T Lymphocytes in Acute Schistosomiasis mansoni Patients following Treated Praziquantel Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denise Silveira-Lemos

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Acute schistosomiasis is associated with a primary exposure and is more commonly seen in nonimmune individuals traveling through endemic regions. In this study, we have focused on the cytokine profile of T lymphocytes evaluated in circulating leukocytes of acute Schistosomiasis mansoni-infected patients (ACT group before and after praziquantel treatment (ACT-TR group. Our data demonstrated increased values of total leukocytes, eosinophils, and monocytes in both groups. Interestingly, we have observed that patients treated with praziquantel showed increased values of lymphocytes as compared with noninfected group (NI or ACT groups. Furthermore, a decrease of neutrophils in ACT-TR was observed when compared to ACT group. Analyses of short-term in vitro whole blood stimulation demonstrated that, regardless of the presence of soluble Schistosoma mansoni eggs antigen (SEA, increased synthesis of IFN-γ and IL-4 by T-cells was observed in the ACT group. Analyses of cytokine profile in CD8 T cells demonstrated higher percentage of IFN-γ and IL-4 cells in both ACT and ACT-TR groups apart from increased percentage of IL-10 cells only in the ACT group. This study is the first one to point out the relevance of CD8 T lymphocytes in the immune response induced during the acute phase of schistosomiasis.

  19. Cytokine Pattern of T Lymphocytes in Acute Schistosomiasis mansoni Patients following Treated Praziquantel Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silveira-Lemos, Denise; Fernandes Costa-Silva, Matheus; Cardoso de Oliveira Silveira, Amanda; Azevedo Batista, Mauricio; Alves Oliveira-Fraga, Lúcia; Soares Silveira, Alda Maria; Barbosa Alvarez, Maria Carolina; Martins-Filho, Olindo Assis; Gazzinelli, Giovanni; Corrêa-Oliveira, Rodrigo; Teixeira-Carvalho, Andréa

    2013-01-01

    Acute schistosomiasis is associated with a primary exposure and is more commonly seen in nonimmune individuals traveling through endemic regions. In this study, we have focused on the cytokine profile of T lymphocytes evaluated in circulating leukocytes of acute Schistosomiasis mansoni-infected patients (ACT group) before and after praziquantel treatment (ACT-TR group). Our data demonstrated increased values of total leukocytes, eosinophils, and monocytes in both groups. Interestingly, we have observed that patients treated with praziquantel showed increased values of lymphocytes as compared with noninfected group (NI) or ACT groups. Furthermore, a decrease of neutrophils in ACT-TR was observed when compared to ACT group. Analyses of short-term in vitro whole blood stimulation demonstrated that, regardless of the presence of soluble Schistosoma mansoni eggs antigen (SEA), increased synthesis of IFN-γ and IL-4 by T-cells was observed in the ACT group. Analyses of cytokine profile in CD8 T cells demonstrated higher percentage of IFN-γ and IL-4 cells in both ACT and ACT-TR groups apart from increased percentage of IL-10 cells only in the ACT group. This study is the first one to point out the relevance of CD8 T lymphocytes in the immune response induced during the acute phase of schistosomiasis. PMID:23401741

  20. Lymphocyte subsets, dendritic cells and cytokine profiles in mice with melanoma treated with Uncaria tomentosa

    OpenAIRE

    Lozada-Requena, Iván; Laboratorio de Inmunología. Departamento de Ciencias Celulares y Moleculares. Facultad de Ciencias y Filosofía. Universidad Peruana Cayetano Heredia. Lima, Perú. EMINDES SAC (empresa de investigación y desarrollo en cáncer). Lima, Perú.; Núñez, César; Laboratorio de Inmunología. Departamento de Ciencias Celulares y Moleculares. Facultad de Ciencias y Filosofía. Universidad Peruana Cayetano Heredia. Lima, Perú. EMINDES SAC (empresa de investigación y desarrollo en cáncer). Lima, Perú.; Alvárez, Yubell; Laboratorio de Inmunología. Departamento de Ciencias Celulares y Moleculares. Facultad de Ciencias y Filosofía. Universidad Peruana Cayetano Heredia. Lima, Perú.; Kahn, Laura; Laboratorio de Inmunología. Departamento de Ciencias Celulares y Moleculares. Facultad de Ciencias y Filosofía. Universidad Peruana Cayetano Heredia. Lima, Perú.; Aguilar, José; Laboratorio de Inmunología. Departamento de Ciencias Celulares y Moleculares. Facultad de Ciencias y Filosofía. Universidad Peruana Cayetano Heredia. Lima, Perú.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives. To evaluate the immunomodulatory effect on lymphocyte subsets, dendritic cells (DC), Th1 / Th2 / Th17 and inflammatory cytokines on systemic level and/or in the tumor microenvironment of mice with or without melanoma. Materials and methods: Peripheral blood and/or primary tumors samples were obtained of mice with B16 melanoma treated or not with a hydroalcoholic extract of Uncaria tomentosa (UT) with 5.03% of pentacyclic oxindole alkaloids (UT-POA) obtained from the bark of the pl...

  1. Cytokine and adhesion molecule expression evolves between the neutrophilic and lymphocytic phases of viral meningitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makis, Alexandros; Shipway, David; Hatzimichael, Eleftheria; Galanakis, Emmanouil; Pshezhetskiy, Dmitry; Chaliasos, Nikolaos; Stebbing, Justin; Siamopoulou, Antigone

    2010-09-01

    Viral meningitis is characterized by cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) lymphocyte pleocytosis, although neutrophils may predominate in the early phase. The T helper 1 (Th1)/Th2 cytokine balance and expression of adhesion molecules seem to be involved in the CSF chemotaxis. We aimed to determine expression of cytokines and adhesion molecules in enteroviral meningitis. We investigated the serum and CSF levels of adhesion molecules (E-selectin, L-selectin, vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 [VCAM-1], and intracellular adhesion molecule-1 [ICAM-1]) and cytokines (interleukin-12 [IL-12] and IL-4) in 105 children during an outbreak of enteroviral meningitis. Diagnosis was confirmed with positive polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and/or serology for echovirus or Coxsackie virus, and matched with control subjects for clinical features but with negative PCR and/or serology. Apart from VCAM-1, the CSF levels of all investigated inflammatory molecules were significantly increased. In serum, sL-selectin and ICAM-1 levels were significantly higher than control subjects. Serum and CSF L-selectin, serum VCAM-1, and CSF IL-12 were all observed to be expressed in significantly higher levels in the neutrophil-dominant subgroup (72% had duration of symptoms 24 h). Serum and CSF ICAM-1 was found at significantly higher levels in the latter group. Evolving expression of adhesion molecules and cytokines indicates a shift from Th1 to Th2 immune responses as infection progresses.

  2. [Lymphocyte subsets, dendritic cells and cytokine profiles in mice with melanoma treated with Uncaria tomentosa].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lozada-Requena, Iván; Núñez, César; Alvárez, Yubell; Kahn, Laura; Aguilar, José

    2015-10-01

    To evaluate the immunomodulatory effect on lymphocyte subsets, dendritic cells (DC), Th1 / Th2 / Th17 and inflammatory cytokines on systemic level and/or in the tumor microenvironment of mice with or without melanoma. Peripheral blood and/or primary tumors samples were obtained of mice with B16 melanoma treated or not with a hydroalcoholic extract of Uncaria tomentosa (UT) with 5.03% of pentacyclic oxindole alkaloids (UT-POA) obtained from the bark of the plant. All cell assays and cytokine measurements were performed by flow cytometry. UT-POA systemically increased CD4/CD8a relation while cell activation was inversely proportional; increased the proportion of DCm; induced a pro-inflammatory Th1 profile and reduced Th17 response. TNF-α and IL-17A positively and negatively correlated with CD4/CD8a relation. The increase of Th1 (TNF-α) may result in the increase of CD4 or M1 macrophage activation. Although UT-POA shows increased DCm, is not dose-dependent. Th17(IL-17A) decreased can support the function of CD8a lymphocytes. UT-POA shows better systemic immunomodulatory effects than intratumoral.

  3. Salidroside attenuates concanavalin A-induced hepatitis via modulating cytokines secretion and lymphocyte migration in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Baoji; Zou, Yun; Liu, Shanshan; Wang, Jun; Zhu, Jiali; Li, Jinbao; Bo, Lulong; Deng, Xiaoming

    2014-01-01

    Salidroside, isolated from the medicinal plant Rhodiola, was reported to serve as an "adaptogen." This study was designed to explore the protective effect of salidroside on concanavalin A- (Con A-) induced hepatitis in mice and investigate potential mechanisms. C57BL/6 mice were randomly divided into control group, Con A group, and salidroside group. Salidroside (50 mg/kg) was injected intravenously followed by Con A administration. The levels of ALT, AST, inflammatory cytokines and CXCL-10 were examined. The pathological damage of livers was assessed, the amounts of phosphorylated IκBα and p65 were measured, and the numbers of CD4(+) and CD8(+) T lymphocytes in the blood, spleen and infiltrated in the liver were calculated. Our results showed that salidroside pretreatment reduced the levels of ALT, AST dramatically and suppressed the secretion of proinflammatory cytokines through downregulating the activity of NF-κB partly. Salidroside altered the distribution of CD4(+) and CD8(+) T lymphocyte in the liver and spleen through regulating CXCL-10 and decreased the severity of liver injuries. In conclusion, these results confirm the efficacy of salidroside in the prevention of immune mediated hepatitis in mice.

  4. Salidroside Attenuates Concanavalin A-Induced Hepatitis via Modulating Cytokines Secretion and Lymphocyte Migration in Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baoji Hu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Salidroside, isolated from the medicinal plant Rhodiola, was reported to serve as an “adaptogen.” This study was designed to explore the protective effect of salidroside on concanavalin A- (Con A- induced hepatitis in mice and investigate potential mechanisms. C57BL/6 mice were randomly divided into control group, Con A group, and salidroside group. Salidroside (50 mg/kg was injected intravenously followed by Con A administration. The levels of ALT, AST, inflammatory cytokines and CXCL-10 were examined. The pathological damage of livers was assessed, the amounts of phosphorylated IκBα and p65 were measured, and the numbers of CD4+ and CD8+ T lymphocytes in the blood, spleen and infiltrated in the liver were calculated. Our results showed that salidroside pretreatment reduced the levels of ALT, AST dramatically and suppressed the secretion of proinflammatory cytokines through downregulating the activity of NF-κB partly. Salidroside altered the distribution of CD4+ and CD8+ T lymphocyte in the liver and spleen through regulating CXCL-10 and decreased the severity of liver injuries. In conclusion, these results confirm the efficacy of salidroside in the prevention of immune mediated hepatitis in mice.

  5. Chalcones from Chinese liquorice inhibit proliferation of T cells and production of cytokines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barfod, Lea; Kemp, Kåre; Hansen, Majbritt;

    2002-01-01

    of cytokines revealed that the chalcones inhibited the production rather than the release of the cytokines. Taken together, these results indicate that LicA and some analogues may have immunomodulatory effects, and may thus be candidates not only as anti-microbial agents, but also for the treatment of other......Licochalcone A (LicA), an oxygenated chalcone, has been shown to inhibit the growth of both parasites and bacteria. In this study, we investigated the effect of LicA and four synthetic analogues on the activity of human peripheral blood mononuclear cell proliferation and cytokine production. Four...... out of five chalcones tested inhibited the proliferation of lymphocytes measured by thymidine incorporation and by flow cytometry. The production of pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines from monocytes and T cells was also inhibited by four of five chalcones. Furthermore, intracellular detection...

  6. Cytokine crowdsourcing: multicellular production of TH17-associated cytokines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Busman-Sahay, Kathleen O; Walrath, Travis; Huber, Samuel; O'Connor, William

    2015-03-01

    In the 2 decades since its discovery, IL-17A has become appreciated for mounting robust, protective responses against bacterial and fungal pathogens. When improperly regulated, however, IL-17A can play a profoundly pathogenic role in perpetuating inflammation and has been linked to a wide variety of debilitating diseases. IL-17A is often present in a composite milieu that includes cytokines produced by TH17 cells (i.e., IL-17F, IL-21, IL-22, and IL-26) or associated with other T cell lineages (e.g., IFN-γ). These combinatorial effects add mechanistic complexity and more importantly, contribute differentially to disease outcome. Whereas TH17 cells are among the best-understood cell types that secrete IL-17A, they are frequently neither the earliest nor dominant producers. Indeed, non-TH17 cell sources of IL-17A can dramatically alter the course and severity of inflammatory episodes. The dissection of the temporal regulation of TH17-associated cytokines and the resulting net signaling outcomes will be critical toward understanding the increasingly intricate role of IL-17A and TH17-associated cytokines in disease, informing our therapeutic decisions. Herein, we discuss important non-TH17 cell sources of IL-17A and other TH17-associated cytokines relevant to inflammatory events in mucosal tissues.

  7. IL-10 is excluded from the functional cytokine memory of human CD4+ memory T lymphocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Jun; Ivascu, Claudia; Chang, Hyun-Dong; Wu, Peihua; Angeli, Roberta; Maggi, Laura; Eckhardt, Florian; Tykocinski, Lars; Haefliger, Carolina; Möwes, Beate; Sieper, Jochen; Radbruch, Andreas; Annunziato, Francesco; Thiel, Andreas

    2007-08-15

    Epigenetic modifications, including DNA methylation, profoundly influence gene expression of CD4(+) Th-specific cells thereby shaping memory Th cell function. We demonstrate here a correlation between a lacking fixed potential of human memory Th cells to re-express the immunoregulatory cytokine gene IL10 and its DNA methylation status. Memory Th cells secreting IL-10 or IFN-gamma were directly isolated ex vivo from peripheral blood of healthy volunteers, and the DNA methylation status of IL10 and IFNG was assessed. Limited difference in methylation was found for the IL10 gene locus in IL-10-secreting Th cells, as compared with Th cells not secreting IL-10 isolated directly ex vivo or from in vitro-established human Th1 and Th2 clones. In contrast, in IFN-gamma(+) memory Th cells the promoter of the IFNG gene was hypomethylated, as compared with IFN-gamma-nonsecreting memory Th cells. In accordance with the lack of epigenetic memory, almost 90% of ex vivo-isolated IL-10-secreting Th cells lacked a functional memory for IL-10 re-expression after restimulation. Our data indicate that IL10 does not become epigenetically marked in human memory Th cells unlike effector cytokine genes such as IFNG. The exclusion of IL-10, but not effector cytokines, from the functional memory of human CD4(+) T lymphocytes ex vivo may reflect the need for appropriate regulation of IL-10 secretion, due to its potent immunoregulatory potential.

  8. Alteration in lymphocyte responses, cytokine and chemokine profiles in chickens infected with genotype VII and VIII velogenic Newcastle disease virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasoli, Mehdi; Yeap, Swee Keong; Tan, Sheau Wei; Moeini, Hassan; Ideris, Aini; Bejo, Mohd Hair; Alitheen, Noorjahan Banu Mohamed; Kaiser, Pete; Omar, Abdul Rahman

    2014-01-01

    Newcastle disease (ND) is a highly contagious avian disease and one of the major causes of economic losses in the poultry industry. The emergence of virulent NDV genotypes and repeated outbreaks of NDV in vaccinated chickens have raised the need for fundamental studies on the virus-host interactions. In this study, the profiles of B and T lymphocytes and macrophages and differential expression of 26 immune-related genes in the spleen of specific-pathogen-free (SPF) chickens, infected with either the velogenic genotype VII NDV strain IBS002 or the genotype VIII NDV strain AF2240, were evaluated. A significant reduction in T lymphocyte population and an increase in the infiltration of IgM+ B cells and KUL01+ macrophages were detected in the infected spleens at 1, 3 and 4 days post-infection (dpi) (P<0.05). The gene expression profiles showed an up-regulation of CCLi3, CXCLi1, CXCLi2 (IL-8), IFN-γ, IL-12α, IL-18, IL-1β, IL-6, iNOS, TLR7, MHCI, IL-17F and TNFSF13B (P<0.05). However, these two genotypes showed different cytokine expression patterns and viral load. IBS002 showed higher viral load than AF2240 in spleen at 3 and 4dpi and caused a more rapid up-regulation of CXCLi2, IFN-γ, IL-12α, IL-18, IL-1β, iNOS and IL-10 at 3dpi. Meanwhile, the expression levels of CCLI3, CXCLi1, IFN-γ, IL-12α, IL-1β and iNOS genes were significantly higher in AF2240 at 4dpi. In addition, the expression levels of IL-10 were significantly higher in the IBS002-infected chickens at 3 and 4dpi. Hence, infection with velogenic genotype VII and VIII NDV induced different viral load and production of cytokines and chemokines associated with inflammatory reactions.

  9. Optimal Method to Stimulate Cytokine Production and Its Use in Immunotoxicity Assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huiming Chen

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Activation of lymphocytes can effectively produce a large amount of cytokines. The types of cytokines produced may depend on stimulating reagents and treatments. To find an optimal method to stimulate cytokine production and evaluate its effect on immunotoxicity assessments, the authors analyzed production of IL-2, IL-4, IL-6, IL-10, IL-13, IFN-γ, TNF-α, GM-CSF, RANTES and TGF-β in undiluted rat whole blood culture (incubation for 0, 2, 4, 6, 8 or 10 h with different concentrations of PMA/ionomycin, PHA, Con A, LPS and PWM. We also evaluated the effects of cyclosporin A and azathioprine on cytokine production. The results revealed a rapid increase of IL-2, IFN-γ, TNF-α, RANTES and TGF-β secretion within 6 h after stimulation with 25 ng/mL PMA and 1 μg/mL ionomycin. The inhibition of these cytokine profiles reflected the effects of immunosuppressants on the immune system. Therefore, the results of this is study recommend the detection of cytokine profiles in undiluted whole blood stimulated 6 h with 25 ng/mL PMA and 1 μg/mL ionomycin as a powerful immunotoxicity assessment method.

  10. Potassium humate inhibits complement activation and the production of inflammatory cytokines in vitro

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    van Rensburg, C.E.J.; Naude, P.J. [University of Pretoria, Pretoria (South Africa)

    2009-08-15

    The effects of brown coal derived potassium humate on lymphocyte proliferation, cytokine production and complement activation were investigated in vitro. Potassium humate increased lymphocyte proliferation of phytohaemaglutinin A (PHA) and pokeweed mitogen (PWM) stimulated mononuclear lymphocytes (MNL) in vitro from concentrations of 20 to 80 {mu} g/ml, in a dose dependant manner. On the other hand potassium humate, at 40 {mu} g/ml, significantly inhibited the release of TNF-alpha, IL-1 beta, IL-6 and IL-10 by PHA stimulated MNL. Regarding complement activation it was found that potassium humate inhibits the activation of both the alternative and classical pathways without affecting the stability of the red blood cell membranes. These results indicate that the anti-inflammatory potential of potassium humate could be partially due to the inhibition of pro-inflammatory cytokines responsible for the initiation of these reactions as well as inhibition of complement activation. The increased lymphocyte proliferation observed, might be due to increased IL-2 production as previously been documented.

  11. Cytokine production associated with smallpox vaccine responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, Whitney L; Salk, Hannah M; Ovsyannikova, Inna G; Kennedy, Richard B; Poland, Gregory A

    2014-01-01

    Smallpox was eradicated 34 years ago due to the success of the smallpox vaccine; yet, the vaccine continues to be studied because of its importance in responding to potential biological warfare and the adverse events associated with current smallpox vaccines. Interindividual variations in vaccine response are observed and are, in part, due to genetic variation. In some cases, these varying responses lead to adverse events, which occur at a relatively high rate for the smallpox vaccine compared with other vaccines. Here, we aim to summarize the cytokine responses associated with smallpox vaccine response to date. Along with a description of each of these cytokines, we describe the genetic and adverse event data associated with cytokine responses to smallpox vaccination.

  12. T-cell immunity and cytokine production in cosmonauts after long-duration space flights

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morukov, B.; Rykova, M.; Antropova, E.; Berendeeva, T.; Ponomaryov, S.; Larina, I.

    2011-04-01

    Long-duration spaceflight effects on T-cell immunity and cytokine production were studied in 12 Russian cosmonauts flown onto the International Space Station. Specific assays were performed before launch and after landing and included analysis of peripheral leukocyte distribution, analysis of T-cell phenotype, expression of activation markers, apoptosis, proliferation of T cells in response to a mitogen, concentrations of cytokines in supernatants of cell cultures. Statistically significant increase was observed in leukocytes', lymphocytes', monocytes' and granulocytes' total number, increase in percentage and absolutely number of CD3 +CD4 +-cells, CD4 +CD45RA +-cells and CD4 +CD45RA +/CD4 +CD45RО + ratio, CD4 +CD25 +Bright regulatory cells ( pIL-10. It revealed depression of IFN-g/IL-10 ratio after flight. Correlation analysis according to Spearman's rank correlation test established significant positive correlations ( p<0.05) between cytokine production and T-cell activation (CD25+, CD38+) and negative correlation ( p<0.05) between cytokine production and number of bulk memory CD4+T-cells (CD45RO+). Thus, these results suggest that T-cell dysfunction can be conditioned by cytokine dysbalance and could lead to development of disease after long-duration space flights.

  13. Fulminant lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus-induced inflammation of the CNS involves a cytokine-chemokine-cytokine-chemokine cascade

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Jeanette E; Simonsen, Stine; Fenger, Christina

    2009-01-01

    Intracerebral inoculation of immunocompetent mice with lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus (LCMV) normally results in fatal CD8+ T cell mediated meningoencephalitis. However, in CXCL10-deficient mice, the virus-induced CD8+ T cell accumulation in the neural parenchyma is impaired, and only 30...

  14. Cytokine profile of murine malaria: stage-related production of inflammatory and anti-inflammatory cytokines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakir, Hanaa Y; Tomiyama, Chikako; Abo, Toru

    2011-06-01

    Balance between inflammatory and anti-inflammatory cytokines may be important in malaria presentation and outcome. To clarify cytokine interactions that produce pathology of malaria and control infection, C57BL/6 mice were infected with 10(4) parasitized RBCs from a non-lethal strain of Plasmodium yoelii. Kinetics was monitored showing the course of parasitemia, and cytokines were determined by RT-PCR from liver and spleen tissues. Inflammatory cytokines such as interferon-γ (IFNγ), interleukin (IL)-12, IL-6, tumor necrosis factor-α (TNFα) and anti-inflammatory cytokines, including IL-4 and IL-10, were investigated as key molecules that interact with immune cells in the activation of the immune responses. The production of IFNγ mRNA was found to be higher on day 7 than on day 21 after infection, and IL-12 and IL-6 showed higher expression in the liver than in the spleen. Though TNFα was highly expressed on day 14 after infection and on day 21 in the liver, such expression was decreased on day 21 in the spleen. Anti-inflammatory cytokines showed high expression in both the liver and spleen. The results suggest that a relative balance between inflammatory and anti-inflammatory cytokines is crucial and that the increase of inflammatory cytokine levels during the acute phase of malaria may reflect an early and effective immune response.The counteraction effect of anti-inflammatory cytokines is thought to play a role in limiting progression from uncomplicated malaria to severe life-threatening complications.

  15. 1,25-Dihydroxyvitamin D3 inhibits cytokine production by human blood monocytes at the post-transcriptional level

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Müller, K; Haahr, P M; Diamant, M

    1992-01-01

    (TNF-alpha), produced by the antigen presenting cells. In the present study we examined the effect of 1,25-(OH)2D3 on the production of these cytokines, as well as superoxide generation by freshly isolated mononuclear cells and partially purified monocytes. The immediate precursor of 1,25(OH)2D3, 25-OH...... D3, and the synthetic analogue MC 903 ('Calcipotriol') were examined in parallel. 1,25-(OH)2D3 dose-dependently inhibited the production of IL-alpha, IL-6 and TNF-alpha by Escherichia coli lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated monocytes, without affecting superoxide production. MC 903 had comparable......1,25-Dihydroxyvitamin D3 [1,25-(OH)2D3] inhibits lymphocyte proliferation and production of antibodies and lymphokines such as interleukin (IL)-2 and interferon gamma. These lymphocyte functions are dependent upon cytokines, including IL-1 alpha, IL-1 beta, IL-6 and tumour necrosis factor alpha...

  16. The changes of T lymphocytes and cytokines in ICR mice fed with Fe3O4 magnetic nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang J

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Jun Wang1, Baoan Chen1, Nan Jin1, Guohua Xia2, Yue Chen1, Ying Zhou1, Xiaohui Cai1,2, Jiahua Ding1, Xiaomao Li3, Xuemei Wang41Department of Hematology, Zhongda Hospital, 2Department of Medical Laboratory, Medical School, Southeast University, Nanjing, People's Republic of China; 3Department of Physics, University of Saarland, Saarbruecken, Germany; 4National Key Laboratory of Bioelectronics (Chien-Shiung Wu Laboratory, Southeast University, Nanjing, People’s Republic of ChinaAbstract: The aim of this article is to study the changes inhibited T lymphocytes and cytokines related to the cellular immunity in ICR (imprinting control region mice fed with Fe3O4 magnetic nanoparticles (Fe3O4-MNPs. The Fe3O4-MNPs were synthesized, and their characteristics such as particle size, zeta potential, and X-ray diffraction patterns were measured and determined. All ICR mice were sacrificed after being exposed to 0, 300, 600, and 1200 mg/kg of Fe3O4-MNPs by single gastric administration for 14 days. Splenocytes proliferation was indicated with stimulate index by MTT assay; release of cytokines in the serum of ICR mice was detected by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, and the phenotypic analyses of T-lymphocyte subsets were performed using flow cytometry. Our results indicated that there were no significant differences in splenocyte proliferation and release of cytokines between exposed and control groups. Furthermore, there was no significant difference in the proportions of T-lymphocyte subsets in the low-dose Fe3O4-MNPs group when compared to the control group, but the proportions of CD3+CD4+ and CD3+CD8+ T-lymphocyte subsets both in the medium- and high-dose Fe3O4-MNPs groups were higher than those in the control group. It is concluded that a high dose of Fe3O4-MNPs, to some extent, could influence in vivo immune function of normal ICR mice.Keywords: Fe3O4, magnetic nanoparticles, splenocyte proliferation, release of cytokines, T-lymphocyte subsets, ICR

  17. Antibody production in early life supported by maternal lymphocyte factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimamura, Michio; Huang, Yi-Ying; Goji, Hiroshi

    2003-01-20

    To examine the influence of maternal lymphocyte factors on the immune responses in offspring in early life, antibody production in neonates born to either normal or lymphocyte-deficient mothers was analyzed. Recombination activating gene (Rag)-2(+/-) mouse neonates born to Rag-2(+/+), Rag-2(+/-)or Rag-2(-/-)mothers were injected with goat anti-mouse IgD antiserum, and IgE and IgG(1) production was evaluated. The levels of IgE and IgG(1) were higher in the pups born to Rag-2(+/+)and Rag-2(+/-) dams than to lymphocyte-deficient Rag-2(-/-) dams. The enhanced antibody production in the former compared with the latter neonates was also found following immunization with ovalbumin or TNP-Ficoll. Thus, the presence of maternal lymphocyte factors was suggested in neonates that augmented antigen-specific antibody production in both T cell-dependent and -independent pathways. A reduction in antibody production was observed in normal neonates when they were foster-nursed by Rag-2(-/-) mothers. Thus, the maternal lymphocyte factors enhancing the immune responses in newborns were shown to be present in breast-milk.

  18. The presence of non-segmental vitiligo modifies intracellular cytokine subsets in patients with chronic lymphocytic thyroiditis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santaguida, M G; Del Duca, S C; Virili, C; Gargano, L; Centanni, M

    2010-01-01

    Chronic lymphocytic thyroiditis and vitiligo often occur in association and seem to be characterized by a prevalent Th1-driven autoimmune process. The aim of this study is to analyze selected intracellular Τh1 and Th2 cytokines in patients with Hashimoto?s thyroiditis when associated with non-segmental vitiligo. We analyzed intracellular interleukin-2, interferon-gamma (Τh1) and interleukin-4 (Th2), in peripheral blood lymphocytes of 23 patients with isolated Hashimoto?s thyroiditis (group A) and of 11 patients with Hashimoto?s thyroiditis associated with non-segmental vitiligo (group B). Peripheral blood lymphocytes were stimulated and incubated with specific monoclonal antibodies. Intracellular cytokines were assayed by flow cytometric analysis. Interleukin-2 and interferon-gamma positive cells were increased in almost all patients but the median values were similar in patients with isolated Hashimoto?s thyroiditis and in those with concurrent vitiligo. In contrast, the number of patients with increased interleukin-4 positive cells was higher in patients with thyroiditis and vitiligo (9/11) than in those with isolated thyroiditis (2/23; plymphocytes characterize Hashimoto?s thyroiditis when associated with non-segmental vitiligo, suggesting a modified balance from highly prevalent Th1 to mixed Th1/Th2 subset.

  19. Soluble ions more than particulate cobalt-alloy implant debris induce monocyte costimulatory molecule expression and release of proinflammatory cytokines critical to metal-induced lymphocyte reactivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caicedo, Marco S; Pennekamp, Peter H; McAllister, Kyron; Jacobs, Joshua J; Hallab, Nadim J

    2010-06-15

    Aseptic osteolysis has been associated with excessive immune reactivity to particulate implant debris; however, innate and adaptive immune mechanisms that underlie implant debris reactivity remain incompletely understood. Although particulate debris has been implicated as the major type of implant debris mediating macrophage-induced osteolysis, the degree to which metal ions affect a proinflammatory response (if at all) remains unknown. We hypothesized that both soluble and particulate metal implant debris will induce proinflammatory responses in human monocytes resulting in cytokine production and elevated expression of T cell costimulatory molecules, facilitating adaptive immune responses. We tested this hypothesis by characterizing the response of a human monocyte cell line (THP-1), isolated primary human monocytes and PBMCs challenged with Co-Cr-Mo alloy particles and soluble cobalt, chromium, molybdenum, and nickel ions. Our results indicate that soluble cobalt, nickel, and molybdenum can induce monocyte up-regulation of T cell costimulatory molecules (CD80, CD86, ICAM-1) in human monocytes/macrophages. Furthermore, cobalt, molybdenum ions, and Co-Cr-Mo alloy particles similarly induce elevated secretion of IL-1beta, TNFalpha, and IL-6. Antibody blockade of CD80 and CD86, crucial secondary molecules for adaptive responses, abrogated lymphocyte reactivity to metal challenge in metal reactive subjects. Also the addition of IL-1 receptor antagonist (IL-1ra), (which indirectly blocks pro-IL-1beta and thus IL-1beta release), significantly reduced lymphocyte reactivity in metal-reactive subjects. Thus, both soluble and particulate metal implant debris induce monocyte/macrophage proinflammatory responses that are metal and individual specific. This suggests metal-induced up-regulation of costimulatory molecules and proinflammatory cytokine production is necessary to induce lymphocyte activation/proliferation to metal implant debris.

  20. INVESTIGATION OF IMMUNE STATUS AND PRODUCTION CYTOKINE IN THE PATIENTS WITH ATOPIC AND MIXED-TYPE BRONCHIAL ASTHMA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. V. Zurochka

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. We have performed immunophenotyping of lymphocytes, employing a flow cytometry approach, along with evaluation of spontaneous or mitogen-induced production of cytokines (IFNγ, IL-4, IL-1β, IL - 10, in the patients with atopic and bacterial (mixed-type bronchial asthma. We have detected mostly similar changes in lymphocyte parameters. However, among the patients with bacterial asthma, an imbalance of immune cells was more pronounced. Some common alterations of cytokine production were found, i.e., a decrease in IFNγ and IL-1β production, along with increased IL-4 and IL-10. These changes were more significant in the subjects being in acute phase of either atopic, or bacterial asthma. Moreover, IL-10 suppressed IFNγ to higher degree, than IL-4, thus favoring distinct predomination of Th2-type immune response.

  1. Fungal natural products targeting chronic lymphocytic leukemia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bladt, Tanja Thorskov; Kildgaard, Sara; Knudsen, Peter Boldsen

    2012-01-01

    Chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) is the most common leukemia in adults from the western world. No curative treatments of CLL are presently known so the treatment strategy today is primarily to prolong patient survival,1 why we have initiated new activities towards discovery of novel compounds...... with potential tumor specificity. Our starting point is a diverse fungal collection of thousands of Penicillium and Aspergillus species. These fungi have proven to be a very rich source of various bioactive compounds and yet our dereplication investigations have demonstrated that there are still numerous unknown...... compounds to be identified within these species. Until now we have found that 11 out of 289 fungal extracts are active against CLL cells. Using our established chemotaxonomic discovery approach we have dereplicated and fractionated these extracts to track the activity into single fractions/compounds.2...

  2. Gamma c-signaling cytokines induce a regulatory T cell phenotype in malignant CD4+ T lymphocytes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kasprzycka, Monika; Zhang, Qian; Witkiewicz, Agnieszka

    2008-01-01

    In this study, we demonstrate that malignant mature CD4(+) T lymphocytes derived from cutaneous T cell lymphomas (CTCL) variably display some aspects of the T regulatory phenotype. Whereas seven cell lines representing a spectrum of primary cutaneous T cell lymphoproliferative disorders expressed...... that the T regulatory cell features are induced in CTCL T cells by common gamma chain signaling cytokines such as IL-2 and do not represent a fully predetermined, constitutive phenotype independent of the local environmental stimuli to which these malignant mature CD4(+) T cells become exposed....

  3. Fulminant lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus-induced inflammation of the CNS involves a cytokine-chemokine-cytokine-chemokine cascade

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Jeanette E; Simonsen, Stine; Fenger, Christina

    2009-01-01

    Intracerebral inoculation of immunocompetent mice with lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus (LCMV) normally results in fatal CD8+ T cell mediated meningoencephalitis. However, in CXCL10-deficient mice, the virus-induced CD8+ T cell accumulation in the neural parenchyma is impaired, and only 30...... the expression of CXCL10 in the CNS of LCMV-infected mice. Using mice deficient in type I IFN receptor, type II IFN receptor, or type II IFN, as well as bone marrow chimeras expressing CXCL10 only in resident cells or only in bone marrow-derived cells, we analyzed the up-stream regulation as well as the cellular...... source of CXCL10. We found that expression of CXCL10 initially depends on signaling through the type I IFN receptor, while late expression and up-regulation requires type II IFN produced by the recruited CD8+ T cells. Throughout the infection, the producers of CXCL10 are exclusively resident cells...

  4. EFFECTS OF STEROID HORMONES UPON TH1/TH2 CYTOKINE PRODUCTION BY CD45RO+ T CELLS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A. Gutsol

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. The aim of our study was to evaluate effects of steroid hormones upon the imbalance of Th1/Th2 cytokine production (IL-2, IFNγ, IL-4, IL-10 by CD45RO+ activated lymphocytes. In our experiments, we have shown a clear trend of multidirectional influence of steroid hormones upon secretory activity of T-lymphocytes. We have revealed that development of cellular immune responses mediated by type 1 T helper cells is regulated primarily by female sex hormones. Glucocorticoid hormones seem to exert a marked effect upon development of humoral Th2 immune response. For androgens, some controversial results have been obtained.

  5. Role of Proinflammatory Cytokines in Thermal Activation of Lymphocyte Recruitment in Breast Tumor Microvessels

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-03-01

    interactionsI IL-6 trans-signaling mechanism J__ MEK/ERK Inside-out signaling Cancer Immunology , Immunotherapy (in press) DYNAMIC CONTROL OF LYMPHOCYTE...venules, tumor microvessels, fever Cancer Immunology , Immunotherapy (in press) ABSTRACT Migration of blood-borne lymphocytes into tissues involves a...the basis for novel approaches to improve recruitment of immune effector cells to tumor sites. 2 Cancer Immunology , Immunotherapy (in press) High

  6. Differential Effects of Tea Extracts on Growth and Cytokine Production by Normal and Leukemic Human Leukocytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana Bayer

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Tea is one of the world’s most highly consumed beverages, second only to water. It is affordable and abundant and thus has great potential for improving health of those in both developed and developing areas. Green, oolong, and black teas differ in the extent of fermentation and types of bioactive polyphenols produced. Green tea and its major polyphenol decrease growth of some cancer cells and effect production of immune system cytokines. This study compares the effects of different types of tea extracts on viability and cytokine production by normal and leukemic human T lymphocytes. Generation of the toxic reactive oxygen species H2O2 by extracts was also examined.Methods: The Jurkat T lymphoblastic leukemia cells and mitogen-stimulated normal human peripheral blood mononuclear cells were used in this study. Cell viability was determined by (3-4,5-dimethylthiamizol-2-yl-diphenyltetrazolium bromide assay and production of interleukin-2 by Enzyme-Linked ImmunoSorbent Assay. Levels of H2O2 generated by tea extracts were determined using the xylenol-orange method.Results: We found that green, oolong, and black tea extracts differentially effect the growth and viability of T lymphoblastic leukemia cells and normal peripheral blood mononuclear cells, substantially decreasing both growth and viability of leukemic T lymphocytes and having much lesser effects on their normal counterparts. Tea extracts also had differential effects on the production of the T lymphocyte growth factor interleukin-2, significantly decreasing production by leukemic cells while having only minor effects on normal cells. All three extracts induced H2O2 generation, with green and oolong tea extracts having the greatest effect. Leukemic cells were much more susceptible to growth inhibition and killing by H2O2 than normal lymphocytes.Functional Foods in Health and Disease 2012, 2(4:72-85 Conclusions: The three tea extracts studied altered leukemic T lymphocyte

  7. High IFN-gamma production of individual CD8 T lymphocytes is controlled by CD152 (CTLA-4).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandiyan, Pushpa; Hegel, J Kolja E; Krueger, Manuela; Quandt, Dagmar; Brunner-Weinzierl, Monika C

    2007-02-15

    CD8 T cell expansion and cytokine production is needed to generate an effective defense against viral invasion of the host. These features of CD8 T lymphocytes are regulated, especially during primary responses, by positive and negative costimulation. We show in this study that surface expression of CD152 is highly up-regulated on activated CD8 T lymphocytes during primary immune responses, suggesting a prominent regulatory role. Indeed, production of the proinflammatory cytokine IFN-gamma, but not TNF-alpha, by CD8 T cells was inhibited by CD152 engagement. The inhibition was regulated independent of proliferation and IL-2 production, but dependent on the quality of the TCR signaling. We show that signals induced by CD152 on activated CD8 T lymphocytes reduce the frequency of IFN-gamma(high)-expressing cells. Our data also show that in activated CD8 T cells, the CD152-mediated inhibition of cytokine production is more pronounced than inhibition of their proliferation.

  8. Circulating T lymphocyte subsets, cytokines, and immune checkpoint inhibitors in patients with bipolar II or major depression: a preliminary study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Wei; Zheng, Ya-li; Tian, Li-ping; Lai, Jian-bo; Hu, Chan-chan; Zhang, Peng; Chen, Jing-kai; Hu, Jian-bo; Huang, Man-li; Wei, Ning; Xu, Wei-juan; Zhou, Wei-hua; Lu, Shao-jia; Lu, Jing; Qi, Hong-li; Wang, Dan-dan; Zhou, Xiao-yi; Duan, Jin-feng; Xu, Yi; Hu, Shao-hua

    2017-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate the less known activation pattern of T lymphocyte populations and immune checkpoint inhibitors on immunocytes in patients with bipolar II disorder depression (BD) or major depression (MD). A total of 23 patients with BD, 22 patients with MD, and 20 healthy controls (HCs) were recruited. The blood cell count of T lymphocyte subsets and the plasma level of cytokines (IL-2, IL-4, IL-6, IL-10, TNF-α, and IFN-γ) were selectively investigated. The expression of T-cell immunoglobulin and mucin-domain containing-3 (TIM-3), programmed cell death protein 1 (PD-1) and its ligands, PD-L1 and PD-L2, on T lymphocytes and monocytes, was detected. In results, blood proportion of cytotoxic T cells significantly decreased in BD patients than in either MD patients or HCs. The plasma level of IL-6 increased in patients with BD and MD. The expression of TIM-3 on cytotoxic T cells significantly increased, whereas the expression of PD-L2 on monocytes significantly decreased in patients with BD than in HCs. These findings extended our knowledge of the immune dysfunction in patients with affective disorders. PMID:28074937

  9. T lymphocytes in the lesional skin and the levels of peripheral blood cytokines in patients with psoriasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    İbrahim Kökçam

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available In the current study, it was aimed to investigate the roles of tissue cellular immunity and serum levels of cytokines in the patients with plaque psoriasis treated with calcipotriol-betamethasone dipropionate.Materials and methods: The study included 20 patients with psoriasis. Peripheral blood and biopsy samples were collected from lesional and normal skins before and after treatment. The results were compared with each other.Results: Immunohistochemical examination revealed significant elevations of CD4+, CD8+ and CD25+ T lymphocytes in the lesional tissues when compared to that in the healthy tissues and post treatment tissue (p0.05. The levels of IL–4, IL–10, TNF-α, IFN-γ and TGF-β1 in serum were not significantly different between before and after treatment periods (p>0.05.Conclusion: Our study demonstrated that there were infiltration of CD4+ and CD8+ cell in the lesional skin and CD8+ T-lymphocytes were the dominant cell types. The improvement of the lesions and significant decreases in CD4+ and CD8+ T-cells in accordance with the treatment strongly support the hypothesis that Th lymphocytes may have prominent roles in the immunopathogenesis of the disease. However, our findings showed that sufficient T-cells still remains in the tissue, which is consistent with the chronic characteristic of the disease, and the topical treatment could not be able to prevent the activation of the disease.

  10. Influence of phthalates on cytokine production in monocytes and macrophages

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frohnert, Juliana; Bendtzen, Klaus; Boas, Malene;

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Phthalates are a group of endocrine disrupting chemicals suspected to influence the immune system. The aim of this systematic review is to summarise the present knowledge on the influence of phthalates on monocyte and macrophage production and secretion of cytokines, an influence which......-α secretion/production from monocytes or macrophages. A summary of cytokine measurements was not possible since few studies were comparable in study design and due to insufficient reporting of raw data for most of the included studies. CONCLUSION: Results from this review have suggested that at least one...

  11. [EFFECT OF 4-METHYLPYRAZOLE ON IMMUNE RESPONSE, FUNCTION OF Th1 AND Th2 LYMPHOCYTES, AND CYTOKINE CONCENTRATION IN RAT BLOOD AFTER ACUTE METHANOL POISONING].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zabrodskii, P F; Maslyakov, V V; Gromov, M S

    2016-01-01

    It was established in experiments on noninbred albino rats that the acute intoxication with methanol (1.0 LD50) decreased cellular and humoral immune responses, Th2-lymphocyte activity (to a greater extent as compared to the function of Th1 cells), reduced the blood concentration of immunoregulatory (IFN-g, IL-2, IL-4) and proinflammatory (TNF, IL-1b, IL-6) cytokines on the average by 36.5% (p Methanol antidote 4-methylpyrazole (non-competitive inhibitor of alcohol dehydrogenase) administered upon acute intoxication with methanol at a dose of 1.0 DL50 partially reduces the intoxication-induced suppression of humoral and cellular immune response, activity of T-helper cells, and production of IL-4 and restores blood levels of TNF, IL-1b, IFN-γ, IL-4, IL-2, IL-6 to the control values.

  12. Long-term study of the impact of methotrexate on serum cytokines and lymphocyte subsets in patients with active rheumatoid arthritis: correlation with pharmacokinetic measures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kremer, Joel M; Lawrence, David A; Hamilton, Robert; McInnes, Iain B

    2016-01-01

    Objective To describe changes in immune parameters observed during long-term methotrexate (MTX) therapy in patients with active rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and explore correlations with simultaneously measured MTX pharmacokinetic (PKC) parameters. Design Prospective, open-label, long-term mechanism of action study. Setting University clinic. Methods MTX was initiated at a single weekly oral dose of 7.5 mg and dose adjusted for efficacy and toxicity for the duration of the study. Standard measures of disease activity were performed at baseline and every 6–36 months. Serum cytokine measurements in blood together with lymphocyte surface immunophenotypes and stimulated peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMC) cytokine production were assessed at each clinical evaluation. Results Cytokine concentrations exhibited multiple significant correlations with disease activity measures over time. The strongest correlations observed were for interleukin (IL)-6 (r=0.45, p<0.0001 for swollen joints and r=0.32, p=0.002 for tender joints) and IL-8 (r=0.25, p=0.01 for swollen joints). Significant decreases from baseline were observed in serum IL-1B, IL-6 and IL-8 concentrations. The most significant changes were observed for IL-6 (p<0.001). Significant increases from baseline were observed in IL-2 release from PBMCs ex vivo (p<0.01). In parallel, multiple statistically significant correlations were observed between MTX PKC measures and immune parameters. The change in swollen joint count correlated inversely with the change in area under the curve (AUC) for MTX (r=−0.63, p=0.007). Conclusions MTX therapy of patients with RA is accompanied by a variety of changes in serum cytokine expression, which in turn correlate strongly with clinical disease activity and MTX pharmacokinetics (PKCs). These data strongly support the notion that MTX mediates profound and functionally relevant effects on the immunological hierarchy in the RA lesion. PMID:27335660

  13. Relationship between T-lymphocyte cytokine levels and sero-response to hepatitis B vaccines

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Vijayakumar Velu; Shanmugam Saravanan; Subhadra Nandakumar; Esaki Muthu Shankar; Appasamy Vengatesan; Suresh Sakharam Jadhav; Prasad Suryakant Kulkarni; Sadras Panchatcharam Thyagarajan

    2008-01-01

    AIM: TO investigate the cellular defects by analyzing the (Th1/Th2) cytokine levels in vaccine responders and non-responders.METHODS: Peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMC) from responders and non-responders were stimulated with or with out recombinant HBsAg or PHA. Broad spectrum of cytokines viz (Th1) IFN-γ, IL-2, TNF-α, IL-12 and (Th2) IL-10, IL-4 were measured after in vitro stimulation with recombinant HBsAg and were compared with respective antibody titers.RESULTS: A significant decrease (P = 0.001) in Th1 and Th2 cytokines namely, IL-2, INF-γ, TNF-α and IL-10 in non-responders was observed. The level of IL-4 was not significant between the three groups. Furthermore, despite a strong Th1 and Th2 cytokine response, the level of IL-12 was elevated in high-responders compared to other groups (P=0.001) and demonstrated a positive correlation with anti-HBs titers and Th1 cytokine response.CONCLUSION: Our findings suggest that unresponsiveness to recombinant hepatitis B vaccines (rHB) is multifactorial, including specific failure of antigen presentation or the lack of both T helper Th1 and Th2 response.

  14. Whole Blood Activation Results in Enhanced Detection of T Cell and Monocyte Cytokine Production by Flow Cytometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sams, Clarence F.; Crucian, Brian E.

    2001-01-01

    An excellent monitor of the immune balance of peripheral circulating cells is to determine their cytokine production patterns in response to stimuli. Using flow cytometry a positive identification of cytokine producing cells in a mixed culture may be achieved. Recently, the ability to assess cytokine production following a wholeblood activation culture has been described. We compared whole blood culture to standard PBMC culture and determined the individual cytokine secretion patterns for both T cells and monocytes via flow cytometry. For T cells cytokine assessment following PMA +ionomycin activation: (1) a significantly greater percentages of T cells producing IFNgamma and IL-2 were observed following whole-blood culture; (2) altered T cell cytokine production kinetics were observed by varying whole blood culture times. In addition, a four-color cytometric analysis was used to allow accurate phenotyping and quantitation of cytokine producing lymphocyte populations. Using this technique we found IFNgamma production to be significantly elevated in the CD3+/CD8+ T cell population as compared to the CD3+/CD8- population following five hours of whole blood activation. Conversely, IL-2 and IL-10 production were significantly elevated in the CD3+/CD8- T cell population as compared to the CD3+/CD8+ population. Monocyte cytokine production was assessed in both culture systems following LPS activation for 24 hours. A three-color flow cytometric was used to assess two cytokines in conjunction with CD 14. The cytokine pairs used for analysis were IL-1a/IL-12, and IL-10ITNFa. Nearly all monocytes were stimulated to produce IL-1a, IL-12 and TNFalpha equally well in both culture systems. Monocyte production of IL-10 was significantly elevated following whole blood culture as compared to PBMC culture. IL-12 producing monocytes appeared to be a distinct subpopulation of the IL-1a producing set, whereas IL-10 and TNFa producing monocytes were largely mutually exclusive. IL-10 and

  15. Early interferon-γ production in human lymphocyte subsets in response to nontyphoidal Salmonella demonstrates inherent capacity in innate cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyirenda, Tonney S; Seeley, Anna E; Mandala, Wilson L; Drayson, Mark T; MacLennan, Calman A

    2010-10-27

    Nontyphoidal Salmonellae frequently cause life-threatening bacteremia in sub-Saharan Africa. Young children and HIV-infected adults are particularly susceptible. High case-fatality rates and increasing antibiotic resistance require new approaches to the management of this disease. Impaired cellular immunity caused by defects in the T helper 1 pathway lead to intracellular disease with Salmonella that can be countered by IFNγ administration. This report identifies the lymphocyte subsets that produce IFNγ early in Salmonella infection. Intracellular cytokine staining was used to identify IFNγ production in blood lymphocyte subsets of ten healthy adults with antibodies to Salmonella (as evidence of immunity to Salmonella), in response to stimulation with live and heat-killed preparations of the D23580 invasive African isolate of Salmonella Typhimurium. The absolute number of IFNγ-producing cells in innate, innate-like and adaptive lymphocyte subpopulations was determined. Early IFNγ production was found in the innate/innate-like lymphocyte subsets: γδ-T cells, NK cells and NK-like T cells. Significantly higher percentages of such cells produced IFNγ compared to adaptive αβ-T cells (Student's t test, Peffect on IFNγ production of depletion of Salmonella-specific CD4(+)-T lymphocytes in HIV infection.

  16. Chocolate consumption modulates cytokine production in healthy individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Netea, Stejara A; Janssen, Sam A; Jaeger, Martin; Jansen, Trees; Jacobs, Liesbeth; Miller-Tomaszewska, Gosia; Plantinga, Theo S; Netea, Mihai G; Joosten, Leo A B

    2013-04-01

    Epidemiological studies suggest that chocolate increases the incidence and severity of acne. Here we demonstrate that chocolate consumption primes human blood mononuclear cells from volunteers to release more interleukin-1β (IL-1β) and IL-10 upon stimulation with Propionibacterium acne or Staphylcoccus aureus, the two microorganisms involved in the pathogenesis of acne. In contrast, production of the Th17-derived cytokine IL-22 was inhibited by chocolate. Modulation of inflammation could represent an important mechanism through which chocolate consumption influences acne.

  17. Influence of in vivo hypobaric hypoxia on function of lymphocytes, neutrocytes, natural killer cells, and cytokines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klokker, M; Kharazmi, A; Galbo, H

    1993-01-01

    of an increased concentration of lymphocytes. The absolute and relative concentration of CD16+ natural killer (NK) cells increased markedly during hypoxia and returned to pretest values after 2 h of recovery. The NK cell activity of blood mononuclear cells (BMNC, %lysis/fixed no. of BMNC) boosted with interferon......-alpha, interleukin-2 (IL-2), and indomethacin rose in parallel with unboosted NK cell activity during hypoxia. The percentage of CD4+ and CD8+ cells declined during hypoxia, whereas the absolute concentration of both CD8+ cells and CD14+ monocytes increased. Although the BMNC composition varied, the proliferative....... The chemiluminescence response of neutrocytes increased 2 h after hypoxia. It was concluded that acute hypoxia induced marked alterations in the immune system and that the NK cells are especially sensitive to the hypoxic stimulus....

  18. Sickle cell anemia induces changes in peripheral lymphocytes E-NTPDase/E-ADA activities and cytokines secretion in patients under treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castilhos, Lívia G; Doleski, Pedro H; Bertoldo, Tatiana M D; Passos, Daniela F; Bertoncheli, Claudia de M; Rezer, João F P; Schlemmer, Josiane B; Leal, Daniela B R

    2015-07-01

    Sickle cell anemia (SCA) is characterized by hemoglobin polymerization that results in sickle-shaped red blood cells. The vascular obstruction by sickle erythrocytes is often inflammatory, and purinergic system ecto-enzymes play an important role in modulating the inflammatory and immune response. This study aimed to evaluate the E-NTPDase and E-ADA activities in lymphocytes of SCA treated patients, as well as verify the cytokine profile in this population. Fifteen SCA treated patients and 30 health subjects (control group) were selected. The peripheral lymphocytes were isolated and E-NTPDase and E-ADA activities were determined. Serum was separated from clot formation for the cytokines quantification. E-NTPDase (ATP and ADP as substrate) and E-ADA (adenosine as substrate) activities were increased in lymphocytes from SCA patients (P<0.001). The TNF-α and IL-6 serum cytokines showed decreased on SCA patients comparing to control (P<0.001). The regulation of extracellular nucleotides released in response to hypoxia and inflammation through E-NTPDase and E-ADA enzymes represent an important control of purine-mediated in the SCA disease, avoiding elevated adenosine levels in the extracellular medium and consequent organ injuries in these patients. The pro-inflammatory cytokines decreased levels by use of hydroxyurea occur in attempt to reduce the pro-inflammatory response and prevent vaso-oclusive crisis.

  19. Cytokine Contents in Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia: Association with ZAP70 Expression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nilgün Işıksaçan

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL is a disease that shows varying clinical progression, and expression of the protein tyrosine kinase ZAP70 has been described as a very valuable prognostic factor. Patients with ZAP70 positivity are characterized by worse clinical course and significantly shorter progression-free and overall survival. In this study, intracytoplasmic interferon gamma (IFN-γ and interleukin-4 (IL-4 content of T, B, and CLL cells in CLL patients and their correlations with Rai staging and ZAP70 positivity were investigated. Materials and Methods: CLL patients newly diagnosed or in followup at the İstanbul University İstanbul Medical Faculty Hematology Department were included in this study. These patients were classified according to Rai staging and ZAP70 expression. IL-4, IFN-γ, and ZAP70 expressions in peripheral blood T, B, and CLL cells were measured by four-color flow cytometry. Results: There was a statistically significant correlation between advanced disease and ZAP70 positivity. IL-4-secreting T cells were significantly increased; however, IFN-γ secretion was significantly decreased in CLL patients compared to healthy individuals, whereas IL-4-secreting B cells were significantly diminished in contrast to T cells. Conclusion: These findings suggest damage in the cellular immunity and that IL-4 might lead to many complications and may be important in disease progression.

  20. [Effects of different doses of L-arginine on the serum levels of helper T lymphocyte 1 (Th1)/Th2 cytokines in severely burned patients].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Hong; Peng, Xi; Wang, Pei; Huang, Yue-sheng; Wang, Shi-liang

    2009-10-01

    To investigate the effects of L-arginine in different doses on the serum levels of helper T lymphocyte1 (Th1)/Th2 cytokines in severely burned patients. Twenty-nine severely burned patients, with total burn surface area from 50% to 80%TBSA, hospitalized within 20 hours after burn, were randomly divided into control group (10 cases, fed with 5% glucose saline 500 mL), L-arginine 200 mg group (10 cases, fed with 5% glucose saline 500 mL + 200 mg/kg L-arginine), L-arginine 400 mg group (9 cases, fed with 5% glucose saline 500 mL + 400 mg/kg L-arginine). All patients received enteral feeding through nasointestinal tube, started within 22 hours after burn. Fasting venous blood of all patients was harvested on post burn day (PBD) 1 (before enteral feeding), 3, 5, and 7 to determine serum contents of TNF-alpha, IL-1beta, TGF-beta(1) and IL-4 by radio-immunity method and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Serum contents of TNF-alpha and IL-1beta of patients in all groups increased rapidly after burn, and although contents of TNF-alpha (318 +/- 57) ng/mL and IL-1beta (218 +/- 47) pg/mL of patients in L-arginine 200 mg group peaked on PBD 5, they were still significantly lower than those of patients in control group [(389 +/- 34) ng/mL, (272 +/- 40) pg/mL, P 0.05). Serum contents of TGF-beta(1) and IL-4 of patients in each group increased slowly after burn, and content of TGF-beta(1) (110 +/- 16) pg/mL of patients in L-arginine 200 mg group was significantly higher than that of patients in control group [(83 +/- 20) pg/mL, P 0.05). Compared with the dosage of 400 mg/kg L-arginine, the 200 mg/kg dose is more effective in reducing the release of Th1 cytokines and increasing Th2 cytokines production, hence maintaining Th1/Th2 cytokine ratio to produce better immune opsonization during the infection phase of severe burn.

  1. Lymphocyte Trafficking to Mucosal Tissues

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mikhak, Zamaneh; Agace, William Winston; Luster, Andrew D.

    2015-01-01

    Lymphocytes are the key cells of the adaptive immune system that provide antigen-specific responses tailored to the context of antigen exposure. Through cytokine release and antibody production, lymphocytes orchestrate and amplify the recruitment and function of other immune cells and contribute...... to host defense against invading pathogens and the pathogenesis of many inflammatory diseases. Lymphocyte function is critically dependent on their ability to traffic into the correct anatomic locations at the appropriate times. This process is highly regulated and requires that lymphocytes interact...

  2. Genetic ablation of lymphocytes and cytokine signaling in nonobese diabetic mice prevents diet-induced obesity and insulin resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedline, Randall H; Ko, Hwi Jin; Jung, Dae Young; Lee, Yongjin; Bortell, Rita; Dagdeviren, Sezin; Patel, Payal R; Hu, Xiaodi; Inashima, Kunikazu; Kearns, Caitlyn; Tsitsilianos, Nicholas; Shafiq, Umber; Shultz, Leonard D; Lee, Ki Won; Greiner, Dale L; Kim, Jason K

    2016-03-01

    Obesity is characterized by a dysregulated immune system, which may causally associate with insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes. Despite widespread use of nonobese diabetic (NOD) mice, NOD with severe combined immunodeficiency (scid) mutation (SCID) mice, and SCID bearing a null mutation in the IL-2 common γ chain receptor (NSG) mice as animal models of human diseases including type 1 diabetes, the underlying metabolic effects of a genetically altered immune system are poorly understood. For this, we performed a comprehensive metabolic characterization of these mice fed chow or after 6 wk of a high-fat diet. We found that NOD mice had ∼50% less fat mass and were 2-fold more insulin sensitive, as measured by hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp, than C57BL/6 wild-type mice. SCID mice were also more insulin sensitive with increased muscle glucose metabolism and resistant to diet-induced obesity due to increased energy expenditure (∼10%) and physical activity (∼40%) as measured by metabolic cages. NSG mice were completely protected from diet-induced obesity and insulin resistance with significant increases in glucose metabolism in peripheral organs. Our findings demonstrate an important role of genetic background, lymphocytes, and cytokine signaling in diet-induced obesity and insulin resistance. © FASEB.

  3. Cytokines and T-lymphocyte subsets in healthy post-menopausal women: estrogen retards bone loss without affecting the release of IL-1 or IL-1ra

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abrahamsen, Bo; Bendtzen, Klaus; Beck-Nielsen, H

    1997-01-01

    Interleukin (IL)-1 is a potent inducer of bone resorption, and an increased secretion of the IL-1 agonists IL-1 alpha and IL-1 beta relative to the IL-1 receptor antagonist (IL-1ra) has been proposed as a mechanism leading to post-menopausal osteoporosis. T-lymphocytes are capable of secreting bone...... resorptive cytokines and have also been linked with bone metabolism and the development of osteoporosis. Cytokine secretion from whole blood cell cultures was compared between two randomized groups of healthy early post-menopausal women (mean age 52.5 yrs, N = 91) and lymphocyte subsets were quantitated...... by flow cytometry. One group received cyclic estrogen-gestagen replacement therapy (ERT) while the other group was untreated. In spite of a significant bone maintaining effect of ERT, the basal and LPS-stimulated secretion of IL-1 alpha, IL-1 beta, and IL-1ra was identical in the two groups...

  4. Oral Administration of Bovine Milk from Cows Hyperimmunized with Intestinal Bacterin Stimulates Lamina Propria T Lymphocytes to Produce Th1-Biased Cytokines in Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuanyuan Wang

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The goal of this study was to examine the effects of oral administration of bovine milk from cows hyperimmunized with a proprietary bacterin (immune milk “Sustaina” on mucosal immunity in the intestine of adult mice. C57BL/6 mice were orally given immune or control milk for two weeks, and then lymphocyte population and the cytokine production in lamina propria of colon in normal mice and mice induced colitis by dextran sulphate sodium (DSS were detected. We found that the levels of IFN-γ and IL-10 increased, but the levels of IL-17A and IL-4, decreased in lamina propria of colon in immune milk-fed mice as compared with those in control milk-fed mice. Interestingly, oral administration of immune milk partially improved the acute colitis induced by DSS. The levels of TNF-α and IFN-γ increased, but IL-6, IL-17A and IL-4 decreased in lamina propria (LP of colon in immune milk-fed mice with DSS-induced colitis. Our results suggest that immune milk may stimulate CD4+ T cells to polarize towards a Th1 type response, but contrarily suppress Th17 and Th2 cells responses in large intestinal LP of mice. The results indicate that this kind of immune milk has is able to promote the maintainance of intestinal homeostasis and enhance protection against infection, and could alleviate the symptoms of acute colitis in mice.

  5. The Effect of Long-Term Exercise on the Production of Osteoclastogenic and Antiosteoclastogenic Cytokines by Peripheral Blood Mononuclear Cells and on Serum Markers of Bone Metabolism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Kelly Smith

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Although it is recognized that the mechanical stresses associated with physical activity augment bone mineral density and improve bone quality, our understanding of how exercise modulates bone homeostasis at the molecular level is lacking. In a before and after trial involving 43 healthy adults, we measured the effect of six months of supervised exercise training on the spontaneous and phytohemagglutinin-induced production of osteoclastogenic cytokines (interleukin-1α, tumor necrosis factor-α, antiosteoclastogenic cytokines (transforming growth factor-β1 and interleukins 4 and 10, pleiotropic cytokines with variable effects on osteoclastogenesis (interferon-γ, interleukin-6, and T cell growth and differentiation factors (interleukins 2 and 12 by peripheral blood mononuclear cells. We also measured lymphocyte phenotypes and serum markers of bone formation (osteocalcin, bone resorption (C-terminal telopeptides of Type I collagen, and bone homeostasis (25 (OH vitamin D, estradiol, testosterone, parathyroid hormone, and insulin-like growth factor 1. A combination of aerobic, resistance, and flexibility exercises done on average of 2.5 hours a week attenuated the production of osteoclastogenic cytokines and enhanced the production of antiosteoclastogenic cytokines. These changes were accompanied by a 16% reduction in collagen degradation products and a 9.8% increase in osteocalcin levels. We conclude that long-term moderate intensity exercise exerts a favorable effect on bone resorption by changing the balance between blood mononuclear cells producing osteoclastogenic cytokines and those producing antiosteoclastogenic cytokines. This trial is registered with Clinical Trials.gov Identifier: NCT02765945.

  6. Innate production of T(H)2 cytokines by adipose tissue-associated c-Kit(+)Sca-1(+) lymphoid cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moro, Kazuyo; Yamada, Taketo; Tanabe, Masanobu; Takeuchi, Tsutomu; Ikawa, Tomokatsu; Kawamoto, Hiroshi; Furusawa, Jun-Ichi; Ohtani, Masashi; Fujii, Hideki; Koyasu, Shigeo

    2010-01-28

    Innate immune responses are important in combating various microbes during the early phases of infection. Natural killer (NK) cells are innate lymphocytes that, unlike T and B lymphocytes, do not express antigen receptors but rapidly exhibit cytotoxic activities against virus-infected cells and produce various cytokines. Here we report a new type of innate lymphocyte present in a novel lymphoid structure associated with adipose tissues in the peritoneal cavity. These cells do not express lineage (Lin) markers but do express c-Kit, Sca-1 (also known as Ly6a), IL7R and IL33R. Similar lymphoid clusters were found in both human and mouse mesentery and we term this tissue 'FALC' (fat-associated lymphoid cluster). FALC Lin(-)c-Kit(+)Sca-1(+) cells are distinct from lymphoid progenitors and lymphoid tissue inducer cells. These cells proliferate in response to IL2 and produce large amounts of T(H)2 cytokines such as IL5, IL6 and IL13. IL5 and IL6 regulate B-cell antibody production and self-renewal of B1 cells. Indeed, FALC Lin(-)c-Kit(+)Sca-1(+) cells support the self-renewal of B1 cells and enhance IgA production. IL5 and IL13 mediate allergic inflammation and protection against helminth infection. After helminth infection and in response to IL33, FALC Lin(-)c-Kit(+)Sca-1(+) cells produce large amounts of IL13, which leads to goblet cell hyperplasia-a critical step for helminth expulsion. In mice devoid of FALC Lin(-)c-Kit(+)Sca-1(+) cells, such goblet cell hyperplasia was not induced. Thus, FALC Lin(-)c-Kit(+)Sca-1(+) cells are T(H)2-type innate lymphocytes, and we propose that these cells be called 'natural helper cells'.

  7. Donor lung derived myeloid and plasmacytoid dendritic cells differentially regulate T cell proliferation and cytokine production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benson Heather L

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Direct allorecognition, i.e., donor lung-derived dendritic cells (DCs stimulating recipient-derived T lymphocytes, is believed to be the key mechanism of lung allograft rejection. Myeloid (cDCs and plasmacytoid (pDCs are believed to have differential effects on T cell activation. However, the roles of each DC type on T cell activation and rejection pathology post lung transplantation are unknown. Methods Using transgenic mice and antibody depletion techniques, either or both cell types were depleted in lungs of donor BALB/c mice (H-2d prior to transplanting into C57BL/6 mice (H-2b, followed by an assessment of rejection pathology, and pDC or cDC-induced proliferation and cytokine production in C57BL/6-derived mediastinal lymph node T cells (CD3+. Results Depleting either DC type had modest effect on rejection pathology and T cell proliferation. In contrast, T cells from mice that received grafts depleted of both DCs did not proliferate and this was associated with significantly reduced acute rejection scores compared to all other groups. cDCs were potent inducers of IFNγ, whereas both cDCs and pDCs induced IL-10. Both cell types had variable effects on IL-17A production. Conclusion Collectively, the data show that direct allorecognition by donor lung pDCs and cDCs have differential effects on T cell proliferation and cytokine production. Depletion of both donor lung cDC and pDC could prevent the severity of acute rejection episodes.

  8. Immunomodulatory activity of xanthohumol: inhibition of T cell proliferation, cell-mediated cytotoxicity and Th1 cytokine production through suppression of NF-κB

    OpenAIRE

    Gao, Xiaohua; Deeb, Dorrah; Liu, Yongbo; DULCHAVSKY, SCOTT A.; Gautam, Subhash C.

    2009-01-01

    Xanthohumol (XN), a prenylated chalcone present in hops (Humulus lupus L.) and beer, exhibits anti-inflammatory, antioxidant and antiproliferative activity, but has not been studied for effects on T cell-mediated immune responses. Here we demonstrate that XN has profound immunosuppressive effects on T cell proliferation, development of IL-2 activated killer (LAK) cells, cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs), and production of Th1 cytokines (IL-2, IFN-γ and TNF-α). The suppression of these cell-media...

  9. Increased production of interleukin-6 by T lymphocytes from patients with multiple myeloma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lapeña, P; Prieto, A; Garcia-Suarez, J; Reyes, E; San Miguel, J; Jorda, J; Alvarez-Mon, M

    1996-01-01

    Alterations in T lymphocyte functions may affect other cellular components of the immune system. Several lymphokines produced by T cells are involved in the proliferation and differentiation of human B lymphocytes. Alterations in the secretion of these molecules may be implicated in the development of B cell lymphoproliferative diseases. We have investigated the production of interleukin-2 (IL-2) and interleukin-6 (IL-6) by T lymphocytes from 14 patients with multiple myeloma (MM) and 16 healthy controls. The phenotypical and functional characteristics of these T lymphocytes were also studied. The proliferative response to vegetal lectin phytohemagglutinin (PHA) stimulation was decreased in T lymphocytes from MM patients (p 0.05) but not by exogenous IL-6 (p lectin stimulation, the production of IL-2 by T lymphocytes from those patients was normal, while IL-6 secretion was increased.

  10. CD38 exacerbates focal cytokine production, postischemic inflammation and brain injury after focal cerebral ischemia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chi-un Choe

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Converging evidence suggests that inflammatory processes significantly influence brain injury and clinical impairment in ischemic stroke. Although early studies suggested a key role of lymphocytes, recent data has emphasized the orchestrating function of innate immunity, i.e., macrophages and microglia. The bifunctional receptor and ectoenzyme CD38 synthesizes calcium-mobilizing second messengers (e.g., cyclic ADP-ribose, which have been shown to be necessary for activation and migration of myeloid immune cells. Therefore, we investigated the dynamics of CD38 in stroke and the impact of CD38-deficiency on cytokine production, inflammation and cerebral damage in a mouse model of cerebral ischemia-reperfusion. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We show that the local expression of the chemokine MCP-1 was attenuated in CD38-deficient mice compared with wildtype mice after focal cerebral ischemia and reperfusion. In contrast, no significant induction of MCP-1 expression was observed in peripheral blood after 6 hours. Flow cytometry analysis revealed less infiltrating macrophages and lymphocytes in the ischemic hemisphere of CD38-deficient mice, whereas the amount of resident microglia was unaltered. An up-regulation of CD38 expression was observed in macrophages and CD8(+ cells after focal cerebral ischemia in wildtype mice, whereas CD38 expression was unchanged in microglia. Finally, we demonstrate that CD38-deficiency decreases the cerebral ischemic injury and the persistent neurological deficit after three days of reperfusion in this murine temporary middle cerebral artery occlusion (tMCAO model. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: CD38 is differentially regulated following stroke and its deficiency attenuates the postischemic chemokine production, the immune cell infiltration and the cerebral injury after temporary ischemia and reperfusion. Therefore CD38 might prove a therapeutic target in ischemic stroke.

  11. Inflammatory cytokine production predominates in early Lyme disease in patients with erythema migrans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glickstein, Lisa; Moore, Brian; Bledsoe, Tara; Damle, Nitin; Sikand, Vijay; Steere, Allen C

    2003-10-01

    In a study of cytokine production ex vivo by Borrelia burgdorferi-stimulated peripheral blood mononuclear cells from 27 patients with culture-positive erythema migrans, production of inflammatory cytokines predominated, particularly gamma interferon and, to a lesser degree, tumor necrosis factor alpha. In contrast, with the exception of interleukin-13, anti-inflammatory cytokine production was negligible. Thus, B. burgdorferi antigens in early Lyme disease often induce a strong inflammatory response.

  12. The effects of vitamin A supplementation with measles vaccine on leucocyte counts and in vitro cytokine production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Kristoffer Jarlov; Fisker, Ane Bærent; Andersen, Andreas; Sartono, Erliyani; Yazdanbakhsh, Maria; Aaby, Peter; Erikstrup, Christian; Benn, Christine Stabell

    2016-02-28

    As WHO recommends vitamin A supplementation (VAS) at vaccination contacts after age 6 months, many children receive VAS together with measles vaccine (MV). We aimed to investigate the immunological effect of VAS given with MV. Within a randomised placebo-controlled trial investigating the effect on overall mortality of providing VAS with vaccines in Guinea-Bissau, we conducted an immunological sub-study of VAS v. placebo with MV, analysing leucocyte counts, whole blood in vitro cytokine production, vitamin A status and concentration of C-reactive protein (CRP). VAS compared with placebo was associated with an increased frequency of CRP ≥ 5 mg/l (28 v. 12%; P=0·005). Six weeks after supplementation, VAS had significant sex-differential effects on leucocyte, lymphocyte, monocyte and basophil cell counts, decreasing them in males but increasing them in females. Mainly in females, the effect of VAS on cytokine responses differed by previous VAS: in previous VAS recipients, VAS increased the pro-inflammatory and T helper cell type 1 (Th1) cytokine responses, whereas VAS decreased these responses in previously unsupplemented children. In previous VAS recipients, VAS was associated with increased IFN-γ responses to phytohaemagglutinin in females (geometric mean ratio (GMR): 3·97; 95% CI 1·44, 10·90) but not in males (GMR 0·44; 95% CI 0·14, 1·42); the opposite was observed in previously unsupplemented children. Our results corroborate that VAS provided with MV has immunological effects, which may depend on sex and previous VAS. VAS may increase the number of leucocytes, but also repress both the innate and lymphocyte-derived cytokine responses in females, whereas this repression may be opposite if the females have previously received VAS.

  13. Fetuin-A induces cytokine expression and suppresses adiponectin production.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anita M Hennige

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The secreted liver protein fetuin-A (AHSG is up-regulated in hepatic steatosis and the metabolic syndrome. These states are strongly associated with low-grade inflammation and hypoadiponectinemia. We, therefore, hypothesized that fetuin-A may play a role in the regulation of cytokine expression, the modulation of adipose tissue expression and plasma concentration of the insulin-sensitizing and atheroprotective adipokine adiponectin. METHODOLOGY AND PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Human monocytic THP1 cells and human in vitro differenttiated adipocytes as well as C57BL/6 mice were treated with fetuin-A. mRNA expression of the genes encoding inflammatory cytokines and the adipokine adiponectin (ADIPOQ was assessed by real-time RT-PCR. In 122 subjects, plasma levels of fetuin-A, adiponectin and, in a subgroup, the multimeric forms of adiponectin were determined. Fetuin-A treatment induced TNF and IL1B mRNA expression in THP1 cells (p<0.05. Treatment of mice with fetuin-A, analogously, resulted in a marked increase in adipose tissue Tnf mRNA as well as Il6 expression (27- and 174-fold, respectively. These effects were accompanied by a decrease in adipose tissue Adipoq mRNA expression and lower circulating adiponectin levels (p<0.05, both. Furthermore, fetuin-A repressed ADIPOQ mRNA expression of human in vitro differentiated adipocytes (p<0.02 and induced inflammatory cytokine expression. In humans in plasma, fetuin-A correlated positively with high-sensitivity C-reactive protein, a marker of subclinical inflammation (r = 0.26, p = 0.01, and negatively with total- (r = -0.28, p = 0.02 and, particularly, high molecular weight adiponectin (r = -0.36, p = 0.01. CONCLUSIONS AND SIGNIFICANCE: We provide novel evidence that the secreted liver protein fetuin-A induces low-grade inflammation and represses adiponectin production in animals and in humans. These data suggest an important role of fatty liver in the pathophysiology of insulin resistance and

  14. Circulating sCD138 and Some Angiogenesis-Involved Cytokines Help to Anticipate the Disease Progression of Early-Stage B-Cell Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Syndecan-1 (CD138 is a transmembrane heparin sulfate proteoglycan expressed on distinct stages of differentiation of B-lymphoid cells. Its prognostic value in B-cell chronic lymphocytic leukemia (B-CLL has not been evaluated so far. The serum concentration of sCD138 and some angiogenesis-involved cytokines: vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF, basis fibroblast growth factor (bFGF, and endostatin were studied in 52 previously untreated patients with B-CLL. We found that bFGF and sCD138 levels were significantly higher in B-CLL patients than in controls. In patients with sCD138 level or endostatin level below the median value the lymphocyte count was higher than in patients with serum level of those cytokines above the median value. In patients with progressive disease bFGF level was significantly higher and sCD138 level significantly lower than in patients with stable one. Moreover, high sCD138 level was associated with longer lymphocyte doubling-free survival, and, on the limit of statistical significance, a high endostatin level was associated with shorter progression-free survival. We conclude that serum sCD138 level is increased in early stage B-CLL patients and may have a positive prognostic value as to the dynamics of the disease.

  15. A novel lectin from Artocarpus lingnanensis induces proliferation and Th1/Th2 cytokine secretion through CD45 signaling pathway in human T lymphocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Bo; Li, Lu; Zeng, Qiyan; Lin, Faquan; Yin, Lijun; Liao, Liejun; Huang, Min; Wang, Jingping

    2017-04-01

    Lectins are carbohydrate-binding proteins and have been used for purification and characterization of glycoproteins. In this study, a novel 58.9-kDa tetrameric lectin from Artocarpus lingnanensis seeds was purified, characterized, and its mitogenic potential was evaluated. The hemagglutination inhibition assay indicated that Artocarpus lingnanensis lectin (ALL) showed specificity toward galactose. ALL was effectively purified in a single-step using affinity chromatography on a galactose-Sepharose column. ALL showed pH optima between 5.0 and 9.0, and optimal temperature between 20 and 40 °C. ALL triggered proliferation and activation of human T lymphocytes (e.g., CD4(+) T lymphocytes). Flow cytometry and laser scanning confocal microscopy revealed binding of ALL to T cells and colocalized with CD45. Affinity chromatography and Western blot suggested that CD45 isolated from human T cell membrane fraction may be the major receptor of ALL. CD45 blocking antibody attenuated the binding and proliferation of T cells induced by ALL. CD45-PTPase inhibitor dephostatin reduced ALL-induced T cells proliferation and expression of CD25 and pZAP-70. Furthermore, secretion of ALL-induced Th1/Th2 cytokines was blocked with dephostatin. Also, dephostatin inhibited phosphorylation of ALL-mediated activation of ERK and p38MAPK. This study demonstrates the involvement of CD45-mediated signaling in ALL-induced T lymphocyte proliferation and Th1/Th2 cytokine secretion through activation of p38 and ERK.

  16. Early interferon-γ production in human lymphocyte subsets in response to nontyphoidal Salmonella demonstrates inherent capacity in innate cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tonney S Nyirenda

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Nontyphoidal Salmonellae frequently cause life-threatening bacteremia in sub-Saharan Africa. Young children and HIV-infected adults are particularly susceptible. High case-fatality rates and increasing antibiotic resistance require new approaches to the management of this disease. Impaired cellular immunity caused by defects in the T helper 1 pathway lead to intracellular disease with Salmonella that can be countered by IFNγ administration. This report identifies the lymphocyte subsets that produce IFNγ early in Salmonella infection. METHODOLOGY: Intracellular cytokine staining was used to identify IFNγ production in blood lymphocyte subsets of ten healthy adults with antibodies to Salmonella (as evidence of immunity to Salmonella, in response to stimulation with live and heat-killed preparations of the D23580 invasive African isolate of Salmonella Typhimurium. The absolute number of IFNγ-producing cells in innate, innate-like and adaptive lymphocyte subpopulations was determined. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Early IFNγ production was found in the innate/innate-like lymphocyte subsets: γδ-T cells, NK cells and NK-like T cells. Significantly higher percentages of such cells produced IFNγ compared to adaptive αβ-T cells (Student's t test, P<0.001 and ≤0.02 for each innate subset compared, respectively, with CD4(+- and CD8(+-T cells. The absolute numbers of IFNγ-producing cells showed similar differences. The proportion of IFNγ-producing γδ-T cells, but not other lymphocytes, was significantly higher when stimulated with live compared with heat-killed bacteria (P<0.0001. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: Our findings indicate an inherent capacity of innate/innate-like lymphocyte subsets to produce IFNγ early in the response to Salmonella infection. This may serve to control intracellular infection and reduce the threat of extracellular spread of disease with bacteremia which becomes life-threatening in the absence of protective antibody

  17. Polymorphisms at Cytokine Genes May Determine the Effect of Vitamin E on Cytokine Production in the Elderly1–3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belisle, Sarah E.; Leka, Lynette S.; Delgado-Lista, Javier; Jacques, Paul F.; Ordovas, Jose M.; Meydani, Simin Nikbin

    2009-01-01

    Vitamin E has been shown to affect cytokine production. However, individual response to vitamin E supplementation varies. Previous studies indicate that cytokine production is heritable and common single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) may explain differences in cytokine production between individuals. We hypothesize that the differential response to the immunomodulatory actions of vitamin E reflects genetic differences among individuals, including SNP at cytokine genes that modulate cytokine production. We used data from a double-blind, placebo-controlled 1-y vitamin E (182 mg d,l-α-tocopherol) intervention study in elderly men and women (mean age 83 y) to test this hypothesis (vitamin E, n = 47; placebo, n = 63). We found that the effect of vitamin E on tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α production in whole blood stimulated for 24 h with lipopolysaccharide (1.0 mg/L) is dependent on TNFα -308G > A. Participants with the A/A and A/G genotypes at TNFα -308G > A who were treated with vitamin E had lower TNFα production than those with the A allele treated with placebo. These observations suggest that individual immune responses to vitamin E supplementation are in part mediated by genetic factors. Because the A allele at TNFα has been previously associated with higher TNFα levels in whole blood and isolated immune cells, our observations suggest that the antiinflammatory effect of vitamin E is specific to those genetically predisposed to higher inflammation. Further studies are needed to determine the biological mechanism driving the interaction between vitamin E treatment and TNFα -308G > A and its implications for disease resistance. PMID:19710156

  18. Lactobacillus Acidophilus Strain L-92 Regulates the Production of Th1 Cytokine as well as Th2 Cytokines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akiko Torii

    2007-01-01

    Conclusions: Oral L-92 administration regulated both Th1 and Th2 cytokine responses, suppressed serum OVA-specific IgE, and induced TGF-β production in PPs. TGF-β is known to be associated with activation of regulatory T (Treg cells. These data suggest that LAB may have immunomodulative effect by Treg cells via TGF-β activity.

  19. High circulating levels of tumor necrosis factor-alpha in centenarians are not associated with increased production in T lymphocytes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sandmand, Marie; Bruunsgaard, Helle; Kemp, Kåre

    2003-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Aging is characterized by increased inflammatory activity reflected by increased plasma levels of proinflammatory cytokines, concomitant with an altered cytokine profile of T lymphocytes. High plasma levels of tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha are strongly associated with morbidity an...

  20. Spironolactone inhibits production of proinflammatory cytokines by human mononuclear cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Peter Riis; Rieneck, Klaus; Bendtzen, Klaus

    2004-01-01

    The mineralocorticoid receptor antagonist spironolactone (SPIR) reduces the mortality and morbidity in patients with congestive heart failure (CHF). Overexpression of proinflammatory cytokines contribute to the development and progression of CHF.......The mineralocorticoid receptor antagonist spironolactone (SPIR) reduces the mortality and morbidity in patients with congestive heart failure (CHF). Overexpression of proinflammatory cytokines contribute to the development and progression of CHF....

  1. Cytokine production by bone marrow mononuclear cells in inherited bone marrow failure syndromes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsui, Ken; Giri, Neelam; Alter, Blanche P; Pinto, Ligia A

    2013-10-01

    Fanconi anaemia (FA), dyskeratosis congenita (DC), Diamond-Blackfan anaemia (DBA), and Shwachman-Diamond syndrome (SDS) are characterized by the progressive development of bone marrow failure. Overproduction of tumour necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) from activated bone marrow T-cells has been proposed as a mechanism of FA-related aplasia. Whether such overproduction occurs in the other syndromes is unknown. We conducted a comparative study on bone marrow mononuclear cells to examine the cellular subset composition and cytokine production. We found lower proportions of haematopoietic stem cells in FA, DC, and SDS, and a lower proportion of monocytes in FA, DC, and DBA compared with controls. The T- and B-lymphocyte proportions were similar to controls, except for low B-cells in DC. We did not observe overproduction of TNF-α or IFN-γ by T-cells in any patients. Induction levels of TNF-α, interleukin (IL)-6, IL-1β, IL-10, granulocyte colony-stimulating factor, and granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor in monocytes stimulated with high-dose lipopolysaccharide (LPS) were similar at 4 h but lower at 24 h when compared to controls. Unexpectedly, patient samples showed a trend toward higher cytokine level in response to low-dose (0·001 μg/ml) LPS. Increased sensitivity to LPS may have clinical implications and could contribute to the development of pancytopenia by creating a chronic subclinical inflammatory micro-environment in the bone marrow. © Published 2013. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the U.S.A.

  2. Inhibition of cytokine production by methotrexate. Studies in healthy volunteers and patients with rheumatoid arthritis.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gerards, A.H.; Lathouder, de S; Groot, E.R.; Dijkmans, B.A.C.; Aarden, L.A.

    2003-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To analyse whether the beneficial effects of methotrexate in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) could be due to inhibition of inflammatory cytokine production. METHODS: Cytokine production was studied using whole blood (WB) and mononuclear cells (MNC) of healthy volunteers and RA patients. Cultur

  3. Impaired production of cytokines is an independent predictor of mortality in HIV-1-infected patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ostrowski, Sisse R; Gerstoft, Jan; Pedersen, Bente K;

    2003-01-01

    With regard to the natural history of HIV-1 infection this study investigated whether whole-blood culture cytokine production was associated with mortality in HIV-1-infected patients.......With regard to the natural history of HIV-1 infection this study investigated whether whole-blood culture cytokine production was associated with mortality in HIV-1-infected patients....

  4. Oral supplementation of diabetic mice with propolis restores the proliferation capacity and chemotaxis of B and T lymphocytes towards CCL21 and CXCL12 by modulating the lipid profile, the pro-inflammatory cytokine levels and oxidative stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al Ghamdi, Ahmad A; Badr, Gamal; Hozzein, Wael N; Allam, Ahmed; Al-Waili, Noori S; Al-Wadaan, Mohammed A; Garraud, Olivier

    2015-09-15

    Type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1D) is a chronic autoimmune disease caused by the selective destruction of pancreatic β cells, followed by hyperglycemia, oxidative stress and the subsequent extensive impairment of immune cell functions, a phenomenon responsible for the development of chronic diabetic complications. Propolis, a natural bee product that is extensively used in foods and beverages, significantly benefits human health. Specifically, propolis exerts antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and analgesic effects that may improve diabetic complications. To further elucidate the potential benefits of propolis, the present study investigated the effect of dietary supplementation with propolis on the plasma cytokine profiles, free radical levels, lipid profile and lymphocyte proliferation and chemotaxis in a streptozotocin (STZ)-induced type I diabetic mouse model. Thirty male mice were equally distributed into 3 experimental groups: group 1, non-diabetic control mice; group 2, diabetic mice; and group 3, diabetic mice supplemented daily with an ethanol-soluble derivative of propolis (100 mg/kg body weight) for 1 month. First, the induction of diabetes in mice was associated with hyperglycemia and significant decreases in the insulin level and the lymphocyte count. In this context, diabetic mice exhibited severe diabetic complications, as demonstrated by a significant decrease in the levels of IL-2, IL-4 and IL-7, prolonged elevation of the levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines (IL-1β, IL-6 and TNF-α) and reactive oxygen species (ROS) and altered lipid profiles compared with control non-diabetic mice. Moreover, antigen stimulation of B and T lymphocytes markedly reduced the proliferative capacity and chemotaxis of these cells towards CCL21 and CXCL12 in diabetic mice compared with control mice. Interestingly, compared with diabetes induction alone, treatment of diabetic mice with propolis significantly restored the plasma cytokine and ROS levels and the lipid profile to

  5. Role of antigen presentation in the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines in obese adipose tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majdoubi, Abdelilah; Kishta, Osama A; Thibodeau, Jacques

    2016-06-01

    Type II diabetes regroups different physiological anomalies that ultimately lead to low-grade chronic inflammation, insulin resistance and loss of pancreatic β-cells. Obesity is one of the best examples of such a condition that can develop into Metabolic Syndrome, causing serious health problems of great socio-economic consequences. The pathological outcome of obesity has a genetic basis and depends on the delicate balance between pro- and anti-inflammatory effectors of the immune system. The causal link between obesity and inflammation is well established. While innate immunity plays a key role in the development of a pro-inflammatory state in obese adipose tissues, it has now become clear that adaptive immune cells are also involved and participate in the cascade of events that lead to metabolic perturbations. The efficacy of some immunotherapeutic protocols in reducing the symptoms of obesity-driven metabolic syndrome in mice implicated all arms of the immune response. Recently, the production of pathogenic immunoglobulins and pro-inflammatory cytokines by B and T lymphocytes suggested an auto-immune basis for the establishment of a non-healthy obese state. Understanding the cellular landscape of obese adipose tissues and how immune cells sustain chronic inflammation holds the key to the development of targeted therapies. In this review, we emphasize the role of antigen-presenting cells and MHC molecules in obese adipose tissue and the general contribution of the adaptive arm of the immune system in inflammation-induced insulin resistance.

  6. Inhibition of dengue virus production and cytokine/chemokine expression by ribavirin and compound A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rattanaburee, Thidarath; Junking, Mutita; Panya, Aussara; Sawasdee, Nunghathai; Songprakhon, Pucharee; Suttitheptumrong, Aroonroong; Limjindaporn, Thawornchai; Haegeman, Guy; Yenchitsomanus, Pa-thai

    2015-12-01

    Dengue virus (DENV) infection is a worldwide public health problem with an increasing magnitude. The severity of disease in the patients with DENV infection correlates with high viral load and massive cytokine production - the condition referred to as "cytokine storm". Thus, concurrent inhibition of DENV and cytokine production should be more effective for treatment of DENV infection. In this study, we investigated the effects of the antiviral agent - ribavirin (RV), and the anti-inflammatory compound - compound A (CpdA), individually or in combination, on DENV production and cytokine/chemokine transcription in human lung epithelial carcinoma (A549) cells infected with DENV. Initially, the cells infected with DENV serotype 2 (DENV2) was studied. The results showed that treatment of DENV-infected cells with RV could significantly reduce both DENV production and cytokine (IL-6 and TNF-α) and chemokine (IP-10 and RANTES) transcription while treatment of DENV-infected cells with CpdA could significantly reduce cytokine (IL-6 and TNF-α) and chemokine (RANTES) transcription. Combined RV and CpdA treatment of the infected cells showed greater reduction of DENV production and cytokine/chemokine transcription. Similar results of this combined treatment were observed for infection with any one of the four DENV (DENV1, 2, 3, and 4) serotypes. These results indicate that combination of the antiviral agent and the anti-inflammatory compound offers a greater efficiency in reduction of DENV and cytokine/chemokine production, providing a new therapeutic approach for DENV infection.

  7. Effect of antimalarial drugs on stimulation and interleukin 2 production of human lymphocytes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bygbjerg, I C; Svenson, M; Theander, T G

    1987-01-01

    Effect of pyrimethamine, an antimalarial antifolate, and of mefloquine, chloroquine, and quinine, which belong to the quinoline group of antimalarials, on proliferation and interleukin 2 (IL-2) production of human lymphocytes was studied in vitro. Pyrimethamine at concentrations above therapeutic...

  8. Altered Cytokine Production By Specific Human Peripheral Blood Cell Subsets Immediately Following Spaceflight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crucian, Brian E.; Cubbage, Michael L.; Sams, Clarence F.

    1999-01-01

    In this study, we have attempted to combine standard immunological assays with the cellular resolving power of the flow cytometer to positively identify the specific cell types involved in spaceflight-induced immune alterations. We have obtained whole blood samples from 27 astronauts collected at three timepoints (L-10, R+0 and R+3) surrounding four recent space shuttle missions. The duration of these missions ranged from 10 to 18 days. Assays performed included serum/urine cortisol, comprehensive subset phenotyping, assessment of cellular activation markers and intracellular cytokine production following mitogenic stimulation. Absolute levels of peripheral granulocytes were significantly elevated following spaceflight, but the levels of circulating lymphocytes and monocytes were unchanged. Lymphocyte subset analysis demonstrated trends towards a decreased percentage of T cells and an increased percentage of B cells. Nearly all of the astronauts exhibited an increased CD4:CD8 ratio, which was dramatic in some individuals. Assessment of memory (CD45RA+) vs. naive (CD45RO+) CD4+ T cell subsets was more ambiguous, with subjects tending to group more as a flight crew. All subjects from one mission demonstrated an increased CD45RA:CD45RO ratio, while all subjects from another Mission demonstrated a decreased ratio. While no significant trend was seen in the monocyte population as defined by scatter, a decreased percentage of the CD14+ CD16+ monocyte subset was seen following spaceflight in all subjects tested. In general, most of the cellular changes described above which were assessed at R+O and compared to L-10 trended to pre-flight levels by R+3. Although no significant differences were seen in the expression of the cellular activation markers CD69 and CD25 following exposure to microgravity, significant alterations were seen in cytokine production in response to mitogenic activation for specific subsets. T cell (CD3+) production of IL-2 was significantly decreased

  9. Role of cytoskeleton in cytokine production from lung alveolar epithelial cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Cytokines are involved in both host defense and inflammatory lung injury. Recent work from our laboratory and others has demonstrated that in addition to classical immune cells, lung alveolar epithelial cells (or pneumocytes) can also produce cytokines in response to various stimuli. This new knowledge has advanced our view of the host defense system in the lung. The regulatory mechanisms of cytokine production have been studied in great detail at various cellular and molecular levels, but the mechanisms of intracellular cytokine transport are largely unknown. Our recent studies suggest that the cytoskeleton could play an important role in mediating intracellular cytokine trafficking. This could be an important regulatory step for cytokine production. For example, lipopolyssacharide (LPS) induced tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) from rat pneumocytes, which was further enhanced by a microfilament-disrupting agent. LPS also induced macrophage inflammatory protein-2(MIP-2), a chemokine for neutrophil recruitment and activation, from rat pneumocytes. This effect was enhanced by microtubule-disrupting agents. We speculate that both microfilaments and microtubules are involved in regulating cytokine transportation in pneumocytes through different mechanisms. Further investigation in on going in my laboratory. From a clinical perspective, if we understand the mechanisms regulating cytokine production and release from lung alveolar epithelial cells, we may be able to enhance or inhibit release of crucial cytokines depending on the clinical situation.

  10. A proinflammatory cytokine interleukin-32beta promotes the production of an anti-inflammatory cytokine interleukin-10.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Jeong-Woo; Choi, Seung-Chul; Cho, Min-Chul; Kim, Hee-Jong; Kim, Jae-Hwa; Lim, Jong-Seok; Kim, Soo-Hyun; Han, Jae-Yong; Yoon, Do-Young

    2009-09-01

    A new proinflammatory cytokine interleukin-32 (IL-32) has six isoforms. Although IL-32 can be detected in sera from patients suffering from Crohn's disease and rheumatoid arthritis, it is unclear which isoforms are involved. To this end, we investigated the functions of the most abundant IL-32beta by generating K562-IL-32beta stable cell lines. This report confirms, using IL-32 small interfering RNA, that IL-32beta induces an anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10 in K562-IL-32beta cells and U937 promonocytic cells, which express endogenous IL-32beta upon phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA) treatment, and monocyte-derived dendritic cells (DC) upon lipopolysaccharide (LPS) treatment. Interleukin-32beta was induced in monocyte-derived macrophages by LPS and in monocyte-derived DC by LPS, poly(I:C), or anti-CD40 antibody, but was not induced by PMA. We showed that IL-32beta expression was increased in a time-dependent manner in monocyte-derived DC upon LPS treatment and peaked at 24 hr. Production of IL-10 was exactly coincident with IL-32beta expression, but IL-1beta and tumour necrosis factor-alpha production peaked at 6 hr after LPS treatment, then steeply declined. Interleukin-12 p40 was induced at 9 hr and gradually increased until 48 hr, at which time IL-32beta and IL-10 were no longer increased. Knock-down of IL-32beta by IL-32 small interfering RNA led to the decrease of IL-10, but the increase of IL-12 in monocyte-derived DC, which means that IL-32beta promotes IL-10 production, but limits IL-12 production. We also showed that IL-10 neutralization increases IL-12, IL-1beta and tumour necrosis factor-alpha production, which implies that IL-10 suppresses such proinflammatory cytokines. Taken together, our results suggest that IL-32beta upregulates the production of an anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10, and then IL-10 suppresses proinflammatory cytokines.

  11. Activation of the TLR/MyD88/NF-κB signal pathway contributes to changes in IL-4 and IL-12 production in piglet lymphocytes infected with porcine circovirus type 2 in vitro.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dianning Duan

    Full Text Available Porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2 causes immunosuppression in pigs. One causative factor is an imbalance in cytokine levels in the blood and lymphoid tissues. Many studies have reported changes in cytokine production, but the regulatory mechanisms involved have not yet been elucidated. In this study, we investigated alteration and regulation of IL-4 and IL-12 production in lymphocytes following incubation with PCV2 in vitro. The levels of IL-4 decreased and levels of IL-12 increased in lymphocyte supernatants, and the DNA-binding activity of NF-κB and the expression of p65 in the nucleus and p-IκB in the cytoplasm of lymphocytes increased after incubation with PCV2. However, these effects were reversed when lymphocytes were coincubated with PCV2 and the NF-κB inhibitor BAY11-7082. In addition, the expression of MyD88 protein increased and the expression of mRNA for the toll-like receptors (TLRs TLR2, TLR3, TLR4 and TLR9 was upregulated when lymphocytes were incubated with PCV2. However, no change was seen in TLR7 and TLR8 mRNA expression. In conclusion, this study showed that PCV2 induced a decrease in IL-4 and an increase in IL-12 production in lymphocytes, and these changes were regulated by the TLR-MyD88-NF-κB signal pathway.

  12. Immunotoxicity of Hydrocortisone on Th1/Th2-Related Cytokine Production Is Associated with Yang-Deficient State in Traditional Chinese Medicine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chengfang Yao; Li Wang; Jian Zhang; Xianbin Zhou; Cai Zhang

    2007-01-01

    Steroid hormone serving as an immunosuppressor often induces immunotoxicity when administered in highest dosage or accumulated in long-term usage. The stage of high concentration of steroid hormone leading to a wide range of symptoms is associated to the yang-deficient state, which is the part of yin-yang imbalance involved in processes of many diseases in traditional Chinese medicine. Here we intend to investigate the profile of Th1/Th2-related cytokine transcriptions under yang-deficient conditions in a yang-deficient animal model by intramuscular injection of hydrocortisone (a kind of steroid hormone). The yang-deficient symptoms were estimated by detecting activity, appetite, body weight and so on. T cell proliferation and cytokine transcriptions were analyzed. The results showed that yang-deficient mice were established successfully since typical yang-deficient symptoms were observed in this model with decreased activities, appetite, body weight and temperature. More interestingly, the transcriptions of IFN-γ, IL-2, IL-4 and IL-10 in this model were markedly suppressed and the proliferation of lymphocytes significantly decreased as well. The results suggested that yang-deficient symptoms were related to the steroid-induced reduction of cytokine transcription and impairment of lymphocyte proliferation. Therefore, novel strategies through regulating cytokine production might be considered as potent approach to patients with yang-deficiency symptoms.

  13. Effects of stress, mimicked by administration of corticosterone in drinking water, on the expression of chicken cytokine and chemokine genes in lymphocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shini, S; Kaiser, P

    2009-09-01

    In this study, we identify molecular mediators that participate in the regulation of the immune response during corticosterone-induced stress in chickens. At 7 weeks of age, 120 chickens were exposed for 1 week to corticosterone treatment. Cytokine and chemokine mRNA expression levels were evaluated in peripheral blood and splenic lymphocytes. Expression levels of interleukin (IL)-1beta, IL-6, IL-18 and transforming growth factor (TGF)-beta4 mRNA were significantly up-regulated in lymphocytes 3 h after first treatment with corticosterone. TGF-beta4 and IL-18 remained elevated 1 week post-initial treatment. Compared with controls, corticosterone-treated birds showed greater expression levels of chemokine (CC) mRNA, particularly for CCLi2, CCL5 (RANTES), CCL16 and CXCLi1, in peripheral and splenic lymphocytes 3 h post-initial exposure. CCLi2 mRNA was highly expressed in splenocytes at all time-points. Administration of corticosterone significantly increased circulating corticosterone concentrations and decreased total lymphocyte counts at 3, 24 h and 1 week post-initiation of corticosterone treatment. There was a positive correlation between plasma corticosterone concentrations and CCL5 and CCL16 mRNA at 3 h post-initial administration. At 1 week post-initial treatment, corticosterone concentrations correlated positively with CCL5 and negatively with IL-18 mRNA level. Conditions associated with significant changes in corticosterone levels might therefore affect the immune response by increasing pro-inflammatory responses, leading to potential modulation of the Th1/Th2 balance.

  14. ALPK1 affects testosterone mediated regulation of proinflammatory cytokines production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuo, Tzer-Min; Yeh, Kun-Tu; Hsu, Hui-Ting; Chiang, Shang-Lun; Chang, Jan-Gowth; Huang, Chung-Ming; Tu, Hung-Pin; Liu, Chiu-Shong; Ko, Ying-Chin

    2015-11-01

    Alpha-protein kinase 1, also known as alpha-kinase 1 (ALPK1), is associated with chronic kidney disease (CKD), myocardial infarction, gout and type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM). In addition to having an inductive effect on the proinflammatory cytokines in monocytic THP1 cells, ALPK1 is expressed abundantly in the mouse testes. Low testosterone levels are commonly associated with arthritis, CKD, type 2 DM, cardiovascular disease and inflammation. The testosterone's anti-inflammatory effect has been demonstrated to reduce proinflammatory cytokines and adhesion molecules. In this study, we found that ALPK1 transgenic mice showed lower levels of testosterone in both the testes and the serum. Decreasing endogenous ALPK1 enhanced testosterone levels and transcripts of testosterone-regulated genes (P450scc, 3beta-HSD, P450C17, 17beta-HSD, StAR, and INSL3) in TM3 Leydig cells. In contrast, increasing testosterone decreased ALPK1 in both TM3 and monocytic THP1 cells. This decrease was accompanied by a reduction of the proinflammatory cytokines. Increased ALPK1 levels attenuated the testosterone effects in THP1 cells. Finally, we also found that ALPK1 increased the release of TNF-alpha and TGF-beta1 in the human embryonic kidney 293 cells, while testosterone inhibited ALPK1 in the primary kidney cells. Taken together, this data suggests that the balance between ALPK1 and testosterone plays a critical role in the testosterone-mediated inhibition of proinflammatory cytokines.

  15. Porphyromonas Gingivalis and E-coli induce different cytokine production patterns in pregnant women.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marijke M Faas

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Pregnant individuals of many species, including humans, are more sensitive to various bacteria or their products as compared with non-pregnant individuals. Pregnant individuals also respond differently to different bacteria or their products. Therefore, in the present study, we evaluated whether the increased sensitivity of pregnant women to bacterial products and their heterogeneous response to different bacteria was associated with differences in whole blood cytokine production upon stimulation with bacteria or their products. METHODS: Blood samples were taken from healthy pregnant and age-matched non-pregnant women and ex vivo stimulated with bacteria or LPS from Porphyromonas Gingivalis (Pg or E-coli for 24 hrs. TNFα, IL-1ß, IL-6, IL-12 and IL-10 were measured using a multiplex Luminex system. RESULTS: We observed a generally lower cytokine production after stimulation with Pg bacteria or it's LPS as compared with E-coli bacteria. However, there was also an effect of pregnancy upon cytokine production: in pregnant women the production of IL-6 upon Pg stimulation was decreased as compared with non-pregnant women. After stimulation with E-coli, the production of IL-12 and TNFα was decreased in pregnant women as compared with non-pregnant women. CONCLUSION: Our results showed that cytokine production upon bacterial stimulation of whole blood differed between pregnant and non-pregnant women, showing that the increased sensitivity of pregnant women may be due to differences in cytokine production. Moreover, pregnancy also affected whole blood cytokine production upon Pg or E-coli stimulation differently. Thus, the different responses of pregnant women to different bacteria or their products may result from variations in cytokine production.

  16. [Production of interleukin-2 by peripheral blood lymphocytes from patients with soft tissue sarcomas].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berezhnaia, N M; Goretskiĭ, B A; Konovalenko, V F; Palivets, A Iu; Tolstopiatov, B A

    1987-01-01

    Interleukin-2 (IL-2) production of phytohemagglutinin-stimulated peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBL) was studied in 9 healthy subjects and 19 patients with soft tissue sarcomas. Mean IL-2 production by PBL in 19 patients was significantly diminished as compared with the control. Surgery leads to an increase of IL-2 production, however, the levels observed in the control do not restore completely.

  17. A RIPK2 inhibitor delays NOD signalling events yet prevents inflammatory cytokine production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nachbur, Ueli; Stafford, Che A; Bankovacki, Aleksandra;

    2015-01-01

    Intracellular nucleotide binding and oligomerization domain (NOD) receptors recognize antigens including bacterial peptidoglycans and initiate immune responses by triggering the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines through activating NF-κB and MAP kinases. Receptor interacting protein kinase 2...

  18. Dissociated production of interleukin-2 and immune (gamma) interferon by phytohaemagglutinin stimulated lymphocytes in healthy infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyawaki, T; Seki, H; Taga, K; Sato, H; Taniguchi, N

    1985-02-01

    Cord blood lymphocytes were stimulated with phytohaemagglutinin (PHA) to produce interleukin-2 (IL-2) and immune interferon (IFN-gamma). On PHA stimulation, cord blood lymphocytes produced efficiently IL-2 as much as adult ones. Antiviral activity generated on PHA stimulation was shown to consist mainly of IFN-gamma as assessed by the sensitivity to pH 2.0 treatment and neutralization with anti-human IFN-gamma antibody. In contrast to IL-2 production, cord blood lymphocytes released extremely low levels of IFN-gamma following PHA stimulation. The producing ability of IFN-gamma by lymphocytes on PHA stimulation gradually increased with child growth, but was significantly low at 1-2 years of age as compared with adult controls. Around 3 years of age or later, the producing ability of IFN-gamma by lymphocytes on PHA stimulation attained levels comparable to those of adult cells. These results suggested that IL-2 producing ability of lymphocytes appeared to be at a mature stage at birth, whereas lymphocytes in the early human life might be relatively deficient in their ability to produce IFN-gamma.

  19. Cytokine profiling of tumor interstitial fluid of the breast and its relationship with lymphocyte infiltration and clinicopathological characteristics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Espinoza, Jaime A.; Jabeen, Shakila; Batra, Richa

    2016-01-01

    normal interstitial fluid (NIF) samples, and 25 matched serum samples obtained from BC patients with Luminex xMAP multiplex technology. Eleven cytokines exhibited significantly higher levels in the TIF samples compared with the NIF samples: interleukin (IL)-7, IL-10, fibroblast growth factor-2, IL-13...

  20. Loci controlling lymphocyte production of interferon c after alloantigen stimulation in vitro and their co-localization with genes controlling lymphocyte infiltration of tumors and tumor susceptibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipoldová, Marie; Havelková, Helena; Badalova, Jana; Vojtísková, Jarmila; Quan, Lei; Krulova, Magdaléna; Sohrabi, Yahya; Stassen, Alphons P; Demant, Peter

    2010-02-01

    Low infiltration of lymphocytes into cancers is associated with poor prognosis, but the reasons why some patients exhibit a low and others a high infiltration of tumors are unknown. Previously we mapped four loci (Lynf1–Lynf4) controlling lymphocyte infiltration of mouse lung tumors. These loci do not encode any of the molecules that are involved in traffic of lymphocytes. Here we report a genetic relationship between these loci and the control of production of IFNγ in allogeneic mixed lymphocyte cultures (MLC). We found that IFNγ production by lymphocytes of O20/A mice is lower than by lymphocytes of OcB-9/Dem mice (both H2pz) stimulated in MLC by irradiated splenocytes of C57BL/10SnPh (H2b) or BALB/ cHeA (H2d) mice, or by ConA. IFNγ production in MLCs of individual (O20 9 OcB-9)F2mice stimulated by irradiated C57BL/10 splenocytes and genotyped for microsatellite markers revealed four IFNγ-controlling loci (Cypr4-Cypr7), each of which is closely linked with one of the four Lynf loci and with a cluster of susceptibility genes for different tumors. This suggests that inherited differences in certain lymphocyte responses may modify their propensity to infiltrate tumors and their capacity to affect tumor growth.

  1. Cytokines in lethal graft-versus-host disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Knulst, A.C.; Bril-Bazuin, C.; Tibbe, G.J.M.; Oudenaren, van A.; Savelkoul, H.F.J.; Benner, R.

    1992-01-01

    Graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) is caused by donor T lymphocytes that recognize foreign antigens on host tissues. This leads to T cell activation, which involves a cascade of events including the transcription of genes for cytokines and their receptors and the production of cytokines. One of the fi

  2. Effect of different anesthesia and analgesia methods on theT lymphocyte subsets, cytokines and stress hormone level in patients with breast cancer surgery

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yan Ma; Xi-Qiang He; Geng Wang

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To explore the effect of different anesthesia and analgesia methods on the T lymphocyte subsets, cytokines and the levels of the stress hormone in patients with breast cancer surgery.Methods: 86 cases of breast cancer were divided into two groups by random digits table, control group of 43 cases with total intravenous anesthesia, and the observation group of 43 cases with total intravenous anesthesia combined with epidural anesthesia and postoperative underwent analgesia. The T lymphocyte subsets, cytokines and the levels of the stress hormone were detected before and after operation and compared. Results:CD3+, CD4+ and CD4+/CD8+ of the two groups at T1 or T2 were significantly lower than those at T0, and those in the observation group were significantly lower than the control group, and the difference between the two groups has statistical significance. IL-6, CRP and TNF-α levels of the two groups at T1, T2 or T3 were significantly higher than those at T0, and those in the observation group were significantly lower than the control group, and the difference between the two groups has statistical significance. Each index of two groups at T4 were restored to T0, and the differences were no statistically significant. The cortisol levels of two groups at T1 or T2 were significantly increased compared with T0, and the increase in the observation group was less than that of the control group, the difference between the two groups has statistical significance. The cortisol levels of two groups at T4 were restored to T0, and the differences were no statistically significant.Conclusion:Epidural analgesia after the intravenous anesthesia combined with epidural anesthesia for breast cancer cure patients has lighter immunosuppression and stress reaction, has less influence on inflammatory factors, is an ideal anesthesia and analgesia.

  3. Serum cytokines, T lymphocyte subsets and STAT3 function in patients with herpes zoster as well as the intervention effect of mouse nerve growth factor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yun Xu; Ling-Ling Tan; Kai Wang; Juan-Juan Zhang; Li-Jing Zhang

    2016-01-01

    Objective:To assess the levels of serum cytokines, T lymphocyte subsets and STAT3 in patients with herpes zoster as well as the intervention effect of mouse nerve growth factor. Methods:A total of 102 patients with herpes zoster were selected as observation group and received mouse nerve growth factor intervention, and 100 cases of normal people who received physical examination in our hospital during the same period as the healthy control group. The levels of serum Th1/Th2 cytokines, IgG subclass and complements and T lymphocyte subsets as well as STAT3 function of observation group before and after treatment and healthy control group were detected.Results: Serum IL-2 andγ-IFN levels of observation group after treatment were higher than those before treatment while IL-4, IL-5, IL-10 and TNF-α levels were lower than those before treatment (P<0.05); serum IgG1, IgG3, IgG4, C3 and C4 values of observation group after treatment were higher than those before treatment while IgG2 value was lower than that before treatment (P<0.05); CD3, CD4 and CD4/CD8 levels of observation group after treatment were higher than those before treatment while CD8 level was lower than that before treatment (P<0.05); STAT3, p-STAT3 and JAK2 expression levels of observation group after treatment were lower than those before treatment (P<0.05).Conclusions:There are abnormal immune system and STAT3 signaling pathway function in patients with herpes zoster, and mouse nerve growth factor intervention can restore multisystem balance and accelerate disease rehabilitation, and has positive clinical significance.

  4. INDUCTION OF CYTOKINE PRODUCTION IN CHEETAH (ACINONYX JUBATUS) PERIPHERAL BLOOD MONONUCLEAR CELLS AND VALIDATION OF FELINE-SPECIFIC CYTOKINE ASSAYS FOR ANALYSIS OF CHEETAH SERUM.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franklin, Ashley D; Crosier, Adrienne E; Vansandt, Lindsey M; Mattson, Elliot; Xiao, Zhengguo

    2015-06-01

    Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) were isolated from the whole blood of cheetahs (Acinonyx jubatus ; n=3) and stimulated with lipopolysaccharides (LPS) to induce the production of proinflammatory cytokines TNF-α, IL-1β, and IL-6 for establishment of cross-reactivity between these cheetah cytokines and feline-specific cytokine antibodies provided in commercially available Feline DuoSet® ELISA kits (R&D Systems, Inc., Minneapolis, Minnesota 55413, USA). This study found that feline-specific cytokine antibodies bind specifically to cheetah proinflammatory cytokines TNF-α, IL-1β, and IL-6 from cell culture supernatants. The assays also revealed that cheetah PBMCs produce a measurable, cell concentration-dependent increase in proinflammatory cytokine production after LPS stimulation. To enable the use of these kits, which are designed for cell culture supernatants for analyzing cytokine concentrations in cheetah serum, percent recovery and parallelism of feline cytokine standards in cheetah serum were also evaluated. Cytokine concentrations in cheetah serum were approximated based on the use of domestic cat standards in the absence of cheetah standard material. In all cases (for cytokines TNF-α, IL-1β, and IL-6), percent recovery increased as the serum sample dilution increased, though percent recovery varied between cytokines at a given dilution factor. A 1:2 dilution of serum resulted in approximately 45, 82, and 7% recovery of TNF-α, IL-1β, and IL-6 standards, respectively. Adequate parallelism was observed across a large range of cytokine concentrations for TNF-α and IL-1β; however, a significant departure from parallelism was observed between the IL-6 standard and the serum samples (P=0.004). Therefore, based on our results, the Feline DuoSet ELISA (R&D Systems, Inc.) kits are valid assays for the measurement of TNF-α and IL-1β in cheetah serum but should not be used for accurate measurement of IL-6.

  5. Treatment of mice with fenbendazole attenuates allergic airways inflammation and Th2 cytokine production in a model of asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Yeping; Zhou, Jiansheng; Webb, Dianne C

    2009-01-01

    Mouse models have provided a significant insight into the role of T-helper (Th) 2 cytokines such as IL-5 and IL-13 in regulating eosinophilia and other key features of asthma. However, the validity of these models can be compromised by inadvertent infection of experimental mouse colonies with pathogens such as oxyurid parasites (pinworms). While the benzimidazole derivative, fenbendazole (FBZ), is commonly used to treat such outbreaks, the effects of FBZ on mouse models of Th2 disease are largely unknown. In this investigation, we show that mice fed FBZ-supplemented food during the in utero and post-weaning period developed attenuated lung eosinophilia, antigen-specific IgG1 and Th2 cytokine responses in a model of asthma. Treatment of the mediastinal lymph node cells from allergic mice with FBZ in vitro attenuated cell proliferation, IL-5 and IL-13 production and expression of the early lymphocyte activation marker, CD69 on CD4(+) T cells and CD19(+) B cells. In addition, eosinophilia and Th2 responses remained attenuated after a 4-week withholding period in allergic mice treated preweaning with FBZ. Thus, FBZ modulates the amplitude of Th2 responses both in vivo and in vitro.

  6. Cytokines and Epstein Barr virus (EBV) genes expression in blood chronic lymphocytic leukaemia (CLL) cells and their immortalised CLL cell lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laytragoon-Lewin, Nongnit; Chen, Fu; Castro, Juan; Avila-Carino, Javier; Lewin, Freddi

    2003-01-01

    We have encountered two unique chronic lymphocytic leukaemia (CLL) patients, PG and NN. Some blood CLL cells of these patients have been infected and carry Epstein Barr virus (EBV) in vivo. In spite of their early-activated G0/G1 stage of post germinal center (GC) memory cells, ex vivo EBV-carrying blood CLL cells of PG clone expressed LMPs and used specific QUK splice for their EBNA1 expression, similar to the EBV-carrying cells of non-B origin. Interestingly, EBV-carrying CLL cells of NN clone expressed LMP2a and used UK-splice for their EBNA1 expression, similar to the in vivo EBV-carrying high density normal B cells in the blood of healthy individuals. The CLL-derived lines but not normal lymphoblastoid cell line (LCL) used QUK- and YUK-splice for their EBNA1 expression. As expected, LCL and their permanent CLL-derived lines used Cp promoter and up-regulated their EBNA2 expression. Blood CLL cells and the CLL-derived cell lines of these patients spontaneously produced cytokines as shown by microarray assay. The types and quantities of cytokines might relate to their CLL origin and viral strain in the given CLL cells. Neither blood CLL nor their CLL-derived cell lines express any detectable apoptosis-inducer ligands, CD95L or Apo 3L. As a consequence of cell cycle progression, CLL-derived cell lines up-regulated their co-stimulator molecules CD80 and apoptosis-related receptor CD95. Since only the rare EBV-carrying CLL cells grew in vitro, the combination of viral genome and cytokines seems to be critical for the outgrowth of EBV-carrying CLL cells over their EBV-negative counterpart in vitro but not in vivo.

  7. Misoprostol Inhibits Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Pro-inflammatory Cytokine Production by Equine Leukocytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emily Medlin Martin

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Pro-inflammatory cytokines including tumor necrosis factor α (TNFα, IL-1β, IL-6, and IL-8 are potent immune mediators that exacerbate multiple equine diseases such as sepsis and laminitis. Unfortunately, safe and effective cytokine-targeting therapies are lacking in horses; therefore, novel mechanisms of inhibiting cytokine production are critically needed. One potential mechanism for inhibiting cytokine synthesis is elevation of intracellular cyclic AMP (cAMP. In human leukocytes, intracellular cAMP production is induced by activation of E-prostanoid (EP receptors 2 and 4. These receptors can be targeted by the EP2/4 agonist and prostaglandin E1 analog, misoprostol. Misoprostol is currently used as a gastroprotectant in horses but has not been evaluated as a cytokine-targeting therapeutic. Thus, we hypothesized that misoprostol treatment would inhibit pro-inflammatory cytokine production by lipopolysaccharide (LPS-stimulated equine leukocytes in an in vitro inflammation model. To test this hypothesis, equine leukocyte-rich plasma (LRP was collected from 12 healthy adult horses and used to model LPS-mediated inflammatory signaling. LRP was treated with varying concentrations of misoprostol either before (pretreated or following (posttreated LPS stimulation. LRP supernatants were assayed for 23 cytokines using an equine-specific multiplex bead immunoassay. Leukocytes were isolated from LRP, and leukocyte mRNA levels of four important cytokines were evaluated via RT-PCR. Statistical differences between treatments were determined using one-way RM ANOVA (Holm–Sidak post hoc testing or Friedman’s RM ANOVA on Ranks (SNK post hoc testing, where appropriate (p < 0.05, n = 3–6 horses. These studies revealed that misoprostol pre- and posttreatment inhibited LPS-induced TNFα and IL-6 protein production in equine leukocytes but had no effect on IL-8 protein. Interestingly, misoprostol pretreatment enhanced IL-1β protein synthesis

  8. SOCS5 is expressed in primary B and T lymphoid cells but is dispensable for lymphocyte production and function

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brender, Christine; Columbus, Ruth; Metcalf, Donald

    2004-01-01

    Suppressors of cytokine signaling (SOCSs) are key regulators of cytokine-induced responses in hematopoietic as well as nonhematopoietic cells. SOCS1 and SOCS3 have been shown to modulate T-cell responses, whereas the roles of other SOCS family members in the regulation of lymphocyte function...... are less clear. Here, we report the generation of mice with a targeted disruption of the Socs5 gene. Socs5(-/-) mice were born in a normal Mendelian ratio and were healthy and fertile. We found that SOCS5 is expressed in primary B and T cells in wild-type mice. However, no abnormalities in the lymphocyte...... to be dispensable for the regulation of lymphocyte function....

  9. Allergen-induced cytokine production, atopic disease, IgE, and wheeze in children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Contreras, JP; Ly, NR; Gold, DR; He, HZ; Wand, M; Weiss, ST; Perkins, DL; Platts-Mills, TAE; Finn, PW

    2003-01-01

    Background: The early childhood allergen-induced immune responses associated with atopic disease and IgE production in early life are not well understood. Objective: We assessed the relationship of allergen-induced cytokine production by PBMCs to both atopic disease and to IgE increase in a cohort o

  10. Allergen-induced cytokine production, atopic disease, IgE, and wheeze in children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Contreras, JP; Ly, NR; Gold, DR; He, HZ; Wand, M; Weiss, ST; Perkins, DL; Platts-Mills, TAE; Finn, PW

    2003-01-01

    Background: The early childhood allergen-induced immune responses associated with atopic disease and IgE production in early life are not well understood. Objective: We assessed the relationship of allergen-induced cytokine production by PBMCs to both atopic disease and to IgE increase in a cohort

  11. Submerged cultivation of Ganoderma lucidum and the effects of its polysaccharides on the production of human cytokines TNF-α, IL-12, IFN-γ, IL-2, IL-4, IL-10 and IL-17.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habijanic, Jožica; Berovic, Marin; Boh, Bojana; Plankl, Mojca; Wraber, Branka

    2015-01-25

    An original strain of Ganoderma lucidum (W.Curt.:Fr.) Lloyd, MZKI G97 isolated from Slovenian habitats was grown by a submerged liquid substrate cultivation in a laboratory stirred tank reactor. Five fractions of extracellular and cell-wall polysaccharides were obtained by extraction, ethanol precipitation, and purification by ion-exchange, gel and affinity chromatography. The capacity of isolated polysaccharide fractions to induce innate inflammatory cytokines, and to modulate cytokine responses of activated lymphocytes was investigated. Human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) were activated in vitro with polysaccharide fractions, in order to induce innate inflammatory cytokines: tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), interleukin (IL) 12 and interferon gamma (IFN-γ). For the immunomodulation capacity, polysaccharide fractions were cultured with ionomycine and phorbol myristate acetate (IONO+PMA) activated PBMC, and the concentrations of induced IL-2, IL-4, IFN-γ, IL-10 and IL-17 were measured. The results showed that polysaccharides from G. lucidum induced moderate to high amounts of innate inflammatory cytokines. Fungal cell-wall polysaccharides were stronger innate inflammatory cytokines inducers, while extracellular polysaccharides demonstrated a higher capacity to modulate cytokine responses of IONO+PMA induced production of IL-17. The results indicate that G. lucidum polysaccharides enhance Th1 response with high levels of IFN-γ and IL-2, and display low to no impact on IL-4 production. A similar pattern was observed at regulatory cytokine IL-10. All of the polysaccharide fractions tested induced IL-17 production at different concentration levels.

  12. Kinetic analysis of interleukin 2 (IL-2) production and expression of IL-2 receptors by uraemic and normal lymphocytes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Langhoff, E; Hofmann, B; Ladefoged, J

    1987-01-01

    The in vitro immune response of lymphocytes from uraemic patients was studied by comparing the in vitro kinetics of interleukin 2 (IL-2) production, the mitogen-induced proliferative response, and the expression of IL-2 receptors by T lymphocytes. The IL-2 production in 26 uraemic cell cultures...

  13. Impact of Antidepressants on Cytokine Production of Depressed Patients in Vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Munzer

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The interplay between immune and nervous systems plays a pivotal role in the pathophysiology of depression. In depressive episodes, patients show increased production of pro-inflammatory cytokines such as interleukin (IL-1β and tumor necrosis factor (TNF-α. There is limited information on the effect of antidepressant drugs on cytokines, most studies report on a limited sample of cytokines and none have reported effects on IL-22. We systematically investigated the effect of three antidepressant drugs, citalopram, escitalopram and mirtazapine, on secretion of cytokines IL-1β, IL-2, IL-4, IL-6, IL-17, IL-22 and TNF-α in a whole blood assay in vitro, using murine anti-human CD3 monoclonal antibody OKT3, and 5C3 monoclonal antibody against CD40, to stimulate T and B cells respectively. Citalopram increased production of IL-1β, IL-6, TNF-α and IL-22. Mirtazapine increased IL-1β, TNF-α and IL-22. Escitalopram decreased IL-17 levels. The influence of antidepressants on IL-2 and IL-4 levels was not significant for all three drugs. Compared to escitalopram, citalopram led to higher levels of IL-1β, IL-6, IL-17 and IL-22; and mirtazapine to higher levels of IL-1β, IL-17, IL-22 and TNF-α. Mirtazapine and citalopram increased IL-22 production. The differing profile of cytokine production may relate to differences in therapeutic effects, risk of relapse and side effects.

  14. Interleukin-18 Increases TLR4 and Mannose Receptor Expression and Modulates Cytokine Production in Human Monocytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciane Alarcão Dias-Melicio

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Interleukin-18 is a proinflammatory cytokine belonging to the interleukin-1 family of cytokines. This cytokine exerts many unique biological and immunological effects. To explore the role of IL-18 in inflammatory innate immune responses, we investigated its impact on expression of two toll-like receptors (TLR2 and TLR4 and mannose receptor (MR by human peripheral blood monocytes and its effect on TNF-α, IL-12, IL-15, and IL-10 production. Monocytes from healthy donors were stimulated or not with IL-18 for 18 h, and then the TLR2, TLR4, and MR expression and intracellular TNF-α, IL-12, and IL-10 production were assessed by flow cytometry and the levels of TNF-α, IL-12, IL-15, and IL-10 in culture supernatants were measured by ELISA. IL-18 treatment was able to increase TLR4 and MR expression by monocytes. The production of TNF-α and IL-10 was also increased by cytokine treatment. However, IL-18 was unable to induce neither IL-12 nor IL-15 production by these cells. Taken together, these results show an important role of IL-18 on the early phase of inflammatory response by promoting the expression of some pattern recognition receptors (PRRs that are important during the microbe recognition phase and by inducing some important cytokines such as TNF-α and IL-10.

  15. DNA from Porphyromonas gingivalis and Tannerella forsythia induce cytokine production in human monocytic cell lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahingur, S E; Xia, X-J; Alamgir, S; Honma, K; Sharma, A; Schenkein, H A

    2010-04-01

    Toll-like receptor 9 (TLR9) expression is increased in periodontally diseased tissues compared with healthy sites indicating a possible role of TLR9 and its ligand, bacterial DNA (bDNA), in periodontal disease pathology. Here, we determine the immunostimulatory effects of periodontal bDNA in human monocytic cells (THP-1). THP-1 cells were stimulated with DNA of two putative periodontal pathogens: Porphyromonas gingivalis and Tannerella forsythia. The role of TLR9 in periodontal bDNA-initiated cytokine production was determined either by blocking TLR9 signaling in THP-1 cells with chloroquine or by measuring IL-8 production and nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-kappaB) activation in HEK293 cells stably transfected with human TLR9. Cytokine production (IL-1beta, IL-6, and TNF-alpha) was increased significantly in bDNA-stimulated cells compared with controls. Chloroquine treatment of THP-1 cells decreased cytokine production, suggesting that TLR9-mediated signaling pathways are operant in the recognition of DNA from periodontal pathogens. Compared with native HEK293 cells, TLR9-transfected cells demonstrated significantly increased IL-8 production (P < 0.001) and NF-kappaB activation in response to bDNA, further confirming the role of TLR9 in periodontal bDNA recognition. The results of PCR arrays demonstrated upregulation of proinflammatory cytokine and NF-kappaB genes in response to periodontal bDNA in THP-1 cells, suggesting that cytokine induction is through NF-kappaB activation. Hence, immune responses triggered by periodontal bacterial nucleic acids may contribute to periodontal disease pathology by inducing proinflammatory cytokine production through the TLR9 signaling pathway.

  16. Chronic morphine administration enhances nociceptive sensitivity and local cytokine production after incision

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angst Martin S

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background - The chronic use of opioids prior to surgery leads to lowered pain thresholds and exaggerated pain levels after these procedures. Several mechanisms have been proposed to explain this heightened sensitivity commonly termed opioid-induced hyperalgesia (OIH. Most of these proposed mechanisms involve plastic events in the central or peripheral nervous systems. Alterations in the abundance of peripheral mediators of nociception have not previously been explored. Results - In these experiments mice were treated with saline (control or ascending daily doses of morphine to generate a state of OIH followed by hind paw incision. In other experiments morphine treatment was initiated at the time of incision. Both mechanical allodynia and peri-incisional skin cytokine levels were measured. Myeloperoxidase (MPO assays were used to determine neutrophil activity near the wounds. The cytokine production inhibitor pentoxifylline was used to determine the functional significance of the excess cytokines in previously morphine treated animals. Mice treated chronically treated with morphine prior to incision were found to have enhanced skin levels of IL-1β, IL-6, G-CSF, KC and TNFα after incision at one or more time points compared to saline pretreated controls. The time courses of individual cytokines followed different patterns. There was no discernable effect of chronic morphine treatment on wound area neutrophil infiltration. Pentoxifylline reduced cytokine levels and reversed the excess mechanical sensitization caused by chronic morphine administration prior to incision. Morphine treatment initiated at the time of incision did not lead to a generalized enhancement of cytokine production or nociceptive sensitization in excess of the levels observed after incision alone. Conclusion - The enhanced level of nociceptive sensitization seen after incision in animals chronically exposed to morphine is associated with elevated levels of several

  17. Serum Levels of IL-6 Type Cytokines and Soluble IL-6 Receptors in Active B-Cell Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia and in Cladribine Induced Remission

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Robak

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available We have investigated the serum concentrations of interleukin-6 (IL-6 and two IL-6 family cytokines-oncostatin M (OSM and leukemia inhibitory factor (LIF-in 63 patients with B-cell chronic lymphocytic leukemia (B-CLL and 17 healthy controls using the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA method. Simultaneously, we measured the serum levels of the soluble forms of two subunits of the IL-6 receptor complex-ligand binding glycoprotein 80 (sIL-6R and glycoprotein 130 (sgp130. The cytokines and receptors were evaluated in 25 untreated patients and 38 patients treated with cladribine (2-CdA, as well as in 17 healthy controls. We have correlated the serum levels of these proteins with Rai's clinical stage of the disease, the response to 2-CdA treatment and some hematological parameters. We have also evaluated the correlation of the IL-6 serum level with the concentration of OSM and IL-6 soluble receptors. IL-6 was measurable in 62/63 (98.4%, OSM in 20/25 (80% of untreated and 14/38 (37.8% of the treated patients. sIL-6R and sgp130 were detectable in all 63 patients and LIF in none of the CLL patients. IL-6 serum level in untreated patients was not significantly different as compared to its concentration in the control group (P>0.05. However, in the patients treated with 2-CdA the IL-6 level was significantly lower (P0.05. We have found significant positive correlation between the levels of sIL6R and the lymphocytes count in CLL patients (Ρ=0.423; P<0.001. In addition, sIL-6R and OSM serum concentrations correlated also with CLL Rai stage. In conclusion, the serum level of IL-6, OSM and sIL-6R, but not LIF and sgp130, are useful indicators of CLL activity.

  18. Effect of compound glycyrrhizin combined with NB-UVB on T lymphocyte subsets and related cytokines in patients with psoriasis vulgaris

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhi-Feng Yue; Xue-Song Han; Dong Yin; Kun Tian; Xing Guo; Xiao-Dan Liu

    2016-01-01

    Objective:To explore the effect of compound glycyrrhizin in combined with narrow band ultraviolet B (NB-UVB) on T lymphocyte subsets and related cytokines in patients with psoriasis vulgaris.Methods:A total of 70 patients with psoriasis vulgaris who were admitted in our hospital from March, 2015 to March, 2016 were included in the study and randomized into the study group and the control group. The patients in the control group were given NB-UVB for whole body irradiation, with an initial dose of 0.3 J/cm2, 0.2-0.3 J/cm2 increased every time, 3 times a week. On this basis, the patients in the study group were intravenously injected with compound glycyrrhizin (80 mg) + 5% glucose (250 mL), 1 time a day. Four-week treatment was regarded as one course. ELISA was used to detect the serum IL-17 and IL-22 levels. FCM was used to detect the levels of peripheral blood T lymphocytes (CD4+, CD8+, CD4+/CD8+). PASI score before and after treatment was evaluated.Results:The levels of IL-17 and IL-22 after treatment in the two groups were significantly reduced when compared with before treatment (P<0.05), and the reduced degree in the study group was significantly superior to that in the control group (P<0.05). The levels of CD4+ and CD4+/CD8+ after treatment in the two groups were significantly elevated, but CD8+ was significantly reduced when compared with before treatment (P<0.05), and those in the study group were significantly superior to those in the control group (P<0.05). PASI score after treatment in the two groups was significantly reduced when compared with before treatment (P<0.05), and the reduced degree in the study group was significantly superior to that in the control group (P<0.05). Conclusions: Compound glycyrrhizin in combined with NB-UVB in the treatment of psoriasis vulgaris can effectively down regulate the cytokine level, recover T cell immune function, and improve PASI score; therefore, it deserves to be widely recommended in the clinic.

  19. T-cell activation is enhanced by targeting IL-10 cytokine production in toll-like receptor- stimulated macrophages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walk RM

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Ryan M Walk,1,2 Steven T Elliott,2 Felix C Blanco,2 Jason A Snyder,2 Ashley M Jacobi,3 Scott D Rose,3 Mark A Behlke,3 Aliasger K Salem,4 Stanislav Vukmanovic,2 Anthony D Sandler21Department of Surgery, Walter Reed Army Medical Center, Washington, DC, USA; 2Sheikh Zayed Institute for Pediatric Surgical Innovation, Children's National Medical Center, Washington, DC, USA; 3Integrated DNA Technologies, Coralville, IA, USA; 4Division of Pharmaceutics, University of Iowa, Iowa City, IA, USAAbstract: Toll-like receptor (TLR agonists represent potentially useful cancer vaccine adjuvants in their ability to stimulate antigen-presenting cells (APCs and subsequently amplify the cytotoxic T-cell response. The purpose of this study was to characterize APC responses to TLR activation and to determine the subsequent effect on lymphocyte activation. We exposed murine primary bone marrow-derived macrophages to increasing concentrations of agonists to TLRs 2, 3, 4, and 9. This resulted in a dose-dependent increase in production of not only tumor necrosis factor–alpha (TNF-α, a surrogate marker of the proinflammatory response, but also interleukin 10 (IL-10, a well-described inhibitory cytokine. Importantly, IL-10 secretion was not induced by low concentrations of TLR agonists that readily produced TNF-α. We subsequently stimulated lymphocytes with anti-CD3 antibody in the presence of media from macrophages activated with higher doses of TLR agonists and observed suppression of interferon gamma release. Use of both IL-10 knockout macrophages and IL-10 small-interfering RNA (siRNA ablated this suppressive effect. Finally, IL-10 siRNA was successfully used to suppress CpG-induced IL-10 production in vivo. We conclude that TLR-mediated APC stimulation can induce a paradoxical inhibitory effect on T-cell activation mediated by IL-10.Keywords: toll-like receptors, innate immunity, IL-10

  20. Skin rejuvenation using cosmetic products containing growth factors, cytokines, and matrikines: a review of the literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aldag, Caroline; Nogueira Teixeira, Diana; Leventhal, Phillip S

    2016-01-01

    Skin aging is primarily due to alterations in the dermal extracellular matrix, especially a decrease in collagen I content, fragmentation of collagen fibrils, and accumulation of amorphous elastin material, also known as elastosis. Growth factors and cytokines are included in several cosmetic products intended for skin rejuvenation because of their ability to promote collagen synthesis. Matrikines and matrikine-like peptides offer the advantage of growth factor-like activities but better skin penetration due to their much smaller molecular size. In this review, we summarize the commercially available products containing growth factors, cytokines, and matrikines for which there is evidence that they promote skin rejuvenation. PMID:27877059

  1. Dysregulation of chemo-cytokine production in schizophrenic patients versus healthy controls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Di Giannantonio Massimo

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The exact cause of schizophrenia is not known, although several aetiological theories have been proposed for the disease, including developmental or neurodegenerative processes, neurotransmitter abnormalities, viral infection and immune dysfunction or autoimmune mechanisms. Growing evidence suggests that specific cytokines and chemokines play a role in signalling the brain to produce neurochemical, neuroendocrine, neuroimmune and behavioural changes. A relationship between inflammation and schizophrenia was supported by abnormal cytokines production, abnormal concentrations of cytokines and cytokine receptors in the blood and cerebrospinal fluid in schizophrenia. Since the neuropathology of schizophrenia has recently been reported to be closely associated with microglial activation we aimed to determined whether spontaneous or LPS-induced peripheral blood mononuclear cell chemokines and cytokines production is dysregulated in schizophrenic patients compared to healthy subjects. We enrolled 51 untreated first-episode schizophrenics (SC and 40 healthy subjects (HC and the levels of MCP-1, MIP-1α, IL-8, IL-18, IFN-γ and RANTES were determined by Elisa method in cell-free supernatants of PBMC cultures. Results In the simultaneous quantification we found significantly higher levels of constitutively and LPS-induced MCP-1, MIP-1α, IL-8 and IL-18, and lower RANTES and IFNγ levels released by PBMC of SC patients compared with HC. In ten SC patients receiving therapy with risperidone, olanzapine or clozapine basal and LPS-induced production of RANTES and IL-18 was increased, while both basal and LPS-induced MCP-1 production was decreased. No statistically significant differences were detected in serum levels after therapy. Conclusion The observation that in schizophrenic patients the PBMC production of selected chemo-cytokines is dysregulated reinforces the hypothesis that the peripheral cyto-chemokine network is involved in the

  2. Alteration of neurotrophin and cytokine expression in lymphocytes as novel peripheral markers of spatial memory deficits induced by prenatal stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pascuan, C G; Di Rosso, M E; Pivoz-Avedikian, J E; Wald, M R; Zorrilla Zubilete, M A; Genaro, A M

    2017-05-01

    Much evidence has suggested that early life adversity can have a lasting effect on behavior. The aim of this study was to explore the impact of prenatal exposure to stress on cognition in adult life and how it impacts chronic stress situations. In addition, we investigated the participation of glucocorticoids, neurotrophins and cytokines in prenatal stress effects. For this purpose, pregnant mice were placed in a cylindrical restraint tube for 2h daily during the last week of pregnancy. Control pregnant females were left undisturbed during their entire pregnancy period. Object-in-place task results showed that adult female mice exposed to prenatal stress exhibited an impairment in spatial memory. However, in the alternation test this memory deficit was only found in prenatally stressed mice submitted to chronic stress. This alteration occurred in parallel with a decrease in BDNF, an increase in glucocorticoid receptors and an alteration of Th1/Th2 in the hippocampus. Interestingly, these changes were observed in peripheral lymph nodes as well. However, none of the mentioned changes were observed in adult male mice. These results indicate that lymphoid cells could be good candidates as peripheral markers of susceptibility to behavioral alterations associated with prenatal exposure to stress. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Skin rejuvenation using cosmetic products containing growth factors, cytokines, and matrikines: a review of the literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aldag C

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Caroline Aldag,1,* Diana Nogueira Teixeira,1,* Phillip S Leventhal2 1Merz Pharmaceuticals GmbH, Frankfurt am Main, Germany; 24Clinics, Paris, France *These authors contributed equally to this work Abstract: Skin aging is primarily due to alterations in the dermal extracellular matrix, especially a decrease in collagen I content, fragmentation of collagen fibrils, and accumulation of amorphous elastin material, also known as elastosis. Growth factors and cytokines are included in several cosmetic products intended for skin rejuvenation because of their ability to promote collagen synthesis. Matrikines and matrikine-like peptides offer the advantage of growth factor-like activities but better skin penetration due to their much smaller molecular size. In this review, we summarize the commercially available products containing growth factors, cytokines, and matrikines for which there is evidence that they promote skin rejuvenation. Keywords: cosmetics, skin, aging, growth factor, cytokine, matrikine

  4. Diclofenac enhances proinflammatory cytokine-induced phagocytosis of cultured microglia via nitric oxide production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kakita, Hiroki [Department of Molecular Neurobiology, Nagoya City University Graduate School of Medical Sciences, 1 Kawasumi, Mizuho-cho, Mizuho-ku, Nagoya 467-8601 (Japan); Department of Pediatrics and Neonatology, Nagoya City University Graduate School of Medical Sciences, 1 Kawasumi, Mizuho-cho, Mizuho-ku, Nagoya 467-8601 (Japan); Aoyama, Mineyoshi, E-mail: ao.mine@med.nagoya-cu.ac.jp [Department of Molecular Neurobiology, Nagoya City University Graduate School of Medical Sciences, 1 Kawasumi, Mizuho-cho, Mizuho-ku, Nagoya 467-8601 (Japan); Nagaya, Yoshiaki; Asai, Hayato [Department of Molecular Neurobiology, Nagoya City University Graduate School of Medical Sciences, 1 Kawasumi, Mizuho-cho, Mizuho-ku, Nagoya 467-8601 (Japan); Department of Pediatrics and Neonatology, Nagoya City University Graduate School of Medical Sciences, 1 Kawasumi, Mizuho-cho, Mizuho-ku, Nagoya 467-8601 (Japan); Hussein, Mohamed Hamed [Neonatal Intensive Care Unit, Pediatric Hospital, Cairo University, Cairo 11559 (Egypt); Maternal and Child Health Department, VACSERA, 51 Wizaret El-Zeraa-Agouza, Giza 22311 (Egypt); Suzuki, Mieko [Department of Molecular Neurobiology, Nagoya City University Graduate School of Medical Sciences, 1 Kawasumi, Mizuho-cho, Mizuho-ku, Nagoya 467-8601 (Japan); Kato, Shin [Department of Molecular Neurobiology, Nagoya City University Graduate School of Medical Sciences, 1 Kawasumi, Mizuho-cho, Mizuho-ku, Nagoya 467-8601 (Japan); Department of Pediatrics and Neonatology, Nagoya City University Graduate School of Medical Sciences, 1 Kawasumi, Mizuho-cho, Mizuho-ku, Nagoya 467-8601 (Japan); Saitoh, Shinji [Department of Pediatrics and Neonatology, Nagoya City University Graduate School of Medical Sciences, 1 Kawasumi, Mizuho-cho, Mizuho-ku, Nagoya 467-8601 (Japan); Asai, Kiyofumi [Department of Molecular Neurobiology, Nagoya City University Graduate School of Medical Sciences, 1 Kawasumi, Mizuho-cho, Mizuho-ku, Nagoya 467-8601 (Japan)

    2013-04-15

    Influenza-associated encephalopathy (IAE) is a central nervous system complication with a high mortality rate, which is increased significantly by the non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug diclofenac sodium (DCF). In the present study, we investigated the effects of DCF on brain immune cells (i.e. microglia) stimulated with three proinflammatory cytokines, namely tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin-1β, and interferon-γ. Similar to previous findings in astrocytes, all three cytokines induced the expression of inducible NO synthase (iNOS), as well as NO production, in microglia. The addition of DCF to the culture system augmented iNOS expression and NO production. Immunocytochemical analysis and the phagocytosis assay revealed that cytokine treatment induced morphological changes to and phagocytosis by the microglia. The addition of DCF to the culture system enhanced microglial activation, as well as the phagocytic activity of cytokine-stimulated microglia. Inhibitors of nuclear factor (NF)-κB inhibited iNOS gene expression in cytokine-stimulated microglia with or without DCF, suggesting that the NF-κB pathway is one of the main signaling pathways involved. The iNOS inhibitor N{sup G}-monomethyl-L-arginine (L-NMMA) reduced both cytokine-induced phagocytosis and phagocytosis induced by the combination of cytokines plus DCF. Furthermore, the NO donor sodium nitroprusside induced phagocytosis, indicating that NO production is a key regulator of microglial phagocytosis. In conclusion, DCF acts synergistically with proinflammatory cytokines to increase the production of NO in microglia, leading to phagocytic activity of the activated microglia. These findings, together with previous observations regarding astrocytes, may explain the significant increase in mortality of IAE patients treated with DCF. - Highlights: ► Influenza-associated encephalopathy (IAE) is associated with a high mortality rate. ► Hyperimmunization in the brain is believed to be responsible for

  5. Whole Blood Activation Results in Altered T Cell and Monocyte Cytokine Production Profiles by Flow Cytometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crucian, Brian E.; Sams, Clarence F.

    2001-01-01

    An excellent monitor of the immune balance of peripheral circulating cells is to determine their cytokine production patterns in response to stimuli. Using flow cytometry, a positive identification of cytokine producing cells in a mixed culture may be achieved. Recently, the ability to assess cytokine production following a whole-blood activation culture has been described. In this study, whole blood activation was compared to traditional PBMC activation and the individual cytokine secretion patterns for both T cells, T cell subsets and monocytes was determined by flow cytometry. RESULTS: For T cell cytokine assessment (IFNg/IL-10 and IL-21/L-4) following PMA +ionomycin activation: (1) a Significantly greater percentages of T cells producing IFNgamma and IL-2 were observed following whole-blood culture and (2) altered T cell cytokine production kinetics were observed by varying whole blood culture times. Four-color analysiS was used to allow assessment of cytokine production by specific T cell subsets. It was found that IFNgamma production was significantly elevated in the CD3+/CD8+ T cell population as compared to the CD3+/CD8- population following five hours of whole blood activation. Conversely, IL-2 and IL-10 production were Significantly elevated in the CD3+/CD8- T cell population as compared to the CD3+/CD8+ population. Monocyte cytokine production was assessed in both culture systems following LPS activation for 24 hours. A three-color flow cytometric was used to assess two cytokines (IL-1a/IL-12 and TNFa/IL-10) in conjunction with CD14. Nearly all monocytes were stimulated to produce IL-1a, IL-12 and TNFa. equally well in both culture systems, however monocyte production of IL-10 was significantly elevated in whole blood culture as compared to PBMC culture. IL-12 producing monocytes appeared to be a distinct subpopulation of the IL-1a producing set, whereas IL-10 and TNFa producing monocytes were largely mutually exclusive. IL-10 and TNFa producing

  6. Regulatory substances produced by lymphocytes. V. Production of inhibitor of DNA synthesis (IDS) by proliferating T lymphocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Namba, Y; Jegasothy, B V; Waksman, B H

    1977-04-01

    The conditions neccessary for production of inhibitor of DNA synthesis (IDS) by rat lymphocytes were investigated. In concanavalin A (Con A)-stimulated lymph node cell (LNC) cultures, IDS production was not detected in the culture supernatant during the first 24 hr, and it increased gradually after that to reach a maximum at 3 to 4 days. When the cells were pretreated with mitomycin C, IDS was not produced, suggesting that DNA synthesis of LNC or a LNC subpopulation is necessary for IDS production. In contrast, Con A-stimulated spleen cells priduced a high level of IDS within 24 hr, and its production fell off sharply thereafter. Con A-stimulated rat thymocytes also produced IDS reaching a maximum at 2 to 3 dyas. However, thymus cells from rats treated with hydrocortisone 48 hr previously did not produce IDS. This finding implies that cortisol-sensitive (cortical) thymocytes are capable of producing IDS and cortisol-resistant (medullary) thymocytes are not. IDS production by lymphoblasts was proportional to cell number and unaffected eith by cell density (1 to 10 x 106/ml) or by the concomitant presence of normal cells from spleen, lymph node, or thymus. Thus Con A-stimulated cells, after becoming blasts, appear to produce IDS automatically wihtout affecting or being affected by other cells. Both spleen and thymus cells from rats injected with a large dose of antigen (ovalbumin, 100 mg, i.p.) 24 hr in advance produced substantial amounts of IDS in culture within 24 hr in the absence of mitogen or additional antigen, but not the cells from rats injected with an immunizing dose (1 mg) of the same antigen. The cells producing IDS in the spleen were shown to be adherent to glass wool, and those in the thymus were partially so. IDS production by antigen-stimulated spleen cells was abrogated by injecting rats with bromodexyuridine (BUdR) at 0 and 12 hr after the ovalbumin. These findings suggest that a subpopulation ofadherent spleen cells (possibly resembling cortical

  7. Immunomodulatory capacity of fungal proteins on the cytokine production of human peripheral blood mononuclear cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jeurink, P.V.; Lull Noguera, C.; Savelkoul, H.F.J.; Wichers, H.J.

    2008-01-01

    Immunomodulation by fungal compounds can be determined by the capacity of the compounds to influence the cytokine production by human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (hPBMC). These activities include mitogenicity, stimulation and activation of immune effector cells. Eight mushroom strains (Agaric

  8. The Highway to Hell: A RIP Kinase-Directed Shortcut to Inflammatory Cytokine Production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hildebrand, Joanne M; Murphy, James M

    2016-07-19

    RIPK1 and RIPK3 are well-known signaling traffic cops in innate immunity. In this issue of Immunity, Degterev and colleagues show that when they blow the whistle on bacterial infection, they quickly point a white-gloved hand down the express route to inflammatory cytokine production.

  9. Cytokine production and apoptosis among T cells from patients under treatment for Plasmodium falciparum malaria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kemp, K; Akanmori, B D; Adabayeri, V

    2002-01-01

    Available evidence suggests that Plasmodium falciparum malaria causes activation and reallocation of T cells, and that these in vivo primed cells re-emerge into the periphery following drug therapy. Here we have examined the cytokine production capacity and susceptibility to programmed cell death...

  10. Cytokine production induced by non-encapsulated and encapsulated Porphyromonas gingivalis strains

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kunnen, A.; Dekker, D.C.; van Pampus, M.G.; Harmsen, H.J.; Aarnoudse, J.G.; Abbas, F.; Faas, M.M.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Although the exact reason is not known, encapsulated gram-negative Porphyromonas gingivalis strains are more virulent than non-encapsulated strains. Since difference in virulence properties may be due to difference in cytokine production following recognition of the bacteria or their prod

  11. Th1/Th2 cytokines' expression and production by propolis-treated mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orsatti, Cláudio Lera; Missima, Fabiane; Pagliarone, Ana Carolina; Sforcin, José Maurício

    2010-06-16

    Propolis is a natural product extensively used in food and beverages to improve health and to prevent diseases, showing immunomodulatory properties. The goal of this work was to evaluate the effect of propolis administration over a short-term to mice on Th1 (IL-2 and IFN-gamma) and Th2 (IL-4 and IL-10) cytokines' expression and production. Propolis was administered for 3 days to mice by gavage, spleens were removed and RNA was extracted to assess cytokines' expression by real-time PCR. Supernatants of spleen cell cultures were used for cytokines determination by ELISA. Propolis administration to mice did not affect IL-2, IL-4 and IL-10 expression and production, while IFN-gamma production was inhibited in the splenocyte cultures stimulated or not by Con A. Since IFN-gamma is a pro-inflammatory cytokine, our data suggest that propolis administration over a short-term to mice may be associated with anti-inflammatory effects in vivo, and further assays could check propolis efficiency in inflammatory diseases. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Investigation of Macrophage Differentiation and Cytokine Production in an Undergraduate Immunology Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berkes, Charlotte; Chan, Leo Li-Ying

    2015-01-01

    We have developed a semester-long laboratory project for an undergraduate immunology course in which students study multiple aspects of macrophage biology including differentiation from progenitors in the bone marrow, activation upon stimulation with microbial ligands, expression of cell surface markers, and modulation of cytokine production. In…

  13. Effects of cobalt chloride on nitric oxide and cytokines/chemokines production in microglia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mou, Yan Hua; Yang, Jing Yu; Cui, Nan; Wang, Ji Ming; Hou, Yue; Song, Shuang; Wu, Chun Fu

    2012-05-01

    The involvement of microglial activation in metal neurotoxicity is becoming increasingly recognized. Some metal ions, such as zinc (II) and manganese (II), have been recently reported as microglial activators to induce the release of inflammatory mediators including cytokines, chemokines and nitric oxide (NO) which are involved in the pathogenesis of neurological diseases. Cobalt is essential for human life. However, excessive cobalt is cytotoxic and neurotoxic. In the present study, we determined cobalt-induced production of NO and cytokines/chemokines in N9 cells, a murine microglial cell line. High levels of cobalt significantly up-regulated iNOS mRNA and protein expression, which resulted in the release of NO. Cobalt induced the production of tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α) and interleukin-6 (IL-6) in a concentration- and time-dependent manner in both N9 cells and primary mouse microglia and increased lipopolysaccharides (LPS)-induced cytokine production. Further study showed that cobalt induced cytokine production by a mechanism involving both nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling pathways. The involvement of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in microglial activation was also confirmed. These findings suggested that cobalt neurotoxicity should be attributed not only directly to neuronal damage but also indirectly to microglial activation which might potentiate neuronal injury via elevation of proinflammatory mediator levels.

  14. Blueberries inhibit proinflammatory cytokine TNF-alpha and IL-6 production in macrophages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blueberries (BB) have been reported to attenuate atherosclerosis in apoE deficient (ApoE-/-) mice. However, the underlying mechanisms are not fully understood. In this study, the effect of BB on proinflammatory cytokine production in macrophages was investigated. ApoE-/- mice were fed AIN-93G diet (...

  15. Influence of phthalates on cytokine production in monocytes and macrophages: a systematic review of experimental trials.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana Frohnert Hansen

    Full Text Available Phthalates are a group of endocrine disrupting chemicals suspected to influence the immune system. The aim of this systematic review is to summarise the present knowledge on the influence of phthalates on monocyte and macrophage production and secretion of cytokines, an influence which could affect both pro- and anti-inflammatory abilities of these cells.A systematic search was performed in Medline, Embase and Toxline in June 2013, last updated 3rd of August 2014. Criteria used to select studies were described and published beforehand online on Prospero (http://www.crd.york.ac.uk/NIHR_PROSPERO, registration number CRD42013004236. In vivo, ex vivo and in vitro studies investigating the influence of phthalates on cytokine mRNA expression and cytokine secretion in animals and humans were included. A total of 11 reports, containing 12 studies, were found eligible for inclusion. In these, a total of four different phthalate diesters, six primary metabolites (phthalate monoesters and seven different cytokines were investigated. Though all studies varied greatly in study design and species sources, four out of five studies that investigated di-2-ethylhexyl phthalate found an increased tumour necrosis factor-α secretion/production from monocytes or macrophages. A summary of cytokine measurements was not possible since few studies were comparable in study design and due to insufficient reporting of raw data for most of the included studies.Results from this review have suggested that at least one phthalate (di-2-ethylhexyl phthalate has the ability to enhance tumour necrosis factor-α production/secretion from monocytes/macrophages in vitro, but also observed ex vivo. Influence of other phthalates on other cytokines has only been investigated in few studies. Thus, in vitro studies on primary human monocytes/macrophages as well as more in vivo studies are needed to confirm or dispute these findings.

  16. Divergent effects of Tenofovir and Retrovir (AZT) on TLR-mediated cytokine production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Melchjorsen, Jesper; Tolstrup, Martin; Paludan, Søren Riis

      Pathogen-recognizing Toll-like receptors 2 (TLR2) and TLR4 are known to recognize a number of pathogens, including E.Coli, S. Pneumoniae and N. Meningitidis. We have studied whether a number of HIV therapeutics affect immediate proinflammatory cytokine responses in cell cultures. Preliminary...... results suggest an opposing effect of the drugs Tenofovir and Retrovir (AZT) on TLR-mediated proinflammatory cytokine production. We present data on the mechanisms behind the drug-mediated remodeling of innate immune activation and how the drugs effect early host-pathogen interactions....

  17. TLR-mediated NF-kB-dependent cytokine production is differently affected by HIV therapeutics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Melchjorsen, Jesper; Paludan, Søren Riis; Mogensen, Trine

      Pathogen-recognizing Toll-like receptors 2 (TLR2) and TLR4 are known to recognize a number of pathogens, including E.Coli, S. Pneumonia and N. Meningococcus. We have studied whether a number of HIV therapeutics affect immediate proinflammatory cytokine responses in cell cultures. Preliminary...... results suggest an opposing effect of the drugs Tenofovir and Retrovir (AZT) on TLR-mediated production of NF-kappaB-dependent proinflammatory cytokines. We present data on the mechanisms behind the drug-mediated remodeling of innate immune activation and how the drugs effect early host-pathogen...

  18. Local glucocorticoid production in lymphoid organs of mice and birds: Functions in lymphocyte development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taves, Matthew D; Hamden, Jordan E; Soma, Kiran K

    2017-02-01

    Circulating glucocorticoids (GCs) are powerful regulators of immunity. Stress-induced GC secretion by the adrenal glands initially enhances and later suppresses the immune response. GC targets include lymphocytes of the adaptive immune system, which are well known for their sensitivity to GCs. Less appreciated, however, is that GCs are locally produced in lymphoid organs, such as the thymus, where GCs play a critical role in selection of the T cell antigen receptor (TCR) repertoire. Here, we review the roles of systemic and locally-produced GCs in T lymphocyte development, which has been studied primarily in laboratory mice. By antagonizing TCR signaling in developing T cells, thymus-derived GCs promote selection of T cells with stronger TCR signaling. This results in increased T cell-mediated immune responses to a range of antigens. We then compare local and systemic GC patterns in mice to those in several bird species. Taken together, these studies suggest that a combination of adrenal and lymphoid GC production might function to adaptively regulate lymphocyte development and selection, and thus antigen-specific immune reactivity, to optimize survival under different environmental conditions. Future studies should examine how lymphoid GC patterns vary across other vertebrates, how GCs function in B lymphocyte development in the bone marrow, spleen, and the avian bursa of Fabricius, and whether GCs adaptively program immunity in free-living animals.

  19. SHARPIN is essential for cytokine production, NF-κB signaling, and induction of Th1 differentiation by dendritic cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhe; Sokolovska, Anna; Seymour, Rosemarie; Sundberg, John P; Hogenesch, Harm

    2012-01-01

    Spontaneous mutations of the Sharpin (SHANK-associated RH domain-interacting protein, other aliases: Rbckl1, Sipl1) gene in mice result in systemic inflammation that is characterized by chronic proliferative dermatitis and dysregulated secretion of T helper1 (Th1) and Th2 cytokines. The cellular and molecular mechanisms underlying this inflammatory phenotype remain elusive. Dendritic cells may contribute to the initiation and progression of the phenotype of SHARPIN-deficient mice because of their pivotal role in innate and adaptive immunity. Here we show by flow cytometry that SHARPIN- deficiency did not alter the distribution of different DC subtypes in the spleen. In response to TOLL-like receptor (TLR) agonists LPS and poly I:C, cultured bone marrow-derived dendritic cells (BMDC) from WT and mutant mice exhibited similar increases in expression of co-stimulatory molecules CD40, CD80, and CD86. However, stimulated SHARPIN-deficient BMDC had reduced transcription and secretion of pro-inflammatory mediators IL6, IL12P70, GMCSF, and nitric oxide. Mutant BMDC had defective activation of NF-κB signaling, whereas the MAPK1/3 (ERK1/2) and MAPK11/12/13/14 (p38 MAP kinase isoforms) and TBK1 signaling pathways were intact. A mixed lymphocyte reaction showed that mutant BMDC only induced a weak Th1 immune response but stimulated increased Th2 cytokine production from allogeneic naïve CD4(+) T cells. In conclusion, loss of Sharpin in mice significantly affects the immune function of DC and this may partially account for the systemic inflammation and Th2-biased immune response.

  20. SHARPIN is essential for cytokine production, NF-κB signaling, and induction of Th1 differentiation by dendritic cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhe Wang

    Full Text Available Spontaneous mutations of the Sharpin (SHANK-associated RH domain-interacting protein, other aliases: Rbckl1, Sipl1 gene in mice result in systemic inflammation that is characterized by chronic proliferative dermatitis and dysregulated secretion of T helper1 (Th1 and Th2 cytokines. The cellular and molecular mechanisms underlying this inflammatory phenotype remain elusive. Dendritic cells may contribute to the initiation and progression of the phenotype of SHARPIN-deficient mice because of their pivotal role in innate and adaptive immunity. Here we show by flow cytometry that SHARPIN- deficiency did not alter the distribution of different DC subtypes in the spleen. In response to TOLL-like receptor (TLR agonists LPS and poly I:C, cultured bone marrow-derived dendritic cells (BMDC from WT and mutant mice exhibited similar increases in expression of co-stimulatory molecules CD40, CD80, and CD86. However, stimulated SHARPIN-deficient BMDC had reduced transcription and secretion of pro-inflammatory mediators IL6, IL12P70, GMCSF, and nitric oxide. Mutant BMDC had defective activation of NF-κB signaling, whereas the MAPK1/3 (ERK1/2 and MAPK11/12/13/14 (p38 MAP kinase isoforms and TBK1 signaling pathways were intact. A mixed lymphocyte reaction showed that mutant BMDC only induced a weak Th1 immune response but stimulated increased Th2 cytokine production from allogeneic naïve CD4(+ T cells. In conclusion, loss of Sharpin in mice significantly affects the immune function of DC and this may partially account for the systemic inflammation and Th2-biased immune response.

  1. [Clinical variations of chronic generalized periodontitis, genetic polymorphism and systemic production of inflammatory cytokines].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grigorovich, E Sh; Pomorgailo, E G; Khomutova, E Yu; Stepanov, S S

    2015-01-01

    Carriage of polymorphic alleles of genes of cytokines-interleukines IL-1β, IL-1RN, TNFα, IL-4 can be a specific feature of chronic periodontitis patients. Genetic tests can be used to predict the course of the disease at its early manifestations. Objective: To establish the relationship of clinical manifestations of periodontal disease, inflammatory cytokines gene polymorphism and systemic levels of cytokine production. Periodontal tissue assessment and cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) were performed in 150 periodontitis patients. A molecular--genetic testing for the presence of polymorphic alleles of genes IL-1β -511 C>T and +3953 C>T, IL-1RN (VNTR intron 2), IL-4 (VNTR intron 3), TNFα-308 G>A; content determined IL-1β, TNFα, IL-4 in peripheral blood was carried out in 150 patients with periodontitis and 150 healthy donors. Based on the analysis of the speed and nature of the supporting bone resorption and clinical manifestations patients are divided in "aggressive", "moderately progressive" and "slowly progressive" periodontits course groups. Disease severity was associated with distribution of genotypes and alleles of polymorphic genes cytokine IL-1RN (VNTR intron 2), TNFα-308 G>A and IL-4 (VNTR intron 3); haplotype IL-1β-511 TIL-1β +3953 T/IL-1RN 2R. There was no statistically significant difference in systemic level of IL-1β, TNFα and IL-4 between periodontitis groups but the donor level of cytokines was 2-4 times less.

  2. The effects of propolis on cytokine production in lipopolysaccharide-stimulated macrophages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hatice Özbilge

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Propolis, a bee-product, has attracted researchers’ interest in recent years because of several biological and pharmacological properties. Lipopolysaccharide (LPS is a component of the outer membrane of Gram-negative bacteria and has an important role in the pathogenesis of septic shock and several inflammatory diseases by causing excessive release of inflammatory cytokines. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of ethanol extract of propolis collected in Kayseri and its surroundings on production of pro-inflammatory cytokines in LPS-stimulated macrophages.Materials and methods: In vitro, U937 human macrophage cells were grown in RPMI-1640 medium supplemented with fetal bovine serum (10% and penicillin-streptomycin (2% and divided into: control, LPS treated, and propolis+LPS treated cell groups. After incubation in an atmosphere of 5% CO2 and at 37°C of cells, interleukin (IL-1β, IL-6 and tumor necrosis factor (TNF-α levels were measured in cell-free supernatants by ELISA.Results: IL-1β, IL-6 and TNF-α levels increased in LPS treated cell group according to control, statistically significant. Each cytokine levels significantly decreased in LPS and propolis treated cell group according to only LPS treated cell group (p<0.05.Conclusion: Propolis is a natural product to be examined for usage when needed the suppression of pro-inflammatory cytokines. J Clin Exp Invest 2011; 2 (4: 366-370

  3. Effects of a Spirulina-based dietary supplement on cytokine production from allergic rhinitis patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, T K; Van de Water, J; Gershwin, M E

    2005-01-01

    Spirulina represents a blue-green alga that is widely produced and commercialized as a dietary supplement for modulating immune functions, as well as ameliorating a variety of diseases. We have previously shown that the in vitro culture of Spirulina with human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) modulated the production of cytokines. In the present study, we evaluated the impact of a Spirulina-based dietary supplement (Earthrise Nutritionals, Inc., Irvine, CA) on patients with allergic rhinitis by assessing the production of cytokines [interleukin (IL)-4, interferon (IFN)-gamma, and IL-2] critical in regulating immunoglobulin E-mediated allergy. In a randomized double-blinded crossover study versus placebo, allergic individuals were fed daily with either placebo or Spirulina, at 1,000 mg or 2,000 mg, for 12 weeks. PBMCs isolated before and after the Spirulina feeding were stimulated with phytohemagglutinin (PHA) prior to determining the levels of cytokine from cell culture supernatants. Although Spirulina seemed to be ineffective at modulating the secretion of Th1 cytokines (IFN-gamma and IL-2), we discovered that Spirulina, administered at 2,000 mg/day, significantly reduced IL-4 levels by 32% from PHA-stimulated cells. These results indicate that Spirulina can modulate the Th profile in patients with allergic rhinitis by suppressing the differentiation of Th2 cells mediated, in part, by inhibiting the production of IL-4. To our knowledge, this is the first human feeding study that demonstrates the protective effects of Spirulina towards allergic rhinitis.

  4. Effect of cyclosporin A on inflammatory cytokine production by U937 monocyte-like cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan E. Losa Garcia

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Cyclosporin A (CsA is an immunosuppresor drug that has been used in the treatment of several types of inflammatory diseases. In some of them the inhibition of T-lymphocyte activation does not suitably account for the observed beneficial effect, suggesting that CsA could act on other types of cells. The present study was undertaken to determine the effect of CsA on inflammatory cytokine secretion by U937 monocyte cells. Undifferentiated and dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO differentiated U937 cells were incubated with different concentrations of CsA (200, 20 and 2 ng/mL in the presence or absence of phorbol-myristateacetate (PMA. Interleukin-1g (IL-1β, tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α, IL-6 and IL-8 levels were measured in supernatants using specific enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays. At the highest concentration used (200 ng/mL CsA decreased the basal and stimulated secretion of all the inflammatory cytokines studied in both undifferentiated and differentiated cells, with the only exception of PMA-stim ulated IL-1 secretion by undifferentiated cells. However, only basal secretion of interleukin-8 in both undifferentiated and DMSO-differentiated U937 cells was significantly reduced by CsA at the highest concentration (200 ng/ mL. At therapeutic concentrations in vivo, CsA exerts a predominant effect on IL-8 secretion by human mononuclear phagocytes.

  5. The effects of dietary phenolic compounds on cytokine and antioxidant production by A549 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gauliard, Benoit; Grieve, Douglas; Wilson, Rhoda; Crozier, Alan; Jenkins, Carol; Mullen, William D; Lean, Michael

    2008-06-01

    Levels of inflammatory cytokines are raised in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). A diet rich in antioxidant vitamins may protect against the development of COPD. This study examined the effects of phenolic compounds and food sources on cytokine and antioxidant production by A549 cells. The effects of the following phenolic compounds on basal and interleukin (IL)-1-stimulated release of IL-8, IL-6, and reduced glutathione (GSH) were examined: resveratrol; Bouvrage, a commercially available raspberry juice (Ella Drinks Ltd., Alloa, Clacksmannanshire, UK); and quercetin 3'-sulfate. Purification of the raspberry juice by high-performance liquid chromatography gave three fractions: Fraction 1 contained phenolic acid and vitamin C, Fraction 2 contained flavonoids and ellagic acid, and Fraction 3 contained anthocyanins and ellagitannins. IL-8 production was increased in the presence of IL-1 (165 vs. 6,011 pg/mL, P or =50 micromol/mL significantly inhibited IL-8 and IL-6 production. Similar findings were made with raspberry juice at concentrations > or =25 microL/mL, and Fractions 1 and 3 were best able to inhibit IL-8 production. Quercetin 3'-sulfate, at 25 micromol/mL, inhibited IL-8 and IL-6 production. The changes observed in IL-8 were paralleled by changes in tumor necrosis factor-alpha. Thus, phenolic compounds can significantly alter cytokine and antioxidant production.

  6. The Adaptor Protein SAP Regulates Type II NKT Cell Development, Cytokine Production and Cytotoxicity Against Lymphoma1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weng, Xiufang; Liao, Chia-Min; Bagchi, Sreya; Cardell, Susanna L.; Stein, Paul L.; Wang, Chyung-Ru

    2014-01-01

    CD1d-restricted NKT cells represent a unique lineage of immunoregulatory T cells that are divided into two groups, type I and type II, based on their TCR usage. Because there are no specific tools to identify type II NKT cells, little is known about their developmental requirements and functional regulation. In our previous study, we showed that signaling lymphocytic activation molecule-associated protein (SAP) is essential for the development of type II NKT cells. Here, using a type II NKT cell TCR transgenic mouse model (24αβTg), we demonstrated that CD1d-expressing hematopoietic cells but not thymic epithelial cells meditate efficient selection of type II NKT cells. Further, we showed that SAP regulates type II NKT cell development by controlling Egr2 and PLZF expression. SAP-deficient 24αβ transgenic T cells (24αβ T cells) exhibited an immature phenotype with reduced Th2 cytokine-producing capacity and diminished cytotoxicity to CD1d-expressing lymphoma cells. The impaired IL-4 production by SAP-deficient 24αβ T cells was associated with reduced IRF4 and GATA-3 induction following TCR stimulation. Collectively, these data suggest that SAP is critical for regulating type II NKT cell responses. Aberrant responses of these T cells may contribute to the immune dysregulation observed in X-linked lymphoproliferative disease caused by mutations in SAP. PMID:25236978

  7. CD80 and CD86 Costimulatory Molecules Differentially Regulate OT-II CD4+ T Lymphocyte Proliferation and Cytokine Response in Cocultures with Antigen-Presenting Cells Derived from Pregnant and Pseudopregnant Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maj, Tomasz; Slawek, Anna

    2014-01-01

    Immune phenomena during the preimplantation period of pregnancy are poorly understood. The aim of our study was to assess the capacity for antigen presentation of splenic antigen-presenting cells (APCs) derived from pregnant and pseudopregnant mice in in vitro conditions. Therefore, sorted CD11c+ dendritic cells and macrophages F4/80+ and CD11b+ presenting ovalbumin (OVA) were cocultured with CD4+ T cells derived from OT-II mice's (C57BL6/J-Tg(TcraTcrb)1100Mjb/J) spleen. After 132 hours of cell culture, proliferation of lymphocytes (ELISA-BrdU), activation of these cells (flow cytometry), cytokine profile (ELISA), and influence of costimulatory molecules blocking on these parameters were measured. We did not detect any differences in regulation of Th1/Th2 cytokine balance. CD86 seems to be the main costimulatory molecule involved in the proliferation response but CD80 is the main costimulatory molecule influencing cytokine secretion in pregnant mice. In conclusion, this study showed that CD80 and CD86 costimulatory molecules regulate OT-II CD4+ T lymphocyte proliferation and cytokine response in cocultures with antigen-presenting cells derived from pregnant and pseudopregnant mice. The implications of these changes still remain unclear. PMID:24771983

  8. CD80 and CD86 Costimulatory Molecules Differentially Regulate OT-II CD4+ T Lymphocyte Proliferation and Cytokine Response in Cocultures with Antigen-Presenting Cells Derived from Pregnant and Pseudopregnant Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomasz Maj

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Immune phenomena during the preimplantation period of pregnancy are poorly understood. The aim of our study was to assess the capacity for antigen presentation of splenic antigen-presenting cells (APCs derived from pregnant and pseudopregnant mice in in vitro conditions. Therefore, sorted CD11c+ dendritic cells and macrophages F4/80+ and CD11b+ presenting ovalbumin (OVA were cocultured with CD4+ T cells derived from OT-II mice’s (C57BL6/J-Tg(TcraTcrb1100Mjb/J spleen. After 132 hours of cell culture, proliferation of lymphocytes (ELISA-BrdU, activation of these cells (flow cytometry, cytokine profile (ELISA, and influence of costimulatory molecules blocking on these parameters were measured. We did not detect any differences in regulation of Th1/Th2 cytokine balance. CD86 seems to be the main costimulatory molecule involved in the proliferation response but CD80 is the main costimulatory molecule influencing cytokine secretion in pregnant mice. In conclusion, this study showed that CD80 and CD86 costimulatory molecules regulate OT-II CD4+ T lymphocyte proliferation and cytokine response in cocultures with antigen-presenting cells derived from pregnant and pseudopregnant mice. The implications of these changes still remain unclear.

  9. Cytokine production by human odontoblast-like cells upon Toll-like receptor-2 engagement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farges, Jean-Christophe; Carrouel, Florence; Keller, Jean-François; Baudouin, Caroline; Msika, Philippe; Bleicher, Françoise; Staquet, Marie-Jeanne

    2011-04-01

    Recent studies have suggested that odontoblasts are involved in the dental pulp immune response to oral pathogens that invade human dentin during the caries process. How odontoblasts regulate the early inflammatory and immune pulp response to Gram-positive bacteria, which predominate in shallow and moderate dentin caries, is still poorly understood. In this study, we investigated the production of pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines by odontoblast-like cells upon engagement of Toll-like receptor (TLR) 2, a pattern recognition molecule activated by Gram-positive bacteria components. We used a highly sensitive Milliplex(®) kit for detecting cytokines released by cells stimulated with lipoteichoic acid (LTA), a cell wall component of Gram-positive bacteria, or with the potent TLR2 synthetic agonist Pam2CSK4. We found that odontoblasts produce the pro-inflammatory cytokines interleukin (IL)-6 and CXCL8, as well as the immunosuppressive cytokine IL-10 in response to TLR2 agonists. GM-CSF, IFNγ, IL-1β, IL-2, IL-4, IL-5, IL-7, IL-12(p70), IL-13 and TNF-α were not detected. These data indicate that TLR2 activation in human odontoblasts selectively induces production of mediators known to influence positively or negatively inflammatory and immune responses in pathogen-challenged tissues. We suggest that these molecules might be important in regulating the fine tuning of the pulp response to Gram-positive bacteria which enter dentin during the caries process.

  10. Effects of Neuromedin S on the Proliferation of Splenic Lymphocytes and the Cytokine Secretion by Pulmonary Alveolar Macrophages in Pigs in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, R; Wang, Q; Qi, B; Huang, Y; Yang, G

    2016-09-01

    Neuromedin S (NMS), a 36-amino acid neuropeptide, has been found to be involved in the regulation of the endocrine activity. It has been also detected in immune tissues in mammals, what suggests that NMS may play an important role in the regulation of immune response. The aim of this study was to demonstrate the presence of NMS receptor 1 (NMU1R) and effect of NMS in pig splenic lymphocytes (SPLs) and pulmonary alveolar macrophages (PAMs). The presence of NMU1R in pig SPLs and PAMs was respectively confirmed by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), western blot analysis and immunocytochemical methods. Furthermore, SPL proliferation was analyzed using the 3-(4,5)-dimethyl-thiahiazo-(-2-yl)-3,5-di-phenytetrazoliumromide (MTT) method. Additionally, the secretion of interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-6 and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) in PAMs was all measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) kits. In the present study, the results of RT-PCR and western blot analysis revealed that NMU1R mRNA and protein were both expressed in pig SPLs and PAMs, and the immunocytochemical investigations further revealed that the positive signal of NMU1R immunoreactivity was observed in plasma membranes of both SPLs and PAMs. In the in vitro study, we found that at concentrations of 0.001-1000 nM NMS alone or combined with lipopolysaccharide or phytohemagglutinin significantly increased SPL proliferation. Application of ELISA method showed that NMS could induce the secretion of the pro-inflammatory cytokines IL-1β, IL-6 and TNF-α in PAMs. These results suggest that NMS can act as a potently positive pro-inflammatory factor and immunomodulatory agent that affects the immune response of immune cells by combining with its receptor NMU1R.

  11. Effects of salbutamol aerosol combined with magnesium sulfate on T-lymphocyte subgroup and Th1/Th2 cytokines of pediatric asthma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diao, Min; Min, Jie; Guo, Fei; Zhang, Chong-Lin

    2017-01-01

    The aim of the study was to analyze the effects of the intravenous infusion of salbutamol aerosol combined with magnesium sulfate in the treatment of pediatric asthma and the subsequent effects on the levels of T-lymphocyte subgroups and Th1/Th2 cytokines. A total of 86 patients with pediatric asthma, first diagnosed and treated at the Xuzhou Children's Hospital, were continuously selected and randomly divided into an observation group of 44 cases and control group of 42 cases. The patients in the control group were treated with budesonide atomization inhalation, while the children in the observation group were treated with intravenous infusion of salbutamol aerosol combined with magnesium sulfate. The therapeutic effects in the groups were compared. After treatment, the levels of serum CD3+ and CD8+ decreased when compared to before treatment; the levels of CD4+ and CD4+/CD8+ also increased, but the observation group had more significant improvement. Differences were statistically significant (P<0.05). After treatment, the levels of serum interleukin-2 (IL-2) and interferon-γ (IFN-γ) increased when compared to before, while levels of IL-4 and IL-6 decreased, and the observation group had more significant improvement. The differences were statistically significant (P<0.05). After treatment, the levels of VT, t-PTEF/t-E, MTIF/MTEF and TEF75/PTEF increased when compared to before; the observation group had more significant improvement. The differences were statistically significant (P<0.05). The effective rate and degree of treatment for the observation group were significantly higher than those of the control group and differences were statistically significant (P<0.05). The intravenous infusion of salbutamol aerosol combined with magnesium sulfate in the treatment of pediatric asthma can significantly improve therapeutic effects and lung functions, improve immune functions and relieve inflammatory reactions. Therefore, it indicates better clinical application and

  12. Rebamipide suppresses PolyI:C-stimulated cytokine production in human conjunctival epithelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ueta, Mayumi; Sotozono, Chie; Yokoi, Norihiko; Kinoshita, Shigeru

    2013-09-01

    We previously documented that ocular surface epithelial cells could regulate ocular surface inflammation and suggested that, while Toll-like receptor 3 upregulates, EP3, one of the prostaglandin E2 receptors, downregulates ocular surface inflammation. Others reported that rebamipide, a gastroprotective drug, could not only increase the gastric mucus production, but also suppressed gastric mucosal inflammation and that it was dominantly distributed in mucosal tissues. The eyedrop form of rebamipide, approved in Japan for use in the treatment of dry eye diseases, upregulates mucin secretion and production, thereby suppressing superficial punctate keratopathy on the ocular surface of patients with this disease. In the current study, we investigated whether rebamipide has anti- inflammatory effects on the ocular surface. To examine the effects of rebamipide on polyI:C-induced cytokine expression by primary human conjunctival epithelial cells, we used enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction assay. We studied the effects of rebamipide on ocular surface inflammation in our murine experimental allergic conjunctivitis (EAC) model. Rebamipide could suppress polyI:C-induced cytokine production and the expression of mRNAs for CXCL10, CXCL11, RANTES, MCP-1, and IL-6 in human conjunctival epithelial cells. In our EAC model, the topical administration of rebamipide suppressed conjunctival allergic eosinophil infiltration. The topical application of rebamipide on the ocular surface might suppress ocular surface inflammation by suppressing the production of cytokines by ocular surface epithelial cells.

  13. Decreased production of proinflammatory cytokines by monocytes from individuals presenting Candida-associated denture stomatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinke, Karen Henriette; Freitas, Patrícia; Viera, Narciso Almeida; Honório, Heitor Marques; Porto, Vinicius Carvalho; Lara, Vanessa Soares

    2016-01-01

    Candida-associated denture stomatitis (DS) is the most frequent lesion among denture wearers, especially the elderly. DS is strongly associated with Candida albicans, as well as local and systemic factors, such as impaired immune response. Monocytes are important in the protective immune response against the fungus by the production of cytokines that recruit and activate leukocytes. There are functional changes in these cells with age, and individual alterations involving monocyte response may predispose the host to developing infections by Candida spp. In this study, our aim was to evaluate the production of TNF-α, IL-6, CXCL8, IL-1β, MCP-1 and IL-10 by monocytes from elderly denture wearers with/without DS and elderly or young non-denture wearers. We detected that monocytes from elderly denture wearers with Candida-related denture stomatitis produced lower levels of CXCL-8, IL-6 and MCP-1. This imbalance in cytokine levels was observed in spontaneous or LPS-stimulated production. Therefore, our data suggested that inherent aspects of the host, such as changes in cytokine production by monocytes, might be associated with the development and the persistence of DS irrespective of aging. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Review of natural products actions on cytokines in inflammatory bowel disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hur, Sun Jin; Kang, Sung Ho; Jung, Ho Sung; Kim, Sang Chul; Jeon, Hyun Soo; Kim, Ick Hee; Lee, Jae Dong

    2012-11-01

    The purpose of this review is to provide an overview of the effects that natural products have on inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) and to provide insight into the relationship between these natural products and cytokines modulation. More than 100 studies from the past 10 years were reviewed herein on the therapeutic approaches for treating IBD. The natural products having anti-IBD actions included phytochemicals, antioxidants, microorganisms, dietary fibers, and lipids. The literature revealed that many of these natural products exert anti-IBD activity by altering cytokine production. Specifically, phytochemicals such as polyphenols or flavonoids are the most abundant, naturally occurring anti-IBD substances. The anti-IBD effects of lipids were primarily related to the n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids. The anti-IBD effects of phytochemicals were associated with modulating the levels of tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α), interleukin (IL)-1, IL-6, inducible nitric oxide synthase, and myeloperoxide. The anti-IBD effects of dietary fiber were mainly mediated via peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ, TNF-α, nitric oxide, and IL-2, whereas the anti-IBD effects of lactic acid bacteria were reported to influence interferon-γ, IL-6, IL-12, TNF-α, and nuclear factor-κ light-chain enhancer of activated B cells. These results suggest that the anti-IBD effects exhibited by natural products are mainly caused by their ability to modulate cytokine production. However, the exact mechanism of action of natural products for IBD therapy is still unclear. Thus, future research is needed to examine the effect of these natural products on IBD and to determine which factors are most strongly correlated with reducing IBD or controlling the symptoms of IBD.

  15. Complement plays a central role in Candida albicans-induced cytokine production by human PBMCs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cheng, Shih-Chin; Sprong, Tom; Joosten, Leo A B

    2012-01-01

    In experimental studies, the role of complement in antifungal host defense has been attributed to its opsonizing capability. In this study, we report that in humans an activated complement system mainly augments Candida albicans-induced host proinflammatory cytokine production via C5a-C5a......R signaling, while phagocytosis and intracellular killing of Candida are not influenced. By blocking the C5a-C5aR signaling pathway, either with anti-C5a antagonist antibodies or with the C5aR antagonist W-54001, C. albicans-induced IL-6 and IL-1β levels were significantly reduced. Recombinant C5a augmented...... in augmenting host proinflammatory cytokine production upon contact with C. albicans, and define the role of the complement system in anti-Candida host defense in humans....

  16. Contributions of cell subsets to cytokine production during normal and impaired wound healing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirza, Rita E; Koh, Timothy J

    2015-02-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the relative contributions of different cell subsets to the production of cytokines and growth factors during normal and impaired wound healing. Cells were isolated from wounds of non-diabetic and diabetic mice and separated by magnetic sorting into neutrophils/T cells/B cells (NTB cell subset), monocytes/macrophages (Mo/Mp subset) and non-leukocytic cells including keratinocyte/fibroblast/endothelial cells (KFE subset). On both per cell and total contribution bases, the Mo/Mp subset was the dominant producer of pro-inflammatory cytokines interleukin (IL)-1β, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α and IL-6 in both non-diabetic and diabetic mice and was a significant producer of vascular endothelial cell growth factor (VEGF)-A, insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-1 and transforming growth factor (TGF)-β1. The NTB subset was also a significant producer of TNF-α and IL-10 whereas the KFE subset contributed significant amounts of VEGF, IGF-1 and TGF-β1. Sustained production of pro-inflammatory cytokines and impaired production of healing-associated factors were evident in each subset in diabetic mice. These data will be useful for further experimental and modeling studies on the role of cell subsets in wound healing as well as for designing therapeutic strategies for improving healing.

  17. Sirtuin inhibition attenuates the production of inflammatory cytokines in lipopolysaccharide-stimulated macrophages

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fernandes, Claudia A. [Universite catholique de Louvain, Louvain Drug Research Institute (LDRI), Pharmaceutics and Drug Delivery Research Group, Brussels B-1200 (Belgium); Fievez, Laurence [University of Liege, GIGA-Research, Laboratory of Cellular and Molecular Immunology, Liege B-4000 (Belgium); Neyrinck, Audrey M.; Delzenne, Nathalie M. [Universite catholique de Louvain, LDRI, Metabolism and Nutrition Research Group, Brussels B-1200 (Belgium); Bureau, Fabrice [University of Liege, GIGA-Research, Laboratory of Cellular and Molecular Immunology, Liege B-4000 (Belgium); Vanbever, Rita, E-mail: rita.vanbever@uclouvain.be [Universite catholique de Louvain, Louvain Drug Research Institute (LDRI), Pharmaceutics and Drug Delivery Research Group, Brussels B-1200 (Belgium)

    2012-04-20

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Lipopolysaccharide-stimulated macrophages were treated with cambinol and sirtinol. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Cambinol and sirtinol decreased lipopolysaccharide-induced cytokines. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Cambinol decreased NF-{kappa}B activity but had no impact on p38 MAPK activation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Sirtuins are an interesting target for the treatment of inflammatory diseases. -- Abstract: In several inflammatory conditions such as rheumatoid arthritis or sepsis, the regulatory mechanisms of inflammation are inefficient and the excessive inflammatory response leads to damage to the host. Sirtuins are class III histone deacetylases that modulate the activity of several transcription factors that are implicated in immune responses. In this study, we evaluated the impact of sirtuin inhibition on the activation of lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated J774 macrophages by assessing the production of inflammatory cytokines. The pharmacologic inhibition of sirtuins decreased the production of tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-{alpha}) interleukin 6 (IL-6) and Rantes. The reduction of cytokine production was associated with decreased nuclear factor kappa B (NF-{kappa}B) activity and inhibitor kappa B alpha (I{kappa}B{alpha}) phosphorylation while no impact was observed on the phosphorylation status of p38 mitogen-activated kinase (p38 MAPK). This work shows that sirtuin pharmacologic inhibitors are a promising tool for the treatment of inflammatory conditions.

  18. The quassinoid isobrucein B reduces inflammatory hyperalgesia and cytokine production by post-transcriptional modulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Rangel L; Lopes, Alexandre H; França, Rafael O; Vieira, Sílvio M; Silva, Ellen C C; Amorim, Rodrigo C N; Cunha, Fernando Q; Pohlit, Adrian M; Cunha, Thiago M

    2015-02-27

    Isobrucein B (1) is a quassinoid isolated from the Amazonian medicinal plant Picrolemma sprucei. Herein we investigate the anti-inflammatory and antihyperalgesic effects of this quassinoid. Isobrucein B (1) (0.5-5 mg/kg) inhibited carrageenan-induced inflammatory hyperalgesia in mice in a dose-dependent manner. Reduced hyperalgesia was associated with reduction in both neutrophil migration and pronociceptive cytokine production. Pretreatment with 1 inhibited in vitro production/release of cytokines TNF, IL-1β, and KC/CXCL1 by lipopolysaccharide-stimulated macrophages. To investigate its molecular mechanism, RAW 264.7 macrophages with a luciferase reporter gene controlled by the NF-κB promoter were used (RAW 264.7-Luc). Quassinoid 1 reduced the luminescence emission by RAW 264.7-Luc stimulated by different compounds. Unexpectedly, NF-κB translocation to macrophage nuclei was not inhibited by 1 when evaluated by Western blotting and immunofluorescence. Furthermore, quassinoid 1 did not change the levels of TNF mRNA transcription in stimulated macrophages, suggesting post-transcriptional modulation. In addition, constitutive expression of luciferase in RAW 264.7 cells transiently transfected with a plasmid containing a universal promoter was inhibited by 1. Thus, isobrucein B (1) displays anti-inflammatory and antihyperalgesic activities by nonselective post-transcriptional modulation, resulting in decreased production/release of pro-inflammatory cytokines and neutrophil migration.

  19. Changes in cytokine production in healthy subjects practicing Guolin Qigong : a pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jones Brian M

    2001-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Guolin Qigong is a combination of meditation, controlled breathing and physical movement designed to control the vital energy (qi of the body and consequently to improve spiritual, physical and mental health. Practice of Qigong has been reported to alter immunological function, but there have been few studies of its effects on cytokines, the key regulators of immunity. Methods Numbers of peripheral blood cytokine-secreting cells were determined by ELISPOT in 19 healthy volunteers aged 27 – 55, before they were taught the practice of Qigong and after 3, 7 and 14 weeks of daily practice. The effect of Qigong on blood cortisol was also examined. Results Numbers of IL4 and IL12-secreting cells remained stable. IL6 increased at 7 weeks and TNFα increased in unstimulated cultures at 3 and 7 weeks but decreased at these times in LPS and SAC-stimulated cultures. Of particular interest, IFNγ-secreting cells increased and IL10-secreting cells decreased in PHA-stimulated cultures, resulting in significant increases in the IFNγ:IL10 ratio. Cortisol, a known inhibitor of type 1 cytokine production, was reduced by practicing Qigong. Conclusion These preliminary studies in healthy subjects, although not necessarily representative of a randomized healthy population and not including a separate control group, have indicated that blood levels of the stress-related hormone cortisol may be lowered by short-term practice of Qigong and that there are concomitant changes in numbers of cytokine-secreting cells. Further studies of the effect of Qigong in patients with clinical diseases known to be associated with type 2 cytokine predominance are merited.

  20. Fisetin Inhibits Hyperglycemia-Induced Proinflammatory Cytokine Production by Epigenetic Mechanisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hye Joo Kim

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Diabetes is characterized by a proinflammatory state, and several inflammatory processes have been associated with both type 1 and type 2 diabetes and the resulting complications. High glucose levels induce the release of proinflammatory cytokines. Fisetin, a flavonoid dietary ingredient found in the smoke tree (Cotinus coggygria, and is also widely distributed in fruits and vegetables. Fisetin is known to exert anti-inflammatory effects via inhibition of the NF-κB signaling pathway. In this study, we analyzed the effects of fisetin on proinflammatory cytokine secretion and epigenetic regulation, in human monocytes cultured under hyperglycemic conditions. Human monocytic (THP-1 cells were cultured under control (14.5 mmol/L mannitol, normoglycemic (NG, 5.5 mmol/L glucose, or hyperglycemic (HG, 20 mmol/L glucose conditions, in the absence or presence of fisetin. Fisetin was added (3–10 μM for 48 h. While the HG condition significantly induced histone acetylation, NF-κB activation, and proinflammatory cytokine (IL-6 and TNF-α release from THP-1 cells, fisetin suppressed NF-κB activity and cytokine release. Fisetin treatment also significantly reduced CBP/p300 gene expression, as well as the levels of acetylation and HAT activity of the CBP/p300 protein, which is a known NF-κB coactivator. These results suggest that fisetin inhibits HG-induced cytokine production in monocytes, through epigenetic changes involving NF-κB. We therefore propose that fisetin supplementation be considered for diabetes prevention.

  1. Lactic acid bacteria inhibit TH2 cytokine production by mononuclear cells from allergic patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pochard, Pierre; Gosset, Philippe; Grangette, Corinne; Andre, Claude; Tonnel, André-Bernard; Pestel, Joël; Mercenier, Annick

    2002-10-01

    Among factors potentially involved in the increased prevalence of allergic diseases, modification of the intestinal bacteria flora or lack of bacterial stimulation during childhood has been proposed. Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) present in fermented foods or belonging to the natural intestinal microflora were shown to exert beneficial effects on human health. Recent reports have indicated their capacity to reduce allergic symptoms. The purpose of this investigation was to determine the effect of LAB on the production of type 2 cytokines, which characterize allergic diseases. PBMCs from patients allergic to house dust mite versus those from healthy donors were stimulated for 48 hours with the related Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus allergen or with a staphylococcal superantigen. The effect of LAB preincubation was assessed by measuring the type 2 cytokine production by means of specific ELISA. The tested gram-positive LAB were shown to inhibit the secretion of T(H)2 cytokines (IL-4 and IL-5). This effect was dose dependent and was observed irrespective of the LAB strain used. No significant inhibition was induced by the control, gram-negative Escherichia coli TG1. Interestingly, LAB reduced the T(H)2 cytokine production from allergic PBMCs specifically restimulated with the related allergen. The inhibition mechanism was shown to be dependent on antigen-presenting cells (ie, monocytes) and on the involvement of IL-12 and IFN-gamma. The tested LAB strains were demonstrated to exhibit an anti-T(H)2 activity, and thus different strains of this family might be useful in the prevention of allergic diseases.

  2. Human cytomegalovirus UL7, a homologue of the SLAM-family receptor CD229, impairs cytokine production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engel, Pablo; Pérez-Carmona, Natàlia; Albà, M Mar; Robertson, Kevin; Ghazal, Peter; Angulo, Ana

    2011-10-01

    Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV), the β-herpesvirus prototype, has evolved a wide spectrum of mechanisms to counteract host immunity. Among them, HCMV uses cellular captured genes encoding molecules capable of interfering with the original host function or of fulfilling new immunomodulatory tasks. Here, we report on UL7, a novel HCMV heavily glycosylated transmembrane protein, containing an Ig-like domain that exhibits remarkable amino acid similarity to CD229, a cell-surface molecule of the signalling lymphocyte-activation molecule (SLAM) family involved in leukocyte activation. The UL7 Ig-like domain, which is well-preserved in all HCMV strains, structurally resembles the SLAM-family N-terminal Ig-variable domain responsible for the homophilic and heterophilic interactions that trigger signalling. UL7 is transcribed with early-late kinetics during the lytic infectious cycle. Using a mAb generated against the viral protein, we show that it is constitutively shed, through its mucine-like stalk, from the cell-surface. Production of soluble UL7 is enhanced by PMA and reduced by a broad-spectrum metalloproteinase inhibitor. Although UL7 does not hold the ability to interact with CD229 or other SLAM-family members, it shares with them the capacity to mediate adhesion to leukocytes, specifically to monocyte-derived DCs. Furthermore, we demonstrate that UL7 expression attenuates the production of proinflammatory cytokines TNF, IL-8 and IL-6 in DCs and myeloid cell lines. Thus, the ability of UL7 to interfere with cellular proinflammatory responses may contribute to viral persistence. These results enhance our understanding of those HCMV-encoded molecules involved in sustaining the balance between HCMV and the host immune system.

  3. Natural killer cell activity, lymphocyte proliferation, and cytokine profile in tumor-bearing mice treated with MAPA, a magnesium aggregated polymer from Aspergillus oryzae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Justo, G Z; Durán, N; Queiroz, M L S

    2003-08-01

    The present study examined the effects of MAPA, an antitumor aggregated polymer of protein magnesium ammonium phospholinoleate-palmitoleate anhydride, isolated from Aspergillus oryzae, on concanavalin A (Con A)-induced spleen cell proliferation, cytokine production and on natural killer (NK) cell activity in Ehrlich ascites tumor-bearing mice. The Ehrlich ascites tumor (EAT) growth led to diminished mitogen-induced expansion of spleen cell populations and total NK activity. This was accompanied by striking spleen enlargement, with a marked increase in total cell counts. Moreover, a substantial enhancement in IL-10 levels, paralleled by a significant decrease in IL-2 was observed, while production of IL-4 and interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma) was not altered. Treatment of mice with 5 mg/kg MAPA for 7 days promoted spleen cell proliferation, IL-2 production and NK cell activity regardless of tumor outgrowth. In addition, MAPA treatment markedly enhanced IFN-gamma levels and reduced IL-10 production relative to EAT mice. A 35% reduction in splenomegaly with normal number of nucleated cells was also found. Altogether, our results suggest that MAPA directly and/or indirectly modulates immune cell activity, and probably disengages tumor-induced suppression of these responses. Clearly, MAPA has an impact and may delay tumor outgrowth through immunotherapeutic mechanisms.

  4. Immune response to the cestode Hymenolepis nana: cytokine production during infection with eggs or cysts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conchedda, M; Bortoletti, G; Gabriele, F; Wakelin, D; Palmas, C

    1997-03-01

    Analysis of cytokine production (IFN-gamma, IL-2, IL-3, IL-4, IL-5) by in vitro Con A-stimulated mesenteric lymph node cells measured daily after egg or cyst infection of mice with Hymenolepis nana showed that cytokine production varies during parasite development and between different host strains (BALB/c and C3H/He mice). Egg infection stimulates a rapid increase in IFN-gamma, independent of mouse strain. In addition, in BALB/c mice a Th2-like response (IL-4, IL-5 secretion) was stimulated 4-5 days p.i., when the parasites are thought to begin their lumenal phase. After infection with cysts significant increases in IFN-gamma, IL-2, IL-4 and IL-5 were observed at the time when autoinfection with eggs is thought to occur. The level of IFN-gamma paralleled that seen after a primary egg infection. This suggests that there is a predominantly Th1-type response during the tissue phase of H. nana development and that, in BALB/c mice, a Th2 polarization occurs during the first few days of the lumenal phase. The cytokine patterns observed are discussed in relation to host responses during chronic helminth infection.

  5. Local TNFR1 Signaling Licenses Murine Neutrophils for Increased TLR-Dependent Cytokine and Eicosanoid Production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deguine, Jacques; Wei, Jessica; Barbalat, Roman; Gronert, Karsten; Barton, Gregory M

    2017-02-20

    Neutrophils are generally the first immune cells recruited during the development of sterile or microbial inflammation. As these cells express many innate immune receptors with the potential to directly recognize microbial or endogenous signals, we set out to assess whether their functions are locally influenced by the signals present at the onset of inflammation. Using a mouse model of peritonitis, we demonstrate that neutrophils elicited in the presence of C-type lectin receptor ligands have an increased ability to produce cytokines, chemokines, and lipid mediators in response to subsequent TLR stimulation. Importantly, we found that licensing of cytokine production was mediated by paracrine TNF-α-TNFR1 signaling rather than direct ligand sensing, suggesting a form of quorum sensing among neutrophils. Mechanistically, licensing was largely imparted by changes in the posttranscriptional regulation of inflammatory cytokines, whereas production of IL-10 was regulated at the transcriptional level. Altogether, our data suggest that neutrophils rapidly adapt their functions to the local inflammatory milieu. These phenotypic changes may promote rapid neutrophil recruitment in the presence of pathogens but limit inflammation in their absence.

  6. Host Intracellular Signaling Events and Pro-inflammatory Cytokine Production in African Trypanosomiasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuriakose, Shiby M; Singh, Rani; Uzonna, Jude E

    2016-01-01

    Pathogens, such as bacteria, viruses, and parasites, possess specific molecules or proteins that are recognized by several host innate immune receptors, leading to the activation of several intracellular signaling molecules and pathways. The magnitude and quality of these events significantly affect the outcome of infection. African trypanosomes, including Trypanosoma congolense, are capable of manipulating the host immune response, including the activity of macrophages, which are the key immune cells that contribute to the immunopathogenesis of African trypanosomiasis. Although it is known that immune hyperactivation and excessive pro-inflammatory cytokine production are the hallmarks of African trypanosomiasis, the mechanisms through which these events are triggered are poorly defined. However, it is known that macrophages may play a significant role in these processes, because phagocytosis of trypanosomes by macrophages initiates intracellular signal transduction cascades that lead to the release of pro-inflammatory cytokines and alteration in cell function. This review highlights recent progress in our understanding of the innate immune receptors, signaling pathways, and transcription factors involved in T. congolense-induced pro-inflammatory cytokine production in macrophages. It will reveal the existence of complex signaling events through which the parasite modulates the host immune response, thus identifying novel targets that could aid in designing strategies to effectively control the disease.

  7. Chronic aspiration of gastric and duodenal contents and their effects on inflammatory cytokine production in respiratory system of rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mitra Samareh Fekri

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD is defined with clinical symptoms of heart burning and regurgitation. It may be associated with external esophageal symptoms such as chronic cough, asthma, laryngitis, chronic lung disease, sinusitis and pulmonary fibrosis. In the present study, rats with chronic aspiration of gastroduodenal contents were studied for cellular phenotypes and cytokine concentrations in bronchoalveolar lavage and lung tissue. Thirty-six male Albino N-MRI rats were randomly divided into six groups. After anesthesia and tracheal intubation, the animals received either 0.5ml/kg of normal saline (control, gastric juice, pepsin, hydrochloric acid or bile salts by injection into their lungs twice a week for 8 weeks. In sham group nothing was injected. Thereafter, cellular phenotypes and cytokine concentrations of Interleukine (IL-1α, IL-1β, Transforming Growth Factor (TGF-β, Tumor Necrosis Factor (TNF-α, and IL-6 were assessed in bronchoalveolar lavage and lung tissue homogenates. The numbers of epithelial cells, macrophages, neutrophils and lymphocytes in BAL and levels of cytokines IL-1α, IL-6, TNF-α and TGF-β in BAL and lung tissue of test groups were significantly higher than the control group. Aspiration of bile salts caused more cytokine levels and inflammatory cells compared to other reflux components. It can be concluded that GERD with increased cytokines and inflammatory cells in lung could cause or exacerbate asthma and pulmonary fibrosis.

  8. The Vibrio cholerae cytolysin (VCC) promotes activation of mast cell (T helper 2) cytokine production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arcidiacono, Diletta; Odom, Sandra; Frossi, Barbara; Rivera, Juan; Paccani, Silvia Rossi; Baldari, Cosima T.; Pucillo, Carlo; Montecucco, Cesare; de Bernard, Marina

    2008-01-01

    Summary Many strains of Vibrio cholerae produce a cytolysin (VCC) that forms oligomeric transmembrane pores responsible for vacuolization of several cell types in culture. Here we report that VCC is a TLR2 agonist able to stimulate mast cells to produce several cytokines (IL-4 included) which could contribute to the Th2 response seen in the natural infection. Moreover, VCC-induced cytokine production was dependent on increased cytosolic Ca2+ and on the presence of the two Src family kinases Lyn and Fyn, known to be required for FcεRI-dependent activation of mast cells. These findings strongly suggest that VCC is endowed with pro-inflammatory activity that promotes a Th2-type immune profile. PMID:18005391

  9. Production of cytokines by mononuclear cells of hypertrophic adenoids in children with otitis media with effusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zelazowska-Rutkowska, Beata; Ilendo, Elzbieta; Skotnicka, Bozena; Wysocka, Jolanta; Kasprzycka, Edwina

    2012-01-01

    Hypertrophic adenoids with otitis media with effusion is a common infectious disease and present a serious otological problem in children. Cytokines, potent inflammatory mediators, play important role in the initiation of immunological response in otitis media. Adenoids excised due to hypertrophy with or without chronic otitis media with effusion were used to isolate mononuclear cells. Secretion of cytokines by non-stimulated and PHA-stimulated cells was determined by specific ELISAs. We found a significant increase in the production of IL-5 and TNF-α secreted by adenoidal cells of children with otitis media with effusion compared to group with hypertrophic adenoids. No differences were found in the secretion of IL-8, IL-6, and IL-10 between these two groups of patients. Our results suggest a difference between the immunological responses in the course of hypertrophic adenoids with otitis media as compared to hypertrophic adenoids.

  10. Sodium chloride-enriched Diet Enhanced Inflammatory Cytokine Production and Exacerbated Experimental Colitis in Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monteleone, Ivan; Marafini, Irene; Dinallo, Vincenzo; Di Fusco, Davide; Troncone, Edoardo; Zorzi, Francesca; Laudisi, Federica; Monteleone, Giovanni

    2017-02-01

    Environmental factors are supposed to play a decisive role in the pathogenesis of inflammatory bowel diseases [IBDs]. Increased dietary salt intake has been linked with the development of autoimmune diseases, but the impact of a salt-enriched diet on the course of IBD remains unknown. In this study, we examined whether high salt intake alters mucosal cytokine production and exacerbates colitis. Normal intestinal lamina propria mononuclear cells [LPMCs] were activated with anti-CD3/CD28 in the presence or absence of increasing concentrations of sodium chloride [NaCl] and/or SB202190, a specific inhibitor of p38/MAP Kinase. For in vivo experiments, a high dose of NaCl was administered to mice 15 days before induction of trinitrobenzene-sulfonic acid [TNBS]-colitis or dextran sulfate sodium [DSS]-colitis. In parallel, mice were given SB202190 before induction of TNBS-colitis. Transcription factors and effector cytokines were evaluated by flow-cytometry and real-time PCR. IL-17A, IL-23R, TNF-α, and Ror-γT were significantly increased in human LPMCs following NaCl exposure, while there was no significant change in IFN-γ, T-bet or Foxp3. Pharmacologic inhibition of p38/MAPK abrogated the NaCl-inducing effect on LPMC-derived cytokines. Mice receiving the high-salt diet developed a more severe colitis than control mice, and this effect was preventable by SB202190. Our data indicated that exposure of intestinal mononuclear cells to a high-NaCl diet enhanced effector cytokine production and contributed to the exacerbation of experimental colitis in mice. Copyright © 2016 European Crohn’s and Colitis Organisation (ECCO). Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  11. Cytosolic dsDNA triggers apoptosis and pro-inflammatory cytokine production in normal human melanocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Suiquan; Liu, Dongyin; Ning, Weixuan; Xu, Aie

    2015-04-01

    Considerable evidence implicates that viral infection might be a participant factor in the pathogenesis of vitiligo. However, it is still unclear how viral infection leads to the melanocyte destruction. To elucidate the effects of viral dsDNA on the viability and cytokine synthesis of normal human melanocytes and to explore the underlying mechanisms, primary cultured normal human melanocytes were transfected with poly(dA:dT). The results demonstrated that poly(dA:dT) triggered apoptosis instead of pyroptosis in melanocytes. Knocking down AIM2 or RIG-I by RNA interference partially reduced the poly(dA:dT)-induced LDH release, suggesting the involvement of both nucleic acid sensors in the process of melanocyte death. Poly(dA:dT) induced the expression of pro-inflammatory cytokine genes including IFN-β, TNF-α, IL-6 and IL-8 as well, whereas the pro-inflammatory cytokine production was suppressed by RIG-I siRNA, but not by AIM2 siRNA. Poly(dA:dT) treatment increased the phosphorylation of p38 and JNK and NFκB. Accordingly, NFκB inhibitor Bay 11-7082 and JNK inhibitor SP600125 blocked the induction of the cytokine genes except IFN-β. The production of IL6 and IL8 was also suppressed by p38 inhibitor SB203580. On the contrary, the Poly(dA:dT)-induced melanocyte death was only decreased by SP600125. This study provides the possible mechanism of melanocyte destruction and immuno-stimulation in vitiligo by innate immune response following viral infection.

  12. Toll-like receptors regulate B cell cytokine production in patients with diabetes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jagannathan, M.; McDonnell, M.; Liang, Y.; Hasturk, H.; Hetzel, J.; Rubin, D.; Kantarci, A.; Van Dyke, T. E.; Ganley-Leal, L. M.

    2010-01-01

    Aims/hypothesis Understanding cellular and molecular events in diabetes mellitus will identify new approaches for therapy. Immune system cells are important modulators of chronic inflammation in diabetes mellitus, but the role of B cells is not adequately studied. The aim of this work was to define the function of B cells in diabetes mellitus patients through focus on B cell responses to pattern recognition receptors. Methods We measured expression and function of Toll-like receptors (TLRs) on peripheral blood B cells from diabetes mellitus patients by flow cytometry and multiplexed cytokine analysis. We similarly analysed B cells from non-diabetic donors and periodontal disease patients as comparative cohorts. Results B cells from diabetes mellitus patients secrete multiple pro-inflammatory cytokines, and IL-8 production is significantly elevated in B cells from diabetic patients compared with those from non-diabetic individuals. These data, plus modest elevation of TLR surface expression, suggest B cell IL-8 hyperproduction is a cytokine-specific outcome of altered TLR function in B cells from diabetes mellitus patients. Altered TLR function is further evidenced by demonstration of an unexpected, albeit modest ‘anti-inflammatory’ function for TLR4. Importantly, B cells from diabetes mellitus patients fail to secrete IL-10, an anti-inflammatory cytokine implicated in inflammatory disease resolution, under a variety of TLR-stimulating conditions. Comparative analyses of B cells from patients with a second chronic inflammatory disease, periodontal disease, indicated that some alterations in B cell TLR function associate specifically with diabetes mellitus. Conclusions/interpretation Altered TLR function in B cells from diabetes mellitus patients increases inflammation by two mechanisms: elevation of pro-inflammatory IL-8 and lack of anti-inflammatory/protective IL-10 production. PMID:20383694

  13. Controlled meal frequency without caloric restriction alters peripheral blood mononuclear cell cytokine production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Longo Dan L

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Intermittent fasting (IF improves healthy lifespan in animals by a mechanism involving reduced oxidative damage and increased resistance to stress. However, no studies have evaluated the impact of controlled meal frequency on immune responses in human subjects. Objective A study was conducted to establish the effects of controlled diets with different meal frequencies, but similar daily energy intakes, on cytokine production in healthy male and female subjects. Design In a crossover study design with an intervening washout period, healthy normal weight middle-age male and female subjects (n = 15 were maintained for 2 months on controlled on-site one meal per day (OMD or three meals per day (TMD isocaloric diets. Serum samples and peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs culture supernatants from subjects were analyzed for the presence of inflammatory markers using a multiplex assay. Results There were no significant differences in the inflammatory markers in the serum of subjects on the OMD or TMD diets. There was an increase in the capacity of PBMCs to produce cytokines in subjects during the first month on the OMD or TMD diets. Lower levels of TNF-α, IL-17, MCP-1 and MIP-1β were produced by PBMCs from subjects on the OMD versus TMD diet. Conclusions PBMCs of subjects on controlled diets exhibit hypersensitivities to cellular stimulation suggesting that stress associated with altered eating behavior might affect cytokine production by immune cells upon stimulation. Moreover, stimulated PBMCs derived from healthy individuals on a reduced meal frequency diet respond with a reduced capability to produce cytokines.

  14. Melatonin and zinc treatment: distinctive modulation of cytokine production in chronic experimental Trypanosoma cruzi infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brazão, Vânia; Del Vecchio Filipin, Marina; Santello, Fabricia Helena; Caetano, Leony Cristina; Abrahão, Ana Amélia Carraro; Toldo, Míriam Paula Alonso; do Prado, José Clóvis

    2011-12-01

    Melatonin by exhibiting antioxidant, anti-aging, and immunomodulatory properties favorably modulate the immune function, protecting the hosts from several infectious diseases. Zinc is an essential trace element important for the efficiency of the immune system in reason of its widespread role in the activity of enzymes, transcription factors and cytokines. The etiology of Chagas' disease, caused by a protozoan parasite Trypanosoma cruzi, has been the focus of considerable discussion, although chronic phase still remains not fully understood. This study showed that zinc and melatonin treatment did not affect the percentage of both CD4+ and CD8+ T lymphocytes subsets in chronically infected animals. Increased levels of IL-2 and IL-10, as well as, enhanced thymocyte proliferation in T. cruzi infected groups under zinc and melatonin therapy was observed as compared to untreated group. Conversely, during the chronic phase of infection, macrophages counts were reduced in melatonin and zinc-melatonin treated animals. The combined actions of zinc and melatonin have beneficial effects in counteracting parasite-induced immune dysregulation, protecting animals against the harmful actions of chronic T. cruzi infection. Furthermore, our results provide an experimental basis for further studies on the role of immunomodulatory therapies.

  15. Extracellular vesicles from Leishmania-infected macrophages confer an anti-infection cytokine-production profile to naïve macrophages.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André Cronemberger-Andrade

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Extracellular vesicles (EVs are structures with phospholipid bilayer membranes and 100-1000 nm diameters. These vesicles are released from cells upon activation of surface receptors and/or apoptosis. The production of EVs by dendritic cells, mast cells, macrophages, and B and T lymphocytes has been extensively reported in the literature. EVs may express MHC class II and other membrane surface molecules and carry antigens. The aim of this study was to investigate the role of EVs from Leishmania-infected macrophages as immune modulatory particles.In this work it was shown that BALB/c mouse bone marrow-derived macrophages, either infected in vitro with Leishmania amazonensis or left uninfected, release comparable amounts of 50-300 nm-diameter extracellular vesicles (EVs. The EVs were characterized by flow cytometry and electron microscopy. The incubation of naïve macrophages with these EVs for 48 hours led to a statistically significant increase in the production of the cytokines IL-12, IL-1β, and TNF-α.EVs derived from macrophages infected with L. amazonensis induce other macrophages, which in vivo could be bystander cells, to produce the proinflammatory cytokines IL-12, IL-1β and TNF-α. This could contribute both to modulate the immune system in favor of a Th1 immune response and to the elimination of the Leishmania, leading, therefore, to the control the infection.

  16. Pregnancy estrogen drives the changes of T-lymphocyte subsets and cytokines and prolongs the survival of H-Y skin graft in murine model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIN Xing-guang; ZHOU Qi; WANG Li; GAO Ying; ZHANG Wei-na; LUO Zhen-long; CHEN Bi-cheng; CHEN Zhong-hua; CHANG Sheng

    2010-01-01

    Background Estrogen as well as CD4+Foxp3+ regulatory T cells were shown to have a protective role not only in maintaining maternal-fetal tolerance but also against autoimmune diseases. We aimed to investigate whether the pregnancy levels of estrogen are enough to induce transplant tolerance as to maintain fetal-maternal tolerance.Methods We established H-Y skin graft transplantation in C57BL/6 ovariectomized mice that reconstituted with estrogen. Subsequently, consecutive daily estrogen injection was administrated. Tregs and the cytokines in the peripheral blood were detected by flow cytometry and ELISA pre- and post-transplant.Results The results indicated that pregnancy levels of estrogen could promote Tregs in secondary lymphoid organs and peripheral blood (P0.05). The estrogen-treated recipients accepted H-Y skin grafts for more than 35 days (median survival time (MST): (44.0±1.2) days) compared with estrogen-untreated mice (MST:(23.0±1.6) days) (P <0.05). It was also observed that estrogen up-regulated the expression of Foxp3, but did not affect CD3+CD8+ effector T-cells in non-transplant mice. While in the presence of H-Y antigens, the expression of Foxp3 was more significant and CD3+CD8+ effector T cells were decreased significantly (P <0.05). Meanwhile, the up-regulated IL-10 and IL-4, and down-regulated IFN-Y could be observed (P <0.05).Conclusions Pregnancy levels of estrogen may promote the conversion of peripheral Tregs in secondary lymphoid organs, but show no effect on the natural Tregs production, differentiation and maturity in central lymphoid organs.Furthermore, pregnancy levels of estrogen could significantly prolong the survivals of H-Y skin grafts by the expansion of Tregs, suppression of CD3+CD8+ effector T-cells and immune shift towards Th2 cytokines.

  17. High Insulin and Leptin Increase Resistin and Inflammatory Cytokine Production from Human Mononuclear Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Panayoula C. Tsiotra

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Resistin and the proinflammatory cytokines, such as TNF-α, IL-6, and IL-1β, produced by adipocytes, and macrophages, are considered to be important modulators of chronic inflammation contributing to the development of obesity and atherosclerosis. Human monocyte-enriched mononuclear cells, from ten healthy individuals, were exposed to high concentrations of insulin, leptin, and glucose (alone or in combination for 24 hours in vitro. Resistin, TNF-α, IL-6, and IL-1β production was examined and compared to that in untreated cells. High insulin and leptin concentrations significantly upregulated resistin and the cytokines. The subsequent addition of high glucose significantly upregulated resistin and TNF-α mRNA and protein secretion, while it did not have any effect on IL-6 or IL-1β production. By comparison, exposure to dexamethasone reduced TNF-α, IL-6, and IL-1β production, while at this time point it increased resistin protein secretion. These data suggest that the expression of resistin, TNF-α, IL-6, and IL-1β from human mononuclear cells, might be enhanced by the hyperinsulinemia and hyperleptinemia and possibly by the hyperglycemia in metabolic diseases as obesity, type 2 diabetes, and atherosclerosis. Therefore, the above increased production may contribute to detrimental effects of their increased adipocyte-derived circulating levels on systemic inflammation, insulin sensitivity, and endothelial function of these patients.

  18. Immunological Effect of PM2.5 on Cytokine Production in Female Wistar Rats1

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    NING-HUA HUANG; QIN WANG; DONG-QUN XU

    2008-01-01

    Objective To investigate the immunological effect of PM2.5 on cytokine production in female Wistar rats.Methods Female Wistzr rats were given 0.3 mg,0.75 mg,2 mg,5 mg of PM2.5 per 0.5mL saline,respectively.Saline was used as the negative control.TNF-α and IL-6 levels in the branchoalveolar lavage were measured by ELISA,and mRNA expression leveIs in lung tissue were detected bv RT-PCR.Alveolar macrophages were collected for testing phogacytic function. Results Exposure to PM2.5 stimulated TNF-α production in a dose-dependent manner(P<0.05),However,no statistically significant difference was found.No time-dependent change in TNF-α and IL-6 production Was found.TNF-α and IL-6 mRNA expressions were induced by PM2.5-exposure.The phagocytic rate(PR)was significantly decreased by PM2.5 treatment.Conclusion PM2.5 exposure increases inflammation response of the lung in a dose-dependent mauuer.Moreover,tissue injury induced by PM2.5 may be related to altered production of cytokines.PM2.5 may impair the phagocytic activity of alveolar macrophages.

  19. The effect of Jeo Dang-Tang on cytokines production in the patients with cerebral infarction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Hyun-Ja; Kang, Sei-Young; Kim, Sang-Yong; Lee, Sang-Gwan; Lee, Sung-Geun; Sung, Kang-Keyng; Kim, Hyung-Min

    2003-11-01

    The herbal formulation "Jeo Dang-Tang" (JDT) has long been used for various cerebrovascular diseases. However, very little has scientific investigation been carried out. The aim of the present study is to investigate the effect of JDT on the production of various cytokines in the patients with cerebral infarction (CI). Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) obtained from the patients with CI were cultured for 24h in the presence or absence of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) or phytohemagglutinin (PHA). The amount of interleukin (IL)-4, IL-10 and transforming growth factor (TGF)-1beta, in culture supernatant, was significantly increased in the JDT, LPS or PHA treated cells compared to unstimulated cells (P < 0.05). We also show that increased IL-4, and IL-10 level by LPS or PHA was significantly inhibited by JDT in a dose-dependent manner. Maximal inhibition rate of IL-4 and IL-10 production by JDT was 45 +/- 2% and 51 +/- 5% for LPS-stimulated cell and 41.5 +/- 3% and 70.8 +/- 2% for PHA-stimulated cells, respectively (P < 0.05). On the other hand, JDT significantly increased the LPS or PHA-induced TGF-beta1 production (P < 0.05). These data suggest that JDT has a regulatory effect on the cytokines production, which might explain its beneficial effect in the treatment of CI.

  20. Methyl Protodioscin from the Roots of Asparagus cochinchinensis Attenuates Airway Inflammation by Inhibiting Cytokine Production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Ju Hee; Lim, Hun Jai; Lee, Chan Woo; Son, Kun-Ho; Son, Jong-Keun; Lee, Sang Kook; Kim, Hyun Pyo

    2015-01-01

    The present study was designed to find pharmacologically active compound against airway inflammation from the roots of Asparagus cochinchinensis. The 70% ethanol extract of the roots of A. cochinchinensis (ACE) was found to inhibit IL-6 production from IL-1β-treated lung epithelial cells (A549) and the major constituent, methyl protodioscin (MP), also strongly inhibited the production of IL-6, IL-8, and tumor necrosis factor- (TNF-) α from A549 cells at 10-100 μM. This downregulating effect of proinflammatory cytokine production was found to be mediated, at least in part, via inhibition of c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) and c-Jun activation pathway. When examined on an in vivo model of airway inflammation in mice, lipopolysaccharide- (LPS-) induced acute lung injury, ACE, and MP significantly inhibited cell infiltration in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid by the oral treatment at doses of 100-400 mg/kg and 30-60 mg/kg, respectively. MP also inhibited the production of proinflammatory cytokines such as IL-6, TNF-α, and IL-1β in lung tissue. All of these findings provide scientific evidence supporting the role of A. cochinchinensis as a herbal remedy in treating airway inflammation and also suggest a therapeutic value of MP on airway inflammatory disorders.

  1. Methyl Protodioscin from the Roots of Asparagus cochinchinensis Attenuates Airway Inflammation by Inhibiting Cytokine Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ju Hee Lee

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study was designed to find pharmacologically active compound against airway inflammation from the roots of Asparagus cochinchinensis. The 70% ethanol extract of the roots of A. cochinchinensis (ACE was found to inhibit IL-6 production from IL-1β-treated lung epithelial cells (A549 and the major constituent, methyl protodioscin (MP, also strongly inhibited the production of IL-6, IL-8, and tumor necrosis factor- (TNF- α from A549 cells at 10–100 μM. This downregulating effect of proinflammatory cytokine production was found to be mediated, at least in part, via inhibition of c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK and c-Jun activation pathway. When examined on an in vivo model of airway inflammation in mice, lipopolysaccharide- (LPS- induced acute lung injury, ACE, and MP significantly inhibited cell infiltration in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid by the oral treatment at doses of 100–400 mg/kg and 30–60 mg/kg, respectively. MP also inhibited the production of proinflammatory cytokines such as IL-6, TNF-α, and IL-1β in lung tissue. All of these findings provide scientific evidence supporting the role of A. cochinchinensis as a herbal remedy in treating airway inflammation and also suggest a therapeutic value of MP on airway inflammatory disorders.

  2. Lonchocarpus sericeus lectin decreases leukocyte migration and mechanical hypernociception by inhibiting cytokine and chemokines production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Napimoga, Marcelo H; Cavada, Benildo S; Alencar, Nylane M N; Mota, Mário L; Bittencourt, Flávio S; Alves-Filho, José C; Grespan, Renata; Gonçalves, Reginaldo B; Clemente-Napimoga, Juliana T; de Freitas, Andressa; Parada, Carlos A; Ferreira, Sérgio H; Cunha, Fernando Q

    2007-06-01

    In this study, we tested the potential use of a lectin from Lonchocarpus sericeus seeds (LSL), to control neutrophil migration and inflammatory hypernociception (decrease of nociceptive threshold). Pretreatment of the animals intravenously (15 min before) with LSL inhibited neutrophil migration to the peritoneal cavity in a dose-dependent fashion confirmed by an inhibition of rolling and adhesion of leukocytes by intravital microscopy. We also tested the ability of the pretreatment with LSL to inhibit neutrophil migration on immunised mice, and it was observed that a strong inhibition of neutrophil migration induced by ovoalbumin in immunized mice. Another set of experiments showed that pretreatment of the animals with LSL, inhibited the mechanical hypernociception in mice induced by the i.pl. injection of OVA in immunized mice and of carrageenan in naïve mice, but not that induced by prostaglandin E(2) (PGE(2)) or formalin. This anti-nociceptive effect correlated with an effective blockade of neutrophil influx, as assessed by the hind paw tissue myeloperoxidase levels. In addition, we measured cytokines (TNF-alpha and IL-1beta) and chemokines (MIP-1alpha [CCL3] and KC [CXCL1]) from the peritoneal exudates and i.pl. tissue. Animals treated with LSL showed inhibition of cytokines and chemokines release in a dose-dependent manner. In conclusion, we demonstrated that the inhibitory effects of LSL on neutrophil migration and mechanical inflammatory hypernocicepetion are associated with the inhibition of the production of cytokines and chemokines.

  3. The influence of theobromine on angiogenic activity and proangiogenic cytokines production of human ovarian cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barcz, E; Sommer, E; Sokolnicka, I; Gawrychowski, K; Roszkowska-Purska, K; Janik, P; Skopinska-Rózewska, E

    1998-01-01

    Angiogenesis plays an important role in ovarian cancer growth and metastasis formation. Adenosine is one of the most potent stimulator of neovascularisation. The aim of present study was to determine if theobromine, adenosine receptor antagonist, influences angiogenic activity and proangiogenic cytokines production. Theobromine caused significant inhibition of angiogenic activity of ovarian cancer cells. In in vivo and in vitro cultures theobromine diminished vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) production. Production of basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) and interleukin-8 (IL-8) was not altered by the examined drug. These findings suggest that theobromine might be a potent inhibitor of angiogenesis induced by ovarian cancer cells and its mechanism of action is related to inhibition of VEGF production.

  4. The adaptor protein SAP regulates type II NKT-cell development, cytokine production, and cytotoxicity against lymphoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weng, Xiufang; Liao, Chia-Min; Bagchi, Sreya; Cardell, Susanna L; Stein, Paul L; Wang, Chyung-Ru

    2014-12-01

    CD1d-restricted NKT cells represent a unique lineage of immunoregulatory T cells that are divided into two groups, type I and type II, based on their TCR usage. Because there are no specific tools to identify type II NKT cells, little is known about their developmental requirements and functional regulation. In our previous study, we showed that signaling lymphocytic activation molecule associated protein (SAP) is essential for the development of type II NKT cells. Here, using a type II NKT-cell TCR transgenic mouse model, we demonstrated that CD1d-expressing hematopoietic cells, but not thymic epithelial cells, meditate efficient selection of type II NKT cells. Furthermore, we showed that SAP regulates type II NKT-cell development by controlling early growth response 2 protein and promyelocytic leukemia zinc finger expression. SAP-deficient 24αβ transgenic T cells (24αβ T cells) exhibited an immature phenotype with reduced Th2 cytokine-producing capacity and diminished cytotoxicity to CD1d-expressing lymphoma cells. The impaired IL-4 production by SAP-deficient 24αβ T cells was associated with reduced IFN regulatory factor 4 and GATA-3 induction following TCR stimulation. Collectively, these data suggest that SAP is critical for regulating type II NKT cell responses. Aberrant responses of these T cells may contribute to the immune dysregulation observed in X-linked lymphoproliferative disease caused by mutations in SAP. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  5. 两种不同刺激剂对鸡淋巴细胞分泌细胞因子的影响%Effect of Two Kinds of Stimuli on Cytokines Secreted by Chicken Peripheral Blood Lymphocytes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘洪明; 王官晓; 王俊卿; 杨玉华; 郭善娜; 徐晓静

    2016-01-01

    [目的]比较不同刺激剂刀豆素A(Con A)和植物凝素(PHA)对鸡淋巴细胞分泌细胞因子的影响。[方法]首先,应用淋巴细胞分离液分离健康鸡的外周血淋巴细胞,应用2种不同的刺激剂Con A和PHA刺激48 h后收集细胞,抽提刺激培养细胞RNA,反转录。其次,应用实时定量PCR方法检测不同刺激剂对鸡淋巴细胞因子mRNA的表达。最后,用分子生物学软件对数据进行比对分析。[结果]分离到纯度和活细胞较高的鸡淋巴细胞。荧光定量PCR结果显示:Con A刺激的淋巴细胞因子表达量比PHA刺激细胞的表达量明显升高(P0.05)。[结论] Con A刺激淋巴细胞后,可以提高细胞因子的表达,刺激效果优于PHA。这些实验结果为进一步体外研究鸡淋巴细胞及其功能提供了方法。%Objective]To compare the effect of two kinds of stimuli,concanavalin A(Con A)and phytohemaggluti-nin(PHA)on cytokine secreted by chicken lymphocyte. [Methods] First,peripheral blood lymphocytes from chick-ens were separated by lymphocyte separation liquid and cultured with Con A and PHA for 48 h,respectively,then the cell RNAs were extracted and the reverse transcription was carry out. Secondly,a real time PCR was performed for detection of the RNA transcription level in the chicken lymphocytes stimulated by Con A and PHA. Finally,the effect of two kinds of stimuli on cytokines secretion was compared with molecular biology software. [Results]Chicken lym-phocytes with higher purity and a survival rate were obtained with the used method. The transcription levels of tested cy-tokines stimulated by Con A were evidently higher than that by PHA(P 0.05)except of IL-4(P < 0.01). [Conclusion]Con A can enhance the transcription levels of cytokine genes and is a be better stimulus for chicken lymphocytes than PHA. All these results provide methods for the further study of chic ken lymphocytes in vitro.

  6. Inflammation-Induced Changes in Circulating T-Cell Subsets and Cytokine Production During Human Endotoxemia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ronit, Andreas; Plovsing, Ronni R; Gaardbo, Julie C;

    2016-01-01

    -γ in response to phytohaemagglutinin but did not affect TLR4 expression on Tregs. No changes in the absolute count or frequency of BALF T cells were observed. Systemic inflammation is associated with lymphopenia, a relative increase in the frequency of anti-inflammatory Tregs, and a functional impairment of T......Observational clinical studies suggest the initial phase of sepsis may involve impaired cellular immunity. In the present study, we investigated temporal changes in T-cell subsets and T-cell cytokine production during human endotoxemia. Endotoxin (Escherichia coli lipopolysaccharide 4 ng...

  7. HYBRIDOMA PRODUCTION USING IMMUNE LYMPHOCYTES AGAINST BRUGIA MALAYI ANTIGEN WITH MYELOMA CELLS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soeyoko Soeyoko

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Wuchereria bancrofti, Brugia malayi, and Brugia timori are the causative agents of lymphatic hiariasis in Indonesia, but in some endemic areas, Brugia malayi is the most commonly found,Diagnosis of hiariasis is normally based on clinical and parasitological examinations, but both have limitations. Therefore now the immunological examination plays an important role in the diagnosis of filariasis. The discovery of monoclonal antibodies recently may probably give a firm scientific basis in immunology and add a new dimension to the efforts of developing a specific and sensitive immunological test for various stages of filarial infection. In this study, the production of hybridoma cells to develop monoclonal antibodies against B. malayi integrated a number of techniques: preparations of B. malayi surface antigen, immune lymphocyte cells, NSI myeloma cells and macrophage feeder layers, and a fusion of immune lymphocytes with myeloma cells. The results of this study can be concluded in three points: Protein analysis of the surface antigen was examined by Biureet and SDS-PAGE. A total of fourteen examinations were conducted by using 4000 L3 for each experiment. Three were not detected by Biureet method, but showed five protein fractions by SDS-PAGE. The protein concentration of the surface L3 was varied from 85.0/µg/ml to 769.23/µg/ml, with an average of 297.04/µg/ml.The immunoreactivifies of Balb/c mice antibodies to B. malayi L3 surface antigen were tested by ELISA and showed a gradual increase after four times immunizations at two weeks interval. The optical density (OD after four times immunizations was varied from 0.363 to 0.878 each mouse, where as the positive control sera OD was 0.570.Hybridization using immune lymphocytes against B. malayi L3 surface antigen with myeloma cells yielded 60.41% hybrid cells and none of them produced monoclonal antibodies tested of ELISA.

  8. Effect of perceived stress on cytokine production in healthy college students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sribanditmongkol, Vorachai; Neal, Jeremy L; Patrick, Thelma E; Szalacha, Laura A; McCarthy, Donna O

    2015-04-01

    Chronic psychological stress impairs antibody synthesis following influenza vaccination. Chronic stress also increases circulating levels of proinflammatory cytokines and glucocorticoids in elders and caregivers, which can impair antibody synthesis. The purpose of this study was to determine whether psychological stress increases ex vivo cytokine production or decreases glucocorticoid sensitivity (GCS) of peripheral blood leukocytes from healthy college students. A convenience sample of Reserve Officer Training Corps (ROTC) students completed the Perceived Stress Scale (PSS). Whole blood was incubated in the presence of influenza vaccine and dexamethasone to evaluate production of interleukin-6 (IL-6), interleukin-1-beta (IL-1β), tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α), and interferon-gamma (IFN-γ). Multiple regression models controlling for age, gender, and grade point average revealed a negative relationship between PSS and GCS for vaccine-stimulated production of IL-1β, IL-6, and TNF-α. These data increase our understanding of the complex relationship between chronic stress and immune function.

  9. Necroptosis suppresses inflammation via termination of TNF- or LPS-induced cytokine and chemokine production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kearney, C J; Cullen, S P; Tynan, G A; Henry, C M; Clancy, D; Lavelle, E C; Martin, S J

    2015-08-01

    TNF promotes a regulated form of necrosis, called necroptosis, upon inhibition of caspase activity in cells expressing RIPK3. Because necrosis is generally more pro-inflammatory than apoptosis, it is widely presumed that TNF-induced necroptosis may be detrimental in vivo due to excessive inflammation. However, because TNF is intrinsically highly pro-inflammatory, due to its ability to trigger the production of multiple cytokines and chemokines, rapid cell death via necroptosis may blunt rather than enhance TNF-induced inflammation. Here we show that TNF-induced necroptosis potently suppressed the production of multiple TNF-induced pro-inflammatory factors due to RIPK3-dependent cell death. Similarly, necroptosis also suppressed LPS-induced pro-inflammatory cytokine production. Consistent with these observations, supernatants from TNF-stimulated cells were more pro-inflammatory than those from TNF-induced necroptotic cells in vivo. Thus necroptosis attenuates TNF- and LPS-driven inflammation, which may benefit intracellular pathogens that evoke this mode of cell death by suppressing host immune responses.

  10. Gomisin N Decreases Inflammatory Cytokine Production in Human Periodontal Ligament Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosokawa, Yoshitaka; Hosokawa, Ikuko; Shindo, Satoru; Ozaki, Kazumi; Matsuo, Takashi

    2017-04-01

    Gomisin N, which is a lignan isolated from Schisandra chinensis, has some pharmacological effects. However, the anti-inflammatory effects of gomisin N on periodontal disease are uncertain. The aim of this study was to examine the effect of gomisin N on inflammatory mediator production in tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α-stimulated human periodontal ligament cells (HPDLC). Gomisin N inhibited interleukin (IL)-6, IL-8, CC chemokine ligand (CCL) 2, and CCL20 production in TNF-α-stimulated HPDLC in a dose-dependent manner. Moreover, we revealed that gomisin N could suppress extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) and c-Jun N terminal kinase (JNK) phosphorylation in TNF-α-stimulated HPDLC though protein kinase B (Akt) phosphorylation was not suppressed by gomisin N treatment. In summary, gomisin N might exert anti-inflammatory effects by attenuating cytokine production in periodontal ligament cells via inhibiting the TNF-α-stimulated ERK and JNK pathways activation.

  11. Effects of the Commercial Flame Retardant Mixture DE-71 on Cytokine Production by Human Immune Cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mynster Kronborg, Thit; Frohnert Hansen, Juliana; Nielsen, Claus Henrik

    2016-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Although production of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) is now banned, release from existing products will continue for many years. The PBDEs are assumed to be neurotoxic and toxic to endocrine organs at low concentrations. Their effect on the immune system has not been...... investigated thoroughly. We aimed to investigate the influence of DE-71 on cytokine production by peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) stimulated with Escherichia Coli lipopolysaccharide (LPS) or phytohaemagglutinin-L (PHA-L). MATERIAL AND METHODS: PBMCs isolated from healthy donors were pre......-incubated with DE-71 at various concentrations and subsequently incubated with the monocyte stimulator LPS, or the T-cell activator PHA-L. Interferon (IFN)-γ, interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-2, IL-4, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, IL-17A, and IL-17F were quantified in the supernatants by Luminex kits...

  12. Effect of polyclonal activators on cytokine production by blood cells and by malignant breast cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunts, T A; Karpukhina, K V; Mikhaylova, E S; Marinkin, I O; Varaksin, N A; Autenshlyus, A I; Lyakhovich, V V

    2016-01-01

    The production of cytokines by peripheral blood cells and biopsy specimens of tumors stimulated by polyclonal activators (PAs) was evaluated in 34 patients with invasive ductal breast carcinoma using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Positive correlation between the stimulation index of polyclonal activators (SIPA) for IL-18 production by the tumor and the relative content of poorly differentiated cells was revealed. The latter, in turn, was positively correlated with the numbers of normal and pathologic mitoses and the degree of malignancy. Cancer cells can produce IL-18, which is involved in the process of angiogenesis, stimulates invasion and metastasis. Decrease in SIPA for the production of IL-6 and GCSF by peripheral blood cells could serve as an indicator of malignant progression in invasive ductal breast carcinoma.

  13. Detection of Intracellular Cytokine Production in Peripheral Blood CD3+ T Cells of Patients with Recurrent Genital Herpes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    QIAN Qifeng(钱起丰); GUO Hongwei(郭红卫)

    2002-01-01

    Objective:To study the role of Th1fTh2 cytokines in the pathogenesis of recurrent genital herpes (RGH), and to better understand the relationship between them.Methods: A two-color immunofluorescent staining of cell surface antigen and intracellular cytokines for flow cytometric analysis was used for CD3, IL-2, IL-10, IL-12,IFN-γ and TNF-α in CD3+ T-lymphocytes in activated peripheral blood mononuclear cells of patients with RGH.Results: Compared to controls, patients with RGH showed fewer CD3+T cells (P<0.05) and IL-2 producing and IFN-γ producing T cells (P<0.02 and P<0.001, respectively)after in vitro stimulation with PMA and ionomycin in the presence of a protein transport inhibitor. More IL-10 producing and IL-12 producing T cells were found in patients with RGH (P<0.01). There was no significant difference in the number of TNF-α producing cells between RGH patients and controls (P<0.05).Conclusion: RGH patients showed relatively more Th2 cytokines. The imbalance between Th1 and Th2 cytokines results in inhibitory effects on a series of cell-immune responses, which may play an important role in the pathogenesis of RGH.

  14. Staphylococcus aureus Biofilm and Planktonic cultures differentially impact gene expression, mapk phosphorylation, and cytokine production in human keratinocytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olerud John E

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Many chronic diseases, such as non-healing wounds are characterized by prolonged inflammation and respond poorly to conventional treatment. Bacterial biofilms are a major impediment to wound healing. Persistent infection of the skin allows the formation of complex bacterial communities termed biofilm. Bacteria living in biofilms are phenotypically distinct from their planktonic counterparts and are orders of magnitude more resistant to antibiotics, host immune response, and environmental stress. Staphylococcus aureus is prevalent in cutaneous infections such as chronic wounds and is an important human pathogen. Results The impact of S. aureus soluble products in biofilm-conditioned medium (BCM or in planktonic-conditioned medium (PCM on human keratinocytes was investigated. Proteomic analysis of BCM and PCM revealed differential protein compositions with PCM containing several enzymes involved in glycolysis. Global gene expression of keratinocytes exposed to biofilm and planktonic S. aureus was analyzed after four hours of exposure. Gene ontology terms associated with responses to bacteria, inflammation, apoptosis, chemotaxis, and signal transduction were enriched in BCM treated keratinocytes. Several transcripts encoding cytokines were also upregulated by BCM after four hours. ELISA analysis of cytokines confirmed microarray results at four hours and revealed that after 24 hours of exposure, S. aureus biofilm induced sustained low level cytokine production compared to near exponential increases of cytokines in planktonic treated keratinocytes. The reduction in cytokines produced by keratinocytes exposed to biofilm was accompanied by suppressed phosphorylation of MAPKs. Chemical inhibition of MAPKs did not drastically reduce cytokine production in BCM-treated keratinocytes suggesting that the majority of cytokine production is mediated through MAPK-independent mechanisms. Conclusions Collectively the results indicate that S

  15. Heparin-like polymers modulate proinflammatory cytokine production by lipopolysaccharide-stimulated human monocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anastase-Ravion, Sylvie; Carreno, Marie-Paule; Blondin, Catherine; Ravion, Olivier; Champion, Jacqueline; Chaubet, Frédéric; Haeffner-Cavaillon, Nicole; Letourneur, Didier

    2002-06-05

    The search for heparin-like materials remains an intensive field of research. In this context, we studied the immunomodulatory properties of semisynthetic dextran derivatives and naturally occurring sulfated polysaccharides present in brown seaweed (fucans). In this study, we investigated the functional potencies of fucan and dextran derivatives by analyzing their effects on the release of proinflammatory cytokines by resting or lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated human monocytes and their interactions on monocyte surfaces. The results showed that fucan, dextran derivatives, and heparin differentially (1) triggered interleukin-1alpha, tumor necrosis factor alpha, interleukin-6, and interleukin-8 production by monocytes in a dose-dependent manner, (2) modulated cytokine production by LPS-stimulated monocytes, and (3) specifically inhibited the binding of biotinylated LPS to monocyte membranes. Taken together, these data indicated that fucan and dextran derivatives displayed interesting immunomodulatory effects on human blood cells that could be relevant as new drugs or biomaterial coatings. Indeed, such polysaccharides, by regulating monocyte activation, could contribute to the improved biocompatibility of implants.

  16. Extract of Gynostemma pentaphyllum enhanced the production of antibodies and cytokines in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Wen-Chung; Kuo, Ming-Ling; Li, Ming-Liang; Yang, Rong-Chi; Liou, Chian-Jiun; Shen, Jiann-Jong

    2007-05-01

    Gynostemma pentaphyllum is a popular herbal tea in China and some Asian countries. The modulatory function of G. pentaphyllum total plant extracts on immune cells was evaluated in this study. The extract was intraperitoneally injected into mice for 5 consecutive days. The production of antibodies from B cells or cytokines from T cells was determined mainly with ELISA. After the treatment, serum IgM and IgG2a were significantly enhanced and showed dose-dependent effect. Moreover, serum IgA and IgG1 were also increased when received the extract at the doses of 0.05 or 0.50 g/kg/day. In addition to the serum levels, the injection of the extract enhanced the production of all antibodies from LPS-activated spleen cells. Furthermore, more cytokines were secreted from Con A-stimulated splenocytes of G. pentaphyllum-treated mice. Our results suggest that the extract of G. pentaphyllum might promote immune responses through the activation of T and B cells.

  17. Analgesic activity of piracetam: effect on cytokine production and oxidative stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navarro, Suelen A; Serafim, Karla G G; Mizokami, Sandra S; Hohmann, Miriam S N; Casagrande, Rubia; Verri, Waldiceu A

    2013-04-01

    Piracetam is a prototype of nootropic drugs used to improve cognitive impairment. However, recent studies suggest that piracetam can have analgesic and anti-inflammatory effects. Inflammatory pain is the result of a process that depends on neutrophil migration, cytokines and prostanoids release and oxidative stress. We analyze whether piracetam has anti-nociceptive effects and its mechanisms. Per oral pretreatment with piracetam reduced in a dose-dependent manner the overt pain-like behavior induced by acetic acid, phenyl-p-benzoquinone, formalin and complete Freund's adjuvant. Piracetam also diminished carrageenin-induced mechanical and thermal hyperalgesia, myeloperoxidase activity, and TNF-α-induced mechanical hyperalgesia. Piracetam presented analgesic effects as post-treatment and local paw treatment. The analgesic mechanisms of piracetam were related to inhibition of carrageenin- and TNF-α-induced production of IL-1β as well as prevention of carrageenin-induced decrease of reduced glutathione, ferric reducing ability and free radical scavenging ability in the paw. These results demonstrate that piracetam presents analgesic activity upon a variety of inflammatory stimuli by a mechanism dependent on inhibition of cytokine production and oxidative stress. Considering its safety and clinical use for cognitive function, it is possible that piracetam represents a novel perspective of analgesic. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Role of Porphyromonas gingivalis SerB in gingival epithelial cell cytoskeletal remodeling and cytokine production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasegawa, Yoshiaki; Tribble, Gena D; Baker, Henry V; Mans, Jeffrey J; Handfield, Martin; Lamont, Richard J

    2008-06-01

    The SerB protein of Porphyromonas gingivalis is a HAD family serine phosphatase that plays a critical role in entry and survival of the organism in gingival epithelial cells. SerB is secreted by P. gingivalis upon contact with epithelial cells. Here it is shown by microarray analysis that SerB impacts the transcriptional profile of gingival epithelial cells, with pathways involving the actin cytoskeleton and cytokine production among those significantly overpopulated with differentially regulated genes. Consistent with the transcriptional profile, a SerB mutant of P. gingivalis exhibited defective remodeling of actin in epithelial cells. Interaction between gingival epithelial cells and isolated SerB protein resulted in actin rearrangement and an increase in the F/G actin ratio. SerB protein was also required for P. gingivalis to antagonize interleukin-8 accumulation following stimulation of epithelial cells with Fusobacterium nucleatum. SerB is thus capable of modulating host cell signal transduction that impacts the actin cytoskeleton and cytokine production.

  19. Effect of Tityus serrulatus venom on cytokine production and the activity of murine macrophages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vera L. Petricevich

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of Tityus serrulatus venom (TSV on murine peritoneal macrophages evaluated in terms of activation. The effects of crude TSV were analysed by detection of cytokines, oxygen intermediate metabolites (H2O2 and nitric oxide (NO in supernatants of peritoneal macrophages. Several functional bioassays were employed including an in vitro model for envenomating: cytotoxicity of TSV was assessed using the lyses percentage. Tumor necrosis factor (TNF activity was assayed by measuring its cytotoxic activity on L-929 cells, and interleukin-6 (IL-6 and interferon-γ (IFN-γ were assayed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, whereas NO levels were detected by Griess colorimetric reactions in culture supernatant of macrophages incubated with TSV and subsequently exposed to either lipopolysaccharide or IFN-γ. Incubation of macrophages with TSV increased production of IL-6 and IFN-γ in a dose-dependent manner. TNF production was not detected in supernatants treated with TSV at any concentration. The increase in IL-6 secretion was not associated with concentration-dependent cytoxicity of TSV on these cells. These data suggest that the cytotoxicity does not appear to be the main cause of an increased cytokine production by these cells. Although NO is an important effector molecule in macrophage microbicidal activity, the inducing potential of the test compounds for its release was found to be very moderate, ranging from 125 to 800 mM. Interestingly, NO levels of peritoneal macrophages were increased after IFN-γ. Moreover, NO production had an apparent effect on macrophage activity. The results obtained here also shown that the TSV induces an important elevation in H2O2 release. These results combined with NO production suggest that TSV possesses significant immunomodulatory activities capable of stimulating immune functions in vitro.

  20. Phototherapy-treated apoptotic tumor cells induce pro-inflammatory cytokines production in macrophage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Cuixia; Wei, Yanchun; Xing, Da

    2014-09-01

    Our previous studies have demonstrated that as a mitochondria-targeting cancer phototherapy, high fluence low-power laser irradiation (HF-LPLI) induces mitochondrial superoxide anion burst, resulting in oxidative damage to tumor cells. In this study, we further explored the immunological effects of HF-LPLI-induced apoptotic tumor cells. When macrophages were co-incubated with apoptotic cells induced by HF-LPLI, we observed the increased levels of TNF-α secretion and NO production in macrophages. Further experiments showed that NF-κB was activated in macrophages after co-incubation with HF-LPLI-induced apoptotic cells, and inhibition of NF-κB activity by pyrrolidinedithiocarbamic acid (PDTC) reduced the elevated levels of TNF-α secretion and NO production. These data indicate that HF-LPLI-induced apoptotic tumor cells induce the secretion of pro-inflammatory cytokines in macrophages, which may be helpful for better understanding the biological effects of cancer phototherapy.

  1. The Lymphocytic Choriomeningitis Virus Matrix Protein PPXY Late Domain Drives the Production of Defective Interfering Particles.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher M Ziegler

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Arenaviruses cause severe diseases in humans but establish asymptomatic, lifelong infections in rodent reservoirs. Persistently-infected rodents harbor high levels of defective interfering (DI particles, which are thought to be important for establishing persistence and mitigating virus-induced cytopathic effect. Little is known about what drives the production of DI particles. We show that neither the PPXY late domain encoded within the lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus (LCMV matrix protein nor a functional endosomal sorting complex transport (ESCRT pathway is absolutely required for the generation of standard infectious virus particles. In contrast, DI particle release critically requires the PPXY late domain and is ESCRT-dependent. Additionally, the terminal tyrosine in the PPXY motif is reversibly phosphorylated and our findings indicate that this posttranslational modification may regulate DI particle formation. Thus we have uncovered a new role for the PPXY late domain and a possible mechanism for its regulation.

  2. Effects of the Commercial Flame Retardant Mixture DE-71 on Cytokine Production by Human Immune Cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thit Mynster Kronborg

    Full Text Available Although production of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs is now banned, release from existing products will continue for many years. The PBDEs are assumed to be neurotoxic and toxic to endocrine organs at low concentrations. Their effect on the immune system has not been investigated thoroughly. We aimed to investigate the influence of DE-71 on cytokine production by peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs stimulated with Escherichia Coli lipopolysaccharide (LPS or phytohaemagglutinin-L (PHA-L.PBMCs isolated from healthy donors were pre-incubated with DE-71 at various concentrations and subsequently incubated with the monocyte stimulator LPS, or the T-cell activator PHA-L. Interferon (IFN-γ, interleukin (IL-1β, IL-2, IL-4, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, tumor necrosis factor (TNF-α, IL-17A, and IL-17F were quantified in the supernatants by Luminex kits.At non-cytotoxic concentrations (0.01-10 μg/mL, DE-71 significantly enhanced secretion of IL-1β, IL-6, CXCL8, IL-10, and TNF-α (p<0.001-0.019; n = 6 from LPS-stimulated PBMCs. IFN-γ, TNF-α, IL-17A, and IL-17F (p = <0.001-0.043; n = 6 secretion were enhanced from PHA-L-stimulated PBMCs as well. Secretion of IL-1β, IL-2, IL-10, IL-8 and IL-6 was not significantly affected by DE-71.We demonstrate an enhancing effect of DE-71 on cytokine production by normal human PBMCs stimulated with LPS or PHA-L ex vivo.

  3. Macrophage preconditioning with synthetic malaria pigment reduces cytokine production via heme iron-dependent oxidative stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taramelli, D; Recalcati, S; Basilico, N; Olliaro, P; Cairo, G

    2000-12-01

    Hemozoin (malaria pigment), a polymer of hematin (ferri-protoporphyrin IX) derived from hemoglobin ingested by intraerythrocytic plasmodia, modulates cytokine production by phagocytes. Mouse peritoneal macrophages (PM) fed with synthetic beta-hematin (BH), structurally identical to native hemozoin, no longer produce tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFalpha) and nitric oxide (NO) in response to lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Impairment of NO synthesis is due to inhibition of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) production. BH-mediated inhibition of PM functions cannot be ascribed to iron release from BH because neither prevention by iron chelators nor down-regulation of iron-regulatory protein activity was detected. Inhibition appears to be related to pigment-induced oxidative stress because (a) thiol compounds partially restored PM functions, (b) heme oxygenase (HO-1) and catalase mRNA levels were up-regulated, and (c) free radicals production increased in BH-treated cells. The antioxidant defenses of the cells determine the response to BH: microglia cells, which show a lower extent of induction of HO-1 and catalase mRNAs and lower accumulation of oxygen radicals, are less sensitive to the inhibitory effect of BH on cytokine production. Results indicate that BH is resistant to degradation by HO-1 and that heme-iron mediated oxidative stress may contribute to malaria-induced immunosuppression. This study may help correlate the different clinical manifestations of malaria, ranging from uncomplicated to severe disease, with dysregulation of phagocyte functions and promote better therapeutic strategies to counteract the effects of hemozoin accumulation.

  4. DMSO Represses Inflammatory Cytokine Production from Human Blood Cells and Reduces Autoimmune Arthritis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elisia, Ingrid; Nakamura, Hisae; Lam, Vivian; Hofs, Elyse; Cederberg, Rachel; Cait, Jessica; Hughes, Michael R.; Lee, Leora; Jia, William; Adomat, Hans H.; Guns, Emma S.; McNagny, Kelly M.; Samudio, Ismael; Krystal, Gerald

    2016-01-01

    Dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) is currently used as an alternative treatment for various inflammatory conditions as well as for cancer. Despite its widespread use, there is a paucity of data regarding its safety and efficacy as well as its mechanism of action in human cells. Herein, we demonstrate that DMSO has ex-vivo anti-inflammatory activity using Escherichia coli- (E. coli) and herpes simplex virus-1 (HSV-1)-stimulated whole human blood. Specifically, we found that between 0.5%– 2%, DMSO significantly suppressed the expression of many pro-inflammatory cytokines/chemokines and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2). However, a significant reduction in monocyte viability was also observed at 2% DMSO, suggesting a narrow window of efficacy. Anti-inflammatory concentrations of DMSO suppressed E. coli-induced ERK1/2, p38, JNK and Akt phosphorylation, suggesting DMSO acts on these signaling pathways to suppress inflammatory cytokine/chemokine production. Although DMSO induces the differentiation of B16/F10 melanoma cells in vitro, topical administration of DMSO to mice subcutaneously implanted with B16 melanoma cells was ineffective at reducing tumor growth, DMSO was also found to block mouse macrophages from polarizing to either an M1- or an M2-phenotype, which may contribute to its inability to slow tumor growth. Topical administration of DMSO, however, significantly mitigated K/BxN serum-induced arthritis in mice, and this was associated with reduced levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines in the joints and white blood cell levels in the blood. Thus, while we cannot confirm the efficacy of DMSO as an anti-cancer agent, the use of DMSO in arthritis warrants further investigation to ascertain its therapeutic potential. PMID:27031833

  5. The follicular and endocrine environment in women with endometriosis: local and systemic cytokine production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pellicer, A; Albert, C; Mercader, A; Bonilla-Musoles, F; Remohí, J; Simón, C

    1998-09-01

    To assess the endocrine, paracrine, and autocrine milieu in patients with endometriosis on the basis of the measurement of several cytokines in serum and follicular fluid (FF) and in vitro culture of granulosa luteal cells. Case-control study. In vitro fertilization program at the Instituto Valenciano de Infertilidad. Twenty patients with laparoscopically documented endometriosis and 18 controls. Fifteen subjects were studied in a natural cycle and 23 were investigated in a stimulated cycle while undergoing IVF. Individual follicle aspiration, oocyte isolation, FF storage, and preparation of luteinized granulosa cell cultures. Diagnostic laparoscopy in natural cycles. Serum (day of ovum pick-up or laparoscopy) and FF measurement of interleukin (IL)-1beta, IL-6, and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF). Secretion of IL-1beta, IL-6, and VEGF in the cell-conditioned medium. Results were compared between patients with endometriosis and controls. Interleukin-6 levels in serum were increased in the natural cycles of patients with endometriosis and modulated by ovarian stimulation, showing a significant decrease in hMG- and FSH-stimulated cycles and a significant increase after hCG administration. In addition, IL-6 levels were increased in the FF of patients with endometriosis and released in higher amounts by their granulosa luteal cells. Vascular endothelial growth factor was accumulated in lesser concentrations in the FF of patients with endometriosis. Interleukin-1beta levels did not show significant changes. Implantation rates were decreased significantly in patients with endometriosis who were undergoing IVF. The data demonstrate that cytokines are regulated differently in patients with endometriosis, who have increased IL-6 production, and suggest that fine hormonal modulation of this cytokine occurs at the systemic and local (ovarian) levels. These changes show that the endocrine, paracrine, and autocrine milieu is different in patients with endometriosis and

  6. The cytokine regulation of SPARC production by rabbit corneal epithelial cells and fibroblasts in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abe, Kosuke; Hibino, Tsuyoshi; Mishima, Hiroshi; Shimomura, Yoshikazu

    2004-03-01

    SPARC (osteonectin/BM40) is detected in the corneal stroma during the wound-healing process. To understand the metabolism of SPARC in the cornea, we investigated the effects of cytokines and growth factors on SPARC synthesis by rabbit corneal epithelial cells and fibroblasts. Rabbit corneal epithelial cells or fibroblasts were cultured for 3 days with serum-containing minimal essential medium (MEM), then subcultured for 3 days on serum-free MEM with epidermal growth factor (EGF), platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF), transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta), or interleukin-1beta (IL-1beta). SPARC concentration in the medium was measured by the ELISA method using anti-SPARC monoclonal antibody. The concentration of SPARC in the conditioned medium of the epithelial cells depended on either cell numbers or cultivation periods. When EGF was added to the medium, the amount of SPARC in the medium decreased. The addition of IL-1beta, PDGF, or TGF-beta did not affect SPARC synthesis by the epithelial cells. The production of SPARC by rabbit corneal fibroblasts was low compared with that by epithelial cells. However, the synthesis of SPARC by corneal fibroblasts was significantly enhanced by the addition of TGF-beta. The addition of IL-1beta, PDGF, or EGF slightly increased SPARC synthesis by corneal fibroblasts. Cytokines and growth factors modulate SPARC synthesis by rabbit corneal epithelial cells and fibroblasts. These results suggest that cytokines and growth factors modulate cell-matrix interaction in corneal wound healing, possibly by regulating SPARC synthesis.

  7. Potentially probiotic bacteria induce efficient maturation but differential cytokine production in human monocyte-derived dendritic cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sinikka Latvala; Taija E Pietil(a); Ville Veckman; Riina A Kekkonen; Soile Tynkkynen; Riitta Korpela; Ilkka Julkunen

    2008-01-01

    MM: To analyze the ability of nine different potentially probiotic bacteria to induce maturation and cytokine production in human monocyLe-derived dendritic cells (moDCs).METHODS: Cytokine production and maturation of moDCs in response to bacterial stimulation was analyzed with enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and flow cytometric analysis (FACS),respectively.The kinetics of mRNA expression of cytokine genes was determined by Northern blotting.The involvement of different signaling pathways in cytokine gene expression was studied using specific pharmacological signaling inhibitors.RESULTS: All studied bacteria induced the maturation of moDCs in a dose-dependent manner.More detailed analysis with S.thermophilus THS,B.breve Bb99,and L.lactis subsp,cremoris ARH74 indicated that these bacteria induced the expression of moDC maturation markers HLA class II and CD86 as efficiently as pathogenic bacteria.However,these bacteria differed in their ability to induce moDC cytokine gene expression.S.therrnophilus induced the expression of pro-inflammatory (TNF-a,IL-12,IL-6,and CCL20)and Th1 type (IL-12 and IFN-y) cytokines,while B.breve and L.lactis were also potent inducers of antiinflammatory IL-10.Mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) p38,phosphatidylinositol 3 (PI3) kinase,and nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) signaling pathways were shown to be involved in bacteria-induced cytokine production.CONCLUSION: Our results indicate that potentially probiotic bacteria are able to induce moDC maturation,but their ability to induce cytokine gene expression varies significantly from one bacterial strain to another.

  8. Double productive immunoglobulin sequence rearrangements in patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Visco, Carlo; Moretta, Francesca; Falisi, Erika; Facco, Monica; Maura, Francesco; Novella, Elisabetta; Nichele, Ilaria; Finotto, Silvia; Giaretta, Ilaria; Ave, Elisa; Perbellini, Omar; Guercini, Nicola; Scupoli, Maria Teresa; Trentin, Livio; Trimarco, Valentina; Neri, Antonino; Semenzato, Gianpietro; Rodeghiero, Francesco; Pizzolo, Giovanni; Ambrosetti, Achille

    2013-04-01

    The immunoglobulin heavy chain variable (IGHV) gene mutational status represents a major prognostic marker in chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL). Usually, the prognostic implications of IGHV gene analysis can be reliably ascertained but, occasionally, double productive rearrangements have been detected. Clinical presentation and biological features of such cases are unknown. Sixty patients with morphologically and phenotypically monoclonal CLL but double productive IGHV rearrangements were retrospectively identified by mRNA analysis from three Hematology Institutions. Clinical and biological features and survival of these 60 patients were compared with a control group of patients with CLL and single IGHV rearrangement. A prospective registry was used to assess the epidemiology of double productive IGHV among incidental patients with CLL. Using standard criteria to define IGHV-mutated (M) or unmutated (U) cases, 39 of the 60 patients (65%) with double productive IGHV rearrangement had concordant status (23 MM, 16 UU), while 21 (35%) had discordant IGHV status. As compared with M patients, the MM ones had lower CD38 expression, more favorable cytogenetics and more indolent clinical behavior. Cases with UU had similar characteristics of U patients. Discordant cases presented with adverse prognostic features and had an aggressive clinical behavior requiring early treatment, similar to U patients. The prevalence of double IGHV was 3.1%. Patients with CLL with double concordant mutational status (MM or UU) have a clinical course similar to that of the corresponding single IGHV status, while those exhibiting discordant status represent a high risk population. This may help correct stratification within clinical trials.

  9. High glucose alters retinal astrocytes phenotype through increased production of inflammatory cytokines and oxidative stress.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eui Seok Shin

    Full Text Available Astrocytes are macroglial cells that have a crucial role in development of the retinal vasculature and maintenance of the blood-retina-barrier (BRB. Diabetes affects the physiology and function of retinal vascular cells including astrocytes (AC leading to breakdown of BRB. However, the detailed cellular mechanisms leading to retinal AC dysfunction under high glucose conditions remain unclear. Here we show that high glucose conditions did not induce the apoptosis of retinal AC, but instead increased their rate of DNA synthesis and adhesion to extracellular matrix proteins. These alterations were associated with changes in intracellular signaling pathways involved in cell survival, migration and proliferation. High glucose conditions also affected the expression of inflammatory cytokines in retinal AC, activated NF-κB, and prevented their network formation on Matrigel. In addition, we showed that the attenuation of retinal AC migration under high glucose conditions, and capillary morphogenesis of retinal endothelial cells on Matrigel, was mediated through increased oxidative stress. Antioxidant proteins including heme oxygenase-1 and peroxiredoxin-2 levels were also increased in retinal AC under high glucose conditions through nuclear localization of transcription factor nuclear factor-erythroid 2-related factor-2. Together our results demonstrated that high glucose conditions alter the function of retinal AC by increased production of inflammatory cytokines and oxidative stress with significant impact on their proliferation, adhesion, and migration.

  10. Staphylococcus aureus from atopic dermatitis skin alters cytokine production triggered by monocyte-derived Langerhans cell.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwamoto, Kazumasa; Moriwaki, Masaya; Niitsu, Yoshie; Saino, Masachika; Takahagi, Shunsuke; Hisatsune, Junzo; Sugai, Motoyuki; Hide, Michihiro

    2017-08-05

    Atopic dermatitis (AD) is one of the most common chronic inflammatory skin diseases. The skin of patients with AD presents as a disbalance of the microbiome with a strong colonization by Staphylococcus aureus, which positively correlates with the severity of the disease. However, the effect of colonized S. aureus on the skin immune system has not been fully elucidated. The aim of this study is to explore whether S. aureus isolated from AD skin is able to skew T cell responses via Langerhans cells (LC) as compared to a standard strain of S. aureus and S. epidermidis. We prepared monocyte-derived LC (MoLC) from healthy controls and patients with AD, and stimulated MoLC with a standard strain of S. aureus NCTC8325, S. aureus TF3378 isolated from AD skin, or S. epidermidis. Stimulated MoLC were co-cultured with autologous CD4(pos) T cells and then T cell responses were analyzed by T cell polarization assays, cytokine analysis and real-time PCR. MoLC stimulated by S. aureus TF3378 induced significantly high and rapid proliferation of T cells as compared to those by S. aureus NCTC8325 and S. epidermidis. Cytokine productions from T cells cultured with S. aureus TF3378-stimulated MoLC showed significantly high amounts of IL-2 and less IFN-γ production with imbalanced Th1/Th2 (decreased TBX21/GATA3 ratio) mRNA expression. The T cell proliferation with increased IL-2 production via S. aureus TF3378-stimulated MoLC was diminished by treatment of proteinase K. S. aureus TF3378 on AD skin can skew T cell responses via LC toward imbalanced Th1/Th2 skin immunity. Copyright © 2017 Japanese Society for Investigative Dermatology. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Cytokine production induced by marine algae lectins in BALB/c mice splenocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monteiro Abreu, Ticiana; Castelo Melo Silva, Luana Maria; Vanderlei, Edfranck Sousa Oliveira; de Melo, Cristiane Moutinho Lagos; Pereira, Valeria Rego Alves; Barros Benevides, Norma Maria

    2012-09-01

    Marine algae can serve as sources of bioactive compounds and currently have been shown their potential biological and pharmaceutical applications. Marine algae lectins have been shown to be effective at controlling inflammatory processes. This work aimed to analyze the immunostimulatory properties of lectins from the marine algae Solieria filiformis (SfL), Pterocladiella capillacea (PcL) and Caulerpa cupressoides (CcL). This analysis was performed on BALB/c mouse splenocytes by measuring cytokine and nitric oxide production and cellular damage using tests of cytotoxicity and cell viability. These lectins were not cytotoxic (1-100 μg/mL), and were not able to induce IFN-γ and IL-2 production. IL- 10 production was induced at high levels by all lectins tested. Treatment with SfL induced IL-6 production at higher levels at all experimental times, whereas treatment with PcL and CcL induced higher levels only in 24 and 72 h. Treatment with SfL did not result in nitrite oxide production, whereas treatment with PcL or CcL was able to induce nitrite release at high levels (after 24, 48 and 72 h). Lesser cellular damage (5%) was observed in splenocytes treated with these lectins (10 μg/mL). Thus, the lectins from these algae were not cytotoxic, promoted increased in cell viability and induced Th2 immune responses in mouse splenocytes, indicating that they have anti-inflammatory effects.

  12. IL-12, IL-6 and IFN-γ production by lymphocytes of pregnant women with rheumatoid arthritis remission during pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henryk Tchórzewski

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Rheumatoid arthritis (RA is an autoimmune disease with progressive activity. The RA remission was observed in women during pregnancy, but the mechanism responsible for remission is hypothetical only and concerns mechanisms of immune regulation such as lymphocyte subpopulations and interleukin production.

  13. Inflammatory cytokines in vitro production are associated with Ala16Val superoxide dismutase gene polymorphism of peripheral blood mononuclear cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montano, Marco Aurélio Echart; da Cruz, Ivana Beatrice Mânica; Duarte, Marta Maria Medeiros Frescura; Krewer, Cristina da Costa; da Rocha, Maria Izabel de Ugalde Marques; Mânica-Cattani, Maria Fernanda; Soares, Felix Alexandre Antunes; Rosa, Guilherme; Maris, Angélica Francesca; Battiston, Francielle Garghetti; Trott, Alexis; Lera, Juan Pablo Barrio

    2012-10-01

    Obesity is considered a chronic low-grade inflammatory state associated with a chronic oxidative stress caused by superoxide production (O(2)(-)). The superoxide dismutase manganese dependent (SOD2) catalyzes O(2)(-) in H(2)O(2) into mitochondria and is encoded by a single gene that presents a common polymorphism that results in the replacement of alanine (A) with a valine (V) in the 16 codon. This polymorphism has been implicated in a decreased efficiency of SOD2 transport into targeted mitochondria in V allele carriers. Previous studies described an association between VV genotype and metabolic diseases, including obesity and diabetes. However, the causal mechanisms to explain this association need to be more elucidated. We postulated that the polymorphism could influence the inflammatory response. To test our hypothesis, we evaluated the in vitro cytokines production by human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) carrier's different Ala16Val-SOD2 genotypes (IL-1, IL-6, IL-10, TNF-α, IFN-γ). Additionally, we evaluated if the culture medium glucose, enriched insulin, could influence the cytokine production. Higher levels of proinflammatory cytokines were observed in VV-PBMCs when compared to AA-PBMCs. However, the culture medium glucose and enriched insulin did not affect cytokine production. The results suggest that Ala16Val-SOD2 gene polymorphism could trigger the PBMCs proinflammatory cytokines level. However, discerning if a similar mechanism occurs in fat cells is an open question.

  14. Production of hemo- and immunoregulatory cytokines by erythroblast antigen+ and glycophorin A+ cells from human bone marrow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zenkov Anton N

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Erythroid nuclear cells (ENC of the bone marrow (BM have not previously been considered as important producers of wide spectrum of haemo- and immunoregulatory cytokines. The aim of the current work was to confirm the production of the main hemo- and immunoregulatory cytokines in human ENC from BM. Results We used native human BM ENC in our experiments. We for the first time have shown, that the unstimulated erythroblasts (Gl A+ or AG-EB+ produced a wide spectrum of immunoregulatory cytokines. Human BM ENC produce cytokines such as interleukn (IL-1β, IL-2, IL-4, IL-6, interferon (IFN-γ, transforming growth factor (TGF-β1, tumor necrosis factor (TNF-α and IL-10. They can be sub-divided into glycophorin A positive (Gl A+ and erythroblast antigen positive (AG-EB+ cells. To study potential differences in cytokine expression between these subsets, ENC were isolated and purified using specific antibodies to Gl A and AG-EB and the separated cells were cultivated for 24 hours. The cytokine contents of the supernatant were measured by electrochemiluminescence immunoassay. Quantitative differences in TGF-β1 and TNF-α production were found between Gl A+ and AG-EB+ BM ENC. Furthermore, in vitro addition of erythropoietin (EPO reduced IFN-γ and IL-2 production specifically by the AG-EB+ ENC. Thus, Gl A+ and AG-EB+ ENC produce IL-1β, IL-2, IL-4, IL-6, IFN-γ, TGF-β1 and TNF-α. Gl A+ ENC also produce IL-10. Conclusion Cytokine production by erythroid nuclear cells suggests that these cells might be involved in regulating the proliferation and differentiation of hematopoietic and immunocompetent cells in human BM.

  15. Production of hemo- and immunoregulatory cytokines by erythroblast antigen+ and glycophorin A+ cells from human bone marrow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sennikov, Sergey V; Injelevskaya, Tatyana V; Krysov, Sergey V; Silkov, Alexandr N; Kovinev, Igor B; Dyachkova, Natalya J; Zenkov, Anton N; Loseva, Mary I; Kozlov, Vladimir A

    2004-01-01

    Background Erythroid nuclear cells (ENC) of the bone marrow (BM) have not previously been considered as important producers of wide spectrum of haemo- and immunoregulatory cytokines. The aim of the current work was to confirm the production of the main hemo- and immunoregulatory cytokines in human ENC from BM. Results We used native human BM ENC in our experiments. We for the first time have shown, that the unstimulated erythroblasts (Gl A+ or AG-EB+) produced a wide spectrum of immunoregulatory cytokines. Human BM ENC produce cytokines such as interleukn (IL)-1β, IL-2, IL-4, IL-6, interferon (IFN)-γ, transforming growth factor (TGF)-β1, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α and IL-10. They can be sub-divided into glycophorin A positive (Gl A+) and erythroblast antigen positive (AG-EB+) cells. To study potential differences in cytokine expression between these subsets, ENC were isolated and purified using specific antibodies to Gl A and AG-EB and the separated cells were cultivated for 24 hours. The cytokine contents of the supernatant were measured by electrochemiluminescence immunoassay. Quantitative differences in TGF-β1 and TNF-α production were found between Gl A+ and AG-EB+ BM ENC. Furthermore, in vitro addition of erythropoietin (EPO) reduced IFN-γ and IL-2 production specifically by the AG-EB+ ENC. Thus, Gl A+ and AG-EB+ ENC produce IL-1β, IL-2, IL-4, IL-6, IFN-γ, TGF-β1 and TNF-α. Gl A+ ENC also produce IL-10. Conclusion Cytokine production by erythroid nuclear cells suggests that these cells might be involved in regulating the proliferation and differentiation of hematopoietic and immunocompetent cells in human BM. PMID:15488155

  16. Intracellular cytokine production by dengue virus-specific T cells correlates with subclinical secondary infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatch, Steven; Endy, Tim P; Thomas, Stephen; Mathew, Anuja; Potts, James; Pazoles, Pamela; Libraty, Daniel H; Gibbons, Robert; Rothman, Alan L

    2011-05-01

    The pathophysiology of dengue virus infection remains poorly understood, although secondary infection is strongly associated with more severe disease. In the present study, we performed a nested, case-control study comparing the responses of pre-illness peripheral blood mononuclear cells between children who would subsequently develop either subclinical or symptomatic secondary infection 6-11 months after the baseline blood samples were obtained and frozen. We analyzed intracellular cytokine production by CD4(+) and CD8(+) cells in response to stimulation with dengue antigen. We found higher frequencies of dengue virus-specific TNFα, IFNγ-, and IL-2-producing T cells among schoolchildren who subsequently developed subclinical infection, compared with those who developed symptomatic secondary dengue virus infection. Although other studies have correlated immune responses during secondary infection with severity of disease, to our knowledge this is the first study to demonstrate a pre-infection dengue-specific immune response that correlates specifically with a subclinical secondary infection.

  17. Effects of the Commercial Flame Retardant Mixture DE-71 on Cytokine Production by Human Immune Cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mynster Kronborg, Thit; Frohnert Hansen, Juliana; Nielsen, Claus Henrik

    2016-01-01

    investigated thoroughly. We aimed to investigate the influence of DE-71 on cytokine production by peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) stimulated with Escherichia Coli lipopolysaccharide (LPS) or phytohaemagglutinin-L (PHA-L). Material and Methods PBMCs isolated from healthy donors were pre......-incubated with DE-71 at various concentrations and subsequently incubated with the monocyte stimulator LPS, or the T-cell activator PHA-L. Interferon (IFN)-γ, interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-2, IL-4, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, IL-17A, and IL-17F were quantified in the supernatants by Luminex kits....... Results At non-cytotoxic concentrations (0.01–10 μg/mL), DE-71 significantly enhanced secretion of IL-1β, IL-6, CXCL8, IL-10, and TNF-α (pPHA-L-stimulated PBMCs as well...

  18. Whole-blood culture is a valid low-cost method to measure monocytic cytokines - A comparison of cytokine production in cultures of human whole-blood, mononuclear cells and monocytes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damsgaard, Camilla T.; Lauritzen, Lotte; Calder, Philip C.

    2009-01-01

    assessed the intra- and inter-individual variation in cytokine production. In 64 healthy men (age 19-40 years) IL-6, TNF and IL-10 were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay in supernatants from whole-blood, PBMC and monocytes cultured 24 h with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) or UV-killed L acidophilus......Whole-blood and peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMC) cultures are used as non-validated surrogate measures of monocytic cytokine production. The aim of this investigation was to compare ex vivo cytokine production from human whole-blood and PBMC with that from isolated monocytes. We also...

  19. INFLUENCE OF ALPHA-1-ACID GLYCOPROTEIN UPON PRODUCTION OF CYTOKINES BY PERIPHERAL BLOOD MONONUCLEARS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    М. V. Osikov

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. Alpha-1-acid glycoprotein (orosomucoid is a multifunctional acute phase reactant belonging to the family of lipocalines from plasma alpha-2 globulin fraction. In present study, we investigated dosedependent effects of orosomucoid upon secretion of IL-1â, IL-2, IL-3, IL-4 by mononuclear cells from venous blood of healthy volunteers. Mononuclear cells were separated by means of gradient centrifugation, followed by incubation for 24 hours with 250, 500, or 1000 mcg of orosomucoid per ml RPMI-1640 medium (resp., low, medium and high dose. The levels of cytokine production were assayed by ELISA technique. Orosomucoid-induced secretion of IL-1â and IL-4 was increased, whereas IL-3 secretion was inhibited. IL-2 production was suppressed at low doses of orosomucoid, and stimulated at medium and high doses. The effect of alpha-1-acid glycoprotein upon production of IL-2, IL-3 and IL-4 was dose-dependent. Hence, these data indicate that orosomucoid is capable of modifying IL-1â, IL-2, IL-3, and IL-4 secretion by blood mononuclear cells.

  20. Changes in cytokine production and composition of peripheral blood leukocytes during pregnancy are not associated with a difference in the proliferative immune response to the fetus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lashley, Lisa E E L O; van der Hoorn, Marie-Louise P; van der Mast, Barbara J; Tilburgs, Tamara; van der Lee, Nadine; van der Keur, Carin; van Beelen, Els; Roelen, Dave L; Claas, Frans H J; Scherjon, Sicco A

    2011-10-01

    We analyzed peripheral blood from women at term pregnancy for leukocyte composition, in vitro proliferative responses and cytokine production after nonspecific and fetus-specific stimulation. Maternal peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) were collected and stimulated with umbilical cord blood (UCB) of the mother's own child, third-party UCB, nonspecific stimulus phytohemagglutinin, and anti-CD3 antibody, with PBMCs of nonpregnant women (cPBMC) as controls. Nine combinations of patient, child, third party child, and controls were selected on basis of sharing one human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-DR antigen. The response of mPBMC upon specific stimulation with fetal antigens was similar to that of cPBMC. No differences were found when comparing the mother's response upon stimulation to her own child with stimulation to that with a control child. Nonspecific stimulation with phytohemagglutinin and anti-CD3 antibody did not reveal a difference in proliferation rate between mPBMC and cPBMC. However, mPBMC contained a higher percentage of CD14(+) cells (p = 0.001) and activated T cells (CD25(dim), p < 0.0001), but a lower percentage CD16(-)CD56(bright) natural killer (NK) cells (p = 0.001) and CD16(+)CD56(+) NK cells (p = 0.003). mPBMC produced more interleukin (IL)-6, IL-10, and IL-17 compared with cPBMC (p < 0.05). We found differences in lymphocyte composition and cytokine production between mPBMC and cPBMC. These differences did not result in quantitative changes in proliferative responses during pregnancy compared with responses in nonpregnant controls. Copyright © 2011 American Society for Histocompatibility and Immunogenetics. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Effect of the Premalignant and Tumor Microenvironment on Immune Cell Cytokine Production in Head and Neck Cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, Sara D. [Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Medical University of South Carolina, 173 Ashley Avenue, Charleston, SC 29425 (United States); De Costa, Anna-Maria A. [Department of Otolaryngology, Head and Neck Surgery, Medical University of South Carolina, 135 Rutledge Avenue, Charleston, SC 29425 (United States); Department of Medicine, Medical University of South Carolina, 96 Jonathan Lucas Street, Charleston, SC 29425 (United States); Young, M. Rita I., E-mail: rita.young@va.gov [Department of Otolaryngology, Head and Neck Surgery, Medical University of South Carolina, 135 Rutledge Avenue, Charleston, SC 29425 (United States); Department of Medicine, Medical University of South Carolina, 96 Jonathan Lucas Street, Charleston, SC 29425 (United States); Medical Research Service (151), Ralph H. Johnson Veterans Affairs Medical Center, 109 Bee Street, Charleston, SC 29401 (United States)

    2014-04-02

    Head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) is marked by immunosuppression, a state in which the established tumor escapes immune attack. However, the impact of the premalignant and tumor microenvironments on immune reactivity has yet to be elucidated. The purpose of this study was to determine how soluble mediators from cells established from carcinogen-induced oral premalignant lesions and HNSCC modulate immune cell cytokine production. It was found that premalignant cells secrete significantly increased levels of G-CSF, RANTES, MCP-1, and PGE{sub 2} compared to HNSCC cells. Splenocytes incubated with premalignant supernatant secreted significantly increased levels of Th1-, Th2-, and Th17-associated cytokines compared to splenocytes incubated with HNSCC supernatant. These studies demonstrate that whereas the premalignant microenvironment elicits proinflammatory cytokine production, the tumor microenvironment is significantly less immune stimulatory and may contribute to immunosuppression in established HNSCC.

  2. Propolis Ethanol Extract Stimulates Cytokine and Chemokine Production through NF-κB Activation in C2C12 Myoblasts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Washio, Kohei; Kobayashi, Mao; Saito, Natsuko; Amagasa, Misato; Kitamura, Hiroshi

    2015-01-01

    Myoblast activation is a triggering event for muscle remodeling. We assessed the stimulatory effects of propolis, a beehive product, on myoblasts. After an 8 h treatment with 100 μg/mL of Brazilian propolis ethanol extract, expression of various chemokines, including CCL-2 and CCL-5, and cytokines, such as IL-6, increased. This propolis-induced cytokine production appears to depend on NF-κB activation, because the IKK inhibitor BMS-345541 repressed mRNA levels of CCL-2 by ~66%, CCL-5 by ~81%, and IL-6 by ~69% after propolis treatment. Supernatant from propolis-conditioned C2C12 cells upregulated RAW264 macrophage migration. The supernatant also stimulated RAW264 cells to produce angiogenic factors, including VEGF-A and MMP-12. Brazilian green propolis therefore causes myoblasts to secrete cytokines and chemokines, which might contribute to tissue remodeling of skeletal muscle. PMID:26604971

  3. Glutathione peroxidase-1 primes pro-inflammatory cytokine production after LPS challenge in vivo.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven Bozinovski

    Full Text Available Reactive oxygen species produced during the innate immune response to LPS are important agents of anti-pathogen defence but may also cause oxidative lung damage. Glutathione peroxidase-1 (gpx-1 is an anti-oxidant enzyme that may protect lungs from such damage. We assessed the in vivo importance of gpx-1 in LPS-induced lung inflammation. Male wild-type (WT or gpx-1 deficient (gpx-1(-/- mice were treated intranasally with PBS or 10 µg LPS and killed 3 and 24 h post LPS. Lungs were lavaged with PBS and then harvested for inflammatory marker expression. LPS caused an intense neutrophilia in WT BALF evident 3 and 24 h post challenge that was reduced in gpx-1(-/- mice. In addition, LPS-treated gpx-1(-/- mice had significantly fewer macrophages than LPS-treated WT mice. To understand the basis for this paradoxical reduction we assessed inflammatory cytokines and proteases at protein and transcript levels. MMP-9 expression and net gelatinase activity in BALF of gpx-1(-/- mice treated with LPS for 3 and 24 h was no different to that found in LPS-treated WT mice. BALF from LPS-treated gpx-1(-/- mice (3 h had less TNF-α, MIP-2 and GM-CSF protein than LPS-treated WT mice. In contrast, LPS-induced increases in TNF-α, MIP-2 and GM-CSF mRNA expression in WT mice were similar to those observed in gpx-1(-/- mice. These attenuated protein levels were unexpectedly not mirrored by reduced mRNA transcripts but were associated with increased 20S proteasome expression. Thus, these data suggest that gpx-1 primes pro-inflammatory cytokine production after LPS challenge in vivo.

  4. Dual oxidase 2 is essential for house dust mite-induced pro-inflammatory cytokine production in human keratinocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ko, Eunbi; Choi, Hyun; Park, Kkot-Nara; Park, Ju-Yearl; Lee, Tae Ryong; Shin, Dong Wook; Bae, Yun Soo

    2015-12-01

    House dust mites (HDMs) are known to trigger chronic inflammation through Toll-like receptors (TLRs) and their signalling cascades. In this study, we found that TLR2 ligation by HDMs induced the activation of dual oxidase 2 (Duox2) and nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB), leading to the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines in human keratinocytes. Stimulation of human keratinocytes with HDMs resulted in increases in interleukin-8 (IL-8) and chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 20 (CCL20) levels. However, pro-inflammatory cytokine production was abolished in keratinocytes transfected with TLR2 siRNA, indicating that HDM-induced cytokine production was mediated via TLR2 signalling. We also examined the function of Duox1/2 isozymes, which are primarily expressed in keratinocytes, in HDM-mediated pro-inflammatory cytokine production. Human keratinocytes transfected with control siRNA or Duox1 siRNA showed no inhibition of IL-8 or CCL20 production in response to HDMs, whereas the silencing of Duox2 expression resulted in a failure to induce cytokine production. Moreover, the phosphorylation and nuclear localization of RelA/p65, a component of NF-κB, were induced by HDMs in human keratinocytes. Transfection of human keratinocytes with TLR2 siRNA or Duox2 siRNA resulted in the complete abolishment of RelA/p65 nuclear localization in response to HDMs. Taken together, these results indicate that the HDM-dependent TLR2-Duox2 signalling axis indeed promotes NF-κB activation, which induces IL-8 and CCL20 production and mediates epidermal keratinocyte inflammation. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Soluble immune complexes shift the TLR-induced cytokine production of distinct polarized human macrophage subsets towards IL-10.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen A Ambarus

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Costimulation of murine macrophages with immune complexes (ICs and TLR ligands leads to alternative activation. Studies on human myeloid cells, however, indicate that ICs induce an increased pro-inflammatory cytokine production. This study aimed to clarify the effect of ICs on the pro- versus anti-inflammatory profile of human polarized macrophages. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Monocytes isolated from peripheral blood of healthy donors were polarized for four days with IFN-γ, IL-4, IL-10, GM-CSF, M-CSF, or LPS, in the presence or absence of heat aggregated gamma-globulins (HAGGs. Phenotypic polarization markers were measured by flow cytometry. Polarized macrophages were stimulated with HAGGs or immobilized IgG alone or in combination with TLR ligands. TNF, IL-6, IL-10, IL-12, and IL-23 were measured by Luminex and/or RT-qPCR. RESULTS: HAGGs did not modulate the phenotypic polarization and the cytokine production of macrophages. However, HAGGs significantly altered the TLR-induced cytokine production of all polarized macrophage subsets, with the exception of MΦ(IL-4. In particular, HAGGs consistently enhanced the TLR-induced IL-10 production in both classically and alternatively polarized macrophages (M1 and M2. The effect of HAGGs on TNF and IL-6 production was less pronounced and depended on the polarization status, while IL-23p19 and IL-12p35 expression was not affected. In contrast with HAGGs, immobilized IgG induced a strong upregulation of not only IL-10, but also TNF and IL-6. CONCLUSION: HAGGs alone do not alter the phenotype and cytokine production of in vitro polarized human macrophages. In combination with TLR-ligands, however, HAGGs but not immobilized IgG shift the cytokine production of distinct macrophage subsets toward IL-10.

  6. Inflammatory cytokine regulation by LPS and lymphoid cells in human gamma-irradiated monocytes/macrophages; Regulation des cytokines de l`inflammation en presence de LPS ou de lymphocytes dans les monocytes/macrophages humains irradies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pons, I.; Gras, G.; Dormont, D. [Centre de Recherches du Service de Sante des Armees, La Tronche, 38 - Grenoble (France)]|[Centre de Recherches du Service de Sante des Armees - Centre d`Etudes Nucleaires de Fontenay-aux-Roses, 92 (France)]|[Paris-5 Univ., 75 (France)

    1997-12-31

    We have investigated the inflammatory cytokine regulation after ionizing radiation of monocytes/macrophages. We have not evidenced any significant induction of tumour necrosis factor-{alpha}(TNF{alpha}) after irradiation alone. For one donor only out of eight, interleukin-1{beta}(IL-l{beta}) gene expression was affected by {gamma}-irradiation, with a 2-3-fold increase in level, while for two other donors, interleukin-6 (IL-6) mRNA expression was 5-14 fold increased. For one of the eight donors tested, monocytes/macrophages responded to 10 Gy {gamma}-rays by releasing inflammatory cytokines. In the presence of LPS, a significant increase of IL-1{beta} mRNA expression was detected in 10 Gy {gamma}-irradiated cells treated with 1 {mu}g/ml LPS. In most cases, combination of LPS treatment and 10 Gy irradiation down-regulated cytokine secretion except for a TNF{alpha} induction at 6 h post-irradiation. In the presence of lymphoid cells, IL-6 mRNA level was increased in irradiated cells at 24 h. Increases of IL-1{beta} and IL-6 releases were detected at 24 h post-irradiation too. (authors)

  7. Evaluation of tissue reaction, cell viability and cytokine production induced by Sealapex Plus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Eduardo Gomes-Filho

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA, Sealapex, and a combination of Sealapex and MTA (Sealapex Plus on the reaction of subcutaneous connective tissue of rats, and on cell viability and cytokine production in mouse fibroblasts. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The tissue reaction was carried out with dentin tubes containing the materials implanted in the dorsal connective tissue of rats. The histological analysis was performed after 7 and 30 days. Millipore culture plate inserts with polyethylene tubes filled with materials were placed into 24-well cell culture plates with mouse fibroblasts to evaluate the cell viability by MTT assay. ELISA assays were also performed after 24 h of exposure of the mouse fibroblasts to set material disks. RESULTS: Histopathologic examination showed Von Kossa-positive granules that were birefringent to polarized light for all the studied materials at the tube openings. No material inhibited the cell viability in the in vitro test. It was detected IL-6 production in all root-end filling materials. MTA and Sealapex Plus induced a slight raise of mean levels of IL-1β. CONCLUSIONS: The results suggest that Sealapex Plus is biocompatible and stimulates the mineralization of the tissue.

  8. Fucoidan delays apoptosis and induces pro-inflammatory cytokine production in human neutrophils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Jun-O; Yu, Qing

    2015-02-01

    Although some immune modulatory effects of fucoidan have been elucidated, the effects of fucoidan on the apoptosis and activation of human neutrophils have not been investigated. In this study, we demonstrated that fucoidan purified from the brown seaweed Undaria pinnatifilda delays spontaneous apoptosis of human neutrophils and induces their activation. Fucoidan treatment inhibited apoptotic nuclei changes and phosphatidyl serine (PS) exposure on neutrophils cultured in vitro for 24h. The delay in neutrophil apoptosis mediated by fucoidan was associated with increased levels of the anti-apoptotic protein Mcl-1 and decreased levels of activated caspase-3. Screening of the signaling pathways by specific inhibitors indicated that fucoidan-induced delay in neutrophil apoptosis was dependent on the activation of PI3K/AKT signaling pathway, whereas MAPK signaling pathway was not critical. In addition, fucoidan enhanced the production of IL-6, IL-8 and TNF-α from neutrophils in an AKT-dependent manner. Taken together, these results demonstrated that fucoidan delays human neutrophil apoptosis and induces their production of pro-inflammatory cytokines. This knowledge could facilitate the development of novel therapeutic strategies for infectious diseases and neutropenia by controlling neutrophil homeostasis and function with fucoidan.

  9. Sialylation of Campylobacter jejuni lipo-oligosaccharides: impact on phagocytosis and cytokine production in mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruth Huizinga

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS is a post-infectious polyradiculoneuropathy, frequently associated with antecedent Campylobacter jejuni (C. jejuni infection. The presence of sialic acid on C. jejuni lipo-oligosaccharide (LOS is considered a risk factor for development of GBS as it crucially determines the structural homology between LOS and gangliosides, explaining the induction of cross-reactive neurotoxic antibodies. Sialylated C. jejuni are recognised by TLR4 and sialoadhesin; however, the functional implications of these interactions in vivo are unknown. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In this study we investigated the effects of bacterial sialylation on phagocytosis and cytokine secretion by mouse myeloid cells in vitro and in vivo. Using fluorescently labelled GM1a/GD1a ganglioside-mimicking C. jejuni strains and corresponding (Cst-II-mutant control strains lacking sialic acid, we show that sialylated C. jejuni was more efficiently phagocytosed in vitro by BM-MΦ, but not by BM-DC. In addition, LOS sialylation increased the production of IL-10, IL-6 and IFN-β by both BM-MΦ and BM-DC. Subsequent in vivo experiments revealed that sialylation augmented the deposition of fluorescent bacteria in splenic DC, but not macrophages. In addition, sialylation significantly amplified the production of type I interferons, which was independent of pDC. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: These results identify novel immune stimulatory effects of C. jejuni sialylation, which may be important in inducing cross-reactive humoral responses that cause GBS.

  10. Mitochondrial oxidative stress significantly influences atherogenic risk and cytokine-induced oxidant production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, Corey M; Pompilius, Melissa; Pinkerton, Kent E; Ballinger, Scott W

    2011-05-01

    Oxidative stress associated with cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors contributes to disease development. However, less is known whether specific subcellular components play a role in disease susceptibility. In this regard, it has been previously reported that vascular mitochondrial damage and dysfunction are associated with atherosclerosis. However, no studies have determined whether altered mitochondrial oxidant production directly influences atherogenic susceptibility and response in primary cells to atherogenic factors such as tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α). We undertook this study to determine whether increased mitochondrial oxidant production affects atherosclerotic lesion development associated with CVD risk factor exposure and endothelial cell response to TNF-α. We assessed atherosclerotic lesion formation, oxidant stress, and mitochondrial DNA damage in male apolipoprotein E (apoE)-null mice with normal and decreased levels of mitochondrial superoxide dismutase-2 (SOD2; apoE(-/-) and apoE(-/-), SOD2(+/-), respectively) exposed to environmental tobacco smoke or filtered air. Atherogenesis, oxidative stress, and mitochondrial damage were significantly higher in apoE(-/-), SOD2(+/-) mice than in apoE(-/-) controls. Furthermore, experiments with small interfering RNA in endothelial cells revealed that decreased SOD2 activity increased TNF-α-mediated cellular oxidant levels compared with controls. Endogenous mitochondrial oxidative stress is an important CVD risk factor that can modulate atherogenesis and cytokine-induced endothelial cell oxidant generation. Consequently, CVD risk factors that induce mitochondrial damage alter cellular response to endogenous atherogenic factors, increasing disease susceptibility.

  11. Uptake of 12-HETE by human bronchial epithelial cells (HBEC): effects on HBEC cytokine production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gormand, F; Chabannes, B; Moliere, P; Perrin-Fayolle, M; Lagarde, M; Pacheco, Y

    1996-04-01

    12-HETE, the major lipoxygenase end-product of platelets and macrophages, may be released in contact of bronchial epithelium in inflammatory diseases of the lung. We have studied the outcome of 12-HETE in presence of human bronchial epithelial cells (HBEC). When HBEC were incubated with [3H]12-HETE for 30 minutes, 27.5% of total radioactivity was found in HBEC and 72.5% in supernatants. Unesterified 12-HETE accounted for 22.4% of total radioactivity, 4.5% being recovered in phospholipids, preferentially in phosphatidylcholine and phosphatidylethanolamine. No incorporation in neutral lipids was detected. 72.9% of the incubated radioactivity was recovered in un identified metabolites. As 12-HETE has been shown to modulate the expression and production of various proteins, the consequence of the 12-HETE uptake on the release of GM-CSF and IL8 by HBEC was assessed. HBEC from control subjects were cultured for 24 hours with 12-HETE (10(-9) to 10(-7)M) in the presence or absence of TNF alpha. Detectable amounts of both cytokines were released in the supernatant in basal conditions at 24hr, and TNF alpha increased significantly the release of GM-CSF. 12-HETE at 10(-7)M weakly but significantly decreased the TNF-induced release of GM-CSF from HBEC. Thus the uptake of 12-HETE could affect the epithelial cell function in some situations.

  12. A novel compound C12 inhibits inflammatory cytokine production and protects from inflammatory injury in vivo.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi Wang

    Full Text Available Inflammation is a hallmark of many diseases. Although steroids and cyclooxygenase inhibitors are main anti-inflammatory therapeutical agents, they may cause serious side effects. Therefore, developing non-steroid anti-inflammatory agents is urgently needed. A novel hydrosoluble compound, C12 (2,6-bis(4-(3-(dimethylamino-propoxybenzylidenecyclohexanone, has been designed and synthesized as an anti-inflammatory agent in our previous study. In the present study, we investigated whether C12 can affect inflammatory processes in vitro and in vivo. In mouse primary peritoneal macrophages, C12 potently inhibited the production of the proinflammatory gene expression including TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-6, iNOS, COX-2 and PGE synthase. The activity of C12 was partly dependent on inhibition of ERK/JNK (but p38 phosphorylation and NF-κB activation. In vivo, C12 suppressed proinflammatory cytokine production in plasma and liver, attenuated lung histopathology, and significantly reduced mortality in endotoxemic mice. In addition, the pre-treatment with C12 reduced the inflammatory pain in the acetic acid and formalin models and reduced the carrageenan-induced paw oedema and acetic acid-increased vascular permeability. Taken together, C12 has multiple anti-inflammatory effects. These findings, coupled with the low toxicity and hydrosolubility of C12, suggests that this agent may be useful in the treatment of inflammatory diseases.

  13. Stimulation of AIDS lymphocytes with calcium ionophore (A23187) and phorbol ester (PMA): studies of cytoplasmic free Ca, IL-2 receptor expression, IL-2 production, and proliferation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hofmann, B; Moller, J; Langhoff, E

    1989-01-01

    nine patients with AIDS with the response of lymphocytes from nine control subjects showed that the response of AIDS lymphocytes was severely decreased when stimulated with PHA and no further response could be achieved by stimulation with A23187/PMA. On the other hand, no significant difference between...... the PHA-induced rise of cytoplasmic free calcium concentration ([Ca2+]1) in normal and AIDS lymphocytes was observed. The percentage of cells expressing IL-2 receptors (CD25) was also normal both after addition of PHA and after addition of A23187/PMA and the expression was normal on both CD4 and CD8 cells....... The production of IL-2 in normal lymphocytes stimulated with A23187/PMA was 33 times higher than that after stimulation with PHA. In AIDS lymphocytes the production of IL-2 induced by all activators was severely decreased compared to control subjects, although the production of IL-2 after stimulation with A23187...

  14. Fucoidan modulates cytokine production and migration of THP‑1‑derived macrophages via colony‑stimulating factor‑1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Peng; Wang, Huayang; Shao, Qianqian; Kong, Beihua; Qu, Xun

    2017-04-01

    Fucoidan is known for its various biological activities, including immunomodulatory effects on immune cells. However, the effect of fucoidan on the functions of macrophages remains to be elucidated. The present study examined the effects of fucoidan on cytokine production and migration of THP‑1‑derived macrophages and its potential mechanisms. Fucoidan was added during the differentiation process of THP‑1‑derived macrophages along with lipopolysaccharide and interferon‑γ for 42 h, and then macrophages were harvested for functional assays. Fucoidan altered the morphology of THP‑1‑derived macrophages, and also attenuated their migration activity and pro‑inflammatory cytokine production. Additionally, THP‑1‑derived macrophages intensively produced colony‑stimulating factor‑1 (CSF‑1), which was significantly decreased by fucoidan. CSF‑1 neutralizing antibody attenuated the basic production level of pro‑inflammatory cytokines in macrophages. Furthermore, when recombinant human CSF‑1 was added along with fucoidan, the attenuating effects of fucoidan on migration and cytokine production were significantly reversed. In conclusion, the present study suggests that macrophages appear to be a potential target in the immunomodulatory action of fucoidan, and CSF‑1 may be involved in this modulation.

  15. 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 modulates cytokine production induced by Candida albicans: impact of seasonal variation of immune responses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Khoo, A.L.; Chai, L.; Koenen, H.J.P.M.; Kullberg, B.J.; Joosten, I.; Ven, A.J.A.M. van der; Netea, M.G.

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Our interest in immunological effects produced by vitamin D(3) (1,25(OH)(2)D(3)) and its therapeutic potential prompted us to examine the role of 1,25(OH)(2)D(3) on cytokine production by Candida albicans. METHODS: Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) with stimulated C. albicans and

  16. Cord blood cytokines are modulated by maternal farming activities and consumption of farm dairy products during pregnancy: the PASTURE Study.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pfefferle, P.I.; Buchele, G.; Blumer, N.; Roponen, M.; Ege, M.J.; Krauss-Etschmann, S.; Genuneit, J.; Hyvarinen, A.; Hirvonen, M.R.; Lauener, R.; Pekkanen, J.; Riedler, J.; Dalphin, J.C.; Brunekreef, B.; Braun-Fahrlander, C.; von Mutius, E.

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Traditional farming represents a unique model situation to investigate the relationship of early-life farm-related exposure and allergy protection. OBJECTIVES: To investigate associations between maternal farm exposures and cytokine production in cord blood (CB) mononuclear cells in a pr

  17. Cytokine production by virus-specific CD8(+) T cells varies with activation state and localization, but not with TCR avidity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Nanna Ny; Madsen, Andreas Nygaard; Thomsen, Allan Randrup

    2004-01-01

    produce a similar range of cytokines (IFN-gamma, TNF-alpha, IL-2, GM-CSF, RANTES, MIP-1alpha and MIP-1beta) as CD4(+) T cells, but the relative distribution of cytokine-producing subsets is different. Moreover, cytokine-producing CD8(+) T cells were found to dominate numerically at all time-points tested...... essential. Notably, regarding the heterogeneity in cytokine production by individual cells with similar epitope specificity, variation in TCR avidity was not the cause, since in vivo-activated TCR transgene-expressing cells were as heterogeneous in cytokine expression as polyclonal cells specific...

  18. Cytokine production by cells in cerebrospinal fluid during experimental allergic encephalomyelitis in SJL/J mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Renno, T; Lin, J Y; Piccirillo, C

    1994-01-01

    progression with infiltration by memory/effector CD4+ T cells, the major source of these cytokines. This cytokine upregulation was specific to the CNS, since other organs from the same animals did not express significant levels of IL-2 and IFN-gamma. CSF was obtained from the cisterna magna of unperfused mice...

  19. The effect of feed supplementation with Zakarpacki zeolite (clinoptilolite) on percentages of T and B lymphocytes and cytokine concentrations in poultry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarosz, Lukasz; Stepien-Pysniak, Dagmara; Gradzki, Zbigniew; Kapica, Malgorzata; Gacek, Agata

    2017-07-01

    The available literature lacks information on the effect of Zakarpacki zeolite (clinoptilolite) on the immune system of poultry. Therefore, the aim of this study was to determine the effect of this zeolite on selected indicators of the immune response in poultry by evaluating the expression of cluster of differentiation (CD) surface molecules on T and B lymphocytes and the concentration of IL-2 and IL-10 in the blood. Ninety one-day-old Ross 308 broiler chicks were used in the study. The birds were divided into 3 groups of 30 each. The same basic diet was used in all groups, but groups II and III received a feed additive in the form of 2% and 3% zeolite. Blood samples were collected from all birds on the 40th day of observations. Weight gain in the birds in both experimental groups was significantly higher, and no clinical symptoms of disease were observed. The percentage of CD4+CD25+ T and B lymphocytes was higher in both groups receiving zeolite, but the percentage of CD8+CD25+ T lymphocytes was higher only in the group receiving 3% zeolite. There were no differences between the groups in the percentage of cells with CD3+ and MHC Class II expression. Higher serum concentrations of IL-2 and IL-10 were noted only in group III. The use of zeolites enhances antigen presentation and leads to increased Th1 and Th2 response. Excessive supply of zeolite in the feed leads to a local inflammatory response, which may cause damage to the intestinal barrier. © 2017 Poultry Science Association Inc.

  20. Tick saliva increases production of three chemokines including monocyte chemoattractant protein-1, a histamine-releasing cytokine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langhansová, H; Bopp, T; Schmitt, E; Kopecký, J

    2015-02-01

    The effect of Ixodes ricinus tick saliva on the production of various cytokines and chemokines by mouse splenocytes was tested by a cytokine array. We demonstrated a strong upregulation of three chemokines, monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1), thymus-derived chemotactic agent 3 (TCA-3) and macrophage inflammatory protein 2 (MIP-2). MCP-1 could be induced by tick saliva itself. While TCA-3 and MIP-2 are engaged in Th2 polarization of the host immune response associated with tick feeding, MCP-1 may act as a histamine release factor, increasing blood flow into the feeding lesion thus facilitating tick engorgement in the late, rapid feeding phase.

  1. Isolation of labile Fcgamma-receptors from human peripheral blood lymphocytes and production of an antiserum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandilands, G P; Peel, M G; Froebel, K S; Belch, J J; MacSween, R N

    1985-05-01

    In this study, we have isolated membranelabile Fcgamma-receptors (i.e. FcgammaR I) from normal human peripheral blood lymphocytes and have produced a rabbit antiserum to this protein. Using this antiserum, we have shown that membrane-labile and membrane-stable (i.e. FcgammaR II) Fcgamma-receptors are antigenically distinct and that these two forms of the receptors probably coexist on the same lymphocyte subpopulation. Moreover, it was apparent that lymphocyte FcgammaR Is are distinct from FcgammaRs expressed on other cell types (e.g. monocytes, polymorphs and spermatozoa). Preliminary evidence does suggest, however, that human platelets express an FcgammaR which is antigenically similar to human lymphocyte FcgammaR I.

  2. Interleukin-10 inhibits the production of inflammatory cytokines by antigen-stimulated mononuclear cells from asthmatic patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toshiya Takahashi

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Bronchial asthma, characterized by chronic airway inflammation, involves many inflammatory cytokines. Interleukin (IL-10 is a potent inhibitor of cytokine synthesis. Thus, the effects of IL-10 were examined on the production of granulocyte-macrophage colony stimulating factor (GM-CSF, IL-5, IL-1 β, IL-2 and interferon (IFN-γ by antigen (Dermatophagoides farinae, Df- stimulated mononuclear cells obtained from asthmatic patients who were sensitized with the antigen and from healthy subjects in vitro. Production of IL-5 and IL-2 was enhanced by Df antigen in the asthmatic subjects, but not in the healthy controls. In contrast, levels of GM-CSF, IFN-γ and IL-1 β production were enhanced by the antigen in both groups. Exogenous IL-10 (10 ng/mL inhibited the production of GM-CSF, IFN-γ and IL-iβ induced by Df antigen in both groups and also inhibited the production of IL-5 and IL-2 induced by the antigen in the asthmatics subjects. The inhibition of GM-CSF production by IL-10 was stronger than that by IL-4. These results indicated that the responsiveness to the inhibitory effect of IL-10 on the production of inflammatory cytokines is not abrogated in asthmatic patients and that IL-10 may be useful in the treatment of bronchial asthma.

  3. A Novel Natural Product, KL-21, Inhibits Proliferation and Induces Apoptosis in Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aysun Adan Gökbulut

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: The aims of this study were to examine the cytotoxic and apoptotic effects of KL-21, a novel plant product (produced by Naturin Natural Products, İzmir, Turkey, on 232B4 chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL cells and to determine the cytotoxic effects on healthy BEAS-2B human bronchial epithelial cells. METHODS: The cytotoxic effect of KL-21 was determined by MTT cell proliferation assay. Changes in caspase-3 enzyme activity were measured using the caspase-3 colorimetric assay. Changes in mitochondrial membrane potential were determined using the JC-1 dye-based method. Annexin V-FITC/PI double staining was performed to measure the apoptotic cell population. Effects of KL-21 on cell cycle profiles of CLL cells were investigated by flow cytometry. RESULTS: We detected time- and concentration-dependent increases in the cytotoxic effect of KL-21 on 232B4 CLL cells. However, we also showed that, especially at higher concentrations, KL-21 was less cytotoxic towards BEAS-2B healthy cells than towards CLL cells. Annexin-V/PI double staining results showed that the apoptotic cell population increased in 232B4 cells. Increasing concentrations of KL-21 increased caspase-3 enzyme activity and induced loss of mitochondrial membrane potential. KL-21 administration resulted in small increases in the percentage of the cells in the G0/G1 phase while it decreased the S phase cell population up to 1 mg/mL. At the highest concentration, most of the cells accumulated in the G0/G1 phase. DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSION: KL-21 has a growth-inhibitory effect on 232B4 CLL cells. KL-21 causes apoptosis and cell cycle arrest at G0/G1.

  4. Ex vivo measurement of calpain activation in human peripheral blood lymphocytes by detection of immunoreactive products of calpastatin degradation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacek M Witkowski

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Limited proteolysis of multiple intracellular proteins by endogenous Ca-dependent cysteine proteases--calpains--is an important regulatory mechanism for cell proliferation, apoptosis etc. Its importance for cellular functions is stressed by existence of endogenous calpain inhibitors--calpastatins. The calpain-calpastatin system within living cells is in a fragile balance, which depends on both partners. The interdependence of calpain--a protease--and calpastatin--an endogenous inhibitor and at the same time a substrate for this enzyme makes any assessment of actual activity of this enzyme in the cells very difficult. In this work we made an attempt to estimate and compare the activity of calpain in human peripheral blood lymphocytes by assessing the levels of limited proteolysis of calpastatin in these cells by western blot, while at the same time the levels of calpain protein inside these cells was measured by flow cytometry. Our results indicate that it is possible to compare (semi-quantitatively the activities of calpain in peripheral blood CD4+ and CD19+ lymphocytes from various donors that way. Preliminary results showed that calpain activity is increased in the CD4+ T cells isolated from peripheral blood of rheumatoid arthritis patients as compared to control lymphocytes. Extremely high intrinsic activity of calpain was detected in chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CD19+ cells. All this confirms the detection of immunoreactive products of calpastatin as a good maker of endogenous calpain activity.

  5. Borrelia-induced cytokine production is mediated by spleen tyrosine kinase (Syk) but is Dectin-1 and Dectin-2 independent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oosting, Marije; Buffen, Kathrin; Cheng, Shih-Chin; Verschueren, Ineke C; Koentgen, Frank; van de Veerdonk, Frank L; Netea, Mihai G; Joosten, Leo A B

    2015-12-01

    Although it is known that Borrelia species express sugar-like structures on their outer surface, not much is known about the role of these structures in immune recognition by host cells. Fungi, like Candida albicans, are mainly recognized by C-type lectin receptors, in specific Dectin-1 and Dectin-2. In this study we assessed the role of Dectin-1 and Dectin-2 in the recognition process of Borrelia spirochetes. Using specific inhibitors against these receptors on human cells did not influenced cytokine production. Individuals carrying a SNP leading to an early stop codon in the DECTIN-1 gene also did not lead to differential induction of Borrelia-dependent cytokines. After injection of live Borrelia into knee joints of Dectin-2 deficient mice a trend towards lower inflammation was observed. Inhibition of Syk in human cells resulted in lower cytokine production after Borrelia stimulation. In conclusion, Dectin-1 and Dectin-2 seem not to play a major role in Borrelia recognition or Borrelia-induced inflammation. However, Syk seems to be involved in Borrelia-induced cytokine production.

  6. IL-4 increases type 2, but not type 1, cytokine production in CD8+ T cells from mild atopic asthmatics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Coyle Anthony J

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Virus infections are the major cause of asthma exacerbations. CD8+ T cells have an important role in antiviral immune responses and animal studies suggest a role for CD8+ T cells in the pathogenesis of virus-induced asthma exacerbations. We have previously shown that the presence of IL-4 during stimulation increases the frequency of IL-5-positive cells and CD30 surface staining in CD8+ T cells from healthy, normal subjects. In this study, we investigated whether excess IL-4 during repeated TCR/CD3 stimulation of CD8+ T cells from atopic asthmatic subjects alters the balance of type 1/type 2 cytokine production in favour of the latter. Methods Peripheral blood CD8+ T cells from mild atopic asthmatic subjects were stimulated in vitro with anti-CD3 and IL-2 ± excess IL-4 and the expression of activation and adhesion molecules and type 1 and type 2 cytokine production were assessed. Results Surface expression of very late antigen-4 [VLA-4] and LFA-1 was decreased and the production of the type 2 cytokines IL-5 and IL-13 was augmented by the presence of IL-4 during stimulation of CD8+ T cells from mild atopic asthmatics. Conclusion These data suggest that during a respiratory virus infection activated CD8+ T cells from asthmatic subjects may produce excess type 2 cytokines and may contribute to asthma exacerbation by augmenting allergic inflammation.

  7. The Effect of IL-4 Gene Polymorphisms on Cytokine Production in Patients with Chronic Periodontitis and in Healthy Controls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jirina Bartova

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Chronic periodontitis (CP is an inflammatory disease of the teeth-supporting tissues in which genetic predisposition, dental plaque bacteria, and immune mechanisms all play important roles. The aim of this study was to evaluate the occurrence of IL-4 gene polymorphisms in chronic periodontitis and to investigate the association between polymorphisms and cytokines production after bacterial stimulation. Sixty-two subjects (47 CP patients and 15 healthy controls with detected two polymorphisms in the IL-4 gene (-590C/T and intron 3 VNTR were examined. Production of cytokines (IL-1α, IL-1β, IL-4, IL-5, IL-6, IL-10, IL-17, TNFα, INFγ, and VEGF was studied after in vitro stimulation of isolated peripheral blood by mitogens (Pokeweed mitogen, Concanavalin A, dental plaque bacteria (Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans, Tannerella forsythia, Porphyromonas gingivalis, and Prevotella intermedia, and Heat Shock Protein (HSP 70 by the Luminex multiplex cytokine analysis system. The results were correlated with IL-4 genotypes in patients with CP and healthy controls. The mononuclear cells isolated from peripheral blood of CP patients with selected IL-4 polymorphisms significantly altered the production of IFNγ, IL-10, IL-1β, IL-1α, TNFα, and IL-6 after stimulation by HSP 70 or selected bacteria (from P<0.001 to P<0.05. IL-4 gene polymorphisms may influence the function of mononuclear cells to produce not only interleukin-4 but also other cytokines, especially in patients with CP.

  8. Modulation of the pro-inflammatory cytokines and matrix metalloproteinases production in co-cultivated human keratinocytes and melanocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Decean, H; Perde-Schrepler, M; Tatomir, C; Fischer-Fodor, E; Brie, I; Virag, P

    2013-10-01

    The human epidermis exerts immunoregulatory functions through the variety of cytokines and other molecules elaborated by keratinocytes and melanocytes. Their constitutive production is very low; however, considerably increased upon stimulation. In vivo, keratinocytes and melanocytes have a typical exposure in the skin, referred as melanocyte epidermal unit. In the present study we co-cultivated these cells in vitro proposing to elucidate some communication links in close cell-to-cell association. We assessed the amounts of IL-6, IL-8, and matrix metalloproteinases (MMP-2 and MMP-9) in individually and co-cultured cells, exposed or not to UVB radiation. Normal human epidermal keratinocytes and melanocytes were grown in specific media and supplements. Cells were exposed to UVB radiation (100 mJ/cm(2)) to create comparable stress to the environmental one. Cytokines were determined with ELISA and confirmed with Western blot and metalloproteinases with gel zimography. Pure cultures of keratinocytes and melanocytes released low amounts of cytokines and metalloproteinases, these secretions being enhanced by UVB irradiation. In co-cultures, the cell-to-cell proximity triggered signals which markedly augmented the cytokines' secretions, whereas metalloproteinases were down-regulated. UVB irradiation did not influence either of these secretions in co-cultures. Concurrently with the highest levels of the pro-inflammatory cytokines, MMP-9 was up-regulated creating pro-inflammatory conditions and premises for changes in cellular survival, differentiation and phenotype. A complex network of interactions occurred between keratinocytes and melanocytes in co-cultures, resulting in modulated pro-inflammatory cytokines and metalloproteinases productions. Therefore, any disturbances in the microenvironmental signaling system and its molecular constituents may result in inflammation or even tumorigenesis in the epidermis.

  9. Cytokine production in patients with papillary thyroid cancer and associated autoimmune Hashimoto thyroiditis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zivancevic-Simonovic, Snezana; Mihaljevic, Olgica; Majstorovic, Ivana; Popovic, Suzana; Markovic, Slavica; Milosevic-Djordjevic, Olivera; Jovanovic, Zorica; Mijatovic-Teodorovic, Ljiljana; Mihajlovic, Dusan; Colic, Miodrag

    2015-08-01

    Hashimoto thyroiditis (HT) is the most frequent thyroid autoimmune disease, while papillary thyroid cancer (PTC) is one of the most common endocrine malignancies. A few patients with HT also develop PTC. The aim of this study was to analyze cytokine profiles in patients with PTC accompanied with autoimmune HT in comparison with those in patients with PTC alone or HT alone and healthy subjects. Cytokine levels were determined in supernatants obtained from phytohemagglutinin (PHA)-stimulated whole blood cultures in vitro. The concentrations of selected cytokines: Th1-interferon gamma (IFN-γ); Th2-interleukin 4 (IL-4), interleukin 5 (IL-5), interleukin 6 (IL-6), interleukin 10 (IL-10) and interleukin 13 (IL-13); Th9-interleukin 9 (IL-9); and Th17-interleukin 17 (IL-17A) were measured using multiplex cytokine detection systems for human Th1/Th2/Th9/Th17/Th22. We found that PTC patients with HT produced significantly higher concentrations of IL-4, IL-6, IL-9, IL-13 and IFN-γ than PTC patients without HT. In conclusion, autoimmune HT affects the cytokine profile of patients with PTC by stimulating secretion of Th1/Th2/Th9 types of cytokines. Th1/Th2 cytokine ratios in PTC patients with associated autoimmune HT indicate a marked shift toward Th2 immunity.

  10. Abdominal visceral adiposity influences CD4+ T cell cytokine production in pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozias, Marlies K; Li, Shengqi; Hull, Holly R; Brooks, William M; Petroff, Margaret G; Carlson, Susan E

    2015-02-01

    Women with pre-gravid obesity are at risk for pregnancy complications. While the macrophage response of obese pregnant women categorized by body mass index (BMI) has been documented, the relationship between the peripheral CD4(+) T cell cytokine profile and body fat compartments during pregnancy is unknown. In this study, third trimester peripheral CD4(+) T cell cytokine profiles were measured in healthy pregnant women [n=35; pre-pregnancy BMI: 18.5-40]. CD4(+) T cells were isolated from peripheral blood mononuclear cells and stimulated to examine their capacity to generate cytokines. Between 1 and 3weeks postpartum, total body fat was determined by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry and abdominal subcutaneous and visceral fat masses were determined by magnetic resonance imaging. Pearson's correlation was performed to assess relationships between cytokines and fat mass. Results showed that greater abdominal visceral fat mass was associated with a decrease in stimulated CD4(+) T cell cytokine expression. IFN-gamma, TNF-alpha, IL-12p70, IL-10 and IL-17A were inversely related to visceral fat mass. Chemokines CCL3 and IL-8 and growth factors G-CSF and FLT-3L were also inversely correlated. Additionally, total body fat mass was inversely correlated with FGF-2 while abdominal subcutaneous fat mass and BMI were unrelated to any CD4(+) T cell cytokine. In conclusion, lower responsiveness of CD4(+) T cell cytokines associated with abdominal visceral fat mass is a novel finding late in gestation.

  11. Suppression of Inflammatory cytokine production by ar-Turmerone isolated from Curcuma phaeocaulis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Sera; Han, A Rheum; Park, Hye Ryeon; Jang, Eun Jung; Kim, Hyo Kyeong; Jeong, Mi Gyeong; Song, Hyuna; Park, Gun Hwa; Seo, Eun Kyoung; Hwang, Eun Sook

    2014-07-01

    Rhizomes of Curcuma phaeocaulis Valeton (Zingiberaceae) have traditionally been used for controlling inflammatory conditions. Numerous studies have aimed to isolate and characterize the bioactive constituents of C. phaeocaulis. It has been reported that its anti-inflammatory properties are a result of cyclooxygenase-2 inhibition; however, its effect on the T-cell function remains to be elucidated. In this study, four known sesquiterpenoids, viz., ar-turmerone (TM), germacrone (GM), (+)-(4S,5S)-germacrone-4,5-epoxide (GE), and curzerenone (CZ), were isolated from C. phaeocaulis rhizomes and evaluated for their effects on the CD4(+) T-cell function. While GM, GE, and CZ had no effect on the activation of splenic T cells or CD4(+) T cells, TM suppressed the interferon (IFN)-γ production, without affecting the interleukin (IL)-4 expression. TM also decreased the expression of IL-2 in CD4(+) T cells, but did not change their cell-division rates upon stimulation. These results suggest that TM, a major constituent of C. phaeocaulis rhizomes selectively exerts potent anti-inflammatory effects via suppression of the inflammatory cytokines IFN-γ and IL-2. Copyright © 2014 Verlag Helvetica Chimica Acta AG, Zürich.

  12. Muscular hypertrophy and changes in cytokine production after eccentric training in the rat skeletal muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ochi, Eisuke; Nakazato, Koichi; Ishii, Naokata

    2011-08-01

    We investigated the time course effects of eccentric training on muscular size, strength, and growth factor/cytokine production by using an isokinetic-exercise system for rats. Male Wistar rats (n = 34) were randomly assigned into 4 groups: 5 session eccentric-training group (ECC5S, n = 10); 5 session sham-operated group (CON5S, n = 10); 10 session eccentric-training group (ECC10S, n = 7); 10 session sham-operated group (CON10S, n = 7). In each group, a session of either training or sham operation was performed every 2 days. The training consisted of 4 sets of forced dorsiflexion (5 repetitions) combined with electric stimulation of plantar flexors. The wet weight of medial gastrocnemius muscle did not increase significantly after 5 sessions of training, whereas that after 10 sessions of training significantly increased with a concomitant increase in the cross-sectional area (CSA) of muscle fibers (weight, p eccentric training for 20 days cause increases in muscular size and strength associated with increases in IL-6, follistatin, phospho-stat-3, and a decrease in myostatin. The delayed responses of IL-6, myostatin, phospho-stat-3, and follistatin would be due to the chronic effects of repeated training and possibly important for muscular hypertrophy.

  13. Effect of Lactobacillus paracasei Culture Filtrates and Artichoke Polyphenols on Cytokine Production by Dendritic Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sisto, Angelo; Luongo, Diomira; Treppiccione, Lucia; De Bellis, Palmira; Di Venere, Donato; Lavermicocca, Paola; Rossi, Mauro

    2016-01-01

    The most recent trend in research on probiotic bacteria aims at the exploitation of bioactive bacterial compounds that are responsible for health-promoting effects and suitable for medical applications. Therefore, the main purpose of this study was to ascertain if the immunomodulatory effects of L. paracasei strains on dendritic cells (DCs) were caused by bacterial metabolites released in the culture medium. For that reason, bacterial strains were grown in two media generally used for the culture of DCs, and the effects of culture filtrates on the maturation of DCs and cytokine production were evaluated. Moreover, to reveal potential synergistic effects on the immunomodulation of DCs, an artichoke phenolic extract (APE) was added to the media before bacterial growth. The experiments pointed out an interesting anti-inflammatory activity of a culture filtrate obtained after growing a probiotic L. paracasei strain in one of the media supplemented with APE. Therefore, this culture filtrate—which combines the anti-inflammatory activity and the other well-known health-promoting properties of artichoke phenolic compounds—could represent the basis for future particular exploitations. PMID:27754398

  14. Transmissible Plasmid Containing Salmonella enterica Heidelberg Isolates Modulate Cytokine Production During Early Stage of Interaction with Intestinal Epithelial Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gokulan, Kuppan; Khare, Sangeeta; Williams, Katherine; Foley, Steven L

    2016-08-01

    The variation in cytokine production during bacterial invasion of human intestinal epithelial cells (IECs) is a contributing factor for progression of the infection. A few Salmonella enterica Heidelberg strains isolated from poultry products harbor transmissible plasmids (TPs), including those that encode a type-IV secretion system. Earlier, we showed that these TPs are responsible for increased virulence during infection. This study examines the potential role of these TPs in cytokine production in IECs. This study showed that S. Heidelberg strains containing TPs (we refer as virulent strains) caused decreased interleukin (IL)-10 production in IECs after 1 h infection. The virulent strains induced a high level of tumor necrosis factor-α production under identical conditions. The virulent strains of S. Heidelberg also altered the production of IL-2, IL-17, and granulocyte macrophage colony-stimulating factor compared to an avirulent strain. As a part of infection, bacteria cross the epithelial barrier and encounter intestinal macrophages. Hence, we examined the cytotoxic mechanism of strains of S. Heidelberg in macrophages. Scanning electron microscopy showed cell necrosis occurs during the early stage of infection. In conclusion, virulent S. Heidelberg strains were able to modify the host cytokine profile during the early stages of infection and also caused necrosis in macrophages.

  15. FEATURES OF CYTOKINE PRODUCTION IN PATIENTS WITH UNSTABLE ANGINA: DEPENDENCE ON ETHNICITY IN THE REPUBLIC OF SAKHA (YAKUTIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. S. Golderova

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. We investigated levels of spontaneous and mitogen-induced cytokine production (IL-1β, IL-4, IL-6, IL-10 and IFNγ by peripheral blood cells of 24 men with unstable angina (UA, including indigenous population (n = 12, Yakuts, and a group of Russian migrants to the Republic of Sakha (n = 12. Activation of inflammatory response was revealed in the total group of patients with UA, manifesting by increase of spontaneous and induced production of the pro-inflammatory IL-1β, IL-6 cytokines, and mitogen-induced production of IFNγ. As compared with healthy individuals, spontaneous and induced production of anti-inflammatory IL-4 was decreased in UA patients, whereas the mitogen-induced production of IL-10 proved to be enhanced. Therefore, it is highly possible that a pro-atherogenic Th1-immune response is developing during UA, along with suppression of Th2-driving response. The differences revealed for different ethnic groups suggest that severity and prevalence of atherosclerotic disease, which is more common in the non-native patients, is associated with increased production of pro-inflammatory IL-1β and IL-6 cytokines.

  16. Simvastatin modulates gingival cytokine and MMP production in a rat model of ligature-induced periodontitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mouchrek Júnior JCE

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available José Carlos Elias Mouchrek Júnior,1 Cristina Gomes Macedo,2 Henrique Ballassini Abdalla,2 Ana Karina Saba,1 Lucas Novaes Teixeira,1 Adriana Quinzeiro e Silva Mouchrek,3 Marcelo Henrique Napimoga,1 Juliana Trindade Clemente-Napimoga,1 Alvaro Henrique Borges,4 Mateus Rodrigues Tonetto,4 Shelon Cristina Souza Pinto,5 Matheus Coelho Bandeca,3 Elizabeth Ferreira Martinez1 1Laboratory of Cell and Molecular Biology, São Leopoldo Mandic Institute and Research Center, Campinas, 2Physiological Sciences, Piracicaba Dental School, University of Campinas, Campinas, São Paulo, 3Department of Dentistry, CEUMA University, São Luis, Maranhão, 4Department of Integrated Dental Science, University of Cuiaba, Cuiabá, Mato Grosso, 5Department of Dentistry, Ponta Grossa State University, Ponta Grossa, Paraná, Brazil Purpose: The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of simvastatin on the synthesis of cytokines TNF-α and IL-10 and metalloproteinase (MMPs 2 and 9 in a rat model of ligature-induced periodontitis.Materials and methods: Twenty Wistar rats were used, and a cotton ligature was place in a subgingival position encircling the entire cervix of the first molar of the left (ipsilateral side of the mandible. The right (contralateral side of the mandible had no ligature placed and was used as control. After the ligature placement, animals were randomly assigned to two experimental groups (n=10: 1 rats with ligature + vehicle (saline; 10 mL/kg; orally and 2 rats with ligature + simvastatin (25 mg/kg; orally. After 14 days of treatment, the animals were euthanized by anesthetic overdose and the gingival tissue was removed and homogenized in appropriate buffer. MMP-2 and -9 release as well as the IL-10 and TNF-α levels were detected by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Statistical comparison was performed by unpaired Student’s t-test, with p<0.05 representing significance.Results: No differences were observed for TNF-α production between the

  17. Cytokine production by leukocytes of military personnel with depressive symptoms after deployment to a combat-zone: a prospective, longitudinal study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirjam van Zuiden

    Full Text Available Major depressive disorder (MDD is frequently diagnosed in military personnel returning from deployment. Literature suggests that MDD is associated with a pro-inflammatory state. To the best of our knowledge, no prospective, longitudinal studies on the association between development of depressive symptomatology and cytokine production by peripheral blood leukocytes have been published. The aim of this study was to investigate whether the presence of depressive symptomatology six months after military deployment is associated with the capacity to produce cytokines, as assessed before and after deployment. 1023 military personnel were included before deployment. Depressive symptoms and LPS- and T-cell mitogen-induced production of 16 cytokines and chemokines in whole blood cultures were measured before (T0, 1 (T1, and 6 (T2 months after return from deployment. Exploratory structural equation modeling (ESEM was used for data reduction into cytokine patterns. Multiple group latent growth modeling was used to investigate differences in the longitudinal course of cytokine production between individuals with (n = 68 and without (n = 665 depressive symptoms at T2. Individuals with depressive symptoms after deployment showed higher T-cell cytokine production before deployment. Moreover, pre-deployment T-cell cytokine production significantly predicted the presence of depressive symptomatology 6 months after return. There was an increase in T-cell cytokine production over time, but this increase was significantly smaller in individuals developing depressive symptoms. T-cell chemokine and LPS-induced innate cytokine production decreased over time and were not associated with depressive symptoms. These results indicate that increased T-cell mitogen-induced cytokine production before deployment may be a vulnerability factor for development of depressive symptomatology in response to deployment to a combat-zone. In addition, deployment to a combat

  18. In vitro exposure to the herbicide atrazine inhibits T cell activation, proliferation, and cytokine production and significantly increases the frequency of Foxp3+ regulatory T cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thueson, Lindsay E; Emmons, Tiffany R; Browning, Dianna L; Kreitinger, Joanna M; Shepherd, David M; Wetzel, Scott A

    2015-02-01

    The herbicide atrazine (2-chloro-4-[ethylamino]-6-[isopropylamino]-s-triazine) is the most common water contaminant in the United States. Atrazine is a phosphodiesterase inhibitor and is classified as an estrogen disrupting compound because it elevates estrogen levels via induction of the enzyme aromatase. Previous studies have shown that atrazine exposure alters the function of innate immune cells such as NK cells, DC, mast cells, and macrophages. In this study we have examined the impact of in vitro atrazine exposure on the activation, proliferation, and effector cytokine production by primary murine CD4(+) T lymphocytes. We found that atrazine exposure significantly inhibited CD4(+) T cell proliferation and accumulation as well as the expression of the activation markers CD25 and CD69 in a dose-dependent manner. Interestingly, the effects were more pronounced in cells from male animals. These effects were partially mimicked by pharmacological reagents that elevate intracellular cAMP levels and addition of exogenous rmIL-2 further inhibited proliferation and CD25 expression. Consistent with these findings, atrazine exposure during T cell activation resulted in a 2- to 5-fold increase in the frequency of Foxp3(+) CD4(+) T cells. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society of Toxicology. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  19. SNP may modify the effect of vitamin A supplementation at birth on cytokine production in a whole blood culture assay

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Mathias Jul; Fisker, Ane Bærent; Erikstrup, Christian

    2012-01-01

    Within a neonatal vitamin A supplementation (VAS) trial, we investigated the effect of VAS on TNF-a, IL-10, IL-5 and IL-13 production after lipopolysaccharide, purified protein derivative (PPD) of Mycobacterium tuberculosis and phytohaemagglutinin stimulation using a whole blood culture protocol....... We found that VAS recipients had lower unstimulated TNF-a concentrations than placebo recipients. In the present paper, we investigated whether the SNP TNF-a - 308, TNF-a - 238, IL-10 - 592, IL-10 - 1082 and toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4)+896 modified the effect of VAS on cytokine production. DNA...... and cytokine concentrations were available from 291 children. We found a significant interaction between TNF-a - 308 genotype and VAS for the unstimulated TNF-a production (Pinteraction = 0·04); among G homozygotes, TNF-a concentrations were significantly lower after VAS compared with placebo, whereas...

  20. An ethyl acetate fraction of Moringa oleifera Lam. Inhibits human macrophage cytokine production induced by cigarette smoke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kooltheat, Nateelak; Sranujit, Rungnapa Pankla; Chumark, Pilaipark; Potup, Pachuen; Laytragoon-Lewin, Nongnit; Usuwanthim, Kanchana

    2014-02-18

    Moringa oleifera Lam. (MO) has been reported to harbor anti-oxidation and anti-inflammatory activity and useful in the treatment of inflammatory diseases. However, despite these findings there has been little work done on the effects of MO on immune cellular function. Since macrophages, TNF and related cytokines play an important pathophysiologic role in lung damage induced by cigarette smoke, we examined the effects of MO on cigarette smoke extract (CSE)-induced cytokine production by human macrophages. An ethyl acetate fraction of MO (MOEF) was prepared from fresh leaves extract of Moringa and shown to consist of high levels of phenolic and antioxidant activities. Human monocyte derived macrophages (MDM) pre-treated with varying concentrations of MOEF showed decreased production of TNF, IL-6 and IL-8 in response to both LPS and CSE. The decrease was evident at both cytokine protein and mRNA levels. Furthermore, the extract inhibited the expression of RelA, a gene implicated in the NF-κB p65 signaling in inflammation. The findings highlight the ability of MOEF to inhibit cytokines (IL-8) which promote the infiltration of neutrophils into the lungs and others (TNF, IL-6) which mediate tissue disease and damage.

  1. An Ethyl Acetate Fraction of Moringa oleifera Lam. Inhibits Human Macrophage Cytokine Production Induced by Cigarette Smoke

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nateelak Kooltheat

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Moringa oleifera Lam. (MO has been reported to harbor anti-oxidation and anti-inflammatory activity and useful in the treatment of inflammatory diseases. However, despite these findings there has been little work done on the effects of MO on immune cellular function. Since macrophages, TNF and related cytokines play an important pathophysiologic role in lung damage induced by cigarette smoke, we examined the effects of MO on cigarette smoke extract (CSE—induced cytokine production by human macrophages. An ethyl acetate fraction of MO (MOEF was prepared from fresh leaves extract of Moringa and shown to consist of high levels of phenolic and antioxidant activities. Human monocyte derived macrophages (MDM pre-treated with varying concentrations of MOEF showed decreased production of TNF, IL-6 and IL-8 in response to both LPS and CSE. The decrease was evident at both cytokine protein and mRNA levels. Furthermore, the extract inhibited the expression of RelA, a gene implicated in the NF-κB p65 signaling in inflammation. The findings highlight the ability of MOEF to inhibit cytokines (IL-8 which promote the infiltration of neutrophils into the lungs and others (TNF, IL-6 which mediate tissue disease and damage.

  2. Dinamic changes of pro-inflammatory cytokines, adhesion molecules and lymphocytes activation markers as early indicators of diseases severity in patients with Dengue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvana Vielma

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Several immunopathogenic mechanisms have been proposed to explain the massive increase of vascular permeability observed in the severe forms of infection by Dengue Virus (DENV. Our aim was to determine the kinetic changes of inflammatory mediators (IL-8, TNF- α, soluble early lymphocyte activation markers (sIL-2R, sTNF-Rp75 and soluble fractions of cell adhesion molecules (sICAM-1 and sVCAM-1 as indicators for early recognition of disease severity in patients with laboratory-confirmed dengue. Twenty patients classified as Dengue±Warning Signs (D±WS and thirty patients with Severe Dengue (SD were included in the study. Serums of apparently healthy individuals were included as controls. Compared with normal subjects, D±WS cases did not show significant differences in the levels of IL-8 or TNF-α during the acute nor in the critical stages of the disease; however, in D±WS cases levels of sICAM-1 and sVCAM-1 were higher than controls during both phases; in contrast, significant increase of sTNF-p75 and sIL2R levels were observed during the critical phase of the disease. Compared with both dengue patients and controls, patients with SD showed significant rise in the levels of IL-8 and TNF-α during the critical phase of the disease and a significant increase in adhesion molecules were detected in both phases, but the highest levels of sVCAM-1 and sIL-2R were observed only during the acute stage of the disease. In conclusion, sIL-2R and sVCAM-1, as early markers of lymphocyte and endothelial activation, would serves as indicators of severity during the acute phase of dengue infection.

  3. IL-26 is overexpressed in rheumatoid arthritis and induces proinflammatory cytokine production and Th17 cell generation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murielle Corvaisier

    Full Text Available Interleukin-26 (IL-26, a member of the IL-10 cytokine family, induces the production of proinflammatory cytokines by epithelial cells. IL-26 has been also reported overexpressed in Crohn's disease, suggesting that it may be involved in the physiopathology of chronic inflammatory disorders. Here, we have analyzed the expression and role of IL-26 in rheumatoid arthritis (RA, a chronic inflammatory disorder characterized by joint synovial inflammation. We report that the concentrations of IL-26 are higher in the serums of RA patients than of healthy subjects and dramatically elevated in RA synovial fluids compared to RA serums. Immunohistochemistry reveals that synoviolin(+ fibroblast-like synoviocytes and CD68(+ macrophage-like synoviocytes are the main IL-26-producing cells in RA joints. Fibroblast-like synoviocytes from RA patients constitutively produce IL-26 and this production is upregulated by IL-1-beta and IL-17A. We have therefore investigated the role of IL-26 in the inflammatory process. Results show that IL-26 induces the production of the proinflammatory cytokines IL-1-beta, IL-6, and tumor necrosis factor (TNF-alpha by human monocytes and also upregulates the expression of numerous chemokines (mainly CCL20. Interestingly, IL-26-stimulated monocytes selectively promote the generation of RORgamma t(+ Th17 cells, through IL-1-beta secretion by monocytes. More precisely, IL-26-stimulated monocytes switch non-Th17 committed (IL-23R(- or CCR6(- CD161(- CD4(+ memory T cells into Th17 cells. Finally, synovial fluids from RA patients also induce Th17 cell generation and this effect is reduced after IL-26 depletion. These findings show that IL-26 is constitutively produced by RA synoviocytes, induces proinflammatory cytokine secretion by myeloid cells, and favors Th17 cell generation. IL-26 thereby appears as a novel proinflammatory cytokine, located upstream of the proinflammatory cascade, that may constitute a promising target to treat RA and

  4. Forced expression of stabilized c-Fos in dendritic cells reduces cytokine production and immune responses in vivo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoshida, Ryoko; Suzuki, Mayu; Sakaguchi, Ryota; Hasegawa, Eiichi; Kimura, Akihiro; Shichita, Takashi; Sekiya, Takashi [Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Keio University School of Medicine, 35 Shinanomachi, Shinjyuku-ku, Tokyo 160-8582 (Japan); Japan Science and Technology Agency, CREST, Chiyoda-ku 102-0075 (Japan); Shiraishi, Hiroshi [Division of Medical Biochemistry, Department of Biomolecular Sciences, Saga Medical School, Saga (Japan); Shimoda, Kouji [Department of Laboratory Animal Center, Keio University School of Medicine, Tokyo (Japan); Yoshimura, Akihiko, E-mail: yoshimura@a6.keio.jp [Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Keio University School of Medicine, 35 Shinanomachi, Shinjyuku-ku, Tokyo 160-8582 (Japan); Japan Science and Technology Agency, CREST, Chiyoda-ku 102-0075 (Japan)

    2012-06-29

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Dendritic cells expressing stabilized c-Fos produced less inflammatory cytokines. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Dendritic cells expressing stabilized c-Fos activated T cells less efficiently. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Transgenic mice expressing stabilized c-Fos were resistant to EAE model. -- Abstract: Intracellular cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) suppresses innate immunity by inhibiting proinflammatory cytokine production by monocytic cells. We have shown that the transcription factor c-Fos is responsible for cAMP-mediated suppression of inflammatory cytokine production, and that c-Fos protein is stabilized by IKK{beta}-mediated phosphorylation. We found that S308 is one of the major phosphorylation sites, and that the S308D mutation prolongs c-Fos halflife. To investigate the role of stabilized c-Fos protein in dendritic cells (DCs) in vivo, we generated CD11c-promoter-deriven c-FosS308D transgenic mice. As expected, bone marrow-derived DCs (BMDCs) from these Tg mice produced smaller amounts of inflammatory cytokines, including TNF-{alpha}, IL-12, and IL-23, but higher levels of IL-10, in response to LPS, than those from wild-type (Wt) mice. When T cells were co-cultured with BMDCs from Tg mice, production of Th1 and Th17 cytokines was reduced, although T cell proliferation was not affected. Tg mice demonstrated more resistance to experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) than did Wt mice. These data suggest that c-Fos in DCs plays a suppressive role in certain innate and adaptive immune responses.

  5. Effects of estradiol and progesterone on the proinflammatory cytokine production by mononuclear cells from patients with chronic hepatitis C

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ying Yuan; Katsuyoshi Tamaki; Masayuki Shono; Tetsuji Takayama; Ichiro Shimizu; Mi Shen; Eriko Aoyagi; Hidetaka Takenaka; Tatuzo Itagaki; Marl Urata; Katsutaka Sannomiya; Nao Kohno

    2008-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the effects of estradiol (E2) and progesterone on the unstimulated and oxidative stressstimulated production of tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α,interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-8, and macrophage chemotactic protein (ICP)-1 by peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) from patients with chronic hepatitis C and healthy controls.METHODS: The PBMCs were separated from agematched 72 males and 71 females with and without chronic hepatitis C, who were divided into two groups based on a mean menopausal age of 50 years. Oxidative stress was induced by hydrogen peroxide in the cells incubated in serum-free media. CytokJnes in the culture supernatant were measured by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay.RESULTS: The highest levels of the spontaneous production of TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-8, and MCP-1 by the unstimulated PBMCs were in the older male patients with chronic hepatitis C and the lowest levels were in the premenopausal female-healthy controls. E2 inhibited the cytokine production by the unstimulated PBMCs from the older male and post-menopausal female patients, which was further stimulated by progesterone. The exposure to hydrogen peroxide in the PBMCs from the younger male and pre-menopausal female healthy subjects induced the production of cytokines. The change rates of the hydrogen peroxide-stimulated cytokine production were suppressed by E2 and enhanced by progesterone.CONCLUSION: These findings suggest that E2 may play a favorable role in the course of persistent liver injury by preventing the accumulation of monocytes-macrophages and by inhibiting proinflammatory cytokine production,whereas progesterone may counteract the favorable E2 effects.

  6. Do mechanical strain and TNF-α interact to amplify pro-inflammatory cytokine production in human annulus fibrosus cells?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Likhitpanichkul, Morakot; Torre, Olivia M; Gruen, Jadry; Walter, Benjamin A; Hecht, Andrew C; Iatridis, James C

    2016-05-03

    During intervertebral disc (IVD) injury and degeneration, annulus fibrosus (AF) cells experience large mechanical strains in a pro-inflammatory milieu. We hypothesized that TNF-α, an initiator of IVD inflammation, modifies AF cell mechanobiology via cytoskeletal changes, and interacts with mechanical strain to enhance pro-inflammatory cytokine production. Human AF cells (N=5, Thompson grades 2-4) were stretched uniaxially on collagen-I coated chambers to 0%, 5% (physiological) or 15% (pathologic) strains at 0.5Hz for 24h under hypoxic conditions with or without TNF-α (10ng/mL). AF cells were treated with anti-TNF-α and anti-IL-6. ELISA assessed IL-1β, IL-6, and IL-8 production and immunocytochemistry measured F-actin, vinculin and α-tubulin in AF cells. TNF-α significantly increased AF cell pro-inflammatory cytokine production compared to basal conditions (IL-1β:2.0±1.4-84.0±77.3, IL-6:10.6±9.9-280.9±214.1, IL-8:23.9±26.0-5125.1±4170.8pg/ml for basal and TNF-α treatment, respectively) as expected, but mechanical strain did not. Pathologic strain in combination with TNF-α increased IL-1β, and IL-8 but not IL-6 production of AF cells. TNF-α treatment altered F-actin and α-tubulin in AF cells, suggestive of altered cytoskeletal stiffness. Anti-TNF-α (infliximab) significantly inhibited pro-inflammatory cytokine production while anti-IL-6 (atlizumab) did not. In conclusion, TNF-α altered AF cell mechanobiology with cytoskeletal remodeling that potentially sensitized AF cells to mechanical strain and increased TNF-α-induced pro-inflammatory cytokine production. Results suggest an interaction between TNF-α and mechanical strain and future mechanistic studies are required to validate these observations.

  7. Studies on platelet function in bronchial asthma Part 2. Production of 12-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid from platelets and the platelet-lymphocyte interaction in bronchial asthmatics

    OpenAIRE

    角南, 宏二

    1992-01-01

    To clarify the role of platelets in the pathogenesis of bronchial asthma, the production of 12-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid(12HETE) from platelets of asthmatics was examined by high performance liquid chromatography(HPLC). The effect of platelets on lymphocyte function was also studied by lymphocyte blastogenesis. The results were as follows : 1) The production of 12HETE from platelets of asthmatics were significantly higher than that of normal subjects(p

  8. Dysregulated cytokine production by dendritic cells modulates B cell responses in the NZM2410 mouse model of lupus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sang, Allison; Zheng, Ying-Yi; Yin, Yiming; Dozmorov, Igor; Li, Hao; Hsu, Hui-Chen; Mountz, John D; Morel, Laurence

    2014-01-01

    The breakdown in tolerance of autoreactive B cells in the lupus-prone NZM2410-derived B6.Sle1.Sle2.Sle3 (TC) mice results in the secretion of autoantibodies. TC dendritic cells (DCs) enhance B cell proliferation and antibody secretion in a cytokine-dependent manner. However, the specific cytokine milieu by which TC DCs activate B cells was not known. In this study, we compared TC and C57BL/6 (B6) control for the distribution of DC subsets and for their production of cytokines affecting B cell responses. We show that TC DCs enhanced B cell proliferation through the production of IL-6 and IFN-γ, while antibody secretion was only dependent on IL-6. Pre-disease TC mice showed an expanded PDCA1(+) cells prior to disease onset that was localized to the marginal zone and further expanded with age. The presence of PDCA1(+) cells in the marginal zone correlated with a Type I Interferon (IFN) signature in marginal zone B cells, and this response was higher in TC than B6 mice. In vivo administration of anti-chromatin immune complexes upregulated IL-6 and IFN-γ production by splenic DCs from TC but not B6 mice. The production of BAFF and APRIL was decreased upon TC DC stimulation both in vitro and in vivo, indicating that these B cell survival factors do not play a role in B cell modulation by TC DCs. Finally, TC B cells were defective at downregulating IL-6 expression in response to anti-inflammatory apoptotic cell exposure. Overall, these results show that the TC autoimmune genetic background induces the production of B cell-modulating inflammatory cytokines by DCs, which are regulated by the microenvironment as well as the interplay between DC.

  9. Lipid-associated membrane proteins of Mycoplasma penetrans induce production of proinflammatory cytokines in human monocytic cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YAN HUA ZENG; YI MOU WU; MIN JUN YU; LI ZHI TAN; ZHONG LIANG DENG; XIAO XING YOU

    2006-01-01

    The aim of this study is to explore potential pathogenicity of Mycoplasma penetrans, and to investigate whether M. penetrans lipid-associated membrane proteins (LAMPs) could induce human monocytic cell line (THP-1) to produce some proinflammatory cytokines in vitro, including interleukin-1β (IL1β), tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), and IL-8. THP-1 was stimulated with different concentrations of M. penetrans LAMPs and at different time to analyze the production of human IL-1β, TNF-α and IL-8.The protein levels of human IL-1β, TNF-α and IL-8 were measured by enzyme-linked immunoadsorbent assay (ELISA) and the mRNA levels of these proinflammatory cytokines were detected by reverse transcriptase-PCR (RT-PCR). It was demonstrated in the present study that the production of IL-1β, TNF-αand IL-8 increased in dose- and time-dependent manner after stimulation with M. penetrans LAMPs in THP-1 cells. M.penetrans LAMPs also induced the expression of IL-1β, TNF-α and IL-8 mRNA. The production of IL-1β, TNF-α and IL-8 and the expression of mRNA were down-regulated by pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate (PDTC). This study demonstrated that M. penetrans LAMPs can induce the production of proinflammatory cytokines in human monocytic cells in vitro, thus suggesting that it may be an important etiological factor.

  10. miR-20a inhibits TCR-mediated signaling and cytokine production in human naive CD4+ T cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amarendra V Reddycherla

    Full Text Available Upon TCR stimulation by peptide-MHC complexes, CD4+ T cells undergo activation and proliferation. This process will ultimately culminate in T-cell differentiation and the acquisition of effector functions. The production of specific cytokines by differentiated CD4+ T cells is crucial for the generation of the appropriate immune response. Altered CD4+ T-cell activation and cytokine production result in chronic inflammatory conditions and autoimmune disorders. miRNAs have been shown to be important regulators of T-cell biology. In this study, we have focused our investigation on miR-20a, a member of the miR-17-92 cluster, whose expression is decreased in patients suffering from multiple sclerosis. We have found that miR-20a is rapidly induced upon TCR-triggering in primary human naïve CD4+ T cells and that its transcription is regulated in a Erk-, NF-κB-, and Ca++-dependent manner. We have further shown that overexpression of miR-20a inhibits TCR-mediated signaling but not the proliferation of primary human naïve CD4+ T cells. However, miR-20a overexpression strongly suppresses IL-10 secretion and moderately decreases IL-2, IL-6 and IL8 production, which are crucial regulators of inflammatory responses. Our study suggests that miR-20a is a new player in the regulation of TCR signaling strength and cytokine production.

  11. Plasma cytokine concentration and the cytokine producing ability of whole blood cell cultures from healthy females with pharmacologically induced hyperprolactinemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rovenský, J; Lackovic, V; Veselková, Z; Horváthová, M; Koska, J; Blazícková, S; Vigas, M

    1999-01-01

    We investigated the in vitro effect of domperidone-induced hyperprolactinemia on plasma cytokine concentration and blood leukocyte cytokine production in healthy female volunteers. No changes were found in the plasma concentration of interferon (IFN)-gamma, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha, interleukin (IL)-4, IL-10, IL-6 and IL-13 during hyperprolactinemia when compared with control values. Using unseparated blood leukocytes, we found that the spontaneous production of IL-6 (4-8 h) and transforming growth factor (TGF)-beta 1 (2-4 h) was significantly decreased and that the in vitro stimulated production of IFN-gamma (2-8 h) and TNF (4 h) was significantly increased compared with control. Our data concerning the increased IFN-gamma and TNF producing capacity of unseparated leukocytes during pharmacologically induced hyperprolactinemia strongly support the possibility that the lymphocyte production of these cytokines can be rapidly amplified by prolactin via a priming mechanism.

  12. Carnosol and Related Substances Modulate Chemokine and Cytokine Production in Macrophages and Chondrocytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph Schwager

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Phenolic diterpenes present in Rosmarinus officinalis and Salvia officinalis have anti-inflammatory and chemoprotective effects. We investigated the in vitro effects of carnosol (CL, carnosic acid (CA, carnosic acid-12-methylether (CAME, 20-deoxocarnosol and abieta-8,11,13-triene-11,12,20-triol (ABTT in murine macrophages (RAW264.7 cells and human chondrocytes. The substances concentration-dependently reduced nitric oxide (NO and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2 production in LPS-stimulated macrophages (i.e., acute inflammation. They significantly blunted gene expression levels of iNOS, cytokines/interleukins (IL-1α, IL-6 and chemokines including CCL5/RANTES, CXCL10/IP-10. The substances modulated the expression of catabolic and anabolic genes in chondrosarcoma cell line SW1353 and in primary human chondrocytes that were stimulated by IL-1β (i.e., chronic inflammation In SW1353, catabolic genes like MMP-13 and ADAMTS-4 that contribute to cartilage erosion were down-regulated, while expression of anabolic genes including Col2A1 and aggrecan were shifted towards pre-pathophysiological homeostasis. CL had the strongest overall effect on inflammatory mediators, as well as on macrophage and chondrocyte gene expression. Conversely, CAME mainly affected catabolic gene expression, whereas ABTT had a more selectively altered interleukin and chemokine gene exprssion. CL inhibited the IL-1β induced nuclear translocation of NF-κBp65, suggesting that it primarily regulated via the NF-κB signalling pathway. Collectively, CL had the strongest effects on inflammatory mediators and chondrocyte gene expression. The data show that the phenolic diterpenes altered activity pattern of genes that regulate acute and chronic inflammatory processes. Since the substances affected catabolic and anabolic gene expression in cartilage cells in vitro, they may beneficially act on the aetiology of osteoarthritis.

  13. TRAF6 specifically contributes to FcepsilonRI-mediated cytokine production but not mast cell degranulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yong Jun; Chen, Wei; Carrigan, Svetlana O; Chen, Wei-Min; Roth, Kristy; Akiyama, Taishin; Inoue, Jun-ichiro; Marshall, Jean S; Berman, Jason N; Lin, Tong-Jun

    2008-11-14

    TRAF6 (tumor necrosis factor-associated factor 6) is an essential adaptor downstream from the tumor necrosis factor (TNF) receptor and Toll-like receptor superfamily members. This molecule is critical for dendritic cell maturation and T cell homeostasis. Here we show that TRAF6 is important in high affinity IgE receptor, FcepsilonRI-mediated mast cell activation. In contrast to dendritic cells and T cells, TRAF6-deficient mast cells matured normally and showed normal IgE-dependent degranulation. Importantly, TRAF6-deficient mast cells showed impaired production of cytokine interleukin-6, CCL-9, interleukin-13, and TNF following FcepsilonRI aggregation. Chromatin immunoprecipitation assay showed decreased NF-kappaB p65 binding to CCL-9 and TNF promoters in TRAF6-deficient mast cells. Antigen and IgE-induced IkappaB phosphorylation and NF-kappaB p65 translocation to the nucleus were diminished in TRAF6-deficient mast cells. NF-kappaB luciferase activity in response to antigen and IgE stimulation was severely impaired in TRAF6-deficient mast cells. In addition, antigen and IgE-induced phosphorylation of mitogen-activated protein kinase p38 and JNK, but not ERK1/2, was significantly reduced in TRAF6-deficient mast cells. These results identified TRAF6 as an important signal transducer in FcepsilonRI-mediated signaling in mast cells. Our findings implicate TRAF6 as a new adaptor/regulator molecule for allergen-mediated inflammation in allergy.

  14. Impact of lithium alone and in combination with antidepressants on cytokine production in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petersein, Charlotte; Sack, Ulrich; Mergl, Roland; Schönherr, Jeremias; Schmidt, Frank M; Lichtblau, Nicole; Kirkby, Kenneth C; Bauer, Katrin; Himmerich, Hubertus

    2015-01-01

    Lithium is an important psychopharmacological agent for the treatment of unipolar as well as bipolar affective disorders. Lithium has a number of side effects such as hypothyroidism and aggravation of psoriasis. On the other hand, lithium has pro-inflammatory effects, which appear beneficial in some disorders associated with immunological deficits, such as human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection and systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). Therefore, immunological characteristics of lithium may be an important consideration in individualized therapeutic decisions. We measured the levels of the cytokines interleukin (IL)-1ß, IL-2, IL-4, IL-6, IL-22, IL-17 and tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-α in the stimulated blood of thirty healthy subjects supplemented with lithium alone, the antidepressants citalopram, escitalopram or mirtazapine alone, the combination of each antidepressant with lithium, and a no drug control. These drugs were tested under three blood stimulant conditions: murine anti-human CD3 monoclonal antibody OKT3 and the 5C3 monoclonal antibody (OKT3/5C3), phytohemagglutinin (PHA), and unstimulated blood. Lithium, alone and in combination with any of the tested antidepressants, led to a consistent increase of IL-1ß, IL-6 and TNF-α levels in the unstimulated as well as the stimulated blood. In the OKT3/5C3- and PHA-stimulated blood, IL-17 production was significantly enhanced by lithium. Lithium additionally increased IL-2 concentrations significantly in PHA-stimulated blood. The data support the view that lithium has pro-inflammatory properties. These immunological characteristics may contribute to side effects of lithium, but may also explain its beneficial effects in patients suffering from HIV infection or SLE.

  15. CD163 and CD206 expression does not correlate with tolerance and cytokine production in LPS-tolerant human monocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alves-Januzzi, Amanda Barba; Brunialti, Milena Karina Colo; Salomao, Reinaldo

    2017-05-01

    Lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-tolerant monocytes produce small amounts of inflammatory cytokines, which is one of the characteristics of the alternative activated macrophages (AAM). These cells exhibited an increased expression of CD206 and CD163. Given the functional similarities of AAMs with the modulation of monocytes' functions observed during sepsis and LPS-tolerance, we evaluated whether the inhibition of inflammatory cytokine production by LPS-tolerant monocytes is associated with the phenotype of cells expressing CD206 and CD163. We investigated whether tolerant human monocytes would modulate their expression of CD206 and CD163, markers of alternative activation, and whether the level of their expression would be related to cytokines detection. Tolerance to LPS was induced in peripheral blood mononuclear cell by pre-incubating the cells with increasing concentrations of LPS. The expression of CD206 and CD163 and intracellular TNF-α and IL-6 was determined 24 h after LPS challenge by flow cytometry. No differences in CD163 expression were observed between tolerant and non-tolerant cells, while the expression of CD206, which was decreased following LPS stimulation in non-tolerized cells, was further reduced in tolerant cells. Decreased production of inflammatory cytokines was observed in the tolerized cells, regardless of the expression of CD163 and CD206, with the exception of IL-6 in CD206+ monocytes, which was similarly expressed in both tolerized and non-tolerized cells. The effect of LPS in the expression of CD163 and CD206 on monocytes is not reverted in LPS tolerant cells, and the inhibition of inflammatory cytokines in tolerant cells is not related with modulation of these receptors. © 2016 International Clinical Cytometry Society. © 2016 International Clinical Cytometry Society.

  16. T Lymphocyte Maturation Is Impaired in Healthy Young Individuals Carrying Trisomy 21 (Down Syndrome)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guazzarotti, Laura; Trabattoni, Daria; Castelletti, Eleonora; Boldrighini, Benedetta; Piacentini, Luca; Duca, Piergiorgio; Beretta, Silvia; Pacei, Michela; Caprio, Cristiana; Vigano, Alessandra; di Natale, Berardo; Zuccotti, Gian Vincenzo; Clerici, Mario

    2009-01-01

    Cytokine production, immune activation, T lymphocytes maturation, and serum IL-7 concentration were examined in 24 youngsters with Down syndrome and no acquired diseases (healthy Down syndrome [12 prepubertal, 13 pubertal]) and 42 age- and gender-matched controls (20 prepubertal, 22 pubertal). Results showed that a complex immune and impairment is…

  17. T Lymphocyte Maturation Is Impaired in Healthy Young Individuals Carrying Trisomy 21 (Down Syndrome)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guazzarotti, Laura; Trabattoni, Daria; Castelletti, Eleonora; Boldrighini, Benedetta; Piacentini, Luca; Duca, Piergiorgio; Beretta, Silvia; Pacei, Michela; Caprio, Cristiana; Vigano, Alessandra; di Natale, Berardo; Zuccotti, Gian Vincenzo; Clerici, Mario

    2009-01-01

    Cytokine production, immune activation, T lymphocytes maturation, and serum IL-7 concentration were examined in 24 youngsters with Down syndrome and no acquired diseases (healthy Down syndrome [12 prepubertal, 13 pubertal]) and 42 age- and gender-matched controls (20 prepubertal, 22 pubertal). Results showed that a complex immune and impairment is…

  18. Adhesion-independent synergy of monocytes and endothelial cells in cytokine production: regulation of IL-6 and GM–CSF production by PAF

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Lacasse

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available Co-Cultures of monocytes (MO and endothelial cells (EC were studied for their capacity to synergize in the production of interleukin-6 (IL-6 and granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM–CSF, two cytokines potentially important in vascular physiopathology. Resting monocytes produced detectable amounts of IL-6 but no GM–CSF, whereas confluent EC produced significant quantities of GM–CSF, but minimal IL-6. In co-cultures without stimuli, additive synthesis of both cytokines was observed. When EC were pretreated, however, with either PAF, TNF or both stimuli, before addition of MO, synergistic production of IL-6 was observed. In contrast, GM–CSF production was not enhanced by coculture of monocytes with activated EC. When either cell population was fixed with paraformaldehyde or killed by freeze-thawing before addition to the co-culture, cytokine levels reverted to those produced by the unaffected population alone. On the other hand, separating the two cell populations by a cell-impermeable membrane in transwell cultures did not affect the synergistic production of the cytokines. Taken together, our data suggest that EC and MO can synergize in response to stimuli by producing IL-6 and that this synergy is dependent on the integrity of both cell populations, but independent of cell-cell contact.

  19. RPR 106541, a novel, airways-selective glucocorticoid: effects against antigen-induced CD4+ T lymphocyte accumulation and cytokine gene expression in the Brown Norway rat lung.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Underwood, S L; Raeburn, D; Lawrence, C; Foster, M; Webber, S; Karlsson, J A

    1997-10-01

    1. The effects of a novel 17-thiosteroid, RPR 106541, were investigated in a rat model of allergic airway inflammation. 2. In sensitized Brown Norway rats, challenge with inhaled antigen (ovalbumin) caused an influx of eosinophils and neutrophils into the lung tissue and airway lumen. In the lung tissue there was also an accumulation of CD4+ T lymphocytes and increased expression of mRNA for interleukin-4 (IL-4) and IL-5, but not interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma). These findings are consistent with an eosinophilia orchestrated by activated Th2-type cells. 3. RPR 106541 (10-300 microg kg[-1]), administered by intratracheal instillation into the airways 24 h and 1 h before antigen challenge, dose-dependently inhibited cell influx into the airway lumen. RPR 106541 (100 microg kg[-1]) caused a significant (PRPR 106541 was approximately 7 times and 4 times more potent than budesonide and fluticasone propionate, respectively. 4. When tested at a single dose (300 microg kg[-1]), RPR 106541 and fluticasone each caused a significant (PRPR 106541 and fluticasone (300 microg kg[-1]), but not budesonide (300 microg kg[-1]), significantly (PRPR 106541 (300 microg kg[-1]) also significantly (PRPR 106541 in this model, which mimics important aspects of airway inflammation in human allergic asthmatics, suggests that this glucocorticoid may be useful in the treatment of bronchial asthma.

  20. Comparative Assessment of Cytokine Pattern in Early and Late Onset of Neonatal Sepsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khaertynov, Kh S; Boichuk, S V; Khaiboullina, S F; Anokhin, V A; Andreeva, A A; Lombardi, V C; Satrutdinov, M A; Agafonova, E A; Rizvanov, A A

    2017-01-01

    Neonatal sepsis is a significant health issue associated with high mortality. Immune responses associated with neonatal sepsis, such as proinflammatory cytokine production, are believed to play a central role in the pathogenesis of this disease. In the present study, serum levels of the proinflammatory cytokines TNF-α, IL1-β, and IL-6 and the anti-inflammatory cytokines IL-4 and IL-10 were evaluated for 25 subjects with neonatal sepsis. We observed that subjects with late onset of sepsis (LOS), as well as those with early onset of sepsis (EOS), had a substantial increase in serum TNF-α. In contrast to EOS, subjects with LOS demonstrated a significant increase in serum levels IL-6 and IL-10. Additionally, we observed a significant difference in cytokine profiles between acute and postacute cases of neonatal sepsis. For instance, the level of proinflammatory cytokines, such as TNF-α and IL-6, was elevated in the acute phase, whereas the production of anti-inflammatory cytokines, such as IL-10, became substantially upregulated during the postacute phase. Additionally, no correlation was observed between cytokine levels and CRP levels or lymphocyte counts. Thus, in contrast to CRP levels and lymphocyte counts, examination of the cytokine profile can provide valuable information when determining the most effective therapy for treating neonatal sepsis. This information may be useful to physicians when determining if anti-inflammatory or immune stimulatory therapy is warranted.

  1. Comparative Assessment of Cytokine Pattern in Early and Late Onset of Neonatal Sepsis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kh. S. Khaertynov

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Neonatal sepsis is a significant health issue associated with high mortality. Immune responses associated with neonatal sepsis, such as proinflammatory cytokine production, are believed to play a central role in the pathogenesis of this disease. In the present study, serum levels of the proinflammatory cytokines TNF-α, IL1-β, and IL-6 and the anti-inflammatory cytokines IL-4 and IL-10 were evaluated for 25 subjects with neonatal sepsis. We observed that subjects with late onset of sepsis (LOS, as well as those with early onset of sepsis (EOS, had a substantial increase in serum TNF-α. In contrast to EOS, subjects with LOS demonstrated a significant increase in serum levels IL-6 and IL-10. Additionally, we observed a significant difference in cytokine profiles between acute and postacute cases of neonatal sepsis. For instance, the level of proinflammatory cytokines, such as TNF-α and IL-6, was elevated in the acute phase, whereas the production of anti-inflammatory cytokines, such as IL-10, became substantially upregulated during the postacute phase. Additionally, no correlation was observed between cytokine levels and CRP levels or lymphocyte counts. Thus, in contrast to CRP levels and lymphocyte counts, examination of the cytokine profile can provide valuable information when determining the most effective therapy for treating neonatal sepsis. This information may be useful to physicians when determining if anti-inflammatory or immune stimulatory therapy is warranted.

  2. Association of Cytokine Production with Hormone Level and Sensory Responses during the Formation of Psychoactive Drug Addiction in Men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nevidimova, T I; Batukhtina, E I; Vetlugina, T P; Savochkina, D N; Nikitina, V B; Lobacheva, O A; Bokhan, N A

    2015-10-01

    We performed immunophysiological examination of 144 men aged 17-25 years, patients with psychoactive substance dependence, episodic psychoactive drug users, and conditionally healthy individuals. Associations of proinflammatory cytokine production with age, sex, hormone levels, and olfactory and nociceptive indices were revealed in cases of psychoactive drug use and formation of addiction. Predictive models based on the use of androstenone aversion, pressure algometry testing, and immunological parameters were proposed.

  3. Modulation of Cytokines Production by Indomethacin Acute Dose during the Evolution of Ehrlich Ascites Tumor in Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciana Boffoni Gentile

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to investigate the influence of a nonselective COX1/COX2 inhibitor (indomethacin on tumor growth of Ehrlich Ascites Tumor (EAT in mice, using as parameters the tumor growth and cytokine profile. Mice were inoculated with EAT cells and treated with indomethacin. After 1, 3, 6, 10, and 13 days the animals were evaluated for the secretion of TNFα, IL-1α, IL-2, IL-4, IL-6, IL-10, and IL-13 and PGE2 level in peritoneal cavity. The results have shown that EAT induces PGE2 production and increases tumor cells number from the 10th day. The cytokine profile showed EAT induces production of IL-6 from 10th day and of IL-2 on 13th day; the other studied cytokines were not affected in a significant way. The indomethacin treatment of EAT-bearing mice inhibited the tumor growth and PGE2 synthesis from the 10th day. In addition, the treatment of EAT-bearing mice with indomethacin has stimulated the IL-13 production and has significantly inhibited IL-6 in the 13th day of tumor growth. Taken together, the results have demonstrated that EAT growth is modulated by PGE2 and the inhibition of the tumor growth could be partly related to suppression of IL-6 and induction of IL-13.

  4. Modulation of Cytokines Production by Indomethacin Acute Dose during the Evolution of Ehrlich Ascites Tumor in Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gentile, Luciana Boffoni; Queiroz-Hazarbassanov, Nicolle; Massoco, Cristina de Oliveira; Fecchio, Denise

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the influence of a nonselective COX1/COX2 inhibitor (indomethacin) on tumor growth of Ehrlich Ascites Tumor (EAT) in mice, using as parameters the tumor growth and cytokine profile. Mice were inoculated with EAT cells and treated with indomethacin. After 1, 3, 6, 10, and 13 days the animals were evaluated for the secretion of TNFα, IL-1α, IL-2, IL-4, IL-6, IL-10, and IL-13 and PGE2 level in peritoneal cavity. The results have shown that EAT induces PGE2 production and increases tumor cells number from the 10th day. The cytokine profile showed EAT induces production of IL-6 from 10th day and of IL-2 on 13th day; the other studied cytokines were not affected in a significant way. The indomethacin treatment of EAT-bearing mice inhibited the tumor growth and PGE2 synthesis from the 10th day. In addition, the treatment of EAT-bearing mice with indomethacin has stimulated the IL-13 production and has significantly inhibited IL-6 in the 13th day of tumor growth. Taken together, the results have demonstrated that EAT growth is modulated by PGE2 and the inhibition of the tumor growth could be partly related to suppression of IL-6 and induction of IL-13. PMID:26347589

  5. Terameprocol, a methylated derivative of nordihydroguaiaretic acid, inhibits production of prostaglandins and several key inflammatory cytokines and chemokines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scholle F

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Extracts of the creosote bush, Larrea tridentata, have been used for centuries by natives of western American and Mexican deserts to treat a variety of infectious diseases and inflammatory disorders. The beneficial activity of this plant has been linked to the compound nordihydroguaiaretic acid (NDGA and its various substituted derivatives. Recently, tetra-O-methyl NDGA or terameprocol (TMP has been shown to inhibit the growth of certain tumor-derived cell lines and is now in clinical trials for the treatment of human cancer. In this report, we ask whether TMP also displays anti-inflammatory activity. TMP was tested for its ability to inhibit the LPS-induced production of inflammatory lipids and cytokines in vitro. We also examined the effects of TMP on production of TNF-α in C57BL6/J mice following a sublethal challenge with LPS. Finally, we examined the molecular mechanisms underlying the effects we observed. Methods RAW 264.7 cells and resident peritoneal macrophages from C57BL6/J mice, stimulated with 1 μg/ml LPS, were used in experiments designed to measure the effects of TMP on the production of prostaglandins, cytokines and chemokines. Prostaglandin production was determined by ELISA. Cytokine and chemokine production were determined by antibody array and ELISA. Western blots, q-RT-PCR, and enzyme assays were used to assess the effects of TMP on expression and activity of COX-2. q-RT-PCR was used to assess the effects of TMP on levels of cytokine and chemokine mRNA. C57BL6/J mice injected i.p. with LPS were used in experiments designed to measure the effects of TMP in vivo. Serum levels of TNF-α were determined by ELISA. Results TMP strongly inhibited the production of prostaglandins from RAW 264.7 cells and normal peritoneal macrophages. This effect correlated with a TMP-dependent reduction in levels of COX-2 mRNA and protein, and inhibition of the enzymatic activity of COX-2. TMP inhibited, to varying degrees, the

  6. Adhesion of ZAP-70+ chronic lymphocytic leukemia cells to stromal cells is enhanced by cytokines and blocked by inhibitors of the PI3-kinase pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lafarge, Sandrine T; Johnston, James B; Gibson, Spencer B; Marshall, Aaron J

    2014-01-01

    CLL cell survival and proliferation is enhanced through direct contact with supporting cells present in lymphoid tissues. PI3Ks are critical signal transduction enzymes controlling B cell survival and activation. PI3K inhibitors have entered clinical trials and show promising therapeutic activity; however, it is unclear whether PI3K inhibitor drugs differentially affect ZAP-70 positive versus negative CLL cells or target specific microenvironmental interactions. Here we provide evidence that CD40L+IL-4, IL-8 or IL-6 enhance adhesion to stromal cells, with IL-6 showing a selective effect on ZAP-70 positive cells. Stimulatory effects of IL-8 or IL-6 are fully reversed by PI3K inhibition, while the effects of CD40L+IL-4 are partially reversed. While CD40L+IL-4 is the only stimulation increasing CLL cell survival for all patient groups, IL-6 protects ZAP-70 positive cells from cell death induced by PI3K inhibition. Altogether, our results indicate that targeting the PI3K pathway can reverse protective CLL-microenvironment interactions in both ZAP-70 positive and negative CLL despite their differences in cytokine responsiveness.

  7. Interleukin-32 production associated with biliary innate immunity and proinflammatory cytokines contributes to the pathogenesis of cholangitis in biliary atresia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okamura, A; Harada, K; Nio, M; Nakanuma, Y

    2013-08-01

    Biliary atresia (BA) is thought to be associated with infections by viruses such as Reoviridae and is characterized histologically by fibrosclerosing cholangitis with proinflammatory cytokine-mediated inflammation. Interleukin (IL)-32 affects the continuous inflammation by increasing the production of proinflammatory cytokines. In this study, the role of IL-32 in the cholangitis of BA was examined. Immunohistochemistry for IL-32 and caspase 1 was performed using 21 samples of extrahepatic bile ducts resected from BA patients. Moreover, using cultured human biliary epithelial cells (BECs), the expression of IL-32 and its induction on stimulation with a Toll-like receptor [(TLR)-3 ligand (poly(I:C)] and proinflammatory cytokines was examined. BECs composing extrahepatic bile ducts showing cholangitis expressed IL-32 in BA, but not in controls. Caspase 1 was expressed constantly on BECs of both BA and control subjects. Furthermore, poly(I:C) and proinflammatory cytokines [(IL-1β, interferon (IFN)-γ and tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-α] induced IL-32 expression strongly in cultured BECs, accompanying the constant expression of TLR-3 and caspase 1. Our results imply that the expression of IL-32 in BECs was found in the damaged bile ducts of BA and induced by biliary innate immunity via TLR-3 and proinflammatory cytokines. These findings suggest that IL-32 is involved initially in the pathogenic mechanisms of cholangitis in BA and also plays an important role in the amplification and continuance of periductal inflammatory reactions. It is therefore tempting to speculate that inhibitors of IL-32 could be useful for attenuating cholangitis in BA.

  8. Suppressive Activity of a Macrolide Antibiotic, Roxithromycin, on Pro-Inflammatory Cytokine Production in Vitro and in Vivo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Suzaki

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was designed to examine the influence of a macrolide antibiotic, roxithromycin (RXM, on the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines, interleukin (IL-1β and tumor necrosis factor (TNF-α. In the first experiments, we examined the effect of RXM on in vitro cytokine production from lipopolysaccharide (LPS-stimulated human peripheral blood monocytes. The monocytes were cultured in the presence of various doses of the agent. After 24 h, the culture supernatants were obtained and assayed for IL-1β and TNF-α contents by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. RXM suppressed the in vitro production of IL-1β and TNF-α in response to LPS stimulation. This was dose dependent and first noted at a concentration of as little as 0.05 μg/ml, which is much lower than therapeutic blood levels. In the second part of the experiments, we examined the influence of RXM on the appearance of IL-1β and TNF-α in mouse lung extract induced by LPS inhalation. RXM was administered orally into BALB/c mice at a single dose of 2.5 mg/kg once a day for 5-12 weeks. These mice were then instilled with LPS into the trachea and examined for the presence of cytokines in aqueous lung extracts. Pretreatment of mice with RXM for 5 weeks did not influence of the appearance of both IL-1β and TNF-α in aqueous lung extracts. However, pretreatment for more than 7 weeks dramatically suppressed the cytokine appearance in the extracts.

  9. Glycine regulates the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines in lean and monosodium glutamate-obese mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alarcon-Aguilar, F J; Almanza-Perez, Julio; Blancas, Gerardo; Angeles, Selene; Garcia-Macedo, Rebeca; Roman, Ruben; Cruz, Miguel

    2008-12-03

    Fat tissue plays an important role in the regulation of inflammatory processes. Increased visceral fat has been associated with a higher production of cytokines that triggers a low-grade inflammatory response, which eventually may contribute to the development of insulin resistance. In the present study, we investigated whether glycine, an amino acid that represses the expression in vitro of pro-inflammatory cytokines in Kupffer and 3T3-L1 cells, can affect in vivo cytokine production in lean and monosodium glutamate-induced obese mice (MSG/Ob mice). Our data demonstrate that glycine treatment in lean mice suppressed TNF-alpha transcriptional expression in fat tissue, and serum protein levels of IL-6 were suppressed, while adiponectin levels were increased. In MSG/Ob mice, glycine suppressed TNF-alpha and IL-6 gene expression in fat tissue and significantly reduced protein levels of IL-6, resistin and leptin. To determine the role of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma (PPAR-gamma) in the modulation of this inflammatory response evoked by glycine, we examined its expression levels in fat tissue. Glycine clearly increased PPAR-gamma expression in lean mice but not in MSG/Ob mice. Finally, to identify alterations in glucose metabolism by glycine, we also examined insulin levels and other biochemical parameters during an oral glucose tolerance test. Glycine significantly reduced glucose tolerance and raised insulin levels in lean but not in obese mice. In conclusion, our findings suggest that glycine suppresses the pro-inflammatory cytokines production and increases adiponectin secretion in vivo through the activation of PPAR-gamma. Glycine might prevent insulin resistance and associated inflammatory diseases.

  10. Abnormal production of pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines by lupus monocytes in response to apoptotic cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sangeeta Sule

    Full Text Available Monocytes are a key component of the innate immune system involved in the regulation of the adaptive immune response. Previous studies have focused on apoptotic cell clearance abnormalities in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE monocytes. However, whether SLE monocytes might express unique patterns of cytokine secretion in response to apoptotic cells is still unknown. Here, we used monocytes from healthy controls and SLE patients to evaluate the production of TNF-α and TGF-β in response to apoptotic cells. Upon recognition of apoptotic material, monocytes from healthy controls showed prominent TGF-β secretion (mean ± SD: 824.6±144.3 pg/ml and minimal TNF-α production (mean ± SD: 32.6±2.1 pg/ml. In contrast, monocytes from SLE patients had prominent TNF-α production (mean ± SD: 302.2±337.5 pg/ml and diminished TGF-β secretion (mean ± SD: 685.9±615.9 pg/ml, a difference that was statistically significant compared to normal monocytes (p≤10(-6 for TNF-α secretion, and p = 0.0031 for TGF-β, respectively. Interestingly, the unique cytokine response by SLE monocytes was independent of their phagocytic clearance efficiency, opsonizing autoantibodies and disease activity. We further showed that nucleic acids from apoptotic cells play important role in the induction of TNF-α by lupus monocytes. Together, these observations suggest that, in addition to potential clearance defects, monocytes from SLE patients have an abnormal balance in the secretion of anti- and pro-inflammatory cytokines in response to apoptotic cells. Since the abnormal cytokine response to apoptotic material in SLE is not related to disease activity and opsonizing autoantibodies, it is possible that this response might be an intrinsic property of lupus monocytes. The studies focus attention on toll-like receptors (TLRs and their downstream pathways as mediators of this response.

  11. Peroxiredoxin-1, a possible target in modulating inflammatory cytokine production in macrophage like cell line RAW264.7.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tae Lim, Young; Sup Song, Dong; Joon Won, Tae; Lee, Yun-Jung; Yoo, Jong-Sun; Eun Hyung, Kyeong; Won Yoon, Joo; Park, So-Young; Woo Hwang, Kwang

    2012-06-01

    Peroxiredoxin (PRX), a scavenger of H(2) O(2) and alkyl hydroperoxides in living organisms, protects cells from oxidative stress. Contrary to its known anti-oxidant roles, the involvement of PRX-1 in the regulation of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) signaling is poorly understood, possible immunological functions of PRX-1 having been uncovered only recently. In the present study, it was discovered that the PRX-1 deficient macrophage like cell line (RAW264.7) has anti-inflammatory activity when stimulated by LPS. Treatment with LPS for 3 hrs resulted in increased gene expression of an anti-inflammatory cytokine, interleukin-10 (IL-10), in PRX-1 knock down RAW264.7 cells. Gene expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines IL-1β and tumor necrosis factor- α (TNF-α) did not show notable changes under the same conditions. However, production of these cytokines significantly decreased in PRX-1 knock down RAW264.7 cells with 12 hrs of stimulation. Production of IL-10 was also increased in PRX-1 knock down RAW264.7 cells with 12 hrs of stimulation. We predicted that higher concentrations of IL-10 would result in decreased expression of IL-1β and TNF-α in PRX-1 knock-down cells. This was confirmed by blocking IL-10, which reestablished IL-1β and TNF-α secretion. We also observed that increased concentrations of IL-10 do not affect the NF-κB pathway. Interestingly, STAT3 phosphorylation by LPS stimulation was significantly increased in PRX-1 knockdown RAW264.7 cells. Up-regulation of IL-10 in PRX-1 knockdown cells and the resulting downregulation of proinflammatory cytokine production seem to involve the STAT3 pathway in macrophages. Thus, down-regulation of PRX-1 may contribute to the suppression of adverse effects caused by excessive activation of macrophages through affecting the STAT3 signaling pathway.

  12. Differences in proliferation, differentiation, and cytokine production by bone cells seeded on titanium-nitride and cobalt-chromium-molybdenum surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Hove, Ruud P; Nolte, Peter A; Semeins, Cornelis M; Klein-Nulend, Jenneke

    2013-08-01

    Titanium-nitride coating is used to improve cobalt-chromium-molybdenum implant survival in total knee arthroplasty, but its effect on osteoconduction is unknown. Chromium and cobalt ions negatively affect the growth and metabolism of cultured osteoblasts while enhancing osteoclastogenic cytokine production. Therefore, it was hypothesized that a titanium-nitride surface would enhance osteoblast proliferation and/or differentiation and reduce osteoclastogenic cytokine production compared with a cobalt-chromium-molybdenum surface. MC3T3-E1 osteoblasts showed increased proliferation and decreased differentiation on titanium-nitride, while cytokine interleukin-6 production was higher on porous cobalt-chromium-molybdenum (p cobalt-chromium-molybdenum surface.

  13. Methamphetamine decreases CD4 T cell frequency and alters pro-inflammatory cytokine production in a model of drug abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mata, Mariana M; Napier, T Celeste; Graves, Steven M; Mahmood, Fareeha; Raeisi, Shohreh; Baum, Linda L

    2015-04-01

    The reason co-morbid methamphetamine use and HIV infection lead to more rapid progression to AIDS is unclear. We used a model of methamphetamine self-administration to measure the effect of methamphetamine on the systemic immune system to better understand the co-morbidity of methamphetamine and HIV. Catheters were implanted into the jugular veins of male, Sprague Dawley rats so they could self-administer methamphetamine (n=18) or be given saline (control; n=16) for 14 days. One day after the last operant session, blood and spleens were collected. We measured serum levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines, intracellular IFN-γ and TNF-α, and frequencies of CD4(+), CD8(+), CD200(+) and CD11b/c(+) lymphocytes in the spleen. Rats that self-administered methamphetamine had a lower frequency of CD4(+) T cells, but more of these cells produced IFN-γ. Methamphetamine did not alter the frequency of TNF-α-producing CD4(+) T cells. Methamphetamine using rats had a higher frequency of CD8(+) T cells, but fewer of them produced TNF-α. CD11b/c and CD200 expression were unchanged. Serum cytokine levels of IFN-γ, TNF-α and IL-6 in methamphetamine rats were unchanged. Methamphetamine lifetime dose inversely correlated with serum TNF-α levels. Our data suggest that methamphetamine abuse may exacerbate HIV disease progression by activating CD4 T cells, making them more susceptible to HIV infection, and contributing to their premature demise. Methamphetamine may also increase susceptibility to HIV infection, explaining why men who have sex with men (MSM) and frequently use methamphetamine are at the highest risk of HIV infection.

  14. Thymus cells in myasthenia gravis selectively enhance production of anti-acetylcholine-receptor antibody by autologous blood lymphocytes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Newsom-Davis, J.; Willcox, N.; Calder, L.

    1981-11-26

    We investigated the role of the thymus in 16 patients with myasthenia gravis without thymoma by studying the production of anti-acetylcholine-receptor antibody by thymic and blood lymphocytes cultured alone or together. In 10 responders (with the highest receptor-antibody titers in their plasma), cultured thymic cells spontaneously produced measurable receptor antibody. Receptor-antibody production by autologous blood lymphocytes was enhanced by the addition of responder's thymic cells, irradiated to abrogate antibody production and suppression (P<0.01). This enhancement was greater and more consistent than that by pokeweed mitogen; it depended on viable thymic cells, appeared to be selective for receptor antibody, and correlated with the ratio of thymic helper (OKT4-positive or OKT4+) to suppressor (OKT8+) T cells (P<0.01). These results suggest that myasthenic thymus contains cell-bound acetylcholine-receptor-like material or specific T cells (or both) that can aid receptor-antibody production. This may be relevant to the benefits of thymectomy in myasthenia and to the breakdown in self-tolerance in this and other autoimmune diseases.

  15. Production of fibrogenic cytokines by interleukin-2-treated peripheral blood leukocytes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kovacs, E J; Brock, B; Silber, I E;

    1993-01-01

    was tested for induction of fibroblast proliferation, collagen synthesis, and expression of cytokine genes. RESULTS: Supernatants from IL-2-treated peripheral blood leukocytes induced six times more fibroblast proliferation than medium from leukocytes cultured without IL-2. The expression of type I...

  16. The Retinoic Acid Receptor-α mediates human T-cell activation and Th2 cytokine and chemokine production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Key Michael

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We have recently demonstrated that all-trans-retinoic acid (ATRA and 9-cis-retinoic acid (9-cis RA promote IL-4, IL-5 and IL-13 synthesis, while decreasing IFN-γ and TNF-α expression by activated human T cells and reduces the synthesis of IL-12p70 from accessory cells. Here, we have demonstrated that the observed effects using ATRA and 9-cis RA are shared with the clinically useful RAR ligand, 13-cis retinoic acid (13-cis RA, and the retinoic acid receptor-α (RAR-α-selective agonist, AM580 but not with the RAR-β/γ ligand, 4-hydroxyphenylretinamide (4-HPR. Results The increase in type 2 cytokine production by these retinoids correlated with the expression of the T cell activation markers, CD69 and CD38. The RAR-α-selective agonist, AM580 recapitulated all of the T cell activation and type 2 cytokine-inducing effects of ATRA and 9-cis-RA, while the RAR-α-selective antagonist, RO 41–5253, inhibited these effects. Conclusion These results strongly support a role for RAR-α engagement in the regulation of genes and proteins involved with human T cell activation and type 2 cytokine production.

  17. Defective Toll-like receptor 9-mediated cytokine production in B cells from Bruton's tyrosine kinase-deficient mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasan, Maroof; Lopez-Herrera, Gabriela; Blomberg, K Emelie M; Lindvall, Jessica M; Berglöf, Anna; Smith, C I Edvard; Vargas, Leonardo

    2008-01-01

    Bruton's tyrosine kinase (Btk), a member of the Tec family of tyrosine kinases, plays an important role in the differentiation and activation of B cells. Mutations affecting Btk cause immunodeficiency in both humans and mice. In this study we set out to investigate the potential role of Btk in Toll-like receptor 9 (TLR9) activation and the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines such as interleukin (IL)-6, tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-α and IL-12p40. Our data show that Btk-deficient B cells respond more efficiently to CpG-DNA stimulation, producing significantly higher levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines but lower levels of the inhibitory cytokine IL-10. The quantitative reverse transcription–polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) analysis presented in this work shows that mRNA production of one of the important new members of the IL-12 family, IL-27, was significantly increased in Btk-deficient B cells after CpG-DNA stimulation. In this study, we demonstrate significant differences in CpG responsiveness between transitional 1 (T1) and T2 B cells for survival and maturation. Furthermore, TLR9 expression, measured both as protein and as mRNA, was increased in Btk-defective cells, especially after TLR9 stimulation. Collectively, these data provide evidence in support of the theory that Btk regulates both TLR9 activation and expression in mouse splenic B cells. PMID:17725607

  18. SARM is required for neuronal injury and cytokine production in response to central nervous system viral infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Ying-Ju; Banerjee, Rebecca; Thomas, Bobby; Nathan, Carl; García-Sastre, Adolfo; Ding, Aihao; Uccellini, Melissa B

    2013-07-15

    Four of the five members of the Toll/IL-1R domain-containing adaptor family are required for signaling downstream of TLRs, promoting innate immune responses against different pathogens. However, the role of the fifth member of this family, sterile α and Toll/IL-1R domain-containing 1 (SARM), is unclear. SARM is expressed primarily in the CNS where it is required for axonal death. Studies in Caenorhabditis elegans have also shown a role for SARM in innate immunity. To clarify the role of mammalian SARM in innate immunity, we infected SARM(-/-) mice with a number of bacterial and viral pathogens. SARM(-/-) mice show normal responses to Listeria monocytogenes, Mycobacterium tuberculosis, and influenza virus, but show dramatic protection from death after CNS infection with vesicular stomatitis virus. Protection correlates with reduced CNS injury and cytokine production by nonhematopoietic cells, suggesting that SARM is a positive regulator of cytokine production. Neurons and microglia are the predominant source of cytokines in vivo, supporting a role for SARM as a link between neuronal injury and innate immunity.

  19. LPS-Stimulated Whole Blood Cytokine Production Is Not Related to Disease Behavior in Patients with Quiescent Crohn's Disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark M T J Broekman

    Full Text Available Crohn's disease (CD is a chronic inflammatory disease in which cytokines play a pivotal role in the induction and maintenance of inflammation. Innate cytokine production is genetically determined and varies largely between individuals; this might impact the severity of inflammation. We aimed to assess whether ex-vivo endotoxin-stimulated levels of cytokines could be associated with disease phenotype.Patients with quiescent CD (Harvey-Bradshaw Index ≤ 4 and negative inflammation markers who were not using immunomodulating drugs or biologicals were eligible. Historical disease characteristics (localization, behavior, number of bowel resections, drug history, extra-intestinal symptoms were extracted from medical records. We measured cytokine levels (tumor necrosis factor (TNF-α, interleukin (IL-1β, IL-6 and IL-10 in supernatants of lipopolysaccharide (LPS -stimulated whole blood cultures and correlated these with disease characteristics and age- and sex-matched healthy controls. In addition, we analyzed whether single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs in the promoter region of the TNF-α gene were related to TNF-α levels.We included 75 patients with CD and 24 healthy controls. Six patients were excluded because of increased inflammation markers resulting in a total of 69 patients. The mean age (SD of patients with CD was 51.2 (12.3 years with a mean (SD disease duration of 24.1 (11.5 years. Disease localization, peri-anal involvement and behavior were not related to LPS-stimulated TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-6 or IL-10 levels. In addition, combination of localization with behavior to differentiate mild from severe disease type showed no significant differences. TNF-α levels were higher in patients with CD (428 pg/ml IQR [267-468] compared to healthy controls (459 pg/ml IQR [364-570], p=0.02. We found no associations between SNPs in the promoter region and TNF-α levels.In this study, innate cytokine production of TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-6 and IL-10 was not

  20. Glibenclamide reduces pro-inflammatory cytokine production by neutrophils of diabetes patients in response to bacterial infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kewcharoenwong, Chidchamai; Rinchai, Darawan; Utispan, Kusumawadee; Suwannasaen, Duangchan; Bancroft, Gregory J.; Ato, Manabu; Lertmemongkolchai, Ganjana

    2013-11-01

    Type 2 diabetes mellitus is a major risk factor for melioidosis, which is caused by Burkholderia pseudomallei. Our previous study has shown that polymorphonuclear neutrophils (PMNs) from diabetic subjects exhibited decreased functions in response to B. pseudomallei. Here we investigated the mechanisms regulating cytokine secretion of PMNs from diabetic patients which might contribute to patient susceptibility to bacterial infections. Purified PMNs from diabetic patients who had been treated with glibenclamide (an ATP-sensitive potassium channel blocker for anti-diabetes therapy), showed reduction of interleukin (IL)-1β and IL-8 secretion when exposed to B. pseudomallei. Additionally, reduction of these pro-inflammatory cytokines occurred when PMNs from diabetic patients were treated in vitro with glibenclamide. These findings suggest that glibenclamide might be responsible for the increased susceptibility of diabetic patients, with poor glycemic control, to bacterial infections as a result of its effect on reducing IL-1β production by PMNs.

  1. Thyroxine reversibly inhibits the uncoupling action of protonophores on energy production in rat thymus lymphocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palamarchuk, L A; Mansurova, S E; Starkov, A A

    2002-04-01

    Earlier we reported that some thyroid and steroid hormones and also 6-ketocholestanol used in micromolar concentrations modulated the effects of protonophoric uncouplers on isolated mitochondria (Starkov et al. (1997) Biochim. Biophys. Acta, 1318, 173-183). In the present study we investigated the effects of a thyroid hormone, thyroxine, on energy coupling of intact rat thymus lymphocytes and mitochondria isolated from these cells. The resting (oligomycin-inhibited) respiration of the isolated intact lymphocytes was stimulated by the addition of protonophoric uncouplers 2,4-DNP, FCCP, or SF6847. Subsequent addition of micromolar concentrations of thyroxin decreased the rate of uncoupler-stimulated respiration and partially reversed uncoupler-induced decrease of membrane potential (DeltaPsi). In experiments with mitochondria isolated from thymus lymphocytes the re-coupling effect of thyroxine was not observed. In this case thyroxine did not influence mitochondrial respiration stimulated with 2,4-DNP, but did potentiate the stimulation of respiration and DeltaPsi decrease induced with another uncoupler, SF6847. The data are discussed in terms of a hypothesis that aromatic uncouplers are transported into the cell by the thyroxine carrier of the plasma membrane.

  2. Regulatory T cell levels and cytokine production in active non-infectious uveitis: in-vitro effects of pharmacological treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molins, B; Mesquida, M; Lee, R W J; Llorenç, V; Pelegrín, L; Adán, A

    2015-03-01

    The aim of this study was to quantify the proportion of regulatory T cells (Treg ) and cytokine expression by peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) in patients with active non-infectious uveitis, and to evaluate the effect of in-vitro treatment with infliximab, dexamethasone and cyclosporin A on Treg levels and cytokine production in PBMCs from uveitis patients and healthy subjects. We included a group of 21 patients with active non-infectious uveitis and 18 age-matched healthy subjects. The proportion of forkhead box protein 3 (FoxP3)(+) Treg cells and intracellular tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-α expression in CD4(+) T cells was determined by flow cytometry. PBMCs were also either rested or activated with anti-CD3/anti-CD28 and cultured in the presence or absence of dexamethasone, cyclosporin A and infliximab. Supernatants of cultured PBMCs were collected and TNF-α, interleukin (IL)-10, IL-17 and interferon (IFN)-γ levels were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). No significant differences were observed in nTreg levels between uveitis patients and healthy subjects. However, PBMCs from uveitis patients produced significantly higher amounts of TNF-α and lower amounts of IL-10. Dexamethasone treatment in vitro significantly reduced FoxP3(+) Treg levels in PBMCs from both healthy subjects and uveitis patients, and all tested drugs significantly reduced TNF-α production in PBMCs. Dexamethasone and cyclosporin A significantly reduced IL-17 and IFN-γ production in PBMCs and dexamethasone up-regulated IL-10 production in activated PBMCs from healthy subjects. Our results suggest that PBMCs from patients with uveitis express more TNF-α and less IL-10 than healthy subjects, and this is independent of FoxP3(+) Treg levels. Treatment with infliximab, dexamethasone and cyclosporin A in vitro modulates cytokine production, but does not increase the proportion of FoxP3(+) Treg cells.

  3. Regulatory T cell levels and cytokine production in active non-infectious uveitis: in-vitro effects of pharmacological treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molins, B; Mesquida, M; Lee, R W J; Llorenç, V; Pelegrín, L; Adán, A

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to quantify the proportion of regulatory T cells (Treg) and cytokine expression by peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) in patients with active non-infectious uveitis, and to evaluate the effect of in-vitro treatment with infliximab, dexamethasone and cyclosporin A on Treg levels and cytokine production in PBMCs from uveitis patients and healthy subjects. We included a group of 21 patients with active non-infectious uveitis and 18 age-matched healthy subjects. The proportion of forkhead box protein 3 (FoxP3)+ Treg cells and intracellular tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-α expression in CD4+ T cells was determined by flow cytometry. PBMCs were also either rested or activated with anti-CD3/anti-CD28 and cultured in the presence or absence of dexamethasone, cyclosporin A and infliximab. Supernatants of cultured PBMCs were collected and TNF-α, interleukin (IL)-10, IL-17 and interferon (IFN)-γ levels were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). No significant differences were observed in nTreg levels between uveitis patients and healthy subjects. However, PBMCs from uveitis patients produced significantly higher amounts of TNF-α and lower amounts of IL-10. Dexamethasone treatment in vitro significantly reduced FoxP3+ Treg levels in PBMCs from both healthy subjects and uveitis patients, and all tested drugs significantly reduced TNF-α production in PBMCs. Dexamethasone and cyclosporin A significantly reduced IL-17 and IFN-γ production in PBMCs and dexamethasone up-regulated IL-10 production in activated PBMCs from healthy subjects. Our results suggest that PBMCs from patients with uveitis express more TNF-α and less IL-10 than healthy subjects, and this is independent of FoxP3+ Treg levels. Treatment with infliximab, dexamethasone and cyclosporin A in vitro modulates cytokine production, but does not increase the proportion of FoxP3+ Treg cells. PMID:25354724

  4. Modulatory effects of propolis samples from Latin America (Brazil, Cuba and Mexico) on cytokine production by human monocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conti, Bruno J; Santiago, Karina B; Búfalo, Michelle C; Herrera, Yahima F; Alday, Efrain; Velazquez, Carlos; Hernandez, Javier; Sforcin, José M

    2015-10-01

    Propolis has been used in folk medicine in different regions of the world including Latin America. Propolis is a resinous mixture of substances collected by honey bees from several botanical sources, and its composition contains a rich chemical variety, depending on the geographical area and plant sources. Our aim was to compare the modulatory effect of propolis samples from three different countries of Latin America (Brazil, Cuba and Mexico) on pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokine production (tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α and interleukin (IL)-10, respectively) by human monocytes. Cells were incubated with propolis for 18 h at 37°C. Cell viability was assessed by 3-(4,5-dimethyl-thiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide method, and cytokine production was determined by ELISA. All samples did not affect monocyte viability. Brazilian propolis stimulated both TNF-α and IL-10 production by monocytes. Cuban propolis stimulated TNF-α and inhibited IL-10 production, while Mexican sample exerted the opposite effect, inhibiting TNF-α and stimulating IL-10 production. The major compounds found in Brazilian, Cuban and Mexican propolis samples were artepillin C, isoflavonoids and pinocembrin, respectively. Brazilian, Cuban and Mexican propolis contained different components that may exert pro- and anti-inflammatory activity depending on concentration, what may provide a novel approach to the development of immunomodulatory drugs containing propolis. © 2015 Royal Pharmaceutical Society.

  5. Th17 cells demonstrate stable cytokine production in a proallergic environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glosson-Byers, Nicole L; Sehra, Sarita; Stritesky, Gretta L; Yu, Qing; Awe, Olufolakemi; Pham, Duy; Bruns, Heather A; Kaplan, Mark H

    2014-09-15

    Th17 cells are critical for the clearance of extracellular bacteria and fungi, but also contribute to the pathology of autoimmune diseases and allergic inflammation. After exposure to an appropriate cytokine environment, Th17 cells can acquire a Th1-like phenotype, but less is known about their ability to adopt Th2 and Th9 effector programs. To explore this in more detail, we used an IL-17F lineage tracer mouse strain that allows tracking of cells that formerly expressed IL-17F. In vitro-derived Th17 cells adopted signature cytokine and transcription factor expression when cultured under Th1-, Th2-, or Th9-polarizing conditions. In contrast, using two models of allergic airway disease, Th17 cells from the lungs of diseased mice did not adopt Th1, Th2, or Th9 effector programs, but remained stable IL-17 secretors. Although in vitro-derived Th17 cells expressed IL-4Rα, those induced in vivo during allergic airway disease did not, possibly rendering them unresponsive to IL-4-induced signals. However, in vitro-derived, Ag-specific Th17 cells transferred in vivo to OVA and aluminum hydroxide-sensitized mice also maintained IL-17 secretion and did not produce alternative cytokines upon subsequent OVA challenge. Thus, although Th17 cells can adopt new phenotypes in response to some inflammatory environments, our data suggest that in allergic inflammation, Th17 cells are comparatively stable and retain the potential to produce IL-17. This might reflect a cytokine environment that promotes Th17 stability, and allow a broader immune response at tissue barriers that are susceptible to allergic inflammation.

  6. Leishmania pifanoi proteoglycolipid complex P8 induces macrophage cytokine production through Toll-like receptor 4.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitaker, Shanta M; Colmenares, Maria; Pestana, Karen Goldsmith; McMahon-Pratt, Diane

    2008-05-01

    The P8 proteoglycolipid complex (P8 PGLC) is a glyconjugate expressed by Leishmania mexicana complex parasites. We previously have shown that vaccination with P8 PGLC provides protection against cutaneous leishmaniasis in susceptible BALB/c mice. However, the biological importance of this complex remains unknown. Here we show that P8 PGLC localizes to the surface of Leishmania pifanoi amastigotes and that upon exposure to macrophages, P8 PGLC binds and induces inflammatory cytokine and chemokine mRNAs such as tumor necrosis factor alpha and RANTES early after stimulation. Our studies indicate that cytokine and chemokine induction is dependent upon Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4). Interestingly, key inflammatory cytokines and chemokines (such as interleukin-6 [IL-6], macrophage inflammatory protein 1beta, and beta interferon [IFN-beta]) that can be induced through TLR4 activation were not induced or only slightly upregulated by P8 PGLC. Activation by P8 PGLC does not occur in the presence of TLR4 alone and requires both CD14 and myeloid differentiation protein 2 for signaling; this requirement may be responsible for the limited TLR4 response. This is the first characterization of a TLR4 ligand for Leishmania. In vitro experiments indicate that L. pifanoi amastigotes induce lower levels of cytokines in macrophages in the absence of TLR4; however, notably higher IL-10/IFN-gamma ratios were found for TLR4-deficient mice than for BALB/c mice. Further, increased levels of parasites persist in BALB/c mice deficient in TLR4. Taken together, these results suggest that TLR4 recognition of Leishmania pifanoi amastigotes is important for the control of infection and that this is mediated, in part, through the P8 PGLC.

  7. INFLUENCE OF PROBIOTICS ON CYTOKINE PRODUCTION IN THE IN VITRO AND IN VIVO SYSTEMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. V. Averina

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Modulatory effects of three probiotic bacterial strains (Lactobacillus rhamnosus K32 (L, Bifidobacterium longum GT15 (B, Enterococcus faecium L-3 (E on expression level and contents of key cytokines were studied using PCR techniques with reverse transcription, and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Both cell cultures and an experimental model of intestinal dysbiosis were used in this study.The genes encoding bacteriocins, surface membrane component, pili and exopolysaccharides involved in host immune system modulation were previously identified in the B and Ebacterial strains.Investigation of probiotic strains and effects of their supernatants expression of cytokines in cell cultures of promonocyte origin (HTP-1 showed increased expression of TNFα, due to E and L supernatants. Moreover, the Bl culture induced IL-8 and IL-10 expression.In a model of Wistar rats with ampicillinand metronidazole-induced intestinal dysbiosis corrected with probiotics we have shown that the dysbiosis was accompanied by sufficient alterations in microbiota composition (Klebsiella spp. overgrowth and low contents of Faecalobacterium prausnitzii that were observed only in the animals untreated with probiotics (control, or after administration of L.In contrast to these results, the animals treated with E and B, the following changes were revealed: 1 low expression of proinflammatory cytokines IL-8, TNFα, MCP-1 inmesenteric lymph nodes and appropriate changes of their serum contents, 2 increased serum content of the anti-inflammatory TGFβ cytokine. Hence, the present study, having used two complementary models, has detected some individual features of immune modulation produced by the probiotictic strains of L. rhamnosus K32, B. longum GT15 и E. faecium L-3 which exert differential effects upon the intestinal microbiota. 

  8. Lipocalin-2-induced cytokine production enhances endometrial carcinoma cell survival and migration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hsiu-Hsia Lin, Chi-Jr Liao, Ying-Chu Lee, Keng-Hsun Hu, Hsien-Wei Meng, Sin-Tak Chu

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Lipocalin-2 (Lcn-2 is an acute-phase protein that has been implicated in diverse physiological processes in mice, including: apoptosis, ion transport, inflammation, cell survival, and tumorigenesis. This study characterized the biological activity of Lcn-2 in human endometrial carcinoma cells (RL95-2. Exposure of RL95-2 cells to Lcn-2 for >24 h reduced Lcn-2-induced cell apoptosis, changed the cell proliferation and up-regulated cytokine secretions, including: interleukin-8 (IL-8, inteleukin-6 (IL-6, monocyte chemotatic protein-1 (MCP-1 and growth-related oncogene (GRO. However, IL-8 mRNA and protein levels were dramatically increased in Lcn-2-treated RL95-2 cells. To determine the IL-8 effect on Lcn-2-treated RL95-2 cells was our major focus. Adding recombinant IL-8 (rIL-8 resulted in decreased caspase-3 activity in Lcn-2-treated cells, whereas the addition of IL-8 antibodies resulted in significantly increased caspase-3 activity and decreased cell migration. Data indicate that IL-8 plays a crucial role in the induction of cell migration. Interestingly, Lcn-2-induced cytokines, secretion from RL95-2 cells, could not show the potent cell migration ability with the exception of IL-8. We conclude that Lcn-2 triggered cytokine secretions to prevent RL95-2 cells from undergoing apoptosis and subsequently increased cell migration. We hypothesize that Lcn-2 increased cytokine secretion by RL95-2 cells, which in turn activated a cellular defense system. This study suggests that Lcn-2 may play a role in the human female reproductive system or in endometrial cancer.

  9. Fisetin Inhibits Hyperglycemia-Induced Proinflammatory Cytokine Production by Epigenetic Mechanisms

    OpenAIRE

    Hye Joo Kim; Seong Hwan Kim; Jung-Mi Yun

    2012-01-01

    Diabetes is characterized by a proinflammatory state, and several inflammatory processes have been associated with both type 1 and type 2 diabetes and the resulting complications. High glucose levels induce the release of proinflammatory cytokines. Fisetin, a flavonoid dietary ingredient found in the smoke tree (Cotinus coggygria), and is also widely distributed in fruits and vegetables. Fisetin is known to exert anti-inflammatory effects via inhibition of the NF-κB signaling pathway. In this...

  10. Ex vivo and in vitro production of pro-inflammatory cytokines in Blau syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Galozzi

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The objective was to study both ex vivo and in vitro secretion of pro-inflammatory cytokines in patients affected by Blau syndrome (BS and carrying p.E383K mutation in the CARD15/NOD2 gene associated with the disease. For ex vivo studies, peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs, serum from three patients and healthy controls have been collected. PBMCs have been cultured in the presence or absence of inflammatory enhancers, such as lipopolysaccharide (LPS and muramyl dipeptide (MDP. The levels of interleukin (IL-1β, IL-6, IL-8, tumor necrosis factor (TNF-α and interferon (IFN-γ were assayed by either immunoassay or array-based system. For in vitro studies, different constructs were created cloning human wild-type and p.E383K-mutated NOD2 cDNA into the expression vector pCMV-Tag2c. HEK293 cell lines were stably transfected, cultured with or without MDP and IL-8 level was assayed in their surnatants. Statistical analysis in both studies was performed using non-parametric tests. Both ex vivo and in vitro studies have not identified a significant increase in secretion of the analyzed proinflammatory cytokines. p.E383K-mutated NOD2 transfected cells express low level of IL-8. The ex vivo basal level results from both serum and PBMCs surnatants present similar levels of IL-1β, IL-6, TNF-α and IFN-γ in patients and controls. The presence of the stimulant agents (LPS and MDP, either individual or paired, does not lead to significant increases in all cytokines concentrations in patients compared to controls. Taken together, the ex vivo and in vitro data suggest that there is not a primary mediation of IL-1β and other pro-inflammatory cytokines in BS patients carrying p.E383K.

  11. Modulation of lipopolysaccharide-induced proinflammatory cytokine production by satratoxins and other macrocyclic trichothecenes in the murine macrophage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Yong-Joo; Jarvis, Bruce; Pestka, James

    2003-02-28

    The satratoxins and other macrocyclic trichothecene mycotoxins are produced by Stachybotrys, a mold that is often found in water-damaged dwellings and office buildings. To test the potential immunomodulatory effects of these mycotoxins, RAW 264.7 murine macrophage cells were treated with various concentrations of satratoxin G (SG), isosatratoxin F (iSF), satratoxin H (SH), roridin A (RA), and verrucarin A (VA) for 48 h in the presence or absence of suboptimal concentra-tion of lipopolysaccharide (LPS, 50 ng/ml), and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha ) and interleukin-6 (IL-6) production were assayed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). In LPS-stimulated cultures, TNF-alpha supernatant concentrations were significantly increased in the presence of 2.5, 2.5, and 1 ng/ml of SG, SH, and RA, respectively, whereas IL-6 concentrations were not affected by the same concentrations these macrocyclic trichothecenes. When cells that were treated with LPS and SG (2.5 ng/ml) were evaluated by real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR),TNF-alpha mRNA was found to increase at 24, 36, and 48 h compared to control cells. At higher concentrations, cytokine production and cell viability were markedly impaired in LPS-stimulated cells. Without LPS stimulation, neither TNF-alpha, nor IL-6 was induced. These results indicate that low concentrations of macrocyclic trichothecenes superinduce expression of TNF-alpha, whereas higher concentrations of these toxins are cytotoxic and concurrently reduce cytokine production. The capacity of satratoxins and other macrocyclic trichothecenes to alter cytokine production may play an etiologic role in outbreaks of Stachybotrys-associated human illnesses.

  12. Surfactant, but not the size of solid lipid nanoparticles (SLN) influences viability and cytokine production of macrophages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schöler, N; Olbrich, C; Tabatt, K; Müller, R H; Hahn, H; Liesenfeld, O

    2001-06-19

    After intravenous (i.v.) injection, solid lipid nanoparticles (SLN) interact with mononuclear cells. Murine peritoneal macrophages were incubated with SLN formulations consisting of Dynasan 114 coated with different surfactants. The present study was performed to examine the impact of surfactants, which are important surface defining components of SLN, on viability and cytokine production by macrophages. Cytotoxicity, as assessed by the 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyl-tetrazolium bromide (MTT) test, was strongly influenced by the surfactant used being marked with cetylpyridinium chloride- (CPC-) coated SLN at a concentration of 0.001% and further increased at SLN concentrations of 0.01 and 0.1%. All other SLN formulations -- containing Poloxamine 908 (P908), Poloxamer 407 (P407), Poloxamer 188 (P188), Solutol HS15 (HS15), Tween 80 (T80), Lipoid S75 (S75), sodium cholate (SC), or sodium dodecylsulfate (SDS) -- when used at the same concentrations reduced cell viability only slightly. None of the SLN formulations tested induced cytokine production but a concentration-dependent decrease of IL-6 production was observed, which appeared to be associated with cytotoxic effects. IL-12 and TNF-alpha were detected neither in supernatants of macrophages treated with SLN at any concentration nor in those of untreated cells. In contrast to the type of surfactant, the size of SLN was found neither to affect cytotoxicity of SLN nor to result in induction or digression of cytokine production by macrophages. In conclusion, testing the effects of surfactants on SLN on activity of macrophages is a prerequisite prior to in vivo use of SLN.

  13. Aloe vera downregulates LPS-induced inflammatory cytokine production and expression of NLRP3 inflammasome in human macrophages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budai, Marietta M; Varga, Aliz; Milesz, Sándor; Tőzsér, József; Benkő, Szilvia

    2013-12-01

    Aloe vera has been used in traditional herbal medicine as an immunomodulatory agent inducing anti-inflammatory effects. However, its role on the IL-1β inflammatory cytokine production has not been studied. IL-1β production is strictly regulated both at transcriptional and posttranslational levels through the activity of Nlrp3 inflammasome. In this study we aimed to determine the effect of Aloe vera on the molecular mechanisms of Nlrp3 inflammasome-mediated IL-1β production in LPS-activated human THP-1 cells and monocyte-derived macrophages. Our results show that Aloe vera significantly reduced IL-8, TNFα, IL-6 and IL-1β cytokine production in a dose dependent manner. The inhibitory effect was substantially more pronounced in the primary cells. We found that Aloe vera inhibited the expression of pro-IL-1β, Nlrp3, caspase-1 as well as that of the P2X7 receptor in the LPS-induced primary macrophages. Furthermore, LPS-induced activation of signaling pathways like NF-κB, p38, JNK and ERK were inhibited by Aloe vera in these cells. Altogether, we show for the first time that Aloe vera-mediated strong reduction of IL-1β appears to be the consequence of the reduced expression of both pro-IL-1β as well as Nlrp3 inflammasome components via suppressing specific signal transduction pathways. Furthermore, we show that the expression of the ATP sensor P2X7 receptor is also downregulated by Aloe vera that could also contribute to the attenuated IL-1β cytokine secretion. These results may provide a new therapeutic approach to regulate inflammasome-mediated responses.

  14. NOD2 Agonist Promotes the Production of Inflammatory Cytokines in VSMC in Synergy with TLR2 and TLR4 Agonists

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinghua Sun

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To investigate the expression of NOD2 in human VSMCs, its role in the production of inflammatory cytokines in VSMC and the possible interaction of NOD2-mediated signaling pathway with those mediated by TLR2 and TLR4. Methods. Human coronary artery smooth muscle cells were stimulated with NOD2 agonist MDP alone or in combination with either TLR2 agonist PAM3 or TLR4 agonist LPSs. The mRNA expression of NOD2 and FGF-2 were measured by RT-PCR. The concentration of IL-8 and TNF-α in the culture supernatants was determined by ELISA. VSMC proliferation ability was analyzed by MTT assay. Results. MDP up regulated the expression of NOD2 mRNA in VSMC in a time-dependent manner, up regulated the expression of FGF-2 mRNA in VSMC, induced the production of IL-8 and TNF-α, and promoted the proliferation of VSMC. Additionally, MDP synergied with LPS and PAM3 to promote the proliferation of VSMC and induce the production of IL-8 and TNF-α. Conclusion. The activation of NOD2-mediated innate immune signaling pathway can increase the proliferation ability of VSMC and induce the production of inflammatory cytokines in VSMC. It is also shown a synergistic effect with TLR2- and TLR4-mediated signaling pathways in this process.

  15. Fluoxetine stimulates anti-inflammatory IL-10 cytokine production and attenuates sensory deficits in a rat model of decompression sickness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blatteau, Jean-Eric; de Maistre, Sébastien; Lambrechts, Kate; Abraini, Jacques; Risso, Jean-Jacques; Vallée, Nicolas

    2015-12-15

    Despite "gold standard" hyperbaric oxygen treatment, 30% of patients suffering from neurological decompression sickness still exhibit incomplete recovery, including sensory impairments. Fluoxetine, a well-known antidepressant, is recognized as having anti-inflammatory effects in the setting of cerebral ischemia. In this study, we focused on the assessment of sensory neurological deficits and measurement of circulating cytokines after decompression in rats treated or not with fluoxetine. Seventy-eight rats were divided into a clinical (n = 38) and a cytokine (n = 40) group. In both groups, the rats were treated with fluoxetine (30 mg/kg po, 6 h beforehand) or with a saccharine solution. All of the rats were exposed to 90 m seawater for 45 min before staged decompression. In the clinical group, paw withdrawal force after mechanical stimulation and paw withdrawal latency after thermal stimulation were evaluated before and 1 and 48 h after surfacing. At 48 h, a dynamic weight-bearing device was used to assess postural stability, depending on the time spent on three or four paws. For cytokine analysis, blood samples were collected from the vena cava 1 h after surfacing. Paw withdrawal force and latency were increased after surfacing in the controls, but not in the fluoxetine group. Dynamic weight-bearing assessment highlighted a better stability on three paws for the fluoxetine group. IL-10 levels were significantly decreased after decompression in the controls, but maintained at baseline level with fluoxetine. This study suggests that fluoxetine has a beneficial effect on sensory neurological recovery. We hypothesize that the observed effect is mediated through maintained anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10 production.

  16. Rotavirus activates lymphocytes from non-obese diabetic mice by triggering toll-like receptor 7 signaling and interferon production in plasmacytoid dendritic cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica A Pane

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available It has been proposed that rotavirus infection promotes the progression of genetically-predisposed children to type 1 diabetes, a chronic autoimmune disease marked by infiltration of activated lymphocytes into pancreatic islets. Non-obese diabetic (NOD mice provide a model for the human disease. Infection of adult NOD mice with rhesus monkey rotavirus (RRV accelerates diabetes onset, without evidence of pancreatic infection. Rather, RRV spreads to the pancreatic and mesenteric lymph nodes where its association with antigen-presenting cells, including dendritic cells, induces cellular maturation. RRV infection increases levels of the class I major histocompatibility complex on B cells and proinflammatory cytokine expression by T cells at these sites. In autoimmunity-resistant mice and human mononuclear cells from blood, rotavirus-exposed plasmacytoid dendritic cells contribute to bystander polyclonal B cell activation through type I interferon expression. Here we tested the hypothesis that rotavirus induces bystander activation of lymphocytes from NOD mice by provoking dendritic cell activation and proinflammatory cytokine secretion. NOD mouse splenocytes were stimulated with rotavirus and assessed for activation by flow cytometry. This stimulation activated antigen-presenting cells and B cells independently of virus strain and replicative ability. Instead, activation depended on virus dose and was prevented by blockade of virus decapsidation, inhibition of endosomal acidification and interference with signaling through Toll-like receptor 7 and the type I interferon receptor. Plasmacytoid dendritic cells were more efficiently activated than conventional dendritic cells by RRV, and contributed to the activation of B and T cells, including islet-autoreactive CD8+ T cells. Thus, a double-stranded RNA virus can induce Toll-like receptor 7 signaling, resulting in lymphocyte activation. Our findings suggest that bystander activation mediated by type I

  17. Effect of silica and gold nanoparticles on macrophage proliferation, activation markers, cytokine production, and phagocytosis in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bancos, Simona; Stevens, David L; Tyner, Katherine M

    2015-01-01

    The accumulation of durable nanoparticles (NPs) in macrophages following systemic administration is well described. The ultimate biological impact of this accumulation on macrophage function, however, is not fully understood. In this study, nontoxic doses of two durable NPs, SiO2 and Au, at particle sizes of ~10 nm and 300 nm were used to evaluate the effect of bioaccumulation on macrophage function in vitro using RAW 264.7 mouse macrophage-like cells as a model system. Cell proliferation, cell cycle, cytokine production, surface marker activation, and phagocytosis responses were evaluated through a panel of assays using flow cytometry and confocal microscopy. The most dramatic change in RAW 264.7 cell function was a reduction in phagocytosis as monitored by the uptake of Escherichia coli. Cells exposed to both 10 nm Au NPs and 10 nm SiO2 NPs showed ~50% decrease in phagocytosis, while the larger NPs caused a less dramatic reduction. In addition to modifying phagocytosis profiles, 10 nm SiO2 NPs caused changes in proliferation, cell cycle, and cell morphology. Au NPs had no effect on cell cycle, cytokine production, or surface markers and caused interference in phagocytosis in the form of quenching when the assay was performed via flow cytometry. Confocal microscopy analysis was used to minimize this interference and demonstrated that both sizes of Au NPs decreased the phagocytosis of E. coli. Overall, our results demonstrate that Au and SiO2 NP uptake by macrophages can influence macrophage phagocytosis in vitro without altering surface markers and cytokine production in vitro. While the biological impact of these findings remains unclear, our results indicate that bioaccumulation of durable NPs within the macrophages may lead to a suppression of bacterial uptake and possibly impair bactericidal activity.

  18. Analysis of Th Cell-related Cytokine Production in Behçet Disease Patients with Uveitis Before and After Infliximab Treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeuchi, Masaru; Karasawa, Yoko; Harimoto, Kohzou; Tanaka, Atsushi; Shibata, Masaki; Sato, Tomohito; Caspi, Rachel R; Ito, Masataka

    2017-02-01

    To examine antigen-stimulated cytokine production by Behçet disease patients (BD) before and after infliximab infusion. PBMCs were obtained before and after infliximab infusion in BD patients with or without recurrent uveitis during at least 1 year of infliximab therapy, and from healthy subjects. PBMCs were cultured with IRBP, and Th-related cytokines in cultures were measured. Levels of IL-4, IL-6, IL-10 IL-17A, IL-17F, IL-31, IFN-γ, and TNFα were higher in BD before infliximab infusion than in healthy subjects, and these levels were the highest in BD with recurrent uveitis. After infliximab infusion, these cytokine levels were reduced to a greater extent in BD without recurrent uveitis than in BD with recurrence. Th-related cytokines produced by IRBP-stimulated PBMCs were elevated in BD, and infliximab infusion suppressed these cytokines to a greater extent in BD without recurrent uveitis than in those with recurrence.

  19. SLAM/SLAM interactions inhibit CD40-induced production of inflammatory cytokines in monocyte-derived dendritic cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Réthi, Bence; Gogolák, Péter; Szatmari, Istvan; Veres, Agota; Erdôs, Erika; Nagy, Laszlo; Rajnavölgyi, Eva; Terhorst, Cox; Lányi, Arpád

    2006-04-01

    Signaling lymphocyte activation molecule (SLAM, CD150, or SLAMF1) is a self-ligand receptor on the surface of activated T- and B-lymphocytes, macrophages, and dendritic cells (DCs). Here we examine the effect of SLAM/SLAM interactions on CD40L-induced CD40 signaling pathways in human DCs. CD40L-expressing L929 cells induced DCs to produce interleukin-6 (IL-6), tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha), and IL-12, which was strongly inhibited by coexpression of SLAM on the surface of the L929 cells. Similarly, transfection of DCs with SLAM strongly reduced CD40L-induced IL-12 production. Furthermore, the negative effect of SLAM/SLAM interactions on CD40L-induced DC activation was also detected in the presence of lipopolysaccharide (LPS). LPS-induced IL-12 secretion, however, was not inhibited by SLAM engagement. CD40L-activated DCs affected by exposure to SLAM/SLAM engagement were impaired in their ability to induce differentiation of naive T lymphocytes into interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma)-producing T-helper 1 (Th1) effector cells. These inhibitory effects were not the result of a general unresponsiveness of DCs to CD40L, as SLAM/SLAM interactions did not prevent CD40L-induced up-regulation of CD83, CD86, or human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-DQ on the surface of DCs. Taken together, the results indicate that SLAM/SLAM interactions inhibit CD40-induced signal transduction in monocyte-derived dendritic cells, an effect that was not detectable in earlier studies using anti-SLAM monoclonal antibodies.

  20. In vitro cytokine production and phenotype expression by blood mononuclear cells from umbilical cords, children and adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Müller, K; Zak, M; Nielsen, S

    1996-01-01

    production of interleukin IL-6, tumour necrosis factor alpha (TNF alpha) and interferon gamma (IFNg) in neonates, children and adults. In cultures without added polyclonal activators IL-6 and TNF alpha levels in children were 3-6 times higher than those of umbilical cords and adults. However, using optimal......, and unmeasurable levels in cord blood MNC. Flow cytometry analysis of the phenotypic distribution of MNC revealed age related differences in the expression of CD3, CD4, CD8, CD14, CD19, CD45RA, CD45R0, CD2, LFA-1, ICAM-1 and LFA-3. Correlation studies did not indicate that the observed differences in cytokine...

  1. Inhibition of Age-Related Cytokines Production by ATGL: A Mechanism Linked to the Anti-Inflammatory Effect of Resveratrol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniele Lettieri Barbato

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Ageing is characterized by the expansion and the decreased vascularization of visceral adipose tissue (vAT, disruption of metabolic activities, and decline of the function of the immune system, leading to chronic inflammatory states. We previously demonstrated that, in vAT of mice at early state of ageing, adipocytes mount a stress resistance response consisting in the upregulation of ATGL, which is functional in restraining the production of inflammatory cytokines. Here, we found that, in the late phase of ageing, such an adaptive response is impaired. In particular, 24-months-old mice and aged 3T3-L1 adipocytes display affected expression of ATGL and its downstream PPARα-mediated lipid signalling pathway, leading to upregulation of TNFα and IL-6 production. We show that the natural polyphenol compound resveratrol (RSV efficiently suppresses the expression of TNFα and IL-6 in an ATGL/PPARα dependent manner. Actually, adipocytes downregulating ATGL do not show a restored PPARα expression and display elevated cytokines production. Overall the results obtained highlight a crucial function of ATGL in inhibiting age-related inflammation and reinforce the idea that RSV could represent a valid natural compound to limit the onset and/or the exacerbation of the age-related inflammatory states.

  2. Effect of Orally Administered Enterococcus faecium EF1 on Intestinal Cytokines and Chemokines Production of Suckling Piglets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi Huang§, Ya-li Li, Qin Huang, Zhi-wen Cui, Dong-you Yu, Imran Rashid Rajput, Cai-hong Hu and Wei-fen Li*

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to determine the effect of orally administered Enterococcus faecium EF1 on intestinal cytokines and chemokines production in piglets. Twenty-four newborn piglets were randomly divided into two groups. The treatment group (T1, orally administered sterilized (110 ºC for 30 min skim milk 10% (2 ml/piglet/day with addition of viable E. faecium EF1 (5~6×108 cfu/ml on 1st, 3rd and 5th day after birth. The control group (T0, were fed the same volume of sterilized skim milk without addition of probiotics. Feeding trial was conducted for 25 days of suckling age. At the end of trail six piglets were randomly selected from each group to collect the samples of jejunum and ileum mucosa to observe the cytokines and chemokines production. The results showed that concentrations of IL-10 and TGF-β1 significantly increased in T1 group. Whereas, production of IL-1β, IL-6, IL-12, IFN-γ and IL-8 decreased in T1 compared to T0. Levels of TNF-α were increased in jejunal mucosa, while decreased in ileal mucosa comparatively in T1 group. Our findings revealed that oral administration of E. faecium EF1 induced a strong anti-inflammatory response in the small intestine. These immunomodulatory effects of this bacterium might contribute to maintenance of immune homeostasis in the intestine of piglets.

  3. Primary dengue virus infections induce differential cytokine production in Mexican patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio Isaac de la Cruz Hernández

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Severe dengue pathogenesis is not fully understood, but high levels of proinflammatory cytokines have been associated with dengue disease severity. In this study, the cytokine levels in 171 sera from Mexican patients with primary dengue fever (DF and dengue haemorrhagic fever (DHF from dengue virus (DENV 1 (n = 116 or 2 (n = 55 were compared. DF and DHF were defined according to the patient’s clinical condition, the primary infections as indicated by IgG enzymatic immunoassay negative results, and the infecting serotype as assessed by real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. Samples were analysed for circulating levels of interleukin (IL-12p70, interferon (IFN-γ, tumour necrosis factor (TNF-α, IL-6, and IL-8 using a commercial cytometric bead array. Significantly higher IFN-γ levels were found in patients with DHF than those with DF. However, significantly higher IL-12p70, TNF-α, and IL-6 levels were associated with DHF only in patients who were infected with DENV2 but not with DENV1. Moreover, patients with DF who were infected with DENV1 showed higher levels of IL-12p70, TNF-α, and IL-6 than patients with DHF early after-fever onset. The IL-8 levels were similar in all cases regardless of the clinical condition or infection serotype. These results suggest that the association between high proinflammatory cytokine levels and dengue disease severity does not always stand, and it once again highlights the complex nature of DHF pathogenesis.

  4. T lymphocyte insensitivity to corticosteroids in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaur Manminder

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There are increased numbers of activated lymphocytes in the lungs of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD patients. The clinical benefits of corticosteroids in COPD patients are limited. Our hypothesis is that lymphocytes play a role in this corticosteroid insensitivity. Objectives To investigate the effects of the corticosteroid dexamethasone on lung lymphocyte cytokine production from patients with COPD compared to controls. Methods Cultured airway lymphocytes obtained by bronchoscopy from healthy non-smokers (HNS, smokers (S and COPD patients were stimulated with phytohaemagglutinin (PHA & phorbol myristate acetate (PMA, +/- dexamethasone. Supernatants were assayed for interleukin (IL-2 and interferon (IFNγ. Immunofluoresence was used to analyse changes in CD8 glucocorticoid receptor (GRα and GRβ expression. Results The inhibition of PHA/PMA stimulated IFNγ production by dexamethasone was reduced in COPD patients compared to HNS (p p Conclusions IFNγ production from COPD airway lymphocytes is corticosteroid insensitive. This phenomenon may be important in the poor clinical response often observed with corticosteroids.

  5. PRODUCTION OF PROINFLAMMATORY CYTOKINES AND ALPHA-2-MACROGLOBULIN BY PERIPHERAL BLOOD CELLS IN THE PATIENTS WITH COLORECTAL CANCER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. N. Zorina

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Colorectal cancer (CRC is the third most common cancer worldwide, being quite complicated, with respect to diagnostics and postoperative prognosis. Proinflammatory cytokines are shown to be involved into CRC pathogenesis. However, the changes in alpha-2-macroglobulin (α2-MG, a known regulator of cytokine production, still remain unclear. The aim of this work was to compare contents and production of a2-MG and several pro-inflammatory cytokines in blood serum and supernates from short-term blood cell cultures. The samples were taken from the patients with CRC at initial terms and after surgical removal of the tumor.Studies of cytokines and a2-MG concentrations in serum and supernates of 24-h blood cell cultures from the patients with verified CRC (stages T2-3N0-1M0 and T4N0-1M0 have shown some sufficient differences from healthy volunteers (control group. Pre-surgery IL-6 and TNFα contents in blood of CRC patients was significantly increased agains healthy controls (respectively, 29.9±5.4 and 3.4±1.5 pg/mL versus control group (1.0±0.3 and 0 pg/mL, respectively. Following surgical treatment, the cytokine levels were decreased by 40- 60% after the operation, however, without significant differences from initial values.The supernates of blood cultures stimulated with polyclonal mitogens exhibited significant reduction of IFNγ levels prior to surgery (273±123 pg/ml versus 804±154 pg/mL, and elevated IL-6 levels (14412±2570 pg/mL versus 1970±457 pg/mL. The mean α2-MG concentrations before CRC surgery comprised 1.96±0.11 g/L for blood serum, 0.0304±0.0047 g/L, for non-stimulated blood cell cultures, and 0.0300±0.0052 g/L in mitogen-induced cultures. These parameters did not significantly differ from control values (2.21±0.17 g/L, 0.0328±0.0018 g/L, and 0.0314±0.0019 g/L, respectively. Similar results have been yielded with the samples obtained after surgical treatment of the CRC patients.The obtained data indicate that surgical

  6. Violacein Treatment Modulates Acute and Chronic Inflammation through the Suppression of Cytokine Production and Induction of Regulatory T Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verinaud, Liana; Lopes, Stefanie Costa Pinto; Prado, Isabel Cristina Naranjo; Zanucoli, Fábio; Alves da Costa, Thiago; Di Gangi, Rosária; Issayama, Luidy Kazuo; Carvalho, Ana Carolina; Bonfanti, Amanda Pires; Niederauer, Guilherme Francio; Duran, Nelson; Costa, Fábio Trindade Maranhão; Oliveira, Alexandre Leite Rodrigues; Höfling, Maria Alice da Cruz; Machado, Dagmar Ruth Stach; Thomé, Rodolfo

    2015-01-01

    Inflammation is a necessary process to control infection. However, exacerbated inflammation, acute or chronic, promotes deleterious effects in the organism. Violacein (viola), a quorum sensing metabolite from the Gram-negative bacterium Chromobacterium violaceum, has been shown to protect mice from malaria and to have beneficial effects on tumors. However, it is not known whether this drug possesses anti-inflammatory activity. In this study, we investigated whether viola administration is able to reduce acute and chronic autoimmune inflammation. For that purpose, C57BL/6 mice were intraperitoneally injected with 1 μg of LPS and were treated with viola (3.5mg/kg) via i.p. at the same time-point. Three hours later, the levels of inflammatory cytokines in the sera and phenotypical characterization of leukocytes were determined. Mice treated with viola presented a significant reduction in the production of inflammatory cytokines compared with untreated mice. Interestingly, although viola is a compound derived from bacteria, it did not induce inflammation upon administration to naïve mice. To test whether viola would protect mice from an autoimmune inflammation, Experimental Autoimmune Encephalomyelitis (EAE)-inflicted mice were given viola i.p. at disease onset, at the 10th day from immunization. Viola-treated mice developed mild EAE disease in contrast with placebo-treated mice. The frequencies of dendritic cells and macrophages were unaltered in EAE mice treated with viola. However, the sole administration of viola augmented the levels of splenic regulatory T cells (CD4+Foxp3+). We also found that adoptive transfer of viola-elicited regulatory T cells significantly reduced EAE. Our study shows, for the first time, that violacein is able to modulate acute and chronic inflammation. Amelioration relied in suppression of cytokine production (in acute inflammation) and stimulation of regulatory T cells (in chronic inflammation). New studies must be conducted in order to

  7. Violacein Treatment Modulates Acute and Chronic Inflammation through the Suppression of Cytokine Production and Induction of Regulatory T Cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liana Verinaud

    Full Text Available Inflammation is a necessary process to control infection. However, exacerbated inflammation, acute or chronic, promotes deleterious effects in the organism. Violacein (viola, a quorum sensing metabolite from the Gram-negative bacterium Chromobacterium violaceum, has been shown to protect mice from malaria and to have beneficial effects on tumors. However, it is not known whether this drug possesses anti-inflammatory activity. In this study, we investigated whether viola administration is able to reduce acute and chronic autoimmune inflammation. For that purpose, C57BL/6 mice were intraperitoneally injected with 1 μg of LPS and were treated with viola (3.5mg/kg via i.p. at the same time-point. Three hours later, the levels of inflammatory cytokines in the sera and phenotypical characterization of leukocytes were determined. Mice treated with viola presented a significant reduction in the production of inflammatory cytokines compared with untreated mice. Interestingly, although viola is a compound derived from bacteria, it did not induce inflammation upon administration to naïve mice. To test whether viola would protect mice from an autoimmune inflammation, Experimental Autoimmune Encephalomyelitis (EAE-inflicted mice were given viola i.p. at disease onset, at the 10th day from immunization. Viola-treated mice developed mild EAE disease in contrast with placebo-treated mice. The frequencies of dendritic cells and macrophages were unaltered in EAE mice treated with viola. However, the sole administration of viola augmented the levels of splenic regulatory T cells (CD4+Foxp3+. We also found that adoptive transfer of viola-elicited regulatory T cells significantly reduced EAE. Our study shows, for the first time, that violacein is able to modulate acute and chronic inflammation. Amelioration relied in suppression of cytokine production (in acute inflammation and stimulation of regulatory T cells (in chronic inflammation. New studies must be

  8. Insulin-induced cytokine production in macrophages causes insulin resistance in hepatocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manowsky, Julia; Camargo, Rodolfo Gonzalez; Kipp, Anna P; Henkel, Janin; Püschel, Gerhard P

    2016-06-01

    Overweight and obesity are associated with hyperinsulinemia, insulin resistance, and a low-grade inflammation. Although hyperinsulinemia is generally thought to result from an attempt of the β-cell to compensate for insulin resistance, there is evidence that hyperinsulinaemia itself may contribute to the development of insulin resistance and possibly the low-grade inflammation. To test this hypothesis, U937 macrophages were exposed to insulin. In these cells, insulin induced expression of the proinflammatory cytokines IL-1β, IL-8, CCL2, and OSM. The insulin-elicited induction of IL-1β was independent of the presence of endotoxin and most likely mediated by an insulin-dependent activation of NF-κB. Supernatants of the insulin-treated U937 macrophages rendered primary cultures of rat hepatocytes insulin resistant; they attenuated the insulin-dependent induction of glucokinase by 50%. The cytokines contained in the supernatants of insulin-treated U937 macrophages activated ERK1/2 and IKKβ, resulting in an inhibitory serine phosphorylation of the insulin receptor substrate. In addition, STAT3 was activated and SOCS3 induced, further contributing to the interruption of the insulin receptor signal chain in hepatocytes. These results indicate that hyperinsulinemia per se might contribute to the low-grade inflammation prevailing in overweight and obese patients and thereby promote the development of insulin resistance particularly in the liver, because the insulin concentration in the portal circulation is much higher than in all other tissues. Copyright © 2016 the American Physiological Society.

  9. Periploca forrestii Saponin Ameliorates Murine CFA-Induced Arthritis by Suppressing Cytokine Production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yingqin; Li, Minghui; He, Qiuhong; Yang, Xinping; Ruan, Fang; Sun, Guangchen

    2016-01-01

    Periploca forrestii Schltr. has been used as a Chinese folk medicine due to its versatile pharmacological effects such as promoting wounds and rheumatoid arthritis. However, the antiarthritic activity of Periploca forrestii saponin (PFS) and its active compound Periplocin has still not been demonstrated. Here, we evaluated the antiarthritic effects of PFS in adjuvant-induced arthritis (AIA) rats by intragastric administration at a dose of 50 mg/kg. The anti-inflammatory activities of Periplocin were also examined in LPS-induced AIA splenocytes and synoviocytes. PFS significantly ameliorated joint swelling; inhibited bone erosion in joints; lowered levels of IL-6 and TGF-β1 in AIA rat splenocyte; and reduced joint protein expression levels of phospho-STAT3 and IKKα. Using LPS-induced AIA splenocytes, we demonstrate that Periplocin suppressed the key proinflammatory cytokines levels of IL-6, IFN-γ, TGF-β1, and IL-13 and IL-22 and transcription factor levels of T-bet, GATA3, and C-Jun genes. Periplocin also suppressed LPS-induced cytokine secretion from synoviocytes. Our study highlights the antiarthritic activity of PFS and its derived Periplocin and the underlying mechanisms. These results provide a strong rationale for further testing and validation of the use of Periploca forrestii Schltr. as an alternative modality for the treatment of RA.

  10. An in vitro model for dengue virus infection that exhibits human monocyte infection, multiple cytokine production and dexamethasone immunomodulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sônia Regina Nogueira Ignácio Reis

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available An important cytokine role in dengue fever pathogenesis has been described. These molecules can be associated with haemorrhagic manifestations, coagulation disorders, hypotension and shock, all symptoms implicated in vascular permeability and disease worsening conditions. Several immunological diseases have been treated by cytokine modulation and dexamethasone is utilized clinically to treat pathologies with inflammatory and autoimmune ethiologies. We established an in vitro model with human monocytes infected by dengue virus-2 for evaluating immunomodulatory and antiviral activities of potential pharmaceutical products. Flow cytometry analysis demonstrated significant dengue antigen detection in target cells two days after infection. TNF-alpha, IFN-alpha, IL-6 and IL-10 are produced by in vitro infected monocytes and are significantly detected in cell culture supernatants by multiplex microbead immunoassay. Dexamethasone action was tested for the first time for its modulation in dengue infection, presenting optimistic results in both decreasing cell infection rates and inhibiting TNF-alpha, IFN-alpha and IL-10 production. This model is proposed for novel drug trials yet to be applyed for dengue fever.

  11. An in vitro model for dengue virus infection that exhibits human monocyte infection, multiple cytokine production and dexamethasone immunomodulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reis, Sônia Regina Nogueira Ignácio; Sampaio, André Luiz Franco; Henriques, Maria das Graças Muller; Gandini, Mariana; Azeredo, Elzinandes Leal; Kubelka, Claire Fernandes

    2007-12-01

    An important cytokine role in dengue fever pathogenesis has been described. These molecules can be associated with haemorrhagic manifestations, coagulation disorders, hypotension and shock, all symptoms implicated in vascular permeability and disease worsening conditions. Several immunological diseases have been treated by cytokine modulation and dexamethasone is utilized clinically to treat pathologies with inflammatory and autoimmune etiologies. We established an in vitro model with human monocytes infected by dengue virus-2 for evaluating immunomodulatory and antiviral activities of potential pharmaceutical products. Flow cytometry analysis demonstrated significant dengue antigen detection in target cells two days after infection. TNF-alpha, IFN-alpha, IL-6 and IL-10 are produced by in vitro infected monocytes and are significantly detected in cell culture supernatants by multiplex microbead immunoassay. Dexamethasone action was tested for the first time for its modulation in dengue infection, presenting optimistic results in both decreasing cell infection rates and inhibiting TNF-alpha, IFN-alpha and IL-10 production. This model is proposed for novel drug trials yet to be applied for dengue fever.

  12. Production of cytokine and chemokines by human mononuclear cells and whole blood cells after infection with Trypanosoma cruzi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karine Rezende-Oliveira

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: The innate immune response is the first mechanism of protection against Trypanosoma cruzi, and the interaction of inflammatory cells with parasite molecules may activate this response and modulate the adaptive immune system. This study aimed to analyze the levels of cytokines and chemokines synthesized by the whole blood cells (WBC and peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC of individuals seronegative for Chagas disease after interaction with live T. cruzi trypomastigotes. METHODS: IL-12, IL-10, TNF-α, TGF-β, CCL-5, CCL-2, CCL-3, and CXCL-9 were measured by ELISA. Nitrite was determined by the Griess method. RESULTS: IL-10 was produced at high levels by WBC compared with PBMC, even after incubation with live trypomastigotes. Production of TNF-α by both PBMC and WBC was significantly higher after stimulation with trypomastigotes. Only PBMC produced significantly higher levels of IL-12 after parasite stimulation. Stimulation of cultures with trypomastigotes induced an increase of CXCL-9 levels produced by WBC. Nitrite levels produced by PBMC increased after the addition of parasites to the culture. CONCLUSIONS: Surface molecules of T. cruzi may induce the production of cytokines and chemokines by cells of the innate immune system through the activation of specific receptors not evaluated in this experiment. The ability to induce IL-12 and TNF-α contributes to shift the adaptive response towards a Th1 profile.

  13. MicroRNA-155 Regulates Inflammatory Cytokine Production in Tumor-associated Macrophages via Targeting C/EBPβ

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Min He; Zhenqun Xu; Tong Ding; Dong-Ming Kuang; Limin Zheng

    2009-01-01

    Macrophages (Mψ) are prominent components of solid tumors and exhibit distinct phenotypes in different microenvironments. We have recently found that tumors can alter the normal developmental process of Mψ to trigger transient activation of monocytes, but the underlying regulatory mechanisms are incompletely understood. Here, we showed that the protein expression of transcription factor C/EBPβ was markedly elevated in tumor-associated Mψ both in vitro and human tumors in situ. The expression of C/EBPβ protein correlated with cytokine production in tumor-activated monocytes. Moreover, we found that C/EBPβ expression was regulated at the post-transcriptional level and correlated with sustained reduction of microRNA-155 (miR-155) in tumor-activated monocytes. Bioinformatic analysis revealed that C/EBPβ is a potential target of miR-155 and luciferase assay confirmed that C/EBPβ translation is suppressed by miR-155 through interaction with the 3'UTR of C/EBPβ mRNA. Further analysis showed that induction of miR-155 suppressed C/EBPβ protein expression as well as cytokine production in tumor-activated monocytes, an effect which could be mimicked by silencing of C/EBPβ. These results indicate that tumor environment causes a sustained reduction of miR-155 in monocytes/Mψ, which in turn regulates the functional activities of monocytes/Mψ by releasing the translational inhibition of transcription factor C/EBPβ. Cellular & Molecular Immunology. 2009;6(5):343-352.

  14. Murine cytokine patterns following rubella vaccination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farzaneh, Parvarich; Ebtekar, Massoumeh; Hassan, Z M; Rafati, Sima

    2003-06-01

    Although thorough studies on the immune reponse to rubella have been performed, less attention has been given to the cellular mechanism and mediators that shape the process. Specifically, information concerning the nature ofcytokine patterns involved in the immune response to Rubella vaccination is not avaliable. This study deals with cytokine production patterns of spleen cells from Balb/c mice following vaccination with the Takahashi strain of Rubella vaccine. Mice were injected intraperitonealy with Rubella virus and PBS and 7, 10 or 14 days later, spleen cells were separated and cultured with varying doses of virus, con A or only the medium. ELISA assays were performed on supernatants for measurement of IL-4, INF-gamma and IL-5. LTT (Lymphocyte Transformation Test) was also performed. The data indicate variation in cytokine patterns during the time periods after vaccination. On day 7 a type 1 pattern was observed. The LTT response was also indicative of CMI (Cell Mediated Immunity) response on the 7th and 14th days while a transient suppression on day 10 was observed. These results indicate a time dependent cytokine response with variation ultimately leading o a dominant type 1 (Ti) cytokine response.

  15. Cytokine-Rich Adipose Tissue Extract Production from Water-Assisted Lipoaspirate: Methodology for Clinical Use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez, Jenny; Huttala, Outi; Sarkanen, Jertta-Riina; Kaartinen, Ilkka; Kuokkanen, Hannu; Ylikomi, Timo

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Proper functioning wound healing strategies are sparse. Adequate vascular formation to the injured area, as well as replacement of the volume loss, is fundamental in soft tissue repair. Tissue engineering strategies have been proposed for the treatment of these injury sites. Novel cell-free substance, human adipose tissue extract (ATE), has been previously shown to induce in vitro angiogenesis and adipogenesis and in vivo soft tissue formation. This study reports the translation of ATE preparation from laboratory to the operating room (OR). ATE samples for this study were derived from adipose tissue obtained with the water-jet assisted liposuction technique from 27 healthy patients. The variables studied included incubation time (15, 30, and 45 min), temperature (room temperature vs. 37°C), and filter type to determine the optimal method yielding the most consistent total protein content, as well as consistent and high expression of adipose-derived growth factors and cytokines, including: vascular endothelial growth factor, basic fibroblast growth factor, interleukin-6, adiponectin, leptin, and insulin-like growth factor. Following the optimization, samples were produced in the OR and tested for their sterility. No significant differences were observed when comparing extract incubation time points or incubation temperature. Nonetheless, when studying the different filter types used, a syringe filter with PES membrane with larger filter area showed significantly higher protein concentration (p ≤ 0.018). When studying the different growth factor concentrations, ELISA results showed less variation in cytokine concentrations in the OR samples with the optimized protocol. All of the OR samples were tested sterile. The devised protocol is an easy and reproducible OR-ready method for ATE generation. As an attractive source of growth factors, ATE is a promising alternative in the vast field of tissue engineering. Its clinical applications include volume

  16. Oral Administration of p-Hydroxycinnamic Acid Attenuates Atopic Dermatitis by Downregulating Th1 and Th2 Cytokine Production and Keratinocyte Activation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyun-Su Lee

    Full Text Available Atopic dermatitis (AD is a complex disease that is caused by various factors, including environmental change, genetic defects, and immune imbalance. We previously showed that p-hydroxycinnamic acid (HCA isolated from the roots of Curcuma longa inhibits T-cell activation without inducing cell death. Here, we demonstrated that oral administration of HCA in a mouse model of ear AD attenuates the following local and systemic AD manifestations: ear thickening, immune-cell infiltration, production of AD-promoting immunoregulatory cytokines in ear tissues, increased spleen and draining lymph node size and weight, increased pro-inflammatory cytokine production by draining lymph nodes, and elevated serum immunoglobulin production. HCA treatment of CD4+ T cells in vitro suppressed their proliferation and differentiation into Th1 or Th2 and their Th1 and Th2 cytokine production. HCA treatment of keratinocytes lowered their production of the pro-inflammatory cytokines that drive either Th1 or Th2 responses in AD. Thus, HCA may be of therapeutic potential for AD as it acts by suppressing keratinocyte activation and downregulating T-cell differentiation and cytokine production.

  17. Recombinant Cytokines from Plants

    OpenAIRE

    Patrycja Redkiewicz; Anna Góra-Sochacka; Tomas Vaněk; Agnieszka Sirko

    2011-01-01

    Plant-based platforms have been successfully applied for the last two decades for the efficient production of pharmaceutical proteins. The number of commercialized products biomanufactured in plants is, however, rather discouraging. Cytokines are small glycosylated polypeptides used in the treatment of cancer, immune disorders and various other related diseases. Because the clinical use of cytokines is limited by high production costs they are good candidates for plant-made pharmaceuticals. S...

  18. Inhibitory effects of devil's claw (secondary root of Harpagophytum procumbens) extract and harpagoside on cytokine production in mouse macrophages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inaba, Kazunori; Murata, Kazuya; Naruto, Shunsuke; Matsuda, Hideaki

    2010-04-01

    Successive oral administration (50 mg/kg) of a 50% ethanolic extract (HP-ext) of devil's claw, the secondary root of Harpagophytum procumbens, showed a significant anti-inflammatory effect in the rat adjuvant-induced chronic arthritis model. HP-ext dose-dependently suppressed the lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced production of inflammatory cytokines [interleukin-1beta (IL-1beta), interleukin-6 (IL-6), and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha)] in mouse macrophage cells (RAW 264.7). Harpagoside, a major iridoid glycoside present in devil's claw, was found to be one of the active agents in HP-ext and inhibited the production of IL-1beta, IL-6, and TNF-alpha by RAW 264.7.

  19. Ivermectin-facilitated immunity in onchocerciasis. Reversal of lymphocytopenia, cellular anergy and deficient cytokine production after single treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soboslay, P T; Dreweck, C M; Hoffmann, W H; Lüder, C G; Heuschkel, C; Görgen, H; Banla, M; Schulz-Key, H

    1992-09-01

    A longitudinal investigation has been conducted into the cell-mediated immune responses of onchocerciasis patients after a single-dose treatment with ivermectin. Untreated patients tested for delayed cutaneous hypersensitivity (DCH) to seven recall antigens showed lower responses than infection-free control individuals (P less than 0.01), but 6 and 14 months after treatment DCH reactions increased to similar levels to those seen in the controls. The in vitro cellular reactivity to Onchocerca volvulus-derived antigen (OvAg) was reduced in untreated patients as compared with controls, and the lymphocyte blastogenic responses to OvAg and streptolysin-O clearly improved up to 14 months after treatment. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) from untreated patients produced IL-1 beta, tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) and IL-6 in response to mitogenic stimulation with phytohaemagglutinin (PHA), only low levels of IL-1 beta, IL-2 and TNF-alpha in response to OvAg, but higher amounts of IL-4 and interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma) in response to OvAg than control individuals. After ivermectin treatment, the OvAg-induced production of IL-1 beta and TNF-alpha increased significantly 1 and 14 months after treatment. The PHA-induced production of IL-2 and IL-4 increased 1 month after treatment and remained significantly elevated until 14 months after treatment, whereas the OvAg-specific secretion of IL-2, IL-4 and IFN-gamma did not change after ivermectin treatment. Flow cytometric analysis of lymphocyte-subsets in the peripheral blood of untreated patients revealed a relative and absolute (P less than 0.01) diminution of CD4+ cells and a significantly smaller CD4+/CD8+ cell ratio as compared with controls. By 4 weeks after treatment and thereafter, CD4+ T cells increased relatively and absolutely (P less than 0.01); likewise there was an absolute increase in T-helper-inducer cells (CD4+CD45RO+) and a temporarily improved CD4+/CD8+ cell ratio (P = 0.001). The expression of

  20. Expression of PD-1/LAG-3 and cytokine production by CD4(+) T cells during infection with Plasmodium parasites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doe, Henrietta T; Kimura, Daisuke; Miyakoda, Mana; Kimura, Kazumi; Akbari, Masoud; Yui, Katsuyuki

    2016-02-01

    CD4(+) T cells play critical roles in protection against the blood stage of malarial infection; however, their uncontrolled activation can be harmful to the host. In this study, in which rodent models of Plasmodium parasites were used, the expression of inhibitory receptors on activated CD4(+) T cells and their cytokine production was compared with their expression in a bacterial and another protozoan infection. CD4(+) T cells from mice infected with P. yoelii 17XL, P yoelii 17XNL, P. chabaudi, P. vinckei and P. berghei expressed the inhibitory receptors, PD-1 and LAG-3, as early as 6 days after infection, whereas those from either Listeria monocytogenes- or Leishmania major-infected mice did not. In response to T-cell receptor stimulation, CD4(+) T cells from mice infected with all the pathogens under study produced high concentrations of IFN-γ. IL-2 production was reduced in mice infected with Plasmodium species, but not in those infected with Listeria or Leishmania. In vitro blockade of the interaction between PD-1 and its ligands resulted in increased IFN-γ production in response to Plasmodium antigens, implying that PD-1 expressed on activated CD4(+) T cells actively inhibits T cell immune responses. Studies using Myd88(-/-), Trif(-/-) and Irf3(-/-) mice showed that induction of these CD4(+) T cells and their ability to produce cytokines is largely independent of TLR signaling. These studies suggest that expression of the inhibitory receptors PD-1 and LAG-3 on CD4(+) T cells and their reduced IL-2 production are common characteristic features of Plasmodium infection.

  1. Inhibitory effects of diallyl disulfide on the production of inflammatory mediators and cytokines in lipopolysaccharide-activated BV2 microglia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Hye Young [Department of Biochemistry, Dongeui University College of Oriental Medicine, Busan 614-714 (Korea, Republic of); Department of Pharmacy, Pusan National University, Busan 609-735 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Nam Deuk [Department of Pharmacy, Pusan National University, Busan 609-735 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Gi-Young [Department of Marine Life Sciences, Jeju National University, Jeju 690-756 (Korea, Republic of); Hwang, Hye Jin [Anti-Aging Research Center and Blue-Bio Industry RIC, Dongeui University, Busan 614-714 (Korea, Republic of); Department of Food and Nutrition, College of Human Ecology, Dongeui University, Busan 614-714 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Byung-Woo [Anti-Aging Research Center and Blue-Bio Industry RIC, Dongeui University, Busan 614-714 (Korea, Republic of); Department of Life Science and Biotechnology, College of Natural Science, Dongeui University, Busan 614-714 (Korea, Republic of); Department of Biomaterial Control, Graduate School, Dongeui University, Busan 614-714 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Wun Jae [Department of Urology, College of Medicine, Chungbuk National University, Cheongju, Chungbuk 361-763 (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Yung Hyun, E-mail: choiyh@deu.ac.kr [Department of Biochemistry, Dongeui University College of Oriental Medicine, Busan 614-714 (Korea, Republic of); Anti-Aging Research Center and Blue-Bio Industry RIC, Dongeui University, Busan 614-714 (Korea, Republic of); Department of Biomaterial Control, Graduate School, Dongeui University, Busan 614-714 (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-07-15

    Diallyl disulfide (DADS), a main organosulfur component responsible for the diverse biological effects of garlic, displays a wide variety of internal biological activities. However, the cellular and molecular mechanisms underlying DADS' anti-inflammatory activity remain poorly understood. In this study, therefore, the anti-inflammatory effects of DADS were studied to investigate its potential therapeutic effects in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated BV2 microglia. We found that pretreatment with DADS prior to treatment with LPS significantly inhibited excessive production of nitric oxide (NO) and prostaglandin E{sub 2} (PGE{sub 2}) in a dose-dependent manner. The inhibition was associated with down-regulation of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) expression. DADS also attenuated the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines and chemokines, including interleukin-1β (IL-1β), tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) by suppressing the expression of mRNAs for these proteins. The mechanism underlying this protective effect might be related to the inhibition of nuclear factor-kappaB, Akt and mitogen-activated protein kinase signaling pathway activation in LPS-stimulated microglial cells. These findings indicated that DADS is potentially a novel therapeutic candidate for the treatment of various neurodegenerative diseases. -- Highlights: ► DADS attenuates production of NO and PGE2 in LPS-activated BV2 microglia. ► DADS downregulates levels of iNOS and COX-2. ► DADS inhibits production and expression of inflammatory cytokines and chemokine. ► DADS exhibits these effects by suppression of NF-κB, PI3K/Akt and MAPKs pathways.

  2. The role of titanium surface topography on J774A.1 macrophage inflammatory cytokines and nitric oxide production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Kai Soo; Qian, Li; Rosado, Roy; Flood, Patrick M; Cooper, Lyndon F

    2006-10-01

    A role for monocyte/macrophage modulation of wound healing at endosseous implants is proposed. The modification of the endosseous implant surface topography can alter cell adhesion and resultant cell behavior. The aim of this study was to define the effect of increased cpTitanium surface topography on adherent J744A.1 macrophage phenotype in culture. The J744A.1 cells were cultured on 20mm diameter cpTitanium disks prepared with smooth and grit-blasted/acid rough surface topographies for 24-72 h. Following culture in growth media with or without lipopolysaccharide (LPS), total RNA was isolated and real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was used to measure the steady-state levels of the pro-inflammatory cytokines interleukin 1-beta (IL-1beta) and interleukin 6 (IL-6) and the anti-inflammatory cytokine interleukin-10 (IL-10). Additional evidence of pro-inflammatory signaling was sought by measurement of cellular nitric oxide (NO) production. In the absence of LPS, IL-1beta levels were increased on grit-blasted/acid rough surfaces during the first 48 h. In contrast, IL-6 levels were reduced on the grit-blasted/acid rough surfaces. When cultures were treated with LPS, high levels of IL-1beta and IL-6 expression were measured, irrespective of surface topography. The responses of J744A.1 cells to surface and superimposed LPS stimulation suggest only modest effects of the modeled endosseous implant surface on adherent cell pro-inflammatory cytokine expression and NO signaling.

  3. Adipocyte expression of PU.1 transcription factor causes insulin resistance through upregulation of inflammatory cytokine gene expression and ROS production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Ligen; Pang, Weijun; Chen, Keyun; Wang, Fei; Gengler, Jon; Sun, Yuxiang; Tong, Qiang

    2012-06-15

    We have reported previously that ETS family transcription factor PU.1 is expressed in mature adipocytes of white adipose tissue. PU.1 expression is increased greatly in mouse models of genetic or diet-induced obesity. Here, we show that PU.1 expression is increased only in visceral but not subcutaneous adipose tissues of obese mice, and the adipocytes are responsible for this increase in PU.1 expression. To further address PU.1's physiological function in mature adipocytes, PU.1 was knocked down in 3T3-L1 cells using retroviral-mediated expression of PU.1-targeting shRNA. Consistent with previous findings that PU.1 regulates its target genes, such as NADPH oxidase subunits and proinflammatory cytokines in myeloid cells, the mRNA levels of proinflammatory cytokines (TNFα, IL-1β, and IL-6) and cytosolic components of NADPH oxidase (p47phox and p40phox) were downregulated significantly in PU.1-silenced adipocytes. NADPH oxidase is a main source for reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation. Indeed, silencing PU.1 suppressed NADPH oxidase activity and attenuated ROS in basal or hydrogen peroxide-treated adipocytes. Silencing PU.1 in adipocytes suppressed JNK1 activation and IRS-1 phosphorylation at Ser(307). Consequently, PU.1 knockdown improved insulin signaling and increased glucose uptake in basal and insulin-stimulated conditions. Furthermore, knocking down PU.1 suppressed basal lipolysis but activated stimulated lipolysis. Collectively, these findings indicate that obesity induces PU.1 expression in adipocytes to upregulate the production of ROS and proinflammatory cytokines, both of which lead to JNK1 activation, insulin resistance, and dysregulation of lipolysis. Therefore, PU.1 might be a mediator for obesity-induced adipose inflammation and insulin resistance.

  4. Isoform of Vascular Endothelial Cell Growth Inhibitor (VEGI72-251) Increases Interleukin-2 Production by Activation of T Lymphocytes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jing-Juan YAO; Min ZHANG; Xiao-Hui MIAO; Ping ZHAO; Shi-Ying ZHU; Hui DING; Zhong-Tian QI

    2006-01-01

    The objective of this study is to investigate the characteristics of the recombinant variant of human vascular endothelial cell growth inhibitor, VEGI72-251, and compare its biological activities with that of its prototype VEGI24-174. The recombinant plasmid containing the variant VEGI72-251 gene was constructed and expressed in Escherichia coli. The effects of the expressed VEGI72-251 on cell proliferations were checked in the human umbilical vein endothelial cell line and certain tumor cell lines (ECV304 and B 16). The inhibition of VEGI72-251 on angiogenesis was detected in the chorioallantoic membrane of chick embryos. In comparison with VEGI24-174, the recombinant human VEGI72-251 seems to have no effect on the proliferation of endothelial cells and the angiogenesis of the chorioallantoic membrane in vitro. An enzyme-linked immunosorbent assaybased method was used for the measurement of interleukin-2 (IL-2) production by peripheral blood monocytes (PBMCs) treated with VEGI72-251. PBMCs were pretreated with VEGI72-251 (1.25-12.50 μg/ml) for 24 h in vitro, and the IL-2 concentration in PBMC medium was increased from 354 pg/ml to 1256 pg/ml. It can be concluded that VEGI72-251 is able to increase the level of human IL-2 production by the activation of T lymphocytes. Differing from VEGI24-174 on anti-angiogenesis, VEGI72-251 may serve as an anti-cancer factor through its activation of T lymphocytes.

  5. Uncaria tomentosa aqueous-ethanol extract triggers an immunomodulation toward a Th2 cytokine profile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domingues, Alexandre; Sartori, Alexandrina; Valente, Ligia Maria Marino; Golim, Marjorie Assis; Siani, Antonio Carlos; Viero, Rosa Marlene

    2011-08-01

    Uncaria tomentosa (Willd.) DC (Rubiaceae) is a large woody vine that is native to the Amazon and Central American rainforests and is used widely in traditional medicine for its immunomodulatory and antiinflammatory activities. The present work used in vivo immunotoxic and in vitro immunomodulatory experiments to investigate the effects of a pentacyclic oxindole alkaloid extract from U. tomentosa bark on lymphocyte phenotype, Th1/Th2 cytokine production, cellular proliferation and cytotoxicity. For the in vivo immunotoxicity testing, BALB/c male mice were treated once a day with 125, 500 or 1250 mg/kg of U. tomentosa extract for 28 days. For the in vitro protocol, lymphocytes were cultured with 10-500 μg/mg of the extract for 48 h. The extract increased the cellularity of splenic white pulp and the thymic medulla and increased the number of T helper lymphocytes and B lymphocytes. Also, a large stimulatory effect on lymphocyte viability was observed. However, mitogen-induced T lymphocyte proliferation was significantly inhibited at higher concentrations of U. tomentosa extract. Furthermore, an immunological polarization toward a Th2 cytokine profile was observed. These results suggest that the U. tomentosa aqueous-ethanol extract was not immunotoxic to mice and was able to modulate distinct patterns of the immune system in a dose-dependent manner. Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  6. [Cytokines and asthma].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gani, F; Senna, G; Piglia, P; Grosso, B; Mezzelani, P; Pozzi, E

    1998-10-01

    Asthma is a chronic inflammatory lung disease in which eosinophils are one of the most important involved cells. These cells accumulate in the lung because of cytokines, which are able to regulate cellular responses. The role of cytokines is well known in allergic asthma: IL4, IL5, IL3, GMCSF are the principally cytokine involved. IL4 regulate IgE synthesis while IL5, (and IL3) cause the activation and accumulation of eosinophils. In non allergic asthma, whilst only IL5 seemed to be important recent data, shows that also IL4 plays an important role. Therefore nowadays no relevant difference seems to exist between allergic and non allergic asthma; instead the primer is different: the allergen in allergic asthma and often an unknown factor in the non allergic asthma. Recently other cytokines have been proved to play a role in the pathogenesis of asthma. IL8 is chemotactic not only for neutrophils but also for eosinophils and might cause chronic inflammation in severe asthma. IL13 works like IL4, while RANTES seems to be a more important chemotactic agent than IL5. Finally IL10, which immunoregulates T lymphocyte responses, may reduce asthma inflammation. In conclusion cytokine made us to learn more about the pathogenesis of asthma even if we do not yet know when and how asthma inflammation develops.

  7. [Production of recombinant human interleukin-38 and its inhibitory effect on the expression of proinflammatory cytokines in THP-1 cells].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, X L; Li, Y; Pan, X H; Zhou, M; Gao, Q Y; Li, M C

    2016-01-01

    Interleukin (IL)-38 is the latest member of the IL-1 cytokine family. However, as a result of lacking efficient method to generate relatively large quantity of IL-38, its precise functions are poorly understood. In the present study, the cloning, expression, purification, and activity analysis of recombinant human IL-38 was described. Human IL-38 cDNA was cloned into the prokaryotic expression vector pET-44. The recombinant IL-38 containing a C-hexahistidine tag was expressed in Escherichia coli BL21 (DE3) which induced by isopropyl-β-D-thiogalactoside. The expressed fusion protein was purified by Ni-NTA affinity chromatography. IL-38 protein was largely found in the soluble fraction. The purified IL-38 appeared a single band on SDS-PAGE, the yield of IL-38 was 4 mg from 1 L of bacterial culture, and the purity was more than 98% with low endotoxin level (proinflammatory cytokines, such as tumor necrosis factor-α, IL-1β, IL-17, and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 in lipopolysaccharide-activated THP-1 cells. The production and characterization of biologically active IL-38 will be beneficial for its potential role in clinical applications.

  8. O-glycosylation in cell wall proteins in Scedosporium prolificans is critical for phagocytosis and inflammatory cytokines production by macrophages.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana I D S Xisto

    Full Text Available In this study, we analyze the importance of O-linked oligosaccharides present in peptidorhamnomannan (PRM from the cell wall of the fungus Scedosporium prolificans for recognition and phagocytosis of conidia by macrophages. Adding PRM led to a dose-dependent inhibition of conidia phagocytosis, whereas de-O-glycosylated PRM did not show any effect. PRM induced the release of macrophage-derived antimicrobial compounds. However, O-linked oligosaccharides do not appear to be required for such induction. The effect of PRM on conidia-induced macrophage killing was examined using latex beads coated with PRM or de-O-glycosylated PRM. A decrease in macrophage viability similar to that caused by conidia was detected. However, macrophage killing was unaffected when beads coated with de-O-glycosylated PRM were used, indicating the toxic effect of O-linked oligosaccharides on macrophages. In addition, PRM triggered TNF-α release by macrophages. Chemical removal of O-linked oligosaccharides from PRM abolished cytokine induction, suggesting that the O-linked oligosaccharidic chains are important moieties involved in inflammatory responses through the induction of TNF-α secretion. In summary, we show that O-glycosylation plays a role in the recognition and uptake of S. prolificans by macrophages, killing of macrophages and production of pro- inflammatory cytokines.

  9. Porcine blood mononuclear cell cytokine responses to PAMP molecules: comparison of mRNA and protein production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Nanna Skall; Skovgaard, Kerstin; Heegaard, Peter M. H.

    2011-01-01

    -α and IL-12 p40, and PGN, LPS and Pam3Cys inducing varying amounts of IL-12 p40, IL-1β, TNF-α, IL-6 and IL-10. Surprisingly, the ssRNA-mimic poly-U induced IL-6 and IL-1β only. Using CpG, PGN and LPS, the kinetics of cytokine production measured as mRNA (reverse transcription (RT)-qPCR) and protein (ELISA...... the induction of IFN-α, IL-12 p40, IL-1β, TNF-α, IL-6 and IL-10 by PAMP-molecules [CpG oligonucleotide D19 (CpG), peptidoglycan (PGN), lipopolysaccharide (LPS), Pam3Cys and poly-U] in porcine blood mononuclear cells (BMC) within a 24h period. As expected, cytokine responses were PAMP-specific, CpG inducing IFN......), respectively, correlated well, mRNA responses preceding protein responses. With the exception of IL-1β and IL-6, mRNA-responses were transient, whereas protein responses, except for TNF-α, followed saturation kinetics. Remarkably, LPS-induced TNF-α mRNA was not followed by a protein response. These results...

  10. O-Glycosylation in Cell Wall Proteins in Scedosporium prolificans Is Critical for Phagocytosis and Inflammatory Cytokines Production by Macrophages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xisto, Mariana I. D. S.; Bittencourt, Vera C. B.; Liporagi-Lopes, Livia Cristina; Haido, Rosa M. T.; Mendonça, Morena S. A.; Sassaki, Guilherme; Figueiredo, Rodrigo T.; Romanos, Maria Teresa V.; Barreto-Bergter, Eliana

    2015-01-01

    In this study, we analyze the importance of O-linked oligosaccharides present in peptidorhamnomannan (PRM) from the cell wall of the fungus Scedosporium prolificans for recognition and phagocytosis of conidia by macrophages. Adding PRM led to a dose-dependent inhibition of conidia phagocytosis, whereas de-O-glycosylated PRM did not show any effect. PRM induced the release of macrophage-derived antimicrobial compounds. However, O-linked oligosaccharides do not appear to be required for such induction. The effect of PRM on conidia-induced macrophage killing was examined using latex beads coated with PRM or de-O-glycosylated PRM. A decrease in macrophage viability similar to that caused by conidia was detected. However, macrophage killing was unaffected when beads coated with de-O-glycosylated PRM were used, indicating the toxic effect of O-linked oligosaccharides on macrophages. In addition, PRM triggered TNF-α release by macrophages. Chemical removal of O-linked oligosaccharides from PRM abolished cytokine induction, suggesting that the O-linked oligosaccharidic chains are important moieties involved in inflammatory responses through the induction of TNF-α secretion. In summary, we show that O-glycosylation plays a role in the recognition and uptake of S. prolificans by macrophages, killing of macrophages and production of pro- inflammatory cytokines. PMID:25875427

  11. p62/SQSTM1 enhances NOD2-mediated signaling and cytokine production through stabilizing NOD2 oligomerization.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sangwook Park

    Full Text Available NOD2 is a cytosolic pattern-recognition receptor that senses muramyl dipeptide of peptidoglycan that constitutes the bacterial cell wall, and plays an important role in maintaining immunological homeostasis in the intestine. To date, multiple molecules have shown to be involved in regulating NOD2 signaling cascades. p62 (sequestosome-1; SQSTM1 is a multifaceted scaffolding protein involved in trafficking molecules to autophagy, and regulating signal cascades activated by Toll-like receptors, inflammasomes and several cytokine receptors. Here, we show that p62 positively regulates NOD2-induced NF-κB activation and p38 MAPK, and subsequent production of cytokines IL-1β and TNF-α. p62 associated with the nucleotide binding domain of NOD2 through a bi-directional interaction mediated by either TRAF6-binding or ubiquitin-associated domains. NOD2 formed a large complex with p62 in an electron-dense area of the cytoplasm, which increased its signaling cascade likely through preventing its degradation. This study for the first time demonstrates a novel role of p62 in enhancing NOD2 signaling effects.

  12. CD73-derived adenosine and tenascin-C control cytokine production by epicardium-derived cells formed after myocardial infarction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hesse, Julia; Leberling, Stella; Boden, Elisabeth; Friebe, Daniela; Schmidt, Timo; Ding, Zhaoping; Dieterich, Peter; Deussen, Andreas; Roderigo, Claudia; Rose, Christine R; Floss, Doreen M; Scheller, Jürgen; Schrader, Jürgen

    2017-03-31

    Epicardium-derived cells (EPDCs) play a fundamental role in embryonic cardiac development and are reactivated in the adult heart in response to myocardial infarction (MI). In this study, EPDCs from post-MI rat hearts highly expressed the ectoenzyme CD73 and secreted the profibrotic matricellular protein tenascin-C (TNC). CD73 on EPDCs extensively generated adenosine from both extracellular ATP and NAD. This in turn stimulated the release of additional nucleotides from a Brefeldin A-sensitive intracellular pool via adenosine-A2BR signaling, forming a positive-feedback loop. A2BR activation in addition strongly promoted the release of major regulatory cytokines, such as IL-6, IL-11, and VEGF. TNC was found to stimulate EPDC migration and, together with ATP-P2X7R signaling, to activate inflammasomes in EPDCs via TLR4. Our results demonstrate that EPDCs are an important source of various proinflammatory factors in the post-MI heart controlled by purinergic and TNC signaling.-Hesse, J., Leberling, S., Boden, E., Friebe, D., Schmidt, T., Ding, Z., Dieterich, P., Deussen, A., Roderigo, C., Rose, C. R., Floss, D. M., Scheller, J., Schrader, J. CD73-derived adenosine and tenascin-C control cytokine production by epicardium-derived cells formed after myocardial infarction.

  13. TLR2 regulates neutrophil recruitment and cytokine production with minor contributions from TLR9 during hypersensitivity pneumonitis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kelly Andrews

    Full Text Available Hypersensitivity pneumonitis (HP is an interstitial lung disease that develops following repeated exposure to environmental antigens. The disease results in alveolitis, granuloma formation and may progress to a fibrotic chronic form, which is associated with significant morbidity and mortality. The severity of the disease correlates with a neutrophil rich influx and an IL-17 response. We used the Saccharopolysporarectivirgula (SR model of HP to determine whether Toll-like receptors (TLR 2 and 9 cooperate in neutrophil recruitment and IL-17-associated cytokine production during the development of HP. Stimulation of bone marrow derived macrophages (BMDMs from C57BL/6, MyD88(-/- and TLR2/9(-/- mice with SR demonstrate that SR is a strong inducer of neutrophil chemokines and growth factors. The cytokines induced by SR were MyD88-dependent and, of those, most were partially or completely dependent on TLRs 2 and 9. Following in vivo exposure to SR, CXCL2 production and neutrophil recruitment were reduced in TLR2(-/- and TLR2/9(-/- mice suggesting that the response was largely dependent on TLR2; however the reduction was greatest in the TLR2/9(-/- double knockout mice indicating TLR9 may also contribute to the response. There was a reduction in the levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines TNFα and IL-6 as well as CCL3 and CCL4 in the BALF from TLR2/9(-/- mice compared to WT and single knockout (SKO mice exposed one time to SR. The decrease in neutrophil recruitment and TNFα production in the TLR2/9(-/- mice was maintained throughout 3 weeks of SR exposures in comparison to WT and SKO mice. Both TLRs 2 and 9 contributed to the Th17 response; there was a decrease in Th17 cells and IL-17 mRNA in the TLR2/9(-/- mice in comparison to the WT and SKO mice. Despite the effects on neutrophil recruitment and the IL-17 response, TLR2/9(-/- mice developed granuloma formation similarly to WT and SKO mice suggesting that there are additional mediators and pattern

  14. Vaccenic and elaidic acid modify plasma and splenocyte membrane phospholipids and mitogen-stimulated cytokine production in obese insulin resistant JCR: LA-cp rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruth, Megan R; Wang, Ye; Yu, Howe-Ming; Goruk, Susan; Reaney, Martin J; Proctor, Spencer D; Vine, Donna F; Field, Catherine J

    2010-02-01

    This study assessed the long-term effects of dietary vaccenic acid (VA) and elaidic acid (EA) on plasma and splenocyte phospholipid (PL) composition and related changes in inflammation and splenocyte phenotypes and cytokine responses in obese/insulin resistant JCR:LA-cp rats. Relative to lean control (Ctl), obese Ctl rats had higher serum haptoglobin and impaired T-cell-stimulated cytokine responses. VA and EA diets improved T-cell-stimulated cytokine production; but, only VA normalized serum haptoglobin. However, EA- and VA-fed rats had enhanced LPS-stimulated cytokine responses. The changes elicited by VA were likely due changes in essential fatty acid composition in PL; whereas EA-induced changes may due to direct incorporation into membrane PL.

  15. Spironolactone inhibits production of proinflammatory cytokines, including tumour necrosis factor-alpha and interferon-gamma, and has potential in the treatment of arthritis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bendtzen, K; Hansen, P R; Rieneck, K

    2003-01-01

    for up to 22 months with 1-3 mg/kg/day. Spironolactone, at in vivo attainable doses, markedly suppressed transcription of several proinflammatory cytokines and, accordingly, inhibited release of tumour necrosis factor, lymphotoxin, interferon-gamma, granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor....... In conclusion, spironolactone inhibits production of several proinflammatory cytokines considered to be of pathogenic importance in many immunoinflammatory diseases and shows positive effect in patients with chronic arthritis. Its effect as an anti-inflammatory drug should be explored, because prolonged...... and interleukin 6 (70-90% inhibition). Release of these cytokines was also suppressed when testing whole blood from RA patients receiving 50 mg spironolactone twice daily, indicating that pharmaceutical use of the drug may suppress the release of inflammatory cytokines. Spironolactone therapy was generally well...

  16. Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus infection triggers HMGB1 release to promote inflammatory cytokine production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, Erzhen; Wang, Dang; Luo, Rui; Luo, Jingyi; Gao, Li; Chen, Huanchun; Fang, Liurong; Xiao, Shaobo

    2014-11-01

    The high mobility group box 1 (HMGB1) protein is an endogenous damage-associated molecular pattern (DAMP) molecule involved in the pathogenesis of various infectious agents. Based on meta-analysis of all publicly available microarray datasets, HMGB1 has recently been proposed as the most significant immune modulator during the porcine response to porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) infection. However, the function of HMGB1 in PRRSV pathogenesis is unclear. In this study, we found that PRRSV infection triggers the translocation of HMGB1 from the nucleus to the extracellular milieu in MARC-145 cells and porcine alveolar macrophages. Although HMGB1 has no effect on PRRSV replication, HMGB1 promotes PRRSV-induced NF-κB activation and subsequent expression of inflammatory cytokines through receptors RAGE, TLR2 and TLR4. Our findings show that HMGB1 release, triggered by PRRSV infection, enhances the efficiency of virus-induced inflammatory responses, thereby providing new insights into the pathogenesis of PRRSV infection.

  17. Neisseria gonorrhoeae survives within and modulates apoptosis and inflammatory cytokine production of human macrophages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Château, Alice; Seifert, H Steven

    2016-04-01

    The human-adapted organism Neisseria gonorrhoeae is the causative agent of gonorrhoea, a sexually transmitted infection. It readily colonizes the genital, rectal and nasalpharyngeal mucosa during infection. While it is well established that N. gonorrhoeae recruits and modulates the functions of polymorphonuclear leukocytes during infection, how N. gonorrhoeae interacts with macrophages present in infected tissue is not fully defined. We studied the interactions of N. gonorrhoeae with two human monocytic cell lines, THP-1 and U937, and primary monocytes, all differentiated into macrophages. Most engulfed bacteria were killed in the phagolysosome, but a subset of bacteria was able to survive and replicate inside the macrophages suggesting that those cells may be an unexplored cellular reservoir for N. gonorrhoeae during infection. N. gonorrhoeae was able to modulate macrophage apoptosis: N. gonorrhoeae induced apoptosis in THP-1 cells whereas it inhibited induced apoptosis in U937 cells and primary human macrophages. Furthermore, N. gonorrhoeae induced expression of inflammatory cytokines in macrophages, suggesting a role for macrophages in recruiting polymorphonuclear leukocytes to the site of infection. These results indicate macrophages may serve as a significant replicative niche for N. gonorrhoeae and play an important role in gonorrheal pathogenesis.

  18. High cytokine production and effective antitumor activity of a recombinant vaccinia virus encoding murine interleukin 12.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meko, J B; Yim, J H; Tsung, K; Norton, J A

    1995-11-01

    We have constructed a recombinant vaccinia virus (recVV), vKT0334 mIL-12, containing the genes encoding the p35 and p40 subunits of murine interleukin-12 (mIL-12). In vitro experiments demonstrated that vKT0334 mIL-12 efficiently infected a variety of murine and human tumor cell lines and produced very high amounts (1.5 micrograms/10(6) cells/24 h) of biologically active mIL-12. Mice injected s.c. with 10(6) MCA 105 sarcoma cells, followed by injection at the same site with saline or a control recVV, vKT033, containing no mIL-12 genes, all developed progressively growing tumor, whereas 60% of animals injected with vKT0334 mIL-12 remained tumor free (P < 0.0005). Furthermore, tumor growth was significantly reduced in the remaining mice treated with vKT0334 mIL-12 that did develop tumor compared with mice treated with vKT033 (P < 0.03) or saline (P < 0.0001). We conclude that recVV expressing high levels of mIL-12 offers an effective in vivo method of cytokine gene delivery and expression in tumors with subsequent antitumor effect.

  19. Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus infection triggers HMGB1 release to promote inflammatory cytokine production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duan, Erzhen; Wang, Dang; Luo, Rui; Luo, Jingyi; Gao, Li; Chen, Huanchun; Fang, Liurong, E-mail: fanglr@mail.hzau.edu.cn; Xiao, Shaobo, E-mail: vet@mail.hzau.edu.cn

    2014-11-15

    The high mobility group box 1 (HMGB1) protein is an endogenous damage-associated molecular pattern (DAMP) molecule involved in the pathogenesis of various infectious agents. Based on meta-analysis of all publicly available microarray datasets, HMGB1 has recently been proposed as the most significant immune modulator during the porcine response to porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) infection. However, the function of HMGB1 in PRRSV pathogenesis is unclear. In this study, we found that PRRSV infection triggers the translocation of HMGB1 from the nucleus to the extracellular milieu in MARC-145 cells and porcine alveolar macrophages. Although HMGB1 has no effect on PRRSV replication, HMGB1 promotes PRRSV-induced NF-κB activation and subsequent expression of inflammatory cytokines through receptors RAGE, TLR2 and TLR4. Our findings show that HMGB1 release, triggered by PRRSV infection, enhances the efficiency of virus-induced inflammatory responses, thereby providing new insights into the pathogenesis of PRRSV infection. - Highlights: • PRRSV infection triggers HMGB1 release from MARC-145 cells and PAMs. • HMGB1 does not significantly affect PRRSV proliferation. • HMGB1 is involved in PRRSV-induced NF-κB activation and inflammatory responses. • HMGB1 promotes PRRSV-induced inflammatory responses through TLR2/4 and RAGE.

  20. The loss of immunodominant epitopes affects interferon-γ production and lytic activity of the human influenza virus-specific cytotoxic T lymphocyte response in vitro

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E.G.M. Berkhoff (Eufemia); M.M. Geelhoed-Mieras (Martina); E.J. Verschuren (Esther); C.A. van Baalen (Carel); R.A. Gruters (Rob); R.A.M. Fouchier (Ron); A.D.M.E. Osterhaus (Albert); G.F. Rimmelzwaan (Guus)

    2007-01-01

    textabstractIn the present study, we examined the effect of the loss of the human leucocyte antigen (HLA)-B*3501-restricted nucleoprotein (NP)418-426epitope on interferon (IFN)-γ-production and lytic activity of the human cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL) response in vitro. Extensive amino acid variation

  1. The presence of protective cytotoxic T lymphocytes does not correlate with shorter lifespans of productively infected cells in HIV-1 infection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spits, Hilde B; Mudrikova, Tania; Schellens, Ingrid M M; Wensing, Annemarie M J; Prins, Jan M; Feuth, Thijs; Spierings, Erik; Nijhuis, Monique; van Baarle, Debbie; Borghans, José A M

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVES AND DESIGN: CD8+ cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTL) are important in the control of HIV infection. Although CTL are thought to reduce the lifespan of productively infected cells, CD8+ T-cell depletion in simian immunodeficiency virus-infected rhesus-macaques showed no effect on the lifespan of

  2. Asbestos-Induced Peribronchiolar Cell Proliferation and Cytokine Production Are Attenuated in Lungs of Protein Kinase C-δ Knockout Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shukla, Arti; Lounsbury, Karen M.; Barrett, Trisha F.; Gell, Joanna; Rincon, Mercedes; Butnor, Kelly J.; Taatjes, Douglas J.; Davis, Gerald S.; Vacek, Pamela; Nakayama, Keiichi I.; Nakayama, Keiko; Steele, Chad; Mossman, Brooke T.

    2007-01-01

    The signaling pathways leading to the development of asbestos-associated diseases are poorly understood. Here we used normal and protein kinase C (PKC)-δ knockout (PKCδ−/−) mice to demonstrate multiple roles of PKC-δ in the development of cell proliferation and inflammation after inhalation of chrysotile asbestos. At 3 days, asbestos-induced peribronchiolar cell proliferation in wild-type mice was attenuated in PKCδ−/− mice. Cytokine profiles in bronchoalveolar lavage fluids showed increases in interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-4, IL-6, and IL-13 that were decreased in PKCδ−/− mice. At 9 days, microarray and quantitative reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction analysis of lung tissues revealed increased mRNA levels of the profibrotic cytokine, IL-4, in asbestos-exposed wild-type mice but not PKCδ−/− mice. PKCδ−/− mice also exhibited decreased lung infiltration of polymorphonuclear cells, natural killer cells, and macrophages in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid and lung, as well as increased numbers of B lymphocytes and plasma cells. These changes were accompanied by elevated mRNA levels of immunoglobulin chains. These data show that modulation of PKC-δ has multiple effects on peribronchiolar cell proliferation, proinflammatory and profibrotic cytokine expression, and immune cell profiles in lung. These results also implicate targeted interruption of PKC-δ as a potential therapeutic option in asbestos-induced lung diseases. PMID:17200189

  3. Chemokines, lymphocytes, and HIV

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farber J.M.

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available Chemokines are members of a family of more than 30 human cytokines whose best-described activities are as chemotactic factors for leukocytes and that are presumed to be important in leukocyte recruitment and trafficking. While many chemokines can act on lymphocytes, the roles of chemokines and their receptors in lymphocyte biology are poorly understood. The recent discoveries that chemokines can suppress infection by HIV-1 and that chemokine receptors serve, along with CD4, as obligate co-receptors for HIV-1 entry have lent urgency to studies on the relationships between chemokines and lymphocytes. My laboratory has characterized Mig and Crg-2/IP-10, chemokines that are induced by IFN-g and that specifically target lymphocytes, particularly activated T cells. We have demonstrated that the genes for these chemokines are widely expressed during experimental infections in mice with protozoan and viral pathogens, but that the patterns of mig and crg-2 expression differed, suggesting non-redundant roles in vivo. Our related studies to identify new chemokine receptors from activated lymphocytes resulted in the cloning of STRL22 and STRL33. We and others have shown that STRL22 is a receptor for the CC chemokine MIP-3a, and STRL22 has been re-named CCR6. Although STRL33 remains an orphan receptor, we have shown that it can function as a co-receptor for HIV-1 envelope glycoproteins, and that it is active with a broader range of HIV-1 envelope glycoproteins than the major co-receptors described to date. The ability of STRL33 to function with a wide variety of envelope glycoproteins may become particularly important if therapies are instituted to block other specific co-receptors. We presume that investigations into the roles of chemokines and their receptors in lymphocyte biology will provide information important for understanding the pathogenesis of AIDS and for manipulating immune and inflammatory responses for clinical benefit

  4. Porphyromonas Gingivalis and E-coli induce different cytokine production patterns in pregnant women

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Faas, Marijke M; Kunnen, Alina; Dekker, Daphne C; Harmsen, Hermie J M; Aarnoudse, Jan G; Abbas, Frank; De Vos, Paul; Van Pampus, Maria G

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Pregnant individuals of many species, including humans, are more sensitive to various bacteria or their products as compared with non-pregnant individuals. Pregnant individuals also respond differently to different bacteria or their products. Therefore, in the present study, we evaluated

  5. Activation of platelet-activating factor receptor in SZ95 sebocytes results in inflammatory cytokine and prostaglandin E2 production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qiwei; Seltmann, Holger; Zouboulis, Christos C; Travers, Jeffrey B

    2006-10-01

    Platelet-activating factor (PAF) is a group of phosphocholines with various biological effects mediated by the PAF receptor (PAF-R). Activation of the epidermal PAF-R induces the expression of inflammatory mediators, including cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) and prostaglandin E(2) (PGE(2)). The upregulation of COX-2 expression has been shown to be involved in sebocyte proliferation, sebaceous gland inflammation and carcinogenesis. The present study was designed to investigate whether PAF-R activation could induce the expression of COX-2 and production of PGE(2), as well as secretion of the inflammatory cytokine, interleukin-8 (IL-8), in the immortalized sebaceous gland cell line SZ95. Using calcium mobilization studies, we first confirmed that PAF can signal through PAF-R in SZ95 sebocytes. We then found that the production of IL-8 was induced following treatment with PAF-R agonist, however blocked by a specific PAF-R antagonist. Induction of COX-2 expression and increased PGE(2) production were observed in SZ95 sebocytes after PAF-R activation. Finally, it was demonstrated that the production of PGE(2), induced by PAF-R activation and mediated by COX-2 expression, was blocked following PAF-R antagonism in SZ95 sebocytes. These studies suggest that SZ95 sebocytes express functional PAF-Rs and PAF-Rs are involved in regulating the expression of inflammatory mediators, including COX-2, PGE(2) and IL-8.

  6. Expression of regulatory receptors on γδ T cells and their cytokine production in Behcet's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parlakgul, Gunes; Guney, Ekin; Erer, Burak; Kılıcaslan, Zeki; Direskeneli, Haner; Gul, Ahmet; Saruhan-Direskeneli, Guher

    2013-01-21

    Behcet's disease (BD) is a multi-systemic disorder with muco-cutaneous, ocular, arthritic, vascular or central nervous system involvement. The role of γδ T cells is implicated in BD. The activation status of γδ T cells and their cytokine secretion against phosphoantigens are evaluated in BD. NKG2A, NKG2C, NKG2D, CD16 and CCR7 molecules on γδ T cells were analyzed in 70 BD, 27 tuberculosis (TB) patients and 26 healthy controls (HC). Peripheral γδ T cells were expanded with a phosphoantigen (BrHPP) and IL-2, restimulated with BrHPP and a TLR3 ligand, and cytokine production was measured. γδ T cells were not increased in both BD and TB patients, but the proportions of TCRVδ2+ T cells were lower (58.9 and 50.7 vs. 71.7%, P=0.04 and P=0.005) compared to HC. Higher proportion of TCRVδ2+ T cells were CD16+ (26.2 and 33.9 vs. 16.6%, P=0.02 and P=0.001) and CCR7- (32.2 and 27.9 vs. 17.7%, P<0.0001 and P=0.014) in BD and TB patients compared to HC. NKG2C+ γδ+ T cells were relatively increased (0.5 and 0.6 vs. 0.3%, P=0.008 and 0.018), whereas NKG2D positivity was decreased in patients with BD and TB (77.7 and 75.8 vs. 87.5%, P=0.001 and 0.004). Expansion capacity of γδ T cells in BD and TB as well as production of IL-13, IFN-γ, granulocyte monocyte colony stimulating factor (GM-CSF), TNF-α, CCL4 and CCL5 in BD was lower compared to HC, when restimulated by TLR3 ligand and BrHPP. The changes on γδ T cells of BD as well as TB patients implicate that γδ T cells have already been exposed to regulatory effects, which changed their activity. Lower cytokine response of γδ T cells implicates down modulation of these cells in BD.

  7. The Effects of Antifungal Azoles on Inflammatory Cytokine Production in Human Keratinocytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K Zomorodian

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: Introduction & Objective: Azoles drugs are being used successfully in treatment of fungal infections. Recently, immunosuppressive effects of some of these agents have been reported. Keratinocytes, as the major cells of the skin, have an important role in innate immunity against pathogenic agents. Considering the scanty of information about the effects of azoles on immune responces, this study was conducted to assess the expression and secretion of inflammatory cytokines in keratinocytes following treatment with azole drugs. Materials & Methods: This is an exprimental study conducted in in molecular biology division in Tehran University of Medical Sciences and Immunodermatology Department in Vienna Medical University. Primery keratinocytes were cultured and treated with different concentrations of fluconazole, itraconazole, ketoconazole and griseofulvin. Secreted IL1, IL6 and TNF-α by keratinocytes in culture supernatant were measured by quantitative enzyme immunoassay technique. Moreover, expression of the genes encoding IL1 and IL8 was evaluated by Real Time-PCR. Results: Treatment of keratinocytes with different concentrations of fluconazole and low concentration of ketoconazole resulted in decrease in IL1 secretion, but Itraconazole and griseofulvin did not show such an effect at the same concentrations. In addition, none of the examined drugs had an effect on secretion level of IL6 and TNF-α. Quantitative analysis of IL1 and IL8 encoding genes revealed that transcription on these genes might be suppressed following treatment with fluconazole or ketoconazole. Conclusion: Fluconazole and ketoconazole might modulate the expression and secretion of IL1 and IL8 and affect the direction of immune responses induced by keratinocytes

  8. PGRP negatively regulates NOD-mediated cytokine production in rainbow trout liver cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Ju Hye; Kim, Hyun; Jang, Mi Jung; Cho, Ju Hyun

    2016-12-19

    Pattern-recognition receptors (PRRs) initiate innate immunity via pathogen recognition. Recent studies suggest that signalling pathways downstream of different PRRs and their crosstalk effectively control immune responses. However, the cross-regulation among PRRs and its effects have yet to be fully described in fish. Here, we examined the crosstalk between OmPGRP-L1, a long form of PGRP in rainbow trout, and other PRRs during pathogenic infections. OmPGRP-L1 expression was increased in RTH-149 cells by iE-DAP and MDP, which are agonists of NOD1 and NOD2, respectively. The silencing of NOD1 and NOD2 specifically inhibited the upregulation of OmPGRP-L1 expression induced by their cognate ligands. Suppression of RIP2 and NF-κB activation prevented the induction of OmPGRP-L1 expression. An in silico analysis and electrophoretic mobility shift assay revealed that the promoter of OmPGRP-L1 has NF-κB binding sites, suggesting that OmPGRP-L1 is produced through the NOD-RIP2-NF-κB signalling pathway. Loss-of-function and gain-of-function experiments indicated that OmPGRP-L1 downregulates the induction of NOD-mediated pro-inflammatory cytokine expression. Mechanistically, secreted OmPGRP-L1 inhibited the activation of the NOD-induced NF-κB pathway via downregulation of TAK1 and IκBα phosphorylation through A20 expression. Our data demonstrate that OmPGRP-L1 and NODs might play interdependent roles in the inflammatory response to bacterial infections in rainbow trout.

  9. Increased Proinflammatory Cytokine Production and Decreased Cholesterol Efflux Due to Downregulation of ABCG1 in Macrophages Exposed to Indoxyl Sulfate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koji Matsuo

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available One of the possible causes of enhanced atherosclerosis in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD is the accumulation of uremic toxins. Since macrophage foam cell formation is a hallmark of atherosclerosis, we examined the direct effect of indoxyl sulfate (IS, a representative uremic toxin, on macrophage function. Macrophages differentiated from THP-1 cells were exposed to IS in vitro. IS decreased the cell viability of THP-1 derived macrophages but promoted the production of inflammatory cytokines (IL-1β, IS 1.0 mM: 101.8 ± 21.8 pg/mL vs. 0 mM: 7.0 ± 0.3 pg/mL, TNF-α, IS 1.0 mM: 96.6 ± 11.0 pg/mL vs. 0 mM: 15.1 ± 3.1 pg/mL and reactive oxygen species. IS reduced macrophage cholesterol efflux (IS 0.5 mM: 30.3% ± 7.3% vs. 0 mM: 43.5% ± 1.6% and decreased ATP-binding cassette transporter G1 expression. However, lipid uptake into cells was not enhanced. A liver X receptor (LXR agonist, T0901317, improved IS-induced production of inflammatory cytokines as well as reduced cholesterol efflux. In conclusion, IS induced inflammatory reactions and reduced cholesterol efflux in macrophages. Both effects of IS were improved with activation of LXR. Direct interactions of uremic toxins with macrophages may be a major cause of atherosclerosis acceleration in patients with CKD.

  10. Fibronectin inhibits cytokine production induced by CpG DNA in macrophages without direct binding to DNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshida, Hiroyuki; Nishikawa, Makiya; Yasuda, Sachiyo; Toyota, Hiroyasu; Kiyota, Tsuyoshi; Takahashi, Yuki; Takakura, Yoshinobu

    2012-10-01

    Fibronectin (FN) is known to have four DNA-binding domains although their physiological significance is unknown. Primary murine peritoneal macrophages have been shown to exhibit markedly lower responsiveness to CpG motif-replete plasmid DNA (pDNA), Toll-like receptor-9 (TLR9) ligand, compared with murine macrophage-like cell lines. The present study was conducted to examine whether FN having DNA-binding domains is involved in this phenomenon. The expression of FN was significantly higher in primary macrophages than in a macrophage-like cell line, RAW264.7, suggesting that abundant FN might suppress the responsiveness in the primary macrophages. However, electrophoretic analysis revealed that FN did not bind to pDNA in the presence of a physiological concentration of divalent cations. Surprisingly, marked tumor necrosis factor - (TNF-)α production from murine macrophages upon CpG DNA stimulation was significantly reduced by exogenously added FN in a concentration-dependent manner but not by BSA, laminin or collagen. FN did not affect apparent pDNA uptake by the cells. Moreover, FN reduced TNF-α production induced by polyI:C (TLR3 ligand), and imiquimod (TLR7 ligand), but not by LPS (TLR4 ligand), or a non-CpG pDNA/cationic liposome complex. The confocal microscopic study showed that pDNA was co-localized with FN in the same intracellular compartment in RAW264.7, suggesting that FN inhibits cytokine signal transduction in the endosomal/lysosomal compartment. Taken together, the results of the present study has revealed, for the first time, a novel effect of FN whereby the glycoprotein modulates cytokine signal transduction via CpG-DNA/TLR9 interaction in macrophages without direct binding to DNA through its putative DNA-binding domains.

  11. Adjuvant effect of Asparagus racemosus Willd. derived saponins in antibody production, allergic response and pro-inflammatory cytokine modulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiwari, Nimisha; Gupta, Vivek Kumar; Pandey, Pallavi; Patel, Dinesh Kumar; Banerjee, Suchitra; Darokar, Mahendra Pandurang; Pal, Anirban

    2017-02-01

    The study manifests the immunoadjuvant potential of saponin rich fraction from Asparagus racemosus in terms of cellular and humoral immune response that can be exploited against microbial infections. Asparagus racemosus (AR) has been attributed as an adaptogen and rasayana in traditional medication systems for enhancing the host defence mechanism. Spectrophotometric and HPTLC analysis ensured the presence of saponins. The saponin rich fractions were tested for immunoadjuvant property in ovalbumin immunised mice for the humoral response, quantified in terms of prolonged antibody production upto a duration of 56days. Proinflammatory cytokines (IL-6 and TNF) were estimated for the cellular immune response in LPS stimulated primary murine macrophages. The safety evaluation in terms of cytotoxicity and allergic response has also been evaluated through in-vitro (MTT) and in-vivo (IgE) respectively. ARS significantly inhibited the pro-inflammatory cytokines, in LPS stimulated murine macrophages with no intrinsic cytotoxicity. The significant increase in IgG production infers the utility of ARS for prolonged humoral response. Further, the antigen specific response of IL-12 at early stage and IgE titres also suggests the generation of cellular immune response and low allergic reaction respectively, as compared to conventional adjuvants. IL-6 and TNF fluctuations in LPS stimulated and non-stimulated macrophages along with IgG and IL-12 also confirmed the Th1/Th2 modulating effect of ARS. The study indicates potential effect of ARS as an adjuvant for the stimulation of cellular immune response in addition to generating a sustained adaptive response without any adverse effects paving way for further validation with pathogenic organisms. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  12. Administration of PDE4 Inhibitors Suppressed the Pannus-Like Inflammation by Inhibition of Cytokine Production by Macrophages and Synovial Fibroblast Proliferation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ichiro Miki

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available A marked proliferation of synovial fibroblasts in joints leads to pannus formation in rheumatoid arthritis (RA. Various kinds of cytokines are produced in the pannus. The purpose of this study is to elucidate the effects of phosphodiesterase 4 (PDE4 inhibitors in a new animal model for the evaluation of pannus formation and cytokine production in the pannus. Mice sensitized with methylated bovine serum albumin (mBSA were challenged by subcutaneous implantation of a membrane filter soaked in mBSA solution in the back of the mice. Drugs were orally administered for 10 days. The granuloma formed around the filter was collected on day 11. It was chopped into pieces and cultured in vitro for 24 hr. The cytokines were measured in the supernatants. The type of cytokines produced in the granuloma was quite similar to those produced in pannus in RA. Both PDE4 inhibitors, KF66490 and SB207499, suppressed the production of IL-1β, TNF-α, and IL-12, and the increase in myeloperoxidase activity, a marker enzyme for neutrophils and hydroxyproline content. Compared to leflunomide, PDE4 inhibitors more strongly suppressed IL-12 production and the increase in myeloperoxidase activity. PDE4 inhibitors also inhibited lipopolysaccharide-induced TNF-α and IL-12 production from thioglycolate-induced murine peritoneal macrophages and the proliferation of rat synovial fibroblasts. These results indicate this model makes it easy to evaluate the effect of drugs on various cytokine productions in a granuloma without any purification step and may be a relevant model for evaluating novel antirheumatic drugs on pannus formation in RA. PDE4 inhibitors could have therapeutic effects on pannus formation in RA by inhibition of cytokine production by macrophages and synovial fibroblast proliferation.

  13. Arctigenin from Arctium lappa inhibits interleukin-2 and interferon gene expression in primary human T lymphocytes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background Arctium lappa (Niubang), a Chinese herbal medicine, is used to treat tissue inflammation. This study investigates the effects of arctigenin (AC), isolated from A. lappa, on anti-CD3/CD28 Ab-stimulated cell proliferation and cytokine gene expression in primary human T lymphocytes. Methods Cell proliferation was determined with enzyme immunoassays and the tritiated thymidine uptake method. Cytokine production and gene expression were analyzed with reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. Results AC inhibited primary human T lymphocytes proliferation activated by anti-CD3/CD28 Ab. Cell viability test indicated that the inhibitory effects of AC on primary human T lymphocyte proliferation were not due to direct cytotoxicity. AC suppressed interleukin-2 (IL-2) and interferon-γ (IFN-γ) production in a concentration-dependent manner. Furthermore, AC decreased the IL-2 and IFN-γ gene expression in primary human T lymphocytes induced by anti-CD3/CD28 Ab. Reporter gene analyses revealed that AC decreased NF-AT-mediated reporter gene expression. Conclusion AC inhibited T lymphocyte proliferation and decreased the gene expression of IL-2, IFN-γ and NF-AT. PMID:21435270

  14. Arctigenin from Arctium lappa inhibits interleukin-2 and interferon gene expression in primary human T lymphocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Wei-Jern; Chang, Chu-Ting; Wang, Guei-Jane; Lee, Tzong-Huei; Chang, Shwu-Fen; Lu, Shao-Chun; Kuo, Yuh-Chi

    2011-03-25

    Arctium lappa (Niubang), a Chinese herbal medicine, is used to treat tissue inflammation. This study investigates the effects of arctigenin (AC), isolated from A. lappa, on anti-CD3/CD28 Ab-stimulated cell proliferation and cytokine gene expression in primary human T lymphocytes. Cell proliferation was determined with enzyme immunoassays and the tritiated thymidine uptake method. Cytokine production and gene expression were analyzed with reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. AC inhibited primary human T lymphocytes proliferation activated by anti-CD3/CD28 Ab. Cell viability test indicated that the inhibitory effects of AC on primary human T lymphocyte proliferation were not due to direct cytotoxicity. AC suppressed interleukin-2 (IL-2) and interferon-γ (IFN-γ) production in a concentration-dependent manner. Furthermore, AC decreased the IL-2 and IFN-γ gene expression in primary human T lymphocytes induced by anti-CD3/CD28 Ab. Reporter gene analyses revealed that AC decreased NF-AT-mediated reporter gene expression. AC inhibited T lymphocyte proliferation and decreased the gene expression of IL-2, IFN-γ and NF-AT.

  15. Arctigenin from Arctium lappa inhibits interleukin-2 and interferon gene expression in primary human T lymphocytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chang Shwu-Fen

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Arctium lappa (Niubang, a Chinese herbal medicine, is used to treat tissue inflammation. This study investigates the effects of arctigenin (AC, isolated from A. lappa, on anti-CD3/CD28 Ab-stimulated cell proliferation and cytokine gene expression in primary human T lymphocytes. Methods Cell proliferation was determined with enzyme immunoassays and the tritiated thymidine uptake method. Cytokine production and gene expression were analyzed with reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. Results AC inhibited primary human T lymphocytes proliferation activated by anti-CD3/CD28 Ab. Cell viability test indicated that the inhibitory effects of AC on primary human T lymphocyte proliferation were not due to direct cytotoxicity. AC suppressed interleukin-2 (IL-2 and interferon-γ (IFN-γ production in a concentration-dependent manner. Furthermore, AC decreased the IL-2 and IFN-γ gene expression in primary human T lymphocytes induced by anti-CD3/CD28 Ab. Reporter gene analyses revealed that AC decreased NF-AT-mediated reporter gene expression. Conclusion AC inhibited T lymphocyte proliferation and decreased the gene expression of IL-2, IFN-γ and NF-AT.

  16. Tumor-infiltrating lymphocyte activity is enhanced in tumors with low IL-10 production in HBV-induced hepatocellular carcinoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shi, Yang, E-mail: yangshi_xz@126.com; Song, Qingwei; Hu, Dianhe; Zhuang, Xiaohu; Yu, Shengcai

    2015-05-22

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is one of the most common cancers and can be induced by chronic HBV infection. The role of HBV-specific immune responses in mediating tumorigenesis and HCC prognosis is debated. The effect of intratumoral microenvironment on tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs) is also unclear. Here, we examined resected tumor tissue from 36 patients with HBV-induced HCC. We categorized study cohort based on ex vivo IL-10 secretion by tumor cells into high IL-10-secreting (Hi10) and low IL-10-secreting (Lo10) groups, and found that the Lo10 group was less sensitive to TLR ligand stimulation. TILs from the Lo10 group contained higher frequencies of HBV-specific IFN-g-producing cells and total IFN-g-producing cells, and possessed higher proliferative capacity. Moreover, the proliferative capacity of TILs from the Hi10 group was negatively correlated with IL-10 secretion from tumor cells. Together, our data demonstrated that low IL-10-producing capacity in HBV-induced HCC tumors is associated with enhanced TIL activity. - Highlights: • We examined intratumoral IL-10 production in HBV-induced HCC. • We grouped HCC tumors into Hi10 and Lo10 groups based on their IL-10 production. • Lo10 groups had better IFN-g response by TILs. • Lo10 groups had better TIL proliferative capacity. • Lo10 group tumor cells were refractory to TLR ligand stimulation.

  17. Oral supplementation of diabetic mice with propolis restores the proliferation capacity and chemotaxis of B and T lymphocytes towards CCL21 and CXCL12 by modulating the lipid profile, the pro-inflammatory cytokine levels and oxidative stress

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Al Ghamdi, Ahmad A; Badr, Gamal; Hozzein, Wael N; Allam, Ahmed; Al-Waili, Noori S; Al-Wadaan, Mohammed A; Garraud, Olivier

    2015-01-01

    .... To further elucidate the potential benefits of propolis, the present study investigated the effect of dietary supplementation with propolis on the plasma cytokine profiles, free radical levels, lipid...

  18. Effect of lipopolysaccharide (LPS and peptidoglycan (PGN on human mast cell numbers, cytokine production, and protease composition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wu Yalin

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Human mast cell (HuMC maturation occurs in tissues interfacing with the external environment, exposing both mast cell progenitors and mature mast cells, to bacteria and their products. It is unknown, however, whether long- or short-term exposure to bacteria-derived toll-like receptor (TLR ligands, such as lipopolysaccharide (LPS or peptidoglycan (PGN, influences HuMC biology. Results Over 6 wks of culture, LPS had minimal effect on HuMC numbers but increased CD117, tryptase and chymase expression. PGN inhibited HuMC development. For mature mast cells, LPS in the presence of rhSCF (10 ng/ml increased CD117, tryptase, chymase and carboxypeptidase expression, primarily in CD117low HuMC. LPS decreased FcεRI expression and β-hexosaminidase release; but had no effect on LTC4 and PGD2 production. PGN reduced HuMC numbers; and CD117 and tryptase expression. IL-1β and IL-6 (in addition to IL-8 and IL-12 were detected in short-term culture supernatants of LPS treated cells, and reproduced the increases in CD117, tryptase, chymase, and carboxypeptidase expression observed in the presence of LPS. Comparative studies with mouse bone marrow-derived mast cells from wild type, but not TLR4 knockout mice, showed increases in mRNA of mouse mast cell chymases MMCP-1, MMCP-2 and MMCP-4. Conclusion PGN inhibits HuMC growth, while LPS exerts its primary effects on mature HuMC by altering cytokine production and protease composition, particularly at low concentrations of SCF. These data demonstrate the ability of bacterial products to alter HuMC mediator production, granular content, and number which may be particularly relevant at mucosal sites where HuMC are exposed to these products.

  19. Lipoxin A4 inhibits the production of proinflammatory cytokines induced by β-amyloid in vitro and in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jun; Wang, Aitao; Min, Zhe; Xiong, Yongjie; Yan, Qiuyue; Zhang, Jinping; Xu, Jie; Zhang, Suming

    2011-05-13

    Studies increasingly indicate that inflammation induced by β-amyloid (Aβ) contributes to the progression of Alzheimer's disease (AD). How to inhibit the enhanced production of proinflammatory cytokines stimulated by Aβ is an important research subject for the treatment of AD. In this study, we investigated the inhibitory effect and the molecular mechanism of the lipoxin A(4) (LXA(4)) on the production of interleukin-1β (IL-1β) and tumor necrosis factorα (TNFα) induced by β-amyloid in the cortex and hippocampus of mice, and in Aβ-stimulated BV2 cells, a mouse microglial cell line. LXA(4) down-regulated the protein expression of IL-1β and TNFα, attenuated the gene expressions of IL-1β and TNFα, inhibited the degradation of IκBα, inhibited translocation of NF-κB p65 subunit into the nucleus induced by β-amyloid in the cortex and hippocampus of mice, and in Aβ-stimulated BV2 cells, and the inhibitory effects were dose dependently elevated. Our findings suggest that LXA(4) inhibits the production of IL-1β and TNFα induced by β-amyloid in the cortex and hippocampus of mice, and in BV2 microglial cells via the NF-κB signal pathway.

  20. Cytokine production by spleen cells from mice with ovalbumin-specific, IgE-selective unresponsiveness induced by ovalbumin-liposome conjugate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atsuko Horino

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available Ovalbumin coupled with liposomes (OVA–liposome induced selective unresponsiveness of anti-OVA IgE antibody production in BALB/c mice, whereas OVA adsorbed with aluminum hydroxide (OVA–alum induced a substantial amount of anti-OVA IgE antibody production. Ovalbumin–liposome and OVA–alum predominantly induced IgG2a and IgG1 anti-OVA production, respectively. These results suggest that OVA–liposome and OVA–alum induce type 1 and type 2 T helper (Th immune responses, respectively. To further investigate this issue, we examined the cytokine production induced by these two distinct adjuvants. Spleen cells taken from mice immunized with either OVA–liposome or OVA–alum were cultured in vitro with OVA and the cytokine production from each culture was analyzed. It was demonstrated that spleen cells from mice immunized with OVA–liposome produced more interferon (IFN-γ than those immunized with OVA–alum and, furthermore, interleukin (IL-4 was produced only by spleen cells from mice immunized with OVA–alum. These results favor the notion that OVA–liposome and OVA–alum induce Th1 and Th2 cytokines, respectively. Interestingly, the production of IL-2, a Th1 cytokine, was higher in the OVA–alum-immunized group and the production of IL-10, a Th2 cytokine, remained at low levels in both groups after primary immunization; levels of IL-10 increased in the OVA–liposome-immunized group after secondary immunization. These results do not agree with the above notion and, thus, suggest that it may be important to consider the balance between IFN-γ-producing cells and IL-4-producing cells rather than that between Th1 and Th2 cells for the regulation of IgE antibody production.

  1. Effects of chronic ascariasis and trichuriasis on cytokine production and gene expression in human blood: a cross-sectional study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Reina Ortiz

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Chronic soil-transmitted helminth (STH infections are associated with effects on systemic immune responses that could be caused by alterations in immune homeostasis. To investigate this, we measured the impact in children of STH infections on cytokine responses and gene expression in unstimulated blood. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Sixty children were classified as having chronic, light, or no STH infections. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells were cultured in medium for 5 days to measure cytokine accumulation. RNA was isolated from peripheral blood and gene expression analysed using microarrays. Different infection groups were compared for the purpose of analysis: STH infection (combined chronic and light vs. uninfected groups and chronic STH infection (chronic vs. combined light and uninfected groups. The chronic STH infection effect was associated with elevated production of GM-CSF (P=0.007, IL-2 (P=0.03, IL-5 (P=0.01, and IL-10 (P=0.01. Data reduction suggested that chronic infections were primarily associated with an immune phenotype characterized by elevated IL-5 and IL-10, typical of a modified Th2-like response. Chronic STH infections were associated with the up-regulation of genes associated with immune homeostasis (IDO, P=0.03; CCL23, P=0.008, HRK, P=0.005, down-regulation of microRNA hsa-let-7d (P=0.01 and differential regulation of several genes associated with granulocyte-mediated inflammation (IL-8, down-regulated, P=0.0002; RNASE2, up-regulated, P=0.009; RNASE3, up-regulated, p=0.03. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Chronic STH infections were associated with a cytokine response indicative of a modified Th2 response. There was evidence that STH infections were associated with a pattern of gene expression suggestive of the induction of homeostatic mechanisms, the differential expression of several inflammatory genes and the down-regulation of microRNA has-let-7d. Effects on immune homeostasis and the development of a

  2. Eicosanoid and cytokine production by human peritoneal macrophages : characterization and modulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    W.M. Pruimboom (Wanda)

    1995-01-01

    textabstractThe human body has an extensive and specialized cellular network to defend against invading microorganisms, and to prevent the development and spread of neoplastic disease. The mononuclear phagocytic cells are important secretory cells that, through their receptors and secretory products

  3. BAFF promotes regulatory T-cell apoptosis and blocks cytokine production by activating B cells in primary biliary cirrhosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Bo; Hu, Mintao [Department of Hepatology, Wuxi Infectious Diseases Hospital, Wuxi, Jiangsu (China); Zhang, Peng [Nanjing Medical University, Nanjing, Jiangsu (China); Cao, Hong [Department of Hepatology, Wuxi Infectious Diseases Hospital, Wuxi, Jiangsu (China); Wang, Yongzhen [The Second Hospital of Nanjing, Nanjing, Jiangsu (China); Wang, Zheng; Su, Tingting [Department of Hepatology, Wuxi Infectious Diseases Hospital, Wuxi, Jiangsu (China)

    2013-05-10

    Primary biliary cirrhosis (PBC) is a chronic and slowly progressive cholestatic liver disease of autoimmune etiology. A number of questions regarding its etiology are unclear. CD4+CD25+ regulatory T cells (Tregs) play a critical role in self-tolerance and, for unknown reasons, their relative number is reduced in PBC patients. B-cell-activating factor (BAFF) is a key survival factor during B-cell maturation and its concentration is increased in peripheral blood of PBC patients. It has been reported that activated B cells inhibit Treg cell proliferation and there are no BAFF receptors on Tregs. Therefore, we speculated that excessive BAFF may result in Treg reduction via B cells. To prove our hypothesis, we isolated Tregs and B cells from PBC and healthy donors. BAFF and IgM concentrations were then analyzed by ELISA and CD40, CD80, CD86, IL-10, and TGF-β expression in B cells and Tregs were measured by flow cytometry. BAFF up-regulated CD40, CD80, CD86, and IgM expression in B cells. However, BAFF had no direct effect on Treg cell apoptosis and cytokine secretion. Nonetheless, we observed that BAFF-activated B cells could induce Treg cell apoptosis and reduce IL-10 and TGF-β expression. We also showed that BAFF-activated CD4+ T cells had no effect on Treg apoptosis. Furthermore, we verified that bezafibrate, a hypolipidemic drug, can inhibit BAFF-induced Treg cell apoptosis. In conclusion, BAFF promotes Treg cell apoptosis and inhibits cytokine production by activating B cells in PBC patients. The results of this study suggest that inhibition of BAFF activation is a strategy for PBC treatment.

  4. Differential S1P Receptor Profiles on M1- and M2-Polarized Macrophages Affect Macrophage Cytokine Production and Migration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, Jan; von Bernstorff, Wolfram; Heidecke, Claus-Dieter

    2017-01-01

    Introduction. Macrophages are key players in complex biological processes. In response to environmental signals, macrophages undergo polarization towards a proinflammatory (M1) or anti-inflammatory (M2) phenotype. Sphingosine 1-phosphate (S1P) is a bioactive lysophospholipid that acts via 5 G-protein coupled receptors (S1P1–5) in order to influence a broad spectrum of biological processes. This study assesses S1P receptor expression on macrophages before and after M1 and M2 polarization and performs a comparative analysis of S1P signalling in the two activational states of macrophages. Methods. Bone marrow derived macrophages (BMDM) from C57 BL/6 mice were cultured under either M1- or M2-polarizing conditions. S1P-receptor expression was determined by quantitative RT-PCR. Influence of S1P on macrophage activation, migration, phagocytosis, and cytokine secretion was assessed in vitro. Results. All 5 S1P receptor subclasses were expressed in macrophages. Culture under both M1- and M2-polarizing conditions led to significant downregulation of S1P1. In contrast, M1-polarized macrophages significantly downregulated S1P4. The expression of the remaining three S1P receptors did not change. S1P increased expression of iNOS under M2-polarizing conditions. Furthermore, S1P induced chemotaxis in M1 macrophages and changed cytokine production in M2 macrophages. Phagocytosis was not affected by S1P-signalling. Discussion. The expression of different specific S1P receptor profiles may provide a possibility to selectively influence M1- or M2-polarized macrophages.

  5. Potential of wound dressing composed of hyaluronic acid containing epidermal growth factor to enhance cytokine production by fibroblasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, Akiko; Shimizu, Nahoko; Kuroyanagi, Yoshimitsu

    2013-12-01

    This study aimed to investigate the potential of a wound dressing composed of hyaluronic acid (HA) containing epidermal growth factor (EGF) to enhance cytokine production by fibroblasts. The present wound dressing has a two-layered spongy structure: an upper layer composed of crosslinked high-molecular-weight HA, and a lower layer composed of low-molecular-weight HA containing arginine (Arg) and vitamin C derivative (VC) with or without EGF. Human fibroblast-embedded collagen gel sheet (cultured dermal substitute: CDS) was elevated to the interface between the air and culture medium to create a wound surface model onto which each wound dressing was placed, which was followed by culture for 7 days. The EGF dressing (with EGF, Arg, VC) significantly enhanced the production of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) by CDS as compared to the EGF-free dressing (with Arg, VC). To evaluate if this enhanced production of VEGF and HGF achieved with the EGF dressing is sustained, a second experiment was conducted using a wound surface model. Each wound dressing was placed on the CDS in the wound surface model. Culture was then performed for 3 days (first period), after which each dressing was placed on another CDS for a further 3-day culture period (second period). The EGF dressing enhanced the production of VEGF and HGF by CDS during the first and second periods as compared to the corresponding production when using the EGF-free dressing. These results suggest that EGF can be maintained in the hydrated layer of a wound dressing composed of crosslinked high-molecular-weight HA.

  6. Anesthesiology and the cytokine network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara Lisowska

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The immune response is a highly specific reaction carried out by means of specialized cells that belong to the immune system. There are two types of immune response mechanisms aimed towards pathogens: non-specific, innate reactions, and specific, acquired reactions. Acquired immunity, characterized by its specificity, is comprised of lymphocytes, including both T cell and B cell populations. The role of B lymphocytes is not limited to the humoral response, though the cellular immune response is carried out mainly by various T lymphocyte subpopulations. The reactions of the humoral and cellular responses complement and stimulate one another mutually – cytokines are their common linking element. The attachment of cytokines to their specific receptors activates a sequence of signals – either intracellular or between the cells of various systems. This organization of respective connections and reactions, including the functional relations between cells of the immune response, in its complexity, is best described as a cytokine network. The response of the immune system to surgical trauma can be looked at from both a local and a general perspective. Not only surgical trauma caused by tissue damage, however, influences the functioning of the immune system, but also the drugs and techniques used during anesthesia. Our article is a presentation of the effects of medications used in anesthesia with respect to their influence on the cytokine network.

  7. CD229 (Ly9) lymphocyte cell surface receptor interacts homophilically through its N-terminal domain and relocalizes to the immunological synapse

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Romero, [No Value; Zapater, N; Calvo, M; Kalko, SG; de la Fuente, MA; Tovar, [No Value; Ockeloen, C; Pizcueta, P; Engel, P

    2005-01-01

    CD229 is a member of the CD150 family of the Ig superfamily expressed on T and B cells. Receptors of this family regulate cytokine production and cytotoxicity of lymphocytes and NK cells. The cytoplasmic tail of CD229 binds to SAP, a protein that is defective in X-linked lymphoproliferative syndrome

  8. CD229 (Ly9) lymphocyte cell surface receptor interacts homophilically through its N-terminal domain and relocalizes to the immunological synapse

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Romero, [No Value; Zapater, N; Calvo, M; Kalko, SG; de la Fuente, MA; Tovar, [No Value; Ockeloen, C; Pizcueta, P; Engel, P

    2005-01-01

    CD229 is a member of the CD150 family of the Ig superfamily expressed on T and B cells. Receptors of this family regulate cytokine production and cytotoxicity of lymphocytes and NK cells. The cytoplasmic tail of CD229 binds to SAP, a protein that is defective in X-linked lymphoproliferative syndrome

  9. Capsaicin attenuates LPS-induced inflammatory cytokine production by upregulation of LXRα.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Jing; Luo, Kang; Li, Yan; Chen, Quan; Tang, Dan; Wang, Deming; Xiao, Ji

    2015-09-01

    Here, we investigated the role of LXRα in capsaicin mediated anti-inflammatory effects. Results revealed that capsaicin inhibits LPS-induced IL-1β, IL-6 and TNF-α production in a time- and dose-dependent manner. Moreover, capsaicin increases LXRα expression through PPARγ pathway. Inhibition of LXRα activation by siRNA diminished the inhibitory action of capsaicin on LPS-induced IL-1β, IL-6 and TNF-α production. Additionally, LXRα siRNA abrogated the inhibitory action of capsaicin on p65 NF-κB protein expression. Thus, we propose that the anti-inflammatory effects of capsaicin are LXRα dependent, and LXRα may potentially link the capsaicin mediated PPARγ activation and NF-κB inhibition in LPS-induced inflammatory response.

  10. Lunasin Inhibits Cell Proliferation via Apoptosis and Reduces the Production of Proinflammatory Cytokines in Cultured Rheumatoid Arthritis Synovial Fibroblasts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaohui Jia

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Lunasin, a peptide with 43 amino acid residues and initially isolated and identified in soybean cotyledon, has gained extensive attention due to its anti-inflammatory and anticancer properties. However, its treatment efficacy on rheumatoid arthritis (RA and corresponding mechanisms have not been reported. Herein, the synovial fibroblasts harvested and isolated from patients with RA were treated with lunasin at various concentrations to examine the proliferation, apoptosis status, and corresponding cell cycle of cultured RA synovial fibroblasts. Meanwhile, the underlying mechanisms of lunasin for RA treatment are explored through Western blot, real-time PCR, ELISA, and luciferase reporter assays. Lunasin significantly inhibited the proliferation and induced the apoptosis of cultured RA synovial fibroblasts. In addition, lunasin reduced the production of interleukin-6 (IL-6, IL-8, and matrix metalloproteinase-3 (MMP-3 and suppressed the activation of NF-κB in cultured RA synovial fibroblasts but did not reveal obvious modulation on the secretion and gene expression of MMP-1. Therefore, lunasin will have promising potential as a novel nutritional supplement or drug candidate for RA due to its potency of suppressing synovial cell proliferation and decreasing the production of proinflammatory cytokines and MMPs in synovial cells.

  11. Excretory-Secretory Products from Hookworm L3 and Adult Worms Suppress Proinflammatory Cytokines in Infected Individuals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geiger, Stefan Michael; Fujiwara, Ricardo Toshio; Freitas, Paula Albuquerque; Massara, Cristiano Lara; Carvalho, Omar dos Santos; Corrêa-Oliveira, Rodrigo; Bethony, Jeffrey Michael

    2011-01-01

    We compared the effects of larval and adult worm excretory-secretory (ES) products from hookworm on the proliferative responses and cytokine secretion in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) from hookwormpatients and egg-negative, nonendemic controls. When compared with negative controls, mitogen-stimulated PBMC from hookworm-infected individuals showed a significantly reduced proliferative response when adult worm ES antigen was added to the cultures. Furthermore, in hookworm-infected individuals a significant downmodulation of inflammatory interleukin (IL)-6 and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α secretion resulted when PBMCs were stimulated with mitogen in combination with larval or adult worm ES. Both, interferon (IFN)-γ and IL-10 secretion were significantly lower in stimulated PBMC from infected individuals; however the IFN-γ/IL-10 ratio was much lower in hookworm-infected patients. Comparable effects, although at lower concentrations, were achieved when PBMCs from both groups were incubated with living hookworm third-stage larvae. We suggest that hookworm ES products downmodulate proliferative responses and inflammation during the chronic phase of the disease and facilitate early larval survival or adult worm persistence in the gut. PMID:21772981

  12. Poly IC triggers a cathepsin D- and IPS-1-dependent pathway to enhance cytokine production and mediate dendritic cell necroptosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Jian; Kawai, Taro; Tsuchida, Tetsuo; Kozaki, Tatsuya; Tanaka, Hiroki; Shin, Kyung-Sue; Kumar, Himanshu; Akira, Shizuo

    2013-04-18

    RIG-I-like receptors (RLRs) sense virus-derived RNA or polyinosinic-polycytidylic acid (poly IC) to exert antiviral immune responses. Here, we examine the mechanisms underlying the adjuvant effects of poly IC. Poly IC was taken up by dendritic cells (DCs), and it induced lysosomal destabilization, which, in turn, activated an RLR-dependent signaling pathway. Upon poly IC stimulation, cathepsin D was released into the cytoplasm from the lysosome to interact with IPS-1, an adaptor molecule for RLRs. This interaction facilitated cathepsin D cleavage of caspase 8 and the activation of the transcription factor NF-κB, resulting in enhanced cytokine production. Further recruitment of the kinase RIP-1 to this complex initiated the necroptosis of a small number of DCs. HMGB1 released by dying cells enhanced IFN-β production in concert with poly IC. Collectively, these findings suggest that cathepsin D-triggered, IPS-1-dependent necroptosis is a mechanism that propagates the adjuvant efficacy of poly IC.

  13. Autocrine interferon priming in macrophages but not dendritic cells results in enhanced cytokine and chemokine production after coronavirus infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Haixia; Zhao, Jincun; Perlman, Stanley

    2010-10-19

    Coronaviruses efficiently inhibit interferon (IFN) induction in nonhematopoietic cells and conventional dendritic cells (cDC). However, IFN is produced in infected macrophages, microglia, and plasmacytoid dendritic cells (pDC). To begin to understand why IFN is produced in infected macrophages, we infected bone marrow-derived macrophages (BMM) and as a control, bone marrow-derived DC (BMDC) with the coronavirus mouse hepatitis virus (MHV). As expected, BMM but not BMDC expressed type I IFN. IFN production in infected BMM was nearly completely dependent on signaling through the alpha/beta interferon (IFN-α/β) receptor (IFNAR). Several IFN-dependent cytokines and chemokines showed the same expression pattern, with enhanced production in BMM compared to BMDC and dependence upon signaling through the IFNAR. Exogenous IFN enhanced IFN-dependent gene expression in BMM at early times after infection and in BMDC at all times after infection but did not stimulate expression of molecules that signal through myeloid differentiation factor 88 (MyD88), such as tumor necrosis factor (TNF). Collectively, our results show that IFN is produced at early times postinfection (p.i.) in MHV-infected BMM, but not in BMDC, and primes expression of IFN and IFN-responsive genes. Further, our results also show that BMM are generally more responsive to MHV infection, since MyD88-dependent pathways are also activated to a greater extent in these cells than in BMDC.

  14. Inhibitory effects of geranium essential oil and its major component, citronellol, on degranulation and cytokine production by mast cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Yuko; Sato, Harumi; Yorita, Mika; Nakayama, Hiroto; Miyazato, Hironari; Sugimoto, Keiichiro; Jippo, Tomoko

    2016-06-01

    We investigated the effects of geranium essential oil (GEO) on anaphylaxis. GEO can exert antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects, but its roles in allergic reactions are incompletely understood. Here, we used mouse cells to show that GEO inhibited the degranulation of cultured mast cells (CMCs). Citronellol is the major component of GEO and inhibited CMC degranulation. The l-enantiomer of citronellol more effectively suppressed CMC degranulation than did d-citronellol. We also examined whether citronellol could inhibit the immunoglobulin (Ig) E-induced production of tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α. Treatment with various concentrations of citronellol before CMC activation with IgE significantly inhibited the induction of TNF-α in a dose-dependent manner. Mechanistically, citronellol suppressed the phosphorylation of mitogen-activated protein kinase (ERK), which is critical for ERK activation and the production of inflammatory cytokines in mast cells. These findings suggest that citronellol may represent a candidate compound for the effective treatment of allergic diseases.

  15. Gender affects macrophage cytokine and prostaglandin E2 production and PGE2 receptor expression after trauma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stapleton, Philip P; Strong, Vivian E Mack; Freeman, Tracy A; Winter, Jordan; Yan, Zhaoping; Daly, John M

    2004-11-01

    Gender influences morbidity and mortality after injury. Hormonal differences are important; however, the role of prostaglandins as mediators in immune dysfunction relating to gender differences after trauma is unclear. We hypothesized that gender-dependent differences in PGE(2) receptor expression and signaling may be involved in immune-related differences. This study determined prostaglandin receptor subtype (EP1-EP4) expression following injury and determined whether gender differences influence EP receptor expression. BALB/c male and female mice (estrus and pro-estrus) (n = 6 per group) were subjected to femur fracture and 40% hemorrhage (trauma) or sham injury (anesthesia). Seven days later, the splenic macrophages were harvested and stimulated with lipopolysaccharide (Escherichia coli serotype O55:B5). After 6 h mRNA samples were collected for EP receptor mRNA expression and at 24 h supernatants were collected for PGE(2), TNF-alpha, and IL-6 production. The expression of EP2-4 receptors was higher in female pro-estrus mice compared with male mice. EP1 receptor expression was higher in males than pro-estrus females. There was decreased expression of all four receptors after trauma in female estrus compared with control estrus mice. Macrophage PGE(2), TNF-alpha, and IL-6 production was significantly increased in injured female mice compared with female controls but there were no differences in injured male mice compared with male controls. PGE(2) and TNF-alpha production by traumatized male mice were significantly less than that produced by traumatized pro-estrus females. These data suggest gender-related differences in response to traumatic injury and that alterations in specific EP receptor subtypes may be involved in immune dysfunction after injury. Studies to evaluate targeted modulation of these receptor subtypes may provide further insights to gender-specific differences in the immune response after injury.

  16. Production of proinflammatory cytokines in the human THP-1 monocyte cell line following induction by Tp0751,a recombinant protein of Treponema pallidum

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    The tissue destruction characteristic of syphilis infection may be caused by inflammation due to Treponema pallidum and the ensuing immune responses to the pathogen.T.pallidum membrane proteins are thought to be potent inducers of inflammation during the early stages of infection.However,the actual membrane proteins that induce inflammatory cytokine production are not known,nor are the molecular mechanisms responsible for triggering and sustaining the inflammatory cascades.In the present study,Tp0751 recombinant protein from T.pallidum was found to induce the production of proinflammatory cytokines,including TNF-α,IL-1βand IL-6,in a THP-1 human monocyte cell line.The signal transduction pathways involved in the production of these cytokines were then further investigated.No inhibition of TNF-a,IL-1β,or IL-6 production was observed following treatment with the SAPK/JNK specific inhibitor SP600125 or with an ERK inhibitor PD98059.By contrast,anti-TLR2 mAb,anti-CD14 mAb,and the p38 inhibitor SB203580 significantly inhibited the production of all three cytokines.In addition,pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate (PDTC),a specific inhibitor of NF-κB,profoundly inhibited the production of these cytokines.Tp0751 treatment strongly activated NF-κB,as revealed by Western blotting.However,NF-κB translocation was significantly inhibited by treatment with PDTC.These results indicated that TLR2,CD14,MAPKs/p38,and NF-κB might be implicated in the inflammatory reaction caused by T.pallidum infection.

  17. Régulation de la production, par des cellules endothéliales, de cytokines pro-inflammatoires après irradiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Meeren, A.; Lafont, H.; Mathé, D.

    1998-04-01

    Gamma irradiation leads to an increased production of interleukin- (IL)-6 and IL-8 by human endothelial cells. In order to regulate the radio-induced production of these pro-inflammatory cytokines, we used the immunoregulatory cytokines IL-4 and IL-10. These agents were added either before or after a 10 Gy-irradiation. Our results show that it is possible to decrease the radio-induced production of IL-6 and IL-8 with the use of IL-4 and IL-10. Differences in the intensity of the response have been observed according to the time of treatment. The anti-inflammatory potential of both IL-4 and IL-10 was more pronounced when added after irradiation. Après irradiation gamma, des cellules endothéliales humaines ont une production accrue des interleukines (IL-) -6 et -8. Dans le but de réguler la production de ces cytokines pro-inflammatoires, nous avons utilisé des cytokines dites anti-inflammatoires, l'IL-4 et l'IL-10. Ces agents ont été ajoutés soit avant soit après une irradiation de 10Gy. Nos résultats montrent qu'il est possible de diminuer les productions radio-induites d'IL-6 et d'IL-8 par l'IL-4 et l'IL-10. Des différences dans l'intensité de la réponse ont toutefois été observées selon que l'IL-4 ou l'IL-10 ont été ajoutées avant ou après irradiation; leur efficacité anti-inflammatoire étant plus marquée lorsque les cytokines sont ajoutées après l'irradiation.

  18. T cell subsets and cytokines in allergic and non-allergic children. I. Analysis of IL-4, IFN-? and IL-13 mRNA expression and protein production

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koning, H.; Neijens, H.J.; Baert, M.R.M.; Oranje, A.P.; Savelkoul, H.F.J.

    1997-01-01

    Interleukin 4 (IL-4) and IL-13 are key cytokines inducing switching to immunoglobulin E (IgE), whereas interferon (IFN-) acts inhibitory on this process. We analysed whether differences existed in IL-4, IFN- and IL-13 mRNA expression and protein production between T cells of children with allergic a

  19. Production of serum amyloid A in equine articular chondrocytes and fibroblast-like synoviocytes treated with proinflammatory cytokines and its effects on the two cell types in culture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Stine; Ladefoged, Søren; Berg, Lise Charlotte

    2016-01-01

    -sensitive protein were assessed by quantitative real-time PCR assay; SAA protein was evaluated by immunoturbidimetry and denaturing isoelectric focusing and western blotting. RESULTS: All cytokine stimulation protocols increased expression of SAA mRNA and resulted in detectable SAA protein production...

  20. T cell subsets and cytokines in allergic and non-allergic children. I. Analysis of IL-4, IFN-? and IL-13 mRNA expression and protein production

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koning, H.; Neijens, H.J.; Baert, M.R.M.; Oranje, A.P.; Savelkoul, H.F.J.

    1997-01-01

    Interleukin 4 (IL-4) and IL-13 are key cytokines inducing switching to immunoglobulin E (IgE), whereas interferon (IFN-) acts inhibitory on this process. We analysed whether differences existed in IL-4, IFN- and IL-13 mRNA expression and protein production between T cells of children with allergic

  1. Blueberries reduce pro-inflammatory cytokine TNF-alpha and IL-6 production in mouse macrophages by inhibiting NF Kappa B activation and the MAPK pathway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blueberries (BB) have been reported to attenuate atherosclerosis in apoE deficient (ApoE-/-) mice. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of BB in reducing pro-inflammatory cytokine production in mouse macrophages. ApoE-/- mice were fed AIN-93G diet (CD) or CD formulated to contain 1% fre...

  2. TNF superfamily cytokines in the promotion of Th9 differentiation and immunopathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meylan, Françoise; Siegel, Richard M

    2017-01-01

    The tumor necrosis factor (TNF) receptors and their corresponding cytokine ligands have been implicated in many aspects of the biology of immune functions. TNF receptors have key roles during various stages of T cell homeostasis. Many of them can co-stimulate lymphocyte proliferation and cytokine production. Additionally, several TNF cytokines can regulate T cell differentiation, including promoting Th1, Th2, Th17, and more recently the newly described Th9 subset. Four TNF family cytokines have been identified as regulators for IL-9 production by T cells. OX40L, TL1A, and GITRL can promote Th9 formation but can also divert iTreg into Th9, while 4-1BBL seems to inhibit IL-9 production from iTreg and has not been studied for its ability to promote Th9 generation. Regulation of IL-9 production by TNF family cytokines has repercussions in vivo, including enhancement of anti-tumor immunity and immunopathology in allergic lung and ocular inflammation. Regulating T cell production of IL-9 through blockade or agonism of TNF family cytokine receptors may be a therapeutic strategy for autoimmune and allergic diseases and in tumor.

  3. Consumption of purple sweet potato leaves modulates human immune response: T-lymphocyte functions, lytic activity of natural killer cell and antibody production

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chiao-Ming Chen; Sing-Chung Li; Ya-Ling Lin; Ching-Yun Hsu; Ming-Jer Shieh; Jen-Fang Liu

    2005-01-01

    AIM: To study the immunological effects of physiological doses of purple sweet potato leaves (PSPL).METHODS: The randomized crossover study (two periods,each lasting for 2 wk) involved 16 healthy non-smoking adults of normal weight. The 6-wk study consisted of a run-in (wk 1) PSPL diet (daily consumption of 200 g PSPL) or a control diet (low polyphenols, with the amount of carotenoids adjusted to the same level as that of PSPL) (wk 2-3), washout diet (wk 4), and switched diet (wk 5-6). Fasting blood was collected weekly in the morning. T-lymphocyte function was assessed via the proliferation and secretion of immunoreactive cytokines.Salivary IgA secretion and the specific cytotoxic activities of cytotoxic T lymphocytes and natural killer (NK) cells were determined.RESULTS: The plasma β-carotene level increased with time in both groups, while the plasma polyphenol level decreased in the control group, and no significant difference was detected between the two groups.Although plasma polyphenol levels did not significantly increase in the PSPL group at the end of the study, they were significantly elevated in urine. PSPL consumption produced a significant increase in proliferation responsiveness of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) and their secretion of immunoreactive IL-2 and IL-4. As well, lytic activity in NK cells was elevated in a time-dependent fashion. Salivary TgA secretion significantly decreased in control group after 2 wk, and returned to baseline following dietary switch to PSPL.CONCLUSION: Consumption of PSPL modulates various immune functions including increased proliferation responsiveness of PBMC, secretion of cytokines IL-2 and IL-4, and the lytic activity of NK cells. The responsible determinants of PSPL remain to be elucidated, as does the biological significance of the present observations.

  4. Effect of TNF-α production inhibitors on the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines by peripheral blood mononuclear cells from HTLV-1-infected individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luna, T; Santos, S B; Nascimento, M; Porto, M A F; Muniz, A L; Carvalho, E M; Jesus, A R

    2011-11-01

    Human T lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-1) is the causal agent of myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis (HAM/TSP), a disease mediated by the immune response. HTLV-1 induces a spontaneous proliferation and production of pro-inflammatory cytokines by T cells, and increasing interferon-γ (IFN-γ) and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) levels are potentially involved in tissue damage in diseases related to HTLV-1. This exaggerated immune response is also due to an inability of the natural regulatory mechanisms to down-modulate the immune response in this group of patients. TNF-α inhibitors reduce inflammation and have been shown to improve chronic inflammatory diseases in clinical trials. The aim of this study was to evaluate the ability of pentoxifylline, forskolin, rolipram, and thalidomide to decrease in vitro production of TNF-α and IFN-γ in cells of HTLV-1-infected subjects. Participants of the study included 19 patients with HAM/TSP (mean age, 53 ± 11; male:female ratio, 1:1) and 18 HTLV-1 carriers (mean age, 47 ± 11; male:female ratio, 1:2.6). Cytokines were determined by ELISA in supernatants of mononuclear cell cultures. Pentoxifylline inhibited TNF-α and IFN-γ synthesis with the minimum dose used (50 µM). The results with forskolin were similar to those observed with pentoxifylline. The doses of rolipram used were 0.01-1 µM and the best inhibition of TNF-α production was achieved with 1 µM and for IFN-γ production it was 0.01 µM. The minimum dose of thalidomide used (1 µM) inhibited TNF-α production but thalidomide did not inhibit IFN-γ production even when the maximum dose (50 µM) was used. All drugs had an in vitro inhibitory effect on TNF-α production and, with the exception of thalidomide, all of them also decreased IFN-γ production.

  5. Cytokine expression in CD4(+) cells exposed to the monocyte locomotion inhibitory factor produced by Entamoeba histolytica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rojas-Dotor, Sara; Rico, Guadalupe; Pérez, Julia; Velázquez, Juan; Silva, Raúl; Morales, Esther; Kretschmer, Roberto

    2006-04-01

    Entamoeba histolytica produces monocyte locomotion inhibitory factor (MLIF), a pentapeptide with in vitro and in vivo anti-inflammatory properties. MLIF may interfere with leukocyte migration, disturbing the balance of pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines secreted by CD4(+) T lymphocytes. We evaluated the effect of MLIF on expression of pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines in human CD4(+) T lymphocytes. Regulatory cytokines [interleukin-1 beta (IL-1beta), IL-2, interferon gamma (IFN-gamma), IL-5, IL-6, and IL-10] were studied by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay method in CD4(+)-cell supernatant fluids. Proinflammatory cytokines were produced per se by MLIF (IL-1beta, IL-2, and IFN-gamma) and also anti-inflammatory cytokines (IL-5, IL-6, and IL-10) with 1-phorbol-12 myristate-13 acetate + MLIF; the IL-1beta, IFN-gamma, IL-5 and IL-6 production was inhibited but not that of IL-10 which disclosed increase in its expression. MLIF disturbs the pro- and anti-inflammatory balance, and it induces inhibition of IL-1beta (principal proinflammatory cytokine) and increases IL-10 (prototype of an anti-inflammatory cytokine).

  6. [Cytokines in bone diseases. Cytokine and postmenopausal osteoporosis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inada, Masaki; Miyaura, Chisato

    2010-10-01

    Bone resorption is regulated by various cytokines. In postmenopausal osteoporosis, bone loss due to estrogen deficiency is closely related to the production of bone-resorbing cytokine. Especially, the increased production of IL-1, IL-6 and TNF-α could induce the expression of RANKL in bone tissues to enhance osteoclastogenesis. Relationship between estrogen deficiency and various cytokines is important to clarify the pathogenesis of postmenopausal osteoporosis.

  7. The effect of beta-interferon therapy on myelin basic protein-elicited CD4+ T cell proliferation and cytokine production in multiple sclerosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hedegaard, Chris J; Krakauer, Martin; Bendtzen, Klaus

    2008-01-01

    Interferon (IFN)-beta therapy has well-established clinical benefits in multiple sclerosis (MS), but the underlying modulation of cytokine responses to myelin self-antigens remains poorly understood. We analysed the CD4+ T cell proliferation and cytokine responses elicited by myelin basic protein...... (MBP) and a foreign recall antigen, tetanus toxoid (TT), in mononuclear cell cultures from fourteen MS patients undergoing IFN-beta therapy. The MBP-elicited IFN-gamma-, TNF-alpha- and IL-10 production decreased during therapy (p...

  8. Inflammation-Induced Changes in Circulating T-Cell Subsets and Cytokine Production During Human Endotoxemia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ronit, Andreas; Plovsing, Ronni R; Gaardbo, Julie C

    2017-01-01

    administration. The frequency of anti-inflammatory Tregs increased (P = .033), whereas the frequency of proinflammatory CD4(+)CD161(+) cells decreased (P = .034). Endotoxemia was associated with impaired whole-blood production of tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin-10, IL-6, IL-17, IL-2, and interferon......-γ in response to phytohaemagglutinin but did not affect TLR4 expression on Tregs. No changes in the absolute count or frequency of BALF T cells were observed. Systemic inflammation is associated with lymphopenia, a relative increase in the frequency of anti-inflammatory Tregs, and a functional impairment of T....../kg) was administered intravenously in 15 healthy volunteers. Peripheral blood and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) were collected at baseline and after 2, 4, 6, 8, and 24 hours for flow cytometry. CD4(+)CD25(+)CD127lowFoxp3(+) regulatory T cells (Tregs), CD4(+)CD161(+) cells, and activated Human leukocyte antigen...

  9. Dibutyltin disrupts glucocorticoid receptor function and impairs glucocorticoid-induced suppression of cytokine production.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christel Gumy

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Organotins are highly toxic and widely distributed environmental chemicals. Dibutyltin (DBT is used as stabilizer in the production of polyvinyl chloride plastics, and it is also the major metabolite formed from tributyltin (TBT in vivo. DBT is immunotoxic, however, the responsible targets remain to be defined. Due to the importance of glucocorticoids in immune-modulation, we investigated whether DBT could interfere with glucocorticoid receptor (GR function. METHODOLOGY: We used HEK-293 cells transiently transfected with human GR as well as rat H4IIE hepatoma cells and native human macrophages and human THP-1 macrophages expressing endogenous receptor to study organotin effects on GR function. Docking of organotins was used to investigate the binding mechanism. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We found that nanomolar concentrations of DBT, but not other organotins tested, inhibit ligand binding to GR and its transcriptional activity. Docking analysis indicated that DBT inhibits GR activation allosterically by inserting into a site close to the steroid-binding pocket, which disrupts a key interaction between the A-ring of the glucocorticoid and the GR. DBT inhibited glucocorticoid-induced expression of phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCK and tyrosine-aminotransferase (TAT and abolished the glucocorticoid-mediated transrepression of TNF-alpha-induced NF-kappaB activity. Moreover, DBT abrogated the glucocorticoid-mediated suppression of interleukin-6 (IL-6 and TNF-alpha production in lipopolysaccharide (LPS-stimulated native human macrophages and human THP-1 macrophages. CONCLUSIONS: DBT inhibits ligand binding to GR and subsequent activation of the receptor. By blocking GR activation, DBT may disturb metabolic functions and modulation of the immune system, providing an explanation for some of the toxic effects of this organotin.

  10. Microscale to manufacturing scale-up of cell-free cytokine production--a new approach for shortening protein production development timelines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zawada, James F; Yin, Gang; Steiner, Alexander R; Yang, Junhao; Naresh, Alpana; Roy, Sushmita M; Gold, Daniel S; Heinsohn, Henry G; Murray, Christopher J

    2011-07-01

    Engineering robust protein production and purification of correctly folded biotherapeutic proteins in cell-based systems is often challenging due to the requirements for maintaining complex cellular networks for cell viability and the need to develop associated downstream processes that reproducibly yield biopharmaceutical products with high product quality. Here, we present an alternative Escherichia coli-based open cell-free synthesis (OCFS) system that is optimized for predictable high-yield protein synthesis and folding at any scale with straightforward downstream purification processes. We describe how the linear scalability of OCFS allows rapid process optimization of parameters affecting extract activation, gene sequence optimization, and redox folding conditions for disulfide bond formation at microliter scales. Efficient and predictable high-level protein production can then be achieved using batch processes in standard bioreactors. We show how a fully bioactive protein produced by OCFS from optimized frozen extract can be purified directly using a streamlined purification process that yields a biologically active cytokine, human granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor, produced at titers of 700 mg/L in 10 h. These results represent a milestone for in vitro protein synthesis, with potential for the cGMP production of disulfide-bonded biotherapeutic proteins.

  11. Basal and T₃-induced ROS production in lymphocyte mitochondria is increased in type 2 diabetic patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Anthonsen, S; Larsen, J; Pedersen, P L

    2013-01-01

    in human lymphocytes in patients with diabetes mellitus type 2 (T2DM). Lymphocytes from 10 controls and 10 persons with T2DM were examined. Mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) was examined by flow cytometry after staining with MitoTracker Green (MTG). Similarly ROS was measured following staining...... patients, was found suggesting that an increased mitochondrial sensitivity for T₃ may be a significant factor responsible for increased ROS activity in diabetic patients....

  12. IL-6 amplifies TLR mediated cytokine and chemokine production: implications for the pathogenesis of rheumatic inflammatory diseases.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Caiello

    Full Text Available The role of Interleukin(IL-6 in the pathogenesis of joint and systemic inflammation in rheumatoid arthritis (RA and systemic juvenile idiopathic arthritis (s-JIA has been clearly demonstrated. However, the mechanisms by which IL-6 contributes to the pathogenesis are not completely understood. This study investigates whether IL-6 affects, alone or upon toll like receptor (TLR ligand stimulation, the production of inflammatory cytokines and chemokines in human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs, synovial fluid mononuclear cells from JIA patients (SFMCs and fibroblast-like synoviocytes from rheumatoid arthritis patients (RA synoviocytes and signalling pathways involved. PBMCs were pre-treated with IL-6 and soluble IL-6 Receptor (sIL-6R. SFMCs and RA synoviocytes were pre-treated with IL-6/sIL-6R or sIL-6R, alone or in combination with Tocilizumab (TCZ. Cells were stimulated with LPS, S100A8-9, poly(I-C, CpG, Pam2CSK4, MDP, IL-1β. Treatment of PBMCs with IL-6 induced production of TNF-α, CXCL8, and CCL2, but not IL-1β. Addition of IL-6 to the same cells after stimulation with poly(I-C, CpG, Pam2CSK4, and MDP induced a significant increase in IL-1β and CXCL8, but not TNF-α production compared with TLR ligands alone. This enhanced production of IL-1β and CXCL8 paralleled increased p65 NF-κB activation. In contrast, addition of IL-6 to PBMCs stimulated with LPS or S100A8-9 (TLR-4 ligands led to reduction of IL-1β, TNF-α and CXCL8 with reduced p65 NF-κB activation. IL-6/IL-1β co-stimulation increased CXCL8, CCL2 and IL-6 production. Addition of IL-6 to SFMCs stimulated with LPS or S100A8 increased CXCL8, CCL2 and IL-1β production. Treatment of RA synoviocytes with sIL-6R increased IL-6, CXCL8 and CCL2 production, with increased STAT3 and p65 NF-κB phosphorylation. Our results suggest that IL-6 amplifies TLR-induced inflammatory response. This effect may be relevant in the presence of high IL-6 and sIL-6R levels, such as in arthritic

  13. BASIC AND LABORATORY SCIENCES MURINE CYTOKINE PATTERNS FOLLOWING RUBELLA VACCINATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piirvanch Farzaneli

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available Although thorough studies on the immune reponse to rubella have been per¬formed, less attention has been given to the cellular mechanism and mediators that shape the process. Specifically, information concerning the nature of cytokine patterns involved in the immune response to Rubella vaccination is not available. This study deals with cytokine production patterns of spleen cells from Balb/c mice following vaccination with the Takahashi strain of Rubella vaccine. Mice were injected intraperitonealy with Rubella virus and PBS and 7. 10 or 14 days later, spleen cells were separated and cultured with varying doses of virus, con A or only the medium. ELISA assays were performed on supernatants for measure¬ment of IL-4. INF-y and IL-5. LTT (Lymphocyte Transformation Test was also performed. The data indicate variation in cytokine patterns during the time peri¬ods after vaccination. On day 7 a type 1 pattern was observed. The LTT response was also indicative of CMI (Cell Mediated Immunity response on the 7lh and 14"' days while a transient suppression on day 10 was observed. These results indicate a time dependent cytokine response with variation ultimately leading to a domi¬nant type 1 (Tl cytokine response.

  14. Effect of space flight on cytokine production and other immunologic parameters of rhesus monkeys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonnenfeld, G.; Davis, S.; Taylor, G. R.; Mandel, A. D.; Konstantinova, I. V.; Lesnyak, A.; Fuchs, B. B.; Peres, C.; Tkackzuk, J.; Schmitt, D. A.

    1996-01-01

    During a recent flight of a Russian satellite (Cosmos #2229), initial experiments examining the effects of space flight on immunologic responses of rhesus monkeys were performed to gain insight into the effect of space flight on resistance to infection. Experiments were performed on tissue samples taken from the monkeys before and immediately after flight. Additional samples were obtained approximately 1 month after flight for a postflight restraint study. Two types of experiments were carried out throughout this study. The first experiment determined the ability of leukocytes to produce interleukin-1 and to express interleukin-2 receptors. The second experiment examined the responsiveness of rhesus bone marrow cells to recombinant human granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF). Human reagents that cross-reacted with monkey tissue were utilized for the bulk of the studies. Results from both studies indicated that there were changes in immunologic function attributable to space flight. Interleukin-1 production and the expression of interleukin-2 receptors was decreased after space flight. Bone marrow cells from flight monkeys showed a significant decrease in their response to GM-CSF compared with the response of bone marrow cells from nonflight control monkeys. These results suggest that the rhesus monkey may be a useful surrogate for humans in future studies that examine the effect of space flight on immune response, particularly when conditions do not readily permit human study.

  15. Inhibitors of MyD88-dependent proinflammatory cytokine production identified utilizing a novel RNA interference screening approach.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John S Cho

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The events required to initiate host defenses against invading pathogens involve complex signaling cascades comprised of numerous adaptor molecules, kinases, and transcriptional elements, ultimately leading to the production of proinflammatory cytokines, such as tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha. How these signaling cascades are regulated, and the proteins and regulatory elements participating are still poorly understood. RESULTS: We report here the development a completely random short-hairpin RNA (shRNA library coupled with a novel forward genetic screening strategy to identify inhibitors of Toll-like receptor (TLR dependent proinflammatory responses. We developed a murine macrophage reporter cell line stably transfected with a construct expressing diphtheria toxin-A (DT-A under the control of the TNF-alpha-promoter. Stimulation of the reporter cell line with the TLR ligand lipopolysaccharide (LPS resulted in DT-A induced cell death, which could be prevented by the addition of an shRNA targeting the TLR adaptor molecule MyD88. Utilizing this cell line, we screened a completely random lentiviral short hairpin RNA (shRNA library for sequences that inhibited TLR-mediated TNF-alpha production. Recovery of shRNA sequences from surviving cells led to the identification of unique shRNA sequences that significantly inhibited TLR4-dependent TNF-alpha gene expression. Furthermore, these shRNA sequences specifically blocked TLR2 but not TLR3-dependent TNF-alpha production. CONCLUSIONS: Thus, we describe the generation of novel tools to facilitate large-scale forward genetic screens in mammalian cells and the identification of potent shRNA inhibitors of TLR2 and TLR4- dependent proinflammatory responses.

  16. Effects of aminoguanidine on nitric oxide production induced by inflammatory cytokines and endotoxin in cultured rat hepatocytes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Guo Liang Zhang; Ye Hong Wang; Hui Ling Teng; Zhi Bin Lin

    2001-01-01

    AIM To study the effects of aminoguanidine(AG) and two L-arginine analogues Nω-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME) and Nω-nitro-L-arginine (L-NNA) on nitric oxide (NO) productioninduced by cytokines (TNF-α, IL-11β, and IFN-γ)and bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS) mixture(CM) in the cultured rat hepatocytes, andexamine their mechanisms action.METHODS Rat hepatocytes were incubatedwith AG, L-NAME, L-NNA, Actinomycin D (ActD)and dexamethasene in a medium containing CM(LPS plus TNF-α, IL-1β, and IFN-γ) for 24 h. NOproduction in the cultured supernatant wasmeasured with the Griese reaction. IntracellularcGMP level was detected with radioimmunoasey.RESULTS NO production was markedlyblocked by AG and L-NAME in a dose-dependentmanner under inflammatory stimuli conditiontriggered by CM in vitro. The rate of themaximum inhibitory effects of L-NAME (38.9%)was less potent than that obtained with AG(53.7%, P<0.05). There was no significantdifference between the inhibitory effects of AGand two L-arginine analogues on intracellularcGMP accumulation in rat cultured hepatocytes.Non-specific NOS expression inhibitordexamethasone ( DEX ) and iNOS mRNAtranscriptional inhibitor ActD also significantlyinhibited CM-induced NO production. AG(0.1mmol.L-1) and ActD (0.2ng@Lt) wereequipotent in decreasing NO production inducedby inflammatory stimuli in vitro, and botheffects were more potent than that induced bynon-selectivity NOS activity inhibitor L-NAME(0. 1 mmol@ L- 1) under similar stimuli conditions(P<O.O1).CONCLUSION AG is a potent selectiveinhibitor of inducible isoform of NOS, and themechanism of action may be not onlycompetitive inhibition in the substrate level, butalso the gene expression level in rathepatocytes .

  17. [Cytokines and proteases involved in pathogenesis of COPD].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamaya, Atsuyo; Osanai, Kazuhiro

    2011-10-01

    COPD is characterized by persistence of chronic inflammation in small airways and alveoli. Macrophages, neutrophils, and a specialized subset of T lymphocytes orchestrate the mild inflammation. This article focuses on humoral factors such as cytokines and chemokines that recruit these inflammatory and immune cells to the lungs, and proteases/antiproteases that ultimately cause structural derangement in the terminal respiratory zones. In addition to the classical protease and antiprotease imbalance hypothesis, alveolar homeostasis abnormality that comes from imbalance of lung constitutional cell apoptosis and regeneration may play a role in emphysema development. Also, autoimmunity to elastin degradation products may take part in the disease.

  18. 8,9-Epoxyeicosatrienoic acid inhibits antibody production of B lymphocytes in mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanxiang Gao

    Full Text Available Epoxyeicosatrienoic acids (EETs, synthesized from arachidonic acid by cytochrome P450 epoxygenases, are converted to dihydroxyeicosatrienoic acids by soluble epoxide hydrolase. EETs exert anti-inflammatory effects. However, the effect of EETs on humoral immunity is poorly understood. The present study is to investigate the potential role of EETs on B cell function and mechanisms. We examined the role of EETs on antibody production of splenic B cells from C57BL/6 and apolipoprotein E-deficient (ApoE-/- mice by means of ELISA. Of the 4 EET regioisomers, 8,9-EET decreased basal and activation-induced B cell antibody secretion. As well, 8,9-EET significantly inhibited B-cell proliferation and survival, plasma cell differentiation and class-switch recombination. Western blot analysis revealed that lipopolysaccharide-induced nuclear translocation of NF-κB could be attenuated by 8,9-EET. Furthermore, germinal center formation was impaired by 8,9-EET in mice in vivo. 8,9-EET may inhibit B-cell function in vitro and in vivo, which suggests a new therapeutic strategy for diseases with excess B cell activation.

  19. Cytokines and Liver Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Herbert Tilg

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Cytokines are pleiotropic peptides produced by virtually every nucleated cell in the body. In most tissues, including the liver, constitutive production of cytokines is absent or minimal. There is increasing evidence that several cytokines mediate hepatic inflammation, apoptosis and necrosis of liver cells, cholestasis and fibrosis. Interestingly, the same mediators also mediate the regeneration of liver tissue after injury. Among the various cytokines, the proinflammatory cytokine tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-a has emerged as a key factor in various aspects of liver disease, such as cachexia and/or cholestasis. Thus, antagonism of TNF-a and other injury-related cytokines in liver diseases merits evaluation as a treatment of these diseases. However, because the same cytokines are also necessary for the regeneration of the tissue after the liver has been injured, inhibition of these mediators might impair hepatic recovery. The near future will bring the exiting clinical challenge of testing new anticytokine strategies in various liver diseases.

  20. Liver as a focus of impaired oxygenation and cytokine production in a porcine model of endotoxicosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bathe, O F; Rudston-Brown, B; Chow, A W; Phang, P T

    1998-10-01

    To determine whether the liver is a focus of insufficient oxygenation and whether liver is a source of tumor necrosis factor (TNF) and interleukin-6 (IL-6) in a porcine model of endotoxicosis. In vivo, prospective, controlled, repeated-measures, experimental study. Experimental physiology laboratory in a university. Juvenile pigs, weighing 22 to 35 kg. Catheters for blood sampling were inserted into the carotid artery, portal vein, hepatic vein, and pulmonary artery of anesthetized animals. Ultrasonic flow probes were placed on the portal vein and the hepatic artery. During surgery, normal saline was infused intravenously at 25 mL/kg/hr. Following stabilization, animals were allocated randomly to one of two groups. The endotoxemic group (n = 6) received 50 mg/kg of purified Escherichia coli lipopolysaccharide infused into the external jugular vein over 1 hr. The control group (n = 6) received a sham saline infusion infused over 1 hr. Once the endotoxin or sham infusion was initiated, the rate of the intravenous saline infusion was increased to 48 mL/kg/hr for the remainder of the experiment. Measurements were obtained before the endotoxin or sham infusion, immediately after the infusion, and every 30 mins thereafter for 4 hrs. Blood gases, lactate, and bioactive TNF and IL-6 concentrations were measured from the carotid artery, portal vein, hepatic vein, and pulmonary artery. The porcine model is characterized by systemic hypotension, pulmonary hypertension, and maintenance of cardiac output. Despite decreased hepatic oxygen delivery in endotoxemic animals (p oxygen consumption compared with controls. Throughout the experiment, there was net hepatic consumption of lactate in both groups. There was no significant hepatic production (or consumption) of TNF or IL-6 in either group. In this porcine model of endotoxicosis, there is a reduction of hepatic oxygen delivery but dysoxia is not present. The liver is not a source of TNF or IL-6 in this model of endotoxicosis.

  1. Intensive cytokine induction in pandemic H1N1 influenza virus infection accompanied by robust production of IL-10 and IL-6.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xuelian Yu

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The innate immune system is the first line of defense against viruses by inducing expression of cytokines and chemokines. Many pandemic influenza H1N1 virus [P(H1N1] infected severe cases occur in young adults under 18 years old who were rarely seriously affected by seasonal influenza. Results regarding host cytokine profiles of P(H1N1 are ambivalent. In the present study we investigated host cytokine profiles in P(H1N1 patients and identified cytokines related to disease severity. METHODS AND PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We retrieved 77, 59, 26 and 26 sera samples from P(H1N1 and non-flu influenza like illness (non-ILIs cases with mild symptoms (mild patients, P(H1N1 vaccinees and healthy individuals, respectively. Nine and 16 sera were from hospitalized P(H1N1 and non-ILIs patients with severe symptoms (severe patients. Cytokines of IL-1, IL-2, IL-4, IL-5, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, IL-12, IFN-γ and TNF-α were assayed by cytokine bead array, IL-17 and IL-23 measured with ELISA. Mild P(H1N1 patients produced significantly elevated IL-2, IL-12, IFN-γ, IL-6, TNF-α, IL-5, IL-10, IL-17 and IL-23 versus to healthy controls. While an overwhelming IL-6 and IL-10 production were observed in severe P(H1N1 patients. Higher IL-10 secretion in P(H1N1 vaccinees confirmed our observation that highly increased level of sera IL-6 and IL-10 in P(H1N1 patients may lead to disease progression. CONCLUSION AND SIGNIFICANCE: A comprehensive innate immune response was activated at the early stage of P(H1N1 infection with a combine Th1/Th2/Th3 cytokines production. As disease progression, a systemic production of IL-6 and IL-10 were observed in severe P(H1N1 patients. Further analysis found a strong correlation between IL-6 and IL-10 production in the severe P(H1N1 patients. IL-6 may be served as a mediator to induce IL-10 production. Highly elevated level of sera IL-6 and IL-10 in P(H1N1 patients may lead to disease progression, but the underlying mechanism awaits

  2. GRB2 Nucleates T Cell Receptor-Mediated LAT Clusters That Control PLC-γ1 Activation and Cytokine Production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilal, Mahmood Yousif; Houtman, Jon C D

    2015-01-01

    GRB2 is a ubiquitously expressed adaptor protein required for signaling downstream of multiple receptors. To address the role of GRB2 in receptor-mediated signaling, the expression of GRB2 was suppressed in human CD4+ T cells and its role downstream of the T cell receptor (TCR) was examined. Interestingly, GRB2 deficient T cells had enhanced signaling from complexes containing the TCR. However, GRB2 deficient T cells had substantially reduced production of IL-2 and IFN-γ. This defect was attributed to diminished formation of linker for activation of T cells (LAT) signaling clusters, which resulted in reduced MAP kinase activation, calcium flux, and PLC-γ1 recruitment to LAT signaling clusters. Add back of wild-type GRB2, but not a novel N-terminal SH3 domain mutant, rescued LAT microcluster formation, calcium mobilization, and cytokine release, providing the first direct evidence that GRB2, and its ability to bind to SH3 domain ligands, is required for establishing LAT microclusters. Our data demonstrate that the ability of GRB2 to facilitate protein clusters is equally important in regulating TCR-mediated functions as its capacity to recruit effector proteins. This highlights that GRB2 regulates signaling downstream of adaptors and receptors by both recruiting effector proteins and regulating the formation of signaling complexes.

  3. Medroxyprogesterone acetate alters Mycobacterium bovis BCG-induced cytokine production in peripheral blood mononuclear cells of contraceptive users.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Léanie Kleynhans

    Full Text Available Most individuals latently infected with Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M.tb contain the infection by a balance of effector and regulatory immune responses. This balance can be influenced by steroid hormones such as glucocorticoids. The widely used contraceptive medroxyprogesterone acetate (MPA possesses glucocorticoid activity. We investigated the effect of this hormone on immune responses to BCG in household contacts of active TB patients. Multiplex bead array analysis revealed that MPA demonstrated both glucocorticoid and progestogenic properties at saturating and pharmacological concentrations in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs and suppressed antigen specific cytokine production. Furthermore we showed that PBMCs from women using MPA produced significantly lower levels of IL-1α, IL-12p40, IL-10, IL-13 and G-CSF in response to BCG which corresponded with lower numbers of circulating monocytes observed in these women. Our research study is the first to show that MPA impacts on infections outside the genital tract due to a systemic effect on immune function. Therefore MPA use could alter susceptibility to TB, TB disease severity as well as change the efficacy of new BCG-based vaccines, especially prime-boost vaccine strategies which may be administered to adult or adolescent women in the future.

  4. Vascular Leakage in Dengue Hemorrhagic Fever Is Associated with Dengue Infected Monocytes, Monocyte Activation/Exhaustion, and Cytokines Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sirichan Chunhakan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The vascular leakage was shown by the increment of hematocrit (Hct, dengue viral infected monocyte, monocyte status, and cytokines production in patients infected with dengue virus. Dengue viral antigens were demonstrated in monocytes (CD14+ from peripheral blood mononuclear cells. The increased levels of Hct, interleukin- (IL- 10, and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α were detected in dengue fever (DF, dengue hemorrhagic fever (DHF and dengue shock syndrome (DSS patients as compared with other febrile illnesses (OFIs. The highest levels of Hct and IL-10 were detected in DSS patients as compared with other groups (P<0.05 especially on one day before and after defervescence. The unstimulated and lipopolysaccharide- (LPS- stimulated monocytes from DSS patients showed the significantly decreased of intracellular IL-1β and TNF-α. In addition, the lowest level of mean fluorescence intensity (MFI of CD11b expression on monocytes surface in DSS patients was also demonstrated. Furthermore, the negative correlations between IL-10 levels and intracellular IL-1β and MFI of CD11b expression in unstimulated and LPS-stimulated monocytes were also detected. Nevertheless, not only were the relationships between the prominent IL-10 and the suppression of intracellular monocyte secretion, namely, IL-1β, TNF-α, demonstrated but also the effect of vascular leakage was observed.

  5. Adipose tissue invariant NKT cells protect against diet-induced obesity and metabolic disorder through regulatory cytokine production.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Lynch, Lydia

    2012-09-21

    Invariant natural killer T (iNKT) cells are evolutionarily conserved innate T cells that influence inflammatory responses. We have shown that iNKT cells, previously thought to be rare in humans, were highly enriched in human and murine adipose tissue, and that as adipose tissue expanded in obesity, iNKT cells were depleted, correlating with proinflammatory macrophage infiltration. iNKT cell numbers were restored in mice and humans after weight loss. Mice lacking iNKT cells had enhanced weight gain, larger adipocytes, fatty livers, and insulin resistance on a high-fat diet. Adoptive transfer of iNKT cells into obese mice or in vivo activation of iNKT cells via their lipid ligand, alpha-galactocylceramide, decreased body fat, triglyceride levels, leptin, and fatty liver and improved insulin sensitivity through anti-inflammatory cytokine production by adipose-derived iNKT cells. This finding highlights the potential of iNKT cell-targeted therapies, previously proven to be safe in humans, in the management of obesity and its consequences.

  6. A new Lactobacillus plantarum strain, TN8, from the gastro intestinal tract of poultry induces high cytokine production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben Salah, Riadh; Trabelsi, Imen; Ben Mansour, Riadh; Lassoued, Saloua; Chouayekh, Hichem; Bejar, Samir

    2012-08-01

    This study aimed to determine the probiotic potential of 100 strains of Lactic Acid Bacteria (LAB) isolated from different intestinal segments of indigenous poultry in Tunisia. The strains were submitted to a battery of standard tests and criteria commonly used for determining their probiotic properties and attributes. The findings revealed that 19 of the isolates exhibited antimicrobial activity against 4 pathogenic bacteria, and that 4 (TN1, TN8, TN7, and TN13) showed good resistance to pH 3 and 5% bovine bile. Three isolates, namely TN1, TN8, and TN13, showed sensitivity to several antibiotics and were, therefore, selected for further enzymatic activity assays. Two isolates, namely TN1 and TN8, showed high efficacy of adhesion to chicken enterocytes. The cytokines released after stimulation by the two isolates showed high anti-inflammatory profiles, with an increased rate of Interleukin-10 (IL-10) production for the TN8 strain. Showing the highest performance, TN8 was submitted to 16S rRNA gene sequencing, which revealed that the strain was of the species Lactobacillus plantarum. Overall, the findings indicate that the Lactobacilli from poultry intestine has a number of promising properties that make it candidate for application as a probiotic additive in poultry industry.

  7. Perinatal Exposure to Insecticide Methamidophos Suppressed Production of Proinflammatory Cytokines Responding to Virus Infection in Lung Tissues in Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wataru Watanabe

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Methamidophos, a representative organophosphate insecticide, is regulated because of its severe neurotoxicity, but it is suspected of contaminating agricultural foods in many countries due to illicit use. To reveal unknown effects of methamidophos on human health, we evaluated the developmental immunotoxicity of methamidophos using a respiratory syncytial virus (RSV infection mouse model. Pregnant mice were exposed to methamidophos (10 or 20 ppm in their drinking water from gestation day 10 to weaning on postnatal day 21. Offsprings born to these dams were intranasally infected with RSV. The levels of interleukin-6 (IL-6 and interferon-gamma in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluids after infection were significantly decreased in offspring mice exposed to methamidophos. Treatment with methamidophos did not affect the pulmonary viral titers but suppressed moderately the inflammation of lung tissues of RSV-infected offspring, histopathologically. DNA microarray analysis revealed that gene expression of the cytokines in the lungs of offspring mice exposed to 20 ppm of methamidophos was apparently suppressed compared with the control. Methamidophos did not suppress IL-6 production in RSV-infected J774.1 cell cultures. Thus, exposure of the mother to methamidophos during pregnancy and nursing was suggested to cause an irregular immune response in the lung tissues in the offspring mice.

  8. 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 regulates LPS-induced cytokine production and reduces mortality in rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiao-Ping Qi; Pei Li; Gang Li; Zhen Sun; Jie-Shou Li

    2008-01-01

    AIM: To study the immunoregulatory effect of 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin-D3 Von dominant Th1 response in rats.METHODS: Sixty adult Lewis rats were randomized into three groups.Rats in group 1 (n=25) were treated with 1,25-(OH)2D3 first and then challenged with LPS,rats in group 2 (n=2S) were treated with vehicle first and then challenged with LPS.Ten animals in groups 1 and 2 were preserved for mortality observation.The remaining animals were injected (i.p) with endotoxin,24 h after the last administration of 1,25-(OH)2D3 and vehicle.Rats in group 3 (n=10) were treated with 1,25-(OH)2D3 only.Serum IL-12,IFN-y,IL-2 and IL-4 levels were measured and target gene of 1,25-(OH)2D3 on Th cells was studied after 6 h.Gene abundance was verified by real-time quantitative PCR.RESULTS: No death occurred in rats pretreated with 1,25-(OH)2D3 after LPS injection.Death occurred 9 h after LPS injection in rats pretreated with the vehicle,and the number of deaths was 5 within 24 h,with a mortality rate of 50%.There was no change in the number of deaths within 96 h.Six hours after endotoxin stimulation,serum IL-12 and IFN-y levels decreased significantly in rats pretreated with 1,25-(OH)2D3 as compared with those in rats pretreatecl with the vehicle.The serum content of these two cytokines was very low in rats not challenged by endotoxin,and there was a significant difference as compared with the previous two groups.CONCLUSION: 1,25-(OH)2D3 attenuates injury induced by the lethal dose of LPS,regulates Th1 and Th2 cells at the transcription level,and dominantly responds to cytokine production in rats.

  9. Tacrolimus modulates liver and pancreas nitric oxide synthetase and heme-oxygenase isoforms and cytokine production after endotoxemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balibrea, José M; García-Martín, M Cruz; Cuesta-Sancho, Sara; Olmedilla, Yoko; Arias-Díaz, Javier; Fernández-Sevilla, Elena; Vara, Elena; Balibrea, José L

    2011-03-15

    Cytoprotective effects of tacrolimus are due to its unspecific anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidant properties. Neither the exact mechanisms nor if there is any organ-specificity or dose-dependent response have not been yet elucidated. Our aim was to evaluate the effect of tacrolimus on oxidative stress and mediator production in liver and pancreatic tissue secondary to endotoxemia. Wistar rats were pretreated with intraperitoneal injection of tacrolimus (0.07, 0.15, and 0.3mg/kg) 24h before Escherichia coli LPS was administrated. Animals were sacrificed 24h after LPS administration and iNOS, eNOS, and nNOS and type 1 and 2 heme-oxygenase (HO) expression were measured. TNF-α and IL-1 tissue expression and plasmatic NO, CO, TNF-α, and IL-1 were also determined. LPS exposure increased iNOS expression in both organs, eNOS did not show variations and liver nNOS expression was significantly lower. Tacrolimus diminished both pancreas and liver iNOS and nNOS expression. Both liver and pancreatic eNOS expression augmented when tacrolimus was administrated. High doses of tacrolimus were correlated with ameliorated liver HO-1 plus HO-2 and pancreas HO-1 expression after LPS stimulation. Tacrolimus treatment diminished TNF-α but not IL-1 expression increase after LPS challenge in hepatic tissue. Pancreatic TNF-α and IL-1 values diminished partially when high doses were employed. Plasmatic NO, CO, TNF-α, and IL-1 concentrations increase after LPS challenge was diminished when highest doses of tacrolimus were given. In conclusion, tacrolimus exerts a protective effect on commonly observed harmful phenomena after LPS stimulation by modulating liver and pancreas oxidative enzyme expression and cytokine production.

  10. Targeting cytokines: production and characterization of anti-TNF-α scFvs by phage display technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdolalizadeh, Jalal; Nouri, Mohammad; Zolbanin, Jafar Majidi; Barzegari, Abolfazl; Baradaran, Behzad; Barar, Jaleh; Coukos, George; Omidi, Yadollah

    2013-01-01

    The antibody display technology (ADT) such as phage display (PD) has substantially improved the production of monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) and Ab fragments through bypassing several limitations associated with the traditional approach of hybridoma technology. In the current study, we capitalized on the PD technology to produce high affinity single chain variable fragment (scFv) against tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF- α), which is a potent pro-inflammatory cytokine and plays important role in various inflammatory diseases and malignancies. To pursue production of scFv antibody fragments against human TNF- α, we performed five rounds of biopanning using stepwise decreased amount of TNF-α (1 to 0.1 μ g), a semi-synthetic phage antibody library (Tomlinson I + J) and TG1 cells. Antibody clones were isolated and selected through enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) screening. The selected scFv antibody fragments were further characterized by means of ELISA, PCR, restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) and Western blot analyses as well as fluorescence microscopy and flow cytometry. Based upon binding affinity to TNF-α , 15 clones were selected out of 50 positive clones enriched from PD in vitro selection. The selected scFvs displayed high specificity and binding affinity with Kd values at nm range to human TNF-α . The immunofluorescence analysis revealed significant binding of the selected scFv antibody fragments to the Raji B lymphoblasts. The effectiveness of the selected scFv fragments was further validated by flow cytometry analysis in the lipopolysaccharide (LPS) treated mouse fibroblast L929 cells. Based upon these findings, we propose the selected fully human anti-TNF-α scFv antibody fragments as potential immunotherapy agents that may be translated into preclinical/clinical applications.

  11. 6-Acetonyl-5,6-dihydrosanguinarine (ADS) from Chelidonium majus L. triggers proinflammatory cytokine production via ROS-JNK/ERK-NFκB signaling pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Dong Hyeok; Lee, Ji Hye; Park, Soojong; Oh, Sang-seok; Kim, Suk; Kim, Dae Wook; Park, Ki Hun; Kim, Kwang Dong

    2013-08-01

    Chelidonium majus L. is an herbal plant that is commonly used in Western phytotherapy and traditional Chinese medicine for diuretic, antitussive, eye-regenerative, anti-osteoporotic, and radioprotective purposes. In this study, we purified 6-acetonyl-5,6-dihydrosanguinarine (ADS) from C. majus and investigated its immune-stimulatory effect. We found that ADS has the potential to induce the inflammatory cytokines TNF-α, IL-6, and IL-8 in macrophages and dendritic cells (DCs), that NFκB activation is a critical mediator of ADS-induced cytokine production, and that the activation of NFκB was dependent on reactive oxygen species (ROS). ADS induced phosphorylation of ERK and JNK, which was also associated with NFκB activation; phosphorylarion and cytokine production were inhibited by ROS scavenger and by specific MAPK inhibitors. Taken together, the results suggest that ADS from C. majus, as a positive immune modulator, induces inflammatory cytokines that might improve immunity, via the ROS-ERK/JNK-NFκB pathway. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Protease-dependent activation of epithelial cells by fungal allergens leads to morphologic changes and cytokine production

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kauffman, HF; Tomee, JFC; van de Riet, MA; Timmerman, AJB; Borger, P

    2000-01-01

    Background: Proteases in extracts of Aspergillus fumigatus cause epithelial cell desquamation and release of proinflammatory cytokines. Objective: We sought to assess protease activity in Alternaria alternata, Cladosporium herbarum, and Aspergillus fumigatus extracts and study the ability of these e

  13. Inhibitor of apoptosis proteins (IAPs) and their antagonists regulate spontaneous and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-induced proinflammatory cytokine and chemokine production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kearney, Conor J; Sheridan, Clare; Cullen, Sean P; Tynan, Graham A; Logue, Susan E; Afonina, Inna S; Vucic, Domagoj; Lavelle, Ed C; Martin, Seamus J

    2013-02-15

    Inhibitor of apoptosis proteins (IAPs) play a major role in determining whether cells undergo apoptosis in response to TNF as well as other stimuli. However, TNF is also highly proinflammatory through its ability to trigger the secretion of multiple inflammatory